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2 History of Maintenance Definition of Maintenance Objectives and Functions of Maintenance 1.3 Functions of Maintenance Management Quality Aspects in Maintenance Maintenance Organisation Initial Level Repeatable Level Defined Level Managed Level Optimized Level 1.4 Improving Maturity in Maintenance Organizations Training Strategy Work Management Resources Management Supervisory Review Quality Assurance Subcontract Management
Commitment of the Maintenance Personnel. Verification of Implementation Metrics and Process Improvement 1.5 Dynamics of a Maintenance Organisation Maintenance Management Perspectives Types of Maintenance Preventive Maintenance Shut-down Maintenance Opportunistic Maintenance 1.6 Summary 1.7 Terminal Questions 1.8 Answers 1.1 Introduction Rising inflation and increased competition have brought with them the need for greater productivity, and recent years have seen more emphasis being placed on productivity improvement. Moreover, sophisticated equipment and capital intensive units and plants are being increasingly used to achieve the pre-set targets of higher production and productivity. Reliability and maintainability features are now being incorporated in the equipment designs. Although modern equipment has higher levels of reliability, it is not possible to keep this equipment in an operating condition at all times because failures do occur even in the most reliable equipment.1 It is also true that such sophisticated equipment, and units or plants, tend to have high probabilities of failure since in many cases they incorporate newer, and therefore not adequately proven, technologies and designs. They also consist of a large number of assemblies, sub-assemblies and components. Failure and malfunctioning of these items of equipment result in a loss of production. Loss of production is undesirable because it results in corresponding loss in revenue. Whenever an item of equipment is down and fails to perform its intended function, or performs in an undesirable fashion, it must be restored to a state where it performs satisfactorily. At the same time all necessary action must be taken to keep, or retain, such equipment in an operating condition and also to prevent failures. Resources, such as spare parts, manpower skills, tools, instruments and facilities, such as hangars in the case of
aircraft maintenance, are utilized for accomplishment of the restoration processes and preventive actions. Thus the requirement for productivity improvement has brought about the pressing need for a significant improvement in the management of maintenance of equipment, units and plants. Objectives: After studying this unit you shall be able · To Define Maintenance · To assess objective and functions of Maintenance · To describe Quality aspect of Maintenance · To assess key process of Maintenance Management 1.2 History of Maintenance Historically, maintenance activities have been regarded as a necessary evil by the various management functions in an organisation. Enormous costs of maintenance, estimated to be between 15 and 40 per cent of the production costs and the trend towards automation have, however, forced managers to pay more attention to maintenance. The evolution of maintenance can be traced from the days prior to World War II. The attitude of the managers then was ‘to fix the equipment when it breaks’. With fewer items of sophisticated equipment around, and hence, the cost of downtime not being high, prevention of equipment failures was not given much attention. Maintenance, in addition to fixing the broken equipment, involved simple activities like cleaning and lubrication. The period after World War II saw the introduction of the word ‘terotechnology’ which was initially defined by the committee on terotechnology as ‘…a combination of management, financial, engineering and other practices applied to physical assets in pursuit of economic life-cycle costs’. Due to rising costs and inflation, focus was on reducing downtime of equipment and hence preventive maintenance came into being as an important activity. This period also saw a number of researchers working on operations research models for preventive maintenance. Importance of planning maintenance activities also grew during this period. Overhauls of equipment were planned and scheduled. Systems for managing maintenance were also introduced. The period after 1980 has seen some of the worst accidents in industrial history. Leakage of methyl isocyanite (MIC) from a battery/cell manufacturing unit in Bhopal in India and the threat to the survival of mankind caused by the nuclear accident at Chernobyl in the erstwhile Soviet Union have only made the manufacturing industries and the like realize the importance of maintenance. The attitude of ignorance towards maintenance has increasingly been replaced by one which recognizes maintenance also as a strategic issue in the organisation. Besides high cost, the other factors which contributed to this change
Alternatively the objective should be to minimize the costs – the labour costs and the material costs as well as the loss in revenue due to loss of production.2 Objectives and Functions of Maintenance The objective of any business organisation is to make profits. or keeping. in general. neural networks and Markov chains have been used for controlling and managing maintenance activities. the principal objectives of maintenance would be: · to control the availability of the equipment. maintenance programmes have to be developed to ensure that physical assets will continue to fulfill their intended functions at a minimum expenditure of resources. · To extend the useful life of the equipment. or return the equipment to an acceptable working condition. an item of equipment in a specified operating condition. In case an item of equipment fails it needs to be restored to the same specified operating condition. safety issues. Maintenance can thus be defined as a set of activities. Obviously. The availability and utilization of these resources are of prime importance. The need for reliable equipment has also been realized. therefore. Modern maintenance management can be considered to be composed of the following functions: · maintenance planning. including staffing/recruiting. maintenance activities which do not contribute to preserving or restoring the intended functions of assets should be eliminated. 1. tools and facilities.include: environmental concerns. drive for cost reduction and the like. Performing maintenance activities requires the use of resources such as spare parts. · organizing maintenance resources. or restoring failed equipment to a normal operating condition. Techniques such as condition monitoring. 1. or tasks. means preserving. The objective of maintenance. In summary.1 Definition of Maintenance Maintenance is an element of a complete production system. and planning and scheduling maintenance resources. should. Performing such activities would obviously extend the useful life of the equipment. The set of tasks or activities that constitute maintenance ranges from simple cleaning operations and lubrication to performing condition monitoring. . To live up to the new expectations demanded of maintenance activities. Maintenance. manpower. regulatory matters. which is linked to the overall organizational objectives. that are related to preserving equipment in a specified operating condition.2. and warranty and liability factors.2. ageing plant and equipment. be to maximize the profitability of the organisation by performing activities which retain working equipment in an acceptable condition. at minimum resource cost.
4. The attitude of ______________ towards maintenance has increasingly been replaced by one which recognizes maintenance. 3. The principal objectives of maintenance would be to control the availability of the equipment. Maintenance is an element of a complete ___________ system. · defining processes for performing maintenance.· directing execution of maintenance plan. at minimum ________________. · Budgeting. 2. . _____________ in addition to fixing the broken equipment. · controlling the performance of maintenance activities. Maintenance planning includes formulating and identifying ___________ policies. 5. involved simple activities like cleaning and lubrication. Maintenance planning includes formulating and identifying organisation-wide policies that would help achieve higher maintenance productivity such as: · Do we repair the equipment or buy a new one? · Do we perform preventive maintenance or corrective maintenance activities? · Do we employ full-time repair personnel or should we subcontract work? Self Assessment Questions 1.
This is a statement of maintenance tasks to be carried out in a specified period. This way not only is the downtime cost kept to the minimum but also the resources are utilized effectively. Another important task is creation of a master maintenance schedule. In order to carry out maintenance activities as planned. In case the task does not get completed within the estimated time then corrective action would need to be taken to ensure further loss in revenue due to loss in production is minimized. Other common tasks related to maintenance management include generating reports related to equipment. Any maintenance activity requires resources.1. the maintenance manager needs to organize the required resources and all these resources need to be available in the right quantity and at the right time. The maintenance manager should track the work to completion.3 Functions of Maintenance Management Responsibility for formulating the maintenance policies lies with top management. Once the activity is complete. This will lead to degradation of equipment performance and can also result in its failure. a review by the manager or the maintenance supervisor would be essential to ensure and authorize that the maintenance work has been carried out properly. The top management is also responsible for negotiating and authorizing the service level agreement. If the required resources are not available. then the planned maintenance activity cannot be performed. work and . The maintenance manager should ensure that the equipment is restored to its normal working condition as quickly as possible. the maintenance activity can be initiated. Once the required resources are available.
3. produces the desired result. without causing · any damage to the equipment or to any of its parts. · A repository of maintenance processes. The above-mentioned conditions can be satisfied only when the maintenance organisation has: · skilled and committed repair men available to carry out the required maintenance activity at the required time. the tools and procedures used. · the required spare parts in the required quantity. when performed properly. It also includes activities related to collection and analysis of data related to maintenance and reporting to top management.1 Quality Aspects in Maintenance Quality is not absolute but relative. 1. · the required tools. · It incurs not more than the budgeted cost.costs. A ‘process’ can be defined as a set of tasks that. An important step in addressing the maintenance management problems is to treat the maintenance task as a process that can be controlled. instruments and facilities for performing the activity. · it is initiated on time and the equipment is returned to production at the · required time. and the skill. An effective maintenance process must consider the relationships of all the tasks. · In general. 1. training and motivation of the people . A maintenance activity can be considered to be of high quality if: · it restores an item of equipment to its normal working state.3. measured and improved. · an appropriate ‘on-the-job’ training programme for the repair men to enhance their ability to work.2 Maintenance Organisation Maintenance organisation does not mean only the organisation of people in the maintenance department or their reporting structure. the need is for a good maintenance organisation. It is more to do with the maturity of the maintenance process such that high-quality maintenance activities are performed.
cost estimates and plans. The strength to carry out similar activities stems from the prior experience.6 Managed Level . defined.3 Initial Level The organisation operates on an ad hoc basis. List down required process improvement actions.4 Repeatable Level Organizations which carry out similar projects with reasonable accuracy with regard to cost and time are at this level.*9 The CMM was defined by the software engineering institute (SEI) for software development organizations and it classifies software development organizations into five levels initial. Commit resources to execute the plan.5 Defined Level The organisation has a repository or a set of defined procedures for carrying out development work. without formalized procedures. Tools are neither integrated with the process nor uniformly applied. organizations at this level face risks when presented with new challenges. Determine if the current process is the desired process. 1. To improve the capabilities of the maintenance organisation the following steps8 must be performed consistently: 1. the most important ones being project management. repeatable. 1. 1.3. organizations must have dedicated personnel who take care of the development processes. 5.3. The performance of these steps calls for a process-oriented organisation and such an organisation develops over a period of time as enunciated by the capability maturity model (CMM). In order to improve performance. quality assurance and project tracking and oversight. With this. the organisation has to implement a measurement programme to obtain process feedback. Plan to perform the required actions. managed and optimized. 2. 3. Understand the status of the current maintenance process or processes. 4. However. organizations at this level need to institutionalize basic management processes. To reach the defined level. 1. that is.involved.3.3. To climb up the maturity level. the organisation achieves the foundation for continuous improvement in processes. The organisation now has capabilities to face new challenges and achieve success.
Targets are set for performance and a plan is made out to achieve the pre-set targets. 1.4 Improving Maturity in Maintenance Organizations The key process areas (KPAs) involved in enhancing the capability and maturity of a software organisation. 7. The organisation operates on an ad hoc basis. 8. A ‘process’ can be defined as a set of tasks that. They are: · training strategy.The organisation has a way by which performance indicators are measured objectively. . To reach the highest level on the CMM. Self Assessment Questions State whether following statement True or False 6. the effectiveness of the process can also be determined. when performed properly. Since the data collection process is full-fledged. 10.7 Optimized Level The organisation has capabilities to identify the weakest links in the development processes and eliminate/improve them. cost estimates and plans. the organisation needs to put in place automatic data collection support tools. without formalized procedures. Any maintenance activity requires resources.3. · quality assurance. · supervisory review. 1. that is. The objective is not to classify the maintenance organizations also into one of these levels. produces the undesired result. · work management. · resources management. The objective is only to identify the key process areas that would enable maintenance organizations to enhance their capabilities and maturity. A few key process areas can be readily identified in this regard. 9. Responsibility for formulating the maintenance policies lies with shop Supervisors. The CMM can be adapted to enhance the capabilities of the maintenance organizations as well. Problems are identified proactively and eliminated. Quality is not absolute but relative.
For small activities. instruments and facilities. is not managed if it is not planned and tracked.2 Work Management Any activity. a small maintenance activity may take not less than 5 hours. Most maintenance activities are performed in groups. in one organisation an activity that takes only 15 minutes for completion is considered to be small. The term ‘small activity’ should be defined by the quality assurance personnel because it varies from one organisation to another. 1. tools.4. scheduled and conducted. In such a case it is better if some of the available personnel are re-trained on some trades other than those in which they have specialized.1 Training Strategy Every maintenance organisation should have a suitable training programme for its personnel. tools. This is the responsibility of the maintenance manager. manpower. Individual as well as organisation-wide training programmes should be planned. An organisation may not always find suitable people for performing a job. irrespective of the time it consumes. usage of modern tools etc. Also the probable time to complete the tasks should be specified. facilities etc. The maintenance manager should identify the training needs of his subordinates and get them trained. for example. Holding resources in excess of requirements is wasteful while non-availability of required resources at the required time is undesirable since this result in loss of revenue due to loss in production. In some others. a bull’s eye chart may be appropriate for tracking work. Each of the tasks in the work-breakdown structure should have appropriate resources assigned to it. scheduled and tracked to completion. Resource here means manpower. 1.· Subcontract management. It therefore becomes necessary to train all the maintenance personnel on the aspects of team work.4. 1.4 Supervisory Review Every maintenance activity should be performed under the charge of a supervisor. such as an oil refinery.4. The supervisor’s responsibility is to ensure that the required resources allotted for performing . maintenance activities require resources in the form of spare parts. Every maintenance activity should be planned. a welder may be re-trained to perform a pipefitter’s job. Coordination within a group is critical to completion of the maintenance task on time.3 Resources Management As mentioned earlier. For example. The required resources should be available at the right time and in the right quantity. Management of resources is therefore critical to managing the maintenance function. This is referred to as the work-breakdown structure.4. 1. A maintenance activity should be broken down into smaller manageable tasks. For example. Training. It would not be appropriate to track every small activity in the work-breakdown structure to completion. can be provided on safety and productivity-related issues.
in most cases. Hiring these specialists on a full-time basis. subcontracted work should also be managed. This is the work order management process. The supervisor should also report completion of the activity to the maintenance manager so that the actual costs incurred are logged. tools etc. is expensive.4. List of activities. 1. 1. A better option is to subcontract the work.4. The assessment of the subcontractor can be done by inviting each to present their capabilities and verification of claims through independent references. The supervisor should also guide the repair gang in performing the activity. Like any other internal maintenance activity. 1.7 Commitment of the Maintenance Personnel The repair men need to be committed to perform the maintenance activities.4. A few more basic areas like maintenance planning and configuration management would also need to be considered. They are responsible for collecting data while the maintenance activity is carried out. The subcontractor manager should select a suitable subcontractor based on a balanced assessment of the capabilities of prospective subcontractors. the supervisor should inspect the equipment in order to ensure that the equipment is performing as desired. Yet another goal would be to verify the correctness of the work performed.the maintenance activity are available to the repair gang on time and in the required numbers. Once the activity is complete.8 Verification of Implementation . Increasing the ability to perform. These factors have also been borrowed from the CMM.6 Subcontract Management A few maintenance activities require specialists at the job. The repair men should be provided with a list of activities that need to be performed as a part of the maintenance. Five important factors need to be taken care of if each of the key process areas mentioned above need to be implemented in the maintenance organisation.5 Quality Assurance The quality assurance personnel should be responsible for identifying the optimum route for performing a maintenance activity. The maintenance manager can also visit premises to inspect the capabilities and to get firsthand information. 1.4. The goals of the subcontract management should be to evaluate and select appropriate subcontractors for performing the maintenance activities. and for analyzing them in order to come up with improved routes and work processes. Ability of the maintenance personnel can be enhanced by providing them with proper and relevant training. This involves establishment of policies and top management sponsorship. The selection of the subcontractor should be planned.
4. materials and tools. tools etc. The resources. 2. Measurement of maintenance activity can be in terms of percentage of work complete to date. 15. the maintenance productivity and quality of the maintenance work. including manpower. The quality assurance group. The selection of the ______________should be planned. Gathering metrics on every maintenance activity helps in estimating the time requirements and also the cost. 3. Every maintenance organisation should have a suitable ___________ for its personnel. 1. The maintenance manager. 14. Feedback on the maintenance activity performed should be given to the concerned repair men.9 Metrics and Process Improvement This is a continuous process. 13. The supervisor should also make use of this opportunity to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the individual repair men and arrange suitable training for them. Ability of the __________________ can be enhanced by providing them with proper and relevant training. estimated time to complete the work.5 Dynamics of a Maintenance Organisation Coordination within the groups is one of the most important factors that determine the effectiveness of any maintenance organisation. An activity is scheduled (as far as possible during the production windows in the case of preventive maintenance) and initiated depending on the availability of the required . Metrics and process improvement is a ___________________. The key process areas (KPAs) involved in enhancing the capability and maturity of a ____________________. They are as follows: 1. Four entities are important as far as the maintenance activities are concerned. 1.4. 12. The supervisor group. Self Assessment Questions 11.The supervisor of the repair men should verify the completion/ implementation of the maintenance activity. The maintenance manager is responsible for scheduling maintenance activities.
The key distinction among the three perspectives relates to the time interval between the recognition of the need to perform a maintenance activity and the time at which the . The quality assurance group determines the process of performing the maintenance activity in an optimized manner. They have divided corrective maintenance into two perspectives – ‘reactive’ and ‘reactive/proactive’ –and have defined preventive maintenance as a ‘proactive’ perspective. The equipment is taken out of production for a scheduled maintenance activity.resources. It can be seen from the above that there are two perspectives of maintenance management: 1. Fix it when it breaks as in cases (4) and (5). (2) and (3). 2.5. Relatively more time is spent on performing this type of maintenance activity. As the maintenance activity is carried out. This activity involves simple inspection of replaceable parts. The equipment is running and is producing the desired output. Maintenance is being carried out to restore the equipment to an operable condition. this is called corrective maintenance. the quality assurance group collects data on the process and analyses them with a view to improving the process. 4. 5. The maintenance manager tracks the activity to completion while the supervisor inspects and ensures the activity is carried out properly. Prevent it from breaking down as in cases (1). 3. 1. The equipment is in a failed condition. this is called preventive maintenance. This maintenance activity also does not incur any loss in production. Since the equipment is not in an operating condition this maintenance activity results in considerable loss of production. Maintenance is carried out while the equipment is running. Ettkin and Jahnig have described the work life cycle for the reactive and proactive perspectives. an item of equipment or some part of it can be in one of the five following states: 1. The equipment is not wanted for production and is available for maintenance. 2.1 Maintenance Management Perspectives Kelly has described the dynamics of a production maintenance system considering a large process plant. At any time. This is called the ‘production window’. Due to shortage of resources the maintenance activity is pending. Since the equipment is in use there is no loss in production while performing this maintenance activity. The equipment is in a failed condition. Since the equipment is being taken out of production this maintenance activity results in loss of production.
5. The level of maintenance activity to be performed is obviously the one where the total cost is minimal. All the maintenance activities.activity is actually performed. Most situations warrant a considerable mixture of maintenance types. results in loss of revenue. If personnel who operate and maintain the nuclear power plant of the submarine make serious mistakes. Just as there is a trade-off between inventory holding costs and the reordering costs. and indirect maintenance costs. The cost of unavailability. 1. the direct costs increase. The only difference is that of the time interval. materials and tools. the time interval between the recognition and performance is very small as compared to the ‘proactive’ perspective. v scheduling the maintenance task. 1. The intention is to detect potential failures early. The total maintenance cost is the sum of direct maintenance costs. As the level of performing maintenance activity increases. material costs and direct overheads. The cost of utilization of these resources is a direct maintenance cost. Also the indirect costs resulting due to failure decrease.5. the ship and its entire crew are in mortal danger. v performing the maintenance task. which is an indirect cost. which are primarily due to loss of production. consisting of labour costs. There is rarely any organisation where only one type of maintenance is used. When an item of equipment is down it results in loss of production which. in the case of nuclear submarines. for example. involve the following steps: v planning the maintenance task.2 Types of Maintenance The return of investment on an item of equipment can be maximized by maximizing its availability. The preventive actions under such a situation would be to: . This approach to maintenance becomes essential for any equipment where there are serious dangers to life should a failure occur. Availability of an item of equipment can be defined as the ratio of uptime to the sum of uptime and downtime. there is a trade-off between the maintenance costs and their benefits. In the case of the ‘reactive’ perspective. Performing a maintenance activity requires usage of resources such as manpower. The following section describes the preventive.3 Preventive Maintenance Preventive maintenance is a proactive activity. is proportional to the loss in revenue. This is an approach developed to reduce the likelihood of the failure of critical equipment to the minimum possible. make changes and prevent failures. in turn. regardless of the maintenance perspectives. corrective and other maintenance practices followed in organizations. v Evaluation of the performance.
Primary objectives of this approach to maintenance are to: · Increase the life of critical equipment by preventing failures.. the level of distilled water in the battery of an automobile is checked after every 1000 kilometers and the brush ploughs of a grinding mill should be replaced after every 500 hours of running. The fixed time should not be based on the calendar units but should be based on a fixed number of running units such as kilometers. · Detect the onset of a failure. or after generation of a fixed cumulative output. which includes lubrication. Fixed-time maintenance is that activity which involves inspection of critical parts of the equipment after a fixed time interval. hours etc. · Replacement of worn-out parts. and replacement of those which are worn out. · servicing. These activities can prevent serious errors from occurring. and the commanding officer must promptly report on the corrective actions. · Condition-based maintenance. such as car assembly. Analyze even the most trivial errors to determine what went wrong. This type of maintenance activity is applicable only for those items which exhibit a time-dependent failure . · Report deviations to the admiral-in-charge. · Inspect each ship and each operation to ensure that every procedure and method is properly understood and executed. where the cost due to loss in production is very high. adjustment and similar activities. These objectives give rise to the following methods of performing preventive · maintenance activities: · fixed-time maintenance. For example. This approach to maintenance is also important in highly automated plants.· Train all the personnel in their own jobs. Planned · activities are carried out and the main functions are: · inspection of critical parts of the equipment. · Audit the personnel so that they demonstrate satisfactory performance to their job standards. power plants etc.
such as the setting of warning limits for the Solidification of the lubricant. correlating to the onset of failure has been identified. The obvious advantage of carrying out running maintenance is that there is no loss in production. Corrective maintenance activities are also performed when condition monitoring indicates onset of a failure. With this kind of maintenance policy. Complex situations require sensors and other high-tech tools to monitor the vibrations. the time required to perform this activity is . and then the parts have to be repaired or replaced. The costs involved in condition monitoring may vary widely. eddy currents. are expensive. Techniques such as oil analysis. the maintenance-related costs are usually high for the following reasons: The time required is usually much higher than other maintenance types because the cause of failure has to be identified. ultrasonic waves and thermographs also help monitor the condition of the equipment. There is a cost due to loss in production. if repair is not economical. This method of condition-based maintenance is inexpensive. These methods. Damage is caused to other equipment as a consequence of failure. which the case is when the event leading to failure occurs in a predominantly random manner. cracks in the structure of a building etc. Although. corrective maintenance is predominant. Corrective Maintenance Corrective maintenance. which can be measured either visually or by other means. This type of maintenance is called running maintenance. the solidification of the lubricant is an indicator of the machine’s wearing condition. the maintenance personnel can also collect data which can be used as inputs by other methods of condition-based maintenance procedures. This is a proactive-reactive approach to maintenance and results in the following tasks: repair of failed parts of the equipment. shock pulses etc. It is possible to identify a value of that parameter when action may be taken before full failure occurs. For example. as mentioned earlier. A parameter. Detailed analysis helps in detecting an impending failure. Since condition monitoring gives sufficient warning of an impending failure it becomes easy for the maintenance manager to plan a corrective activity at a later time. A simple case of condition-based maintenance is the visual examination of the brake pads of an automobile. generally occurring in the form of breakdown maintenance. on the other hand. Along with inspection. Condition-based maintenance is also known as predictive maintenance. In organizations where there are very few production windows. It is an appropriate option for preventive maintenance when the following conditions apply: Prevention of failure is not technically feasible. or how the failure can be prevented is not yet known. checking for leaks in fuel-carrying pipes.mechanism. In some situations it is possible to carry out some preventive maintenance activities while the equipment or plant is running. is a reactive activity and is performed when an item of equipment is not in an operating condition or is operating at a level below its rated capacity. analysis of acoustic emissions. replacement of failed parts with new ones. This approach is designed to detect the onset of a failure. Running maintenance is normally carried out in situations where there is no threat to the life of the maintenance personnel.
The types of maintenance discussed in this section will help top management decide on questions like: should we carry out preventive actions? Or should we fix the equipment when it breaks? As mentioned earlier. . 18. Five entities are important as far as the maintenance activities are concerned. 17.4 Shut-down Maintenance Shut-down maintenance can either be a preventive activity or a corrective activity.5. The work is deferred to a later date if the priority is low or the equipment is not so critical. Self Assessment Questions State whether the following statement True or False 16. The cause is usually recorded for future analysis and corrective actions are prescribed. The maintenance work that is carried out is not directed at the primary cause of failure of the equipment or shut-down. While we know that prevention is better than cure. it should be closely associated or integrated with the resources management function. we also realize that failures are unavoidable.5. Depending on the availability of resources. The maintenance manager is responsible for scheduling maintenance activities. Shut-down maintenance can either be a preventive activity or a corrective activity. as well as major repairs and overhauls. 1. 19. criticality of the equipment and the priority. 1. are carried out after the equipment or plant is shut down. When a maintenance activity is carried out on an item of equipment there exists some opportunity to inspect. Minor repairs which cannot be performed while the equipment is running. The cost of utilization of the resources is a indirect maintenance cost.much higher than the preventive actions require. the maintenance department personnel attempt to detect the cause of the failure. repair and replace certain other parts of the equipment. an emergency maintenance is carried out. most situations in organizations warrant a mixture of maintenance types. If the priority is high or alternatively if the equipment is critical.5 Opportunistic Maintenance The maintenance work that is carried out is not directed at the primary cause of failure of the equipment or shut-down. This approach to maintenance is called opportunistic maintenance. The next chapter describes a few resources management techniques. Once an item of equipment fails. Trained maintenance personnel also have a role to play in reducing the maintenance time. Whatever be the choice of the maintenance policy. this can be reduced considerably if the organisation has all the maintenance procedures and systems in place. 20. corrective maintenance work is scheduled and carried out.
Explain Objectives and Functions of Maintenance.7 Terminal Questions 1. chemical and fertilizer plants. True . maintenance of plant and machinery was a thankless job and the maintenance function was considered a necessary evil. 5. Organisation-wide 6. 2. Plant and equipment availability is of paramount importance and effective management of the maintenance function goes a long way in ensuring the attainment of the objective of maximization of availability 1.1. Write a note on History of Maintenance.6 Summary Until recently. What are the features of Preventive Maintenance? 1. nuclear power generating stations. 3. Resource Cost 5. and has been hastened by the fact that the loss of one hour of production is much more expensive today than it ever was before. and integrated iron and steel works. it has now come to be accepted as an important function – one of strategic importance – particularly in the capital-intensive continuous-process industries such as power plants.8 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1. Maintenance 2. False 7. True 8. 4. This transformation has taken place in about 40 years and has brought about automation and increasing sophistication of plant and equipment. From this state. What are the steps involved in Maintenance Organisation. Ignorance 3. Discuss Dynamics of a Maintenance Organisation. Production 4.
Page 3 – Part 1.4 5. False 17. Page 10 – Part 1. True 20. False Terminal Questions 1.2. Maintenance Personnel 14.2 4.3 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .Page 11 – Part 1. True 18. Page 2 – Part 1.2 3.1. True 11. . Training programme 13. Software organisation 12. False 10. Continuous Process 16.9.4. Page 6 – Part 1. Subcontractor 15. False 19.1 2.
7 Terminal Questions .2 Man Power 2.6 Summary 2.4 Tools and Facilities 2.5 Effect of Maintenance types on Resources 2.1 Introduction Objectives 2.3 Spare Parts Statistical Inventory Theory Models Inventory Costs How Much to Order? When to Order? Selective Inventory Control Procedures Manufacturing Resource Planning The Bill of Materials Master production Schedule Inventory Status File Requirements Pegging Rescheduling Process 2.OM0006-Unit-02-Business Maintenance Unit-02-Business Maintenance Structure: 2.
however. Basker. The disadvantage of assigning a maintenance job to a repair gang or crew is that the manpower utilization within the gang is not effective.8 Answers 2. Queuing models. a maintenance job may require the services of a welder for just about an hour whereas the same job may require a fitter for more than four hours. Queuing models. simulation techniques and queuing models have been used for determining the optimal number of repair gangs required to be deployed in a system. In this study the characteristics of the maintenance resources are discussed. can be used to determine the optimal number of welders. An important issue in manpower is that of determining the optimal number of skilled repair workers. plumbers etc. fitting.2 Man Power Almost all the maintenance activities require skilled personnel and most of the activities require more than one skill such as welding. Techniques used for managing the maintenance resources are also discussed. rigging etc. manpower.2. can be used to determine the optimal number of welders. One solution to this problem would be to schedule individual workers rather than repair gangs. tools and facilities. Important among these are maintenance materials (spare parts). which utilize the theory of minimizing the total cost of unavailability and labor. An important issue in manpower is that of determining the optimal number of skilled repair workers. For example. The usage of the models. A Maintenance job is usually performed by a repair gang or repair crew consisting of an optimal mix of skilled workers.1 Introduction For performing any maintenance activity resources are required. which utilize the theory of minimizing the total cost of unavailability and labor. not all skills are required for the same amount of time. requires some knowledge of the rate of failure (called arrival rate) and the repair distribution. Objectives: After studying this unit you shall be able · To explain the characteristics of the maintenance resources · To define techniques used for managing the maintenance resources · To assess comparison of the available resources management techniques 2. Historically. plumbers etc. Queuing models and simulation have been used also for determining the optimal number of tools and facilities such that the maintenance costs are minimized. Manan . The procedures used are similar to those used for determining the optimal number of repair gangs required for carrying out maintenance activities. However.
3 Spare Parts The spare parts (maintenance material) problems have been traditionally approached in three ways: 1. stock-out and ordering costs. In general. Maintaining the spare parts in a store also incurs some cost. Using the statistical inventory theory models. 3. 2. and the number of repair gangs required such that the total costs (sum of labor cost and downtime cost) are minimized. 2.1 Statistical Inventory Theory Models 2. In addition to the holding and stock-out costs. By holding spare parts in the inventory the funds of the organization are tied up which could have otherwise been invested in other activities. 2. two basic questions need to be answered: · How Much to Order? · When to Order? . Barnett and Blundell have used the Monte Carlo simulation technique to optimize the number of repair gangs and the size of the repair gangs given that the maintenance jobs generate demand for repair workers from three different trades’ mechanics. not having the required spare part results in a stock-out cost.and Husband have used the Monte Carlo simulation technique to determine the optimal number of repair workers required to perform the maintenance activities in a shop comprising a finite number of identical machines. Using the material requirements planning/manufacturing resources planning (MRP/ MRP-II) technique. Newman and Brammer and Malmborg have utilized a material requirements planning/bill of materials approach to manage the manpower resources. The objective is to determine the number of repair workers needed to constitute a repair gang. The objective of spare parts management is therefore to minimize the total of inventory holding. electricians and pipe-fitters. on the other hand.3.1 Inventory Costs Every organization keeps spare parts so that defective and worn-out parts of equipment can be replaced.3. Using selective control procedures along with some heuristics.1. there is also a cost of ordering a re-supply of spare parts.
