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2 History of Maintenance Definition of Maintenance Objectives and Functions of Maintenance 1.3 Functions of Maintenance Management Quality Aspects in Maintenance Maintenance Organisation Initial Level Repeatable Level Defined Level Managed Level Optimized Level 1.4 Improving Maturity in Maintenance Organizations Training Strategy Work Management Resources Management Supervisory Review Quality Assurance Subcontract Management
Commitment of the Maintenance Personnel. Verification of Implementation Metrics and Process Improvement 1.5 Dynamics of a Maintenance Organisation Maintenance Management Perspectives Types of Maintenance Preventive Maintenance Shut-down Maintenance Opportunistic Maintenance 1.6 Summary 1.7 Terminal Questions 1.8 Answers 1.1 Introduction Rising inflation and increased competition have brought with them the need for greater productivity, and recent years have seen more emphasis being placed on productivity improvement. Moreover, sophisticated equipment and capital intensive units and plants are being increasingly used to achieve the pre-set targets of higher production and productivity. Reliability and maintainability features are now being incorporated in the equipment designs. Although modern equipment has higher levels of reliability, it is not possible to keep this equipment in an operating condition at all times because failures do occur even in the most reliable equipment.1 It is also true that such sophisticated equipment, and units or plants, tend to have high probabilities of failure since in many cases they incorporate newer, and therefore not adequately proven, technologies and designs. They also consist of a large number of assemblies, sub-assemblies and components. Failure and malfunctioning of these items of equipment result in a loss of production. Loss of production is undesirable because it results in corresponding loss in revenue. Whenever an item of equipment is down and fails to perform its intended function, or performs in an undesirable fashion, it must be restored to a state where it performs satisfactorily. At the same time all necessary action must be taken to keep, or retain, such equipment in an operating condition and also to prevent failures. Resources, such as spare parts, manpower skills, tools, instruments and facilities, such as hangars in the case of
aircraft maintenance, are utilized for accomplishment of the restoration processes and preventive actions. Thus the requirement for productivity improvement has brought about the pressing need for a significant improvement in the management of maintenance of equipment, units and plants. Objectives: After studying this unit you shall be able · To Define Maintenance · To assess objective and functions of Maintenance · To describe Quality aspect of Maintenance · To assess key process of Maintenance Management 1.2 History of Maintenance Historically, maintenance activities have been regarded as a necessary evil by the various management functions in an organisation. Enormous costs of maintenance, estimated to be between 15 and 40 per cent of the production costs and the trend towards automation have, however, forced managers to pay more attention to maintenance. The evolution of maintenance can be traced from the days prior to World War II. The attitude of the managers then was ‘to fix the equipment when it breaks’. With fewer items of sophisticated equipment around, and hence, the cost of downtime not being high, prevention of equipment failures was not given much attention. Maintenance, in addition to fixing the broken equipment, involved simple activities like cleaning and lubrication. The period after World War II saw the introduction of the word ‘terotechnology’ which was initially defined by the committee on terotechnology as ‘…a combination of management, financial, engineering and other practices applied to physical assets in pursuit of economic life-cycle costs’. Due to rising costs and inflation, focus was on reducing downtime of equipment and hence preventive maintenance came into being as an important activity. This period also saw a number of researchers working on operations research models for preventive maintenance. Importance of planning maintenance activities also grew during this period. Overhauls of equipment were planned and scheduled. Systems for managing maintenance were also introduced. The period after 1980 has seen some of the worst accidents in industrial history. Leakage of methyl isocyanite (MIC) from a battery/cell manufacturing unit in Bhopal in India and the threat to the survival of mankind caused by the nuclear accident at Chernobyl in the erstwhile Soviet Union have only made the manufacturing industries and the like realize the importance of maintenance. The attitude of ignorance towards maintenance has increasingly been replaced by one which recognizes maintenance also as a strategic issue in the organisation. Besides high cost, the other factors which contributed to this change
manpower. or restoring failed equipment to a normal operating condition. To live up to the new expectations demanded of maintenance activities. In case an item of equipment fails it needs to be restored to the same specified operating condition. Performing maintenance activities requires the use of resources such as spare parts. · organizing maintenance resources. Maintenance. In summary.include: environmental concerns.2. 