Analex Corporation

Glenn Research Center

Frequency Reuse, Cell Separation, and Capacity Analysis of VHF Digital Link Mode 3 TDMA

Mohammed A. Shamma, Analex Co. Thanh C. Nguyen, Analex Co. Rafael Apaza, FAA

6/4/2003 Page 1

Project • The work here was done as part of the Advanced Communications for Air Traffic Management Project at NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio

Objective • Investigate the three parameters below for VDL mode 3 type of a network – Frequency reuse – Cell Separation of co-channel cells – Capacity of cells • Use FAA traffic data to get cell capacity • Use FAA VDL 3 performance tests parameters. .

5 kbps (same as VDL Mode 2) • Access methods: TDMA • System applies “user groups”.VDL 3 • • • • • Proposed by FAA to ICAO in May 1994 VDL Mode 3 provides both data & digital voice services 4 logical channels in 25 kHz frequency assignment Each logical channel can be allocated to voice or data Based on D8PSK modulation at 31. – a group of ground & airborne users – a controller and its controlled aircraft • 7 configurations defined in ICAO VDL Mode 3 SARPs (See next slide) .

B. or C A/B/C A/C or B/C . B/D. B. C) 2/(A. or D A/D. B) 1/(A) 3/(A. C. B) Services to Each Group Dedicated voice Dedicated voice w/shared data Dedicated voice w/dedicated data Demand assigned voice and data Dedicated voice Dedicated voice circuit w/3 station diversity Dedicated voice w/shared data V/D Slots Assigned to Each Group A. C. C) 1/(A. C) 2/(A. D) 3/(A. or C/D A/C or B/D B/C/D A.VDL 3 continued System Configuration Normal Range 4V 3V1D 2V2D 3T Long Range 3V 3S 2V1D User Groups Supported/Identifying Time Slots 4/(A. B. B. B. B.

000-121.5 Emergency Search and Rescue Band Protection for 121.775 121.675 122.925 121.FAA VHF Frequency Channel Allocations Frequency Band Service type Number of Channels 118.525-121.425-121.000-122.700-122.5 121.95 121.400 121.050 122.5 Airport Utility SAR ELT Location Training Aviation Support FSS Private Aircraft Advisory EFAS FSS Private Aircraft Advisory UNICOM-Uncontrolled Airports 130 3 1 3 13 1 1 1 3 25 2 .475 121.975 122.600-121.575 121.725 ATC # Band Protection for 121.075-122.

475 123.275 123.9 122.600-123.Temp.2 126.800 128.650 123.FSS UNICOM-Uncontrolled Airports Helicopter Air to Air UNICOM-Uncontrolled Airports SAR.175 126.825-132.925 122.3 123.875 122.075 Fixed Wing Aircraft Aviation Support UNICOM-Uncontrolled Airports Domestic VHF MULTICOM UNICOM-Domestic VHF MULTICOM SAR training MULTICOM Special Use UNICOM full time ATCT.050-123.1 123.000 123.325-123.025 123.775 122.95 122.85 122.825 122.675-126.025-134.575 123.225-128.8 122.525-123.FAA VHF Frequency Channel Allocations (continued) 122.075 123.975-123.5 123.125-123.ATCT's and fly-ins with SAR coordination Flight Test Aviation Support Flight Test Aviation Support Flight Test FSS Air Carrier Advisory ATC Military Common (Advisory) ATC Operational Control ATC 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 7 1 7 1 3 3 101 1 104 128 83 .000 132.75 122.

1 136.125-136.075 136.225-136.1 134.95 135.275 ATIS AWOS/ASOS 2 5 .275 136.875-135.375.675.175 136.900-136.475 136.975 Military Common (Advisory) ATC FAA Flight Inspections ATC FAA Flight Inspections ATC Reserved for future AWOS/UNICOM ATC Reserved for Future AWOS/UNICOM ATC Reserved for future AWOS/UNICOM ATC Reserved for Future AWOS/UNICOM ATC Reserved for Future AWOS/UNICOM Domestic VHF International and Domestic VHF 1 69 1 3 1 5 1 3 1 2 1 3 1 3 1 16 4 #119.975-136.825 135.85 135.30-136.450 136.375 136.925 135.FAA VHF Frequency Channel Allocations (continued) 134.525.118.120.2 136.118.625 #118.125-135.500-136.350 136.325.119.875 136.119.250 136.025.4-136.

Frequency Protected Service Volumes Undesired Distance Service Volume A Service Volume B Ru hu Rd hd Radio Site Hexagon approximation of a circle Radio Site Reuse Distance .Co Channel Interference. and Radio Line of Sight.

and minimum distance required between the two so that not to see each other Ddu ≥ 1.23 hd • Radio line of sight between two aircrafts.Radio Line of Sight • Radio line of sight of one aircraft RLOS d (nmi ) = 1.23( hd + hu ) .