1. The following is an illustration of a basic inventory model which takes into account the holding and the ordering costs.3. then the number of orders to be placed is given by The ordering cost is. therefore. the demand for spare parts resulting from the need to perform maintenance activities needs to be satisfied.00 The unit price of the item is Rs. The complexity of the problem lies in the fact that neither the demand nor the lead-time is constant. If the annual demand for an item is D. where c is the cost per order. These models help determine what has been traditionally known as the optimum order quantity. This provision normally takes the form of safety stock which is determined based on the service level. Thus The minimum of TIC can be obtained by differentiating the above equation with respect to Q and equating the resulting derivative to 0. is 1000.2.1. The maintenance manager must make sufficient provisions to take care of demand during the lead-time because the cost of stock-out is undesirable in any situation.2 How Much to Order? Several models have been developed based on the principle of minimizing the total inventory costs. we have If The annual demand D for an item is 8000 units The cost of placing an order is Rs.3 When to Order? An order placed with a vendor for re-supply of spare parts takes some time to get filled. Then the holding cost is given by where p is the unit price of the item and r is the annual stockholding rate related to the stock value. Thus. this is referred to as the lead-time. 8.3. Let Q be the ordering quantity. . During this period. 2. Mathematical models are however available to determine the timing of placing an order taking into consideration the characteristics of the demand during the lead-time as well as the lead-time itself. The total inventory cost TIC = the holding cost + ordering cost.00 The rate of interest is 20 per cent annually Then the optimum order quantity. The service level is defined as the probability of not having a stock-out situation. 100. obtained by utilizing the above equation for Q.
2.1 Most applications found in the literature make use of a combination of selective inventory control procedures because classification or categorization of items based on just one criterion is inadequate for managing the maintenance materials. be given equal importance. 4) _______________ and queuing models have been used for determining the optimal number of repair gangs. 2) Several models have been developed based on the principle of minimizing the total _____________. By this method the spare parts are classified into nine Basics Of Formulation Annual usage value of the parts Vital.2 Selective Inventory Control Procedures The statistical inventory control techniques require that each item. Ramani and Krishnan Kutty have utilized an ABC×VED classification technique where not only the annual value of usage of the part is taken into account but also the criticality of the part is given importance. paying equal attention to all the inventory items was not feasible. slow and non-moving Usage rate of the parts High. The following paragraphs describe some of the applications involving a combination of selective inventory control procedures. During the days when computers were not available. essential and desirable Criticality of the parts Fast. 3) Every organization keeps spare parts so that defective and ___________ of equipment can be replaced. Several procedures for classifying items into homogeneous groups are available. irrespective of its criticality. Technique Description ABC Pareto rule VED FSN HML SDE Table 2.Self Assessment Question 1) Maintenance job is usually performed by a _____________or repair crew consisting of an optimal mix. This is the principle of the selective inventory control procedures. the safety stock and the minimum and maximum inventory levels require to be determined for each of the items in the stores.3. low Unit price of the parts Scarce. Items were categorized into homogeneous groups based on their characteristics. a few of which have been listed. difficult and easy to procure Procurement lead-times . Instead effort was concentrated on a few expensive and fast-moving items. medium. The re-order quantity.
The second dimension makes use of the criticality aspect of the spare part and is based on the revenue lost due to loss in production (Mi) which is given by where pi is the downtime cost per unit time per failure involving the concerned part. which is based on the procurement leadtime while the third dimension makes use of the FSN classification (usage rate). For each of the nine categories. in the categories formed on the basis of lead-times are long lead-time and short lead-time. These eight categories have been formed by taking only two categories in each of the three dimensions. fi is the number of failures per unit time involving the part i.6m where m is the maximum quantity of parts requested at any time. which makes use of the ABC classification criteria. the multi-unit spare inventory control. takes into account the annual usage value Bi of the part i and is given by where Ci is the price of the part and Di is the total annual demand. For example. Tayi and Levy have utilized a two-dimensional classification method. the stocking policy for a spare part in the V/S/F category is 2. The first dimension utilizes a VED classification methodology. makes use of a combination of ABC. a part may be called critical if the loss of production caused by non-availability of the part is very high. A part may be classified as a critical part if the consequence of running out of stock is severe. A three dimensional classification technique has been used for the purpose. For instance. Duchessi. while the categories formed on the basis of criticality of the parts are critical and non-critical. The stocking policies for each of the 27 categories are determined using heuristics. which categorizes the spare parts into groups based on their criticality. a range of service level is specified. it should be noted that most of the classification criteria are subjective. Although the selective control procedures make the managing of the multiple inventory items easier. There are several ways by which the criticality of a part can be defined. and Ni is the standard deviation of the downtime cost (E denotes expectation).categories. .2. MUSIC-3D. The first dimension. A reorder point-order quantity technique is used in conjunction with this method for replenishment of parts. The second dimension uses an SDE classification. Moreover. If a substitute part is readily available then the part may be less critical. It is the time required to replace or repair the part. VED and the SDE classification procedures which results in eight categories of items as shown in table 2. The two categories formed on the basis of sales value are high sales value and low sales value. Saha and Mohanty have developed a spare parts stocking policy with an objective of minimizing the downtime of critical equipment. In other words. statistical inventory control models or heuristics are utilized to determine the ordering parameters such as the order point and the order quantity.
It can also be considered to be an assembly definition. All other constituents of the petrol engine are referred to as items. the petrol engine is an end-item. Figure 2. It is also a system simulator. It is an operations as well as a financial system. in a raw. Later in this section. a logic processor and a capacity planning subsystem.3. As mentioned earlier in this section. MRP-II possesses two basic characteristics which go beyond the closed-loop material requirements planning (MRP). in general.3. a bill of materials file. The central idea of MRP is to time production/acquisition of batches of parts/components so that they are available as they are required in assemblies. 2. The bill of materials indicates that the engine consist of three subassemblies – the piston assembly. or derived from the demand of another inventory item.3. It consists of a master production schedule. This section provides a brief overview of the closed-loop technique.1 The Bill of Materials The bill of materials defines how one or more items are brought together to make up another item. The bill of materials. some applications involving management of maintenance inventories are also discussed.3 Manufacturing Resources Planning The manufacturing resources planning (MRP-II) technique has been used widely for managing production resources.Table 2. Figure 2. semi-finished or finished form.1 shows the components of MRP. the piston rings and the bearings. The components can either be manufactured in the shop or can be boughtout items. any manufacturing organization would want to have the following questions answered: · How much to order? · When to order? Both these questions are also answered by the MRP technique. The demand for an inventory item is termed dependent when it is directly related to. The immediate . in turn. An end-item is an item at the highest level of hierarchy in the bill of materials. is made up of the piston. The technique is based on the principle of dependent demand. the crankshaft assembly and the cylinder assembly. As seen in the figure.2 shows the bill of materials for a petrol engine.2 2. the application of MRP is also very simple. In addition to this. The piston assembly. The components in the diagram have been described briefly. defines the constituents of an end-item. an inventory status file.
Figure 2. As seen from Figure 2.1 .2 two bearings (indicated in parenthesis) go into the making of a piston assembly. the bill of materials also indicates the quantity of an item that goes into making a parent item. In addition to defining the relationship between items. for example. The piston. The MRP technique uses the bill of materials for computing the requirements through a process called explosion or desegregation. The bill of materials also carries with it some other information such as whether the part is bought out or is manufactured within the organization.predecessor of an item is called the parent item. is an item whose parent is the piston assembly.
The total weight of the variants scheduled for production during the month when totaled equals the budgeted weight as shown in Table 2.3. it may so happen that the items are used at two different levels. The master production schedule indicates the quantity of items to be produced in a given period. The priorities for the production of items specified in the master production schedule are set by the sales plan. level codes are assigned such that identical items used in different end-items are maintained at the same level.3. semi-finished and finished parts.3.5 tones of tools need to be produced every month on average. In order to make the computation of the requirements easy. The requirement at one level is computed first before proceeding to the next level. As shown in Table 2. 2. This would mean that 0. the top management has budgeted 6 tones of carbide tools to be produced during the year. which is a budget set by the management. It states what end-items need to be produced and how many needs to be produced in a month or week.3. TPAN 75 and CPAN 75 that need to be produced.2 Every item in the bill of materials is given a number or code such that no two parts have the same number.3. There may be a case where an item is used in two different end items. Also.Figure 2.2 Master production Schedule A master production schedule is a statement of production of end-items for a given planning horizon. This is further broken down into a schedule for specific variants of carbide tools such as SPAN 50. This includes raw materials. Since the demand for carbide tools is all through the year. this can be broken down into 12 production months. The quantity of all the items to be produced in a given period must equal the quantity budgeted in the production plan as shown in Table 2. . The master production schedule is constrained by the production plan.
2.5 0. the scrap allowances etc.5 0.3 Inventory Status File The inventory status file contains up-to-date information about all the materials stocked in the stores.2 0.1 0. the batch sizing policy.1 0.3.5 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.5 0.3.1 Table 2.1 0.3 0.2 CPAN 50 0. the inventory status file also contains the planning factors such as the procurement or manufacturing lead-times.1 0.3 0.5 Tools Master Schedule SPAN 50 0.5 0.1 0.2 0. · Quantity on order.3 Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 0. the inventory status file maintains the following data for every item: · Quantity on-hand. The file is kept up to date by posting the transactions which take place as a result of a receipt or issue of parts into and out of the stores.5 0.2 TPAN 50 0.5 0.2 0.3.1 0.1 0. In addition to the stock data.1 0. the safety stock.3 0.4 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.5 0.1 0.4 Requirements Pegging .1 0.3 0.3.1 0. In general.1 0.Item code Jan Production Plan Carbide 0.3 0.1 2.3 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.2 0.
2. The inventory status file will not contain up-to-date information about all the materials stocked in the stores. This is a deterministic situation. 9.5 Rescheduling Process Scheduled receipts are orders which have already been released to the shop floor or to the vendors.Explosion is a process concerned with generating gross requirements.3. 8. it becomes necessary to trace the demand for an item to its source and this process is referred to as pegging. The scheduled receipts are taken into account while computing the net requirements. 2. The bill of materials defines how one or more items are brought together to make up another item. Activities such as fixed-time maintenance enable managers to determine the exact number of parts required. 6. This uncertainty may result in rescheduling of the receipts. 5. A master production schedule is a statement of production of end-items for a given planning horizon. The statistical inventory control techniques require that each item. Self Assessment Questions State whether following statement True or False. in the case of a proactive perspective the maintenance activity is planned and the timing is also determined well in advance. Scheduled receipts are orders which have already been released to the shop floor or to the vendors. In some cases. The procedures used are similar to those used for determining the optimal number of repair gangs required for carrying out maintenance activities.4 Tools and Facilities Queuing models and simulation have been used also for determining the optimal number of tools and facilities such that the maintenance costs are minimized. not be given equal importance. 2. irrespective of its criticality.5 Effect of Maintenance Types on Resources As mentioned earlier. . 7. For audit purposes. materials on order may be received earlier than the due date while in some others the scheduled receipt may not be expected to be in the stock on time.3. The manpower requirement is also known precisely.
such as the use of ABC and VED classifications.6 Summary The problem of management of maintenance resources has been discussed. · Use standby equipment. namely.In the case of a reactive perspective. Cannibalization. The basic purpose of this study is to provide the necessary background and present in a proper perspective the need of the development of an MRP based technique for the management of maintenance resources. Since failures occur randomly it becomes difficult to predict the resource requirements. The technique should be able to take into account preventive. condition-based. There are some . and corrective maintenance activities (and not just one of them). This perspective has been created by initially discussing the various types of maintenance resources and their characteristics. This approach to maintenance is called cannibalization. this happens to be an undesirable situation and should be avoided. Consider a situation where two identical items of equipment have failed due to different failure modes. and the various models and techniques which are commonly used. Selective control procedures. explaining the commonly used methods and discussing the work done by researchers working in the area of spare parts management. · Build-up spare part inventories and tools. then the immediate requirement would be to restore at least one of the items of equipment to a working state. however. Statistical inventory theory models and techniques for selective control have been discussed in detail. Managers in some organizations carry out cannibalization as a last resort in order to meet the production requirements. In order to reduce the impact of failures on the profitability of the organization the following techniques are usually adopted: · Increase the number of maintenance personnel. 2. If the required maintenance materials are not available in the stores then one option available is to replace the failed parts of one with the working parts of the other failed item of equipment. have been used by industries for spare parts planning. If a failure occurs and the required resources are not available to restore the equipment to a working state the equipment is kept waiting in the repair queue. cannibalization can lead to severe control problems at a later time. and if manpower is a constraint. the maintenance activity is neither planned nor scheduled in advance. As per the definition of maintenance. If the equipment is critical. In some cases cannibalization is also practiced. does not reduce the number of inoperable parts. if not both. statistical inventory theory models and selective control approaches for multi-item inventories for spare parts planning and queuing theory and simulation for manpower planning.
belts. For example. statistical inventory control models. For the above reasons. and these models have their own shortcomings. 2. chains. Define Statistical Inventory Theory Models. are utilized to determine the ordering parameters.fundamental problems encountered in the use of selective control techniques for spare parts management and these are as follows: Such classification is always rather subjective and this is more so in the case of spare parts. Simulation techniques . whereas VED and SDE may be more appropriate for special spare parts (ones which are used on particular equipment). ABC×FSN. Worn-out parts 4. Repair gang 2. give rise to a large number of classes of spares with each class having its own planning and control parameters. sprockets and bearings. Such classification schemes. For spare parts.8 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1. Briefly summarize effect of maintenance types on resources. ABC and FNS are more appropriate for standard spares such as pulleys. Explain Master production Schedule. VED×SDE×FSN and ABC× VED×SDE. such as the re-order point and order quantity. 3. researchers have suggested the use of multidimensional classifications. 2. in turn. Explain Man Power. In these cases as well. or heuristics. classification. or categorization.7 Terminal Questions 1. 5. Classifying spare parts into homogeneous groups using a classification scheme is difficult since different types of spare parts require different classification schemes. based on just one criterion is adequate. such as ABC×VED. Summarize Bill of Materials. 2. 4. Inventory costs 3.
False 8. Refer 2.2. False 7.1 3. True 6.1 5.2 4.2. . True 9.1 2. True Terminal Questions 1.2.3. Refer 2.5.Refer 2.3. Refer 2.4 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Refer 2.
production.). Planning & Scheduling.2 Functional Requirements Equipment Maintenance Function Work Order Management Function Inventory Management Function Vendor Management Function Subcontractor Management Function General Information Systems Specifications 3.1 Introduction Objectives 3. Work Management – A deliberate process in which a scope of work is identified.5 Terminal Questions 3.g.4 Summary 3.OM0006-Unit-03-Work Management & Identification Unit-03-Work Management & Identification Structure: 3. To fully understand the breadth of Work Management it is important to understand what Work Management is.. closed and critiqued. Engineering. The Work Management process requires the full support of the entire organization (e. selected. projects. scheduled. etc. executed. Maintenance. Operations.1 Introduction Our goal is to establish excellence in Work Management. Scope of work includes maintenance. waste management. and R&D activities.3 Work Management Process 3. planned.6 Answers 3. .
Predict failures to a chosen level of confidence. Update data when a failure or preventive maintenance activity is initiated and completed. 5. Inventory management subsystem. The functional requirements of the information system should be gathered first. 1. · Optimally utilize maintenance resources. Equipment maintenance function. 4. Work order management subsystem. A maintenance management information system. 3. Track overall maintenance function performance.2. the scope of the system should be clear. · Report on the performance of the overall maintenance system using standard indicators. 3. · Plan procurement of resources. Vendor management subsystem. Plan maintenance work – ensure materials. Subcontractor management subsystem.Objectives: A maintenance management information system must help you to · Schedule the Maintenance activities. 2. 3. Schedule preventive maintenance work. Requirements can be gathered by interviewing the prospective users or circulating questionnaires. manpower and tools would be available. 4. Store maintenance data including failure and repair data. 3. . 6. hiring of subcontractors and arranging facilities. 2. should have the following functions. 5.2 Functional Requirements Before designing the information system.1 Equipment Maintenance Function The equipment maintenance function needs to perform the following: 1. at the least.
6. tools and facilities. 3. Track status of work in progress.4 Vendor management function The vendor management function needs to perform the following: . 7. Schedule release of planned orders (materials). Track status of manpower. 3.2 Work order management subsystem The work order management function is required to perform the following: 1. 7. Update materials inventory data as and when an issue or receipt of materials occurs. tools and facilities. 2.2. Plan capacity. Print reports as desired by the maintenance manager and top management. 2. covering manpower. Track utilization of manpower. 3. 4. 5. 4. Create maintenance requests.3 Inventory management function The inventory management function has to do the following: 1. Alert the maintenance manager to place orders for materials as planned and in the required quantity.2. 3. Generate work orders for preventive and corrective actions. List pending work. materials and tools. Schedule work visually. 5. Convert critical maintenance requests into work orders. Track maintenance costs.2. Store and maintain inventory data including skills and tools. Produce reports as desired by the maintenance manager and top management. 6. 9. 8. Produce reports as desired by the maintenance manager and top management.7. 3.
5 Subcontractor management function The subcontractor management function must: 1. Produce reports as desired by maintenance manager.2. 4. Print related reports. 3) The equipment maintenance function needs Schedule preventive maintenance work. Validate data entry. 6. Devise metrics for evaluation of vendors. 5. Track progress of subcontracted work. each level of management needs to have access to the required information and should be able to extract the data which is needed. 3. Maintain data related to subcontracts.2. 3. Cater for three levels of users’ administration. Track quality of subcontracted work. Self Assessment Questions State whether the statement is true or false. 3. In order for a system to be efficient. Organize skills provided by subcontractors. Track cost. 3. Make on-line data entry.1. top management and middle management. Maintain vendor information. 2. 3. 1) The subcontractor management function must not maintain data related to subcontracts. 2) The work order management function is required to perform Plan capacity. 2.6 General Information Systems Specifications The general information systems specifications need to perform the following: 1. . 2.
and · Critique the planning. Contractors develop management programs to execute much of the work of contracts. The statement of work. · Schedule the work for performance. requirements stated in the contract and the annual budget process form the top-level means of identifying the work that will be performed. 5) The vendor management function needs maintain vendor information. Mechanics The contract between DOE and the contractor provides the top-level mechanisms for work to be identified. · Execute the work. · Close the work item after completion. they would entail routines used to monitor attributes important to mission execution. A number of these programs are mandatory. At the top-level these processes and tools include the contract with DOE and management programs committed to by the contractor to execute the statement of work and requirements in the contract. Each year DOE and the contractor review the contract and the progress of work as part of the annual budget process. Identify Work Concept This element describes the processes and tools put in place that determines the work that a contractor performs. · Plan that work. On a day-to-day basis. The statement of work in the contract provides a description of the mission-related work that DOE expects to be performed. other programs may be developed by the contractor in furtherance of contract execution. Whether mandatory or voluntary on the . 3. scheduling and performance of the work that has been accomplished.4) General information systems specifications will not validate data entry. safety and protecting the environment.3 Work Management Process These steps to be followed in work management process are: · Identify the work that needs to be performed. · Select the specific work that will be planned.
After the work . They provide the opportunity to proactively manage the identification of emergent work. a continuous process. Other types of work are converted into work requests. From this process the work to be planned and executed in a given year is identified. or improvements. therefore. prioritize and coordinate the management of several categories of work. Management The annual budget process provides contractor and DOE management the resources to manage the work that is identified for further planning and execution. Routines are executed to monitor equipment. Additional management tools that are used in the work identification process also support other elements of the work management process. The discovery of new information may result in the need for additional research and development or design changes to existing systems and equipment. The Select Work element funnels the work requests through a validation or screening process to determine those work items needing to be completed. system and environmental parameters. and similar repetitive procedures. these management programs provide one of the primary paths for work to be identified. Work management systems are put in place by contractors to collect work requests into a single place. environmental monitoring. Workers are encouraged to be vigilant in monitoring facility conditions for system or equipment problems. The identification of work is. While the threshold for identifying work items needs to be sufficiently low to all capture work items. This process compares the work accomplished and that which remains to the funding that DOE believes will be available to execute work in the coming years. Work is also identified on a daily basis. These routines can include Technical Surveillance Requirements/ Limited Condition of Operations TSR/LCO surveillances.part of the contractor. Select Work Concept Management programs identify the operational activities and routines that need to be completed to meet mission deliverables. On-going assessments or reviews may identify the need for corrective actions. an identified project or specific facility need are screened out and no further resources applied to their resolution. at a high level. which are initiated by personnel who identify work that needs to be performed to allow the work item to be entered into a work management system. The schedule is also a tool that ensures that work is properly identified. changes. Program and project plans are updated with the information developed during the annual budget process. they provide a method to track. In furtherance of management programs. contractors often put routines in place. Work requests not supporting the current mission. These include work requests. operator rounds. no contractor has the resources to complete every identified work request.
If the work item is a duplicate it should be screened out. operational requirements. or required plant operational modes to facilitate tracking and planning and then entered into the work management system. if sufficiently important. may all provide key information needed to properly validate the work. or management commitments. This second type of work will normally be given a relative priority. Work requests that are clearly not going to be accomplished due to cost impacts should be screened out at this point. problem symptoms. Or the work request may require a documented resolution. · Operational Impact: Work requests that have immediate impact on the health and safety of contractor personnel need to be processed rapidly. Work requests that have equipment impacts must be evaluated and the systems configured to protect equipment and workers. These tools should be reviewed to determine whether duplicate items are already entered into the system. and interface with mission requirements. coded with respect to like components and systems. equipment identification. Location of the work. A strong validation process incorporates two-way communications with the work request identifiers. Attributes evaluated include: · Work Scope Identification: A clear scope statement is necessary to understand what work activities are necessary. traded off with lower priority work or put forth as a candidate for additional funding. stay in compliance with the established safety basis and operating requirements for that facility or project. Knowledge of these drivers allows effective prioritization of work planning efforts. Mechanics Work selection is a continuous process to handle the work requests identified on a daily basis.request has been validated a formal work order is entered into the work management tools used by the contractor. The work may be simple enough that no initiating work documents are required (so-called “tool pouch” or “quick fix” items). Effective work management processes utilize a graded approach to resolving work requests. etc. Work may be tied to contract milestones. . The work selection process starts with a work validation. · Need Date: Work requests must clearly indicate any deadline dates and the estimated time period for completing the work. · Work Duplications: Contractors use Work Management Tools to track work orders. or. · Work Cost: Work requests may be identified that will require funding that is beyond that available to the contractor. This validation process evaluates attributes of the work items to determine if the work item should be processed through the work management system.
Those work requests entered into the work management system result in the generation of work orders. Mature work selection processes incorporate an understanding of a graded approach to work planning.
Contractors need to clearly define who has responsibility and authority to perform the validation activity for their facilities and projects. The validation authority typically resides in the Operations organization because they are responsible for mission execution and normally retain configuration control of the facility systems, structures and components. The work management process descriptions need to define the planning processes used by the contractor staff. Requirements for the type of planning required, based on potential mission impact, hazards analysis and complexity of the work activity, are critical to decision-making during work selection. Plan Work Concept This element describes the process of taking a defined scope of work that has been selected for planning and developing/packaging technical documents to safely and efficiently perform that work. This process includes identification/incorporation of applicable technical specifications and requirements into technical documents, identifying and mitigating job hazards, identifying and obtaining required permits, developing work instructions, and defining post activity acceptance. Mechanics An initial step in planning work is determining what type of work execution vehicle will be used to perform the work. As previously discussed under Work Selection, this decision has often already been made, on a preliminary basis, prior to the initiation of Work Planning; however, it is confirmed as part of this element. Is the work to be performed with a very simple work package where the worker has the knowledge to perform the work and little or no instruction is required or will the work require a work package with more detailed instructions? The following criteria might be used to determine whether work can be performed using a very simple work package: · No medium or high risk activities. · No activities requiring hold points. · Will not alter configuration of equipment from documented design. · Will not present any unusual hazards.
· No hands-on work with radioactive material except incidental or routine work activities that involve low potential of worker exposure or workplace contamination. · No opening of contaminated systems, components, containers. · Minimal external coordination required. · “Skill-of-the-Craft” Work. Such tasks should be documented in a work package by the Field Work Supervisor (FWS) and released to work by operations and documented on the document releasing work.
Work management systems are often put in place to collect work requests and maintain and file documents in a single place. They provide a method to track, prioritize, and coordinate the management of several categories of work. They also provide a means for the work planning organization to interface with the operations organization and ensure that work is moving through the planning pipeline in a manner that supports mission execution. Schedule Work Concept Schedules are tools used by work management organizations to communicate and coordinate work activities. This element describes the processes and tools associated with establishing schedules. Typically, work is identified from various sources (missionrelated commitments, Authorization Basis requirements, maintenance routines, etc.) and flows through a “rolling work week process” (described below) into an integrated schedule. The rolling work week concept is typically established based on either an 8 or 12 week duration.
Most sites have developed a fairly common set of schedules to implement graded approaches to conduct of operations. These commonly include a Plan of the Day (POD) along with a slightly longer view, often one week (so-called Plan of the Week, POW). Various methods exist to move information from longer-term schedules to these two short-term scheduling tools. The rolling work week concept provides an effective tool for managing the development of schedules. It involves setting a specific time frame (or “window”) within a longer-term schedule on which to focus increased management attention. Common time frames are eight to twelve weeks.
· For work that falls within the work window, increased emphasis is placed on planning, detailed schedule concerns and coordination of the work. This time period of increased attention allows: o Optimization of planned outage windows, scheduling all tasks that require particular facility conditions or that impact production commitments; o Development of a detailed technical sequence for complex jobs; o Addressing only items that need to be scheduled in detail, i.e., they require coordination of resources, complex work, etc; o Grouping of similar work to efficiently use resources and equipment by facility mode, available space, system/equipment; and time to verify that parts are available and staged. The work planned during the work window is “Locked-In”, that is, committed to by all concerned, two weeks in advance. This lock-in process adds discipline to the scheduling process and provides focus for final work preparation and coordination. After lock-in, the schedule is under a formal change control process; this encourages people to only lock in work that is truly ready to work. This level of planning and commitment permits the development of precise resource loaded schedules; it supports aligning support resources to the schedule and permits other detailed preparations such as verifying that fully-trained workers are available. This level of planning and scheduling attention also improves task readiness, it allows crews time to review work in advance of working. A formal post work week critique is held to evaluate what got done, what didn’t get done and why. It should be clear from the level of effort inferred above, that the implementation of a rolling work week process requires a commitment from all organizations to make the system work. Work on the rolling work week is facilitated by the existence of schedules that integrate all important work. Management Management tools for a successful scheduling process include: · Senior Management involvement (Frequent and Regular) – Critical Path Meetings · Accountability meeting – weekly schedule commitment meeting · High level schedule change control authority once work is locked in · POD – A daily meeting intended to review facility and schedule status
· Assemble required test equipment. Example components of work execution include the following: Preparations: · Contact job support personnel as required. The execution of work begins when the work package is released for work by Operations and runs through the completion of work in the field or facility. · Complete rigging preparations.· POW – A weekly meeting intended to review and status the higher level facility schedule · Rolling work week process – described above · Outages – scheduled periods where equipment systems or facilities are available to perform pre-determined work · Metrics – tools used to measure success of schedule performance · Documentation of key scheduling assumptions – essential to the development of baseline schedules Execute Work Concept This element describes the processes and tools associated with the actual performance of the work. . ensures that procedures and references are the latest revision and that all of the required permits are issued and up to date. Mechanics For each assigned task. · Build scaffolding and install lead shielding. Applicable work instruction prerequisites are completed to ensure readiness to work. This work should be completed in parallel with establishing worker protection and industrial safety requirements. · Remove insulation. This element is centered on the first-level supervisor (the person directly overseeing the work crew) and the crew that is engaged in the performance of the activity. the first-level supervisor performs a final review of the work instruction. · Assemble tools and material at job location.
and identifies all discrepancies and incomplete work items. environmental or radiological hazards of the task from the work document.· Provide necessary temporary air. · Set up welding equipment if required. including expected worker radiological recovery actions · Job-specific hazards and their controls · Applicable precautions and limitations · Required safety equipment · Discuss hold points with employee(s) responsible for the completion of the hold point and employee(s) performing work immediately before or after the hold point · Industrial. or facility knowledge · Potential abnormal events and contingency plans After completing preparations and getting their work crew prepared to perform the job. the first-line supervisor oversees and directs the work activities in accordance with the approved work instructions. · Finish prefabrication work. Finally. Pre-Job Brief: · Scope of the task · Review of prerequisite section of the work instructions · Responsibilities of all participants. The supervisor documents relevant as-found conditions and the work performed. Formal programs to have management observe work in the field will provide not only . · Build contamination control devices (catch basins. the first line supervisor reviews the instructions for a complete and accurate work history and performs post activity testing and any rework identified by the post activity testing. Radiological Work Permit. and water requirements. which monitors the day-to-day progress of work execution. tents. the first line supervisor completes all system/equipment checks described in the work instructions to return equipment to service. power. As the work completes. job hazards analysis. Management Management tools put in place to monitor work execution include the Plan of the Day or other work progress meeting. field walk-downs. water storage/recovery systems).
status. normally in the operations organization. Verification: · Verify all administrative and technical requirements. Close Work Concept Work can be closed and declared complete when defined requirements in the approved work package have been met. These steps include the process of verifying that work has been completed. are satisfied and test results are approved. · Update the files for the affected system/equipment. Documentation: · Document work completion against requirements.. but a more accurate feel for work difficulty and potential coordination issues. . . Schedule updates. or authorized incomplete/open work items. · Remove all temporary/test equipment and restore system/components to operable status. Mechanics The work closure process can be described as several related steps. or exceptions have been authorized by the person responsible for accepting the work. Important attributes of these processes are discussed below. capturing repair history. as appropriate. · Dispose of excess materials and waste properly. based on work completed also provide feedback on work execution.g. · Update as-built drawings. Documentation associated with the work evolution can then be signed off. returning (or turning over) equipment and systems to operations. documenting the completion of work. e. regulatory and safety basis requirements. · Ensure condition tags and other documents are in the completed closure package prior to returning it to the Work Management Center. resolve any deviations. an inventory of equipment and parts used and feedback to the work management process. a number of sites use standard computerized templates to capture relevant historical information. including quality. The system/components can be returned to operations subject to any controls defined in the work instructions. calibration and preventive maintenance data into the Work Management System.