1. or keeping. or tasks. and planning and scheduling maintenance resources. which is linked to the overall organizational objectives. ageing plant and equipment. in general. means preserving. or return the equipment to an acceptable working condition. drive for cost reduction and the like. · To extend the useful life of the equipment. The set of tasks or activities that constitute maintenance ranges from simple cleaning operations and lubrication to performing condition monitoring. The availability and utilization of these resources are of prime importance. Obviously.2 Objectives and Functions of Maintenance The objective of any business organisation is to make profits. Maintenance can thus be defined as a set of activities. therefore. Performing such activities would obviously extend the useful life of the equipment. should.2. Alternatively the objective should be to minimize the costs – the labour costs and the material costs as well as the loss in revenue due to loss of production. maintenance programmes have to be developed to ensure that physical assets will continue to fulfill their intended functions at a minimum expenditure of resources. Techniques such as condition monitoring. The objective of maintenance. and warranty and liability factors. Modern maintenance management can be considered to be composed of the following functions: · maintenance planning. including staffing/recruiting. 1. that are related to preserving equipment in a specified operating condition. an item of equipment in a specified operating condition. at minimum resource cost. The need for reliable equipment has also been realized. neural networks and Markov chains have been used for controlling and managing maintenance activities. tools and facilities. regulatory matters. be to maximize the profitability of the organisation by performing activities which retain working equipment in an acceptable condition. safety issues.1 Definition of Maintenance Maintenance is an element of a complete production system. . the principal objectives of maintenance would be: · to control the availability of the equipment. maintenance activities which do not contribute to preserving or restoring the intended functions of assets should be eliminated.
. Maintenance planning includes formulating and identifying organisation-wide policies that would help achieve higher maintenance productivity such as: · Do we repair the equipment or buy a new one? · Do we perform preventive maintenance or corrective maintenance activities? · Do we employ full-time repair personnel or should we subcontract work? Self Assessment Questions 1. · controlling the performance of maintenance activities. at minimum ________________. 3. Maintenance is an element of a complete ___________ system. The attitude of ______________ towards maintenance has increasingly been replaced by one which recognizes maintenance.· directing execution of maintenance plan. The principal objectives of maintenance would be to control the availability of the equipment. Maintenance planning includes formulating and identifying ___________ policies. 2. 5. 4. · Budgeting. involved simple activities like cleaning and lubrication. _____________ in addition to fixing the broken equipment. · defining processes for performing maintenance.
a review by the manager or the maintenance supervisor would be essential to ensure and authorize that the maintenance work has been carried out properly. This is a statement of maintenance tasks to be carried out in a specified period. This way not only is the downtime cost kept to the minimum but also the resources are utilized effectively. In case the task does not get completed within the estimated time then corrective action would need to be taken to ensure further loss in revenue due to loss in production is minimized. Any maintenance activity requires resources. The top management is also responsible for negotiating and authorizing the service level agreement. the maintenance manager needs to organize the required resources and all these resources need to be available in the right quantity and at the right time.1. The maintenance manager should track the work to completion.3 Functions of Maintenance Management Responsibility for formulating the maintenance policies lies with top management. work and . In order to carry out maintenance activities as planned. This will lead to degradation of equipment performance and can also result in its failure. If the required resources are not available. Other common tasks related to maintenance management include generating reports related to equipment. Once the required resources are available. Another important task is creation of a master maintenance schedule. then the planned maintenance activity cannot be performed. the maintenance activity can be initiated. The maintenance manager should ensure that the equipment is restored to its normal working condition as quickly as possible. Once the activity is complete.
A maintenance activity can be considered to be of high quality if: · it restores an item of equipment to its normal working state. An important step in addressing the maintenance management problems is to treat the maintenance task as a process that can be controlled. The above-mentioned conditions can be satisfied only when the maintenance organisation has: · skilled and committed repair men available to carry out the required maintenance activity at the required time. · In general. measured and improved. · an appropriate ‘on-the-job’ training programme for the repair men to enhance their ability to work.2 Maintenance Organisation Maintenance organisation does not mean only the organisation of people in the maintenance department or their reporting structure. · It incurs not more than the budgeted cost. · it is initiated on time and the equipment is returned to production at the · required time. · the required tools. A ‘process’ can be defined as a set of tasks that. training and motivation of the people . · A repository of maintenance processes. It also includes activities related to collection and analysis of data related to maintenance and reporting to top management.3. produces the desired result. An effective maintenance process must consider the relationships of all the tasks. It is more to do with the maturity of the maintenance process such that high-quality maintenance activities are performed.costs. when performed properly. · the required spare parts in the required quantity. without causing · any damage to the equipment or to any of its parts.3.1 Quality Aspects in Maintenance Quality is not absolute but relative. and the skill. 1. instruments and facilities for performing the activity. the tools and procedures used. the need is for a good maintenance organisation. 1.
