OM0006-Unit-01-Introduction to Maintenance Management Unit-01-Introduction to Maintenance Management Structure: 1.1 Introduction Objectives 1.

2 History of Maintenance Definition of Maintenance Objectives and Functions of Maintenance 1.3 Functions of Maintenance Management Quality Aspects in Maintenance Maintenance Organisation Initial Level Repeatable Level Defined Level Managed Level Optimized Level 1.4 Improving Maturity in Maintenance Organizations Training Strategy Work Management Resources Management Supervisory Review Quality Assurance Subcontract Management

Commitment of the Maintenance Personnel. Verification of Implementation Metrics and Process Improvement 1.5 Dynamics of a Maintenance Organisation Maintenance Management Perspectives Types of Maintenance Preventive Maintenance Shut-down Maintenance Opportunistic Maintenance 1.6 Summary 1.7 Terminal Questions 1.8 Answers 1.1 Introduction Rising inflation and increased competition have brought with them the need for greater productivity, and recent years have seen more emphasis being placed on productivity improvement. Moreover, sophisticated equipment and capital intensive units and plants are being increasingly used to achieve the pre-set targets of higher production and productivity. Reliability and maintainability features are now being incorporated in the equipment designs. Although modern equipment has higher levels of reliability, it is not possible to keep this equipment in an operating condition at all times because failures do occur even in the most reliable equipment.1 It is also true that such sophisticated equipment, and units or plants, tend to have high probabilities of failure since in many cases they incorporate newer, and therefore not adequately proven, technologies and designs. They also consist of a large number of assemblies, sub-assemblies and components. Failure and malfunctioning of these items of equipment result in a loss of production. Loss of production is undesirable because it results in corresponding loss in revenue. Whenever an item of equipment is down and fails to perform its intended function, or performs in an undesirable fashion, it must be restored to a state where it performs satisfactorily. At the same time all necessary action must be taken to keep, or retain, such equipment in an operating condition and also to prevent failures. Resources, such as spare parts, manpower skills, tools, instruments and facilities, such as hangars in the case of

aircraft maintenance, are utilized for accomplishment of the restoration processes and preventive actions. Thus the requirement for productivity improvement has brought about the pressing need for a significant improvement in the management of maintenance of equipment, units and plants. Objectives: After studying this unit you shall be able · To Define Maintenance · To assess objective and functions of Maintenance · To describe Quality aspect of Maintenance · To assess key process of Maintenance Management 1.2 History of Maintenance Historically, maintenance activities have been regarded as a necessary evil by the various management functions in an organisation. Enormous costs of maintenance, estimated to be between 15 and 40 per cent of the production costs and the trend towards automation have, however, forced managers to pay more attention to maintenance. The evolution of maintenance can be traced from the days prior to World War II. The attitude of the managers then was ‘to fix the equipment when it breaks’. With fewer items of sophisticated equipment around, and hence, the cost of downtime not being high, prevention of equipment failures was not given much attention. Maintenance, in addition to fixing the broken equipment, involved simple activities like cleaning and lubrication. The period after World War II saw the introduction of the word ‘terotechnology’ which was initially defined by the committee on terotechnology as ‘…a combination of management, financial, engineering and other practices applied to physical assets in pursuit of economic life-cycle costs’. Due to rising costs and inflation, focus was on reducing downtime of equipment and hence preventive maintenance came into being as an important activity. This period also saw a number of researchers working on operations research models for preventive maintenance. Importance of planning maintenance activities also grew during this period. Overhauls of equipment were planned and scheduled. Systems for managing maintenance were also introduced. The period after 1980 has seen some of the worst accidents in industrial history. Leakage of methyl isocyanite (MIC) from a battery/cell manufacturing unit in Bhopal in India and the threat to the survival of mankind caused by the nuclear accident at Chernobyl in the erstwhile Soviet Union have only made the manufacturing industries and the like realize the importance of maintenance. The attitude of ignorance towards maintenance has increasingly been replaced by one which recognizes maintenance also as a strategic issue in the organisation. Besides high cost, the other factors which contributed to this change

and warranty and liability factors. manpower. Maintenance. Maintenance can thus be defined as a set of activities. 1.include: environmental concerns. tools and facilities.1 Definition of Maintenance Maintenance is an element of a complete production system. In summary. ageing plant and equipment. The need for reliable equipment has also been realized. drive for cost reduction and the like. in general.2. Obviously. an item of equipment in a specified operating condition. Modern maintenance management can be considered to be composed of the following functions: · maintenance planning. To live up to the new expectations demanded of maintenance activities. · organizing maintenance resources. maintenance activities which do not contribute to preserving or restoring the intended functions of assets should be eliminated. therefore. Performing such activities would obviously extend the useful life of the equipment. that are related to preserving equipment in a specified operating condition.2 Objectives and Functions of Maintenance The objective of any business organisation is to make profits. · To extend the useful life of the equipment. safety issues. including staffing/recruiting. at minimum resource cost. Performing maintenance activities requires the use of resources such as spare parts. or tasks. or keeping. means preserving. and planning and scheduling maintenance resources. The availability and utilization of these resources are of prime importance. be to maximize the profitability of the organisation by performing activities which retain working equipment in an acceptable condition. In case an item of equipment fails it needs to be restored to the same specified operating condition. . The objective of maintenance. or restoring failed equipment to a normal operating condition. the principal objectives of maintenance would be: · to control the availability of the equipment. which is linked to the overall organizational objectives. Techniques such as condition monitoring. maintenance programmes have to be developed to ensure that physical assets will continue to fulfill their intended functions at a minimum expenditure of resources. or return the equipment to an acceptable working condition. regulatory matters. 1.2. should. Alternatively the objective should be to minimize the costs – the labour costs and the material costs as well as the loss in revenue due to loss of production. The set of tasks or activities that constitute maintenance ranges from simple cleaning operations and lubrication to performing condition monitoring. neural networks and Markov chains have been used for controlling and managing maintenance activities.

Maintenance is an element of a complete ___________ system. at minimum ________________. 3. _____________ in addition to fixing the broken equipment. 4. · controlling the performance of maintenance activities. involved simple activities like cleaning and lubrication. · defining processes for performing maintenance. .· directing execution of maintenance plan. 5. · Budgeting. Maintenance planning includes formulating and identifying organisation-wide policies that would help achieve higher maintenance productivity such as: · Do we repair the equipment or buy a new one? · Do we perform preventive maintenance or corrective maintenance activities? · Do we employ full-time repair personnel or should we subcontract work? Self Assessment Questions 1. Maintenance planning includes formulating and identifying ___________ policies. The attitude of ______________ towards maintenance has increasingly been replaced by one which recognizes maintenance. The principal objectives of maintenance would be to control the availability of the equipment. 2.

In case the task does not get completed within the estimated time then corrective action would need to be taken to ensure further loss in revenue due to loss in production is minimized. The maintenance manager should ensure that the equipment is restored to its normal working condition as quickly as possible. a review by the manager or the maintenance supervisor would be essential to ensure and authorize that the maintenance work has been carried out properly. This way not only is the downtime cost kept to the minimum but also the resources are utilized effectively. Another important task is creation of a master maintenance schedule.3 Functions of Maintenance Management Responsibility for formulating the maintenance policies lies with top management. Once the activity is complete. In order to carry out maintenance activities as planned. The top management is also responsible for negotiating and authorizing the service level agreement. Once the required resources are available. This will lead to degradation of equipment performance and can also result in its failure.1. The maintenance manager should track the work to completion. Any maintenance activity requires resources. then the planned maintenance activity cannot be performed. work and . If the required resources are not available. the maintenance manager needs to organize the required resources and all these resources need to be available in the right quantity and at the right time. Other common tasks related to maintenance management include generating reports related to equipment. the maintenance activity can be initiated. This is a statement of maintenance tasks to be carried out in a specified period.

· the required spare parts in the required quantity. produces the desired result. A maintenance activity can be considered to be of high quality if: · it restores an item of equipment to its normal working state. An important step in addressing the maintenance management problems is to treat the maintenance task as a process that can be controlled. measured and improved. · A repository of maintenance processes. · In general. and the skill. · the required tools. A ‘process’ can be defined as a set of tasks that. the tools and procedures used. It is more to do with the maturity of the maintenance process such that high-quality maintenance activities are performed.3. 1. when performed properly. An effective maintenance process must consider the relationships of all the tasks.3. 1. without causing · any damage to the equipment or to any of its parts.2 Maintenance Organisation Maintenance organisation does not mean only the organisation of people in the maintenance department or their reporting structure.1 Quality Aspects in Maintenance Quality is not absolute but relative. · an appropriate ‘on-the-job’ training programme for the repair men to enhance their ability to work. training and motivation of the people . It also includes activities related to collection and analysis of data related to maintenance and reporting to top management. the need is for a good maintenance organisation. · It incurs not more than the budgeted cost.costs. · it is initiated on time and the equipment is returned to production at the · required time. The above-mentioned conditions can be satisfied only when the maintenance organisation has: · skilled and committed repair men available to carry out the required maintenance activity at the required time. instruments and facilities for performing the activity.

5 Defined Level The organisation has a repository or a set of defined procedures for carrying out development work. organizations at this level need to institutionalize basic management processes. 1. that is. 2. Commit resources to execute the plan. List down required process improvement actions. The organisation now has capabilities to face new challenges and achieve success. the organisation achieves the foundation for continuous improvement in processes. 3. managed and optimized. defined.3. To reach the defined level. The strength to carry out similar activities stems from the prior experience. organizations at this level face risks when presented with new challenges. the organisation has to implement a measurement programme to obtain process feedback.3.*9 The CMM was defined by the software engineering institute (SEI) for software development organizations and it classifies software development organizations into five levels initial. The performance of these steps calls for a process-oriented organisation and such an organisation develops over a period of time as enunciated by the capability maturity model (CMM). Understand the status of the current maintenance process or processes. 4.involved.3.6 Managed Level . 5. 1. In order to improve performance. organizations must have dedicated personnel who take care of the development processes. repeatable. Plan to perform the required actions. However. With this. Tools are neither integrated with the process nor uniformly applied.4 Repeatable Level Organizations which carry out similar projects with reasonable accuracy with regard to cost and time are at this level. quality assurance and project tracking and oversight. 1. without formalized procedures. the most important ones being project management. To improve the capabilities of the maintenance organisation the following steps8 must be performed consistently: 1.3 Initial Level The organisation operates on an ad hoc basis. cost estimates and plans. To climb up the maturity level.3. 1. Determine if the current process is the desired process.

Problems are identified proactively and eliminated.4 Improving Maturity in Maintenance Organizations The key process areas (KPAs) involved in enhancing the capability and maturity of a software organisation. Any maintenance activity requires resources.3. A ‘process’ can be defined as a set of tasks that. the effectiveness of the process can also be determined. the organisation needs to put in place automatic data collection support tools. · work management. 10. 1. Targets are set for performance and a plan is made out to achieve the pre-set targets. that is. . The organisation operates on an ad hoc basis. Self Assessment Questions State whether following statement True or False 6. cost estimates and plans. A few key process areas can be readily identified in this regard. The CMM can be adapted to enhance the capabilities of the maintenance organizations as well.The organisation has a way by which performance indicators are measured objectively. The objective is only to identify the key process areas that would enable maintenance organizations to enhance their capabilities and maturity.7 Optimized Level The organisation has capabilities to identify the weakest links in the development processes and eliminate/improve them. Since the data collection process is full-fledged. without formalized procedures. · quality assurance. Quality is not absolute but relative. The objective is not to classify the maintenance organizations also into one of these levels. To reach the highest level on the CMM. · resources management. 1. · supervisory review. when performed properly. Responsibility for formulating the maintenance policies lies with shop Supervisors. They are: · training strategy. 7. 9. produces the undesired result. 8.

In some others. 1. scheduled and conducted. Also the probable time to complete the tasks should be specified. instruments and facilities.· Subcontract management. This is referred to as the work-breakdown structure. For example.4. It therefore becomes necessary to train all the maintenance personnel on the aspects of team work. Holding resources in excess of requirements is wasteful while non-availability of required resources at the required time is undesirable since this result in loss of revenue due to loss in production. This is the responsibility of the maintenance manager. manpower. scheduled and tracked to completion. Individual as well as organisation-wide training programmes should be planned. Every maintenance activity should be planned. The required resources should be available at the right time and in the right quantity. 1. It would not be appropriate to track every small activity in the work-breakdown structure to completion. The supervisor’s responsibility is to ensure that the required resources allotted for performing . Coordination within a group is critical to completion of the maintenance task on time. For example. usage of modern tools etc.4. tools. 1. in one organisation an activity that takes only 15 minutes for completion is considered to be small. maintenance activities require resources in the form of spare parts. Management of resources is therefore critical to managing the maintenance function. 1. Resource here means manpower. a small maintenance activity may take not less than 5 hours. can be provided on safety and productivity-related issues.2 Work Management Any activity. For small activities. irrespective of the time it consumes. Most maintenance activities are performed in groups. tools. The maintenance manager should identify the training needs of his subordinates and get them trained. facilities etc. Each of the tasks in the work-breakdown structure should have appropriate resources assigned to it. A maintenance activity should be broken down into smaller manageable tasks.1 Training Strategy Every maintenance organisation should have a suitable training programme for its personnel. The term ‘small activity’ should be defined by the quality assurance personnel because it varies from one organisation to another. for example.4. In such a case it is better if some of the available personnel are re-trained on some trades other than those in which they have specialized.4. a bull’s eye chart may be appropriate for tracking work. a welder may be re-trained to perform a pipefitter’s job.4 Supervisory Review Every maintenance activity should be performed under the charge of a supervisor.3 Resources Management As mentioned earlier. such as an oil refinery. Training. An organisation may not always find suitable people for performing a job. is not managed if it is not planned and tracked.

Yet another goal would be to verify the correctness of the work performed.6 Subcontract Management A few maintenance activities require specialists at the job. Five important factors need to be taken care of if each of the key process areas mentioned above need to be implemented in the maintenance organisation. 1. List of activities. The supervisor should also guide the repair gang in performing the activity.4. the supervisor should inspect the equipment in order to ensure that the equipment is performing as desired.4.8 Verification of Implementation . 1. in most cases. 1. and for analyzing them in order to come up with improved routes and work processes. Once the activity is complete. The assessment of the subcontractor can be done by inviting each to present their capabilities and verification of claims through independent references. Like any other internal maintenance activity.the maintenance activity are available to the repair gang on time and in the required numbers. The subcontractor manager should select a suitable subcontractor based on a balanced assessment of the capabilities of prospective subcontractors. The goals of the subcontract management should be to evaluate and select appropriate subcontractors for performing the maintenance activities. subcontracted work should also be managed. tools etc. Increasing the ability to perform. is expensive. This involves establishment of policies and top management sponsorship. A better option is to subcontract the work. They are responsible for collecting data while the maintenance activity is carried out. The selection of the subcontractor should be planned. 1. The maintenance manager can also visit premises to inspect the capabilities and to get firsthand information.4. A few more basic areas like maintenance planning and configuration management would also need to be considered. Ability of the maintenance personnel can be enhanced by providing them with proper and relevant training. The supervisor should also report completion of the activity to the maintenance manager so that the actual costs incurred are logged.4. Hiring these specialists on a full-time basis. This is the work order management process. These factors have also been borrowed from the CMM.7 Commitment of the Maintenance Personnel The repair men need to be committed to perform the maintenance activities. The repair men should be provided with a list of activities that need to be performed as a part of the maintenance.5 Quality Assurance The quality assurance personnel should be responsible for identifying the optimum route for performing a maintenance activity.

Ability of the __________________ can be enhanced by providing them with proper and relevant training. tools etc. The maintenance manager is responsible for scheduling maintenance activities. 4. 13.9 Metrics and Process Improvement This is a continuous process. Every maintenance organisation should have a suitable ___________ for its personnel. The quality assurance group. The maintenance manager. including manpower. 14. The selection of the ______________should be planned. The supervisor should also make use of this opportunity to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the individual repair men and arrange suitable training for them. 12. the maintenance productivity and quality of the maintenance work. Metrics and process improvement is a ___________________. The resources. Measurement of maintenance activity can be in terms of percentage of work complete to date.The supervisor of the repair men should verify the completion/ implementation of the maintenance activity. An activity is scheduled (as far as possible during the production windows in the case of preventive maintenance) and initiated depending on the availability of the required . Four entities are important as far as the maintenance activities are concerned. Gathering metrics on every maintenance activity helps in estimating the time requirements and also the cost. materials and tools. The key process areas (KPAs) involved in enhancing the capability and maturity of a ____________________. 2.5 Dynamics of a Maintenance Organisation Coordination within the groups is one of the most important factors that determine the effectiveness of any maintenance organisation. estimated time to complete the work. Feedback on the maintenance activity performed should be given to the concerned repair men. 3. 1.4. 15. The supervisor group. Self Assessment Questions 11. 1. They are as follows: 1.

Since the equipment is being taken out of production this maintenance activity results in loss of production. 5.1 Maintenance Management Perspectives Kelly has described the dynamics of a production maintenance system considering a large process plant. 4. this is called corrective maintenance. It can be seen from the above that there are two perspectives of maintenance management: 1. As the maintenance activity is carried out. The equipment is running and is producing the desired output. Maintenance is carried out while the equipment is running. The quality assurance group determines the process of performing the maintenance activity in an optimized manner. At any time. Fix it when it breaks as in cases (4) and (5). Since the equipment is not in an operating condition this maintenance activity results in considerable loss of production. the quality assurance group collects data on the process and analyses them with a view to improving the process. Maintenance is being carried out to restore the equipment to an operable condition. This is called the ‘production window’. This maintenance activity also does not incur any loss in production. Relatively more time is spent on performing this type of maintenance activity. This activity involves simple inspection of replaceable parts. The equipment is not wanted for production and is available for maintenance. The key distinction among the three perspectives relates to the time interval between the recognition of the need to perform a maintenance activity and the time at which the . The equipment is taken out of production for a scheduled maintenance activity.5.resources. 2. They have divided corrective maintenance into two perspectives – ‘reactive’ and ‘reactive/proactive’ –and have defined preventive maintenance as a ‘proactive’ perspective. 2. 3. 1. Ettkin and Jahnig have described the work life cycle for the reactive and proactive perspectives. The maintenance manager tracks the activity to completion while the supervisor inspects and ensures the activity is carried out properly. The equipment is in a failed condition. (2) and (3). Due to shortage of resources the maintenance activity is pending. this is called preventive maintenance. Since the equipment is in use there is no loss in production while performing this maintenance activity. an item of equipment or some part of it can be in one of the five following states: 1. The equipment is in a failed condition. Prevent it from breaking down as in cases (1).

v scheduling the maintenance task. 1. which are primarily due to loss of production. the direct costs increase.2 Types of Maintenance The return of investment on an item of equipment can be maximized by maximizing its availability.activity is actually performed. The cost of utilization of these resources is a direct maintenance cost. for example. The level of maintenance activity to be performed is obviously the one where the total cost is minimal. there is a trade-off between the maintenance costs and their benefits. This approach to maintenance becomes essential for any equipment where there are serious dangers to life should a failure occur. There is rarely any organisation where only one type of maintenance is used. The cost of unavailability. materials and tools. material costs and direct overheads. When an item of equipment is down it results in loss of production which. consisting of labour costs. results in loss of revenue. This is an approach developed to reduce the likelihood of the failure of critical equipment to the minimum possible. in the case of nuclear submarines. the ship and its entire crew are in mortal danger. Just as there is a trade-off between inventory holding costs and the reordering costs. regardless of the maintenance perspectives.3 Preventive Maintenance Preventive maintenance is a proactive activity. make changes and prevent failures. Also the indirect costs resulting due to failure decrease. and indirect maintenance costs. is proportional to the loss in revenue. involve the following steps: v planning the maintenance task.5. Availability of an item of equipment can be defined as the ratio of uptime to the sum of uptime and downtime. The following section describes the preventive. in turn. The preventive actions under such a situation would be to: . which is an indirect cost. If personnel who operate and maintain the nuclear power plant of the submarine make serious mistakes. All the maintenance activities. The intention is to detect potential failures early. Most situations warrant a considerable mixture of maintenance types. Performing a maintenance activity requires usage of resources such as manpower. corrective and other maintenance practices followed in organizations. v Evaluation of the performance. 1. The total maintenance cost is the sum of direct maintenance costs. The only difference is that of the time interval. In the case of the ‘reactive’ perspective. the time interval between the recognition and performance is very small as compared to the ‘proactive’ perspective. As the level of performing maintenance activity increases. v performing the maintenance task.5.

These activities can prevent serious errors from occurring. · Condition-based maintenance. which includes lubrication. hours etc. Planned · activities are carried out and the main functions are: · inspection of critical parts of the equipment. · Inspect each ship and each operation to ensure that every procedure and method is properly understood and executed. These objectives give rise to the following methods of performing preventive · maintenance activities: · fixed-time maintenance.. power plants etc. This type of maintenance activity is applicable only for those items which exhibit a time-dependent failure . · Replacement of worn-out parts. The fixed time should not be based on the calendar units but should be based on a fixed number of running units such as kilometers. Fixed-time maintenance is that activity which involves inspection of critical parts of the equipment after a fixed time interval. the level of distilled water in the battery of an automobile is checked after every 1000 kilometers and the brush ploughs of a grinding mill should be replaced after every 500 hours of running. and replacement of those which are worn out. and the commanding officer must promptly report on the corrective actions.· Train all the personnel in their own jobs. For example. · Audit the personnel so that they demonstrate satisfactory performance to their job standards. or after generation of a fixed cumulative output. This approach to maintenance is also important in highly automated plants. Analyze even the most trivial errors to determine what went wrong. · servicing. Primary objectives of this approach to maintenance are to: · Increase the life of critical equipment by preventing failures. · Report deviations to the admiral-in-charge. adjustment and similar activities. · Detect the onset of a failure. such as car assembly. where the cost due to loss in production is very high.

This is a proactive-reactive approach to maintenance and results in the following tasks: repair of failed parts of the equipment. analysis of acoustic emissions. It is an appropriate option for preventive maintenance when the following conditions apply: Prevention of failure is not technically feasible. the maintenance-related costs are usually high for the following reasons: The time required is usually much higher than other maintenance types because the cause of failure has to be identified.mechanism. replacement of failed parts with new ones. It is possible to identify a value of that parameter when action may be taken before full failure occurs. This method of condition-based maintenance is inexpensive. Condition-based maintenance is also known as predictive maintenance. the time required to perform this activity is . corrective maintenance is predominant. shock pulses etc. on the other hand. the solidification of the lubricant is an indicator of the machine’s wearing condition. In organizations where there are very few production windows. cracks in the structure of a building etc. are expensive. Corrective Maintenance Corrective maintenance. which the case is when the event leading to failure occurs in a predominantly random manner. Along with inspection. if repair is not economical. There is a cost due to loss in production. which can be measured either visually or by other means. The obvious advantage of carrying out running maintenance is that there is no loss in production. With this kind of maintenance policy. generally occurring in the form of breakdown maintenance. Corrective maintenance activities are also performed when condition monitoring indicates onset of a failure. as mentioned earlier. Since condition monitoring gives sufficient warning of an impending failure it becomes easy for the maintenance manager to plan a corrective activity at a later time. These methods. For example. checking for leaks in fuel-carrying pipes. Complex situations require sensors and other high-tech tools to monitor the vibrations. Detailed analysis helps in detecting an impending failure. or how the failure can be prevented is not yet known. Damage is caused to other equipment as a consequence of failure. A parameter. correlating to the onset of failure has been identified. The costs involved in condition monitoring may vary widely. and then the parts have to be repaired or replaced. This approach is designed to detect the onset of a failure. is a reactive activity and is performed when an item of equipment is not in an operating condition or is operating at a level below its rated capacity. ultrasonic waves and thermographs also help monitor the condition of the equipment. the maintenance personnel can also collect data which can be used as inputs by other methods of condition-based maintenance procedures. A simple case of condition-based maintenance is the visual examination of the brake pads of an automobile. eddy currents. Running maintenance is normally carried out in situations where there is no threat to the life of the maintenance personnel. Although. In some situations it is possible to carry out some preventive maintenance activities while the equipment or plant is running. Techniques such as oil analysis. This type of maintenance is called running maintenance. such as the setting of warning limits for the Solidification of the lubricant.

Trained maintenance personnel also have a role to play in reducing the maintenance time. 18. 19. Whatever be the choice of the maintenance policy. 1. The next chapter describes a few resources management techniques. the maintenance department personnel attempt to detect the cause of the failure. 20. as well as major repairs and overhauls.5 Opportunistic Maintenance The maintenance work that is carried out is not directed at the primary cause of failure of the equipment or shut-down. an emergency maintenance is carried out. it should be closely associated or integrated with the resources management function.5. The cause is usually recorded for future analysis and corrective actions are prescribed. criticality of the equipment and the priority. 1. corrective maintenance work is scheduled and carried out.much higher than the preventive actions require. The maintenance manager is responsible for scheduling maintenance activities. most situations in organizations warrant a mixture of maintenance types. repair and replace certain other parts of the equipment. If the priority is high or alternatively if the equipment is critical. Depending on the availability of resources. This approach to maintenance is called opportunistic maintenance. The types of maintenance discussed in this section will help top management decide on questions like: should we carry out preventive actions? Or should we fix the equipment when it breaks? As mentioned earlier. . Self Assessment Questions State whether the following statement True or False 16. The cost of utilization of the resources is a indirect maintenance cost. The maintenance work that is carried out is not directed at the primary cause of failure of the equipment or shut-down. 17. Shut-down maintenance can either be a preventive activity or a corrective activity.4 Shut-down Maintenance Shut-down maintenance can either be a preventive activity or a corrective activity. Minor repairs which cannot be performed while the equipment is running. Five entities are important as far as the maintenance activities are concerned. When a maintenance activity is carried out on an item of equipment there exists some opportunity to inspect. While we know that prevention is better than cure.5. this can be reduced considerably if the organisation has all the maintenance procedures and systems in place. The work is deferred to a later date if the priority is low or the equipment is not so critical. Once an item of equipment fails. are carried out after the equipment or plant is shut down. we also realize that failures are unavoidable.

This transformation has taken place in about 40 years and has brought about automation and increasing sophistication of plant and equipment. and has been hastened by the fact that the loss of one hour of production is much more expensive today than it ever was before. and integrated iron and steel works. Resource Cost 5. 2. Plant and equipment availability is of paramount importance and effective management of the maintenance function goes a long way in ensuring the attainment of the objective of maximization of availability 1. Write a note on History of Maintenance. it has now come to be accepted as an important function – one of strategic importance – particularly in the capital-intensive continuous-process industries such as power plants.7 Terminal Questions 1. chemical and fertilizer plants. Ignorance 3.6 Summary Until recently. Maintenance 2.8 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1. Production 4. 3. Organisation-wide 6. 5.1. What are the steps involved in Maintenance Organisation. nuclear power generating stations. False 7. True 8. Discuss Dynamics of a Maintenance Organisation. True . What are the features of Preventive Maintenance? 1. 4. maintenance of plant and machinery was a thankless job and the maintenance function was considered a necessary evil. From this state. Explain Objectives and Functions of Maintenance.

2 3.4. Subcontractor 15. True 18. Page 6 – Part 1. Page 3 – Part 1.9. True 11.3 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . False 17. False 19.1 2. Page 10 – Part 1. Maintenance Personnel 14. Page 2 – Part 1. . Software organisation 12.2 4.Page 11 – Part 1. False Terminal Questions 1. Continuous Process 16.2. False 10.4 5.1. True 20. Training programme 13.

5 Effect of Maintenance types on Resources 2.2 Man Power 2.7 Terminal Questions .OM0006-Unit-02-Business Maintenance Unit-02-Business Maintenance Structure: 2.1 Introduction Objectives 2.6 Summary 2.4 Tools and Facilities 2.3 Spare Parts Statistical Inventory Theory Models Inventory Costs How Much to Order? When to Order? Selective Inventory Control Procedures Manufacturing Resource Planning The Bill of Materials Master production Schedule Inventory Status File Requirements Pegging Rescheduling Process 2.

can be used to determine the optimal number of welders. A Maintenance job is usually performed by a repair gang or repair crew consisting of an optimal mix of skilled workers. which utilize the theory of minimizing the total cost of unavailability and labor. however. For example. One solution to this problem would be to schedule individual workers rather than repair gangs. The procedures used are similar to those used for determining the optimal number of repair gangs required for carrying out maintenance activities. manpower. which utilize the theory of minimizing the total cost of unavailability and labor. rigging etc. fitting. Queuing models.2. can be used to determine the optimal number of welders. Techniques used for managing the maintenance resources are also discussed.2 Man Power Almost all the maintenance activities require skilled personnel and most of the activities require more than one skill such as welding. The disadvantage of assigning a maintenance job to a repair gang or crew is that the manpower utilization within the gang is not effective. The usage of the models. Queuing models. requires some knowledge of the rate of failure (called arrival rate) and the repair distribution.1 Introduction For performing any maintenance activity resources are required. Important among these are maintenance materials (spare parts).8 Answers 2. However. simulation techniques and queuing models have been used for determining the optimal number of repair gangs required to be deployed in a system. tools and facilities. plumbers etc. Historically. Queuing models and simulation have been used also for determining the optimal number of tools and facilities such that the maintenance costs are minimized. An important issue in manpower is that of determining the optimal number of skilled repair workers. In this study the characteristics of the maintenance resources are discussed. not all skills are required for the same amount of time. Basker. plumbers etc. Objectives: After studying this unit you shall be able · To explain the characteristics of the maintenance resources · To define techniques used for managing the maintenance resources · To assess comparison of the available resources management techniques 2. Manan . An important issue in manpower is that of determining the optimal number of skilled repair workers. a maintenance job may require the services of a welder for just about an hour whereas the same job may require a fitter for more than four hours.

electricians and pipe-fitters.3. Using the statistical inventory theory models. 2. stock-out and ordering costs. In general. In addition to the holding and stock-out costs. 3. 2. The objective is to determine the number of repair workers needed to constitute a repair gang.and Husband have used the Monte Carlo simulation technique to determine the optimal number of repair workers required to perform the maintenance activities in a shop comprising a finite number of identical machines.1. Barnett and Blundell have used the Monte Carlo simulation technique to optimize the number of repair gangs and the size of the repair gangs given that the maintenance jobs generate demand for repair workers from three different trades’ mechanics. on the other hand.1 Statistical Inventory Theory Models 2. Newman and Brammer and Malmborg have utilized a material requirements planning/bill of materials approach to manage the manpower resources. The objective of spare parts management is therefore to minimize the total of inventory holding. 2. two basic questions need to be answered: · How Much to Order? · When to Order? . and the number of repair gangs required such that the total costs (sum of labor cost and downtime cost) are minimized. Using selective control procedures along with some heuristics. By holding spare parts in the inventory the funds of the organization are tied up which could have otherwise been invested in other activities.1 Inventory Costs Every organization keeps spare parts so that defective and worn-out parts of equipment can be replaced. there is also a cost of ordering a re-supply of spare parts. Maintaining the spare parts in a store also incurs some cost.3. not having the required spare part results in a stock-out cost. Using the material requirements planning/manufacturing resources planning (MRP/ MRP-II) technique.3 Spare Parts The spare parts (maintenance material) problems have been traditionally approached in three ways: 1.

