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A PROJECT REPORT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY

IN

“ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING”

UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF :MR. AHMAD FAIZ MINAI Assistant Professor Electrical & Elex. Engg. Deptt.

SUBMITTED BY:SHAHEER ANSARI SHAMS AKHTAR PAYAMI SHUBHENDRA SINGH SURJIT KUMAR

**INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY, LUCKNOW
**

Kursi Road, Lucknow-226026 Uttar Pradesh (INDIA) Phone: 0522-2890812, 2890730, 3296117, and 6451039 Fax No.:0522-2890809 Web: www.integraluniversity.ac.in

2011

1

PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK

Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering Integral University, Lucknow

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the work in the project report entitled

“PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK”

By

SHAHEER ANSARI SHAMS AKHTAR PAYAMI SHUBHENDRA SINGH SURJIT KUMAR

(0700113050) (0700113051) (0700113054) (0700113031)

has been carried out under my supervision in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Bachelor of Technology

in

& Electronics Engineering” during session 2010-11 in the Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Integral University, Lucknow and this work has not been submitted elsewhere for a degree.

“Electrical

MR. AHMAD FAIZ MINAI (Project Guide)

MR. MOHD. ARIFUDDIN MALLICK (Head of the department)

MR. QAMAR ALAM (Project Coordinator)

MR. AKHLAQUE AHMAD KHAN (Project Coordinator)

2

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING, INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY, LUCKNOW

PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

With a deep sense of gratitude, I wish to express my sincere thanks to my guide, Mr. Ahmad Faiz Minai, Assistant Professor, Electrical & Electronics Engineering Department for giving us the opportunity to work under him on this thesis.

I truly appreciate and value his esteemed guidance and encouragement from the beginning to the end of this thesis. We are extremely grateful to him.

We want to thank all my teachers for providing a solid background for my studies and research thereafter. They have been great sources of inspiration to us and we thank them from the bottom of my heart.

We also want to thank our parents, who taught us the value of hard work by their own example. We would like to share this moment of happiness with our parents. They rendered us enormous support during the whole tenure of our stay in Integral University, Lucknow. Finally, we would like to thank all whose direct and indirect support helped us completing our thesis in time. We would like to thank our department for giving us the opportunity and platform to make our effort a successful one.

Shaheer Ansari

(0700113050)

Shams Akhter Payami (0700113051) Shubhendra Singh Surjit Kumar (0700113054) (0700113055)

3

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING, INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY, LUCKNOW

…………………........6 Single pulse width modulation 2.....5 Introduction Basic principle of operation of cascade multilevel inverter Simulation of multilevel inverter Merits of multilevel inverter Demerits of multilevel inverter 4 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING..5 Advanced design 1......4 Basic design 1......7 Multiple pulse width modulation 2........4 3.....19-34 3....11 Performance parameter of inverter 3 CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION.PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 INTRODUCTION....4 Pulse code modulation 2.1 Pulse amplitude modulation 2......5 Advantage of PWM 2....2 Inverter 1.........5 3.6 3......1Project outline 1......... INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY..........3 3.....35-43 4...1 4....10 Unipolar switching scheme 2.....7 Output waveforms 2 PULSE MODULATION SCHEME…...….........8 Sinusoidal pulse width modulation 2..3Classification of inverter 1.3 Pulse position modulation 2......…..2 Pulse width modulation 2........4 4.9-18 2.2 3......9 Single phase full bridge voltage source inverter 2.2 4...9 IGBT(Insulated gate bipolar transistor) Constructional feature of an IGBT Operating principle of an IGBT Switching characteristic of an IGBT Parameter of an IGBT Comparison with Power MOSFET The design of bilevel dc/ac inveter Simulation of single phase bridge inverter Simulation of single phase bridge inverter using unipolar switching 4 ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER.7 3.8 3.........3 4..6 Working 1......... LUCKNOW ......1-8 1...1 3.

.....54 REFERENCES.. INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY...................43-53 5..1 Harmonics optimization technique in multilevel VSI 5.........55 5 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING.................................3 Application in harmonics elimination 6 7 CONCLUSION....................................... LUCKNOW ............PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK 5 HARMONICS ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER...................................................2 Harmonics evaluation 5.........

.4………………….5 Inductive switching circuit using an IGBT…………………….5 output voltage waveform at ma1=0.2 simulink model of cascaded multilevel inverter………………….19 3...16 3 CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION 3. full-bridge inverter……….11 Current waveform with RL load………………………………..PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK TABLE OF FIGURES 1 INTRODUCTION 1...2 sine modulated.1 Simpler inverter circuit shown with an electromechanical switch….33 3.19 3.29 (b) Gating signal for IGBT3 AND IGBT4 3..13 Switching Block in inverter……………………………………. (b) Pulse-amplitude modulation.8 & ma2=0.32 3.41 6 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING.1 Analog signal.30 3.14 2.9 (a)Gating signal for IGBT1 AND IGBT2……………………….39 4.11 2..8 & ma2=0.14 Switching pulses for different switches of inverter……………..10 2. 3rd harmonic and 5th harmonics……………………………………….10 Current waveform with resistive load………………………….6 Basic Concept Diagram – Inverter………………………………..3 Circuit configuration of a single-phase...35 4 ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER 4.....8 Simulink model of a single phase bridge inverter………………..38 4..4 Parasitic thyristor in an IGBT cell………………………………..6………………….40 4.7 2 PULSE MODULATION SCHEME 2..21 3.26 3.26 3...2 Square waveform with fundamental sine wave component.3 Simulink model of an inverter block …………………………….7 Output Waveform………………………………………………. LUCKNOW ..4 1..23 3. (c) Pulse-width Modulation (d) Pulse position modulation………………………....39 4. unmodulated signal ……………………………..7 output voltage waveform at ma1=0.3 Vertical cross section of an IGBT cell……………………………20 3....1 Circuit symbol of an IGBT…………………………………….30 3.28 3... INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY.6 output voltage waveform at ma1=0...15 (a) Simulink model of inverter using unipolar switching scheme (b) Voltage waveform obtain from the simulink model of inverter using unipolar switching scheme……………………………………………...31 3..4: Waveforms for unipolar voltage switching scheme………………..41 4..8…………………...8 & ma2=0. s(t).4 Simulink model of a switching block…………………………….2 Equivalent Circuit for IGBT …………………………………….37 4.1 Cascaded five level inverter………………………………………...12 Voltage waveform with resistive load………………………….

8………………………………………………………….5 Generalized block diagram for active power filter……………………….49 5.8……………………………………………………………48 5.6……………………………………………………………49 5..8 & ma2=0. LUCKNOW .8 & ma2=0.PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK 5 CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION 5.4 …………………………………………………………..51 7 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING.8 & ma2=0. INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY..1 Harmonic evaluation of single phase inverter when ma1=0.4 Harmonic evaluation of multilevel inverter when ma1=0.3 Harmonic evaluation of multilevel inverter when ma1=0.2 Harmonic evaluation of multilevel inverter when ma1=0..48 5..8 & ma2=0.

Multilevel inverter as compared to single level inverters have advantages like minimum harmonic distortion. reduced EMI/RFI generation and can operate on several voltage levels. such as active power filters. The role of inverters in active power filter for harmonic filtering is studied and simulated in MATLAB/SIMULINK.PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK ABSTRACT The power electronics device which converts DC power to AC power at required output voltage and frequency level is known as inverter. Inverters can be broadly classified into single level inverter and multilevel inverter. INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY. A multi-stage inverter is being utilized for multipurpose applications. LUCKNOW . more expensive. The drawbacks are the isolated power supplies required for each one of the stages of the multi converter and it’s also lot harder to build. harder to control in software. static var compensators and machine drives for sinusoidal and trapezoidal current applications. 8 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING. This project aims at the simulation study of single phase single level and multilevel inverters. The single phase system with resistive loads are modelled and their characteristics is observed.