Cell Separation based on RLOS • Min cell center Distance for two co-channel cell to not have aircrafts be in line of sight of each other: Dd u c = 1.23 * ( hd + hu ) + Rd + Ru c D d cu c RLOSu RLOSd hu hd Transmitter 2 Transmitter 1 .

same type of FPSV).e. .Frequency Reuse in terms of RLOS • The frequency reuse factor is related to the RLOS formulas and cell distances via use of: (Assumes same heights. and cell radius of two co channel cells.23 h / R ) + 1) ≥ 3 • Above is required Frequency reuse factor such that aircrafts within co-channels do not be in line of sight of each other. i. Also assume aircrafts at closest two points to each other) 2 f ru 4((1.

and I is signal of the desired cell). Assuming similar power setting from the two aircrafts (10 to 20 Watts) we have: 1 10log(Sd / Itotal _ int erf )required/ 20 +2 3 ( 6)10 f ru =  2 1 10log(Sd / Iu )required/ 20  +2 (10 3  [ ] 2 [ ] For total interference from 6 sources MITRE approach For one interference source .Frequency Reuse in terms of Signal to Interference Ratio limit • It may be possible to bring the two aircrafts within line of sight of each other as long as the S/I is met (S signal of one co channel.

7 16.9 (plotted in Figure 3) 160.4 9 (plotted in Figure 3) 48.FAA S/I for Co-Channel Interference Required Signal to co channel Minimum frequency reuse factor Interference Ratio (total or single) required based on equation () first part for Total Interference assumption Minimum frequency reuse factor required based on equation () second part for Single Interferer assumption 14 db min (analog system []) 67.9 (plotted in Figure 3) 20 db FAA tested VDL3 [] 234 26 db a maximum specified [] 862.6 .

Frequency reuse based on RLOS and S/I Minimum Frequency Reuse factor vs. RLOS/R based on ( ) 90 80 70 frequency reuse factor fru 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 14 db total interferers 20 db single interferer 14 db single interferer RLOS limited 0 1 2 3 4 RLOS/R=1.23*sqrt(h)/R 5 6 7 .

3 6.74 1.74 3.RLOS and R for different FPSV Service Type Super High Altitude En Route (SE) High Altitude En Route Intermediate Altitude En Route (IE) Low Altitude En Route (LE) Approach Control (AC).9 260.9 194. Arrival Automated Terminal Information Service (ATIS) Local Control (LC) Weather (AWOS/ASOS) Ground Control (GC). Departure ATIS Altitudes h (ft) >45000 45000 25000 18000 25000 Service Radius R (nmi) 150 150 60 60 60 RLOS (nmi) from formula (2) >260.46 .75 3.48 123 12.24 2.24 194.5 25000 10000 100 30 25 2-5 194.15-2.5 4.5 165 RLOS/R >1. Clearance Delivery (CD). Departure Control (DC).92 6.

24 2.98 Super High Altitude En Route (SE) High Altitude En Route Intermediate Altitude En Route (IE) Low Altitude En Route (LE) Approach Control (AC).49 (interference limited) 16.98 fru from minimum value shown on Plot in Figure 3 with 20 db signal to Interference ratio (total Interferers) >10 10 23. Departure ATIS >1.98 18.76 23.74 1.74 68.49 (interference limited) 16.74 48.97 48.98 18.49 (interference limited)15.98 18.76 23.18-15.46 16.24 6.152.92 6.9 (interference limited) 46.98 fru from minimum value shown on Plot in Figure 3 with 20 db signal to Interference ratio (single Interferer) >10 10 23.Frequency reuse factor for different FSPV Service Type RLOS/ R fru from minimum value shown on Plot in Figure 3 with 14 db signal to Interference ratio (single Interferer) >10 10 16.49 (interference limited) fru from minimum value shown on Plot in Figure 3 with 14 db signal to Interference ratio total Interferers) >10 10 23.97 .76 23. Clearance Delivery (CD).49 (interference limited) 16.9 (interference limited)15.97 75 46. Arrival Automated Terminal Information Service (ATIS) Local Control (LC) Weather (AWOS/ASOS) Ground Control (GC). Departure Control (DC).9 (interference limited)15.74 67.5 4.49 (interference limited 16.74 3.9 (interference limited) 46.97 67.75 3.

Total Bandwidth available / channel bandwidth =Number of channels (used 524.Number of TDMA slots (used 3 for max data) . Note 527 based on total from VHF manual) . common ATC value used in literature.Frequency Reuse from results in Tables (Min) BWtotal N slots Cell _ Capacity = BWchannel f RU .Cell Capacity formulation • Cell Capacity in terms of: .

