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BS 8002 : 1994
Code of practice for
Earth retaining structures
.BS 8002 : 1994
Committees responsible for this British Standard
The preparation of t h s Brltlsh Standard was entrusted by the Techrucal Sector Board for BLuldlng and Cml Engmeenng (BI-) to Techlucal Cornm~ttee Blb26, upon whlch the followmg bodles were represented Assoc~at~on Consulting Engmeers of Assoc~atlon Geotechrucal Speaahsts of D~rectorate) Department of the Environment (Construct~on Department of Transport Federatlon of Clwl Engmeenng Contractors Federatlon of P h ~ Speclalets g Inst~tut~on Clvd Engineers of Inst~tution Structural Engmeers of
Tms Bntish Standard, hav~ng been prepared under the directmn of the Technical Sector Board for Bmldmng and Clvll Ensneenng (B1 ), was pubhhed under the authonty of the Standards Board and comes Into effect on 15 Apnl1994
Amendments issued since publication
The followmg BSI references relate to the work on thls standard Committee reference 91526 Draft for comment 87114383 DC
ISBN 0 580 22826 6
Page Inslde front cover Committees responsible 5 Foreword Code of practice Section 1 Introduction 1.1 Scope 1.2 References 1.3 Defin~t~ons 1.4 Major symbols 1.5 Selection and types of structure 1.5.1 General 9 1 5.2 Selection of type Section 2. Data for design 2.1 S ~ t e and geotechrucal data 2.1.1 General 2.1.2 Site lnvestlgations 2.1.3 Ground water 2.1.4 Flood tldes and waves 2.1 5 Chmate 2.1.6 Trees 2.2 So11properties 2.2.1 General 2.2.2 Select~on and evaluation of soil parameter values 2.2.3 Clay soils 2.2.4 Cohes~onless solls 2.2.5 Silts 2.2.6 Rock 2 2.7 I W 2.2.8 Wall fnct~on, base fnct~on undramed wall adheson and 2.3 Externally applied loads Section 3. Design philosophy, design method and earth pressures Desgn ph~losophy General Lun~t state d e s w Ultimate hmlt states Semceab~ty 1m1t states Lunlt states and compat~b~hty deformations of Desgn values of parameters Applied loads Desgn sod strength Desgn earth pressures Design method Equ~l~bnnm calculat~ons Desgn s~tuations Calculations based on total and effectwe stress parameters Deslgn usmg total stress parameters
1 4.2.4 3.7 Cnbwork Reinforced concrete and reinforced masonry walls on spread 4. support and retent~on systems 4.3.4 2 3.6 Gab~ons 4. waling3 and anchorages 4.5 Remforced so11 22.214.171.124 Gravlty walls 4.1 General 126.96.36.199.4.2 Foundations 4.3 foundations 4.2 Struts.3 3. excavation.4 Embedded walls 4.3.4 Steel sheet phng 4.3.6 Remforced and prestressed concrete sheet plles 188.8.131.52 3.5.7 33 3. tles.9 Soldier/lung p~les 4.3 Cellular cofferdams .1 3.4.2 6 Design values of wall fnct~on.1 General 4.4.5 Strutted excavations and cofferdams 4.1 General 4.3.4 2 Types of wall and apphcabdity 4.5 adhesion Des@ to structural codes Dlsturbmg forces General At-rest earth pressures Active earth pressures Surcharge loads Water pressure Resistance to movement General Passive earth resistance Weak rocks Layered solls Water pressures and seepage forces Section 4.2. Design of spec~fic earth retaining structures Interrelation of sectlon 3 and sectlon 4 4.2 Deslgn 4. base fnctlon and undra~ned wall 3 2.1.3 Design 184.108.40.206.7 in sltu concrete plle walls 4.4 Unremforced masonry retanlng walls 4.2 Basement walls.4.1 Remforced concrete walls (other than basement walls) 220.127.116.11.5 3.4.8 Diaphragm walls 4.3 Remforced and prestressed masonry retalnmg walls 4.5 T~mber sheet pdes 18.104.22.168 Design usmg effectwe stress parameters 3.3.2 3.4 3.4.3 3.4.1 General 22.214.171.124.3 Mass concrete retamng walls 4.1 3.
7.6.3 4.1 4.6.4. for clay sods p' for s~l~ceous sands and gravels p' for rock 5 Select~on p ~ l e to suit dnvmg cond~t~ons granular soils usmg of slze m lmpact hammers 6 Select~on ode slze to sult d n v m ~ of cond~t~ons cohes~ve m sods Figures Strength envelopes for a gwen pre-consohdat~on Denvat~on N' from SPT value N of Llm~t states for earth retammg structures Pressure d~agrams Graphcal detenrunat~on actlve earth pressure for cohes~onless of solls Graph~cal determmatlon of actwe earth pressure for coheswe soils Construct~on earth pressure d~agrams earth retalrung of for structures m multi-layered sod Flow net determ~natlon pore water pressure of Lmear vanahon m hydraul~c head Graded filter d m n Foundat~ons gravlty walls of Bas~c forms of mass concrete walls Masonry clad mass concrete wall wlth cavlty Stepped and buttressed retamng walls in unremforced masonry Hexagonal woven mesh gab~on cage (typical) Welded mesh gabion cage (typ~cal) Examples of gab~on reta~rung walls Sect~on and elevat~on typ~cal of cnb wall Examples of timber cnbwork Examples of remforced concrete cnbwork Further examples of reinforced concrete cnbwork Basic forms of remforced concrete cantilever or stem wall 1 2 3 4 11 13 15 15 69 70 .3 4.5 4.7.1 4.6 4..6 2 4.7 126.96.36.199 2 4.4 4.4 Anchorages General Equllibnum Ground anchorages Tens~on p~les Deadman anchorages Waterfront structures General Concrete and remforcement Des~gn Construction Annexes A (normatwe) Graphs for K.6.. and Kp B (~nformative) Trad~t~onal des~gn methods for embedded walls 102 U ~ u weghts of solls (and s~mllar t materials) p'.
Sloping ground surface behind wall Values of Kp (honzontal component) Passlve reslstance . (honzontal component) (based on Kensel and Absl.Honzontal ground surface behind wall Values of K p (honzontal component) Actwe pressure .Sloping ground surface behmd wall Values of Kp (honzontal component) Passive reslstance . (honzontal component) Passwe pressure .Sloping ground surface behmd wall Values of K. 1990) Actwe pressure . (horuontal component) (based on Kensel and Absl.Basic forms of re~nforced concrete counterfort and buttressed walls Temporary support agamst central dumpmg Temporary support by fully braced trench Long flylug shores across excavations Fully braced temporary support Concurrent upward and downward constructlon Floors cast on ground w ~ t h excavation continuing below Open cut Remforced masonry grouted-cavlty constructlon Remforced masonry Quetta bond constructlon Reinforced masonry pocket-type constructlon Remforced hollow blockwork constructlon Post-tens~oned masonry d~aphragm wall constructlon Types of embedded retainmg wall Actwe pressure dlagrams relatmg to mmmum strut loads rn braced earth retammg structures (Terzagh~ Peck) & Illustrat~on method of calculation of bendmg moments and frame of loads by successwe stage analysls in cofferdams Typ~cal sections of t~mber sheet piles Detad of dnvmg edge Honzontal sheetmg (laggmg) Vert~cal sheetmg (lagg~ng) Compos~te steel sold~er piles Vanous methods of locat~ng sheetlng (laggng) the Cofferdam for nver crossmg Cofferdam m water Types of cellular cofferdams Types of anchorage Non-mterference of zones for anchored wall Double wall constructlon where zones mterfere Actwe pressure .Slopmg ground surface behmd wall Values of Kp (honzontal component) Different methods of assessing the ratlo of restonng moments to overturning moments Index List of references 54 57 57 58 58 59 60 61 62 62 62 62 63 65 66 67 72 72 76 76 77 78 79 81 85 87 88 89 94 95 96 97 98 99 LOO 101 102 107 110 . 1990) Passwe reslstance . 1990) Actwe pressure .Honzontal ground surface behmd wall Values of K.Sloplug ground surface behmd wall Values of K.Slopmg ground surface behmd wall Values of K. (hor~zontal component) (based on Kensel and Abs~.
concrete.. revlewmg and complete red~aftmg. M Sc Tech. 1 e masonry. the shear strength may reduce to the res~dual shear strength value It has been assumed m t h ~ code of practlce that desgn of retammg walls IS s entrusted to chartered structural or chartered c ~ we n p e e r s who have sufficient l knowledge of the pnnc~ples practlce of so11mechan~cs well as the and as principles and practlce for the use of the appropnate structural matenals. has C Eng . whch was ~ssued the Institution of Structural Engmeers m by 1951 on behalf of the Clv11Engmeenng Codes of Pract~ce Jomt Committee A draft of t h ~ code of practlce. Foreword BS 8002 : 1994 BS 8002 has been prepared under the d~rectlon the Techn~cal of Sector Board for Budding and Cwll Engmeenng T h ~ code of practlce IS a complete revwon of the C~vd s Engmeenng Code of Practice No 2. a former Pres~dent the lnst~tution Structural Engmeers of of .8 . LL B (Hons). m the spec~ally convened panel and m the more recently formed commlttee mcludes the majonty of engmeers who have a speclal mterest m retalnmg walls The Cha~rman throughout the long process of draftmg. been Mr Thomas Akroyd. steel or t~mber T h ~ code of practlce does not restnct des~gners s from applymg the results of research nor from takmg advantage of special sltuatlons or prevlous expenence m the des~gn retaming structures of In t h s code of practlce references have been made to non-BSI pubhcat~onsThe t~tles these pubhcat~ons aven m annex C of are The llst of those engmeers who have partlc~pated the preparation of the ~ m t ~ a l m draft.. was ~ssued 1988 for publ~c s in comment and In 1992 a new commlttee rewewed and rewsed the text The m a n changes m the deslgn of earth retanmg structures m t h ~ code of s practlce are a) the recognltlon that effective stress analys~s the mam bas~s the 1s for assessment of earth pressures w ~ t h total (undraned) stress analysls bemg important for some walls dunug or ~mmedlately following construction. b) the need to take account of the effect of movement (or lack of it) upon the resultmg earth pressures on the wall The largest earth pressures wh~ch on act a retanung wall occur dunng workmg cond~t~ons These earth pressures do not Increase d the wall deforms suffic~ently approach falure cond~t~ons to T h ~ code of practlce takes Into account that for small movements of a wall the s shear strength developed m the so111s less than the mammum shear strength measured in a convent~onal tnax~al and furthermore that when large strans test occur m the soil.
M I C E . takes collectwe respons~blllty rts preparation under the authonty of the Standards for Board The Comm~ttee wlshes to acknowledge the personal contnbutlon of Mr T N WAkroyd M Sc Tech.MICE DrBS~mpsonPh . C Eng .PhD. thls Brltlsh Standard takes the form of guldance and recommendat~ons It should not be quoted as if it were a speclficat~on and particular care should be taken to ensure that clalms of compliance are not m~sleadrng Compliance with a British Standard does not of itself confer immunity from legal obligations.BSI Comm~ttee El526 whose constltutlon IS shown in thls Bntrsh Standard.MSc. FI C E D MrKWVlckery BSc . F G S 1) Mr D Walte C Eng . .MA C E n g . M I C E DrWGKFlemmgBSc.CEng. LL B (Hons) (Chairman) DrMBoltonPhD. F I Struct E As a code of practrce.
3.1. together w~th any amendments 1.1 Normative references Th~s Bnt~sh Standard incorporates.4) sod Des~gn values are determined from design values of soil parameters Graphs are provlded in annex A for values of honzontal component of K.3.2. provlslons from other publications These normative references are made at the appropnate places in the text and the c~ted pubhcat~ons hsted on page 110 For dated are references.3.6 design value of a parameter The value of the parameter entered mto eqwhbnum calculatrons 1.3. the latest e d ~ t ~ o nthe c~ted of pubhcat~on apphes.2 Informative references This Bnt~sh Standard refers to other pubhcations that pmv~de mformation or guidance Edit~ons of these publ~cations current at the time of issue of thls standard are listed on the ins~de back cover.3..3.3.3 Definitions For the purposes of this Bntish Standard the followmg defimtlons apply and are l ~ i n ~ t e d words to used w t h spec~al meanmg in t h ~ s document Normal so11 mechanics terminology is not defined 1.13) The t desgn value of sod strength is the lower of either the peak sod strength reduced by a mob~l~zat~on factor (see 1.5 design surcharge load Loadmg wluch 1s assumed to occur at some tune dunng the Me of the structure and for w h c b the des~gn should provide The m m u m requlred value IS 10 kN/m2 See 3.2.13 and 3.2.9) 1.4 1.2.11 and 3.11) 1. external loads and water pressure The mnnmum value is the fully actwe earth pressure (see 1. Section 1. any c~ted subsequent amendments to or revmons of the c~ted pubhcation apply to this Bntlsh Standard only when mcorporated in the reference by amendment or revxion For undated references. at matenals w ~ t h slopes steeper than those wh~ch they would naturally assume The code of practice provides gu~dance a desgner.9 earth pressure coefficients Ratlo of honzontal effective stress to vert~cal effective stress K.7 design value of wall friction The smaller of elther the actual wall fncuon or adhes~on measured by test or 75 % of desgn sod strength (see 1. and KP The values aven m the varlous graphs m annex A are for vanous ratlos of 9 and wall fnct~on ' 6 1.1 Scope The subject of thls code of practlce IS the des~gn and constructlon of structures to retam soils and sunilar engtneenng propertles.2) wdl not occur 1.3.1 active earth pressure The earth pressure exerted on the retauung wall by the retamed soil It may be greater than the fully actlve earth pressure (see 1. of although many of the recommendat~ons more are generally appl~cableSpec~alrst advlce should be sought w11h regard to the demgn and constructlon of larger structures and for those where movement of the retaned soils requlres close control The code 1s divlded Into four sectlons Sect~on explans the terms used m the document 1 and summarizes the factors ~nfluencmg choice the of a retamng wall Sect~on descnbes the slte and geotechn~cal 2 data that IS reqwed together w ~ t h material propertles It gwes gu~dance the determmation of the on values of representatwe soil strength necessary for des~gn purposes Sect~on identifies the des~gn 3 pmosophy and the des~gn methods for earth r e t m m g structures.188.8.131.52.6 1.2 conservative values Values of sol1 parameters wh~ch more adverse are than the most hkely values They may be less (or greater) than the most hkely values They tend towards the lunit of the cred~ble range of values 1.11) coefficient. by dated or undated reference. Kp is the fully passive earth resistance (see 1. only the e d ~ t ~ o n apphes.3..2.12) coeffic~entBoth are based on the des~gn strength (see 1. mcluding the determmation of earth pressures and the analysis of overall stable equ~l~bnum defines It des~gn strength and cons~ders loads on so11 the retauung walls and the forces avdable to atlam equhbnum with tolerable displacements Gu~dance 1s gwen on methods of slmple practical des~gn and on the mfluence of ground conditions Sect~on cons~ders detml vanous md~vldual 4 m types of structure and apphcat~on earth pressure of theory together ulth matters of constructlon and mamtenance 1.2 References 1.4) See 2. but reference should be made to the latest editions . IS the fully active earth pressure (see 1 3.8 disturbing force The force exerted by retained soil on a r e t m m g wall.8 and 184.108.40.206.14) or the cnt~cal state strength 1. Introduction 1. conversant w ~ t h for theoretical and apphed so11 mechamcs and expenenced in structural design and construction The code ls pnmanly apphcable to small and medium walls \nth a retamed he~ght up to about 8 m. tendmg to cause the wall to move It mcludes the surcharge loads.4 design soil strength Sod strengths wh~ch assumed will be mobhzed are at the occurrence of a h ~ state (see 1.3 3 design situation A set of phys~cal cond~aons w h ~ c h should be for it demonstrated that a h t state (see 1.3.
3. its s is maintenance requirements are substant~ally mcreased or damage 1s caused to non-structural elements Alternatively such movement of the earth retaming structure which may affect adjacent structures or semces in a hke manner 1.15).4) M deternunes the proportion of the representative strength whch may be mob~hzed at a lmut state (see 1.19 ultimate limit state State of collapse. w~ll excavated at some tlme be durmg the Me of the retmmg wall See 3. for design purposes.3.3.15 passive earth resistance The earth pressure generated by the sod when it reslsts movement of a retanmg wall 1.11 fully active earth pressure The minimum value of the actwe earth pressure (see 1.18) factor 1.4 Major symbols effectwe cohes~on base adhesion u n d m e d shear strength undrruned wall adhes~on effective gram slze effective gram sue Young's modulus moment of mertia flow-net parameter (see figure 9) fully actwe earth pressure coeffment actwe pressure coefficient for cohesion effective ratlo of horizontal to vert~cal stress for sol1 at rest (no stram) coeffic~ent earth pressure a t rest of (Ko KJ fully passwe earth reslstance coeffment mobiluation factor result of standard penetration test modlf~ed value of N (see figure 2) beanng capacity factor beanng capacity factor beartng capaclty factor total active thrust normal to the wall total passwe thrust normal to the wall pore water pressure rad~us surcharge pressure water pressure load depth depth to water table inchnation of the wall mclinat~on the surface of the retained of so11 - .15) 220.127.116.11) of the wall 1.3.3. 2.2 18.104.22.168) appl~ed the representatwe so11 shear to strength to produce the desgn sod strength (see 1. by passwe earth resistance (see 1. is the operatwe shear strength 1.3.3. instability or forms of falure that may endanger property or people or cause major econormc loss 1.2.16 rapid shearing In the context of total stress a n a l y s ~the sheanng .3.1).12 fully passive earth resistance The maxlmum value of the passwe earth reslstance (see 1.3.3 10 embedded walls Formerly known as sheet plle walls.3.13) 1. see tables 1.2. below the nommal finished surface in front of the wall.13 limit state Any state of stabhty beyond which the retainmg wall no longer sat~sfies design performance the requirements A h ~ state is not assoc~ated t wlth any part~cular method of structural des~gnSee ultmate h i t state (1.3. of a sod at a rate suffic~ent prevent or l n h ~ b ~ t to any s~gnlficant pore water pressure dffis~pat~on so that c.20 unplanned excavation The m i m u m depth. wluch occurs after suffmeut movement or deflect~on the retmmg wall The of necessary movement 1s often outs~de the semceabihty h i t state (see 1. 3 and 4 1. see 3.4 and 3.18 serviceabll~ty limit state State of deformation of a retamng wall such that ~ t use is affected. this term embraces walls of s m ~ l a structural behav~our r whether constructed of steel sheet piles. wluch it is assumed.BS 8002 : 1994 Section 1 -.17 representative soil streugth Consematwe est~mate the mass strength of the of so11 The value e determmed from reliable site mvestigation and so11 test data In the absence of such data.3.3. the necessary of movement 1s usually w~thin semlceability h m ~ t the state (see 1.18) of the wall 1.14 mobilizat~on A factor M of 1 2 or 1 5 (or more. at least m part. its durab~hty mpaued.2.3. which occurs after suffment movement or deflect~on the retailung wall. concrete diaphragms or t~mberThey are supported. concrete piles.19) and serviceablhty hmit state (13. 1.
I) reqwed Me and mamtenance. l e) the extent of ground movement acceptable dunng construction and in semce and the effect of movement of the earth retmlng structure on e x ~ s t ~ n g supported structures and services.u ~ u welght of so11 (kNIm3) t unlt welght of water angle of wall fnct~on angle of base fnctlon active pressure normal to the wall passwe pressure normal to the wall total vert~cal pressure effectwe vertical pressure effectwe angle of shearmg reslstance c r ~ t ~ cstate angle of shearmg reslstance al maxlmum value of 9' determmed from conventional tr~axlal test res~dual fnct~on angle base reslstance 1. c) the ground conditions. lncludmg the necessity or othennse to confine the support system witlun the slte boundanes. h) appearance. its posltlon relat~ve of to other structures and the amount of space awlable. both before and after construcbon. d) the ground water and t ~ d a cond~t~ons. b) the proposed helght of the wall and the topography of the ground.5.1 General There is a w d e vanety of different forms of earth retainmg structure Many structures mclude a combinat~on wall and support system of 1. or f) external h e loadmg.2 Selection of type The select~on a particular form of earth retanlng of structure w ~ ldepend on l a) the locat~on the wall.5. g) the avallabhty of materials.5 Selection and types of structure 1. Where several alternatwes are su~table then an economc companson should be made .
the potentlal changes in ground retamed he~ght. they should be mstalled in accordance to ascertam the var~ability those conditions The w ~ t h 5930 Where layers or strata of markedly in BS centres between boreholes wlll v a q from site to different permeabhty emst. geologcal maps or memoirs. established. as for example calculat~ons of in areas of mmng subsidence The poss~bhty NOTE The denvatmn of deslgn values is explaned In 3 1 8 externally generated v~brat~ons their effect and upon earth pressures should be ascertained 2. should be at least three tlmes The deslgn of an earth retmmg structure requlres the proposed retamed helght mformation on the physlcal condlt~ons the in v~cmlty the structure. below excavatlon changes in the long-term ground water cond~t~ons. where attam their bond length apphcable.1 Site and geotechnical data . these are processed to prov~de relat~onsh~p the slte to the overall geology of values for the representatwe soil parameters should be establ~shed mcludmg the exlstence of (see 2. the t~dal and seasonal vanations An The essent~d propertles of the so~ls.1 1 General mvestigatlon the borehole depth.2 Site investigations The process of slte mvestlgation contmues during Sufflclent informat~on should be obtamed on the constructlon Inspections should be carr~ed out ground and ground water conditions and the from tlme to tlrne. may @ve nse to of b) where excavation will be carried out in front of the waU the borehole depth. prov~de necessary informat~onWhen the site the should be ascertained together w ~ t h details of the investlgatlon has been carried out and so11test foundations of any adjacent structures The results are obtamed. the nature of the ground and data for the strata m wh~ch anchorages will the and the ground water condit~ons mcludmg. or other form of Standp~pes piezometers should be mstalled or mvestigatlon.2) Once representatwe values have been any specla1 condit~ons such as geologcal faults. ~nclnd~ng future trends and acc~dent be at least twce the proposed retamed helght. below excavatlon level.2. dewgn values should be denved for use movement jomts. then the hydrostat~c slte but should generally be at Intervals of 10 m to levels w t h m each stratum should be obtamed 50 m along the length of the wall The depth of NOTE Water levels encountered dunng bonng operations are mvestlgation w ~ lbe related to the geology of the l unrelrable. detalls of adjacent should be of sufficlent extent and depth to provide foundat~ons services.3 Ground water together w ~ t h data to permit the selection of so11 An adequate design requres knowledge of the representative values and des~gn values of the sod ground water levels and seepage pressures at the parameters to permlt a sat~sfactory e s w to be d site. in the vicm~ty the wall.1. to strength and deformation propertles of the so~ls determme that the conditions revealed are m wh~ch ~ lbe retamed and the soils whlch will w l accordance wrth the design assumptions If the support the earth retam~ng structure Major earth cond~t~ons differ then the desgn should be checked retamlng structures require an extenslve Site agamst the changed cond~tions lnvestlgation Mmor earth retammg structures requlre sufficlent mformat~onabout the site 2. they seldom -present equlhbrlum condmons slte and to the type of wall Poss~ble changes in ground water levels due to the a) for a backfilled gravlty or reinforced stem wall presence of the retammg wall and seasonal or the borehole depth below foundmg level should other causes.1. should be adequate to establ~sh the where necessary to determine the ground water ground cond~t~ons along the length of the wall and cond~tions. mcluding the topography of If ground anchorages are proposed the mvestigatlon and layout of the slte. creep or settle. condlt~ons should be assessed 2. durmg constructlon. should be at least three tlmes the proposed where such future works can be reasonably anticipated. areas of Iandshp or any tendency m the equihbrlum and structural design of the slte to shift. together with ~nformat~on to the exlstence as prepared Geolo@calmaps. circumstances. Data for design c) where the type of wall or method of constructlon 1s uncertain at the t m e of 2. should be mvestigated Future works. or The code of practlce for site lnvestlgatlon BS 5930 from knowledge of other simllar sltes in the describes the general cons~derat~ons be taken to local~tyGround water conditions may be into account and deta~ls methods of slte the pred~ctable from a knowledge of the local geology investlgatlon avdable Informat~on methods of on The poss~b~My flooding should be ascertamed of m situ and laboratory testlng 1s glven In BS 1377 together w ~ t h effect on the ground water its PartltoPart9 conditions The number of boreholes. level. the in adequate site investigation should be carned out to lrnmed~ate vlcmlty of the retammg structure. memoirs and of any hydrostatic uphft pressures Information on handbooks should be consulted together wlth any ground water cond~tions may be avalable from other source of local knowledge records of the slte.BS 8002 : 1994 Section 2 - > Section 2.
1. for waterfront both structures and also for structures a short distance mland.Cohesive Peat (very vanable) Orgamc clay Soft clay F~rm clay St~ff clay Hard clay Stlff or hard glac~al clay 1 . particularly ground freenng.1. changes such as c) artifmally mduced clunat~c those produced in boiler houses or cold stores and their effect on earth pressures and stabhty 2. b) short-term and long-term rainfall vanations and the effect on earth pressures of the resulting molsture content changes. m table 1. may be mfluenced by tidal cond~t~ons The maxlmum t ~ d a range to waterfront structure l should be established includmg potentlal or poss~ble surge t ~ d e s and flood cond~t~ons The he~ght. the locat~on and choice of the tree or shrub specles should be such as to munmlze or elmunate the adverse effects of root penetratlon and the changes m the molsture content of the sod and any assoc~ated desiccation and shnnkage of the sod The adverse effects of trees and root penetratlon mcludes mcreased loading on the structure and penetration of roots Into joints or dramage systems a b l e 1. including a) diurnal and seasonal temperature changes and the effect on earth pressures of temperature changes.2.2 Soil properties 2. Unit weights of soils (and similar materials) Materm1 y m morst bulk welght (kN/m3) y.1 General The desgn of earth retalnmg structures usually involves an effective stress analysis. saturated bulk wezght (k~lm~) Loose Dense Loose Dense A . although m some circumstances a total stress des~gn may be appropnate. poplar and d o w should not be p e m t t e d w~thln d~stance a equal to the mature helght of the tree BS 5837 prov~des useful adv~ce Where ~tis requwed to plant or retam trees or large shrubs close to the retamng wall after its construction.- Section 2 BS 8002 : 1994 The presence of deletenous chem~cals the m ground water and sod should be estabhshed m at accordance w ~ t h 1377 P r 3 and the effect of BS such deletenous chemcals upon the corrosion of the proposed structure should be assessed in accordance w ~ t h 8110 Part 1 and Part 2 and BS BS 5493 2.17)and stiffness under both dramed and undramed conditions should be obtamed Sod propertles are determmed as part of the slte lnvestlgatlon process but may be amphfied by data from back analysis of comparable retainmg structures In smular ground conditions The u n ~ we~ghts materials.5 Climate The clunat~c vanatlons and their effect on the structure should be determmed. length and angle of approach of waves and the resultmg forces on the structure should be determmed 2. accordingly data on the so11propertles m respect of both strength (see 1. the presence of trees and large shrubs should be noted so that dec~s~ons be can taken at the desgn stage concermng the retention or removal of such trees or shrubs Trees and large shrubs In general. prov~de t of reasonable values for umt we~ghts sods m the of absence of reliable test results 2.3. beech.. should not be p e n t t e d nor planted wrthm a distance from the retammg wall equal to half of thew expected mature heght and dec~duous forest trees such as alder. oak.4 Flood tides and waves Ground water cond~t~ons.Granular Gravel 16 0 Well graded sand and gravel 1 9 0 Coarse or medium sand 16 5 Well graded sand 18 0 F ~ n e sdty sand or 17 0 Rock fill 15 0 Bnck hardcore 13 0 Slag fill 12 0 Ash fill 65 B .1 6 Trees Retammg walls budt adjacent to exlstlng trees may suffer deletenous effects from the penetration of root-systems Dunug the course of the site investlgatlou.
b) differences between the in situ condit~ons and the propertles measured by field or laboratory tests. for example. where deformations are comparatively small. requlre two stages of analys~s and mterpretatlon m order to denve sat~sfactory deslgn parameters from the raw geotechn~cal data In the first stage.1. is to make a cntical examination of the raw data assisted by estabhshed calibration factors between different types of so11 tests Cons~stency md~ces. the but negative pore pressures Induced by sheanng a stlff clay.2. c) the effect of construction activities on the properties of the ground. where they are due to extreme local varlatlons t h e ~ relevance requlres further cons~derat~on r For soil parameters. values for the representatwe sod parameters are chosen (see 1. the representatwe value should be the mean value of the test results Where greater vanatlons occur or where values cannot be fixed with confidence then the representative value should be a cautious assessment of the lower h m ~ (or the upper h m ~ if t t that IS the relevant bound) of the acceptable data In the absence of detaled test information.lf sol1 parameter values are hkely the to change dunng the hfetime of the retammg structure Under serv~ceab~l~ty condlt~ons. cause it to swell and soften m the long-term Lf the undramed strength of a shff clay is to be rehed upon dunng temporary works construction then care IS necessary to ensure that there are no sand or sdt partings contaming free ground water wh~ch would affect the undrained shear strength.2) of the propertles of the sod as it exists m situ Care should be taken that the representatlve value is properly applicable to the part of the des~gn whlch it IS intended for The second stage. w t h a high overconsolidation ratio.2 Selection and evaluation of soil parameter values The so11test results. e) relevant data from prevlous projects and the performance of exlstmg faclllties Careful assessment of the so11 parameter values 1s necessary to ensure select~on those values which of are pertment to the behav~our retaming of structures The assessment of the proper parameter value IS often dependent on the mechan~sm or mode of deformat~on bemg considered for the retalrung structure.3 Clay soils The construction of a reta~nmg wall may result in changes in the strength of the ground m the viclnlty of the wall Where the mass permeab~lrty of the ground 1s low the changes of strength take place over some tlme and therefore a m necessary to determine parameter values apphcable to both short-term and to long-term cond~tlons. the denvat~on sat~sfactory of des~gn parameters from representatwe so11 parameters.3. the so11 will operate at beyond peak strength condlt~ons and may d~late approach the cnt~cal to state values conslstent with the strength envelope for loose or normally consohdated solls Tables 2. such as dens~ty. the so11 wll operate at below peak strength conditions The appropriate strength and stiffness values may be obtamed by examlnmg the stress-stram hehamour of the sod.2. obtamed from the slte mvestigatlon. 3 and 4 promde gu~dance the empmcal on relat~onshp between class~ficat~on mdex tests and and representatwe values of the angle of sheanng resistance and the denslty of various materials 2. representatwe values should be selected by the apphcation of conservative bounds to generally avalable parameters The selection of representative values of soil parameters should take the followng matters into account a) geologxal and other background information.6) These should be comervatwe estnnates (see 1. e 1 undmned and drained conditions The undrained shear strength of a clay so11 is not a fundamental so11 property D~fferent values may be recorded m tnaxlal compression and extension.2. as gwen for example by laboratory tnaxlal tests Under ultimate hmlt state cond~t~ons where deformations are comparatwely large.8 The first step in obtaming representative values of the measured so11 parameters. 1s considered m 3. extenslon tests may be required d the behav~our a passive zone IS of of particular concern The undmned strength of a soft clay with a small overconsohdated ratio (less than 3) Increases when the posltlve pore pressures d~ss~pate. different representatlve strengths wdl be reqwed for a shear fallure m a fissured matenal dependmg upon whether the shear surface 1s free to follow the fissures or is constramed to Intersect intact matenal A range of values should be considered part~cularly. such permeable zones are common m clays . where such values are attnbutable to errors they should be rejected. d) changes wkch may occur in the field due to vanations in the environment or weather. w h c h are conslstent with active so11 conditions. denved from molsture content and hquid and plastic limlt tests. in dlrect shear and m pressuremeter tests in situ Although convent~onal practlce has been based on tnaxlal compression tests. which field for values can be determmed with confidence from test results wh~ch show httle vanation. provlde a useful correlat~on t h sol1 strength and stiffness w ind~cesData from d~fferent samples and different locations wlLl spread over a range of values Isolated low or high values should be scrutin~zed to determ~ne thew accuracy.3.
the so11 e x h ~ b ~a s t ddatant peak at failure before a s strength drops to. the resultmg tests reglstenng erroneously lugh undramed envelope is h e a r to the on@n and falls safely strengths. these m turn cause excesslve ~ n ~ t ~ secant p' value can be selected as a funct~on al of effectlve stresses whlch can lead to unconsolldated stress level If a smgle value 1s chosen. where each IS a funct~on of obtalned if samples are consohdated to a best stress level for ident~cal samples Sample vaxlatlon estimate of in s ~ t u effect~ve stresses pnor to causes scatter m the tangent parameter values and shearlng Representatlve values for undralned conservatwe values are best selected by fitting a strength parameters should be assessed for the lower bound to the relevant data. whlch.fnctlon angles p'. that stress-strm curves form so to the antmpated stress state of the so11in the hysteres~s loops on load-unload-reload cycles In ground Where the stress-strm curve never assessmg the deformat~on properties of so~ls. the procedures used for sampl~ng and testing should be taken Into account For example. even when the water content has been ms~de envelope of tests caxned out from the preserved T h ~ is due to the mode of fa~lure s of ~dent~cal~ t ~condit~onsSlnce sod samples from m al heavlly overconsohdated clays. IS generally curved. p') may be used. Two approaches may be adopted for the UlOO sampllng of stlff clays leads to partla1 convent~onal hneanzat~on the peak so11envelope of remouldmg and the creatlon of excess negatlve over some deslred range of stress. in table 2 use of Part 7 and Part 8 The tests are carned out the next value of the plast~clty mdex h~gher than sufficiently slowly to ensure equahzatlon of pore recorded m the tests pressures The Mohr-Coulomb falure envelope for overconsohdated clays. the sod mobll~zes cnt~cal rts state angle of sheanng . see figure 1 A pore pressures. by stram the field are not ident~cal. and poss~bly beyond.. see flgure 1 At effect~ve pressures close to the preconsolldatlon pressure. the strength should make due allowance for the conservatwe values of p f o t gwen m table 2 may be Influence of samphng and the method of testmg. the peak strength should be m accordance wlth BS 1377 Part 5 and Part 6 assumed to be the largest strength mobhzed dunng generally underestimates m s ~ t u values denved the test It may be represented by values of c' and from back analys~s instrumented field structures of p' or by secant values of p' The representatlve Appropnate stiffness values can be measured in crltlcal state strength 1 represented by the cntlcal s the laboratory by laboratones expenenced in thls state angle of sheanng resistance. provlded the samples the tests on the clay alone if there are doubts as are fully saturated m accordance m t h BS 1377 to the mclus~on sand or sdt then. part~cularly constructlon have been found to moblllze mass from undmned tests in accordance w t h BS 1377 strengths no lower than p. of lnltlally Identical 'hble 2. I e at hgher overconsohdated rat~os. formmg a Sample d~sturbance corrected by flrst t a h g the IS pohshed rupture surface Prev~ous shear surfaces.' p At lower ~ n ~ teffect~ve ~al stresses. the cnt~cal state value Representatlve values should be assessed separately for the peak strength and for the cnt~cal state strength of the sod The In all tests a non-hear so11 response should be representatlve peak strength should be appropnate ant~c~pated. dunng the maximum stram range stlffness measured m convent~onal laboratory tests ach~evable dunng test. lead to shear rupture Such fa~lures normally be apphed by select~ng lowest secant the occur at strengths lower than those apphcable at p' for any sample tested wlthm the target range of the same water content but lower stress Alternatwely. t n m a l tests may be the test results gwe lower plastlc~ty md~ces than carned out e ~ t h e fully dramed or undramed w ~ t h the clay Itself Care should be taken to carry out r pore pressure measurement. the tangent parameters overconsohdat~on ratlo More consistent results are (c'. c i Part 7. pIcnt for clay soils samples. for an or silt are remoulded for the plastic~tyIndex tests effective stress analysis. the reaches a peak. Fmt tlme shdes due to new In assessing the strength of clay so~ls. method should the softenmg. as used. sample through its most recent effectwe stress m plast~c clays.lt Cohes~ve spec~ahst work provlded part~cular care IS taken m sods w ~ t h hlgh clay contents e x h b ~the greatest t sample preparation and local s t m n measurement fall from peak to resldual strength. m t h c' = O well as for hkely softenmg on excavation If samples of clay contmmg vems or seams of sand To determme the strength of clay sods. p'c. may be reactwated a t low res~dual cycle so that its m situ state IS properly recreated I . tak~ng care to peak strength and for the remoulded strength of conslder the range of effect~ve stress requxed the sod The values for the representatlve peak In the absence of rehable laboratory test data.