If the annual demand for an item is D. During this period. where c is the cost per order. Let Q be the ordering quantity.00 The unit price of the item is Rs. These models help determine what has been traditionally known as the optimum order quantity.2. 2. The complexity of the problem lies in the fact that neither the demand nor the lead-time is constant. 100. Thus The minimum of TIC can be obtained by differentiating the above equation with respect to Q and equating the resulting derivative to 0.3 When to Order? An order placed with a vendor for re-supply of spare parts takes some time to get filled.00 The rate of interest is 20 per cent annually Then the optimum order quantity. is 1000. we have If The annual demand D for an item is 8000 units The cost of placing an order is Rs. This provision normally takes the form of safety stock which is determined based on the service level.1. Thus. .3.2 How Much to Order? Several models have been developed based on the principle of minimizing the total inventory costs. The maintenance manager must make sufficient provisions to take care of demand during the lead-time because the cost of stock-out is undesirable in any situation. the demand for spare parts resulting from the need to perform maintenance activities needs to be satisfied. obtained by utilizing the above equation for Q. The service level is defined as the probability of not having a stock-out situation. therefore. then the number of orders to be placed is given by The ordering cost is.3. The following is an illustration of a basic inventory model which takes into account the holding and the ordering costs. The total inventory cost TIC = the holding cost + ordering cost. this is referred to as the lead-time. Mathematical models are however available to determine the timing of placing an order taking into consideration the characteristics of the demand during the lead-time as well as the lead-time itself. Then the holding cost is given by where p is the unit price of the item and r is the annual stockholding rate related to the stock value. 8.1.

be given equal importance. 3) Every organization keeps spare parts so that defective and ___________ of equipment can be replaced.1 Most applications found in the literature make use of a combination of selective inventory control procedures because classification or categorization of items based on just one criterion is inadequate for managing the maintenance materials. essential and desirable Criticality of the parts Fast. The following paragraphs describe some of the applications involving a combination of selective inventory control procedures. paying equal attention to all the inventory items was not feasible. Several procedures for classifying items into homogeneous groups are available. 4) _______________ and queuing models have been used for determining the optimal number of repair gangs. 2. Ramani and Krishnan Kutty have utilized an ABC×VED classification technique where not only the annual value of usage of the part is taken into account but also the criticality of the part is given importance. medium. 2) Several models have been developed based on the principle of minimizing the total _____________. difficult and easy to procure Procurement lead-times .2 Selective Inventory Control Procedures The statistical inventory control techniques require that each item. During the days when computers were not available.Self Assessment Question 1) Maintenance job is usually performed by a _____________or repair crew consisting of an optimal mix. The re-order quantity. Technique Description ABC Pareto rule VED FSN HML SDE Table 2. slow and non-moving Usage rate of the parts High. Instead effort was concentrated on a few expensive and fast-moving items. the safety stock and the minimum and maximum inventory levels require to be determined for each of the items in the stores. Items were categorized into homogeneous groups based on their characteristics. a few of which have been listed.3. This is the principle of the selective inventory control procedures. By this method the spare parts are classified into nine Basics Of Formulation Annual usage value of the parts Vital. low Unit price of the parts Scarce. irrespective of its criticality.

For example. .2. the stocking policy for a spare part in the V/S/F category is 2. If a substitute part is readily available then the part may be less critical. For each of the nine categories. the multi-unit spare inventory control. In other words. it should be noted that most of the classification criteria are subjective. Saha and Mohanty have developed a spare parts stocking policy with an objective of minimizing the downtime of critical equipment. which makes use of the ABC classification criteria. A part may be classified as a critical part if the consequence of running out of stock is severe. takes into account the annual usage value Bi of the part i and is given by where Ci is the price of the part and Di is the total annual demand. The stocking policies for each of the 27 categories are determined using heuristics. statistical inventory control models or heuristics are utilized to determine the ordering parameters such as the order point and the order quantity.categories. in the categories formed on the basis of lead-times are long lead-time and short lead-time. These eight categories have been formed by taking only two categories in each of the three dimensions. The two categories formed on the basis of sales value are high sales value and low sales value. makes use of a combination of ABC. There are several ways by which the criticality of a part can be defined. It is the time required to replace or repair the part. MUSIC-3D.6m where m is the maximum quantity of parts requested at any time. For instance. VED and the SDE classification procedures which results in eight categories of items as shown in table 2. A three dimensional classification technique has been used for the purpose. Duchessi. The first dimension. The second dimension uses an SDE classification. Tayi and Levy have utilized a two-dimensional classification method. fi is the number of failures per unit time involving the part i. The second dimension makes use of the criticality aspect of the spare part and is based on the revenue lost due to loss in production (Mi) which is given by where pi is the downtime cost per unit time per failure involving the concerned part. The first dimension utilizes a VED classification methodology. which is based on the procurement leadtime while the third dimension makes use of the FSN classification (usage rate). a part may be called critical if the loss of production caused by non-availability of the part is very high. and Ni is the standard deviation of the downtime cost (E denotes expectation). Although the selective control procedures make the managing of the multiple inventory items easier. while the categories formed on the basis of criticality of the parts are critical and non-critical. which categorizes the spare parts into groups based on their criticality. a range of service level is specified. Moreover. A reorder point-order quantity technique is used in conjunction with this method for replenishment of parts.

the crankshaft assembly and the cylinder assembly. The piston assembly. The immediate .3 Manufacturing Resources Planning The manufacturing resources planning (MRP-II) technique has been used widely for managing production resources. It consists of a master production schedule. a logic processor and a capacity planning subsystem. The components can either be manufactured in the shop or can be boughtout items. some applications involving management of maintenance inventories are also discussed. An end-item is an item at the highest level of hierarchy in the bill of materials. The technique is based on the principle of dependent demand.3. an inventory status file. In addition to this. Figure 2. any manufacturing organization would want to have the following questions answered: · How much to order? · When to order? Both these questions are also answered by the MRP technique. in turn. The components in the diagram have been described briefly.3. The demand for an inventory item is termed dependent when it is directly related to. is made up of the piston. Figure 2. This section provides a brief overview of the closed-loop technique. MRP-II possesses two basic characteristics which go beyond the closed-loop material requirements planning (MRP).2 shows the bill of materials for a petrol engine. It is an operations as well as a financial system. The central idea of MRP is to time production/acquisition of batches of parts/components so that they are available as they are required in assemblies. As seen in the figure. It is also a system simulator.1 The Bill of Materials The bill of materials defines how one or more items are brought together to make up another item.2 2. the piston rings and the bearings. defines the constituents of an end-item. or derived from the demand of another inventory item.1 shows the components of MRP. Later in this section. in general. in a raw. semi-finished or finished form.Table 2. The bill of materials indicates that the engine consist of three subassemblies – the piston assembly. 2. As mentioned earlier in this section. The bill of materials. All other constituents of the petrol engine are referred to as items. It can also be considered to be an assembly definition. the petrol engine is an end-item. the application of MRP is also very simple. a bill of materials file.3.

is an item whose parent is the piston assembly. The bill of materials also carries with it some other information such as whether the part is bought out or is manufactured within the organization.predecessor of an item is called the parent item. In addition to defining the relationship between items. The MRP technique uses the bill of materials for computing the requirements through a process called explosion or desegregation. The piston. for example. As seen from Figure 2. the bill of materials also indicates the quantity of an item that goes into making a parent item.1 . Figure 2.2 two bearings (indicated in parenthesis) go into the making of a piston assembly.

it may so happen that the items are used at two different levels. The requirement at one level is computed first before proceeding to the next level.2 Every item in the bill of materials is given a number or code such that no two parts have the same number.Figure 2. Since the demand for carbide tools is all through the year. . This is further broken down into a schedule for specific variants of carbide tools such as SPAN 50. this can be broken down into 12 production months.3. semi-finished and finished parts. It states what end-items need to be produced and how many needs to be produced in a month or week. The master production schedule indicates the quantity of items to be produced in a given period.3. level codes are assigned such that identical items used in different end-items are maintained at the same level. The master production schedule is constrained by the production plan. Also. the top management has budgeted 6 tones of carbide tools to be produced during the year. TPAN 75 and CPAN 75 that need to be produced. 2.5 tones of tools need to be produced every month on average. In order to make the computation of the requirements easy. As shown in Table 2. This includes raw materials.2 Master production Schedule A master production schedule is a statement of production of end-items for a given planning horizon.3.3. which is a budget set by the management. This would mean that 0. The total weight of the variants scheduled for production during the month when totaled equals the budgeted weight as shown in Table 2. There may be a case where an item is used in two different end items. The priorities for the production of items specified in the master production schedule are set by the sales plan. The quantity of all the items to be produced in a given period must equal the quantity budgeted in the production plan as shown in Table 2.3.

3 0.1 2.3 Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 0.1 0. the batch sizing policy.3.1 0.3 0.2 TPAN 50 0.5 0.1 0. · Quantity on order.2 0.5 0.1 0. 2.0 0.5 0.5 0.1 0.5 Tools Master Schedule SPAN 50 0.1 0.5 0.3.5 0.1 0.2 0.5 0.5 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.5 0.1 0.3 Inventory Status File The inventory status file contains up-to-date information about all the materials stocked in the stores.2 CPAN 50 0.3 0.1 0.3.1 0. In addition to the stock data.3 0.1 0.1 Table 2. The file is kept up to date by posting the transactions which take place as a result of a receipt or issue of parts into and out of the stores.1 0.1 0. the safety stock.Item code Jan Production Plan Carbide 0.1 0.2 0. the inventory status file also contains the planning factors such as the procurement or manufacturing lead-times. the scrap allowances etc.1 0.3 0. the inventory status file maintains the following data for every item: · Quantity on-hand.5 0.3 0.3 0.3.3 0.4 Requirements Pegging .5 0. In general.

materials on order may be received earlier than the due date while in some others the scheduled receipt may not be expected to be in the stock on time. The procedures used are similar to those used for determining the optimal number of repair gangs required for carrying out maintenance activities. For audit purposes. The scheduled receipts are taken into account while computing the net requirements. 7. Self Assessment Questions State whether following statement True or False. This uncertainty may result in rescheduling of the receipts. 9. The manpower requirement is also known precisely. . 2.3. The inventory status file will not contain up-to-date information about all the materials stocked in the stores. 8. 2.Explosion is a process concerned with generating gross requirements. 5. A master production schedule is a statement of production of end-items for a given planning horizon. it becomes necessary to trace the demand for an item to its source and this process is referred to as pegging.5 Effect of Maintenance Types on Resources As mentioned earlier. This is a deterministic situation. Activities such as fixed-time maintenance enable managers to determine the exact number of parts required. In some cases. The statistical inventory control techniques require that each item. in the case of a proactive perspective the maintenance activity is planned and the timing is also determined well in advance. not be given equal importance.5 Rescheduling Process Scheduled receipts are orders which have already been released to the shop floor or to the vendors. irrespective of its criticality.3. The bill of materials defines how one or more items are brought together to make up another item. Scheduled receipts are orders which have already been released to the shop floor or to the vendors. 6. 2.4 Tools and Facilities Queuing models and simulation have been used also for determining the optimal number of tools and facilities such that the maintenance costs are minimized.

There are some .In the case of a reactive perspective. statistical inventory theory models and selective control approaches for multi-item inventories for spare parts planning and queuing theory and simulation for manpower planning. and corrective maintenance activities (and not just one of them).6 Summary The problem of management of maintenance resources has been discussed. Managers in some organizations carry out cannibalization as a last resort in order to meet the production requirements. The basic purpose of this study is to provide the necessary background and present in a proper perspective the need of the development of an MRP based technique for the management of maintenance resources. and the various models and techniques which are commonly used. If the required maintenance materials are not available in the stores then one option available is to replace the failed parts of one with the working parts of the other failed item of equipment. if not both. This perspective has been created by initially discussing the various types of maintenance resources and their characteristics. This approach to maintenance is called cannibalization. If the equipment is critical. condition-based. 2. then the immediate requirement would be to restore at least one of the items of equipment to a working state. · Build-up spare part inventories and tools. however. As per the definition of maintenance. namely. cannibalization can lead to severe control problems at a later time. In some cases cannibalization is also practiced. In order to reduce the impact of failures on the profitability of the organization the following techniques are usually adopted: · Increase the number of maintenance personnel. explaining the commonly used methods and discussing the work done by researchers working in the area of spare parts management. If a failure occurs and the required resources are not available to restore the equipment to a working state the equipment is kept waiting in the repair queue. The technique should be able to take into account preventive. the maintenance activity is neither planned nor scheduled in advance. and if manpower is a constraint. have been used by industries for spare parts planning. Consider a situation where two identical items of equipment have failed due to different failure modes. such as the use of ABC and VED classifications. Selective control procedures. Since failures occur randomly it becomes difficult to predict the resource requirements. Cannibalization. does not reduce the number of inoperable parts. Statistical inventory theory models and techniques for selective control have been discussed in detail. · Use standby equipment. this happens to be an undesirable situation and should be avoided.

2. Classifying spare parts into homogeneous groups using a classification scheme is difficult since different types of spare parts require different classification schemes. are utilized to determine the ordering parameters. belts. such as the re-order point and order quantity. ABC×FSN. statistical inventory control models. Explain Man Power. sprockets and bearings. In these cases as well. classification. Explain Master production Schedule. 5.7 Terminal Questions 1. ABC and FNS are more appropriate for standard spares such as pulleys. Define Statistical Inventory Theory Models. Summarize Bill of Materials. chains. based on just one criterion is adequate. whereas VED and SDE may be more appropriate for special spare parts (ones which are used on particular equipment). Repair gang 2. 2. Simulation techniques . give rise to a large number of classes of spares with each class having its own planning and control parameters. For spare parts. 3. researchers have suggested the use of multidimensional classifications. Such classification schemes. 4. VED×SDE×FSN and ABC× VED×SDE. For example. Briefly summarize effect of maintenance types on resources. For the above reasons. Inventory costs 3.fundamental problems encountered in the use of selective control techniques for spare parts management and these are as follows: Such classification is always rather subjective and this is more so in the case of spare parts.8 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1. or heuristics. Worn-out parts 4. in turn. or categorization. such as ABC×VED. and these models have their own shortcomings. 2.

Refer 2. False 7. .2 4.2. Refer 2.1 5.3.3. False 8.1 3. Refer 2. True 9.2. True 6.5.4 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .1 2.2. Refer 2. True Terminal Questions 1. Refer 2.

Engineering.). The Work Management process requires the full support of the entire organization (e. Operations. Work Management – A deliberate process in which a scope of work is identified. executed.3 Work Management Process 3. Planning & Scheduling. and R&D activities. Maintenance. closed and critiqued. waste management. scheduled.1 Introduction Objectives 3. etc.. production.5 Terminal Questions 3.g.6 Answers 3. projects. Scope of work includes maintenance. .2 Functional Requirements Equipment Maintenance Function Work Order Management Function Inventory Management Function Vendor Management Function Subcontractor Management Function General Information Systems Specifications 3.OM0006-Unit-03-Work Management & Identification Unit-03-Work Management & Identification Structure: 3. selected.4 Summary 3.1 Introduction Our goal is to establish excellence in Work Management. planned. To fully understand the breadth of Work Management it is important to understand what Work Management is.

2 Functional Requirements Before designing the information system. Predict failures to a chosen level of confidence. the scope of the system should be clear. Requirements can be gathered by interviewing the prospective users or circulating questionnaires. · Optimally utilize maintenance resources. 3.2. Update data when a failure or preventive maintenance activity is initiated and completed. 3. Inventory management subsystem. 4. 1. The functional requirements of the information system should be gathered first. 3. hiring of subcontractors and arranging facilities. 2. 5. 4. 6. should have the following functions.Objectives: A maintenance management information system must help you to · Schedule the Maintenance activities. Schedule preventive maintenance work. · Report on the performance of the overall maintenance system using standard indicators. Store maintenance data including failure and repair data. Track overall maintenance function performance. A maintenance management information system. Equipment maintenance function.1 Equipment Maintenance Function The equipment maintenance function needs to perform the following: 1. Vendor management subsystem. manpower and tools would be available. 2. 5. at the least. . Plan maintenance work – ensure materials. · Plan procurement of resources. Work order management subsystem. 3. Subcontractor management subsystem.

7. 7.2. 3. Print reports as desired by the maintenance manager and top management. Update materials inventory data as and when an issue or receipt of materials occurs. 2. 6. Generate work orders for preventive and corrective actions.2 Work order management subsystem The work order management function is required to perform the following: 1. covering manpower. 3. 3. 6. Produce reports as desired by the maintenance manager and top management.3 Inventory management function The inventory management function has to do the following: 1. Track utilization of manpower. Schedule work visually.2. Store and maintain inventory data including skills and tools. Create maintenance requests. Schedule release of planned orders (materials). Convert critical maintenance requests into work orders. 5.2. 4. Plan capacity. 8. 7. Alert the maintenance manager to place orders for materials as planned and in the required quantity. 3. 4. Produce reports as desired by the maintenance manager and top management. 3.4 Vendor management function The vendor management function needs to perform the following: . 2. tools and facilities. Track status of manpower. materials and tools. Track maintenance costs. 9. Track status of work in progress. tools and facilities. List pending work. 5.

2) The work order management function is required to perform Plan capacity. 4. Maintain data related to subcontracts. Track cost. 3. Self Assessment Questions State whether the statement is true or false. Validate data entry. Print related reports.2. 3. 3. 3. Produce reports as desired by maintenance manager. Track quality of subcontracted work. 2. 5. Make on-line data entry. top management and middle management. 1) The subcontractor management function must not maintain data related to subcontracts. Maintain vendor information. Organize skills provided by subcontractors. 3. each level of management needs to have access to the required information and should be able to extract the data which is needed. .6 General Information Systems Specifications The general information systems specifications need to perform the following: 1. 2. 3) The equipment maintenance function needs Schedule preventive maintenance work.1. Cater for three levels of users’ administration. Devise metrics for evaluation of vendors. In order for a system to be efficient. 2.5 Subcontractor management function The subcontractor management function must: 1. Track progress of subcontracted work. 6.2.

they would entail routines used to monitor attributes important to mission execution. The statement of work in the contract provides a description of the mission-related work that DOE expects to be performed. At the top-level these processes and tools include the contract with DOE and management programs committed to by the contractor to execute the statement of work and requirements in the contract. Whether mandatory or voluntary on the .4) General information systems specifications will not validate data entry. Identify Work Concept This element describes the processes and tools put in place that determines the work that a contractor performs. scheduling and performance of the work that has been accomplished. A number of these programs are mandatory.3 Work Management Process These steps to be followed in work management process are: · Identify the work that needs to be performed. 3. requirements stated in the contract and the annual budget process form the top-level means of identifying the work that will be performed. · Schedule the work for performance. Mechanics The contract between DOE and the contractor provides the top-level mechanisms for work to be identified. 5) The vendor management function needs maintain vendor information. · Close the work item after completion. · Plan that work. On a day-to-day basis. safety and protecting the environment. Contractors develop management programs to execute much of the work of contracts. The statement of work. · Execute the work. and · Critique the planning. Each year DOE and the contractor review the contract and the progress of work as part of the annual budget process. other programs may be developed by the contractor in furtherance of contract execution. · Select the specific work that will be planned.

operator rounds. changes. Program and project plans are updated with the information developed during the annual budget process. prioritize and coordinate the management of several categories of work. The identification of work is. These routines can include Technical Surveillance Requirements/ Limited Condition of Operations TSR/LCO surveillances. While the threshold for identifying work items needs to be sufficiently low to all capture work items. From this process the work to be planned and executed in a given year is identified. system and environmental parameters. The schedule is also a tool that ensures that work is properly identified. an identified project or specific facility need are screened out and no further resources applied to their resolution. environmental monitoring. no contractor has the resources to complete every identified work request. these management programs provide one of the primary paths for work to be identified. Routines are executed to monitor equipment. contractors often put routines in place. They provide the opportunity to proactively manage the identification of emergent work. The Select Work element funnels the work requests through a validation or screening process to determine those work items needing to be completed. Management The annual budget process provides contractor and DOE management the resources to manage the work that is identified for further planning and execution. Select Work Concept Management programs identify the operational activities and routines that need to be completed to meet mission deliverables. which are initiated by personnel who identify work that needs to be performed to allow the work item to be entered into a work management system. Work is also identified on a daily basis. they provide a method to track. Additional management tools that are used in the work identification process also support other elements of the work management process. at a high level.part of the contractor. After the work . Work management systems are put in place by contractors to collect work requests into a single place. or improvements. In furtherance of management programs. This process compares the work accomplished and that which remains to the funding that DOE believes will be available to execute work in the coming years. a continuous process. therefore. Work requests not supporting the current mission. These include work requests. Other types of work are converted into work requests. and similar repetitive procedures. Workers are encouraged to be vigilant in monitoring facility conditions for system or equipment problems. The discovery of new information may result in the need for additional research and development or design changes to existing systems and equipment. On-going assessments or reviews may identify the need for corrective actions.

Work requests that are clearly not going to be accomplished due to cost impacts should be screened out at this point. The work selection process starts with a work validation. Work requests that have equipment impacts must be evaluated and the systems configured to protect equipment and workers. This second type of work will normally be given a relative priority. Or the work request may require a documented resolution. and interface with mission requirements. operational requirements. · Operational Impact: Work requests that have immediate impact on the health and safety of contractor personnel need to be processed rapidly. If the work item is a duplicate it should be screened out. traded off with lower priority work or put forth as a candidate for additional funding. etc. stay in compliance with the established safety basis and operating requirements for that facility or project. These tools should be reviewed to determine whether duplicate items are already entered into the system. Mechanics Work selection is a continuous process to handle the work requests identified on a daily basis. or management commitments. coded with respect to like components and systems. or required plant operational modes to facilitate tracking and planning and then entered into the work management system. · Need Date: Work requests must clearly indicate any deadline dates and the estimated time period for completing the work. problem symptoms. The work may be simple enough that no initiating work documents are required (so-called “tool pouch” or “quick fix” items). · Work Duplications: Contractors use Work Management Tools to track work orders. Effective work management processes utilize a graded approach to resolving work requests. may all provide key information needed to properly validate the work. Location of the work. equipment identification. or. Attributes evaluated include: · Work Scope Identification: A clear scope statement is necessary to understand what work activities are necessary. A strong validation process incorporates two-way communications with the work request identifiers. if sufficiently important. · Work Cost: Work requests may be identified that will require funding that is beyond that available to the contractor. . This validation process evaluates attributes of the work items to determine if the work item should be processed through the work management system. Knowledge of these drivers allows effective prioritization of work planning efforts.request has been validated a formal work order is entered into the work management tools used by the contractor. Work may be tied to contract milestones.

Those work requests entered into the work management system result in the generation of work orders. Mature work selection processes incorporate an understanding of a graded approach to work planning.

Management
Contractors need to clearly define who has responsibility and authority to perform the validation activity for their facilities and projects. The validation authority typically resides in the Operations organization because they are responsible for mission execution and normally retain configuration control of the facility systems, structures and components. The work management process descriptions need to define the planning processes used by the contractor staff. Requirements for the type of planning required, based on potential mission impact, hazards analysis and complexity of the work activity, are critical to decision-making during work selection. Plan Work Concept This element describes the process of taking a defined scope of work that has been selected for planning and developing/packaging technical documents to safely and efficiently perform that work. This process includes identification/incorporation of applicable technical specifications and requirements into technical documents, identifying and mitigating job hazards, identifying and obtaining required permits, developing work instructions, and defining post activity acceptance. Mechanics An initial step in planning work is determining what type of work execution vehicle will be used to perform the work. As previously discussed under Work Selection, this decision has often already been made, on a preliminary basis, prior to the initiation of Work Planning; however, it is confirmed as part of this element. Is the work to be performed with a very simple work package where the worker has the knowledge to perform the work and little or no instruction is required or will the work require a work package with more detailed instructions? The following criteria might be used to determine whether work can be performed using a very simple work package: · No medium or high risk activities. · No activities requiring hold points. · Will not alter configuration of equipment from documented design. · Will not present any unusual hazards.

· No hands-on work with radioactive material except incidental or routine work activities that involve low potential of worker exposure or workplace contamination. · No opening of contaminated systems, components, containers. · Minimal external coordination required. · “Skill-of-the-Craft” Work. Such tasks should be documented in a work package by the Field Work Supervisor (FWS) and released to work by operations and documented on the document releasing work.

Management
Work management systems are often put in place to collect work requests and maintain and file documents in a single place. They provide a method to track, prioritize, and coordinate the management of several categories of work. They also provide a means for the work planning organization to interface with the operations organization and ensure that work is moving through the planning pipeline in a manner that supports mission execution. Schedule Work Concept Schedules are tools used by work management organizations to communicate and coordinate work activities. This element describes the processes and tools associated with establishing schedules. Typically, work is identified from various sources (missionrelated commitments, Authorization Basis requirements, maintenance routines, etc.) and flows through a “rolling work week process” (described below) into an integrated schedule. The rolling work week concept is typically established based on either an 8 or 12 week duration.

Mechanics
Most sites have developed a fairly common set of schedules to implement graded approaches to conduct of operations. These commonly include a Plan of the Day (POD) along with a slightly longer view, often one week (so-called Plan of the Week, POW). Various methods exist to move information from longer-term schedules to these two short-term scheduling tools. The rolling work week concept provides an effective tool for managing the development of schedules. It involves setting a specific time frame (or “window”) within a longer-term schedule on which to focus increased management attention. Common time frames are eight to twelve weeks.

· For work that falls within the work window, increased emphasis is placed on planning, detailed schedule concerns and coordination of the work. This time period of increased attention allows: o Optimization of planned outage windows, scheduling all tasks that require particular facility conditions or that impact production commitments; o Development of a detailed technical sequence for complex jobs; o Addressing only items that need to be scheduled in detail, i.e., they require coordination of resources, complex work, etc; o Grouping of similar work to efficiently use resources and equipment by facility mode, available space, system/equipment; and time to verify that parts are available and staged. The work planned during the work window is “Locked-In”, that is, committed to by all concerned, two weeks in advance. This lock-in process adds discipline to the scheduling process and provides focus for final work preparation and coordination. After lock-in, the schedule is under a formal change control process; this encourages people to only lock in work that is truly ready to work. This level of planning and commitment permits the development of precise resource loaded schedules; it supports aligning support resources to the schedule and permits other detailed preparations such as verifying that fully-trained workers are available. This level of planning and scheduling attention also improves task readiness, it allows crews time to review work in advance of working. A formal post work week critique is held to evaluate what got done, what didn’t get done and why. It should be clear from the level of effort inferred above, that the implementation of a rolling work week process requires a commitment from all organizations to make the system work. Work on the rolling work week is facilitated by the existence of schedules that integrate all important work. Management Management tools for a successful scheduling process include: · Senior Management involvement (Frequent and Regular) – Critical Path Meetings · Accountability meeting – weekly schedule commitment meeting · High level schedule change control authority once work is locked in · POD – A daily meeting intended to review facility and schedule status

Mechanics For each assigned task. · Remove insulation. This work should be completed in parallel with establishing worker protection and industrial safety requirements. the first-level supervisor performs a final review of the work instruction. ensures that procedures and references are the latest revision and that all of the required permits are issued and up to date. . The execution of work begins when the work package is released for work by Operations and runs through the completion of work in the field or facility. · Complete rigging preparations. This element is centered on the first-level supervisor (the person directly overseeing the work crew) and the crew that is engaged in the performance of the activity.· POW – A weekly meeting intended to review and status the higher level facility schedule · Rolling work week process – described above · Outages – scheduled periods where equipment systems or facilities are available to perform pre-determined work · Metrics – tools used to measure success of schedule performance · Documentation of key scheduling assumptions – essential to the development of baseline schedules Execute Work Concept This element describes the processes and tools associated with the actual performance of the work. · Assemble tools and material at job location. Example components of work execution include the following: Preparations: · Contact job support personnel as required. Applicable work instruction prerequisites are completed to ensure readiness to work. · Build scaffolding and install lead shielding. · Assemble required test equipment.

· Set up welding equipment if required.· Provide necessary temporary air. Radiological Work Permit. and identifies all discrepancies and incomplete work items. As the work completes. field walk-downs. The supervisor documents relevant as-found conditions and the work performed. the first line supervisor completes all system/equipment checks described in the work instructions to return equipment to service. job hazards analysis. · Finish prefabrication work. the first-line supervisor oversees and directs the work activities in accordance with the approved work instructions. environmental or radiological hazards of the task from the work document. Management Management tools put in place to monitor work execution include the Plan of the Day or other work progress meeting. which monitors the day-to-day progress of work execution. power. · Build contamination control devices (catch basins. the first line supervisor reviews the instructions for a complete and accurate work history and performs post activity testing and any rework identified by the post activity testing. Finally. water storage/recovery systems). Pre-Job Brief: · Scope of the task · Review of prerequisite section of the work instructions · Responsibilities of all participants. or facility knowledge · Potential abnormal events and contingency plans After completing preparations and getting their work crew prepared to perform the job. Formal programs to have management observe work in the field will provide not only . tents. and water requirements. including expected worker radiological recovery actions · Job-specific hazards and their controls · Applicable precautions and limitations · Required safety equipment · Discuss hold points with employee(s) responsible for the completion of the hold point and employee(s) performing work immediately before or after the hold point · Industrial.

