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PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK

A PROJECT REPORT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
IN

ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF :MR. AHMAD FAIZ MINAI Assistant Professor Electrical & Elex. Engg. Deptt.

SUBMITTED BY:SHAHEER ANSARI SHAMS AKHTAR PAYAMI SHUBHENDRA SINGH SURJIT KUMAR

INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY, LUCKNOW


Kursi Road, Lucknow-226026 Uttar Pradesh (INDIA) Phone: 0522-2890812, 2890730, 3296117, and 6451039 Fax No.:0522-2890809 Web: www.integraluniversity.ac.in

2011
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PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK

Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering Integral University, Lucknow

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the work in the project report entitled
PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK
By

SHAHEER ANSARI SHAMS AKHTAR PAYAMI SHUBHENDRA SINGH SURJIT KUMAR

(0700113050) (0700113051) (0700113054) (0700113031)

has been carried out under my supervision in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Bachelor of Technology
in

& Electronics Engineering during session 2010-11 in the Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Integral University, Lucknow and this work has not been submitted elsewhere for a degree.

Electrical

MR. AHMAD FAIZ MINAI (Project Guide)

MR. MOHD. ARIFUDDIN MALLICK (Head of the department)

MR. QAMAR ALAM (Project Coordinator)

MR. AKHLAQUE AHMAD KHAN (Project Coordinator)

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PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
With a deep sense of gratitude, I wish to express my sincere thanks to my guide, Mr. Ahmad Faiz Minai, Assistant Professor, Electrical & Electronics Engineering Department for giving us the opportunity to work under him on this thesis.

I truly appreciate and value his esteemed guidance and encouragement from the beginning to the end of this thesis. We are extremely grateful to him.

We want to thank all my teachers for providing a solid background for my studies and research thereafter. They have been great sources of inspiration to us and we thank them from the bottom of my heart.

We also want to thank our parents, who taught us the value of hard work by their own example. We would like to share this moment of happiness with our parents. They rendered us enormous support during the whole tenure of our stay in Integral University, Lucknow. Finally, we would like to thank all whose direct and indirect support helped us completing our thesis in time. We would like to thank our department for giving us the opportunity and platform to make our effort a successful one.

Shaheer Ansari

(0700113050)

Shams Akhter Payami (0700113051) Shubhendra Singh Surjit Kumar (0700113054) (0700113055)

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PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK

TABLE OF CONTENTS
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INTRODUCTION.....................................................................1-8 1.1Project outline 1.2 Inverter 1.3Classification of inverter 1.4 Basic design 1.5 Advanced design 1.6 Working 1.7 Output waveforms

PULSE MODULATION SCHEME.......9-18 2.1 Pulse amplitude modulation 2.2 Pulse width modulation 2.3 Pulse position modulation 2.4 Pulse code modulation 2.5 Advantage of PWM 2.6 Single pulse width modulation 2.7 Multiple pulse width modulation 2.8 Sinusoidal pulse width modulation 2.9 Single phase full bridge voltage source inverter 2.10 Unipolar switching scheme 2.11 Performance parameter of inverter

CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION........................................................19-34 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 IGBT(Insulated gate bipolar transistor) Constructional feature of an IGBT Operating principle of an IGBT Switching characteristic of an IGBT Parameter of an IGBT Comparison with Power MOSFET The design of bilevel dc/ac inveter Simulation of single phase bridge inverter Simulation of single phase bridge inverter using unipolar switching

ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER....................35-43 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 Introduction Basic principle of operation of cascade multilevel inverter Simulation of multilevel inverter Merits of multilevel inverter Demerits of multilevel inverter

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PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK

HARMONICS ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER.....43-53 5.1 Harmonics optimization technique in multilevel VSI 5.2 Harmonics evaluation 5.3 Application in harmonics elimination

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CONCLUSION.....................................................................................54 REFERENCES.....................................................................................55

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PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK

TABLE OF FIGURES
1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Simpler inverter circuit shown with an electromechanical switch.4 1.2 Square waveform with fundamental sine wave component, 3rd harmonic and 5th harmonics...7

PULSE MODULATION SCHEME 2.1 Analog signal, s(t). (b) Pulse-amplitude modulation. (c) Pulse-width Modulation (d) Pulse position modulation.10 2.2 sine modulated, unmodulated signal .11 2.3 Circuit configuration of a single-phase, full-bridge inverter.14 2.4: Waveforms for unipolar voltage switching scheme.16

CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION 3.1 Circuit symbol of an IGBT......19 3.2 Equivalent Circuit for IGBT .....19 3.3 Vertical cross section of an IGBT cell20 3.4 Parasitic thyristor in an IGBT cell...21 3.5 Inductive switching circuit using an IGBT.....23 3.6 Basic Concept Diagram Inverter...26 3.7 Output Waveform....26 3.8 Simulink model of a single phase bridge inverter...28 3.9 (a)Gating signal for IGBT1 AND IGBT2....29 (b) Gating signal for IGBT3 AND IGBT4 3.10 Current waveform with resistive load....30 3.11 Current waveform with RL load....30 3.12 Voltage waveform with resistive load...31 3.13 Switching Block in inverter....32 3.14 Switching pulses for different switches of inverter....33 3.15 (a) Simulink model of inverter using unipolar switching scheme (b) Voltage waveform obtain from the simulink model of inverter using unipolar switching scheme.35

ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER 4.1 Cascaded five level inverter.37 4.2 simulink model of cascaded multilevel inverter..38 4.3 Simulink model of an inverter block ..39 4.4 Simulink model of a switching block..39 4.5 output voltage waveform at ma1=0.8 & ma2=0.8.40 4.6 output voltage waveform at ma1=0.8 & ma2=0.6.41 4.7 output voltage waveform at ma1=0.8 & ma2=0.4.41
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PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK

CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION 5.1 Harmonic evaluation of single phase inverter when ma1=0.8 & ma2=0.8...48 5.2 Harmonic evaluation of multilevel inverter when ma1=0.8 & ma2=0.848 5.3 Harmonic evaluation of multilevel inverter when ma1=0.8 & ma2=0.649 5.4 Harmonic evaluation of multilevel inverter when ma1=0.8 & ma2=0.4 ...49 5.5 Generalized block diagram for active power filter..51

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PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK

ABSTRACT
The power electronics device which converts DC power to AC power at required output voltage and frequency level is known as inverter. Inverters can be broadly classified into single level inverter and multilevel inverter. Multilevel inverter as compared to single level inverters have advantages like minimum harmonic distortion, reduced EMI/RFI generation and can operate on several voltage levels. A multi-stage inverter is being utilized for multipurpose applications, such as active power filters, static var compensators and machine drives for sinusoidal and trapezoidal current applications. The drawbacks are the isolated power supplies required for each one of the stages of the multi converter and its also lot harder to build, more expensive, harder to control in software.

This project aims at the simulation study of single phase single level and multilevel inverters. The role of inverters in active power filter for harmonic filtering is studied and simulated in MATLAB/SIMULINK. The single phase system with resistive loads are modelled and their characteristics is observed.

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PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK

INTRODUCTION
The process of conversion of a dc power into an ac power at a desired output voltage and frequency is called inversion. The power electronics device which converts DC power to AC power at required output voltage and frequency level is known as inverter. This can be done by a fully-controlled converter (using thyristors), connected to the ac mains. This is called a line-commutated inverter and operates at a line frequency only. When a thyristor based inverter supplies an ac power to an isolated load, force commutation techniques are required. This makes the inverter bulkier and costlier. Therefore, thyristor based inverters are used only in high-power applications. For low and medium-power inverters, gate-controlled turn-off devices (gate commutation devices), such as power BJT, MOSFET, IGBT, GTO, etc., are used. In addition to being fully controlled, these have high-switching frequencies. Therefore these devices may be very efficiently employed in inverters, where the output voltage is to be controlled using the pulse width-modulation (PWM) technique. Inverters are used in a wide range of applications, from small switching power supplies in computers, to large electric utility applications that transport bulk power. An inverter converts the DC electricity from sources such as batteries, solar panels, or fuel cells to AC electricity. The electricity can then be used to operate AC equipments such as those that are plugged in to most house hold electrical outlets.