3. 1. organizations at this level face risks when presented with new challenges. Tools are neither integrated with the process nor uniformly applied. In order to improve performance. The performance of these steps calls for a process-oriented organisation and such an organisation develops over a period of time as enunciated by the capability maturity model (CMM). organizations at this level need to institutionalize basic management processes. To improve the capabilities of the maintenance organisation the following steps8 must be performed consistently: 1. that is. 1.3. To climb up the maturity level. Commit resources to execute the plan.4 Repeatable Level Organizations which carry out similar projects with reasonable accuracy with regard to cost and time are at this level. The organisation now has capabilities to face new challenges and achieve success.3. With this. 3. the organisation has to implement a measurement programme to obtain process feedback. 4. The strength to carry out similar activities stems from the prior experience. Understand the status of the current maintenance process or processes. Plan to perform the required actions. the organisation achieves the foundation for continuous improvement in processes. defined. without formalized procedures. repeatable.3 Initial Level The organisation operates on an ad hoc basis. the most important ones being project management. List down required process improvement actions. 5. 1.5 Defined Level The organisation has a repository or a set of defined procedures for carrying out development work. Determine if the current process is the desired process.3. organizations must have dedicated personnel who take care of the development processes. managed and optimized. To reach the defined level. cost estimates and plans. However. 2.involved. 1.*9 The CMM was defined by the software engineering institute (SEI) for software development organizations and it classifies software development organizations into five levels initial.6 Managed Level . quality assurance and project tracking and oversight.
The organisation has a way by which performance indicators are measured objectively. The organisation operates on an ad hoc basis. 1. Any maintenance activity requires resources. without formalized procedures. · work management.4 Improving Maturity in Maintenance Organizations The key process areas (KPAs) involved in enhancing the capability and maturity of a software organisation. Targets are set for performance and a plan is made out to achieve the pre-set targets. The objective is only to identify the key process areas that would enable maintenance organizations to enhance their capabilities and maturity. Since the data collection process is full-fledged. 10. · quality assurance. Problems are identified proactively and eliminated. Quality is not absolute but relative. . that is. the effectiveness of the process can also be determined. 9. 7. 8. The objective is not to classify the maintenance organizations also into one of these levels. Responsibility for formulating the maintenance policies lies with shop Supervisors. To reach the highest level on the CMM. · supervisory review. A ‘process’ can be defined as a set of tasks that. when performed properly. produces the undesired result.3. The CMM can be adapted to enhance the capabilities of the maintenance organizations as well. Self Assessment Questions State whether following statement True or False 6. A few key process areas can be readily identified in this regard. the organisation needs to put in place automatic data collection support tools.7 Optimized Level The organisation has capabilities to identify the weakest links in the development processes and eliminate/improve them. cost estimates and plans. They are: · training strategy. 1. · resources management.