to large electric utility applications that transport bulk power. IGBT. Modeling of the circuits and harmonic elimination by use of inverters in active power filters. Collecting information about simulation work and requisite theory / formulae. This is called a line-commutated inverter and operates at a line frequency only. Therefore. This can be done by a fully-controlled converter (using thyristors). INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY. Inverters are used in a wide range of applications. etc. Simulation of the multilevel inverter. or fuel cells to AC electricity. study of the obtained simulated results and analysis (THD factor ) Application of the inverters (2 level and 3 level). LUCKNOW . The power electronics device which converts DC power to AC power at required output voltage and frequency level is known as inverter. connected to the ac mains. are used. For low and medium-power inverters. Therefore these devices may be very efficiently employed in inverters. The electricity can then be used to operate AC equipments such as those that are plugged in to most house hold electrical outlets. GTO. When a thyristor based inverter supplies an ac power to an isolated load. This makes the inverter bulkier and costlier. these have high-switching frequencies. where the output voltage is to be controlled using the pulse width-modulation (PWM) technique. thyristor based inverters are used only in high-power applications. such as power BJT. MOSFET. An inverter converts the DC electricity from sources such as batteries. gate-controlled turn-off devices (gate commutation devices). 1. force commutation techniques are required. In addition to being fully controlled. solar panels.PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK INTRODUCTION The process of conversion of a dc power into an ac power at a desired output voltage and frequency is called inversion.1Project Outline Basics of Inverter Classification of Inverter Simulation of single phase voltage source inverter. from small switching power supplies in computers. Modeling of a single phase system with linear loads. 9 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING..

which does not usually use batteries . and pumps. This means that line commutated inverters can’ tfunction as isolated AC voltage sources or as variable frequency generators with DC power at the input. hvdc transmission lines etc. Some industrial applications of inverters are for adjustable. DC is usable for some small appliances. but with the exception of lights. induction heating.speed ac drives.2 Inverter A device that converts DC power into AC power at desired output voltage and frequency is called an Inverter.PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK 1.the solar panels or wind generator feeds directly into the inverter and the inverter output is tied to the grid power. But line commutated inverters require at the output terminals an existing AC supply which is used for their commutation. UPS uninterruptible power supplies) for computers. There is also a special line of inverters called a utility intertie or grid tie. Essentially. but not much else. stand by air-craft power supplies. frequency and waveform on the AC side of the line commutated inverters can’t be changed. Some DC appliances are available.a few models also available in other voltages. force commutated inverters provide an independent AC output voltage of adjustable voltage and adjustable frequency and have therefore much wider application. Phase controlled converters when operated in the inverter mode are called line commutated inverters. INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY. lights. Therefore. On the other hand. The power produced is either sold back to the power company or (more commonly) offsets a portion of the power 10 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING. Based on their operation the inverters can be broadly classified into Voltage Source Inverters(VSI) Current Source Inverters(CSI) A voltage source inverter is one where the independently controlled ac output is a voltage waveform. voltage level. fans and pumps there is not a wide selection. The most common battery voltage inputs for inverters are 12. into standard household AC voltage so that it can be used by common tools and appliances. A current source inverter is one where the independently controlled ac output is a current waveform. Most other 12 volt items we have seen are expensive and/or poorly made compared to their AC cousins. and 48 volts DC . it does the opposite of what a battery charger or "converter" does. An inverter changes DC voltage from batteries or solar panels. 24. LUCKNOW .

3. (i) Square wave inverter A square wave inverter produces a square wave ac voltage of a constant magnitude.2 Voltage-source inverters (VSI) This type of inverter is fed by a DC source of small internal impedance. the output has one or more pulses in each half cycle. quasi-square or sine-wave) and type of circuit (Switch-mode PWM or resonant converters).3. Therefore. Varying the width of these pulses. go up to 600 volts DC input.3 Classification of inverters There are different basis of classification of inverters. like the Sunny Boy. 1. the output voltage may be controlled .48 volts or more. 1. change quickly. LUCKNOW . The supply current does not load current is varied by controlling the input DC voltage to the current-source inverter.the magnitude of input dc voltage is essential constant in this inverter. Some. nature of output voltage (square. INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY. it can be classified on the basis of devices used (SCR or gate-commutation devices). Depending on the circuit configurations. Looking from the AC side. The output voltage of this type of inverter can only be varied by controlling the input dc voltage. These inverters usually require a fairly high input voltage . circuit configuration (half-bridge or full-bridge). 11 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING. etc. Voltage-source inverters may also be classified as square-wave inverter and pulse-width modulated inverter. the voltage source inverter may be classified as half-bridge and full-bridge inverters. Moreover. CSI are used in very high-power drives. the terminal voltage remains almost constant irrespective of the load current drawn. (ii) Pulse width modulated (PWM) In a PWM inverter. Inverters are broadly classified as current source inverter and voltage-source inverter. 1.PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK used.1 Current-source inverters (CSI) This type of inverter is fed by a “current source” with high-internal impedance (using current limiting chokes or inductor in series with a DC source).

Fig: 1. was once used in vacuum tube automobile radios. The spring holds the movable contact against one of the stationary contacts and an electromagnet pulls the movable contact to the opposite stationary contact. LUCKNOW . INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY. 12 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING. The alternation of the direction of current in the primary winding of the transformer produces alternating current (AC) in the secondary circuit. This type of electromechanical inverter switch. DC power is connected to a transformer through the centre tap of the primary winding. called a vibrator or buzzer.4 Basic design In one simple inverter circuit. The current in the electromagnet is interrupted by the action of the switch so that the switch continually switches rapidly back and forth.1 simpler inverter circuit shown with an electromechanical switch. A switch is rapidly switched back and forth to allow current to flow back to the DC source following two alternate paths through one end of the primary winding and then the other. The electromechanical version of the switching device includes two stationary contacts and a spring supported moving contact. A similar mechanism has been used in door bells. buzzers and tattoo guns.PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK 1.

that is anti-symmetrical about the 180 degree point contains only odd harmonics. Different design approaches address various issues that may be more or less important depending on the way that the inverter is intended to be used. If the inverter is designed to provide power at a fixed frequency. The issue of waveform quality can be addressed in many ways. Modulating. For example. the filter must be tuned to a frequency that is above the maximum fundamental frequency. 1. 11th. etc. or regulating the width of a square-wave pulse is often used as a method of regulating or adjusting an inverter's output voltage. etc.PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK As they became available with adequate power ratings. INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY. Low-pass filters are applied to allow the fundamental component of the waveform to pass to the output while limiting the passage of the harmonic components. Since most loads contain inductance. When voltage control is not 13 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING. transistors and various other types of semiconductor switches have been incorporated into inverter circuit designs. That leaves only the 5th. all of the harmonics that are divisible by three (3rd and 9th. The antiparallel diodes are somewhat similar to the freewheeling diodes used in AC/DC converter circuits. like a square wave. 7th. Fourier analysis reveals that a waveform. by inserting a zero-voltage step between the positive and negative sections of the square-wave. filtering can be applied to the primary or the secondary side of the transformer or to both sides. LUCKNOW . Waveforms that have steps of certain widths and heights can attenuate certain lower harmonics at the expense of amplifying higher harmonics. If the design includes a transformer. 13th etc. 5th. Changing the square wave as described above is an example of pulse-width modulation (PWM). For an adjustable frequency inverter. 7th.) can be eliminated. feedback rectifiers or antiparallel diodes are often connected across each semiconductor switch to provide a path for the peak inductive load current when the switch is turned off. The required width of the steps is one third of the period for each of the positive and negative steps and one sixth of the period for each of the zero-voltage steps.5 Advanced designs There are many different power circuit topologies and control strategies used in inverter designs. a resonant filter can be used. the 3rd. Capacitors and inductors can be used to filter the waveform.

The frequency represented by the number of narrow pulses per second is called the switching frequency or carrier frequency. the positive rail and the negative rail. a fixed pulse width can be selected to reduce or eliminate selected harmonics. a stepped waveform is generated at the inverter output. Sine wave inverters put out a wave that is the same as you get from the power company . where the filter components can be much smaller and less expensive. it is possible to produce a more sinusoidal wave by having split-rail direct current inputs at two voltages. it is often better and cleaner. Depending on the quality and complexity of the inverter. but may not work well with some electronics appliances that electronic heat or speed control. or uses the AC for clocks or a timer. By connecting the inverter output terminals in sequence between the positive rail and ground. INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY. The transformer changes this "alternating DC" into AC at the output. the ground rail and the negative rail. modified square) wave inverters have more circuitry beyond the simple switching. Harmonic elimination techniques are generally applied to the lowest harmonics because filtering is much more practical at high frequencies. This is an example of a three level inverter: the two voltages and ground. Multilevel inverters provide another approach to harmonic cancellation. but are also more expensive 14 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING. and should not be used with anything but sine wave inverters unless you are sure they will work. some of the chargers used for battery operated tools may not shut off when the battery is charged. and put out a wave that looks like a stepped square wave . then both to the ground rail. For example. and feeding opposite sides of a transformer. Sine wave inverters can run anything.PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK required.in fact. Also. Multiple pulse-width or carrier based PWM control schemes produce waveforms that are composed of many narrow pulses. it makes the transformer think it is getting AC.it is suitable for most standard appliances. By rapidly turning these transistors on and off. These control schemes are often used in variable-frequency motor control inverters because they allow a wide range of output voltage and frequency adjustment while also improving the quality of the waveform. 1.6 Working An inverter takes the DC input and runs it into a pair (or more) of power switching transistors. it may put out a square wave. a "quasi-sine" (sometimes called modified sine) wave. or positive and negative inputs with a central ground. LUCKNOW . Multilevel inverters provide an output waveform that exhibits multiple steps at several voltage levels. Quasi-sine (modified sine. or a true sine wave.