· Accept the system/equipment for operability and return to service in a timely manner. and return the system/equipment to the required configuration to support facility operations. drawing and training updates are completed prior to placing the component(s) in service. Improvement opportunities are . and ensuring completion of the work closure functions. Work critiques take on many forms. If there are authorized open items.) process takes selected jobs and critiques them to identify good practices. the previous work week (Work Week Critique) period. issues. Management The first-line supervisor is responsible to verify work completion against requirements defined in the approved work package. · Return unused parts to the warehouse. improvements or lessons learned are identified. ranging from individual job post work critiques to critiquing all of the work performed by a group or a facility within a specified time period. e. Critique Work Concept This element describes the processes and tools associated with performing a critical analysis of work to ensure that issues. · Evaluate the authorized incomplete/open work items for any operational impact concerns. the first line supervisor should consult with the work planner and the systems engineer as needed. · Verify required procedure. etc. Return to Operations: · Review work activity and all testing for system/equipment operability.g. · Release all remaining clearance tags. and lessons learned. Inventory: · Document material used.. and incorporated into subsequent work.· Retain the closure package in accordance with the Site’s records retention requirements. Mechanics The post work critique (ALARA. the work package should have been changed and procedures amended by the appropriate formal documentation.
Management Management tools for a successful critique process include: · Weekly critique meeting · Regularly scheduled meeting following each work week to critically review performance of the previous work week (attended by Senior Management) .typically formally documented and followed to closure through a commitment tracking system. · Work Week Critique Meeting: A regularly scheduled meeting used to perform a thorough analysis of the work execution. Issues should be trended to identify programmatic issues. etc. Emergent. whereby all groups involved in work execution meet to perform a critical analysis of all aspects of the week performance. including the specifics regarding what was accomplished. but was not & what the issues were which prevented that work from being accomplished. The report should also include: o A breakdown of the types of work scheduled & accomplished for the week. The applicable post work critique output should be discussed in the work week critique process described below. o Metrics which track and trend the work week elements. including Emergency. The work week critique process is a continuous improvement process. including: § Schedule & Cost Performance § Manpower Utilization § Emergent Work § Backlog · Action Item Tracking: A formal process in which action items from the Work Critique meeting are assigned responsibility & tracked through completion. typically covering the previous weeks work activities · Work Week Critique Attendance: Work week critique targeted audience should typically be that of Facility Senior Management. what was initially intended to be accomplished. · Work Week Critique Report: A formally prepared report which comprehensively addresses the work week being analyzed.
Execute work describes the _______ and ______ associated with the actual performance of the work. Explain Schedule Work in Detail. 9) Identify describes the processes and tools put in place that determines the work that a ________ performs. Management programs identify the operational activities and routines that need to be completed to meet mission deliverables. Explain components of work execution. 3.4 Summary The Work Management process requires the full support of the entire organization. Identify Work describes the processes and tools put in place that determines the work that a contractor performs. Describe Close Work in Work Management Process. Work can be closed and declared complete when defined requirements in the approved work package have been met. 4. 3. 2. 7) _________ can be closed and declared complete when defined requirements in the approved work package have been met. . normally in the operations organization.· Appropriate Metrics including tracking and trending · Standard Critique reports · Action Item Tracking / Accountability · Worker feedback Self Assessment Questions 6) Management tools for a successful critique process include _________. or exceptions have been authorized by the person responsible for accepting the work. Explain briefly Identify Work in Work management Process. 5. Explain Functional Requirements in Work Management. Management programs identify the operational activities and routines that need to be completed to meet mission deliverables. 3. 10) ___________________ systems are often put in place to collect work requests.5 Terminal Questions 1.
10 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Processes.3. Contractor 10. True 4.6 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1. 5 4) Refer Page 8 5) Refer Pages 9. True 3. Close Work 8.1 2) Refer Page 10 3) Refer Page 4. False 2. Tools 9. Work management Terminal Questions 1) Refer 3. . True 6. False 5. Worker feedback 7.
formation of sludge’s and corrosive compounds on the machine parts.1 Introduction Objectives 4.2 The Maintenance Function 4. etc. failure of insulation in electrical circuits.1 Introduction The turret lathes and gang drills were acquired second-hand. breakage and slips of gear and belt drives. misalignment of shafts and pulleys. . and low morale of workers. The breakdown of the machines resulted in a great loss of productive time and also led to several problems such as not being able to meet due dates.3 Maintenance Strategies Corrective or Breakdown Maintenance 4.OM0006-Unit-04-Emergencies or Breakdown Process Paper: ISO 90012000/Qs Elements Unit-04-Emergencies or Breakdown Process Paper: ISO 9001-2000/Qs Elements Structure: 4. especially while processing important jobs. one-year back.6 Terminal Questions 4. and were immediately commissioned. overheating of motors.5 Summary 4. the machines caused a great deal of anxiety to the management by failing quite frequently and unexpectedly. In the initial stages.4 Maintenance Economics Breakdown-time Distribution Preventive versus Breakdown Maintenance (Single Machine) 4.7 Answers 4. The reasons for breakdowns were many: development of high temperature in the bearings.
Such maintenance is expected to reduce the frequency of machine breakdowns. the proprietor of the workshop advertised for maintenance specialists for the turret lathes and gang drills. they are to be paid overtime. and consequently higher production efficiency. reduced downtime and cost of operation. The technicians accepted the job under the condition that if ever they are required to work in the second shift on a day. The four workers were divided into two crews. and cannot attend to any repairs or maintenance. each crew consisting of two workers. is any activity carried out on an asset in order to ensure that the asset continues to perform its intended functions. or to repair any equipment that has failed.2 The Maintenance Function Maintenance. It improves the systems overall reliability. Minimizing these adverse effects is the role assigned t maintenance. Maintenance is defined as ‘any action that restores failed units to an operational condition or retains non-failed units in an operational state’ or ‘an activity carried out for any equipment or asset to ensure its reliability to perform its functions’. to most people. Preventive maintenance of a machine consists of dismantling the machine and checking all its important parts and making the necessary adjustments and replacements.In order to combat these problems. The machine operators can only operate the machine when they are in working condition. Minimizing the failure count or their adverse effects leads to increased safety. or to keep the equipment running. availability. After a long search. Maintenance work on a machine requires both workers of a crew. The maintenance crews can do breakdown maintenance as well as preventive maintenance for all the four machines. or to restore to its favorable operating condition. Machine and component failures can trigger incidents or cause costly production interruptions. As he wanted technicians with experience on the specific machines he had. . he selected four technicians for employment. the proprietor had considerable difficulty in finding he maintenance specialists. Objectives After studying this unit you shall be able to · Explain the functions involved in maintenance · Recognize the strategies of maintenance · Distinguish between preventive and breakdown maintenance · Evaluate the economic aspects of maintenance 4.
First Generation Second Generation Third Generation · Fix it when broke · Scheduled Overhauls · Condition monitoring · Systems for planning · Design for reliability and and controlling work maintainability · Low-tech computerization · Hazard studies · High-tech computers · Failure modes and effects analysis · Expert systems · Multitasking and teamwork Table 4. The evolution in the maintenance thought process is rooted in the changing complexity of industry itself.The objectives of maintenance are to maintain equipment and facilities in such condition that: · They give trouble-free service and output at rated capacity. It determines the risk-safety.1 shows the evolution of the maintenance philosophy.1: Evolution of Maintenance Philosophy Table 4. The evolution can be seen to cover 3 different generations of thought. environmental integrity. as well as the quantitative and cost standard of outputs. Over the past years. in addition to its traditional roles of enhancing plant availability and lowering costs. energy efficiency. The maintenance function plays a supporting role to effective operations. and · The cost of operation and maintenance is minimized. · Safety is ensured. · Down-time is minimized. It ensures that the equipment is able to maintain quality standards. product quality and customer service profile of the organization. Maintenance efficiency is viewed as an integral part of business effectiveness. management today sees a much larger role for maintenance. . From a simple expectation of keeping equipment running or restoring it to the desired operating condition. the significance of maintenance and its role in plant operation has changed significantly.
Third Generation (after the 1980’s) – Since the 80’s. the growth of mechanization and automation has become more complex and even small breakdowns in equipment affect the operation of the whole plant. The failures that do occur during the period are truly random. but they are thought to be at least partially due to abrupt changes in stress distribution in the components. 2. the failure rate is high. This is the useful period of the machine. First Generation (1930-40) – The first generation represents the earlier days of industrialization where mechanization was low.3 Maintenance Strategies . industry became increasingly dependent on these complex machines. or sheer quality deficiency in their manufacture. the failure rate keeps decreasing until a relatively low constant level is obtained. Hence. there is a rather high incidence of early failures. downtime became a problem and management tried to find means and ways to minimize and prevent these failures. As this dependence grew. As maintenance costs started to rise sharply relative to other operating costs. Researchers into the reliability of equipment recognize that within a collection of machines. there is a definite pattern of lifespan. the weak components from the infant mortality period have either been repaired or replaced. reliability and availability have become key issues. This led to the concept of preventive maintenance. this pattern manifests itself when a collection of machinery is subjected to rigorous operation. unpredictable and cannot be prevented by additional testing or burn-in of the components. primarily due to the presence of weak or substandard components or design inadequacies in not properly understanding the operating conditions. Second Generation (1950-70) – The second generation emerged as the result of growing complexity in equipment and plant design. The reason for the occurrence of these failures is not fully understood.1. During the infant mortality period. called infant mortalities. 4. there was an added interest created in the field of maintenance planning and control systems. Downtime did not matter much and no need was felt to treat maintenance as a high priority issue. During this period. Among collections of equipment. expert systems and continuous improvement programs have developed. These have led to major developments in maintenance philosophy based on manufacturing reliability systems. As these components drop out one by one. In practice. Repairing and restoration had become more difficult and special skills and more time was needed to maintain and repair equipment. Most equipment that survives infancy will continue to perform with few failures occurring. fatigue due to flaws in the molecular structure of the metals or plastics involved. 3. How Equipments Fail Maintenance is concerned with controlling the condition of equipment. With increase in mechanization. Factory equipment was basic and repair and the restoration process was simple.
buildings and grounds. equipment. d) New installations of equipment and buildings. the prevalent management policies. . The primary functions are: a) Maintenance of existing plant. b) Generation and distribution of utilities. maintenance functions may be identified as primary or secondary functions.Over the years.. c) Alteration to existing equipment and buildings. many new approaches have been advocated as maintenance strategies that are intended to overcome problems related to equipment breakdown. Some of the common approaches to maintenance are as follows: · Breakdown maintenance · Preventive maintenance · Predictive maintenance · Proactive maintenance Type of Maintenance Strategy Maintenance ApproachSignificance Fix-it when broke Large maintenance budget Scheduled Maintenance Periodic component replacement Condition-based Maintenance decision Monitoring based on equipment condition Detection of Sources of Monitoring and Failures correcting failing root causes Maintenance Strategy Breakdown Maintenance Preventive Maintenance Predictive Maintenance Proactive Maintenance Although the scope of maintenance will vary depending on the type of industry. etc. b) Plant protection. its size. The secondary functions are: a) Maintenance stores.
It consists of the action(s) taken to restore a failed system to operational status. and as the name suggests. · Restoring a failed system usually involves replacing or repairing the component that is responsible for the failure of the overall system. · Corrective maintenance strategy has no routine maintenance task and therefore is also described no scheduled maintenance strategy.1 Corrective or Breakdown Maintenance This is one of the earliest maintenance strategies implemented in the industry. d) Salvage. Corrective maintenance is typically carried out in three steps: a) Diagnosis of the problem: The maintenance technician must take time to locate the failed parts or otherwise satisfactorily assess the cause of the system failure. so as to restore it a specified operating state. the maintenance technician must verify that the system is again successfully operating. corrective maintenance is periodically performed on the equipment. c) Verification of the repair action: once the components in question have been repaired or replaced. · The approach to maintenance is totally reactive. the rectification of the fault should be processed in the same manner as for planned maintenance work schedules. b) Repair and/or replacement of faulty component(s): Once the cause of system failure has been determined. · Corrective maintenance may be defined as the repairs carried out to restore equipment. Corrective maintenance is performed at unpredictable intervals because a components failure time is not known a priori. the repair work is performed only after a piece of equipment has failed. The goals and objectives of corrective maintenance management are. action must be taken to address the cause. maintenance is activated on breakdown. It is also called. and b) To do this in a cost effective manner. To rectify the problem. breakdown maintenance. . a properly designed fault reporting system must be instituted and similarly. · However.c) Waste disposal.3. a) To restore the faulty equipment to a healthy operating state as promptly as possible. usually by replacing or repairing the components that caused the system to fail. which has broken down or developed a fault. 4.
As maintenance is an economic decision. and the adoption of other maintenance practices may reduce interruptions to production. In such a situation. breakdowns may affect production and thus reduce profits. each part will have a different failure distribution. management must know how the breakdowntime is distributed. maintenance engineers should be allowed to consider the possibility. 4. if careful observations of repeated failures of an equipment or system suggest that the remedy lies in correcting the system. The breakdown time distribution of the complex machine probably will . thereby eliminating or at least minimizing the failures.1 Breakdown-time Distribution In order to establish the cost implications. The first generation represents the earlier days of ___________ where mechanization was low. 2. what are its cost implications? 4. _________ Maintenance strategy has no routine maintenance task. Self Assessment Questions 1. Such a distribution will show the frequency of maintenance-free running times for a given number of operating hours. proper feedback to the design department may lead to alterations in design that will reduce or eliminate failures. The decision of maintenance policy is more of an economic decision rather than a technical one. A simple machine with few moving parts will probably have breakdowns after a fairly large number of maintenance-free runtime hours. Restoring a failed system usually involves _________ or repairing the component. 5. the failure of any one of its parts can cause a breakdown of the machine. But in the case of a complex machine. the breakdown maintenance practice may be costlier than other maintenance strategies. Even where capacity is not a constraint. Machine and component failures can trigger _________.4 Maintenance Economics Maintenance policy refers to an organization’s policy in respect of the maintenance function of a set of equipments. 3. For example.· Corrective maintenance in a broader perspective may also include activities related to correcting potential causes for failure or malfunction that might not have been adequately considered when the equipment was designed. In such cases.4. 4. Moreover. · Where capacity and demand are close. and where production interruptions may be negligible. The growth of __________ and automation has become more complex. the practice of attending to machines only after they have broken down may be uneconomical.
9. In this case. if the total system has four sub-systems.4 for the percentage of breakdowns. i. and the ‘run-times free of breakdowns’ as the ‘x’-axis.7. If we assume that the failure of any one of the sub-systems can cause the failure of the entire system.7 = 0.8.. The variability depicted by curve ‘c’ is typical of complicated equipment that needs ‘fine’. It also shows that it is only after a few periods of trouble free running. it would amount to (0. say A. while curve ‘b’ represents a more complex machine. . B.40).free run-time as the other two but the distribution has much wider variability.8 and D = 0.show greater variability than the simple machine even though it may have the same average.e. T3 = Average free run time free of breakdowns Figure 4. maintenance free run-time as that of the simple machine. The frequency distribution curve ‘c’ has the same average maintenance. that one can be sure the machine will operate reliably. The total system reliability will be the product of the reliability of each individual system. For example. which exceed a given free-run-time.8 ‘0.2 Figure 4. adjustments before it can give reasonable trouble-free service. Curve ‘a’ exhibits low variability from the average maintenance free breakdown-time ‘Ta’. Say to obtain the ‘a’ curve in figure. the reliability of the total system would equal the product f reliability factors of each of the sub-systems.2 represents a graphical description of the degree of variability in free-run-time. C = 0. and the reliability factors are A = 0.9 ‘0. Curve ‘a’ depicts the behavior of a simple machine.4 can be used to plot the percentage of breakdowns that exceed a given runtime as the ‘y’-axis. C & D. curve ‘b’ is the exponential distribution and exhibits medium variability and curve ‘c’ exhibits high variability. B = 0. and plot this against the run-time. Equipment can be considered as a total system with its sub-assemblies as sub-systems. By reliability we mean the probability that the system will give trouble free service. subtract from 100 the figure 4.8 ‘0. The same data that we have used to plot figure 4.
shortening the preventive maintenance cycle can reduce the number of actual breakdowns. which after a machine has been running for fixed time ‘Tr’. The total time period ‘Ta’. Ideally. after which the equipment is ready to work. the situation is slightly different. the machine is shutdown. In such cases.4: Breakdown-time distributions 4. When this happens. This preventive maintenance work takes a time ‘Tm’. preventive maintenance should be performed just a little before normal breakdown is likely to occur.5 gives the percent of time a machine is working for the three distributions of breakdown-time shown in Figure and the ratio of the standard maintenance period to . The probability of occurrence of a breakdown in the two different cycles depends on the specific breakdown-time distribution of the equipment. ’Ts’ can be considered the breakdown cycle. over a period of time. If the distribution has greater variability. the running time between the preventive maintenance and the breakdown plus the time taken to repair the breakdown. more breakdowns are likely to occur during the course of the standard period.4. and the length of the standard preventive maintenance cycle. the average maintenance free run-time. This can be considered the standard preventive maintenance cycle time. inspected and parts replaced.2 Preventive versus Breakdown Maintenance (Single Machine) Consider a preventive maintenance schedule. Since preventive maintenance is meant to reduce the total plant down-time particularly unscheduled event – its timing and frequency are important. In actual practice. there will be breakdowns that occur before the equipment is shutdown for preventive maintenance. is equivalent to ‘Tr’ (maintenance free run-time) plus ‘Tm’ (the time take to do the preventive maintenance).Figure 4. Figure 4.
a standard preventive maintenance period can be set in such a way that the total downtime is reduced. like those depicted by curve ‘a’. This is obvious. From figure.5: Present of time when the machine is working and breakdown distribution Certain generalizations can be made from the above three graphs. In the case of curve ‘a’ (for breakdown-time distribution with low variability). the relation of preventive maintenance time to repair time is important. there is an optimum value for the standard maintenance period. ‘Ta’ for a given breakdown-time distribution. preventive maintenance is highly benefited to machines whose breakdown time distributions have low variability. The percentage of machine running time depends on the ratio of the standard maintenance period and the average run-time. First. It can be seen that for low values of the ratio of standard maintenance period to average maintenance free runtime.average maintenance-free run-time. as there is better predictability of when breakdowns are likely to occur. since a low ratio would mean too many machine stoppages. Figure 4. ‘Ts’. it is assumed that either preventive maintenance or repair puts the equipment in line for a running time of equal length. Second. there is a similar increase in machine running-time. but only till a peak is reached after which lengthening standard maintenance period seems to reduce the percentage of machine running time. Such a relationship is shown for the three different breakdowns time distributions. and hence less availability. there is little gain in . In this type of situation. the machine works for a small percentage of time. it can also be seen that for curves ‘b’ and ‘c’ an increase of the ratio results in an increase in the percentage of machine running time. Unless the preventive maintenance time is less than the repair time. This suggests that for breakdown time distribution with low variability.
What are the Maintenance Strategies? . Maintenance policy will not refer to any organization’s policy. 4. In general.preventive maintenance. 10. 9. or more than the time for repair. 7. If preventive maintenance is equal to. 2. all the machines are free and have jus had a preventive maintenance done. Equipment cannot be considered as a total system with its sub-assemblies as subsystems. an increase in the standard period would mean less number of preventive maintenance cycles and more repairs. 8. 4. We also need to take into account other effects of unscheduled downtime. Self Assessment Questions State whether the statement is true or false. and 3. For a given breakdown time distribution. when the repair time is equal to maintenance time. Initially. the percentage of machine running time continues to increase with the increase of standard preventive maintenance period. The breakdown time distribution of the complex machine probably will not show greater variability than the simple machine. 6. such as 1. both in terms of contribution earned by them as well as their criticality because of their propensity to break-down. Additional stoppage time because maintenance crew cannot start repairing immediately after the breakdown has occurred. The probability of occurrence of a breakdown in the two different cycles depends on the specific breakdown-time distribution of the equipment. Effect on production losses if plant shutdown could have been avoided. Effects of scheduling preventive maintenance for non-productive days or shifts with no loss of production.6 Terminal Questions 1. you will deal with jobs. Since some parts are most important to machines. it is better to perform corrective or breakdown maintenance.5 Summary You need to make decisions at the beginning of each shift regarding maintenance. The percentage of machine running time depends on the ratio of the standard maintenance period.
Replacing 3. 4. Refer 4. Explain evolution of Maintenance Policy. True 9. False 7. 3. Corrective 5. Refer 4. 5. Incidents 6.2 5. FalseTerminal Questions 1. Refer 4. 4.2 2.1 3. Explain Preventive versus Breakdown Maintenance. Refer 4. Explain Breakdown Time distribution.1 4. Mechanization 2. Summarize Breakdown and Corrective maintenance. Industrialization 4.1 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .7 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1. Refer 4.3. .2. True 8.2. True 10.3.
5 Terminal Questions 5. Maintenance covers two aspects of systems – operation and performance. replacement of parts or total replacement of .2 Functions & Feature of Maintenance Engineering 5.1 Introduction Objectives 5.OM0006-Unit-05-Types of Maintenance Systems Unit-05-Types of Maintenance Systems Structure: 5.3 Types of Maintenance Systems Routine Maintenance Planned /Scheduled / Productive Maintenance Break down or Corrective / Remedial Maintenance Preventive Maintenance Predictive Maintenance Condition Based Maintenance 5.1 Introduction Once the machinery is purchased it must be maintained.6 Answers 5. which can be achieved through repair. Maintenance is carried out in anticipation of or in reaction to a failure. Maintenance is defined as the restoring of an item to its original condition or to working order. to ensure or restore system performance to specified levels.4 Summary 5.
Failure to perform maintenance in time to maintain the availability of the machinery will have serious effects ranging from benign to catastrophic. Through proper maintenance of these machineries. Machineries lose its efficiency after some point of time due to various factors such as wear and tear. It is evident that the best maintenance strategy is selected for reducing breakdowns. retain the productivity and maintain safe working conditions by reducing the probability of accidents. Hence a systematic and structured approach to proper & cost effective maintenance is required. Types of maintenance /strategies discussed in this unit are: · Routine Maintenance · Planned Maintenance · Break down Maintenance or Corrective Maintenance · Preventive Maintenance · Predictive Maintenance · Condition Based Maintenance · Total Productivity Maintenance The maintenance plan for a company’s assets can be a combination of the above strategies and could be adopted on the same machine. aging. but there is no guarantee here that the exact nature of defect surfaces. Improperly performed maintenance or not carried out in time can escalate the problems because of faulty parts running. misuse etc. Objectives: After studying this unit you shall be able . operational life can be extended. based on the practical and economic grounds Maintenance of any kind performed on machinery or equipment is a consequence of the fact that it started deteriorating before failing. Between these alternatives the management decides. Sometimes accelerated testing is used to induce failures and know the behaviour of the systems. Maintenance management also aims at developing a reliable and high quality production system. Developing effective maintenance procedures to restrict such deterioration or failure is vital.the devices itself.
rapid traverses. use of complex processes. To offer these requirements. repeatability. improved productivity. Flexible manufacturing systems. 5. high cost CNC machines.2 Functions & Feature of Maintenance Engineering Maintenance Engineering is the function of the production management that is concerned with day-to-day problems of keeping the physical plant in good and acceptable operating condition. Therefore industries have entered into the era of high technology maintenance management to cater to the production requirement of minimum downtime and maximum productivity. equipment and services in proper working condition that involves planning. etc. Such high cost and sophisticated state of art machineries need to operate at optimal levels of performance with high degree of reliability. Maintenance management is entrusted with the total task of keeping the machinery. requirement of high accuracy. scheduling and execution of many maintenance activities. · · · · · Rapid strides in the advancement of manufacturing technology and its processes with higher powers and speeds. like repair. . higher feeds.· To explain how systems work at their optimum efficiency · To prepare a plan to preserve the value of the assets by different methods · To calculate how to maximize production capability · To prepare a plan and schedule for maintenance work and prevent failures and breakdowns · To Improve quality of products and productivity · To Use of maintenance staff optimally · To Minimize or avoid accidents by periodical inspection and repairs. breakdown maintenance or preventive maintenance etc. have all warranted the use of sophisticated machineries for production. high up-time and prolonged mean time between failures (MTBF).. use of robotics and other Computer Integrated systems are developed and deployed for producing high quality products.
RM can be classified as: 1) Running maintenance 2) Shut down maintenance. working. increased production costs. . lubricate two machines daily] It can be even day to day operational activities to keep the plant running (say: replacement of light bulbs. and equipment by the maintenance staff to preserve such machineries in as near to its original condition as is practical and to realize its normal life expectancy. cleaning.1 Routine Maintenance [RM] RM is a procedure followed regularly i. Widely adopted maintenance techniques/strategies are: · Routine Maintenance · Planned Maintenance · Break down Maintenance or Corrective/ Remedial Maintenance · Preventive Maintenance · Predictive Maintenance · Condition Based Maintenance · Total Productivity Maintenance [Discussed in detail in Unit-10] 5. 5. [say: check all compressors first on Mondays. repairing leaks) which include preventive maintenance and forms part of the annual operating budget. inspection etc. 1) Running maintenance is the work carried out when the equipment or the machine is performing some operations i. outer cleaning.e. Hence the relationship between availability. a cyclic operation recurring periodically. These include say greasing or lubricating the bearings / systems. It includes activities like inspection. Maintenance is the work performed on an asset such as utility. reliability and maintainability of a plant is very important for the maintenance engineers. production of low quality products. injury to workmen and finally frequent breakdowns etc may lead to protracted delivery of the product thus inviting customer dissatisfaction.e. cleaning of machines.3 Types of Maintenance Systems A way of reducing the plant breakdowns is to select the best maintenance strategy. lubricating systems.3. These aspects are to recognized by the maintenance department. small repairs.Malfunctioning of machineries/equipment due to failure to upkeep the operating conditions may result in serious repercussions of reduced capacity. machines.
overhaul.2) Shut down maintenance: certain minor maintenance activities cannot be carried out when the machine is running and hence carried out by shutting down the machine. 5.2 Planned / Scheduled / Productive Maintenance Planned maintenance is the activities carried out according to a predetermined schedule and hence known as scheduled maintenance or productive maintenance.1. lubricate.3.1. boilers 5. thus avoiding a situation of emergency maintenance. the emphasis is on machines: a) What does the manufacturer prescribe? b) Is the unit utilised for two or three shifts per day? c) Is it working under normal load? .3.g. Planned maintenance reduces the machine downtime. reduces the cost of maintenance. de-scaling furnaces. E.3. It involves inspection of all machineries. increases productivity as compared to unplanned one and hence it is followed as per the maintenance policy of the company. In this type of service.2 Disadvantages a) RM may not provide the service specified by the manufacturer b) May ignore information regarding preceding breakdowns c) Service required for a machine at different frequencies may be ignored d) Similar machines are serviced at same frequency irrespective of usage 5.1 Advantages a) Simple to establish & follow b) Little or no clerical work c) High degree of prevention by intercepting developing faults d) A more advanced stage calls for ’service instructions on a pre-printed schedule and checklists’. repair and carry out all requisite maintenance before actual break down happens.
2. Unforeseen work is reduced. replacement of parts.2. to bring it back to working order. Corrective maintenance is carried out on all items where the consequences of failure or wearing out are not significant and the cost of corrective maintenance is not greater than preventative maintenance.3.2 Advantages of Planned Maintenance Considers all the changes in conditions of use & increased wear of parts a) Inspections.d) Are the conditions as good as those envisaged by the manufacturer? e) Do we allow for extra attention owing to corrosion-including conditions? 5.1 Characteristics of Planned Maintenance a) Instructions are more detailed than in routine maintenance b) Calls for differently timed service for the same unit c) Schedule is drawn with dates d) Establishes the work-load for the crew e) Entails considerable planning effort. Also called as ‘on-failure maintenance/corrective maintenance’.3.3. Planned repair/rectifying the problem is carried out when it is more convenient and cost effective after its failure rather than to disrupt the production with RM.3 Break Down or Corrective/ Remedial Maintenance Breakdown Maintenance is the method of operating the machines to run until they fail and then repair in order to restore them to an acceptable condition. c) Provides as much attention on the equipment for the best judgement of the planner [For details on ‘the principles of planning & scheduled maintenance’ refer Unit 6] 5. can be defined as the maintenance which is required when an item has failed or worn out. faithful implementation and recording f) Initial list of planned maintenance will be in detail 5. . adjustments are shown in overall plan b) Detailed instructions reduce the chance of missing any activity.
e. Repairs are done after the machine fails and hence this becomes a repair work. lost output. On-failure maintenance can be effective if applied correctly. This method is expensive in terms of maintenance cost. The above type of repairing and setting the equipment to working condition can be called as corrective maintenance. Ex: electric motor may not start. i. o Upset schedule resulting in panicky.1 Characteristics of Break-down Maintenance System · No services except occasional lubrication unless failure occurs · No maintenance men on regular basis · Maintenance done by sub-contractors · No organised efforts to find out reasons · No stock of spares · No budget · No records · Initially it looks economical · Creates internal problems namely: Who to do the repair? From where to get parts? How do we pay for them? Who will go & buy parts? . Frayed tempers put unnecessary pressures and disturb delivery commitments. This system could be called as ‘Operate to Failure (OTP) ’– no predetermined action taken to prevent failure. involve hazards. increased downtime. The need for repairs can result from normal wear. 5.Corrective maintenance may be programmed. taken after the failure happens. etc. Corrective maintenance activities include both emergency repairs (fire fighting) and preventive (or corrective) repairs. drive shaft broken and hence the transmission fails. misuse or improper maintenance. For example: non-critical low cost equipment. Repair is restoring an asset by replacing a part which is broken or damaged. or reconditioning that part to its original or acceptable working condition. or where no other strategy will work. vandalism.3. Here the machine and the work on that machine stops operating.3.
