Health and Safety Executive

Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore
This is a free-to-download, web-friendly version of HSG221 (Second edition, published 2007). This version has been adapted for online use from HSE’s current printed version. You can buy the book at www.hsebooks.co.uk and most good bookshops. ISBN 978 0 7176 6229 6 Price £16.50 This guidance provides technical information for those involved in the supply, operation and control of lifting equipment in the offshore environment. It shows how to apply the Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations 1998 (LOLER), and the Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998 (PUWER) offshore. It is aimed primarily at dutyholders, offshore installation managers, managers, supervisors, competent persons and operatives involved in the operation and safe use of lifting equipment offshore. It may also be of use to people working for contractors, equipment suppliers, safety representatives, verification bodies and equipment manufacturers. It applies to all offshore installations (as defined in the Offshore Installations (Safety Case) Regulations 2005), both fixed and mobile, operating within the UK Continental Shelf.

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Health and Safety Executive

© Crown copyright 2007 First published 2002 Second edition 2007 ISBN 978 0 7176 6229 6 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise) without the prior written permission of the copyright owner. Applications for reproduction should be made in writing to: The Office of Public Sector Information, Information Policy Team, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 4DU or e-mail: licensing@opsi.gov.uk This guidance is issued by the Health and Safety Executive. Following the guidance is not compulsory and you are free to take other action. But if you do follow the guidance you will normally be doing enough to comply with the law. Health and safety inspectors seek to secure compliance with the law and may refer to this guidance as illustrating good practice.

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Health and Safety Executive

Contents
Introduction 4 Who should read this guidance 4 What this guidance covers 4 How you should use this guidance 5 Major regulations and ‘dutyholder’ 5 General considerations 7 Selecting suitable equipment 7 Operation 14 Types of offshore lifting equipment 20 Cranes - variable geometry slewing types 20 Cranes - overhead/gantry travelling types and wire rope hoists 46 Other lifting equipment 49 Equipment for lifting people 55 Introduction 55 Cranes 55 Utility winches and winches used for lifting people 56 Personnel transportation equipment 58 Equipment used in drilling and associated operations for carrying people 62 Drilling eqiupment 65 Introduction 65 Drilling hoisting systems 65 Heave compensated drilling hoisting systems 68 Crown-mounted heave compensators 68 Drill string heave compensators 68 Guideline and riser tensioners 69 Blow-out preventors 69 Pipe handling equipment 69 Appendix 1: Guidance referring to LOLER and PUWER 70 Appendix 2: Glossary 71 References 72

Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore

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operation and control of lifting equipment in the offshore environment. offshore installation managers (OIMs). equipment suppliers. Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 4 of 74 . supervisors. either manned or of normally unattended status. eg semi-submersibles. operating within the United Kingdom Continental Shelf. safety representatives. and equipment manufacturers. managers.Health and Safety Executive Introduction Who should read this guidance 1 This guidance provides technical information for those involved in the supply. verification bodies. Others who may find this guidance useful are: n n n n n people working for contractors. unloading. fuelling or provisioning) is not covered by LOLER. n well service vessels. and shows how to apply the Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations 1998 (LOLER)1 and the Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998 (PUWER)2 offshore. storage and offloading vessels. 4 It is not possible in this guidance to cover every type of ship or seagoing vessel. n crane barges and crane lifting vessels. The guidance is primarily aimed at dutyholders. accommodation units and floating production. Lifting equipment on these vessels which is part of the ship’s equipment used by the crew (such as that used for loading.3 3 It does not apply to seagoing ships and supply boats. both fixed and mobile. You should contact the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) Infoline or the Maritime and Coastguard Agency for advice on whether PUWER and LOLER apply to your particular activities. n other installations subject to the Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974 (Application Outside Great Britain) Order 2001 (AOGBO). Some specific examples of vessels not included in this guidance are: n n n n standby vessels. for which the Maritime and Coastguard Agency (MCA)4 has jurisdiction. shuttle tankers. competent persons and operatives involved with the operation and safe use of lifting equipment offshore. n pipe-laying vessels. jack-ups. anchor handling and survey vessels. n mobile installations. Some typical examples are: n fixed platforms. and tugs. dredgers. What this guidance covers 2 This guidance applies to all offshore installations.

PUWER also applies to the provision and use of lifting equipment and covers other important aspects. instructions. portable lifting equipment. This is covered by the Manual Handling Operations Regulations 19925 and associated guidance. Major regulations and ‘dutyholder’ 9 The two most important sets of regulations applying to offshore lifting equipment are LOLER and PUWER. personnel transfer carriers and lifting equipment used for offshore drilling operations. n offshore containers and their associated sling sets. wells. both onshore and offshore. The term ‘lifting equipment’ as covered in this guidance includes lifting accessories. This guidance does not introduce higher standards or impose any additional requirements to the existing regulations.6 How you should use this guidance 7 The use of lifting equipment. It does not include: n fork-lift trucks. This guidance will help you find out in detail how to apply these Regulations specifically to offshore lifting equipment and its associated operations.8 (ACOPs). LOLER specifically deals with lifting equipment and lifting operations. It should be noted that the HSG221 guidance does not cover lifting equipment specifically installed on vessels for the deployment of divers. and the glossary in Appendix 2 explains the industry terminology that has been used. Appendix 1 contains a checklist which links the guidance to the main requirements of LOLER and PUWER. n winch units used for the launch/recovery of survival craft such as TEMPSC and other emergency evacuation systems. such as providing information. Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 5 of 74 . 8 This guidance summarises the most important parts of LOLER (see Appendix 1) and has been arranged around specific topics which will give you practical advice about the management. 6 ‘Lifting operations’ in this guidance does not include manual handling. Offshore they apply to installations. These ACOPs set out how you can comply with the Regulations in a general sense. selection and safe operation of lifting equipment and accessories. pipelines etc operating within the territorial waters of Great Britain and in designated areas of the UK Continental Shelf in accordance with AOGBO. It aims to clarify what the law requires and illustrates methods for achieving compliance. Diving operations and sub-sea activities come under LOLER by virtue of the Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974 (Application Outside Great Britain) Order 2001. and you will need to refer to them. training and maintenance. They apply onshore to all premises and work situations where the Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974 (the HSW Act) applies. is covered by the Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations 1998 (LOLER) and the Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998 (PUWER) together with their respective Approved Codes of Practice7.Health and Safety Executive 5 Appropriate sections of this guidance shall be applicable to lifting equipment that is used in conjunction with diving operations and other subsea activities that could be carried out from diving and ROV support vessels.

who employs people to work on the installation. This only requires a single risk assessment. verification bodies. Offshore-specific legislation.the Offshore Installation Manager (OIM) . background and experience to be recognised as being competent in the particular field in which they specialise. unless specified in the associated statutory instrument. suppliers. This is the requirement under the HSW Act. risks that occur during man-riding or lifting over live processing plants or well heads) then it is more likely that it is reasonable to go to very substantial expense. frequent references are made to the ‘competent person’. the ‘competent person’ is the most suitable person or persons to agree and implement the recommendations in this guidance. This does not alter the dutyholder’s legal responsibility for the health and safety of everyone on the installation. It is highly unlikely that any one person or even organisation . In discharging these responsibilities. This term is uniquely applied offshore.will be able to provide all the areas of expertise required throughout this guidance. the employer has to take account of new technology and innovations. PUWER and the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 (MHSWR). contractors’ employees engaged in crane maintenance will need to make their risk assessments available to the OIM and to others such as employees of other specialist contract firms who may be affected by their work. contractors. Instead. and the greater reliability or effectiveness that may be provided by new equipment. The greater the risks (for example. MAR requires everyone on the installation to co-operate with the OIM. Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 6 of 74 .10 For example. such as the Offshore Installations and Pipeline Works (Management and Administration) Regulations 1995 (MAR). regulation 3 of MHSWR requires a suitable and sufficient risk assessment to be performed for all work activity. and is defined as the operator of a fixed installation and the owner of a mobile installation. the health and safety of all employees at work. However. verification bodies etc within scope of the Regulations as they all employ people to work offshore. there is normally no requirement for new provisions to apply retrospectively. If the dutyholder is an employer. a manufacturer.to command and control the installation and to be responsible for health and safety on a day-to-day basis. consultants. 14 When new legislation is introduced. they do have general duties under the HSW Act and MHSWR to take reasonable care of themselves and others who may be affected by their actions and to co-operate with others. trouble and invention to reduce these risks. This means that the OIM will need to ensure that all relevant legislation has been complied with . they will have responsibilities under LOLER and PUWER for their own employees. supplier or agent etc. for example. so far as is reasonably practicable. The competent person(s) may be employed by the dutyholder. In this context. It is important that employers and their appointed competent persons are continually checking to ensure that old and existing lifting equipment is suitable and fit for purpose and does not pose any increased risk during operations. 12 There are links between LOLER. 15 While employees do not have duties under LOLER. there are general requirements for employers to ensure. its maintenance and the systems of work that are used. So.including LOLER and PUWER. a number of people or organisations would be involved. which should be carried out by a competent person(s). and places duties on the ‘dutyholder’. They should have the necessary training. This duty covers the equipment provided. which may bring contractors. 13 Throughout this guidance.Health and Safety Executive 10 LOLER and PUWER both place duties on employers.9 adopts a different approach. 11 The dutyholder is required to appoint a manager .

manufactured and verified fit for purpose in accordance with recognised codes and standards applicable to the offshore industry. and exposure to chemicals and other hazardous substances. then it will need a full risk assessment covering its intended new use. 19 There are particular factors in the offshore environment which you should consider when assessing both the technical and operational aspects of lifting and handling tasks. personnel protection requirements. you should also tell the supplier whether it will need to operate free on tracks or wheels. Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 7 of 74 . maximum and minimum ambient temperatures. ie heel. together with any special factors such as use of the equipment in explosive atmospheres. fixed or tied down or travelling with the load. maximum wind velocity. This should be approved by a competent person. immersion in sea water. Before starting to use them. supply vessel excursion. the dutyholder and the competent person should satisfy themselves that lifting appliances and any associated equipment have been designed. snow/ice build-up. emergency procedures for recovering loads or personnel. effects of abnormal situations. You should incorporate these into the risk assessment. You should base your final selection on a risk assessment of the proposed use of the equipment. You will also need to provide details of service. Details of service 20 You may need to discuss the suitability of lifting equipment with the supplier. and human factors. 18 If a lifting system is to be adapted for a new operation (different from the one it was first installed for).Health and Safety Executive General considerations Selecting suitable equipment 16 You should select lifting equipment which is suitable for the operations it will be required to perform. or if it is to be moved to a new location. You will need to consider the factors below when deciding the correct equipment for a particular task: n n n n n n n n maximum sea state. 21 You will also need to consider how often the lifting equipment will be used and advise the supplier of any regular periods of inactivity or extended periods of nonuse. Risk assessment 17 The risk assessment should include. eg gross overloading. If you need a mobile crane. trim and pitch. as a minimum: n n n n n an analysis of failure modes and their consequential effects. movements of the installation/vessel.

a competent person selected by the dutyholder should ensure that the crane has adequate hoist speed and power to perform correctly in all modes of operation. Low hoist speeds may restrict the number of falls of rope that can be used for a particular sea state and so limit the lifting capacity of the crane. 26 As appropriate to the type of lifting equipment (and as required). It should be possible. The competent person should ensure that the following aspects of crane performance are considered: n The hook speed should be fast enough for the specified sea states to prevent the load re-impacting with the supply vessel. 24 However. boom and hoist motion should be fast enough for the operator to keep the hook/load line sensibly plumb within the excursion envelope of the supply vessel and within the specified offlead and sidelead parameters. for both inboard and sea-state lifting operations. the duty charts should have reduced lifting capacities appropriate to dynamic factors for the prevailing sea state. that the equipment supplied: n has been manufactured from suitable materials and constructed to approved quality standards. Dynamic factors should be based on information obtained from standards and codes used for the design and component selection for the crane.including environmental and/or operational limitations . n The speed of slew. All emergency release devices should be made inactive every time the load travels across areas of the installation. n has adequate safety factors. and when these are actuated they may automatically override some of the features listed above.Health and Safety Executive Specifications 22 The competent person (see paragraph 13) should ensure. n Using two or more crane services should not cause undesirable motions of the hook/load. and n where appropriate has responsive controls and safety systems. These should be agreed by a competent person. n has adequate levels of performance. to change the load rating of the crane in accordance with the seastate/inboard lifting duty charts. A suitable rated capacity indicator (RCI) should be fitted that covers all duty ratings the crane will be subjected to. It is essential to prevent risks and hazards arising from the under-performance of cranes. 25 For slewing cranes (pedestal or mobile). whatever the configuration of the crane. some cranes may incorporate emergency release devices to prevent gross overloads (for example arising from a snagged hook/load). you should provide lifting duty/rating charts according to the service parameters. lifting duty charts . as far as is practicable. either manually or automatically. The height of adjacent containers on the deck of the supply vessel should be taken into account. such as laid down in codes of practice issued by the various verification bodies. n The prime mover should be prevented from stalling or over-heating under maximum power demand. n Uncontrolled overhauling and/or free fall of the load hoist and boom hoist system and uncontrolled slewing motion of the crane are dangerous and should be prevented. These charts should be drawn up using recognised de-rating methods and procedures. 23 For slewing cranes which perform sea-state lifting. Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 8 of 74 .should be clearly and permanently displayed at the operator’s control station and be included in the operational manual. For cranes that undertake sea-state lifting.

the weight of slings and attachments. inspected and verified as being fit for purpose. Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 9 of 74 . the weight of the hoist unit/trolley. See also paragraphs 52-55. if this cannot be guaranteed. 32 Where. gantry cranes. the evaluation of loading in the supporting structure. trolley hoists or any equipment that can lift and/or travel the load. Material selection 30 Materials used in the primary load path (including foundations and both permanent and temporary attachment points) should be chosen according to recognised standards and to the specific requirements and limitations agreed with the competent person. and as appropriate. Welding 33 Weld design for primary load-bearing structures should conform to recognised codes and standards. such as strops. including fracture toughness values at specified low temperature conditions where appropriate. then suitable amended load ratings should be calculated by the competent person and the equipment re-marked accordingly. load spectra and fatigue resistance. because of the age of the equipment. the pulling force on the hand chain. slings. including castings and forgings. 28 When using rope/chain hoists. trolleys. should include: n n n n the load on the hook. should be supplied with suitable documentation stating that they have been tested.Health and Safety Executive 27 You should ensure that for beam cranes. Any heat treatment after welding must be carried out to recognised procedures agreed between you and the competent person. pad eyes etc. Any repairs and modifications should not degrade or alter the performance of the lifting equipment. The load should remain captive to its hook or attachment point under all conditions of service. However. You may need to consider the need for redundancy on certain structural and mechanical elements. This should be kept up to date and be available at a readily accessible location (see paragraph 52) for as long as the equipment is used at the work site. It is perfectly acceptable to use test coupons to obtain these properties. These should be appropriate to the materials involved and to the type and configuration of the weld. pennants and spreader beams. a risk assessment should be carried out which enables the competent person to assess whether the equipment is suitable for its defined duty and its operation in specified environmental conditions. 29 Loose accessories for lifting. For loose gear and accessories. provided they have been subjected to the same heat treatment process as the original material. For routine lifts this only needs to be carried out on an initial basis and re-evaluated only for non-routine operations. material records and specifications are not available. 31 Material certificates for all primary elements. 34 Welding and welded repairs should be undertaken by suitably qualified welders to agreed specified procedures. should provide details of all necessary chemical and mechanical properties. the travelling system remains captive to its rails and/or its points of attachment. a certificate of conformity for primary load-carrying elements should be provided. Mechanical properties of materials should be quoted after any heat treatment which may have altered the original properties. Allowance should be made for dynamic stress. such as runway beams.