etc. when not coupled to an output transformer. that are included in the series have frequencies that are integral multiples of the fundamental frequency. and is too "dirty" for all but universal motor driven tools. can also vary quite a bit between inverters. Using Fourier analysis. periodic waveforms are represented as the sum of an infinite series of sine waves. 1.PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK than other types. Fig: 1. The sine wave that has the same frequency as the original waveform is called the fundamental component. toasters. and may also vary somewhat with the load. INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY. The quality of the "modified sine" (actually modified square wave). and other appliances that have only a heating element. The total harmonic distortion is the square root of the sum of the squares of the harmonic voltages divided by the fundamental voltage: 15 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING. LUCKNOW . 3rd harmonic and 5th harmonics The quality of the inverter output waveform can be expressed by using the Fourier analysis data to calculate the total harmonic distortion (THD). coffee makers. Quasi-sine wave.7 Output waveforms The switch in the simple inverter described above. The very bottom end put out a wave that is nothing but a square wave. produces a square voltage waveform due to its simple off and on nature as opposed to the sinusoidal waveform that is the usual waveform of an AC power supply. called harmonics. The other sine waves.2 Square waveform with fundamental sine wave component.

PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK The quality of output waveform that is needed from an inverter depends on the characteristics of the connected load. LUCKNOW . Some loads need a nearly perfect sine wave voltage supply in order to work properly. 16 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING. Other loads may work quite well with a square wave voltage. INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY.

In other words the pulse amplitude is modulated according to the varying amplitude of analog signal. in relation to the position of a recurrent reference pulse. . These numbers can be represented by two. INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY. is varied by each instantaneous sampled value of the modulating wave. six or more binary digits. 17 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING. 2. 2. The amplitude of the analog signal at each sample is rounded off to the nearest binary level (quantization). PPM has the advantage of requiring constant transmitter power since the pulses are of constant amplitude and duration. three. The sampling rate (number of samples per second). is several times the maximum frequency of the analog waveform.PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK PULSE MODULATION SCHEME 2. the information being encoded in the width of the pulses. LUCKNOW . The pulses have constant amplitude but their duration varies in direct proportion to the amplitude of analog signal. 64. the analog signal amplitude is sampled at regular time intervals. four.4 Pulse Code Modulation To obtain PCM from an analog waveform at the source (transmitter)..1 Pulse Amplitude Modulation Pulse Amplitude Modulation refers to a method of carrying information on a train of pulses.2 Pulse Width Modulation Pulse Width Modulation refers to a method of carrying information on a train of pulses. 8. The position of each pulse.3 Pulse Position Modulation The amplitude and width of the pulse is kept constant in the system. 32. the information being encoded in the amplitude of pulses.. 16.). 2. The Number of levels is always a power of 2 (4. five.

18 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING. music and telemetry can be transferred.PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK Fig2. INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY.1(a) Analog signal. s(t). LUCKNOW . voice. (c) Pulse-width modulation. (b) Pulse-amplitude modulation. With PCM all forms of analog data like video. (d) Pulse position modulation PCM is a general scheme for transmitting analog data in a digital and binary way independent of the complexity of the analog waveform.

5 Advantages of PWM The output voltage control is easier with PWM than other schemes and can be achieved without any additional components. It has very low power consumption. The filtering requirements are minimized as lower order harmonics are eliminated and higher order harmonics are filtered easily. INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY. The entire control circuit can be digitized which reduces the susceptibility of the circuit to interference. Fig: 2. The lower order harmonics are either minimized or eliminated altogether. LUCKNOW .2 sine modulated. unmodulated signal PWM is the most popular method for producing a controlled output for inverters. They are quite popular in industrial applications. 19 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING.PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK 2.

LUCKNOW . INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY. the frequency of the carrier wave determines the fundamental frequency of output voltage. there’s only one pulse per half cycle and the width of the pulse is varied to control the inverter output.the pulse width can be varied from 0 to 100 percent. By varying Ar from 0 to Ac . 2. The PWM techniques given above vary with respect to the harmonic content in their output voltages.6 Single Phase PWM Inverters In many industrial applications. 20 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING. The gating signals are generated by comparing a rectangular reference signal of the amplitude Ar with triangular carrier wave of amplitude Ac. to control the output voltage of the inverters is necessary for the following reasons To adjust with variations of dc input voltage To regulate voltage of inverters To satisfy the contain volts and frequency control requirement There are various techniques to vary the inverter gain. The most efficient method of Controlling the gain (and output voltage) is to incorporate pulse width modulation (PWM) Control within the inverters.7 Single Pulse Width Modulation In this control. The commonly used techniques are a) Single Pulse width Modulation b) Multiple Pulse width Modulation c) Sinusoidal Pulse width Modulation d) Modified sinusoidal Pulse width Modulation e) Phase-displacement control. The ratio of Ar to Ac is the control variable and defined as the modulation index.PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK 2.

2. full-bridge. 21 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING. INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY. This type of modulation is also known as uniform pulse width modulation (UPWM). Moreover. determines the number of pulses per half cycle. The devices of one pair operate simultaneously. The frequency Fc. The gating signals of the switch-pairs S1S2 and S3S4 are shown in Figs. The generation of gating signals for turning ON and OFF transistors by comparing a reference signal with a triangular carrier wave. These drawbacks are removed in full bridge inverters (fig.10 Single-phase.9 Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation Modulation the width of each pulse is varied in proportion to the amplitude of a sine wave evaluated at the centre of the same pulse. maintaining the width of all pulses of same as in case of multiple pulse width triangular carrier wave of frequency Fc. 2. which is double the load voltage. The number of pulses per half cycle depends on carrier frequency.8Multiple Pulse Width Modulation The harmonic content can be reduced by using several pulses in each half cycle of output voltage.PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK 2. The inverter uses two pairs of controlled switches (S1S2 and S3S4) and two pairs of diodes (D1D2 and D3D4). voltage-source inverters The single-phase. the voltage across the off-state semiconductor device is V. and rms output voltage Vo. The distortion factor and lower order harmonics are reduced significantly. The frequency of reference signal Fr . respectively.determines the inverter output frequency and its peak amplitude Ar. LUCKNOW . half-bridge inverters require only two controlled switches and two diodes. 2. controls the modulation index M. 2. The gating signals are generated by comparing a sinusoidal reference signal with a Instead of.1). The modulation index controls the output voltage. These inverters can be used only when three-wired dc supply is available.3 a & b.

S4 22 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING. INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY. (a) Gating signal for switch S1.3 Circuit configuration of a single-phase. full-bridge inverter. LUCKNOW .PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK Fig: 2. S2 (b) Gating signal for switch S3.

wave forms of load voltage and load current are shown in Fig. as shown in the Fig. (d) Voltage and current waveforms for RL loads. becomes +V. At t = T. due to inductive nature of the load. The output voltage becomes positive (+V) and the negative load current decays to zero 23 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING. The diode pair D1D2 provides a path for the negative current.PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK (c) Voltage and current waveforms for resistive loads For a resistive load. At t = T/2. . The load current waveform is also a square wave with magnitude V/R. 2. For an RL load . the load current is at its negative peak and its direction cannot reverses instantaneously. S1S2 pair is again closed to make v0 = V and the cycle repeats. By operating the two switch pairs at the desired frequency. S3S4 pair turns on to make v0 = -V. the switch pair S1S2 closes for the time interval 0 < t < T/2 and the output voltage (v0).3d At t=0. a square-wave ac voltage is obtained at the output. INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY. LUCKNOW . S1S2 pair turns off and simultaneously.

the switches of the first leg. with respect to the reference point N.8.1.4: Waveforms for unipolar voltage switching scheme 24 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING.e. 2. Instead. 2. D3D4 pair commutates and S3S4 pair starts conduction for the negative load current. It may be observed that the output voltage fluctuates from 0 to +V in the positive half-cycle and from 0 to –V in the negative half-cycle. LUCKNOW . which is already received the gating signal. At this instant. S4 is on. Here Van and Vbn . If vref > vc. As the load voltage is negative. i. INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY.4. During this period. The waveform for the unipolar switching scheme. i. the switch pair S1S2 turns off. S1 and S4. The switches of the other leg. turns on. The positive current continues to flow for some more time (up to t=t2) through the diode pair D3D4. are not operated as pair. At t = t1 . Following logic is used to operate these switches: 1. are shown in fig. If –vref > vc. are the potentials of the load terminals A and B. S1 is on and if vref < vc. the diode pair D1D2 commutates and the switch pair S1S2. are operated by comparing the triangular carrier wave (vc) with the sinusoidal reference signal (vref). mf =12 and ma= 0. 2.PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK at t = t1. the switch pairs S1S2 and S3S4 of the full-bridge inverter of fig. S2 is on. Thus the scheme is called unipolar switching scheme Fig 2. are operated by comparing vc with –vref. It provides the path for the positive load current. At t = t2.e. the energy is fed back to the source. The load current builds up and reaches its positive peak at t = T/2. S2 and S3.11 Unipolar switching scheme In unipolar switching scheme. energy is fed back to the source through the feedback diodes D1 and D2. S3 is on and if –vref < vc. 2.