3.2 Objectives of BD/Corrective Maintenance 1) To put back machinery back to work and minimize production interruptions 2) To control costs of maintenance crew to the minimum 3) To control cost of the operations of repairing 4) To control costs of repair & replacement parts to minimum 5) To control investment cost on purchase of standby or back up machines 6) To carry out appropriate repair intermittently at each malfunction to improve the life of the machine.3.3 Advantages 1) Low cost if correctly applied 2) Requires no advanced planning other than ensuring spares availability 5. with an objective to anticipate problems and correct them before they occur.4 Disadvantages 1) No warning of failure – safety risk 2) Uncontrolled plant outage – production losses 3) Requires large standby maintenance team 4) Secondary damage – longer repair time 5) Large spares stock requirement 6) Provision of standby plant 5. Preventive maintenance is carried out to prevent an item failing or wearing out by providing systematic inspection. detection and prevention of incipient failure.3.3.3. 5.4 Preventive Maintenance PM is a regularly scheduled maintenance activity.5.3. In line with management’s policy on obtaining the best value from the maintenance funds. preventative maintenance is carried out only on those items where a failure would . This is normally programmed.3.
Many of these items are also subject to a statutory requirement for inspection and preventive maintenance. lifts. PM’s prerequisites are: a) Proper design and installation of equipment b) periodical inspection of plant and machinery to prevent breakdowns c) repetitive servicing and overhaul d) lubricate. Periodic Inspections . -To avoid breakdown & ensure smooth production following time based activities are practiced: 1. so that the major break downs are avoided & minimizes possibility of unanticipated production interruptions.g. circuit breakers. fire alarms.. Routine & planned maintenance includes Preventive maintenance actions. etc. repair and major overhaul. Preventive maintenance could be grouped as: 1) Fixed-time Maintenance (FTM) – Here actions carried out at regular intervals (calendar time) e. 2) Condition-based Maintenance [explained below] 3) Opportunity Maintenance (find out the opportune moment for maintenance) The preventive maintenance is carried out at irregular intervals and this interval is determined by seeing the actual condition of the machine. battery back up at sub-station. sub-station transformers. Daily Maintenance – Cleaning.result in expensive consequences. 2. e. etc. item replacement. but it is found that a greater number of machine failures are at the peak when machine gets progressively worse over a period say months/ years. distribution transformers. clean and up keep To achieve prevention of break-downs planned service is carried out with the explicit additional objective of detecting wear points and ensure perfect functioning by replacing parts Here the safe overhaul interval is selected. It is much economical to carry out preventive maintenance. electricity supply.g. checking. lubrication. isolators.
daily maintenance etc and programming the activities with work content.3 Requirements of Preventive Maintenance Program 1) Good maintenance management department with experienced personnel 2) To firm up plan of PM in consultation with shop personnel 3) A good lubricating and cleaning schedule 4) Detail procedures on maintenance work 5) Proper records maintained along with manuals.4. Increases reliability 3. 2. parts list etc 6) Adequate stock of spare parts . Restoration to recover deterioration 5.3. Reduces total maintenance cost 5.4. Reduces total down time 5.3.2 Features of PM 1) Proper identification of items in each machineries which warrants fixed time maintenance.3. Use of recommended Grades of oils 4.1 Preventive Maintenance System is 1. Reduces unplanned work 6.3. Reduces total work-load 4. More expensive due to more planning &replacement of parts before failing.4. cost estimates etc 2) Use of check lists by maintenance staff and inspectors 3) Identify and allocate well qualified crew & inspectors for making repairs 4) Use of budgeting system for major replacements/ repair 5) Proper procedures laid out for meeting the PM objectives in full 5.
3.5 Advantages of Preventive Maintenance 1. Improves reliability of the machineries 6. Reduction in wear and tear of machines and increase in their life 3. Feed back on the corrective action/ repair work done and its results 5. Reduction in breakdown frequency 4. probable causes. diagnosis system. Preparation of schedule of maintenance 3.a guide showing problems. 5. Preparation of inspection chart 7. Preparation of maintenance schedule and detail program of work with time frame for completion 6.3. Identifying the job to be taken & appropriate case register 2. Labor used cost effectively . repair procedures etc 11) Suppliers recommendations for up keep of machineries. Preparation of history card of all the repair work carried on such a machine and the remarks there on 4.4.7) Properly training maintenance crew Adequate space around machinery for maintenance work 9) Previous data on failure etc of each machine/equipment 10) Systematic approach. Preparation of job specification 5. Preparation of maintenance report on the work done 8. Higher safety for workers 7. Maintenance is planned well in advance 2. Improves productivity due to lesser breakdowns 5.4.4 Steps involved in Preventive Maintenance 1.
amplitude meters.3. Preventive maintenance program controls the repair costs as well as the overall life of the equipment where as in corrective maintenance brings back to the original life depending on the extent of damage the earier breakdown has brought into the equipment. 5.8. It is possible to have planned shutdowns and repair 9. Unnecessary and invasive maintenance is carried out 3.3. corrective maintenance is carried out to repair the equipment after fault occurs/ breakdown happens. 12. 2. Leaser rejection and better quality 11. whereas. .3. Identification of parts and its nature and cost involved in repairs is possible 5. audio gauges. temperatures. Conditions of the machinery can be checked on line periodically or on continuous basis and maintenance crew can take decision & plan overhaul/repair as warranted. Maintenance activity and costs increased 2. Maintenance sometimes induces failures (infant mortality) 5. Less stand by equipment requirement 13.6 Disadvantages/limitations 1. sensors for pressure. are used to predict ensuing troubles/problems in machineries. Less breakdown costs. resistance gauges etc.5 Predictive Maintenance Predictive Maintenance is one of the modern approaches to preventive maintenance where in sensitive instruments are used to predict anticipated failure of machines & equipment. Minimizes breakdowns and hence minimum inventory hold ups 10.7 Differences between Corrective and Preventive Maintenance 1.4. Applicable only to age related deterioration 4.4. Sensitive instruments like vibration analyzer. Preventive maintenance is designed to prevent or at least to minimize failures/breakdowns and reduce the need for corrective maintenance.
when status or condition so demands It is beneficial to follow a system which is not calendar based but condition based. i. Under maintenance or too long intervals between two successive checks may result in high incidence of failures. it may result in serious breakdowns. incorrect installation. wear debris analysis. rotor imbalance. material and time. In a Preventive Maintenance system. analysis and tribology.e. which are indicative of malfunctions to decide on corrective treatment. The intervals should be carefully selected as over maintenance or under maintenance are both detrimental and hence undesirable. health and safety hazards etc) will result in 1) Maximizes the online operations 2) Minimizes downtime 3) Increased plant and Personnel safety 4) Optimal maintenance The above is achieved by continuous plant / equipment monitoring & diagnosing the actual condition by means of online non-destructive testing methods. we should have a continuous knowledge of the machines based on certain critical predetermined / pre-formulated parameters . 1) Similar to health monitoring of senior executives to check symptoms. Main difficulty is in making the correct choice of preventive maintenance intervals based on OEM’s recommendations and own -experiences.Predict failures well in advance by monitoring parameters and by use of certain techniques (like vibration. misalignments. Over maintenance or too frequent maintenance increases extensive downtime resulting in added costs on men. temperature. A major part of the predictive maintenance involves the ongoing analysis to ensure wear levels that damage the machine are within limits Good ability to predict impending failures well in time to prevent breakdowns. etc. 2) If corrective treatment is not adopted at the right time. pump cavitations. Hence an optimal maintenance interval has to be arrived at. oil condition. maintenance is on a pre-determined cycle whereas in a Predictive Maintenance system maintenance is done only. (which otherwise cause heavy penalty costs.) Measuring of physical parameters may not be enough to detect the destructive effects on a machine or process.
A sense of confidence is created amongst production and maintenance personnel when they analyze the monitored data and predict that the machines are operated safely till they reach maximum permissible limits. CBM involves recording some measurement that gives an indication of the condition (ex: increase in vibration levels. can save around 30% of maintenance costs and with a bonus of 15% savings in energy costs. if practiced effectively.3. 5. An ability to forecast the machine behavior by Condition Monitoring is a pre-requisite for Predictive Maintenance Operators who work with equipment every day can listen to equipment and identify changes in noise levels and vibrations. there is enough time available for the maintenance crew to make adequate advance preparations. Temperature changes can be photographed . FMS with artificial intelligent devices and computer simulations and modeling. Condition monitoring is merely a tool that is used by crew through touch. In the Condition based maintenance (also known as Dynamic predictive maintenance or Diagnostic maintenance) the plant is maintained just after some problems arisen. It is just like a hammer used to strike a wheel to listen for that distinctive sound to say whether there is crack in wheel rim or not. it implies that the particular part needs replacement and a special attention. smell and through their experience on the existing condition of the equipment/aggregate. Predictive Maintenance is very cost effective where cost of unplanned breakdowns is very high. The main function of condition monitoring is to provide the knowledge of a machine and its rate of change. to cut downtime.A given machine can continue to be kept in operation as long as the monitored parameters continue to remain within the laid down limits. Predictive Maintenance. Between the ‘action limit and the maximum permissible time limit’. With rapid developments in machining technology through CNC controlled machines. increased leakages etc) CBM is a continuous or periodic measurement and interpretation of data to indicate the condition of an item to determine the need for maintenance. temperature soars.6 Condition Based Maintenance CBM relies on the fact that the majority of failures do not occur instantaneously but develops over a period of time. more universal and better predictive tools and instruments are added in the system. thus making predictive maintenance more economical as compared to preventive and corrective maintenance strategies. but much before the possible breakdown. etc. When permissible limits are reached and warning signals are issued by the measuring devices.
Action limit curve shows the prescribed for monitoring parameters during normal operations.through IR thermograph. which are to be controlled by maintenance a) Vibration Sensors – to track tool wear/ breakages. alarms. Condition Checking & Monitoring a) Trend Monitoring: . overheating of motors c) Current sensors – cutting load monitored by sensing spindle Condition Monitoring is achieved by the operator’s senses to detect abnormalities Visual – Leakages. etc. CNC systems have built – in diagnostics which continuously monitor the system hardware to ensure normal functioning.6. if other parts of the system fail. Chatter Smell – Smoke. Trend Monitoring. misalignments. are displayed on the screen well in time to facilitate corrective action without disruption of production. unbalance in rotors. contaminated cutting fluid Touch – Excessive bearing temperature State-of-the-art CNC systems facilitates adaptive Controls with signals from appropriate transducers. Indications like over – temperature. Condition monitoring is dependent on sensors and transducers for measuring different parameters. corrosion Audible – Unusual noise. This type of maintenance check on performance is vital as the future failures in safety systems can have more catastrophic effects.1 Condition Monitoring Methods There are two methods used namely: 1.3. which gives warning that something is ‘not right’. Curve when extrapolated can indicate maximum & safe permissible limits 5. An investigation can then be carried out to identify the exact problem. 2. mechanical looseness b) Thermostats – hydraulic oil temperature. low battery voltage. gear defects.
d) Economics of Condition Monitoring: The savings. using some suitable indicator & is used as a measure of machine condition at that time. 4) Performance and behavior monitoring: Involves checking the performance of a machine to see whether it is behaving correctly.Trend monitoring is the continuous monitoring or regular measurement and interpretation of data collected during machine operation. b) Condition Checking: Condition checking is where a check measurement is taken with the machine running. This may be done by . e) Selecting Methods of monitoring Five main techniques of conditioning monitoring 1) Visual monitoring: inspection & recording of surface appearance. Diagnosis (what) of its origin so that spare parts can be ordered 3. c) Condition Monitoring: Includes three stages: 1. to monitor the rates of internal corrosion of the wall of the plant. Detection (when) of the developing fault at an early stage 2. proximity probes) to record vibration level 3) Wear Debris monitoring: This works on the principle that the working surfaces of a machine are washed by the lubricating oil and any damage is detected from particles of wear debris in the oil. · Reduces the cost of maintenance · Capital invested can be recovered faster. 5) Corrosion monitoring: Is applied to fixed plant containing aggressive materials. 2) Vibration Monitoring: Involves the attachment of a transducer (velocity. Prognosis (forecast) subsequent measurement which will then establish the trend and enable the repair schedule to be planned. to indicate variations in the conditions of the machine or its components. accelerometer. which can be made by the application of CM: · Avoiding losses of output due to breakdown of machinery.
6. cost of maintenance. contamination etc) to be measured. Training examiners for the above jobs.drilling a hole through the wall and drilled coupon of material is observed for corrosion. sound. Production can be modified to extend unit life 5.4 Disadvantages 1) Thermograph & Oil Debris Analysis [specialised equipment and training] .3. Spares can be assembled 5. Recording data 8. Select proper examining technique. 5. 7. Maintenance can be planned. failure statistics (MTBF-MTTR).3. The hole is then plugged with a suitable leak proof material. Listing and numbering of machine to have identification and location details 2.3 Advantages 1. Cause of failure can be analysed 6. 5.2 Implementation of Condition Based Maintenance: Involves: 1. To arrive at best interval for examination considering the criticality of process. 5. Maximises equipment availability 2. Labour can be organised 8. Establishing programs and methods specifying the parts to be examined 4.6.6. Establish for each part of the machine the severity limits of the machine condition parameter (Vibration. 7. Selecting critical machines for CM 3. standby availability of machine.6. Cost of examination.3. standardizations planned. Allows shutdown before severe damage occurs 4. operating conditions. overall cost of failure. Some forms of inspection utilising human senses can be inexpensive 3.
2) Requires careful choice of the correct technique. 3) Irregular preventive maintenance do not include a) Repairs b) Overhauls c) Reduction of noise levels and vibrations d) Clean up of leakages etc on all the machine aggregates daily 4) RM is a procedure followed regularly i. 3) Time is required for trends to develop to know machine condition Self Assessment Questions 1) Which of the following is not a common cause of equipment breakdowns? a) Improper preventive maintenance b) Inadequate lubrication c) Improper setups of jigs. a _______________ recurring periodically 5) In the following list find out which one is considered as disadvantage of routine management: . fixtures and tools d) All the above 2) Which of the following is not an objective of remedial maintenance? a) To put back machinery back to work and minimize production interruptions b) To control costs of maintenance crew to the minimum c) To control cost of the operations of repairing d) Replacing the faulty machine when it starts malfunctioning.e. e) To control costs of repair & replacement parts to minimum f) To carry out appropriate repair intermittently at each malfunction to improve the life of the machine.
6) Planned maintenance is the activities carried out according to a ______________ and hence known as scheduled maintenance or productive maintenance 7) Characteristics of Planned Maintenance-fill up the missing one: 1) Instructions are more detailed than in routine maintenance 2) Calls for differently timed service for the same unit 3) Schedule is drawn with dates 4) ___________________________ 5) Entails considerable planning effort. No services except occasional lubrication unless failure occurs 2. No maintenance men on regular basis 3. faithful implementation and recording 6) Initial list of planned maintenance will be in detail Breakdown Maintenance is the method of operating the machines to run ______________ and then repair in order to restore them to an acceptable condition. ______________________ 5. No stock of spares 6. Maintenance done by sub-contractors 4.1) Simple to establish & follow 2) Little or no clerical work 3) High degree of prevention by intercepting developing faults 4) RM may not provide the service specified by the manufacturer 5) A more advanced stage calls for ’service instructions on a pre-printed schedule and checklists’. 9) Characteristics of Break-down Maintenance System-fill the missing one: 1. Initially it looks economical .
Use of recommended Grades of oils 5. any stoppage due to breakdown in any part of the system will affect the entire production process. preventive. In the present high tech production. 2. Preventive maintenance is undertaken before need for maintenance arises and aims at minimizing the anticipated breakdowns. with JIT inventory and sophisticated processes. checking. Maintenance is of three main categories: breakdown. 13) There are two methods used namely-Which is the second one 1) Trend Monitoring.which one is not the recommended practice? 1. maintenance has been given more importance in the operational plans. Creates internal problems namely: Who to do the repair? From where to get parts? How do we pay for them? Who will go & buy parts? 10) To avoid breakdown & ensure smooth production following time based activities are practiced. and predictive.7. 12) CBM relies on the fact that the majority of failures do not occur instantaneously but develops over a period of time. 2) ____________________ 5. Daily Maintenance – Cleaning. In planning. using high technology machines. . lubrication. etc. maintenance managers have to decide on a proper balance between preventive. To counter this. CBM involves recording some ___________ that gives an indication of the condition. predictive and remedial maintenance.4 Summary Poorly maintained machines/equipment has severe negative impact on the productivity and the quality of the output in a production unit. Restoration to recover deterioration 11) Predictive Maintenance is one of the modern approaches to preventive maintenance where in __________ are used to predict ____________ of machines & equipment. Breakdown or remedial maintenance is undertaken when a machine breaks down or malfunctions. Predictive maintenance is a type in which the vital attributes of a system are monitored continuously and any deviations from the accepted limits are taken to rectify the problem. Check all the machines at firmed up time intervals 4. Periodic Inspections 3.
Where this type is applicable. 14. Which enables them to reduce breakdowns. Organizations have realized the importance of maintenance and its planning. What is meant by planned/scheduled/productive maintenance and what emphasis it pays in maintaining the machine/equipment 4. Explain briefly the condition based monitoring methods 15. Total productivity maintenance is practiced to improve the productivity of the equipment by minimizing the number of breakdowns and malfunctions.6 Answers . What are the characteristics & objectives of breakdown/corrective maintenance? 7. Distinguish between preventive and breakdown maintenance 12. accidents and minimizing the costs of maintenance activities? 5. but much before the possible breakdown. What are the advantages of Planned Maintenance? 6. What is condition based maintenance. What is predictive maintenance? What are its advantages over preventive maintenance? 13. CBM is a continuous or periodic measurement and interpretation of data to indicate the condition of an item to determine the need for maintenance. What are the advantages & disadvantages of breakdown/corrective maintenance? 8. What are the advantages and disadvantages of condition based maintenance? 5. Outline the various types of maintenance 3.5 Terminal Questions 1. Define preventive maintenance and state its objectives 9. Describe the procedures of preventive maintenance program 10. State the objectives of maintenance management? 2. Discuss the advantages and limitations of preventive maintenance 11.In the Condition based maintenance (also known as Dynamic predictive maintenance or Diagnostic maintenance) the plant is maintained just after some problems arisen. What are the important functions of maintenance department 5.
Refer 5. Cyclic operation 5.3. c) Reduction of noise levels and vibrations 4.3. Refer 5. Refer 5. Refer 5. d) All the above 2. d) Replacing the faulty machine when it starts malfunctioning 3.2 7.3. Not occur. Refer 5.2. Refer 5. Condition Checking & Monitoring Terminal Questions 1.Self Assessment Questions 1.4.4. Predetermined schedule 7. (3) Check all the machines at firmed up time intervals 11.4 . (4) Establishes the work-load for the crew 126.96.36.199 6.1 & 5.3. anticipated failure 12. (4) No organised efforts to find out reasons 10.4 4.3 & 5. Until they fail 9.3 3.2 2. Refer 5.4. Refer 5.4.2 5. (4) RM may not provide the service specified by the manufacturer 6. measurement 13. Sensitive instruments.4.4 8.
4.6.Refer 5.4.5 13.6 188.8.131.52 10.4.6. Refer 184.108.40.206 15.4 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Refer 5. Refer 5. Refer 5.4.4. Refer 5.6 11.4.3 & 5. .7 12.4.4. Refer 220.127.116.11.5 & 5.
13 Six Maintenance Scheduling Principles 6.2 Functions of Maintenance Planning 6.11 Summary of Maintenance Planning 6.15 Terminal Questions 6.3 Planning Vision & Mission 6.5 Benefit of Planning 6.6 Planning System 6.OM0006-Unit-06-Maintenance Planning and Scheduling Unit-06-Maintenance Planning and Scheduling Structure: 6.12 Maintenance scheduling principles 6.1 Introduction Objectives 6.16 Answers 6.1 Introduction .8 Productivity.7 How much Planning will help? 6. Specialization & Coordination of Planning 6.4 Functions of Maintenance Planner 6.9 Maintenance Planning Principles 6.10 Planning Preventive & Predictive Maintenance.14 Summary of Maintenance Scheduling 6. Project work 6.
If detailed procedures and checklists contribute to better reliability. engineers. Objectives: After studying this unit you shall be able to · Prepare a plan for maintenance · Analyse the benefits of planning for maintenance · Examine the principles of maintenance planning . consideration of reliability maintenance as preventive maintenance. it is preferred for the organization to become a procedure-based one with teams of experienced technicians. and project maintenance is essential. The final improvement to over 50% can be achieved through special aids. qualified personnel. In addition. planners. Planning does not solve everything. shops. tool rooms. and maintenance measurement. Other tools used are work order system. data collection and research of certain processes etc. predictive maintenance.All manufacturing units having varieties of machineries and equipments require maintenance to keep them up in good working conditions and for sustaining and achieving higher productivity. planning is very essential. management. By implementing fundamental planning and scheduling system. To achieve the desired maintenance efficiency. performance. are the subjects being discussion. tool room facilities. The plant has better control over work that is scheduled. communication. as they leverage their expertise into job plans. but certainly brings together many aspects of maintenance. storeroom support. Here procedure already in the file or important information that persons who worked on that equipment have recorded previously. and other vendors to cater to the common maintenance tasks on critical equipment and safety equipment. are included in the job plans. leadership. Planning and scheduling promotes labor productivity by examining potential delays and scheduling work. Where does planning fit into? What principles make it work? How planning is required to be done? How to provide additional resources for planners and personnel for maintenance activities? Etc. tools. control of inventories. Planning concentrates on adding value. The planning system is designed with procedures to be followed over time through a systematic job plans. and safety. teamwork. The planner should also give more attention to critical equipment and safety areas. organizations could improve maintenance productivity to about 40%.
For ex: Planner has to judge whether the defective valve should be repaired or replaced. To prepare a job in advance. · Crew personnel are then assigned the job for execution and avoid problems such as delays stemming by insufficient skills/ not having required materials or tools. · Planner does preparatory planning for the crew supervisor and craft persons who executes the work. 6.2 Functions of Maintenance Planning Maintenance management uses planning as a tool to reduce unnecessary job delays through advance preparation. · The planner specifies appropriate craft skills required for that particular job. The work plan is nothing but the information a planner makes ready for the technician to execute the work. · Maintenance planning brings together or coordinates the effort of many other aspects of maintenance. · The planner considers the proper scope of work for the job. procedure for accomplishing task and identify any parts and special tools required.· Distinguish between preventive and breakdown maintenance planning. the maintenance planning initiates action. 6. identification of craft skill required. Coordinating function is the key to achieve competitive edge. · The time estimates made by planner gives the idea to crew personnel to judge how much work is assigned and what work is there. · The planner identifies appropriate materials for the specified job and checks whether they are available or be specially obtained.3 Planning Vision & Mission The mission of planning revolves around doing the right jobs that are ready to go. a planner develops a work plan after receiving a work request. For this the maintenance planning will have the following functions: · Coordinating mechanism within the maintenance department. The work plan includes a job scope. . thus enabling a better control over their work. · Once the work order is received. · The planned information gives the supervisors a reference for expected work and time for completion and helps to have a control through on problems that might lessen productivity. and labor time estimate.
5) The planner writes a job plan that identifies parts needed (such as gaskets. 3) With preparatory work. 9) Planner provide a bill of materials or an illustrated parts diagram both to the stores person and craft men.4 Functions of Maintenance Planner 1) Maintenance planning involves identifying parts and tools that are necessary for maintenance jobs. improve on past jobs. and allow advance scheduling through which the supervisors will assign and control the proper amount of work. clearances. bearings etc) along with their identification numbers. without wasting time. It also involves identifying the actual work scope. so that technicians need not wait for parts to arrive. planner initiate action to organize and get them. Planning is Information central. crew schedules. . 2) The planner writes work instructions on how to do the job. tools.The planning mission states “Doing the right jobs & ready to go”. 6. 4) Planners evolve good planning methodology that increases maintenance productivity. crew starts their work as per job. parts. planning sets the stage for the maintenance force to act upon quickly. 7) If parts are not in the inventory. Work plans avoid anticipated delays. A work crew is ready to go immediately to scheduled work assignments as all instructions. A planning mission statement is: “To increase the Maintenance crew’s ability to complete the work orders quickly”. considering the safety aspects of the job. Arrange parts required to be placed in a convenient location nearer to the job site before the job starts. method of maintenance. With proper planning or preparation efforts for each job. and it controls and coordinates and brings resources to leverage productivity. for easy understanding and identifying the proper parts for his next work. seals. arrangements are ready. The entire maintenance organization should be committed to schedule proactive works. 6) The planner reserves such required parts in the store to ensure their availability. work involved. release of the work orders to proceed etc. but ready handle judiciously the reactive type of work also. Doing the right jobs involves job priorities.
7 How Much Planning Will Help? a) Tangible Help: • Planning provides tangible help for organization to achieve: . fork lifts. the maintenance process has the following steps: 1) Receives request from the concerned section for the maintenance work. Hence the purpose of planning is to focus on high productivity through an organized planning & scheduling principles. 5) Creates data and information on machineries and equipment and its maintenance methodology for future reference and analysis. 6) Establishes through work order system. anticipated parts & tools.6 Planning System In a proper planning system. 4) Skill levels and time estimates on jobs and proper scheduling are included in the subject work order. 6. procedures for assigning proper amount of work to all the skilled/unskilled crews.10) Planner is required to coordinate with vendors & ensure material supply along with the quality control on vendor supplies. 7) Prepares Schedules for maintenance works and follow track until complete. 3) Planner evolves a system and procedure for each type of maintenance work. Institute a control system that contributes to managing productivity. resulting benefit achieved are the improved productivity and overall effectiveness or efficiency in maintenance. 12) Planner will arrange material handling equipments like crane. 2) Planner plans work order.5 Benefit of Planning As planning consists of arranging parts and the necessary tools for maintenance work and provide necessary guidelines by use all the inputs effectively through a maintenance system. 6. craft and skill level required. with identification numbers. 11) Planner identifies special tools needed by the craft man for maintenance activities and reserve such tooling and other accessories at the place of work. 6. time estimates. pallets etc for easy movement of identified parts and tools to work site in advance. specify job scope.
Further if there are three crews working with . thus using the freed 10 trained personnel for other productivity improvement activities. To determine if any of the delay time could be avoidable requires planner’s assistance for analyzing such nonproductive time. The industry’s average productive maintenance time was less than 30% (the measure of wrench time) when a typical maintenance technician has spent less than 20% on the real work and it is found that the balance time is spent on other nonproductive tasks. Crew will plan their work and then executes. -Extra labor power can be reallocated to added value activities. -Work force is freed up. c) “World class” wrench time · Statistical work sampling studies measures productive time. one can calculate and measure the actual amount of increased maintenance productivity. thus frees technicians for more productive work. could achieve a remarkable reliable plant capacity within a year through superior availability and a drastic improvement in work force productivity. · The maximum performance target for wrench time was shown at an average of around 55%. • • Through proper planning. The practical result of planning-example: In a power station.8 Productivity. Specialization & Coordination of Planning a) The specific benefit of planning in Wrench time improvements · There are organizations who feel that the planning work is part and parcel of the maintenance crew. Practically the total maintenance work was completed by 35 personnel as compared to previous year’s statistics of using around 45 personnel for the same output. where the management created an exclusive planning group. Analysis of the nonproductive time is one of the most valuable work-sampling. In addition. 6. Is this wrench time a reality? Instances are there in which experienced workforce moved from average 35% wrench time to 55% with fine tuned planning. also known as wrench time. b) Improving the Wrench Time and Productivity · Work activities are classified differently. intangible benefits of planning were seen in providing a better control of maintenance work. where in the planning addresses and reduces delays. But it proved the other way as seen from the above examples. Improvement here was only possible with the planning in place.-Amount of work accomplished rises.
5) Planners recognize the skill of the crafts. which is essential for a competitive edge. Decisions making at each crossroads on the alternative ways to conduct planning and execute is essential and ultimate success of planning depends on this situational oriented decision. for which they train and maintain separate groups of mechanics. There is a methodology of work measurement what is commonly known as wrench time and this frequently misunderstood principle and hence must be made clear to everyone concerned. Loading these specialists to achieve higher wrench times also requires a sound planning and proper coordination. 3) Planners base their files on the component level of systems. which spells the importance of planning jobs for maintenance. Six principles greatly contribute to the overall success of planning. recognizing skill of the craftsman and measuring performance must be understood by every one concerned with production. The principles of having planning as a separate department in order to focus on the future work and consequent use of planner’s expertise to create estimates. 2) Planners concentrate on future work. These principles must be understood by all concerned to have effective planning process. then total productivity is 100 % [2x 50% +0= 100%. 6. 1) Company organizes planners into a separate department. Industry to this day continues to use specialization.9 Maintenance Planning Principles The principles or paradigms that are evolved over the maintenance mission will profoundly affect planning. as compared to 3x30=90%]. and instrument technicians. But experience has shown that a single planner can plan maintenance jobs for more than 20 persons.wrench time of 30%. and if one is allocated to planning job and with whose instance. electricians. Each principle identifies important crossroads. Specialization increases productivity per person. . b) Specialization and Productivity: · Experienced crew are specializing in a particular field and achieving the specified goals. the other two crew reached a wrench time of 50%. 4) Planner expertise dictates job estimates.
Principle 2: [Focus on Future Work] · The vision of planning is to increase labor productivity by preparing the jobs in advance. plan changes. . · Because planning contributes to scheduling. The planners ensure that the feedback information is properly filed to aid future work. · Planners report to a different supervisor/ lead planner who will be responsible to provide direction and ensure consistency within the planning group. secure file system based on equipment tag numbers. · The planners must be engaged in preparing work that has not yet begun. feedback is given by the lead technician or supervisor to the Planning Department. Principle 3: [Component Level Files] · Planning maintains a simple.6) Work sampling of direct work time provide measure of planning effectiveness. Matching identify tags on the machineries are also arranged. or other helpful information so that future work plans and schedules might be improved. Principle 1: [The Company organizes planners into a separate department] · The planners are organized into a separate department from craft maintenance crews to facilitate specialization in planning and focus on future work. especially on repetitive maintenance tasks. the lack of planning effort may decrease the number of work assignments to crew members · The company organizing planners to a separate group. The Planning Department concentrates on future work and provide the crew to plan their work in advance and remove backlogs · After job completion. · Planners use personal experience and develop work plans to avoid anticipated work delays and quality or safety problems. which helps planners to become specialized in all the tools and techniques of planning · Planners need to work closely to ensure proper execution of work with consistency. The feedback consists of any problems. The file system enables planners to utilize equipment data and information and their experience on previous work to prepare and improve work plans. The supervisor has an obligation to complete the assigned work in an expeditious manner with a minimum of interruptions · The crew focuses exclusively on executing assigned work.