usage of modern tools etc.2 Work Management Any activity. scheduled and tracked to completion. such as an oil refinery. This is the responsibility of the maintenance manager. Resource here means manpower. irrespective of the time it consumes.3 Resources Management As mentioned earlier. Training. The term ‘small activity’ should be defined by the quality assurance personnel because it varies from one organisation to another. It would not be appropriate to track every small activity in the work-breakdown structure to completion. Every maintenance activity should be planned. tools. 1. maintenance activities require resources in the form of spare parts.4 Supervisory Review Every maintenance activity should be performed under the charge of a supervisor. Each of the tasks in the work-breakdown structure should have appropriate resources assigned to it. An organisation may not always find suitable people for performing a job. 1. For example. In some others. Management of resources is therefore critical to managing the maintenance function. a small maintenance activity may take not less than 5 hours.4. For small activities.4. manpower.4. The maintenance manager should identify the training needs of his subordinates and get them trained. scheduled and conducted. is not managed if it is not planned and tracked. a welder may be re-trained to perform a pipefitter’s job. Holding resources in excess of requirements is wasteful while non-availability of required resources at the required time is undesirable since this result in loss of revenue due to loss in production. In such a case it is better if some of the available personnel are re-trained on some trades other than those in which they have specialized. 1. The required resources should be available at the right time and in the right quantity. facilities etc.1 Training Strategy Every maintenance organisation should have a suitable training programme for its personnel. tools. The supervisor’s responsibility is to ensure that the required resources allotted for performing . in one organisation an activity that takes only 15 minutes for completion is considered to be small.4. Coordination within a group is critical to completion of the maintenance task on time. Most maintenance activities are performed in groups. A maintenance activity should be broken down into smaller manageable tasks. a bull’s eye chart may be appropriate for tracking work. instruments and facilities. can be provided on safety and productivity-related issues. For example. It therefore becomes necessary to train all the maintenance personnel on the aspects of team work. 1. for example. This is referred to as the work-breakdown structure. Also the probable time to complete the tasks should be specified.· Subcontract management. Individual as well as organisation-wide training programmes should be planned.
8 Verification of Implementation .7 Commitment of the Maintenance Personnel The repair men need to be committed to perform the maintenance activities. 1. Once the activity is complete. 1. This involves establishment of policies and top management sponsorship.4. Ability of the maintenance personnel can be enhanced by providing them with proper and relevant training.the maintenance activity are available to the repair gang on time and in the required numbers.4.6 Subcontract Management A few maintenance activities require specialists at the job. The maintenance manager can also visit premises to inspect the capabilities and to get firsthand information. and for analyzing them in order to come up with improved routes and work processes. A better option is to subcontract the work. Five important factors need to be taken care of if each of the key process areas mentioned above need to be implemented in the maintenance organisation. They are responsible for collecting data while the maintenance activity is carried out. Increasing the ability to perform. The assessment of the subcontractor can be done by inviting each to present their capabilities and verification of claims through independent references. the supervisor should inspect the equipment in order to ensure that the equipment is performing as desired. Yet another goal would be to verify the correctness of the work performed. 1. The goals of the subcontract management should be to evaluate and select appropriate subcontractors for performing the maintenance activities. tools etc. List of activities. The selection of the subcontractor should be planned. This is the work order management process. Like any other internal maintenance activity. in most cases. A few more basic areas like maintenance planning and configuration management would also need to be considered. These factors have also been borrowed from the CMM.4.5 Quality Assurance The quality assurance personnel should be responsible for identifying the optimum route for performing a maintenance activity. Hiring these specialists on a full-time basis.4. is expensive. subcontracted work should also be managed. The supervisor should also guide the repair gang in performing the activity. The supervisor should also report completion of the activity to the maintenance manager so that the actual costs incurred are logged. 1. The subcontractor manager should select a suitable subcontractor based on a balanced assessment of the capabilities of prospective subcontractors. The repair men should be provided with a list of activities that need to be performed as a part of the maintenance.
The resources.The supervisor of the repair men should verify the completion/ implementation of the maintenance activity.5 Dynamics of a Maintenance Organisation Coordination within the groups is one of the most important factors that determine the effectiveness of any maintenance organisation. 13. They are as follows: 1. The quality assurance group. 2. Four entities are important as far as the maintenance activities are concerned. The supervisor group. 1. materials and tools. 15. The selection of the ______________should be planned. Gathering metrics on every maintenance activity helps in estimating the time requirements and also the cost. 14. Metrics and process improvement is a ___________________. Ability of the __________________ can be enhanced by providing them with proper and relevant training. the maintenance productivity and quality of the maintenance work.4. The maintenance manager. The key process areas (KPAs) involved in enhancing the capability and maturity of a ____________________. The maintenance manager is responsible for scheduling maintenance activities. 1. Measurement of maintenance activity can be in terms of percentage of work complete to date. 12. Self Assessment Questions 11. An activity is scheduled (as far as possible during the production windows in the case of preventive maintenance) and initiated depending on the availability of the required . Feedback on the maintenance activity performed should be given to the concerned repair men. The supervisor should also make use of this opportunity to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the individual repair men and arrange suitable training for them. including manpower. tools etc. 4.9 Metrics and Process Improvement This is a continuous process. estimated time to complete the work. Every maintenance organisation should have a suitable ___________ for its personnel. 3.