Documentation: · Document work completion against requirements. · Update as-built drawings. These steps include the process of verifying that work has been completed. Verification: · Verify all administrative and technical requirements. or authorized incomplete/open work items. Important attributes of these processes are discussed below. capturing repair history. . Schedule updates. a number of sites use standard computerized templates to capture relevant historical information. or exceptions have been authorized by the person responsible for accepting the work. e. · Update the files for the affected system/equipment. regulatory and safety basis requirements. returning (or turning over) equipment and systems to operations.. including quality.g. documenting the completion of work.status. are satisfied and test results are approved. . Documentation associated with the work evolution can then be signed off. based on work completed also provide feedback on work execution. · Dispose of excess materials and waste properly. The system/components can be returned to operations subject to any controls defined in the work instructions. as appropriate. Mechanics The work closure process can be described as several related steps. but a more accurate feel for work difficulty and potential coordination issues. · Remove all temporary/test equipment and restore system/components to operable status. calibration and preventive maintenance data into the Work Management System. · Ensure condition tags and other documents are in the completed closure package prior to returning it to the Work Management Center. an inventory of equipment and parts used and feedback to the work management process. resolve any deviations. Close Work Concept Work can be closed and declared complete when defined requirements in the approved work package have been met. normally in the operations organization.

. and incorporated into subsequent work. Critique Work Concept This element describes the processes and tools associated with performing a critical analysis of work to ensure that issues. Mechanics The post work critique (ALARA. and lessons learned. · Return unused parts to the warehouse. If there are authorized open items. and ensuring completion of the work closure functions. improvements or lessons learned are identified. Inventory: · Document material used. issues. Improvement opportunities are . · Release all remaining clearance tags. ranging from individual job post work critiques to critiquing all of the work performed by a group or a facility within a specified time period.· Retain the closure package in accordance with the Site’s records retention requirements. · Evaluate the authorized incomplete/open work items for any operational impact concerns. the work package should have been changed and procedures amended by the appropriate formal documentation. · Accept the system/equipment for operability and return to service in a timely manner. Management The first-line supervisor is responsible to verify work completion against requirements defined in the approved work package. the first line supervisor should consult with the work planner and the systems engineer as needed. the previous work week (Work Week Critique) period. and return the system/equipment to the required configuration to support facility operations.g. e. etc. · Verify required procedure.) process takes selected jobs and critiques them to identify good practices. Return to Operations: · Review work activity and all testing for system/equipment operability. Work critiques take on many forms. drawing and training updates are completed prior to placing the component(s) in service.

etc. including the specifics regarding what was accomplished. typically covering the previous weeks work activities · Work Week Critique Attendance: Work week critique targeted audience should typically be that of Facility Senior Management. · Work Week Critique Report: A formally prepared report which comprehensively addresses the work week being analyzed. The work week critique process is a continuous improvement process. what was initially intended to be accomplished. o Metrics which track and trend the work week elements.typically formally documented and followed to closure through a commitment tracking system. but was not & what the issues were which prevented that work from being accomplished. including Emergency. Issues should be trended to identify programmatic issues. · Work Week Critique Meeting: A regularly scheduled meeting used to perform a thorough analysis of the work execution. including: § Schedule & Cost Performance § Manpower Utilization § Emergent Work § Backlog · Action Item Tracking: A formal process in which action items from the Work Critique meeting are assigned responsibility & tracked through completion. Management Management tools for a successful critique process include: · Weekly critique meeting · Regularly scheduled meeting following each work week to critically review performance of the previous work week (attended by Senior Management) . The report should also include: o A breakdown of the types of work scheduled & accomplished for the week. whereby all groups involved in work execution meet to perform a critical analysis of all aspects of the week performance. The applicable post work critique output should be discussed in the work week critique process described below. Emergent.

normally in the operations organization. Explain components of work execution.4 Summary The Work Management process requires the full support of the entire organization. 2. 4. Identify Work describes the processes and tools put in place that determines the work that a contractor performs. Execute work describes the _______ and ______ associated with the actual performance of the work. 3. Explain briefly Identify Work in Work management Process. Work can be closed and declared complete when defined requirements in the approved work package have been met. Describe Close Work in Work Management Process. 9) Identify describes the processes and tools put in place that determines the work that a ________ performs. 3. Management programs identify the operational activities and routines that need to be completed to meet mission deliverables. or exceptions have been authorized by the person responsible for accepting the work. Management programs identify the operational activities and routines that need to be completed to meet mission deliverables.· Appropriate Metrics including tracking and trending · Standard Critique reports · Action Item Tracking / Accountability · Worker feedback Self Assessment Questions 6) Management tools for a successful critique process include _________. . 5.5 Terminal Questions 1. Explain Functional Requirements in Work Management. 3. Explain Schedule Work in Detail. 10) ___________________ systems are often put in place to collect work requests. 7) _________ can be closed and declared complete when defined requirements in the approved work package have been met.

6 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1. True 6. 10 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . True 3.1 2) Refer Page 10 3) Refer Page 4.3. Tools 9. Close Work 8. False 5. Work management Terminal Questions 1) Refer 3. False 2. Worker feedback 7. 5 4) Refer Page 8 5) Refer Pages 9. . True 4. Contractor 10. Processes.

4 Maintenance Economics Breakdown-time Distribution Preventive versus Breakdown Maintenance (Single Machine) 4.5 Summary 4.1 Introduction Objectives 4. formation of sludge’s and corrosive compounds on the machine parts.1 Introduction The turret lathes and gang drills were acquired second-hand. overheating of motors.3 Maintenance Strategies Corrective or Breakdown Maintenance 4. etc. In the initial stages. and low morale of workers. the machines caused a great deal of anxiety to the management by failing quite frequently and unexpectedly.OM0006-Unit-04-Emergencies or Breakdown Process Paper: ISO 90012000/Qs Elements Unit-04-Emergencies or Breakdown Process Paper: ISO 9001-2000/Qs Elements Structure: 4. and were immediately commissioned.2 The Maintenance Function 4.6 Terminal Questions 4. The breakdown of the machines resulted in a great loss of productive time and also led to several problems such as not being able to meet due dates. especially while processing important jobs. failure of insulation in electrical circuits.7 Answers 4. one-year back. misalignment of shafts and pulleys. The reasons for breakdowns were many: development of high temperature in the bearings. . breakage and slips of gear and belt drives.

2 The Maintenance Function Maintenance. reduced downtime and cost of operation. After a long search.In order to combat these problems. the proprietor of the workshop advertised for maintenance specialists for the turret lathes and gang drills. to most people. or to restore to its favorable operating condition. Machine and component failures can trigger incidents or cause costly production interruptions. Maintenance is defined as ‘any action that restores failed units to an operational condition or retains non-failed units in an operational state’ or ‘an activity carried out for any equipment or asset to ensure its reliability to perform its functions’. they are to be paid overtime. Minimizing the failure count or their adverse effects leads to increased safety. availability. The machine operators can only operate the machine when they are in working condition. Such maintenance is expected to reduce the frequency of machine breakdowns. As he wanted technicians with experience on the specific machines he had. or to repair any equipment that has failed. he selected four technicians for employment. The four workers were divided into two crews. . the proprietor had considerable difficulty in finding he maintenance specialists. Minimizing these adverse effects is the role assigned t maintenance. is any activity carried out on an asset in order to ensure that the asset continues to perform its intended functions. and consequently higher production efficiency. and cannot attend to any repairs or maintenance. Preventive maintenance of a machine consists of dismantling the machine and checking all its important parts and making the necessary adjustments and replacements. The technicians accepted the job under the condition that if ever they are required to work in the second shift on a day. each crew consisting of two workers. or to keep the equipment running. It improves the systems overall reliability. Objectives After studying this unit you shall be able to · Explain the functions involved in maintenance · Recognize the strategies of maintenance · Distinguish between preventive and breakdown maintenance · Evaluate the economic aspects of maintenance 4. Maintenance work on a machine requires both workers of a crew. The maintenance crews can do breakdown maintenance as well as preventive maintenance for all the four machines.

management today sees a much larger role for maintenance. in addition to its traditional roles of enhancing plant availability and lowering costs. .The objectives of maintenance are to maintain equipment and facilities in such condition that: · They give trouble-free service and output at rated capacity.1: Evolution of Maintenance Philosophy Table 4. product quality and customer service profile of the organization. · Safety is ensured. and · The cost of operation and maintenance is minimized. It determines the risk-safety. · Down-time is minimized. The evolution in the maintenance thought process is rooted in the changing complexity of industry itself.1 shows the evolution of the maintenance philosophy. First Generation Second Generation Third Generation · Fix it when broke · Scheduled Overhauls · Condition monitoring · Systems for planning · Design for reliability and and controlling work maintainability · Low-tech computerization · Hazard studies · High-tech computers · Failure modes and effects analysis · Expert systems · Multitasking and teamwork Table 4. Over the past years. as well as the quantitative and cost standard of outputs. Maintenance efficiency is viewed as an integral part of business effectiveness. It ensures that the equipment is able to maintain quality standards. environmental integrity. From a simple expectation of keeping equipment running or restoring it to the desired operating condition. The evolution can be seen to cover 3 different generations of thought. the significance of maintenance and its role in plant operation has changed significantly. The maintenance function plays a supporting role to effective operations. energy efficiency.

The failures that do occur during the period are truly random. This is the useful period of the machine. In practice. reliability and availability have become key issues. These have led to major developments in maintenance philosophy based on manufacturing reliability systems. 4. industry became increasingly dependent on these complex machines. fatigue due to flaws in the molecular structure of the metals or plastics involved. This led to the concept of preventive maintenance. called infant mortalities. the failure rate keeps decreasing until a relatively low constant level is obtained. First Generation (1930-40) – The first generation represents the earlier days of industrialization where mechanization was low. this pattern manifests itself when a collection of machinery is subjected to rigorous operation. Third Generation (after the 1980’s) – Since the 80’s. Among collections of equipment. With increase in mechanization. Second Generation (1950-70) – The second generation emerged as the result of growing complexity in equipment and plant design. Repairing and restoration had become more difficult and special skills and more time was needed to maintain and repair equipment. unpredictable and cannot be prevented by additional testing or burn-in of the components. there is a rather high incidence of early failures. Researchers into the reliability of equipment recognize that within a collection of machines. there was an added interest created in the field of maintenance planning and control systems. there is a definite pattern of lifespan. Downtime did not matter much and no need was felt to treat maintenance as a high priority issue. the weak components from the infant mortality period have either been repaired or replaced. expert systems and continuous improvement programs have developed. primarily due to the presence of weak or substandard components or design inadequacies in not properly understanding the operating conditions. Most equipment that survives infancy will continue to perform with few failures occurring.1. the failure rate is high. or sheer quality deficiency in their manufacture. downtime became a problem and management tried to find means and ways to minimize and prevent these failures. Factory equipment was basic and repair and the restoration process was simple. As maintenance costs started to rise sharply relative to other operating costs.3 Maintenance Strategies . How Equipments Fail Maintenance is concerned with controlling the condition of equipment. 3. 2. but they are thought to be at least partially due to abrupt changes in stress distribution in the components. the growth of mechanization and automation has become more complex and even small breakdowns in equipment affect the operation of the whole plant. As these components drop out one by one. The reason for the occurrence of these failures is not fully understood. Hence. As this dependence grew. During this period. During the infant mortality period.

its size. The secondary functions are: a) Maintenance stores. Some of the common approaches to maintenance are as follows: · Breakdown maintenance · Preventive maintenance · Predictive maintenance · Proactive maintenance Type of Maintenance Strategy Maintenance ApproachSignificance Fix-it when broke Large maintenance budget Scheduled Maintenance Periodic component replacement Condition-based Maintenance decision Monitoring based on equipment condition Detection of Sources of Monitoring and Failures correcting failing root causes Maintenance Strategy Breakdown Maintenance Preventive Maintenance Predictive Maintenance Proactive Maintenance Although the scope of maintenance will vary depending on the type of industry. etc. c) Alteration to existing equipment and buildings. b) Generation and distribution of utilities. the prevalent management policies. .Over the years. buildings and grounds. b) Plant protection. d) New installations of equipment and buildings. maintenance functions may be identified as primary or secondary functions. equipment. The primary functions are: a) Maintenance of existing plant.. many new approaches have been advocated as maintenance strategies that are intended to overcome problems related to equipment breakdown.

· Corrective maintenance strategy has no routine maintenance task and therefore is also described no scheduled maintenance strategy. 4. the rectification of the fault should be processed in the same manner as for planned maintenance work schedules. b) Repair and/or replacement of faulty component(s): Once the cause of system failure has been determined. c) Verification of the repair action: once the components in question have been repaired or replaced. the maintenance technician must verify that the system is again successfully operating. It consists of the action(s) taken to restore a failed system to operational status. corrective maintenance is periodically performed on the equipment. · The approach to maintenance is totally reactive. the repair work is performed only after a piece of equipment has failed.3.c) Waste disposal. · Corrective maintenance may be defined as the repairs carried out to restore equipment. so as to restore it a specified operating state. Corrective maintenance is performed at unpredictable intervals because a components failure time is not known a priori. It is also called. · Restoring a failed system usually involves replacing or repairing the component that is responsible for the failure of the overall system.1 Corrective or Breakdown Maintenance This is one of the earliest maintenance strategies implemented in the industry. which has broken down or developed a fault. To rectify the problem. . a properly designed fault reporting system must be instituted and similarly. d) Salvage. and b) To do this in a cost effective manner. maintenance is activated on breakdown. a) To restore the faulty equipment to a healthy operating state as promptly as possible. Corrective maintenance is typically carried out in three steps: a) Diagnosis of the problem: The maintenance technician must take time to locate the failed parts or otherwise satisfactorily assess the cause of the system failure. The goals and objectives of corrective maintenance management are. breakdown maintenance. action must be taken to address the cause. · However. and as the name suggests. usually by replacing or repairing the components that caused the system to fail.

Moreover. the breakdown maintenance practice may be costlier than other maintenance strategies. the failure of any one of its parts can cause a breakdown of the machine.4. 2. _________ Maintenance strategy has no routine maintenance task. · Where capacity and demand are close. Machine and component failures can trigger _________. In such cases. The decision of maintenance policy is more of an economic decision rather than a technical one. management must know how the breakdowntime is distributed. maintenance engineers should be allowed to consider the possibility. thereby eliminating or at least minimizing the failures.4 Maintenance Economics Maintenance policy refers to an organization’s policy in respect of the maintenance function of a set of equipments.· Corrective maintenance in a broader perspective may also include activities related to correcting potential causes for failure or malfunction that might not have been adequately considered when the equipment was designed. Even where capacity is not a constraint. The first generation represents the earlier days of ___________ where mechanization was low. As maintenance is an economic decision.1 Breakdown-time Distribution In order to establish the cost implications. the practice of attending to machines only after they have broken down may be uneconomical. But in the case of a complex machine. 3. Self Assessment Questions 1. and where production interruptions may be negligible. Restoring a failed system usually involves _________ or repairing the component. 4. if careful observations of repeated failures of an equipment or system suggest that the remedy lies in correcting the system. 4. Such a distribution will show the frequency of maintenance-free running times for a given number of operating hours. 5. For example. breakdowns may affect production and thus reduce profits. and the adoption of other maintenance practices may reduce interruptions to production. The growth of __________ and automation has become more complex. each part will have a different failure distribution. A simple machine with few moving parts will probably have breakdowns after a fairly large number of maintenance-free runtime hours. The breakdown time distribution of the complex machine probably will . proper feedback to the design department may lead to alterations in design that will reduce or eliminate failures. what are its cost implications? 4. In such a situation.

i. In this case. B = 0. adjustments before it can give reasonable trouble-free service.4 can be used to plot the percentage of breakdowns that exceed a given runtime as the ‘y’-axis. while curve ‘b’ represents a more complex machine. and the reliability factors are A = 0. that one can be sure the machine will operate reliably. C & D.free run-time as the other two but the distribution has much wider variability. B.9 ‘0. The same data that we have used to plot figure 4. it would amount to (0. curve ‘b’ is the exponential distribution and exhibits medium variability and curve ‘c’ exhibits high variability.4 for the percentage of breakdowns..9.7 = 0. maintenance free run-time as that of the simple machine. and the ‘run-times free of breakdowns’ as the ‘x’-axis.2 Figure 4. The frequency distribution curve ‘c’ has the same average maintenance. and plot this against the run-time.7. If we assume that the failure of any one of the sub-systems can cause the failure of the entire system.e. T3 = Average free run time free of breakdowns Figure 4.show greater variability than the simple machine even though it may have the same average. which exceed a given free-run-time. C = 0.8 and D = 0.8 ‘0. . Curve ‘a’ depicts the behavior of a simple machine. Equipment can be considered as a total system with its sub-assemblies as sub-systems. subtract from 100 the figure 4. The total system reliability will be the product of the reliability of each individual system. if the total system has four sub-systems. say A. It also shows that it is only after a few periods of trouble free running.2 represents a graphical description of the degree of variability in free-run-time. Curve ‘a’ exhibits low variability from the average maintenance free breakdown-time ‘Ta’. For example. The variability depicted by curve ‘c’ is typical of complicated equipment that needs ‘fine’.8. Say to obtain the ‘a’ curve in figure.40). the reliability of the total system would equal the product f reliability factors of each of the sub-systems. By reliability we mean the probability that the system will give trouble free service.8 ‘0.

there will be breakdowns that occur before the equipment is shutdown for preventive maintenance. Figure 4.Figure 4. over a period of time.4: Breakdown-time distributions 4. the machine is shutdown. after which the equipment is ready to work.2 Preventive versus Breakdown Maintenance (Single Machine) Consider a preventive maintenance schedule. is equivalent to ‘Tr’ (maintenance free run-time) plus ‘Tm’ (the time take to do the preventive maintenance). preventive maintenance should be performed just a little before normal breakdown is likely to occur. inspected and parts replaced. In such cases. When this happens. The probability of occurrence of a breakdown in the two different cycles depends on the specific breakdown-time distribution of the equipment. This preventive maintenance work takes a time ‘Tm’. This can be considered the standard preventive maintenance cycle time. Since preventive maintenance is meant to reduce the total plant down-time particularly unscheduled event – its timing and frequency are important. Ideally. ’Ts’ can be considered the breakdown cycle. the average maintenance free run-time. more breakdowns are likely to occur during the course of the standard period. the running time between the preventive maintenance and the breakdown plus the time taken to repair the breakdown.4. the situation is slightly different. shortening the preventive maintenance cycle can reduce the number of actual breakdowns. which after a machine has been running for fixed time ‘Tr’. The total time period ‘Ta’.5 gives the percent of time a machine is working for the three distributions of breakdown-time shown in Figure and the ratio of the standard maintenance period to . If the distribution has greater variability. In actual practice. and the length of the standard preventive maintenance cycle.

In the case of curve ‘a’ (for breakdown-time distribution with low variability). and hence less availability. there is an optimum value for the standard maintenance period. there is little gain in . preventive maintenance is highly benefited to machines whose breakdown time distributions have low variability. Second. ‘Ts’. This suggests that for breakdown time distribution with low variability. The percentage of machine running time depends on the ratio of the standard maintenance period and the average run-time. since a low ratio would mean too many machine stoppages. the machine works for a small percentage of time. there is a similar increase in machine running-time. but only till a peak is reached after which lengthening standard maintenance period seems to reduce the percentage of machine running time.5: Present of time when the machine is working and breakdown distribution Certain generalizations can be made from the above three graphs. it is assumed that either preventive maintenance or repair puts the equipment in line for a running time of equal length. First. It can be seen that for low values of the ratio of standard maintenance period to average maintenance free runtime. From figure. In this type of situation. Such a relationship is shown for the three different breakdowns time distributions. This is obvious. Unless the preventive maintenance time is less than the repair time. the relation of preventive maintenance time to repair time is important.average maintenance-free run-time. it can also be seen that for curves ‘b’ and ‘c’ an increase of the ratio results in an increase in the percentage of machine running time. a standard preventive maintenance period can be set in such a way that the total downtime is reduced. like those depicted by curve ‘a’. Figure 4. ‘Ta’ for a given breakdown-time distribution. as there is better predictability of when breakdowns are likely to occur.

For a given breakdown time distribution. such as 1. and 3. an increase in the standard period would mean less number of preventive maintenance cycles and more repairs. Additional stoppage time because maintenance crew cannot start repairing immediately after the breakdown has occurred. it is better to perform corrective or breakdown maintenance.preventive maintenance. We also need to take into account other effects of unscheduled downtime. 4. Initially. 6. 9. Self Assessment Questions State whether the statement is true or false. Effect on production losses if plant shutdown could have been avoided. Maintenance policy will not refer to any organization’s policy. The percentage of machine running time depends on the ratio of the standard maintenance period. Since some parts are most important to machines. both in terms of contribution earned by them as well as their criticality because of their propensity to break-down. What are the Maintenance Strategies? . 8. all the machines are free and have jus had a preventive maintenance done. you will deal with jobs. Equipment cannot be considered as a total system with its sub-assemblies as subsystems. In general. The probability of occurrence of a breakdown in the two different cycles depends on the specific breakdown-time distribution of the equipment.5 Summary You need to make decisions at the beginning of each shift regarding maintenance. 4. The breakdown time distribution of the complex machine probably will not show greater variability than the simple machine. or more than the time for repair. Effects of scheduling preventive maintenance for non-productive days or shifts with no loss of production. 10. 2. the percentage of machine running time continues to increase with the increase of standard preventive maintenance period. 7.6 Terminal Questions 1. when the repair time is equal to maintenance time. If preventive maintenance is equal to.

Explain Preventive versus Breakdown Maintenance.2. 4.1 3.3.2 5. Industrialization 4. Refer 4. 3. FalseTerminal Questions 1. Summarize Breakdown and Corrective maintenance. Explain evolution of Maintenance Policy. True 8. Mechanization 2. .2 2. Refer 4. Refer 4. Refer 4.1 4. 4. True 9. Incidents 6. Replacing 3. Refer 4.2. True 10. Explain Breakdown Time distribution. Corrective 5.3. False 7.1 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . 5.7 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1.

Maintenance is defined as the restoring of an item to its original condition or to working order.1 Introduction Objectives 5. which can be achieved through repair.6 Answers 5. to ensure or restore system performance to specified levels. replacement of parts or total replacement of .3 Types of Maintenance Systems Routine Maintenance Planned /Scheduled / Productive Maintenance Break down or Corrective / Remedial Maintenance Preventive Maintenance Predictive Maintenance Condition Based Maintenance 5. Maintenance is carried out in anticipation of or in reaction to a failure.5 Terminal Questions 5.OM0006-Unit-05-Types of Maintenance Systems Unit-05-Types of Maintenance Systems Structure: 5. Maintenance covers two aspects of systems – operation and performance.4 Summary 5.1 Introduction Once the machinery is purchased it must be maintained.2 Functions & Feature of Maintenance Engineering 5.

operational life can be extended. Through proper maintenance of these machineries. Maintenance management also aims at developing a reliable and high quality production system. based on the practical and economic grounds Maintenance of any kind performed on machinery or equipment is a consequence of the fact that it started deteriorating before failing. aging. Developing effective maintenance procedures to restrict such deterioration or failure is vital. Improperly performed maintenance or not carried out in time can escalate the problems because of faulty parts running. Failure to perform maintenance in time to maintain the availability of the machinery will have serious effects ranging from benign to catastrophic. Hence a systematic and structured approach to proper & cost effective maintenance is required. Machineries lose its efficiency after some point of time due to various factors such as wear and tear. retain the productivity and maintain safe working conditions by reducing the probability of accidents. misuse etc. Types of maintenance /strategies discussed in this unit are: · Routine Maintenance · Planned Maintenance · Break down Maintenance or Corrective Maintenance · Preventive Maintenance · Predictive Maintenance · Condition Based Maintenance · Total Productivity Maintenance The maintenance plan for a company’s assets can be a combination of the above strategies and could be adopted on the same machine. Objectives: After studying this unit you shall be able . Between these alternatives the management decides.the devices itself. but there is no guarantee here that the exact nature of defect surfaces. It is evident that the best maintenance strategy is selected for reducing breakdowns. Sometimes accelerated testing is used to induce failures and know the behaviour of the systems.

Therefore industries have entered into the era of high technology maintenance management to cater to the production requirement of minimum downtime and maximum productivity.. high cost CNC machines. use of robotics and other Computer Integrated systems are developed and deployed for producing high quality products. scheduling and execution of many maintenance activities. Maintenance management is entrusted with the total task of keeping the machinery. use of complex processes.2 Functions & Feature of Maintenance Engineering Maintenance Engineering is the function of the production management that is concerned with day-to-day problems of keeping the physical plant in good and acceptable operating condition. equipment and services in proper working condition that involves planning. etc. . improved productivity. · · · · · Rapid strides in the advancement of manufacturing technology and its processes with higher powers and speeds. repeatability.· To explain how systems work at their optimum efficiency · To prepare a plan to preserve the value of the assets by different methods · To calculate how to maximize production capability · To prepare a plan and schedule for maintenance work and prevent failures and breakdowns · To Improve quality of products and productivity · To Use of maintenance staff optimally · To Minimize or avoid accidents by periodical inspection and repairs. like repair. requirement of high accuracy. have all warranted the use of sophisticated machineries for production. To offer these requirements. rapid traverses. high up-time and prolonged mean time between failures (MTBF). 5. Flexible manufacturing systems. breakdown maintenance or preventive maintenance etc. higher feeds. Such high cost and sophisticated state of art machineries need to operate at optimal levels of performance with high degree of reliability.

repairing leaks) which include preventive maintenance and forms part of the annual operating budget. These aspects are to recognized by the maintenance department. Maintenance is the work performed on an asset such as utility. outer cleaning. lubricating systems. machines.Malfunctioning of machineries/equipment due to failure to upkeep the operating conditions may result in serious repercussions of reduced capacity. cleaning of machines. reliability and maintainability of a plant is very important for the maintenance engineers. Widely adopted maintenance techniques/strategies are: · Routine Maintenance · Planned Maintenance · Break down Maintenance or Corrective/ Remedial Maintenance · Preventive Maintenance · Predictive Maintenance · Condition Based Maintenance · Total Productivity Maintenance [Discussed in detail in Unit-10] 5.1 Routine Maintenance [RM] RM is a procedure followed regularly i.3 Types of Maintenance Systems A way of reducing the plant breakdowns is to select the best maintenance strategy. RM can be classified as: 1) Running maintenance 2) Shut down maintenance. . production of low quality products. increased production costs.e. and equipment by the maintenance staff to preserve such machineries in as near to its original condition as is practical and to realize its normal life expectancy. 5. 1) Running maintenance is the work carried out when the equipment or the machine is performing some operations i. Hence the relationship between availability. working.e. cleaning. These include say greasing or lubricating the bearings / systems. [say: check all compressors first on Mondays. It includes activities like inspection. injury to workmen and finally frequent breakdowns etc may lead to protracted delivery of the product thus inviting customer dissatisfaction.3. small repairs. a cyclic operation recurring periodically. lubricate two machines daily] It can be even day to day operational activities to keep the plant running (say: replacement of light bulbs. inspection etc.

1.3.2 Disadvantages a) RM may not provide the service specified by the manufacturer b) May ignore information regarding preceding breakdowns c) Service required for a machine at different frequencies may be ignored d) Similar machines are serviced at same frequency irrespective of usage 5. overhaul.2 Planned / Scheduled / Productive Maintenance Planned maintenance is the activities carried out according to a predetermined schedule and hence known as scheduled maintenance or productive maintenance. lubricate. the emphasis is on machines: a) What does the manufacturer prescribe? b) Is the unit utilised for two or three shifts per day? c) Is it working under normal load? . Planned maintenance reduces the machine downtime. thus avoiding a situation of emergency maintenance. 5. It involves inspection of all machineries.1 Advantages a) Simple to establish & follow b) Little or no clerical work c) High degree of prevention by intercepting developing faults d) A more advanced stage calls for ’service instructions on a pre-printed schedule and checklists’. E.2) Shut down maintenance: certain minor maintenance activities cannot be carried out when the machine is running and hence carried out by shutting down the machine.g. repair and carry out all requisite maintenance before actual break down happens. reduces the cost of maintenance. In this type of service. boilers 5.3. increases productivity as compared to unplanned one and hence it is followed as per the maintenance policy of the company. de-scaling furnaces.1.3.

2. faithful implementation and recording f) Initial list of planned maintenance will be in detail 5. can be defined as the maintenance which is required when an item has failed or worn out.2 Advantages of Planned Maintenance Considers all the changes in conditions of use & increased wear of parts a) Inspections. Unforeseen work is reduced. to bring it back to working order.3 Break Down or Corrective/ Remedial Maintenance Breakdown Maintenance is the method of operating the machines to run until they fail and then repair in order to restore them to an acceptable condition.3. c) Provides as much attention on the equipment for the best judgement of the planner [For details on ‘the principles of planning & scheduled maintenance’ refer Unit 6] 5. Also called as ‘on-failure maintenance/corrective maintenance’. Corrective maintenance is carried out on all items where the consequences of failure or wearing out are not significant and the cost of corrective maintenance is not greater than preventative maintenance. .1 Characteristics of Planned Maintenance a) Instructions are more detailed than in routine maintenance b) Calls for differently timed service for the same unit c) Schedule is drawn with dates d) Establishes the work-load for the crew e) Entails considerable planning effort. Planned repair/rectifying the problem is carried out when it is more convenient and cost effective after its failure rather than to disrupt the production with RM. replacement of parts.2. adjustments are shown in overall plan b) Detailed instructions reduce the chance of missing any activity.3.3.d) Are the conditions as good as those envisaged by the manufacturer? e) Do we allow for extra attention owing to corrosion-including conditions? 5.

lost output. For example: non-critical low cost equipment.e. This method is expensive in terms of maintenance cost. increased downtime. Repairs are done after the machine fails and hence this becomes a repair work. misuse or improper maintenance.1 Characteristics of Break-down Maintenance System · No services except occasional lubrication unless failure occurs · No maintenance men on regular basis · Maintenance done by sub-contractors · No organised efforts to find out reasons · No stock of spares · No budget · No records · Initially it looks economical · Creates internal problems namely: Who to do the repair? From where to get parts? How do we pay for them? Who will go & buy parts? . This system could be called as ‘Operate to Failure (OTP) ’– no predetermined action taken to prevent failure.Corrective maintenance may be programmed. taken after the failure happens. vandalism. On-failure maintenance can be effective if applied correctly. etc. o Upset schedule resulting in panicky. drive shaft broken and hence the transmission fails. Here the machine and the work on that machine stops operating. or reconditioning that part to its original or acceptable working condition. or where no other strategy will work. Corrective maintenance activities include both emergency repairs (fire fighting) and preventive (or corrective) repairs. i.3. Repair is restoring an asset by replacing a part which is broken or damaged. The above type of repairing and setting the equipment to working condition can be called as corrective maintenance. involve hazards. Frayed tempers put unnecessary pressures and disturb delivery commitments. The need for repairs can result from normal wear.3. Ex: electric motor may not start. 5.