other correction effects may be necessary See ClRIA Report FRICP17Ll Bolton (1986) has mtroduced emp~ncal relations between. 1987 The estmated cnt~cal state angle of sheanng reslstance is gwen by pfCnt= 30 + A + B The values of A = angularity of the part~cles B gradlng of the sandlgravel C results of standard penetratlon tests are gwen in table 3 The standard penetratlon test (SPT) values should be corrected for the effect of overburden pressure m accordance with figure 2 (see Thorburn. 1963).... Strength envelopes for a gwen pre-consolidation St~ffness parameters can be determmed from certam field tests which cause httle d~sturbance m at accordance with BS 1377 P r 9 and CIRIG Ground engmeenng report.4 Cohesionless soils The strength and st~ffness cohes~onless of so~ls are by determmed md~rectly m situ statlc or dynanuc penetration tests Detals of three types of penetration tests as well as plate loadmg tests are Sven m BS 1377 Part 9 The peak and crit~cal state angles of sheanng resistance for siliceous sands and gravels may be estimated from the following equations The est~mated peak effectwe angle of sheanng reslstance 1s gwen by .p ..' p 30 + A + B + C (1) - - .' p ... ' . Stress range a1 Peak and u l t ~ m a t estrength most sods c Secant parameters A f (0'1 0' C L 0' 0' bl Peak and ultimate strength s o i s with > 50% t h y minerals d ) Tangent parameters s. ~ n i t ~sol1 relatwe density and mean al 2.=r'+g' tan 0' Figure 1.BS 8002 : 1994 Section 2 -.2.
are often difficult matenals to sample and test Some correlat~on been obtamed between the has standard penetration test in accordance w ~ t h BS 1377 Part 9 and the strength and stiffness properties for c e r t m weak rock masses In addition the mass rock properties may be derived from compression wave and shear wave veloc~ty measurements The f o l l o m g lud~cative values of the effect~ve angle of fr~ctlon table 4 relate to rocks which in can conservatively be treated as composed of granular fragments. B and C bv mterwolahon 2 2 7 Fill A wide range of matenals may be used as fill behind retamng walls Selected cohesionless granular fill placed m a controlled manner such as well graded small rockfds.h"3) (blows 300 mm) < 10 20 40 60 Chalk Clayey marl Sandy marl Weak sandstone Weak s~lstone Weak mudstone 35 28 33 42 3 5 10 2 6 9 NCTE 1 The presence of a prefemd onentatmn of jomts. but the use of coheswe soil may result m sigmf~cant economies by avoidmg the need to Import granular matenals .. but they more easlly soften to cntlcal states in thm rupture bands In the absence of other data and where disturbed samples have shown the s ~ l 1s a rock flour wlth neghgble t organlc or clay mineral content. m table 3 a b l e 3. f~ssured shales and chalk. sub~ect the to further recommendat~ons below. q' for siliceous sands and gravels A -A~ularitvl) 1A (degrees) 10 Rounded Sub-angular 12 Angular B . where Dlo and D.. grade I11 (see Clayton. havmg an RQD (rock quahty des~gnation) value close to zero a b l e 4. rubbly to blocky chalk. 1990) 'I Angularity ie emmated fwm vrsunl descnptlon of soil " ~ r a d m gcan be determmed from grading CUNe by use of Unlfonnzty coefficient = D.. the representatwe effectwe angle of sheanng may be conservatwely taken as q'.o and 60 ih is finer than Dhii Gradmg Unlformlty e o e f f m e n t Uniform <2 Moderate grading 2 to 6 >6 Well graded A step-graded sol1 should be treated as umform or moderately graded so11 according to the gradmg of the fmer fractmn i from results of standard penetration test modified where V ' necessary by figure 2 lntermed~ate vaules of A.2. gravels and sands.Grading of soil2) / 2 2 6 Rock The engneermg properties of rock relevant in deslgn are controlled by the extent and onentatlon of the beddlng planes andjomts wlthm the rock mass together with the water pressures on the dlscont~nu~ty planes The slte mvestgation should estabhsh the strength and onentatlon of the discontinuity planes Weak rocks.. at the same relative denslty. are part~cle slzes such that m the sample.lD1... i e they are closely and randomly jolnted or othenv~se fractured.5 Silts It 1s d~fficult often mpract~cable obtam and to und~sturbedsamples of s~lts fine sands.effect~ve stress at fa~lure reflect the change in to the secant value of peak angle of sheanng resistance wlth the change m the mean effective stress m the ground 2. even and employmg speclal samphng techn~quesLoose slits are read~ly hqu~fledby vlbrat~on. are smtable as fill Cohes~ve matenals. chem~cal and domestic wastes should not be used All fill matenals should be properly invest~gated and class~fied l The use of coheswe soil as f ~ l may involve problems durmg deslgn and construction additional to those whch occur with granular fill. accordmgly excess pore pressures should be taken into account lnorgan~c s~hceous SINS can generate as much dllatancy as sands. may 6e suitable but other materlals such as mdustnal. both dunng prob~ng and dunng the life of the retaining wall. 9 for rock ' Stratum B' (degrees) Moderate gradmg Well graded C . 10 X of the matenal is finer than D. part~cnlarly weakly cemented sandstones. especially d the dlscontinuitles are filled w t h weaker materlals hOTE 2 Chalk is defined here as unweathered medlum to hard. bedding or cleavage in a dlrectlon near that of a poss~hle failure plane may requre a reduction m the above values.
Derivation of N'from SPT value N The cohesive sod should be wthm a range su~table for adequate compactmn. some granltes are found whch detenorate by weathering of the feldspars If it is proposed to use such granltlc rocks.BS 8002 : 1994 Section 2 Figure 2. SR522 and RR90. ICE 1979. the proceedmgs of the conference on clay fills. due allowance should be made for deterioration in estlmatmg the angle of fnctlon Conditioned pulverized fuel ash (PFA) from a single source may be used as fill it should be supphed at a moisture content of 80 X to 100 % of the optlrnum molsture content . LR750.6 Problems associated w t h swelling and consolidation wdl be m~nimizedd clay fill IS limited to clays with a hquid l~rnit not exceeding 45 % and a plast~city index not exceeding 25 !& (DOTSpec~ficat~on highway for works. the DOTSpecification for h~ghway works.3 of BS 1377 Part 2 1990 Saturation moisture content = where yd = dry density in mg/m3 Exceptionally. for guidance on the selection of such fill see the Transport Research Laboratory pubhcations LR406.3.3. 1991 and DOTStandard BD30187 The placement moisture content of cohewve fill should be close to the final equdbnum value to prevent elther the swelling of clays placed too dry or the consohdat~on clays placed too wet of Volume changes in clay soils wdl affect the pressure d~stnbut~on the wall in the medlum to on long-term Compaction pressures should also be taken into account. see 3. 1991) Chalk wlth a saturation moisture content of 20 % or less IS acceptable as fill and may be compacted as a well graded granular soil The saturation molsture content of chalk is evaluated from the dry denslty of individual lumps. determined m accordance with 7.
2. base friction and undrained to the presence of drainage mater~al creating wall adhesion effectwe fnct~on conditlons on the boundary Representatwe values of the strength of the soil Craclung and arr entry against the wall also tend to shdmg as a mass against the wall can be produce fnctlon conditlons \nth zero (atrnosphenc) determined from appropriate drained and pore pressures against the wall.. side and end effects of the small shear box representatwe wall fnction is a tan 6 Where the . except at some distance from the retaining wall Peaty or highly organic sol1 should not be used as fill - . mudstone and steel slag swell when they absorb water These matenals should not be used as fdl. stress. should be carned out over the range of normal the representatwe value should not exceed the stresses hkely to exlst on the wall dunng its hfe remoulded undramed strength of the soil Testing should be contmued to determine any reduction in strength \nth continued sllding 2. m terms of effect~ve All necessary details should be obtamed of statlc. for rough surfaces \nth a texture coarser than that of the medlan particle size.3 Externally applied loads In the absence of large shear box test results the representatwe strength.~ for the sod. b) 6 20°. should not exceed values calculated usmg translent and dynam~c loads that may be applied externally to the earth retainmg structure a) 6 = P'. for smooth surfaces w t h a texture finer than that of the median part~cle sue Shale.. Section 2 BS 8002 : 1994 No effect~ve adhesmn c' should be taken for walls or bases in contact with sod The effects of wall construction on the mterface fnction between the soil and the wall should be taken in account The undramed shear strength mobillzed on a wall surface may be ~rrelevant due 2. m contrast to the undmned shear box tests The wall matenal should possibly negatlve pore pressures mobfized be placed m the bottom half of the box w ~ t h its temporanly w~thin clay mass Under these the ~nterface the plane of shdmg The so11 is then on circumstances the representative coefficient of placed in the upper part of the box m the requ~red effective fnction on the boundary 1s tan 6 and the state With large scale surface roughnesses (1 e normal effective stress at the boundary IS equal to concrete formed on or agalnst coarse granular sods) the normal total stress a in the soil so that the .8 Wall friction.. (60 mm x 60 mm) w~ll affect the laboratory test undramed sod strength agamst a surface 1s results and large shear boxes should be used Tests relevant.. and in the absence of appropnate tests.
or 3) the structure 1s founded on a relatively strong stratum underlam by weaker strata. or partial factors of safety.3. whether by overall factors of safety. cons~dered as a n@d body. of mcludmq supports and foundat~ons.8) exceed the restonng forces and a beanng fadure Instability of the earth mass mvolving a shp fa~lure may occur where 1) the wall IS bulk on sloping ground wh~ch t ~tself close to l m t m g equil~bnum. for s~mphc~ty. Section 3.1 Design philosophy 3 1 1 General The design of earth retammg structures requlres cons~derat~on the mteractlon between the of ground and the structure It requlres the performance of two sets of calculatlons 1) a set of equ~hbnum calculat~ons to determme the overall proportions and the geometry of the structure necessary to acheve equ~hbnum under the relevant earth pressures and forces.3 Ultimate limit states 3.1. b) fa~lure rupture of the structure or any part by of it.1. or by other measures Llm~t states (see 1. c) excesswe deformat~on the wall or ground of such that adjacent structures or servlces reach theu ultimate lumt state .3.13) are class~fied Into a) ult~mate i t states (see 3. class~f~ed also and treated as ult~mate 11m1tstates Ultlmate hmlt states mclude a) mstab~hty the structure or any part of it. e g a shp fadure.1. Design philosophy.BS 8002 : 1994 Section 3 -.2 Limit state design This code of practlce adopts the phlosophy of h ~ state des~gn This ph~losophy does not Impose upon any specla1 requirements as to the the des~gner manner in whch the safety and stab~hty the of retammg wall may be ach~eved.1 General The followmg ultimate 11m1tstates should be considered b l u r e of a retan~ng wall as a result of a) mstability of the earth mass.1 31. h b) servlceabhty hmit states (see 3. 2) structural design calculat~ons determme to the sue and properties of the structural sectlons necessary to reslst the bendmg moments and shear forces determmed from the equ~hbnum calculat~ons Both sets of calculat~ons camed out for spec~fic are design s~tuations (see 3. a translat~onal fa~lure where the d~sturbulg forces (see 1.1.2) m accordance wlth the pnnc~ples hmrt state deslgn The selected des~gn of s~tuat~ons should be suffic~ently severe and vaned so as to encompass al reasonable cond~t~ons l whch can be foreseen dunng the penod of construction and the l ~ f e the retalnmg wall of 3.3. overturnmg or a rotat~onal fafiure where the disturbmg moments on the structure exceed the restonng moments.4) Typ~cal ult~mate m ~ states are dep~cted h t in figure 3 Rupture states whch are reached before collapse occurs are. or 4) the structure 1s underlain by strata w~bhin wh~ch high pore water pressures may develop from natural or artificial sources b) fallure of structural members lncludmg the wall ~tselfm bendmg or shear. 1s or 2) the structure IS underlam by a slgmficant depth of clay whose undramed strength mcreases only gradually wlth depth. design method and earth pressures 3. mclud~ng supports and foundat~ons 3.2.
.. Section 3 BS 8002 : 1994 Figure 3. Limit states for earth retaining structures .
BS 8002 : 1994 Section 3 F a ~ l u r eof gravlty wall due t o slldmg Grav~ty hall with shear key Fallure may be on A B or along B C sloplng plane Bear~ngcapacity fallure of gravity wall on r e s t r ~ c t e ddepth of soft SOIL Figure 3. Limit states for earth retaining structures (contznued) .
Embedded wall cantiever fallurc by forward rotahon
Bend~ng moment fa~lureof embedded wall
Fa~lureof embedded wall by rotahon about anchor ( o r prop I
Fa~lureby y ~ e l dof anchor or t ~ e prop 1 (or
Figure 3. Limit states for earth retaining structures (concluded)
The so11 deformat~ons, whch accompany the full mob~hzat~on shear strength in the surroundmg of Where the mode of fadure mvolves a shp fa~lure sod, are large m companson w t h the normally the methods of analysis, for stab~l~ty slopes, are of acceptable strams in semce Accordmgly, for most descnbed in BS 6031 and in BS 8081 Where the structures the semceab~hty m ~ t h mode of fadure mvolves a beanng capaclty fa~lure, earth reta~nmg state of d~splacement wlll be the govenung the calculat~ons should establ~sh effectwe w ~ d t h an equ~hbnum and not the of foundat~onThe beanng pressures as determmed cntenon for a sat~sfactoly ultmate h m ~ state of overall stabd~tyHowever, t from 4.2.2 should not exceed the ult~mate beanng although it IS generally nnposs~ble ~mpract~cal or to capaclty In accordance w ~ t h 8004 BS calculate dls~lacements dlrectlv. serwceab~htv can Where the mode of fa~lure by translat~onal 1s be suffic~enti~ assured by hm&g the propor& of movement, w t h passwe resistance excluded, stable avadable strength actually mobll~zed semce, by m equ~l~bnum should be ach~eved usmg the desgn the method gwen in 3.2.4 and 3.2.5 shear strength of the sod m contact w ~ t h base the The des~gn earth pressures used for serv~ceab~l~ty of the earth retammg structure h m t state calculat~ons wlll d~ffer from those used Where the mode of fadure mvolves a rotat~onal or for ult~mate m ~ state calculat~ons h t only where translat~onal movement, the stable equ~hbr~um of structures are to be subjected to drffenng des~gn the earth retalmg structure depends on the values of external loads (generally surcharge and mob~l~zat~on of shear stresses w t h m the sol1 The hve loads) for the ult~mate m ~ state and for the h t full mob~hzatlonof the so11shear strength gwes nse semceablhty h m ~ state t to hm~tmg actwe and passive thrusts These hm~ting thrusts act m concert on the structure only 3.1.5 Limit states and compatibility of deformations at the pomt of collapse, I e ultrmate l ~ r n state ~t The deformatlon of an earth retalnlng structure 1s 3.1.4 ServiceabiLity limit states important because it has a du-ect effect upon the The f o l l o m g semceablbty h m ~ states should be t forces on the structure, the forces from the cons~dered retamed sod and the forces whlch result when the a) substantla1 deformat~on the structure, of structure moves agalnst the sol1 The structural forces and bendmg moments due to earth pressures b) substantial movement of the ground reduce as deformat~on the structure increases of
22.214.171.124 Analysis method
The mawmum earth pressures on a retanmg structure occur dunng worlang condit~ons and the necessary equ~hbnum calculations (see 3.2.1) are based on the assumption that earth pressures greater than fully active pressure (see 1.3.11) and less than fully passlve \rill act on the retaming structure dunng semce As ultimate h i t state with respect to so11 pressures is approached, with sufficient deformat~on the structure, the active of earth pressure (see 1.3.1) m the retamed so11 reduces to the fully actwe pressure and the passwe resistance (see 1.3.15) tends to mcrease to the full available passive remtance (see 1.3 12) The compatibil~ty deformation of the structure of and the correspondmg earth pressures 1s Important where the form of structure, for example a propped cantilever wall, prevents the occurrence o f fully active pressure at the prop it is also particularly mportant where the structure behaves as a bnttle matenal and loses strength as deformat~on increases, such as an unremforced mass gravity structure or where the soil is hable to increases stram softenmg as deformat~on 3 1.6 Design values of parameters These are applicable at the specified lirmt states in the speclf~ed deslgn situations All elements of safety and uncertainty should be incorporated into the deslgn values The selection of design values for soil parameters should take account of a) the poss~b~hty unfavourable vanations in of the values of the parameters, b) the independence or mterdependence of the var~ous parameters mvolved in the calculat~on, c) the quality of workmanshlp and level of control spec~f~ed the constructlon for 3.1.7 Applied loads value for the dens~ty fill materials, of The des~gn should be a pessmistic or unfavourable assessment of actual density For surcharges and live loadmgs different values may be appropriate for the differing conditions of serviceabihty and ult~mate limlt states and for different load combmations The mtention of thls IS code of pract~ce to determine those earth pressures w h ~ c h w~ll be exceeded in a hmit not state, if external loads are correctly predicted External loads, such as structural dead loads or veh~cle surcharge loads may be spec~fied other in codes as nominal or charactenstic values Some of the structural codes, m t h wluch this code interfaces, spec~fy different load factors to be apphed for semceab~hty ult~mate or hmlt state checks and for different load combmat~ons, see 3.2.7 Design values of loads, denved by factonng or otherw~se, intended, here, to be are the most pesslmlstlc or unfavourable loads whlch should he used in the calculat~ons the for structure Similarly, when external loads act on the
of active or retamed s ~ d e the wall these same external loads should be derwed m the same way The sod IS then treated as forming part of the whole structural system 3.1.8 Design soil strength (see 1.3.4) Assessment of the design values depends on the requlred or ant~cipated f e of the structure, but l account should be taken also of the short-term conditions which apply dunng and unmed~ately followng the penod of constructlon Single des~gn values of so11 strength should be obtamed from a considerat~on the representatwe values for peak of and ultmate strength The value so selected w l l satisfy, simultaneously, the cons~derat~ons of t ultimate and semceabhty h m ~ states The des~gn value should be the lower of a) that value of sod strength, on the stress-strain relat~on leadmg to peak strength, which is mob~l~zed so11 strains acceptable for at semceabhty Tlus can be expressed a s the peak strength reduced by a mob~hzat~on factor M as glven in 3.2.4 or 3.2.5, or b) that value which would be mobihzed a t collapse, after sign~ficant ground movements Tlus can generally be taken to be the cntical state strength Des~gn values selected m t h way should be checked to ensure that they conform to 3.1.6 Design values should not exceed representatwe values of the fully softened cnt~cal state so11 strength 3.1.9 Design earth pressures The deslgn values of lateral earth pressure are mtended to gwe an overestunate of the earth pressure on the actwe or retained s ~ d and an e underestunate of the earth remtance on the passive slde for small deformations of the structure as a whole, in the worlung state Earth pressures reduce as fully active conditions are mobhzed a t peak soil strength in the retamed sod, under deformations larger than can be tolerated for serv~ceabihtyAs collapse threatens, the retamed soil approaches a cnt~cal state, m which its strength reduces to that of loose matenal and the earth pressures consequently tend to mcrease once more to active values based on cntlcal state strength The ~ n ~ tpresumption should be that the des~gn ~al earth pressure wdl correspond to that ansmg from the des~gn strength, see 3.1.8 But the sod mobhzed earth pressure in semce, for some walls, w~ll exceed these values m s enhanced earth pressure wdl control the design, for example a) Where clays may swell in the retained sod zone, or be subject to the effects of compaction m layers, larger earth pressures may occur m that zone, causmg correspondmg res~stance from the ground, proppmg forces, or anchor tenslons to mcrease so as to mamntam overall equihbnum
BS 8002 : 1994
b) Where clays may have lateral earth pressures In excess of the assessed values takmg account of earth pressures pnor to construction and the effects of wall ~nstallat~on sol1 excavation or and fillmg, the earth pressure in retamed so11zones wlll be Increased to maintam overall equrl~bnum C) Where both the wall and backfill are placed on compressible solls, d~fferentlal settlement due to consolidation may lead to rotatlon of the wall Into the backfill Thls Increases the earth pressures m the retamed zone d) Where the structure 1s part~cularlystlff, for example fully plled box-shaped bndge abutments, h~gher earth pressures, caused, for example by compaction, may be preserved, notw~thstandlng that the degree of wall displacement or f l e x ~ b ~ lrequred to reduce ~ty retamed earth pressures to them fully actwe values m cohes~onless matenals is only of the order of a rotatlon of 10-3 radians In each of these cases, mobilized so11 strengths w~ll mcrease as deformat~ons continue, so the unfavourable earth pressure cond~t~ons not WIU perslst as collapse approaches The des~gn earth pressures are denved from des~gn soil strengths usmg the usual methods of plast~c analys~s, ~ t h w earth pressure coeffments (see 1 3.9) p e n in ttus code of practlce bemg based on Kensel & Absi (1990) The same des~gn earth pressures are used in the default cond~t~on for the deslgn of structural sections, see 3.2.7
3.2 Design method
3.2.1 Equilibrium calculations In order to determme the geometry of the retammg wall, for example the depth of penetration of an embedded wall (see 1.3.10), equil~bnum calculat~ons should be earned out for carefully formulated design sltuatlons The des~gn calculatlons relate to a free-body diagram of forces and stresses for the whole retalmg wall The des~gn calculat~ons should demonstrate that there 1 global equ~hbr~um vert~cal s of and honzontal forces, and of moments Separate calculat~ons should be made for d~fferent des~gn sltuat~ons The structural geometry of the retamlng wall and the equllibnum calculations should be determ~ned from the design earth pressures denved from the design sol1 strength using the appropnate earth pressure coefficients Des~gnearth pressures wdl lead to actwe and passwe pressure d~agrams the type shown in of figure 4 The earth pressure distnbut~on should be checked for global equ~hbnum the structure of Honzontal forces equhbnum and moment e q h b n u m WIU @ve the prop force in figure 4a and the locat~on the point of reversed stress of cond~tlons near the toe in figure 4b Vertlcal forces equ~l~bnun should also be checked
Figure 4. Pressure diagrams
g e surcharge and/or external loads on the actlve or retamed s ~ d e the wall.2. d) effects due to the envlronment w~thm whlch the des~gn set.2.scour. the short-term cond~t~on 1s l~kely be cnt~cal stab~l~ty to for When cons~denng long-term earth pressures and equhbnum.2 2.faults. such as beneath the foundat~on a gravity or remforced of stem wall at ground level. e) earthquakes.and m long-term Whch cond~t~on~ lbe cntical depends w l on whether the changes m load apphed to the sod mass cause an mcrease or decrease m sod strength The long-term cond~tlon ltkely to be cntical 1s ~n where the so11 mass undergoes a net reduct~on load as a result of excavatlon.BS 8002 : 1994 Section 3 3. jolnts and fissures. example over-excavation for durmg or after constructlon. the considerat~on of . such as IS . but an Inherent assumption of t h ~ method IS that there w ~ lbe no s l change m the sod strength as a result of the changes in load caused by the construction For granular materials and solls of hlgh permeab~llty all excess pore water pressure w~ll d~sslpate rapidly so that the relevant strength IS always the dramed strength and the earth pressures and equhbnum calculat~ons always m terms of effectlve are stresses .other effects of tlme and envlronment on the strength and other properties of matenals. . . e g followmg corroslon.2 Design situations 3. f) subs~dence due to mlnlng or other causes. mcludlng thelr vanatlons due to the effects of dewatenng.2 3 Calculations based on total and effectwe stress parameters The changes In loaduig assoc~ated t h the w constructlon of a retammg wall may result m changes m the strength of the ground m the vlcmty of the wall Where the mass permeabhty of the ground is low these changes of strength take place over some tlme and therefore the des~gn should conslder cond~t~ons both the short.mterbedded hard and soft strata. wh~ch should be a) not less than O 5 m.chemlcal corroslon. sod representmg the worst credlble cond~tlons.ground water levels. mcludmg the followng a) the loads and them combmat~ons. I) for structures restrng on or near rock.2 Minimum surcharge and minimum unplanned excauataon In checkmg the stable equ~l~bnum sod and deformat~on walls should be des~gned a all for min~mum des~gn surcharge loadmg of 10 kN/m2 and a mlmmum depth of add~t~onal unplanned excavatlon in front of the wall. . filled w ~ t h soft matenal. or of the he~ght retamed below the lowest support level for propped or anchored walls These mmmum values should be rewewed for each deslgn and more adverse values adopted in particularly cntlcal or uncertain clrcumstances or The requirement for an addit~onal unplanned excavatlon as a des~gn crltenon IS to provlde for unforeseen and accidental events Foreseeable excavations such as servlce or dramage trenches m front of a retalnlng wall.freezmg. . g) the tolerance of the structure to deformations. wh~ch may be requ~red at some stage in the hfe of the structure. allowance should be made for changes In ground water cond~t~ons pore water pressure and reame w h ~ c h may result from the construction of the works or from other agencies Calculat~ons long-term cond~tlons for requlre shear strength parameters to be m terms of effectwe stress and should take account of a range of water of pressures based on cons~derat~ons poss~ble seepage flow cond~t~ons t h the earth mass w Effectwe stress methods can also be used to assess the short-term cond~t~ons prov~ded the pore water pressures developed dunng construction are known A total stress method of analys~s may be used to assess the short-term condlt~ons clays m and sods of low permeab~lity. .2. of b) the geometry of the structure.2. .the presence of gases emergmg from the ground. leading to changes m the geometry of the ground surface.2. and b) not less than 10 % of the total heght retamed for cantilever walls. such as adjacent to a cant~lever wall Conversely where the so11mass IS subject to a net Increase m loadmg.solutlon cavltles such a s swallow holes or fissures. h) the effect of the new structure on exlstmg structures or serwces and the effect of exlstlng structures or semces on the new structure. c ) the material charactenstlcs of the structure. and the ne~ghbounng bod~es. .weathenng.1 General The spec~ficat~on des~gn of situations should mclude the d ~ s p o s ~ t ~ o n class~ficat~on the and of var~ous zones of so11 and rock and the elements of constructlon wh~ch could be mvolved m a h m ~ t state event The spec~ficat~on des~gn of s~tnat~ons should follow a cons~derat~on a l uncertamtles of l and the r~sk factors mvolved. eroslon and excavatlon. possible floodmg or falure of any dramage system. . should be treated as a planned excavatlon Actual excavatlon beyond the planned depth IS outs~de des~gn the cons~derat~ons t h ~ code of s 3. and contlnumg solutlon processes 3.3 Water pressure regsme The water pressure regme used m the design should be the most onerous that IS cons~dered be to reasonably possible 3.
des~gn 0 5. that a cant~lever wall WIU remaln at constant elevat~on wh~le the actlve sod zone subs~des creatlng full downward wall fnctlon on the retamed s ~ d eand the passwe .6 Design values of wall friction. aftertalongM= 1 5 representatlve c. by structural loads on a basement wall. should provlde a suffic~ent reserve of safety a g m t small unforeseen loads and adverse cond~tions In stlff clays subject to cycles of stram.9 h t These are the most severe that can cred~bly occur under the desgn s~tuatlons. IS not normally reqnlred Hamng determined the earth pressures usmg des~gn the structure Increases it should be assumed that .3 A more d e t d e d analys~s d~splacement of should be performed where tlghter cntena are to be apphed or for soft or loose so~lsThe cntena a) and b).8 d such test results are available. due to the vert~cal thrust Imparted by ~nchned anchors on an embedded wall.5 Design using effective stress parameters The retanung wall should be des~gned be m to equ~hbnum mob~lmng so11strength the lesser of a. Smce for the so11mass design tan (of . whch can be mob~hzedm practice. usmg the same mobduat~on factors as for the adjacent so11 The des~gn value of the fnct~on adheslon to be or mob~lizeda t an mterface wlth the structure should be the lesser of a) the representat~ve value determmed by test as descnbed m 2.2. in total stress analysis c. may be necessary when sod or structure Interaction IS taken Into account Wall fnct~on the retamed or actwe s ~ d should be on e excluded when the wall IS capable of penetratmg deeper. w one reducmg fnct~on that s ~ d eand thereby on . des~gn 9' = tan (3) M representatlve c' design c' = M or b) the representatlve cnt~cal state strength of the so11 wh~ch med~um are Thls WIU ensure that for so~ls dense or firm the wall dlsplacements m servlce WIU be lumted to 0 5 % of the wall he~ghtThe rnobhzat~on factor of 1 2 should be used m conjunctmn w ~ t h 'unplanned' excavation ~n the front of the wall. a) the representat~ve peak strength of the so11 d ~ v ~ d e d a factor M = 1 2 by that 1s representatlve tan q'. as may happen w t h buned anchor blocks 3. base friction and undrained wall adheston These should be denved from the representatlve strength determmed in accordance w ~ t h 2. see 3..2.2.8. taken together.2.2 and 3. the rmmmum surcharge loadmg and the water pressure regme.3.2.representatlve tan 9' 12 tlus IS equwalent to 2 deslgn 6 representatlve 9' 3 sundarly. or when the wall is free to move upwards w ~ t h passwe sol1 the zone. or where a clay so11 may heave due to swellmg dunng outward movement of the wall Wall fnctlon on the passlve s ~ d should be excluded when the wall 1s prevented e from s~nkmg the adjacent so11 may fail to but heave.2. see 3. the long-term peak strength may detenorate to the cntical state strength The requirements of a) and b) above are suffmently cautlous to accommodate this poss~b~lity 3.1.) whlch does not exceed the representatwe undramed strength d~vlded a mob~hzat~on by factor M The value of M should not be less than 1 5 if waU displacements are requ~red be less than 0 5 % of wall he~ght to The value of M should be larger than 1 5 for clays whlch requlre large strams to m o b h e t h e ~ peak r strength 3. 1s generally less than the value deduced on the basis of sou shdmg agamst the relevant surface It is unkkely for example. or b) 75 % of the deslgn shear strength to be mob~l~zed the so11~tself.2. % - (5) (6) (7) - (9) The fnction or adheson. zone heaves creatlng full upward wall frlct~on on the excavated s ~ d eIt IS more hkely that the wall would move vert~cally ~ t h or other sod zone.4 Design using total stress parameters The retammg wall should be designed to be m equhbr~um when based on a mob~hzed undramed design clay strength (deslgn c. 3.and even the ehmmatlon of wall frlct~on its reversal.7 Design to structural codes The earth pressures to be used m structural des~gn calculations are the most severe earth pressures determmed for serv~ceablhty m ~ state.2 Accordmgly see the apphcat~on partial load factors to the of bendlng moments and mternal forces denved from these earth pressures. such as through seasonal vanatlon of pore water pressure.2. m that 1s uslng 0 75 x des~gn tan 9' des~gn 6 tan des~gn .2.2. due for example to settlement of loose granular solls mduced by cycl~c loads.2. c 0 75 x deslgn c . attanlng vert~cal force equ~hbnum The 25 % reduction m the des~gn shear strength in b) above makes an allowance for t h ~ poss~b~l~ty s Further reduct~ons.
l because the d~splacement crltena wU be sim~lar r 3. depend on the lnitial or at-rest state of stress in the ground For an undisturbed soil at a state of rest. BS 5400 Part 4 and BS 5950 Part 1 and Part 5 make this assumption At ultunate lim~t state. and shears) can be calculated usmg equ~l~bnum pnnc~ples the usual in applying any further factors Fmally. is not used d~rectly earth retmmg structure in design because the construct~onprocess always modifies this i n ~ t ~value The value of K. external loads and last.1 General Active earth pressures are generally assumed to Increase hnearly w t h mcreaslng depth However there may be vanations from a h e a r relationslup as a consequence.BS 8002 : 1994 Section 3 loads and desgn sod strengths. depends on the type of sod. together with loads due to the compaction of the fill (lf any) belund the wall. but by no means least. the topography. wh~ch relatively n g ~ d the earth pressures on are .2 At-rest earth pressures The earth pressures whch act on retainmg walls. 1s larger and may approach the passlve value at shallow depths in a heavlly overconsohdated clay.3. the retamed or actlve srde are hkely to be higher than the fully active values in the work~ng state The earth pressures at serviceabdlty and ultlmate hmit states w ~ lbe s~mdar. also apply to the ultlmate h m ~ state structural des~gn t calculat~onsThe des~gn serviceab~l~ty state at hmlt for relatwely flexlble structures such as steel or reinforced and prestressed concrete may be undertaken in a hke manner to the analysls in 3. both granular and cohesive KO = l . its geolog~cal ongm. can be equated w t h KOthe coefficient determmable from one-dimensional consohdat~on and swehng tests conducted in a stress-path tnaxlal test uslng appropnate stress cycles For normally consolidated sods.)can be estunated by a vanety of means includmg self-bonng pressuremeter tests. quotlng Hendron and Wroth 1975) K. the water pressure 3. its geoloacal hlstory. surcharge loads. or parts of retaming walls. wlule m h e a d y overconsol~dated the required ground so11 deformat~on wdl be of sun~lar magn~tude Additional ground deformat~on necessary for the is structure to approach a fa~lure cond~tlon with the earth pressures movlng further towards their lim~t~ng actwe and passwe values Where a stressed support system 1s employed (e g ground anchorage) then the part~al mobd~zation of the active state on the retamed side 1s reversed dunng mstallation of the system and. the temporary loads wh~ch may have acted on the surface of the sod and the topography For so11 m a state of rest.3. below exstmg ground. locked-~n moments may remaln after the load has been removed These locked-in stresses WIU accumulate under repeated loadmg Tlus effect will lim~t apphcat~on reduced the of bending moments In such structures . for example. way w~thout the materlal properties and sectlons should be denved from the load effects accord~ng the to structural codes Reference should be made to the documentary source for the loadmgs. the ratlo of the honzontal to vertical stress depends on the type of sod. the structural load effects (bendmg moments. laboratory determmat~on of so11 suctlon and emp~ncal correlat~ons wlth in sltu tests includmg statlc cone and ddatometer The value of K. whlch are usually determined for the serwceabihty 11mt state.sm fp' (10) K. For overconsohdated so~ls.1 General The disturbing forces to be taken Into account m the eqwhbnum calculat~ons the earth pressures are on the actwe or retamed slde of the wall.4 of BS 8110 Part 2 1985 For gravity mass walls such as masonry structures. where the structure is flexlble Where deformat~ons the retanmg structure are caused of by translent loads. K. important m assessing the degree of deformat~on which wdl be induced as the earth pressure tends towards actwe or passwe states In normally consohdated sod the ground deformat~on necessary to mobdze the active cond~t~on~ lbe w l small m relat~on that requ~red mobhze the to to full passwe resistance. is al however. the earth pressures on the actwe or retamed s ~ d are not a maxrmum e Because the structural forces and bendmg moments due to earth pressures reduce as deformation of the most severe earth pressures. the ratlo of honzontal to vert~cal effective stress (K.3 Disturbing forces 3.3.1 to 3. as encountered m hlghway structures. such as BS 5400 Part 4 for guidance on the respective design values Structural design cslculat~ons based upon ultlmate h m ~ state assume that the moments and forces t appl~cable ultunate hmit state are sigmficantly at larger than at serviceabil~ty lmut state BS 8110 Part 1 and Part 2. the effectwe stress ratlo in the soil may pass through the ongmal value of KO and tend toward the value of K p 3. the temporaxy loads w h c h may have acted on the ground surface and changes in ground s t r m or ground water reglme due to natural or art~ficlal causes Where there has been no lateral stram ~ 7 t the h ground. (see for example Lambe and Whitman.3.3 3 Active earth pressures 3. of wall flexure This can result in reduced bendmg moments m the structure. m the zone of support.