· The majority of maintenance tasks are repetitive over a period of time. · Planners give information to supervisor for scheduling control. · Supervisors must train technicians with deficient skills and give proper support and guidance · Technicians must execute the job precisely as planned for three reasons. · This principle dictates that planners depend on the workforce being sufficiently skilled when he is putting a minimum level of detail into the initial job plans. · The planner then plans the general strategy of the work (such as repair or replace) and includes procedure if it is not already there in the file. The planners and technicians work together over repeated jobs to develop better procedures and checklists. · Plant must choose from among its best craft persons to be planners. These planners rely greatly upon their personal skill and experience in addition to existing information in the files to develop job plans. · Craft technicians use their expertise to make the specified repair or replacement. Any recommended deviations from the job plan must be approved by planning before execution. The planners also use their own expertise to formalize best practices on individual job plans. Principle 4: [Estimates Based on Planner Expertise] · Planners use personal experience and file information to develop work plans to avoid anticipated work delays after considering quality and safety problems. The plan dictates the skill set necessary to accomplish the work given the state of the job plan. · Routine maintenance offers the highest potential for planner contribution to company success because more intricate or unusual maintenance tasks receives necessary help from plant engineering department Principle 5: [Recognize the Skill of the Crafts] · The Planning Department recognizes the skill of the crafts. The planner calls for a minimum craft skill on a job plan. . · Supervisors and plant engineers are trained to access these files to gather information they need with minimal planner assistance. The planner’s responsibility is to firm up the scope of the work request including clarification of the originator’s intent wherever necessary. File cost information assists in making repair or replace decisions.
· Principle 6 dictates that measuring how much time craft technicians actually spend on their job site versus other activities performed such as obtaining parts or tools. Wrench time is the proportion of available time-to-work time during which the craft technicians are on productive working on a job site. the planning system counts on the skilled technicians giving feedback on job plans so that their expertise and the planner’s expertise both contribute to adding information to future plans. · Work sampling to determine wrench time gives this measure of how much planning is helping in the process. Wrench time is measured accurately with a properly structured. coordination with other crafts. This principle holds that delays in technician’s job should be avoided. travel. Planning can adopt preferred maintenance for higher effectiveness. Principle 6: [Measure Performance with Work Sampling] · Wrench time is the primary measure of workforce efficiency and of planning and scheduling effectiveness. Projects The concepts and importance of preventive maintenance. instructions. and project work and their relationship to the development of the planning principles and practices are discussed here. . Wrench time analysis is an indicator. a) Preventive Maintenance [PM] and Planning · The planning department studies and issues PM’s schedules and reviews them periodically.· Finally.10 Planning Preventive & Predictive Maintenance. · Measuring wrench time thus gives an overall indication of how well the other principles have been implemented or accepted. Starting with a basic system. statistical observational techniques & study. or equipment information are all deducted. Delays such as waiting for assignment. These reduce the incidence of reactive maintenance work and to increase plant reliability. predictive maintenance. parts. planners visualize the types of work orders to be released for preventive maintenance tasks for the next week. clearance. The time that employees spend at their job sites working is called direct or productive work. not the control of planning or the work force. 6. tools. What is actually important is the analysis of the nonproductive time. This determines the effectiveness of the maintenance planning program.
· The scope should extend beyond simple repair and replacement of parts to improve equipment reliability as well. Tightness. which are contributing to more than 50% of all breakdowns. · The planner should allow some extra time in the work order on all PM work for making unspecified excessive cleaning. · Cleanliness helps reduce contamination sources and such clean surfaces to reveal the presence of new leaks. and duration. on the work done. tightening of bolts. and Cleanliness. · Emphasis in all PMs is to inspect the equipment for abnormal situations. · This requirement of corrective maintenance is ‘TLC’ i. . repairs.e. PM plans can include rags for wiping and removing old grease when parts are dissembled. Many do value assigning with experienced personnel to perform PM work orders. the technician is empowered to make any minor equipment adjustments or minor repairs during execution of the PM.· A planner should plan each of the PMs with scope and craft requirements such as numbers of persons. · The planner must receive feedback to improve the PM work order itself. For this. Predictive maintenance (PdM) uses technology not available to the regular maintenance work force. or minor repairs. · Lubrication is important part of a PM program. · Planners should also review the histories and feedback from all work orders to determine if additional PM work orders are needed. The plan should also list anticipated parts and special tools. · PdM technology greatly moves the plant’s reliability upward as the predictions in predictive maintenance show an important capacity for growth in accuracy. as improper lubrication leads to total damage to equipment. lubrications etc. Lubrication. For ex: tightening of fasteners in the coupling if he found they are loose. small adjustments. · PM plans should specify torque requirements or attach torque charts where appropriate and include torque wrenches as a special tool. Planning for parts encourages the replacement of fasteners based on the technician’s decisions. The dirt and grime also add undesirable insulation conditions that may affect equipment performance. b) Predictive Maintenance [PdM] and Planning · Planning plans and schedules PdM work orders. work hours. PdM personnel make the call on the creation of new work orders.
Consideration of six basic principles greatly boosts the planning program efforts toward success. bearing clearances. planning group plans and schedules work orders to implement projects as regular jobs. Plants treat projects as outages and planned as long-range scheduling. · Planners should insist that PdM uses the same equipment tag numbers for ease communication problems. · Planners should be able to estimate and commit the project schedules with plant engineering and scheduler assistance. so that PdM personnel may quickly climb the learning curve. At each crossroads. Each principle resolves a crossroads decision that affects the planning effort. · Planners should facilitate PdM when work on equipment is in process.· Planners must accept PdM work orders for jobs and translate them into the appropriate scope for the maintenance crews. . which involves alignment criteria. · The PdM group can update the technology of the maintenance force. The planning effort has mainly focused on making individual jobs ready to go by identifying and planning around potential delays. · Plant normally has the personnel to implement such maintenance project work with the productivity prescribed in the planning and scheduling system. · Planners should insist to utilize standards set by PdM for certain jobs. The application of maintenance planning makes possible the dramatic improvement in maintenance productivity. c) Project Work and Planning · Similar to PdM. but difference is in the larger nature of projects.11 Summary of Maintenance Planning Effective maintenance is vital to provide reliable plant capacity. 6. · Planners must vigorously pursue collecting documentation to establish files and also overview position regarding the project replacement or overhaul. the company has to make a decision regarding alternate ways to conduct planning. or other rebuild tolerances. with active participation and assistance from the planning group. The decision the company makes regarding each situation determines the ultimate success of planning.
tools. This aligning of the work to accomplish the desired effective and efficient maintenance led to the principles of scheduling. or travel categories.The principle of having planning as a separate department. but also exists for excessive startup. focusing on future work. the principles or paradigms in order to evolve effective scheduling will come through effective planning process. Because most jobs are repetitive. utilize files. which is discussed below. lunch. and shutdown Wrench time concept of measuring the work for each hour of the day. Planners need to avoid continually being interrupted to resolve problems for jobs already under way. recognizing the skill of the crafts. Planners need to focus on future work not yet begun. and safely. the technicians would scope out the jobs with their social & other times. Wrench time will measure whether the objectives of planning are met or not in reducing job delays. and then measure schedule compliances. The planned work packages increases the maintenance department’s ability to complete work orders effectively. file history help technicians to avoid previously faced problems. . The crews worked on the planned jobs and work sampling study made on it indicated a wrench time of 25% only and further plant could do better job if improved upon. allowing the crew supervisor to handle day’s work. having component level files. When work orders are received. The analysis revealed that the large delay times not only for parts. break. instructions. Plnners must possess the experience of top level technicians in order to scope jobs. efficiently. The principles used for planning and scheduling are for achieving the forecasted skill levels. Maintenance needed certain methodology to assigning enough work through the planning process. and measuring planning performance with work sampling for technician’s direct work time. They solved the problems by addressing symptomatic of tools. Only when planning keeps a separate file for each piece of equipment. .12 Maintenance Scheduling Principles Scheduling principles envisages the vision. the schedules and job priorities for every forecasted work available. parts availability problems or not properly planning issues Companies placed an emphasis on planning and also they doubled the parts availability in stores to reduce ordering needs. gave a clear picture of how technicians are completing their work. it is practical to retrieve information when needed. 6. and estimate times adequately. are all in the total system. using planner expertise to create estimates.
lowest required craft skill level. 3. § Job plans provide information about the number of persons required. Plant priority plays a larger role in creating the schedule of work and all involved should treat it as a serious matter. · The priority may be reviewed periodically and adjusted in coordination with crew. 5. as they create a framework for successful scheduling of planned work. Principle 1: [Planners plan the jobs for lowest required skill levels] § Essential part of Principle 1 is that job plans identify the lowest skill necessary to complete the work with the contention that the supervisor will have higher skill capability also. Planners plan the jobs for lowest required skill levels. · Advance scheduling of enough work for the entire week sets the goal for maximum utilization of the available craft hours.Routine maintenance needs the use of principles. Schedule compliance of wrench time. Crew supervisors forecast available work hours one week ahead by the highest skills available. The entire plant must respect the importance of schedules and job priorities. craft work hours per level. Does the job require mechanics or machinists? Does the job require three helpers to assist a certified electrician? Etc that are necessary for advance scheduling. 6. Schedule assigns planned work for every forecasted work hour available. planners and the plant manager. and job duration. It also ensures that a sufficient and the right work are assigned. 4.13 Six Maintenance Scheduling Principles Six principles that greatly contribute to the overall success of scheduling are: 1. if required while assigning individuals to execute job plan. Each principle sets guidelines on how the maintenance should handle different scheduling process. provides the measure of scheduling effectiveness. Crew supervisor matches personnel skills and tasks 6. Principle 2 [Entire plant respect the importance of schedules and job priorities] · Weekly and daily schedules must be adhered to by the crew as per the priorities mentioned in the work orders to prevent undue interruption in schedules. . The appropriate priority for the work is based on established plant guidelines. 2.
it is better to delay identified job in full rather than completing half. As these may cause unique problems it is better to be avoided. This includes proactive work. new high priority. Principle 3 [Develops week’s schedule for each crew & craft hours required] · Develops a week’s schedule for each crew based on craft hours required. · Scheduler assigns work plans for the crew to execute during the following week for 100% of the forecasted hours i. · Consideration is also given to multiple jobs on the same equipment or system and of proactive versus reactive work available. and reactive jobs as a guide. Principle 4: [A week’s schedule will assign work for all the available work hour] · A week’s schedule will assign work for the total work hours. after considering the tasks that are being interrupted · Principle 4 brings all the three previous scheduling principles together. · First two principles are the prerequisites of the principle-3 scheduling · Scheduler selects the week’s worth of work from the overall plant backlog. · Scheduler uses a forecast of maximum capabilities of the crew for coming week. . crew work load is 1000 worthy labour hours. · Preference is given to completing the higher priority work by utilizing whatever skills available than working on completing the lower priority work. It allows for emergencies/high priority/ reactive jobs by scheduling sufficient amount of work hours.· Inefficiency peeps through the interruption by low priority jobs coming in way of urgent jobs progressing. · Scheduler also uses job priority and job plan information. job priorities. forecast of highest skill.e. · Over assigning and under assigning work are common and acceptable in industries. · Scheduling plan is for performing all the works available in the system. · Crew supervisor matches personnel skills and tasks. and information from job plans. If a true emergency arises. Principle 5: [The crew supervisor matches personnel skills and tasks] · Crew supervisor develops a daily schedule one day in advance using current job progress.
· Each day the crew supervisor assigns the next day’s work to each technician. Knowing of the lowest skills required for jobs and the highest skills available allows developing a schedule with proper work for the week. scheduler to develop schedule in advance. allow crew supervisors to make daily schedules. In case of delay in actual job progress and the incidence of unexpected reactive work in place.· Crew supervisor handles the current day’s work and any other problems in emergency maintenance · Although individual jobs show a wide variance between planned and actual times. He will ensure that each technician receives assignments totalling to full day’s work Principle 6: [Wrench time is the primary measure of workforce efficiency] · Wrench time is the primary measure of workforce efficiency and of planning and scheduling effectiveness. or technician instructions · Scheduling aims at reducing delays. assigns work for all available labour hours. 6. and track schedule compliance. Work sampling or wrench time studies quantify delays & gives measures of planning and scheduling effectiveness.14 Summary of Maintenance Scheduling Maintenance management must consider main scheduling in the maintenance planning strategy to avoid problems of improved efficiency. When setting craft and time requirements. it relatively balances by week end. job plans must plan for the lowest required skill level. · Planning individual jobs can reduce delays such as waiting to obtain certain parts. Maintenance dept also tracks schedule compliance. · Schedule compliance is the measure of adherence to the one week schedule and its effectiveness. The priority system must properly identify the right jobs to start. Six basic principles form the foundation of successful scheduling and make schedules and priority systems important. Work sampling or wrench time is the best measure of scheduling performance. crew supervisor is the best judge to create the daily crew work schedule. This increases flexibility in choosing jobs. tools. . Adhering to schedules is important as interrupting jobs leads to overall inefficiency.
· A maintenance planner does preparatory planning for the craft persons · The planner identifies appropriate materials for the specified job and checks whether they are available or must be specially obtained. . Principles 3 through 5 establish basis of scheduling process. Maintenance management uses planning as a tool to reduce …………………. . Self Assessment Questions 1. Hence use of planned and scheduled work packages increases the maintenance department’s ability to complete work orders effectively. Principle 6 sets overall indicators for scheduling control. through advance preparation. Out of the maintenance planning functions. 3. Principles 1 and 2 are prerequisites for scheduling. 4. a planner develops a …………… after receiving a work request. To prepare a job in advance. · To arrest the leakages and keep up the lubrication system · The planner specifies the appropriate craft skills required for that particular job. 2. The planners and crew had to deal differently with urgent reactive work by developing job plans for reactive work.. A planning mission statement may be: …………………………………. This involves job priorities.Schedule based on the wrench time has to be practiced. Further working to the maintenance planning based on the six planning principles along with the six scheduling principles will help improve the productivity. The planning mission statement could be ……………………………. and safely. · Crew personnel are assigned the job for execution · The time estimates are made by planner · Maintenance planning brings together or coordinates the effort of many other aspects of maintenance. In the maintenance process given below which one not the step to be considered. which one is not relevant? · Coordinating mechanism within the maintenance department.. crew schedules. 5. and works such as preventive maintenance/ breakdown work and release of the work orders to proceed. efficiently.
e) Fix up the wages for each of the work based on the skill level f) Creates data and information on all machineries and equipment and its maintenance methodology for future reference and analysis. per person 9. Planning provides tangible help. . Which is sixth one? a) The company organizes planners into a separate department. 8. Specialization increases ………………………. c) Planner evolves a system and procedure for each type of maintenance work d) Skill levels and time estimates on jobs and proper scheduling are included in the subject work order. g) He establishes through work order system. Wrench time is the primary measure …………………………………………… Wrench time is the proportion of available time to. procedures for assigning proper amount of work to all the skilled/unskilled crews h) Prepares Schedules for the maintenance works and follow track until complete. c) ……………………………………………… 7. b) The work force is freed up.. also known as wrench time. Fill in (c) below: a) The amount of work accomplished rises. d) Planner expertise dictates job estimates.work time during which the craft technicians are on productive working on a job site. b) A planner plans the work order by specifying job scope.a) Receives request from the concerned section for the maintenance work. c) Planners base their files on the component level of systems. 6. craft and skill level required. time estimates. Statistical work sampling studies measures ……………. as well as specifying anticipated parts and tools. with all their identification numbers. . b) Planners concentrate on future work. Six principles greatly contribute to overall success of planning.
What are the benefits of maintenance planning? . upward as the predictions involved in predictive maintenance show an important capacity for growth in accuracy. The crew supervisor matches personnel skills and tasks] f. Just as in planning. ………. The PdM technology has the potential of greatly moving the plant’s ………. Why planning process is essential for efficient maintenance management? 2. Improper lubrication leads to total ………. …………………. d.. to equipment. and project work to lessen the ……………………. 10. 12. 14. f) ………………………………………. Fill in the missing principle. 11. ………. 6. which are contributing to more than 50% of all breakdowns. This requirement of corrective maintenance is ‘TLC’ i. Explain briefly the functions of maintenance planning. a. 13.. Companies strive to do more preventive maintenance. six principles that greatly contribute to the overall success of scheduling are discussed below.15 Terminal Questions 1. The entire plant must respect the importance of schedules and job priorities. allowing the crew supervisor to handle day’s work. b. e. and then measure schedule compliances 15. c... ……………………………………………. Planners plan the jobs for lowest required skill levels.e) Planners recognize the skill of the crafts. and such clean surfaces to reveal the presence of new leaks. The principles used for planning and scheduling are for achieving the forecasted higher skill levels. 3. predictive maintenance. Cleanliness helps reduce ……………. Schedule compliance joins wrench time to provide the measure of scheduling effectiveness. …….e. work and to increase plant reliability. Crew supervisors forecast available work hours one week ahead by the highest skills available. for every forecasted work available...
8.16 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1.4. Productive time.no:4)To arrest the leakages and keep up the lubrication system 3. 7. Unnecessary job. Productivity 9. 5. The extra labor power can be reallocated to added value activities. Why scheduling after proper planning is essential for effective maintenance and meeting the dead line and avoid delays? 10. (sl. Explain as to how the maintenance planning will help improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the organization 5. Explain how the specialization in areas of maintenance will help improve the productivity of the maintenance crew. Work plan 2. “To increases the Maintenance Department’s ability to complete work orders quickly”. 9. Doing right jobs which are ready to go 4. no: e) Fix up the wages for each of the work based on the skill level 6. Explain briefly how the use of six principles will greatly contribute to the overall success of scheduling 6. (sl. What is wrench time? How it is recognized as a maintenance work measure? 6. Lubrication. Work sampling for direct work time provides the primary measure of planning effectiveness 10. Incidence of reactive maintenance 11. Explain briefly the planning approaches in preventive and predictive maintenance processes. 7. and Cleanliness . Tightness. What are the maintenance planning principles? How they contribute to the success of planning? 8. workforce efficiency and of planning and scheduling effectiveness.
Refer 6. .5 4. The schedules and job priorities 15. Refer 6. Contamination sources. Refer 6.7 (c) 6. damage 13. Reliability 14.12. Refer 6. (For d): The schedule assigns planned work for every forecasted work hour available.Refer 6.8 (b) 7.2 3.7 5. Refer 6. Refer 6. Refer 6.1 2.13 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .10 a & b 9.12 10.9 8. Refer 6. Refer 6. Terminal Questions 1.
10 Terminal Questions 7.8 Overall Craft Effectiveness & its Measurement 7. The new system will become a platform for continuous improvement and will generate long term benefits .7 ACE Team Benchmarking Process 7.9 Summary 7.6 Work Measurement for High-Productivity Maintenance Universal Maintenance Standards [UMS] Five Levels of Data in Ums 7.4 Benefits of using ‘UMS’ with Planner’s Functions 7.2 Planner’s Function in Maintenance & Benefits 7.5 Universal Principles for higher Productive Maintenance 7. Using a state-of-the-art maintenance management.1 Introduction Objectives 7.3 Organization & Processes 7.11 Answers 7.1 Introduction Automating the maintenance program is a complex task as it requires integrating of people. process and systems. organizations have tried and tested different approaches for bringing changes that can result in improvements in both the function and the cost.OM0006-Unit-07-Universel Maintenance Practices Unit-07-Universel Maintenance Practices Structure: 7.
Higher productivity maintenance means better customer service. Benchmarking the best practices 3. How the Maintenance. as the maintenance represents variable operating cost which includes physical plant value. Achieving excellence in Maintenance Engineering and Management Objectives: After studying this unit you shall be able to: · Outline the functions to be performed by the maintenance planner. on-time delivery and ultimately. Improving Wrench time of the Crew in Maintenance 6. systems and techniques of Universal Maintenance Standards [UMS] 2. satisfied customers. maintenance labour.The analysis and application of work measurements to ensure improved productivity and cost reduction in maintenance should be the prime consideration by the management. especially when sophisticated high tech machineries and equipments are used for production. are the concepts. materials and overhead. Engineering or Industrial Engineering managers spearhead their achievements of dramatic productivity improvements by adopting different methods of work measurements in managing and controlling their activities. higher quality. · Explain the benefits of UMS · Adopt the ACE system of Benchmarking 7. a detail analysis and adopting certain state of art principles and improve maintenance productivity are all the focus areas for the above said disciplines. Adopting ACE system for benchmarking and improvements 4. close communication with supervisors.2 Planner’s Function In Maintenance & Benefits The planner’s role is varied in nature such as: maintain a backlog of ready-to-work jobs for each technician. cost reduction and its measurement 5. principles and theory of new measurement techniques. field checks jobs when . Use of the state of art principles. Improving the Overall craft effectiveness [OCE] for productivity. theory. For achieving the above said prerequisites. some of which are listed below: 1. Implementing new techniques of measurement.
time reporting on the performance including delays. b) Processes Processes involve data development and work order planning. 7. based on a formal planning function and the Universal Maintenance Standards. crew size. are validated. In addition the resultant productivity improvement that accrues are the benefits to organization in a) cost reductions b) downtime reduction. or too many stock-outs.needed. etc as well as the stores process to check the inventory value. issue of stores taking too long. While the maintenance departments without planners can achieve around 50-60% Productivity. Hence the measurement provides information to determine the savings potential and also justify the maintenance work measurement program. The planner also develops bench marks and maintains the data library. plans work content. Importance of work measurement and the standard for the job should be established. life cycle cost reductions d) on time completion of jobs e) continuous improvements f) improved service to customers. materials. cost of the items. crafts needed. identifies special tools. and time to do the work. unrealized opportunity etc. and make available to the crew a set of basic processes and craft operations for the process before establishing bench marks. plans safety requirements. 7.4 Benefits of Using ‘Ums’ with Planner’s Functions It is found that when a planner’s function is integrated with the UMS resultant impact is of improving the overall maintenance effectiveness. Both the planners and the maintenance crew should examine to see how the UMS times could be applied.3 Organization & Processes The tasks for a maintenance work measurement program fall into two categories namely 1) Organization and 2) Process a) Organization with planner in the forefront Planner maintains and allocates the work and knows all the ratios required for accomplishing the jobs and have good maintenance skills and experience and capabilities to work as the ultimate expert system. verifies priority. requisitions non-stock or out-of-stock items. The normal ratio of planners to technicians used is 20 to 30:1. Planners develop all the data. They can also establish a computerized maintenance management system. do the training. the same can be raised to around 80% when a planning function is integrated with UMS times to work together. .
Lord Kelvin saw this in his scientific investigation of the laws of physics. Hence the Universal Standards serve the special needs of maintenance work through the following principles: a) Scientific Principle Best productivity results when each worker has a definite job to do in a definite way within a definite time.1 Universal Maintenance Standards [UMS] . and maintenance decides how the service should be provided. Frederick Taylor’s principle applies to all work.6.6 Work Measurement for High-Productivity Maintenance 7. c) Activity Responsibility The responsibility for each activity of a work order is necessary to ensure that the work order continues to move toward resolution without delay. lead to the lasting results. maintenance is no exception b) Measurement Before Control The measurement of an activity is basic to its control. e) Crew Size The optimum crew size for a maintenance job is the smallest that can perform the work using a specific method and execute in a safe & efficient manner. The standard crew size is one and any other size is exceptions to the general rule.5 Universal Principles for Higher Productive Maintenance There are several principles that. This principle is also universal. 7. but also helps growth in value added processes. Together the customer and maintenance crew decide the priority (based on resources available) and urgency of each task compared to other existing current works. Timely accomplishment is also universal phenomenon. which can be accurately planned. f) Timeliness Large maintenance jobs are divided into smaller work orders. if followed. It is universal. d) Customer/Service Relationship The customer decides what is needed from an operational viewpoint.7. They highlight problems or roadblocks for completion of the project.
Techniques: The UMS system is based on three important techniques: 1) Range-of-time.The principles adopted for above said requirements are based on the application of work measurement in maintenance. masonry. custodial. There are at least four to five hundred different jobs. commercial. weld. For example. education or healthcare. time taken for threading a one-inch nut on to a bolt by hand operation takes almost same time like that of screwing in a light bulb into the holder. Hence breaking long jobs down into elements have resulted in a large number of elements. machining. instrument. the motion pattern for two tasks may be same and also time to perform the work is almost the same. finance. engineers adopted new methods for analyzing and assigning standards to maintenance work. availability of such standards. pipe. in each of skills of fourteen types of jobs: mechanical. The range-of-time technique recognizes the variable nature of maintenance works. If it is a low volume work done by multi skilled crew. which in turn depends on: a) Nature of Maintenance works: In maintenance works. The combination of many elements requiring different maintenance tasks and varieties of skills warrants developing and maintain a library of enormous number of standards. IT management etc. carpenter. but everywhere where maintenance work is performed –manufacturing. is it realistic to measure. government. some unique characteristics are revealed. Even though parts are different. electrical. then the time . sheet metal. automotive. or tasks. to what volume of work etc. This range of time is same in 95 % of situations and hence standard average time is applied and practiced 2) Work content comparison. Each element requires further study followed by application of stopwatch time or a predetermined time system analysis to determine the exact time required for each through the method selected. If the time to perform similar tasks is known. Applying the specific standards to the daily maintenance workload requires answers for: which task standard is required. as these standards offered flexibility and could be applied not just in one location. b) Evolution of Universal Maintenance Standards (UMS) In the early 1950’s. called ‘Universal Maintenance Standards’ (UMS). A simple task such as removing and replacing a part may take more or less time depending on how tight the bolts are. HVAC. how much rust is present on them etc. paint. or one country. to what precision. industry or service enterprise. utilities. service. the result is that the crew does longer cycle work compared to other production workers. labour.
body motions. 5) Spread Sheets. 2) Basic Operations Basic motions are grouped together to form basic operations. move. 4) bench marks and 5) spread sheets. 3) Craft Operations Some operation times are unique to a certain craft. carpentry. 3) craft operations. position and release. machining could be made available for the crew of maintenance 4) Bench Marks Using UMS. grasp. engineers can typically apply standards to all maintenance work with bench marks covering all the crafts and through the use of spread sheets they can substantially reduce the data library compared to the one with direct standard method. Spread sheet fills the additional needs of finding quickly the . By using spread sheets. namely 1) basic motions.6. 7. Two widely used predetermined time systems are ‘Methods-Time Measurement’ and ‘Operation Sequence Technique’. Five levels of data in the UMS library. common to all crafts. machine settings and arc striking time etc. becomes the standardization process and hence these are universally adopted. electrical. distance moved. a planner is able to establish planning times for a large number of jobs using relative sample data of the benchmark jobs and publicise the data along with the step-by-step process. This system analyzes and classifies data into basic motions and establishes a relationship between the motions and the time required to perform them. pipefitting.that can be applied to any other similar task with + or – 5%. Similar craft data for other skilled craft operations such as painting. The variables like weight of the part. 3) Organizing the data UMS data is organized in a building block fashion. 2) basic operations.2 Five Levels of Data in Ums 1) Basic Motions The foundation of UMS data is the predetermined time system for basic motions. Each of these motions are recorded and these data becomes the established times for future reference and standardization. For instance. welding operations are made up of manual handling. where work measures are dividing into basic motions such as reach. whether the how clamping of part is done etc are recorded in the table for further use as standards. which are pooled as weld craft operations data. using the work content comparison technique is possible.
reasonable estimate of maintenance “work content” time from a group of experienced crafts people. outlines a new and highly recommended methodology for establishing ‘team-based maintenance performance standards’. the standards are established. and in mechanical fields like Belt drives. The ACE System is used to develop maintenance performance standards. in generators. supervisors and planners . and lubrication and service.appropriate one for an application or finding the right bench mark for comparison. clutches and brakes. material handling equipment. which are reliable and a well-accepted planning times for the entire maintenance crew. continuous improvement and the changing of times in performance and methods. These Benchmarked jobs are then arranged into different time categories on spreadsheets for various craft work areas. 2) Objective of ACE Team Benchmarking Process Objective is to determine the reliable planning times for a number of selected “benchmark” jobs and to gain a consensus on the predetermined work content time. 7. ACE Team Benchmarking Process parallels the UMS approach in that the range of time and the work content times for a representative number of benchmarked jobs are established. have developed a bench marking process for the major work areas/types of maintenance operations. compressors. 3) ACE System: a Team-Based Approach ACE Team process is to obtain the most reliable. Spreadsheets are then provided for each work group having a time slots or range of times. in motors. a team of relatively small in number. This new Benchmarking Tool through ACE. 1) ACE System & UMS Using predetermined standard data. The allowances applied to these set times to get a single UMS time calculation for use by the crew. Here the emphasis is placed on improving current repair methods. which is called as ‘Reliable Planning-Time standards’. which are then imposed on the maintenance force.7 ACE Team Benchmarking Process “A Consensus of Experts” (ACE). Ex: Benchmarking and firming up the task can be easily done in areas like lighting. area travel time. job site time and allowances for personal. the technique which was formulated and developed by the ‘The Maintenance Excellence Institute’ [TMEI]. who have performed these jobs earlier and have requisite experience to improve upon them. say within 95% confidence range. Spreadsheets include brief descriptions of the benchmark jobs and represent pure wrench time. All work order times released for the jobs and it consists of four components: job preparation time. bringing control systems. reducers and gear boxes. rest and minor unavoidable delays.