Preventive maintenance is carried out to prevent an item failing or wearing out by providing systematic inspection.4 Disadvantages 1) No warning of failure – safety risk 2) Uncontrolled plant outage – production losses 3) Requires large standby maintenance team 4) Secondary damage – longer repair time 5) Large spares stock requirement 6) Provision of standby plant 5.3. with an objective to anticipate problems and correct them before they occur.3.3. This is normally programmed.3.2 Objectives of BD/Corrective Maintenance 1) To put back machinery back to work and minimize production interruptions 2) To control costs of maintenance crew to the minimum 3) To control cost of the operations of repairing 4) To control costs of repair & replacement parts to minimum 5) To control investment cost on purchase of standby or back up machines 6) To carry out appropriate repair intermittently at each malfunction to improve the life of the machine.3 Advantages 1) Low cost if correctly applied 2) Requires no advanced planning other than ensuring spares availability 5.4 Preventive Maintenance PM is a regularly scheduled maintenance activity.3. detection and prevention of incipient failure. In line with management’s policy on obtaining the best value from the maintenance funds.5. preventative maintenance is carried out only on those items where a failure would . 5.3.3.

It is much economical to carry out preventive maintenance.. but it is found that a greater number of machine failures are at the peak when machine gets progressively worse over a period say months/ years. lubrication. Periodic Inspections . Preventive maintenance could be grouped as: 1) Fixed-time Maintenance (FTM) – Here actions carried out at regular intervals (calendar time) e. 2) Condition-based Maintenance [explained below] 3) Opportunity Maintenance (find out the opportune moment for maintenance) The preventive maintenance is carried out at irregular intervals and this interval is determined by seeing the actual condition of the machine. electricity supply. repair and major overhaul. PM’s prerequisites are: a) Proper design and installation of equipment b) periodical inspection of plant and machinery to prevent breakdowns c) repetitive servicing and overhaul d) lubricate. clean and up keep To achieve prevention of break-downs planned service is carried out with the explicit additional objective of detecting wear points and ensure perfect functioning by replacing parts Here the safe overhaul interval is selected. checking. Daily Maintenance – Cleaning. Many of these items are also subject to a statutory requirement for inspection and preventive maintenance. Routine & planned maintenance includes Preventive maintenance actions. e. battery back up at sub-station. etc. fire alarms. 2.result in expensive consequences. etc. isolators. sub-station transformers. circuit breakers. lifts. so that the major break downs are avoided & minimizes possibility of unanticipated production interruptions. item replacement. distribution transformers.g.g. -To avoid breakdown & ensure smooth production following time based activities are practiced: 1.

3. 2.4.1 Preventive Maintenance System is 1. Use of recommended Grades of oils 4. Reduces unplanned work 6. Restoration to recover deterioration 5.3.3. parts list etc 6) Adequate stock of spare parts .2 Features of PM 1) Proper identification of items in each machineries which warrants fixed time maintenance.4. daily maintenance etc and programming the activities with work content.3. More expensive due to more planning &replacement of parts before failing.4. Reduces total maintenance cost 5. Increases reliability 3. Reduces total work-load 4.3 Requirements of Preventive Maintenance Program 1) Good maintenance management department with experienced personnel 2) To firm up plan of PM in consultation with shop personnel 3) A good lubricating and cleaning schedule 4) Detail procedures on maintenance work 5) Proper records maintained along with manuals. cost estimates etc 2) Use of check lists by maintenance staff and inspectors 3) Identify and allocate well qualified crew & inspectors for making repairs 4) Use of budgeting system for major replacements/ repair 5) Proper procedures laid out for meeting the PM objectives in full 5. Reduces total down time 5.

Preparation of inspection chart 7. Higher safety for workers 7. repair procedures etc 11) Suppliers recommendations for up keep of machineries. Feed back on the corrective action/ repair work done and its results 5. Preparation of maintenance schedule and detail program of work with time frame for completion 6. Identifying the job to be taken & appropriate case register 2. Improves productivity due to lesser breakdowns 5.4 Steps involved in Preventive Maintenance 1. Preparation of maintenance report on the work done 8. Reduction in breakdown frequency 4. diagnosis system. Preparation of job specification 5. Reduction in wear and tear of machines and increase in their life 3. Labor used cost effectively .3. Preparation of schedule of maintenance 3. probable causes. Preparation of history card of all the repair work carried on such a machine and the remarks there on 4.4.a guide showing problems. Improves reliability of the machineries 6.5 Advantages of Preventive Maintenance 1. Maintenance is planned well in advance 2.3.7) Properly training maintenance crew Adequate space around machinery for maintenance work 9) Previous data on failure etc of each machine/equipment 10) Systematic approach. 5.4.

3.4. Preventive maintenance is designed to prevent or at least to minimize failures/breakdowns and reduce the need for corrective maintenance. Unnecessary and invasive maintenance is carried out 3.4. Leaser rejection and better quality 11. Sensitive instruments like vibration analyzer. amplitude meters. 2. are used to predict ensuing troubles/problems in machineries. Less breakdown costs. Conditions of the machinery can be checked on line periodically or on continuous basis and maintenance crew can take decision & plan overhaul/repair as warranted.6 Disadvantages/limitations 1. Identification of parts and its nature and cost involved in repairs is possible 5. 12.7 Differences between Corrective and Preventive Maintenance 1. Maintenance activity and costs increased 2. corrective maintenance is carried out to repair the equipment after fault occurs/ breakdown happens. It is possible to have planned shutdowns and repair 9.5 Predictive Maintenance Predictive Maintenance is one of the modern approaches to preventive maintenance where in sensitive instruments are used to predict anticipated failure of machines & equipment. Minimizes breakdowns and hence minimum inventory hold ups 10. sensors for pressure. Maintenance sometimes induces failures (infant mortality) 5. 5. resistance gauges etc.3. Applicable only to age related deterioration 4. .8. Less stand by equipment requirement 13. temperatures. Preventive maintenance program controls the repair costs as well as the overall life of the equipment where as in corrective maintenance brings back to the original life depending on the extent of damage the earier breakdown has brought into the equipment. whereas.3. audio gauges.

it may result in serious breakdowns. misalignments. maintenance is on a pre-determined cycle whereas in a Predictive Maintenance system maintenance is done only. wear debris analysis. we should have a continuous knowledge of the machines based on certain critical predetermined / pre-formulated parameters . when status or condition so demands It is beneficial to follow a system which is not calendar based but condition based. material and time. The intervals should be carefully selected as over maintenance or under maintenance are both detrimental and hence undesirable. which are indicative of malfunctions to decide on corrective treatment. i. Under maintenance or too long intervals between two successive checks may result in high incidence of failures. (which otherwise cause heavy penalty costs. rotor imbalance.) Measuring of physical parameters may not be enough to detect the destructive effects on a machine or process. In a Preventive Maintenance system.Predict failures well in advance by monitoring parameters and by use of certain techniques (like vibration. A major part of the predictive maintenance involves the ongoing analysis to ensure wear levels that damage the machine are within limits Good ability to predict impending failures well in time to prevent breakdowns.e. health and safety hazards etc) will result in 1) Maximizes the online operations 2) Minimizes downtime 3) Increased plant and Personnel safety 4) Optimal maintenance The above is achieved by continuous plant / equipment monitoring & diagnosing the actual condition by means of online non-destructive testing methods. etc. incorrect installation. Main difficulty is in making the correct choice of preventive maintenance intervals based on OEM’s recommendations and own -experiences. temperature. oil condition. 2) If corrective treatment is not adopted at the right time. Hence an optimal maintenance interval has to be arrived at. pump cavitations. Over maintenance or too frequent maintenance increases extensive downtime resulting in added costs on men. 1) Similar to health monitoring of senior executives to check symptoms. analysis and tribology.

Condition monitoring is merely a tool that is used by crew through touch. increased leakages etc) CBM is a continuous or periodic measurement and interpretation of data to indicate the condition of an item to determine the need for maintenance. smell and through their experience on the existing condition of the equipment/aggregate. 5. An ability to forecast the machine behavior by Condition Monitoring is a pre-requisite for Predictive Maintenance Operators who work with equipment every day can listen to equipment and identify changes in noise levels and vibrations. The main function of condition monitoring is to provide the knowledge of a machine and its rate of change. if practiced effectively. it implies that the particular part needs replacement and a special attention. Predictive Maintenance is very cost effective where cost of unplanned breakdowns is very high.A given machine can continue to be kept in operation as long as the monitored parameters continue to remain within the laid down limits.3. etc. Temperature changes can be photographed . It is just like a hammer used to strike a wheel to listen for that distinctive sound to say whether there is crack in wheel rim or not. but much before the possible breakdown. temperature soars. In the Condition based maintenance (also known as Dynamic predictive maintenance or Diagnostic maintenance) the plant is maintained just after some problems arisen. CBM involves recording some measurement that gives an indication of the condition (ex: increase in vibration levels. more universal and better predictive tools and instruments are added in the system. there is enough time available for the maintenance crew to make adequate advance preparations. A sense of confidence is created amongst production and maintenance personnel when they analyze the monitored data and predict that the machines are operated safely till they reach maximum permissible limits.6 Condition Based Maintenance CBM relies on the fact that the majority of failures do not occur instantaneously but develops over a period of time. to cut downtime. thus making predictive maintenance more economical as compared to preventive and corrective maintenance strategies. With rapid developments in machining technology through CNC controlled machines. FMS with artificial intelligent devices and computer simulations and modeling. Predictive Maintenance. can save around 30% of maintenance costs and with a bonus of 15% savings in energy costs. Between the ‘action limit and the maximum permissible time limit’. When permissible limits are reached and warning signals are issued by the measuring devices.

which are to be controlled by maintenance a) Vibration Sensors – to track tool wear/ breakages. mechanical looseness b) Thermostats – hydraulic oil temperature. contaminated cutting fluid Touch – Excessive bearing temperature State-of-the-art CNC systems facilitates adaptive Controls with signals from appropriate transducers.6.through IR thermograph. misalignments. Chatter Smell – Smoke. This type of maintenance check on performance is vital as the future failures in safety systems can have more catastrophic effects. etc. alarms. An investigation can then be carried out to identify the exact problem.1 Condition Monitoring Methods There are two methods used namely: 1. Condition Checking & Monitoring a) Trend Monitoring: . overheating of motors c) Current sensors – cutting load monitored by sensing spindle Condition Monitoring is achieved by the operator’s senses to detect abnormalities Visual – Leakages. if other parts of the system fail. low battery voltage. unbalance in rotors. Trend Monitoring. corrosion Audible – Unusual noise. Condition monitoring is dependent on sensors and transducers for measuring different parameters. 2. Indications like over – temperature. Action limit curve shows the prescribed for monitoring parameters during normal operations. gear defects.3. CNC systems have built – in diagnostics which continuously monitor the system hardware to ensure normal functioning. Curve when extrapolated can indicate maximum & safe permissible limits 5. are displayed on the screen well in time to facilitate corrective action without disruption of production. which gives warning that something is ‘not right’.

using some suitable indicator & is used as a measure of machine condition at that time. 2) Vibration Monitoring: Involves the attachment of a transducer (velocity. which can be made by the application of CM: · Avoiding losses of output due to breakdown of machinery. to monitor the rates of internal corrosion of the wall of the plant. accelerometer. 4) Performance and behavior monitoring: Involves checking the performance of a machine to see whether it is behaving correctly.Trend monitoring is the continuous monitoring or regular measurement and interpretation of data collected during machine operation. c) Condition Monitoring: Includes three stages: 1. 5) Corrosion monitoring: Is applied to fixed plant containing aggressive materials. Detection (when) of the developing fault at an early stage 2. proximity probes) to record vibration level 3) Wear Debris monitoring: This works on the principle that the working surfaces of a machine are washed by the lubricating oil and any damage is detected from particles of wear debris in the oil. d) Economics of Condition Monitoring: The savings. b) Condition Checking: Condition checking is where a check measurement is taken with the machine running. to indicate variations in the conditions of the machine or its components. Prognosis (forecast) subsequent measurement which will then establish the trend and enable the repair schedule to be planned. · Reduces the cost of maintenance · Capital invested can be recovered faster. e) Selecting Methods of monitoring Five main techniques of conditioning monitoring 1) Visual monitoring: inspection & recording of surface appearance. This may be done by . Diagnosis (what) of its origin so that spare parts can be ordered 3.

6. Select proper examining technique. sound.3.3. Training examiners for the above jobs. cost of maintenance.6. Labour can be organised 8. Maximises equipment availability 2. 7. failure statistics (MTBF-MTTR). Allows shutdown before severe damage occurs 4. 5. Cause of failure can be analysed 6. standardizations planned.3 Advantages 1. Recording data 8. Spares can be assembled 5. 7. Listing and numbering of machine to have identification and location details 2.3.4 Disadvantages 1) Thermograph & Oil Debris Analysis [specialised equipment and training] . The hole is then plugged with a suitable leak proof material. 5.2 Implementation of Condition Based Maintenance: Involves: 1. Establishing programs and methods specifying the parts to be examined 4. Establish for each part of the machine the severity limits of the machine condition parameter (Vibration. Selecting critical machines for CM 3. Some forms of inspection utilising human senses can be inexpensive 3.6.drilling a hole through the wall and drilled coupon of material is observed for corrosion. To arrive at best interval for examination considering the criticality of process. overall cost of failure. 5. 6. standby availability of machine. Cost of examination. Production can be modified to extend unit life 5. contamination etc) to be measured. Maintenance can be planned. operating conditions.

fixtures and tools d) All the above 2) Which of the following is not an objective of remedial maintenance? a) To put back machinery back to work and minimize production interruptions b) To control costs of maintenance crew to the minimum c) To control cost of the operations of repairing d) Replacing the faulty machine when it starts malfunctioning.2) Requires careful choice of the correct technique. e) To control costs of repair & replacement parts to minimum f) To carry out appropriate repair intermittently at each malfunction to improve the life of the machine. 3) Irregular preventive maintenance do not include a) Repairs b) Overhauls c) Reduction of noise levels and vibrations d) Clean up of leakages etc on all the machine aggregates daily 4) RM is a procedure followed regularly i. a _______________ recurring periodically 5) In the following list find out which one is considered as disadvantage of routine management: . 3) Time is required for trends to develop to know machine condition Self Assessment Questions 1) Which of the following is not a common cause of equipment breakdowns? a) Improper preventive maintenance b) Inadequate lubrication c) Improper setups of jigs.e.

Maintenance done by sub-contractors 4. Initially it looks economical . ______________________ 5. No stock of spares 6.1) Simple to establish & follow 2) Little or no clerical work 3) High degree of prevention by intercepting developing faults 4) RM may not provide the service specified by the manufacturer 5) A more advanced stage calls for ’service instructions on a pre-printed schedule and checklists’. faithful implementation and recording 6) Initial list of planned maintenance will be in detail Breakdown Maintenance is the method of operating the machines to run ______________ and then repair in order to restore them to an acceptable condition. 9) Characteristics of Break-down Maintenance System-fill the missing one: 1. 6) Planned maintenance is the activities carried out according to a ______________ and hence known as scheduled maintenance or productive maintenance 7) Characteristics of Planned Maintenance-fill up the missing one: 1) Instructions are more detailed than in routine maintenance 2) Calls for differently timed service for the same unit 3) Schedule is drawn with dates 4) ___________________________ 5) Entails considerable planning effort. No services except occasional lubrication unless failure occurs 2. No maintenance men on regular basis 3.

maintenance has been given more importance in the operational plans. preventive. 12) CBM relies on the fact that the majority of failures do not occur instantaneously but develops over a period of time.4 Summary Poorly maintained machines/equipment has severe negative impact on the productivity and the quality of the output in a production unit.which one is not the recommended practice? 1. with JIT inventory and sophisticated processes. In planning. 13) There are two methods used namely-Which is the second one 1) Trend Monitoring. lubrication.7. etc. To counter this. any stoppage due to breakdown in any part of the system will affect the entire production process. predictive and remedial maintenance. Breakdown or remedial maintenance is undertaken when a machine breaks down or malfunctions. 2. Daily Maintenance – Cleaning. In the present high tech production. Check all the machines at firmed up time intervals 4. maintenance managers have to decide on a proper balance between preventive. Restoration to recover deterioration 11) Predictive Maintenance is one of the modern approaches to preventive maintenance where in __________ are used to predict ____________ of machines & equipment. Creates internal problems namely: Who to do the repair? From where to get parts? How do we pay for them? Who will go & buy parts? 10) To avoid breakdown & ensure smooth production following time based activities are practiced. CBM involves recording some ___________ that gives an indication of the condition. checking. . using high technology machines. 2) ____________________ 5. Use of recommended Grades of oils 5. and predictive. Preventive maintenance is undertaken before need for maintenance arises and aims at minimizing the anticipated breakdowns. Periodic Inspections 3. Maintenance is of three main categories: breakdown. Predictive maintenance is a type in which the vital attributes of a system are monitored continuously and any deviations from the accepted limits are taken to rectify the problem.

Define preventive maintenance and state its objectives 9.6 Answers . Organizations have realized the importance of maintenance and its planning. Discuss the advantages and limitations of preventive maintenance 11. accidents and minimizing the costs of maintenance activities? 5. Describe the procedures of preventive maintenance program 10. What is meant by planned/scheduled/productive maintenance and what emphasis it pays in maintaining the machine/equipment 4. What are the characteristics & objectives of breakdown/corrective maintenance? 7. Explain briefly the condition based monitoring methods 15. Where this type is applicable. What are the advantages and disadvantages of condition based maintenance? 5. State the objectives of maintenance management? 2.5 Terminal Questions 1. 14.In the Condition based maintenance (also known as Dynamic predictive maintenance or Diagnostic maintenance) the plant is maintained just after some problems arisen. What is predictive maintenance? What are its advantages over preventive maintenance? 13. CBM is a continuous or periodic measurement and interpretation of data to indicate the condition of an item to determine the need for maintenance. Outline the various types of maintenance 3. Total productivity maintenance is practiced to improve the productivity of the equipment by minimizing the number of breakdowns and malfunctions. What is condition based maintenance. What are the advantages & disadvantages of breakdown/corrective maintenance? 8. What are the advantages of Planned Maintenance? 6. What are the important functions of maintenance department 5. but much before the possible breakdown. Which enables them to reduce breakdowns. Distinguish between preventive and breakdown maintenance 12.

(4) No organised efforts to find out reasons 10.4.3.4.1 & 5. measurement 13. d) Replacing the faulty machine when it starts malfunctioning 3.2.2 5.3 & 5.3. Not occur.4.4 . Until they fail 9. c) Reduction of noise levels and vibrations 4.3.2 6.4. (4) RM may not provide the service specified by the manufacturer 6. (4) Establishes the work-load for the crew 8. Sensitive instruments. Refer 5. Refer 5. Condition Checking & Monitoring Terminal Questions 1.4. Refer 5. (3) Check all the machines at firmed up time intervals 11. Refer 5.3 3. Refer 5. Cyclic operation 5.4 8. Refer 5.2 7.4. Predetermined schedule 7. d) All the above 2.Self Assessment Questions 1. Refer 5. anticipated failure 12.3.4 4.4. Refer 5.2 2.

4.6 14. Refer 5.4 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Refer 5. Refer 5. Refer 5.4.1 15.6.4.7 12.5 13.5. Refer 5.4.6.4.6 11.6.4. Refer 5.5 & 5.3 & 5.4.4.9.4 10.4. .Refer 5.4.4.4.

11 Summary of Maintenance Planning 6.10 Planning Preventive & Predictive Maintenance.13 Six Maintenance Scheduling Principles 6. Specialization & Coordination of Planning 6.8 Productivity.1 Introduction Objectives 6.1 Introduction .12 Maintenance scheduling principles 6. Project work 6.6 Planning System 6.16 Answers 6.15 Terminal Questions 6.OM0006-Unit-06-Maintenance Planning and Scheduling Unit-06-Maintenance Planning and Scheduling Structure: 6.4 Functions of Maintenance Planner 6.2 Functions of Maintenance Planning 6.7 How much Planning will help? 6.3 Planning Vision & Mission 6.5 Benefit of Planning 6.9 Maintenance Planning Principles 6.14 Summary of Maintenance Scheduling 6.

it is preferred for the organization to become a procedure-based one with teams of experienced technicians. planners. Here procedure already in the file or important information that persons who worked on that equipment have recorded previously. engineers. planning is very essential. Other tools used are work order system. To achieve the desired maintenance efficiency. leadership. data collection and research of certain processes etc. Planning does not solve everything. predictive maintenance. tool room facilities. If detailed procedures and checklists contribute to better reliability. storeroom support. The planner should also give more attention to critical equipment and safety areas. and other vendors to cater to the common maintenance tasks on critical equipment and safety equipment. The final improvement to over 50% can be achieved through special aids. and project maintenance is essential. teamwork. and maintenance measurement. tool rooms. organizations could improve maintenance productivity to about 40%. shops. tools. are the subjects being discussion. The planning system is designed with procedures to be followed over time through a systematic job plans. performance. In addition. By implementing fundamental planning and scheduling system. and safety. The plant has better control over work that is scheduled. communication. Objectives: After studying this unit you shall be able to · Prepare a plan for maintenance · Analyse the benefits of planning for maintenance · Examine the principles of maintenance planning . Planning concentrates on adding value. Planning and scheduling promotes labor productivity by examining potential delays and scheduling work. consideration of reliability maintenance as preventive maintenance. are included in the job plans.All manufacturing units having varieties of machineries and equipments require maintenance to keep them up in good working conditions and for sustaining and achieving higher productivity. Where does planning fit into? What principles make it work? How planning is required to be done? How to provide additional resources for planners and personnel for maintenance activities? Etc. as they leverage their expertise into job plans. management. but certainly brings together many aspects of maintenance. control of inventories. qualified personnel.

· Once the work order is received.2 Functions of Maintenance Planning Maintenance management uses planning as a tool to reduce unnecessary job delays through advance preparation.3 Planning Vision & Mission The mission of planning revolves around doing the right jobs that are ready to go. 6. · Crew personnel are then assigned the job for execution and avoid problems such as delays stemming by insufficient skills/ not having required materials or tools. identification of craft skill required. the maintenance planning initiates action. · The planner identifies appropriate materials for the specified job and checks whether they are available or be specially obtained. · The planner specifies appropriate craft skills required for that particular job. 6. · The planned information gives the supervisors a reference for expected work and time for completion and helps to have a control through on problems that might lessen productivity. The work plan includes a job scope. To prepare a job in advance. Coordinating function is the key to achieve competitive edge. For this the maintenance planning will have the following functions: · Coordinating mechanism within the maintenance department. · Maintenance planning brings together or coordinates the effort of many other aspects of maintenance. · The planner considers the proper scope of work for the job.· Distinguish between preventive and breakdown maintenance planning. · The time estimates made by planner gives the idea to crew personnel to judge how much work is assigned and what work is there. thus enabling a better control over their work. procedure for accomplishing task and identify any parts and special tools required. and labor time estimate. · Planner does preparatory planning for the crew supervisor and craft persons who executes the work. a planner develops a work plan after receiving a work request. . The work plan is nothing but the information a planner makes ready for the technician to execute the work. For ex: Planner has to judge whether the defective valve should be repaired or replaced.

A work crew is ready to go immediately to scheduled work assignments as all instructions. improve on past jobs. 2) The planner writes work instructions on how to do the job. It also involves identifying the actual work scope.The planning mission states “Doing the right jobs & ready to go”. A planning mission statement is: “To increase the Maintenance crew’s ability to complete the work orders quickly”. Arrange parts required to be placed in a convenient location nearer to the job site before the job starts. arrangements are ready.4 Functions of Maintenance Planner 1) Maintenance planning involves identifying parts and tools that are necessary for maintenance jobs. and allow advance scheduling through which the supervisors will assign and control the proper amount of work. planner initiate action to organize and get them. 9) Planner provide a bill of materials or an illustrated parts diagram both to the stores person and craft men. 7) If parts are not in the inventory. 6. 5) The planner writes a job plan that identifies parts needed (such as gaskets. crew schedules. planning sets the stage for the maintenance force to act upon quickly. . work involved. tools. so that technicians need not wait for parts to arrive. seals. With proper planning or preparation efforts for each job. method of maintenance. for easy understanding and identifying the proper parts for his next work. clearances. Doing the right jobs involves job priorities. parts. and it controls and coordinates and brings resources to leverage productivity. without wasting time. 6) The planner reserves such required parts in the store to ensure their availability. 4) Planners evolve good planning methodology that increases maintenance productivity. Planning is Information central. The entire maintenance organization should be committed to schedule proactive works. crew starts their work as per job. Work plans avoid anticipated delays. but ready handle judiciously the reactive type of work also. 3) With preparatory work. bearings etc) along with their identification numbers. release of the work orders to proceed etc. considering the safety aspects of the job.

pallets etc for easy movement of identified parts and tools to work site in advance. 6. Institute a control system that contributes to managing productivity. 12) Planner will arrange material handling equipments like crane. 3) Planner evolves a system and procedure for each type of maintenance work. specify job scope. 2) Planner plans work order. with identification numbers. Hence the purpose of planning is to focus on high productivity through an organized planning & scheduling principles. 4) Skill levels and time estimates on jobs and proper scheduling are included in the subject work order. procedures for assigning proper amount of work to all the skilled/unskilled crews. 6. anticipated parts & tools.7 How Much Planning Will Help? a) Tangible Help: • Planning provides tangible help for organization to achieve: . craft and skill level required. 6) Establishes through work order system. fork lifts. 6.6 Planning System In a proper planning system. resulting benefit achieved are the improved productivity and overall effectiveness or efficiency in maintenance. the maintenance process has the following steps: 1) Receives request from the concerned section for the maintenance work. time estimates.10) Planner is required to coordinate with vendors & ensure material supply along with the quality control on vendor supplies. 7) Prepares Schedules for maintenance works and follow track until complete.5 Benefit of Planning As planning consists of arranging parts and the necessary tools for maintenance work and provide necessary guidelines by use all the inputs effectively through a maintenance system. 11) Planner identifies special tools needed by the craft man for maintenance activities and reserve such tooling and other accessories at the place of work. 5) Creates data and information on machineries and equipment and its maintenance methodology for future reference and analysis.

· The maximum performance target for wrench time was shown at an average of around 55%. Crew will plan their work and then executes. The industry’s average productive maintenance time was less than 30% (the measure of wrench time) when a typical maintenance technician has spent less than 20% on the real work and it is found that the balance time is spent on other nonproductive tasks. In addition. thus using the freed 10 trained personnel for other productivity improvement activities. could achieve a remarkable reliable plant capacity within a year through superior availability and a drastic improvement in work force productivity. Further if there are three crews working with . • • Through proper planning. The practical result of planning-example: In a power station. Is this wrench time a reality? Instances are there in which experienced workforce moved from average 35% wrench time to 55% with fine tuned planning. -Extra labor power can be reallocated to added value activities. Specialization & Coordination of Planning a) The specific benefit of planning in Wrench time improvements · There are organizations who feel that the planning work is part and parcel of the maintenance crew. -Work force is freed up. b) Improving the Wrench Time and Productivity · Work activities are classified differently. Analysis of the nonproductive time is one of the most valuable work-sampling. intangible benefits of planning were seen in providing a better control of maintenance work. But it proved the other way as seen from the above examples. thus frees technicians for more productive work. one can calculate and measure the actual amount of increased maintenance productivity. also known as wrench time. Practically the total maintenance work was completed by 35 personnel as compared to previous year’s statistics of using around 45 personnel for the same output. To determine if any of the delay time could be avoidable requires planner’s assistance for analyzing such nonproductive time. Improvement here was only possible with the planning in place. 6.-Amount of work accomplished rises. c) “World class” wrench time · Statistical work sampling studies measures productive time. where the management created an exclusive planning group.8 Productivity. where in the planning addresses and reduces delays.

3) Planners base their files on the component level of systems. Industry to this day continues to use specialization. electricians. 6. 1) Company organizes planners into a separate department. 2) Planners concentrate on future work. as compared to 3x30=90%]. 4) Planner expertise dictates job estimates. Six principles greatly contribute to the overall success of planning. for which they train and maintain separate groups of mechanics. which spells the importance of planning jobs for maintenance. Decisions making at each crossroads on the alternative ways to conduct planning and execute is essential and ultimate success of planning depends on this situational oriented decision.wrench time of 30%. The principles of having planning as a separate department in order to focus on the future work and consequent use of planner’s expertise to create estimates. 5) Planners recognize the skill of the crafts. which is essential for a competitive edge. But experience has shown that a single planner can plan maintenance jobs for more than 20 persons. and if one is allocated to planning job and with whose instance. recognizing skill of the craftsman and measuring performance must be understood by every one concerned with production.9 Maintenance Planning Principles The principles or paradigms that are evolved over the maintenance mission will profoundly affect planning. and instrument technicians. Loading these specialists to achieve higher wrench times also requires a sound planning and proper coordination. These principles must be understood by all concerned to have effective planning process. Each principle identifies important crossroads. Specialization increases productivity per person. There is a methodology of work measurement what is commonly known as wrench time and this frequently misunderstood principle and hence must be made clear to everyone concerned. . then total productivity is 100 % [2x 50% +0= 100%. b) Specialization and Productivity: · Experienced crew are specializing in a particular field and achieving the specified goals. the other two crew reached a wrench time of 50%.

· The planners must be engaged in preparing work that has not yet begun. . which helps planners to become specialized in all the tools and techniques of planning · Planners need to work closely to ensure proper execution of work with consistency. · Planners use personal experience and develop work plans to avoid anticipated work delays and quality or safety problems. · Planners report to a different supervisor/ lead planner who will be responsible to provide direction and ensure consistency within the planning group. or other helpful information so that future work plans and schedules might be improved. Principle 2: [Focus on Future Work] · The vision of planning is to increase labor productivity by preparing the jobs in advance. The Planning Department concentrates on future work and provide the crew to plan their work in advance and remove backlogs · After job completion. secure file system based on equipment tag numbers. feedback is given by the lead technician or supervisor to the Planning Department. The supervisor has an obligation to complete the assigned work in an expeditious manner with a minimum of interruptions · The crew focuses exclusively on executing assigned work. The file system enables planners to utilize equipment data and information and their experience on previous work to prepare and improve work plans. the lack of planning effort may decrease the number of work assignments to crew members · The company organizing planners to a separate group. Matching identify tags on the machineries are also arranged. The feedback consists of any problems. The planners ensure that the feedback information is properly filed to aid future work.6) Work sampling of direct work time provide measure of planning effectiveness. · Because planning contributes to scheduling. plan changes. Principle 1: [The Company organizes planners into a separate department] · The planners are organized into a separate department from craft maintenance crews to facilitate specialization in planning and focus on future work. especially on repetitive maintenance tasks. Principle 3: [Component Level Files] · Planning maintains a simple.