12. It is defined as: HFn Vn V1 Where Vn is the rms value of the nth harmonic component and v1 is the rms value of the fundamental component of the output voltage. V V1 2 n THD 2 Vrms V12 V1 Where Vrms is the rms value of the output voltage.3... However. 25 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING. It is defined as the ratio of the rms value of the total harmonic component of the output voltage and the rms value of the fundamental component. LUCKNOW . an inverter should give a sinusoidal voltage at its output.2 Total harmonic distortion (THD) A total harmonic distortion is a measure of closeness in a shape between the output voltage waveform and its fundamental component. INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY.12 Performance parameters of inverters Ideally. 2.12. n2.1 Harmonic factor of nth harmonic A harmonic factor is a measure of the individual harmonic contribution in the output voltage of an inverter.PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK 2. Performance of an inverter is usually assessed with the following performance parameters. 2. outputs of practical inverters are non-sinusoidal and may be resolved into fundamental and harmonic components. Mathematically.

with a magnitude greater than or equal to three percent of the magnitude of the fundamental component of the output voltage. LUCKNOW . is called the lowest order harmonic. (V n / n2 )2 DF V1 2. divided by n2). after the waveform has been subjected to second order attenuation (i. 26 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING.12.e.12. 3.PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK 2. INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY.. n 2 ..3 Distortion factor (DF) A distortion factor indicates the amount of harmonic that remain in the output voltage waveform. lower will be the distortion in the current waveform.4 Lowest-order harmonics (LOH) The lowest harmonic frequency. Higher the frequency of the LOH.

high power applications. INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY. LUCKNOW . It is designed to rapidly turn on and off.PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION 3. in a single device. Punch-through IGBTs are available up to about 1200 V. noted for high efficiency and fast switching. a better trade-off between the forward voltage drop and turn-off time can be achieved. NPT IGBTs of 27 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING. and a bipolar power transistor as a switch.1 The IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor) Fig:3. In the punch-through IGBT. Fig:3. The IGBT combines the simple gate-drive characteristics of the MOSFETs with the high-current and low–saturation-voltage capability of bipolar transistors by combining an isolated gate FET for the control input. The IGBT is used in medium-to. amplifiers that use it often synthesize complex waveforms with pulse width modulation and low-pass filters.1 Circuit symbol of an IGBT (a)Circuit symbol (b) Photograph The insulated gate bipolar transistor or IGBT is a voltage controlled four-layer.2 Equivalent Circuit for IGBT IGBTs can be classified as punch-through (PT) and non-punch-through (NPT) structures. three-terminal power semiconductor device.

Doping level and width of this layer sets the forward blocking voltage (determined by the reverse break down voltage of J ) of the device. However they have a higher forward voltage drop than the PT IGBTs. INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY. 2 However. and series connection is possible without dv/dt snubbers. 3. This gives the IGBT a number of advantages: it does not require protective circuits. it does not affect the on state voltage drop of the device due to conductivity modulation as discussed in connection with the power diode. The n type drain layer itself may have two different doping levels. Although p channel IGBTs are possible n channel devices are more common. LUCKNOW . The lightly doped n. Fig:3. The major difference with the corresponding MOSFET cell structure lies in the addition of a p+ injecting layer. The IGBT is presently one of the most popular device in view of its wide ratings.2 Constructional Features of an IGBT Vertical cross section of a n channel IGBT cell is shown in Fig. switching speed of about 100 KHz a easy voltage drive and a square Safe Operating Area devoid of a Second Breakdown region.region is called the drain drift region. Its switching times can be controlled by suitably shaping the drive signal.3 Vertical cross section of an IGBT cell. This layer forms a pn junction with the drain layer and injects minority carriers into it. it can be connected in parallel without difficulty.PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK up to about 4 KV have been reported in literature and they are more robust than PT IGBTs particularly under short circuit conditions. The Non-Punch Through (NPT) construction does not 28 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING. This construction of the device is called “Punch Trough” (PT) design.

However.3 Operating principle of an IGBT Fig:3.4 are grown on a single silicon wafer and connected in parallel to form a complete IGBT device.PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK have this added n+ buffer layer. The doping level and physical geometry of the p type body region however.4 Parasitic thyristor in an IGBT cell (a)Schematic structure (b)Exact equivalent circuit (c)Approximate equivalent circuit 29 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING. is considerably different from that of a MOSFET in order to defeat the latch up action of a parasitic thyristor embedded in the IGBT structure. it does so at the cost of lower reverse break down voltage for the device. 3. A large number of basic cells as shown in Fig 3. INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY. The PT construction does offer lower on state voltage drop compared to the NPT construction particularly for lower voltage rated devices. LUCKNOW . since the reverse break down voltage of the junction J1is small. The rest of the construction of the device is very similar to that of a vertical MOSFET including the insulated gate structure and the shorted body (p type) – emitter (n+ type) structure.

The voltage drop across J follows the usual exponential law of a pn junction. This is intentionally kept low so that most of the device current flows through the MOSFET and not the output p-n-p transistor collector. The doping level and the thickness of this layer determines the current gain “∝” of the p-n-p transistor. This component in an IGBT is considerably lower compared to a MOSFET due to strong conductivity modulation by the injected minority carriers from the collector. INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY. when the gate emitter voltage is less then the threshold voltage no inversion layer is formed in the p type body region and the device is in the off state. This in turn causes substantial hole injection from the p+ type collector to the drain drift region. This helps to reduced the voltage drop across the “body” spreading resistance shown in Fig 3. 30 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING. From the above discussion it is clear that the n type drain drift region acts as the base of the output p-n-p transistor.PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK Operating principle of an IGBT can be explained in terms of the schematic cell structure and equivalent circuit of Fig 3. This inversion layer (channel) shorts the emitter and the drain drift layer and an electron current flows from the emitter through this channel to the drain drift region.4(a) and (c). The rest of the holes cross the drift region to reach the p type body where they are collected by the source metallization. Therefore.4(c). When the gate emitter voltage exceeds the threshold. The next component of the voltage 1 drop is due to the drain drift region resistance. when the gate emitter voltage is lower than the threshold voltage the driving MOSFET of the Darlington configuration remains off and hence the output p-n-p transistor also remains off. A portion of these holes recombine with the electrons arriving at the drain drift region through the channel. LUCKNOW . The total on state voltage drop across a conducting IGBT has three components. From the input side the IGBT behaves essentially as a MOSFET. The last component of the voltage drop across an IGBT is due to the channel resistance and its magnitude is equal to that of a comparable MOSFET.4 (b) and eliminate the possibility of static latch up of the IGBT. Very small leakage current flows through the device under this condition. an inversion layer forms in the p type body region under the gate. This is the main reason for reduced voltage drop across an IGBT compared to an equivalent MOSFET. The forward voltage applied between the collector and the emitter drops almost entirely across the junction J . In 2 terms of the equivalent current of Fig 3.

PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK 3. The different parameter of an IGBT is used in simulation process are as follows 31 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING.5(a).3. the switching voltage and current waveforms exhibit a strong similarity with those of a MOSFET. 3. Fig. To avoid dynamic latch up. LUCKNOW .5: Inductive switching circuit using an IGBT (a) Switching circuit (b) Equivalent circuit for the IGBT The switching waveforms of an IGBT is in many respects similar to that of a Power MOSFET. However. (to be discussed later) the gate emitter voltage of an IGBT is maintained at a negative value when the device is off.5 (b) will be used to explain the switching waveforms.4 Switching characteristics of an IGBT Switching characteristics of the IGBT will be analyzed with respect to the clamped inductive switching circuit shown in Fig 3. Therefore.5(b). INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY. since the input stage of an IGBT is a MOSFET as shown in Fig 3. The equivalent circuit of the IGBT shown in Fig 3. particularly during turn off. The internal inductance can not be set to zero. This is expected. In OF state the IGBT model has infinite impedance. Also in a modern IGBT a major portion of the total device current flows through the MOSFET. the output p-n-p transistor does have a significant effect on the switching characteristics of the device. In ON state the IGBT model has internal resistance (Ron) and inductance (Lon). Another important difference is in the gate drive requirement.5 Parameters of an IGBT Implement an IGBT device in parallel with a series RC snubber circuit.

INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY.PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK The different parameter of a diode used in simulation process are as follows 32 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING. LUCKNOW .

In bridge circuits where reverse current flow is needed an additional diode (called a freewheeling diode) is placed in parallel with the IGBT to conduct current in the opposite direction. low current and high switching frequencies are the domain of the MOSFET. because at the higher voltages where IGBT usage dominates. IGBT has a diode like voltage drop (typically of the order of 2V) increasing only with the log of the current.PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK 3. resulting in roughly square relationship increase in forward conduction loss compared to blocking voltage capability of the device. The minority carriers injected into the n. IGBTs cannot conduct in the reverse direction. As the blocking voltage rating of both MOSFET and IGBT devices increases.6 Comparison with Power MOSFETS An IGBT has a significantly lower forward voltage drop compared to a conventional MOSFET in higher blocking voltage rated devices. high current and low switching frequencies favor IGBTs while low voltage. By injecting minority carriers (holes) from the collector p+ region into the n. 33 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING.drift region is considerably reduced. This results in longer switching time and hence higher switching loss compared to a power MOSFET. with the voltage drop proportional to current. the resistance of the n.drift region must increase and the doping must decrease. In general high voltage. so if the circuit application applies a reverse voltage to the IGBT. However. an additional series diode must be used.drift region to collector P+ diode is usually only of tens of volts. as well as the different switching characteristics mentioned above. This means that unlike a MOSFET. the depth of the n. MOSFET resistance is typically lower for smaller blocking voltages meaning that the choice between IGBTs and power MOSFETS depend on both the blocking voltage and current involved in a particular application. INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY. By contrast. The on-state forward voltage drop in IGBTs behaves very differently to that in power MOSFETS.drift region take time to enter and exit or recombine at turn on and turn off. discrete diodes are of significantly higher performance than the body diode of a MOSFET. The MOSFET voltage drop can be modeled as a resistance. this resultant reduction in on-state forward voltage comes with several penalties: The additional PN junction blocks reverse current flow. The reverse bias rating of the N. Additionally. LUCKNOW .drift region during forward conduction. The penalty isn't as severe as first assumed though.

the load is subjected to –Vs. Figure 3 shows the corresponding output waveform. if switches SW1 and SW4 are turned on.PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK 3. Assuming the switches are voltage controlled. INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY. LUCKNOW . if SW2 and SW3 are turned on. As shown. A low power circuit must be constructed to perform as the control circuitry that drives the high power stage. the load is subjected to +Vs.7 The Design of a Bi-level Input DC/AC Inverter Conceptually. the source DC voltage is converted to a square-wave AC voltage. One such control method is the Square-Wave Inverter. In Figure 1. the inverter works by turning on switches in a specific order. Figure 2 shows possible input waveforms to the switches. Fig: 3. Note that Vs is a constant DC voltage. However.6 Basic Concept Diagram – Inverter r Fig: 3.7 Output Waveform 34 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING.

Both methods compare the reference signal and the carrier signal and cause switching conditions that correspond to the two signals. also called a control signal or a modulating signal. The triangle wave controls the switching frequency of the inverter. For unipolar switching. significant filtering must be implemented to reduce the square wave to a sinusoidal wave. by using PWM techniques. respectively. Pulse-width modulators are available in IC packages and their exact method of control varies by manufacturer and by model. two inputs are required: a sinusoidal reference signal. there must be time when all switches are in the “off” state to avoid shorting the supply voltage. 35 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING.PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK Since a square wave is not suitable for most applications. pulse-width modulation has two distinct advantages: higher frequency harmonic content and amplitude control. This can be accomplished since a square wave can be represented as a Fourier series. The Fourier series of a square wave is the sum of a sine wave of the fundamental frequency and its odd harmonics. Another practical consideration is the fact that real switches can not change states instantaneously. the output is switched between positive voltage and zero or negative voltage and zero. the output voltage of the inverter can be directly controlled. For bipolar switching. and a carrier signal. Another technique to control the output of an inverter is pulse-width modulation (PWM). INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY. Compared to the square-wave method of control. LUCKNOW . The output is –VDC when the sine wave is less than the carrier wave. Bipolar and unipolar switching are the two available methods of switching. For PWM control. the output is either +VDC or –VDC corresponding to the reference voltage being greater than the carrier wave and the reference being less than the carrier. PWM control compares the output waveform to a reference signal and adjusts the duty cycle of the switching mechanism. The filtering requirements for PWM generated outputs are less stringent since the non-fundamental components are of much higher frequency than that of the fundamental sine wave. Also. Therefore.

Figure 3.8 Simulink model of a single phase bridge inverter 36 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING. LUCKNOW . INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY.8 Simulation of a single-phase bridge inverter The performance analysis of a single-phase bridge inverter is studied using SIMULINK model.8 shows the simulation model of the system.PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK 3. Fig 3.

9 (a)Gating signal for IGBT1 AND IGBT2 (b) Gating signal for IGBT3 AND IGBT4 For an RL load . (c) and (d) simultaneously. wave forms of load current and load voltage are shown in Fig.PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK There is a DC voltage source of 100 volt applied to a system. (c) Current waveform for RL loads (d) Voltage waveform for RL loads 37 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING. On and off period of the above four switches (IGBT’s) are according to the gating signal below. LUCKNOW . INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY. Pulse generator is used for switching. Fig 3.

PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK Fig:3.11 Current waveform with RL load 38 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING. INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY. LUCKNOW .10 Current waveform with resistive load Fig:3.

turns on. becomes +V. It provides the path for the positive load current. a square-wave ac voltage is obtained at the output. due to inductive nature of the load. as shown in the Fig. At t = T/2. the diode pair D1D2 commutates and the switch pair S1S2. the load current is at its negative peak and its direction cannot reverses instantaneously. During this period. LUCKNOW . which is already received the gating signal. For a resistive load. The load current builds up and reaches its positive peak at t = T/2. The output voltage becomes positive (+V) and the negative load current decays to zero at t = t1. INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY. As the load voltage is negative. the switch pair S1S2 closes for the time interval 0 < t < T/2 and the output voltage (v0). S1S2 pair turns off and simultaneously. D3D4 pair commutates and S3S4 pair starts conduction for the negative load current. The diode pair D1D2 provides a path for the negative current.PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK Fig: 3. The positive current continues to flow for some more time (up to t=t2) through the diode pair D3D4. At t = t1 . At t = t2. At t = T. S3S4 pair turns on to make v0 = -V.12 Voltage waveform with resistive load At t=0. By operating the two switch pairs at the desired frequency. 39 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING. The load current waveform is also a square wave with magnitude V/R. energy is fed back to the source through the feedback diodes D1 and D2. S1S2 pair is again closed to make v0 = V and the cycle repeats. the switch pair S1S2 turns off. the energy is fed back to the source. At this instant.

8 Fig: 3. S2 and S3.9 Simulation of a single-phase bridge inverter using unipolar switching In unipolar switching there is a comparison between the triangular carrier wave (vc) with the sinusoidal reference signal (vref).e.7. The SIMULINK model of unipolar switching for the inverter is shown in figure 2. LUCKNOW . i. INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY.PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK 3.13 Switching Block in inverter 40 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING. and various switching pulses for the four IGBT switches are shown in figure 2. are operated by comparing vc with –vref. The switches of the other leg.

LUCKNOW .14 Switching pulses for different switches of inverter 41 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING. INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY.PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK Time (secs) (a)Switching pulse for IGBT1 Time (secs) (b) Switching pulse for IGBT2 Time (secs) (c) Switching pulse for IGBT3 Time (secs) (d) Switching pulse for IGBT4 Fig:3.