7. Computerized maintenance management system (CMMS) could also be practiced.8 Overall Craft Effectiveness [OCE] & Its Measurement a) Craft Performance element of Overall Craft Effectiveness Determining the required standard hours of a technician require a trail run of the task under standard operating conditions. c) How OCE impacts the bottom line: Craft Labor Improving Overall Craft Effectiveness is getting maximum value from craft labor resources and higher craft productivity. manpower planning. Best practices such as effective maintenance planning/scheduling. budgeting and costing.and provides an excellent means to evaluate repair method. planners and other knowledgeable people to do two things. preventive/predictive maintenance. effective storerooms and . and engineered standards such as Universal standards. safety practices. a) Improve current repair methods. which will provide the management with a valuable input data for backlog determination. historical data. Labour standards will be the baseline for determining craft productivity and improved methods. technicians. as its application promotes a commitment to quality repair procedures. scheduling. 5) ACE Team Benchmarking Process: ACE System is a true team-based process that utilizes skilled crafts people. 6) The ACE System Supports Reliability Improvement: ACE Team process can contribute significantly to reliability. b) Investment for Planners: The planner’s activity with the team approach of ACE system will establish maintenance performance standards. 4) Recommendation of ACE System ACE Team overcomes many inherent difficulties associated with developing maintenance performance standards and hence recommended as the standard process for modern maintenance management. safety and quality b) Establish work content time for selected “benchmark jobs” for planners and others to use in developing reliable planning time. supervisors. Other methods used include reasonable estimates. risks analysis on jobs that leads to improvements.
fire fighting mode Waiting on parts and searching parts or part information Waiting for asset info. Measuring and improving overall craft effectiveness (OCE) is one of the components of continuous improvements d) Effective Craft Utilization (CU): Craft Utilization or pure wrench time relates to measuring how effective the work is planned and craft resources scheduled so that these assets are doing value-added. Effective planning/ scheduling is the key to increase wrench time and craft utilization. 8. how efficient the hands-on craft work is done compared to an established planned time or performance standard. This element includes quality of the actual work. e) Productive Wrench Time: Pure wrench time is just the actual output/work done and do not include the miscellaneous waste time caused due to any or many of the following: 1. 5. 3.e. h) Craft Service Quality (CSQ) Another element affecting the overall Craft Effectiveness relates to the quality of the repair. Running from emergency to emergency in a reactive. 7. documentation etc. Craft performance is directly related to individual craft skills and overall trades experience. planned maintenance and more productive “wrench time”. 6. productive work (wrench time). shop clean up time Lack of effective planning and scheduling Craft Utilization (or wrench time) is measured as the ratio of: CU %=100x [Total Productive hours or wrench time]/ [Total craft hours allotted x amount paid] f) Improve Wrench Time original Significant tangible benefits can be realized by increasing the wrench time.continuous parts support will all contribute to proactive. where certain jobs possibly require a call back to the initial repair thus requiring another trip to fix it right the second . drawings. 20 to 30 % can be expected from more effective maintenance planning & scheduling. Waiting for the equipment to be shut down for work start Waiting for contractor support to arrive at job site Waiting on other crafts to finish their job Travelling to/from job site Make-ready. 9. g) Craft Performance Another key element of OCE is the craft performance i. 4. repair instructions. 2. the personal motivation and effort of each craftsperson.
Organization should not indiscriminately cut craft labour resources when increase OCE is warranted. b) Benchmarking the best practices. new techniques of measurement. Measuring and improving Overall Craft Effectiveness and the value received from improving craft assets is an important part of total asset management. c) Adopting ACE system for benchmarking and improvements d) ……………………………………………………………. implementation of certain state of art principles. patch jobs or inferior repair parts/materials. In relation to OEE. and a detail analysis of: a) Universal Maintenance Standards. the overall Craft Effectiveness and provide value added maintenance services all the time with a profit oriented approach Self Assessment Questions 1. It is gained value that can be calculated and estimated and then measured. then Overall Craft Effectiveness Factor can be determined by multiplying each of these three elements: Overall Craft Utilization = [Craft utilization (%) x Craft performance (%) x Craft service quality (%)] i) Where Can We Apply OCE Gained Value Maintenance operations that continually fight fires and react to emergency repairs never have enough time to cover all the work (core requirements) that needs to be done. K) Maintenance is For ever Maintenance is a core requirement for profitable survival and total operations success. Profit-centred in-house maintenance in combination with the wise use of high quality contract maintenance services will be the key to the final evolution that occurs. OCE is increased people asset availability and capacity.time. j) Think Profit-Centred Maintenance leaders and crafts people must develop the “profit” mindset to be competitive and stay in business. Organizations should recognize maintenance as a core business requirement and should establish the necessary core competencies for survival. Craft Service Quality will suffer due to hasty repairs. For improving maintenance productivity. . If the internal core competency for maintenance is not present it must be regained and ensure that they are profit-centred maintenance providers by understanding clearly the UMS. When reliable data is present for all elements.
who have performed these jobs and have the requisite experience to improve upon them. 8. requisitions non-stock or out-of-stock items.. and time to do the work. . The Universal Standards serve the special needs of maintenance work through the following principles: a) ………………… b) Measurement before controls c) activity responsibility d) customer/service relationship e) Crew size f) Timeliness 6. identifies special tools. a team of relatively small number of representatives. ACE Team Benchmarking Process parallels the UMS approach in that the ……………………. . …………………………………………… e. materials. 5. ………………. The planner’s role is varied in nature such as: maintain a backlog of ready-to-work jobs for each technician. based on a formal planning function and the. and e) spread sheets. checks jobs when needed. close communication with supervisors. verifies priority.. Downtime reduction and its savings c. 3. Five levels of data in UMS are: a) basic motions b) Basic operations c) Craft operations d) ………………. plans crew size. when once the ‘work content times’ for a representative number of ‘benchmark jobs’ are established. The resultant productivity improvement that accrues because of integrating planner’s function with UMS will substantially benefit the organization in the following areas of operations/ functions: a. Hence the measurement provides information to determine the savings potential and also justify the maintenance work measurement program. Improved services to customers g... 4. 9. ……………. Continuous improvement opportunities and gain in competitive advantage f. The UMS system is based on three important techniques: a) Range of time b) …………………………… c) organizing the data 7. ……………………………….. Life cycle cost reductions d. Contributes in meeting other goals and objectives in the strategic plan. Cost reduction and its total savings b.e) Improving the Wrench time of the Crew in Maintenance 2.. ………………………………. have developed a bench marking process for the major work areas/types of operation..
Improving ……………………….. 12. risks analysis on jobs that leads to improvements. ACE Team process can contribute significantly to ……………… as its application promotes a commitment to quality repair procedures. within the 95% confidence range. safety practices...... The new system will become a platform for continuous improvement and will generate long term benefits .... effective storerooms and continuous parts support will all contribute to proactive.. Overall Craft Utilization = [Craft utilization (%) x . supervisors and planners and provides an excellent means to evaluate repair method.. organizations have tried and tested different approaches for bringing changes that can result in improvements in both the function and the cost. planners and other knowledgeable people to do two things.. .. ACE System is a true team-based process that utilizes skilled crafts people.. ACE Team process is to obtain the most reliable.....]/ [Total craft hours allotted x amount paid] 19...... 11..10.. Craft Utilization (or wrench time) is measured as the ratio of: [ ..9 Summary By using a state-of-the-art maintenance management. and do not include the miscellaneous waste time caused due to any of the reasons.. Best practices such as effective maintenance planning/scheduling.. Spreadsheets include brief descriptions of the benchmark jobs and represent ………………..... supervisors. Craft Utilization or pure wrench time relates to measuring how effective we are in planning and scheduling craft resources so that these assets are doing …………………..... 17.... technicians. a) ……………………………………………………………………... 18.... Spreadsheets are then set up with each work group having a time slots or …………………….. Pure wrench time is just the ………………………. 16..... (%) x Craft service quality (%)] 7. preventive/ predictive maintenance.. 14... .. b) Establish work content time for selected “benchmark jobs” 13. time from a group of experienced crafts people. 15.... is getting maximum value from craft labor resources and higher craft productivity..... reasonable estimate of maintenance …………………............ planned maintenance and more productive ………………......
Pure wrench time is just the actual output/work done Measuring and improving Overall Craft Effectiveness and the value received from improving our craft assets an important part of total asset management. b) Benchmarking the best practices c) ACE system for benchmarking and improvements d) Overall craft effectiveness for improved productivity and cost reduction and its measurement e) Improving the Wrench time of the Crew f) Achieving excellence in Maintenance Engineering and Management The resultant productivity improvement and benefits that accrues because of integrating planner’s function with UMS are: a) cost reductions b) downtime reduction. For gaining the internal core competency in maintenance. which are reliable and a well-accepted planning times for the entire maintenance crew. industry or service enterprise. on-time delivery and ultimately. life cycle cost reductions d) on time completion of jobs e) continuous improvements f) improved service to customers. measurements by using UMS and . For achieving high productive maintenance.Higher productivity maintenance means better customer service. or one country. who have performed these jobs earlier and have the requisite experience to improve upon them. productive work (wrench time). is a team of relatively small number of representatives. develops a bench marking process for the major work areas / types of operation. organizations should clear understand of the Overall Craft Effectiveness. satisfied customers. but everywhere where maintenance work is performed and is based on three important techniques: a) Range of time b) work content comparison c) organizing the data “A Consensus of Experts” (ACE). the concepts. Improving Overall Craft Effectiveness is getting maximum value from craft labor resources and higher craft productivity. The ACE System is used to develop maintenance performance standards. The Universal Standards serve the special needs of maintenance work through the following principles: a) Scientific control b) Measurement before controls c) activity responsibility d) customer/service relationship e) Crew size f) Timeliness The Universal Maintenance Standards offered flexibility and could be applied not just in one location. Overall Craft Utilization = [Craft utilization (%) x Craft performance (%) x Craft service quality (%)] Maintenance is a core requirement for profitable survival and total operations success. These Benchmarked jobs are then arranged into different time categories on spreadsheets for various craft work areas. Craft Utilization or pure wrench time relates to measuring how effective the craft resources so are doing value-added. higher quality. principles and theory of new measurement techniques that are used are: a)Universal Maintenance Standards.
providing value added maintenance services on a most profitable manner are essential processes. 7.10 Terminal Questions 1. Why application and analysis of work measurements are important in maintenance management? 2. Which are all the concepts, techniques and principles used in measurement of work effectiveness and efficiency in maintenance? 3. Why planner’s role is vital to maintenance and how it improves the effectiveness? 4. Explain briefly the categories to which the tasks of work measurements can be grouped? 5. Explain the benefits that accrue to organization by integrating planner’s works with UMS? 6. Universal Standards serve the special needs of maintenance work through principlesWhich are these universal principles used for higher productive maintenance? 7. What are the three important techniques on which the UMS depends? 8. Explain briefly the five levels of UMS library and how each one is very important criteria for work measurement and analysis? 9. Explain the importance of using spread sheets and bench marks in work measurement to improve maintenance effectiveness? 10. “New Benchmarking Tool through ACE technique outlines a new and highly recommended methodology for establishing ‘team-based maintenance performance standards’, which is called as ‘Reliable Planning-Time standards” –explain how ACE will serve the organization’s needs in maintenance? 11. What is meant by Ace Benchmarking system and to what type of process it is recommended? 12. Explain overall performance effectiveness and how it helps in analyzing the performance of wrench times? 13. What is meant by effective craft utilization and productive wrench time & what are the factors constituting the craft utilization? 7.11 Answers
Self Assessment Questions 1. Improving the Overall craft effectiveness 2. Plans work content 3. On-time completion benefits 4. Universal Maintenance Standards 5. Scientific control 6. Work content comparison 7. Bench marks 8. A Consensus of Experts 9. Range of time concept 10. Range of time and pure wrench time 11. Work content 12. Improve current repair methods, Safety and quality 13. Reliability 14. Overall Craft Effectiveness 15. Wrench time 16. Value-added-productive work. (Wrench time) 17. Actual output/work 18. Total Productive hours or wrench time 19. Craft performance Terminal Questions: 1. Refer 7.1 2. Refer 7.1
3. Refer 7.2 4. Refer 7.3 5. Refer 7.4 6. Refer 7.5 7. Refer 7.6.1.(c) 8. Refer 7.6.2 9. Refer 7.6.2 10. Refer C 11. Refer 7.7.5 12. Refer 7.8 13. Refer 7.8. (d), (e), (f) Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .
1 Introduction Objective 8. Planning for QMS documentation refers to planning for “infrastructure level” QMS documentation. Planning for QMS documentation should address the following three elements: 1.6 Terminal Questions 8.OM0006-Unit-08-System Operations and Documentation Unit-08-System Operations and Documentation Structure: 8.5 Summary 8.7 Answers 8.1 Introduction Before an organization begins creating QMS documentation.3 Documentation Management and Control Role of the Document Controller Types of QMS Documents Document Numbering Document Versioning Document Content 8.4 QMS Documentation Process 8. Planning for such documentation is performed during the planning phase for a specific project. it must plan for it.2 Documentation Strategy 8. . Overall strategy for creating QMS documentation.
the primary users of an organization’s QMS documentation are its employees. and 3. After all. approval. Document creation can proceed unhindered once the necessary guidelines are in place to support the creation. Documentation strategy This is perhaps the most critical element of QMS documentation planning. and archived when obsolete (to prevent unintentional use). Brainstorming the documentation strategy entails obtaining answers to the following questions: · What approach should be adopted for documenting the QMS (top down or bottom-up)? · Up to what level of detail should processes be documented (breadth and depth of documentation)? · How can the QMS documentation be kept relatively stable and immune from minor changes in the organization or its processes? Documentation management and control Documentation management and control are a key element of an organization’s QMS. not one written primarily to appease external quality auditors. providing mechanisms to ensure that documentation in the organization is uniquely identifiable reviewed and approved by the appropriate authority prior to release. review. not outside parties. will provide you with a documentation set that is usable. changed in a controlled manner. Agreeing upon such issues up front will facilitate the creation of the QMS documentation. kept current. and. and dissemination of QMS documentation. perhaps most importantly. This entails answering questions such as: · What types of QMS documents are required? · How should the QMS documents be logically structured? · How should the QMS documents be uniquely identified? · Who should review and approve documents? · How should changes to QMS documents be identified and controlled? · How should superseded (or obsolete) documents be handled? . A wellthought-out. made available to users. Process for creating QMS documents.2. rational approach to documenting your QMS will enable you to rapidly develop a QMS that works and has sufficient but not excessive detail. Documentation management and control mechanisms.
how should the QMS documentation repository be published? · How should the published QMS documentation be organized to maximize ease of use for employees? Documentation process The third element of QMS documentation planning entails the establishment of a process for the creation. the product design sub process should be supported by QMS documentation such as a design document template. hardcopy) repository or an electronic (i.· How should documents of external origin be controlled? · Should the QMS documentation be stored in a physical (i. For example. What is the right level of detail to include in the documentation so that it enables correct and . Within the product development process. a product design guidelines document. the process that results in a formalized set of product requirements may be identified as the product requirements definition sub process that is documented in a product requirements definition procedure. The procedures describing the sub processes and their interaction should be supported by additional QMS documentation.2 Documentation Strategy The top-down approach to implementing and documenting the QMS is highly recommended (as opposed to the bottom-up approach). Similarly. rework.e. Another important issue that needs to be addressed regards level of detail.e. and other needed documentation. review. as appropriate. Objectives: After going through this unit you will be able to: · Describe what is documentation strategy · Outline a documentation strategy for a unit or an enterprise · Construct a process map for documentation · Compose a QMS for a documentation process 8. virtual) repository? · How employees should be provided access to controlled QMS documentation.. that is. and final release of QMS documents. For example. the overall process that results in a delivered product the product development process may be documented in a product development procedure and/or in a product development process map.. approval. the process that results in a formal documented design for the product may be identified as the product design sub process that is documented in a product design procedure.
Such an organizational change can have a huge impact on the QMS documents. organizations should be careful in how they respond when process execution deviates from requirements. and minimizes impact (on QMS documentation) of minor changes in the business processes and organizational structure? Any breakdown or inconsistency in process execution does not necessarily result from insufficient QMS documentation. and control of processes. Include all information that is specifically required to be documented as per the applicable quality management system standard. and another procedure Y needs to refer to the same activity. state in procedure Y that detailed description regarding that activity can be found in procedure X. If an activity is described in a procedure X. if any. In the event of any change in the execution in that activity. Often departments in organizations are renamed or merged into other departments. it is far more convenient to revise one QMS document than to revise multiple documents. and competency level of employees executing the processes. if your organization has a product test department that is called “system test department. but might result from unclear or ambiguous QMS documentation. complexity of the process being documented.” For example. refer to them by the “function performed. QMS documents should be written so that they need minimum change.” then refer to this department as the test department.” you need not revise your QMS documents if the functional responsibilities for testing the product still reside with this group. Creating more QMS documentation is not necessarily the right solution. is the preferred solution. For example. review of existing QMS documentation to identify and correct deficiencies. 2. Some useful tips to accomplish this are: • • • Always refer to roles (or functional areas) that are involved in the execution of a process. type of activities. or conducting employee training to emphasize key aspects of a process. Other factors that have a bearing on extent of QMS documentation include size of the organization. instead of referring to departments by name. instead of saying that Mark Peterson produces the product requirements document. or other factors.consistent process execution. Sometimes. Do not document details of an activity in more than one QMS document. Include only as much information as is necessary to ensure effective planning. 3. operation. state that the requirements document is produced by the requirements engineer. . for minor operational or organizational changes. as opposed to referring to individuals by name. inadequate employee training. Below are some guidelines to follow to ensure QMS documentation has the right amount of detail: 1. To minimize the impact of such reorganizations. If this department subsequently is renamed the “independent verification and validation department. Therefore.
2. A controlled document is one that is formally approved and is under formal version control. type of activities.g. Documentation __________ and control are a key element of an organization’s QMS. the document controller function may be centralized or distributed. A document controller’s responsibilities generally include. Implementation-level QMS documents typically are more prone to changes in content. Generally. For example. _____________ should be written so that they need minimum change. Verifying that documents submitted for storage and publishing are: .3. 5. and scope than are high-level documents. company quality manual and operating procedures) in a centralized location. 3. Avoid references to another department’s work instructions or similar implementation-level documents.. Documentation process of __________ planning entails the establishment of a process for the creation. Document controllers are people who coordinate. title. However. QMS documentation includes ______ of the organization. and enforce an organization’s documentation management and control function. but are not limited to: 1. such as procedures. in case of companies with more than one location (or very large companies in a single location).• When referring to another department’s QMS documents. department Y’s procedure refers to department X’s work instructions. QMS documentation that pertains to a specific location (or a specific function) may be controlled locally. 4. it is necessary to introduce the concepts of controlled documents and document controller. The ________________ to implementing and documenting the QMS is highly recommended.3 Documentation Management and Control 8. Certainly it is quite inconvenient for department Y to revise its procedure when department X revises its work instructions such that the reference from department Y’s procedure becomes inaccurate. it is best to control documents that affect an entire company (e. monitor. 8. Depending on the size of an organization and/or its number of locations. refer only to its highlevel QMS documents. Self Assessment Questions 1.1 Role of the Document Controller Before discussing different elements of document management and control.
This includes clearly identifying documents of external origin and storing them in a secure location. Verifying that the documents are correctly versioned. Alternatively. 3. this task generally is performed by the document controller. 5. Verifying that the documents are correctly numbered. when errors or discrepancies are observed. Notifying appropriate personnel.a. such as the document author and management personnel from the affected area. a document number may be generated automatically. they adhere to standardized templates when applicable) b. Notifying affected personnel in the event of a change to a previously approved document (or release of a new document) 9. This includes withdrawing copies of obsolete controlled documents. 4. Correctly storing and publishing (or distributing) controlled documents. In case of changes to previously approved documents. 11. 10. Verifying that changes made to previously approved documents were properly authorized (that is. 12. Duly approved c. for revised documents. Authorizing internal documents for external release after verifying that approvals for the release have been obtained from relevant management personnel.2 Types of QMS Documents Quality Manual . Verifying that all changes made to previously approved documents are clearly identified. Ensuring that all controlled documents are stored in a secure location. 6. Controlling documents of external origin. In the correct format (that is. When document numbers are issued manually for new documents. This is necessary because the document author may make document changes in addition to those that were authorized. Accompanied by review records (when required) 2. the document controller should verify that the document version accurately reflects the magnitude of change in the latest version. 8. Maintaining a master list of controlled documents. an approved document change request should be available) 7.3. 8.
and not in the context of a quality management system standard. which must be referenced. However. the quality manual references relevant. This can be demonstrated by senior management approval on the quality manual. A significant advantage of this structure is that it is not alien to employees. This approach entails describing the high-level product development process map of the organization. An organization’s quality manual is an invaluable document for its employees. Each section (or subsection) in the quality manual describes how requirements in the corresponding section (or subsection) in the quality management system standard are adhered to in the organization. The quality manual must reflect the QMS accurately and be kept current at all times. It therefore should reflect the organization’s commitment to quality (in other words. along with a reference to related QMS documentation. employees typically relate more closely to organizational processes than to the requirements in a quality management system standard. QMS documentation in explaining adherence to each quality management system standard requirement. In case of medium and large product development companies. and other parties (such as third-party auditors). Senior management should realize that it is responsible for the manual’s content. in the case of smaller companies. Such a quality manual includes separate sections (or subsections) for each of the requirements sections (or subsections) in the quality management system standard. This includes describing the purpose and scope of each process. Therefore. . The QMS is explained in the context of the organizational business processes. followed by separate sections briefly describing each key process in the QMS. answer why the organization is implementing a QMS) and describe how the organization ensures quality in its daily operations. from the quality manual. such as ISO 9001:2000. it is preferable to exclude details regarding the organization’s processes from the quality manual. Such quality manuals follow a top-down approach to describing the organization’s QMS. Such details should be embedded in the appropriate QMS documents. it may be appropriate to include the procedures in the quality manual itself. organizations structure their Quality Manual in one of two ways: 1) Standard-based quality manual Most organizations that are implementing a QMS in accordance with the requirements in a particular quality management system standard. Typically. 2) Process-based quality manual This structure is being used increasingly in organizations that have successfully transitioned to taking a process-oriented view of their QMS. as needed. customers (and potential customers).A quality manual is the highest-level QMS document and is intended primarily to provide an overview of an organization’s QMS. When appropriate. prefer to structure their manual to mimic the structure of the applicable quality management system standard. employees invariably prefer such a quality manual. and consequently it gains wider acceptance for daily operations.
a procedure should not be longer than three pages. and Where the activities are performed. Work instructions describe how activities in a process are executed. When each activity in a process is performed. Who performs the activities (roles and responsibilities). Work instruction A work instruction is a documented low-level description of a process. They describe: What activities comprise a process. Procedures are not intended to provide the how to implementation details regarding a process. If a longer procedure is needed. practitioners typically need additional process documents. and they constitute the first level of documentation below procedures. Procedures are useful for communicating process information at all levels of management between departments. The practitioners have firsthand experience performing the tasks and therefore typically are the most knowledgeable. They provide a step-by-step description of tasks to be executed in order to accomplish each activity in the process. They also serve as a valuable starting point for training process practitioners. They serve as critical reference documents for anyone interested in knowing what a process entails. Work instructions typically are intradepartmental and are intended primarily for use by process practitioners. they should be documented and jointly reviewed by practitioners involved in executing the tasks documented. Procedures are usually interdepartmental. Due to the intradepartmental nature of work instructions. As a general rule of thumb. The decision to document a process in a procedure is made by the respective process owner in consultation with the quality assurance department. because organizational processes typically span multiple departments. called work instructions. When process practitioners do not have the requisite training or are otherwise unskilled for creating effective process .Procedure A procedure is a documented high-level description of a process. Due to the interdepartmental nature of procedures. This helps ensure that the procedure accurately reflects the process and the interaction between various departments. it is a good candidate for splitting into separate procedures. and experienced personnel for providing information on the execution of specific tasks. to execute their tasks. they should undergo cross-functional review by all departments involved in the process (or areas affected by the process) being documented. Procedures constitute the first level of documentation below the quality manual. Because a procedure is intended to contain relatively high-level information regarding a process. competent.
is there need to elaborate and provide further explanation on a process documented in a procedure by creating a work instruction (e. the greater the likelihood of inconsistency in process execution. The decision to create a work instruction is made by the line manager or process owner who is responsible for the tasks. the core description of tasks in a work instruction should be limited to about four or five pages in length. The need to document a procedure or work instruction may be determined by using criteria such as: Complexity Is the process or the activities in it sufficiently complex that that it needs to be supported by a documented procedure or work instruction? Or. In many cases.. the sequence of inspections to be performed before final approval for release of electronic wire assemblies)? Competence of personnel Is the competency level of the personnel executing the process such that it needs to be augmented with appropriate documentation to ensure the process is correctly executed? (For example. such as the PMC representative for the department. Work instructions should be created on an as-needed basis when a need exists to provide detailed step-by-step guidance for process execution.. Not every procedure needs to be supported by underlying work instructions. in order to secure buy-in of the practitioners and to ensure that the documentation accurately reflects practice. the work instructions should be documented with direct input and active involvement of the process practitioners.) Size of organization Is the process executed by several personnel and/or in multiple locations? The greater the number of personnel involved in a process or the greater the number of locations at which a process is executed. when new personnel or personnel with varying levels of competence are executing a process.g. work instructions can help ensure consistency and minimize errors.g. As a general rule of thumb. processes that are relatively straightforward and without inherent complexity (or sophistication) can be described adequately in a well-documented procedure such that competent personnel can faithfully execute them without compromising quality of process output.documentation. this task may be performed by another appropriate person. the sequence of tasks to be performed during engine assembly for a passenger vehicle)? Need for consistency Are there expectations regarding a high degree of discipline and consistency in executing a set of tasks (e. to minimize variation. and to ensure consistency in process execution. In such a case. .
a unique document number and version should be assigned to each document. The organization should devise a document numbering convention that meets its needs. while the decision to create a template or form for departmental use may be made by the respective line manager. It is recommended that forms and templates have brief instructions embedded in them to guide the user regarding the expected content in each section of the document. such as procedures or work instructions. Therefore. 8. for documenting procedures. An example of a document numbering convention is shown in Table 1. For example. documenting an agreed way of executing a process can help. but also what revision level of that document to use.3 Document Numbering In order to uniquely identify and control each QMS document. Any change or set of changes made to a document since its last release necessitates that the new revision level of the document be formally identified. Once released. The decision to create a template or form for use across departments should be made by the respective process owner in consultation with the quality assurance department (for reasons described earlier). but retained for archival purposes). They help in ensuring consistency of format and content within a particular type of document.3. due to their very nature. A form is used to record information. one must not only know what document to use. and should be enforced by the personnel in charge of (or tool used for) issuing the document numbers. Table 1 .Past problems Have there been instances in the past where inconsistencies in employees have been observed in process execution? In such cases. a document typically will undergo revisions until it is withdrawn from use (or considered obsolete. it is strongly recommended that a procedure template first be established. directly in the fields provided. either for review or for use (after approval). The procedure author would start with the procedure template and populate it with information for the process being documented. Templates and forms A template is a skeleton for a document intended to be populated with specific information from use.3. This is because the information contained in the new revision of the document is to some extent different from that contained in the previous revision. evolve. Templates serve as guides for communicating the expected structure and content of a document.4 Document Versioning Documents. The numbering convention should be published in a QMS document. 8.
Example of a Document Numbering Convention Document number format: AAA-BB-CCCC-DDDD where, AAA: Three-character identifier for department that is the document originator For example, “ENG” may denote engineering, “MKT” may denote marketing, “EXT” may denote the document is of external origin, and so on. BB: Two character identifier for document type. For example, “PR” may denote procedure, “TP” may denote template, “CH” may denote checklist, and so on. CCCC: Four-character alphanumeric identifier for project, product, or task. DDDD: Four-digit sequential number between 0001 and 9999. This sequential number uniquely identifies a specific document (irrespective of its version). 8.3.5 Document Content Following are some guidelines regarding document content (for examples, refer to sample QMS documents in the Appendices): 1. All QMS documents and records should have the same “look and feel.” Consistency in templates and forms can be ensured by following some general guidelines, such as:
The same header and footer on all templates and forms, with information such as:
a) Document title b) Document number c) Document version d) A statement to indicate the company proprietary nature of the document
Each QMS document, when appropriate, should use the same title page, containing the following:
– Standard information, (e.g., organization’s name and logo). The title page also can include a unique logo to indicate that it is a QMS document. This enables quick identification of QMS documents. – Customizable information, (e.g., document title) 2. Each QMS document or record should contain content as per the guidance contained in the associated form or template. Each QMS document must identify its purpose and
scope clearly. Correctness of the document content should be reviewed and enforced during document review meetings. 3. Deletions from the template and forms should not be allowed. If a particular section is not required, it should be marked “not applicable.” 4. Insertion of additional sections in a document created by using a standard form or template should be allowed when necessary; however, certain rules should be established to handle addition of new sections. Self Assessment Questions State whether following statement True or False. 6. All QMS documents and records should have the same “look and feel”. 7. A work instruction is a non-documented low-level description of a process. 8. A procedure is a documented high-level description of a process. 9. A quality manual is the highest-level QMS document. 10. A template is not a skeleton for a document intended to be populated with specific information from use. 8.4 QMS Documentation Process Now that all the necessary elements of a documentation management system have been described, you are ready to begin creating QMS documents. What documentation process should be followed to create, review, and approve QMS documents? This section describes a high-level documentation process that ties together some of the key elements of document management and control. Step 1: Identify suitable document author The first step is to identify a document author who possesses appropriate subject matter expertise. Typically, a management person from the function tasked to create the document selects a suitable document author. Step 2: Create draft version of the document The document author creates a draft version of the document by using the applicable template (if one is available). Step 3: Review the draft document
Once a draft version of the document has been prepared, it is circulated for review to appropriate reviewers (or functions) that are considered stakeholders in a document. The review may be in the form of an informal and/or formal review. Step 4: Rework the document as per reviewer feedback After receiving the feedback from the reviewers, the author reworks the document in accordance with comments provided by the document reviewers. Step 5: Approve and publish the document Once the document rework is complete, and it has been determined that a rearview is not required, the document is circulated for approval to the identified approvers. Once all the required approvals have been obtained, the author submits the master copy of the document along with the review record to the document controller. The document controller stores the document in the controlled repository and makes copies available for use. 8.5 Summary Documentation strategy is perhaps the most critical element of QMS documentation planning. Documentation management and control are a key element of an organization’s QMS, providing mechanisms to ensure that documentation in the organization is uniquely identifiable reviewed and approved by the appropriate authority prior to release. A template is a skeleton for a document intended to be populated with specific information from use. 8.6 Terminal Questions 1. Explain briefly different steps in documentation. 2. Define some guidelines in Documentation Strategy. 3. Explain types of QMS documents. 4. Summarize Document Content. 5. Explain QMS Documentation Process. 8.7 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1. Management 2. QMS documentation
.1. 10 5.3 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Refer 8.2 4. False 8. Page 4 3. Size 6. Refer Pages 9. Refer 8. QMS documents 4.3.0 2. True 10. False Terminal Questions 1. Top-Down approach 5.2. True 7. Refer 8. True 9.Refer 8.