1.1Project Outline
Basics of Inverter Classification of Inverter Simulation of single phase voltage source inverter. Modeling of a single phase system with linear loads. Collecting information about simulation work and requisite theory / formulae. Simulation of the multilevel inverter, study of the obtained simulated results and analysis (THD factor ) Application of the inverters (2 level and 3 level). Modeling of the circuits and harmonic elimination by use of inverters in active power filters.

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PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK

1.2 Inverter
A device that converts DC power into AC power at desired output voltage and frequency is called an Inverter. Phase controlled converters when operated in the inverter mode are called line commutated inverters. But line commutated inverters require at the output terminals an existing AC supply which is used for their commutation. This means that line commutated inverters can tfunction as isolated AC voltage sources or as variable frequency generators with DC power at the input. Therefore, voltage level, frequency and waveform on the AC side of the line commutated inverters cant be changed. On the other hand, force commutated inverters provide an independent AC output voltage of adjustable voltage and adjustable frequency and have therefore much wider application. Based on their operation the inverters can be broadly classified into Voltage Source Inverters(VSI) Current Source Inverters(CSI)

A voltage source inverter is one where the independently controlled ac output is a voltage waveform. A current source inverter is one where the independently controlled ac output is a current waveform. Some industrial applications of inverters are for adjustable- speed ac drives, induction heating, stand by air-craft power supplies, UPS uninterruptible power supplies) for computers, hvdc transmission lines etc. An inverter changes DC voltage from batteries or solar panels, into standard household AC voltage so that it can be used by common tools and appliances. Essentially, it does the opposite of what a battery charger or "converter" does. DC is usable for some small appliances, lights, and pumps, but not much else. Some DC appliances are available, but with the exception of lights, fans and pumps there is not a wide selection. Most other 12 volt items we have seen are expensive and/or poorly made compared to their AC cousins. The most common battery voltage inputs for inverters are 12, 24, and 48 volts DC - a few models also available in other voltages. There is also a special line of inverters called a utility intertie or grid tie, which does not usually use batteries - the solar panels or wind generator feeds directly into the inverter and the inverter output is tied to the grid power. The power produced is either sold back to the power company or (more commonly) offsets a portion of the power
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used. These inverters usually require a fairly high input voltage - 48 volts or more. Some, like the Sunny Boy, go up to 600 volts DC input.

1.3 Classification of inverters


There are different basis of classification of inverters. Inverters are broadly classified as current source inverter and voltage-source inverter. Moreover, it can be classified on the basis of devices used (SCR or gate-commutation devices), circuit configuration (half-bridge or full-bridge), nature of output voltage (square, quasi-square or sine-wave) and type of circuit (Switch-mode PWM or resonant converters), etc.

1.3.1 Current-source inverters (CSI)


This type of inverter is fed by a current source with high-internal impedance (using current limiting chokes or inductor in series with a DC source). Therefore, change quickly. The supply current does not

load current is varied by controlling the input DC voltage to the

current-source inverter. CSI are used in very high-power drives.

1.3.2 Voltage-source inverters (VSI)


This type of inverter is fed by a DC source of small internal impedance. Looking from the AC side, the terminal voltage remains almost constant irrespective of the load current drawn. Depending on the circuit configurations, the voltage source inverter may be classified as half-bridge and full-bridge inverters. Voltage-source inverters may also be classified as square-wave inverter and pulse-width modulated inverter.

(i) Square wave inverter


A square wave inverter produces a square wave ac voltage of a constant magnitude. The output voltage of this type of inverter can only be varied by controlling the input dc voltage.

(ii) Pulse width modulated (PWM)


In a PWM inverter, the output has one or more pulses in each half cycle. Varying the width of these pulses, the output voltage may be controlled .the magnitude of input dc voltage is essential constant in this inverter.

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1.4 Basic design


In one simple inverter circuit, DC power is connected to a transformer through the centre tap of the primary winding. A switch is rapidly switched back and forth to allow current to flow back to the DC source following two alternate paths through one end of the primary winding and then the other. The alternation of the direction of current in the primary winding of the transformer produces alternating current (AC) in the secondary circuit.

Fig: 1.1 simpler inverter circuit shown with an electromechanical switch.

The electromechanical version of the switching device includes two stationary contacts and a spring supported moving contact. The spring holds the movable contact against one of the stationary contacts and an electromagnet pulls the movable contact to the opposite stationary contact. The current in the electromagnet is interrupted by the action of the switch so that the switch continually switches rapidly back and forth. This type of electromechanical inverter switch, called a vibrator or buzzer, was once used in vacuum tube automobile radios. A similar mechanism has been used in door bells, buzzers and tattoo guns.
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As they became available with adequate power ratings, transistors and various other types of semiconductor switches have been incorporated into inverter circuit designs.

1.5 Advanced designs


There are many different power circuit topologies and control strategies used in inverter designs. Different design approaches address various issues that may be more or less important depending on the way that the inverter is intended to be used. The issue of waveform quality can be addressed in many ways. Capacitors and inductors can be used to filter the waveform. If the design includes a transformer, filtering can be applied to the primary or the secondary side of the transformer or to both sides. Low-pass filters are applied to allow the fundamental component of the waveform to pass to the output while limiting the passage of the harmonic components. If the inverter is designed to provide power at a fixed frequency, a resonant filter can be used. For an adjustable frequency inverter, the filter must be tuned to a frequency that is above the maximum fundamental frequency. Since most loads contain inductance, feedback rectifiers or antiparallel diodes are often connected across each semiconductor switch to provide a path for the peak inductive load current when the switch is turned off. The antiparallel diodes are somewhat similar to the freewheeling diodes used in AC/DC converter circuits. Fourier analysis reveals that a waveform, like a square wave, that is anti-symmetrical about the 180 degree point contains only odd harmonics, the 3rd, 5th, 7th, etc. Waveforms that have steps of certain widths and heights can attenuate certain lower harmonics at the expense of amplifying higher harmonics. For example, by inserting a zero-voltage step between the positive and negative sections of the square-wave, all of the harmonics that are divisible by three (3rd and 9th, etc.) can be eliminated. That leaves only the 5th, 7th, 11th, 13th etc. The required width of the steps is one third of the period for each of the positive and negative steps and one sixth of the period for each of the zero-voltage steps. Changing the square wave as described above is an example of pulse-width modulation (PWM). Modulating, or regulating the width of a square-wave pulse is often used as a method of regulating or adjusting an inverter's output voltage. When voltage control is not

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required, a fixed pulse width can be selected to reduce or eliminate selected harmonics. Harmonic elimination techniques are generally applied to the lowest harmonics because filtering is much more practical at high frequencies, where the filter components can be much smaller and less expensive. Multiple pulse-width or carrier based PWM control schemes produce waveforms that are composed of many narrow pulses. The frequency represented by the number of narrow pulses per second is called the switching frequency or carrier frequency. These control schemes are often used in variable-frequency motor control inverters because they allow a wide range of output voltage and frequency adjustment while also improving the quality of the waveform. Multilevel inverters provide another approach to harmonic cancellation. Multilevel inverters provide an output waveform that exhibits multiple steps at several voltage levels. For example, it is possible to produce a more sinusoidal wave by having split-rail direct current inputs at two voltages, or positive and negative inputs with a central ground. By connecting the inverter output terminals in sequence between the positive rail and ground, the positive rail and the negative rail, the ground rail and the negative rail, then both to the ground rail, a stepped waveform is generated at the inverter output. This is an example of a three level inverter: the two voltages and ground.