· Planners give information to supervisor for scheduling control. · The planner then plans the general strategy of the work (such as repair or replace) and includes procedure if it is not already there in the file. The planners and technicians work together over repeated jobs to develop better procedures and checklists. The plan dictates the skill set necessary to accomplish the work given the state of the job plan. · Craft technicians use their expertise to make the specified repair or replacement.· The majority of maintenance tasks are repetitive over a period of time. · Plant must choose from among its best craft persons to be planners. The planners also use their own expertise to formalize best practices on individual job plans. These planners rely greatly upon their personal skill and experience in addition to existing information in the files to develop job plans. File cost information assists in making repair or replace decisions. · Routine maintenance offers the highest potential for planner contribution to company success because more intricate or unusual maintenance tasks receives necessary help from plant engineering department Principle 5: [Recognize the Skill of the Crafts] · The Planning Department recognizes the skill of the crafts. The planner calls for a minimum craft skill on a job plan. · Supervisors must train technicians with deficient skills and give proper support and guidance · Technicians must execute the job precisely as planned for three reasons. . · Supervisors and plant engineers are trained to access these files to gather information they need with minimal planner assistance. · This principle dictates that planners depend on the workforce being sufficiently skilled when he is putting a minimum level of detail into the initial job plans. Principle 4: [Estimates Based on Planner Expertise] · Planners use personal experience and file information to develop work plans to avoid anticipated work delays after considering quality and safety problems. Any recommended deviations from the job plan must be approved by planning before execution. The planner’s responsibility is to firm up the scope of the work request including clarification of the originator’s intent wherever necessary.

Delays such as waiting for assignment. Wrench time is measured accurately with a properly structured. · Work sampling to determine wrench time gives this measure of how much planning is helping in the process. clearance. the planning system counts on the skilled technicians giving feedback on job plans so that their expertise and the planner’s expertise both contribute to adding information to future plans. · Measuring wrench time thus gives an overall indication of how well the other principles have been implemented or accepted. Planning can adopt preferred maintenance for higher effectiveness. and project work and their relationship to the development of the planning principles and practices are discussed here. Wrench time is the proportion of available time-to-work time during which the craft technicians are on productive working on a job site. instructions. Wrench time analysis is an indicator. · Principle 6 dictates that measuring how much time craft technicians actually spend on their job site versus other activities performed such as obtaining parts or tools. Projects The concepts and importance of preventive maintenance.10 Planning Preventive & Predictive Maintenance. Starting with a basic system. travel. a) Preventive Maintenance [PM] and Planning · The planning department studies and issues PM’s schedules and reviews them periodically. This determines the effectiveness of the maintenance planning program. or equipment information are all deducted. Principle 6: [Measure Performance with Work Sampling] · Wrench time is the primary measure of workforce efficiency and of planning and scheduling effectiveness. The time that employees spend at their job sites working is called direct or productive work.· Finally. statistical observational techniques & study. predictive maintenance. These reduce the incidence of reactive maintenance work and to increase plant reliability. What is actually important is the analysis of the nonproductive time. 6. parts. tools. coordination with other crafts. planners visualize the types of work orders to be released for preventive maintenance tasks for the next week. This principle holds that delays in technician’s job should be avoided. not the control of planning or the work force. .

Predictive maintenance (PdM) uses technology not available to the regular maintenance work force. The plan should also list anticipated parts and special tools. · The planner should allow some extra time in the work order on all PM work for making unspecified excessive cleaning. b) Predictive Maintenance [PdM] and Planning · Planning plans and schedules PdM work orders. lubrications etc. For ex: tightening of fasteners in the coupling if he found they are loose. and duration.· A planner should plan each of the PMs with scope and craft requirements such as numbers of persons. and Cleanliness. Planning for parts encourages the replacement of fasteners based on the technician’s decisions. Lubrication. · Planners should also review the histories and feedback from all work orders to determine if additional PM work orders are needed. the technician is empowered to make any minor equipment adjustments or minor repairs during execution of the PM. .e. tightening of bolts. · Cleanliness helps reduce contamination sources and such clean surfaces to reveal the presence of new leaks. · The scope should extend beyond simple repair and replacement of parts to improve equipment reliability as well. small adjustments. repairs. PM plans can include rags for wiping and removing old grease when parts are dissembled. · The planner must receive feedback to improve the PM work order itself. on the work done. as improper lubrication leads to total damage to equipment. PdM personnel make the call on the creation of new work orders. which are contributing to more than 50% of all breakdowns. For this. · This requirement of corrective maintenance is ‘TLC’ i. · PM plans should specify torque requirements or attach torque charts where appropriate and include torque wrenches as a special tool. Tightness. · Emphasis in all PMs is to inspect the equipment for abnormal situations. · Lubrication is important part of a PM program. work hours. or minor repairs. · PdM technology greatly moves the plant’s reliability upward as the predictions in predictive maintenance show an important capacity for growth in accuracy. Many do value assigning with experienced personnel to perform PM work orders. The dirt and grime also add undesirable insulation conditions that may affect equipment performance.

c) Project Work and Planning · Similar to PdM. bearing clearances. The decision the company makes regarding each situation determines the ultimate success of planning. · Planners should be able to estimate and commit the project schedules with plant engineering and scheduler assistance. 6. The application of maintenance planning makes possible the dramatic improvement in maintenance productivity. so that PdM personnel may quickly climb the learning curve. but difference is in the larger nature of projects. · Planners must vigorously pursue collecting documentation to establish files and also overview position regarding the project replacement or overhaul.11 Summary of Maintenance Planning Effective maintenance is vital to provide reliable plant capacity.· Planners must accept PdM work orders for jobs and translate them into the appropriate scope for the maintenance crews. . · Planners should insist that PdM uses the same equipment tag numbers for ease communication problems. planning group plans and schedules work orders to implement projects as regular jobs. · Plant normally has the personnel to implement such maintenance project work with the productivity prescribed in the planning and scheduling system. Consideration of six basic principles greatly boosts the planning program efforts toward success. Plants treat projects as outages and planned as long-range scheduling. the company has to make a decision regarding alternate ways to conduct planning. which involves alignment criteria. · Planners should insist to utilize standards set by PdM for certain jobs. · Planners should facilitate PdM when work on equipment is in process. with active participation and assistance from the planning group. At each crossroads. Each principle resolves a crossroads decision that affects the planning effort. The planning effort has mainly focused on making individual jobs ready to go by identifying and planning around potential delays. or other rebuild tolerances. · The PdM group can update the technology of the maintenance force.

The principle of having planning as a separate department. When work orders are received. parts availability problems or not properly planning issues Companies placed an emphasis on planning and also they doubled the parts availability in stores to reduce ordering needs. Planners need to avoid continually being interrupted to resolve problems for jobs already under way. Plnners must possess the experience of top level technicians in order to scope jobs. efficiently. The crews worked on the planned jobs and work sampling study made on it indicated a wrench time of 25% only and further plant could do better job if improved upon. the principles or paradigms in order to evolve effective scheduling will come through effective planning process. The analysis revealed that the large delay times not only for parts. or travel categories.12 Maintenance Scheduling Principles Scheduling principles envisages the vision. and estimate times adequately. which is discussed below. 6. lunch. and shutdown Wrench time concept of measuring the work for each hour of the day. The planned work packages increases the maintenance department’s ability to complete work orders effectively. the technicians would scope out the jobs with their social & other times. and then measure schedule compliances. . gave a clear picture of how technicians are completing their work. utilize files. instructions. focusing on future work. it is practical to retrieve information when needed. recognizing the skill of the crafts. allowing the crew supervisor to handle day’s work. using planner expertise to create estimates. file history help technicians to avoid previously faced problems. They solved the problems by addressing symptomatic of tools. having component level files. Planners need to focus on future work not yet begun. . Because most jobs are repetitive. tools. Maintenance needed certain methodology to assigning enough work through the planning process. but also exists for excessive startup. are all in the total system. and safely. Only when planning keeps a separate file for each piece of equipment. Wrench time will measure whether the objectives of planning are met or not in reducing job delays. break. The principles used for planning and scheduling are for achieving the forecasted skill levels. This aligning of the work to accomplish the desired effective and efficient maintenance led to the principles of scheduling. the schedules and job priorities for every forecasted work available. and measuring planning performance with work sampling for technician’s direct work time.

§ Job plans provide information about the number of persons required. Plant priority plays a larger role in creating the schedule of work and all involved should treat it as a serious matter. Schedule compliance of wrench time. 4. Schedule assigns planned work for every forecasted work hour available. 6.Routine maintenance needs the use of principles. Principle 1: [Planners plan the jobs for lowest required skill levels] § Essential part of Principle 1 is that job plans identify the lowest skill necessary to complete the work with the contention that the supervisor will have higher skill capability also. · The priority may be reviewed periodically and adjusted in coordination with crew. Principle 2 [Entire plant respect the importance of schedules and job priorities] · Weekly and daily schedules must be adhered to by the crew as per the priorities mentioned in the work orders to prevent undue interruption in schedules. 5. . Planners plan the jobs for lowest required skill levels. as they create a framework for successful scheduling of planned work.13 Six Maintenance Scheduling Principles Six principles that greatly contribute to the overall success of scheduling are: 1. provides the measure of scheduling effectiveness. Does the job require mechanics or machinists? Does the job require three helpers to assist a certified electrician? Etc that are necessary for advance scheduling. Crew supervisor matches personnel skills and tasks 6. Crew supervisors forecast available work hours one week ahead by the highest skills available. if required while assigning individuals to execute job plan. It also ensures that a sufficient and the right work are assigned. 3. lowest required craft skill level. craft work hours per level. The entire plant must respect the importance of schedules and job priorities. 2. planners and the plant manager. Each principle sets guidelines on how the maintenance should handle different scheduling process. · Advance scheduling of enough work for the entire week sets the goal for maximum utilization of the available craft hours. and job duration. The appropriate priority for the work is based on established plant guidelines.

· Scheduler assigns work plans for the crew to execute during the following week for 100% of the forecasted hours i. · First two principles are the prerequisites of the principle-3 scheduling · Scheduler selects the week’s worth of work from the overall plant backlog. · Scheduler also uses job priority and job plan information. · Over assigning and under assigning work are common and acceptable in industries. · Preference is given to completing the higher priority work by utilizing whatever skills available than working on completing the lower priority work. Principle 4: [A week’s schedule will assign work for all the available work hour] · A week’s schedule will assign work for the total work hours. This includes proactive work. job priorities. Principle 5: [The crew supervisor matches personnel skills and tasks] · Crew supervisor develops a daily schedule one day in advance using current job progress.e. It allows for emergencies/high priority/ reactive jobs by scheduling sufficient amount of work hours. crew work load is 1000 worthy labour hours. and reactive jobs as a guide. after considering the tasks that are being interrupted · Principle 4 brings all the three previous scheduling principles together. As these may cause unique problems it is better to be avoided. forecast of highest skill.· Inefficiency peeps through the interruption by low priority jobs coming in way of urgent jobs progressing. it is better to delay identified job in full rather than completing half. If a true emergency arises. new high priority. Principle 3 [Develops week’s schedule for each crew & craft hours required] · Develops a week’s schedule for each crew based on craft hours required. · Scheduling plan is for performing all the works available in the system. · Crew supervisor matches personnel skills and tasks. and information from job plans. · Scheduler uses a forecast of maximum capabilities of the crew for coming week. . · Consideration is also given to multiple jobs on the same equipment or system and of proactive versus reactive work available.

assigns work for all available labour hours. 6. Work sampling or wrench time studies quantify delays & gives measures of planning and scheduling effectiveness. When setting craft and time requirements. allow crew supervisors to make daily schedules. and track schedule compliance. crew supervisor is the best judge to create the daily crew work schedule. Maintenance dept also tracks schedule compliance. tools. scheduler to develop schedule in advance. This increases flexibility in choosing jobs. In case of delay in actual job progress and the incidence of unexpected reactive work in place. · Planning individual jobs can reduce delays such as waiting to obtain certain parts. · Each day the crew supervisor assigns the next day’s work to each technician. or technician instructions · Scheduling aims at reducing delays. . Adhering to schedules is important as interrupting jobs leads to overall inefficiency. Six basic principles form the foundation of successful scheduling and make schedules and priority systems important. · Schedule compliance is the measure of adherence to the one week schedule and its effectiveness.· Crew supervisor handles the current day’s work and any other problems in emergency maintenance · Although individual jobs show a wide variance between planned and actual times. Work sampling or wrench time is the best measure of scheduling performance. it relatively balances by week end. He will ensure that each technician receives assignments totalling to full day’s work Principle 6: [Wrench time is the primary measure of workforce efficiency] · Wrench time is the primary measure of workforce efficiency and of planning and scheduling effectiveness. The priority system must properly identify the right jobs to start. Knowing of the lowest skills required for jobs and the highest skills available allows developing a schedule with proper work for the week.14 Summary of Maintenance Scheduling Maintenance management must consider main scheduling in the maintenance planning strategy to avoid problems of improved efficiency. job plans must plan for the lowest required skill level.

In the maintenance process given below which one not the step to be considered. 4. 2. which one is not relevant? · Coordinating mechanism within the maintenance department. crew schedules. 3.Schedule based on the wrench time has to be practiced. Maintenance management uses planning as a tool to reduce …………………. The planners and crew had to deal differently with urgent reactive work by developing job plans for reactive work. Principles 3 through 5 establish basis of scheduling process. 5. · A maintenance planner does preparatory planning for the craft persons · The planner identifies appropriate materials for the specified job and checks whether they are available or must be specially obtained. A planning mission statement may be: …………………………………. To prepare a job in advance. efficiently.. Self Assessment Questions 1. This involves job priorities. · To arrest the leakages and keep up the lubrication system · The planner specifies the appropriate craft skills required for that particular job. a planner develops a …………… after receiving a work request. . The planning mission statement could be ……………………………. . Hence use of planned and scheduled work packages increases the maintenance department’s ability to complete work orders effectively.. Out of the maintenance planning functions. through advance preparation. Principles 1 and 2 are prerequisites for scheduling. and works such as preventive maintenance/ breakdown work and release of the work orders to proceed. Further working to the maintenance planning based on the six planning principles along with the six scheduling principles will help improve the productivity. Principle 6 sets overall indicators for scheduling control. and safely. · Crew personnel are assigned the job for execution · The time estimates are made by planner · Maintenance planning brings together or coordinates the effort of many other aspects of maintenance.

time estimates. b) Planners concentrate on future work. with all their identification numbers. b) The work force is freed up. procedures for assigning proper amount of work to all the skilled/unskilled crews h) Prepares Schedules for the maintenance works and follow track until complete. . Statistical work sampling studies measures …………….work time during which the craft technicians are on productive working on a job site. c) ……………………………………………… 7.a) Receives request from the concerned section for the maintenance work. g) He establishes through work order system. Six principles greatly contribute to overall success of planning. as well as specifying anticipated parts and tools. 8. d) Planner expertise dictates job estimates. per person 9. e) Fix up the wages for each of the work based on the skill level f) Creates data and information on all machineries and equipment and its maintenance methodology for future reference and analysis. Wrench time is the primary measure …………………………………………… Wrench time is the proportion of available time to. b) A planner plans the work order by specifying job scope. Specialization increases ………………………. Planning provides tangible help. craft and skill level required. also known as wrench time. 6. Which is sixth one? a) The company organizes planners into a separate department.. c) Planner evolves a system and procedure for each type of maintenance work d) Skill levels and time estimates on jobs and proper scheduling are included in the subject work order. Fill in (c) below: a) The amount of work accomplished rises. c) Planners base their files on the component level of systems. .

. Why planning process is essential for efficient maintenance management? 2. for every forecasted work available. The crew supervisor matches personnel skills and tasks] f. Fill in the missing principle. a. ………. ……. Schedule compliance joins wrench time to provide the measure of scheduling effectiveness. 13. What are the benefits of maintenance planning? . Companies strive to do more preventive maintenance. d. upward as the predictions involved in predictive maintenance show an important capacity for growth in accuracy. 14. The principles used for planning and scheduling are for achieving the forecasted higher skill levels. f) ………………………………………. Improper lubrication leads to total ………. allowing the crew supervisor to handle day’s work. This requirement of corrective maintenance is ‘TLC’ i. 10.. and such clean surfaces to reveal the presence of new leaks. Explain briefly the functions of maintenance planning. which are contributing to more than 50% of all breakdowns. to equipment.. 6.15 Terminal Questions 1. and project work to lessen the ……………………. Cleanliness helps reduce ……………. Just as in planning. Planners plan the jobs for lowest required skill levels. 11. 12. …………………. and then measure schedule compliances 15. c... predictive maintenance. The entire plant must respect the importance of schedules and job priorities. e. The PdM technology has the potential of greatly moving the plant’s ……….. b. ………. …………………………………………….e) Planners recognize the skill of the crafts.e. work and to increase plant reliability. six principles that greatly contribute to the overall success of scheduling are discussed below. Crew supervisors forecast available work hours one week ahead by the highest skills available. 3.

9. no: e) Fix up the wages for each of the work based on the skill level 6.4. Explain briefly the planning approaches in preventive and predictive maintenance processes. 8. Productivity 9.16 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1. Tightness. workforce efficiency and of planning and scheduling effectiveness. 5. Lubrication. What is wrench time? How it is recognized as a maintenance work measure? 6. Work sampling for direct work time provides the primary measure of planning effectiveness 10. and Cleanliness . Doing right jobs which are ready to go 4. (sl. What are the maintenance planning principles? How they contribute to the success of planning? 8. The extra labor power can be reallocated to added value activities. 7. Explain how the specialization in areas of maintenance will help improve the productivity of the maintenance crew.no:4)To arrest the leakages and keep up the lubrication system 3. “To increases the Maintenance Department’s ability to complete work orders quickly”. Why scheduling after proper planning is essential for effective maintenance and meeting the dead line and avoid delays? 10. Unnecessary job. Explain as to how the maintenance planning will help improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the organization 5. (sl. Explain briefly how the use of six principles will greatly contribute to the overall success of scheduling 6. Incidence of reactive maintenance 11. 7. Productive time. Work plan 2.

Refer 6. Refer 6. Terminal Questions 1. Refer 6. Refer 6.13 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . damage 13. Refer 6.7 (c) 6. Refer 6. (For d): The schedule assigns planned work for every forecasted work hour available.7 5.12. . Refer 6.2 3. Refer 6.8 (b) 7.10 a & b 9.12 10.1 2. The schedules and job priorities 15. Refer 6.9 8.Refer 6. Contamination sources. Reliability 14.5 4.

5 Universal Principles for higher Productive Maintenance 7.1 Introduction Objectives 7. Using a state-of-the-art maintenance management.7 ACE Team Benchmarking Process 7. process and systems.1 Introduction Automating the maintenance program is a complex task as it requires integrating of people.10 Terminal Questions 7.3 Organization & Processes 7.4 Benefits of using ‘UMS’ with Planner’s Functions 7.2 Planner’s Function in Maintenance & Benefits 7. The new system will become a platform for continuous improvement and will generate long term benefits .6 Work Measurement for High-Productivity Maintenance Universal Maintenance Standards [UMS] Five Levels of Data in Ums 7. organizations have tried and tested different approaches for bringing changes that can result in improvements in both the function and the cost.11 Answers 7.OM0006-Unit-07-Universel Maintenance Practices Unit-07-Universel Maintenance Practices Structure: 7.9 Summary 7.8 Overall Craft Effectiveness & its Measurement 7.

satisfied customers. a detail analysis and adopting certain state of art principles and improve maintenance productivity are all the focus areas for the above said disciplines. close communication with supervisors. especially when sophisticated high tech machineries and equipments are used for production. field checks jobs when . · Explain the benefits of UMS · Adopt the ACE system of Benchmarking 7.2 Planner’s Function In Maintenance & Benefits The planner’s role is varied in nature such as: maintain a backlog of ready-to-work jobs for each technician. Adopting ACE system for benchmarking and improvements 4. For achieving the above said prerequisites. How the Maintenance. Achieving excellence in Maintenance Engineering and Management Objectives: After studying this unit you shall be able to: · Outline the functions to be performed by the maintenance planner.The analysis and application of work measurements to ensure improved productivity and cost reduction in maintenance should be the prime consideration by the management. maintenance labour. materials and overhead. Use of the state of art principles. Improving Wrench time of the Crew in Maintenance 6. systems and techniques of Universal Maintenance Standards [UMS] 2. cost reduction and its measurement 5. are the concepts. principles and theory of new measurement techniques. higher quality. some of which are listed below: 1. theory. Implementing new techniques of measurement. Improving the Overall craft effectiveness [OCE] for productivity. on-time delivery and ultimately. as the maintenance represents variable operating cost which includes physical plant value. Engineering or Industrial Engineering managers spearhead their achievements of dramatic productivity improvements by adopting different methods of work measurements in managing and controlling their activities. Benchmarking the best practices 3. Higher productivity maintenance means better customer service.

They can also establish a computerized maintenance management system. The planner also develops bench marks and maintains the data library. crew size. Planners develop all the data. the same can be raised to around 80% when a planning function is integrated with UMS times to work together. and make available to the crew a set of basic processes and craft operations for the process before establishing bench marks. cost of the items. plans work content. 7. do the training. plans safety requirements. The normal ratio of planners to technicians used is 20 to 30:1. In addition the resultant productivity improvement that accrues are the benefits to organization in a) cost reductions b) downtime reduction.needed. materials.4 Benefits of Using ‘Ums’ with Planner’s Functions It is found that when a planner’s function is integrated with the UMS resultant impact is of improving the overall maintenance effectiveness. unrealized opportunity etc. issue of stores taking too long. crafts needed. Hence the measurement provides information to determine the savings potential and also justify the maintenance work measurement program. or too many stock-outs. life cycle cost reductions d) on time completion of jobs e) continuous improvements f) improved service to customers. 7. Both the planners and the maintenance crew should examine to see how the UMS times could be applied. . time reporting on the performance including delays. etc as well as the stores process to check the inventory value. and time to do the work.3 Organization & Processes The tasks for a maintenance work measurement program fall into two categories namely 1) Organization and 2) Process a) Organization with planner in the forefront Planner maintains and allocates the work and knows all the ratios required for accomplishing the jobs and have good maintenance skills and experience and capabilities to work as the ultimate expert system. verifies priority. requisitions non-stock or out-of-stock items. Importance of work measurement and the standard for the job should be established. identifies special tools. While the maintenance departments without planners can achieve around 50-60% Productivity. based on a formal planning function and the Universal Maintenance Standards. b) Processes Processes involve data development and work order planning. are validated.

and maintenance decides how the service should be provided.5 Universal Principles for Higher Productive Maintenance There are several principles that. e) Crew Size The optimum crew size for a maintenance job is the smallest that can perform the work using a specific method and execute in a safe & efficient manner. c) Activity Responsibility The responsibility for each activity of a work order is necessary to ensure that the work order continues to move toward resolution without delay. The standard crew size is one and any other size is exceptions to the general rule.1 Universal Maintenance Standards [UMS] .6 Work Measurement for High-Productivity Maintenance 7. 7. but also helps growth in value added processes. Timely accomplishment is also universal phenomenon. f) Timeliness Large maintenance jobs are divided into smaller work orders. which can be accurately planned. d) Customer/Service Relationship The customer decides what is needed from an operational viewpoint. Frederick Taylor’s principle applies to all work. Lord Kelvin saw this in his scientific investigation of the laws of physics.7. Together the customer and maintenance crew decide the priority (based on resources available) and urgency of each task compared to other existing current works. if followed. It is universal. maintenance is no exception b) Measurement Before Control The measurement of an activity is basic to its control. Hence the Universal Standards serve the special needs of maintenance work through the following principles: a) Scientific Principle Best productivity results when each worker has a definite job to do in a definite way within a definite time. They highlight problems or roadblocks for completion of the project.6. lead to the lasting results. This principle is also universal.

HVAC. automotive. engineers adopted new methods for analyzing and assigning standards to maintenance work. service. weld.The principles adopted for above said requirements are based on the application of work measurement in maintenance. There are at least four to five hundred different jobs. is it realistic to measure. IT management etc. sheet metal. the motion pattern for two tasks may be same and also time to perform the work is almost the same. in each of skills of fourteen types of jobs: mechanical. paint. labour. Techniques: The UMS system is based on three important techniques: 1) Range-of-time. as these standards offered flexibility and could be applied not just in one location. instrument. time taken for threading a one-inch nut on to a bolt by hand operation takes almost same time like that of screwing in a light bulb into the holder. government. or tasks. pipe. machining. Even though parts are different. A simple task such as removing and replacing a part may take more or less time depending on how tight the bolts are. industry or service enterprise. which in turn depends on: a) Nature of Maintenance works: In maintenance works. or one country. commercial. then the time . called ‘Universal Maintenance Standards’ (UMS). finance. but everywhere where maintenance work is performed –manufacturing. how much rust is present on them etc. This range of time is same in 95 % of situations and hence standard average time is applied and practiced 2) Work content comparison. b) Evolution of Universal Maintenance Standards (UMS) In the early 1950’s. some unique characteristics are revealed. The combination of many elements requiring different maintenance tasks and varieties of skills warrants developing and maintain a library of enormous number of standards. carpenter. utilities. to what precision. masonry. the result is that the crew does longer cycle work compared to other production workers. education or healthcare. If the time to perform similar tasks is known. Each element requires further study followed by application of stopwatch time or a predetermined time system analysis to determine the exact time required for each through the method selected. to what volume of work etc. electrical. availability of such standards. For example. custodial. If it is a low volume work done by multi skilled crew. Applying the specific standards to the daily maintenance workload requires answers for: which task standard is required. The range-of-time technique recognizes the variable nature of maintenance works. Hence breaking long jobs down into elements have resulted in a large number of elements.

Similar craft data for other skilled craft operations such as painting.6. By using spread sheets. Spread sheet fills the additional needs of finding quickly the . For instance. a planner is able to establish planning times for a large number of jobs using relative sample data of the benchmark jobs and publicise the data along with the step-by-step process. distance moved. which are pooled as weld craft operations data. 5) Spread Sheets. body motions. 4) bench marks and 5) spread sheets. becomes the standardization process and hence these are universally adopted. 2) basic operations. Five levels of data in the UMS library. common to all crafts. The variables like weight of the part. move. 3) craft operations. grasp.2 Five Levels of Data in Ums 1) Basic Motions The foundation of UMS data is the predetermined time system for basic motions. whether the how clamping of part is done etc are recorded in the table for further use as standards. carpentry. 7. Each of these motions are recorded and these data becomes the established times for future reference and standardization. namely 1) basic motions. This system analyzes and classifies data into basic motions and establishes a relationship between the motions and the time required to perform them. engineers can typically apply standards to all maintenance work with bench marks covering all the crafts and through the use of spread sheets they can substantially reduce the data library compared to the one with direct standard method.that can be applied to any other similar task with + or – 5%. using the work content comparison technique is possible. machining could be made available for the crew of maintenance 4) Bench Marks Using UMS. welding operations are made up of manual handling. electrical. 3) Craft Operations Some operation times are unique to a certain craft. machine settings and arc striking time etc. where work measures are dividing into basic motions such as reach. 2) Basic Operations Basic motions are grouped together to form basic operations. pipefitting. position and release. Two widely used predetermined time systems are ‘Methods-Time Measurement’ and ‘Operation Sequence Technique’. 3) Organizing the data UMS data is organized in a building block fashion.

which are then imposed on the maintenance force. say within 95% confidence range. which are reliable and a well-accepted planning times for the entire maintenance crew. reducers and gear boxes. Here the emphasis is placed on improving current repair methods. the standards are established. Spreadsheets are then provided for each work group having a time slots or range of times. The allowances applied to these set times to get a single UMS time calculation for use by the crew. area travel time. in generators. This new Benchmarking Tool through ACE. 2) Objective of ACE Team Benchmarking Process Objective is to determine the reliable planning times for a number of selected “benchmark” jobs and to gain a consensus on the predetermined work content time. and lubrication and service. material handling equipment. who have performed these jobs earlier and have requisite experience to improve upon them. All work order times released for the jobs and it consists of four components: job preparation time. These Benchmarked jobs are then arranged into different time categories on spreadsheets for various craft work areas. 1) ACE System & UMS Using predetermined standard data.7 ACE Team Benchmarking Process “A Consensus of Experts” (ACE). the technique which was formulated and developed by the ‘The Maintenance Excellence Institute’ [TMEI]. rest and minor unavoidable delays. continuous improvement and the changing of times in performance and methods. bringing control systems. supervisors and planners . 3) ACE System: a Team-Based Approach ACE Team process is to obtain the most reliable. outlines a new and highly recommended methodology for establishing ‘team-based maintenance performance standards’.appropriate one for an application or finding the right bench mark for comparison. clutches and brakes. reasonable estimate of maintenance “work content” time from a group of experienced crafts people. Ex: Benchmarking and firming up the task can be easily done in areas like lighting. Spreadsheets include brief descriptions of the benchmark jobs and represent pure wrench time. and in mechanical fields like Belt drives. which is called as ‘Reliable Planning-Time standards’. The ACE System is used to develop maintenance performance standards. ACE Team Benchmarking Process parallels the UMS approach in that the range of time and the work content times for a representative number of benchmarked jobs are established. job site time and allowances for personal. a team of relatively small in number. compressors. 7. have developed a bench marking process for the major work areas/types of maintenance operations. in motors.

scheduling. and engineered standards such as Universal standards. as its application promotes a commitment to quality repair procedures. supervisors. a) Improve current repair methods. safety practices.and provides an excellent means to evaluate repair method.8 Overall Craft Effectiveness [OCE] & Its Measurement a) Craft Performance element of Overall Craft Effectiveness Determining the required standard hours of a technician require a trail run of the task under standard operating conditions. planners and other knowledgeable people to do two things. Computerized maintenance management system (CMMS) could also be practiced. technicians. manpower planning. which will provide the management with a valuable input data for backlog determination. risks analysis on jobs that leads to improvements. c) How OCE impacts the bottom line: Craft Labor Improving Overall Craft Effectiveness is getting maximum value from craft labor resources and higher craft productivity. 4) Recommendation of ACE System ACE Team overcomes many inherent difficulties associated with developing maintenance performance standards and hence recommended as the standard process for modern maintenance management. 6) The ACE System Supports Reliability Improvement: ACE Team process can contribute significantly to reliability. Labour standards will be the baseline for determining craft productivity and improved methods. Best practices such as effective maintenance planning/scheduling. b) Investment for Planners: The planner’s activity with the team approach of ACE system will establish maintenance performance standards. safety and quality b) Establish work content time for selected “benchmark jobs” for planners and others to use in developing reliable planning time. Other methods used include reasonable estimates. 7. preventive/predictive maintenance. historical data. effective storerooms and . budgeting and costing. 5) ACE Team Benchmarking Process: ACE System is a true team-based process that utilizes skilled crafts people.