For resistive load and at 100 volt. INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY. and its output voltage waveform is shown in Figure (a) and (b) simultaneously. the voltage waveform is given below. LUCKNOW . (b) Fig:3.PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK The simulation of inverter model using unipolar switching scheme.15 (a) Simulink model of inverter using unipolar switching scheme (b) Voltage waveform obtain from the simulink model of inverter using unipolar switching scheme 42 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING.8. (a) In the above SIMULINK model modulation index (ma) is equal to 0.

The term multilevel began with the three-level converter. and fuel cells can be easily interfaced to a multilevel converter system for a high power application. for a sufficient high number of levels. however. It is worth mentioning that although the number of switches in this approach is higher than other two level topologies. However. wind. this topology utilizes switches with lower breakdown voltage. This implies lower switching dissipation and higher efficiency.PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER 4. the elementary concept of a multilevel converter to achieve higher power is to use a series of power semiconductor switches with several lower voltage dc sources to perform the power conversion by synthesizing a staircase voltage waveform. Subsequently. it is troublesome to connect only one power semiconductor switch directly. In general. the output filter can be avoided which means less weight. but also enables the use of renewable energy sources. a greater number of switches in multilevel converters can be justified since the semiconductor cost decreases at a much greater rate than the filter components cost. Moreover. Numerous industrial applications have begun to require higher power apparatus in recent years. therefore. As a result. and renewable energy voltage sources can be used as the multiple dc voltage sources. even with the same size of filter at the output. Capacitors. several multilevel converter topologies have been developed.1 INTRODUCTION MULTILEVEL topologies are able to generate better output quality. it can be used in higher power applications at lower cost. a multilevel power converter structure has been introduced as an alternative in high power and medium voltage situations. For a medium voltage grid. the switching frequency can be decreased which means higher efficiency. A multilevel converter not only achieves high power ratings. INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY. while operating at lower switching frequency. Some medium voltage motor drives and utility applications require medium voltage and megawatt power level. The commutation of the power switches aggregate these multiple dc sources in order to achieve high voltage at the output. The concept of multilevel converters has been introduced since 1975. On the other hand. cost and space. batteries. 43 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING. the rated voltage of the power semiconductor switches depends only upon the rating of the dc voltage sources to which they are connected. LUCKNOW . Renewable energy sources such as photovoltaic.

therefore electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) problems can be reduced. 44 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING. A multilevel converter has several advantages over a conventional two-level converter that uses high switching frequency pulse width modulation (PWM). It should be noted that lower switching frequency usually means lower switching loss and higher efficiency. This may cause the overall system to be more expensive and complex. the two-level inverters have some limitations to operate at high frequency mainly due to switching losses and constraints of device rating itself. but also can reduce the dv/dt stresses. LUCKNOW . ● Staircase waveform quality: Multilevel converters not only can generate the output voltages with very low distortion.PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK In general. the semiconductor switching devices should be used in such a manner as problematic serried parallel combinations to obtain capability of handling high power. In the case of high power high voltage applications. ● Input current: Multilevel converters can draw input current with low distortion. The attractive features of a multilevel converter can be briefly summarized as follows. each switch requires a related gate drive circuit. Although lower voltage rated switches can be utilized in a multilevel converter. Moreover. One particular disadvantage is the greater number of power semiconductor switches needed. INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY. Nowadays the use of multilevel approach is believed to be promising alternative in such a very high power conversion processing as pointed out in literatures. multilevel converters do have some disadvantages. Harmonic reduction in controlling a VSI with variable amplitude and frequency of the output voltage is of importance and thus the conventional inverters which are referred to as two-level inverters have required increased switching frequency along with various PWM switching strategies. increasing the switching frequency in voltage source inverters (VSI) leads to the better output voltage current waveforms. ● Switching frequency: Multilevel converters can operate at both fundamental switching frequency and high switching frequency PWM. Unfortunately. however.

1 Cascaded five level inverter 45 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING. INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY. fuel cells or solar cells. The AC output is the sum of the individual converter outputs. whose AC terminals are simply connected in series to synthesize the output waveforms. Fig. 0. LUCKNOW . Fig:4.PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK 4. The number of output phase voltage levels is defined by n = 2N+1. −Vdc. 1 shows the power circuit for a five level inverter with two cascaded cells. The CMC needs several independent DC sources which may be obtained from batteries. each converter level can generate three different voltage outputs. +Vdc. Through different combinations of the four switches of each cell. where N is the number of DC sources.3 BASIC PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION OF CASCADED MULTILEVEL INVERTER The Cascaded Multilevel Converters (CMC) is simply a number of conventional two-level bridges.

2 simulink model of cascaded multilevel inverter 46 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING. LUCKNOW .PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK 4. while tracking the MPP of each string independently. The topology does not consist of any extra DC-DC converter stage which causes some limitation in the performance but definitely reduces the overall cost and efficiency. Fig:4. This topology generates high quality output current under any circumstances specifically in partial shading.5 Simulation of Multilevel Inverter There is a new control strategy to control Cascaded multilevel converters in a multi-string configuration for single phase grid connected systems. Simulation results are provided to validate the proposed control system. INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY.

3 Simulink model of an inverter block Fig.(c). LUCKNOW .PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK MATLAB simulink model of a PWM inverter is shown in Fig.(b) in which four IGBT are used and switching for all IGBT is shown in Fig. INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY. Fig:4.4.4 Simulink model of a switching block 47 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING.

PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK

In unipolar switching scheme, the switch pairs S1S2 and S3S4 of the full-bridge inverter of fig. 2.1, are not operated as pair. Instead, the switches of the first leg, i.e. S1 and S4, are operated by comparing the triangular carrier wave (vc) with the sinusoidal reference signal (vref). The switches of the other leg, i.e. S2 and S3, are operated by comparing vc with –vref. Following logic is used to operate these switches: 1. If vref > vc, S1 is on and if vref < vc, S4 is on. 2. If –vref > vc, S3 is on and if –vref < vc, S2 is on.

Fig:4.5 output voltage waveform at ma1=0.8 & ma2=0.8.

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING, INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY, LUCKNOW

PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK

Fig:4.6 output voltage waveform at ma1=0.8 & ma2=0.6

Fig:4.7 output voltage waveform at ma1=0.8 & ma2=0.4

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING, INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY, LUCKNOW

PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK

Through different combinations of the four switches of both cells, both converter levels can generate three different voltage outputs, +Vdc, 0, −Vdc. The AC output is the sum of the individual converter outputs. The number of output phase voltage levels is ‘5’ because we use two photovoltaic sources. For instance the output range of the Fig. 4.5 swings from −200to +200 with five levels.

In above figure output voltage waveform for various value of different modulation index(ma)are shown. The pulse width of voltage waveform decreases by decreasing the value of modulation index(ma2) and have constant modulation index (ma1)

**4.6 Merits of Multilevel Inverter
**

Multilevel concept is used to decrease the harmonic distortion in the output waveform without decreasing the inverter power output. • • • • To increase inverter operating voltage without devices in series. To minimize THD with low switching frequencies fsw. To reduce EMI due to lower voltage steps. Ability to reduce the voltage stress on each power device due to the utilization of multiple levels on the DC bus. • Important when a high DC side voltage is imposed by an application (e.g. traction systems) • Even at low switching frequencies, smaller distortion in the multilevel inverter AC side waveform can be achieved (with stepped modulation technique) • • • • Reduced electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) when operated at high voltage. Smaller rating of semiconductor devices. Better feature in output voltage in terms of less distortion. Lower harmonic contents and lower switching loses.

50

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING, INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY, LUCKNOW

• • They are suitable for high voltage and high current application. INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY. harder to control in software. 4.7 Demerits of Multilevel Inverter The drawbacks are the isolated power supplies required for each one of the stages of the multiconverter and it’s also lot harder to build. Packaging is also more difficult in inverters with high number of levels. They have higher efficiency because the devices can be switched at low frequency. 51 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING. Switching utilization and efficiency are poor for real transmission. The large number of capacitors are both more expensive and bulky than clamping diodes in multilevel diode clamped converters.PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK • The circuit topology provides full utilization of semiconductor devices like GTOs where voltage stress of each switch is limited to certain lower value than dc link whereby increased handling power capability of the inverter. more expensive. LUCKNOW .