This maintenance activity also does not incur any loss in production. Since the equipment is in use there is no loss in production while performing this maintenance activity. Due to shortage of resources the maintenance activity is pending. As the maintenance activity is carried out. Ettkin and Jahnig have described the work life cycle for the reactive and proactive perspectives. It can be seen from the above that there are two perspectives of maintenance management: 1. They have divided corrective maintenance into two perspectives – ‘reactive’ and ‘reactive/proactive’ –and have defined preventive maintenance as a ‘proactive’ perspective. The equipment is not wanted for production and is available for maintenance. 2. this is called corrective maintenance. Since the equipment is being taken out of production this maintenance activity results in loss of production. The equipment is running and is producing the desired output. The key distinction among the three perspectives relates to the time interval between the recognition of the need to perform a maintenance activity and the time at which the . The equipment is taken out of production for a scheduled maintenance activity. 3. The quality assurance group determines the process of performing the maintenance activity in an optimized manner. This activity involves simple inspection of replaceable parts.resources. the quality assurance group collects data on the process and analyses them with a view to improving the process. Relatively more time is spent on performing this type of maintenance activity. 1. At any time. Maintenance is being carried out to restore the equipment to an operable condition. 4.5. 5. (2) and (3). this is called preventive maintenance.1 Maintenance Management Perspectives Kelly has described the dynamics of a production maintenance system considering a large process plant. This is called the ‘production window’. The equipment is in a failed condition. 2. Prevent it from breaking down as in cases (1). Since the equipment is not in an operating condition this maintenance activity results in considerable loss of production. The maintenance manager tracks the activity to completion while the supervisor inspects and ensures the activity is carried out properly. Maintenance is carried out while the equipment is running. an item of equipment or some part of it can be in one of the five following states: 1. The equipment is in a failed condition. Fix it when it breaks as in cases (4) and (5).
regardless of the maintenance perspectives. the direct costs increase. and indirect maintenance costs. in the case of nuclear submarines. The intention is to detect potential failures early. materials and tools. If personnel who operate and maintain the nuclear power plant of the submarine make serious mistakes. Just as there is a trade-off between inventory holding costs and the reordering costs. This approach to maintenance becomes essential for any equipment where there are serious dangers to life should a failure occur. 1. material costs and direct overheads. Most situations warrant a considerable mixture of maintenance types. v scheduling the maintenance task. The level of maintenance activity to be performed is obviously the one where the total cost is minimal. In the case of the ‘reactive’ perspective. The following section describes the preventive. The only difference is that of the time interval. As the level of performing maintenance activity increases. This is an approach developed to reduce the likelihood of the failure of critical equipment to the minimum possible. the ship and its entire crew are in mortal danger. consisting of labour costs. corrective and other maintenance practices followed in organizations. All the maintenance activities. for example. The total maintenance cost is the sum of direct maintenance costs.5. 1. make changes and prevent failures. The cost of unavailability. results in loss of revenue. the time interval between the recognition and performance is very small as compared to the ‘proactive’ perspective. in turn.2 Types of Maintenance The return of investment on an item of equipment can be maximized by maximizing its availability. Also the indirect costs resulting due to failure decrease. There is rarely any organisation where only one type of maintenance is used. The preventive actions under such a situation would be to: . Availability of an item of equipment can be defined as the ratio of uptime to the sum of uptime and downtime.3 Preventive Maintenance Preventive maintenance is a proactive activity. v Evaluation of the performance. v performing the maintenance task. When an item of equipment is down it results in loss of production which. is proportional to the loss in revenue. there is a trade-off between the maintenance costs and their benefits. The cost of utilization of these resources is a direct maintenance cost.activity is actually performed. which are primarily due to loss of production. involve the following steps: v planning the maintenance task. which is an indirect cost.5. Performing a maintenance activity requires usage of resources such as manpower.