it is not hmlted to uruform s soils or hydrostat~c water pressures or to modes of deformation such that earth pressure Increases linearly w t h depth More than one surcharge can be accommodated. then for z > zw oan= K. a = 90°.2.3. .' + u (13) where u = Y W -~ ( (14) then The desgn value of the angle of wall fnct~on be to used in the graphs In annex A should be determmed in accordance w ~ t h 3.. Ranlane's formula may be used Pan = KayF 22 + Kagz (12) If there is statlc ground water beneath a water table at depth zw. Graphical determination of active earth pressure for cohesionless soils . The des~gn strength. the active pressure at depth z is @ven by an = K ~ ( Y+ Q) z (11) where the earth pressure coefficient K.uu~formly distnbuted surcharge only In these restricted clrcumstances.Section 3 BS 8002 : 1994 . . S = 0).mode of deformation such that earth pressure increases linearly w t h depth. but each must be un~formly dlstnbuted Using the desgn soil strength.1. IS based on des~gn values of soil parameters The total active thrust normal to the wall between ground level and depth z IS then T h ~ equatlon is general..a.2 Cohesionless soils The baslc formula for active pressure is applicable in the followmg sunple sltuatlon . denved in accordance sod with 3. . should be d e t e m e d from the graphs in annex A Ka In these graphs 1s the honzontal component In the special case of a smooth vertical wall and 3 horizontally retamed sod surface ( / = 0.8 should be used m evaluatmg the active earth pressure 3.uniform cohesionless sod.no water pressure. the value of K.3. but it is not usually necessary to have more than five The posltlon of the centre of pressure on the back of the wall may be taken a s the pomt of intersection ulth the back of the wall of a hne drawn through the centre of gravity of the wedge parallel to the slip plane of the wedge Figure 5.5 Where the ground surface 1s irregular the actlve thrust may be deternuned by the graplucal procedure shown in figure 5 A shp plane 1s chosen and the thrust on the wall is determined from the tnangle of forces The procedure IS repeated w t h other shp planes uutd suffic~ent values have been obtained to enable the maxlmurn thrust to be found by graphical lnterpolatlon Not less than three planes should be used.
see 3. - pan = jz(0" 0 - ~accu) & (19) where and c. be absorbed by the clay w t h consequent swelhng and reduction of shear strength towards the crltical state value . c.3. as negative Where an Increase in soil volume is possible.4 Normally and lightly overconsolidated clay For normally consohdated and hghtly overconsohdated clay it is satisfactory to use the design undramed shear strength cu.4 Where there I a supenmposed hne load for a considerable S dlstance along and parallel to the wall. .. the design should assume that negatwe pore water pressures. the short-term condition 1s usually cntlcal.ji 0 (' 0" + u)& (17) where o n K a .2 wlLl apply If tangent parametem (c'. except for excavation in front of embedded walls The strength of normally consolidated clays 1 often s sensitive to disturbance Where there is a possibihty of excessive disturbance to the retamed materlal (e g by construction procedures such as nearby pllu~g operations) then the design should be based on the nndramed shear strength of soil remoulded at its natural water content Where the possibility of a tension crack filled wlth water to ground level 1s precluded the design should be checked for the estunated equilibrium conditions using effective shear strength soil parameters in the retamed so11with C' = 0 3 3 3. see 3.3 3 Clay soils Clays in the long term behave as granular solls exhtbiting friction and dilation If a secant q' value is selected.BS 8002 : 1994 Section 3 An alternatlve approach is to consider the additional soil mass above a honzontal retamed surface as a surcharge load. any free water will.3. normally consolidated clays and overconsolidated clays These have different stress hstones and therefore exlubit dlfferent pore water pressure characteristics dunng shear 3. usmg an assumed average ground surface level for the estimation of the effective overburden pressure 3.6 In some circumstances tension cracks may develop in the retained clay sol1 These may become water-filled immediately following a ram storm If there is a tension crack care is necessary in the use of c. q') are to be used. the weight per unlt. will reach equillbnum ~na short tune. e g following deflection of the wall or shrinkage of clay durlng penods of dry weather.3. swell and soften The short-term stability of an overconsohdated clay whose mass permeabhty is low. is the design value of undramed wall adhesion. the active pressures exerted by the lower strata can be calculated from equatlon 15 .3 2 The graphical construction 1s shown m figure 6 The position of the centre of pressure on the back of the wall may be taken as the point of intersection.3. the pressures apphed by a clay may be based on the design undramed shear strength (c.3.length of this load may be included in the force W in the diagram If there are several dlfferent strata of cohesionless soils behind the wall. The expresson o. in time. unless the wall is appreciably m c h e d from the vertical. and where the consequences of failure are not severe. and the undrained wall adhesion c .K.3.5 Overconsolidated clay Dunng sheanng of an overconsohdated clay negatlve excess pore water pressures are Induced by dilatlon These gradually reach equfibnum but in so doing the clay will draw in water. see 3 2.2cr JK. (18) Equation 17 can be apphed generally for layered solls and irrespectwe of the mode of deformation. an estunate of the actual earth pressure may be obtamed by the procedure used for cohesionless solls.3. of the order of mls or less. because in a total stress analysis. of a line drawn through the centre of gravlty of the wedge parallel to the fallure surface of the wedge Pan . the active earth pressure should be calculated nsmg an effective stress analysls Where the ground surface is irregular or the wall is not vertical.16) then it may be assumed to behave m an undramed condition A total stress analysis may then be carned out using design values of the undrained shear strength c. the foregoing procedure can be used for the uppermost stratum in contact with the wall and. the procedures descnbed in 3. w t h the back of the wall.) The possible influence of a water-filled tenslon crack should be taken into account Where the mass permeabhty is not of a low order and particularly where the overconsohdated clay is fissured or weathered. then the active thrust between gmund level and depth z 1s @ven by [t is usually convenient and practical to consider the loads on retammg walls as unposed by one of two types of clay.3. cannot be taken . provided fully active earth pressures are relevant When a clay soil is subjected to rapid shearmg (see 1. in the retamed soil.
as shown m figure 7 In fact. may be used where there IS evidence from earth structures in the same geolo@cal formatton m the locahty. account should be taken of these pressures in des~gn Gudance on the pressure assoc~ated t h the w compactlon of backfill. unhkely to exist m are practlce 29 .- - Section 3 BS 8002 : 1994 Figure 6. Symons and Murray (1988). Graphical determination of active earth pressure for cohesive soils 3. c'.7 Weak rocks The active thrust pressures from weak rocks can vary over a w d e range Knowledge of the relat~on between the rock geometry. but the mfluence of water pressure m d w o n t m u ~ t ~ should be taken Into account and es part~cularlywhere fine gouge m beddmg planes may lead to a perched water table The rock should be cons~dered have the potentla1 to fall e ~ t h e as to r a rock mass or on planes of d~scontmu~ty General gudance cannot be @ven because of the wdely varylng nature of weak rocks Specla1 field and analyt~cal lnvestlgatlons w~ll requ~redm the be des~gn any major structure of For mmor structures it IS generally adequate to take a consewatwe approach and treat weak rocks as bemg composed of mterlockmg granular fragments.6 Compaction earth pressures A substant~al overconsohdat~on ratlo can be Imposed on a backfill by compactlon Such compaction may lead to an m s ~ t u stress ratlo over the upper part of the wall w h ~ c h s~gnificantly e greater than the value of KOfor a normally consol~dated clay and can even lead to values nearly as h ~ g h Kp These pressures can cause as deformat~ons and movement of a structure des~gnedfor actlve pressures and. w t h an effect~ve angle of fnction The angle of fnct~on depends upon the mter-fragment f r ~ c t ~ o n upon the part~cle and size of the grams and the mmeralogy of the rock lhble 4 glves effectwe angles of fnct~on rocks wh~ch for can be treated as composed of granular fragments For major structures an exammat~on exposures of of the rock type should be camed out to determme m part~cular stable slope angle and propensity the to weather~ng degradation or A non-zero desgn value of effect~ve cohesion. is given by Broms (1971).3. LR946 and RR192 3.3. slnce most weak or weathered rocks possess a relatwely h ~ g h mass permeabd~ty. where heavy compaction of a backfill is essent~al. the excavation geometry IS and essent~alAn analys~s terms of effect~ve in stress 1s generally apphcable.3. m part~cular the d~scontmu~t~es.3. Clayton and Symons (1992) and TRRL pubhcat~ons LR766.3 8 Layered sock Layered so~ls commonly encountered in the are UK The assessment of the resultmg so11pressures may be determmed a s s u m g that the so11 pressures Increase lmearly w ~ t h depth The sod pressure at the mterface of each stratum the change IS calculated by modify~ng common overburden pressure at the ~nterface the sod by pressure coeffic~ent relative to the soil ~mmed~ately above and below the interface. not only that it e m t s but that weather~ng or the method of wall construction does not lead to a breakdown of such cohes~ve properties or that the proposed retammg structure WIU effect~vely prevent such degradation Where such mformat~ou w not avalable it 1s adv~sable use a conservatwe to des~gn ~ t h = 0 w c' 3. so as to produce a change in the sod pressures on the wall at the mterface of each stratum. Ingold (1979). such sudden jumps in lateral pressures. wh~lst produced by calculat~ons.3.
such as compaction stresses. see 3 3.. Figure 7.3. 3 3 4 2 Uniformly distrcbuted loads . conslstlng of a the vertlcal stress Increments due to concentrated contmuous load on the surface of the haclung loads.3. wdl relax if the wall moves away from the The lateral thrust due to uu~formly d~stnbuted compacted fa.. than 50 96 of the effect may remaln This hysteresis d) dynamic loads (e g traffic. 1991) The of movement of traffic both dunng constructlon and average mfluence of point loads.. The lateral thrust mduced bv vomt or h e loads An obhgatory m~mmum surcharge of 10 kN/m2 actmg on the retained sol1 should be estimated should be applied to the surface of the retamed so11 preferably by plast~c analysis. = . The extra thrust Induced by a concentrated load may not disappear when the load is removed more C)lme loads (e g stnp footings).4 Surcharge loads . but otherwise they should be taken surcharge 1s assumed to act at the same angle to mto account in determirung load effects on the the back of the wall a? the thrust due to the earth lateral stress is a funct~on The surcharge pressure IS cons~dered an l n ~ t ~ a l structure The locked-IU as of the greatest vertical stress previously induced at overburden pressure at ground level 3.BS 8002 : 1994 Section 3 Water pressure i tens~on n T r a c k s < < . Impact loads) is the cause of the compaction-mduced stresses.. pressure coeff~clents b) concentrated loads (e g column footmgs). stacklng of matenals and d~stnbutions plane stress (Bolton. can be estimated safely by consldenng an precludes the need for such addlt~onal surcharge equ~valent line load actmg on that plane section. 1986) or by consldenng safe constructlon plant. using d e s ~ n soil In the des~gn all retamng walls Add~t~onal of strengths The influence of hne loads can be found surcharge loading should be used m the design to e ~ t h e by analyslng the plast~c r equhbnum of plane take account of madental loadmg arlslng from wedges (Pappm. The vanous surcharges imposed on a structure may lgnonng support from nelghbounng sectlons be claswfied as Elast~c stress dlstributlons may be used to estmate a ) un~formly dlstnbuted load. loads 3 3 4 1 Mcnimum surcharge .. but the vertlcal stresses should then be (e g roadways. on a sectlon of subsequently unless the nature or layout of the slte wall. Construction of earth pressure dmgrams for earth retaining structures in multi-layered soil 3 3 4 3 Concentrated vertical loads and line . goods stored on quays behmd mcluded m a plast~c analys~s using desgn earth dock walls).6 Locked-ln stresses.
Blastmg practice (1972). the provision of effectwe dranage and the drainage charactenst~cs any fill of and drainage layers provided The mfluence of ramstorms on the seepage pattern behmd the structure should be cons~dered. b) future concentrated loads In place. such as in boller houses or cold stores These may mcrease the loads to be carned by the retanmg wall or may lead to undesirable deformations in elther the retammg wall or the ground or both Mass gravlty walls. or compact the sod wlthm the zone See Seed H B et a1 (1983) and lsh~hara (1993) In dense cohes~onless so~ls overconsohdated clay so~ls. such as blast vlbrat~ons and ground motions Induced by explosmns and forced vlbrat~ons from rotatmg and Impact machmes are d~fficult develop. wh~ch may cause sweUmg pressures. saturated silts and flex~ble structures can all result m excesswe d~splacements.* Section 3 BS 8002 : 1994 . d) abnormal tempemtures m the so11caused. slted on soft or loose soil.A world lzst. mcludmg wh~ch may a) thermal expansion or contract~on. even in the absence of h ~ g h amphf~cat~on effects Where dynam~c effects are not sign~ficant.3. .2. and I C E Proceedmgs 1939. see Seed and Wh~tman (1970) Flexible structures may Incur excesswe non-structural damage because of lateral dnft dunng an earthquake Where a retanmg wall. 106-141. R~chart E (1960). estimates of peak lateral earth pressures may be made usmg the Mononobe-Okabe approach. in the absence of compaction-mduced stresses 3.lng the poss~ble surcharge loadmg cases and deslgnlng for the worst case of a) compaction machme in place.. Downck D J (1977). IAEE (1992) Defnut~ve cntena for the hm~tatlon damage to of structures from v~bratmns from other sources.4 Dynamic loads Dynamlc loads may be due to natural phenomena. may be subjected to significant ground v~brations. Terzagh and Peck 1967 . although to emp~r~cal semi-empmcal approaches are and ava~lable See Inst~tut~on Structural Engmeers of Structure-so11mteractlon (1977). sllty clays. but should be carned down to a sufficient depth to reduce the relat~ve movement of the foundatmn to a satisfactory value See also BS 8004 3. or may be man-made by traffic or machmery v~brationsThis dwers~ty precludes the l~stmg numencal cntena for such of types of loadmg It 1s necessary first to assess quahtatwely the vulnerability of the earth retammg structure to the dynamic loadmgs T h ~ s should establ~sh whether the dynam~c response 1s ltkely to be excesswe m terms of e ~ t h e stress or motlon Factors requmng r examination include resonance (or high dynam~c amphficat~on) and undue flex~bhty the system of H~gh dynam~c amphf~catlon may occur when there 1s a close match between the forcmg frequency and a dominant structural frequency. Terzagku. for example of a chalk sod. then the structure should be provlded w ~ t h s t ~ f f a foundat~on as to prevent excesswe dlfferent~al so movement in the upper part of the structure S~lts loose.2. The loadmg effects of chmat~c vanat~ons should be cons~dered. b) expansion of the ground due to freezmg. for example by artific~al clunates.3. c) molsture content mcrease in shnnkable clays. that pomt in the sod.1 General The determmation of the water pressure on an earth retammg structure 1s mportant The assessment of the des~gn level of the water table necessitates tak~ng mto account natural vanatlons In the water table.4.to rned~um-dense and sands may undergo hquefactlon dunng an earthquake The depth of potent~al hquefactlon should be assessed for the earthquake cond~tions appropnate to the slte It may be necessary to carry the foundatmns of the retainmg wall below the llquefactmn zone.5. part~cularlyfor sandy s~lts s~ltsSee Terzaghi 1943. or by changes In molsture content where the so11 is a shnnkable clay The foundatmns of such walls should be des~gned m accordance w t h 3. remforced concrete w& and remforced masonry waUs may be damaged by movement of the soil on whch they rest Movement may be caused by frost heave. for example by earthquakes. cause slgn~ficant changes m strut loads m braced excavations and tle loads In anchored walls. whde moisture content reductions may cause tenslon cracks whch may lead to a reduction in the stability of the so11 mass. e ~ t h e for the r whole system or locally w ~ t h ~ n system It 1s the undes~rable have closely matchmg frequenc~es to for linklng parts of the retanung structure system Loose sands. 12. see Earthquake reststant regulatzons . F Barkan D D (1962) 3 3 4 5 Loading resulting from climatic changes . wh~ch may mcrease the earth pressure on the structure. together with locked-ln stresses ~nthe fill beneath.3. Corbett B 0 (1961).. or severe problems w ~ t h dynam~c loads occur only wlth severe machme vlbrations or earthquakes Numencal desgn cntena are reasonably weU developed for earthquakes and are mcluded in the codes of practice applicable m seismic reaons such as Califorma and New Zealand.5 Water pressure 3. Bolton (1991) offers further gu~danceA reasonable estlmate can be obtaned by separately calculat. Alpan I (1961).
both permanently and dunng construction It may be necessary to prov~de dramage layer m a order to prevent softening and subsequent loss of strength of coheswe backfill materials. full water wressure should be taken into acco&t up to the hghest level of the soffit of the dramage outlet I Figure 8. whch adequately represents the hydraul~c and permeab~hty conditions ln the vlcinlty of the structure. the water pressure can exceed the effective earth pressure Where there is a poss~b~hty a hgh equ~hbnum of ground water table. 1981) Figure 9 shows such a d~stnbution adjacent to a wall m a so11 of ISOtrOplc permeab~l~ty h e a r dlss~pation seepage A of pressure will gwe reasonably reliable results for retamng walls where the seepage flow upwards through the passtve zone in front of the wall is free laterally as well as vertically This to diss~pate assumptlon should not be made for cofferdams where the w ~ d t h the cofferdam 1s less than four of tunes the d~ferenhal hydrostatic head The concentration of seepage flow from the opposlte s~des the cofferdam ~nthe relat~vely of restncted passwe zone m the bottom of the cofferdam makes the assumption unsafe.3. mak~ng due allowance for possible seasonal vanatlons.5.BS 8002 : 1994 Section 3 . to prevent the Ingress of water mto the f~ssures formed dunng hot.3. the drains should be des~gned. dry spells or to reduce the effect of frost actlon behind the retamng wall Where the ground water reame IS modified by drams and t h s modificat~on assumed In the d e s m to be IS permanent. othenv~se most adverse water pressure the condit~ons that can be ant~c~pated should be used m deslgn In clay solls the equ~hbnum water table can be determmed only from piezometnc readings taken over an adequate length of time The water pressure due to the temporary f m g of cracks in clay soils should be allowed for in 'undmned' analyses m terms of total stress The water pressure to be used in effectwe stress so11 analyses should be calculated from the ground water regune in the vlcinity of the structure In weak rocks it will be necessary to measure the water pressures on discontinu~ty surfaces Account should be taken of seepage flow occurnng around the structure where a difference in water pressures is hkely to exlst on opposlte sldes The distnbution of pore water pressures wdl not then be hydrostatic and should be deternuned from a flow net.2 Water table and seepage forces If the equihbnum level of the water table is well defined and measures are taken to prevent it changmg during heavy m n or flood. see figure 8 Where layers of markedly d~fferent permeab~lity exlst the water levels relevant to each permeable stratum should be taken Into account Alternatwely the pore water pressure distnbution can be calculated based on the slmphfylng assumptlon that the hydraul~c head vanes hnearly down the back and up the front of the wall (Burland et al. for such cofferdams a flow net should be constructed On the basm of figure 9 3. the design water pressures can be calculated from the position of the eqwhbnum water table.5. mstalled and mamtamed so as to function in the mtended manner throughout the hfe of the structure Adequate drainage behmd retaimg walls IS Important to reduce the water pressure on the wall. wthout dramage. Flow net determination o f pore water pressure .3 Drainage The design should take account of the mfluence of the dramage cond~t~ons behmd and through the wall Allowance should be made for possible changes in the ground water levels due to temporary or permanent modification whlch may be made to the water cond~t~ons the earth by retairung structure itself. 3.
a s follows a) a blanket of rubble or coarse aggregate. particularly where the structure IS founded on an impemous matenal For cohesionless backfills of med~um low to permeability (2 x mls or less) and for coheswe soils. m combmat~on with a permeable granular matenal. or C) a graded fdter dram. a sudden heavy storm may produce a flow of water down the hdlside If the volume of water flowmg mto a dramage system exceeds that drammg out.37 - J? is d~ss~pated uniformly along flowpath of Figure 9.2 .4. then hydrostatic pressure w~ll bulld up behmd the wall Where t h s IS likely to happen. Linear variation in hydraulic head On sites where there is a steep and unpermeable slope above the wall.5 of BS 8004 1986. full hydrostat~c pressure should be allowed f o r m the design of the wall When the surface of the backfill to the retaming wall IS horizontal and carnes no surcharge. no special dramage layer IS necessary.Section 3 BS 8002 : 1994 NOTE Assume head difference ( h + r length ( 2 d + h . clean gravel. the top layer of f a should have a low permeabhty and slope towards a surface gutter to prevent the saturation of the backfill by run off from ramwater For granular backf* of high permeability. d) a geotext~le filter. it IS usual to place a drainage layer behmd the wall to prevent the bu~ld-up of hydrostatic pressure (see figure 10) This may not be apphcable to basement walls The dmnage layer is usually vertical. whch has percolated through the backfill. may be used as an alternative to a graded filter The geotextde should be durable. but some means of draming away any water. for example behmd the abutments of a road or r d w a y bndge Guldance on the design of filters is gwen in 6. or crushed stone. where the backfang consists of fine-gmn matenal The graded filter should prevent fine-gram soil from entenng and clogmg the dmnage layer Migration of fine particles may result m undesirable settlement of the adjoining ground. it is generally unpracticable to provlde a dramage layer at an angle even when fill IS placed behnd the wall Vanous construction methods may be used for the dramage layer. or b) hand-placed pervious blocks as dry walhng. resistant to damage dunng mstallat~on and should be correctly designed to possess adequate long-term in-plane flow characteristics when subject to both normal and shear stresses from the adjacent soll or f a The present apphcatlon of fin-drams IS mamly in smaller structures with lower apphed stresses .4. should be provided. conslstlng of a geotextlle filter futed to one or both faces of a permeable core A geotextlle fin-dram may avold the need to Import granular matenals to the site and may s~mphfy method of the construction The fin-dmn should be durable. e) a geotext~le composite (fin-dram). resfitant to damage dunng mstallat~on and correctly designed w ~ t h respect to water flow and pore sue Care should be taken to ensure the contmulty of the geotextde filter at connections.
tenslon cracks may form behmd the retmmg structure m a retaned clay soil and they may extend over the full retamed he~ght the clay sod of The cracks can become filled with water so that the wall may have to be deslgned to wthstand full water pressure from the surface to the base of the crack The pressure on the wall should be taken to be hydrostatic down to that level where the total soil pressure exceeds the posslble water pressure Where a tension crack may form ad~acent the to wall.4 Water pressure in tension cracks 3. wlth soil parameter c. they should be at least 75 mm In dlameter and at a spacing of not more than 1 m horizontally and 1 m to 2 m vertxally Puddled clay or concrete should be placed lmmed~ately below the weepholes or plpes and m contact with the back of the wall. followed by a of rap~d drop of water level on exposed face The des~gm should take account of the resultmg hydrauhc pressures and the poss~ble bu~ld of up ground water levels behmd the structure The maxlmum out-of-balance hydrostatic head w h c h mav result from a t ~ d avanation. part~cularly where the wall can be overtopped See part~cularly4. resultmg m ~nundat~on the retamed sods.with the tension ( crack fully or partially filled w t h water.4.6 and sectlon 5 of BS 6349 Part 1 1984 Where there 1s a low equil~br~um water table.2.4. In order to prevent the water from reachmg the foundat~ons 3.7.3.BS 8002 : 1994 Section 3 Graded f ~ l t e rdram Concrete or puddled clay Figure 10.4 Resistance to movement 3. should be l used m thk d e s m .3. surge tides and flood condltlons Overtoppmg of the wall may occur. w t h the tenslon crack fully or part~ally filled wlth water b) Hard clays o r weak rocks The final equihbnum condlt~on c ' . for example.. the deslgn should be checked as follows a) All clays The end-of-construction condlt~on. to a level h~gher than the equ~ltbr~um water level 3.4. or by a combmat~on base resistance and of passwe so11 pressure on a gravlty or free-standmg structure In a d d ~ t ~ o n resistance may be provided by struts and wahngs m trench excavatlons. by ground anchorages and by the stabihty of the bulldmg m basement construction 3.5.5 Waterfront condrtsons Mant~me structures are subject to the effects of waves. r or by porous land drams and plpes lad at the bottom of the dramage layer and led to sumps or sewers vla catchplts Weepholes should not be used where this may cause unacceptable d~sf~gurement of the front face of the wall Where weepholes are used.3. of wall flexure or where the wall has an extenswe depth of penetration below dredge or excavat~on level in front of the wall .1 General Passwe earth resistance e assumed to mcrease h e a r l y wlth mcreasing depth However vanatlons from a h e a r relat~onshp may anse as a consequence.2 Passive earth resistance 3.5. Graded filter drain The water entenng the dramage layer should dram Into a dramage system wh~ch should allow free exlt of the water e ~ t h e by the provlslon of weepholes. p l ) .1 General Res~stance the dlsturbmg forces on earth to retammg structures may be provlded by the mobd~zed passwe sod pressures of an embedded wall.
2 3 4.un~form cohes~onless sod.2. then for z > r.mode of deformatlon such that earth reslstance increases hnearly with depth. in the long term. see 2.2 Cohesionless soils The bas~c formula for passlve reslstance IS appl~cable the followmg sunple sltuatlon In .2. 9') are to be used.4.6.1. it 1s not h t e d to uruform sods nor hydrostat~c water pressures nor to modes of deformat~on such that earth reslstance Increases lmearly w ~ t h depth More than one surcharge can be accommodated. should be used In assessmg the passwe reslstance the des~gn should mcorporate the obhgatory 'unplanned' excavatlon.4.z ~ ) and c./3 b P = 0 . where where U = r.2. then the passwe reslstance between ground level and depth z IS @ven by where u * ~ . . the posltlve pore water pressures Induced by the shear stresses wlll d~ss~pate.In evaluatmg the reslstance to lateral movement for deslgn purposes. behave as granular soils exh~b~t~ng fnctlon and dllat~on If a secant 9 value 1 selected the procedures descnbed in 3.0. see 3. 3.= K~~~~+ 2 ~ J K ~ ' (29) The total passwe thrust normal to the wall between ground level and depth z IS then and the values of the honzontal component of K are gven ~nannex A Equatmn 28 can be apphe8 generally for layered sods and lrrespectlve of the mode of deformat~on.2 s apply and the values of Kp m annex A are apphcable If tangent parameters (c' . In some clrcumstances the strength of the clay WIU reduce w ~ t h tlme and therefore a check of the des~gn should be made usmg effectwe shear strength parameters then T h s equatlon IS general. If there m statlc ground water beneath a water table at depth +.no water pressure.2. lead~ng consohdat~on to and an Increase In strength of the so11 This wlll be accompamed by wall movement The most onerous cond~t~ou for after eqluhbnum wlll generally exst lmmed~ately construction and the desgn should be based on a total stress analys~s uslng des~gn values of the undmned shear strength c.4.2.(z .1 General Clays.2 Normally and lzghtly overconsolzdated clay As w t h actlve pressures. P = O).8.4.2. the des~gn strength. the passwe pressure at depth z IS gwen by 3.u~uformly d~stnbuted surcharge only In these restricted clrcumstances. denved sod ~naccordance w ~ t h 3.3 Clay soils 3.3. . but each must be u~uformly d~stnbuted Values of the honzontal component of Kp are @ven m annex A A further approach IS presented by Sokolovsk~ (1965) In the spec~al case of a smooth vert~cal waU and honzontally retamed so11 surface (6 = 0. w ~ t h . . the passwe reslstance of clay sods IS cons~dered separately for normally and hghtly overconsol~dated clays and for overconsol~dated clays Under long-term stress. provlded passwe reslstance is relevant When a clay sod is subjected to rap~d shearmg it may be assumed to behave m an undramed cond~t~on total stress analys~s A may then be carned out uslng des~gn values of the undmned shear strength c. IS the deslgn value of undramed wall adheslon.2.3. the passive earth reslstance coeffic~ent p IS gwen K by the Rankme's formula This formula gwes the same results as the graph for Kp m annex A.
..7are relevant and apphcable also to passwe reslstance 3 4 4 Layered soils . which are present wthm the rock mass IS mportant in determ~nmg passlve resistance the ava~lable weak rocks as it IS when assessing the m actlve pressures The comments and recommendations relatmg to actwe pressures in 3. In an overconsohdated clay non-un~form strain of the clay may exlst within the passlve mass resultmg m varying sod strength values Generally.. fissures. as descnbed in 3 3 3 8 for actlve ..3. pressures A change m the soil resistance thus occurs at each mterface Examples of the est~mat~on passive earth reslstance diagrams for of vanous strata combinat~ons gwen in figure 7 are 3 4 5 Water pressures and seepage forces . The so11 pressures. The pattern of d~scontinu~t~es. whereas the hor~zontal stress present w ~ t the undisturbed soil w ~ lbe augmented by h l the pressure imposed by the wall As m case 1 an effectlve stress analys~s should be carned out Effective shear strength parameters should be used and the recommendat~ons regardmg the use of c' are also apphcable 3 4 3 Weak rocks . see 3 3 5 the most adverse goundwater . a m/s total stress analys~s may be used based on the results of undramed tests on the sod For the upper layers of so11the undramed strength of the clay should be assumed to reduce to zero at the surface The des~gn values of the wall fnctlon parameters or the uudramed wall adhesion should be determmed in accordance \nth 3 2 6 .BS 8002 : 1994 Section 3 Where excesswe disturbance to the sod may occur dunng constructton or through the mfluence of local works (e g by dnvlng of high d~splacement plles) the des~gn should be based on the undramed shear strength of the sod remoulded at its natural water content Rel~ance should not be placed upon the passwe reslstance of sensltlve clays except m speclal cases... eg etc . it IS only practicable to make allowances for the complexity of these charactenstics by uslng an approxunate method of analysts Two cases are considered a) Case 1 T h ~ s apphes to structures where there is no change in ground level m front of the wall from that exlstlng for a constderable penod of tlme pnor to constructlon The equhbnum state of stress m the passwe so11 mass IS not agn~ficantly d~sturbedAn effecttve stress analysls w d take account of the loss of strength created by the dlssipatlon of the negative pore water pressures mduced by shear stram If laboratory test data IS ava~lable then an appropnate deslgn value for c' may be used but m selectmg a c' value for design purposes account should be taken of possible loss of strength associated w t h wall deformat~ons For short-term temporary works m an overconsohdated clay of known low mass permeablhty of the order of 1 0 ~ 8 or less. e g cofferdams 3 4 2 3 3 Ovwconsolzdated clay .. at the mterfaces in a layered sod profile. condt~ons that can reasonably be ant~clpated should be used In the estlmatlon of passlve reslstance The mfluence of upward seepage within the passive zone of so11is Important It can reduce the effectwe overburden pressure in the extreme almost to zero . are calculated from the common overburden pressure by applymg the relevant passlve earth reslstance coeff~c~ents each for stratum. b) Case 2 T h ~ auohes to structures where s excavat~on lowerithe ground level m front of the wall below the exlstlng for a considerable penod of t m e pnor to constructlon The soil subject to a passwe pressure in thls case undergoes loss of strength due to the release m overburden pressure T h ~ reduction IU stress IS in a vertical s d~rection.. The recommendat~ons water pressure and for seepage forces for active pressures also apply to the passwe resistance of clay soils As for actlve pressures..3.. jomts...
2. see sectlon 3 The deslgn sltuatlons. Nq and Ny beanng capaclty factors.2 Foundations 4. the res~dual strength on the suspect surface should be determined in a saturated. accordance \nth the standard in procedure using N. dmned shear box test at an appropnate level of normal effective stress The resistance to shdmg of a weak rock IS dependent on the onentatlon of beddmg planes or other d~scontinuities the rock Where cast in situ m construction 1s used. in the range 2 0 to 3 0 The pressure on the sod under the toe of the wall should be checked to ensure that it does not exceed the allowable beanng pressure Reference should be made to BS 8004 4. be required.1 Bearing capacity design The foundations should be des~gned beanng for capaclty at the ultmate l m ~state.1 General Grav~ty walls should be desgned to perform adequately at both semceabfity and ultmate limit states In equlllbnum w ~ t h desgn loadmg and the design sod strengths m accordance with sectlon 3 The proportions of the wall should be determmed In accordance w ~ t h sectlon 3 See 4. the resistance wdl also depend on the bond attamed m fractured or fissured rocks At worst a rock. expenence may md~cate that serviceability can be sat~sfactonly assured by the beanng capaclty calculation. Part 2 and &rt 3 4.2 4.1. if there is doubt as to onentatlon of the shale laminat~ons.1 Interrelation of section 3 and section 4 4. I e larger actwe earth pressures or smaller passwe resstance. BS 5400 Part 3 and Part 4. used to check the mtegnty of the structure. together \nth any further cond~t~ons glven in sectlon 4 for md~v~dual types of walls The des~gn strengths and serviceabfity 11mts of structural materials should be as recommended in the appropnate structural codes of practice such as BS 8110 Part 1 and Part 2.2.2 Gravity walls 4. or supports than are used in the des~gn a wall geometry for of overall equhbnum.. Design of specific earth retaining structures 4. BS 5950 Part 1 and BS 5628 Part 1. wdl behave as a dense granular so11 w ~ t h angle an of sheanng reslstance related to its fragment sue and m m e d composltlon (see table 4) Strongly bedded or fohated shaley rocks may behave as stlff or hard clays. p 217) 4.2.2 Design Structural bendmg moments. these should be assumed to be the most adverse poss~ble 4. other than shale. when excess pore pressures arislng dunng constructlon wdl have dissipated and long-term values associated w ~ t h steady seepage w ~ lhave ansen l Where a 1s known or suspected that clay or sllty clay sods may be slow to consohdate. for undramed shear strength calculat~ons a mobhat~on factor greater than 1 5 (see 3.1 General The nrouortlons of the wall should be d e t e n n e d in a&oidance w ~ t h requirements for the eqwhbrium and deformat~on sectlon 3 The in equhbr~um the wall should be determmed for of the vanous fa~lure modes in accordance w ~ t h section 3. so theu undramed strength 1s Uely to be more cntlcal than then fully dmned strength St~ff clays subject to excavation will tend to swell and soften as negatwe pore pressures are reheved.126.96.36.199 Base resistance to slrding Base reslstance to shdmg should be checked in a d d ~ t ~ o n beanng capac~tyBase reslstance can be to expressed either in terms of total stress or effectwe stress r = u tan 4 ' . see Tenagh~ and Peck (1967.2.2 2. should be used for the deslgn of sections. shear forces and prop or tie forces should be denved from the equll~bnum calculatlons usmg des~gn earth pressures and water pressures. h lumt should be the same as those used for the overall equihbrium and deformat~on calculatlons There may be circumstances where more unfavourable.1 and 4. and tan Sb are the desgn values of shear strength at the mterface.2 Serviceability limit state Des~gn the semceabihty limit state may be for based on calculations of d~splacement and rotatlon under load Alternat~vely. and a shp surface can be exposed.Section 4 BS 8002 : 1994 Section 4.2. as descnbed In 3.2. at ult~mate m t state and serv~ceab~hty state. sods which are at in least f ~ mor medmm-dense.4) wdl . so t h e ~ fully r dramed strength wdl be more cntlcal than t h e ~ r undrained strength Part~cular care should be taken w t h walls bullt on high plastlc~ty clays to determ~ne whether res~dual surfaces already shp exlst in the clay due to penglac~al sohfluction or to prevlous landslides Where pre-exlsting shear IS suspected. some of these are referred to m 3. an add~t~onal undmned strength analysls usmg equatlon 32 should be performed unless tests show that the rate of consohdat~on wdl be sufficient to guarantee that the sol1 remams fully dramed dunng constructlon Soft clays subject to extra load~ng wdl tend to consohdate as pore pressures dlss~pate. \nth allowance t for the mchnat~on and eccentricity of the forces on the fouudat~on.1.1. where q.1. components.1.6 and u 1s the effectwe mean normal stress on the base ' Any uphft pressures due to seepage should be taken into account in evaluat~ng u' All sods should be evaluated for base shdmg uslng equatlon 33 Granular sods wll behave as fully dra~ned all times and clay so~ls ~ leventually at w l come mto draned equd~bnum.
see figure 12a. including the base and foundat~on the wall Care of is necessary to ensure that the wall.3 Materials Concrete should be generally in accordance \nth BS 5328 Part 1 and Part 2 and w t h sectlon 6 of BS 81 10 Part 1 1985 Aggregates should normally conform to the requirements of BS 882 and BS 1047 bl Shear key Figure 11. mchning the foundation or prowding a shear key (see figure 11) Shear keys should be located under the rear half of the base If shear keys are prowded then equihbrium of the combmed retammg walllsoll mass above plane BCDE m fgure 11 should be checked taking Into account the extra active pressure on EF and the extra passive pressure on AB Equlhbnum should also be checked above the surface ACDE taking into account the inclined nature of AC and the extra actlve pressure on EF Gu~dance construction on problems wtth inclined foundatlous and shear keys is gven in Hambly (1979) 4. IS sultable for small retmmg walls. such as the use of the space in front of the wall.2. up to about 1 5 m in retamed he~ghtThere is a further economy when the wall is inclined or battered back agamst the backing to such an extent that the resultant compressive stress is u~uform over any sectlon.2. see figure 12e A heavy masonry facmg may be used as permanent shuttenng to produce an mtegral mass concrete and masonry wall as in figure 12f 4.1 General Mass concrete walls are suitable for retamed heights up to 3 m They can be designed satisfactorily for greater heights. 1s not unstable during construction.2 3 Mass concrete retaining walls 4.2 Q p e s o wall and applzcabilrty f Typical profiles of mass concrete walls are shown in figure 12 The simple form. c and d Walls with a nominally vert~cal face should be battered back at approximately 1 m 50 to avold the ~Uus~on tilting forward of In choosing an economical section for the wall.3. since the use of simphfied formwork and construction methods may result m a greater sawng in tune and cost than the mere reduction of the volume of matenals m the cross sect~on 4. in itself. spec~ahst adv~ce should be obtamed from geotechn~cal ensneers If the base resistance to shding IS madequate then this should be increased by either w d e n ~ n g the base.2. see figure 12b. considerations of appearance or by the method of construction Where an mclmed or battered wall is impract~cable.BS 8002 : 1994 Section 4 General rules for des~gn resistance to slidmg on for weak rocks cannot be gwen because of the vanation in matenals For mqor structures or d~fficult geologcal cond~tions.3. but as the he~ght Increases other types of wall become more economlc The cross-sectional shape of the wall can be affected by factors other than stabihty. economy of matenal will result if either the front or the back of the wall IS stepped or inched. Foundations of gravity walls . the overall cost of construction should be considered.3.