you should apply suitable corrosion protection methods. This applies to its regular operation or to facilitate tasks such as maintenance.Health and Safety Executive 35 Where practicable and feasible. exit ways and escape routes provided for general use on the installation should not be obstructed or in any way compromised when operating. If this is not possible. pneumatic and hydraulic components and systems should be evaluated for use in a saline environment. This corrosive development may be accelerated where higher temperatures are involved. and all winch/drum systems. the machinery house. particularly for components which are critical to the safe operation and control of the lifting equipment. cadmium coating etc) then care should be taken that galvanic action between the fastener coating and the surrounding material does not occur. erecting or dismantling the equipment. Access and escape 40 You should ensure that there are safe methods of access and escape for everyone working on or near lifting equipment. 39 Electrical. you should consider providing access ways (preferably built-in) to: n n n n n n the boom head. when used on mobile cranes. Access ways. To enable routine checks and maintenance to be effectively undertaken in slewing cranes. the length of the boom. 38 Paint specifications that provide protection against corrosion should be of a type suitable for use in an offshore environment. such as slewbearing fasteners. Corrosion protection 36 Corrosive oxides can build up extremely quickly on ferrous materials used in a saline environment. the A-frame apex. 42 Major lifting equipment such as slewing cranes (fixed and mobile) should incorporate access ways to the control station or to the operator’s compartment. should be suitably protected against corrosion. If chemical coatings are used for protection purposes (galvanised. 37 Safety-critical fasteners. will usually be based on automotive product standards and may not be suitable for offshore use. You should consider using sealing welds and closure plates for box section fabrications to safeguard against crevice corrosion. 41 Access ways should not require operators to work directly under the load or allow the load to pass directly over others on the installation. Where possible. eg by using grease-filled shrouds. sheradised. Note that these systems. Fasteners used for other critical principal joint connections should also be suitably protected against corrosion. eg from external sources such as flares or turbine exhaust or from internal sources such as diesel prime movers and hydraulic systems. you should specify components from non-corrosive materials. the interior of the pedestal (fixed cranes). Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 10 of 74 . welding for all primary and secondary steelworks should be continuous on each side of the joint to safeguard against crevice corrosion. maintaining.

44 The location of all access ways should allow people to leave the area regardless of the position or configuration of the crane. It may be necessary to examine any load data that is available. This examination may require checks for damaged screw threads of fasteners. for example as part of crane or drilling equipment. n effects of dynamic loading and out-of-plumb forces. n the duty cycle . Where necessary. Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 11 of 74 . n materials and construction of the equipment that may give rise to the development of corrosion or failure from abrasion (as may happen in wire ropes and the internals of structural hollow sections). Where access ways are located 2 metres or more above the deck of the installation. together with foundation. escape routes and escape systems that may be incorporated. heat sources.Health and Safety Executive 43 The surfaces of flat area access ways. 45 You should agree with the competent person any temporary access ways. 46 Fixed (permanent) ladders should be constructed to recognised codes and standards. ladders. for example from load monitoring/recording systems from cranes and drilling equipment. anchor and attachment points. components. brakes. The cause of any undue overloading of lifting equipment in service should be documented and validated by the competent person. safety devices and any accessory used in the lifting equipment system. permanent set or dimensional changes in key components when referenced to the original engineering drawings. and deformation. Installation and dismantling of temporary access equipment should be carried out by people who are competent and experienced at these tasks. Any remedial work to restore the lifting equipment to its original specification should be approved and documented by a competent person. n repetitive working of the equipment which may cause localised wear in key components. extreme low temperatures and moisture. and any changes that may affect the performance of the lifting appliance or its limitations of use.and be enclosed by steel handrails. will all need to be covered by a thorough examination scheme. Safety hoops and intermittent landings when required should comply with all the necessary industry requirements.frequency of use or extended periods of idleness or storage. scaling boards etc. control and safety systems. Inspection 47 Lifting equipment and accessories. n the condition of primary structures. brakes. fixings. fixings. This should include mountings. all primary safety-critical load path structures should be thoroughly examined and documented by a competent person.chequer plate or similar . components. The written scheme should take account of the following: n exposure to environmental conditions. 48 In circumstances where equipment may have been subject to undue overloading during operation (not test loading). n the condition and security of access ways. for example machinery house roofs. you should consider providing suitable fixings for safety harnesses to be used. they should incorporate self-closing and self-latching gates. should be non-slip . and n repairs or modifications to primary load-carrying structural elements or component parts.

53 As a general guide. n records of inspection/thorough examination reports (Note: reports of thorough examinations should contain all the information specified in Schedule 1 of LOLER). the minimum up-to-date documentation available should be: n operation and maintenance manuals. corrosion effects. ie who can exercise impartial judgement. including any factors which could adversely affect the lifting equipment. or extended periods of idleness or infrequent use. n records of any major safety-critical component which has been replaced (cranes only). Documentation.Health and Safety Executive 49 The intervals between thorough examinations will depend on a risk assessment based on the type of lifting equipment. you may carry this out either according to a specified period approach (as specified by LOLER) or by a written examination scheme drawn up by the competent person. such as: n n n n n n undue exposure to environmental conditions. This may include testing using suitable techniques considered appropriate by a competent person of independent standing. and how it is intended to be used. You will also need to bear in mind the need to keep the documents up to date and that they reflect the ‘as currently operated’ status of the specific equipment and systems on the installation. Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 12 of 74 . You need to ensure that your system includes documentation relating to mobile equipment which can be moved from one location to another. reports and test details 52 You will need to consider how and where you store all documentation relating to lifting equipment. sub-zero or elevated ambient temperatures. If you choose not to produce a written examination scheme. 51 Your thorough examination procedures should include all known environmental and operational factors. Inspections may range from visual inspection to a detailed thorough examination. maintenance staff and competent persons can refer to it easily. so that people such as contractors. ingress of moisture. and n details of any report by a competent person which has been made under regulation 10(c) of LOLER. sub-sea operations. you will need to follow a specified period approach as laid down by LOLER. 50 When thorough examinations are required. n the risk assessment analysis. its location.

for example. 57 Weights used for load/overload testing should be marked in accordance with the details of a calibration certificate. n electrical equipment and diesel engines used in potentially explosive atmospheres. test loads are kept as near to the deck or floor as possible. the lifting equipment is thoroughly examined after the test. and n foundations. a competent person should ensure that: n n n n n n n n n the lifting equipment is thoroughly examined before testing. and the consequential effects should be carefully evaluated. Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 13 of 74 . 58 When load/overload testing lifting equipment. are documented and corrective action instigated where necessary. the potential loss of containment of large volumes of water. and where only a percentage of the equipment has been physically subjected to an overload test. the test load does not exceed the limits specified by the equipment supplier. each primary mechanical and structural element is subjected to the test load. fixings. for hook block assemblies. the test area is effectively enclosed and warning notices are posted. including any deficiencies arising. lifting points etc should be agreed by the equipment supplier and a competent person appropriate to the type of lifting equipment. Details of the design and testing (including any overload testing) should be included. the movement of water in semi-filled bags. padeyes. n slewbearings and slewbearing fasteners. the environmental conditions are suitable (when testing offshore). Some examples of equipment requiring this documentation are: n hook block assemblies. this should be clearly stated in the associated documentation. runway beams etc. including gross overload protection (GOP) systems. the deck or floor area can adequately support the test load. which shows the proven accuracy of the weight(s). Testing 56 Testing of new or substantially repaired or modified lifting equipment. provided by a competent person. n safety systems. foundations. anchor point attachments. wire ropes and loose gear (slings etc).Health and Safety Executive 54 Documents should be available which demonstrate that the lifting equipment or system is fit for purpose and safe for use according to the prescribed duties and limitations of use. 55 Where type testing has been employed. When water weights are used. and details of the test.

n effective security of the lifting equipment when out of use during storms and during sea transit of mobile installations. attendant vessels etc. safe use and safe securing of the lifting equipment. overloading. maximum sea state. you should identify the controls necessary to eliminate or control the associated risks. foundations and fixing. beams or timbers are used for distributing the load of mobile cranes that travel across the installation. the load from dropping. 60 When planning the use of lifting equipment. gas turbine exhausts or any other heat source.Health and Safety Executive Operation Planning the use of lifting equipment 59 You should plan each lifting operation to ensure the lifting equipment and the load remain stable throughout the lifting operation. n measures to prevent: uncontrolled movement of the equipment and load. vessels or ships. n how to prevent movement of the lifting equipment and the load during the changeover between working shifts. spillage of load contents. and n for mobile cranes. snagging. A competent person should approve the suitability and strength of these lifting areas. n the effects of incident heat from flare systems. including: maximum operational wind speed. Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 14 of 74 . n at least one unobstructed route of access and escape for people operating the lifting equipment. these should be securely fixed to the installation’s structure in a manner approved by a competent person (see paragraph 101). failure of equipment. identified dedicated lifting areas on the installation. n environmental factors which may influence the design. Workers should not be exposed to elevated temperatures caused by these. storm wind speed. n dynamic factors arising from the movements of the installation. collision. Some relevant factors are: n fences and collision-prevention barriers to protect sensitive plant and equipment. and loading caused by snow and ice build-up. 61 Where mats. maximum and minimum air temperatures.

Health and Safety Executive 62 The written procedures for the planned lifting operation should also specify: n the validation of the weight of the load (including the weight of containers and/ or any ancillary attachments). slings. structural elements and plant and equipment. You should consider using drawings or sketches in support of the procedures. Procedures for routine lifting operations. where these are deployed. overload. the tension in the mooring tethers/lines and procedures for keeping these within controlled limits. n the handling of dangerous or hazardous materials. 64 When using multiple chain hoist systems. n the strength and space of laydown areas. This should include instructions on how to eliminate or adequately control risks identified in the equipment assessment. n the proximity of other people working in the vicinity of the moving load. the adequate bedding of anchors. Safe system of work 65 You should ensure all lifting operations are carried out in accordance with a written safe system of work (SSW). n procedures for erecting and dismantling the lifting equipment. the necessary response of the dynamic positioning system. each individual hoist unit should be rated to a capacity of at least 100% of the load. failure of the lifting system or human factors. Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 15 of 74 . such as loading and backloading containers from the supply vessel. You should plan the use of multiple hoists and any operation involving the transfer of the load from one hoist to another using clearly defined procedures relevant to each event of the lifting operation. 63 The combined use of more than one item of lifting equipment should be assessed. n as appropriate to floating installations or vessels: the trim of the installation/vessel throughout the lifting operation. This philosophy should be applied to both routine and specialised operations. such as drilling chemicals. its centre of gravity and method of securing against unintentional movement during the lifting operation. n any changes in the distribution of the load or the lifting appliance such as the dynamic effects arising from environmental factors or from the transfer of the load from one lifting appliance to another (see paragraph 63). n identification of restricted areas. foundations etc (determined by test and/or by calculation appropriate to the type of lifting equipment). and clearances between the load and the lifting appliance. and n procedures for stopping or abandoning the lifting operation which may be necessary due to environmental factors. planned and supervised by a competent person. It should address the following: n planning the lifting operation (see paragraphs 59-64). n procedures for safe release of sea fastenings. n the results of any risk assessment on the operation and equipment (see paragraphs 17-19). attachments. 66 The SSW should identify control procedures needed. n the validation and documentation of the capacity and factors of safety of lifting equipment. and n the issue and authorisation of work permits. should be kept under review to ensure they remain valid.

brakes hold the load. n all motion of the equipment and the load are effectively arrested in the event of power loss or system failure and that. maintenance etc of lifting accessories (slings. 71 BS 7121 Part 1111 contains much useful information on the operation and use of cranes offshore. brakes and control systems are ‘fail-safe’. under these conditions. all loose equipment should have a valid report of thorough examination by a competent person and/or a suitable declaration of conformity. n Everyone involved with mechanical handling operations should be trained to a level of competence appropriate to their tasks and responsibilities. pre-start checks should be provided by the equipment supplier or the competent person.Health and Safety Executive 67 Procedures should include the following: n The following checks should be carried out: all equipment should be examined prior to use. n No-one should work under a suspended load and no load should pass over people. indefinitely without slip. n There should be an effective system for reporting and recording any incident arising from the operational use or from failure of the lifting or mechanical handling equipment. n Adequate lighting and effective unobstructed access ways and escape routes should be provided and maintained (see paragraphs 40-46). This means notifying any change in circumstances which may require alteration to the system of work. does not operate outside its defined duties and is not loaded beyond its operational limitations. n A competent person should be identified to co-ordinate and control all aspects of the lifting operation. eg moving the drilling derrick to a new well slot or changes to scaffolding. n A clear and effective communication system should be available and understood by everyone involved with the lifting operation. inspection. Operating the equipment 68 For all types of lifting equipment. contractors and everyone using or working with lifting equipment should ensure that the equipment is not misused. including test load. shackles etc) and of portable lifting machines such as hand chain hoists and lever pulls should be controlled by a suitable system. n n n n 69 Dutyholders. n over-hauling or overspeeding of the equipment by the load is prevented. and all equipment should be in a good state of repair before being stored. you should ensure that: uncontrolled movements of the equipment and load are prevented. provision is made to recover the equipment and load to a safe location. 70 The storage. for example the ‘lifting loft’ procedure. Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 16 of 74 . power driving through applied brakes is not possible (unless for the purpose of testing). n A shift change-over scheme should be in place which correctly informs the incoming shift of anything in the lifting operation or lifting equipment which may affect the safe operation of cranes or other lifting equipment.

Operations in potentially explosive atmospheres 74 The selection.Health and Safety Executive 72 Manual chain hoists may be used for lifting or moving a single load. These loads can. for example on a blowout preventer (BOP) crane that may use two hoist units to lift the BOP. operation and maintenance of all lifting equipment for use in potentially explosive atmospheres needs careful consideration. you should ensure that the loads in each hoist line remain fully equalised throughout the operation. means of reducing incendive sparking. of itself. control of surface temperatures. overhead travelling cranes. you will need to take appropriate measures to prevent this. glow plug or alcohol-aided start systems are not recommended. Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 17 of 74 . the angle made by the chain may overload the hoist unit or cause the load or the hoist/beam/trolley to move uncontrollably. Examples are: n n n n n the need for flameproofing diesel engines. Battery. and the use of certified electrical apparatus for the predicted explosive atmosphere. or a delegated competent person. unlike a crane. You should use a method of marking that does not. even under the most resolute control and co-ordination. if used in potentially explosive atmospheres. should ensure that all lifting equipment (including accessories) is clearly and permanently marked to identify the equipment and to indicate its safe working load (SWL) (also known as rated load or working load limit). Marking equipment 78 You. mobile cranes. 75 You should identify the level of protection required and inform the lifting equipment supplier. These hoist units. 76 For all diesel-driven cranes used in potentially explosive atmospheres. 77 Travelling. a double pole isolation switch should be provided as close to the battery terminals as possible. do not incorporate any form of safe load indicator. You will need to inform the competent person in making this decision. standards and codes of practice. the use of fire resistant lubricating oils and greases. runway beams. 73 When more than one hoist is used to lift a single load. you should consider using air or hydraulic start systems supplied either directly from the crane or via a local plug-in supply from the installation. padeyes etc should be clearly visible to people operating the equipment or working nearby. raise stress levels in the equipment and will not become damaged by operating the equipment. When transferring the load from one hoist to another. If batteries are used. vary considerably from zero on one or two hoists to one carrying 100% of the load. by using either a load-compensating sheave/block or a load sensor/ indicator system. Marking on pedestal cranes. You should also consider all electrical and relevant mechanical components which need to comply with the relevant legislation. so the load carried by each individual hoist unit (in a multiple hoist set-up) will be unknown. steering or spragging crawler-type cranes over a steel deck or steel bearers may generate unacceptable levels of sparking and. gantry cranes.