6. 8. h) Craft Service Quality (CSQ) Another element affecting the overall Craft Effectiveness relates to the quality of the repair. g) Craft Performance Another key element of OCE is the craft performance i. 3. 4. Craft performance is directly related to individual craft skills and overall trades experience.continuous parts support will all contribute to proactive. where certain jobs possibly require a call back to the initial repair thus requiring another trip to fix it right the second . documentation etc. shop clean up time Lack of effective planning and scheduling Craft Utilization (or wrench time) is measured as the ratio of: CU %=100x [Total Productive hours or wrench time]/ [Total craft hours allotted x amount paid] f) Improve Wrench Time original Significant tangible benefits can be realized by increasing the wrench time. Running from emergency to emergency in a reactive. 9. how efficient the hands-on craft work is done compared to an established planned time or performance standard. drawings. 2. planned maintenance and more productive “wrench time”. 7. 20 to 30 % can be expected from more effective maintenance planning & scheduling. productive work (wrench time). fire fighting mode Waiting on parts and searching parts or part information Waiting for asset info. This element includes quality of the actual work. repair instructions. the personal motivation and effort of each craftsperson. Waiting for the equipment to be shut down for work start Waiting for contractor support to arrive at job site Waiting on other crafts to finish their job Travelling to/from job site Make-ready. e) Productive Wrench Time: Pure wrench time is just the actual output/work done and do not include the miscellaneous waste time caused due to any or many of the following: 1.e. 5. Effective planning/ scheduling is the key to increase wrench time and craft utilization. Measuring and improving overall craft effectiveness (OCE) is one of the components of continuous improvements d) Effective Craft Utilization (CU): Craft Utilization or pure wrench time relates to measuring how effective the work is planned and craft resources scheduled so that these assets are doing value-added.

In relation to OEE. If the internal core competency for maintenance is not present it must be regained and ensure that they are profit-centred maintenance providers by understanding clearly the UMS.time. . Measuring and improving Overall Craft Effectiveness and the value received from improving craft assets is an important part of total asset management. For improving maintenance productivity. Profit-centred in-house maintenance in combination with the wise use of high quality contract maintenance services will be the key to the final evolution that occurs. patch jobs or inferior repair parts/materials. It is gained value that can be calculated and estimated and then measured. Craft Service Quality will suffer due to hasty repairs. new techniques of measurement. implementation of certain state of art principles. c) Adopting ACE system for benchmarking and improvements d) ……………………………………………………………. Organizations should recognize maintenance as a core business requirement and should establish the necessary core competencies for survival. b) Benchmarking the best practices. j) Think Profit-Centred Maintenance leaders and crafts people must develop the “profit” mindset to be competitive and stay in business. the overall Craft Effectiveness and provide value added maintenance services all the time with a profit oriented approach Self Assessment Questions 1. K) Maintenance is For ever Maintenance is a core requirement for profitable survival and total operations success. OCE is increased people asset availability and capacity. and a detail analysis of: a) Universal Maintenance Standards. Organization should not indiscriminately cut craft labour resources when increase OCE is warranted. When reliable data is present for all elements. then Overall Craft Effectiveness Factor can be determined by multiplying each of these three elements: Overall Craft Utilization = [Craft utilization (%) x Craft performance (%) x Craft service quality (%)] i) Where Can We Apply OCE Gained Value Maintenance operations that continually fight fires and react to emergency repairs never have enough time to cover all the work (core requirements) that needs to be done.

The planner’s role is varied in nature such as: maintain a backlog of ready-to-work jobs for each technician. when once the ‘work content times’ for a representative number of ‘benchmark jobs’ are established. Cost reduction and its total savings b. ………………. The Universal Standards serve the special needs of maintenance work through the following principles: a) ………………… b) Measurement before controls c) activity responsibility d) customer/service relationship e) Crew size f) Timeliness 6. . plans crew size. The resultant productivity improvement that accrues because of integrating planner’s function with UMS will substantially benefit the organization in the following areas of operations/ functions: a. Continuous improvement opportunities and gain in competitive advantage f. 5. Life cycle cost reductions d. 8. Hence the measurement provides information to determine the savings potential and also justify the maintenance work measurement program. Downtime reduction and its savings c. checks jobs when needed. 4. materials.. 3..e) Improving the Wrench time of the Crew in Maintenance 2. requisitions non-stock or out-of-stock items. .. ………………………………. ACE Team Benchmarking Process parallels the UMS approach in that the ……………………. who have performed these jobs and have the requisite experience to improve upon them.. Improved services to customers g. ……………. ………………………………. …………………………………………… e.. identifies special tools. based on a formal planning function and the. have developed a bench marking process for the major work areas/types of operation... Five levels of data in UMS are: a) basic motions b) Basic operations c) Craft operations d) ………………. Contributes in meeting other goals and objectives in the strategic plan. verifies priority. and time to do the work. 9. and e) spread sheets. The UMS system is based on three important techniques: a) Range of time b) …………………………… c) organizing the data 7. a team of relatively small number of representatives. close communication with supervisors.

]/ [Total craft hours allotted x amount paid] 19. The new system will become a platform for continuous improvement and will generate long term benefits . Overall Craft Utilization = [Craft utilization (%) x . Improving ………………………........ planned maintenance and more productive ………………. is getting maximum value from craft labor resources and higher craft productivity.... and do not include the miscellaneous waste time caused due to any of the reasons..... Pure wrench time is just the ………………………....... effective storerooms and continuous parts support will all contribute to proactive....... time from a group of experienced crafts people......... safety practices. ACE Team process is to obtain the most reliable.. ACE Team process can contribute significantly to ……………… as its application promotes a commitment to quality repair procedures... 15.. technicians.. supervisors and planners and provides an excellent means to evaluate repair method.. 11.. Spreadsheets include brief descriptions of the benchmark jobs and represent ……………….10......... 18. reasonable estimate of maintenance ………………….. ACE System is a true team-based process that utilizes skilled crafts people. preventive/ predictive maintenance.. 17.... b) Establish work content time for selected “benchmark jobs” 13.. Craft Utilization or pure wrench time relates to measuring how effective we are in planning and scheduling craft resources so that these assets are doing ………………….. Craft Utilization (or wrench time) is measured as the ratio of: [ .. (%) x Craft service quality (%)] 7. . risks analysis on jobs that leads to improvements..... .. 12. 16.. Best practices such as effective maintenance planning/scheduling.. organizations have tried and tested different approaches for bringing changes that can result in improvements in both the function and the cost.9 Summary By using a state-of-the-art maintenance management.. Spreadsheets are then set up with each work group having a time slots or …………………….. within the 95% confidence range.. a) ……………………………………………………………………... supervisors. 14... planners and other knowledgeable people to do two things......

on-time delivery and ultimately. which are reliable and a well-accepted planning times for the entire maintenance crew. develops a bench marking process for the major work areas / types of operation. The ACE System is used to develop maintenance performance standards. who have performed these jobs earlier and have the requisite experience to improve upon them. satisfied customers. Overall Craft Utilization = [Craft utilization (%) x Craft performance (%) x Craft service quality (%)] Maintenance is a core requirement for profitable survival and total operations success. higher quality. but everywhere where maintenance work is performed and is based on three important techniques: a) Range of time b) work content comparison c) organizing the data “A Consensus of Experts” (ACE). organizations should clear understand of the Overall Craft Effectiveness. measurements by using UMS and . For achieving high productive maintenance. productive work (wrench time). b) Benchmarking the best practices c) ACE system for benchmarking and improvements d) Overall craft effectiveness for improved productivity and cost reduction and its measurement e) Improving the Wrench time of the Crew f) Achieving excellence in Maintenance Engineering and Management The resultant productivity improvement and benefits that accrues because of integrating planner’s function with UMS are: a) cost reductions b) downtime reduction. the concepts. These Benchmarked jobs are then arranged into different time categories on spreadsheets for various craft work areas. The Universal Standards serve the special needs of maintenance work through the following principles: a) Scientific control b) Measurement before controls c) activity responsibility d) customer/service relationship e) Crew size f) Timeliness The Universal Maintenance Standards offered flexibility and could be applied not just in one location.Higher productivity maintenance means better customer service. or one country. principles and theory of new measurement techniques that are used are: a)Universal Maintenance Standards. Craft Utilization or pure wrench time relates to measuring how effective the craft resources so are doing value-added. industry or service enterprise. Improving Overall Craft Effectiveness is getting maximum value from craft labor resources and higher craft productivity. For gaining the internal core competency in maintenance. is a team of relatively small number of representatives. Pure wrench time is just the actual output/work done Measuring and improving Overall Craft Effectiveness and the value received from improving our craft assets an important part of total asset management. life cycle cost reductions d) on time completion of jobs e) continuous improvements f) improved service to customers.

providing value added maintenance services on a most profitable manner are essential processes. 7.10 Terminal Questions 1. Why application and analysis of work measurements are important in maintenance management? 2. Which are all the concepts, techniques and principles used in measurement of work effectiveness and efficiency in maintenance? 3. Why planner’s role is vital to maintenance and how it improves the effectiveness? 4. Explain briefly the categories to which the tasks of work measurements can be grouped? 5. Explain the benefits that accrue to organization by integrating planner’s works with UMS? 6. Universal Standards serve the special needs of maintenance work through principlesWhich are these universal principles used for higher productive maintenance? 7. What are the three important techniques on which the UMS depends? 8. Explain briefly the five levels of UMS library and how each one is very important criteria for work measurement and analysis? 9. Explain the importance of using spread sheets and bench marks in work measurement to improve maintenance effectiveness? 10. “New Benchmarking Tool through ACE technique outlines a new and highly recommended methodology for establishing ‘team-based maintenance performance standards’, which is called as ‘Reliable Planning-Time standards” –explain how ACE will serve the organization’s needs in maintenance? 11. What is meant by Ace Benchmarking system and to what type of process it is recommended? 12. Explain overall performance effectiveness and how it helps in analyzing the performance of wrench times? 13. What is meant by effective craft utilization and productive wrench time & what are the factors constituting the craft utilization? 7.11 Answers

Self Assessment Questions 1. Improving the Overall craft effectiveness 2. Plans work content 3. On-time completion benefits 4. Universal Maintenance Standards 5. Scientific control 6. Work content comparison 7. Bench marks 8. A Consensus of Experts 9. Range of time concept 10. Range of time and pure wrench time 11. Work content 12. Improve current repair methods, Safety and quality 13. Reliability 14. Overall Craft Effectiveness 15. Wrench time 16. Value-added-productive work. (Wrench time) 17. Actual output/work 18. Total Productive hours or wrench time 19. Craft performance Terminal Questions: 1. Refer 7.1 2. Refer 7.1

3. Refer 7.2 4. Refer 7.3 5. Refer 7.4 6. Refer 7.5 7. Refer 7.6.1.(c) 8. Refer 7.6.2 9. Refer 7.6.2 10. Refer C 11. Refer 7.7.5 12. Refer 7.8 13. Refer 7.8. (d), (e), (f) Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .

.2 Documentation Strategy 8.1 Introduction Before an organization begins creating QMS documentation.4 QMS Documentation Process 8. Planning for QMS documentation should address the following three elements: 1.7 Answers 8. it must plan for it. Planning for such documentation is performed during the planning phase for a specific project. Overall strategy for creating QMS documentation.1 Introduction Objective 8.3 Documentation Management and Control Role of the Document Controller Types of QMS Documents Document Numbering Document Versioning Document Content 8. Planning for QMS documentation refers to planning for “infrastructure level” QMS documentation.6 Terminal Questions 8.5 Summary 8.OM0006-Unit-08-System Operations and Documentation Unit-08-System Operations and Documentation Structure: 8.

This entails answering questions such as: · What types of QMS documents are required? · How should the QMS documents be logically structured? · How should the QMS documents be uniquely identified? · Who should review and approve documents? · How should changes to QMS documents be identified and controlled? · How should superseded (or obsolete) documents be handled? . will provide you with a documentation set that is usable. not one written primarily to appease external quality auditors. Documentation strategy This is perhaps the most critical element of QMS documentation planning.2. and archived when obsolete (to prevent unintentional use). Brainstorming the documentation strategy entails obtaining answers to the following questions: · What approach should be adopted for documenting the QMS (top down or bottom-up)? · Up to what level of detail should processes be documented (breadth and depth of documentation)? · How can the QMS documentation be kept relatively stable and immune from minor changes in the organization or its processes? Documentation management and control Documentation management and control are a key element of an organization’s QMS. the primary users of an organization’s QMS documentation are its employees. After all. Document creation can proceed unhindered once the necessary guidelines are in place to support the creation. kept current. and dissemination of QMS documentation. perhaps most importantly. Documentation management and control mechanisms. Agreeing upon such issues up front will facilitate the creation of the QMS documentation. providing mechanisms to ensure that documentation in the organization is uniquely identifiable reviewed and approved by the appropriate authority prior to release. approval. A wellthought-out. review. rational approach to documenting your QMS will enable you to rapidly develop a QMS that works and has sufficient but not excessive detail. changed in a controlled manner. and. not outside parties. made available to users. Process for creating QMS documents. and 3.

the overall process that results in a delivered product the product development process may be documented in a product development procedure and/or in a product development process map. and final release of QMS documents.e. The procedures describing the sub processes and their interaction should be supported by additional QMS documentation.. the product design sub process should be supported by QMS documentation such as a design document template. Another important issue that needs to be addressed regards level of detail. rework. that is. as appropriate. a product design guidelines document..· How should documents of external origin be controlled? · Should the QMS documentation be stored in a physical (i. Objectives: After going through this unit you will be able to: · Describe what is documentation strategy · Outline a documentation strategy for a unit or an enterprise · Construct a process map for documentation · Compose a QMS for a documentation process 8. hardcopy) repository or an electronic (i. and other needed documentation. review.e. For example.2 Documentation Strategy The top-down approach to implementing and documenting the QMS is highly recommended (as opposed to the bottom-up approach). approval. Similarly. What is the right level of detail to include in the documentation so that it enables correct and . the process that results in a formal documented design for the product may be identified as the product design sub process that is documented in a product design procedure. how should the QMS documentation repository be published? · How should the published QMS documentation be organized to maximize ease of use for employees? Documentation process The third element of QMS documentation planning entails the establishment of a process for the creation. Within the product development process. the process that results in a formalized set of product requirements may be identified as the product requirements definition sub process that is documented in a product requirements definition procedure. virtual) repository? · How employees should be provided access to controlled QMS documentation. For example.

Include all information that is specifically required to be documented as per the applicable quality management system standard. and competency level of employees executing the processes. Creating more QMS documentation is not necessarily the right solution. and another procedure Y needs to refer to the same activity. Some useful tips to accomplish this are: • • • Always refer to roles (or functional areas) that are involved in the execution of a process.” then refer to this department as the test department. Sometimes. or other factors. Other factors that have a bearing on extent of QMS documentation include size of the organization. If an activity is described in a procedure X. In the event of any change in the execution in that activity. if any. or conducting employee training to emphasize key aspects of a process. Do not document details of an activity in more than one QMS document. Such an organizational change can have a huge impact on the QMS documents. QMS documents should be written so that they need minimum change. as opposed to referring to individuals by name. review of existing QMS documentation to identify and correct deficiencies. 3. refer to them by the “function performed. and minimizes impact (on QMS documentation) of minor changes in the business processes and organizational structure? Any breakdown or inconsistency in process execution does not necessarily result from insufficient QMS documentation. for minor operational or organizational changes. but might result from unclear or ambiguous QMS documentation. state in procedure Y that detailed description regarding that activity can be found in procedure X. 2. complexity of the process being documented. and control of processes. if your organization has a product test department that is called “system test department. .” you need not revise your QMS documents if the functional responsibilities for testing the product still reside with this group. type of activities.consistent process execution. Include only as much information as is necessary to ensure effective planning. Below are some guidelines to follow to ensure QMS documentation has the right amount of detail: 1. Often departments in organizations are renamed or merged into other departments. For example. Therefore. organizations should be careful in how they respond when process execution deviates from requirements. instead of saying that Mark Peterson produces the product requirements document. instead of referring to departments by name. inadequate employee training. is the preferred solution. it is far more convenient to revise one QMS document than to revise multiple documents. operation. To minimize the impact of such reorganizations.” For example. state that the requirements document is produced by the requirements engineer. If this department subsequently is renamed the “independent verification and validation department.

1 Role of the Document Controller Before discussing different elements of document management and control. 8. 2. 4. it is best to control documents that affect an entire company (e. Certainly it is quite inconvenient for department Y to revise its procedure when department X revises its work instructions such that the reference from department Y’s procedure becomes inaccurate. it is necessary to introduce the concepts of controlled documents and document controller. Depending on the size of an organization and/or its number of locations. Avoid references to another department’s work instructions or similar implementation-level documents.g. monitor. QMS documentation that pertains to a specific location (or a specific function) may be controlled locally. such as procedures. Implementation-level QMS documents typically are more prone to changes in content. title. 5. Documentation __________ and control are a key element of an organization’s QMS. company quality manual and operating procedures) in a centralized location. A document controller’s responsibilities generally include. Document controllers are people who coordinate. _____________ should be written so that they need minimum change. QMS documentation includes ______ of the organization. refer only to its highlevel QMS documents..3. A controlled document is one that is formally approved and is under formal version control. but are not limited to: 1. 3. and enforce an organization’s documentation management and control function. Generally. department Y’s procedure refers to department X’s work instructions. For example. and scope than are high-level documents. The ________________ to implementing and documenting the QMS is highly recommended.3 Documentation Management and Control 8. in case of companies with more than one location (or very large companies in a single location).• When referring to another department’s QMS documents. the document controller function may be centralized or distributed. Self Assessment Questions 1. type of activities. However. Verifying that documents submitted for storage and publishing are: . Documentation process of __________ planning entails the establishment of a process for the creation.

for revised documents. 8.3. 6. In case of changes to previously approved documents. 8. This is necessary because the document author may make document changes in addition to those that were authorized. 3. 12. this task generally is performed by the document controller. Duly approved c. Notifying appropriate personnel. 4. Authorizing internal documents for external release after verifying that approvals for the release have been obtained from relevant management personnel. Verifying that changes made to previously approved documents were properly authorized (that is. This includes clearly identifying documents of external origin and storing them in a secure location.a. 5.2 Types of QMS Documents Quality Manual . such as the document author and management personnel from the affected area. Notifying affected personnel in the event of a change to a previously approved document (or release of a new document) 9. In the correct format (that is. Verifying that the documents are correctly versioned. a document number may be generated automatically. 11. Accompanied by review records (when required) 2. Ensuring that all controlled documents are stored in a secure location. This includes withdrawing copies of obsolete controlled documents. Maintaining a master list of controlled documents. When document numbers are issued manually for new documents. Controlling documents of external origin. the document controller should verify that the document version accurately reflects the magnitude of change in the latest version. they adhere to standardized templates when applicable) b. an approved document change request should be available) 7. Verifying that the documents are correctly numbered. when errors or discrepancies are observed. Alternatively. Correctly storing and publishing (or distributing) controlled documents. Verifying that all changes made to previously approved documents are clearly identified. 10.

This can be demonstrated by senior management approval on the quality manual. as needed. The quality manual must reflect the QMS accurately and be kept current at all times. Such a quality manual includes separate sections (or subsections) for each of the requirements sections (or subsections) in the quality management system standard. However. the quality manual references relevant. This approach entails describing the high-level product development process map of the organization. Such details should be embedded in the appropriate QMS documents. When appropriate. In case of medium and large product development companies. . 2) Process-based quality manual This structure is being used increasingly in organizations that have successfully transitioned to taking a process-oriented view of their QMS. This includes describing the purpose and scope of each process. it is preferable to exclude details regarding the organization’s processes from the quality manual. An organization’s quality manual is an invaluable document for its employees. Therefore. prefer to structure their manual to mimic the structure of the applicable quality management system standard. Each section (or subsection) in the quality manual describes how requirements in the corresponding section (or subsection) in the quality management system standard are adhered to in the organization. such as ISO 9001:2000. The QMS is explained in the context of the organizational business processes. Such quality manuals follow a top-down approach to describing the organization’s QMS. answer why the organization is implementing a QMS) and describe how the organization ensures quality in its daily operations. and not in the context of a quality management system standard. and other parties (such as third-party auditors). along with a reference to related QMS documentation. organizations structure their Quality Manual in one of two ways: 1) Standard-based quality manual Most organizations that are implementing a QMS in accordance with the requirements in a particular quality management system standard. employees invariably prefer such a quality manual. A significant advantage of this structure is that it is not alien to employees. It therefore should reflect the organization’s commitment to quality (in other words. QMS documentation in explaining adherence to each quality management system standard requirement. it may be appropriate to include the procedures in the quality manual itself. in the case of smaller companies. customers (and potential customers). from the quality manual. which must be referenced. Senior management should realize that it is responsible for the manual’s content. followed by separate sections briefly describing each key process in the QMS.A quality manual is the highest-level QMS document and is intended primarily to provide an overview of an organization’s QMS. employees typically relate more closely to organizational processes than to the requirements in a quality management system standard. and consequently it gains wider acceptance for daily operations. Typically.

they should undergo cross-functional review by all departments involved in the process (or areas affected by the process) being documented. When each activity in a process is performed. it is a good candidate for splitting into separate procedures. They describe: What activities comprise a process. Who performs the activities (roles and responsibilities). they should be documented and jointly reviewed by practitioners involved in executing the tasks documented. competent. and experienced personnel for providing information on the execution of specific tasks. This helps ensure that the procedure accurately reflects the process and the interaction between various departments. Procedures constitute the first level of documentation below the quality manual. Work instruction A work instruction is a documented low-level description of a process. called work instructions. The practitioners have firsthand experience performing the tasks and therefore typically are the most knowledgeable. As a general rule of thumb. Procedures are not intended to provide the how to implementation details regarding a process. practitioners typically need additional process documents. to execute their tasks. They provide a step-by-step description of tasks to be executed in order to accomplish each activity in the process. When process practitioners do not have the requisite training or are otherwise unskilled for creating effective process . Procedures are useful for communicating process information at all levels of management between departments. a procedure should not be longer than three pages. The decision to document a process in a procedure is made by the respective process owner in consultation with the quality assurance department. They also serve as a valuable starting point for training process practitioners. Due to the intradepartmental nature of work instructions. and Where the activities are performed. Procedures are usually interdepartmental. Because a procedure is intended to contain relatively high-level information regarding a process. Work instructions typically are intradepartmental and are intended primarily for use by process practitioners. Work instructions describe how activities in a process are executed. If a longer procedure is needed. They serve as critical reference documents for anyone interested in knowing what a process entails. because organizational processes typically span multiple departments.Procedure A procedure is a documented high-level description of a process. and they constitute the first level of documentation below procedures. Due to the interdepartmental nature of procedures.

documentation. this task may be performed by another appropriate person. . and to ensure consistency in process execution. the work instructions should be documented with direct input and active involvement of the process practitioners.. to minimize variation.. In many cases.g. The decision to create a work instruction is made by the line manager or process owner who is responsible for the tasks. such as the PMC representative for the department.g. As a general rule of thumb. Not every procedure needs to be supported by underlying work instructions. in order to secure buy-in of the practitioners and to ensure that the documentation accurately reflects practice. Work instructions should be created on an as-needed basis when a need exists to provide detailed step-by-step guidance for process execution. is there need to elaborate and provide further explanation on a process documented in a procedure by creating a work instruction (e. work instructions can help ensure consistency and minimize errors. In such a case. when new personnel or personnel with varying levels of competence are executing a process. the greater the likelihood of inconsistency in process execution. the sequence of tasks to be performed during engine assembly for a passenger vehicle)? Need for consistency Are there expectations regarding a high degree of discipline and consistency in executing a set of tasks (e. processes that are relatively straightforward and without inherent complexity (or sophistication) can be described adequately in a well-documented procedure such that competent personnel can faithfully execute them without compromising quality of process output. The need to document a procedure or work instruction may be determined by using criteria such as: Complexity Is the process or the activities in it sufficiently complex that that it needs to be supported by a documented procedure or work instruction? Or. the sequence of inspections to be performed before final approval for release of electronic wire assemblies)? Competence of personnel Is the competency level of the personnel executing the process such that it needs to be augmented with appropriate documentation to ensure the process is correctly executed? (For example.) Size of organization Is the process executed by several personnel and/or in multiple locations? The greater the number of personnel involved in a process or the greater the number of locations at which a process is executed. the core description of tasks in a work instruction should be limited to about four or five pages in length.

Once released. Templates serve as guides for communicating the expected structure and content of a document. The procedure author would start with the procedure template and populate it with information for the process being documented. but also what revision level of that document to use. for documenting procedures. An example of a document numbering convention is shown in Table 1. It is recommended that forms and templates have brief instructions embedded in them to guide the user regarding the expected content in each section of the document.3 Document Numbering In order to uniquely identify and control each QMS document. The decision to create a template or form for use across departments should be made by the respective process owner in consultation with the quality assurance department (for reasons described earlier). 8. The numbering convention should be published in a QMS document. directly in the fields provided. For example. A form is used to record information. while the decision to create a template or form for departmental use may be made by the respective line manager. Therefore.4 Document Versioning Documents. a document typically will undergo revisions until it is withdrawn from use (or considered obsolete. but retained for archival purposes). either for review or for use (after approval). The organization should devise a document numbering convention that meets its needs. one must not only know what document to use. it is strongly recommended that a procedure template first be established.3.Past problems Have there been instances in the past where inconsistencies in employees have been observed in process execution? In such cases. a unique document number and version should be assigned to each document.3. Table 1 . evolve. documenting an agreed way of executing a process can help. This is because the information contained in the new revision of the document is to some extent different from that contained in the previous revision. 8. due to their very nature. Any change or set of changes made to a document since its last release necessitates that the new revision level of the document be formally identified. They help in ensuring consistency of format and content within a particular type of document. Templates and forms A template is a skeleton for a document intended to be populated with specific information from use. and should be enforced by the personnel in charge of (or tool used for) issuing the document numbers. such as procedures or work instructions.

Example of a Document Numbering Convention Document number format: AAA-BB-CCCC-DDDD where, AAA: Three-character identifier for department that is the document originator For example, “ENG” may denote engineering, “MKT” may denote marketing, “EXT” may denote the document is of external origin, and so on. BB: Two character identifier for document type. For example, “PR” may denote procedure, “TP” may denote template, “CH” may denote checklist, and so on. CCCC: Four-character alphanumeric identifier for project, product, or task. DDDD: Four-digit sequential number between 0001 and 9999. This sequential number uniquely identifies a specific document (irrespective of its version). 8.3.5 Document Content Following are some guidelines regarding document content (for examples, refer to sample QMS documents in the Appendices): 1. All QMS documents and records should have the same “look and feel.” Consistency in templates and forms can be ensured by following some general guidelines, such as:

The same header and footer on all templates and forms, with information such as:

a) Document title b) Document number c) Document version d) A statement to indicate the company proprietary nature of the document

Each QMS document, when appropriate, should use the same title page, containing the following:

– Standard information, (e.g., organization’s name and logo). The title page also can include a unique logo to indicate that it is a QMS document. This enables quick identification of QMS documents. – Customizable information, (e.g., document title) 2. Each QMS document or record should contain content as per the guidance contained in the associated form or template. Each QMS document must identify its purpose and

scope clearly. Correctness of the document content should be reviewed and enforced during document review meetings. 3. Deletions from the template and forms should not be allowed. If a particular section is not required, it should be marked “not applicable.” 4. Insertion of additional sections in a document created by using a standard form or template should be allowed when necessary; however, certain rules should be established to handle addition of new sections. Self Assessment Questions State whether following statement True or False. 6. All QMS documents and records should have the same “look and feel”. 7. A work instruction is a non-documented low-level description of a process. 8. A procedure is a documented high-level description of a process. 9. A quality manual is the highest-level QMS document. 10. A template is not a skeleton for a document intended to be populated with specific information from use. 8.4 QMS Documentation Process Now that all the necessary elements of a documentation management system have been described, you are ready to begin creating QMS documents. What documentation process should be followed to create, review, and approve QMS documents? This section describes a high-level documentation process that ties together some of the key elements of document management and control. Step 1: Identify suitable document author The first step is to identify a document author who possesses appropriate subject matter expertise. Typically, a management person from the function tasked to create the document selects a suitable document author. Step 2: Create draft version of the document The document author creates a draft version of the document by using the applicable template (if one is available). Step 3: Review the draft document

Once a draft version of the document has been prepared, it is circulated for review to appropriate reviewers (or functions) that are considered stakeholders in a document. The review may be in the form of an informal and/or formal review. Step 4: Rework the document as per reviewer feedback After receiving the feedback from the reviewers, the author reworks the document in accordance with comments provided by the document reviewers. Step 5: Approve and publish the document Once the document rework is complete, and it has been determined that a rearview is not required, the document is circulated for approval to the identified approvers. Once all the required approvals have been obtained, the author submits the master copy of the document along with the review record to the document controller. The document controller stores the document in the controlled repository and makes copies available for use. 8.5 Summary Documentation strategy is perhaps the most critical element of QMS documentation planning. Documentation management and control are a key element of an organization’s QMS, providing mechanisms to ensure that documentation in the organization is uniquely identifiable reviewed and approved by the appropriate authority prior to release. A template is a skeleton for a document intended to be populated with specific information from use. 8.6 Terminal Questions 1. Explain briefly different steps in documentation. 2. Define some guidelines in Documentation Strategy. 3. Explain types of QMS documents. 4. Summarize Document Content. 5. Explain QMS Documentation Process. 8.7 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1. Management 2. QMS documentation

2 4. False Terminal Questions 1. True 7. Refer 8.0 2. True 9.Refer 8. True 10. Page 4 3.3 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Top-Down approach 5. Refer Pages 9. Size 6.2. False 8.3. QMS documents 4. . 10 5. Refer 8. Refer 8.1.