and the commanding officer must promptly report on the corrective actions. · Report deviations to the admiral-in-charge. where the cost due to loss in production is very high. · Detect the onset of a failure. This approach to maintenance is also important in highly automated plants. For example. This type of maintenance activity is applicable only for those items which exhibit a time-dependent failure . hours etc.. adjustment and similar activities. Planned · activities are carried out and the main functions are: · inspection of critical parts of the equipment. which includes lubrication. The fixed time should not be based on the calendar units but should be based on a fixed number of running units such as kilometers. Primary objectives of this approach to maintenance are to: · Increase the life of critical equipment by preventing failures. the level of distilled water in the battery of an automobile is checked after every 1000 kilometers and the brush ploughs of a grinding mill should be replaced after every 500 hours of running. Fixed-time maintenance is that activity which involves inspection of critical parts of the equipment after a fixed time interval. or after generation of a fixed cumulative output. · Condition-based maintenance. such as car assembly. · Inspect each ship and each operation to ensure that every procedure and method is properly understood and executed. power plants etc. These activities can prevent serious errors from occurring.· Train all the personnel in their own jobs. and replacement of those which are worn out. · Replacement of worn-out parts. Analyze even the most trivial errors to determine what went wrong. These objectives give rise to the following methods of performing preventive · maintenance activities: · fixed-time maintenance. · servicing. · Audit the personnel so that they demonstrate satisfactory performance to their job standards.
the solidification of the lubricant is an indicator of the machine’s wearing condition. are expensive. the time required to perform this activity is . It is an appropriate option for preventive maintenance when the following conditions apply: Prevention of failure is not technically feasible. the maintenance personnel can also collect data which can be used as inputs by other methods of condition-based maintenance procedures. as mentioned earlier. replacement of failed parts with new ones. Along with inspection. and then the parts have to be repaired or replaced. Techniques such as oil analysis. ultrasonic waves and thermographs also help monitor the condition of the equipment. on the other hand. With this kind of maintenance policy. In organizations where there are very few production windows. Although. checking for leaks in fuel-carrying pipes. cracks in the structure of a building etc. corrective maintenance is predominant. Since condition monitoring gives sufficient warning of an impending failure it becomes easy for the maintenance manager to plan a corrective activity at a later time. if repair is not economical. shock pulses etc. which can be measured either visually or by other means. A simple case of condition-based maintenance is the visual examination of the brake pads of an automobile. the maintenance-related costs are usually high for the following reasons: The time required is usually much higher than other maintenance types because the cause of failure has to be identified. These methods. Damage is caused to other equipment as a consequence of failure. or how the failure can be prevented is not yet known. There is a cost due to loss in production.mechanism. The obvious advantage of carrying out running maintenance is that there is no loss in production. Detailed analysis helps in detecting an impending failure. is a reactive activity and is performed when an item of equipment is not in an operating condition or is operating at a level below its rated capacity. A parameter. correlating to the onset of failure has been identified. In some situations it is possible to carry out some preventive maintenance activities while the equipment or plant is running. Complex situations require sensors and other high-tech tools to monitor the vibrations. such as the setting of warning limits for the Solidification of the lubricant. generally occurring in the form of breakdown maintenance. analysis of acoustic emissions. The costs involved in condition monitoring may vary widely. For example. This is a proactive-reactive approach to maintenance and results in the following tasks: repair of failed parts of the equipment. Condition-based maintenance is also known as predictive maintenance. Corrective Maintenance Corrective maintenance. Running maintenance is normally carried out in situations where there is no threat to the life of the maintenance personnel. eddy currents. It is possible to identify a value of that parameter when action may be taken before full failure occurs. Corrective maintenance activities are also performed when condition monitoring indicates onset of a failure. This method of condition-based maintenance is inexpensive. This approach is designed to detect the onset of a failure. This type of maintenance is called running maintenance. which the case is when the event leading to failure occurs in a predominantly random manner.