Note that a CE mark does not guarantee that the equipment or system is fit for purpose. length of boom and the number of falls of rope used in the hoist system. 82 Where required by regulation. It should ensure that interactions of riggers. load handlers. For example. 86 Operators should be familiar with any sensitivities and limitations of the lifting equipment and of any restrictions or special procedures for its safe use. together with any other limitations of use. for example with pedestal and mobile type cranes. any preventative measure implemented as a result of previous incidents. 84 People being trained should only undertake tasks according to their assessed level of competence. To do this. Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 18 of 74 . Where a colour coding system is used to identify the suitability of equipment for a particular use. the crane should be clearly marked so that its maximum SWL (as applied to inboard lifting duties) relates both to minimum and maximum operating radius. and any special arrangements such as safe systems of work. slingers. The full range of crane duties for inboard and outboard lifting should be included in the crane operating manual and be loaded in the crane’s rated capacity indicator (RCI) system. the results of any examination of the equipment in use. or n satisfies essential health and safety requirements. the marking of the SWL should also relate to the working angle of the strop or sling. and only under the supervision of a qualified person. you should ensure that lifting equipment either: n carries the appropriate CE mark. 80 Where strops. 81 Lifting equipment. crane operators. This should be relevant to their tasks and responsibilities and the type of lifting equipment used. Training 83 You should ensure that people using or in any way responsible for the operating or maintenance of lifting equipment receive adequate training. supply vessel crew etc are co-ordinated and are directed solely by a competent person. Training should be aimed at achieving levels of competence that will minimise the potential for human error or behaviour which might cause an accident. sling sets etc are used. the crane’s derated duties for dynamic lifting operations appropriate to specified sea states should be permanently indicated in the crane operator’s compartment or control station. the training may need to include: n n n n the results of any risk assessment appropriate to the task. As well as these maximum ratings. In this case. attachments and fixings which are not marked or which do not identify with an in-date test document should not be used until these requirements are checked and validated by a competent person.Health and Safety Executive 79 The SWL may vary with changes in configuration or geometry of the lifting equipment. where a lifting operation may obscure the crane operator’s view of the hook or load. 85 Training should ensure that everyone engaged in lifting operations fully understands the roles and responsibilities of others involved. this should be clearly indicated in the written procedures. then the banksman/slinger should be positioned to fully sight the hook/load so they can give effective directions to the crane operator.

Health and Safety Executive 87 Operators should be qualified to ensure that: n the lifting equipment. Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 19 of 74 . are observed. 89 You should check the continued competence of these people regularly. 88 The people who are likely to need training in the safe operation of lifting equipment are: n crane operators. and n in the event of power failure or overload. should also be adequately trained. n the lifting equipment is visually checked for defects/damage prior to use. n banksmen and signallers. such as slings and spreaders. n all limitations of use. and n maintenance and inspection personnel. such as production or drilling operations. n slingers and load handlers. You will need to document your arrangements for doing this. n all operating procedures. or any part. but who may also be required to perform lifting duties or maintain lifting equipment. including any required derating of the equipment. including test procedures. 90 People who are primarily involved with other tasks. 91 People involved in erecting and dismantling mechanical handling equipment should be adequately trained and experienced in this work. n riggers and users of portable lifting equipment (including manual or powered hoists etc). identifies with an in-date document (provided by a competent person after thorough examination within the regulatory period) validating that the equipment is fit for purpose. are observed. the load and the lifting equipment are made safe.

consider using solid tyres. n Cranes which operate with outriggers deployed should be designed to withstand any high pressure generated in the outrigger hydraulic system by dynamic lifting operations. which are inherently more stable than other types of monohull vessels. Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 20 of 74 . the suitability of various types of mobile crane for use offshore. the lifting duties may change from a regime based largely on stability to a regime limited wholly by structural and/or component strength. rigidity and lateral stability for the specified service. It is particularly important to assess box section booms of the type used on ram luffing/telescoping cranes for suitability.Health and Safety Executive Types of offshore lifting equipment Cranes . 93 Mobile cranes are particularly sensitive to external influences such as environmental effects. This does not apply to crane barges. 95 All mobile cranes should be fitted with an approved Rated Capacity Indicator (RCI). 97 You should also consider the following when selecting mobile cranes for use offshore: n Cranes which travel/carry the load free on tyres should be safeguarded against tyre burst . installation movements.variable geometry slewing types Introduction 92 Variable geometry slewing cranes. that operate in fixed or travelling mode should follow the appropriate recommendations of this section in order to meet the stability requirements of regulation 4 of PUWER. semi-submersibles and monohull vessels arising from wave action. the RCI should incorporate de-rating curves for the sea-state in which it will be operating. including fixed pedestal cranes and mobile cranes (tracked or wheel mounted). enclosed gear drives and brakes are preferable to mechanically-driven cranes using open gear drives and open brakes/clutches. travelling or free-standing mobile cranes are not recommended. and dynamic loading. integrated control systems. in general terms. location and operational risk assessment. A competent person should assess the suitability of a mobile crane for use offshore according to service requirements. 96 Table 1 shows. If mobile cranes operate in tied-down or fixed mode.type cranes that feature all-hydraulic power transmission. n Booms should have adequate torsional stiffness. mobile cranes and fixed pedestal. 94 For offshore use. type of installation. Where sea lifts are to be undertaken. n Because of the particularly large and random motions of tension legged platforms.

Health and Safety Executive Table 1 Suitability of mobile cranes for use offshore INSTALLATION TYPE Fixed TYPE OF MOBILE CRANE AND MODE OF USE Wheelmount .free on outriggers Wheelmount .Preferred option but should be assessed by a competent person Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 21 of 74 .outriggers tied-down Wheelmount .free lifting/ travelling on tyres Wheelmount .free lifting/ travelling on tracks Crawler crane .fixed/tied-down chassis Crawler crane .tied-down NR POSS YES Sea lifts Inboard lifts Sea lifts Semi-sub Inboard lifts Sea lifts Monohull Inboard lifts NR POSS YES POSS YES YES NR POSS YES POSS POSS YES NR NR POSS NR NR POSS YES YES YES YES POSS POSS YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES NR YES NR YES YES YES YES YES YES YES .Not recommended . which should be fully assessed by a competent person .tied-down Crawler crane without travel facility .Possible option.

Health and Safety Executive Figure 1 Pedestal crane Mobile cranes travelling with load Design 98 The deck structure of the installation and any mats or bearers should be designed to support all forces generated by the operation and test loading of the crane. and n forces induced by any motion of the installation or vessel. Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 22 of 74 . including any forces arising from offleads/sideleads. n forces generated by steering/spragging of the crane. n braking forces when arresting travelling or slewing. n tractive forces. and when decelerating the load hoist and boom. at one wheel of a wheel-mounted crane or at one outrigger/ jack of a wheel-mounted crane. n dynamic forces. ie forces to propel/travel the crane. including: n the maximum force that may cause the crane to tip at one end roller of a crawler crane.

See also paragraphs 16-29 (Selecting suitable equipment) and 59-64 (Planning the use of lifting equipment). the effects of tyre floatation will add to the pendulum problem. Figure 2 Crawler crane Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 23 of 74 . particularly on mobile installations. On wheel-mounted cranes. A competent person should carefully consider this. the motion of the vessel may cause the load to pendulum and adversely affect the stability of the crane.Health and Safety Executive Selecting suitable equipment 99 Where cranes are required to travel with the load. Wheel-mounted cranes would not normally be considered suitable for travelling with the load on mobile floating installations.

or n free slewing. when power-lowering the load hoist and boom hoist motions. bedplate. Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 24 of 74 . outriggers. the location of the fixing points on the crane and the method of fixing (by welding. The sequence of failure should be such that the tie-down/fixings are the last to fail. telescoping and outriggers). Mats and bearers used to spread these forces should be positively and effectively secured to the deck of the installation. dynamic braking or retardation of the crane motions should be effected through the crane’s transmission system. A-frame. Mobile cranes tied-down . A friction-type brake or brakes should also be provided. n free-fall of the hook load.Health and Safety Executive Operation 100 You should inform the competent person when planning to use mobile cranes on a temporary basis. 104 The crane manufacturer or supplier should provide details of all forces transmitted to the installation structure arising from the operational service parameters notified by the competent person. to prevent: n free-fall of the boom. move. and all primary load carrying pins. 102 Mats or bearers should be level and should not be contaminated by any substance (including oil or grease) which would cause the crane to skid or slip. as appropriate: n n n n n n n n n n boom.deck loading 103 Mobile cranes may be required to operate in tied down or fixed mode at dedicated locations on an installation. carbody. 101 The competent person should ensure that all forces and ground pressures transmitted to the installation deck have been fully assessed. They should also consider carefully the potential fire risk and trip hazards when assessing the use of timber baulks as bearers. hydraulic rams (luffing. slewbearing and fasteners. The competent person should provide an assessment of the strength and failure mode sequence of the fixing points and of the crane’s primary load path elements. spread or cause any de-stabilising effects during the lifting operation. You should also inform them of the operational duties and length of time that the mobile crane will be used. They should not deviate. In this case. bolting. gantry mast. These should include. Braking systems 105 For normal crane operations. with adequate redundancy. Contaminants may increase their combustible potential. chassis. turnbuckles etc) should be agreed between the competent person and the crane manufacturer or supplier.

and n the forces generated under gross overload situations which may occur with the hook or load snagging with a supply vessel. and for recovering the crane to a safe location on the installation if there is a major failure of transmission system or power loss to the crane. A minimum of three turns of rope should remain on the drum under all operating circumstances and also for the safe stowage of the crane. especially with respect to the fatigue life and wear characteristics of wire ropes. all driving elements of the gearbox and transmission system should be rated to at least the torque holding capacity of the brake(s). brakes should also fully automatically engage if there is a loss of power in the transmission and/or control system. 112 The competent person should assess drum assemblies and their fixing to the crane. Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 25 of 74 . frictional and environmental effects. The number of layers of rope spooled should be as low as possible. Drum capacities should be such that when the rope is fully spooled onto the drum. The pitch diameter of drums and sheaves should be as large as practicable and should not be less than the minimum required by the relevant standards and/or the requirements specified by the rope manufacturer or supplier. If brakes are located at the low torque drive end of a gearbox. downstream of a winch drum or the wheels of a mobile crane. Under these circumstances. ensuring that specified fleet angles are maintained throughout their working travel for all configurations of the crane.Health and Safety Executive Design 106 Brakes should be spring-applied and should fully engage when the controller is released and automatically returns to its spring-centred neutral position. it is preferable for at least one brake to act directly on the drum or as near to the drum as is practicable. 111 There should be means to ensure that ropes remain captive to the drums and sheaves at all times. They should look out for enhanced fatigue wear on ropes. Winch drums and sheaves 109 Rope life. 108 Brakes should be fully protected against the environment and other contaminants. there is adequate height between the top rope layer and the top of the drum flange to prevent the rope slipping over the flange. the brakes should be rated for dynamic operation. Selecting suitable equipment 107 For winch drums. Where a secondary tailing rope is fitted. The braking system should provide for the controlled lowering of the boom and hook load. n the maximum force generated during a static overload test. is greatly influenced by the diameter of the winch drums or sheaves. this should not compromise the spooling of the primary rope. 110 Drums should be grooved or incorporate grooved laggings. especially when plastic and steel sheave combinations are fitted to cranes. Ropes should be spooled onto drums in a controlled manner. They should consider: n the maximum rope tension arising from dynamic loading conditions. travel brakes should act directly at the wheels. particularly when there is low tension in the rope. particularly in terms of bending fatigue. They should be designed to hold indefinitely without slip. For wheel-mounted mobile cranes. 113 The competent person should consider the effect of plastic sheaves.

n procedures for any change or replacement of the rope from that originally specified. Increasing the length by splicing or other methods is not an acceptable practice. eg BS EN 13411-3: 2004. Grips may be used to tie back the free end of the rope on wedge and socket terminations. n validation of testing. Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 26 of 74 . 116 A competent person should specify a wire rope replacement policy. provided the splicing is to proven standards. Special anchor arrangements may be needed for hoist ropes with a tailing rope (see paragraph 110). Records should include: n the manufacturer’s certificate validating the rope’s mechanical properties in accordance with a recognised standard.Health and Safety Executive Wire rope and terminations Wire rope 114 You should select wire ropes and pendants in accordance with recognised standards and with due regard to their intended service. and intervals of re-lubrication according to rope type and operational service. n details of removal for examination and servicing prior to replacement. n previous periods of service. Spliced terminations may be used with the appropriate thimble. Solid thimbles are recommended. 115 Ropes other than those originally specified should not be used without the approval of a competent person. 117 You should maintain a record of all wire ropes fitted to a crane.13 Any thimbles should comply with recognised standards and be compatible with the diameter and breaking load of the rope. 120 It is not recommended to use wire rope grips for terminations on any rope used in the crane’s primary load path. Wire ropes should be manufactured in a single uninterrupted continuous length. which should include details of lubrication prior to the rope being placed into service offshore. n lubrication proposals. 119 All other rope end terminations should be made in accordance with recognised standards. You should ensure that the grooving of sheaves and drums used in the system is compatible with the selected rope. Further recommendations on wire ropes are in BS 7121 Part 1111 and also BS EN 12385: 2000. both for standing and running ropes. n the date the rope was fitted. This policy should include: n the intervals between inspection/service checks and discard/replacement criteria. High-pressure lubrication systems should be used for this purpose. n destructive proof testing of representative rope and appropriate non-destructive testing (NDT) of the full length of the installed rope if the rope is to be re-used. The correct fitting and tightening of wire rope grips should be approved by a competent person.12 Terminations 118 Rope terminations and anchorages at drums should preferably be made outside the drum flanges and in a manner that facilitates ready inspection. and n any maintenance or repair work carried out on the rope.

Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 27 of 74 . you should have procedures to ensure the motions of the crane are safely directed. alternative methods should be provided. Steel sockets should be suitable for the environmental conditions and shock loadings they may be subjected to in service. including all public address announcements. If this is not practicable. unless needed for controls and instrumentation.Health and Safety Executive 121 Any load testing required to prove the integrity of the termination should be carried out or witnessed by a competent person and appropriately documented. These should be agreed with the competent person and approved by an independent verification body for the equipment in question. Hearing protection incorporating communications is acceptable provided it does not cause discomfort to the operator. Compartments or stands which are remote from the crane’s structure should be assessed and approved by a competent person. If this is not possible. compartments should ensure effective rearward as well as forward viewing. 126 The compartment or stand should be provided with safe access and escape routes under all operating conditions and configurations of the crane and for any maintenance or repair work. Terminations and anchorages should not be replaced with other types without the approval of a competent person. In these cases. For mobile cranes. Operation 127 High-pressure hoses should not be located in the compartment. 122 You should keep a record of all rope anchorages and terminations and should include details of any changes or replacements. allowing the operator to hear warnings and alarms at all times. Hands-free operation of the communication system is preferred. 125 When the compartment or stand is located on the crane’s slewing structure. the reasoning should be stated. environmental conditions and any elevated temperatures. Control compartments or stands which may be located in a potentially explosive atmosphere should be protected in accordance with paragraphs 74-77. eg by radio communication or visual displays. Operator’s control compartment or stand Selecting suitable equipment 124 The findings of a risk assessment should determine the location and protection arrangements for the operator’s control compartment or stand. If protection is considered to be unnecessary. the operator should have a clear view of the hook throughout the crane’s full slewing circle and an unobstructed line of sight from boom tip to the deck of a supply vessel. swinging loads. the hoses should be protected from mechanical damage and the operator should be protected against the risk of hose burst by guards or protective sheaths around the hoses. 129 You should provide a method of two-way communication between the crane operator and people involved with lifting operations on the installation. 128 The noise and vibration levels inside the compartment should be kept as low as is reasonably practicable. the master of the supply vessel and the central control/radio room on the installation. 123 The dutyholder’s records should show the efficiency of end terminations. especially over long shift periods. This assessment should consider how to protect the operator from falling objects (including parts of the crane).

controls should return to the neutral position. should be provided in the operator’s compartment or stand and at the entrance to the prime mover location (machinery house).00 247 1 1 4. Control systems using electronic logic should be designed so that failure or malfunction of the system will default to a safe situation irrespective of the operational status or configuration of the crane at the time. automatically activating the appropriate braking systems. including hours of darkness. This requirement may be waived for remote control compartments located on the installation itself.83 Figure 3 Crane cab with controls 130 A fire extinguisher. life jacket and smoke hood should be conveniently fitted inside the compartment or local to the control stand (along with other life saving equipment that may be required). Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 28 of 74 . On release. Alarms should be provided to alert the crane operator to any power loss or hydraulic system failure.0 0. 132 An emergency stop device. Controls 131 The effort required to operate the controls should comply with a recognised code or standard.Health and Safety Executive 1 . It should be available for ready use but designed and located to prevent inadvertent operation. inhibiting further use of the prime mover. Other alarms or instrumentation should be suitably labelled and should be clearly visible during all hours of crane operation.

movement of the control lever should be away from the operator. including hooks which are part of the pennant line. manufacture and marking of hooks.Health and Safety Executive 133 All crane controls should be clearly marked to show their function and mode of operation and should be visible at all times. should be in accordance with relevant national. The controls should be arranged to prevent unintentional operation of the crane or loss of control of the load. Eye hook with Eye hook safety catch withsafettch yca Typical80ton Typical hook block Hookblock Swi hook vel Swivel hook with withsafettch yca safety catch Figure 4 Some types of hooks found on cranes and lifting equipment Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 29 of 74 . controls should follow ergonomic principles so that there is a logical connection between the directional movement of the control lever and the motion of the crane. As far as possible. movement of the control lever should be towards the operator. including the hours of darkness. n for lowering the load or lowering the hook. n when changing the length of telescopic booms. the movement of the control lever should be to the left or right. European or international standards. Hooks and hook blocks Design and manufacture 134 The design. For example: n for raising the load and for raising the boom. movement of the control lever should be away from the operator to extend the boom and towards the operator to retract it. or right. n for slewing left.

and n identification of any component of the block which is manufactured from special steels or alloys. 138 Every hook block should carry a non-removable plate showing the following information: n the safe working load in tonnes and decimals of a tonne to one decimal point except for the numbers 0. The method of marking should not affect the strength of the hook. should not be permitted. See also paragraphs 47-51. Operation 139 Hooks should be fitted with an effective safety latch or mechanism that ensures slings or pennant wire are positively held captive under all operating circumstances.75. 137 The safe working load (SWL) should be legibly marked on every hook. n the diameter of the wire rope for which it is designed. Effective locking arrangements should be provided to hold the nut captive in service. inspected and subjected to nondestructive testing examination at intervals not exceeding five years. as a guide. 136 A hook block that has a threaded shank retained by means of a nut should be designed to prevent moisture and dirt from entering the space between the threaded shank and the bearing nut. The safety latch or mechanism should not be secured to the hook by welding. However. unless approved by the manufacturer or competent person. this would generally only be required where: n the block is of new or prototype design with no proven service record. whether loaded or unloaded. where damage or deformation of components may have occurred. 141 Dismantling and examination after load testing should be at the discretion of the competent person.Health and Safety Executive 135 The hook or any other first-order lifting device should be designed to prevent any snagging. Testing 140 Hook blocks should be dismantled.25 and 0. Unauthorised removal of the slings or pennant wire. identifiable with an in-date test document. n the block has been (or is suspected to have been) subjected to an excessive overload. or n a site modification has been carried out or new materials or components have been installed. n an identification mark to relate the block to its document of test and examination. Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 30 of 74 . Blocks fitted with new or modified parts (in the primary load path) should be overload (proof load) tested appropriate to their SWL. Procedures for strip-down. refurbishment and test should be approved by the competent person. Hooks which may be used for subsea operations should have suitable protection for all bearings and threaded components.

who should have the necessary qualifications and experience in this type of examination and also be conversant with the equipment used for the examination.Health and Safety Executive 142 Testing of the blocks after reassembly may be waived by a competent person provided that: n reassembly was carried out in accordance with the approved drawings and procedures and to a statement of conformity approved by a competent person. slewbearings for offshore use should meet design and manufacturing standards approved by a competent person. This is provided it can be shown that it is not limited by strength and has adequate fatigue resistance. the competent person may agree to extend the examination intervals of the slewbearing. Maintenance. manufactured and tested to agreed recognised codes and standards eg BS 3692 . with lifting duties based on the stability of the crane.Grade 10. strip-down and examination at intervals. As a minimum. repair and modification 143 Repairing hooks by welding or heat treatment is bad practice and should not be permitted. However. Slewbearings and slewbearing fasteners Design and manufacture 145 For cranes which operate in a permanently fixed or permanently tied-down mode.14 Any approved equivalent fasteners should be specified with rolled threads after heat treatment. and/or n the competent person is assured that the assembly is correct after visual appraisal of the assembled hook block. and ‘rocking’ tests to check for undue play in the bearing. 149 Where a crane is fitted with retainers or other devices which would stop it becoming detached from its pedestal if the slewbearing failed. Selecting suitable equipment 147 For cranes operating in free-standing mode. Fasteners should be equally spaced on a constant pitch circle . localised wear between 5% and 10% may be allowable in any one area of the hook. When carrying out ‘rocking’ tests. Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 31 of 74 . the crane manufacturer’s standard slewbearing may be considered suitable. 146 Slewbearing fasteners should be designed. raceway wear sufficiency and notch toughness for the prescribed operational temperatures and service duties. or be subjected to a system of in-situ monitoring. the whole crane should be effectively secured. 150 Examinations should be carried out using equipment that has been approved by both the slewbearing manufacturer and a competent person. with the agreement of the competent person. 144 The maximum permitted wear on hooks should not normally exceed 5% of the ‘as new’ dimensions. Inspection 148 Slewbearings used offshore should either be subject to removal. You should agree with the competent person all procedures for examining and monitoring the condition of the internals of the slewbearing. the procedures should include grease sampling techniques for laboratory analysis. Fasteners should facilitate through-type fixing over an effective length of at least five diameters. The period between examinations depends on the bearing type and construction and the degree of monitoring which is carried out (see Table 2).9. both agreed by a competent person.unequal spacing (part sector bolting) should be avoided.

Note: The approval certificate should be kept current by resubmission on an annual basis to the competent person/verification body. strip-down and inspection is not required provided that results from the monitoring systems show no significant defects in the slewbearing internals and/or components. the allowable stresses for the slewbearing elements and slewbearing fasteners. the competent person should be given the necessary documentation to make an accurate assessment of the slewbearing. 152 As a minimum. See note below. ie highly loaded corner radii etc. Periods for slewbearing removal. strip-down and examination to be agreed with the competent person. Category 1 designation Slewbearings that do not comply with the requirements of paragraphs 145-153 of this guidance. This should be carried out in areas where defects could have a detrimental effect on the integrity of the slewbearing. Inspection and examination should be carried out by a suitably qualified person(s). The documentation should include the slewbearing manufacturer’s calculations.Health and Safety Executive 151 Before any examination. Any defects should be rectified and the hardness depth rechecked. Slewbearings to be removed from the crane at intervals not exceeding three years. to facilitate dimensional checks of the slewbearing components. Engineering drawings may also be required. which should indicate the design loads. slewbearing removal from the crane. Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 32 of 74 . If a risk assessment approach is to be used in place of defined examination periods. Subject to agreement with the competent person. The following table gives general guidance regarding the nature of the examination. Category 2 designation Category 3 designation Slewbearings which comply with the requirements of paragraphs 145-153 and paragraphs 154-162 of this guidance. n the condition of the rolling elements. Slewbearings which comply with the requirements of paragraphs 145-153 of this guidance. n where the raceways are hardened. this philosophy and methodology must be agreed with the competent person. The designated competent person should be present during the examination. A safety-critical section is one where failure could cause a catastrophic failure of the slewbearing and subsequent loss of the crane. and n the retaining device on designs where this device is an integral part of the slewbearing. Table 2 Examination periods for slewbearings Slewbearings incorporating internal rolling elements should be subject to periodic examination as agreed with the competent person. Acceptance of any subsurface defects should be agreed with the competent person. the examination should include: n an examination of the raceway surfaces. n a subsurface examination to identify any significant defects. cages and seals. The designated competent person should be present during this examination. an examination of the raceway through the full depth into the core material for significant defects. These results must have been approved by the competent person and an approval certificate obtained. this check should also be carried out after any rework has been done to the hardened surfaces. You should give particular attention to safety-critical sections where there is the possibility of neighbourhood reaction or crack propagation. n an examination of all safety-critical sections. stripped down and subjected to a thorough examination by a suitably qualified person(s). All data submitted to the competent person/verification body in order to obtain deferrals for continued operation of the slewbearing should be readily retrievable for inspection by the Regulatory Authority when required. safety factors and material specifications.

Health and Safety Executive 153 Any rework should be carried out only after agreement you have reached with the refurbisher and a competent person. You should keep the results of rocking tests for inspection by the competent person. Loading history should be recorded through a data recorder linked to the crane’s safe load indicator system. retrieval intervals and logging procedures should be agreed by the competent person. They should be of proven reliability and be acceptable to the competent person. 157 Grease sampling analysis: Grease samples should be extracted from the slewbearing at dedicated points using methods acceptable to the competent person. The slewbearing should not be refitted to the crane until a reassembly approval certificate has been obtained from the competent person. Intervals of sample retrieval. A log should be kept showing the rocking motion trends and the allowable rocking motion limit for each type of slewbearing installed. 158 Rocking motion tests should be carried out by a qualified person experienced with the methodology and use of any equipment required. Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 33 of 74 . The refurbisher should satisfy the competent person that any rework will not compromise or degrade the strength or capacity of the slewbearing. analysis procedure and the logging of results should be acceptable to the competent person. 159 Loading history of crane: You should keep loading records and an authenticated loading history of the crane for examination by the competent person. Data logging equipment. or facilities to enable condition monitoring to be carried out. 160 Fastener examination: Bolt installation examination. then the slewbearing shall not be refurbished or put back into service. You should keep a log of bolt inspections and replacements for ready inspection by a competent person. unless a risk assessment is undertaken which shows that no possible configuration can occur where this design of slewbearing can fail in a catastrophic manner during service. any rework which would be carried out on the slewbearing that could compromise the original strength or capacity of the slewbearing. After reassembly of the slewbearing. cross roller and shear ball slewbearings are given in paragraphs 155-159. Scanning and data retrieval intervals should be agreed with and kept for inspection by the competent person/verification body. the competent person should issue a signed approval certificate. inspection intervals and replacement criteria should be according to agreed procedures. and (b) cross roller and shear ball-type slewing rings. 156 Condition monitoring systems should be capable of detecting defects in all safety-critical radii and where neighbourhood reactions and crack propagation could lead to the catastrophic failure of the bearing in service. They should be analysed using procedures and techniques agreed by the competent person. will be required for: (a) triple roller bearing type slewing rings. You should retain the results for inspection on demand. Monitoring requirements for Category 3 slewbearings and fasteners 154 The monitoring requirements of triple roller. 155 Condition monitoring systems. If. techniques for retrieval. in the opinion of the competent person.

Health and Safety Executive

Double ndardseries20 row ball bearing Sta 3

ndardseries900 TripleSta bearing roller

Cross roller bearing

Sta ndardseries00 8

Figure 5 Types of slew bearings 161 Monitoring requirements and examination periods for slewbearings may be amended by the competent person, depending on the type of slewbearing, fastening arrangements and retention devices incorporated. Paragraphs 155-159 give general, indicative monitoring and inspection requirements for triple roller, cross roller and shear ball slewbearings which should be acceptable to the competent person. 162 If a recognised integral catcher is built into the design of the slewbearing, the competent person has the discretion to amend some of the requirements in paragraphs 155-160. You must discuss, agree and document any amendments. Operation 163 When refurbished slewbearings need to be stored for extended periods, the storage instructions of the manufacturer should be observed.
Types ofslewbearing s

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164 You should agree the procedures for installation and tightening of slewbearing fasteners with the competent person. Fasteners should be tightened according to the recommendations provided by the slewbearing manufacturer. The pretension should be recorded at installation and at periodical inspections. The use of fasteners with a load monitoring facility, either as an integral part of the fastener or via load washers, is recommended. You should agree a planned maintenance schedule with the competent person for the inspection of fasteners and to check their in-service tightness. Hydraulic systems Selecting suitable equipment 165 Components used in hydraulic systems should be suitable for continued and effective operation in offshore service conditions. They should be selected by the supplier to withstand dynamic effects arising from the crane’s operation, overload testing and the corrosive nature of the environment and of any additional local contaminants. Certain types of oils may encourage biological growth, and steps should be taken to prevent any damage this may present to the equipment. Operation 166 Where hydraulic powered systems are used to drive the crane’s main services, the driving fluid and its containment and distribution system is considered to be a primary load path system. The crane operator should be informed of the main circuit hydraulic pressure, any boost/make-up system pressure and any significant loss of fluid. Failure of any component resulting in loss of fluid or pressure should not cause the crane to operate in an uncontrolled manner. 167 The build-up of corrosive oxides may cause seizure of valves or damage to piping and fittings. All components (particularly valves) which are critical to the safe control and operation of the crane should be protected against this build-up. 168 Where hydraulic ram-type actuators are used: n the ram rods should be adequately protected against corrosion; n in the event of loss of hydraulic power, the rams should be prevented from any extension or retraction, ie they should hold indefinitely without creep; and n the hydraulic system should provide effective control for lowering the boom or load safely in the event of any power loss. Maintenance, repair and modification 169 Hydraulic fluids should be regularly checked for correct quantity and consistency. Oil sampling and analysis methods should be to procedures agreed with a competent person. You should ensure that the hydraulic fluid is kept to acceptable cleanliness levels, for example by regular sampling and testing in accordance with ISO 4406,15 to assess its condition and suitability for further service. You should provide a filtered pump-fill system situated on the reservoir. The reservoir should incorporate a breather system that prevents ingress of moisture and the saline environment, eg by using bladder-type breathing systems or pressurised reservoirs. It should also incorporate high and low fluid level indicators. The crane operator should be informed of fluid levels below the low level mark. 170 Lubricating oils used in safety-critical equipment such as winch gearboxes or slewing gearboxes should be sampled using an effective qualitative analysis system to check that the debris/particle content remains within acceptable limits for continued safe use of the crane.