To give an understanding of this. This makes the filter circuit costly. If the inverter output voltage contains high frequency harmonics. This illustration is similar to an electrical distribution system with non-linear loads generating harmonics. 52 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING.PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK HARMONICS ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER Harmonics are currents or voltages with frequencies that are integer multiples of the fundamental power frequency being 50 or 60Hz (50Hz for European power and 60Hz for American power). You would effectively be hit with alternating cold and hot water! Therefore. In order to bring this harmonic content to a reasonable limit of 5%. For example. In modern test equipment today harmonics can be measured up to the 63rd harmonics. This shows that lower order harmonics from the inverter output voltage should be reduced by some means other the filter. one method is to insert filters between the load and inverter. these can be reduced by a low-size filter. however. INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY. LUCKNOW . etc. the performance and function of the shower is reduced by other systems. if the fundamental power frequency is 50 Hz. the inverter output voltage may have harmonic content much higher than 5% of its fundamental component. There are several industrial applications which may allow a harmonic content of 5% of its fundamental component of input voltage when inverters are used. consider a water piping system. Have you ever taken a shower when someone turns on the cold water at the sink? You experience the effect of a pressure drop to the cold water. The end result is you get burned! Now imagine that someone at a sink alternately turns on and off the cold and hot water. then the 2nd harmonic is 100 Hz. reducing the flow of cold water. Actually. bulky and weighty and in addition. the 3rd is 150 Hz. the transient response of the system becomes sluggish. the size of filter components increases. For the attenuation of lowfrequency harmonics.

Multi-level inverter is recently used in many industrial applications such as ac power supplies. known as optimal minimization of the total harmonic distortion (OMTHD) technique and optimized harmonic steppedwaveform (OHSW) technique used in multi-level inverters with unequal dc sources. The so-called multi-level starts from three levels. Power electronics researchers have always studied many novel control techniques to reduce harmonics in such waveforms.PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK 5. drive systems. with any switching strategy. LUCKNOW . extra clamping diodes or voltage balancing capacitors are not necessary. appears to be superior to the other multi-level topologies in terms of its structure that is not only simple and modular but also requires the least number of components. In addition. This modular structure makes it easily extensible to higher number of output voltage levels without undue increase in power circuit complexity. the output THD approaches zero. voltage clamping requirement. There are several methods of indicating the quantity of harmonic contents. Therefore. and packaging constraints.Up to 53 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING. Various switching techniques have been used in static converters to reduce the output harmonic content. hereafter called a cascaded multi-level inverter. can be related to the harmonic contents of its output voltage. we describe briefly the cascaded H-bridge multi-level inverter structure. The number of achievable voltage levels. diode-clamped multi-level inverter and flying capacitor multi-level inverter. however. The output voltage waveform of a multi-level inverter is composed of a number of levels of voltages. is limited by voltage unbalance problems. It is generally accepted that the performance of an inverter. an important key in designing an effective and efficient multi-level inverter is to ensure that the total harmonic distortion (THD) in the output voltage waveform is small enough. The multi-level inverter composed of cascaded H-bridges with separate dc sources (SDCSs). As the number of levels increases. Both techniques are very effective and efficient for improving the quality of the inverter output voltage. circuit layout. One of the significant advantages of multi-level structure is the harmonic reduction in the output waveform without increasing switching frequency or decreasing the inverter output power. First. The well-known multi-level inverter topologies are: cascaded H-bridge multi-level inverter. The most widely used measure is the total harmonic distortion (THD). static VAR compensators.1 Harmonic Optimization Techniques in Multilevel VSI One of the major problems in electric power quality is the harmonic contents. etc. We compare the two harmonic optimization techniques. INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY. typically obtained from capacitor voltage sources.

several well-known modulation techniques have been used as follows: Harmonic Optimization. In this paper. the switching algorithms for the multilevel inverter. Space Vector PWM (SV-PWM). the results obtained for the two techniques are analyzed and compared. OMTHD and OHSW techniques are applied to a cascaded multi-level inverter with non-equal dc sources. Here the dc sources are taken with different voltages for generality of the study. and Carrier-Based PWM techniques. The harmonic optimization techniques can be categorized into two methods: Optimal Minimization of the Total Harmonic Distortion (OMTHD) and Optimized Harmonic Stepped-Waveform (OHSW). in multi-level technology. OMTHD technique is based on minimization of THD by reducing all harmonics with no emphasis on any particular component.PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK now. OHSW is based on elimination of some specific harmonic components. based on OHSW and OMTHD techniques are explained. clarifying the advantages of each technique. Usually. LUCKNOW . Finally. Then. it is assumed that the dc sources are all equal. The study is performed for both cases focusing on harmonic content of the output voltage and the results obtained by the two techniques are compared. The paper is organized as follows: First the cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter’s structure and operation are briefly described. several informative results verify the effectiveness of both techniques in multi-level inverter with non-equal dc sources. Also. where as. 54 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING. which will not probably be the case in practice even if the dc sources are nominally equal. INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY.

02344 0.847 5.2963 1.82 30.698 13.06479 0.184 13.01513 1.09414 0.929 0.62 16.0354 0.195 11.003869 0.878 5.758 3.01774 0.929 1.0684 1.01494 0.616 3.05269 0.ma2=0.01526 0.3285 1.0145 0.738 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65 67 69 71 73 75 77 55 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING.02776 0.05511 0.86 Harmonic factor of multilevel inverter when ma1=o.02815 0.3192 0. INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY.02411 0. ma2=0.2844 3.647 8.006377 0.PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK 5.071 9.4 0.729 0.202 0.03261 0.04191 0.54 30.1193 1.03141 0.02008 0.03986 0.03 8.0267 0.04118 0.21 11.01386 0.2 11.2709 0.9207 0.707 1.4 116.1014 0.2791 18.02 5.04191 0.1628 0.02161 0.272 16.93 2.005282 0.063 Harmonic factor of multilevel inverter when ma1=0.175 2.8 0.05213 0.31 3.729 0.02703 0.02282 0.9306 0.172 0.04444 0.03249 0.9 0.35 20.01426 0.9184 6.00674 0.39 1.03362 0.261 5.08091 0.9207 0.65 0.33 8.01049 0.975 9.ma2=0.1617 0.04434 0.346 5.01203 0.913 5.37 22.32 6.149 1.15929 1.8 77.009702 0.6 136.07378 0.002845 0.979 1.01911 0.01417 0.61 20.2 Harmonics evaluation of single & multilevel inverter Harmonics Harmonic factor of single inverter when ma1=0.32 10.86 13.01739 0.03065 0.005309 0.101 0.32 22.01475 0.3 0.96 0.01814 0.9 3.03161 0.8 155.53 1.941 2.72 9.01587 0.707 18.741 9.1099 0.8. LUCKNOW .893 5.616 0.169 11.02206 0.9174 11.05138 0.378 5.01547 Harmonic factor of multilevel inverter when ma1=0.931 6.1541 0.3 1.727 5.06048 0.02244 1.01346 0.9879 0.03805 0.1443 0.617 8.8.03159 0.02814 0.274 0.406 2.02008 24.8 .21 10.ma2=0.3523 1.8.03323 0.946 5.165 13.05945 0.

1 Harmonic evaluation on single phase inverter Harmonic factor of multilevel inverter harmonics factor(% of fundamental) 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 1 3 5 7 9 1113151719212325272931333537394143454749515355575961636567697173757779 harmonic number Fig 5.2 Harmonic evaluation of multilevel inverter when ma1 =0.PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK Harmonic factor of single phase inverter when ma1=0. INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY.8 & ma2=0.8 Harmonic factor (% of fundamental) 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 3 5 7 9 1113151719212325272931333537394143454749515355575961636567697173757779 Harmonic number Fig 5.8 & ma2=0. LUCKNOW .8 56 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING.

8 & ma2=0.8 & ma2=0.4 Harmonic evaluation of multilevel inverter when ma1=0. INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY. LUCKNOW .PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK Harmonic factor of multilevel inverter harmonic factor(%of fundamental) 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 1 3 5 7 9 1113 151719 2123 252729 3133 353739 4143 454749 5153 5557 596163 6567 697173 7577 79 harmonic number Fig 5.3 Harmonic evaluation of multilevel inverter when ma1=0.6 harmonic factor of multilemvel inverter harmonic factor(%of fundamental) 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 1 3 5 7 9 1113151719212325272931333537394143454749515355575961636567697173757779 harmonic number Fig 5.4 57 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING.