1.6 Working

An inverter takes the DC input and runs it into a pair (or more) of power switching transistors. By rapidly turning these transistors on and off, and feeding opposite sides of a transformer, it makes the transformer think it is getting AC. The transformer changes this "alternating DC" into AC at the output. Depending on the quality and complexity of the inverter, it may put out a square wave, a "quasi-sine" (sometimes called modified sine) wave, or a true sine wave. Quasi-sine (modified sine, modified square) wave inverters have more circuitry beyond the simple switching, and put out a wave that looks like a stepped square wave - it is suitable for most standard appliances, but may not work well with some electronics appliances that electronic heat or speed control, or uses the AC for clocks or a timer. Also, some of the chargers used for battery operated tools may not shut off when the battery is charged, and should not be used with anything but sine wave inverters unless you are sure they will work. Sine wave inverters put out a wave that is the same as you get from the power company - in fact, it is often better and cleaner. Sine wave inverters can run anything, but are also more expensive 14
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than other types. The quality of the "modified sine" (actually modified square wave), Quasi-sine wave, etc. can also vary quite a bit between inverters, and may also vary somewhat with the load. The very bottom end put out a wave that is nothing but a square wave, and is too "dirty" for all but universal motor driven tools, coffee makers, toasters, and other appliances that have only a heating element.

1.7 Output waveforms


The switch in the simple inverter described above, when not coupled to an output transformer, produces a square voltage waveform due to its simple off and on nature as opposed to the sinusoidal waveform that is the usual waveform of an AC power supply. Using Fourier analysis, periodic waveforms are represented as the sum of an infinite series of sine waves. The sine wave that has the same frequency as the original waveform is called the fundamental component. The other sine waves, called harmonics, that are included in the series have frequencies that are integral multiples of the fundamental frequency.

Fig: 1.2 Square waveform with fundamental sine wave component, 3rd harmonic and 5th harmonics The quality of the inverter output waveform can be expressed by using the Fourier analysis data to calculate the total harmonic distortion (THD). The total harmonic distortion is the square root of the sum of the squares of the harmonic voltages divided by the fundamental voltage:

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PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK

The quality of output waveform that is needed from an inverter depends on the characteristics of the connected load. Some loads need a nearly perfect sine wave voltage supply in order to work properly. Other loads may work quite well with a square wave voltage.

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PULSE MODULATION SCHEME


2.1 Pulse Amplitude Modulation
Pulse Amplitude Modulation refers to a method of carrying information on a train of pulses, the information being encoded in the amplitude of pulses. In other words the pulse amplitude is modulated according to the varying amplitude of analog signal.

2.2 Pulse Width Modulation


Pulse Width Modulation refers to a method of carrying information on a train of pulses, the information being encoded in the width of the pulses. The pulses have constant amplitude but their duration varies in direct proportion to the amplitude of analog signal.

2.3 Pulse Position Modulation


The amplitude and width of the pulse is kept constant in the system. The position of each pulse, in relation to the position of a recurrent reference pulse, is varied by each instantaneous sampled value of the modulating wave. PPM has the advantage of requiring constant transmitter power since the pulses are of constant amplitude and duration.

2.4 Pulse Code Modulation


To obtain PCM from an analog waveform at the source (transmitter), the analog signal amplitude is sampled at regular time intervals. The sampling rate (number of samples per second), is several times the maximum frequency of the analog waveform. The amplitude of the analog signal at each sample is rounded off to the nearest binary level (quantization). The Number of levels is always a power of 2 (4, 8, 16, 32, 64, ...). These numbers can be represented by two, three, four, five, six or more binary digits.

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Fig2.1(a) Analog signal, s(t). (b) Pulse-amplitude modulation. (c) Pulse-width modulation. (d) Pulse position modulation

PCM is a general scheme for transmitting analog data in a digital and binary way independent of the complexity of the analog waveform. With PCM all forms of analog data like video, voice, music and telemetry can be transferred.

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2.5 Advantages of PWM


The output voltage control is easier with PWM than other schemes and can be achieved without any additional components. The lower order harmonics are either minimized or eliminated altogether. The filtering requirements are minimized as lower order harmonics are eliminated and higher order harmonics are filtered easily. It has very low power consumption. The entire control circuit can be digitized which reduces the susceptibility of the circuit to interference.

Fig: 2.2 sine modulated, unmodulated signal

PWM is the most popular method for producing a controlled output for inverters. They are quite popular in industrial applications.

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2.6 Single Phase PWM Inverters


In many industrial applications, to control the output voltage of the inverters is necessary for the following reasons

To adjust with variations of dc input voltage To regulate voltage of inverters To satisfy the contain volts and frequency control requirement

There are various techniques to vary the inverter gain. The most efficient method of Controlling the gain (and output voltage) is to incorporate pulse width modulation (PWM) Control within the inverters. The commonly used techniques are

a) Single Pulse width Modulation b) Multiple Pulse width Modulation c) Sinusoidal Pulse width Modulation d) Modified sinusoidal Pulse width Modulation e) Phase-displacement control.

The PWM techniques given above vary with respect to the harmonic content in their output voltages.

2.7 Single Pulse Width Modulation


In this control, theres only one pulse per half cycle and the width of the pulse is varied to control the inverter output. The gating signals are generated by comparing a rectangular reference signal of the amplitude Ar with triangular carrier wave of amplitude Ac, the frequency of the carrier wave determines the fundamental frequency of output voltage. By varying Ar from 0 to Ac ,the pulse width can be varied from 0 to 100 percent. The ratio of Ar to Ac is the control variable and defined as the modulation index.

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2.8Multiple Pulse Width Modulation


The harmonic content can be reduced by using several pulses in each half cycle of output voltage. The generation of gating signals for turning ON and OFF transistors by comparing a reference signal with a triangular carrier wave. The frequency Fc, determines the number of pulses per half cycle. The modulation index controls the output voltage. This type of modulation is also known as uniform pulse width modulation (UPWM).

2.9 Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation


Modulation the width of each pulse is varied in proportion to the amplitude of a sine wave evaluated at the centre of the same pulse. The distortion factor and lower order harmonics are reduced significantly. The gating signals are generated by comparing a sinusoidal reference signal with a Instead of, maintaining the width of all pulses of same as in case of multiple pulse width triangular carrier wave of frequency Fc. The frequency of reference signal Fr

,determines the inverter output frequency and its peak amplitude Ar, controls the modulation index M, and rms output voltage Vo. The number of pulses per half cycle depends on carrier frequency.

2.10 Single-phase, full-bridge, voltage-source inverters


The single-phase, half-bridge inverters require only two controlled switches and two diodes. These inverters can be used only when three-wired dc supply is available. Moreover, the voltage across the off-state semiconductor device is V, which is double the load voltage. These drawbacks are removed in full bridge inverters (fig. 2.1). The inverter uses two pairs of controlled switches (S1S2 and S3S4) and two pairs of diodes (D1D2 and D3D4). The devices of one pair operate simultaneously. The gating signals of the switch-pairs S1S2 and S3S4 are shown in Figs. 2.3 a & b, respectively.

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PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK

Fig: 2.3 Circuit configuration of a single-phase, full-bridge inverter.

(a) Gating signal for switch S1, S2

(b) Gating signal for switch S3, S4

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(c) Voltage and current waveforms for resistive loads

For a resistive load, the switch pair S1S2 closes for the time interval 0 < t < T/2 and the output voltage (v0), becomes +V. At t = T/2, S1S2 pair turns off and simultaneously, S3S4 pair turns on to make v0 = -V. At t = T, S1S2 pair is again closed to make v0 = V and the cycle repeats. By operating the two switch pairs at the desired frequency, a square-wave ac voltage is obtained at the output. The load current waveform is also a square wave with magnitude V/R, as shown in the Fig. .

(d) Voltage and current waveforms for RL loads.

For an RL load , wave forms of load voltage and load current are shown in Fig. 2.3d At t=0, the load current is at its negative peak and its direction cannot reverses instantaneously, due to inductive nature of the load. The diode pair D1D2 provides a path for the negative current. The output voltage becomes positive (+V) and the negative load current decays to zero
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at t = t1. During this period, energy is fed back to the source through the feedback diodes D1 and D2. At t = t1 , the diode pair D1D2 commutates and the switch pair S1S2, which is already received the gating signal, turns on. It provides the path for the positive load current. The load current builds up and reaches its positive peak at t = T/2. At this instant, the switch pair S1S2 turns off. The positive current continues to flow for some more time (up to t=t2) through the diode pair D3D4. As the load voltage is negative, the energy is fed back to the source. At t = t2, D3D4 pair commutates and S3S4 pair starts conduction for the negative load current.