Basic forms of mass concrete walls .c) Mass concrete w ~ t h battered back e) Mass concrete w~th stepped back and ~nchnedface d I Mass concrete w ~ t hstepped back f Mass concrete wall w ~ t h battered masonry face Figure 12.
3.1. hydrostatlc uphft should be taken Into account at constructlon jolnts Honzontal construction joints should be designed to be watertight.BS 8002 : 1994 Section 4 - . see f~gure T h ~ w~ll 13 s allow a certam amount of different~al movement between concrete and the masonry although the latter w ~ l l requlre provision of separate movement Joints Thls form of constructlon should be adopted where the mcompatlbility of masonry used as a stmctural facmg to concrete would set up undesirable Internal stress.188.8.131.52 Constructzon joznts The number of constructlon jolnts should be kept small.1.1.5 Masonry claddzng Where appearance and weathermg quahtles are ~mportant.alternate rows staggered.2 3.2 Movement joznts ( e m a m o n and contractzon) Vertlcal jomts should be prov~ded intervals at dependent upon the expected temperature range jolnts and the shape of the structure Expans~on should be llned \nth a r e d e n t jomtlng matenal about 10 mm to 20 mm thlck and sealed w ~ t h a sealmg compound Su~table locatlous for joints are changes in level of the foundat~on the top of the or wall Jomts should also be promded where the nature of the foundat~on changes.5. cons~stent t h reasonable precautions w agamst shrinkage The spaclng of construction lo~nts should have due regard to the economlc slze of the concrete pour and any need for the dissipat~on the heat of hydrat~on Reference of should be made to CIRIA Report No 49 for masslve walls where large pours are used In a stepped profile wall any horizontal Jomts should coinc~de ~ t h positlon of the steps A w the long~tudmal groove may be formed to generate resistance to the sheanng force at the joint Vert~cal construction jomts should be at approximately 10 m centres and should comc~de w t h contracbon/expans~on joints 184.108.40.206 Concretzng Concrete of low strength.2.2 3 220.127.116.11.2.1 Formwork The formwork should be sufficiently rlgd to prevent undue deflect~on the face and the jomts of should prevent loss of grout or mortar from the concrete durlng constructlon 4 2.2 to a) Structural deszgn Normally mass concrete walls should be desgned on a no-tension basis under the des~gn earth pressures However provided grade 15 concrete or stronger 1s used and constructlon jomts are prepared in BS accordance w ~ t h 8110 Part 1 and Part 2 or or BS 5400 Part 1 and Part 4 to transfer tens~le shear stresses then permiss~ble stresses of 0 28 N/mm2 m tenslon and 0 55 N/mm2 m shear may be used b) Foundatzon The pressure on the soil under the toe of the wall should be checked to ensure that it does not exceed the allowable beanng pressure It may be necessary to determ~ne the probable settlement espec~ally where the wall carrles external loads.3 Ilydrostatu uplzft znjoznts Improve the fm~shed appearance by breaking the monotony or reducmg the Impact of blem~shes and discolourat~on The treatment of the finished surface by bush-hammenng or other exposed aggregate treatment may also lmprove the finished appearance.2. 4. such as grades C7 5 and C10 of BS 5328 Part 1.3. wall may be bulk with masonry the claddmg separated from the structural wall by cavlty construction.5. contraction and movement jomts and t h e ~ spacing reference should r be made to BS 8007 Movement ~ o ~ nin s t the masonry facmg or claddmg should be positioned the and detalled in accordance w ~ t h recommendatlons of BS 5628 Part 3 or BS 5390 for stone masonry 4.5 Construction 4.1 and 4. e g from one type of so11to another Generally there should be jomts between the wing walls of bndges and bndge abutments For detals of expansion.4. but if they cannot be watertight the design should cater for full hydrostatlc uplift 4.2 A wall w ~ t h stepped back a should be des~gned ~ t h 'virtual back' taken as w a the vertlcal plane from the heel or rear extremity of the base to the surface of the earth baxklng The further following cond~t~ons should be checked In a d d ~ t ~ o n those referred to In 4.1 Equzlzbrzum o the wall f See 4.. used w ~ t h care. may . and should preferably be stamless steel dovetall slot type w t h 'fishtad' anchors to ensure the correct courslng w ~ t h masonry BS 5628 Part 1 prov~des recommendatlons on the use of wall tles 4. will normally be sat~sfactory prov~ded 1s properly compacted to it attaln the necessary deslgn density The Where a wall is subject to hydrostatlc pressures.3. 4. where the wall adjolns a h~ghway Wall tles should be cast Into the concrete retamng wall and subsequently bult Into the masonry cladding T ~ e should be spaced at ~ntervals s not greater than 900 mm centres honzontally and 450 mm centres vert~cally.3.4. see 4.2.4 Design 4.4 Surface fzntsh Attent~on should be glven to the surface fm~sh of the exposed face of the wall Exposed in wtu concrete requ~res careful treatment Formwork with a moulded surface. but such treatment 1s expenslve 18.104.22.168.3. for example. but it should not be used where there 1s a nsk of impact damage.1 and 4.3.
consistent with adequate workability to obtam the necessary compactzon The deslgn or selection of a concrete mlx should provide the necessary nunimum cement content requved for durab~lltyThe cement content should not be less than shown m table 6 2 and table 6 3 of BS 8110 Part 1 1985 If the concrete 1s exposed to attack by sulfates reference should be made to table 6 1 of BS 81 10 Part 1 1985 Where there is hkely to be severe attack from the constituents of ground water.4.2. whether protectwe detahng to the masonry such as coplng and damp-proof course systems are used and ~f effectwe dramage and waterproofmg to the retanmg face are incorporated Where clay brlcks of quality F and MN are used it may be necessary W to use mortar contaming sulfate-reslstlng cement (see also 4.2. Damp prmf course d reau~red Cop~ngin reconstructed or natural stone or precast concrete to BS 5642 Part 2 Damp proof course Concrete or puddle day ~fweep holes used Concrete or mortar ftll~ng Figure 13 Masonry clad mass concrete wall with cavity watertcement ratlo should be low. the mlnimum quahty of the masonry unit and the mortar des~gnation requ~red durabil~ty for should be m accordance wlth the recommendations of BS 5628 Part 3 and BS 5390 for stone masonry The cholce of masonry umt and mortar des~gnatlon be used will depend to upon a number of factors ~ncludmg exposure.3.2. 4.4.3) .2.* Section 4 BS 8002 : 1994 -. it may be necessary to promde add~tional protection to the back of the waU In waterfront structures the wall should have adequate resistance to chlonde attack and may need to be promded w t h a waterproof protection 4.2and 4.2 1.2.4 Masonry faczng and claddzng Where a structural masonry facing 1s to be mcorporated or a masonry cladding is to be bulk as part of the retairung wall.5.4.2.
for greater he~ghts. c) an effective coplng w ~ t h drlps w h ~ c h throws water clear of the exposed wall surface.4. coplngs should be frost resistant. up to 1 5 m. FN. or M to of s of BS 3921 1985.4. such masonry' requlres mlnimal construction plant A s~mple stem wall. and. 1 sultable s for small retained heights. espec~ally where the fin~shed appearance m important.2. and.1 Brzcks und bnckwork Bnck masonry units should conform to the appropriate Bntish Standards as follows Calc~um s~hcate (sand-hme and flmt-hme) bricks Clay bncks Dimensions of bncks of specla1 shapes and slzes Precast concrete masonry units BS 187 BS 3921 BS 4729 BS 6073 P r 1 at BS 6649 Clay and calc~um sillcate modular bncks N Clay br~cks quality FL. t ~ l e s and damp-proof course bncks are unsu~table) Where protectwe detalhng is not used or where there 1s a nsk of saturated bnckwork being subjected to freezmg.4 Unreinforced masonry retaining walls 4. calc~um k a t e br~cks class 3 or stronger to BS 187 1978 or concrete bncks of mlnlmum strength 15 ~ l m m BS 6073 Part 1 to ~ that 1981 and Part 2 1981 may be used prov~ded the following protectwe detads are ~ncorporated Into the wall a) a bnck or slate damp-proof course a t the base of the wall and above ground level conformmg to BS 743 Other damp-proof course materials may for be used 8 they can be shown to be su~table apphcat~on. and. ML.2.1 General Cnreinforced masonry IS sultable for small retalning walls. the manufacturer's advice should be sought Concrete bncks should be of mlnlmum strength 30 N/mm2 and have adequate cement content to ensure durablhty Figure 14. b) effectwe waterproofing treatment on and dramage to the retamng (I e back) face of the wall.2.4. Stepped and buttressed retaining walls in unreinforced masonry .2. or calc~um sihcate bncks of class 4 or stronger should be used Where moderately frost res~stant clay bncks (ML and MN quality) are proposed in such sltuatlons. stepped or buttressed wall as m figure 14 a may be appropriate The des~gn and construct~on unremforced of masonry should conform to BS 5628 Part 1 and BS 5628 Part 3 The selection and d e t a ~ h g of stone masonry IS gwen in BS 5390 4. d) a contmuous impervious damp-proof course below the copmg. frost-resistant clay bncks (FL and FN quaMy). (slates.
22.214.171.124 Mortars Mortars to be used should be selected in accordance w ~ t h 5628 Part 3 and BS 5390 for BS stone masonry The cho~ce mortar des~gnat~on of should be made pnnc~pally the bass of on structural requirements.126.96.36.199.2.4. mortar designatron (u) w ~ t h calclum sil~cate br~cks and mortar des~gnat~ons or (11) (I) w~th concrete bncks Where masonry unlts contam hgh levels of soluble salts and the walls are hkely to remaln wet for long penods of t m e .4 Construction 4.6.2. nylon or polypropylene. the mortar should be selected w ~ t h care Where clay bncks of e ~ t h e FN or MN qual~ty r (see BS 3921) are used m these exposure cond~t~ons use of mortar the contammg sulfate-res~stmg cement throughout the wall constructlon should be considered Sulfates in suffment quantltles to be damaglng may be present m the ground.188.8.131.52 Stmctural deszgn The structural des~gn the walls should be m of accordance wlth BS 5628 Part 1 4. 4.2 Other masonry unzts When masonry uruts other than brlcks are used these should conform to the appropnate Bnt~sh Standards Stone masonry Precast concrete masonry units Reconstructed stone masonry unlts BS 5390 BS 6073 Part 1 BS 6457 4 2 4 3 Design 4.4 Wall t z e s Where wall tles are requ~red these should be specified m accordance wlth BS 5628 Part 1 .2. aggregates and backfill.2. see figures 15 and 16 They can also be made of wlckenvork.1Equzlzbrzum o the wall f See 4. lead to a reduct~on the extent of land m requlred Reference should be made to BS 80063) for detaled ~nformat~on the deslgn and on constructlon of structures mcorporatmg re~nforced so11 4.4. a buttress should be prov~dedeach s ~ d of a jomt e 4. for example when wall exposure to wind-dnven ram 1s except~onally hqh.5 Reinforced soil Retalmng structures constructed w ~ t h remforcement embedded m the retaned so11 have advantages m embankments because the resultmg vertlcal or steep faces.2.Concrete br~cks should not be used where sufficiently aggresswe sulfate ground condrt~ons exlst unless they are protected or have spec~f~cally been manufactured for the purpose BS 5628 Part 3 gwes recommendat~ons the for select~on and use of bnck masonry 4.2.2. protectwe detalmg to masonry where necessary or the use of mortar contammg sulfate-res~sting cement should be considered 4. but there are reported Instances of fire damage to gabron walk constructed from flammable matenals Protectrve detahng to wall~ng may be requ~redand some types of masonry unlt may not be su~table for use in aggressive sulfate condlt~onsBS 5628 Part 3 and BS 5390 for stone masonry glve recommendat~ons the select~on for and use of mater~als 4 2 4 2. ground water.1 and 184.108.40.206.2. revetments and antl-erosion works. and upon durabil~ty cons~derat~ons Where damp-proof course (dpc) bncks are used in bnckwork construction they should be l a d m mortar des~gnatlon and it 1s advisable to use the (I) same mortar for bnckwork below the level of the dpc bncks Where cappmgs to br~ck masonry are used mortar des~gnation should be used w ~ t h (I) clay bncks.4. as compared w ~ t h battered slopes. where these apply.3 Movement joznts Movement jolnts should be mcorporated as recommended In BS 5628 Part 3 Where buttressed walls are used.2 W a ~ r o o f z n g Unremforced masonry walls should be prov~ded w ~ t h waterproofing membrane to the reta~nmg a (I e back) face of the wall The type of membrane to be used w ~ l depend upon the nature of the l retamed matenal and whether there wll be a permanent head of ground water behmd the wall Waterproofing membranes should be adequately protected pnor to and dunng backf~lhng Where movement jolnts are mcorporated.2.4.3. water bars may be requ~red these jomts if ground at water cond~t~ons warrant Water bars should not mterfere w ~ t h free actlon of movement jolnts the 4.6 Gabions 4.4.1 General The general constructlon and workmansh~p of unremforced mass masonry walls should be in accordance w ~ t h 5628 Part 3 and BS 5390 as BS appropnate 4. rectangular m shape.1 General Gab~ons large cages or baskets usually of steel are wlre or square welded mesh. bamboo slats.4. filled w ~ t h stone and used to bu~ld reta~nmg walls.
Figure 15. Hexagonal woven mesh gabion cage (typical) .BS 8002 : 1994 Section 4 .
preferably bullt to a batter for appearance and to mcrease the resistance to overturnmg Sunllarly walls wlth stepped faces should be t~lted towards the backfill Counterforts or buttresses may be mcorporated in the constructlon In large walls where the cross sect~on greater IS than 4 m w ~ d e an economy can be made by usmg . but the outer and mner faces may be stra~ght stepped.2. the permeab~l~ty a l of gab~on wall 1s an advantage smce water in the backfill dunng falhng levels. to form a hexagonal mesh wh~ch can stretch or contract m two d~rect~ons its own plane so in that a rectangular wlre mesh box filled with quamed stone or nver shmgle can deform m any d~rect~on.2. can dram freely The nature of the backfill may necessitate the use of a filter behmd the wall. the wall may be made permanent by groutmg the gab~on wall w ~ t h cement grout. to prevent the leachmg of fines In cold c h a t e s gab~ons able to resist the are actlon of frost heave of wall 1s not necessarily l ~ m ~ t e d The l ~ f e a gab~on by the effective hfe of the cage or basket if the shape of the wall IS such that the stone f f i n g remams substant~ally stable after fa~lure the of cage through corrosion or abras~on the wlre of mesh If soll cond~t~ons su~table a n@d are for structure. base and d~aphragms (where necessary) of the baskets. Welded mesh gabion cage (typical) 4. t of top. produced m accordance ulth BS 1052 It should be electncally welded at every mtersection.Section 4 & Sta~nless steel clips The w~dth the honzontal tread of the steps of should not exceed the depth of the gab~on Walls may have plane outer faces.1 Hexagonal woven wzre mesh The nettmg w mechatucauy woven m a continuous sheet. frgure 15 see 4.3. the latter bemg more common or .2 6 2 Types o wall a n d applicability f The permeab~l~ty flexlb~hty gab~ons and of make where the retamed matenal 1s hkely them sn~table to be saturated and where the beanng qual~ty of the soll 1s poor W~re mesh gab~ons of two are forms baskets. but a th~s changes the nature of the wall 4. and jomed together wlth stamless steel chps or galvan~zed sprmg steel spht nngs See figure 16 The gab~ons dehvered to the s ~ t e are flat-packed The n@d~ty flexlb~hty or reqn~red the desgner by can be ach~eved selectmg vanous slzes of wlre by gauge.6.2. @vmga mlnlmum average weld shear strength of 70 % of the mmunum ultlmate tens~le strength of the wwe The welded mesh 1s cut Into panels w ~ t h flush edges to s u ~the dlrnens~ons the s~des. a cellular form of constructlon The outer and mner gab~on faces are t ~ e d bulkheads of gab~ons by and the cells between them f~lled ~ t h w stone The slze and shape of the cells should be proport~oned to ach~eve mternal stabhty In nvers and in t ~ d awaters. but in general baskets made from welded mesh are less flexlble than a comparable woven wire mesh basket Galvan12edor plastic coated Iacng w e Figure 16.6 3 Materials 4. and mattresses w h ~ c h used for revetments and the are hnmg of nver and channel banks The bas~c shape of gab~on reta~nmg walls IS trapezo~dal.2 Welded wzre mesh Welded wire mesh 1s an oblong or square mesh manufactured from cold reduced steel wlre.3.6. which are used for walls.
6 Gabzon szzes Box gab~ons normally ava~lable half metre are in modules in lengths of 2 m to 6 m.2.3.4 Design 4. are futed to the s ~ d e s by lacmg w ~ t h 2 mm mmlmum bindlng wlre. or heavy abras~ve material. for manne structures 175 mm 1s the usual mlnlmum The maxlmum recommended slze is 200 mm 4 2 6.2 6 4 2 Equzlthrzum of the wall The retamed soil wlll exert actwe pressure over the entu-e wall height. the slze should be as small and as unlform as possible.2.3 Other meshes Other meshes may be used such as cham hnk. panels of the mesh w h ~ c h form the cages should be hot dip galvan~zedto BS 729 after weldmg Galvanued gablons may be used where the expected hfe of the galvan~zed wlre IS suffment for the mtended hfe of the structure The sod and water w ~ t h whlch the structure IS in contact should be assessed to determme 1) sod res~stivlty.1 General Small gabion walls should be deslgned on the same pnnc~ple a gravlty mass wall. washed over the structure by wave action 4. be f ~ t t e d ~ t h w transverse vert~cal d~aphragm panels a t 1 m centres to prevent undue d~stortion and stone mlgratlon 4. IS hkely to be thrown agamst. 2 galvaluzed or PVC coated.1 and 4.4. w h ~ c h may be assumed to be a so11to soil f n c t ~ o n surface .2 6 3. or. the expected 1 l ~ f of unprotected steel may be suffic~ent e for such gab~ons be used for certain permanent to works b) Galuanzzed wzre Hexagonal woven mesh gabions should be made from wlre galvanued to BS 443 For welded mesh gab~ons.2 Examples of gab~on walls are shown In figure 17 The dens~ty the stone fill of should be taken as 60 % of the sohd matenal 4. but if the wlre d~ameters 5 mm or more.6 3. PVC gab~on mesh has been satisfactory in the constructlon of nver walls w ~ t h vertlcal water faces but antl-scour aprons wlth hor~zontal surfaces should be avo~ded Galvan~zed mesh IS more eas~ly abraded in these sltuatlons On coastal foreshores. 0 5 m and 1 m Boxes should. by movmg shingle in nver beds and on coastal foreshores in mountam riven.6. where possible. to match the gab~on mesh 4. where prov~ded.6.2. expanded metal and plg nettmg They have one or more of the following disadvantages a) tendency to unravel if one wlre IS broken. PVC coated gabions are unsat~sfactory where large shmgle. see 4 2. where the heavy waterborne mater~al usually travels along the bed. although of 5 % may be down to 50 mm to 80 mm To ensure ' efficient constructlon.3.2. no allowance bemg as made for the strength or mass of the wlre mesh. as a mass gravlty structure. 1 m to 2 m w ~ d e and in depths of 0 3 m.BS 8002 : 1994 Section 4 4. crushmg strength and reslstance to weathenng Naturally occurnng rounded stone or quarr~ed stone are acceptable The lower limiting slze is controlled by the dlmens~ons the mesh. but w t h no hydrostat~c pressure The cross sectlon of a gab~on wall.3. b) no selvedged wire so that true rectangular to shapes are d~fficult form. 3) d~ssolve salts such as chlonde Ion content and the total sulfate content.7 Stone fzllzng Stone should conform to BS 5390 for hardness. 5 molsture content of the so11 ) If the cond~tions aggresswe to the galvan~zed are wlre coatmg. 4) pH value.6. should be proport~onedso that the resultant force at any horizontal sectlon hes with~n the m~ddle thlrd of that sect~onThe thrust exerted by the backfill on a gab~on wall acts a t an angle to the perpendicular to the wall T h ~ s angle can be assumed to equal the des~gn value of m' due to the roughness of the gab~on surface.6.2.4 Corroszon and damage of gabzons In the use of gab~ons followmg matters should the be cons~dered a) Unprotected Uncoated wlre gab~ons are normally used only for temporary works. c) low reslstance to corrosion Gabions made on site from rolls or sheets of mesh panels Incorporated so that rarely have d~aphragm structures bu~lt from them are l~able progressive to fallure particularly should the mesh on the outer surface be ruptured 4.5 Assembly ofgabzon unzts The edges of the end panels and of the d~aphragm panels. 2) redox potent~al. the use of polyvmyl chlonde (PVC) coated wlre should be cons~dered C) PVC coated wzre The PVC coating should conform to BS 4102 The rad~al th~ckness the of coatlng apphed to the galvan~zed wire core should be a mlmmum of 0 25 mm The PVC should he suffrc~ently bonded to the galvan~zed wlre core to prevent a capillary flow of water between the w r e and the PVC coatmg leading to corros~on d) Damuye by ubraszon Galvan~zed and PVC coated wlre may be damaged by abrasion.2.
1 General Cnb walls are another alternat~ve concrete and to masonry mass gravlty walls They are built of ~ n d ~ v ~ dunlts assembled to create a serles of ual box-hke structures contalnmg su~table granular free dralnmg fill. to @ve a better appearance and to prevent the format~on weak vertical shear of planes Curves and angles In the face of the structure may be formed by cutting and foldlng the wlre mesh to make specially shaped unlts 4. and w~red down The vertical jolnts 4 2 6 5 2 Marzne applzcatzons .5 Construction 4. t~mber cnbs There are two bas~c and remforced precast concrete cnb walls.Figure 17.5. Examples of g a b ~ o n retaining walls When the retained so111s supported by a heel to the wall the so11may be assumed to be a part of the wall and the design assumes a v~rtual vert~cal rear face When calculat~ng the resistance agamst shding forward the angle of fnction should be taken as that of the foundat~on In accordance w ~ t h . are by r pre-filled before they are placed by crane The cages should be t~ghtly f~lled ~ t h w some overfillmg to allow for subsequent settlement Honzontal Internal brac~ng wlres should be fitted between the outer and mner faces at 330 mm centres in both woven mesh and welded mesh gab~ons wh~ch deeper than 500 mm When are filled. there are should be a min~mal amount of movement of the stone filhng lns~de baskets The fillmg should the be tlghtly packed and the wlre mesh should be taut It IS good practice to open the baskets after a few t~des have passed through the work and to add stone to make good any settlement that has occurred in the frllmg Any loose stone left over after construction should be removed and not left on the foreshore 4.2. t h e ~ nature.2 7 Cribwork 4. so11 326 and not as that between stone rubble and the soil The gab~on wall can be bu~lt a sloped foundat~on on to Increase thls reslstance Checks should be made at selected levels above the base of a gab~on wall.6. to form a gravlty retaimng wall system The units should be so spaced that the f ~ l l rnatenal is contamed w ~ t h ~ n cnb. .. to ascertam that the resistance to shdmg IS suffic~ent prevent shear to failure through the wall. is not the affected by chmatic changes and acts in conjunction w t h the cnbwork to support the retamed earth types of cnb walls.2.2. see figure 18 ..1 Posztzonzng cages Empty cages may be placed srngly or joined together in groups Woven wlre mesh gab~ons may be stretched wlth a small wmch before they are mred to adjacent unlts that have already been filled Underwater gab~ons..7. the gab~on 11ds should be properly closed w~thout gaps. Where gab~ons subjected to wave actlon.6. lgnonng the effect of the wire mesh between ~ndlv~dual umts should be staggered in adjacent courses.
7.2 Tgpes of wall and applicability 4.ons~dtm!d uw \CIIIISI f ~ c ~ ~ n t d (lulnbil~ty mi).7.allv lur-~rr~ml'c.ootl-tlc*~rroy~~~g \. see BS 5268 Part 5 Timber c n b structures are formed w ~ t h front and rear stretcher units tied sp~kes as to tle together the stretcher courses so See figure 19 .y orgmuwls. Iw achievvd I>) ublnr: rl~nbel.2.1 nmbw m b s These may be bulk usmg whole logs or sawn timbers If whole logs are used it 1s necessary to form plane faces at ihe pomts of contact to dlstnbute the load and ~rovlde anchorage between adjacent members ~ h e d u r a b ~ l ~h e tmber in of t t ~ relat~on the ln~tlal to cost and requ~red Me of the 3fr11ct should br ~. u u ~ n l ~ y I ~ ~ I I I I K lS 1 0 a~~a. timlx. Sectlon and elevation of typical crib wall Economy of crib uluts is effected by open-faced walllng The headers are supported on top of the stretcher course The interspace can be planted with rock garden type vegetation which helps to blend the wall into the enwronment By varylng the des~gn the units.2.1'or.BS 8002 : 1994 Section 4 * a] Front elevation Double th~ckness wall of lnd~cated thus urcharge b l End ve on X iw Dsmensmns dlustratwe only Figure 18.h ~ c h \\ I> ~ ~ .:li \\.ib h ~ ~ ~ l r l grntwlly bc cwosmd ur chc~~~it. the wall reducing in thickness at upper levels as the retainmg force5 dimln~sh 4.t. wahngs with a closed face of can be achieved Cnb walls are usually bullt to a batter wh~ch should not be steeper than 1 honzontal to 4 vertical Low walls w ~ t h he~ght a less than their thickness may he vert~cal The thickness of the wall can be vaned by multiples of the module length of the standard header units.2. hemz I ) u ~ l t111lohe I cnb.cl h.
Examples of timber cribwork .y False header 1200 mm stretcher Ooubie th~ckness Batter wall 1 4 Dimensions dlustratwe only Figure 19.
2. throughout its constrnctlon The unlts are llrn~ted sue if they are to be manually in placed The use of mechan~cal plant enables larger unlts to be used.2. Examples of r e!inforced concrete cribwork . speeds up the construction and the plac~ng the fill matenal Cnbwork uses less of concrete than a concrete gramty wall and IS qu~ckly constructed To ensure the assembled structure acts as a senes of box contamers. to the he~ght bu~lt.2 Concrete m b s Remforced precast concrete c r ~ b unlts can be brought on the slte fully cured ready for use The Infill 1s bulk In as each course is assembled so that the cnb wall 1s a fully operatmg structure. the face stretchers should be pos~tlvely anchored by ~nterlock~ng headers for the full thickness of the structure and the headers should be allgned vert~cally transm~t load to the dlrectly throughout the helght of the wall wthout mducmg bend~ng moments m the supporting stretcher unlts Instead of a back row of stretchers stablhty may be ach~evedby uslng headers 'T'or 'Y' shaped on plan so as to contaln the mfill matenal Examples of remforced concrete cnbwork are shown in figures 20 and 21 TI@J LFace stretcher b l ALternatlve d e s ~ g nf o r unlts a ) Rear vlew of assembly u Figure 20.BS 8002 : 1994 Section 4 4.7.
3 Materials 4. gravel and rock rubble.7.3.2 Reznforced concrete Precast concrete unlts should be in accordance with BS 8110 Part 1 or BS 5400 Part 4 4. cuttlngs and bndge approaches When used to support an exlstlng slope it IS advisable to construct the wall to the maxunum batter (1 honzontal m 4 vertical) tnmmmg the emsting slope accordingly and buildlng the uruts to it Cnb walls should not be used for retalmg slopes wh~ch hable to shp The excavation for the are foundations below the toe of the exlstlng slope may preclpltate the shp and it is ~mpractical extend to the cnbwork below the level of potential shp planes Cnb walllng can cany surcharged slopes \nth normal angle of repose above the top of the wall Foundat~ons burld~ngs other structures should for or not Impose loading onto a cnb wall or its foundation Cnb walling IS normally bullt in stralght Lengths.220.127.116.11.~cabzlzty Cnb walls may be used for permanent and temporary retalnlng walls to embankments.2.3 Appl. the welght of the wall structure may be Increased by uslng lean mlx infdl at the base so lun~tmg construction to a the smgle module thck Where t h s IS done a land dram should be formed a t the rear of the wall and weep pipes brought through the mfill on the face to prevent the bu~ld of hydrostatic pressure up 51 .Section 4 a1 Su8iabie far walls up to 2rn w i h surcharge up i o 2 slope 5 ' b i Su8tabIe for wallr up to 2 m wlih noiurcharge lunenslons lllustrat~ve only Figure 21.2.7. although speclal u n ~ t s avadable are to permlt curvature to a nununum radms of approxunately 25 m in both direct~ons Spec~al unlts are requlred for bonding two walls together at cornem in battered wpll construction 18.104.22.168.2.2.3 Fzllzng The fill should be durable. Further examples of reinforced concrete cribwork - 4. mert and free dralnmg A wlde range of matenals is su~table and locally excavated matenal is normally used Coarse sand.1 Tzmber The stresses for different grades of t~mber should be as recommended In BS 5268 Part 2 4. should be used whenever obtainable. these materials reduce the nsk of d~stortion the cnbs Measures for preventmg the of loss of fill through the openlngs may be necessary Where ground conditions permlt.
2 Detazlzng o crzb walls f Where the allowable ground beanng pressure IS adequate the cnb wall may be erected w~thout a separate concrete foundat~ou It should be built off stretcher units set on a granular bed 4.3.1 General Re~nforced concrete and remforced masonry retamrung walls on spread foundat~ons gravlty are structures m wluch the stabhty agamst overtum~ng IS provlded by the we@ of the wall together.7.7 4. for example if lean mix concrete lnfill has been used to mcrease stab~l~ty lnfill zone The immediately behind the wall should be bullt w t h free-dranung matenal 4.7.4 Design 4.2.4 Plantzng Rock garden types of vegetation may be planted after construction A sultable amount of topsoil 1s exchanged w ~ t h f ~ land rammed home so as to the l key well in and provlde sufficient root anchorage The followng are the main types of wall or a) Cantzlever or stem wall (Twalls) A vert~cal inclined slab rnonohthc m t h a slab base (see figure 22) b) Counterfort wall A vertlcal or mclined slab supported by counterforts monohtluc w t h the back of the wall slab and base slab (see figure 23) c) Buttressed wall A vertlcal or mclmed slab supported by buttresses monohthic w t h the front of the wall slab and the base slab (see figure 23) d) Reverse cantzlever wall (L-shaped walls) A vertical or inched slab monol~thic with a slab base that projects m front of the wall slab e) Precast retazntng wall Retaming wall units.5.3 Weepholes 22.214.171.124.4. designed as cantilevers are avalable as precast concrete umts.2 Posztwnzng o unzts f The first row of stretchers should be pos~tionedto h e and level on the prepared foundat~on and held in place by the lnterlockmg header unlts.3.BS 8002 : 1994 Section 4 4.5. together wlth the welght of the filling contamed between the front and back faces The back of the cnb should be cons~dered the as back of the wall The effect of fnct~on the rear on of the wall WIU add to the stabhty and should be mcluded Whdst the effect of vehcular wheel loads can be allowed for in the stabhty calculations ~t IS preferable that roadways should be kept back from the wall a d~stance e ~ t h e 4 5 m or the wall of r he~ght.7. together with the pressures Induced by the compaction of the fill matenal The connection between the headers and stretchers should be deslgned to remt the reactions from the stretchers mainly by mechamcal interlock which is normally provlded by using recesses or dowels T h s mterlock~ng also ass~sts assembly by avmg pos~t~ve locat~on dunng construct~on It IS usual to desgn the unlts for the maxlmum loading cond~t~on the base of the wall and make all the at units standard for use throughout the wall The umts should be detailed and manufactured to provlde plane beanng surfaces whlch are suffic~ently large to prevent crushmg f a h r e from the loadmg involved after due allowance has been made for reduction in beanng area due to manufactunng and erectlon tolerances. \nth the welght of the retamed matenal where t h s rests on the base slab The vanous structural elements of the wall are designed to reslst bending 4.4.5 Constructcon 4.1. generally.2.1 Foundattons A cnb wall should be des~gned a gravlty mass as cross sectlon wall.126.96.36.199 Equzlzbrzum o the wall f 4.7.3 Cmnpactzon and fzllzng The cnb should be filled to the top of each course of stretchers as the erection of the wall proceeds The fill should be compacted to prevent the development of voids and to avold disturbmg the algnment of the crib as Header unlts should be des~gned beams over thelr unsupported length. standard slzes are avdable up to 4mlugh . whichever is the greater veh~cle wheel loads may then be ignored 4.2 The des~gn of the wall should be taken as the area enclosed by the back and front faces of the cnb The weight of the wall should be taken as the weight of the matenal comprising the cnb.3.7. see 4 2 1and 4.2.1 Rexnforced concrete walls (other than basement walls) 4. but it may be necessary to prov~de mortar bed between such a beanng surfaces 188.8.131.52 Types of wall and applicabilzty Weepholes wdl be requlred if the lnfdl is not free drammg.7.2. to carry a load equal to the we~ght the superimposed fill with mu of -m consol~dation The stretchers should be designed to resist bend~ng caused by the honzontal component of the earth pressure behmd. the batter should be checked On slopmg ground the foundation should be stepped to follow the slope.3 Reinforced concrete and reinforced masonry walls on spread foundations 4. the steps bemg spaced to suit the u n ~ module t lengths 184.108.40.206.
3.3.7 Gu~dance structural deslgn is also on Bven in DD ENV 1992-1-1 and Recommendatzons f forperrnzsszble stress deszgn o reznforced concrete structures Inst.1.4 Design 4.gn See 3.1.1 and 4.2. by battenng back the exposed face at approx~mately 1 ~n50 4. Struct Eng (1991) concrete walls relv on other Where re~nforced structures for support the construc6on sequence of the structures and the wall and possible changes in use which may affect the supports should be taken lnto account in the des~gn 4.4. othennse the th~ckness the stem of the cant~lever of wall becomes excesswe Buttressed re~nforced concrete reta~ning walls are seldom used The illusion of the retamrung wall t~ltmg forward should be avoided w t h all types of walls.3.3 Materials Matenals for re~nforced concrete work should be in accordance with BS 8110 Part 1. for greater helghts a counterfort wall is more appropnate. 1. BS 5328 Part 1 and Part 2 or BS 5400 Part 4 . Basic forms of reinforced concrete cantilever o r stem wall For he~ghts to about 8 m a cantilever wall w up generally econonuc..2.2.2 structural de.1.4.Section 4 BS 8002 : 1994 b l.3.1 Equz1zLn"zum o the wall f See 4.2 4.Reinfoned concrete L -wall a ) +forced T -wall concrete ' (may be prov~ded with key) L -wall with k Figure 22.