The work is deferred to a later date if the priority is low or the equipment is not so critical. corrective maintenance work is scheduled and carried out. The cause is usually recorded for future analysis and corrective actions are prescribed. The maintenance work that is carried out is not directed at the primary cause of failure of the equipment or shut-down. as well as major repairs and overhauls. 17. Shut-down maintenance can either be a preventive activity or a corrective activity.5 Opportunistic Maintenance The maintenance work that is carried out is not directed at the primary cause of failure of the equipment or shut-down.much higher than the preventive actions require. 1. Whatever be the choice of the maintenance policy. The maintenance manager is responsible for scheduling maintenance activities. Minor repairs which cannot be performed while the equipment is running. The types of maintenance discussed in this section will help top management decide on questions like: should we carry out preventive actions? Or should we fix the equipment when it breaks? As mentioned earlier. most situations in organizations warrant a mixture of maintenance types.5. an emergency maintenance is carried out. we also realize that failures are unavoidable. Self Assessment Questions State whether the following statement True or False 16. Trained maintenance personnel also have a role to play in reducing the maintenance time. Five entities are important as far as the maintenance activities are concerned. are carried out after the equipment or plant is shut down. 1. repair and replace certain other parts of the equipment. 19.5. the maintenance department personnel attempt to detect the cause of the failure. this can be reduced considerably if the organisation has all the maintenance procedures and systems in place. This approach to maintenance is called opportunistic maintenance.4 Shut-down Maintenance Shut-down maintenance can either be a preventive activity or a corrective activity. criticality of the equipment and the priority. . it should be closely associated or integrated with the resources management function. The cost of utilization of the resources is a indirect maintenance cost. 18. Once an item of equipment fails. 20. If the priority is high or alternatively if the equipment is critical. The next chapter describes a few resources management techniques. While we know that prevention is better than cure. When a maintenance activity is carried out on an item of equipment there exists some opportunity to inspect. Depending on the availability of resources.
From this state. Production 4. This transformation has taken place in about 40 years and has brought about automation and increasing sophistication of plant and equipment.1. Maintenance 2. and has been hastened by the fact that the loss of one hour of production is much more expensive today than it ever was before. chemical and fertilizer plants. Ignorance 3. Explain Objectives and Functions of Maintenance. 3. it has now come to be accepted as an important function – one of strategic importance – particularly in the capital-intensive continuous-process industries such as power plants. Write a note on History of Maintenance. nuclear power generating stations. What are the features of Preventive Maintenance? 1. 5.8 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1.7 Terminal Questions 1.6 Summary Until recently. and integrated iron and steel works. What are the steps involved in Maintenance Organisation. maintenance of plant and machinery was a thankless job and the maintenance function was considered a necessary evil. Resource Cost 5. True . Discuss Dynamics of a Maintenance Organisation. Organisation-wide 6. False 7. 4. 2. True 8. Plant and equipment availability is of paramount importance and effective management of the maintenance function goes a long way in ensuring the attainment of the objective of maximization of availability 1.
Maintenance Personnel 14. Page 6 – Part 1. True 11.4 5. False Terminal Questions 1. False 10.9.Page 11 – Part 1. Training programme 13.2 4. Subcontractor 15. True 18.2. Continuous Process 16.4.1 2.1. False 17. Software organisation 12.3 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Page 3 – Part 1. False 19. Page 10 – Part 1. . Page 2 – Part 1.2 3. True 20.
2 Man Power 2.6 Summary 2.5 Effect of Maintenance types on Resources 2.7 Terminal Questions .OM0006-Unit-02-Business Maintenance Unit-02-Business Maintenance Structure: 2.1 Introduction Objectives 2.4 Tools and Facilities 2.3 Spare Parts Statistical Inventory Theory Models Inventory Costs How Much to Order? When to Order? Selective Inventory Control Procedures Manufacturing Resource Planning The Bill of Materials Master production Schedule Inventory Status File Requirements Pegging Rescheduling Process 2.
manpower. The procedures used are similar to those used for determining the optimal number of repair gangs required for carrying out maintenance activities. which utilize the theory of minimizing the total cost of unavailability and labor. An important issue in manpower is that of determining the optimal number of skilled repair workers. A Maintenance job is usually performed by a repair gang or repair crew consisting of an optimal mix of skilled workers. simulation techniques and queuing models have been used for determining the optimal number of repair gangs required to be deployed in a system.8 Answers 2. Queuing models. which utilize the theory of minimizing the total cost of unavailability and labor. however. plumbers etc. Objectives: After studying this unit you shall be able · To explain the characteristics of the maintenance resources · To define techniques used for managing the maintenance resources · To assess comparison of the available resources management techniques 2. Manan . can be used to determine the optimal number of welders. not all skills are required for the same amount of time. Basker. An important issue in manpower is that of determining the optimal number of skilled repair workers. Important among these are maintenance materials (spare parts). Queuing models. Techniques used for managing the maintenance resources are also discussed.2. rigging etc. plumbers etc. requires some knowledge of the rate of failure (called arrival rate) and the repair distribution.1 Introduction For performing any maintenance activity resources are required. Historically. tools and facilities. Queuing models and simulation have been used also for determining the optimal number of tools and facilities such that the maintenance costs are minimized. However. The usage of the models. One solution to this problem would be to schedule individual workers rather than repair gangs.2 Man Power Almost all the maintenance activities require skilled personnel and most of the activities require more than one skill such as welding. can be used to determine the optimal number of welders. For example. a maintenance job may require the services of a welder for just about an hour whereas the same job may require a fitter for more than four hours. fitting. The disadvantage of assigning a maintenance job to a repair gang or crew is that the manpower utilization within the gang is not effective. In this study the characteristics of the maintenance resources are discussed.