2.11 Unipolar switching scheme


In unipolar switching scheme, the switch pairs S1S2 and S3S4 of the full-bridge inverter of fig. 2.1, are not operated as pair. Instead, the switches of the first leg, i.e. S1 and S4, are operated by comparing the triangular carrier wave (vc) with the sinusoidal reference signal (vref). The switches of the other leg, i.e. S2 and S3, are operated by comparing vc with vref. Following logic is used to operate these switches: 1. If vref > vc, S1 is on and if vref < vc, S4 is on. 2. If vref > vc, S3 is on and if vref < vc, S2 is on.

Here Van and Vbn , are the potentials of the load terminals A and B, with respect to the reference point N. The waveform for the unipolar switching scheme, mf =12 and ma= 0.8, are shown in fig. 2.4. It may be observed that the output voltage fluctuates from 0 to +V in the positive half-cycle and from 0 to V in the negative half-cycle. Thus the scheme is called unipolar switching scheme

Fig 2.4: Waveforms for unipolar voltage switching scheme


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2.12 Performance parameters of inverters


Ideally, an inverter should give a sinusoidal voltage at its output. However, outputs of practical inverters are non-sinusoidal and may be resolved into fundamental and harmonic components. Performance of an inverter is usually assessed with the following performance parameters.

2.12.1 Harmonic factor of nth harmonic


A harmonic factor is a measure of the individual harmonic contribution in the output voltage of an inverter. It is defined as:

HFn

Vn V1

Where Vn is the rms value of the nth harmonic component and v1 is the rms value of the fundamental component of the output voltage.

2.12.2 Total harmonic distortion (THD)


A total harmonic distortion is a measure of closeness in a shape between the output voltage waveform and its fundamental component. It is defined as the ratio of the rms value of the total harmonic component of the output voltage and the rms value of the fundamental component. Mathematically,
n2,3...

V
V1

2 n

THD

2 Vrms V12

V1

Where Vrms is the rms value of the output voltage.

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2.12.3 Distortion factor (DF)


A distortion factor indicates the amount of harmonic that remain in the output voltage waveform, after the waveform has been subjected to second order attenuation (i.e. divided by n2).

n 2 , 3...

(V

/ n2 )2

DF

V1

2.12.4 Lowest-order harmonics (LOH)


The lowest harmonic frequency, with a magnitude greater than or equal to three percent of the magnitude of the fundamental component of the output voltage, is called the lowest order harmonic. Higher the frequency of the LOH, lower will be the distortion in the current waveform.

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CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION
3.1 The IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor)

Fig:3.1 Circuit symbol of an IGBT (a)Circuit symbol (b) Photograph The insulated gate bipolar transistor or IGBT is a voltage controlled four-layer, three-terminal power semiconductor device, noted for high efficiency and fast switching. It is designed to rapidly turn on and off, amplifiers that use it often synthesize complex waveforms with pulse width modulation and low-pass filters. The IGBT combines the simple gate-drive characteristics of the MOSFETs with the high-current and lowsaturation-voltage capability of bipolar transistors by combining an isolated gate FET for the control input, and a bipolar power transistor as a switch, in a single device. The IGBT is used in medium-to- high power applications.

Fig:3.2 Equivalent Circuit for IGBT IGBTs can be classified as punch-through (PT) and non-punch-through (NPT) structures. In the punch-through IGBT, a better trade-off between the forward voltage drop and turn-off time can be achieved. Punch-through IGBTs are available up to about 1200 V. NPT IGBTs of
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up to about 4 KV have been reported in literature and they are more robust than PT IGBTs particularly under short circuit conditions. However they have a higher forward voltage drop than the PT IGBTs. Its switching times can be controlled by suitably shaping the drive signal. This gives the IGBT a number of advantages: it does not require protective circuits, it can be connected in parallel without difficulty, and series connection is possible without dv/dt snubbers. The IGBT is presently one of the most popular device in view of its wide ratings, switching speed of about 100 KHz a easy voltage drive and a square Safe Operating Area devoid of a Second Breakdown region.

3.2 Constructional Features of an IGBT


Vertical cross section of a n channel IGBT cell is shown in Fig. Although p channel IGBTs are possible n channel devices are more common.

Fig:3.3 Vertical cross section of an IGBT cell. The major difference with the corresponding MOSFET cell structure lies in the addition of a p+ injecting layer. This layer forms a pn junction with the drain layer and injects minority carriers into it. The n type drain layer itself may have two different doping levels. The lightly doped n- region is called the drain drift region. Doping level and width of this layer sets the forward blocking voltage (determined by the reverse break down voltage of J ) of the device.
2

However, it does not affect the on state voltage drop of the device due to conductivity modulation as discussed in connection with the power diode. This construction of the device is called Punch Trough (PT) design. The Non-Punch Through (NPT) construction does not

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have this added n+ buffer layer. The PT construction does offer lower on state voltage drop compared to the NPT construction particularly for lower voltage rated devices. However, it does so at the cost of lower reverse break down voltage for the device, since the reverse break down voltage of the junction J1is small. The rest of the construction of the device is very similar to that of a vertical MOSFET including the insulated gate structure and the shorted body (p type) emitter (n+ type) structure. The doping level and physical geometry of the p type body region however, is considerably different from that of a MOSFET in order to defeat the latch up action of a parasitic thyristor embedded in the IGBT structure. A large number of basic cells as shown in Fig 3.4 are grown on a single silicon wafer and connected in parallel to form a complete IGBT device.

3.3 Operating principle of an IGBT

Fig:3.4 Parasitic thyristor in an IGBT cell (a)Schematic structure (b)Exact equivalent circuit (c)Approximate equivalent circuit
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Operating principle of an IGBT can be explained in terms of the schematic cell structure and equivalent circuit of Fig 3.4(a) and (c). From the input side the IGBT behaves essentially as a MOSFET. Therefore, when the gate emitter voltage is less then the threshold voltage no inversion layer is formed in the p type body region and the device is in the off state. The forward voltage applied between the collector and the emitter drops almost entirely across the junction J . Very small leakage current flows through the device under this condition. In
2

terms of the equivalent current of Fig 3.4(c), when the gate emitter voltage is lower than the threshold voltage the driving MOSFET of the Darlington configuration remains off and hence the output p-n-p transistor also remains off. When the gate emitter voltage exceeds the threshold, an inversion layer forms in the p type body region under the gate. This inversion layer (channel) shorts the emitter and the drain drift layer and an electron current flows from the emitter through this channel to the drain drift region. This in turn causes substantial hole injection from the p+ type collector to the drain drift region. A portion of these holes recombine with the electrons arriving at the drain drift region through the channel. The rest of the holes cross the drift region to reach the p type body where they are collected by the source metallization.
From the above discussion it is clear that the n type drain drift region acts as the base of the output p-n-p transistor. The doping level and the thickness of this layer determines the current gain of the p-n-p transistor. This is intentionally kept low so that most of the device current flows through the MOSFET and not the output p-n-p transistor collector. This helps to reduced the voltage drop across the body spreading resistance shown in Fig 3.4 (b) and eliminate the possibility of static latch up of the IGBT. The total on state voltage drop across a conducting IGBT has three components. The voltage drop across J follows the usual exponential law of a pn junction. The next component of the voltage
1

drop is due to the drain drift region resistance. This component in an IGBT is considerably lower compared to a MOSFET due to strong conductivity modulation by the injected minority carriers from the collector. This is the main reason for reduced voltage drop across an IGBT compared to an equivalent MOSFET. The last component of the voltage drop across an IGBT is due to the channel resistance and its magnitude is equal to that of a comparable MOSFET.

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3.4 Switching characteristics of an IGBT


Switching characteristics of the IGBT will be analyzed with respect to the clamped inductive switching circuit shown in Fig 3.5(a). The equivalent circuit of the IGBT shown in Fig 3.5 (b) will be used to explain the switching waveforms.