BS 8002 : 1994 Section 4 a I Relnforced concrete wall with counterforts b l Relnforced concrete wall w ~ t hbuttresses Counterforts Base slab I c I Sectional elevation of counterforted wall Figure 23. Basic forms of reinforced concrete counterfort and buttressed walls .
2.3. sod stresses beneath the the foundatlon should be checked 4.3 2 2 Design 4. except where a free standmg earth face is poss~ble It 1s common for basement walls to be close to exsting bu~ldings.4.3. weepholes and other polnts where water may accumulate so that the uns~ghtly blemishes on the exposed concrete surface due to ramwater and waterborne detntus.220.127.116.11. 18.104.22.168.5.1.2. each slab should be checked for adequate resmance to buckhng Where the basement wall 1s monol~th~c~ t h raft foundatlon w a there 1s not normally a nsk of overstressmg the sod under the raft.1.2.4 and 4 2.2. whether temporary or permanent.or roads The excavatlon techn~ques and t h e ~ effect on r neighbounng structures are important in the design and construct~on basement walls of Figures 24 to 29 mclnswe lnd~cate mam range the of walls and the temporary and permanent support r systems which may be used with t h e ~ advantages and disadvantages Reference should be made to The Deszgn and Constructzon o Deep Basements.2 Excavatzon methods and support systems These should be considered at the des~gn stage and in part~cular followmg the a) The struttmg promded. \nth addlt~onal horizontal jolnts m the wall stem to s u ~ the hfts of the formwork Vert~cal t jomts should be pos~tionedat points of mlnimum shear and at approximately 10 m centres Reinforcement should pass through the jolnts Reference may be made to BS 8007 for detiuls of types of jolnts 4. 4. see 4.8 Masonry claddzng Remforced concrete reta~ning walls may be bulk with masonry claddmg where appearance and weathenng qualities are design factors Where masonry 1s used as a claddmg reference should be made to flgure 13 and 4.2 IS apphcable to basement wails Where the wall is promded w ~ t h a separate foundat~on.2 Basement walls.2 22.214.171.124.2. may be avo~ded 4. excavat~on. or splay and the wall stem.2.4.3 1.1.2. but on soft or loose sods t h ~ s should be checked Considerat~on should be gven as to the extent to which 3.6.d) Detazlzng Attention should be gven to the detailmg of appropr~ate dnps at the top of the retamng wall.5 Construction 4.1 Equzlabnum o the wall f See 4.1 and 4.1 Types o wall a n d applicability f The construction of basement walls wdl necessitate the constructlon of an ~mtial temporary support to the earth Face. f Instn Struct Eng (1975) from whch the figures have been taken . support and retention systems 4 3.2 The des~gn should incorporate the restctlons from temporary supporting members wh~ch may be mcluded m the plane of the wall and whose poslt~onmay be vaned dunng constructlon The design should also mclude the reactions from permanent members on the wall such as columns.5. free standmg earth face excavatlon may be used The basement retmmg wails are then constructed w t h the excavated area and the floor slab(s) constructed before any backfihg (see figure 30) 126.96.36.199.3. a slopmg.2 Fbmnwork The design and constructlon of formwork should provide the requlred surface finish and should be appropnate to the method of plac~ng and compactmg The formwork should be sufficiently n g ~ d prevent deflect~on the face and t~mber to of suffic~ently tight to prevent the loss of grout or mortar from the concrete at all stages 4. beams and floor slabs wluch may in a d d ~ t ~ o n to vertrcal loads produce moments due to eccentricity of loading or end f m t y Where the basement wall 1 s restramed from movement by one or more lateral floor slabs.2.3. should ensure that at all stages of constructlon the stresses in the wall are w~thm the des~gn lunitations The location of permanent floor slab strutting may be different from that of temporary struttmg The design should be checked for both the temporary and permanent cond~t~ons b) For shallow depth basements and to fachtate constructlon it may be advantageous to desgn the retamng wall as a cantdever dunng the construct~on stage and as a propped wall for the permanent constructlon when the ground floor slab or beams have been completed to promde the prop actlon to the top of the wall at ground level c) Ground anchors may be used w t h advantage to fachtate constructlon to tle back the walls of basements instead of using struts.3 Where the basement IS suffic~ently removed from slte boundanes and from adjommg buddmgs.3.1 Constructzon joznts Construction joints should be kept to a minlmum Generally to fachtate constructlon there should be ajoint between the base.
Temporary support by fully braced trench .Section 4 BS 8002 : 1994 11 " l l ~ e ~ n f o kconcrete d or g r a v ~ t y wall NOTE 1 Advantages Suitable for large excavatlons m plan rather than m depth Evades ground water problems if sheet plllng can effect seal m underlnng stratum PuOTE 2 Dzsad~antages Slow and radically constrams programme and access Wall has to be rrmoved self-supportmg to withstand sol1 pressures when dump~ng NOTE 3 Source INSTITLITION OF STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS 1975 Deszgn and constructzon o deep basements f Figure 24. Temporary support against central dumping NOTE 1 Advantages Sultable for excavatlons relatwely large m extent rather than depth Evades ground water problem e sheet p~llng effect seal m underlying stratem can NCfl'E 2 Dzsadvantages Slow and r e s t r a m construction progmmme WaU has to be self-supportmg agalnst sol1 pressures when basement area ISexcavated NOTE 3 Smcxce INSTITUTION OF STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS 1975 Deszgn and construdum ofbasements Figure 25.
BS 8002 : 1994 Section 4 3I .ad~t~onal Wlth mcorpomtlon of jacks for pre-loadmg can be used where movements have to be restricted to mlnlmum NOTE 2 Dzsadt. Long flying shores across excavations NOTE I Advantages Sultable for very deep excavatlons .li.antages Slow and very costly partlculary as wldth of excavation increases Constrams constructLon programme greatly because of access difficulties f NOTE 3 Source INSTITUTION OF STRbCIZIRAL ENGINEERS 1975 Deszgn and construetzon o deep basements Figure 27. Fully braced temporary support .I I Long flylng shores at requred centres Basement construct~on --- ---Vert~cal supports I to shores if requlred A-5 II H Struts help to reduce span of wal~ngs bl Plan NOTE 1 Advantages Vanant of figure 43. but suitable for narrower excavatlons NOTE 2 Dzsadvantages Impedes constructmn Incorporation of monltonng jacks more drfflcult than for method shown in flgure 42 NOTE Source INSTITUTIOK OF STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS 1975 Deszgn and constructton o deep basements f Figure 26.
Concurrent upward and downward construction . - -4 L I n .s ~ t uc o d n cast in cylmder shaft r Flrst basement floor level wal~ngslab NOTE 1 Advantages Good for d e e p excavations Affords speedler constructmn O Superstructure n NOTE 2 h a d v a n t a g e s Excavatlan and removal of spoil form enclosed area relatively difficult NOTE 3 Source INSTITUTION OF STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS 1975 Dengn and of construct~on deep basements Figure 28.Section 4 BS 8002 : 1994 Plates for supporting floor slabs I Cylinder belled wt to form f ~ n a l foundation base -1 -2 -3 .
BS 8002 : 1994 Section 4 . Walmg beam at f l r s t - Sheet pde wall base Wal~ng slabs Inserted as excavat~on proceeds downwards - 5 6 Lift of r e t a ~ n ~ n g b u ~ l tw ~ t h wall wallng slabJ G Latt~cecolumn Fnal column loads t r a r h i t t e d onto raft L Foundat~onr a f t at s ~ x t h basement floor level NOTE I Adwantayes Good method for deep excavations Temporary strutting ehmmated Temporary beams ehmmated NOTE 2 Dxadvantages Excavatmn under slabs and removal of spoll relatively dlfflcult NOTE 3 Source WSTITUTIOK OF STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS 1975 Deszgn. and constructzn o deep basemenJs f Figure 29. Floors cast on ground with excavation continuing below ..
e) post-tensioned d~aphragm walhng and other geometnc sectlons (see figure 35) .3. Open cut 4.2. part~cularly settlement.1 General for Re~nforced masonry IS su~table retalmg walls while prestressed masonry is over 1 5 m h~gh. usually economical for retalrung walls over 4 m ktgh Both methods of construction prov~de walk w~th high appearance quaht~es and good weathenng capabhty Remforcement provldes flexural tensile capaclty to the wall sectlon and t h s allows add~tional lateral loads to be carned compared to the equ~valent unremforced masonry wall A number of structural arrangements are ava~lable Prestressed masonry IS a technique where precompression 1s mduced In the masonry cross sectlon thereby @wng effectwe flexural tens~le capacity and enhanced resistance to lateral loadmg Prestressmg IS usually by post-tenwonlng Prestressmg 1s usually carned out m conjunction w~th geometrical masonry cross sections such as diaphragm walhng The structural des~gn remforced and prestressed of masonry should conform to BS 5628 Part 2 and for general construction and workmansh~p wlth BS 5628 Part 3 or BS 5390 for stone masonry 4.3.3 Construction Excavat~ons should be carned out m accordance w t h BS 6031 4. then some movement. see 3.3. electncity and gas semces are located Surcharge loads. d) remforced hollow blockwork (see figure 34). both temporary and permanent Ground water lower~ng dunng construct~on ground heave of or the basement excavatlon may also cause movement of the adjomlng ground b) The foundations to walls of adjolnlng bulldings may need to be underpmned where they are at a shallow depth and close to the basement excavatlon and wtlun a h e drawn at a slope of 1 honzontal to 2 vertical from the base of the basement excavation c) The excavation and support systems should be des~gned ensure that the settlement or lateral to y~eld the surroundmg ground surface 1s wtlun of acceptable hmits particularly where the excavatlon adjoins a publlc hghway where dramage.188.8.131.52.2. b) remforced Quetta bond (see figure 32).2 Reinforced a n d prestressed masonry wall types Typtcal examples are a) remforced grouted-cawty (see figure 31). of the adjouung ground may occur due to mward yleldmg of the excavation face and support system.3.3 Effect on nezghboumng stmcctures The followmg matters should be cons~dered the at des~gn stage a) Where excavatlons for basements are close to extstmg buddmgs. should be carefully cons~dered 4.3. cheap and gwes completely accessible site NOTE 2 Dzsadvantages Only pratlcable m relatwely stable sod and requires a large open fleld slte Dewatenng necessary if pemeablhty and water table hlgh NWE 3 Source INS'IlTUTION OF STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS 1975 Deszgn and constmtzon of deep basements Figure 30.2.3 Reinforced and prestressed masonry retaining walls 4.NOTE 1 Advantages For large excavatlons a is fast. C)re~nforcedpocket-type (see figure 33).
Reinforced hollow blockwork construction . Reinforced masonry: pocket-type construction Figure 32.BS 8002 : 1994 Section 4 Figure 31. Reinforced masonry: Quetta bond construction Figure 34. Reinforced masonry: grouted-cavity construction Figure 33.
3 Materials 4.3 In a d d ~ t ~ oBS 5628 Part 2 recommends that only mortar des~gnat~ons and (I) (11) should be consldered for use in remforced and prestressed masonry Mortar des~gnat~on1 may (1) 1 be used m walls mcorporatmg bed jomt remforcement to enhance lateral load remtance 4.2.6 Wall taes Where wall tles are requ~red.184.108.40.206.2.- Figure 35. these should be specified and provlded in accordance w ~ t h 5628 Part 2 BS .3.3. example m for remforced grouted-cavlty wall constructlon.2 Mortars The recommendat~ons mortars should generally for n.3.4 Concrete znfzll and grout These should be m accordance \nth BS 5628 Part 2 In some apphcatlons mortar can be used as mfill around reinforcement in remforced masonry dependmg upon the type of steel used and the exposure sltuatlon 4.3 3 3.3 Dampproof courses Care should be taken ~nthe speclficat~on of damp-proof courses for remforced and prestressed masonry so that the structural mtegnty of the walhng IS mantamed The use of a bnck damp-proof course at the base of the wall and above ground level confonnmg to BS 743 should be consldered for use wlth bnckwork constructlon Other damp-proof course matenals may be used if they can be shown to be su~table 4.3.3. Post-tensioned masonry diaphragm wall construction 4.3.3 3.3. conform to 220.127.116.11.3.5 Reznforczng and pestresnng steel These should be selected and spec~fied in accordance w ~ t h 5628 Part 2 BS 4 3.3.2 should generally be ~n accordance w ~ t h Addd~onal recommendat~ons masonry unlt on surtabhty are provlded by BS 5628 Part 2 4.1 Masonry unzts The select~on and spec~ficat~on masonry unlts of 4.4.
water P~les may be of t~mber.2.4. should be s the p~les wdl resm the forward movement of the correctly located and remforcement should be toes of the p~les. in a manner posit~onedso as not to be m d~rect contact slrndar to a vert~cal beam w ~ t h srnple supports In tk~e fixed earth cond~t~on further penetration of the 4. embedded depth of the wall.18.104.22.168.1.5 Construction 4.3 5.5 remforcement For anchored or propped walls m the free earth 4.3. contalnlng remforcement.2 Structural deszgn 4. anchored or propped structures.2 for unre~nforced pressures at the front of the wall reslst forward IU masonry walls apply to relnforced and prestressed movement but that the rotahon of the toe IS masonry retamlng walls restramed by the development of passlve pressures .22.214.171.124. see figure 36 Cant~lever walls denve t h e ~ eqn~hbnum r from the lower.4 Wateqn"oofzng p~les requ~red ensure not only that the passlve 1s to The recommendat~ons 4.3. respect of d~splacement m and movement. ground 1s strong enough to gve adequate support are to be filled w ~ t h concrete ~nfill grout.3. and workmanslup for.3.1 Equzlzbrzum o the wall f See 4.1.1 General The construction of. the or The deflections at the head of a cantllever wall are remforcement should be properly located and sigmficant It IS preferable not to use cant~lever mfibng should be carned out in accordance w t h walls when semces or fonndat~ons located are the recommendat~ons BS 5628 Part 2 There in wholly or partly w t h m the actwe zone smce are two methods of mfilhg usmg e ~ t h e low-hft or horizontal and vert~cal r movement in the retamed high-l~ft techn~quesW ~ t h some types of re~nforced mater~al may cause damage masonry wall constructlon (e g grouted-cav~ty and Quetta bond constructlon) add~t~onal 1s needed Anchored or propped walls may have one or more care to mantam cavltles and vo~ds clear of debns and to levels of anchor or prop in the upper part of the wall They can be desgned to have fixed or free pos~t~on remforcement correctly m order that earth support at the bottom. may be 4. but even t h s may be excessive where soft or loose sods occur in front of the wall Stdfer cant~lever walls.4. masonry used m re~nforced and prestressed masonry retaining walls should be in accordance wlth BS 5628 Part 3 or BS 5390 as appropnate Add~t~onal gu~dance spec~fic re~nforced to and prestressed masonry 1s gwen m BS 5628 Part 2 Protective detadmg to wabng may be requ~red dependmg upon the type of masonry units selected for the wall constructlon and should be prov~dedm accordance w ~ t h recommendat~ons 4. they denve theu effnent mfilhng can be achleved If mechanical stab~l~ty mamly from the anchorages or props They compaction of mnfdhng 1s carned out t h ~ should s are common m cofferdams with several levels of avo~d d~srupt~on e ~ t h e the masonry or the of r supportmg frames.3.2 4.3.1 the of and 4.5 3 Reznfmcement and wall tzes cond~t~on.1 General The structural des~gn walls should be in of accordance w ~ t h 5628 Part 2 BS 4. V-shaped.2 Embedded or sheet walls are bullt of contiguous or mterlockmg ind~v~dual or d~aphragm p~les waU-panels to form a continuous structure capable of retauung so11 and to some extent.3. tongued and grooved or mterlocking jolnts between adjacent plles D~aphragm wall-panels are formed of re~nforced concrete Embedded retamng walls may be cantdever.2.4. penetration of the plles should be the Mam and secondary remforcement.3. apply to walls wlth multi-level supports 4. bed Jolnt des~gned that the passlve pressure in front of so remforcement and wall t ~ e where used.3 MovemoU joznts Movement jomts should be mcorporated in reinforced and prestressed masonry earth retauung structures In accordance w ~ t h gu~dance the gwen in BS 5628 Part 3 The locat~on movement Joints of m relatmn to remforcement and prestressing wlres or ban should be gwen careful cons~derat~on the m wall des~gn and layout 4.2. w~ll prevent rotatlon The but not w~red-m where necessary Where d ~ s s ~ m ~ l a r steels plles are supported by tles at the top of the wall are used in the same constructlon they should be and the so11 at the base of the wall. see 4.1 and 4.2 Types of wall and applicabil~ty Cant~lever retammg walls are su~table only for moderate helght It 1s usual to hit the maxunum he~ght such sheet p~le of cant~lever walls to 5 m.2.2 Concrete znfzllzng and grmtzng satisfactory to he~ghts 12 m provldmg the of Where cavltles or vo~ds.2.3 3 4. anchored or propped walls denve thelr equihbnnm partly from the lower embedded depth of the wall and partly from an anchorage or prop system wh~ch supports the upper part of the wall Spec~al cons~derat~ons. concrete or steel and may have lapped.3.4 Embedded walls 4 4.4.BS 8002 : 1994 Section 4 4.3.4 Design 4.3. of concrete or steel mcludmg d~aphragm walls and heavy compowte walls.5.
3 Des~gn 4. ? " a1 Cantilever wail bl Anchored wall cl h p p e d wall Figure 36.2 Equslibrium of the wall of the interaction between the soil and the See 4. p 396 et seq) In add~tlon the loads to structure.9 R-ad~t~oual methods of deslgn for embedded walls have been w~dely used.1 and 4.3. a deslgn method based on assummg an equwalent anchor (B J Jack. but these methods all have recogn~zed shortcommgs These methods are outhned in annex B and comments are Included on the apphcabhty of each method sorls the calculations are based upon the undramed shear strength of the clay so11wth & = 1 .1. the loads on the of the flex~bility the wall relatwe to the sol1 of supported system of struts or anchors may be This red~stnbut~on results In an mcrease of denved from the trapezo~dd dlstnbutlon of actwe d~sturbmg force at the wallng and at the toe of the pressure shown in figure 37 T h ~ s method should of pressure m the wall and reduct~on d~sturbmg be used withm the lnmts gwen in Terzagh~ and centre of the span For a relatively flex~ble Peck (1967. is posltlon w ~ t h reduced pressure belund the wall at n determmed from the graphs t annex A in clay lower levels. takes no account 4. \ . have depth of penetrat~onto ensure overall equ~l~bnum shown that this can have a s~gn~ficant ~ntluence on of the wall and the so11 and secondly to determme the d~stnbution earth pressures in servlce and of the structural des~gn the wall to reslst the of on the result~ng bendmg moments and prop forces Imposed loadmgs The d~stnbut~on earth pressures is affected by of Where the retammg wall 1s supported by a the deflected shape of the wall whlch 1s a function multl-stage support system.3. 1985).126.96.36.199. 1971) has generally produced conservatlve des~gns 4 4. such as an anchored sheet plle wall m due to earth pressures in granular matenals water dense sand. the effect of wall deformat~on ~ l l w pressure and pressures due to surcharge loads enhance the pressure actlng above the anchor should be added In granular matenals K. Types of embedded retaming wall .4. and model tests (Rowe. 1952).2 structure Numerical studles (Potts and The general procedure IS first to determme the Four~e.3.3 Bendsng moment reduction The simpllfy~ng assumption made m des~gn concernmg the h e a r Increase \nth depth of actlve pressure and pasave resistance.near the toe at the rear of the wall The provlslon of a simple support at the top due to the anchor or ties and a fixed support due to the so11 at the base of the wall is s~rmlar a vert~cal to propped cantdever 4..1 General The des~gn procedure recommended 1s based on the calculat~on the des~gn of earth pressures as descnbed in 3. where the greatest deflectrons occur SKmmZa \ \ \ Deadrnan \ \ \ \ . the lower pressures are relevant only when movement can be kept to a mlnimwn and construction t m e e short The Terzaghi and Peck (revised) (1967) method should not be used to calculate the assoc~ated p~le bendmg moments The moments can be denved sat~sfactonly shown in figure 38 For walls w ~ t h as two levels of anchorages./lyH) for soft to med~um clay The diagram for st~ff fissured clays is tentatwe.(4c. \ \\ Alternative ground anchor 1 .
Active pressure diagrams relating to maximum strut loads m braced earth retaining structures NOTE S m m Sozl Meckanzcs zn Engznemng Praetux (second edltlon) Terzaghi 6 1967 Repnnted by 2 pemlsslon of John Wiley & Sons Inc .Apparent earth pres bI Sand Softlmed~um day S t ~ f fclay Figure 37.
accompamed by an mcrease m the anchor loads A des~gn approach by Rowe for sheet p ~ l e walls IS descnbed by Barden m Part JII of CIRIA techn~cal note 54 (1974) Rowe's method resulted from an extenslve senes of model tests. w ~ t h a ngld wall no moment reduct~on should be made No moment reduct~on should be made where excesswe y~eld~ng the anchorage system or of movement of the p ~ l e toes may occur The reduct~on bend~ng m moment IS accompamed by an mcrease In the forces m the anchorage system. for sltuatlons where e ~ t h e the r structure or the retamed so11 wll be suh~ect to v~brat~on large Impact forces. 1952 and 1957) I t enables account to be taken of the flextb~hty the wall and the st~ffness the of of proppmg system Compansons between measured and desgn values of maxlmum bendmg moment and prop force for a temporary anchored sheet pde wall m granular sod are gwen by Symons et a1 (1987) should be allowed in the des~gn No red~stnbut~on of cant~lever walls.2 .5. w fixed Free earih support l a 1 Exra\ai>on for f i a r n e l l l Ib l Frame Ill ~nsialled Excavat%onfor frame121 iil FiameslllandI21 m t a l l e d Exravai>onfar frame131 I d 1 Frameill1 121 and 131 installed Flnal e x m a t t o n ( e l Constiuctm beqns Frame 141 ~ n i i a l l e d i f l C o n ~ t r u c i mm n t ~ n u e ~ Frame (31' inrialled Frame 131 removed l g l C o n r t r u r i m ronimoer Frame 121' m l a l l e d Frame 121 removed Ih i Construti>on ronilnuer Frame ill' m i a i l e d Frame Ill removed Figure 38 Illustration of method of calculation of bending moments and frame loads by successive stage analysis in cofferdams The r e d ~ t n b u t ~ o n pressure results m a reduct~on of of bendmg moment in the p ~ l eIn front of the wall the passwe resistance may equal or exceed the theoretical passwe values close to ground level and may decrease w ~ t h depth towards the toe of the wall The nett result IS a reduct~on maxlmum In bendmg moment compared w t h des~gn based on a hnear mcrease In l~mltmg pressure w ~ t h depth T h ~ s IS however. see 4.Section 4 BS 8002 : 1994 - - . smce so11 archmg IS less ldiely to be estabhshed through strata of varylng strengths Moment reduct~on may be apphed where the wall IS free to deflect. moment reduct~on should be apphed w ~ t h cautlon. for p ~ l e backfilled or i after dnvmg or for pressure due to water In these circumstances the pressures actmg on the wall wlll be h~gher than the actwe earth pressures Where there are dlffenng so11 strata. (Rowe.2.
the th~ckness of a pile may have to be increased to allow for corroslon The calculat~ons should consider the bendmg stresses and corroslon at several levels to determme the sectlon of p~hng needed See 4. c) the p~hng used as a cant~lever. a reduced value of th? sectlon modulus of the combined sectlon should be used m accordance with the manufacturer's recommendat~ons 4. dependent on the type of dnve used Impact methods generate the htghest stresses dunng mstallation. are not fully but effectwe m certam types of sod Unless the soil cond~tions consistent.4 4 4. those dnven by other methods. some dnv~ng are with mpact hammers may be needed Panel dnv~ng a senes of of sheet plies mterconnected to form a panel. pressmg or other means.4.4. 1s care should be taken that the des~gn stresses to be used are compatible w ~ t h that part~cular quahty of steel 4.4.3 Section modulus of steel sheet prling Sectlons of 'Z' type steel sheet pdmg.4. wh~ch have the~r mterlocks in the flanges. there IS hkely to be hard or difficult drivmg then the plles should be des~gned the bass of a free earth support on Th~s w~ll glve the combmed benefits of a heav~er sectlon to fac~htate dnvmg and a shorter requred penetratlon Into the hard mater~al In determmmg the sectlon needed. develop the full sectlon modulus of an und~vldedwall of pdmg under all condit~onsSect~ons trough type steel of sheet p111ng w ~ t h close-fittmg mterlocks along the centre hne or neutral a m of the sheet~ng develop the strength of the combmed sectlon only when is the p ~ l ~ n gfully drwen Into the ground Loads on the supportmg system may be denved from the d~str~bution actwe pressure as shown m of figure 37 based upon the Terzagh~ and Peck (rev~sed) (1967) method The shear forces in the Interlocks may be cons~dered res~sted fnctlon as by due to the pressure at the wahngs and the restmnt exercised by the ground In certam conditions it 1 s advisable to connect together the inner and outer plles in each palr by weld~ng.2 Destgn The structural design of the steel sheet p h g should be in accordance wrth BS 449 Part 2 The allowable stresses gwen therem may be increased by 12 % for temporary works of short durat~on The desgn of sheet plllng is linked drectly with dnving considerat~ons (see 4.3.4 Constructron 4. IS advisable as it ensures the maxlmum control of hne and verticahty and reduces dr~vmg resistance to a minlmum Further gu~dance dnvmg practlce is on Bven m BS 8004 A hghter section of sheet pile may be acceptable for structural purposes for soils w ~ t h ~gh h values of mternal fnction or cohes~on as they apply smaller actwe pressures to the wall than weaker solls However stronger s o b generate more resistance to dnwng and consequently.4.4. because of the s o h to be penetrated.4. may be used as a gude m the absence of more detailed knowledge This gmde is based on expenence with p~les of Bnt~sh manufacture and of approximately 500 mm width.1) Where.4. is 4 J Tnese d) the pllmg IS supported by props or struts but is cant~levered a substantial d~stance to above the h~ghest wahng or below the lowest walmg If any of these condit~ons anse and the pars of piles are not connected together as descnbed. b) the pthug is prevented by rock from penetrating to the normal depth of cut-off. but have the advantage of bemg sultable for all soll types V~bratory and hydrauhc pressmg systems do not Impose h ~ g h peak stresses m the p~les dunng mstallat~on.4. the plle shaft should sustam the dnwng force w~thout buckhng and the plle toe should not be damaged by the soil resistance Dnvmg forces vary \nth the dnvmg method.4. to ensure that the interlock common to the p a r can develop the necessary shear resistance Such cond~t~ons when anse a) the plhng passes through soft clay or water. wh~ch based on unadjusted blow count is values N obtamed in the standard penetratlon test.4. v~bratory or hydraul~c dr~vers and dnvmg stresses w~ll vary. dnven wlth impact hammers and usmg the panel dnvlng method of mstallation Sectlons of greater w~dth.1 General A comparat~vely small d~splacement sod IS of caused dunng dnvmg and suitable sectlons can be drwen into almost any so11 except strong rocks Reference should be made to grade 5275P for the properties of mlld steel and grade 5355P for hlgh y~eld steel to BS EN 10025 19904) Where steel sheet p~llng manufactured to other standards. a may be or ~mposslbleto dnve the p~les the requlred depth to and expensive delays may result Sheet plles may be mstalled by impact.4.1 Dmvzng sheet pzles The stresses wh~ch l be imposed on the pies d dunng dnvmg should be cons~dered when the sectlons sheet plle wall IS bemg deslgned P ~ l e requu-e suffic~ent dnving strength. othenv~se they may suffer damage dunng mstallat~on.4 4. but table 5 . or may requlre somewhat heavler sectlons than those 1990 and grades Fe 430A and Fe 6lOA to BS EN 10026 were previously referenced as grades 43A and 50A to BS 4360 1990 . a p ~ l e w h c h 1s sutable for structural requirements may be mcapable of withstandmg the dnvmg forces The c n t e r ~ a adequacy of the pile section are for that the p~le head should not be damaged by the hammer impact.4.4 Steel sheet piling 4.5 4.4.
damage andlor declutchng ind~cated the table Bble 5 IS based on the fact in that in granular soils the major part of the resistance to penetration results from point resistance at the toe of the plle Shaft fnctlon w ~ t h the surround~ng contnbutes relatively httle to sod the overall resistance to p~le penetratlon The r e q m d sectlon is.4.4.3 Corroszon and protectzon o steel pzlzng f 4. steel corroslon rates are low and steel pll~ng may be used for permanent works m an unprotected condit~on The degree of corroslon and whether protectlon 1s requlred depend upon the working enwonment wh~ch can be vanable.4.4. a funct~on the undramed shear strength of the of so& the penmeter dimens~on the plle sectlon of and the length of pde shaft embedded m the ground A p ~ l e dnver w ~ t h sufficient power to overcome t h s resEtance wfl be necessary to advance the plle Damage to the pile toe IS far less hkely than when penetratmg granular sods when no other informat~on or lhble 6 IS a gu~de expenence IS avadable 4.Section 4 BS 8002 : 1994 'hble 5. protectwe systems should be cons~dered 4. where corroslon rates may be hlgher.1 General In many circumstances.4. related to the density of the sods bemg penetrated by the pile toe at al stages of the dnve.3. closure and tapers may be camed out by shop or s ~ t welding All fabncat~ons e should conform to the appropnate Bnt~sh Standards Site condit~ons may r e q w e add~tional procedures and quahty control to ensure comphance to these standards approx~mately 035 mmlside per year and t h ~ s 0 value may be used for most atmosphenc environments .4. there is v~rtually point reslstance to the toe no of the pde The overall resistance IS. Selection of pile size to suit driving conditions m granular sods using impact hammers D o m m n t SPT N Value b n u n u m wall modulus cm3/m Grade 5276P m l d steel to BS EN 10025 1990 ~ ~~~ d 450 1 14200 30 + Recommended maw~mum d n n n g length Grade 5356P hlgh y ~ l stee' m d to BS EN 10025 1990 81 to 140 for the sods Where plles are to be dnven only to a toe hold in rock. the reslstance to pile penetratlon results pnmanly from shaft adhes~on ~ t h clay w the sod.4. therefore. junctions.4. the length of embedded l shaft hawng only a small mfluence For cohes~ve solls. even wthm a s~ngle mstallatlon Underground corrosion of steel p~les dnven into undlsturbed sods IS neguble.3.4. whlch may glve nse to obstructed dnvmg. declutchmg andfor refusal may occur Addmonal conslderat~onshould be glven to the presence of cobbles or boulders. the SPT value should be dwlded by a factor of 4 for that St1ratum only KOTE I N is the standard penetratlon test (SPT) blow count Dommant means the hgh avera NOTE 2 For SPT values exceeding 50. pde damage.4. therefore.4.2 Weldzng Pre-heatmg of the plles pnor to welded fabricat~on should be cons~dered they are subsequently to be if dnven on site dunng low temperature cond~tions T h s precaution 7N1U avo~d poss~ble embnttlement effects in the area local to the weld 4.4. a maxlmum corroslon rate of 0 015 mmls~de year may be used In recent-fill per soils or mdustnal waste so~ls.2 Atmosphmc corrosLon Atmosphenc corroslon of steel m the UK averages Fabrication of spec~al sheet plles such as corners. lrrespectwe of the so11type and charactenstics the ~nwgnificant corroslon attack IS attnbuted to the low oxygen levels present m undlsturbed s o h For the purpose of calculations.
the use of grade Fe 510A steel to BS EN 10025 1990 at BS EN 10025 1990 Grade Fe 430A stresses wdl allow an add~t~onal 30 % loss of perm~ss~ble thickness to be sustamed wthout detnment T h ~ method m effect.4. wh~ch a more aggressive enwonment IS than the atmosphenc zone.4. however. corroslon rates d ~ m m e h rapidly w ~ t h d~stance above peak wave he~ght and the mean atmosphenc corroslon rate of 0 035 mm/s~de per year can be used for t h ~ s zone 4.4.3. fresh waters are vanable and no general adv~ce be gwen to quantlfy the lncrease In the can length of hfe 4.. the low water level and the splash zone are reaons of h~ghest thckness losses. the use of a corrosion allowance IS a cost effectlve method of mcreaslng effectwe hfe b) Use o a hzgh yzeld steel An alternatwe to f usmg rmld steel m a heavler sectlon IS to use a hgher y~eld steel and retam the same sectlon Although both types of steel have similar corrosion rates.3 4 C o r n o n zn marzne envzmnments Marme environments may include several exposure zones w ~ t h d~ffermg aggressivlty and d~ffenng corroslon performance a) Below the bed level Where piles are below the bed level httle corroslon occurs and the corroslon rate gwen for underground corrosion 1s apphcable. / 'lhble 6. Selection of vile size t o suit driving conditions in cohesive solls I Clay descrmtxon 1 Mmmum wall modulus.4. where a mean corroslon rate of 0 075 mmls~de year occurs per Occas~onally. m t h ~ zone. by sheltenng slgn~ficant the steel from wave actlon between tdes and by hm~tmg oxygen supply to the steel surface the The corroslon rate of steels in the t ~ d azone 1s l s~mllar that of lrnmerslon zone corroslon.3 Cwoszon zn fresh waters Corros~on losses in fresh water lmmerslon zones are generally lower than for sea water so the effectwe hfe of steel plles is normally proport~onately longer However.4. depends upon the combmed effects of nnposed stresses and corroslon Where measures for mcreasing the effectwe Me of a structure are necessary.4.4 4 3. blulds s in a corroslon allowance and gives an Increase of 30 % in effective hfe of a steel pdmg structure for an mcrease of about 9 % In steel costs c) Organzc coatzngs Steel pdes should normally be coated under shop condltlons F'amts should be apphed to the cleaned surface by arless . 1s wlth a mean corroslon rate of 0 035 mm/s~de per year c) Tzdal zones Manne growths. corroslon rates are sim~lar the low water level. I e 0 015 mmls~de year per b) Seawater zmmerszon zone Corros~on steel of p111ng m lmmerslon cond~t~onsnormally low. espec~ally curved parts of the p~les on such as the shoulders and the clutches Rust has a much greater volume than the steel from which it is denved so that the steel corroslon losses are represented by some 10 % to 20 % of the rust thckness The boundary between the splash and atmosphenc zones 1s not well defined. i e 0 075 mm/s~de to per year In t h ~ s zone th~ck strat~fied rust layers may develop and at th~cknesses greater than 10 mm these tend to spall from the steel.BS 8002 : 1994 Section 4 . crn3/rn Grade 5275P mlld steel to BS EN 10025 1990 Grade 5355 P hlgh y ~ e l d steel to BS EN 10025 1990 Maxlmum length rn Soft to firm Flrm F ~ r m stlff to Stlff Very stlff Hard (c. 1 e to 0 035 rnm/s~de year Protection should be per prov~dedwhere necessary. the f o l l o m g should be cons~dered a) Use o a heavzer sectzon Effectwe hfe may be f mcreased by the use of adbt~onal steel thckness as a corroslon allowance Max~rnum corrosion seldom occurs at the same posltlon as the m a m u m bending moment accordmgly.5 Methods o zncreaszng effectzve lzfe f The effectwe Me of unpalnted or o t h e m s e unprotected steel pihng. hlgher corroslon rates are encountered at the lower water level because of specific local cond~tlons e) Splash and atmmphmc zones In the splash zone. z 200 kN/mm2) 1 450 600 to 700 700 to 1600 2000 to 2600 2600 to 3000 Not recommended 400 450 to 600 to 1300 to 2000 to 4200 to 600 1300 2000 2500 5000 1 NOTE The a b ~ h t y plles to penetrate any type of ground depends upon attention bemg w e n to good pile dnvmg practlce of Tables 5 and 6 assume such good practlce 1 4. @ve s protection to the piling. to the steel surfaces to prevent the removal or damage of the manne growth d) Low water zone In t~dal waters.4.
tongued jolntlng Made -up sect~onfrom planks 4 L = t / 3 ~ 5 0 m m I Tlmber well splked or bolted together I Figure 39.BS 8002 : 1994 Section 4 E Chamfer . Detail of driving edge . Typical sections of timber sheet piles 1 I Groove - r Tongue Figure 40.
