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MILITARY COMMITTEE LAND STANDARDIZATION BOARD (MCLSB)

5 July 2006 MC LSB Distribution

NSA(ARMY)0510(2006)LO/2287

STANAG 2287 LO (EDITION 1) TASK VERBS FOR USE IN PLANNING AND THE DISSEMINATION OF ORDERS

Reference: NSA(ARMY)0752-LO/2287, dated 6 September 2005 (Edition 1) (Ratification Draft 1)

1. The enclosed NATO Standardization Agreement which has been ratified by nations as reflected in the NATO Standardization Document Database (NSDD), is promulgated herewith. 2. The reference listed above is to be destroyed in accordance with local document destruction procedures. ACTION BY NATIONAL STAFFS 3. National staffs are requested to examine their ratification status of the STANAG and, if they have not already done so, advise the MC LSB, NSA, through their national delegation as appropriate of their intention regarding its ratification and implementation.

J MAJ Brigadier General, POL(A) Director, NSA

Enclosure: STANAG 2287 (Edition 1)

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STANAG N 2287 (Edition 1)

NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION (NATO)

NATO STANDARDIZATION AGENCY (NSA)

STANDARDIZATION AGREEMENT (STANAG) SUBJECT: ORDERS TASK VERBS FOR USE IN PLANNING AND THE DISSEMINATION OF

Promulgated on 5 July 2006

J MAJ Brigadier General, POL(A) Director, NSA

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RECORD OF AMENDMENTS No. Reference/date of amendment Date entered Signature

EXPLANATORY NOTES AGREEMENT 1. This NATO Standardization Agreement (STANAG) is promulgated by the Director NATO Standardization Agency under the authority vested in him by the NATO Standardization Organisation Charter. 2. No departure may be made from the agreement without informing the tasking authority in the form of a reservation. Nations may propose changes at any time to the tasking authority where they will be processed in the same manner as the original agreement. 3. Ratifying nations have agreed that national orders, manuals and instructions implementing this STANAG will include a reference to the STANAG number for purposes of identification. RATIFICATION, IMPLEMENTATION AND RESERVATIONS 4. Ratification, implementation and reservation details are available on request or through the NSA websites (internet http://nsa.nato.int; NATO Secure WAN http://nsa.hq.nato.int). FEEDBACK

5. Any comments concerning this publication should be directed to NATO/NSA Bvd Leopold III - 1110 Brussels - BE.

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STANAG 2287 (Edition 1)

NATO STANDARDIZATION AGREEMENT (STANAG) TASK VERBS FOR USE IN PLANNING AND THE DISSEMINATION OF ORDERS

Annex: Related Document:

A. Task Verbs None

AIM 1. The aim of this agreement is to introduce terms for use in missions and tasks to combat elements. AGREEMENT 2. Participating nations agree to use the terms in this agreement for issuing missions and tasks to combat elements in allied operations. Nations also agree to use the graphical symbols to represent the defined terms in schematics. MISSION STATEMENT STRUCTURE 3. For clarity of meaning, the defined terms should be used in mission statements that follow a standard structure. a. An operation order should contain missions for each principal subordinate. It should provide detail of who is to do what; where, when and why. How the mission is to be accomplished should not be specified in more detail than required to achieve necessary coordination between subordinates. Where is usually contained in a graphic, or in the description of the objective. 'When' is usually given in coordinating instructions. What is to be done and why is the core of a mission statement. A mission statement should contain the task of the subordinate command together with its purpose.

b.

c. d.

e.

The task contains one or potentially two elements. The principle element is a description of the effect which the superior commander wishes the -1-

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subordinate to achieve, at the time of issuing the order. The second element is a description of the activity to be undertaken in order to achieve that effect. That activity should only be specified if necessary; for example, to coordinate activities across a command. f. The description of purpose should contain sufficient information, and be sufficiently clear, to guide the recipients actions if the stated task is no longer appropriate. The description of purpose should be separated from the task by the term in order to. The description of effect and that of purpose should each contain a single verb whose effect is measurable; on the enemy, the environment, or friendly forces. There is a considerable number of potential task verbs. Some task verbs relate to activity; some to effect; and some may relate to both. Should a commander decide to use a task verb not included in this list, it must be defined.

g.

h.

i.