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171 Hydraulic relief valve settings should be maintained in accordance with the manufacturer’s requirements and should not be tampered with. Where relief valve settings need to be reset or adjusted, this should be carried out by someone competent in these operations. Prime movers Diesel engine prime movers 172 For cranes which are powered by a diesel engine prime mover, you should ensure the following: n All exposed rotating parts such as fans, flywheels and couplings should be suitably guarded to prevent injury. n The hot surfaces of exhaust systems, turbo chargers and the engine itself should be suitably guarded or routed to prevent operators being burned. n Diesel exhaust systems should be routed so that exhaust emissions cannot enter machinery compartments or the crane operator’s compartment or stand. n Diesel fuel tanks should not be located above the level of the fuel injectors. There should be an effective system for collecting any spillage of fuel in the filling area for immediate disposal on the installation. If the fuel tank is in the same compartment as the engine, a remotely operated shut-down valve should be fitted as near to the tank as possible. n Diesel-powered cranes which can be used for man-riding purposes should have a secondary independent means of starting via a readily available power source other than that used for the primary starting system. For pneumatic starting systems this requirement could be met by having rig air available from the installation, which could be quickly connected to the main engine starting system. Where it is not possible to incorporate a secondary start system there should be a way of enabling the personnel carrier and its occupants to be readily returned to a safe area. n Diesel engines should be fitted with the following: a mechanically operated device which will provide local shut-down of the engine; a device that prevents backdriving or overhauling of the diesel engine, unless this is incorporated in the transmission system of the crane; and fire/smoke alarms which are clearly audible at the operator’s compartment or control station and can be heard under all operational noise levels. n Diesel engines which may be required to operate in potentially explosive atmospheres should comply with the recommendations in paragraphs 74-77.

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Emergency electrical supplies 175 Where appropriate. and diesel engine controls. Safety systems 177 All variable geometry cranes used on offshore installations. where this is practicable. slew and travel drive systems. lighting of emergency escape routes. should be suitably safeguarded against: n dynamic/shock loads.7 others are recommendations of this guidance. and fire/smoke alarms which are clearly audible at the operator’s compartment or station under all operational noise levels. 176 For cranes which are electrically powered and are designated suitable for man-riding purposes. Where this is not possible there should be a way to return the personnel carrier and its occupants readily to a safe area if there is a power supply failure. and n overhauling of the load hoist (by the load and/or other forces). the crane control system. you should provide a secondary electrical supply to operate the personnel carrier system in the event of primary supply power failure. Table 3 shows a summary of the systems.Health and Safety Executive Electric prime movers 173 For cranes which are powered by an electric motor prime mover. boom hoist. n overloads (in-plane and lateral to the boom). protection against overspeeding. 174 Electric motor prime movers which may need to operate in potentially explosive atmospheres should comply with the recommendations in paragraphs 74-77. n Electric motors should be suitably earthed using straps protected against the effects of condensation and corrosion. n Electric motor prime movers should incorporate the following: a warning located at the operator’s compartment or station of any overheating of the motor windings. a warning located at the operator’s compartment or station of failure of power supply to the motor. 178 Some of the safety systems in Table 3 are specific requirements of the LOLER ACOP. you should provide emergency electrical supplies (where battery backup is not already available) for the following crane systems and functions: n n n n n helicopter warning lights. particularly those used for dynamic lifting operations from attendant vessels. safe load indicator and any associated data recording system. you should ensure the following: n All exposed rotating parts such as couplings or fans should be suitably guarded to prevent injury. Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 37 of 74 .

alternative measures should be approved by a competent person. cranes involved with lifting activities in various sea states should be protected against overloads and overmoments caused by the crane hook or load becoming snagged on the attendant vessel structure and/or its deck cargo. if the supply vessel sails away from the installation with the hook or load still attached. See also paragraph 118. Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 38 of 74 . This should indicate the measures taken to mitigate the hazards from operating the crane without these systems in place. Healthy (fully functional) status of the GOP should be indicated . 181 As part of the GOP system.Health and Safety Executive Gross overload/overmoment protection (GOP) 179 Wherever possible. 180 The GOP should be set to activate at a safe margin above the crane’s maximum permissible lifting capacity for any given radius. This applies whether they are permanently fixed. eg on older model cranes. This protection should not be activated by the transient loading conditions that normally occur during lifting operations and should not cut out or stall the prime mover. Table 3 Summary of principal recommended safety systems in paragraphs 179-200 Code designation A is a requirement of LOLER ACOP7 Code designation B is recommended by this guidance System Code All types #1 2 3 #4 #5 #6 7 8 9 10 11 12 * ** # Comment Cranes used for deck lifts only N/A yes Optional N/A If required N/A yes yes yes yes* yes GOP Safe load indicator (SLI) Data recorder Auto tension Slew torque limiters Emergency load release Overhoist limits Overlower limits Overspeed control Min/max radius limits Slewing limits Crane travel B A B B B B A A B A A A Used for boat lifts All lifts For slewing bearing deferrals Used for boat lifts Used for boat lifts Used for boat lifts Where applicable Mobiles only** Minimum radius may be achieved by fully stroking the luff rams to their physical limits. Procedures for periodically testing the GOP (controlled activation) should be agreed with the crane supplier and competent person and provided in the crane’s operating manual. The GOP should not be influenced by any controlled overload testing undertaken on the crane. tied-down or in freestanding mode. you should consider fitting a low fracture tailing rope to allow the main load hoist rope to pay out and clear the hook in a controlled manner. Includes cranes which travel on rail systems mounted at deck level or where the hookload/load is traversed close to deck level. and at a safe margin below any loading conditions that may cause the failure of a structural or mechanical component. Where it is not practicable to fit these systems (on some existing cranes) a risk assessment should be carried out by a competent person.preferably in the operator’s compartment or at the control stand. At maximum radius. ie the rams should not ‘bottom out’ when operating at maximum radius. there should be approximately 75 mm of free stroke remaining in the rams. 182 Where it is not practicable to fit a GOP system.

and n it should not be possible for the crane operator to incorrectly input into the RCI the number of falls of rope that are actually configured on the main/whip hoist. and n carrying out overload testing of the crane. 185 You should consider implementing a system (for example a data recorder) which will provide a continuous recording of static and dynamic loads. responding to any overmoments that may arise beyond those permitted for the crane’s operational service conditions. This information should be readily available to the operator. 187 An audible and visual warning should be incorporated. the system must be suitably protected.17 Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 39 of 74 . 186 The RCI should give the crane operator a clear and continuous visual warning when the hook load exceeds a figure of between 90% and 97. the RCI should be capable of automatically resetting the appropriate duty ratings applicable to any change of the boom length. 184 For telescopic boom cranes.5% and 110% of the safe working load of the crane for any given radius.16 The European Standard for automatic rated capacity indicators is EN 12077-2. The RCI should have facilities for: n manually checking the healthy status of the indicator and data recorder. moments and other operational parameters to give a full history of the crane’s operations. Selecting the safe working load and number of falls of rope at the hook block depends on the operating radius and prevailing sea state. The system should automatically give a continuous audible warning to the operator and to anyone else in the area when the hook load is between 102.5% of the safe working load of the crane for a given radius. This data may be used to assess maintenance or service requirements or the timing of removing the slewbearing for thorough examination.Health and Safety Executive Rated Capacity Indicator 183 The crane should be fitted with a Rated Capacity Indicator (RCI) giving details of the actual/permissible loads (at the appropriate radius) and moments over the working area where the load is lifted or set down. 188 The British Standard for automatic safe load indicators is BS 7262. n checking the percentage accuracy of the indicator over the full duty spectrum. any incorrect input should initiate a warning signal on the RCI panel. If you install as part of the RCI a data recorder which needs to be operated in a potentially explosive atmosphere.

This system should be designed so that it can only be selected in a deliberate act by the crane operator. ie with any load on the hook. The system should be failsafe so that any fault in the constant tension system when it is operational immediately and safely returns the crane to its normal functional operating mode.Health and Safety Executive Figure 6 Typical rated capacity indicator Wave following/constant tension systems 189 You should consider providing a wave following/constant tension system that keeps the crane hook/load in synchronous speed with the rise and fall of the supply vessel. It should not be possible to activate the system under any other situation during normal operations of the crane. 190 The rise and fall of the hook load in this mode should be indicated in the control console. The tension in the hoist rope and slings should never exceed that which would otherwise be generated by the suspended load. If these loads would be large enough to cause structural or mechanical damage. you should consider providing a limiting slew torque capability to prevent undue sideloads happening under any circumstances. This kind of system prevents any slack in the crane hoist rope or slings as the motion of the vessel is followed. Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 40 of 74 . The decision whether to activate the constant tension mode should normally be left to the crane operator. Slew torque limiters 191 A competent person should assess the risk of excessive sideloads being applied to the boom. eg on a rising wave or at the crest of a wave. allowing the operator to judge when best to lift the load from the supply vessel with minimal shock loading to the crane.

Re-establishing boom hoist control or the use of any override systems should require a deliberate act by the crane operator. Once operated. In this case. allowing uninterrupted load release. Boom backstops. up to the maximum specified speed. The device should stop any motion of the crane that might cause this. This is likely to apply mainly to cranes with mechanical transmission systems. you should consider possible alternatives such as providing the operator with an indication of the winch drum or line speed. The release device should be in the crane operator’s compartment or control stand. these should incorporate suitable end-of-stroke cushioning. Overlower limit 194 You should provide means to ensure that lowering the hook/load cannot extend beyond the three residual turns of rope which should remain on the drum in any configuration of the crane. Overhoist limit 193 You should provide an overhoist limiting device that prevents the hook block(s) from being raised into contact with the boom head. Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 41 of 74 . it should not be possible to regain control of a load already in load release mode. It is acceptable to override in some circumstances. It should be possible to effect controlled drive-down of the hook after activating the device. This is unless the crane operator is deliberately directed to lower the hook/load. Maximum and minimum radius limits 196 To prevent the crane from exceeding its operating range. Under these conditions. These should provide the crane operator with visual alarms before activating automatic cut-outs that prevent any further movement of the boom beyond its specified working range. should be provided to prevent the boom from travelling rearward of its minimum radius limit (this may be caused by gusting winds or the movement of a floating installation). when operated. loop or otherwise cause snagging. booming up or down or extending the boom. for example by activating the GOP system or by operating the emergency load release. It may not be practicable on older cranes which utilise mechanical transmission systems to incorporate a device which complies with this requirement. Overspeed control 195 You should provide means to prevent the load from descending or the boom from overspeeding under all loading configurations. preferably of the shock absorbing type. for example when lowering the boom head to deck level or into its rest stand. The device should remain effective in the event of extreme out-of-verticality of the load line. you should fit boom angle limiting devices. It should be designed and located to prevent accidental operation and it should be activated only by a ‘deliberate act’ by the operator. including raising the hook via the load hoist system. as on hydraulic transmission system cranes this is done automatically. should stay put. An acceptable method would be a variable audible tone that is activated when the maximum drum speed is approached and which remains at constant pitch when it is reached. The device should give prior warning to the crane operator of any impending cut-out of the system which prevents any further hoisting of the hook.Health and Safety Executive Emergency load release 192 You should provide an effective means for the operator to activate immediate release of the load. the rope should spool from the winch drum in a controlled manner. Where booms are raised and lowered by hydraulic rams. ie the rope should not bunch. 197 Boom rams should have a margin of residual stroke when lifting loads at maximum radius. The design and location should be different from that of the emergency stop device referred to in paragraph 132. A competent person should verify the integrity of any system(s) fitted. The device.

Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 42 of 74 . 199 It may not be practicable to fit slewing limit alarms.Health and Safety Executive Slewing limits 198 Where cranes operate close to other structures on the installation. The slewing limit device should be linked to the boom hoist system to allow for changes in boom angle which may change the proximity of any approaching hazard when the crane is slewed. In this case. or any part of the crane. 201 A banksman should also be in attendance when the crane is travelling. Principal recommendations 202 A summary of principal recommendations for variable geometry slewing cranes is given in Table 4. the competent person should ensure that procedures are in place to prevent the boom. for example on mobile cranes where the action of travelling may be difficult to accommodate. Crane travelling warning 200 Mobile cranes should be provided with both audible and visual (flashing) warnings which operate when the crane is travelling. This should warn the operator if the crane boom approaches these structures as the crane is slewed. they should be fitted with a visual and audible alarm located in the operator’s compartment or control stand. from coming into contact with other structures.

diving winches only ROPES/TERMINATIONS Low rotational type for main/whip hoists Direct access to rope anchorage/terminations Ropes and terminations to recognised standards OPERATOR’S COMPARTMENT Cabin located on slewing structure Clear line of sight from boom tip to supply vessel deck Window washers/wipers/demisters Internal temperature controls/noise levels Safety glass windows Rear viewing window for travelling cranes Essential Desirable See note YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES 3 1 YES YES 1 1 YES YES YES YES YES 5 YES YES YES YES YES 2 YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES 1 Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 43 of 74 .sufficient to prevent re-impact Speed of boom hoist and slew .direct sight or indication to operator Level wind condition .crane tied down Limited by sea state Limited by offlead angle Limited by sidelead angle Limited by wind speed Limited by dynamic enhanced loading conditions Limited by heel/trim/pitch .with/without hook load PERFORMANCE Hoist speed .installation/support vessel DECK LOADING Max loads generated by lifting operations Max loads generated by travelling .load and boom hoists Prevention of uncontrolled slewing Prime mover stall prevention .power management system BRAKING SYSTEMS All service brakes to be spring set to fail-safe At least one dynamically rated brake to be situated as near as possible to the load/boom hoist drum Secondary braking by hydraulic system etc Boom hoist pawl Brakes to be protected against environmental and other sources of contamination DRUMS AND SHEAVES Controlled rope spooling Captive rope system under slack wire conditions Rotation of drum .Health and Safety Executive Table 4 Summary of principal recommendations for variable geometry slewing cranes as appropriate to type and operational use Principal features CRANE DUTIES To agreed relevant codes Limited by component strength .to ensure vertical lift Prevention of uncontrolled motions .floating installations Limited by relative movements .

eg ATEX Electric motors to recognised standard SLEWBEARINGS AND SLEWBEARING FASTENERS Slewbearing designed to agreed offshore standards Slewbearing designed to agreed standards .GOP Safe load indicator .anti-snag system Emergency stop Overhoist/overlower warning/cut-out Max/min radius warning/cut-out Boom back stops PA/radio communications Fire and gas systems Audible and visual warning when crane is travelling Aircraft warning light Load/boom lower speed indicator .mechanical transmission only OPERATIONS IN EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERES Flameproof diesel to recognised standard Electrical systems to recognised standard.SLI Data recording facilities Constant/auto tension system Prime mover stall and overspeed prevention system Emergency load release .Health and Safety Executive Principal features CONTROLS Hand controller centre to neutral on release Hand controller movements directional and proportional with crane motions Layout/operations to recognised ergonomic principles No excessive vibration levels at control station MATERIALS AND WELDED STRUCTURES Chemical properties to agreed recognised standards Mechanical properties to agreed recognised standards Heat treatment procedures/EC certificate of conformity Welding to agreed recognised standard Welding to be continuous SAFETY SYSTEMS Gross overload protection .mobile cranes Retainer/retaining ring Grease sampling facility Rocking test check Built-in condition monitoring facility Inspection and monitoring procedures Bolt properties to agreed standards Through bolt-type fixing Rolled threads after heat treatment In-situ load monitoring facility Agreed tightening and monitoring procedures Essential Desirable See note YES YES YES YES 3 3 7 YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES 2 1 2 YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES 6 1 Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 44 of 74 .