OM0006-Unit-09-Machine Life and Depreciation
Unit-09-Machine Life and Depreciation Structure: 9.1 Introduction Objectives 9.2 Functional Reliability of Facilities 9.3 Weibull Distribution Curve [Failures and its Analysis] 9.4 Life of Equipment a) Bathtub Curve and MTBF b) Breakdown Time Distribution c) Reliability and Variability of the Equipments 9.5 Critical Analysis 9.6 Maintenance Performance Ratios 9.7 Maintenance Systems 9.8 Reliability and Availability Concepts 9.9 How good is Reliability Performance? a) Root Cause Failure Analysis b) Reliability Centred Maintenance c) Failure Modes Effects Analysis & Total Productivity Maintenance 9.10 Maintenance Economics 9.11 Preventive Vs Breakdown Maintenance

9.12 Measurement of Maintenance Performance 9.13 Asset Life Cycle Management 9.14 Equipment Replacement Plans 9.15 Depreciation & Capital Expenditure based on Life Cycle 9.16 Summary 9.17 Terminal Questions 9.18 Answers to SAQ & Terminal Questions 9.1 Introduction The main function of the maintenance department is to monitor and control the condition of machineries and equipments and improve their functional reliability. The reliability theories on equipment performances have shown that there is a definite pattern of performance in their lifespan. This pattern manifests itself when different machineries are subjected to rigorous operations during the life span. The typical characteristics of the lifespan show a particular behaviour pattern of a bathtub and hence it is called as ‘bathtub curve’, which is discussed later. Objectives: After going through this unit you will be able to: · Describe what are failures in maintenance · Analyze failures through Weibull distribution curve · Discuss Reliability Performance · Construct a measure for performance 9.2 Functional Reliability of Facilities One of the most important objectives of Maintenance management is to improve functional reliability of the production facilities. The functional reliability refers to the consistency of the degree of performance of the machine, equipment or service operation. When it is said that a machine is having 97% reliability means that 97% of the machine time is utilized in performing the standard production for which it is meant for, and the remaining 3% of non performing may be

due to breakdowns or sub-standard performance. Therefore it is the duty of the plant maintenance crew to strive to maintain and increase the functional reliability of the production facilities. The objective of FMEA ( ) and reliability analysis of the plant and equipment is to ensure to excellence in performance of critical assets and achieve the business goals. The application of standard procedures and structured approach to analyse and practice effective method/s required to maintain all the operating plant assets. This process enables the maintenance managers to plan, review and optimise the maintenance operations that have direct impact on plant availability, thereby improving the overall plant performance and minimizing catastrophic failures. The functional reliability of facilities to be maintained or improved upon by the maintenance management requires the use of certain concepts, reliability methodologies, analysis, tools and techniques and measures. Some of these are listed: a) Determinate the appropriate level of maintenance services required. b) Identify specific actions based on equipment failures analysis & risk assessment. c) Prevention and reduction of potential failures by properly identifying defects and implementing corrective actions prior to failure d) To deploy sufficient staff to provide adequate repair and maintenance facilities. e) To provide for the stand-by equipment for key operations and also reasonable slacks in the production system to create some parallel path in a critical situation f) To adopt preventive Maintenance system to replace critical parts, before they fail. g) Each of the above involves costs. The cost involved should be justified on the basis of cost-benefit analysis. The cost of attaining reliability must be lower than the cost advantage available out of the production stoppages, idle machine and labour time, scrap, poor quality, loss of goodwill to keep delivery promises etc. h) Maintenance extends the useful life of assets by reducing wear and tear. i) Maintenance keeps up operational readiness of equipments for emergencies. j) Maintenance contributes a great deal to safety of manpower using the facilities. k) It prevents wastage of spares, tools and materials.

is shown below. the failure rate dips as the components adjust to the system until it reaches a relatively low constant level. The high rate of failure at infant mortality stage is primarily due to the presence of weak or substandard components or design inadequacies. called the ‘Weibull distribution graph’ (after Weibull developed it). or sheer quality deficiency in their manufacture. poor installation. The failure is random and unpredictable. and or not adjusted the operating conditions adequately. Most equipment that survives infancy stage will continue to perform better with very few failures. This behaviour pattern reflects ‘hyper-exponential distribution’. which is called the infant mortality.l) More automation calls for sophisticated Maintenance. 9. This is the useful period of the machine. c) Ageing Phase: Here the rate of failure increases until the equipment succumbs and is characterized by the rapid wear and tear of more and more components until major breakdown happens. The graph of the failure pattern.3 Weibull Distribution Curve [Failure & Its Analysis] For better maintenance planning and control. During this period. b) Useful Performance phase: Next phase is the useful period of performance with a better reliability. it is important to know the nature and occurrence of failures over a period of time for the equipment in use. is primarily due to abrupt changes in stress distribution in the components. the weak components from the infant mortality period have either been repaired or replaced. fatigue due to flaws in the molecular structure of the metals. As per the graph. there are three phases in the equipment performance namely a) Infant mortality phase b) Useful performance phase c) Ageing phase. a) Infant Mortality phase: Newly installed equipment shows high rate incidence of early failures during initial phase of its life. Once this phase is over. because of its shape. This type of breakdowns may be due physical characteristics of the . It is also commonly called as ‘Bath Tub Curve’.

This ultimate may occur at ‘mean’ or ‘average’ time. the failure fall into a negative exponential distribution.materials used. · Figure below represents the degree of variability in free run time. Negative exponential and Normal exponential. These causes being external to the equipment and the probability of failing is relatively constant. the failure of any one part may result in the complete machine breakdown.e. is a combination of three distributions: Hyper exponential. and may be earlier or later. or how the machine is used. 9. Mean Time between Failure (MTBF) can be computed. the breakdown time distribution of a complex machine will reflect a greater variability than that of a simple machine even if they have the same average maintenance free run time. shown above. its statistics will help as a diagnostic tool in identifying the exponential nature of the availability and the reliability of equipment. Depending upon the complexity of the machine and severe aging processes because of extreme wear and tear results in an ultimate failure. A= [Tn] / [Tn+Td] b) Breakdown time distribution: · It is essential to know how the breakdown time is distributed in order to establish the cost implications in maintenance. availability. Distribution shows the frequency of maintenance free running time with respect to total operating hours. In other words. This means that each part in a particular machine will have different failure distribution. by which the system reliability.4 Life of Equipment a) Bathtub Curve and MTBF · Weibull distribution or Bath Tub Curve. . but in a complex machine. · From these. can be assessed. · When the failures are recurrent. · The availability (A) = [Cumulative time of operation in the normal working condition(Tn)] / the cumulative down time (Td)] i. This ageing failure graph shows a bell-shaped normal distribution pattern. anticipated life etc. · A simple machine having few moving parts may have breakdowns happenings after a large number of maintenance free run time hours.

e. 0. Curve C has the same average maintenance free runtime as the other two. · By reliability. c) Reliability and Variability of the Equipments · Equipment can be considered as a total system and the failure of any one of the sub system can cause failure of the entire system.8.While curve A depicts the behaviour of a simple machine. before establishing reliability. the resultant graph is shown below. Hence the reliability of the total system depends on the product reliability factors of each of the sub systems.4. 0. · When the above reliability factors are plotted in a diagram showing the percentage of breakdowns that exceed a given runtime on the ‘y’ – axis. 0. but the distribution shows wider variability. and ‘runtimes free of breakdowns’ on the ‘x’ – axis. the frequency distribution. Here the data can be recast in the diagram.6. For example: if the total system has four sub systems having the reliability factors of 0. converting the information into the breakdown time distributions versus the percentage of breakdowns that exceeds a given run time.9. curve B exhibits moderate variability while Curve C indicates greater degree of variability from average breakdown time Ta. . It can be observed that the Curve A shows lower degree of variability. then the total product reliability is multiple of all these systems i. The variability by Curve C is typical of complicated equipment that needs fine adjustments before it starts giving trouble free service. Curve B of the complex machine. we mean the probability that any system gives a trouble free service.7.and 0.

but the two types of planned maintenance could be carried out.5 Critical Analysis Critical analysis of maintenance problems is essential to know as to how serious is the problem for taking quick actions. Repair Maintenance 2. to reassemble the equipment and then check and restore to its functional capacity. to replace it. Focus is not only concentrated on availability but also the reliability .6 Maintenance Performance Ratios Some of the ratios used in measuring the effectiveness of Maintenance functions are: a) Waste Index = [Waste Quantity] / [Output Quantity] b) Productivity of Maintenance = [Product output] / [Maintenance Cost] c) Maintenance Cost index = 100 x [Maintenance cost] / [Capital Cost] d) Breakdown maintenance index = [Break down hours] / [Man hours available] e) Downtime index = 100 x [Downtime hours] / [Production hours] 9. the function presupposes the previous breakdowns and actions of disassembling the equipment. As in other types of probabilities. the repair maintenance crew endeavours to locate mechanical. Fundamental differences between the strategies discussed earlier and the proactive maintenance discussed now are: 1.9. or even a few days as the work involved depends on the size and complexity of the equipment. In this type of repair maintenance. may contribute to 80 to 85% of the total breakdown time. it is a corrective maintenance to restore the machine/parts to acceptable condition again.7 Maintenance Systems The ad hoc unplanned emergency maintenance is not recommended. In other words. here too is that the small percentage of around 15-20% defects in equipment. electrical or other fault quickly and to correct them. This activity may take a few minutes. namely: 1. It is the job of the maintenance crew to identify and quickly eliminate or simplify or improve upon these defects. the nature of the fault and availability of repair staff etc. Preventive Maintenance When a sudden breakdown occurs in a machine. 9. to locate the faulty/broken part.

T = Time performance. Say in a paper processing. 3. Manufacturing reliability can be defined as a manufacturing system’s capability to operate to its expected operations. There is a push towards zero downtime or zero in-service breakdowns. and others. a CNC machine can be very good at 90%. but the liquid packaging machine may be best at +75% reliability. quality and speed) · Mean production loss (MPL) Thus the reliability index is expressed in terms of the running continuously without production losses. and manufacture the quality product at the speed required. Root Cause Failure Analysis (RCFA). Using the above definition. 9. There are many ways to measure reliability. the formula used to measure manufacturing reliability (MR) is: MR = [% T] x [% Q] x [% S] [Where.8 Reliability and Availability Concepts Reliability and availability have become key issues. more complex the equipment/ the raw material/ high tech processing. S = Speed performance] Manufacturing reliability model consists of a) process reliability b) equipment reliability and c) reliability maintainability. 9. . fix the problem as fast as possible. then lower is the reliability.2. a tissue processing machine may give a good reliability of +98%. the overall reliability performance of the total process is less and is dictated by the complex machine with lesser reliability. This index is the volume of quality products you measure in the production line divided by the theoretical volume of quality product you could achieve from the same line. Q = Quality performance. Use of improved maintenance tools such as Reliability Centred Maintenance (RCM).9 How Good Is ‘Reliability Performance’? In industrial processes. · Mean Time between Failure (MTBF) · Measure of mean time between production Loss (MTBPL) (Production losses include loss due to time. For example. where as a less complex automatic lathe may be rated best at + 98%. but when failures occur.

c) Failure Modes Effects Analysis & Total Productivity Maintenance · Total productive maintenance (TPM) and failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) are other maintenance tools used for improving the reliability through proactive maintenance. hygiene. customer service. preventive maintenance is highly beneficial to machines whose breakdown time distributions are having low variability.a) Root cause failure analysis: · The root cause failure analysis (RCFA) method brings a knowledgeable team together to investigate certain failures using evidence left behind from the fault. . production. The decision of maintenance policy is more of an economic decision rather than a technical one. As maintenance is an economic decision. Through a fault tree analysis. When implemented together they complement each other and provide the greatest overall benefit to the facility. 9. planning and organisational leadership. RCM provides a flow diagram that tells what type of maintenance to be used. engineering. Through brainstorming sessions. the team checks for the logical flows and determine what changes are to be made to prevent causes from reoccurring. It has relevance to high volume production and can improve a company’s maintenance system and help improve the overall productivity of the processes. RCFA is driven by maintenance prevention strategies. quality. In this situation.11 Preventive Vs Breakdown Maintenance Certain generalizations on type of maintenance can be made to improve the reliability: a) First. b) Reliability centred Maintenance · The purpose of reliability centred maintenance (RCM) is to determine the maintenance requirements of any physical assets in its operating contexts. the team finds as many causes for the fault as possible and classify them into non contributing and contributing. a standard preventive maintenance period can be set in such a way that the total downtime is reduced. what are its cost implications? 9. · While RCM is driven by preventive maintenance strategies. Non contributing causes are removed from the list and contributing factors are taken for analysis.10 Maintenance Economics Maintenance refers to an organisation’s policy in respect of the maintenance function of a set of equipments. Answering to seven questions on all the potential modes of failure will uncover the predictive maintenance strategy requires to mitigate the consequences of the failure. This practice has impact on many aspects of business.

Additional stoppage time because the maintenance crew cannot start repairing immediately after the breakdown has occurred. existing maintenance facilities. or more than the time for repair. it is better to perform corrective or breakdown maintenance. Hence maintenance and management of assets is the core to any business. nature of repair breakdowns. 9. Some metrics that may help in evaluation are: a) Maintenance man hours as percentage of total man hours b) Shutdown. 2. c) In general. increases capacity. when the repair time is equal to maintenance time. Analysis of data of the existing conditions with respect to down time production loss. Effect on production losses if plant shutdown can be avoided 3.12 Measurement of Maintenance Performance Organizations seeking excellence in their maintenance practices should constantly endeavour to measure and improve upon the performance criteria’s of maintenance. overhauls and renovations c) Production asset and loss d) Continuous reliability improvements e) Maintenance cost as a ratio of percentage of 1) gross asset value 2) sales value. if the maintenance time is less than the repair time and If the preventive maintenance is equal to. such as 1. There is little gain in the preventive maintenance. maintenance cost breakdown. etc are required to be done and evaluated. Companies should recognize this fact that maintenance of its assets is to be encouraged as the process will provide advantages in enhancing quality initiative. d) We need to take into account other effects of unscheduled down-time. the percentage of machine running time continues to increase with the increase of standard preventive maintenance period.b) Second. Effects of scheduling preventive maintenance for non-productive days with no loss of production. the relation of preventive maintenance time to repair time is important. reduces costs and eliminate waste. 3) direct labour value .

companies are required to produce more products of higher quality from fewer resources and hence maintaining higher reliability of assets has been a challenging task for the management. b) Maintenance phase: operating environment for each asset is defined and performance goals at the lowest cost are firmed up. a) Technical factors that dictates replacement 1) Wear and tear of equipment 2) Obsolescence caused by new invention . Asset dependability and its reliability are to be established. then the asset is disposed off as it has reached the end of its lifecycle. Asset life cycle management system. c) Disposal Phase: when the asset is no longer capable of delivering the required operational performance or cannot be maintained cost effectively to achieve the required level of dependability. 9.13 Asset Life Cycle Management In high tech production. as evolved by some companies for better results consists of three phases: a) Asset Acquisition Phase: here asset may be new or replaced or change of major components changed before operating activities in this asset is firmed up.f) Safety and regulatory compliance 9.14 Equipment Replacement Plans The systematic equipment development program includes: 1) emergence of equipment replacement 2) classification of equipment replacement 3) assignment of responsibility for equipment replacement 4) selection of the equipment 5) follow up. Factors that are considered while taking decision to replace machine and equipment can be classified as a) Technical factors b) Cost factors.

of years the equipment will pay for itself) = [A+B] / [(E-F) DG + H – C] . While the annual operating costs include wages to operator. speed of operations. having a short life. will pay not only for equipment but also for any unamortized value for next few years. Here the replacement is not advocated unless savings due to the use of new equipment. 2) By Using Barnes Formula: this formula is used for equipment. Some important methods or replacement of old and unused machineries are 1) minimum annual cost method 2) by using Barnes formula 3) MAPI (Machinery and allied institute) method. 1) Minimum annual cost method: here the decision to replace the machine (unwanted or life is completed) is based on the operating and capital costs. rate of output. The main ingredients of the annual cost are depreciation and interest charges. consumes high power etc 4) Automation requirement for processes 5) To eliminate slack time through line balancing 6) Reduced safety 7) Reliability of performance b) Cost Factors: 1) High repair cost 2) Lesser place requirement 3) Probable economic life of the new machine 4) Consumption of less power 5) Reduction in labour cost because high productive machines purchased 6) Flexibility requirement not in the existing equipment Methods used for replacement after analysis: The replacement analysis becomes more complex due to many technical factors and qualitative considerations. old or new. material losses etc. Hence the time for replacement depends on the condition and characteristics of the equipment.3) Unsuitability of equipment due to size of the work. repair and maintenance costs. accuracy. X = (No. power consumption.

it has the business cost of Rs.9000. · Depreciation should be calculated in a way which most closely reflecting the manner in which the asset is being used up.9000 with the income that asset has generated. 2) The same monetary amount each year . F = estimated labour cost per unit with new equipment. the value of the asset in the balance sheet should be reduced by each year’s charge. For example. B = depreciated value of the old equipment.10000. but shown in the Balance Sheet · Depreciation is an attempt to spread the cost of an asset over its useful economic life. D = number of units product per day by new equipment. MAPI method concentrates on the comparison of the rate of return of the proposed new project and similar returns when the proposed project is not implemented within next year. G = estimated working days per year for new equipment and H = savings or losses per year in fixed charges other than interest] 3) MAPI method: here the analysis is divided into 35 heads & three main groups. Additionally. Capital expenditure is not recorded in the Profit and Loss account. and then sold for Rs. if an asset is purchased for Rs. kept in use for 8 years. C = interest charge of new equipment. · An annual depreciation charge is shown as an expense in the Profit and Loss account. 9.[where A = cost of new equipment.1000. Straight Line method 1) A fixed percentage on cost each year. whilst revenue expenditure is that spent on day to day business expenses. E = labour cost per unit in old equipment. Depreciation tries to apply the accruals by matching that Rs. The two most commonly used methods are straight line method and reducing balance method.15 Depreciation & Capital Expenditure based on Life Cycle · This requirement falls into the following groups: a) Calculation of depreciation b) Calculation of profit/loss on disposal c) Accounting for depreciation and disposals Calculation of Depreciation · Capital expenditure is that spent on purchase or improves on fixed assets. It emphasizes on immediate return.

] Reducing balance method (the charge for depreciation reduces each year) a) Year 1 Rs. 6000 b) Year 2 (Rs. 2850) · So. It is expected that this machine will be used for 10 years.30000 – Rs.30000 x 100.1500) / 10 = Rs. · [Note that the policy could have been expressed as “straight line at %” or “Depreciation at % pa on cost” – here the percentage is calculated as = Rs.e.Reducing Balance method 1) A fixed percentage on net book value each year 2) A reducing monetary amount each year Example: 1 a) Straight line method A machine is purchased for Rs. i.3840 and so on.6000) x 20% =Rs. the net cost is simply divided by the expected life.30000 x 20%= Rs.30000 – Rs.e. (Rs.4800 c) Year 3 (Rs. using: (i) The straight line method (ii) The reducing balance method at 20% pa Solution · Under the straight line method. at the end of which it will be sold for Rs.2850 / Rs. This may reveal that two much or too little depreciation has been provided over the asset’s life.1500. the actual disposal proceeds will show the true net cost of the asset. i. Calculate the depreciation to be charged for each of the first 3 years of the machine’s life. On disposal. This over or under provision of depreciation is shown in the Profit and Loss a/c as a profit or loss on the disposal of fixed assets.4800) x 20% =Rs.2850.30000 – Rs. the annual charge for every year of the machine’s life is Rs.6000 – Rs. [Note that the expected residual value is ignored & it will have been incorporated into the choice of 20% as an appropriate rate] b) Calculation of Profit/Loss The depreciation charged each year is based on estimates of useful life and residual value.30000. .

03. 2.Example: 2 An asset is purchased on 1 January 2006 for Rs.03-2008 =25600 · Depreciation y/e 31. and is depreciated using the reducing balance method at 20% pa.03-2009 =20480 · Thus.2007 =32000 · Depreciation y/e 31. The asset is sold on 1 January 2009 for Rs. 23000 – 20480 (book value) = Rs. there is a profit on disposal of price of Rs. 2520] c) Accounting for depreciation and disposals · In the above example. The functional reliability refers to the ____________________ of the machine. Solution · Sales proceeds must be compared to the net book value on the date of disposal.40000.03-2009 (20%) =5120 · Net book value at 31. .2007 (20%) =8000 · Net book value at 31. equipment or service operation.03.2520 [sale price of Rs.03-2008 (20%)= 6400 · Net book value at 31. The main function of the maintenance department is to monitor and control the condition of machineries and equipments and improve their ____________________. Calculate the profit or loss arising on this disposal. which necessitates decision regarding depreciation (may be proportionate) · A popular depreciation policy would be: A full year’s charge in the year of acquisition but none in the year of disposal Self Assessment Questions Fill up the blanks with appropriate words: 1. In practice. · Original cost 40000 · Depreciation y/e 31. acquisition or disposal may occur part way through the accounting year. the disposal occurred exactly 3 years after the acquisition.23000.

In the performance phase is the ______________ period of performance with a better reliability. it is important to know the nature and occurrence of failures over a period of time for the equipment in use. which is called the______________. may contribute to of the ____________ total breakdown time 10. This is the useful period of the machine. 5. is shown below. It is also commonly called as ____________________.. Reliability and availability have become key issues. here too is that the small percentage of around 15-20% defects in equipment. For better maintenance planning and control. and manufacture the quality product at the speed required. The graph of the failure pattern. The formula used to measure manufacturing reliability (MR) is: MR = ………………………. Manufacturing reliability can be defined as a manufacturing system’s ____________. there are three phases in the equipment performance namely a) Infant mortality phase b) Useful performance phase c) _____________________ 6. the failure of any one part may result in the ____________________ . 11. Hence the reliability of the total system depends on the _________________ of each of the sub systems. The objective of FMEA ( ) and reliability analysis of the plant and equipment is to ensure to ____________________ of critical assets and achieve the business goals. 7. 9. The failure of any one of the sub system can cause failure of the __________________.3. In the ____________ . 4. As in other types of probabilities. A simple machine having few moving parts may have breakdowns happenings after a large number of maintenance free run time hours. Most equipment that survives infancy stage will continue to perform better with very few failures. but in a complex machine. called the ‘Weibull distribution graph’ (after Weibull developed it). . the rate of failure increases until the equipment succumbs and is characterized by the rapid wear and tear of more and more components until major breakdown happens. As per the graph. Newly installed equipment shows high rate incidence of early failures during initial phase of its life. 8. because of its shape. _________________ of maintenance problems is essential to know as to how serious is the problem for taking quick actions.

equipment or service operation. Manufacturing reliability can be defined as a manufacturing system’s capability to operate to its expected operations. anticipated life etc. Some important methods or replacement of old and unused machineries are 1) minimum annual cost method 2) by using ____________________ 3) ____________________ method. tools and techniques and measures. 9. This pattern manifests itself due to rigorous operations during the life span. Asset life cycle management system. Therefore it is the duty of the plant maintenance crew to strive to maintain and increase the functional reliability of the production facilities. Mean Time between Failure (MTBF) can be computed. The replacement analysis becomes more complex due to many technical factors and the qualitative consideration. The objective of FMEA ( ) and reliability analysis of the plant and equipment is to ensure to excellence in performance of critical assets and achieve the business goals. 13. by which the system reliability. The functional reliability of facilities to be maintained or improved upon by the maintenance management requires the use of certain concepts. reliability methodologies. S = Speed performance ] 12.16 Summary The main function of the maintenance department is to monitor and control the condition of machineries and improve their functional reliability. RCM provides a flow diagram that tells what type of maintenance to be used. Q = Quality performance.[Where. T = Time performance. can be assessed. . availability. The reliability theories on equipment have shown that there is a definite performance pattern their lifespan. Reliability and availability have become key issues. analysis. The functional reliability refers to the consistency of the degree of performance of the machine. The purpose of reliability centred maintenance (RCM) is to determine the __________________ in its operating contexts. as evolved by some companies for better results consists of three phases: a) Asset Acquisition Phase: b) Maintenance phase: c) ____________________ 14. and manufacture the quality product at the speed required.

because of its shape. shows three phases in the equipment performance namely · Infant mortality phase · Useful performance phase · Ageing phase. Asset life cycle management system. reduces costs and eliminate waste. called the ‘Weibull distribution graph’ and known as ‘Bath Tub Curve’. Hence the reliability of the total system depends on the product reliability factors of each of the sub systems. as evolved by some companies for better results consists of three phases: a) Asset Acquisition Phase b) Maintenance phase c) Disposal Phase Based on the life cycle analysis.For better maintenance planning and control. increases capacity. . it is important to know the nature and occurrence of failures over a period of time for the equipment in use. · Mean Time between Failure (MTBF) · Mean time between production Loss (MTBPL) · Mean production loss (MPL) Companies should recognize this fact that maintenance of its assets is to be encouraged as the process will provide advantages in enhancing quality initiative. There are many ways to measure reliability. Equipment can be considered as a total system and the failure of any one of the sub system can cause failure of the entire system. The purpose of reliability centred maintenance (RCM) is to determine the maintenance requirements of any physical assets in its operating contexts. The graph of the failure pattern. However the methodology to be used depends on the best alternative within the organizations objectives. there must be equipment replacement plan after considering the cost impact and other technical factors. Total productive maintenance (TPM) and failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) are other maintenance tools used for improving the reliability through proactive maintenance.

How this helps in replacement plans? 9. Explain few of them? 7) What are the factors considered in measurement of maintenance measurements? How they are evaluated? Briefly explain the three phases of asset life cycle management. Consistency of the degree of performance 3. Excellence in performance 4. 9) What are the technical and cost factors to be considered while planning replacement of old machineries? 10) Explain briefly the depreciation methods used in capital expenditure on plant and machineries. Functional reliability 2.Capital expenditure based on the life cycle and the depreciation either by straight line or reducing method is used for a comprehensive decision by the management.17 Terminal Questions 1) Define functional reliability? 2) What are the maintenance management concepts.18 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1. Bath Tub Curve 5. b) Breakdown time distribution: and c) Reliability and Variability of the Equipments 5) What are maintenance performance index? How they help in measuring maintenance efforts? 6) There are many ways of measuring reliability and availability. 9. Ageing phase . methodology used for maintaining the functional reliability? 3) Explain briefly the ‘Weibull distribution curve. Why it also called as bathtub curve? What are the three phases in the life span of equipment? 4) Explain briefly how the life of the equipment is depicted by the variability and availability factors in a) Bathtub Curve and MTBF.

Product reliability factors 9. Refer 9.8 7. Entire system. = [% T] x [%Q] x [%S] 12. 80 to 85% 10.4 5. Refer 9.3 4. Refer 9. Refer 9. Ageing phase 7. Refer 9.12 8. Maintenance requirements of any physical assets 13. Disposal Phase: 14. Refer 9.6 6. Refer 9.2 2. Refer 9. Refer 9. Capability to operate to its expected operations 11. Infant mortality.2 3.6. Useful. 8. Barnes formula.13 9. .15 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Critical analysis. Refer 9.14 10. Complete machine breakdown. MAPI Terminal Questions 1.

9 Types of Losses.4 Objectives of TPM 10.OM0006-Unit-10-Total Productivity Maintenance Unit-10-Total Productivity Maintenance Structure: 10.7 Other Related issues with TPM 10.6 Evolution of Maintenance Methods 10.3 Goals 10.10 Zero Loss Concepts 10.8 Overall Effectiveness of Equipment [basis of TPM] 10.12 Eight pillars of TPM Autonomous maintenance Kobetsu Kaizen Planned Maintenance Quality Maintenance .11 Implementation of TPM & Steps in TPM program Steps in TPM program 10.5 TPM and its Features 10. 10.1 Introduction Objectives 10.2 Total Productivity Maintenance 10.

But with the enlarged scope of maintenance functions when very high cost state of art machineries and equipments are used for higher productivity. material handling equipment and other transport vehicles in proper working conditions. Environment TPM in offices 10. machine failures cannot be tolerated. cleaning. faster set ups and fewer adjustments. High tech preventive maintenance routines are performed by experts at frequent intervals and machines are continually upgraded and modified for closer tolerances.14 Benefits of TPM 10. inspecting. The Japanese have virtually eliminated machine breakdowns by applying Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) techniques to their . thus leading to breakdowns and production losses. Health. to keep a machine.15 Role of TPM in WC-production 10. adjusting. a more sophisticated well managed preventive – maintenance type programs such as TPM or Reliability centred maintenance (RCM) has warranted.18 Answers 10. but they often neglect the very important function of complete maintenance. etc.17 Terminal Questions 10. Equipment maintenance is basic to competitive manufacturing.13 Relevance of TPM to TQM framework 10. repairing. Earlier the maintenance management was viewed as a function with a lesser status compared to manufacturing and its role was restricted to one of carrying out breakdown repair when a machine breaks down. a facility.1 Introduction Manufacturers invest huge capital on productive machines and equipments for production of the desired products. Because JIT [Just-inTime] production lines operate very close to capacity in every process.16 Summary 10.Development Management Education & Training Safety. Maintenance covers all those functions such as monitoring. This will increase the life of the machines and they perform better during their entire life span.