Summary SHAPE \* MERGEFORMAT


Both have measurable always includeTask [=what] associated purpose Purpose [=why] a task and the outcomes

Activity Immediate must always effect (not always required)have an object

immediate effect must be included in task activity may be included in task

task may also include information about timing Figure 1 Mission Statement Structure Special Cases

Attack

to

seize

[object]

in order to

4. Some types of tactical operation are often ordered by a mission statement that does not include an immediate effect or specify the object of the order. These are important special cases that are regarded as a special category: they do not break the doctrinal principles for mission statements, because the task is clearly described by the doctrine for the type of operation. These orders take the form "conduct [type of operation] in order to [purpose]"; in some cases the imperative is less clumsy e.g. "withdraw in order to avoid decisive engagement". The types of tactical operation that are often ordered in this way are:

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Area Reconnaissance Route Reconnaissance Surveillance Screen Guard Cover Advance to Contact Raid Spoiling Attack Non-combatant Evacuation Operation IMPLEMENTATION OF THE AGREEMENT

Deception Link-Up Relief of Encircled Force Relief in Place Forward Passage of Lines Rearward Passage of Lines Withdrawal Retirement March

5. This STANAG is implemented when the necessary orders or instructions have been issued to the forces concerned to put the procedures in this agreement into effect.

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ANNEX A TO STANAG 2287 (Edition 1) TASK VERBS 1. The task verbs are listed in Table 1 below. The task verbs are listed in the first column. The second column of the table shows whether the task verb can be used as an activity, as an immediate effect, or both. The third column of the table shows the definition of the term and also the measure, which indicates how success may be measured: this is not intended to be a formal 'measure of effectiveness' (in campaign planning terms). The fourth column of the table shows a graphic representation for the term. The fifth column contains notes that describe the use of the term. At the bottom of the table the words that have been excluded from the set of task verbs are listed, with notes including suggested alternatives.

Term
advance to contact

Definition and Measure


(Conduct an) offensive operation designed to gain or re-establish contact with the enemy (AAP-6)

Graphical Symbol

Notes on Term and Definition

ambush

Conduct a surprise attack by fire from concealed positions on a moving or temporarily halted enemy (APP-6A)

A-1
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Term
arrest

Definition and Measure


To seize and hold a person under authority of the law (new definition)

Graphical Symbol

Notes on Term and Definition


If used, symbol frame shows affiliation of the object of the arrest.

attack

Take offensive action against a specified objective (new definition)

A general all-embracing term to describe offensive operations. Care should be taken in its use. Use a more specific task when possible. Attack by fire excludes assaulting or occupying the objective see: suppress, neutralize, fix, demonstrate

attack by fire

Engage an enemy with direct fires, supported by indirect fires, without closing with him (new definition)

block

Deny enemy access to a given area, or to prevent his advance in a particular direction (JWP 001.1). Measure: enemy access/advance prevented

A blocked force can move in any direction other than the obstructed one. See: canalize, contain, deny

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Term
breach

Definition and Measure


Break through or secure passage through an enemy defence, obstacle, or fortification. (New definition) Measure: gap created and held

Graphical Symbol

Notes on Term and Definition


See: penetrate

A+E

B
See: infiltrate

bypass

Manoeuvre around an obstacle, position, or enemy force to maintain the momentum of advance. Measure: momentum maintained

B
The desired zone must be stated in the task. See: block, contain, deny

canalize

Restrict enemy movement to a narrow zone. (New definition)

Measure: enemy restricted to zone Gain possession of specified enemy personnel, materiel or information. (New definition)

capture

See: secure, seize

E
Measure: possession of specified enemy

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Term
clear

Definition and Measure


Remove all enemy forces and eliminate organized resistance in an assigned area. (New definition)

Graphical Symbol

Notes on Term and Definition

E
Measure: absence of enemy interference with friendly forces contain Restrict the freedom of manoeuvre of an enemy force to a specified area. (New definition)

C
The limits of the containment may be expressed in terms of geography or time.
ENY

Measure: enemy's freedom of manoeuvre restricted to a defined area

Less specific than fix or isolate See: block, fix, isolate, canalize See: occupy, retain, secure, deny

Control

Maintain physical influence over a specified area to prevent its use by an enemy. (New definition)

Measure: enemy unable to use specified area Attack against an enemy attacking force. (New definition)