with potential start-up Operating procedures. maintenance and pre-start procedures should be compatible with the use of the crane. Not applicable to ram luff-type cranes. Inspection.Health and Safety Executive Principal features ACCESS AND ESCAPE Built-in . Diesel engine prime movers only. The terms ‘agreed’ and ‘agreement’ are taken to mean those between you or the competent person and the crane manufacturer or supplier. Continuous welds may be required on certain structural parts of the crane to protect the internals from corrosion. These recommendations are considered to be practical and in keeping with established good practices. crane left idle for long periods. operational and any other variances with the crane manufacturer. operational service and location. mothballing.slewbearing Corrosion protection of principle fasteners HOOK BLOCK ASSEMBLIES Designed to recognised standards Inspection and testing by agreement Positive captive holding of slings OTHER ITEMS Inspection frequencies Mothballing . The listings are not exhaustive and variations are expected to arise according to the crane type.to facilitate routine checks and maintenance etc Emergency escape . limitations etc Inspection/maintenance/service Man-riding operations 1 2 3 Essential Desirable See note YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES 3 YES YES YES YES YES 6 4 5 6 7 Applicable to mobile cranes only. Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 45 of 74 . eg frequent or infrequent use.regardless of crane configuration CORROSION PROTECTION Seizure prevention of critical components Corrosion prevention of critical fasteners . You should agree any technical.

overhead/gantry travelling types and wire rope hoists Overhead and gantry cranes Selecting suitable equipment 203 You should provide a mechanical anti-derailment device that holds the crane captive to its rails at all times. including during sea transit. 205 You should provide all powered travelling systems with effective brakes which prevent any further movement of the crane or load when the hand or pendant controller is released.Health and Safety Executive Cranes . The anti-derailment device should apply to both long-and cross-travel systems. 204 You should fit over-travel limits or cut-outs. Operation 206 Where more than one crane is used on one rail system. cranes should be effectively tied back to the installation. You should consider using rack and pinion drive systems for both long-and cross-travel functions. For manually-operated travelling systems. supplemented by energy-absorbing end-of-travel stops. Figure 7 Overhead crane Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 46 of 74 . for both long-and cross-travel systems. 207 For storm and sea transit of floating installations. each should be fitted with collision warning and prevention systems supplemented with energy absorbing buffers. brakes are only required where there are significant movements of the floating installation. under arduous lifting or environmental conditions or where there may be movements of the installation.

failsafe type.Health and Safety Executive 208 Rail systems which the whole crane is fixed to should be secured. walkways. You should also provide safe means of access for inspections and maintenance. (Note: This requirement only covers loads greater than 1000 kg or. Rails which are located at deck level should be suitably guarded against possible trip hazards. checked for being flat and parallel. There should be a safe means of escape regardless of the crane’s location along the rails. Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 47 of 74 . Cranes and hoists (wire rope type) Design and manufacture 211 The SWL of all crane and hoist units should be clearly marked on each side of the crane bridge and on hoists at a suitable point. when the overturning moment is greater than 40 000 Nm. 209 You should provide safe access and escape routes on cranes which are fitted with an operator’s cabin or platform. stairs and handholds. In the event of power failure. and maintained in accordance with the crane supplier’s recommendations. You should consider providing dual limits/cut-out systems. These limits and cut-outs are safety critical. especially on the overhoist function. it must be possible to operate the brake manually to lower the suspended load safely. 213 The hoist system should be provided with limits or cut-outs that prevent overhoisting and overlowering of the hook.) 215 For powered cranes and hoists. Selecting suitable equipment 212 All hoist brakes should be spring set. a load limiting or load indicating device should be provided. Activating the emergency stop should arrest all motions of the crane and hoist as well as shutting down the crane/hoist power supply. or where two cranes or hoists are used to lift a load in tandem. for example by pendant or manual methods. Cranes which are operated from deck level. where applicable. This should be legible to people at deck level. inspected. The hoist brakes and drive system should be enclosed and not exposed to contaminants. ladders. should be provided with dedicated unobstructed walkways. 210 Cranes which operate on rails located at deck level should be provided with audible and visual warnings which alert everyone in the area when the crane is travelling. The travelling speed of these cranes should not be greater than the walking pace of the operator. you should provide an emergency stop at the control station. 214 Where the weight of the load is unknown.

n controllers should be ‘fail-safe’. and longtravel and cross-travel drive systems. n the degree of protection should be compatible with environmental conditions. Testing 218 Powered cranes and hoists should be subjected to an overload test agreed by a competent person. and n effective isolation of the power supply should be provided. This should include all elements of the winch.Health and Safety Executive Note: Guard(s) removed for clarity Figure 8 General purpose winch 216 Where gantry cranes and hoists are operated by a pendant controller: Drawing7 Winch n buttons should be protected by a raised annular guard. n all button and lever or joystick controllers should be protected against inadvertent activation. see paragraphs 74-77. Details of the test should be documented and validated by a competent person. 217 For equipment operating in potentially explosive atmospheres. Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 48 of 74 .

For equipment manufactured and installed before 1997. Users should follow appropriate practice for this type of equipment. particularly saltwater. Selecting suitable equipment 224 The chain hoist should be selected by a competent person who should take due account of its intended operational duties. The instructions and procedures should identify all sensitivities and limiting factors that may apply with the use of chain/lever hoists offshore. Figure 9 Chain hoist Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 49 of 74 . the minimum requirement will be the zone classification where it can be used. See also paragraphs 74-77. and state of loading. constructed and maintained for this purpose. publication reference LEEA 033. The supplier should provide details to ensure the correct storage of chain/lever hoists in a marine environment. Manufacturers and suppliers of chain/lever hoists should ensure that operating instructions and thorough examination and maintenance procedures are specific to the type of equipment and to the conditions prevailing at the point of use. Where chain hoists are to be used for general purpose lifting operations and these factors may be difficult to assess accurately. 220 Manual chain/lever hoists are usually manufactured only to basic commercial standards. 222 The SWL should be clearly and permanently marked on the hoist. service life. drilling powders/muds. they should be suitably designed. European or international standards.18 221 Manufacturers and suppliers should ensure that lubricants for the moving elements are suitable for the conditions. Ingress of water. including factors such as: n n n n frequency of use. both powered and manual. the competent person should select the most suitable capacity hoist. 223 Where chain hoists are used in an explosive atmosphere. should be designed to recognised national. special requirements are needed. For chain and lever hoists which are used sub-sea. When selecting a chain/lever hoist for use offshore.Health and Safety Executive Other lifting equipment Chain hoists and chain lever hoists Design and manufacture 219 Chain hoists. Guidance on this subject is given in the Lifting Equipment Engineers Association handbook. silt and the saline marine environment itself can greatly diminish the effectiveness of braking systems and the overall condition (which could be affected by corrosion) of manual chain/lever hoists. conditions of use. the competent person should ensure that it is suitable for the purpose and the environmental conditions. making conservative assumptions about these factors. Equipment that is suitable for use in potentially explosive atmospheres should be marked accordingly and be supported with the appropriate documentation of conformity.

Chain/lever hoists should also be subjected to a light load test to validate the effectiveness of the braking system under these conditions. 230 Where the lifting range of the hook is extensive. As a guide the British Standard (BS EN 13157: 200419) recommends 2-5% of the SWL depending on the hoist capacity. The brake frictional materials should not be hazardous to health. It should be able to arrest and hold the load indefinitely without slip.Health and Safety Executive 225 All anchor points for the suspension of the chain hoist and the load should be of adequate strength and provided with effective high-security latching or locking systems. a load chain bucket should be provided wherever possible. See Lifting points and runway beams. paragraphs 243-252. Pawls should engage the ratchet using a spring (not a tension spring) or other positive means. 227 Pawls should be designed for effective engagement with the ratchet wheel. Inspection 232 Chain hoists should be visually inspected before and after use. Testing 233 When chain/lever hoists are subjected to an overload test. the test should ensure that each element in the drive system receives an overload by hoisting through the distance required to rotate every gear wheel at least once. 226 All types of chain hoists should incorporate an automatic brake that permits smooth lowering of the load. Engagement should not depend solely on gravity. irrespective of any wear of frictional surfaces. this suspension equipment should not be of lower rated capacity than the chain hoist. Figure 10 Lever hoist Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 50 of 74 . Any damage or faults should immediately be reported to the competent person and recorded. The light load is meant for test purposes only and the chain hoist should not be used to lift loads of under 10% of the SWL for normal operations. Twin pawls fitted with single heavy gauge springs are recommended for chain/lever hoists used offshore. beams. The competent person should decide the magnitude of the light load. padeyes etc. 231 Where chain hoists are suspended from trolleys. 229 It should be impossible for the load chain to be run out beyond its working limit. Details of the overload and light load tests should be documented and validated by the competent person. A mechanical stop should be provided which prevents any overrun even when handling the test load (including the effects of shock and enhanced line pull). 228 Power-driven chain hoists should incorporate suitable means of preventing overloads and be provided with an emergency stop located at the control station.

Chain/lever hoists should not be used for lifting people.) 237 Multiple chain hoists should not be used to perform a single lift unless assessed and supervised by a competent person (see paragraph 63. paragraphs 83-91.) 238 For powered chain hoists operated by pendant-type controllers. see paragraph 216. 236 People operating chain hoists should be experienced in their use/limitations and rigging practices.Health and Safety Executive Operation 234 Manually-operated chain hoists should not be power driven under any circumstances or operated in any way other than that specified by the manufacturer or competent person. 235 Chain hoists should not be used for dragging or pulling equipment along the deck unless this is agreed by a competent person. (See Training. Figure 11 Trolley Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 51 of 74 .

Any hoist unit having a greater rated load capacity than the trolley should not be used. runway beam. 242 Trolleys which are used in potentially explosive atmospheres should incorporate non-sparking materials where appropriate. Testing 246 Lifting points and runway beams should be inspected and tested to procedures agreed by a competent person. Lifting points and runway beams Design and manufacture 243 Lifting points and runway beams should be designed to a recognised national. Powered trolleys should incorporate automatic braking and may be used during vessel motion up to the value of pitch/roll which the competent person has deemed is safe. lifting equipment or load should be avoided. validated and approved by a competent person. 245 The design of lifting points and runway beams should ensure that the lifting equipment and/or load is moved in a controlled manner as directed by the operator and that the lifting system remains stable at all times. 240 The SWL should be clearly and legibly marked on the trolley. Selecting suitable equipment 241 On floating installations and vessels where motions could result in unsolicited movement of manually operated trolleys. 244 The SWL of lifting points and runway beams should be clearly marked. The lifting equipment specified for use on the lifting point or runway beam should be identified. welding. Uncontrolled movement of the lifting point. 247 You should ensure that details of materials. If electrical equipment is fitted. See also paragraphs 74-77.Health and Safety Executive Trolleys Design and manufacture 239 Both powered and manually operated trolleys should be designed to remain captive with the runway beam under all circumstances. These procedures should be appropriate to the type of lifting equipment which will be suspended from these items. Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 52 of 74 . this should be suitably flame-proofed for use in these areas. European or international standard. all lifting operations using this type of equipment should be suspended. examination and testing of lifting points and runway beams is documented. including the failure of one runner or wheel or its support.

Portable lifting points such as beam clamps may be used where it is not possible to provide permanent lifting points. All welding should be undertaken only by coded welders. standards and procedures. which may have been caused by flame cutting equipment). The competent person should ensure that all lifting points and runway beams are compatible with the lifting appliance to be used and that the connection of the appliance remains secure under all operating conditions. These should be of sufficient strength to prevent the trolley and its SWL from leaving the beam under all possible operational conditions. Jacking systems Design and manufacture 253 Jacking systems (other than self-elevating units) should be designed. This should be designed to sustain the transmission of all loads generated. n the effects of non-equal load distribution. 250 Runway beams should be fitted with mechanical stops at each end of the beam. dynamic and overload forces (including overload testing). The jacks should have an effective mechanical lock-out device which prevents any further load transmission to the hydraulic fluid once the jacked structure is in its final position. cuts etc (for example. loss of hydraulic fluid or loss of supply power. constructed and maintained according to their intended use to the approval of a competent person. 251 Any lifting point. n forces induced during any transfer of the load to other lifting points or runway beam. 249 Lifting points and runway beams should be permanently installed and positively secured to the supporting structure. including tie-backs. n forces induced by movements of the installation (floating installations). See also paragraphs 33-35. n that the lifting point should be strong enough to resist tearing or shear out of any pierced part connecting the lifting appliance. Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 53 of 74 . Maintenance. Selecting suitable equipment 254 Jacks should have non-return check valves located immediately at their ports. Welding of lifting points should be carried out to recognised codes. pulling points and any ad-hoc lifting arrangement that has not been approved by a competent person should not be used. repair and modification 252 Lifting points should be of smooth profile.Health and Safety Executive Selecting suitable equipment 248 The competent person should ensure the following are considered when assessing the design and suitability of lifting points and runway beams: n the magnitude and direction of operational. n the magnitude of all lateral forces. to prevent any movement of the piston if there is a hose/pipe burst. free of defects. and n that adequate contact area should be provided to prevent undue bearing pressures at connection points.

256 The jacking system should have a safe means of access during erection and operation.Health and Safety Executive 255 The competent person should consider the following when assessing jacking systems: n a suitable allowance should be made for wind effects on the structure being jacked. Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 54 of 74 . Maintenance. n the maximum wind speed at which jacking operations should cease. n the jacks should be positively located at both the non-moving structure and at the structure being jacked. Where jacking systems are deployed over the sea. paragraphs 295307. The system should not impede any evacuation or escape routes. repair and modification 258 If attachment lugs or padeyes need to be welded or bolted onto existing structures. Operation 257 You should have procedures for safely abandoning the jacking operation and for effectively securing the jacked structure. you should consider the appropriate items of the section Working harnesses/rope access systems. ensuring the jacks do not slide or tilt and that the jacked structure remains stable under all circumstances. a competent person must approve this after fully assessing the implications to the original structural design.