OM0006-Unit-09-Machine Life and Depreciation
Unit-09-Machine Life and Depreciation Structure: 9.1 Introduction Objectives 9.2 Functional Reliability of Facilities 9.3 Weibull Distribution Curve [Failures and its Analysis] 9.4 Life of Equipment a) Bathtub Curve and MTBF b) Breakdown Time Distribution c) Reliability and Variability of the Equipments 9.5 Critical Analysis 9.6 Maintenance Performance Ratios 9.7 Maintenance Systems 9.8 Reliability and Availability Concepts 9.9 How good is Reliability Performance? a) Root Cause Failure Analysis b) Reliability Centred Maintenance c) Failure Modes Effects Analysis & Total Productivity Maintenance 9.10 Maintenance Economics 9.11 Preventive Vs Breakdown Maintenance
9.12 Measurement of Maintenance Performance 9.13 Asset Life Cycle Management 9.14 Equipment Replacement Plans 9.15 Depreciation & Capital Expenditure based on Life Cycle 9.16 Summary 9.17 Terminal Questions 9.18 Answers to SAQ & Terminal Questions 9.1 Introduction The main function of the maintenance department is to monitor and control the condition of machineries and equipments and improve their functional reliability. The reliability theories on equipment performances have shown that there is a definite pattern of performance in their lifespan. This pattern manifests itself when different machineries are subjected to rigorous operations during the life span. The typical characteristics of the lifespan show a particular behaviour pattern of a bathtub and hence it is called as ‘bathtub curve’, which is discussed later. Objectives: After going through this unit you will be able to: · Describe what are failures in maintenance · Analyze failures through Weibull distribution curve · Discuss Reliability Performance · Construct a measure for performance 9.2 Functional Reliability of Facilities One of the most important objectives of Maintenance management is to improve functional reliability of the production facilities. The functional reliability refers to the consistency of the degree of performance of the machine, equipment or service operation. When it is said that a machine is having 97% reliability means that 97% of the machine time is utilized in performing the standard production for which it is meant for, and the remaining 3% of non performing may be
due to breakdowns or sub-standard performance. Therefore it is the duty of the plant maintenance crew to strive to maintain and increase the functional reliability of the production facilities. The objective of FMEA ( ) and reliability analysis of the plant and equipment is to ensure to excellence in performance of critical assets and achieve the business goals. The application of standard procedures and structured approach to analyse and practice effective method/s required to maintain all the operating plant assets. This process enables the maintenance managers to plan, review and optimise the maintenance operations that have direct impact on plant availability, thereby improving the overall plant performance and minimizing catastrophic failures. The functional reliability of facilities to be maintained or improved upon by the maintenance management requires the use of certain concepts, reliability methodologies, analysis, tools and techniques and measures. Some of these are listed: a) Determinate the appropriate level of maintenance services required. b) Identify specific actions based on equipment failures analysis & risk assessment. c) Prevention and reduction of potential failures by properly identifying defects and implementing corrective actions prior to failure d) To deploy sufficient staff to provide adequate repair and maintenance facilities. e) To provide for the stand-by equipment for key operations and also reasonable slacks in the production system to create some parallel path in a critical situation f) To adopt preventive Maintenance system to replace critical parts, before they fail. g) Each of the above involves costs. The cost involved should be justified on the basis of cost-benefit analysis. The cost of attaining reliability must be lower than the cost advantage available out of the production stoppages, idle machine and labour time, scrap, poor quality, loss of goodwill to keep delivery promises etc. h) Maintenance extends the useful life of assets by reducing wear and tear. i) Maintenance keeps up operational readiness of equipments for emergencies. j) Maintenance contributes a great deal to safety of manpower using the facilities. k) It prevents wastage of spares, tools and materials.
The high rate of failure at infant mortality stage is primarily due to the presence of weak or substandard components or design inadequacies. The failure is random and unpredictable.l) More automation calls for sophisticated Maintenance. the weak components from the infant mortality period have either been repaired or replaced. Most equipment that survives infancy stage will continue to perform better with very few failures. This behaviour pattern reflects ‘hyper-exponential distribution’. The graph of the failure pattern. c) Ageing Phase: Here the rate of failure increases until the equipment succumbs and is characterized by the rapid wear and tear of more and more components until major breakdown happens. which is called the infant mortality. This is the useful period of the machine. and or not adjusted the operating conditions adequately. Once this phase is over.3 Weibull Distribution Curve [Failure & Its Analysis] For better maintenance planning and control. the failure rate dips as the components adjust to the system until it reaches a relatively low constant level. called the ‘Weibull distribution graph’ (after Weibull developed it). b) Useful Performance phase: Next phase is the useful period of performance with a better reliability. is shown below. or sheer quality deficiency in their manufacture. fatigue due to flaws in the molecular structure of the metals. because of its shape. This type of breakdowns may be due physical characteristics of the . poor installation. there are three phases in the equipment performance namely a) Infant mortality phase b) Useful performance phase c) Ageing phase. it is important to know the nature and occurrence of failures over a period of time for the equipment in use. is primarily due to abrupt changes in stress distribution in the components. a) Infant Mortality phase: Newly installed equipment shows high rate incidence of early failures during initial phase of its life. As per the graph. It is also commonly called as ‘Bath Tub Curve’. During this period. 9.
9. Mean Time between Failure (MTBF) can be computed. by which the system reliability.4 Life of Equipment a) Bathtub Curve and MTBF · Weibull distribution or Bath Tub Curve. its statistics will help as a diagnostic tool in identifying the exponential nature of the availability and the reliability of equipment. the failure of any one part may result in the complete machine breakdown.materials used. · A simple machine having few moving parts may have breakdowns happenings after a large number of maintenance free run time hours. · From these. Depending upon the complexity of the machine and severe aging processes because of extreme wear and tear results in an ultimate failure. and may be earlier or later. availability. can be assessed. These causes being external to the equipment and the probability of failing is relatively constant. . · When the failures are recurrent. Negative exponential and Normal exponential. anticipated life etc. This ageing failure graph shows a bell-shaped normal distribution pattern. · Figure below represents the degree of variability in free run time. the failure fall into a negative exponential distribution. This ultimate may occur at ‘mean’ or ‘average’ time. but in a complex machine. In other words. · The availability (A) = [Cumulative time of operation in the normal working condition(Tn)] / the cumulative down time (Td)] i.e. the breakdown time distribution of a complex machine will reflect a greater variability than that of a simple machine even if they have the same average maintenance free run time. shown above. Distribution shows the frequency of maintenance free running time with respect to total operating hours. A= [Tn] / [Tn+Td] b) Breakdown time distribution: · It is essential to know how the breakdown time is distributed in order to establish the cost implications in maintenance. or how the machine is used. is a combination of three distributions: Hyper exponential. This means that each part in a particular machine will have different failure distribution.
It can be observed that the Curve A shows lower degree of variability. Here the data can be recast in the diagram.8. but the distribution shows wider variability. the frequency distribution. 0. the resultant graph is shown below. · By reliability. · When the above reliability factors are plotted in a diagram showing the percentage of breakdowns that exceed a given runtime on the ‘y’ – axis.9. then the total product reliability is multiple of all these systems i.7. The variability by Curve C is typical of complicated equipment that needs fine adjustments before it starts giving trouble free service.e. Curve B of the complex machine. we mean the probability that any system gives a trouble free service. 0. For example: if the total system has four sub systems having the reliability factors of 0. Hence the reliability of the total system depends on the product reliability factors of each of the sub systems.While curve A depicts the behaviour of a simple machine. curve B exhibits moderate variability while Curve C indicates greater degree of variability from average breakdown time Ta.6. c) Reliability and Variability of the Equipments · Equipment can be considered as a total system and the failure of any one of the sub system can cause failure of the entire system. 0. . and ‘runtimes free of breakdowns’ on the ‘x’ – axis. before establishing reliability. converting the information into the breakdown time distributions versus the percentage of breakdowns that exceeds a given run time.and 0.4. Curve C has the same average maintenance free runtime as the other two.
to locate the faulty/broken part. This activity may take a few minutes. In other words.7 Maintenance Systems The ad hoc unplanned emergency maintenance is not recommended. 9. electrical or other fault quickly and to correct them. Repair Maintenance 2. the repair maintenance crew endeavours to locate mechanical. but the two types of planned maintenance could be carried out. to reassemble the equipment and then check and restore to its functional capacity. In this type of repair maintenance. here too is that the small percentage of around 15-20% defects in equipment. the nature of the fault and availability of repair staff etc.5 Critical Analysis Critical analysis of maintenance problems is essential to know as to how serious is the problem for taking quick actions. Preventive Maintenance When a sudden breakdown occurs in a machine. As in other types of probabilities. It is the job of the maintenance crew to identify and quickly eliminate or simplify or improve upon these defects. to replace it. Fundamental differences between the strategies discussed earlier and the proactive maintenance discussed now are: 1.6 Maintenance Performance Ratios Some of the ratios used in measuring the effectiveness of Maintenance functions are: a) Waste Index = [Waste Quantity] / [Output Quantity] b) Productivity of Maintenance = [Product output] / [Maintenance Cost] c) Maintenance Cost index = 100 x [Maintenance cost] / [Capital Cost] d) Breakdown maintenance index = [Break down hours] / [Man hours available] e) Downtime index = 100 x [Downtime hours] / [Production hours] 9. namely: 1. the function presupposes the previous breakdowns and actions of disassembling the equipment. or even a few days as the work involved depends on the size and complexity of the equipment.9. may contribute to 80 to 85% of the total breakdown time. Focus is not only concentrated on availability but also the reliability . it is a corrective maintenance to restore the machine/parts to acceptable condition again.
3. then lower is the reliability. and others. a tissue processing machine may give a good reliability of +98%. but when failures occur. fix the problem as fast as possible. but the liquid packaging machine may be best at +75% reliability. a CNC machine can be very good at 90%. For example.2. · Mean Time between Failure (MTBF) · Measure of mean time between production Loss (MTBPL) (Production losses include loss due to time.9 How Good Is ‘Reliability Performance’? In industrial processes.8 Reliability and Availability Concepts Reliability and availability have become key issues. . T = Time performance. 9. Manufacturing reliability can be defined as a manufacturing system’s capability to operate to its expected operations. There is a push towards zero downtime or zero in-service breakdowns. Using the above definition. the overall reliability performance of the total process is less and is dictated by the complex machine with lesser reliability. Use of improved maintenance tools such as Reliability Centred Maintenance (RCM). There are many ways to measure reliability. quality and speed) · Mean production loss (MPL) Thus the reliability index is expressed in terms of the running continuously without production losses. Root Cause Failure Analysis (RCFA). S = Speed performance] Manufacturing reliability model consists of a) process reliability b) equipment reliability and c) reliability maintainability. 9. where as a less complex automatic lathe may be rated best at + 98%. more complex the equipment/ the raw material/ high tech processing. This index is the volume of quality products you measure in the production line divided by the theoretical volume of quality product you could achieve from the same line. Say in a paper processing. Q = Quality performance. the formula used to measure manufacturing reliability (MR) is: MR = [% T] x [% Q] x [% S] [Where. and manufacture the quality product at the speed required.
preventive maintenance is highly beneficial to machines whose breakdown time distributions are having low variability.11 Preventive Vs Breakdown Maintenance Certain generalizations on type of maintenance can be made to improve the reliability: a) First. In this situation. customer service. quality. a standard preventive maintenance period can be set in such a way that the total downtime is reduced. planning and organisational leadership. the team checks for the logical flows and determine what changes are to be made to prevent causes from reoccurring. When implemented together they complement each other and provide the greatest overall benefit to the facility. It has relevance to high volume production and can improve a company’s maintenance system and help improve the overall productivity of the processes. · While RCM is driven by preventive maintenance strategies. As maintenance is an economic decision. hygiene. . This practice has impact on many aspects of business. RCM provides a flow diagram that tells what type of maintenance to be used. Non contributing causes are removed from the list and contributing factors are taken for analysis. Answering to seven questions on all the potential modes of failure will uncover the predictive maintenance strategy requires to mitigate the consequences of the failure. Through brainstorming sessions. the team finds as many causes for the fault as possible and classify them into non contributing and contributing. c) Failure Modes Effects Analysis & Total Productivity Maintenance · Total productive maintenance (TPM) and failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) are other maintenance tools used for improving the reliability through proactive maintenance. engineering. 9. RCFA is driven by maintenance prevention strategies. Through a fault tree analysis.10 Maintenance Economics Maintenance refers to an organisation’s policy in respect of the maintenance function of a set of equipments.a) Root cause failure analysis: · The root cause failure analysis (RCFA) method brings a knowledgeable team together to investigate certain failures using evidence left behind from the fault. b) Reliability centred Maintenance · The purpose of reliability centred maintenance (RCM) is to determine the maintenance requirements of any physical assets in its operating contexts. production. The decision of maintenance policy is more of an economic decision rather than a technical one. what are its cost implications? 9.
when the repair time is equal to maintenance time. Some metrics that may help in evaluation are: a) Maintenance man hours as percentage of total man hours b) Shutdown. it is better to perform corrective or breakdown maintenance. Companies should recognize this fact that maintenance of its assets is to be encouraged as the process will provide advantages in enhancing quality initiative.12 Measurement of Maintenance Performance Organizations seeking excellence in their maintenance practices should constantly endeavour to measure and improve upon the performance criteria’s of maintenance. such as 1. or more than the time for repair. the relation of preventive maintenance time to repair time is important. if the maintenance time is less than the repair time and If the preventive maintenance is equal to. 3) direct labour value . etc are required to be done and evaluated. There is little gain in the preventive maintenance. Additional stoppage time because the maintenance crew cannot start repairing immediately after the breakdown has occurred. 2. existing maintenance facilities. increases capacity. 9. the percentage of machine running time continues to increase with the increase of standard preventive maintenance period.b) Second. reduces costs and eliminate waste. d) We need to take into account other effects of unscheduled down-time. Effects of scheduling preventive maintenance for non-productive days with no loss of production. nature of repair breakdowns. Effect on production losses if plant shutdown can be avoided 3. Analysis of data of the existing conditions with respect to down time production loss. Hence maintenance and management of assets is the core to any business. maintenance cost breakdown. c) In general. overhauls and renovations c) Production asset and loss d) Continuous reliability improvements e) Maintenance cost as a ratio of percentage of 1) gross asset value 2) sales value.
Factors that are considered while taking decision to replace machine and equipment can be classified as a) Technical factors b) Cost factors. a) Technical factors that dictates replacement 1) Wear and tear of equipment 2) Obsolescence caused by new invention . c) Disposal Phase: when the asset is no longer capable of delivering the required operational performance or cannot be maintained cost effectively to achieve the required level of dependability.13 Asset Life Cycle Management In high tech production. as evolved by some companies for better results consists of three phases: a) Asset Acquisition Phase: here asset may be new or replaced or change of major components changed before operating activities in this asset is firmed up. Asset dependability and its reliability are to be established.f) Safety and regulatory compliance 9.14 Equipment Replacement Plans The systematic equipment development program includes: 1) emergence of equipment replacement 2) classification of equipment replacement 3) assignment of responsibility for equipment replacement 4) selection of the equipment 5) follow up. Asset life cycle management system. 9. b) Maintenance phase: operating environment for each asset is defined and performance goals at the lowest cost are firmed up. then the asset is disposed off as it has reached the end of its lifecycle. companies are required to produce more products of higher quality from fewer resources and hence maintaining higher reliability of assets has been a challenging task for the management.
The main ingredients of the annual cost are depreciation and interest charges. 1) Minimum annual cost method: here the decision to replace the machine (unwanted or life is completed) is based on the operating and capital costs. old or new. Some important methods or replacement of old and unused machineries are 1) minimum annual cost method 2) by using Barnes formula 3) MAPI (Machinery and allied institute) method.3) Unsuitability of equipment due to size of the work. material losses etc. While the annual operating costs include wages to operator. X = (No. repair and maintenance costs. rate of output. having a short life. Here the replacement is not advocated unless savings due to the use of new equipment. accuracy. Hence the time for replacement depends on the condition and characteristics of the equipment. of years the equipment will pay for itself) = [A+B] / [(E-F) DG + H – C] . power consumption. will pay not only for equipment but also for any unamortized value for next few years. 2) By Using Barnes Formula: this formula is used for equipment. speed of operations. consumes high power etc 4) Automation requirement for processes 5) To eliminate slack time through line balancing 6) Reduced safety 7) Reliability of performance b) Cost Factors: 1) High repair cost 2) Lesser place requirement 3) Probable economic life of the new machine 4) Consumption of less power 5) Reduction in labour cost because high productive machines purchased 6) Flexibility requirement not in the existing equipment Methods used for replacement after analysis: The replacement analysis becomes more complex due to many technical factors and qualitative considerations.
Straight Line method 1) A fixed percentage on cost each year. if an asset is purchased for Rs. It emphasizes on immediate return. Capital expenditure is not recorded in the Profit and Loss account. For example. the value of the asset in the balance sheet should be reduced by each year’s charge. MAPI method concentrates on the comparison of the rate of return of the proposed new project and similar returns when the proposed project is not implemented within next year.9000.10000. · Depreciation should be calculated in a way which most closely reflecting the manner in which the asset is being used up. D = number of units product per day by new equipment.9000 with the income that asset has generated.1000.15 Depreciation & Capital Expenditure based on Life Cycle · This requirement falls into the following groups: a) Calculation of depreciation b) Calculation of profit/loss on disposal c) Accounting for depreciation and disposals Calculation of Depreciation · Capital expenditure is that spent on purchase or improves on fixed assets. and then sold for Rs.[where A = cost of new equipment. B = depreciated value of the old equipment. 9. it has the business cost of Rs. F = estimated labour cost per unit with new equipment. Depreciation tries to apply the accruals by matching that Rs. 2) The same monetary amount each year . The two most commonly used methods are straight line method and reducing balance method. C = interest charge of new equipment. · An annual depreciation charge is shown as an expense in the Profit and Loss account. Additionally. whilst revenue expenditure is that spent on day to day business expenses. kept in use for 8 years. G = estimated working days per year for new equipment and H = savings or losses per year in fixed charges other than interest] 3) MAPI method: here the analysis is divided into 35 heads & three main groups. E = labour cost per unit in old equipment. but shown in the Balance Sheet · Depreciation is an attempt to spread the cost of an asset over its useful economic life.
i.e.4800 c) Year 3 (Rs.1500.30000 x 100. the annual charge for every year of the machine’s life is Rs.30000 – Rs. at the end of which it will be sold for Rs.3840 and so on. It is expected that this machine will be used for 10 years. 2850) · So. (Rs. using: (i) The straight line method (ii) The reducing balance method at 20% pa Solution · Under the straight line method. This may reveal that two much or too little depreciation has been provided over the asset’s life. the net cost is simply divided by the expected life.e. .6000) x 20% =Rs.4800) x 20% =Rs. On disposal. the actual disposal proceeds will show the true net cost of the asset.2850.2850 / Rs.30000. · [Note that the policy could have been expressed as “straight line at %” or “Depreciation at % pa on cost” – here the percentage is calculated as = Rs.6000 – Rs. 6000 b) Year 2 (Rs. [Note that the expected residual value is ignored & it will have been incorporated into the choice of 20% as an appropriate rate] b) Calculation of Profit/Loss The depreciation charged each year is based on estimates of useful life and residual value. ] Reducing balance method (the charge for depreciation reduces each year) a) Year 1 Rs. Calculate the depreciation to be charged for each of the first 3 years of the machine’s life.30000 x 20%= Rs.Reducing Balance method 1) A fixed percentage on net book value each year 2) A reducing monetary amount each year Example: 1 a) Straight line method A machine is purchased for Rs.30000 – Rs. i.30000 – Rs.1500) / 10 = Rs. This over or under provision of depreciation is shown in the Profit and Loss a/c as a profit or loss on the disposal of fixed assets.
acquisition or disposal may occur part way through the accounting year. Solution · Sales proceeds must be compared to the net book value on the date of disposal.03-2009 =20480 · Thus. 2. Calculate the profit or loss arising on this disposal.03.03-2009 (20%) =5120 · Net book value at 31.2007 =32000 · Depreciation y/e 31. 23000 – 20480 (book value) = Rs.23000. which necessitates decision regarding depreciation (may be proportionate) · A popular depreciation policy would be: A full year’s charge in the year of acquisition but none in the year of disposal Self Assessment Questions Fill up the blanks with appropriate words: 1. .03. the disposal occurred exactly 3 years after the acquisition.2007 (20%) =8000 · Net book value at 31.03-2008 =25600 · Depreciation y/e 31. The functional reliability refers to the ____________________ of the machine.2520 [sale price of Rs. · Original cost 40000 · Depreciation y/e 31.40000.Example: 2 An asset is purchased on 1 January 2006 for Rs. there is a profit on disposal of price of Rs. The asset is sold on 1 January 2009 for Rs. 2520] c) Accounting for depreciation and disposals · In the above example. equipment or service operation. and is depreciated using the reducing balance method at 20% pa. In practice.03-2008 (20%)= 6400 · Net book value at 31. The main function of the maintenance department is to monitor and control the condition of machineries and equipments and improve their ____________________.
the failure of any one part may result in the ____________________ . In the performance phase is the ______________ period of performance with a better reliability. called the ‘Weibull distribution graph’ (after Weibull developed it).3. 8. In the ____________ . because of its shape. Reliability and availability have become key issues. 5. may contribute to of the ____________ total breakdown time 10. The graph of the failure pattern. there are three phases in the equipment performance namely a) Infant mortality phase b) Useful performance phase c) _____________________ 6. 7. here too is that the small percentage of around 15-20% defects in equipment. Manufacturing reliability can be defined as a manufacturing system’s ____________. For better maintenance planning and control. 9. The failure of any one of the sub system can cause failure of the __________________.. and manufacture the quality product at the speed required. but in a complex machine. Hence the reliability of the total system depends on the _________________ of each of the sub systems. it is important to know the nature and occurrence of failures over a period of time for the equipment in use. As per the graph. It is also commonly called as ____________________. the rate of failure increases until the equipment succumbs and is characterized by the rapid wear and tear of more and more components until major breakdown happens. 11. is shown below. _________________ of maintenance problems is essential to know as to how serious is the problem for taking quick actions. As in other types of probabilities. This is the useful period of the machine. . The formula used to measure manufacturing reliability (MR) is: MR = ………………………. Newly installed equipment shows high rate incidence of early failures during initial phase of its life. A simple machine having few moving parts may have breakdowns happenings after a large number of maintenance free run time hours. 4. Most equipment that survives infancy stage will continue to perform better with very few failures. which is called the______________. The objective of FMEA ( ) and reliability analysis of the plant and equipment is to ensure to ____________________ of critical assets and achieve the business goals.
[Where. The purpose of reliability centred maintenance (RCM) is to determine the __________________ in its operating contexts. The objective of FMEA ( ) and reliability analysis of the plant and equipment is to ensure to excellence in performance of critical assets and achieve the business goals. can be assessed. anticipated life etc. Manufacturing reliability can be defined as a manufacturing system’s capability to operate to its expected operations. The functional reliability of facilities to be maintained or improved upon by the maintenance management requires the use of certain concepts. This pattern manifests itself due to rigorous operations during the life span. availability. equipment or service operation. Reliability and availability have become key issues. Asset life cycle management system. RCM provides a flow diagram that tells what type of maintenance to be used. 9. analysis. Q = Quality performance. The functional reliability refers to the consistency of the degree of performance of the machine. by which the system reliability. tools and techniques and measures. Some important methods or replacement of old and unused machineries are 1) minimum annual cost method 2) by using ____________________ 3) ____________________ method. . S = Speed performance ] 12. The replacement analysis becomes more complex due to many technical factors and the qualitative consideration.16 Summary The main function of the maintenance department is to monitor and control the condition of machineries and improve their functional reliability. The reliability theories on equipment have shown that there is a definite performance pattern their lifespan. and manufacture the quality product at the speed required. Mean Time between Failure (MTBF) can be computed. reliability methodologies. T = Time performance. Therefore it is the duty of the plant maintenance crew to strive to maintain and increase the functional reliability of the production facilities. 13. as evolved by some companies for better results consists of three phases: a) Asset Acquisition Phase: b) Maintenance phase: c) ____________________ 14.
Equipment can be considered as a total system and the failure of any one of the sub system can cause failure of the entire system. called the ‘Weibull distribution graph’ and known as ‘Bath Tub Curve’. Asset life cycle management system. · Mean Time between Failure (MTBF) · Mean time between production Loss (MTBPL) · Mean production loss (MPL) Companies should recognize this fact that maintenance of its assets is to be encouraged as the process will provide advantages in enhancing quality initiative. as evolved by some companies for better results consists of three phases: a) Asset Acquisition Phase b) Maintenance phase c) Disposal Phase Based on the life cycle analysis. it is important to know the nature and occurrence of failures over a period of time for the equipment in use. There are many ways to measure reliability. However the methodology to be used depends on the best alternative within the organizations objectives. reduces costs and eliminate waste. Hence the reliability of the total system depends on the product reliability factors of each of the sub systems. The graph of the failure pattern. there must be equipment replacement plan after considering the cost impact and other technical factors. shows three phases in the equipment performance namely · Infant mortality phase · Useful performance phase · Ageing phase. increases capacity. The purpose of reliability centred maintenance (RCM) is to determine the maintenance requirements of any physical assets in its operating contexts. because of its shape.For better maintenance planning and control. . Total productive maintenance (TPM) and failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) are other maintenance tools used for improving the reliability through proactive maintenance.
Consistency of the degree of performance 3. Explain few of them? 7) What are the factors considered in measurement of maintenance measurements? How they are evaluated? Briefly explain the three phases of asset life cycle management. 9. How this helps in replacement plans? 9. Ageing phase . Bath Tub Curve 5. Functional reliability 2.18 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1. b) Breakdown time distribution: and c) Reliability and Variability of the Equipments 5) What are maintenance performance index? How they help in measuring maintenance efforts? 6) There are many ways of measuring reliability and availability.17 Terminal Questions 1) Define functional reliability? 2) What are the maintenance management concepts. Excellence in performance 4. 9) What are the technical and cost factors to be considered while planning replacement of old machineries? 10) Explain briefly the depreciation methods used in capital expenditure on plant and machineries. Why it also called as bathtub curve? What are the three phases in the life span of equipment? 4) Explain briefly how the life of the equipment is depicted by the variability and availability factors in a) Bathtub Curve and MTBF. methodology used for maintaining the functional reliability? 3) Explain briefly the ‘Weibull distribution curve.Capital expenditure based on the life cycle and the depreciation either by straight line or reducing method is used for a comprehensive decision by the management.
Refer 9. Refer 9. Refer 9.12 8. 80 to 85% 10. Maintenance requirements of any physical assets 13.13 9. Refer 9.2 3. Barnes formula. Useful. Entire system. Ageing phase 7. Refer 9.8 7. . MAPI Terminal Questions 1.2 2. Critical analysis. Refer 9. Infant mortality. 8.6. Refer 9. Refer 9.15 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Capability to operate to its expected operations 11.4 5.14 10. Disposal Phase: 14.6 6. Product reliability factors 9. Refer 9. Refer 9. Complete machine breakdown. = [% T] x [%Q] x [%S] 12.3 4.
6 Evolution of Maintenance Methods 10.OM0006-Unit-10-Total Productivity Maintenance Unit-10-Total Productivity Maintenance Structure: 10.4 Objectives of TPM 10.9 Types of Losses.8 Overall Effectiveness of Equipment [basis of TPM] 10.3 Goals 10.12 Eight pillars of TPM Autonomous maintenance Kobetsu Kaizen Planned Maintenance Quality Maintenance .1 Introduction Objectives 10.7 Other Related issues with TPM 10.10 Zero Loss Concepts 10.5 TPM and its Features 10. 10.2 Total Productivity Maintenance 10.11 Implementation of TPM & Steps in TPM program Steps in TPM program 10.
Maintenance covers all those functions such as monitoring. faster set ups and fewer adjustments.15 Role of TPM in WC-production 10. High tech preventive maintenance routines are performed by experts at frequent intervals and machines are continually upgraded and modified for closer tolerances.Development Management Education & Training Safety.13 Relevance of TPM to TQM framework 10. This will increase the life of the machines and they perform better during their entire life span. cleaning. material handling equipment and other transport vehicles in proper working conditions. to keep a machine.18 Answers 10. The Japanese have virtually eliminated machine breakdowns by applying Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) techniques to their . a more sophisticated well managed preventive – maintenance type programs such as TPM or Reliability centred maintenance (RCM) has warranted. Health. Equipment maintenance is basic to competitive manufacturing. but they often neglect the very important function of complete maintenance. adjusting. But with the enlarged scope of maintenance functions when very high cost state of art machineries and equipments are used for higher productivity. Environment TPM in offices 10. inspecting. etc.1 Introduction Manufacturers invest huge capital on productive machines and equipments for production of the desired products. thus leading to breakdowns and production losses.17 Terminal Questions 10. machine failures cannot be tolerated.16 Summary 10. Earlier the maintenance management was viewed as a function with a lesser status compared to manufacturing and its role was restricted to one of carrying out breakdown repair when a machine breaks down. repairing. a facility.14 Benefits of TPM 10. Because JIT [Just-inTime] production lines operate very close to capacity in every process.
Objectives: After studying this unit you will be able to: · Outline the features of TPM · Explain the types of losses related to maintenance · List and explain the steps involved in TPM · Comment on the methods of TPM propounded by experts on Quality. It first evolved in Nippon Denso a major supplier of the Toyota car company. maximising capacity. Here the new quality approach of “prevention at source” was translated to the maintenance environment through the concept of TPM. relying on team work. minimising costs and continuously improving processes for manufacturing. efficiency and effectiveness with zero loss concepts through total participation of all employees with self managing abilities in practices. TPM is a well defined and organised maintenance program which places a high value on team work. consensus building and continuous improvement. 10.machines. Machines are cleaned and lubricated frequently by the operators who run those machines.3 Goals · Prevention of equipment deterioration · Maintain the equipment in optimal condition · Establishing basic equipment conditions · Operator is competent to operate machine/ equipment · Elimination of quality defects · Elimination of equipment failure · Elimination of cost losses . 10.2 Total Productive Maintenance [TPM] TPM had its genesis in the Japanese car industry in 1970’s. TPM is defined as the means to achieve high level of productivity. to achieve total customer satisfaction. Reliability and TPM principles call for avoiding crisis.