4 7 In situ concrete pile walls 4.3 Prestressed concrete sheet piles The main advantages are a) lugh strength in bending and ab111tyto withstand tensde stresses dunng dnvmg and to take hard dnvmg.2 Q p e s of wall and applicability The follow~ng recommendatlons apply to two types of plle wall a) Close bored or contzguous pzle walk These walls are bulk wlth p~les centres w h ~ c h at are equal to or s W t l y greater than the external diameter of the caslng or hrung Borehole casmg 1s requ~red r e t m granular and s ~ m ~ lunstable to ar so~ls dunng bonng near the ground surface or throughout its length.7.4.3 of BS 8004 1986 are equally apphcable to remforced and prestressed concrete sheet p~les 4. r tnangular or sem~c~rcular shape These asast m correct m alignment of the sheetmg dunng dnvlng and also mmmuze the seepage of sod through the wall after completion Watertightness may be ach~eved through spec~ally des~gned mterlocks or through grouted jolnts f) Drzvzng The recommendatlons m 7. only a short length of the foundatlon need be exposed to any nsk of ground loss or movement at a gwen tune It may also be easler to overcome ground obstruct~ons than w t h sheet p~llng d~aphmgm or wall constructlon In a d d ~ t ~ obored p h g systems n.4. jettlng or prebonng can be used m suitable ground to ass~st dnvmg Good the durab~lrty and appearance can be obtaned.188.8.131.52. the th~ckness should generally be m the range of 120 mm to 400 rnm The normal w~dth of a concrete p ~ l e 500 mm but the w d t h at the 1s head 1s reduced to smt standard dnwng caps The toe of the plle is generally wedge shaped to asslst close dnving e) Joants Sheet piles are prov~ded ~ t h w tongued and grooved jolnts e ~ t h e trapezo~dal.4 6 Reinforced and prestressed concrete sheet piles 4.3 of for BS 81 10 Part 1 1986 1s appropnate 4.7.6. Part 7 and Part 8 for reslstlng the apphed forces The lateral remforcement is important m reslstmg the dnvlng stresses The cover requlrements in BS 8110 Part 1 should be the mlrlimum requlrernents d) Dzmens7~onsThe dlmenslons depend on design. when workmg close to an exlstlng foundatlon. d) greater dnmbhty In different environments The requlrements for matenals. whde lntervenlng p~les cut away m part are dunng the construction process A fully contlnuous relatwely watert~ght retmmg wall may be constructed prov~dedthe tolerances of posttlotung and vert~cahty sufflc~ent are to ehminate gaps between p~les 73 .2 and 7.4. particularly w ~ t h prestressed concrete and precast product~on methods The general requlrements for matenals. have a capaclty to penetrate moderately hard bedrock matenals more easlly than alternat~ve methods 4.1 General Where concrete sheet pdes can be installed to ach~eve requ~red the ground penetration they merlt conslderat~on. manufacture and handhng should be m accordance w ~ t h 7. c) econonucal des~gn gwen loads and for moments. unless speclal measures are taken to prov~de seal between adjacent plles a b) Secant pzle w a l k Secant plles are bored at centres less than the dlameter of the caslng Alternate piles are thus of full clrcular sectlon. pitchmg and dnvmg. deslgn details and the manufacture and dnwng of remforced and prestressed concrete p~les gwen in 7. manufacture and dnvmg of prestressed concrete plles should be as set out m BS 8110 Part 1 or BS 5400 Part 4.2 Remforced concrete sheet piles The followmg recommendatlons apply to remforced concrete sheet p~les a) General The des~gn.3 of BS 8004 1986 tenslons up to a maxlmum of 50 % of In the des~gn the modulus of rupture (m tens~on) may be perm~tted prov~dedthe ult~mate strength requlrernents are sat~sfied In t h ~ s respect the gu~dance class 2 structures m 4.4. Part 7 and Part 8 and 7. depending on the ground condit~onsT h ~ type of wall is unsu~table s for retauung water-beanng granular so~ls which are l~able bleed through the gaps between the to plles.6.4 6. b) relat~vely crack-free In handhg.2.4.5 of BS 8004 1986 should be followed m dnvlng concrete sheet p~les 4 184.108.40.206 General Bored plles are used when a so11replacement rather than a so11 d~splaeement method of p111ngis required to form a retanmg wall and when there 1s a requirement to mirumue wbration They may be unsmtable where the ground water level on the best retamed s ~ d e the wall e h~ghThe~r of appl~cat~onin cohes~ve 1s so~lsFor the constructlon of bored plles reference should be made to BS 8004 An advantage of a bored plle retamrung wall is that only one plle need be bored at a tlme Hence.2 of BS 8004 1986 b) Concrete For the vanous condit~ons dnvmg of and exposure the concrete mlx and strengths should be m accordance w ~ t h table 12 of BS 8004 1986 c) Reznforcement The remforcement should conform to BS 8110 Part 1 or BS 5400 Part 4.
as part of or posmons T h ~ 1s not a usual practlce and may be s the construction process Excavation IS carned out costly Timber or concrete sleepers may be used to m the suspenslon to a w d t h equal to the thickness Improve accuracy at relatlvely low cost of wall requ~red The excavation equlpment uses tolerance for secant plles 1s elther rope suspended grabs.1 'Iblerances accumulatmg behmd the claddmg Independent The normal tolerances whlch can be expected in bnck facmg may need to be provlded w t h a the formation of close bored pile walls are and behlnd-the-wall dramage approx~mately1 in 75 to 1 m 100 for vert~cahty and separate foundat~on 50 mm for lateral plan tolerances measured at nght 4. Part 7 and Part 8 The mm should of the flrushed wall These may be accommodated at the tune when fin~shes applied are be designed to provlde the necessary structural Surface treatment to bored p ~ l e walls may cons~st strength and the flow reqwemeuts to ensure of adequate compaction and contmulty Speclal methods of placement. or reverse-circulation excavating tolerances of the order of 25 mm Where walls equpment The benton~te suspension 1 designed to s have to be constructed in close proxmuty to other mamta~n stabihty of the slit trench dunng the structures the clearances required are dependent d i w g and untll the diaphragm wall has been on the part~cular p~ling equlpment to be used concreted (Instn Civ Engrs .es Walls are formed in panels of predetermmed Bored plle walls may requlre treatment m order to length The length is controlled by the type of provlde a su~table fm~shed surface All surface equlpment and the economics of construction.1 Geneml gulde wall in the ground on elther s ~ d e the p ~ l e Diaphragm walls are cast or placed in the gmund of usmg a benton~te polymer suspenslon.7.BS 8002 : 1994 Section 4 -.4. Flemmg W G K (1974) Reinforcement cages c) precast concrete panels.4. should be taken Into account See Shwinslu Z and b) gunite. finishes should take account of the potentla1 vanatlons in the profile of the wall face Close adjacent surcharges.8.2 Fznwh.7.however. where used. should be bu~lt withstand the hftmg and to handhng stresses These may be relatlvely high d) bnck facing Weldmg of reinforcement. the so11should be cut back steel between the p~les and the concrete surfaces should be cleaned. so as to provide a reasonably good 4. where steel beams are waterproof wall w ~ t h gunlte Both types of apphed used. grabs mounted on The requ~redvert~callty normally of the order of 1 200 and for posltlonal Kelly bars. ~ t h e from e r devlat~ons from true vertical~ty and positlon of the cappmg beam or by castmg n ~ b s the piles to on ~nd~vldual plles A continuous structural beam support the precast unlts Where rubs are cast on. as to produce a so Concrete and re~nforcementshould conform to the su~table water collectmg dramage system in front requirements of BS 8004. or.7.7. Diaphragm Wall Conference 1975) 4. walls may be deslgned to mcorporate bored p ~ l e vertlcal drams between p~les.4. IS occur as a result of surface lrregular~tles or adequate fwngs should be prov~ded. or. the types of so11 bemg 4. a satisfactory method of wedgmg or m f i h g concrete are normally remforced with steel mesh should be provlded to take up the gaps between lndlvidual piles and the walmg beam The gaps Where a precast concrete cladd~ng used.5 Construction should be filled m t h gunlte or trowelled on cement mortar to prevent the sod from falling and 4 4. they are then bent and also be apphed bonded Into the rubs n e s . or. such as ground anchors. are normally passed Where e ~ t h e precast concrete or bnck fac~ngs r are between piles m close bored plle wall construction used the soil between the p~les should be cut back and where necessary the gaps between the plles 4.4.4 Design Where props or anchorages are used to support the structural key before erectlng shuttenng and castmg the fm~shmg concrete wall at vanous levels.7 5.4. BS 8110 Part 1 or BS 5400 Part 4.3 Materials 74 .8 Diaphragm walls angles to the h e of the wall The lateral tolerance may be Improved by formmg a 4.4. should use Where structural concrete or gurute is used w ~ t h techniques wh~ch mamtam the full strength of the close bored plle walls.5. should be cast along the heads of the piles to u n ~ f y su~table bars should be Incorporated m t h the p ~ l e them behav~our both as an earth retalmng wall and at the requlred levels These bars are subsequently In order to dlstr~bute any vertlcal load wh~ch may exposed by breakmg out. more ddficult to obtam a steel or concrete beams. for example by tremle a) structural concrete. walmg beams should be A wall fin~sh which prevents subsequent damp provided along the face of the wall at these lateral penetration can be obtamed uslng structural support levels to u n ~ f y behav~ourThe wahng concrete provlded the rmnlmum fin~sh depth 1s beams may be designed as honzontally spanrung adequate It IS.
1 G e m 1 The followng recomrnendatlons apply in the constructlon of d~aphragm walls a) Guzde walls Rernforced concrete guide walls are first bulk to defme the line and thickness of the wall and to ensure a posltive head agamst any ground water pressure The walls should be remforced contmuously.3. each has markedly different properties Sod~um bentonlte 1 usually used.4. shear strength and pH value of the bentonlte suspension should be checked at vanous stages in the work and any nnsat~sfactory levels of contammatlon should be corrected before proceedmg w t h the rest of the construction (Fleming W G K et a1 1975) c) Constructzonjoznts A normal jomt is formed by lnsertlng a round stop end pipe at the end of the excavatlon Tlus IS wthdrawn when the concrete has set.4. but m some systems special jomts have been devised.2 Prestressed cast zn satu walls Cast-in-place diaphragm walls may be prestressed using post-tensiomng techmques. the total quantlty of concrete that can be placed in one panel and the posltlons of anchorages or struts and walings Reinforcement IS not commonly linked from one panel Into another. the tolerances of vert~callty and the physical mtegnty are particularly Important - 4.4. the bentonite suspenslon becomes contaminated wlth solids from the soil Tlus may lead to the bulld up of t h c k filtercake at a faster rate than IS des~rable the walls of on the excavation and may cause d~fficulty m displacing the bentomte suspenslon by the tremed concrete Accordmgly the denslty.8 3 Constructcon 4. it 1s essent~al that the concrete flows freely wthout segregatlon so as to surround completely the remforcement and displace the bentonite 4. 1974) e) Use o pan& to suiport vwtzcally and f horzzontally applzed loads Diaphragm walls may support additional vertical and horizontal loads If vert~cal loads are to be carned by end beanng of the bases attention should be gven to ensunng a clean panel base to ensure end beanng contnbutes s~gmflcantly the total to beanng capaclty Load transfer to the so11 by fnct~on between the wall and so11may also be used but for tlus to be fully m o b h e d panels should be concreted wlthout any long delay following the completion of excavatlon f) Deep carcular excavatzons Deep circular excavations may be retamed by a senes of panels m contact forming a clrcular plan retainmg wall Where the circumferential thrust 1s to be taken by the rlng of panels directly and not by w a h g beams. viscosity. but is unpract~cal ach~eve to Accordmgly prowslon should be made for the seahng of jomts by groutmg or other techn~ques subsequent to constructlon (Shwmskl Z and Flemme. they are usually cast in the dry on and agamst f m ground or alternatively. they are fully unmersed in the grout mucture .4.8.7.excavated. the cables should be looped so that both ends are access~ble the at top of the wall A su~table remforcement cage should be made for the attachment of the cable ducts so as to prov~de cable profile best sulted the to the desgn The fixmgs should be sufficiently stable and robust to w~thstand stresses due to the handling and the forces due to rmng concrete dunng concretmg Reference should be made to BS 8110 Part 1 or BS 5400 Part 4 for the general recommendations of post-tens~oned prestressed concrete deslgn and constructlon 4.3 Precast concrete walls A precast concrete diaphragm wall 1s formed of precast umts placed in a benton~te filled trench. with stiffer panel sections at corners or because of ddferent depths of excavation T avoid differential movement and o the associated leakages uluform~ty stiffness 1s of desirable. whch conslsts manly of m~nerals the rnontmor~llonite of group. the outer face of the guide walls may be supported by a backfill of lean mlx concrete b) Bentonzte Benton~te. the slze and we~ght reinforcement of cage that can be handled.4. sodium benton~te and calcmm benton~te.3. should be sultable for clvll engneenng purposes There are two forms of bentomte. corresponding to the trench length excavated. if necessary.8.4. W G K .2 Materials See 4. excavated by normal methods Part of the bentonlte suspension 1s first displaced by a cementfbentomte grout tremted Into the base of the excavatlon Precast wall panels wlth su~table arranged jointlng and locatmg systems are then lowered to the required depth in the trench The quantity of cement bentonlte grout should be such that when all the precast panels.3 for recommendations 4. whlch transfer forces becween adjacent panels The concrete cast In sltu 1s placed by tremle. s e ~ t h e that naturally occurring or obtmed by the r chemical treatment of calcium bentonite Dunng excavation. have been futed.8 3. so f o n n g a seml-circular joint against w h c h the concrete of the next panel IS placed d) Watertzghtness Sound workmanshp should be used in concreting and m the construction of jomts so as to ach~eve reasonable a watert~ghtnessMovement a t jomts may occur dunng or subsequent to the removal of earth from one slde of the wall because of varying plan conflguratlons.8.
BS 8002 : 1994
The cement benton~te grout 1s not requ~red to develop h ~ g h strengths and needs to be only margmally stronger in its final state than the ground m wh~ch wall 1 embedded and upon the s w h ~ c h rehes for support The stage of it d~splacement benton~te of suspenslon by grout may be avo~ded canylng out all the trench by excavatlon usmg a cement benton~te grout suspenslon, mstead of convent~onal benton~te Several propnetary types of precast walllng system are ava~lable, they dlffer as regards the jolnts between panels and the way m wh~ch wall 1s the flxed in posltlon in the ground by the cement grout Some are re~nforcedconvent~onally, wMe others are of prestressed concrete wall panels should conform to Precast d~aphragm the recommendat~ons BS 8110 Part 1 except ln of so far as the desgn 1s mod~fied t h ~ s in document Smce one of the purposes of usmg precast wallmg 1s to prov~de satisfactory fin~shed a appearance for the wall subsequent to excavatlon, care and accuracy are Important throughout fabncat~on and ~nstallat~on
4.4.9 Sold~erlking piles
220.127.116.11 General These conslst of vertical members b d t at sultable centres w ~ t h system of ground support spann~ng a between them The p~les first mstalled along are the penmeter of the proposed excavatlon Sheetmg, supportmg the ground, 1s placed in posltlon as excavation proceeds The sheetmg spans e ~ t h e honzontallv between the sold~erlk~ng or r mles vert~cally between horizontal walmgs, see figures 41 and 42 Sheet plles ~nterlocking ~ t h w H-sect~on p~les also commonly used are Sold~erllung plles may be used to support deep, narrow, shallow or w ~ d e excavations m vanous matenals ~nclud~ng and sands Excavat~on clays m water-beanng ground may reqwre specml attention, t h ~ method is unsu~table the s for exclus~on water and if so11 1s washed out from of behmd the sheetmg unacceptable settlement may be caused to adjacent structures or semces
Figure 41. Horizontal sheeting (lagging)
Figure 42. Vertical sheeting (lagging)
BS 8002 : 1994
Support to the piles may be by wahngs and struts, ralang shores, tie rods and anchorages or ground anchorages The plles should be designed to span vertically between the supports prov~ded The des~gn the p~les of should accommodate any resultmg vertical forces from mchned anchors or supports
18.104.22.168 Materials The followmg matenals are recommended for p~les and sheetings may be of re~nforcedconcrete a) Pzles The p~les or steel sections used elther smgly or in pam Where steel sectlons are used m pairs adequate batten plates or spacers should be prov~dedto ensure the composite action of both p~lesSee figure 43 b) Sheetzng (laggzny) Steel and concrete may be used for sheetmg, but the most common matenal 1s timber T h ~ IS easlly handled and cut on slte to s s u ~varlatlons In site cond~tlonsStructural t softwoods to BS 5268 Part 2 are su~table Steel trenchmg may be used as sheetmg, it 1s relatwely light and can be tnmmed to the correct length d necessary Concrete may be used, elther as prestressed precast planks or in situ concrete Precast planks are heavy to handle, d~fficult to cut to length and exh~bit bnttle fa~lure w~thout vmble or audible warnmg
anchorages so as to accommodate the sltuatlon where an indw~dual anchorage fads to carry its full desgn load Adequate penetrat~on the piles of below formation level should be prov~dedto permit the mobhzation of suffment passwe resistance for both normal conditions and also to allow for the nsk of over excavatlon as well as to prevent mstab~hty the bottom of the excavatlon In Where t~mber sheetmg m used a 50 % reduct~on may be assumed m the des~gn the sheetmg of members m the loadmg from the sod, due to the arch~ng actlon of the soil The rehevlng effect of the archmg IS much reduced \nth use of st~ffer sheetmg materials, for example concrete, due to the lower relative flexlbhty of the concrete sheetmg
22.214.171.124 Construction As excavatlon proceeds, exposlng the sold~erlkmg plles, the spaces between adjacent piles are closed w~th honzontal sheetmg In clay soils it 1s common practlce to uncover the face to a depth of 1 m between piles before the sheetmg is placed, but m loose waterlogged ground the sheet~ng should be placed as soon as possible to prevent a cave-m Vanous methods of locatmg the sheetmg (lamug) are shown m figure 44 Gaps of 50 mm may be left between the laggmg to facilitate drainage of ground water, so reducmg the load on the soldler p~les and supports In loose 126.96.36.199 Deszgn ground the 50 mm Raws should be wacked with straw to prevent a iosk of ground between the The earth pressure to be resisted depends on the louvres, wh~lst st111 allowmg water to percolate stiffness of the support system The design should Volds belund the sheeting should be packed as cater for all stages of excavatlon and support construction proceeds to prevent movement of the ~nstallat~on well as for the final excavated as supported ground towards the excavatlon The condition Where anchorages are provided to support the p~les sheeting should be firmly wedged or fixed to the sold~er plles as construct~on proceeds then the p~les and the wahngs should be able to red~stnbute % of the load to adjacent 40
Figure 43. Composite steel soldier piles
I Lagg~nq 1
Bolt (w~th and washer1 welded to soLdler pile nut
Figure 44 Various methods of locating the sheeting (lagging)
5.1. wharves and dolphins Double-waU cofferdams consist of two parallel hnes of steel phng connected together by a system of steel wahn@ and tle rods and sometimes struts at one or more levels The space between the lines of phng is filled wlth coarse cohes~onless matenal such as sand. as well as on the arrangement and type of the steel sheet piling Typical uses are as dams to seal off temporanly dock entrances so that work below water level can be carned out in the dry and in the construction of permanent walls for land reclamation..5. or by the external anchorages around the penmeter Cantilever p ~ l e cofferdams may also be formed and are des~gned the same way as cant~lever m retammng walls When the cofferdam is very large m area.1 Single skin coflerdarns and strutted excavations These may be formed with piles supported either by a framework w~thin cofferdam. but of relatwely shallow depth.3 Earth-filled double-wall and cellular cofferdams Earth-filled cofferdams are self-supporting gravlty structures.1 General 4. Section 4 BS 8002 : 1994 4.5.. gravel or broken rock ----Plan Junct~on p ~ l e s i Flrst bulkhead LTlrnber packs a t Waling levels Long~tud~nal sect~on Cross section A-A Figure 45.1. quays. either parallel-slded double-wall cofferdams or cellular cofferdams The stab~hty of both types is dependent on the properties of the filhng and of the sol1 at foundat~on level.5 Strutted excavations and cofferdams 4.2 Cofferdams for river crossings This type of cofferdam is used when a pipehne is to be la~d across a rlver and a is ~mpracticableto close the watenvay See figure 45 4. in order to acheve economy 4. Cofferdamfor river crossing .5.1. cons~derat~on should be glven to incorporatmg external anchorages or to usmg rakmg struts from the foundations of the permanent structure.
should be taken to overcome the unbalanced loadmgs Su~table alternative methods are a) removal of sod on the landward side.5.5. - 4. d) provlslon of an anchorage system on the landward side. as well as the subsequent removal of the frames In a d d ~ t ~ o n the design surcharge loadmg gven to m 3.5. also see 4.1. at low water. where so11 IS supported.4 Cofferdam wzth unbalanced loadzng (dock wall and r z v m d e constructzon) Thls type of cofferdam 1s subjected to a heavler loadmg on the landward s ~ d e than on the seaward s ~ d edue to the soil pressure.188.8.131.52 In strutted excavations.1. dependent on slte cond~t~ons. to excavate a trench into which the phng may be concreted to o b t m the necessary seal and honzontal reslstance for the cofferdam Where rock may be encountered grade 5355P or higher to BS EN 10025 1990 steel sheet plles .4. pnor to the ~nstallat~on of each frame These moments and loads are normally larger than those calculated for the structure m the completed condtion The most economlc sectlon of sheet pllmg WLU be the hghtest sectlon capable of be~ng dnven to the depth determmed m the desgn calculations and wh~ch can reslst the des~gn bendmg moments calculated m the cofferdam des~gnA heavier sectlon and/or a h~gher quality of steel may be required where long p~les to be dnven to deep are penetrations or where hard dnvlng 1s to be encountered.1.BS 8002 : 1994 Section 4 . 1975) See figure 46 Where a cofferdam IS to be bulk m stdl water the spaclng of the wahngs can be taken from standard handbooks If frames are mstalled 'm the dry' w ~ t h water in the cofferdam the lowered m stages.3 Coferdam zn water In strutted excavations.1. whch develop as the excavatlon 1s camed out.1.1 4.1 Pzlzng 4.4. then the tables in standard handbooks may not apply and a stage by stage analysis should be carned out 4. so as to reduce the sod pressures.4.4.4 the effect of lsolated heavy plant or equipment mposmg large pomt or lme loads should be taken into account The plles may be assumed to be s~mply supported at the frames and at the excavatlon level (m both temporary and final cond~tlons) they will have e~ther 'futed' or 'free' earth support in the embedded length depending upon the type of sod and the depth of cut-off of the p~les The most su~table method of calculating bending moments m walls and the load in the vanous supporting frames.4 Design 4.2 Equzlzbmum o the strutted ezavatzon or f cofferdam See 4 1.3. the soil pressure d~agram the fmal stage of in excavation relatmg to the strut loads 1s parabohc but may be approxmated to a trapezoidal shape as shown m figure 37 These d~agrams not mclude do the effect of water pressure. whde the outer h e of pdmg acts as the anchorage The mdth of the dam should be not less than 0 8 of the retamed he~ght of water and/or sol1 The inner wall is usually prov~ded ~ t h w weep holes near the bottom to reduce water pressure and to prevent a decrease in the total shear strength of fill matenal Complete dramage of the fill may be impossible and so allowance should be made for a hydrostatic head mthm the fill of at least 0 3 of the retamed height The penetration of the p h g mto the soil below excavation or dredged level should be sufficient to develop the necessary passlve resistance and prevent honzontal shding and to control the effects of seepage T ~ I type of cofferdam is uneconomical if there is S rock at excavatlon level unless the rock 1s such that steel p ~ h can be drlven Into it to an adequate g penetration If the rock is hard it may be possible.4. e) using ralung struts mside the cofferdam 4. the des~gn the p111ng of should be checked.1and 4. but also w all dunng every stage of both excavatlon and construction of the supportmg framng. not only m the final excavated cond~tion ~ t h frames in posltlon.5 Double-wall cofferdam The mner h e of phng should be desgned as an anchored retaming wall. so C)placing spo~l the water s ~ d e the on of cofferdam to mcrease the passive reslstance.5. b) provlslon of a restncted area adjacent to the cofferdam. I e excavation and removal This method may also be applied to retanmg walls wlth mult~ple levels of tie-backs. add~t~onal of water The water pressure 1 head s generally hgher on the landward s ~ d ePrecautions.4. surcharges and .4. with~n wh~ch plant and veh~cles are prolub~ted as to reduce the surcharge. but only when the wall 1s formed by excavation or dredgmg in front of the wall It should not be used for a backfilled type wall Altemat~velythe pressure and strut loads may be obtained by using a stage by stage method of analysis (James and Jack.4. whether anchored or propped is by successwe analys~s each stage of construction of as shown m figure 38 Tlus ulll determine the bendmg moments and loadmgs occurnng dunng the temporary condit~ons.1. they provlde an envelope of strut loadmg wluch wll cover the maxlmum loads m the struts of the frammg system The d~agrams should not be used to calculate the bendmg moment m the p111ng dur~ng both of the temporary stages of construction.
5. and also punch Into the rock \nth less nsk of buckhng. and the water level outs~de cofferdam 1s the appreciably h~gher than the excavatlon level.1. Cofferdam in water p~hng and the bottom frames should be checked In manne cofferdams t h ~ nsk of mstab~hty s may be reduced by placmg a less permeable blanket around the outs~de the cofferdam.ng and t ~ e rod v -. the length of the pdes should be sufficient to prevent the so11 m the bottom of the cofferdam becommg unstable due to the upward flow of water from under the toes of the pdes The upward flow of water into the bottom of the cofferdam may mduce so11 instablhty w t h m the cofferdam and also a reduct~on passlve resistance The sections of of . t .1 iMznzmum depth o cut-ofS zn coheszonless f sozls When a cofferdam 1 constructed m cohes~onless s sod.5. . _ N - c % . .6 Arrangement o supporttng frames f Framing w t h m a cofferdam should be arranged to permit carrymg out constructlon work withm the cofferdam in a satisfactory manner The spacmg of members hornontally and vertically should be such as to permit the use of plant dunng excavatlon and the constructlon of a permanent structure wltlun the cofferdam Vertlcal spacing of the frames should be des~gnedto ensure that the p~les and the frames are not overstresscd m any temporary cond~t~on dunng cofferdam excavatlon 4. m Wabngs Struts t x Sea or river be 1 Figure 46. as to ~ncrease lengths of the seepage so the paths m a manner s~milar the increased path to length w h c h results if the cut-off IS mcreased When water 1 pumped from a sump at excavatlon s as level.- Y .4. " ? 4 N O > -0 c 0 .1.1.5 Construction 4.. m . than plles of grade 5275P steel to BS EN 10025 1990 4. b r . nght up to the sheet of p~hng. the sump should be s~tuated far as poss~ble from the walls of the cofferdam Any flow of water Into the cofferdam may carry fmes from the surroundmg so11 and cause subs~dence p~pmg or Local mstabhty may occur m condit~ons pipmg of as the passwe r e s ~ t a n c e destroyed is The flow of water beneath the toes of the p~les may be reduced where it is poss~ble lower the to ground water level outside the cofferdam A system of well-pomts or filter wells at plle toe-level can. . c - m . .5. -C v Water level 1 + r - A L 0. . as an altemat~ve.I Water Level External top wal.. excavatlon and pos~tiotung of frames should be carned out whdst the cofferdam remams flooded A plug of concrete should then be placed by treme a t excavatlon level and the cofferdam pumped dry T ~ concrete plug should E be e ~ t h e of suffment welght to reslst the uphft r forces or should incorporate plpes to reheve the water pressure should be used These p~les w~thstand harder dnvmg. control the flow of water mto the cofferdam Where the flow of water mto the cofferdam 1s hkely to be excesswe.5.
where possible. tles. is an allowance should be made for any water pressure acting on the piling As w ~ t h wahngs.2.5.5 1 5 2 Pmentzon o heave f 4.2. the members should be des~gned withstand the to combmed stresses due to the axlal and bendlng loads 4.5.1 Walzngs In soft cohesive solls there 1s a nsk of the flow or heavmg of the bottom of a deep cofferdam Where a cofferdam is founded in cohesive soil whlch 1s underlam by water under arteslan pressure. be p~tched and the whole c~rcle completed before dnvmg 1s commenced The plles should be driven m stages as the hammer works its way several tlmes around the circumference A d~aphragm wall can be used to form a clrcular cofferdam Earth pressures should be calculated as for straght-sded cofferdams and plles should be supported by c~rcular nng beams. rehef wells may be needed to reheve the arteslan pressure 4.1.5. particularly where wahngs are suspended on hangers Recommended maxlmum stresses to be employed m the design of cofferdam walmgs should be based on the stresses @ven m BS 449 Part 2 Remforced concrete wahngs may be used in permanent cofferdams and m temporary works where the cofferdam w ~ lbe open for a long penod l of tlme They are espec~ally useful when constructmg a curved wall or c~rcular cofferdam Remforced concrete prowdes h~gh st~ffness and ehmmates the nsk of web crushmg and bucklmg which may occur when steel wahngs are poorly des~gned badly assembled or Posmve support methods should be used to locate the frames.2 3 However.5. walings and anchorages 4. should be provlded near the bottom of the exposed portlon of the p~les the Inner s ~ d eDrainage of on the fill~ng should be undertaken to reduce the pressure on the inner hne of phng and to prevent a decrease in the total shear strength of the fillmg If complete dramage of the f~lhng imposs~ble.1. the calculated load m the struts or tles should be ~ncreasedby 25 % Walmgs and anchors should be des~gned carry these strut or tle rod loads to wlth other types .1.4. w ~ t h graded filters if necessary.1 General 4.4 Earth-ftlled cofferdam Clays or s~lts should not be used as fillmg matenal and any soft soils of these types which may be enclosed w~tlun sheet pdmg should be removed the before placmg filling Under tidal cond~tions water level outside the the cofferdam may be above or below that withm the so11 ins~de cofferdam and the cofferdam should the be des~gned these vanable load~ng for condlt~ons Weepholes. I e universal beams su~tably remforced by web st~ffeners where necessary to safeguard aganst web bucklmg and tors~onal rotation.2 Struts.2.5. I R Rad~us cofferdam m metres of - The cho~ce timber or steel for cofferdam bracing of IS controlled by the external loadmgs upon the p~les under the most severe condltlons as well as the mternal d~mens~ons the cofferdam Good qual~ty of timber such as Douglas f ~ or p~teh r pme may be used for lighter loadmgs Heavier loadmgs requlre the use of steel members. or where wahngs act as struts to other walings thus lmposmg an axlal load.2. wahngs and anchorages should generally be determmed in accordance w ~ t h sect~on and 4.2.1 and 4.5 3 Czrcular cofferdam The p~les should.5.1. usmg hangers or brackets Where diagonal struts are used.1 General The loads to be earned by the struts.5. mstead of wahngs and struts This leaves the central area of the excavat~on clear of obstruct~on Due to the devlatlons in practlce from a true circle the rmg beams are subjected to eccentric loadmg and a check should be made for buckhng in the nng w ~ t h radial wahng load q m kN/m) the determmed from where Young's modulus of wahng matenal E in N/mm2. Moment of inertla about 'xx'axls m em4. ties. good quahty timber may be used for hghter loadmgs but steel struts should be used for heavier loadlngs Where loadmgs are 'severe' steel box piles or tubular steel piles may be used as struts The design should make allowance for the self we~ght stresses and for the consequent eccentricity due to deflection as well as for accidental construet~onloadmgs 4.2 Struts 4 5 1 5. if stresses m the sheet p~hng have been modifled by bendmg moment reduction.2.1.2 Design 4.