C
An imprecise task, open to wide interpretation. Normally better to specify the effect required, e.g. seize, isolate, deny, destroy.

counter-attack

CATK

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Term
cover

Definition and Measure


Provide security for the main force by intercepting, engaging, delaying, disorganizing, deceiving the enemy, while also observing and reporting information, before he can attack, observe or defend. Operate independently of main force. Measure: main body protected, threat information gained Deception is included in the special category of tactical activities ordered by "conduct..."described above. It is shown here to introduce the graphic. (To) diminish the effectiveness of the enemy, to the extent that he is either unable to participate in combat or at least cannot fulfil his intention. (New definition) Measure: enemy unable to interfere significantly with friendly forces

Graphical Symbol

Notes on Term and Definition


Covering force operates beyond fire support of main body.

Box in graphic is placeholder for symbol of unit with covering mission. May be omitted See: guard, screen Graphic has 2 functions: 1. As a modifier, it indicates some other task is a deception. 2. On its own, to indicate an unspecified form of deception. Not very useful below battalion level. See: destroy, neutralize, suppress, disrupt, interdict

conduct deception

defeat

no graphic

A-5
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Term
delay

Definition and Measure


Prevent an enemy force arriving at a specified location either: for a specified length of time; or until a specified time or event. Measure: enemy slowed to comply with time/space criteria. Deceive the enemy by making a show of force without seeking contact

Graphical Symbol

Notes on Term and Definition

D
See: feint

demonstrate

E
Measure: enemy is deceived deny Prevent enemy use of a specified thing.

See: control, contain, delay, block, canalize, fix, turn

Measure: enemy unable to use specified thing

D
destroy Damage an object or an enemy force so that it is rendered useless to the enemy until reconstituted. Measure: enemy force unable to fight See: neutralize, suppress, disrupt

A-6
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Term
disengage

Definition and Measure


Break contact with the enemy Measure: own force able to manoeuvre out of contact

Graphical Symbol

Notes on Term and Definition


See: withdraw

Graphical representation depends on how disengagement is to be achieved

disrupt

Break apart an enemy's formation and tempo, interrupt the enemy timetable, cause premature and/or piecemeal commitment of forces. Measure: enemy actions uncoordinated and off-balance Pass around or over the enemy's defensive position to secure objectives to enemy's rear.

envelop

See: penetrate, secure

E
Accompany and protect

escort

A
no graphic

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Term
exfiltrate

Definition and Measure


Withdraw through or around enemy positions without detection.

Graphical Symbol

Notes on Term and Definition


See also: withdraw

EX

conduct exploitation

Exploitation: an offensive operation that usually follows a successful attack and is designed to disorganize the enemy in depth.

Measure: enemy disorganized

feint

A&E

Deceive the enemy by seeking contact but avoiding a decisive engagement Measure: enemy deceived

Exploit is the most unrestricted task an element may receive. It may be issued during execution when committing a reserve. The commander so tasked must be able to act independently, guided only by his higher commander's intent and his own assessment of what can be accomplished as a result of the opportunities inherent with the current situation. Feints are used to cause the enemy to react in three predictable ways: to employ reserves improperly, to shift supporting fires, or to reveal defensive fires.

A-8
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Term
fix

Definition and Measure


Prevent an enemy from moving any part of his forces from a specified location for a specified period of time Measure: enemy's freedom of action Follow a force conducting an offensive operation, and be prepared to continue the mission if the lead force is fixed, or otherwise unable to continue. Follow and support a lead force conducting an offensive operation.

Graphical Symbol

Notes on Term and Definition

follow and assume

A force given this mission is not a reserve but is committed to accomplish specified tasks.

Follow and support

A force given this mission is not a reserve but is committed to accomplish specified tasks.

guard Protect the main force by fighting to gain time, while also observing and reporting information. Operate within fire support range of main force. Measure: main body protected, threat information gained

Guard operates within fire support range of main body.

Box in graphic is placeholder for symbol of unit with covering mission. See: cover, screen

A-9
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Term
infiltrate

Definition and Measure


Move a force into or through areas under enemy control without detection

Graphical Symbol

Notes on Term and Definition


See: penetrate, bypass

E
Measure: movement undetected interdict Keep an enemy force out of range so that it cannot be used effectively against a friendly force.