Cranes Design and manufacture 260 Cranes which are suitable for lifting people should be clearly marked at the crane operator’s location ‘SUITABLE FOR LIFTING PEOPLE’ or ‘SUITABLE FOR MAN-RIDING’ and marked with the maximum number of people it can carry. you should consider alternative methods of doing this. Free-fall operation of load hoist or boom hoist systems is dangerous and should be avoided. Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 55 of 74 . 262 The brakes should be automatically applied when the drive is in the ‘OFF’ or ‘NEUTRAL’ position. The brakes should be able to support the specified test overload for the equipment. For hydraulic transmission system cranes (provided the system meets certain criteria). 264 Clutches or other means of disengaging the drive train are prohibited for personnel-lifting operations. For cranes this should be fitted to both load and boom hoist systems and be located as near to the hoist drums as possible. Operating the emergency stop should arrest all motions of the crane. It should be protected against accidental use. and on failure of the power supply to the motor or control device. Any crane that is not marked should not be used to lift people or for man-riding. See paragraph 192 for information on emergency load-release systems. The braking operation should be progressive. Any speed-change gearbox should be of constant mesh type and designed so that it is not possible to change the gear ratio while the hoist system is carrying any load. Selecting suitable equipment 261 Cranes used for lifting people should be equipped with hoist brakes that can be operated mechanically under all load conditions. to avoid any shock loading of the hoisting system. 263 A second brake system should be provided for emergency use in case the normal braking system fails. it should be possible to recover the carrier by manual methods. 265 The crane should be fitted with an emergency stop located for the operator to use. the braking effect of the hydraulic system itself would be considered as meeting the requirement for a secondary brake.Health and Safety Executive Equipment for lifting people Introduction 259 Before using cranes and other lifting equipment to transfer people. This is unless there is a fail-safe interface making it impossible to disengage the clutch when the drive train is in motion or when there is a load on the hook. In the event of failure to restart the prime mover. This brake should be strong enough to hold indefinitely the weight of the carrier/slings and the number of people carried.

where people are transported over the sea. This brake should be manually operated unless it is completely independent of the automatic braking system. Utility winches and winches used for lifting people Design and manufacture 268 All winches used for lifting people should be clearly marked ‘SUITABLE FOR LIFTING PEOPLE’ or ‘SUITABLE FOR MAN-RIDING’. and Emergency Response) Regulations 1995 (PFEER)20 should be complied with. 267 There are special recommendations for prime movers on cranes for man-riding purposes . Selecting suitable equipment 269 The following criteria should be considered for all winches: n The winch operating lever should automatically return to neutral when released. then the brake holding capacity should be less than that generated by the minimum braking load of the rope and greater than that generated by the maximum line forces identified above. Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 56 of 74 . n For winches that are sited on installations one or either of which could be moving relative to the other. the tare weight of the carrier. under-riding and overspeeding. n Devices should be incorporated in the winch system which prevent the personnel carrier from overriding. such as motions between a semi-submersible and a fixed platform. n The rope should be automatically spooled onto the winch drum to prevent bunching. n The winch should be capable of lowering the carrier in a controlled manner in an emergency or if there is loss of power. the requirements of the Offshore Installations (Prevention of Fire and Explosion. and n have all necessary personal safety equipment.Health and Safety Executive Operation 266 Anyone being transported by crane needs to: n remain in full view of the crane operator. n The winch should have adequate capacity to handle the line load itemised below with one wrap (number of complete turns along the drum width) of rope spooled on the drum: the nominal weight of passengers. In addition. 270 The following criteria should also apply when winches are used for lifting people: n A second independent brake should be provided for use if the automatic brake fails.see paragraphs 172-173. n Automatic brakes should be fitted so that they apply whenever the operating lever is returned to neutral or if there is loss of power to the drive or control system. The sum of these weights should include an adequate safety factor together with a dynamic factor approved by a competent person. Any winch that is not marked should not be used for lifting people. and the rope weight and friction effects.

272 The operating procedures should include an assessment made by a competent person to ensure that any uncontrolled ascent of the carrier is prevented under all circumstances. safety arrangements. Operation 271 When winches are used for lifting people. Figure 12 Man-riding winch Note: Guard(s) removed for clarity Drawing 8 Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 57 of 74 . Note: This requirement applies to transfer operations using personnel carriers and not to individual man-riding operations such as those carried out for drilling derrick inspections. the written operating procedure should include: n n n n n authority for use. The analysis should identify safety-critical elements which should undergo regular inspection. limiting conditions of use. means of communication between the winch operator and passenger(s). and training. maintenance and function testing by the competent person(s). This assessment should include calculations to ensure that the weight of the rope is never greater (including an adequate safety factor) on the winch side of the sheave system than the minimum weight on the carrying side of the sheave system. maintenance etc where the individual is using a harness or Bosun’s chair etc.Health and Safety Executive n The design of the winch system should be confirmed by a hazard analysis and failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) carried out by a competent person.

it should be self-righting in all operational sea-states and with the most adverse passenger distribution on board. guidance is given in HSE Information Sheet reference 1/2007. Where secondary or backup lines are used. trapped. In certain types of operation. The guard should not prevent the operator from viewing the spooling of the rope. a higher line pull may be required for emergency man. n In case the carrier should fall or be placed in the sea. n Items carried on the floor of the carrier are effectively secured. Where winches are to be used to lift people. Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 58 of 74 . In this case. 274 Clutches or other methods of disengaging the drive system are dangerous and must be avoided.riding recovery. a supervisor should be able to see them at all times. n The primary load line has the requisite safety factor. Personnel transportation equipment Personnel carriers 275 Carriers used for personnel transfer operations should be designed so as to minimise the risk of persons being crushed. n The line pull of the winch should be set so that if there is inadvertent snagging. The supervisor should remain in direct communication with the winch operator throughout the operation.Health and Safety Executive 273 The following criteria also apply: n Rope entanglement and undue wear should be prevented. n Carriers should be of a type which has been approved for use by a competent person and all necessary inspection. any over-pull will not injure passengers. Load lines should be selected to ensure that the carrier does not spin or turn when lifted. a risk assessment should ensure that these do not increase risk.21 Selecting suitable equipment 276 You or the competent person should ensure that carriers used for lifting people conform with the following: n The carrier is provided with slip-resistant floors and adequate drainage. an override should be provided to increase the capacity of the winch to carry the extra weight of people and equipment needed to perform emergency operations. struck or falling from the carrier (LOLER regulation 5(1)(a)). n The drum should be guarded to protect the operator if the rope should fail. There should be procedures for the emergency recovery of people from the carrier or from the sea. It is preferred however if the line pull for this type of winch is permanently set to allow a work basket with two persons to be carried. For carriers that do not comply with LOLER. examination and test certificates should be current and be readily available for the regulatory authority (HSE) if so required. All connections between the carrier and the lifting appliance should be unable to self-release under any circumstances. for example from a moon pool. n The rope should remain captive at all times around sheaves and at the winch drum.

If this is not possible. n where carriers are designed to lift a stretcher. Where secondary or backup lines are used. passengers should be provided with life jackets as a minimum requirement. Personnel work baskets/platforms Design and manufacture 278 The competent person should ensure that the design of the work basket/ platform includes: n slip-resistant floors with adequate drainage to prevent any build-up of water. the injured person must be accompanied by at least one other non-injured person during the transfer operation. examination and test certificates should be current and readily available for the Regulatory Authority (HSE) if required. n if seats are provided in the carrier. All connections between the work basket and the lifting appliance should be unable to self-release under any circumstances. n you avoid raising or lowering the personnel carrier near the propellers of a vessel. they are equipped with safety harnesses and instructions given for their use before commencing any transfer. This should include consideration of environmental hazards. 279 They should also ensure that: n the primary load line that connects the work basket/platform with the lifting appliance has the requisite safety factor. a risk assessment should be made to ensure that these lines do not increase risk. effective emergency arrangements must be in place throughout the transfer as required by regulation 4 of PFEER. Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 59 of 74 . n adequate anchor points or rails for the attachment of safety harnesses. n the work basket/platform has been approved for use by a competent person and all necessary inspection. n during transfer over the sea. the master of the vessel must terminate all propulsion if required.Health and Safety Executive Operation 277 You should ensure that all transfers of people by carrier are carried out to written procedures and that the operation is authorised by the OIM and supervised by a competent person. Additionally. n a risk assessment has been carried out. n the rescue and recovery arrangements must be capable of recovering people from the sea within specified performance standards. n the work basket/platform is clearly marked ‘SUITABLE FOR THE TRANSFER OF PEOPLE’. You should plan the use of personnel carriers to ensure that: n crane and winch operators have been specifically trained in transferring people by carrier and have experience of the type and use of the lifting equipment. n effective means of securing all tools and loose gear safely within the basket and keeping them captive within the basket/platform if it is inadvertently spilled. Where transfer operations over water are carried out in harbours. n people who have not been involved in this kind of operation before are accompanied by someone who is familiar with the operation. passengers are provided with survival suits and life jackets of an approved type.

Health and Safety Executive Selecting suitable equipment 280 You should only consider work baskets and platforms that are suspended from a crane or winch system when the assessed risk is the same or less than when using other reasonably practicable methods of transfer. Operation 281 Any use of work baskets or platforms should be carried out to written procedures and supervised by a competent person. Figure 13 Personnel carrier Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 60 of 74 . The competent person should not undertake these operations without your authorisation. You should consider using work staging instead of work baskets where reasonably practicable.

effective emergency arrangements must be in place throughout the transfer as required by regulation 4 of PFEER. banksman and supervisor at all times. space for a stretcher and medical staff. Additionally. movement and station keeping of the work basket are clearly conveyed by a competent person. personal safety equipment for the full complement of passengers. adequate lighting with emergency backup inside the lift and lift well.Health and Safety Executive 282 You should plan the use of work baskets to ensure that: n crane or winch operators have been specifically trained in the use of work baskets and are experienced with the type and use of the lifting equipment. passengers are provided with survival suits and life jackets of an approved type. adequate safety equipment including: smoke detection systems and smoke hoods. The rescue and recovery arrangements must be capable of recovering people from the sea within specified performance standards. fire extinguisher(s). Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 61 of 74 . you should also consider providing: n n n n n n n n n n an overload alarm and overload protection system. suitable communication systems. n people working from the basket or platform wear a safety harness throughout the operation. and effective emergency escape routes/escape systems which can also be used during a power failure. Where transfer operations over water are carried out in harbours. including the crane operator and banksman. n at least one person in the work basket is familiar with these operations and remains in radio contact with the crane or winch operator. gas detection systems. platforms and associated equipment are checked before use by a competent person. This should include consideration of environmental hazards. n a risk assessment has been carried out. n during transfer over the sea. n all key people. passengers should be provided with life jackets as a minimum requirement. n work baskets. and n all instructions about locating. Passenger lifts 283 Where lifts are used for carrying passengers. remain on station throughout the operation.

Any rack and pinion system should be designed so that the working platform will not fall if the rack or pinion should fail. A secondary. 291 Each braking system should be capable of holding the full rated capacity of the loaded stabbing board plus allowances for dynamic effects. the rope should spool evenly on the drum and there should be at least three full turns of rope remaining on the drum at all times. Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 62 of 74 . The guidance system should ensure that the platform remains captive to its rails or runners under all circumstances. including slack rope conditions. The platform should also have anchorage points for inertia-type safety harnesses. The secondary brake should act independently of the primary brake and not require any power source (hydraulic. The control lever should spring to neutral on release.Health and Safety Executive Equipment used in drilling and associated operations for carrying people Casing stabbing boards Design and manufacture 284 The hoisting system should be designed and constructed to codes and standards agreed with the competent person. It should not be possible to lower the working platform by brake operation only. inertia-type brake. Upper and lower-level limit switches should ensure that the hoist system does not operate beyond its specified range. a positive locking system such as a ratchet-andpawl mechanism should be provided in addition to the service brake. Where a manual system of raising or lowering the platform is used. midrails and edge protection. Selecting suitable equipment 286 Casing stabbing boards and other working platforms that are raised and lowered by a powered or manually operated system should provide users with a secure and safe means of travel and support at the point of work. or operation of the secondary control/braking system. should be provided in case there is any failure in the primary hoisting system. overload testing. 288 Rails/runners should be securely attached to their supports and should not open up under: n n n n static operations. acting at the rails. handrails. travelling or other dynamic operations. 287 The working platform should be positively guided by rails or runners. 289 The working platform should have non-slip standing surfaces. effectively braking the primary hoisting system. electrical or pneumatic) for its operation. including any wheel or roller failure or failure of the primary hoisting system. The rope should remain captive with the drum and sheave systems under all service conditions. Where winch systems are used. 285 Casing stabbing boards should be clearly marked ‘SUITABLE FOR CARRYING PEOPLE’ and with the number of people they can carry. 290 Control of the primary lifting system should provide smooth movement of the working platform.

n environmental and other influencing factors have been identified to define limits of use and that permits to work are provided as appropriate. n emergency procedures are in place. Inspection 299 Rope access equipment. Testing 294 Casing stabbing boards should be regularly tested with the maximum rated load. n a certificate of proof load test or certificate of conformity appropriate to the type of equipment or materials used has been provided by a verification body. Built-in check valves should be fitted at the ram ports to prevent any movement of the ram if there is a hose or pipe burst. Inspection should include the functioning of control and braking systems. 298 The competent person should provide written operating procedures and should also ensure that: n all components have adequate duty and safety factors appropriate to intended service.Health and Safety Executive 292 A speed-controlling device should be provided to prevent the raising and lowering of the working platform from exceeding its prescribed tripping speed. Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 63 of 74 . n anchorage points are dedicated for use and specific to the type of equipment used. 296 Working harnesses and associated equipment should be to recognised standards. including anchorages and harness. They should provide high-security fixing and be at least as strong as that of the rope. n in addition to the primary working rope. A risk assessment should be made by a competent person before these systems are used. padeyes and safety systems. Any damage or defects should be recorded and reported to a competent person. and n components used in the rope access system have been permanently and clearly marked. 297 Rope access systems should incorporate an overspeed descent device. condition of ropes. Under no circumstances should users assume this responsibility or operate this equipment unsupervised. Users should be trained to inspect equipment. a secondary safety rope is provided which must be available on demand to automatically arrest any uncontrolled descent of the user. Working harnesses and rope access systems Selecting suitable equipment 295 Working harnesses and rope access systems may be used where it is not otherwise practical to provide safer methods of access such as scaffolding or mobile working platforms. should be inspected by the user before and after use and at intervals agreed with the manufacturer and the competent person. Operation 300 All staff involved with rope deployment or access systems should be supervised by a qualified competent person. 293 Casing stabbing boards and all other working platforms which are positioned by a hydraulically powered arm-type system should have high-integrity seals in the hydraulic rams which actuate the arm. n all connectors are designed to prevent inadvertent disconnection. structural fixings.

303 Users should have suitable protective clothing appropriate to the work task. Training should preferably be undertaken through a training body approved by OPITO (the Offshore Petroleum Industry Training Organisation) or similar body. Maintenance. Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 64 of 74 . Heavy components should be lifted independently by a lifting appliance or system which is approved by a competent person. they should wear life jackets. should be compatible with others used in the system and should comply with the manufacturer’s original specifications. repair and modification 304 Additional or replacement components. experience and competency of each user should be validated by a competent person. When in use they should be prevented from falling free. 302 Hand tools and materials carried to the work point should be firmly secured to the harness.Health and Safety Executive 301 All staff involved with rope access operations should be able to communicate at all times via two-way radios. agreed by the competent person. Training 307 Everyone involved with the use of rope access equipment should be trained and competent to carry out their tasks on the type of equipment in use. Details of replacement components. 305 Rope access equipment should be maintained and stored in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. When working over the sea or a moon pool. repairs. 306 For powered winches used as part of a rope access system. modifications etc should be documented by a competent person. Where equipment has been subjected to a saline environment. Records of the level of training. it should be hosed down with fresh water and thoroughly dried before storage. see paragraphs 268-274.

with its foundations. Drilling hoisting systems Selecting suitable equipment 313 There have been rapid developments in the design and operation of drilling hoisting systems. and drill pipe and casing handling equipment. All primary structural. The competent person should ensure that the design of the equipment includes adequate safety factors appropriate to the intended service loads. 311 For equipment used in potentially explosive atmospheres.Health and Safety Executive Drilling equipment Introduction 308 Drilling equipment covered in this section includes: n n n n drilling hoisting systems. compensators and tensioners. Testing 310 Details of load testing and pressure testing at the supplier’s works and at the installation should be documented and have signed approval by a competent person. Training 312 You should ensure that staff working with drilling equipment have received adequate training specific to the type of equipment used. see paragraphs 284-307. 314 There are now several types and configurations of drilling hoisting systems in use offshore. see paragraphs 74-77. Design and manufacture 309 This equipment. frequency of use and environmental and other operational limitations. blow-out preventer (BOP) handling equipment. European or international standards or to standards and controls agreed between the equipment supplier and the competent person. fixings and attachments. These developments have been advanced by the drilling industry in keeping with new technologies and have improved operational safety at and in the vicinity of the workplace. For details of personnel-carrying equipment used in drilling operations. constructed. maintained and operated according to national. The competent person should consider those which may be appropriate. mechanical components and all pressure containment vessels or systems should be traceable according to a recognised quality standard. should be designed. Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 65 of 74 .