Fig.3.5: Inductive switching circuit using an IGBT (a) Switching circuit (b) Equivalent circuit for the IGBT The switching waveforms of an IGBT is in many respects similar to that of a Power MOSFET. This is expected, since the input stage of an IGBT is a MOSFET as shown in Fig 3.5(b). Also in a modern IGBT a major portion of the total device current flows through the MOSFET. Therefore, the switching voltage and current waveforms exhibit a strong similarity with those of a MOSFET. However, the output p-n-p transistor does have a significant effect on the switching characteristics of the device, particularly during turn off. Another important difference is in the gate drive requirement. To avoid dynamic latch up, (to be discussed later) the gate emitter voltage of an IGBT is maintained at a negative value when the device is off.

3.5 Parameters of an IGBT


Implement an IGBT device in parallel with a series RC snubber circuit. In ON state the IGBT model has internal resistance (Ron) and inductance (Lon). In OF state the IGBT model has infinite impedance. The internal inductance can not be set to zero. The different parameter of an IGBT is used in simulation process are as follows

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The different parameter of a diode used in simulation process are as follows

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3.6 Comparison with Power MOSFETS


An IGBT has a significantly lower forward voltage drop compared to a conventional MOSFET in higher blocking voltage rated devices. As the blocking voltage rating of both MOSFET and IGBT devices increases, the depth of the n- drift region must increase and the doping must decrease, resulting in roughly square relationship increase in forward conduction loss compared to blocking voltage capability of the device. By injecting minority carriers (holes) from the collector p+ region into the n- drift region during forward conduction, the resistance of the n- drift region is considerably reduced. However, this resultant reduction in on-state forward voltage comes with several penalties:

The additional PN junction blocks reverse current flow. This means that unlike a MOSFET, IGBTs cannot conduct in the reverse direction. In bridge circuits where reverse current flow is needed an additional diode (called a freewheeling diode) is placed in parallel with the IGBT to conduct current in the opposite direction. The penalty isn't as severe as first assumed though, because at the higher voltages where IGBT usage dominates, discrete diodes are of significantly higher performance than the body diode of a MOSFET.

The reverse bias rating of the N- drift region to collector P+ diode is usually only of tens of volts, so if the circuit application applies a reverse voltage to the IGBT, an additional series diode must be used.

The minority carriers injected into the n- drift region take time to enter and exit or recombine at turn on and turn off. This results in longer switching time and hence higher switching loss compared to a power MOSFET.

The on-state forward voltage drop in IGBTs behaves very differently to that in power MOSFETS. The MOSFET voltage drop can be modeled as a resistance, with the voltage drop proportional to current. By contrast, IGBT has a diode like voltage drop (typically of the order of 2V) increasing only with the log of the current. Additionally, MOSFET resistance is typically lower for smaller blocking voltages meaning that the choice between IGBTs and power MOSFETS depend on both the blocking voltage and current involved in a particular application, as well as the different switching characteristics mentioned above. In general high voltage, high current and low switching
frequencies favor IGBTs while low voltage, low current and high switching frequencies are the domain of the MOSFET.

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3.7 The Design of a Bi-level Input DC/AC Inverter


Conceptually, the inverter works by turning on switches in a specific order. A low power circuit must be constructed to perform as the control circuitry that drives the high power stage. One such control method is the Square-Wave Inverter. In Figure 1, if switches SW1 and SW4 are turned on, the load is subjected to +Vs. However, if SW2 and SW3 are turned on, the load is subjected to Vs. Note that Vs is a constant DC voltage. Assuming the switches are voltage controlled, Figure 2 shows possible input waveforms to the switches. Figure 3 shows the corresponding output waveform. As shown, the source DC voltage is converted to a square-wave AC voltage.

Fig: 3.6 Basic Concept Diagram Inverter

Fig: 3.7 Output Waveform

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Since a square wave is not suitable for most applications, significant filtering must be implemented to reduce the square wave to a sinusoidal wave. This can be accomplished since a square wave can be represented as a Fourier series. The Fourier series of a square wave is the sum of a sine wave of the fundamental frequency and its odd harmonics. Another practical consideration is the fact that real switches can not change states

instantaneously. Therefore, there must be time when all switches are in the off state to avoid shorting the supply voltage. Another technique to control the output of an inverter is pulse-width modulation (PWM). PWM control compares the output waveform to a reference signal and adjusts the duty cycle of the switching mechanism. Compared to the square-wave method of control, pulse-width modulation has two distinct advantages: higher frequency harmonic content and amplitude control. The filtering requirements for PWM generated outputs are less stringent since the non-fundamental components are of much higher frequency than that of the fundamental sine wave. Also, by using PWM techniques, the output voltage of the inverter can be directly controlled. Pulse-width modulators are available in IC packages and their exact method of control varies by manufacturer and by model. For PWM control, two inputs are required: a sinusoidal reference signal, also called a control signal or a modulating signal, and a carrier signal. The triangle wave controls the switching frequency of the inverter. Bipolar and unipolar switching are the two available methods of switching. Both methods compare the reference signal and the carrier signal and cause switching conditions that correspond to the two signals. For bipolar switching, the output is either +VDC or VDC corresponding to the reference voltage being greater than the carrier wave and the reference being less than the carrier, respectively. The output is VDC when the sine wave is less than the carrier wave. For unipolar switching, the output is switched between positive voltage and zero or negative voltage and zero.

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3.8 Simulation of a single-phase bridge inverter


The performance analysis of a single-phase bridge inverter is studied using SIMULINK model. Figure 3.8 shows the simulation model of the system.

Fig 3.8 Simulink model of a single phase bridge inverter

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There is a DC voltage source of 100 volt applied to a system. On and off period of the above four switches (IGBTs) are according to the gating signal below. Pulse generator is used for switching.

Fig 3.9 (a)Gating signal for IGBT1 AND IGBT2 (b) Gating signal for IGBT3 AND IGBT4 For an RL load , wave forms of load current and load voltage are shown in Fig. (c) and (d) simultaneously.

(c) Current waveform for RL loads

(d) Voltage waveform for RL loads

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Fig:3.10 Current waveform with resistive load

Fig:3.11 Current waveform with RL load

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Fig: 3.12 Voltage waveform with resistive load

At t=0, the load current is at its negative peak and its direction cannot reverses instantaneously, due to inductive nature of the load. The diode pair D1D2 provides a path for the negative current. The output voltage becomes positive (+V) and the negative load current decays to zero at t = t1. During this period, energy is fed back to the source through the feedback diodes D1 and D2. At t = t1 , the diode pair D1D2 commutates and the switch pair S1S2, which is already received the gating signal, turns on. It provides the path for the positive load current. The load current builds up and reaches its positive peak at t = T/2. At this instant, the switch pair S1S2 turns off. The positive current continues to flow for some more time (up to t=t2) through the diode pair D3D4. As the load voltage is negative, the energy is fed back to the source. At t = t2, D3D4 pair commutates and S3S4 pair starts conduction for the negative load current. For a resistive load, the switch pair S1S2 closes for the time interval 0 < t < T/2 and the output voltage (v0), becomes +V. At t = T/2, S1S2 pair turns off and simultaneously, S3S4 pair turns on to make v0 = -V. At t = T, S1S2 pair is again closed to make v0 = V and the cycle repeats. By operating the two switch pairs at the desired frequency, a square-wave ac voltage is obtained at the output. The load current waveform is also a square wave with magnitude V/R, as shown in the Fig.
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3.9 Simulation of a single-phase bridge inverter using unipolar switching


In unipolar switching there is a comparison between the triangular carrier wave (vc) with the sinusoidal reference signal (vref). The switches of the other leg, i.e. S2 and S3, are operated by comparing vc with vref. The SIMULINK model of unipolar switching for the inverter is shown in figure 2.7, and various switching pulses for the four IGBT switches are shown in figure 2.8

Fig: 3.13 Switching Block in inverter

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Time (secs) (a)Switching pulse for IGBT1

Time (secs) (b) Switching pulse for IGBT2

Time (secs) (c) Switching pulse for IGBT3

Time (secs) (d) Switching pulse for IGBT4

Fig:3.14 Switching pulses for different switches of inverter

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The simulation of inverter model using unipolar switching scheme, and its output voltage waveform is shown in Figure (a) and (b) simultaneously.

(a) In the above SIMULINK model modulation index (ma) is equal to 0.8. For resistive load and at 100 volt, the voltage waveform is given below.