IN
See: defeat, destroy, neutralize, suppress, disrupt, fix

E
Measure: enemy unable to range friendly force isolate Seal off an enemy force from its sources of support, to deny it freedom of movement, and prevent it from having contact with other enemy forces. Measure: enemy isolation Determine the position of a specified thing

"Seal off" means to sever all links both physically and psychologically.

locate

Measure: position of correct thing reported

Identifying enemy is implied task. Any requirement to track the enemy position must be clear.

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Term
neutralize

Definition and Measure


Render an enemy element temporarily incapable of interfering with the operation

Graphical Symbol

Notes on Term and Definition


The task must make clear exactly what must be "neutralized" - it is ambiguous to simply state, "neutralize enemy preparation" or "neutralize enemy security forces". See: suppress, disrupt, interdict The command issuing the task does not envisage that the unit will have to fight to accomplish the task.

Measure: enemy element need not be suppressed during the rest of the operation

occupy

Position a unit in a specified area without enemy opposition

Measure: area occupied

O
penetrate Break through enemy defence and disrupt the defensive system.

See: retain, capture, secure, control, seize, clear See: infiltrate, breach

Measure: enemy defence broken through and disrupted

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Term
pursue

Definition and Measure


Catch or cut off a hostile force attempting to escape, with the aim of destroying it.

Graphical Symbol

Notes on Term and Definition


A limitation can be given as to how or where the unit can accomplish contact.

E
Measure: enemy force destroyed recover Extract a friendly force element or materiel from a location not under friendly control, with or without force. Measure: force element or materiel under friendly control relief in place Object of task is friendly force element.

RIP
Keep possession of a terrain feature to ensure it is free of enemy occupation or use See: secure, control, occupy

retain

Measure: area free of enemy use

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Term
retire

Definition and Measure


Move a force, out of contact, away from the enemy

Graphical Symbol

Notes on Term and Definition


See: disengage, withdraw

R
Observe, identify, and report information on threats to the main force. Only fight in self-protection. (ADP Comd) Measure: threat information gained Box in graphic is placeholder for symbol of unit with covering mission.

screen

See: cover, guard

secure

Gain possession of a position or terrain feature, with or without force, and to make such disposition as will prevent its destruction or loss to enemy action. Measure: position/area held Clear a designated area and obtain control of it. (AAP-39, MCRP 5-12C)

See: retain, capture, control, occupy, seize, clear

seize

See: capture, secure, occupy, clear

Measure: area under friendly control

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Term
support by fire

Definition and Measure


Engage the enemy by direct fire in support of another manoeuvring force. Measure: enemy unable to interfere with friendly manoeuvre

Graphical Symbol

Notes on Term and Definition


See: fix, neutralize, suppress, attack by fire

suppress

Temporarily degrade an enemy capability to enable a friendly action.

Effect is temporary and usually only lasts while friendly force is firing.

E
Measure: enemy unable to engage friendly forces turn Force an enemy from one direction of advance to another. (New definition)

See: neutralize, fix Usage does not agree with 'turning movement'. See: canalize, block

E
Measure: enemy forced to move in desired direction

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Term
withdraw

Definition and Measure


Disengage from the enemy and move in a direction away from the enemy. (New definition)

Graphical Symbol

Notes on Term and Definition


See: disengage

A
Measure: friendly force able to manoeuvre out of contact

NOT INCLUDED:
Advance in Contact: use attack or other more specific task Assault: see seize etc Attrit: not specific Blind: see suppress Combat Search and Rescue: see recover Counter-Attack by Fire: a tactical graphic rather than a distinct mission Counter-Reconnaissance: not a distinct mission, see cover etc Cut-Off: see interdict, pursue, isolate Deceive: see demonstrate, feint Delay Until (a specified time): a tactical graphic rather than a distinct mission Dislocate: see disrupt Defend: not specific Draw: see demonstrate, feint Find: use locate, conduct reconnaissance, conduct surveillance Hold: use retain Link-Up: see penetrate etc Lure: see demonstrate, feint Move: may be tactical or administrative, but does not require further definition Protect: see retain, secure, escort Push: see block Reduce: use destroy Scout: use locate, conduct reconnaissance, conduct surveillance. Withdraw Under Pressure: a tactical graphic rather than a distinct mission Consolidation and Reorganization:} together with 'sustain', 'rest' etc, these are Reconstitute } administrative rather than tactical tasks

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