61 20 33 2398 .01 95 95 450 508.00 175.58 821.Cell separation and Max Cell capacity for different FSPV Service Type Required Separation (nmi) to a similar cell.6034. using frequency reuse factors of 20 db total interferers (Table 4) and formula (6) D d c Single Cell Capacity using frequency reuse factors of 20 db total interferers (Table 4) and formula (1) Cell _ Capacity = BW BW total channel N slots f RU u c = R 3 f RU with Nslots=3 and BWtotal/BWchannel= 524 with all 100 % distribution to each FPSV <157 Super High Altitude En Route (SE) High Altitude En Route Intermediate Altitude En Route (IE) Low Altitude En Route (LE) Approach Control (AC). Arrival Automated Terminal Information Service (ATIS) Local Control (LC) Weather (AWOS/ASOS) Ground Control (GC).01 157 95 821.0734.84 14. Departure Control (DC). using frequency reuse factors of 14 db single interferer (Table 4) and formula (6) D d c Single Cell Capacity using frequency reuse factors of 14 db single interferer (Table 4) and formula (1) Cell _ Capacity = BW BW total channel N slots f RU u c = R 3 f RU with Nslots=3 and BWtotal/BWchannel= 524 with all 100 % distribution to each FPSV <157 Required Separation (nmi) to a similar cell. Clearance Delivery (CD).04 28.58 508.61 95 95 9598 450 296. Departure ATIS >821.58 422.90 83 65 211.01 422.58 >821.90 157 65 422.

have slightly less channels than aircrafts with the expected worst case being the 20 db (due to stricter requirement on interference levels). gathers long range radar target information for display. – IE shows 9 and 6 channels per cell for the 14 and 20 db cases respectively (with 1782 and 1188 for CONUS). and 918 for CONUS. Slightly less than number of flying aircraft. LE in the South East of Michigan. AC. HE. – LE. and 190 channels for CONUS). Results: Number of channels available per cell for each FPSV. DC. and for the entire CONUS for 14 db single and 20 db total interferer signal to interference ratio. slightly more than the number of aircrafts flying at that sector. IE. and LC. slightly larger than the number of aircrafts at that sector.Detroit (DTW) Example • Collected information from: – ASR-9 Terminal Radar System (60nmi coverage) – Enhanced Traffic Management System (ETMS). – SE for the 14 db and 20 db cases are the same (6 channels per cell. – HE with 29 channels per cell. • . • Traffic Samples: – Terminal Area: Evaluated traffic in DTW Approach and Local Control – En-route Area: Evaluated One sector in SE.

84 % 6. = CONUS _ area πR 2 2 Available number of ch annels.83 % 9. Departure Control (DC). Available number of channels. Local Control (LC) 31.Heights Range (ft) > 35000 24000 – 35000 10000 – 24000 640 – 10000 Approach Control Local Control Number of aircraft 4 17 10 47 16 7 Percentage from total 3.68 198 198 198 with N slots =3 and BW total /BW channel = 524 with Table 6 distribution to each FPSV 6 29 9 44 15 Available number of channels for all C ONUS using percentages obtained in table 6 using single cell capacity frequency for 14db.93 % Service Type Number of service volume that fits in CONUS. Single Cell Capacity using frequency 14 reuse factors of db single interferer (Table 1) and formula (1) Cell _ Capacity = BW BW total (using nmi for CONUS area) N slots f RU channel Super High Altitude En Route (SE) High Altitude En Route (HE) Intermediate Altitude En Route (IE) Low Altitude En Route (LE) Approach Control (AC).90 % 46.68 31. Single Cell Capacity using frequency 20 reuse factors of db total interferers (Table 1) and formula (1) Cell _ Capacity = BW total N slots BW channel f RU 190 918 1782 8712 2970 with N slots =3 and BW total /BW channel = 524 with Table 6 distribution to each FPSV 6 29 6 39 10 Available number of channels for all CONUS using percentag es obtained in table 6 using single cell capacity frequency for 20 db. 190 918 1188 7722 1980 792 7 5544 1 7 92 .96 % 16.53 % 15.

Conclusions • Analyses done to compute frequency reuse. assuming some sharing of channels • Capacity based on a traffic distribution example shows more realistic limits . cell separation and cell capacity for different FAA FPSV • Use of RLOS and S/I of co-channel utilized • Use of different S/I limits based on FAA data • Capacity shows sufficient for future traffic.

Future Recommendations • Use simulations to back up findings based on various scenarios • Recommend limits on S/I based on results • Investigate new frequency planning approaches if possible • Show where draw backs in current frequency plan exist. • Incorporate other factors such as adjacent channel interferences • Use current results to compare to actual system capacities and recommend improvements. .

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