(b)

Fig:3.15 (a) Simulink model of inverter using unipolar switching scheme (b) Voltage waveform obtain from the simulink model of inverter using unipolar switching scheme
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ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER

4.1 INTRODUCTION
MULTILEVEL topologies are able to generate better output quality, while operating at lower switching frequency. This implies lower switching dissipation and higher efficiency. Moreover, this topology utilizes switches with lower breakdown voltage; therefore, it can be used in higher power applications at lower cost. It is worth mentioning that although the number of switches in this approach is higher than other two level topologies, for a sufficient high number of levels, the output filter can be avoided which means less weight, cost and space. On the other hand, even with the same size of filter at the output, the switching frequency can be decreased which means higher efficiency. In general, a greater number of switches in multilevel converters can be justified since the semiconductor cost decreases at a much greater rate than the filter components cost. Numerous industrial applications have begun to require higher power apparatus in recent years. Some medium voltage motor drives and utility applications require medium voltage and megawatt power level. For a medium voltage grid, it is troublesome to connect only one power semiconductor switch directly. As a result, a multilevel power converter structure has been introduced as an alternative in high power and medium voltage situations. A multilevel converter not only achieves high power ratings, but also enables the use of renewable energy sources. Renewable energy sources such as photovoltaic, wind, and fuel cells can be easily interfaced to a multilevel converter system for a high power application. The concept of multilevel converters has been introduced since 1975. The term multilevel began with the three-level converter. Subsequently, several multilevel converter topologies have been developed. However, the elementary concept of a multilevel converter to achieve higher power is to use a series of power semiconductor switches with several lower voltage dc sources to perform the power conversion by synthesizing a staircase voltage waveform. Capacitors, batteries, and renewable energy voltage sources can be used as the multiple dc voltage sources. The commutation of the power switches aggregate these multiple dc sources in order to achieve high voltage at the output; however, the rated voltage of the power semiconductor switches depends only upon the rating of the dc voltage sources to which they are connected.
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In general, increasing the switching frequency in voltage source inverters (VSI) leads to the better output voltage current waveforms. Harmonic reduction in controlling a VSI with variable amplitude and frequency of the output voltage is of importance and thus the conventional inverters which are referred to as two-level inverters have required increased switching frequency along with various PWM switching strategies. In the case of high power high voltage applications, however, the two-level inverters have some limitations to operate at high frequency mainly due to switching losses and constraints of device rating itself. Moreover, the semiconductor switching devices should be used in such a manner as problematic serried parallel combinations to obtain capability of handling high power. Nowadays the use of multilevel approach is believed to be promising alternative in such a very high power conversion processing as pointed out in literatures.

A multilevel converter has several advantages over a conventional two-level converter that uses high switching frequency pulse width modulation (PWM). The attractive features of a multilevel converter can be briefly summarized as follows.

Staircase waveform quality: Multilevel converters not only can generate the output voltages with very low distortion, but also can reduce the dv/dt stresses; therefore electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) problems can be reduced. Input current: Multilevel converters can draw input current with low distortion. Switching frequency: Multilevel converters can operate at both fundamental switching frequency and high switching frequency PWM. It should be noted that lower switching frequency usually means lower switching loss and higher efficiency.

Unfortunately, multilevel converters do have some disadvantages. One particular disadvantage is the greater number of power semiconductor switches needed. Although lower voltage rated switches can be utilized in a multilevel converter, each switch requires a related gate drive circuit. This may cause the overall system to be more expensive and complex.

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4.3 BASIC PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION OF CASCADED MULTILEVEL INVERTER

The Cascaded Multilevel Converters (CMC) is simply a number of conventional two-level bridges, whose AC terminals are simply connected in series to synthesize the output waveforms. Fig. 1 shows the power circuit for a five level inverter with two cascaded cells. The CMC needs several independent DC sources which may be obtained from batteries, fuel cells or solar cells. Through different combinations of the four switches of each cell, each converter level can generate three different voltage outputs, +Vdc, 0, Vdc. The AC output is the sum of the individual converter outputs. The number of output phase voltage levels is defined by n = 2N+1, where N is the number of DC sources.

Fig:4.1 Cascaded five level inverter

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4.5 Simulation of Multilevel Inverter


There is a new control strategy to control Cascaded multilevel converters in a multi-string configuration for single phase grid connected systems. This topology generates high quality output current under any circumstances specifically in partial shading, while tracking the MPP of each string independently. The topology does not consist of any extra DC-DC converter stage which causes some limitation in the performance but definitely reduces the overall cost and efficiency. Simulation results are provided to validate the proposed control system.

Fig:4.2 simulink model of cascaded multilevel inverter


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MATLAB simulink model of a PWM inverter is shown in Fig.(b) in which four IGBT are used and switching for all IGBT is shown in Fig.(c).

Fig:4.3 Simulink model of an inverter block

Fig.4.4 Simulink model of a switching block


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In unipolar switching scheme, the switch pairs S1S2 and S3S4 of the full-bridge inverter of fig. 2.1, are not operated as pair. Instead, the switches of the first leg, i.e. S1 and S4, are operated by comparing the triangular carrier wave (vc) with the sinusoidal reference signal (vref). The switches of the other leg, i.e. S2 and S3, are operated by comparing vc with vref. Following logic is used to operate these switches: 1. If vref > vc, S1 is on and if vref < vc, S4 is on. 2. If vref > vc, S3 is on and if vref < vc, S2 is on.

Fig:4.5 output voltage waveform at ma1=0.8 & ma2=0.8.

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Fig:4.6 output voltage waveform at ma1=0.8 & ma2=0.6

Fig:4.7 output voltage waveform at ma1=0.8 & ma2=0.4

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Through different combinations of the four switches of both cells, both converter levels can generate three different voltage outputs, +Vdc, 0, Vdc. The AC output is the sum of the individual converter outputs. The number of output phase voltage levels is 5 because we use two photovoltaic sources. For instance the output range of the Fig. 4.5 swings from 200to +200 with five levels.

In above figure output voltage waveform for various value of different modulation index(ma)are shown. The pulse width of voltage waveform decreases by decreasing the value of modulation index(ma2) and have constant modulation index (ma1)

4.6 Merits of Multilevel Inverter


Multilevel concept is used to decrease the harmonic distortion in the output waveform without decreasing the inverter power output. To increase inverter operating voltage without devices in series. To minimize THD with low switching frequencies fsw. To reduce EMI due to lower voltage steps. Ability to reduce the voltage stress on each power device due to the utilization of multiple levels on the DC bus. Important when a high DC side voltage is imposed by an application (e.g. traction systems) Even at low switching frequencies, smaller distortion in the multilevel inverter AC side waveform can be achieved (with stepped modulation technique) Reduced electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) when operated at high voltage. Smaller rating of semiconductor devices. Better feature in output voltage in terms of less distortion. Lower harmonic contents and lower switching loses.

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The circuit topology provides full utilization of semiconductor devices like GTOs where voltage stress of each switch is limited to certain lower value than dc link whereby increased handling power capability of the inverter.

They are suitable for high voltage and high current application. They have higher efficiency because the devices can be switched at low frequency.

4.7 Demerits of Multilevel Inverter


The drawbacks are the isolated power supplies required for each one of the stages of the multiconverter and its also lot harder to build, more expensive, harder to control in software. Switching utilization and efficiency are poor for real transmission. The large number of capacitors are both more expensive and bulky than clamping diodes in multilevel diode clamped converters. Packaging is also more difficult in inverters with high number of levels.