5.2 and 4. tles or anchorages by wahngs. stiffeners should be prov~ded as requlred Where the anchorages are Inched the vert~cal load component d be camed by walmgs To ensure an of loads the adequate d~stnbut~on the vert~cal clutches should be welded at the heads of the pdes When d~agonal rods are used to support end tle returns of the sheet p~hng. it IS advisable to reduce t h ~ spacmg s To ensure the contmuity of steel walmgs.3.5. des~gn the should cater for the honzontal components m the plane of both the wall and the return 184.108.40.206 Steel walzngs Steel wahngs should be des~gned accordance in w ~ t h 449 Part 2 They commonly consBt of BS two spaced structural steel channels placed horizontally w ~ t h thew webs back to back The channels are spaced a suff~c~ent &stance apart to allow the tle rods to pass between the web and be mstalled \nth ease. exact analys~s an would cons~der the elastmty of the tle rods.2.2. for example. where wal~ngs om~tted are the attendant nsks should be carefully cons~dered The loads on the walmgs are obtamed by cons~denng same cond~tlons those used to the as obtmn the bendmg moments in the p~les (see 4. supported on elast~c supports prov~ded by sheet pil~ng both m honzontal and vertlcal d~rect~ons Sufficient remforcement should be prov~dedIn the capplng beam to cope w ~ t h shear forces arlsmg from anchor head loads and also wlth shrinkage and temperature stresses . of tmber wedges The wahngs should be des~gned continuous as beams malong due allowance for the end spans The total system IS statically mdetermmate (or hyperstat~c).5.The deslgn should also accommodate the poss~ble fadure of an ~ n d ~ v ~ dstrut tle rod or anchor The ual wall and wahngs should be capable of red~stnbutmg load from the falled tle rod or the anchor An Increase may be made m the allowable stresses up to yleld values for steel and 0 8 x ultunate values for concrete and tunber 4.2.2. the n s d ~ t y the wahng of and the stresses Induced dunng boltmg operations In practlce it 1 usual to adopt a s~mpl~fied s approach uslng an assumed bendmg moment wL2/10 where w 1s the un~formly d~stnbuted loadmg and L IS the span length Where walmgs are placed behmd the p ~ l e they should be connected to the sheet p~hng bolts w ~ t h by adequate beanng plates and washer plates.3 3) The loadlng from the sheetmg members onto the w a h g should be d~stnbuted evenly by means.2. the walmgs should be desgned to reslst both the bendmg moment and the shear at the polnts where they occur Web st~ffeners may be necessary at anchor head pomts to reslst web buckhng due to the reactlon of the tle rods All permanent steelwork should be gwen protectwe treatment m accordance w ~ t h 5493 BS The nunlmum sue of bolts for wallng spl~ce connections should be M20 and the rnlnlmum size of bolts for attachmg w a h g s to sheet p~les should be M30 Bolts for walmg sphce connectlons should conform to BS 4190 Bolts for attachmg wahngs to sheet plles should conform to BS 4190 or be des~gned short tle rods (see 4.2.5 In s?tu and precast concrete walzngs Concrete walings should be des~gned accordance in w ~ t h 8110 Part 1 The mlnlmum charactenstic BS compressive strength of the concrete at 28 days should be 25 N/mm2 Where walmgs are m contact \nth sod.4. the jolnts should be located opposlte the troughs of the p h g adjacent to the tle rods at approxlmately one fifth of the span The jomts In upper and lower channels should be staggered and placed one on edher s ~ d e of the tle rod If the jolnts cannot be spaced at the des~red pomts.6) as 4.5. sea water or fresh water aggresswe to concrete then the mnumum strength at 28 days should be 30 N/mm2 A concrete capping beam 1s usually constructed on top of a permanent sheet p~le wall Where t h ~ s capplng beam IS used as a wallng it should be sufficlently strong to transmlt vert~cal and honzontal loads from anchor tles Into sheet p111ng unless other provmons such as welding at clutches are made The w a h g should be deslgned as a beam. but when w h g s are used m conjunction w ~ t h mchned tle rods. tak~ng account of any ~nchnat~on the tie rods Bolted or welded of channel spacers are used to mamtam the requ~red spacmg when the channels are connected When the tle rods are honzontal.2.2 Walzngs The honzontal react~on from an anchored sheet wall 1s generally camed to the struts. channel spacers at appromately 2 0 m to 2 5 m centres are generally adequate.4 Tzmber wulzngs Tunber walmgs should be deslgned m accordance w ~ t h 5268 Part 2 Steel spreaders of suffic~ent BS area and stiffness should be provlded at the tle rods to avo~d over-stressmg the wallngs The wallngs should be connected to the sheet p~lmg by bolts w ~ t h adequate washers or beanng plates The wahgjomts In tied walls should be located at approxlmately one f ~ f t h the span and should be of sufficlently strong to ensure contmurty and to take shear forces from anchor head loads In permanent works the steel bolts and plates used m wallngs should be galvan~zed accordance wlth m BS 729 or sherad~zed BS 4921 All tunbenvork to should be s v e n protectwe treatment in accordance w ~ t h 5589 BS 4.2. the steelwork should be of generous proportions to allow for corrosion and the stresses Introduced when ahgnmg the p~lmg and to avo~d nsk of the web buckhg.2.4.
the properties of the fillmg.BS 8002 : 1994 Section 4 . w h c h the stra~ght web piles are deslgned to reslst.1 Czrcular dzaphragm cells Cellular cofferdams are self supporting structures. gravel or broken rock They can be founded on rock.5 220.127.116.11. care should be taken In handhng and stonng the p~lesThe mlnlmum ultlmate Interlock strength 1s gwen in the manufacturer's hterature 4 5.2.- 4.5. unhke trough shaped plles sectlons whch are unsuitable a) Advantages 1) Each cell IS a self-supportmg unit 2) Each cell can be fffled Independently of adjacent cells 3) Clrcular diaphragm cells can be constructed In rough and f l o m g water (max~mum veloclty about 1 3 mls) b) Dzsadvantages 1) Res~stance large water pressures IS to restncted by mterlock tension 2) Interconnect~ng arcs Increase stresses and deformations of the m a n cell 3) P~tchmg.3.5. each of whch have advantages and disadvantages 4.1 Pzle sectzon The shape of the Interlock is deslgned to take the hlgh clrcumferentlal tens~le forces and at the same tlme permit suffic~ent angular dewation between adjacent plles to enable cells of a practical diameter to be formed Smce straght web p~les lack bendmg strength In the flat posltlon.3. closmg and dnvmg of cells requlres great care to avoid developmg excesswely hgh forces m the mterlocks . d used me rods havmg lengths over 12 m should be jolned by couplers or turnbuckles The rod d~ameter the at root of the threads of nuts and turnbuckles should tle be adequate to take the des~gn load Upset ends or rolled threads may be used to prowde for the threads Tie rods should be deslgned m accordance w t h BS 449 Part 2 uslng grade Fe 430 or grade Fe 510 steel to BS EN 10025 1990 or smdar hot rolled non-alloy steel grades If settlement of the sod below tle rods IS bkely to occur.5.2 Materials 4. sand or stlff clay and ut~lued e ~ t h e temporary or permanent as r structures to r e t m cons~derable helghts of sol1 andlor water The stabihty of a cofferdam depends upon the tens~le strength of the sheet p h g (especially the clutches). wrapplng or coatmg. constructed uslng stra~ght web steel sheet plles dnven to form cells of vanous shapes (see figure 47) and filled w t h sand.6 The rods 4.5.2 Fzll Where tie rods are employed they may be critlcal to the stab~hty sheet piled walls The des~gn of should prowde for the Increase in stresses whch may anse from corroslon and also through the bendmg of tie rods due to the ground around them settlmg For protection agamst corrosion buned permanent tle rods should be gwen a su~table sheathmg. then the ends of the tle rods should be designed to allow for the movement Alternatively the tle rods may be enclosed m flexlble plastic ducts 4. suffic~ently flexlble to accommodate the extenslon of the tle rods under load Provls.5.3 Tgpes of wall and applicatron NOlT The followmg h t s descnbe the advantages and dmdvantages of various types of wall 4.3.3. the shape and slze of the cells and the foundat~on matenals The outward pressure of the f d h g produces U h c~rcumferent~al tensile forces m the p h g .1 General The fill matenal should have a hlgh crushing strength combmed w ~ t h h~gh a angle of sheanng resistance to prowde the necessary shear strength with~n fill together w ~ t h shdmg resistance at the a the base The fffl should be free drairung and be I relatively mcompress~ble.on should be made m addrtion for corroslon at a rate of not less than 0 05 mmlyear and if the tles are placed m aggressive ground or sea water.2. a greater wastage for corrosion should be provlded Whllst cathod~c protection reduces corroslon some corrosion should be assumed in the deslgn Where cathodic protection 1s used to protect the tle rods all of the steel components of the wall should be s~milarly protected The tie rods should be provided w t h washers and beanng plates to gwe adequate beanng on the walmgs and on the concrete anchor blocks.2. gravel or clean rubble The fill should have a permeabhty greater than approximately m/s 4. fine matenals should be avoided Well graded crushed rock and muctures of sand and gravel are Ideal Backfill placed behind the cellular cells should be coarse sand.3 Cellular cofferdams 18.104.22.168. e coarse granular solls Well graded sand is preferable but where un~form sand is to be used.3 Cell shape As shown in figure 47 vanous geometncal shapes are poss~ble.5.
3.D and L depend upon dimensions of stra~ghtweb sect~on used C~rcularcells Cross Cross walL Diaphragm cells ?igure 47. Lacrout Esng and Luscher (1976) In all methods. the safety of the cofferdam IS evaluated aganst fallure by the followng modes a) burstmg of the cells due to fa~lure the sheet of pile Interlock in tension.R.4 Descgn The des~gn methods used are essent~ally empmcal and d ~ f f ein some respects from each other The r following methods and references should be considered The Terzaghi (1945) method and subsequent modifications to it by TVA (1957).5.B. Expenence has shown that 'at rest' pressures can occur b) sl~dmg the base.3. U S Corps of Engmeers (1958) and Dept of the Navy (1971) together w ~ t h Cummings (1960) and Bnnch Hansen's methods (1953). Ovesen N K (1962). on c) excessive leaning or tdting of cells due to shear fa~lure the fill.3 3 Cloverleaf c l s el a) Advantages 1) Cells are mdependently stable 2) Larger size cells can be bulk by tlus method b) Dzsadvantages 1) More sheet piles are required than clrcular or diaphragm cofferdams 4. of d) fadure of the foundation matenal The forces on the cofferdam dunng its vanous stages of construct~on should be deternuned .Note Dimens~onsA.5.3.2 Dzaphragm cells a) Advaniages 1) Large water pressures can be ressted by increasing d~aphragm d t h w 2) Interlock tenslons are umform and smaller than those of a cn-cular cofferdam wlth den tical radius and he~ght b) Dzsadvantages 1) Cells are not mdependently stable It is therefore adv~sable include a full c~rcular to cell at mtervals 2) D~fference fill and water level between m adjacent cells should be controlled sufficiently to avo~d d~splacementof the diaphragm 3) Several templates required dunng construction 2) FU and water levels m adlacent compartments of one cell should be reasonably uniform 4.5.3. Types of cellular cofferdams 4.
6.3. together w ~ t h exammatlon of the an overall mass stabfitv and/or effects of aouws of cells are f~lled 4.5. the su~tabfity the proposed installat~on of techtuque to ground cond~t~ons.4.3 5 4 w o r m a n c e A cellular cofferdam IS a flexlble structure Honzontal movements of the plles and vertlcal movements of the f~lhng should be expected Durmg flll~ng the cells barrelhng of up to of 150 mm is not unusual and additional deformation due to the pull from the adjacent cells is to be expected Honzontal deflect~ons the top of hlgh at cofferdams can be s~gnificant and movements up to 500 mm are not unusual F ~ h g espec~ally the .. ms~de the cofferdam and woss~bly outside.2 Draznage 4. 4. ground anchorages mcludmg rock and soil anchorages. both belund and in front of the wall. espec~ally if hydrauhc filling 1 used. tenslon plles and deadman anchorages (see figure 48) They may be used solely dunng constructlon.2 Equil~brium See 4. can settle and total of settlement may be 150 mm or more 4.3 Dewaterzng When the unloaded s ~ d e the cofferdam 1s of dewatered the rate of lowenng the water level should not exceed the dramage capacity of the rells.3.5.3. nature and purpose of the anchorage c) Vanous propnetary computer programs are avadable to assist in the analysls of multi-anchored walls 4.1 General The des~gn and constructlon of ground anchorage systems and the material and components emnloved together w t h the necessaw corrosion prdtee"t1on are dealt wlth In BS 8081 to wh~ch reference should be made It w recommended that spec~ahst work of t h nature should be undertaken only by persons w t h the necessary geotechn~cal knowledge and expenence 4. where poss~ble and practical.BS 8002 : 1994 Section 4 .6. on unloaded s ~ d e a cofferdam.3.5. posslble effect the on adjoming bu~ld~ngs the nghts of adjoimg and owners under whose bu~ldmg land the or anchorages are to be Inserted should be determmed Anchorages for retanmg walls are of three general types.5.3.4 Tension piles 4. w ~ t h assessment of an consequent deformations The consequence of fa~lure any mdividual anchorage should be of evaluated.1.6.6. to prevent scour When considering anchorages for retanmg walls.1 2 4. are commonly used under rehevmg platforms to retanmg walls and to form raked tenslon pile anchorages . dunng the fillmg of the cells.5 Construction 4.1 and 4. . whether raked or vert~cal. anchorage loads should be evaluated together.1 Fbundatzons Rock prov~des suitable base for cellular a cofferdams and penetrat~on the plles 1s not of essent~al stab~lltyIf there are gaps between the for toe of the plles and the rock then measures should be taken to restnct seepage of water and to prevent the loss of fill W~th sand and gravel foundations. together wlth fdters as necessary 4 5.1 General Cons~derat~on should be Bven to the following a) It IS usual for anchorages to be dnlled m c h e d below the horizontal m order to reach more competent ground Account should be taken of the effects on so11 loadmgs.6. may form part of the permanent structure or may be des~gned perform a dual to functlon In order to produce a sat~sfactory deslgn.5.3.3 Ground In order to provlde stabihty of a cellular cofferdam the elevation of the phreatlc h e should be mamtamed as low as practicable and dmnage holes should be provided as low as possible m the h e of plles of the cofferdam. the level of the so11and s water may be at least as h ~ g h the lowest part of as the top of the cell skin The water level will be lower outslde than Inside and this is particularly slgn~ficant under t ~ d a cond~t~ons low water l at Further lnformat~on the design of cellular sheet on pile structures IS gwen m BS 6349 Part 2 4.6. the pillng should penetrate sufficiently to prevent seepage affectmg stab~lityA berm should be provlded on sands.5.6.6 Anchorages 4. due to the component forces anslng from the inclmat~on the anchorage of b) The overall safety factors should be determmed by the Me.1 General An anchorage for an earth retammg structure 1 a s system mstalled in the retained ground mass to prov~de tensde form of support to the structure a Anchorage systems permlt a clear excavation and they may be used as an alternatwe to struts Tension p~les.2 Design 4.5.. In~t~ally.
6.4. see Peuch A A (1982) .8) The assessment of the deslgn value of s h n fnct~on (see 3 2.5 of IS sods. Types of anchorage d) The ult~mate skm fnct~on p~les of m 4. takmg account of the caused by sustamed loadmg the uphft skm fnct~on resistance of p~les coheswe so~ls m and reduct~on below remoulded cntxal state strength weak rocks can fall from a peak to a res~dual of plastlc clays (see 2.2 Design cohes~onless soils may be greatly reduced if plle Axla1 uphft forces on tenslon pies are res~sted by mstallat~on subsequent relatwe movement or skm fnct~on the plle shaft and any reststance on between the p~les and sod causes degradat~on of offered by enlargement at the base or on the shaft the so11 part~cles T h ~ degradat~on s may occur of a p ~ l e g by under-reammng) Gu~dance the (e on part~cularlyulth pdes dr~ven mto calcareous evaluation of skm fnct~on gwen m 7. or where pdes embedded In these solls are BS 8004 1986.2.6) b) Irrevemble uphft movement of tens~on plles m should be based upon an upper h m ~ of the t coheswe so& subject to cychc loadmg 1s unl~kely representatwe res~dual strength A conservatlve to occur untd the peak cychc shear stress is 80 % assessment should be made of the largest tensde of the ultunate state capaclty load whlch may be apphed by the p~le C) The skm fnct~on resmtance to cychc uphft (see 3.Section 4 BS 8002 : 1994 Ground level Ground level Ground level Balanced sheet p ~ l eanchorage Deadman anchors f Mass concrete anchorage " T Sheet pdes + Ground anchw Figure 48.3) and the smoothness of value.7) loadmg of p~les cohes~onless in solls may be 30 % to 40 % lower than that @ven by statlc sustamed loadmg. tenslon calculat~ons based on the properties of the so11 or fallure m a p ~ l e may be sudden and catastropluc rock m wh~ch p ~ l e embedded the IS Accordmgly.1. and Tomhnson M J (1987) subjected to cycl~c uphft loading However the most rehable gude to the capaclty of acts to reduce the total a tenslon p ~ l e glven by an uphft load test If t h ~ ~ e) The welght of the p~le IS 1s ne~ther desirable nor pract~calthen the foUowmg uphft load appl~ed the p ~ l e to head matters should be taken Into account when f) Because of the reduct~on skm fnction from In assessmg the ultmate uphft capaclty from the peak to a lower res~dual value. the des~gn should be based on a a) Under condlt~ons cycl~c of loadmg or creep conservatlve assessment of the representatwe resldual strength. part~cularly long plles for the p~le surface (see 2.2.
under the required des~gn sltuatlon The specification of the des~gn sltuatlons (see 3.6.5 Deadman anchorages 4.5.1 and 4. the> may be contmuous or a serles of separate unlts Sheet p ~ l e anchorages are of the balanced or cant~lever type Wlulst a concrete anchorage does not requlre the use of wahngs for the distnbut~on the load from the tle rod. repeat crane loadmgs and surcharge loads on the retamed surface behmd the main retanmg wall I / " Non interference of active zone t o anchored wall and passive zone to Deadman Anchored wali -- Figure 49. The des~gn tens~on of plles should also take account of any resistance afforded by an expansion of the base or shaft (e g under-reammg) Full length reinforcement will be requwed to ensure that the mtegnty of the pile 1s mamtamed under tensde loadmg 4.BS 8002 : 1994 Section 4 . see 4.5. it 1s of necessary to excavate to the full depth of the anchorage T h ~ s may cause dlfficult~es when the water table 1s near the ground surface The anchors are connected by tendons to the earth retammg structure to form a complete anchored wall system The proport~ons and depth of embedment of the deadman are generally governed by the workmg load of the anchor and by the effectwe passwe res~stance avadable m frout of the anchorage 4. or weak so&.1.5. the desgn of each can be undertaken mdependently.1 General These usually conslst of sheet plle or concrete anchor walls. it may be necessary to provlde a foundat~on the deadman or to use an to alternatwe anchorage system A certam amount of movement may be accommodated by the provlslon of pln-jolnted tendons and tendon ducts c) The deadman unlt should be des~gned resist to the bendmg moments and shear forces resultmg from the tle bar forces and earth pressures actlng upon it 22.214.171.124.2 The average tension in the tie rods should be determined as sufficient to ensure equilibrium of the main retaming wall. the lowest external water level and the maxlmum live load wh~ch reasonably be can combined The maxlmum hve load wll mclude.2.1. . where appropnate moonng forces.6.2 Design 4.1 General See 4.2. see figure 49. Non-interference of zones for anehored wall .2 Overall equzlzbnum Where the passwe sol1 zone in frout of the anchor wall does not mterfere w ~ t h actlve so11 zone the behind the m a n retamng wall.6.6.2) should mclude the h~ghest ground water level.1.1 and 4 1 2 Further general guidance on the desgn of deadman anchorages 1s gven in BS 6349 Part 2 There are three basic desgn requlrements to be satsfled by the anchorage a) The anchorage should not yleld by movmg forward a sgn~ficant dlstance The reslstance to to movement IS related d~rectly the effective Active zone to anchored wall passwe reslstance of the sod and the fnct~on between the anchorage and the so11 b) The deadman should not undergo excesslve settlement or rotatlon m relatlon to the tendons Thls requirement 1s seldom sgn~ficant m undisturbed granular soils but where the anchorage is located m uncompacted fill.
2.1 General The deta~led deslgn of waterfront structures IS dealt w ~ t h BS 6349 Parts 1 to 7 to wluch m reference should be made 4.5. the specificat~on the deslgn sltuatlon should of include the assumpt~on that any t ~ rod may be e defectwe and that the tension m the defectwe rod is shared between its nearest ne~ghbours Where the active and passwe zones of the m a n and anchor walls necessarily mterfere. Double wall construction where zones interfere .2. or sheath to the surface of the concrete Sulfate Ions. as a single the unit s ~ m ~ ltor a mass wall.7.Section 4 BS 8002 : 1994 In order to prevent progresswe fadure of a wall followmg the uncouphng or rupture of a smgle tle rod. the anchor wall should be assumed not to develop full passlve reslstance due to lateral stress rehef followmg actlve movement of the mam wall The anchor wall should be deepened to develop the required reslstance Cons~derat~on should be gven to des~grung combmatlon of both walls.2 Concrete and reinforcement The durablhty of re~nforced concrete m mantime cond~t~ons depends on the quahty and ~mpermeabllity the concrete In preventmg steel of remforcement from corrodmg Cover to remforcement m mantune structures should be preferably 75 mm but not less than 50 mm T h ~ s should be the mlnlmum d~stance from the surface of any steel remforcement h k s .6. A c h e zone t o main wall Passwe zone to rear wall / Figure 50. lgnonng any surcharge or l ~ v e load on t h ~ ground. react wlth tncalclum alummate In hardened Portland cement The rate of attack.5) The factor of safety for anchorage system and ~ndiv~dual members should not be less than 2 In accordance with BS 8081 The existence or proposed construction of buned semces and excavations w ~ lreduce passlve l reslstance and a consewatwe level should be assumed for deslgn A group of ~ndiv~dual deadman as anchorages may be cons~dered a contmuous anchorage where the spaclng between mdlvldual anchorages does not exceed the depth to the top of the anchor Corrosion protection should be prov~deddependmg on the locatlon of the anchorage (see BS 8081) At the end of the assumed Me of the system the calculated factor of safety should be not less than 75 % of that ongulally assumed or 1 75 whichever is the greater 4. see figure 50.2. will then be invoked to preserve the overall equ~hbnum the block The mternal equll~bnum of of the smgle unit should also be determmed and in part~cular moment equabnum of the walls the about thelr tle rod connections Two levels of tles may be necessary 4. present m seawater at relatwely h g h concentrations.7.7 Waterfront structures 4. m whch the effective a resistance of the lower falure plane.3 Deadman deszgn The reslstance to forward movement of the anchor wall IS the Mference between the passwe reslstance of the so11 m front of the anchor wall.3 to 3. tendons. s and the actwe force on the back of the anchor wall ~ncludlng any surcharge or hve load on t h ~ ground s The depth and length of the anchor wall should be suffment to reslst the total anchor force uslng the mobhzed sod strengths (see 3.
4 7 3 1 Equilibrium o the walls ..BS 8002 : 1994 Section 4 wh~ch greatest In warm or polluted waters. stabihty is mamtained at all stages of construction Dry backfthng is generally placed by conventional tippmg and the fill may be cohes~ve or noncoheswe I t should be as free as practicable from organic matter and should be selected to ensure its su~tab~lity its purpose as a filled area for Where hydrauhc fill is used. by pumpmg from dredgers or by depos~tmg matenal from the dry shore. as with hydraulic fill. or even prevented.. best the compronuse should be sought .. the removal or deposition of bed matenal or other action causlng change in a steady current. 4 7 3 2 Design level and overdredging .. problems may anse due to the natural tendency of the fines to segregate Furthermore.. due account should be taken of the vanations m fill density wh~ch can occur 4 7 3 4 Scour and its effects . dependmg on the type of structure and the method of construction Nl may be placed hydrauhcally. can 1s be reduced by lmuting the proportion of tr~calcmm alummate in the cement and in UK waters a m a m u m of 10 % is recommended The tncalcmm alurnmate content should not be less than 4 % in order to avoid attack of steel reinforcement by chlondes 4 7 3 Design . adequate anchorage capaclty This may requlre early f ~ n immed~ately front of and g in behmd the anchorage Undue settlement of filled matenal behind a waterfront structure 1s undes~rable. that is. provision should be made for the dmnage of water from the fill The structure should be designed to support the standing hydraulic head and the resulting lateral pressure which will occur dunng hydrauhc filhng The hydraulic fill level may be m excess of the fmal fill level The resultmg hgher lateral pressure should be allowed for m the deslgn In addnon there may occur excesswe deflect~ons the in structure. matenal which 1s t~pped through water should be granular and.. Where ~t is necessary to mmtaln. a minunum depth of water at the face of a waterfront structure. the removal of matenal below the des~gn level. particularly in future load bearing areas close to the waterfront structure T h s may requu-e the prior removal of soft and organic matenals from the existmg bed levels Backfill placed in the dry should be deposited in honzontal layers of th~ckness compatible w ~ t h the nature of the matenal and the type of compactlon equipment used to acheve the design dens~ty Attent~on should be gwen to the compactlon of the matenal ~mmediatelybehmd the structure. for t h s excess stress cond~tion reduced factors of safety may be used Hydraulic f ~ lshould be granular and should be well l graded so that it consohdates well and provides a dense and homogeneous fill behind the waterfront structure Cohes~ve matenals ansing from a dredgmg operation are generally unsn~table The consohdation period for such matend requlres a tlrne measured in years Sand and gravel mlxtures are normally suitable for use as hydraulic fdl Matenals with a sgnificant content of coarse grained matenal may cause pumping problems if there is a need to pump over long distances.as patterns for ebb and flow may not be syrnmetncal and operat~onal requirements may impose constramts In such cond~t~ons. the underkeel clearance required and the t~dal range This level with a further obhgatory allowance of 0 5 m IS the design level Overdredgmg. wlule stlff scour in d~minishing cohesive soils are resistant and even comparatively soft clays may remain stable m conditions where a granular matenal nught be eroded Scour may be reduced.. the fill may be placed before or after building the waterfront structure. if waterfront structures are desgned so that the emsting current or tidal regune is d~stnrbed little as as poss~ble An ideal solution may be ~mpossible. . Where fill is deposited on the landward slde of waterfront structures to form a level quay surface or a geneml area of reclamahon. f See 4 1 1 and 4 1 2 . the act~on sh~ps' of propellers. at all tunes. at all tlmes durmg the filling process. sands and gravels are suscept~ble to order of sensitlvlty. In turn.. due to the greater slurry veloc~ty and hence greater energy Input required If the hydraulic fdl matenal contams a sigmficant proportion of fines. using earth moving equ~pment Care should be exercised to ensure that dunng fiUmg. turbulence or edd~esSllts... addit~ond loading may be imposed by the compaction process This should be evaluated with respect to the capaclty of the structure to wthstand such loading. A change in one of the parameters wh~ch define the sed~ment transport pattern may dlsturb the dynamic equilibrium of the system In the context of waterfront structures scour may be caused by change m velocity or drection of the current This.. may be mewtable as a dredger will not be able to produce a w e n level without tolerance Overdredgmg IS sometimes used In order to achieve extended mtervals between successwe dredang campagns 4 7 3 3 Hydraulic fill and backfilling generally . it is normal to ident~fy level a above which all material may be removed This level is arnved at by cons~denng loaded the draught of the vessels using the berth. in such matenal excess water may take some time to drain out There should be.. see 3 3 3 6 Backfill .. may be due to the construction of new works.
tralnmg works or reclamation works. 1 ) burst~ng a water man. m the case of estuaries by Increased nver flow ansmg from storm run-off It 1s advisable to estabhsh from data. the hydrodynam~c forces for submerged walls anslng from selsmlc actrvlty.6 Tidal lag and ground water The he~ght ground water behmd a waterfront of wall depends on a) the heght of the water on the outer face of the wall. 2) reduclng the resistance of the ground in front of the anchorage.7. of c) the permeab~l~ty the ground behmd.7 Wave pressures Where wave actlon may have a s~gnificant effect on the structure careful assessment should be made of the hydrodynam~c forces on the wall submerged below water level and the helght. the effect should be cons~dered of wave action gradually bu~ld~ng water levels In up the retamed soils Effects of waves on waterfront structures are cons~dered d e t d m sectlons 4 In and 5 of BS 6349 Part 1 1984 to whch reference should be made Where appropnate. though m Bnt~sh waters it 1 common practlce to s subtract predcted t ~ d e levels from recorded t ~ d e levels at slack water to gwe posltwe or negatlve storm surges More d e t d e d mformat~on these matters is gwen on m sectlons 2 and 4 of BS 6349 Part 1 1984 and section 2 of BS 6349 Part 2 1988 For waterfront structures on nnpounded systems. Section 4 BS 8002 : 1994 Methods of measuring currents and sedlment transport are gwen in sectlon 2 of BS 6349 Part 1 1984 Where the constructlon Itself causes a change in current velocity for example at bndge plers.7. least one half the wave he~ght represent a wave to trough where a standmg wave can occur Also. and sectlon 8 of BS 6349 Part 5 1991 For protectlon m a submerged locat~on 1s it usual to provlde a natural or art~ficial rubble apron Where scour problems occur at an exlstlng structure they may be removed by su~table traning works. d any. often qulte s~mple form It e advlsable m that hydrauhc model stud~es undertaken to be d e t e n n e the most suitable form and to ensure that no detnmental effects are mduced elsewhere It is advlsable to carry out routme hydrograph~c surveys at the face of waterfront structures if the bed 1s l~able eroslon to ensure that the bed IS not to lowered to a polnt where the stab~l~ty the of structure e jeopardized The frequency of the surveys should be based on expenence of the rate of bed eroslon 4. the probable frequency of the extreme condrt~ons. length and angle of approach of waves should be taken Into account In the design when assessing the total hydraulr pressure Draw-down m the wave trough IS usually more Important than pressure from the wave crest impermeable. if available. When the retanmg wall IS relat~vely the t ~ d alag.. an assessment should be made of the degree to wh~ch h s may cause scour in the exlstlng sea or t of nver bed lf necessary the des~gn the works should provlde for scour protectlon or for deepening of the bed wh~ch may result Scour protectlon w ~ t h ~ n t ~ d azone is commonly the l achleved by some form of armounng and reference should be made to sectlons 2 and 7 of BS 6349 Part 1 1984. that IS the d~fferent~al between l level ground water level on the actwe s ~ d e and low t ~ d e level on the passlve s ~ d eshould be Increased to at . prov~dedto cater for the ground water If there are semi-permeable layers m the ground a lugh water table may occur and there may be several water tables at d~fferent levels At t m e s the water table in the ground at a d~stance back from the waterfront is h~gher than that ~mmed~ately behnd the waterfront wall T h ~ s may affect the load~ng the wall and may reduce on the capaclty of an anchorage system by 1) provldlng buoyancy to the anchorage. d) the dramage. by Intense meteorological depress~ons causmg se~ches. embankments.7.5 Tide and river levels The des~gn waterfront structure in t ~ d awaters of l should normally be based on m e s t and lowest astronom~cal ~ d e sThese are respectwely the t hlghest and lowest levels that can be pred~cted under average meteorolo@zal cond~tions and under any combmat~on astronomcal condrt~ons of and are glven in Admiralty t ~ d e tables Water levels may be rased above the predicted hlgh t ~ d e levels by storm surges. 3) creatlng water pressure behnd the anchorage Emergenc~es may anse affectmg the backfill. . des~gn should be based on a sltuatlon where accidental draw-down mrght occur whlch would lower the water level to mean low water spnngs The maxlmum level to whrch water may normally nse should be taken as mean h~gh water spnngs unless speclal clrcumstances ~ndlcate that a h~gher level may be possrble Reference should be made to sectlon 2 of BS 6349 Part 2 1988 4. of through and under the wall.3. for example by I) dramage outlets bemg frozen or othenv~se blocked. when an impermeable retalnmg wall retams permeable solls.3. should be taken Into cons~derat~on . by onshore wmds and. b) the Inflow Into the ground of water from landward and from the outer s ~ d e the wall.3. 1 of IU)storm water from waves or tidal surges overtoppmg the wall In such instances h~gher ground water levels than those ment~oned above need to be mvestgated and cons~dered the deslgn m 4.
as a rough w d e . an obstruction by phng in the reglon of 15 % of a cross sectlon normal to the flow should not generally create alterations to flow cond~t~ons Coastal bcaches whlch are subject to llttoral dnft are hkely to be sensltlve to the effects of a waterfront structure if a new structure sqmficantly mpedes httoral dnft or 1s large enough to change the effects of wave action. part~cularly if mcorrectly aligned wlth the dlrectlon of flow Abrupt shoulders or return ends. particularly w ~ t h soft or rnob~le bed matenal and where silt transport 1 s h g h A firm bed material. tend to attract current flow.In these circumstances. possibly to a sufficient extent to mduce scour or erosion in its Immediate vlc~ruty and create a flow pattern wh~ch could not have been Inferred from observat~on the prevlous und~sturbed of resme condition Large sohd structures projectmg into a strong current create changes in the flow resme and may induce local scour and accretlon.4. may also create suffic~ently dis1.4. such as gravel.7. rubble aprons. for example by the replacement of an exlstmg natural bank or sloping foreshore \nth comparatively smooth or more vertlcal structure A structure of t h s kind WIN.urbed con&tions to affect the new structure and possibly the navlgat~on craft m the of vlcmlty Open p~led structures are less likely to induce changes and.7. rock or s t ~ f clay.4. mod~fled necessary for the mantlme as environment by the recommendat~ons section 7 of of BS 6349 Part 1 1984 4.4 Construction 4 7. 1s much less l~kely be affected by the f to construction of a waterfront structure espec~ally if the current veloc~ty does not exceed 1 m/s and there IS little material in suspension Where a new structure 1s constructed along a sgmflcant dlstance of the waterfront it may affect the existlng flow pattern of the rlver or the tidal stream if resistance to flow is reduced.2 Posszble effects on coastal or river regimes Structures which project into flowmg water or wh~ch change the nature of the flow boundanes may induce reglme changes. accretlon and erosion are probable and these are hkely to cause local changes m the beach alignment A reversal of the effects described above may also be brought about by the removal of an emstmg waterfront structure Speclallst adv~ce should be sought where a structure by reason of its size or character 1s likely to mduce regme changes In certam circumstances it may be poss~ble to introduce des~gn features. to mlnunlze the effects of regme changes on the structure .1 General Waterfront structures should be constructed in accordance w ~ t h requirements of BS 8110 the Part 1. for example.
. .. BS 8002 : 1994 Annex A . Annexes Annex A (normative) Graphs for K. and K..
- Annex A BS 8002 : 1994 60 50 40 30 Hor~zontal surface 8 =0 20 10 15 20 25 Des~gn values of 0' 30 35 40 Figure A.Horizontal ground surface behind wall: Values of K p .2 Passive resistance (horuontal component) ..
BS 8002 : 1994 Annex A .
Annex A BS 8002 : 1994 . s .
-BS 8002 : 1994 Annex A .
- Annex A BS 8002 : 1994 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 i t -+- s" * C c w 0 E a 100 90 + c 80 0 70 ' 0 60 50 40 30 20 10 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 L5 Des~gn values of @' d/@'.Sloping ground surface behind wall: Values of Kp . 0 Figure A.6 Passive resistance (horizontal component) ..
-BS 8002 : 1994 Annex A .. 20 25 Des~gn values of @' 30 35 */@'=o 66 Figure A.Sloping ground surface behind wall: Values of KD .7 Passive resistance (horizontal component) .
8 Passive resistance .Annex A BS 8002 : 1994 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Deslgn values of @ ' 6/08 = 1 w Figure A.Sloping ground surface behind wall: Values of Kp (horizontal component) .
first the determmation of the depth of penetratlon required to ensure overall stabhty of the sod and the structure and secondly the structural des~gn the wall stem to resist the of ~mposed loadmgs The depth of penetration should be determined from a stab~hty assessment based on hmamg equ~hbnum methods of analys~s wh~ch m condlt~ons fa~lure postulated and a factor of of are safety applied to ensure that such a failure does not occur T h s can be d o ~ in several ways e a) by usmg a multiplymg factor to Increase the depth of penetratlon from that required for hm~tmg equ~libnum. IS not very large (I e 9' less than approximately 30°) T h s apphes m part~cular st~ff to clay soils 1 a1 Gross pressure method b l Net total pressure d h o d C) Net ava~lable~ass~ve Figure B 1 Different methods of assessing t h e ratio of restoring moments t o overturning moments (from CIRIA Report 104 (Padfield and M m . for example wrth nn~form clays under undramed condit~ons.8 B. smce thls 1 generally a more adverse s loadmg than lumtmg equ~hbnum Compansons between a number of methods in current use for the d e s w of small to medlum sued retalrung walls are gwen in the report on a ~ a m e t r l study (Potts and Burland. or c) by vanous methods of factonng the nett or gross forces unposed on the structure The size of the factor of safety used in design IS dependent on wh~ch method of des~gn used The factor of 1s safety should be suffic~ently large to cater for uncertamt~es the parameter values and to in sat~sfy serv~ceabil~ty requrements by preventing unacceptable deformat~ons under workmg condit~ons. the value of Fp = 2 IS consematwe when Kp/K.report 104 (1984) Where pract~cal expenence wlth some of the methods IS lumted or confined to part~cular apphcat~ons.. Annex B (informative) Traditional design methods for embedded walls B. wh~ch dependent on the is wall geometry. 1984) For the same reason. because In effect. may exceed the ratio KpIK. 1984)) reproduced by permsion of the D~rector General of CIRIA . loading and sod parameter values.1. carned c but at the 1nstlgat. = 1 In these cond~t~ons. des~gn the should be checked against a d~fferent method to ensure compatzb~htyFor each of these methods the representatwe strength values should be used and not the des~gn values descnbed in 3. 1 General are Vanous different methods of des~gn descnbed m th~s annex (see figure B 1) They have trad~t~onally used part~cularly the d e s ~ n been for of small to med~um sized embedded or sheet plle retamng walls They mvolve the determmation of an overall factor of safety Fp The methods are Subject to varlous shortcom~ngs h c h are o u t h e d w below For these methods the des~gn a propped or of cantilever wall can be broadly considered in two parts. below a certam depth of penetratlon. F. except where a larger factor of safety Fp IS desirable m order to prevent excesslve movement of the wall.on of the comm~ttee resions~ble for t h s code of practlce The methods descnbed below have been descnbed in some detail in CIRIA -.. the calculated factor of safety Fp decreases w t h lncreaslng depth of penetratlon.-BS 8002 : 1994 Annex B . b) by factonng sod strength. when 9' = 0 and KpIK. the bulk we~ght the sod on the passwe side of of the wall is factored (CIRIA report 104. 1983).2 Gross pressure method T h ~ method has been used for many years It s cons~sts factonng the gross passwe pressure of diagram The method IS mconslstent for cohesive sods w ~ t h low values of 9' when the factor of safety on the stability of the wall.
recommends values of F.4 Strength factor method The method apphes a factor of safety to reduce the strength parameter values of the so11 and IS analogous to that used for the calculat~on slope of stab~htyThe effect of factonng strength parameter values IS to Increase K. I F Symons of 1983) The method rehes on red~stnbut~on the pressure on the walls because of them flexb~hty The des~gn the anchorages should take Into of account the effects of such red~stnbut~on of of pressures on the wall Red~stnbut~on the pressures can have only a margmal effect on a cantilever retanmg wall The safety of a wall des~gned the nett pressure method depends by mamly on the cho~ce conservatwe values of so11 of parameters In the absence of adoptmg conservatwe values.. on both of s~des the wall.5 Nett pressure method A method based on applymg a factor of safety to the total nett passwe forces. then the fmed earth support cond~t~ons be may used When a wall 1s very st~ff. g remforced e concrete pdes. may be used for each parameter However a sunphfied approach. = tan @/F. see Terzagh~ (1954) Where the embedment below the so& the fixed lower ground level IS m cohes~ve earth support cond~t~on should be assumed only for structures of a temporary nature.lF. see B r ~ t ~ s h Steel P h g Handbook (1988) The nett passwe forces are based on the horizontal pressure d~stnbut~on dmgram. when the wall 1s des~gned terms of ~n effectwe stress and steady state cond~tions have been reached. and c'. embedment should be greater than for the the free-earth cond~t~on Prov~d~ng the wall that sectlon and the props are adequate. a total stress for analysls c. such that the passwe pressure requ~red on the rear face for fixed earth condit~ons not is allowed to develop In order that end f m t y may develop at the toe of the p~le./@... and adhes~on 6 c. Usmg thLs approach reduced angles of wall fnct~on . Potts and Walsh (1981) The method has part~ally overcome the anomaly ~nthe gross pressure method m regard to the factor of safety wh~ch reduces w t h lncreasmg depth of penetratlon In t h ~ s method the factor of safety 1s appl~ed the moment of the net avdable passwe to reslstance T h ~ ss the d~fference 1 between the gross passwe pressure and those components of the actwe pressure.a Annex B L BS 8002 : 1994 ./c' The results obtamed w t h the method are sensltlve to the value of F.6 End fixity method A des~gn method based on the assumption of futed earth support cond~t~ons developed ongmally was for flex~ble plle walls embedded in sand. there e no falure mechanism whch 1s relevant to an overall stab~hty check 'Rad~t~onally. equal to the assumed values of Sip' and c. c. that 1s the pore pressures are steady. where cum IS the value of the undramed shear strength at hmltmg equhbnum When the sod possesses both cohes~on and fnct~on different values of F. B. a retammg wall for . to be used through the range of values for p' B. = c'lF. 1s factored T h ~ s of method requlres different factors of safety F. more wdely used. the method continues to be used with success and IS popular because of its s ~ m p l ~ c ~ t y - wh~ch appl~cable stiff clay and are not are for appropnate for other types of so11 such as soft clay or sand In applymg the factor of safety to the so11 strength the method has the merlt of factonng the parameters wh~ch frequently represent the greatest uncertamty m dessn although care should be taken m selectmg the values of F. there 1s no advantage m exceedmg the depth of penetratlon beyond wh~ch these anomahes occur m the value of the factor of safety Also ~t IS now common to use lower values of Fp for low values of p' e g CIRIA report 104 (1984) recommends a value of Fp = 2 0 for p' > 30°. - B. because of the long-term deformat~on charactenst~cs such so~ls of However. wh~ch denved by subtractmg the actlve 1s earth and water pressures from the passlve earth and water pressures The result 1s equ~valent to applymg a lower factor of safety to the gross pressure (Potts and Burland 1983. has been used w ~ t h success ~nthe des~gn steel sheet p ~ l e of walls. accordmgly the method should be used only to determme the depth of penetratlon depth of penetratlon IS determmed at The requ~red h t m g moment equ~hbnum usmg the sod forces calculated from the reduced strength parameter values In cohes~onless sod the angle of sheanng reslstance at hmtmg equ~hbnum is taken as p'. and cWm/c'.3 Net available passive resistance method A descr~pt~on t h ~ method 1 @ven ~nthe paper of s s by Burland. reduce Kp and mod~fy the d~stnbut~on earth pressures relatwe to that of obtamed usmg the gross pressure method T h ~ s dtstorts the pred~cted values for moments in the wall stem. smce the st~ffness the wall may of prevent the rotatlon of the toe of the wall suffmently. tan. Fp 1 5 to 2 0 for p' ranglng from 20° to 30° and Fp 1 5 for p' < 20° Desp~te these mcousistenaes. should be determmed by mamtalmg a constant value of the ratlo 6.(tan pflF. w h ~ c h result from the we@ of the sod below the dredge hne In effect. m predom~nantly granular matenals. the dead we~ght the so11below the dredge hne. the free earth support cond~t~on should be used. chosen CIRIA report 104 (1984). the deslgn produced by t h ~ s method may result m a retalrung wall w ~ t h an madequate level of safety B.) S~mllarly. In practice.. is to reduce both strength parameters by a smgle factor of safety such that for an effectwe stress tan p'.