10.5 TPM-Its Features TPM no longer confines to the maintenance department. delivery and services.4 Objectives of TPM The principle objectives of TPM are: · Eliminate all breakdowns of machines and equipment to ensure trouble free continuous production. means elimination of micro operational issues · Achieve zero loss Concept – [zero breakdown. defect. waste and accident-free operations] in all the resources over the entire life cycle of a production system through team work and by overlapping small group activities. reduction in equipment life cycle cost. losses. · Reduction in manufacturing costs. cost.10. · Producing products for customer satisfaction in quality. . · Achieve manufacturing excellence. ensuring total effectiveness of the plant for higher quality and lesser downtime. · Increase plant efficiency. · Restoring equipment to a like-new condition · Improve maintenance efficiency and effectiveness · On job training of the labour to improve their job skills · To have a sound equipment maintenance management · Effective use of preventive and predictive maintenance technology · Achieve TPM with active participation & involvement in all levels · “Value Added” activity that the equipment is contributing to your products. · Boosting morale of employees. but spreads across as a company-wide culture. · Maximise asset and equipment effectiveness through OEE [overall equipment effectiveness] and OPE. · To achieve higher reliability/flexibility of equipment and reduce cost through eliminating wastages.
organizing. monitoring and controlling practices through a unique ‘8-Pillars Method’. · Periodic pre-failure replacement or overhauls and · Intolerance for breakdowns or unsafe conditions. efficiency. · Defect losses due to reduced yields in processing TPM includes three main elements: · Regular preventive maintenance. effectiveness with zero loss concept. · Speed losses due to discrepancies between designed and actual speeds · Defect losses due to process defects that cause scrap & quality problems. blockages etc.6 Evolution of Maintenance Methods What are the other maintenance methods that are universally practiced by industries. TPM is one of the most valuable strategies for those who want to be competitive & meet the World Class Competition 10. including housekeeping. leading to another innovative & modern practice under company-wide maintenance practice of TPM? How this evolution has happened and other related issues are briefly given below a) Breakdown Maintenance / Emergency / Corrective Maintenance: Break – down maintenance or emergency maintenance is a remedial or corrective maintenance practice that is undertaken when equipment fails and require repair on an . · Speed losses due to idling and minor stoppages caused by abnormal operations of censors. · Downtime for setups and adjustments. to achieve total customer satisfaction There are six types of losses found in a manufacturing firm: · Downtime due to equipment failure. TPM paves way for an excellent planning.TPM is a method designed to eliminate the losses caused by break-down of machines and equipments by identifying and attacking all causes of its breakdowns and system down time due to such breakdowns. through total participation of all employees with self-managing abilities in practice. TPM is a means to achieve high level of productivity.
Failure of equipment or machineries may occur at different phases. Here. . Obviously this is not an ideal way of keeping quiet until that breakdown happens. firms should build up a level of repair capability in order to get the system back in operation much faster. When the distributions curve exhibits a narrow standard deviation.7 Other Related Issues a) Improve Repair Capabilities: For reliability and a sound preventive maintenance practices. b) Preventive maintenance Preventive maintenance is the activity that is planned and programmed on a regular basis to inspect the system. to uncover potential problems and to make repairs. A good maintenance facility should have the following features: 1. Preventive maintenance policies and techniques must emphasize on all employees to accept the responsibility for the maintenance and perform all the activities to their capability. especially when mass production or continuous production is planned. This promotes employee empowerment and system performance c) Productive maintenance or Predictive maintenance – This is an extended preventive maintenance method that tries to reduce the chances of breakdowns by using modern monitoring and analysis techniques such as computer aided monitoring and forecasting and diagnose the condition of the equipment during operation. This idling will increase the production cost. that results in loss of production due to idling of machinery and labour and reduces system capacity. servicing and replace parts to ensure that the system does not fail during normal operation. the productive maintenance tries to identify signs of equipment deterioration or imminent failure and to take corrective action before it fails. 10. This reduces the frequency of machinery break downs and consequent loss of production Break down of a machine in production line can be costly if it means shutting down the entire plant. the preventive maintenance will be more expensive and incidental if it is other way. A study is made on each machine on the MTBF (mean time between failures) distribution.emergency or priority basis to set it right. There exists a relationship between the maintenance costs and the cost of failures with which the level of maintenance Vis-a-Vis frequency of maintenance could be firmed up. Well trained maintenance crew. maintenance costs and resultant delay in supply of products to customers as promised. A high failure rate known as the infant mortality exists during the initial working of the machine and then settles in.
Malfunctioning of machines cause deterioration and results in inefficiency. This will ultimately shorten the life of machines and cause high repair costs. they can improve operator safety and reduce injuries from equipment mal functions. Further these machines may have possible immediate effects such as variability of output. At the same time. Reliability considers the performance of a product over time. safety hazard. Ability to identify the cause of break downs 6. Specialists work with cross-functional teams & backup responsibility to handle difficult or unusual problems. Ability and authority to do material planning. because of perceive product quality and the exceptional reliability. c) Reliability and Maintainability – an overview: Quality is multi – dimensional but reliability is a key component of quality. Ability to establish a repair plan and priorities. 5. e) Role of operators in TPM . preventive and repair maintenance. schedule disruptions etc. 4. idling of both machines and the workers using those machines for their work. The ability of the equipment for operation is determined by mean time between failure (MTBF) and mean time to repair (MTTR) that is: Availability = MTBF / [MTBF + MTTR] d) Equipment problems and competitiveness: Equipment problems and break downs have a direct affect on production costs. product quality and production schedules. 3. It is the probability that a product will operate adequately for a given period in its intended application. accidents to operators. Since the reliability is concerned with the elapsed time between failures of a product. Adequate resources. issues are closely related with maintenance and maintainability. Ability to design ways to extend MTBF b) Maintenance responsibilities a) Traditional: Maintenance is a functional support activity & employees rely on specialists for custodial services. Hence by reducing equipment mal functions and break downs. firms can reduce inventories.2. Reliability is a time based concept of quality. Japanese automobile manufacturers have been highly successful in the US market and could gain a high market share. b) Employee ownership TPM: Front-line associates have first responsibility for maintenance in their work places.
checking functions of the basic machine AND safety devices.8. 10. 2.8 Overall Equipment Effectiveness [OEE]-Key Indicator of TPM · OEE is a way of measuring how the six major losses shown below are affecting the equipment or in other words a way of measuring the amount of “Value added” activity that the equipment is contributing to the product. Understand the manufacturing process to successfully achieve the above. B) Perform change over and setup the complete machine.1. replacement of filters lubrication of aggregates. In case the problem is an unknown entity. Diagnose and perform repairs for the problems identified. C) Reduction of minor stoppages and adjustments on aggregates as well as the complete machine. Data collected must be complete for proper implementation. To identify design weaknesses and improve equipment for error free operations 3. Basic skill levels required by operators include: A) Monitoring and maintaining critical process parameters. Implement periodical maintenance system that is planned on the data collected from the machine.1 Objectives of OEE: a) It helps see a problem so that it can be fixed. 3. thus developing the capability to operate similar equipment / machines 10. . Thorough data analysis. manufacturer and also the operators 8. D) Collect data to track equipment performance and document all the data recorded along with production control chart and work order systems. Improve technical maintenance skills of all maintenance personnel through systematic training and work assessments 4. Perform basic equipment maintenance by cleaning of machines. obtain information before such problems are attacked. f) Role of maintenance department in TPM process: 1. Restores deteriorated equipment through improvements / related maintenance 2. Maintain work order system to provide data for calculation of MTBF (mean time before failure) and MTTR (mean time to repair) 6. Ensure maintenance is treating the root cause of the problem and not symptoms 7. periodic diagnostic tests apart from performing appropriate maintenance system to avoid predicted equipment failure 5.
· Planned production time 480 – 15 -15-30 = 420 min Operating time = planned production time – downtime = 420 -47 = 373 min · Good quality parts produced = total produced – rejection = 19271 – 423 = 18848 · Availability = A = operating time / planned production time = 373 / 420 = 0.2 OEE example: A manufacturer working for 8 hours shift with the production data and scheduled breaks is as follows: Shift length = 8 hours. out of which 423 numbers were rejected. Downtime of machines – 47 min. Number of parts produced – 19271. Ideal rate of production – 60 parts per min. [Target=minimize] 2) Set up down time[Target=zero] 3) Reduced speed of the machines [Target=minimize] 4) Minor unrecognized stoppages [Target=zero] 5) Reject and rework [target=zero] 6) Start up down time and yield from the system [Target= minimize] Availability [(Time available for production – Downtime)] / [Time available for production] Performance Efficiency = [Actual Production or Capacity)] / [Ideal Production or Capacity] Quality Yield [Total Parts Produced-Quantity out of specifications] / Total Quantity produced. Short breaks – 2 short breaks of 15 min each.b) It helps visualize ‘Six big losses’ with their targets for meeting OEE. Overall Equipment Efficiency [OEE] = [Availability x Performance Efficiency x Quality yield] 10. Lunch break – one lunch break of 30 min.8.88 . 1) Planned and unplanned downtimes.
861 * 0.e. 12) waiting for quality confirmation. 2) set up/adjustment time. c) Quality loss: 7) process errors 8 rework/scrap Category 2: Manpower losses: 9) cleaning and checking.978 = 0. Category 3: Material losses: 14) material yield 15) energy losses 16) consumable material losses 10. 11) waiting for instructions. 3) planned shutdown downtime] b) Performance losses: 4) start up losses. 5) minor stopping /idling.10 Zero-Loss Concept: TPM is based on the elimination of the above said 16 losses along with other five zero loss concepts depicted below: . 74. 6) reducing the capacity.888 * 0.8 % 10. 10) waiting for materials.9 Types of Losses (16) There are 16 types of losses that can be categorized into three namely: Category 1: a) Equipment losses: includes down time losses due to 1) machine failure/breakdown. 13) any management losses.978 · OEE Composite = Availability * performance * quality = 0.748 i.861 · Quality= (total parts produced – rejection) / total parts produced) = 18848 / 19271 = 0.· Performance = P = parts produced / (ideal production * operating time) = 19271 / (60 * 373 )= 0.
wide is a major project that requires support from top management. 10.11. d) Planned maintenance.12 Eight Pillars of TPM . Reaching Excellence in TPM program by Promotion. c) Kaizen. Selection of pilot lines 5. Plant audit and initial assessment 2. b) Jishu Hozen. The main focus on equipment maintenance is for improvement of the overall production system. g) Education and training. Implementation in each of the identified areas is managed directly by a target area committee with assistance from a TPM program team. Formation of committees and sub committees for a) promotion and steering of TPM.10. e) Quality maintenance. 6. This stresses the need to shift focus from equipment to the processes within which it is used.11 Implementation of TPM Implementing TPM company. The TPM program team oversees initial planning and coordination of all TPM efforts though ultimately this responsibility is transferred to the maintenance department.1 Steps in TPM program 1. h) Safety and environment committee 4. even for new areas of operations. Company commitment 3. Focus on 8 pillars. f) Office TPM. monitoring and reviewing TPM results and raising levels and revising standards 10.
Eliminate the defect at source through active employee participation 4. Reduce oil consumption 2. Increase the use of JH Objectives of JH: . 8 Pillars supports a strong structure of TPM for achieving higher productivity is depicted in the following picture. Flexibility with operators to operate and maintain other equipments 3.1 Pillar-1: Autonomous Maintenance: (Jishu – Hozen) Autonomous maintenance is a phrase coined by the Japanese institute of plant maintenance (JIPM) to describe the shift towards the machine operators maintaining their own machine / equipment JH Policy: 1.12. Uninterrupted operation of equipment 2. Reduce process time 3. Step wise implementation of JH activities JH Targets: 1. 10.In the above house.
quick response. Prevent degradation related failures 3. Here the operator executes routine verification and adjustments 5. 4. Similarly the orderliness of tool availability and display of visual boards can be maintained. broken / worn out belt. Operators should identify and tag the sources of defects / waste that arisen out of the machine operations. set rules to be followed. In case modification is required for easy inspection / elimination of debris / contamination etc a new aggregate covers may be created 3. 6. Train operators on function and troubleshooting: Operators. electrical. Improve skill levels and personal growth throughout the company 5. lubrication and mechanical should be clearly understood by all in the production line for quick redressing. 7. Here operator has to apply and ask for 5 why’s. pneumatic. control or prevent deterioration of production equipment 2. switch not operating properly etc. team leaders. Initial cleanup It must be closely aligned with 7S of the company and there must be commitment of both the staff and the management for the house keeping. 2. JH audit. Provide spare parts and tools: Here all the spare parts should be leveraged at the point of use after considering the inventory levels. Stabilise. Standards for monitoring key process parameters: To develop methods and standards for routine verification of key process parameters / standards operating conditions. first line supervisor should be trained to understand the basic of the equipment and the functions and the systems working in the machines namely Hydraulic. establish standards for data collection based on the production control chart and develop standards for easy reference.1. Other steps considering the aspects like a) Cooperation from all production related department. Increase access and ease of inspection and maintenance 4. Examples of such defects are: Crack in the housing leakages. electronic. should be followed to achieve effective results . Repair sources of defect (outside of machines). Cleaning of all the surroundings and using Japanese 5S principles for orderly keeping the parts etc. replace cracked parts or worn out seals etc and repair and setup the machine. Improve predictability through data analysis and communication Steps to Implement JH: 1. Develop standards and data collection: Create standards for clean up and checking of machines.
4) improve reliability and maintainability of machines. Here an emphasis is on transferring knowledge and creating self sufficient team for results. Zero accidents and Zero defects. 3) reduce spare parts inventory. MTTR. · Planned maintenance policy includes a) achieve and sustain availability of machines. Overall Online efficiency (OOE) and Overall Plant efficiency (OPE) 3) Decrease Costs: through controls in inventory and WIP 4) Reduction in customer complaints: reduce total downtime and ensure quick deliver to customers 5) Zero accidents: total safety and all actions to save money. optimize spare parts location etc. Quick change time reduction.12.3 Pillar: 3: Planned Maintenance [Pm] For Zero Loss · Planned maintenance is a systematic management by maintenance department. Here it is aimed at eliminating all 16 losses in the workplace. which uses maintenance work cycle activities of preventive/predictive/corrective or breakdown maintenance techniques. 10. 10.2 Pillar-2.Kobetsu Kaizen (Focussed Improvements) 1) PDCA Cycle: Kaizen: here maintenance team should 1) Plan each step. Six steps followed by planned maintenance are: . optimize machine set ups. 2) Increase in productivity by improving Overall Equipment efficiency (OEE). 3) Check whether successful or not.8. There are three steps that aim at quick but short term process improvements supported by long term organizational change. 2) Do the necessary change. It is aimed at having trouble free machines and equipment producing defect free products for total customer satisfaction. These steps are: Step 1: Quick Win Shop floor projects: this is a team based approach targeting specific problem areas and realizing immediate benefits Step 2: Critical analysis: analyze what else needs to be changed to make it fixed and create action plans. Step 3: Implementation action plan to sustain and develop further possible improvements. MTBF. 4) Act as required to proceed further to improve upon the system/process.12. 2) optimise maintenance costs. Verify the progress made in TPM efforts in planned versus emergency work. All out JH: Repeat the cycle 1 – 6 above of the process of managing and monitoring the TPM.
3) Reduction in spare parts consumption 4) Reduction in oil and power consumption 5) Reduction in repair cost 6) Reduction in number of inspection points etc 10.4 Pillar-4-Quality Maintenance for Zero Defects This is a process for controlling the condition of equipment and its components that affect variability in product quality. b) policy of .5 Pillar-5-Development Management This refers to the learning process that happens in TPM implementation and during different types of maintenance practices.1) Equipment evaluation and recording of present status 2) Restore deterioration and improve on weak links 3) Builds information management systems 4) Prepare time based information and parts and map out a plan 5) Prepare predictive system plan by introducing diagnostic techniques 6) Evaluation of planned maintenance. Here also aim is at defect free product to satisfy the customer. Focus is on eliminating non-conformances in a systematic manner. Benefits from Planned Maintenance 1) Reduction in downtime due to breakdowns.12. Here the customer end defects are known through customer complaints and in-house defects known through the quality control personnel.12. 2) Improvement in MTBF and MTTR. Results achieved through this pillar are: 1) Improved customer satisfaction and reduction in future complaints 2) Reduction in defects and improved quality 3) Reduction in inspection time 10. when a) ease of manufacture. root cause is found and improvement action on the process/design are ensured. are analysed.
Unsafe conditions like electrical points. providing safe environment place a vital role. a) planning b) implementation. Poka-Yoke etc will all result in getting the following benefits: 1) Reduction in accident 2) Reduction in noise 3) Create excellent house-keeping & a good looking workshop through 5S action 4) Reduction in downtime because of breakdowns etc 5) Saving in energy consumption 6) Reduction in industrial waste . health and hazards. This systematic education and training will result in: 1) Reduction in downtime.7 Pillar-7: Safety. Some examples of unsafe acts by employees are 1) use of worn out tools. skilled workers. operating machines without proper training etc. The continuous training is on safe working. breakdowns attributed to lack of knowledge and skills 2) Reduction in further downtime after gaining the knowledge and skills 3) Reductions achieved after training on the number of defects. engineers and managers are in a position to fulfil the expanded role to be played in successful implementation of TPM. e) initial phase production. Health & Environment [Zero Accidents] Here the focus is to create a safe work place and a surrounding areas that is not detrimental to process or procedures. Point by point safety audit.12. The methodology adopted is for understanding of the present machine structure. noise generations and any such unsafe potential areas must be identified and action taken to make them safe. unsafe working without wearing gloves. safety training and monitoring the improvements through Kaizen. unsafe storage/stacking. and design validation 10. too hot areas. goggles etc. whose morale is high and who are eager to work and perform the required functions effectively and independently. Here the focus is on improvement of the knowledge. d) manufacturing. It is aimed to have multi skilled & revitalized employees.6 Pillar-6-Trining & Education [Flow Of Controls] Through training and education provides the skill and knowledge apart from the experience that enables operators. skills and techniques through a training environment. Development of management involves four phases.development of new technologies. reworks etc. safety guards. c) design. c) determination of detailed specifications etc are answered. incorporate planned maintenance sheets to eliminate defects.12. 10.
3) reduction in administration costs. we can infer that total productive maintenance is an extension of TQM philosophy to the maintenance function.13 Relevance of TPM to TQM Framework Good maintenance is fundamental to a productive manufacturing system. payment to suppliers. It identifies and eliminates losses. Benefits accrued because of office TPM are 1) Better utilization of work areas. stores. Further. 2) reduction in repetitive works. cost of logistics. customer returns etc c) C: buying cost. 4) reduction in inventory carrying costs. payroll.10. 6) reduction in customer complaints. TPM aims at keeping the current plant and equipment at its highest productive level through cooperation of all. to follow all the principles and procedures laid out in ‘Seven Pillars of TPM’ and achieve the desired overall improvements for the benefit of the organization. 10. 5) reduction in n umber of files. In TPM the barrier between maintenance & production personnel is removed. as a strategy. invoices. cost of inventory carrying. Therefore the Office TPM addresses the seven major losses namely: 1) processing loss 2) communication loss 3) idle loss 4) set up loss 5) accuracy loss 6) non-value added loss 7) cost loss including areas as procurement. 7) reduced man power 8 clean and pleasant work environment and 10) reduction in equipment due to emergency despatches/purchases. It is followed to improve productivity and efficiency in the office administration. other safety practices f) M: number of kaizen activities in office areas with improvements not visible TPM is a long range living program. manpower etc b) Q: mistakes in cheques. PQCDS&M principles in Office TPM: a) P: production output loss due to want of materials. etc d) D” logistic losses due to delay in support function. Here the whole organization should focus. in information etc e) S: safety in material handling. bills. Since achieving total productivity is one of the major objectives of TQM. marketing and sales outlets with high inventories.8 Pilar-8-Office Tpm [Raise Levels & Select Other Areas] Office TPM includes analysing processes and procedures towards increased office automation. accounting.12. the following strengthen the view that TPM is relevant to TQM: .
there is a direct link between TPM and TQM and also the relevance of a comprehensive maintenance policy is proved for successful TQM implementation. tidy and well organised work area will result in better performance Maintenance is the key to achieve zero loss. TPM is a value adding activity. This developed by JIPM (Japanese Institution of Plant Maintenance) during late 1960’s combines the American practice of PM with Japanese concept of Total Quality Control [TQC] and Total employee involvement [TEI] 1) TPM aims for greater manufacturing competitiveness through improved effectiveness of machines and equipments. · TPM is continuous improvement activity. 3) TPM also contributes to improvements in safety. The planning. defects. Here too the operators take the responsibility of cleaning their machines and work areas. Housekeeping is another area in JIT production system. 2) TPM increases production capacity. TPM aims at the introduction of new and creative ideas which will optimise quality standards and reduce waste and costs to the organisation concerned. In view of the above. since it aims at cost reduction and quality improvements for internal requirements and for customer satisfaction. by using the principles of 5S. zero breakdowns. shortened equipment life and inventory. vibration. 4) Benefits can be categorized into two types namely: 1) Direct and 2) Indirect a. morale and pollution control by involving everyone in the process. Clean. A comprehensive TPM program aspires to implement process capability and its maintenance. Process capacity cannot be made available at the cost of quality. process reliability and reduces the cost of lost production time. · TPM can have a great impact on the operations decision making process. smell etc spot problems before they develop.· TQM is aimed at satisfying customer requirements.14 Benefits of TPM An added benefit is that with the added responsibility of all maintenance activities. zero accidents and zero defects. in other words working with a zero sum philosophy. scheduling and control of operations depend to a large extent on process capacity and process capability. 10. repairs. Direct benefits: . operators develop a sense of ownership for the machines and give special attention to upkeep the machines for sound.
energy reduced consumption reduced by 20%. 1) Productivity: Breakdowns reduced by 85% 2) Quality: Defect rate reduced by 50% 3) Cost: Labour cost reduced by 25%.15 Role Of TPM In World Class Manufacturing Most of the world class manufacturing firms have implemented JIT systems and TQM philosophy to achieve excellence in manufacturing and to have ability to compete globally. Therefore if any equipment breaks down. well functioning machines and equipments are a pre requisite for JIT and TQM to be successfully implemented in any manufacturing firm. maintenance cost reduced by 15 -30%. Preventive maintenance requires understanding and maintaining all the physical elements of manufacturing – machine components. The following results were reported from a typical firm after implementing TPM. Indirect benefits: a) Higher confidence level among the employees b) Favourable change in the attitude of the operators c) Horizontal deployment of a new concepts in all areas d) The workers get a feeling of owning the machine. equipment and systems so that they consistently perform at the levels required of them. Reliable. the entire process or . 4) Delivery: Inventory turnover increased by 150% 5) Morale: Improvement suggestions increased by 105% 6) Safety: Accidents reduced to nil 7) Environment: No pollution created 10. .a) Increase in productivity and overall plant efficiency b) Elimination of customers complaints c) Elimination of accidents d) Achieve goals by working as a team b.
machinists and operators redesign and reconfigure equipment to make it more reliable. efficiency and effectiveness with zero loss concepts through total participation of all employees with self managing abilities in practices. TQM requires quality at the source which implies that machines must be reliable and well functioning. In world class companies quality circles form an important component of TQM. engineers. material handling equipment and other transport vehicles in proper working conditions. • Prevention of equipment deterioration • Maintain the equipment in optimal condition • Establishing basic equipment conditions • Operator’s incompetency . The involvement of workers in quality circles provides the opportunity for them (members of quality circles) to study maintenance problems. Here the new quality approach of ………………… was translated to the maintenance environment through the concept of TPM. 2) TPM had its genesis in the Japanese car industry in 1970’s. to keep a machine. Improved equipment functioning has a positive impact on product quality. 4) GOALS: one among following is not an applicable goal. to achieve ……………………. easier to maintain and perform better. Identify. It first evolved in Nippon Denso a major supplier of the Toyota car company. Preventive maintenance is a stepping stone to a higher level of maintenance referred to as “total productive maintenance” (TPM). while teams of maintenance staff. 3) TPM is defined as the means to achieve high level of productivity. Preventive maintenance practices reduce the breakdown of machines and will keep them in good working condition.production line comes to a halt.. This will facilitate implementation of an effective preventive maintenance program which is essential for a JIT system Self Assessment Questions Fill up the blanks with appropriate words in the following statements: 1) Equipment maintenance is basic to competitive manufacturing. In world class companies the responsibility for repairs and preventive maintenance is assigned to workers. In TPM operators / workers perform basic equipment repairs and preventive maintenance. a facility. Maintenance covers all those functions such as ……………… etc.
Development Management. Safety. that the equipment is contributing to the product.) X (…………)] 8 Out of Eight pillars of TPM. Education & Training.• Elimination of quality defects • Elimination of equipment failure • Elimination of cost losses 5) There are six types of losses found in a manufacturing firm. Health & Environment. manpower etc . ………. Identify a) Downtime due to equipment failure. Identify them Autonomous Maintenance. two are missing in the following list. b) Downtime for setups and adjustments. d) Habitual absenteism by employees e) Speed losses due to discrepancies between designed and actual speeds f) Defect losses due to process defects that cause scrap & quality problems. TPM in Offices. One among the following is not the type of loss considered in maintenance. g) Defect losses due to reduced yields in processing 6) OEE is a way of measuring how the six major losses shown below are affecting the equipment or in other words a way of measuring the amount of ……………………. Kobetsu-Kaizen. What is that? • P: production output loss due to want of materials. blockages etc. 9) Autonomous maintenance is a phrase coined by the Japanese institute of plant maintenance (JIPM) to describe the shift towards the machine operators ……………………… 10) PQCDS&M principles in Office TPM: In the list below principle D is missing.. ……………. 7) Overall Equipment Efficiency-Fill in the other two factors: [OEE] = [Availability x ( ………. c) Speed losses due to idling and minor stoppages caused by abnormal operations of censors...
10. Preventive maintenance is a well planned program which involves inspection to uncover potential problem and make the necessary repairs before any breakdown occurs. other safety practices • M: number of kaizen activities in office areas with improvements not visible 11) Results achieved through pillar number Four are: 1) Improved customer satisfaction and reduction in future complaints 2) Reduction in ……………. 6) Ability to design ways to extend MTBF. . 3) Ability to establish a repair plan and priorities. A comprehensive maintenance program consists of breakdown maintenance. preventive maintenance. 4) Ability and authority to do material planning. Only five are listed. cost of inventory carrying. invoices.• Q: mistakes in cheques. In the TPM approach to maintenance management. 5) ……………………. Which is the sixth one? 1) Well trained maintenance crew.16 Summary Japanese firms which implemented JIT production and TQM concepts cannot witness any machine failures that affect quality and delayed production schedules. 3) Reduction in inspection time 12) For the above type of TPM.. and …………….. bills. organization should have the features of 1) Well trained maintenance crew. cost of logistics. They applied TPM techniques to visually eliminate machine breakdowns. 2) Adequate resources.. customer returns etc • C: buying cost.2) Adequate resources. While breakdown maintenance is remedial or corrective maintenance or equipment repair when breakdown occurs. 4) Ability and authority to do material planning. machines are cleaned and lubricated frequently by the operators themselves who run the machines. For the above type of TPM. etc •? • S: safety in material handling. organization should have the following six features. The frequency of preventive maintenance must be balanced with the cost of equipment failure and keep the total costs of preventive and breakdown maintenance put together at the lowest level possible. stores. and total productive maintenance or reliability centred maintenance. 3) Ability to establish a repair plan and priorities. payroll.
idle time. 5. 10. safety hazards. Discuss on the guiding features of TPM? 3. What are the objectives of TPM? 2. defects. which may result in inefficiency of machines. shortened equipment life and inventory. repairs. high standards of quality and reliability. Reduction in costs of lost production. an important component of TQM provides the opportunity for workers to study maintenance problems and suggest effective maintenance activities which are essential for JIT systems. TPM helps to maintain process capability. Benefits of TPM includes increase in production capacity and process reliability. poor quality of outputs. by adopting any of the maintenance systems discussed above. employee morale and pollution control. stoppage of production.17 Terminal Questions 1. Implementing TPM company-wide is major project requiring top management support. especially with the latest TPM as a final and long range solution. Equipment problems have a direct impact on production costs. TPM has great relevance to TQM in improvement of productivity and quality. high repair costs. product quality and production schedules. All these help to improve manufacturing competitiveness of world class companies. Explain briefly the evolution of maintenance practices leading to TPM. TPM contributes to improved safety.5) Ability to identify the cause of break downs 6) Ability to design ways to extend MTBF. continuous improvement and has a strong strategic relevance like TQM. formation of a target committee and program team to oversee initial planning and coordination of all TPM efforts and then transfer the responsibility to the maintenance department. high WIP inventories and so on. What is total productive maintenance? Is it different from total preventive maintenance? . accidents to workers. 4. Quality circles. TPM identifies and attacks all causes of malfunctions and eliminates all consequent losses due to breakdowns. Distinguish between breakdown maintenance and preventive maintenance. decrease in productivity.
What are the relative issues that are recognized by maintenance department before attempting introduction of TPM in the plant? 7. safe environment under TPM? 15. inspecting. no-(d)] 5. 9. cleaning. What is meant by ‘Overall Equipment Effectiveness’? What are its constituents? How the six losses are addressed through OEE? 8. What are the unsafe practices and how these are controlled by practicing good and healthy. Monitoring. etc 2.18 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1. What are the benefits accrued to a firm by practicing TPM? 17. Describe the role of total productive maintenance in world class manufacturing. Discuss the relevance of total productive maintenance to TQM framework. no (d)] . Explain briefly the sixteen types of losses that are to be considered for elimination by the maintenance department while planning TPM activities. Habitual Absenteeism by employees – [Sl. Which are the eight pillars that support TPM in an organization? 11. Focussed Improvements and what steps are used to achieve improvement? 13. Total customer satisfaction.6. 4. 10.e. adjusting. Prevention at source 3. Explain briefly as to how planned maintenance under Eight pillars of TPM help achieve zero loss? 14. What are the six zero concept that are to be considered while approaching elimination of 16 Losses? 10. repairing. Operator’s incompetency-[Sl. What are the constituents of Kobetsu Kaizen i. 16. What is ‘Autonomous Maintenance? What are its objectives and steps involved in implementing? 12.
‘logistic losses due to delay in support function.12. Ref. 10. Ref.6 5. Ref. 10. Maintaining their own machine / equipment 10. D.10 10. Ref.13 .8 8. 10.6 4. Ref. Planned Maintenance & Quality Maintenance 9. Ref. 10.12. payment to suppliers.12 11.12. 10. Performance Efficiency & Quality yield 8. Ref.7 15.5 3. Ref. Ref. 10. Ref. Ref.1 12. Ref. 10. 10. 10. 10.6 6. 10.2 13. “Value added” – activity 7.6. 10. Defects and improved quality 12.4 2. 10. Ref. 10. Ability to identify the cause of break downs Terminal Questions: 1.7 7.3 14. Ref.9 9. in information etc’ 11.12. Ref. 10.
10.15 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Ref.14 17. Ref.16. 10. .
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