10. Reliability and TPM principles call for avoiding crisis. Objectives: After studying this unit you will be able to: · Outline the features of TPM · Explain the types of losses related to maintenance · List and explain the steps involved in TPM · Comment on the methods of TPM propounded by experts on Quality. to achieve total customer satisfaction. efficiency and effectiveness with zero loss concepts through total participation of all employees with self managing abilities in practices. TPM is a well defined and organised maintenance program which places a high value on team work.2 Total Productive Maintenance [TPM] TPM had its genesis in the Japanese car industry in 1970’s. TPM is defined as the means to achieve high level of productivity.3 Goals · Prevention of equipment deterioration · Maintain the equipment in optimal condition · Establishing basic equipment conditions · Operator is competent to operate machine/ equipment · Elimination of quality defects · Elimination of equipment failure · Elimination of cost losses .machines. It first evolved in Nippon Denso a major supplier of the Toyota car company. relying on team work. maximising capacity. Machines are cleaned and lubricated frequently by the operators who run those machines. consensus building and continuous improvement. Here the new quality approach of “prevention at source” was translated to the maintenance environment through the concept of TPM. 10. minimising costs and continuously improving processes for manufacturing.

delivery and services. · Achieve manufacturing excellence. · Producing products for customer satisfaction in quality. · Increase plant efficiency. ensuring total effectiveness of the plant for higher quality and lesser downtime. · Restoring equipment to a like-new condition · Improve maintenance efficiency and effectiveness · On job training of the labour to improve their job skills · To have a sound equipment maintenance management · Effective use of preventive and predictive maintenance technology · Achieve TPM with active participation & involvement in all levels · “Value Added” activity that the equipment is contributing to your products. but spreads across as a company-wide culture. . · Reduction in manufacturing costs. losses.10.5 TPM-Its Features TPM no longer confines to the maintenance department.4 Objectives of TPM The principle objectives of TPM are: · Eliminate all breakdowns of machines and equipment to ensure trouble free continuous production. · Maximise asset and equipment effectiveness through OEE [overall equipment effectiveness] and OPE. · To achieve higher reliability/flexibility of equipment and reduce cost through eliminating wastages. defect. means elimination of micro operational issues · Achieve zero loss Concept – [zero breakdown. 10. cost. reduction in equipment life cycle cost. · Boosting morale of employees. waste and accident-free operations] in all the resources over the entire life cycle of a production system through team work and by overlapping small group activities.

through total participation of all employees with self-managing abilities in practice. monitoring and controlling practices through a unique ‘8-Pillars Method’. TPM paves way for an excellent planning. efficiency. · Periodic pre-failure replacement or overhauls and · Intolerance for breakdowns or unsafe conditions. effectiveness with zero loss concept. · Speed losses due to discrepancies between designed and actual speeds · Defect losses due to process defects that cause scrap & quality problems.6 Evolution of Maintenance Methods What are the other maintenance methods that are universally practiced by industries. TPM is one of the most valuable strategies for those who want to be competitive & meet the World Class Competition 10. blockages etc.TPM is a method designed to eliminate the losses caused by break-down of machines and equipments by identifying and attacking all causes of its breakdowns and system down time due to such breakdowns. organizing. leading to another innovative & modern practice under company-wide maintenance practice of TPM? How this evolution has happened and other related issues are briefly given below a) Breakdown Maintenance / Emergency / Corrective Maintenance: Break – down maintenance or emergency maintenance is a remedial or corrective maintenance practice that is undertaken when equipment fails and require repair on an . · Defect losses due to reduced yields in processing TPM includes three main elements: · Regular preventive maintenance. · Speed losses due to idling and minor stoppages caused by abnormal operations of censors. TPM is a means to achieve high level of productivity. · Downtime for setups and adjustments. to achieve total customer satisfaction There are six types of losses found in a manufacturing firm: · Downtime due to equipment failure. including housekeeping.

maintenance costs and resultant delay in supply of products to customers as promised. A study is made on each machine on the MTBF (mean time between failures) distribution. Here. This reduces the frequency of machinery break downs and consequent loss of production Break down of a machine in production line can be costly if it means shutting down the entire plant.7 Other Related Issues a) Improve Repair Capabilities: For reliability and a sound preventive maintenance practices. that results in loss of production due to idling of machinery and labour and reduces system capacity. especially when mass production or continuous production is planned. to uncover potential problems and to make repairs. 10. A good maintenance facility should have the following features: 1. Failure of equipment or machineries may occur at different phases. Obviously this is not an ideal way of keeping quiet until that breakdown happens. This idling will increase the production cost. When the distributions curve exhibits a narrow standard deviation. . Preventive maintenance policies and techniques must emphasize on all employees to accept the responsibility for the maintenance and perform all the activities to their capability. the preventive maintenance will be more expensive and incidental if it is other way.emergency or priority basis to set it right. b) Preventive maintenance Preventive maintenance is the activity that is planned and programmed on a regular basis to inspect the system. Well trained maintenance crew. This promotes employee empowerment and system performance c) Productive maintenance or Predictive maintenance – This is an extended preventive maintenance method that tries to reduce the chances of breakdowns by using modern monitoring and analysis techniques such as computer aided monitoring and forecasting and diagnose the condition of the equipment during operation. servicing and replace parts to ensure that the system does not fail during normal operation. A high failure rate known as the infant mortality exists during the initial working of the machine and then settles in. There exists a relationship between the maintenance costs and the cost of failures with which the level of maintenance Vis-a-Vis frequency of maintenance could be firmed up. the productive maintenance tries to identify signs of equipment deterioration or imminent failure and to take corrective action before it fails. firms should build up a level of repair capability in order to get the system back in operation much faster.

e) Role of operators in TPM . Reliability considers the performance of a product over time. b) Employee ownership TPM: Front-line associates have first responsibility for maintenance in their work places. issues are closely related with maintenance and maintainability. Further these machines may have possible immediate effects such as variability of output. safety hazard. preventive and repair maintenance. Malfunctioning of machines cause deterioration and results in inefficiency. because of perceive product quality and the exceptional reliability. product quality and production schedules. they can improve operator safety and reduce injuries from equipment mal functions. It is the probability that a product will operate adequately for a given period in its intended application. Specialists work with cross-functional teams & backup responsibility to handle difficult or unusual problems.2. This will ultimately shorten the life of machines and cause high repair costs. c) Reliability and Maintainability – an overview: Quality is multi – dimensional but reliability is a key component of quality. Ability to design ways to extend MTBF b) Maintenance responsibilities a) Traditional: Maintenance is a functional support activity & employees rely on specialists for custodial services. firms can reduce inventories. Since the reliability is concerned with the elapsed time between failures of a product. The ability of the equipment for operation is determined by mean time between failure (MTBF) and mean time to repair (MTTR) that is: Availability = MTBF / [MTBF + MTTR] d) Equipment problems and competitiveness: Equipment problems and break downs have a direct affect on production costs. 3. Japanese automobile manufacturers have been highly successful in the US market and could gain a high market share. accidents to operators. Ability to establish a repair plan and priorities. Ability and authority to do material planning. Ability to identify the cause of break downs 6. idling of both machines and the workers using those machines for their work. Reliability is a time based concept of quality. Hence by reducing equipment mal functions and break downs. 5. 4. schedule disruptions etc. Adequate resources. At the same time.

Thorough data analysis. Understand the manufacturing process to successfully achieve the above. C) Reduction of minor stoppages and adjustments on aggregates as well as the complete machine. 2. Restores deteriorated equipment through improvements / related maintenance 2. Perform basic equipment maintenance by cleaning of machines. .1 Objectives of OEE: a) It helps see a problem so that it can be fixed.8 Overall Equipment Effectiveness [OEE]-Key Indicator of TPM · OEE is a way of measuring how the six major losses shown below are affecting the equipment or in other words a way of measuring the amount of “Value added” activity that the equipment is contributing to the product. obtain information before such problems are attacked. Diagnose and perform repairs for the problems identified. manufacturer and also the operators 8. Basic skill levels required by operators include: A) Monitoring and maintaining critical process parameters. 10. checking functions of the basic machine AND safety devices. thus developing the capability to operate similar equipment / machines 10. Maintain work order system to provide data for calculation of MTBF (mean time before failure) and MTTR (mean time to repair) 6. Implement periodical maintenance system that is planned on the data collected from the machine. Ensure maintenance is treating the root cause of the problem and not symptoms 7. To identify design weaknesses and improve equipment for error free operations 3. f) Role of maintenance department in TPM process: 1. B) Perform change over and setup the complete machine. 3. periodic diagnostic tests apart from performing appropriate maintenance system to avoid predicted equipment failure 5.1. Improve technical maintenance skills of all maintenance personnel through systematic training and work assessments 4. Data collected must be complete for proper implementation. D) Collect data to track equipment performance and document all the data recorded along with production control chart and work order systems.8. In case the problem is an unknown entity. replacement of filters lubrication of aggregates.

2 OEE example: A manufacturer working for 8 hours shift with the production data and scheduled breaks is as follows: Shift length = 8 hours. Short breaks – 2 short breaks of 15 min each. · Planned production time 480 – 15 -15-30 = 420 min Operating time = planned production time – downtime = 420 -47 = 373 min · Good quality parts produced = total produced – rejection = 19271 – 423 = 18848 · Availability = A = operating time / planned production time = 373 / 420 = 0. Overall Equipment Efficiency [OEE] = [Availability x Performance Efficiency x Quality yield] 10. Downtime of machines – 47 min.8. Ideal rate of production – 60 parts per min. Number of parts produced – 19271. out of which 423 numbers were rejected. 1) Planned and unplanned downtimes. Lunch break – one lunch break of 30 min. [Target=minimize] 2) Set up down time[Target=zero] 3) Reduced speed of the machines [Target=minimize] 4) Minor unrecognized stoppages [Target=zero] 5) Reject and rework [target=zero] 6) Start up down time and yield from the system [Target= minimize] Availability [(Time available for production – Downtime)] / [Time available for production] Performance Efficiency = [Actual Production or Capacity)] / [Ideal Production or Capacity] Quality Yield [Total Parts Produced-Quantity out of specifications] / Total Quantity produced.88 .b) It helps visualize ‘Six big losses’ with their targets for meeting OEE.

12) waiting for quality confirmation.861 * 0.888 * 0. 13) any management losses. c) Quality loss: 7) process errors 8 rework/scrap Category 2: Manpower losses: 9) cleaning and checking.978 = 0. 5) minor stopping /idling.· Performance = P = parts produced / (ideal production * operating time) = 19271 / (60 * 373 )= 0.9 Types of Losses (16) There are 16 types of losses that can be categorized into three namely: Category 1: a) Equipment losses: includes down time losses due to 1) machine failure/breakdown.978 · OEE Composite = Availability * performance * quality = 0. 6) reducing the capacity. Category 3: Material losses: 14) material yield 15) energy losses 16) consumable material losses 10. 3) planned shutdown downtime] b) Performance losses: 4) start up losses.e. 74.10 Zero-Loss Concept: TPM is based on the elimination of the above said 16 losses along with other five zero loss concepts depicted below: . 10) waiting for materials.861 · Quality= (total parts produced – rejection) / total parts produced) = 18848 / 19271 = 0.748 i.8 % 10. 11) waiting for instructions. 2) set up/adjustment time.

10.11. even for new areas of operations. Focus on 8 pillars. Reaching Excellence in TPM program by Promotion. 6. g) Education and training. h) Safety and environment committee 4.wide is a major project that requires support from top management. The TPM program team oversees initial planning and coordination of all TPM efforts though ultimately this responsibility is transferred to the maintenance department.12 Eight Pillars of TPM . Formation of committees and sub committees for a) promotion and steering of TPM. This stresses the need to shift focus from equipment to the processes within which it is used.10. Selection of pilot lines 5. Implementation in each of the identified areas is managed directly by a target area committee with assistance from a TPM program team. monitoring and reviewing TPM results and raising levels and revising standards 10. b) Jishu Hozen. e) Quality maintenance.1 Steps in TPM program 1. The main focus on equipment maintenance is for improvement of the overall production system. d) Planned maintenance.11 Implementation of TPM Implementing TPM company. Plant audit and initial assessment 2. Company commitment 3. f) Office TPM. c) Kaizen.

12. Uninterrupted operation of equipment 2. 8 Pillars supports a strong structure of TPM for achieving higher productivity is depicted in the following picture. Eliminate the defect at source through active employee participation 4. Reduce process time 3. Reduce oil consumption 2. Step wise implementation of JH activities JH Targets: 1.In the above house.1 Pillar-1: Autonomous Maintenance: (Jishu – Hozen) Autonomous maintenance is a phrase coined by the Japanese institute of plant maintenance (JIPM) to describe the shift towards the machine operators maintaining their own machine / equipment JH Policy: 1. Flexibility with operators to operate and maintain other equipments 3. Increase the use of JH Objectives of JH: . 10.

Repair sources of defect (outside of machines). Provide spare parts and tools: Here all the spare parts should be leveraged at the point of use after considering the inventory levels. electronic. broken / worn out belt. Here the operator executes routine verification and adjustments 5. replace cracked parts or worn out seals etc and repair and setup the machine. quick response. team leaders. 4. control or prevent deterioration of production equipment 2. Initial cleanup It must be closely aligned with 7S of the company and there must be commitment of both the staff and the management for the house keeping. Increase access and ease of inspection and maintenance 4. pneumatic. Examples of such defects are: Crack in the housing leakages. first line supervisor should be trained to understand the basic of the equipment and the functions and the systems working in the machines namely Hydraulic. Operators should identify and tag the sources of defects / waste that arisen out of the machine operations. set rules to be followed. Improve skill levels and personal growth throughout the company 5. Stabilise. In case modification is required for easy inspection / elimination of debris / contamination etc a new aggregate covers may be created 3. 2. Train operators on function and troubleshooting: Operators. Standards for monitoring key process parameters: To develop methods and standards for routine verification of key process parameters / standards operating conditions. Cleaning of all the surroundings and using Japanese 5S principles for orderly keeping the parts etc. lubrication and mechanical should be clearly understood by all in the production line for quick redressing. Here operator has to apply and ask for 5 why’s. Improve predictability through data analysis and communication Steps to Implement JH: 1.1. JH audit. Develop standards and data collection: Create standards for clean up and checking of machines. Prevent degradation related failures 3. establish standards for data collection based on the production control chart and develop standards for easy reference. 6. switch not operating properly etc. should be followed to achieve effective results . Similarly the orderliness of tool availability and display of visual boards can be maintained. electrical. Other steps considering the aspects like a) Cooperation from all production related department. 7.

There are three steps that aim at quick but short term process improvements supported by long term organizational change. which uses maintenance work cycle activities of preventive/predictive/corrective or breakdown maintenance techniques. · Planned maintenance policy includes a) achieve and sustain availability of machines. 4) improve reliability and maintainability of machines.3 Pillar: 3: Planned Maintenance [Pm] For Zero Loss · Planned maintenance is a systematic management by maintenance department. Step 3: Implementation action plan to sustain and develop further possible improvements. Here an emphasis is on transferring knowledge and creating self sufficient team for results. It is aimed at having trouble free machines and equipment producing defect free products for total customer satisfaction.12. Six steps followed by planned maintenance are: . Verify the progress made in TPM efforts in planned versus emergency work. Here it is aimed at eliminating all 16 losses in the workplace. MTBF. 10. Quick change time reduction. optimize spare parts location etc. 10.Kobetsu Kaizen (Focussed Improvements) 1) PDCA Cycle: Kaizen: here maintenance team should 1) Plan each step. 2) Do the necessary change. 2) Increase in productivity by improving Overall Equipment efficiency (OEE). Zero accidents and Zero defects. 3) reduce spare parts inventory.2 Pillar-2. All out JH: Repeat the cycle 1 – 6 above of the process of managing and monitoring the TPM. These steps are: Step 1: Quick Win Shop floor projects: this is a team based approach targeting specific problem areas and realizing immediate benefits Step 2: Critical analysis: analyze what else needs to be changed to make it fixed and create action plans. 4) Act as required to proceed further to improve upon the system/process. MTTR. optimize machine set ups. 3) Check whether successful or not.8.12. Overall Online efficiency (OOE) and Overall Plant efficiency (OPE) 3) Decrease Costs: through controls in inventory and WIP 4) Reduction in customer complaints: reduce total downtime and ensure quick deliver to customers 5) Zero accidents: total safety and all actions to save money. 2) optimise maintenance costs.

1) Equipment evaluation and recording of present status 2) Restore deterioration and improve on weak links 3) Builds information management systems 4) Prepare time based information and parts and map out a plan 5) Prepare predictive system plan by introducing diagnostic techniques 6) Evaluation of planned maintenance. 3) Reduction in spare parts consumption 4) Reduction in oil and power consumption 5) Reduction in repair cost 6) Reduction in number of inspection points etc 10.12. when a) ease of manufacture.5 Pillar-5-Development Management This refers to the learning process that happens in TPM implementation and during different types of maintenance practices. are analysed. Focus is on eliminating non-conformances in a systematic manner. b) policy of . Benefits from Planned Maintenance 1) Reduction in downtime due to breakdowns. Results achieved through this pillar are: 1) Improved customer satisfaction and reduction in future complaints 2) Reduction in defects and improved quality 3) Reduction in inspection time 10. Here the customer end defects are known through customer complaints and in-house defects known through the quality control personnel.12.4 Pillar-4-Quality Maintenance for Zero Defects This is a process for controlling the condition of equipment and its components that affect variability in product quality. Here also aim is at defect free product to satisfy the customer. 2) Improvement in MTBF and MTTR. root cause is found and improvement action on the process/design are ensured.

It is aimed to have multi skilled & revitalized employees. unsafe working without wearing gloves.6 Pillar-6-Trining & Education [Flow Of Controls] Through training and education provides the skill and knowledge apart from the experience that enables operators. Here the focus is on improvement of the knowledge. safety training and monitoring the improvements through Kaizen. skilled workers. health and hazards. e) initial phase production. providing safe environment place a vital role. incorporate planned maintenance sheets to eliminate defects. engineers and managers are in a position to fulfil the expanded role to be played in successful implementation of TPM. whose morale is high and who are eager to work and perform the required functions effectively and independently. Poka-Yoke etc will all result in getting the following benefits: 1) Reduction in accident 2) Reduction in noise 3) Create excellent house-keeping & a good looking workshop through 5S action 4) Reduction in downtime because of breakdowns etc 5) Saving in energy consumption 6) Reduction in industrial waste . reworks etc. skills and techniques through a training environment. safety guards.development of new technologies. Point by point safety audit. This systematic education and training will result in: 1) Reduction in downtime. a) planning b) implementation. d) manufacturing. operating machines without proper training etc. Unsafe conditions like electrical points. Development of management involves four phases.7 Pillar-7: Safety. Health & Environment [Zero Accidents] Here the focus is to create a safe work place and a surrounding areas that is not detrimental to process or procedures. c) determination of detailed specifications etc are answered.12. noise generations and any such unsafe potential areas must be identified and action taken to make them safe. and design validation 10. unsafe storage/stacking. 10. c) design. breakdowns attributed to lack of knowledge and skills 2) Reduction in further downtime after gaining the knowledge and skills 3) Reductions achieved after training on the number of defects. Some examples of unsafe acts by employees are 1) use of worn out tools. goggles etc. The methodology adopted is for understanding of the present machine structure. too hot areas. The continuous training is on safe working.12.

cost of inventory carrying. TPM aims at keeping the current plant and equipment at its highest productive level through cooperation of all. stores. payroll. payment to suppliers. 3) reduction in administration costs. In TPM the barrier between maintenance & production personnel is removed.10. Benefits accrued because of office TPM are 1) Better utilization of work areas. PQCDS&M principles in Office TPM: a) P: production output loss due to want of materials.12. in information etc e) S: safety in material handling. 2) reduction in repetitive works. invoices. 7) reduced man power 8 clean and pleasant work environment and 10) reduction in equipment due to emergency despatches/purchases. 5) reduction in n umber of files.13 Relevance of TPM to TQM Framework Good maintenance is fundamental to a productive manufacturing system. cost of logistics. Here the whole organization should focus. manpower etc b) Q: mistakes in cheques. other safety practices f) M: number of kaizen activities in office areas with improvements not visible TPM is a long range living program. to follow all the principles and procedures laid out in ‘Seven Pillars of TPM’ and achieve the desired overall improvements for the benefit of the organization. bills. 4) reduction in inventory carrying costs. Further. customer returns etc c) C: buying cost. 10. It identifies and eliminates losses. marketing and sales outlets with high inventories. It is followed to improve productivity and efficiency in the office administration. Therefore the Office TPM addresses the seven major losses namely: 1) processing loss 2) communication loss 3) idle loss 4) set up loss 5) accuracy loss 6) non-value added loss 7) cost loss including areas as procurement. we can infer that total productive maintenance is an extension of TQM philosophy to the maintenance function.8 Pilar-8-Office Tpm [Raise Levels & Select Other Areas] Office TPM includes analysing processes and procedures towards increased office automation. as a strategy. 6) reduction in customer complaints. etc d) D” logistic losses due to delay in support function. the following strengthen the view that TPM is relevant to TQM: . Since achieving total productivity is one of the major objectives of TQM. accounting.

Process capacity cannot be made available at the cost of quality. tidy and well organised work area will result in better performance Maintenance is the key to achieve zero loss. 2) TPM increases production capacity. · TPM can have a great impact on the operations decision making process. Here too the operators take the responsibility of cleaning their machines and work areas. in other words working with a zero sum philosophy. The planning. morale and pollution control by involving everyone in the process. · TPM is continuous improvement activity. since it aims at cost reduction and quality improvements for internal requirements and for customer satisfaction.14 Benefits of TPM An added benefit is that with the added responsibility of all maintenance activities. zero breakdowns. vibration. process reliability and reduces the cost of lost production time. This developed by JIPM (Japanese Institution of Plant Maintenance) during late 1960’s combines the American practice of PM with Japanese concept of Total Quality Control [TQC] and Total employee involvement [TEI] 1) TPM aims for greater manufacturing competitiveness through improved effectiveness of machines and equipments. smell etc spot problems before they develop. TPM is a value adding activity. TPM aims at the introduction of new and creative ideas which will optimise quality standards and reduce waste and costs to the organisation concerned. In view of the above. there is a direct link between TPM and TQM and also the relevance of a comprehensive maintenance policy is proved for successful TQM implementation. zero accidents and zero defects. 4) Benefits can be categorized into two types namely: 1) Direct and 2) Indirect a. 10. Clean. repairs. defects. scheduling and control of operations depend to a large extent on process capacity and process capability. 3) TPM also contributes to improvements in safety. by using the principles of 5S. shortened equipment life and inventory.· TQM is aimed at satisfying customer requirements. A comprehensive TPM program aspires to implement process capability and its maintenance. Direct benefits: . Housekeeping is another area in JIT production system. operators develop a sense of ownership for the machines and give special attention to upkeep the machines for sound.

1) Productivity: Breakdowns reduced by 85% 2) Quality: Defect rate reduced by 50% 3) Cost: Labour cost reduced by 25%. Indirect benefits: a) Higher confidence level among the employees b) Favourable change in the attitude of the operators c) Horizontal deployment of a new concepts in all areas d) The workers get a feeling of owning the machine. Reliable. maintenance cost reduced by 15 -30%. 4) Delivery: Inventory turnover increased by 150% 5) Morale: Improvement suggestions increased by 105% 6) Safety: Accidents reduced to nil 7) Environment: No pollution created 10.a) Increase in productivity and overall plant efficiency b) Elimination of customers complaints c) Elimination of accidents d) Achieve goals by working as a team b. The following results were reported from a typical firm after implementing TPM. energy reduced consumption reduced by 20%. well functioning machines and equipments are a pre requisite for JIT and TQM to be successfully implemented in any manufacturing firm. the entire process or . equipment and systems so that they consistently perform at the levels required of them.15 Role Of TPM In World Class Manufacturing Most of the world class manufacturing firms have implemented JIT systems and TQM philosophy to achieve excellence in manufacturing and to have ability to compete globally. . Preventive maintenance requires understanding and maintaining all the physical elements of manufacturing – machine components. Therefore if any equipment breaks down.

. Here the new quality approach of ………………… was translated to the maintenance environment through the concept of TPM. Preventive maintenance practices reduce the breakdown of machines and will keep them in good working condition. easier to maintain and perform better. 4) GOALS: one among following is not an applicable goal. In TPM operators / workers perform basic equipment repairs and preventive maintenance.production line comes to a halt. This will facilitate implementation of an effective preventive maintenance program which is essential for a JIT system Self Assessment Questions Fill up the blanks with appropriate words in the following statements: 1) Equipment maintenance is basic to competitive manufacturing. Improved equipment functioning has a positive impact on product quality. material handling equipment and other transport vehicles in proper working conditions. efficiency and effectiveness with zero loss concepts through total participation of all employees with self managing abilities in practices. 2) TPM had its genesis in the Japanese car industry in 1970’s. a facility. The involvement of workers in quality circles provides the opportunity for them (members of quality circles) to study maintenance problems. Identify. In world class companies quality circles form an important component of TQM. machinists and operators redesign and reconfigure equipment to make it more reliable. 3) TPM is defined as the means to achieve high level of productivity. TQM requires quality at the source which implies that machines must be reliable and well functioning. Maintenance covers all those functions such as ……………… etc. • Prevention of equipment deterioration • Maintain the equipment in optimal condition • Establishing basic equipment conditions • Operator’s incompetency . It first evolved in Nippon Denso a major supplier of the Toyota car company. In world class companies the responsibility for repairs and preventive maintenance is assigned to workers. engineers. Preventive maintenance is a stepping stone to a higher level of maintenance referred to as “total productive maintenance” (TPM). to keep a machine. while teams of maintenance staff. to achieve …………………….

g) Defect losses due to reduced yields in processing 6) OEE is a way of measuring how the six major losses shown below are affecting the equipment or in other words a way of measuring the amount of ……………………. manpower etc . two are missing in the following list. 9) Autonomous maintenance is a phrase coined by the Japanese institute of plant maintenance (JIPM) to describe the shift towards the machine operators ……………………… 10) PQCDS&M principles in Office TPM: In the list below principle D is missing. c) Speed losses due to idling and minor stoppages caused by abnormal operations of censors. Safety. Development Management. Education & Training. Health & Environment.. Kobetsu-Kaizen. TPM in Offices. What is that? • P: production output loss due to want of materials. 7) Overall Equipment Efficiency-Fill in the other two factors: [OEE] = [Availability x ( ………. ……….) X (…………)] 8 Out of Eight pillars of TPM. Identify them Autonomous Maintenance. One among the following is not the type of loss considered in maintenance. Identify a) Downtime due to equipment failure.. d) Habitual absenteism by employees e) Speed losses due to discrepancies between designed and actual speeds f) Defect losses due to process defects that cause scrap & quality problems. b) Downtime for setups and adjustments. blockages etc. that the equipment is contributing to the product..• Elimination of quality defects • Elimination of equipment failure • Elimination of cost losses 5) There are six types of losses found in a manufacturing firm. …………….

While breakdown maintenance is remedial or corrective maintenance or equipment repair when breakdown occurs. cost of inventory carrying. payroll. 2) Adequate resources.16 Summary Japanese firms which implemented JIT production and TQM concepts cannot witness any machine failures that affect quality and delayed production schedules. stores. A comprehensive maintenance program consists of breakdown maintenance. Only five are listed. 3) Reduction in inspection time 12) For the above type of TPM. and total productive maintenance or reliability centred maintenance. 4) Ability and authority to do material planning. preventive maintenance.. . Preventive maintenance is a well planned program which involves inspection to uncover potential problem and make the necessary repairs before any breakdown occurs. 5) ……………………. They applied TPM techniques to visually eliminate machine breakdowns. 3) Ability to establish a repair plan and priorities. Which is the sixth one? 1) Well trained maintenance crew. 10. cost of logistics. organization should have the following six features. and ……………. machines are cleaned and lubricated frequently by the operators themselves who run the machines. bills. The frequency of preventive maintenance must be balanced with the cost of equipment failure and keep the total costs of preventive and breakdown maintenance put together at the lowest level possible. etc •? • S: safety in material handling. 4) Ability and authority to do material planning. other safety practices • M: number of kaizen activities in office areas with improvements not visible 11) Results achieved through pillar number Four are: 1) Improved customer satisfaction and reduction in future complaints 2) Reduction in …………….• Q: mistakes in cheques.2) Adequate resources. For the above type of TPM. invoices.. 6) Ability to design ways to extend MTBF. 3) Ability to establish a repair plan and priorities. customer returns etc • C: buying cost.. In the TPM approach to maintenance management. organization should have the features of 1) Well trained maintenance crew.

stoppage of production. What are the objectives of TPM? 2. poor quality of outputs. by adopting any of the maintenance systems discussed above. shortened equipment life and inventory. 10. repairs. accidents to workers. Reduction in costs of lost production. TPM contributes to improved safety. Benefits of TPM includes increase in production capacity and process reliability.17 Terminal Questions 1. TPM helps to maintain process capability. Explain briefly the evolution of maintenance practices leading to TPM. 4. Implementing TPM company-wide is major project requiring top management support. Quality circles. Distinguish between breakdown maintenance and preventive maintenance. decrease in productivity. product quality and production schedules. What is total productive maintenance? Is it different from total preventive maintenance? . continuous improvement and has a strong strategic relevance like TQM. TPM has great relevance to TQM in improvement of productivity and quality. defects. especially with the latest TPM as a final and long range solution. TPM identifies and attacks all causes of malfunctions and eliminates all consequent losses due to breakdowns. Equipment problems have a direct impact on production costs. idle time. Discuss on the guiding features of TPM? 3. employee morale and pollution control.5) Ability to identify the cause of break downs 6) Ability to design ways to extend MTBF. high standards of quality and reliability. high WIP inventories and so on. which may result in inefficiency of machines. All these help to improve manufacturing competitiveness of world class companies. 5. an important component of TQM provides the opportunity for workers to study maintenance problems and suggest effective maintenance activities which are essential for JIT systems. formation of a target committee and program team to oversee initial planning and coordination of all TPM efforts and then transfer the responsibility to the maintenance department. high repair costs. safety hazards.

adjusting. What are the relative issues that are recognized by maintenance department before attempting introduction of TPM in the plant? 7. 9. Which are the eight pillars that support TPM in an organization? 11. What are the constituents of Kobetsu Kaizen i.18 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1. no (d)] . Describe the role of total productive maintenance in world class manufacturing. Prevention at source 3. What are the unsafe practices and how these are controlled by practicing good and healthy. Total customer satisfaction. Operator’s incompetency-[Sl.e.6. 10. repairing. cleaning. inspecting. What are the six zero concept that are to be considered while approaching elimination of 16 Losses? 10. safe environment under TPM? 15. 16. Habitual Absenteeism by employees – [Sl. What is meant by ‘Overall Equipment Effectiveness’? What are its constituents? How the six losses are addressed through OEE? 8. Discuss the relevance of total productive maintenance to TQM framework. Explain briefly the sixteen types of losses that are to be considered for elimination by the maintenance department while planning TPM activities. What are the benefits accrued to a firm by practicing TPM? 17. Monitoring. Explain briefly as to how planned maintenance under Eight pillars of TPM help achieve zero loss? 14. etc 2. What is ‘Autonomous Maintenance? What are its objectives and steps involved in implementing? 12. no-(d)] 5. 4. Focussed Improvements and what steps are used to achieve improvement? 13.

Ref.7 7. 10.12 11.12. 10. 10.6 4. Defects and improved quality 12. 10.12.6. Ref. Ref.1 12.8 8. in information etc’ 11. 10.3 14. 10.12. Ref. Performance Efficiency & Quality yield 8. 10.4 2. “Value added” – activity 7. Ref. Ability to identify the cause of break downs Terminal Questions: 1. payment to suppliers.12. Ref. Ref.13 . Ref. Ref. 10. Ref.5 3. 10.6 5. 10. Ref. Ref. Ref. 10. Maintaining their own machine / equipment 10. D. 10. Ref. Ref. 10.2 13. 10.10 10. 10. Planned Maintenance & Quality Maintenance 9.6 6.‘logistic losses due to delay in support function.9 9.7 15.

10.16.14 17. Ref.15 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . . 10. Ref.

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