(Apnl). London CIRlA 1974 Large concrete pours . London. Crowthorne BRINCH HANSEN J 1953 Earth pressure calculatzons The Danish Techmcal Press. Copenhagen BROMS B 1971 Lateral pressure due to compactlon of cohes~onless so~lsIn Proc 4th Intnl Conf on Sozl Mech Found Engg . the assumptions made s confhct wlth the necessity for large displacements of the wall for the full moblhatlon of the passwe pressures The advantage of the method IS the reduct~onin plle bendmg moment m consequence of the behamour of the p ~ l e a propped cantllever as Annex C (informative) Bibliography C. 14 (5). Canadzan Geotech Journal. New York f BIRT J C 1974 Large concrete pours . foundatzons and earth structures. dependmg on the confidence that can be placed on the sol1 parameter values and other vanous factors w h c h may affect the des~gn Although satisfactory desgns have resulted from the use of t h ~ method. SYMONS 1 F and HIEDRA COB0 J C 1991 The pressure of clay backfill against retamlng structures. Bureau of Yards and Docks.Hememann. Oxford CLAYTON C R I . Budapest. POTTS D M and WALSH N M 1981 The overall stabhty of free and propped embedded cantllever retanmg walls Ground Engznemng. a factor of safety of 1 1s used (Terzagh~. CIRIA Book 3.Survey o current practzce CIRIA Report 49 of BOLTON M D 1986 The strength and d~latancy sands Geotechnzque. 282 . Crowthorne FLEMING W G K . 11 BARKAN D D 1962 Dynamzcs o bases and f foundatzons McGraw-H111. SIMONS N E and MATHEWS M C 1992 Szte znvestzgatzon 2nd ed Blackwell Saent~fic. FUCHSBERGER M . 36 (1) 65-78 BOLTON M D 1991 Geotechnacal stress amlyszs for brzdge abuhnent deszgn TRL Contractor Report 270. 213-232. MURRAY R T and KRAWCZYK J V 1980 Earth pressure agaznst a n expmmental retaznzng wall backfilled wzth szlty clay Transport and Road Research Laboratory Report L 946. London HYDROGRAPHER OF THE N V Annual AY pubhcat~onAdmzralty tzde tables Hydmgrapher of the Navy. 125 DEPARTMENT OF THE N V 1971 Deszgn AY manual Sozl mechanzcs.38 CARDER R D . Somerset TA1 2DN INGOLD T S 1979 The effects of compactlon on retaimng walls rnotechnzque. 373 .A survey o f current practzce Report 49. KIPPS 0 and SLIWINSKI Z 1975 D~aphragm wall spec~ficationProc Conf on Dzaphragm Walls and Anchorages Instn Civ Engrs London HAMBLY E C 1979 Brzdgefoundatzons and substructures Department of the Environment Bu~ld~ng Research Establishment.1 Publications referred t o in text and soll ALPAN 1 1961 Machme foundat~ons resonance GVotechnzgue.BS 8002 : 1994 Annex C -- embedded In sand. Transport Research Laboratory.384 BURLAND J B . B r a t o n . London CLAYTON C R I . POCOCK R G and MURRAY R T 1977 Expemmental retaznzng wall faczlzty lateral stress measurements wzth sand backfzll Transport and Road Research Laboratory Report LR 766. Pans. Stpt 1974. London DOWRICK D J 1977 Earthqualce reszstant deszgn a manual for engzneers and archztects Wlley. Taunton. R Cmwthorne CARDER D R . 220 .Methods and znteqretatzon Ground engmeenng report. London DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORT Departmental standard BD 30187 Backfilled retaznzng walls and bmdge abutmexis HMSO. 29 (3). CIRLAIButterworth . (3). 28 .221 CUMMINGS E M 1960 Cellular cofferdams and f f docks naris o the Ammcan Soc o Czv Engrs . London CIRIA 1974 A comparzson o quay wall deszgn f Note 54 London methods . HMSO.Techn~cal CLAYTON C R 1 1990 The mechanzcal propertzes o the chalk Proc Internat~onal f Sympos~um. Wash~ngtonD C DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORT 1991 Speczfzcatzon for hzghway works HMSO. London INSTN OF CIV ENGRS 1979 Proc Conf on Clay Fzlls London .297 CORBETT B 0 1961 Settlement of turbo-alternator blocks D~scuss~on Proc 5th Intril Conf on Sozl Mechanzcs and Foundatzon Engznemng. London f FARRAR D M 1971 A laboratory study o the use o wet fzll zn embankments Transport and Road f Research Laboratory Report 406. Thomas Telford Ltd. 28. NAVFAC DM-7. Crowthorne CIRIA5) The standard penetrataon test (SPT) Methods and use Report ERlCP17. 265 .283 INSTN OF CIV ENGRS 1975 D~aphragm walls & anchorages Proc Conf organzsed by Instn Czv Engrs .1943). CIRIA 1987 Pressuremeter testzng .
LIlTLE J A .482 f SLIWINSKI Z and FLEMING W G K 1974 Pract~cal considerations affecting the construction of diaphragm walls Proc Conf o Dzaphragm f Walls and Anchorages. ELTON P J and RAISON C 1986 Numencal analysls of flexlble retanung walls Symposzum on computer applzcatzons zn geotechnzcal engznemng The Mldland Geotechmcal Soclety PARSONS A W 1976 The rapzd measurement o f the mozsture condztzon o earthwork materzal f Transport and Road Research Laboratory Report 750. CARDER D R and WILLIAMS S G 0 1987 Behavzour o a temporary anchored sheet pzle wall f on the AI(M) a t Hatfield TRRL Research Report 99. London. London SYMONS I F and MURRAY R T 1988 Convent~onal retaning walls pilot and full-scale stud~esProc Instn Czv Engrs Part 1. 84. R Crowthorne SYMONS I F . 12. 1083 . Transport and Road Research Laboratory. ASCE Spec Conf Lateral stresses zn the ground and the deszgn o earth retaznzng structures ASCE.. .49 KERISEL J and ABSI E 1990 Actzve and pasave earth pressure tables 3rd ed A A Balkema. Gdotechnzpe Instn CIV Engrs JACK B J 1971 Wall desgn Ground Engzueerzng. SI verszon John Wlley & Sons. MCNULLY T A . 109.147 SEED H B . 106 . New York MEYERHOF G G 1953 The beanng capaclty of foundations under eccentnc and inclined loads In Proc 3rd la Conf Sozl Mech Found Engng 1. Crowthome PARSONS A W and BODEN J B 1979 The mozsture condztzon test and zts potentzal applzcatzons zn earthworks TRRL Report SR 522 PARSONS A W and TOOMBS A F 1987 The preczszon o the mozsture condztzon test TRRL f Report RR 90 PEUCH A A 1982 bas^ data for the design of tension piles in sllty soils Proc 3rd Int Conf on the behavzour o offshore structures Cambridge f (USA) 1. London PAPPIN J W .ructures TRRL Supplementary Report 813 Transport and Road Research Laboratory. New York LAMBE T W and WHITMAN R V 1979 Sozl mechanzcs.. Crowthorne RICHART F E 1960 Foundation Vibrations Proc Ammcan Soc o Czv Engrs f ROWE P W 1952 Anchored sheet plle walls Proc Part l Instu Czv Engrs London ROWE P W 1957 Sheet plle walls at failure Proc Part I . f 103 .538 SYMONS I F . New York TERZAGHI K 1945 Stabihty and stiffness of cellular cofferdams Trans o the Amemcan Soc o f f Czv Engrs 110. SIMPSON B . No 3. 141 . Crowthorne TERZAGHI K 1939 Soil Mechan~cs A new chapter in engmeenng sclence Proc lnstn Czv Engrs London. ESRIG & LUSCHER 1976 ASCE spenahty conference on lateral stress and earth retaning structure LAMBE T W and WHITMAN R V 1969 Sozl mechanzcs John W~ley. 4 (5) JAMES E L and JACK B J 1975 A design study of diaphragm walls Proc Conf on Lhaphragm Walls and Anchorages Instn Civ Engrs 41 . IDRISS I M and ORANGO I 1983 Evaluation of hquefactmn potentla1 using field performance data Proceedzngs Amwzcan Soczety o Czvzl Engzneers. calculatzons methods and model tests Damsh Geotechnical Institute Bulletm No 14 PADFIELD C J and MAIR R J 1984 Deszgn o f retaznzng walls embedded zn stgf clay CIRIA Report 104 CIRIA.141 TERZAGHI K 1943 Theoretzal sozl mechanzcs John W~ley and Sons Inc . 519 .445 NOBELS' EXPLOSIVES COMPANY LIMITED 1972 Blastzng practzce Stevenston. Scotland OVESEN N K 1962 Cellular coflerdams. June.157 PO?TS D M and BURLAND J B 1983 A parametme study o the stabzlzty o embedded earth f f retaznzng st. 440 . Erwzderstand and Pragahzgkezt des Baugrundes W Ernst u Sohn. Berlin LACROIX. 458 . Instn Czv Engrs London SEED H B and WHITMAN R V 1970 Design of earth retannng structures for dynamlc loads. Annex C BS 8002 : 1994 WSTN OF STRUCT ENGRS 1975 Deszgn and construclzon o deep basements London f INSTN OF STRUCT ENGRS 1977 Structure-sozl znteractzon A state o the a r t report London f INSTN OF STRUCT ENGRS 1991 Recmmendatzons for permzsszbk stress deszgn o f reznforced concrete structures London ISHIHARA J 1993 L~qu~faction flow fallure and dunng earthquakes 33rd Rankme Lecture. 1-10Instn Czv Engrs SOKOLOVSKI V V 1960 Statzcs o sozl medza f Butterworth Scientif~c Pubhcations.. Rotterdam KREY H 1936 E r d d m k . CLAYTON C R I and DARLEY P 1989 Earth pressure agaznst a n ezpmmental retaznzng wall backfilled wzth szlty clay Transport and Road Research Laboratory Report R 192.1202 .
405 f ROWE P W 1950 The dzstrzbutzon o lateral earth pressure on a stzff wall due to surcharge 45.633 TERZAGHI K 1954 Anchored bulkheads Trans o f the Amemcan Soc o Czv Engrs 119. London.. London THORBURN S 1963 Tentatwe correction chart for the Standard Penetrat~on Test in non-coheswe soils Czvzl Engznemng and Publac Works Revzew 58. Civil Engmeenng and Pubhc Works Review ROWE P W and PEAKER K 1965 Passive earth pressure measurements G6otechnzque 15 (1) 57 .78 SYMONS I F 1983 Assessmg the stability of a propped in s ~ t u retamlng wall in overconsol~dated clay Proc Instn Czv Engrs Part 2. No 531. TERZAGHI K and PECK R B 1967 Sozl mechanzcs zn engznemng practzce 2nd ed John Wlley and Sons Inc . 617 . Federation of Phng Specialists. Beckenham. .BS 8002 : 1994 Annex C .ztzons on the operatzon o earthmovzng f plant Transport and Road Research Laboratory Report 1034. Crowthorne PO?TS D M and FOURIE A B 1985 A numencal study of the effects of wall deformation on earth pressures Int J n l for Nummcal and Analytzcal Methods zn Geomechanzcs 10. No 683. 1243 . Scunthorpe FARRAR D M and DARLEY P 1975 The operatzon o earthmmng plant on wet fill Transport and f Road Research Laboratory Report 688. Kent BR3 3QY INGOLD T S 1977 Performance of a retalmg wall w~th deep foundat~ons Ground Engzneerzng PARSONS A W and DARLEY P 1982 The effect o f sozl cond.753 TOMLINSON M J 1987 Foundatton deszgn and constructzon 5th ed US ARMY CORPS OF ENGLNEERS 1958 Deszgn o f pzle structures and foundutzom manual C. Crowthome FEDERATION OF PILING SPECIALISTS 1991 Speczfzcatzon for steel sheet pzlzny. 752 . 75.1324 f TOMLINSON M J 1977 Pzle deszgn and constructzon practace 3rd ed Viewpomt Pubhcatlons . 383 . 39 Upper Elmers End Road.2 Additional recommended publications (not referred to m text) BRITISH STEEL 1988 General Steels Pzlzng Handbook 6th ed Bntlsh Steel plc. New York Chapman & Hall Limlted.
3 3 4 Deslgn to structural codes 3 2 i Design undralned wall adhesmn 3 2 6 . compat~bil~ty 3 1 5 of Depth of slte mvestlgatmn 2 1 2 Deslgn base fnctmn 3 2 6 Deslgn earth pressures 3 1 9 Deslgn method 3 2 ~esGn of basement walls 4 3 2 2 cofferdams 4 5 1 4 2 concrete mle walls 4 4 3.43143 Lagmg4 4 9 2 Layered soils 3 3 8 . 3 1 9 3 3 3 Actwe pressure cohesionless sod 3 3 3 2 clay smls 3 3 3 3 Adhesion undratned wall 2 2 8 Anchorages 4 6 deadman 4 6 5 Anchored embedded walls 4 4 1 Angle of sheanng reslstance 2 2 3 Apphed loads 3 1 7 At-rest earth pressures 3 3 2 Back dramage 4 7 3 8 Base frtctlon 2 2 8 Base reslstance to shdmg 4 2 2 3 Basement walls 4 3 2 Beanng capaclty gravny walls 4 2 2 1 Bendmg moment reductmn 4 4 3 3 Benton~te 4 8 3 1 4 Boreholes 2 1 2 Buttressed walls 4 3 1 2. 3 4 4 Lghtly overconsolldated clay 3 3 3 4 h m l t state 1 3 13. 3 3 1 of cnb walls 4 2 7 4 1 of deadman anchorages 4 6 5 2 2 of embedded walls 4 4 3 2 of remforced concrete walls 4 3 1 4 1. 2 1. 3 1 2 h n e loads 3 3 4 3 Lqufactmn of sands.t 2 2 3.422 of reinforced mamnry walls 4 3 3 4 1 of retamng wall 4 1 1 of waterfront structure 4 7 3 1 Excavatmn unplanned 3 2 2 2 R112 2 7 hydraulic 4 7 3 3 Flexlble sheet plle walls 4 4 3 3 Flood t ~ d e s 1 4 2 Flownet3352 Flow of water into cofferdam 4 5 1 5 Forrnwork to concrete walls 4 2 3 5 1 Foundations of gavlty walls 4 2 2 Framing for cofferdam 4 5 1 4 6 Freshwater carrosmn of steel pdes 4 4 4 4 3 3 Frost heave 3 3 4 5 Fully active earth pressure 1 3 11 Fully passwe earth resistance 1 3 12 Gab~ons 2 6 4 desmn of 4 2 6 4 equz~brium 4 2 6 4 2 of hfeof4262 Galvanized mre gabmns 4 2 6 3 4 Geological lnvestigatmn 2 1 2 Geometry of structure 3 2 2 Geotechnlcal data 2 1 Geoteade filter 3 3 5 3 Graded filter dram 3 3 5 3 Granite as fill 2 2 7 Granular soils 3 4 2 2 Grawty walls 4 2 Ground anchorages 4 6 3 Ground water 2 1 3. values of Annex A Kp. 3 2 2 Grouted cavlty masonry walls 4 3 2 2 Gmde walls for dmphragm walls 4 4 8 3 Heave in cofferdams 4 5 1 5 2 Hollow block walls 4 3 3 2 Hydrauhc fill 4 7 3 3 Hydrostat~c pressure on mass walls42343 Hydrostatic uplift 2 1 3 mjolnts4 2 3 4 3 In sltu concrete plle wall 4 4 7 Klng pdes 4 4 9 'Lwalls4312. 3 2 1. 3 2 2 Deslgn sod strength 1 3 4. Table 3 Actwe earth pressure 1 3 1..i . Table 2. slits 3 3 4 4 masonry walls 4 3 3 2 walls4 4 8 Dlsturb~ng force 1 3 8.-l. -. 4 3 1 4 4 Calculations based on totalleffective stress 3 2 3 Cantdever concrete walls 4 3 1 4 3 Cantilever embedded walls 4 4 1 Cellular cofferdams 4 5 3 r h . 4 3 1 4 3 Embedded walls 4 4 Eau~hbnum calculatlo. 3 1 8 Deslgn surcharge load 1 3 5. 3 1 8. 3 1 8 Des~gm wall fnctlon 3 2 6 Detadmg of cnb walls 4 2 7 4 2 Diaphragm Earth-fllled cofferdam 4 5 1 5 4 Earth pressure coefflc~ent 3 9. 421. 4 4 5 3 waterfront structure 4 7 3 Desgn philosophy 3 1 Deslgil situatmn 1 3 3. Values of Annex A S. 3 1 9 1 Earth pressures At-rest 3 3 2 des~gn 1 9 3 due to compactLon 3 3 3 6 on gravlty walls 3 2 7 hlgher than normal 3 1 9 Earthquake desxgn cntena 3 3 4 4 Ell walls 4 3 1 2.-----using effectwe stress 3 2 5 uslng total stress 3 2 4 Deslgn value of parameters 3 1 6 of soil parameters 1 3 6. 4 5 2 2 5 Concrete constructmn mass walls 4 2 3 5 3 Consewatwe values of sol1 parameters 1 3 2 Construct~onjomnts m concrete walls 4 2 3 5 2 In ranforced concrete 4 3 1 5 Construction of cellular cofferdams 4 5 3 5 cofferdam 4 5 1 5 concrete pde walls 4 4 7 5 concrete walls 4 2 3 5 cnb walls 4 2 7 5 dnphragm walls 4 4 8 3 gabions 4 2 6 5 masonry walls 4 3 3 5 reinforced concrete walls 4 3 1 5 sold~rlkmg pdes 4 4 9 4 tlmber sheet walls 4 4 5 4 waterfront structures 4 7 4 Corroslon of concrete 4 3 1 4 7 of gabions 4 2 6 3 4 protectmn of deadman anchorage 4 6 5 2 3 of steel mles 4 4 4 4 3 ~ounterfok walls 4 3 1 2. 4 4 9 3 steel sheet plles 4 4 4 2 struts 4 5 2 1 2 strutted excavations 4 5 1 4 2 t m b e r plles 4 4 3.K. 3 3 Double waU cofferdams 4 5 1 4 5 Dramage 3 3 5 3 behmd waterfront walls 4 7 3 8 Dramage layer 3 3 5 3 Dralned shear strength 2 2 3 Dnmng sheet plies 4 4 4 4 1 Dnvmg tunber p k s 4 4 5 4 Durablbty of concrete walls 4 3 1 4 7 Dynamlc apphcatmn of loads 3 3 4 4 Dynamlc loads 3 3 4 4 . 4 4 7 4 cnbs4 2 ? 4 deadman anchorages 4 6 5 2. values of 228 q for rock Table 4 ' o'. 3 2 1 .a l. as f 1 2 2 i 11 strength of Table 4 Chemrcals m ground 2 1 3 Crcular cofferdam 4 5 1 5 3 Clay soils actwe pressure 3 3 3 3 passwe resistance 3 4 2 3 Chmate 2 1 5 Climate changes effect on loads 3 3 4 5 Close bored pde walls 4 4 7 2 Cofferdams 4 5 construction 4 5 1 5 frammg 4 5 1 4 in water 4 5 1 4 3 \nth unbalanced loads 4 5 1 4 4 Cohesionless soils 3 4 2 2 Compaction earth pressures 3 3 3 6 Compatlbdlty of defomatrons 3 1 5 Compos~te soldler piles 4 4 9 1 Concentrated loads 3 3 4 3 Concrete crlbs 4 2 7 2 2 mfilllng to remforced masonry walls 43352 walines4521 1 .. Table 2 Damage to gabmns 4 2 6 3 4 Damp proof course for masonry walls 4 3 3 3 3 Deadman anchorages 4 6 5 Deformatmns. 4 3 1 4 4 Cnbwork 4 2 7 Cntlcal state strength 2 2 3. 4 6 5 dlaphragn walls 4 4 3 embedded walls 4 4 3 gablons 4 2 6 4 ground anchorages 4 6 3 2 masonry walls 4 2 4 3 mass concrete wall 4 2 3 4 remforced masonry walls 4 3 3 4 soldler pies 4 4 3.
4 4 6 3 d~aphragm walk 4 4 8 3 2 masonry walk 4 7 ? Propped embedded walls 4 4 1 Protection of concrete 4 3 1 4 7 PVC coated wme gablons 4 2 6 3 4 Quetta bond masonry walls 4 3 3 2 Rankme's formula 3 3 3 2. Table 3 Standprpes 2 1 3 Steel sheet p h g 4 4 4 Steel struts 4 5 2 1 2 Steelwallngs452 1 1 . 3 1 8 Sod properties 2 2 Sod strength 3 1 8 des. 3 3 4 uniformly dlstnbuted 3 3 4 2 onwall3 2 2 on waterfmnt structures 4 7 3 10.gn 3 1 8 peak 3 1 9 Soldm plies 4 4 9 SPT for rock 2 2 6 SPT value 2 2 4.Loads apphed 3 1 7 cllmatlc changes 3 3 4 5 concentrated 3 3 4 3 dynarnlc 3 3 4 4 surcharge 3 1 7. 3 3 5 4 Tenslon pries 4 6 4 TIdelag4 7 3 6 TIde levels 4 7 3 5 TIerods452 2 6 TIes4 5 2 n m b e r cnbs 4 2 7 2 1 Tlmber sheet plles 4 4 5 Tmber struts 4 5 2 I 2 T~mber wahngs 4 5 2 1 1. 3 4 2 2 cohesmnless so1153 4 2 2 granular smls 3 4 2 3 hghtly overcmsohddted clay 3 4 2 3 2 normally consohdated clay 3 4 2 3 2 overconsohddted clay 3 4 2 3 3 weak rocks 3 4 3 Peak soil strength 3 1 9 Phdosophy of dewgn 3 1 Plies tensam 4 6 4 Pocket-type masonry walls 4 3 3 2 Porewater pressure 3 3 5 2 Precast concrete diaphragm walls 4 4 8 3 ? walls411 4 5 Pre3sure due to wares 4 7 3 7 Pre3trezsed ctrncrete sheet prles 4 4 h. Rgure 2. 3 2 2 1. 3 4 2 3 3 h n l a l load fdcton 3 2 7 Paswve earth resistance 1 3 15. 3 4 5 Servrceablllt> lmlt gavlty walls 4 2 2 2 Servlceablllty hmlt state 1 3 18. 4 3 1 4 3 Rwer crossings by cofferdams 4 5 1 2 Rwer levels 4 7 3 5 Rock2 2 6 Rotatmn of wall 3 1 9 Scope of code 1 1 Scour 4 i 3 4 Secant q' 2 2 3 Secant pile walls 4 4 7 2 Seepage forces 3 3 5 2. 47311. 2 2 2.42354 Masonry u'alls ranforced 4 3 unremforced 4 2 4 Mass concrete walls 4 2 3 Mass permeablllty of clay 3 3 3 5 Matermls for cellular cofferdams 4 5 3 2 concrete piles 4 4 7 3 cnb walls 4 2 7 3 remforced concrete walls 4 3 1 3 ranforced masonry walls 4 3 3 3 umber plles 4 4 5 2 1 Mlmlnum surcharge 3 2 2 2 Wlnlmum unplanned excavdoon 3 2 2 2 Moblllzatmn factor 1 3 14. 4 5 2 2 3 Stone for gabmns 4 2 6 3 7 Strength of so11 changes m 3 2 3 Structural codes 3 2 T Structural deslgn 3 2 7 of relnforced walls 4 3 1 4 2 Structure selection of 1 5 1 Struts 4 5 2 1 2 Strutted excavatmns 4 5 Surcharge 3 1 7 mmmum 3 2 2 2 Surcharge loads 3 3 4 Surface flnlsh concrete walls 4 2 3 4 4 Symbols 1 4 Teewalls4312. 3 3 3 2 Walls on spread foundatmns 4 3 Water levels 2 1 3 pressure 3 3 5. Table 1 So11oararnetem conservative values 1 3 2 desigm value 1 3 6 etaluatlon 2 2 2 representatwe 2 2 2. 3 4 5 pressure r e m e 3 2 2 3 table 3 3 5 2 Waterfront condltlons 3 3 5 5 Waterfront structures 4 7 Waterproofing masonry walls 4 2 4 4 2 Wave a m o n 4 7 3 7 Wave pressure 4 7 3 7 waves2 1 4 Weak rocks 3 3 3 7.47312 Llfe of eablons 4 2 6 2 Life of L t p i e s 4 4 4 4 3 5 Llmlt state 3 2 2 Mason1y claddmg to mass concrete walls 42345. 3 4 2 2 Rapld sheanng 1 3 16 Remforced concrete qheet p k s 4 4 6. 4 5 2 2 4 Total stress analysis 3 3 3 3 Trees 2 1 6 Types of gab~ons 2 6 2 4 of mass concrete walls 4 2 3 2 Ultlmate hmlt state 1 3 19. 3 1 2 Undrained shear strength 2 2 3 U m f o n t y coefficient Table 3 Uniformly dlstnbuted loads 3 3 4 2 Unplanned excavatmn 1 3 20. 3222 Unre~nforcedmasom walls 4 2 4 Uphft to waterfront structures 4 7 3 9 Vertlcal sheetlng 4 4 9 2 Wahngs 4 5 2 1 1 Wall adhesmn 2 2 8 Wall displacement 3 2 5 WaV fnction 2 2 8. 4 4 6 2 walls 4 3 Remforced masonry walls 4 3 .43143 Tensmn cracks 3 3 3 5. 3 4 3 Weepholes 3 3 6 3 m cofferdams 4 5 1 5 4 Welght of soil Xhle I Welded wlre mesh gabmns 4 2 6 3 2 Weldmg sheet plies 4 4 4 4 2 Woven wre mesh gabmns 4 2 6 3 1 . 4 3 3 Ranforced soil 4 2 5 --Res~stance movement 3 4 to Resistance to shdmg gavlty walls 4 2 2 3 Reverse cant~lever walls 4 3 1 2. 3 1 8 Mortar for masonry walls 4 2 4 2 3 remforced masonry walls 4 2 4 2 3 43332 Movement jolnts in masonry walls 4 2 4 3 3 m mass walls 4 2 3 4 2 m remforced walls 4 3 1 4 6 Normally consohdated clay 3 3 3 4 Overconsol~dated clay 3 3 3 4. 3 1 2 Sheet plle walls 4 4 1 Sheet piles mseawater4444 3 4 llfeof444435 SlltS 2 2 5 Site date 2 1 Slte lnvestlgatmn 2 1 2 So11 werght of Table I Sod denslty.
blank 109 .
concrete. London BS 187 1978 BS 449 BS 449 Part 2 BS 729 1971 1969 BS 1377 BS 1377 BS 1377 BS 1377 BS 1377 Part Part Part Part 2 3 5 6 1990 1990 1990 1990 BS 1377 Part 7 1990 BS 1377 Part 8 1990 BS 1377 Part 9 1990 BS 3921 1985 . RS 4102 1990 BS 4360 1990 BS 4729 1990 BS 5268 Part 3 1985 BS 5268 Part 5 1989 BS 5328 BS 5328 Part BS 5328 Part BS 5390 1976 BS 5400 BS 5400 Part BS 5400 Part BS 5400 Part BS 5400 Part BS 5400 1 2 1 2 4 7 1991 1991 1988 1978 1990 1978 1978 Part 8 Speczfzcatzon for calczum szlzcate (sandlzme andflzntlzme) brzcks Spenfzcatzon for testzng nnc coatzngs on steel wzre and for qualzty requzrements Spenfzcatzon for the use of structural steel zn buzldzng Metmc unzts Speczfzcatzon for hot dzp galvanzzed coatzngs o n zron and steel artzcles Speczfzcatzon for materzals for damp-proof courses Speczfzcatzon for aggregates from natural sources for concrete Spenfzcatzon for azr-cooled blastfurance slag aggregate for use zn c o n s t m t z o n Speczfzcatzon for m z l d steel wzre for general engzneerzng puToses Methods of test for sozls for n v z l engzneerzng purposes Classzfzcatzon tests Chemzcal and electro-chemzcal tests Cmpresszbzlzty. pemneabzlzty and durabzlzty tests Consolzdatzon and pemneabzlzty tests zn hydraulzc cells and wath pore pressure measurement Shear strength tests (total stress) Shear strength tests (effectzve stress) In-sztu tests Speczfzcatzon for clay brzcks Speczfzcatzon for steel wzre and wzre products for fences Speczfzcatzon for weldable structural steels Speczfzcatzon for dzmenszons of brzcks of spenal shapes and szzes Speczfzcatzon for sheradzzed coatzngs on zron or steel Structural use of tzmber Code of practzce for pemnzsszble stress deszgn. concrete.2) Normative references BSI publications BRITISH STANDARDS IKSTITUTIOPI. rnaterzals and workmanshzp Code of practzce for trussed rafter roofs Code of practzce for the preservatzve treatment of structural tzmber Concrete Guzde to speczfyzng concrete Methods for speczfyzng concrete m m e s Code of practzce for stone masonry Steel. reznforcement and prestresnng tendons Rtcommendatzons for materzals and workmanshzp.List of references (see 1. concrete and composzte bmdges General statement Speczfzcatzon for loads Code of practzcefor deszgn of concrete brzdges Speczficatzon for materzals and workmanshzp. reznforctmt-nt and prestresszng tendons Code of practzce for protectzve coatzng of zron and steel structures agaznst corronon Code of practzte for preservatzon of tzmber .
clayware. cast stone. shzplzfts and dock and lock gates Deszgn of f e n d m n g and moomng systems Code of practzce for dredgzng and land reclamutzon Deszgn of znshore moorzngs and Jloatzng structures Guzde to the deszgn and constructzon of breakwaters Speczfzcatzon for reconstructed stone masonry unzts Spec@catzon for clay and calczum szlzcate modular bmcks Code of practzce for foundatzons Code of practzce for strengthened/reznforced sozk and other fzlk Code of practzce for deszgn of concrete structures for retaznzng aqueous lzquzds Code of practzce for ground anchorages Structural use of concrete Code of practzce for deszgn and constructzon Code of pructzce for spenal czrcurnstances SpecZfzcatzonfor hot rolled prducts of non-alloy structural steels and thew technzcal delzvery condztzons Informative references BSI publications BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION.BS 5628 BS 5628 BS 5628 BS 5628 BS 5642 BS 5642 Part 1 1992 Part 2 1985 Part 3 1985 Part 2 1983 BS 5930 1981 BS 6073 BS 6073 Part BS 6073 Part BS 6349 BS 6349 Part BS 6349 Part BS 6349 Part BS 6349 Part BS 6349 Part BS 6349 Part BS 6349 Part BS 6457 1984 BS 6649 1985 BS 8004 1986 BS 80066) BS 8007 1987 1 1981 2 1981 1 1984 2 1988 3 1988 4 5 6 7 1985 1991 1989 1991 BS 8081 1989 BS 8110 BS8110 Part 1 1985 BS 8110 Part 2 1985 BS EN 10025 1990 Code of practzce for use of masonry Structural use of unreznfmed masonry Structural use of reznforced and prestressed masonry Matemak and components. deszgn and workmanshzp Szlls and copzngs Speczfzcatzon for copzngs of precast concrete. slzpways and shzpbuzldzng berths. jettzes and dolphzns Deszgn of dry docks. locks. slate and natural stone Code of practzce for szte znvestzgatzons Precast concrete masonry unzts Speczfzcatzon for precast concrete mason?-# unzts Method for speczfyzng precast concrete masonry unzts Marzhme structures General m t e m a Deszgn of quay walls. London BS 1377 BS 1377 Part 1 1990 BS 1377 Part " 1990 BS 3921 1985 BS 5837 1991 BS 5950 BS 5950 Part 1 1990 BS 5950 Part 5 1987 BS 6031 1981 DD ENV 1992 DD ENV 1992-1-1 1992 Methods of test for sozk for czvzl engzneerzng purposes General requzrements and sample preparatzon Compactton-related tests Speczfzcatzon for clay brzcks Guzde for trees zn relatzon to constructzon Structural use of steelwork zn buzldzng Code of practzce for deszgn zn szmple and contznuous constructzon hot rolled sectzons Code of practzce for deszgn of cold formed sectzous Code of practzce for earthworks Enrocode 2 Deszgn of concrete structures General rules for buzldzngs (together wzth Unzted Kzngdom Natzonal Applzcatzon Document) .
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