The most critical aspects of passive filters are related to the fact that they cannot modify their compensation characteristics following the dynamic changes of the nonlinear load. the current contains frequency components that are multiples of the power system frequency. the performance dependence they present with the power system parameters. This leads to distortion of the current waveform which in turn distorts the voltage waveform. LUCKNOW .1 Non Linear Loads A non-linear load on a power system is typically a rectifier or some kind of arc discharge device such as a fluorescent lamp. 5.PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK 5.3 Applications in Harmonic Elimination The present chapter helps us to understand the effects of non-linear loads on the power system and the implementation of suitable devices to cancel out the harmonics. Distortion power factor is a measure of how much the harmonic distortion of a load current decreases the average power transferred to the load. INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY.) to improve system efficiency and controllability is increasing the concern for harmonic distortion levels in end use facilities and on the overall power system. which increases the filter losses and reduces the filtering effectiveness at the tuned frequency. The use of inverters in active power filters has been emphasized and the simulated circuits and results have been described in particular. switch mode power supplies. or arc furnace in which current is not linearly related to the voltage. In general. high-pass filters present disadvantages due to the resistance connected in parallel to the inductor. Because current in these systems is interrupted by a switching action. 5. passive tuned filters have been used to minimize low-frequency current harmonics while high-pass units have been connected to attenuate the amplitude of high frequency current components. etc. The application of passive tuned filters creates new system resonances which are dependent on specific system conditions.3.3.2 Active Power Filters The increasing use of power electronics based loads (adjustable speed drives. Passive filter ratings must be coordinated with reactive power 58 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING. However. electric welding machine. and the probability of series resonances with the power system’s equivalent reactance.

This means that the rating of the active power can be less than a conquerable passive filter for the same nonlinear load and the active filter will not introduce system resonances that can move a harmonic problem from one frequency to another Fig. A flexible and versatile solution to voltage/current quality problems is offered by active power filters. Also. over-voltages can be generated at its terminals.5 Generalized block diagram for active power filter 59 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING. LUCKNOW . and if the filter is not designed properly or disconnected during low load operating conditions. Active filters have the advantage of being able to compensate for harmonics without fundamental frequency reactive power concerns. INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY. the passive filter generates at fundamental frequency reactive power that changes the system voltage regulation.PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK requirements of the loads and it is often difficult to design the filters to avoid leading power factor operation for some load conditions. Generalized block diagram for active power filters Fig 5.

The information regarding the harmonic current.3 Shunt Active Power Filters The purpose of the shunt active power filters is to cancel load harmonics fed to the supply. as well as other signals. depending on the connection transformer used. The power circuit in the generalized block diagram can be connected in parallel. Since then the theories and applications of active power filters have become more popular and have attracted great attention. is supplied to the reference-current/voltage estimator together with information about other system variables.4 Modelling of Three Wire Shunt Active Power Filter The concept of using active power filters to mitigate harmonic problems and to compensate reactive power was proposed more than two decades ago. Parallel filters have the advantage of carrying only the compensation current plus a small amount of active fundamental current supplied to compensate for system losses. The reference signal from the current estimator. Without the drawbacks of passive harmonic filters. with an appropriate control scheme.3. the active power filter appears to be a viable solution for reactive power compensation as well as for eliminating harmonic currents. the power distribution system sees the non linear load and the active power filter as an ideal resistor. Shunt active power filters compensate current harmonics by injecting equal-but-opposite harmonic compensating current. which makes this type of circuit suitable for a wide range of power ratings. It can also contribute to reactive-power compensation and balancing of three phase currents. for example. INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY. In this configuration active power filter operates as a current source injecting the harmonic components generated by the load but phase shifted by 180o. the active power filter can also compensate the load power factor. generated by a nonlinear load. series or parallel/series configurations.PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK Figure shows the components of a typical active-power-filter system and their interconnections. This principle is applicable to any type of load considered a harmonic source. Moreover. 5. 60 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING. It is possible to connect several filters in parallel to cater for higher currents. This in turn provides the control for the PWM switching-pattern generator. 5. LUCKNOW . The output of the PWM pattern generator controls the power circuit via a suitable interface.3. In this way. drives the overall system controller.

The desired waveform is obtained by accurately controlling the switches in the inverter.3. Each of the three identical inverter legs consisted of two IGBT and two anti-parallel diodes. The voltage source inverter is the heart of the active power filter. In the system model of the project it has been modelled as a three phase . It switches between on and off state instantaneously when triggered.full wave inverter (IGBT based). rating of active filters and its transient as well as steady state performance.The interface reactor converts the voltage signal created by the inverter to a current signal. The control strategies of the active filters are implemented mainly in three steps – Signal conditioning. The igbt used here is modelled in the simulink as a resistor (Ron) and inductor(Lon) in series with a switch(transistor) controlled by a logical signal.5 Role of Inverters in Active Filters The voltage source inverter used in the active power filter makes the harmonic control possible.Among the various topologies developed the shunt active power filter based on the current controlled voltage source type PWM converter has proved to be effective even when the load is highly non-linear. Estimation of compensating signal is the most important part of the active filter control. estimation of compensating signals and generation of firing signals for switching devices. The control strategies use either frequency domain or time domain approaches to extract compensating signals from the corresponding distorted currents/voltages. The current waveform for cancelling harmonics is achieved with the voltage source inverter(IGBT based) and an interface reactor. LUCKNOW . It has a great impact on the compensating objectives. 5. This inverter uses a dc capacitor as the supply and can switch at a high frequency to generate a signal which will cancel the harmonics from the nonlinear load. Control of the current wave shape is limited by the switching frequency of the inverter and by the available driving voltage across the interface reactor. 61 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING. INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY. The driving voltage across the interface reactor determines the maximum di/dt that can be achieved by the power filter.PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK Active power filters are researched and developed as a viable alternative over the passive filters and static var compensators to solve the problems of harmonics injection and reactive power requirement of non-linear loads . This is important because relatively high values of di/dt may be needed to cancel higher order harmonic components.

These converters offer a low output voltage THD. LUCKNOW . A multilevel inverter can reduce the harmonics produced by the inverter and better THD is obtained when the inverter operated at higher modulation index. The harmonic distortions present in the load current and voltage waveforms were observed through analysis tool in Matlab/simulink. The modulation index ma controls the harmonic content of the output voltage waveform. so square wave inverter is used which reduce the switching losses. The magnitude of fundamental component of output voltage is proportional to ma. The essential advantage of multilevel inverters is the improvement in the output voltage signal quality using devices of low voltage rating with lesser switching frequency. 62 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING. and a high efficiency. Multilevel inverters can be applied to utility interface systems and motor drives. thereby increasing the overall efficiency of the system. but ma can never be more than unity. Thus the output voltage is controlled by varying ma and maximum power can also be achieved. Multilevel inverters are finding increased application in industrial environment with greater demand for high voltage high power processing techniques with improved efficiency. INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY.PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK CONCLUSION In case of Sinusoidal Pulse Modulation the triangular carrier wave is compare with sine wave which results in switching losses.

University of Sciences and Technology of Oran. “Multilevel Inverters: A Survey of Topologies Controls. PrenticeHall of India Private Limited. Hosseini Aghdam and S. India. Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited. 63 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING. "Origins of the Inverter" IEEE Industry Applications Magazine: History Department (IEEE) 2 (1): 64–66. 38(D) Jun. New Delhi.(2004). “A Comparative Study of PWM Control Techniques for Multilevel Cascaded Inverters. “ When to switch which switch in a five level single phase cascaded inverter” Curtin University of Technology. Tahri.49. H. [6] M. Fathi. LUCKNOW . [4] Muhammed H. Rashid. Australia. [7] A.” Applied Power Electronics Laboratory. Edward L. ALGERIA. and Applications”. and Fang Zheng Peng.PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK REFERENCES [1] M. Ermis. Dymond. G. No. D Crazkowski. Michael S. [8] L Li. ©2006 IEEE. Vol. BP 1505 El Mnaouar (31000 Oran). [2] Martina Calais. Y. Vassilios G. [5] José Rodríguez. Z. “Power Electronics circuits. Jurnal Teknologi. A. NY USA. © Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. & Salam. and Applications”. Liu “Multilevel Selective Harmonic Elimination PWM Technique in Series Connected Voltage Inverters”. “Comparison of Modulation Methods For Three-Phase Multi-Level Voltage-Source Inverter from Conduction and Switching Losses Aspect” ICIEA 2006. P Pillay. Jih-Sheng Lai. (January/February 1996). Draou and M. August2002. [9] Owen. INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY. [3] Aziz. J. Power Electronics.S Jamil Asghar. 2003: 79–102. New Delhi. Department of Electrotechnics. Agelidis. . IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics.4. “Harmonic analysis of a five level cascaded inverter under a new modulation scheme”. Devices.

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