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PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK

HARMONICS ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER


Harmonics are currents or voltages with frequencies that are integer multiples of the fundamental power frequency being 50 or 60Hz (50Hz for European power and 60Hz for American power). For example, if the fundamental power frequency is 50 Hz, then the 2nd harmonic is 100 Hz, the 3rd is 150 Hz, etc. In modern test equipment today harmonics can be measured up to the 63rd harmonics. To give an understanding of this, consider a water piping system. Have you ever taken a shower when someone turns on the cold water at the sink? You experience the effect of a pressure drop to the cold water, reducing the flow of cold water. The end result is you get burned! Now imagine that someone at a sink alternately turns on and off the cold and hot water. You would effectively be hit with alternating cold and hot water! Therefore, the performance and function of the shower is reduced by other systems. This illustration is similar to an electrical distribution system with non-linear loads generating harmonics. There are several industrial applications which may allow a harmonic content of 5% of its fundamental component of input voltage when inverters are used. Actually, the inverter output voltage may have harmonic content much higher than 5% of its fundamental component. In order to bring this harmonic content to a reasonable limit of 5%, one method is to insert filters between the load and inverter. If the inverter output voltage contains high frequency harmonics, these can be reduced by a low-size filter. For the attenuation of lowfrequency harmonics, however, the size of filter components increases. This makes the filter circuit costly, bulky and weighty and in addition, the transient response of the system becomes sluggish. This shows that lower order harmonics from the inverter output voltage should be reduced by some means other the filter.

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PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK

5.1 Harmonic Optimization Techniques in Multilevel VSI


One of the major problems in electric power quality is the harmonic contents. There are several methods of indicating the quantity of harmonic contents. The most widely used measure is the total harmonic distortion (THD). Various switching techniques have been used in static converters to reduce the output harmonic content.

We compare the two harmonic optimization techniques, known as optimal minimization of the total harmonic distortion (OMTHD) technique and optimized harmonic steppedwaveform (OHSW) technique used in multi-level inverters with unequal dc sources. Both techniques are very effective and efficient for improving the quality of the inverter output voltage. First, we describe briefly the cascaded H-bridge multi-level inverter structure. Multi-level inverter is recently used in many industrial applications such as ac power supplies, static VAR compensators, drive systems, etc. One of the significant advantages of multi-level structure is the harmonic reduction in the output waveform without increasing switching frequency or decreasing the inverter output power. The output voltage waveform of a multi-level inverter is composed of a number of levels of voltages, typically obtained from capacitor voltage sources. The so-called multi-level starts from three levels. As the number of levels increases, the output THD approaches zero. The number of achievable voltage levels, however, is limited by voltage unbalance problems, voltage clamping requirement, circuit layout, and packaging constraints. Therefore, an important key in designing an effective and efficient multi-level inverter is to ensure that the total harmonic distortion (THD) in the output voltage waveform is small enough. The well-known multi-level inverter topologies are: cascaded H-bridge multi-level inverter, diode-clamped multi-level inverter and flying capacitor multi-level inverter. The multi-level inverter composed of cascaded H-bridges with separate dc sources (SDCSs), hereafter called a cascaded multi-level inverter, appears to be superior to the other multi-level topologies in terms of its structure that is not only simple and modular but also requires the least number of components. This modular structure makes it easily extensible to higher number of output voltage levels without undue increase in power circuit complexity. In addition, extra clamping diodes or voltage balancing capacitors are not necessary. It is generally accepted that the performance of an inverter, with any switching strategy, can be related to the harmonic contents of its output voltage. Power electronics researchers have always studied many novel control techniques to reduce harmonics in such waveforms.Up to
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PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK

now, in multi-level technology, several well-known modulation techniques have been used as follows: Harmonic Optimization, Space Vector PWM (SV-PWM), and Carrier-Based PWM techniques. The harmonic optimization techniques can be categorized into two methods: Optimal Minimization of the Total Harmonic Distortion (OMTHD) and Optimized Harmonic Stepped-Waveform (OHSW). OMTHD technique is based on minimization of THD by reducing all harmonics with no emphasis on any particular component, where as, OHSW is based on elimination of some specific harmonic components. In this paper, OMTHD and OHSW techniques are applied to a cascaded multi-level inverter with non-equal dc sources. Usually, it is assumed that the dc sources are all equal, which will not probably be the case in practice even if the dc sources are nominally equal. Here the dc sources are taken with different voltages for generality of the study. The study is performed for both cases focusing on harmonic content of the output voltage and the results obtained by the two techniques are compared. The paper is organized as follows: First the cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverters structure and operation are briefly described. Then, the switching algorithms for the multilevel inverter, based on OHSW and OMTHD techniques are explained. Finally, the results obtained for the two techniques are analyzed and compared. Also, several informative results verify the effectiveness of both techniques in multi-level inverter with non-equal dc sources, clarifying the advantages of each technique.

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PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK

5.2 Harmonics evaluation of single & multilevel inverter

Harmonics

Harmonic factor of single inverter when ma1=0.8,ma2=0.8


77.96 0.07378 0.04118 0.02814 0.00674 0.002845 0.005282 0.006377 0.02244 1.184 13.54 30.82 30.86 13.53 1.172 0.01346 0.02282 0.01417 0.01494 0.01513 1.647 8.169 11.32 10.21 10.21 11.33 8.15929 1.65 0.1443 0.01911 0.2963 1.878 5.913 5.847 5.406 2.941 2.946 5.378 5.86

Harmonic factor of multilevel inverter when ma1=o.8 , ma2=0.8


155.9 0.1541 0.101 0.08091 0.04434 0.03161 0.03159 0.01526 0.01049 0.01774 0.01739 0.009702 0.01475 0.02815 0.01386 0.01426 0.02411 0.03323 0.05213 0.2844 3.272 16.32 22.61 20.35 20.37 22.62 16.31 3.274 0.2709 0.03362 0.02776 0.03805 0.02344 0.01814 0.003869 0.005309 0.01203 0.01587 0.01547

Harmonic factor of multilevel inverter when ma1=0.8,ma2=0.6


136.4 0.1628 0.9879 0.06048 0.03065 0.0354 0.02703 0.0145 0.05138 0.9184 6.727 5.346 5.32 6.729 0.9207 0.04191 0.02008 0.04444 0.03986 0.149 1.931 6.729 0.9207 0.04191 0.02008 24.2 11.39 1.929 0.1099 0.3192 0.3285 1.616 3.929 1.071 9.975 9.72 9.741 9.979 1.063

Harmonic factor of multilevel inverter when ma1=0.8,ma2=0.4


116.8 0.1617 0.09414 0.05945 0.05511 0.03261 0.02161 0.03141 0.0684 1.195 11.3 0.9306 0.9174 11.3 1.202 0.06479 0.03249 0.0267 0.02206 0.1193 1.617 8.707 18.02 5.261 5.2791 18.03 8.707 1.616 0.1014 0.05269 0.3523 1.893 5.758 3.698 13.93 2.175 2.165 13.9 3.738

1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65 67 69 71 73 75 77

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PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK

Harmonic factor of single phase inverter when ma1=0.8 & ma2=0.8


Harmonic factor (% of fundamental)

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 3 5 7 9 1113151719212325272931333537394143454749515355575961636567697173757779 Harmonic number

Fig 5.1 Harmonic evaluation on single phase inverter

Harmonic factor of multilevel inverter


harmonics factor(% of fundamental)

180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 1 3 5 7 9 1113151719212325272931333537394143454749515355575961636567697173757779 harmonic number

Fig 5.2 Harmonic evaluation of multilevel inverter when ma1 =0.8 & ma2=0.8

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING, INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY, LUCKNOW

PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK

Harmonic factor of multilevel inverter


harmonic factor(%of fundamental)

160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 1 3 5 7 9 1113 151719 2123 252729 3133 353739 4143 454749 5153 5557 596163 6567 697173 7577 79 harmonic number

Fig 5.3 Harmonic evaluation of multilevel inverter when ma1=0.8 & ma2=0.6

harmonic factor of multilemvel inverter


harmonic factor(%of fundamental)

140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 1 3 5 7 9 1113151719212325272931333537394143454749515355575961636567697173757779 harmonic number

Fig 5.4 Harmonic evaluation of multilevel inverter when ma1=0.8 & ma2=0.4

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING, INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY, LUCKNOW

PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK

5.3 Applications in Harmonic Elimination


The present chapter helps us to understand the effects of non-linear loads on the power system and the implementation of suitable devices to cancel out the harmonics. The use of inverters in active power filters has been emphasized and the simulated circuits and results have been described in particular.