The pressure of both primary and emergency hydraulic systems should be monitored. or n the electrical or hydraulic power has failed. It should not be possible to disengage the friction brake until the clutch for the ‘auxiliary’ brake has been engaged.Health and Safety Executive 315 Where a mechanical coupling or clutch is fitted between the ‘auxiliary’ brake and the drilling hoisting system drum. 320 The emergency stop should automatically activate if: n potentially dangerous faults occur within the electromagnetic braking system. flow and level of the working fluid. 322 Programmable logic control systems should be of high integrity and incorporate self-diagnostic healthy status systems. Testing 323 For hoisting systems which use electromagnetic brakes or retarders. the prevention of overhoisting or overlowering. This applies to all types of drilling hoisting systems. They may be used for managing: n n n n n the kinetic energy of the travelling block and string load. taking account of the speed and the combined weight of the travelling block and string load. overspeeding. 318 Hydraulically powered brakes should have an emergency backup system. It should be of adequate capacity to retard and hold the travelling block and the maximum string load when the emergency stop is activated. impending overloads. and n the kinetic energy of the travelling block and the load. 317 For AC and hydraulically powered drilling hoisting systems. 321 The braking system may be a combination of electromagnetic and friction braking. or n the kinetic energy of the travelling block and load exceeds the limiting threshold. the discs should be water-cooled. and work done by the hoist rope. Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 66 of 74 . a system should be provided which prevents any inadvertent disengagement of the ‘auxiliary’ brake. the friction brakes should be applied automatically when: n the emergency stop is activated. For disc brake systems. n the status and condition of the electromagnetic braking system. you should consider monitoring: n the temperature and flow rate of the cooling water supply for the brake coils. 316 Hoisting systems which use hydrodynamic auxiliary brakes or retarders should have equipment that effectively monitors the temperature. 319 Under emergency conditions it should be possible to lower the load in a controlled manner within the rig structure to a safe and secure position. The brakes should be dynamically rated for emergency use.

Operation 325 Where the effectiveness of the braking system depends on the electromagnetic brake. It should be protected against falling or swinging objects. the temperature of the motor rotor should be monitored. the drum should be monitored at the console via a CCTV system. Seating should be provided for the driller and driller’s assistant.22 A competent person should consider the following recommendations: n The groove profile dimensions and hardness levels for drums and sheaves should be compatible with the rope diameter. the effect of friction at sheaves and any reverse bends in the rope system. The rope should be spooled under as much tension as possible to maintain an even spooling pattern and prevent the underlying rope coils being crushed. the brake coils should be connected to an uninterrupted power supply (UPS) for use on demand if there is loss of the primary power source. Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 67 of 74 . n Ropes should have adequate safety factors appropriate to their service duties. 329 Wire ropes should conform to and be used in accordance with a recognised standard. Reverse bends in rope systems should be avoided wherever possible. Any changes to the rope specification should not be made without the approval of a competent person. 328 Control cabins and control systems should be protected against the weather. The control cabin should be located to allow a clear view of activities at the drill floor and within the derrick. Fleet angles should be maintained as specified by the equipment supplier. 326 Provision should be made to: n warn the control station of impending overloads. and n prevent overhoisting or overlowering. Slack rope should be avoided. The charge and condition of the batteries should be monitored. eg API RP 9B. an alarm at the control point should activate. and ergonomically designed. n The ratio of the diameter of the drum/sheave to the diameter of the wire rope (D/d) should be as large as practicable to maximise the fatigue life of the rope. Where the driller cannot directly view the spooling of the rope at the drilling hoisting system drum. its construction and grade of wire. 327 You should consider a method to prevent collisions between the travelling block system and other equipment operating at the drill floor and within the derrick.Health and Safety Executive 324 For ac-powered drilling hoisting systems. If the UPS is provided by batteries. n Ropes should remain captive to the drum and sheaves under all operating conditions. they should be kept fully charged. n The number of layers of rope spooled onto the drawworks drum should be kept to a minimum: no more than three layers are recommended. If the emergency UPS is not available. abraded or distorted by the oncoming rope. n prevent overspeeding. An ac drilling hoisting system should be provided with UPS for control and monitoring systems.

should be of adequate strength and should not cause damage to the rope. A competent person should consider. Additional recommendations are: n The compensating cylinders should be cushioned at each end of the stroke to prevent undue shock loads arising in the system. for example at the dead line anchor and at the drilling hoisting system winch drum. n Consideration should be given to particular safety features for heave compensators such as speed control valves. Crown-mounted heave compensators 331 For crown-mounted compensating systems where the wire rope of the drawworks is passed over the sheaves of the compensator. Rope terminations using wire rope grips are not recommended for primary load path anchorages. n Rope terminations and anchor points. n The assessment and monitoring of the work done by the rope (see paragraph 329) should take account of the additional ‘trips’ made by the rope when compensators are used. hydraulic pressure.Health and Safety Executive n The work done by the rope. n Air. These terminations should be located to permit easy in-situ inspection. These recommendations are additional to those listed in paragraphs 313-329. when compensation for the motions of the installation/ vessel is provided directly by the drilling hoisting system winch drum. n If the drill string should break. Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 68 of 74 . ie the sum of all round-trip drilling operations. Heave compensated drilling hoisting systems 330 On floating installations. expressed in tonne mile units). Unhealthy status of the system should be signalled at the driller’s control console. automatic air shut-off valves and lockbar check valves. The system should give prior warning of any impending automatic shutdown. hydraulic oil levels and stroke position should be monitored at the driller’s control console. should be monitored and recorded at the driller’s control console (this work is defined as all operational loads on the rope multiplied by the distance travelled by the rope. as appropriate. the recommendations on wire ropes in paragraphs 114-117. the following should be considered: n The control system should be self-diagnostic. excessive speed extension of the cylinders should be automatically controlled within predetermined limits. the appropriate factors listed in paragraph 308 should be considered. This data should be used to assess when to slip and cut the rope to obtain even wear in the rope system and to ensure that further drilling operations can be continued safely. Rope which has been slipped and cut should be inspected before discard to check whether any adjustment to the tonne mile assessment procedure may be required. Drill string heave compensators 332 Drill string heave compensators may be fitted at the travelling block to provide motion compensation via a system of chains in lieu of wire ropes.

For BOPs handled by a gantry/beam crane mounted within the substructure of the derrick. Blow-out preventers 334 Where blow-out preventers (BOPs) are deployed sub-sea using a wire rope guideline system. drill collars. n drilling tubulars. 335 Equipment for handling BOPs should have a control system that facilitates inching of the hoist. the effects of wave slam and sea current forces. see paragraphs 203-210. casing jars.Health and Safety Executive Guideline and riser tensioners 333 For systems used to maintain tension in guidelines and risers on floating installations and vessels. Pipe handling equipment 336 The suitability of equipment for lifting and handling drill pipe. for example. a competent person should consider. In addition. n handling systems which use powered grips or clamps for carrying drilling tubulars will maintain their full retention capability if there is any power loss or system failure. primarily for deep water operations. and n the kinetic energy of the system which may arise during emergency disconnection of the riser. as may occur when a guideline breaks. tools etc. the forces on the guideline system should be considered under limits of operation and should include. n there is effective means of preventing the lifting equipment or load from colliding with other equipment. as appropriate. Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 69 of 74 . tools etc should be assessed to ensure that: n wheeled or travelling equipment remains captive with its rail or guidance system. lower and travel systems. the recommendations in paragraphs 114-117. there should be a way of effectively controlling: n cylinder extension velocity. The control should prevent any upward motion of the riser that may otherwise cause the riser to impact with the installation or vessel. and n all equipment incorporates an emergency stop system and ready means for isolating power supplies. which are conveyed via chute or trough skid systems are prevented from spilling from the handling appliance.

and ACOP pages 11. 9 7. 18. 9 Applicable PUWER Regulation No. 9 8. 5 8 59-67 83-91 78-82 47-51 6. 3. Item 3 Schedule 9 23 6 52-55 30-32 33-35 36-39 40-46 92-202 9. 8. 10. 15.3 3 4. 12 7. 11 ACOP page 13 ACOP page 13 ACOP page 13 ACOP page 14 4 8 4. 17. 2. 13 3 4. reports and test details Material selection Welding Corrosion protection Access and escape Slewing cranes Overhead/gantry cranes and hoists Chain hoists Trolleys Lifting points and runway beams Jacking systems Lifting personnel Drilling equipment Paragraph number 1-15 9-15 16-29 68-77 Applicable LOLER Regulation No. 16. 8 4. 19 203-218 219-238 239-242 243-252 253-258 259-307 308-336 4 4 4 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 7 4 Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 70 of 74 .Health and Safety Executive Appendix 1: Guidance referring to LOLER and PUWER Guidance section Introduction and regulations Regulations LOLER/PUWER Selecting suitable equipment Operating the equipment Planning the use of lifting equipment Training Marking Inspection Documentation. 14.

Health and Safety Executive Appendix 2: Glossary Glossary terms ac ACOP AOGBO BOP CCTV FMEA GOP HSE HSW Act LEEA LOLER MHSWR MAR NDT OIM PA PFEER PUWER RCI SLI SSW SWL UPS alternating current Approved Code of Practice Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974 (Application Outside Great Britain) Order 2001 blow-out preventer closed-circuit television failure mode and effects analysis gross overload protection Health and Safety Executive Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974 Lifting Equipment Engineers Association Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations 1998 Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 Offshore Installations and Pipeline Works (Management and Administration) Regulations 1995 non-destructive testing offshore installation manager public address Offshore Installations (Prevention of Fire and Explosion. and Emergency Response) Regulations 1995 Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998 Rated Capacity Indicator safe load indicator (also known as Rated Capacity Indicator) safe system of work safe working load uninterrupted power supply Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 71 of 74 .

Mumbles. Parts 1. Safety. Approved Code of Practice and guidance L22 (Second edition) HSE Books 1998 ISBN 978 0 7176 1626 8 9 Offshore Installations and Pipeline Works (Management and Administration) Regulations 1995 The Stationery Office 1995 SI 1995/738 ISBN 978 0 11 052735 2 10 Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 SI 1999/3242 The Stationery Office 1999 ISBN 978 0 11 085625 4 11 BS 7121-11: 1998 Code of practice for safe use of cranes. MCA Infoline: Tuthead. Specification British Standards Institution ISBN 978 0 580 33262 3 15 BS ISO 4406: 1999 Hydraulic fluid power. Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992 (as amended). Fluids. Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998. Guidance on Regulations L23 (Third edition) HSE Books 2004 ISBN 978 0 7176 2823 0 7 Safe use of lifting equipment. Safety. Offshore cranes British Standards Institution ISBN 978 0 580 29503 4 12 BS EN 12385: 2000 Steel wire ropes. 2. Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations 1998.Health and Safety Executive References 1 Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations 1998 SI 1998/2307 The Stationery Office 1998 ISBN 978 0 11 079598 0 2 Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998 SI 1998/2306 The Stationery Office 1998 ISBN 978 0 11 079599 7 3 Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974 (Application Outside Great Britain) Order 2001 SI 2001/2127 The Stationery Office 2001 ISBN 978 0 11 029567 1 4 Maritime and Coastguard Agency. 3 and 4 British Standards Institution 13 BS EN 13411-3: 2004 Terminations for steel wire ropes. Approved Code of Practice and guidance L113 HSE Books 1998 ISBN 978 0 7176 1628 2 8 Safe use of work equipment. Metal and resin socketing British Standards Institution 14 BS 3692: 2001 ISO metric precision hexagon bolts. Swansea SA3 4HW Tel: 0870 600 6505 5 Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992 SI 1992/2793 The Stationery Office 1992 ISBN 978 0 11 025920 8 6 Manual handling. Method for coding the level of contamination by solid particles British Standards Institution ISBN 978 0 580 34182 3 Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 72 of 74 . screws and nuts.

and Use of Wire Rope for Oilfield Service API Recommended Practice 9B (Eleventh Edition) American Petroleum Institute 2002 23 BS EN 13414: 2003 Steel wire rope slings Parts 1-3 British Standards Institution Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore Page 73 of 74 . Care.Health and Safety Executive 16 BS 7262: 1990 Specification for automatic safe load indicators British Standards Institution ISBN 978 0 580 18145 0 17 BS EN 12077-2: 1999 Cranes safety.hse.pdf 22 Recommended Practice on Application. Limiting and indicating devices British Standards Institution ISBN 978 0 580 30990 8 18 Code of practice for the selection. Safety. and Emergency Response) Regulations 1995 SI 1995/743 The Stationery Office ISBN 978 0 11 052751 2 21 Guidance on the transfer of personnel by carriers Information Sheet 1/2007 HSE 2007 www. use.uk/offshore/infosheets/is1-2007. maintenance and examination of hand chain blocks and lever hoists in the offshore environment (including sub-sea) LEEA033 Lifting Equipment Engineers Association 19 BS EN 13157: 2004 Cranes. Hand powered lifting equipment British Standards Institution ISBN 978 0 580 45420 2 20 Offshore Installations (Prevention of Fire and Explosion. Requirements for health and safety. management.

Caerphilly CF83 3GG. HSE priced publications are also available from bookshops.tso. Caerphilly Business Park.gov.co.uk Website: www.Health and Safety Executive Further information For information about health and safety ring HSE’s Infoline Tel: 0845 345 0055 Fax: 0845 408 9566 Textphone: 0845 408 9577 e-mail: hse.gov. PO Box 1999.bsigroup. Sudbury. Suffolk CO10 2WA Tel: 01787 881165 Fax: 01787 313995.) Statutory Instruments can be viewed free of charge at www.opsi.hse.infoline@natbrit.co.uk (They are also available from bookshops. PO Box 29.com or write to HSE Information Services. Published by HSE 11/09 Page 74 of 74 . British Standards can be obtained in PDF or hard copy formats from the BSI online shop: www. Norwich NR3 1GN Tel: 0870 600 5522 Fax: 0870 600 5533 e-mail: customer.uk or contact HSE Books.com/Shop or by contacting BSI Customer Services for hard copies only Tel: 020 8996 9001 e-mail: cservices@bsigroup.uk.com.services@tso. HSE priced and free publications can be viewed online or ordered from www. The Stationery Office publications are available from The Stationery Office.

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