5.3.1 Non Linear Loads


A non-linear load on a power system is typically a rectifier or some kind of arc discharge device such as a fluorescent lamp, electric welding machine, or arc furnace in which current is not linearly related to the voltage. Because current in these systems is interrupted by a switching action, the current contains frequency components that are multiples of the power system frequency. This leads to distortion of the current waveform which in turn distorts the voltage waveform. Distortion power factor is a measure of how much the harmonic distortion of a load current decreases the average power transferred to the load.

5.3.2 Active Power Filters


The increasing use of power electronics based loads (adjustable speed drives, switch mode power supplies, etc.) to improve system efficiency and controllability is increasing the concern for harmonic distortion levels in end use facilities and on the overall power system. The application of passive tuned filters creates new system resonances which are dependent on specific system conditions.

In general, passive tuned filters have been used to minimize low-frequency current harmonics while high-pass units have been connected to attenuate the amplitude of high frequency current components. However, high-pass filters present disadvantages due to the resistance connected in parallel to the inductor, which increases the filter losses and reduces the filtering effectiveness at the tuned frequency. The most critical aspects of passive filters are related to the fact that they cannot modify their compensation characteristics following the dynamic changes of the nonlinear load, the performance dependence they present with the power system parameters, and the probability of series resonances with the power systems equivalent reactance. Passive filter ratings must be coordinated with reactive power

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING, INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY, LUCKNOW

PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK

requirements of the loads and it is often difficult to design the filters to avoid leading power factor operation for some load conditions. Also, the passive filter generates at fundamental frequency reactive power that changes the system voltage regulation, and if the filter is not designed properly or disconnected during low load operating conditions, over-voltages can be generated at its terminals. A flexible and versatile solution to voltage/current quality problems is offered by active power filters. Active filters have the advantage of being able to compensate for harmonics without fundamental frequency reactive power concerns. This means that the rating of the active power can be less than a conquerable passive filter for the same nonlinear load and the active filter will not introduce system resonances that can move a harmonic problem from one frequency to another

Fig. Generalized block diagram for active power filters

Fig 5.5 Generalized block diagram for active power filter

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PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK

Figure shows the components of a typical active-power-filter system and their interconnections. The information regarding the harmonic current, generated by a nonlinear load, for example, is supplied to the reference-current/voltage estimator together with information about other system variables. The reference signal from the current estimator, as well as other signals, drives the overall system controller. This in turn provides the control for the PWM switching-pattern generator. The output of the PWM pattern generator controls the power circuit via a suitable interface. The power circuit in the generalized block diagram can be connected in parallel, series or parallel/series configurations, depending on the connection transformer used.

5.3.3 Shunt Active Power Filters


The purpose of the shunt active power filters is to cancel load harmonics fed to the supply. It can also contribute to reactive-power compensation and balancing of three phase currents. Shunt active power filters compensate current harmonics by injecting equal-but-opposite harmonic compensating current. In this configuration active power filter operates as a current source injecting the harmonic components generated by the load but phase shifted by 180o. This principle is applicable to any type of load considered a harmonic source. Moreover, with an appropriate control scheme, the active power filter can also compensate the load power factor. In this way, the power distribution system sees the non linear load and the active power filter as an ideal resistor. Parallel filters have the advantage of carrying only the compensation current plus a small amount of active fundamental current supplied to compensate for system losses. It is possible to connect several filters in parallel to cater for higher currents, which makes this type of circuit suitable for a wide range of power ratings.

5.3.4 Modelling of Three Wire Shunt Active Power Filter


The concept of using active power filters to mitigate harmonic problems and to compensate reactive power was proposed more than two decades ago. Since then the theories and applications of active power filters have become more popular and have attracted great attention. Without the drawbacks of passive harmonic filters, the active power filter appears to be a viable solution for reactive power compensation as well as for eliminating harmonic currents.
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PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER USING MATLAB/SIMULINK

Active power filters are researched and developed as a viable alternative over the passive filters and static var compensators to solve the problems of harmonics injection and reactive power requirement of non-linear loads .Among the various topologies developed the shunt active power filter based on the current controlled voltage source type PWM converter has proved to be effective even when the load is highly non-linear. The control strategies of the active filters are implemented mainly in three steps Signal conditioning, estimation of compensating signals and generation of firing signals for switching devices. Estimation of compensating signal is the most important part of the active filter control. It has a great impact on the compensating objectives, rating of active filters and its transient as well as steady state performance. The control strategies use either frequency domain or time domain approaches to extract compensating signals from the corresponding distorted currents/voltages.

5.3.5 Role of Inverters in Active Filters


The voltage source inverter used in the active power filter makes the harmonic control possible. This inverter uses a dc capacitor as the supply and can switch at a high frequency to generate a signal which will cancel the harmonics from the nonlinear load.
The current waveform for cancelling harmonics is achieved with the voltage source inverter(IGBT based) and an interface reactor.The interface reactor converts the voltage signal created by the inverter to a current signal.The desired waveform is obtained by accurately controlling the switches in the inverter. Control of the current wave shape is limited by the switching frequency of the inverter and by the available driving voltage across the interface reactor. The driving voltage across the interface reactor determines the maximum di/dt that can be achieved by the power filter. This is important because relatively high values of di/dt may be needed to cancel higher order harmonic components.

The voltage source inverter is the heart of the active power filter. In the system model of the project it has been modelled as a three phase ,full wave inverter (IGBT based). Each of the three identical inverter legs consisted of two IGBT and two anti-parallel diodes. The igbt used here is modelled in the simulink as a resistor (Ron) and inductor(Lon) in series with a switch(transistor) controlled by a logical signal. It switches between on and off state instantaneously when triggered.

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CONCLUSION
In case of Sinusoidal Pulse Modulation the triangular carrier wave is compare with sine wave which results in switching losses, so square wave inverter is used which reduce the switching losses. Multilevel inverters are finding increased application in industrial environment with greater demand for high voltage high power processing techniques with improved efficiency. The essential advantage of multilevel inverters is the improvement in the output voltage signal quality using devices of low voltage rating with lesser switching frequency, thereby increasing the overall efficiency of the system. Multilevel inverters can be applied to utility interface systems and motor drives. These converters offer a low output voltage THD, and a high efficiency. A multilevel inverter can reduce the harmonics produced by the inverter and better THD is obtained when the inverter operated at higher modulation index. The harmonic distortions present in the load current and voltage waveforms were observed through analysis tool in Matlab/simulink. The modulation index ma controls the harmonic content of the output voltage waveform. The magnitude of fundamental component of output voltage is proportional to ma, but ma can never be more than unity. Thus the output voltage is controlled by varying ma and maximum power can also be achieved.

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REFERENCES

[1] M.S Jamil Asghar,(2004), Power Electronics, Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi, India.

[2] Martina Calais, Vassilios G. Agelidis, Michael S. Dymond, When to switch which switch in a five level single phase cascaded inverter Curtin University of Technology, Australia. [3] Aziz, J. & Salam, Z. Harmonic analysis of a five level cascaded inverter under a new modulation scheme, Jurnal Teknologi, 38(D) Jun. 2003: 79102, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. [4] Muhammed H. Rashid, Power Electronics circuits, Devices, and Applications, PrenticeHall of India Private Limited, New Delhi. [5] Jos Rodrguez, Jih-Sheng Lai, and Fang Zheng Peng, Multilevel Inverters: A Survey of Topologies Controls, and Applications, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol.49, No.4, August2002. [6] M. G. Hosseini Aghdam and S. H. Fathi, Comparison of Modulation Methods For Three-Phase Multi-Level Voltage-Source Inverter from Conduction and Switching Losses Aspect ICIEA 2006, 2006 IEEE. [7] A. Tahri, A. Draou and M. Ermis, A Comparative Study of PWM Control Techniques for Multilevel Cascaded Inverters, Applied Power Electronics Laboratory, Department of Electrotechnics, University of Sciences and Technology of Oran, BP 1505 El Mnaouar (31000 Oran), ALGERIA. [8] L Li, D Crazkowski, P Pillay, Y. Liu Multilevel Selective Harmonic Elimination PWM Technique in Series Connected Voltage Inverters, NY USA. [9] Owen, Edward L. (January/February 1996). "Origins of the Inverter" IEEE Industry Applications Magazine: History Department (IEEE) 2 (1): 6466.

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