and Husband have used the Monte Carlo simulation technique to determine the optimal number of repair workers required to perform the maintenance activities in a shop comprising a finite number of identical machines. Using the statistical inventory theory models. 3. The objective of spare parts management is therefore to minimize the total of inventory holding. not having the required spare part results in a stock-out cost. By holding spare parts in the inventory the funds of the organization are tied up which could have otherwise been invested in other activities. 2. and the number of repair gangs required such that the total costs (sum of labor cost and downtime cost) are minimized. on the other hand. 2. Using the material requirements planning/manufacturing resources planning (MRP/ MRP-II) technique. 2.1 Inventory Costs Every organization keeps spare parts so that defective and worn-out parts of equipment can be replaced.1 Statistical Inventory Theory Models 2. In general. stock-out and ordering costs. Using selective control procedures along with some heuristics.3 Spare Parts The spare parts (maintenance material) problems have been traditionally approached in three ways: 1. Barnett and Blundell have used the Monte Carlo simulation technique to optimize the number of repair gangs and the size of the repair gangs given that the maintenance jobs generate demand for repair workers from three different trades’ mechanics.3. Newman and Brammer and Malmborg have utilized a material requirements planning/bill of materials approach to manage the manpower resources. two basic questions need to be answered: · How Much to Order? · When to Order? . In addition to the holding and stock-out costs. there is also a cost of ordering a re-supply of spare parts. The objective is to determine the number of repair workers needed to constitute a repair gang. Maintaining the spare parts in a store also incurs some cost. electricians and pipe-fitters.1.3.
this is referred to as the lead-time.1. The service level is defined as the probability of not having a stock-out situation. The complexity of the problem lies in the fact that neither the demand nor the lead-time is constant. Mathematical models are however available to determine the timing of placing an order taking into consideration the characteristics of the demand during the lead-time as well as the lead-time itself. During this period. Thus. therefore. These models help determine what has been traditionally known as the optimum order quantity. where c is the cost per order.00 The rate of interest is 20 per cent annually Then the optimum order quantity. we have If The annual demand D for an item is 8000 units The cost of placing an order is Rs.00 The unit price of the item is Rs.2 How Much to Order? Several models have been developed based on the principle of minimizing the total inventory costs. The maintenance manager must make sufficient provisions to take care of demand during the lead-time because the cost of stock-out is undesirable in any situation. The total inventory cost TIC = the holding cost + ordering cost. Then the holding cost is given by where p is the unit price of the item and r is the annual stockholding rate related to the stock value. the demand for spare parts resulting from the need to perform maintenance activities needs to be satisfied.1. then the number of orders to be placed is given by The ordering cost is. obtained by utilizing the above equation for Q.3. The following is an illustration of a basic inventory model which takes into account the holding and the ordering costs. This provision normally takes the form of safety stock which is determined based on the service level. If the annual demand for an item is D.2.3 When to Order? An order placed with a vendor for re-supply of spare parts takes some time to get filled.3. Thus The minimum of TIC can be obtained by differentiating the above equation with respect to Q and equating the resulting derivative to 0. 2. Let Q be the ordering quantity. . 8. is 1000. 100.
irrespective of its criticality. slow and non-moving Usage rate of the parts High. The following paragraphs describe some of the applications involving a combination of selective inventory control procedures. 2.3. By this method the spare parts are classified into nine Basics Of Formulation Annual usage value of the parts Vital. paying equal attention to all the inventory items was not feasible.1 Most applications found in the literature make use of a combination of selective inventory control procedures because classification or categorization of items based on just one criterion is inadequate for managing the maintenance materials. the safety stock and the minimum and maximum inventory levels require to be determined for each of the items in the stores. The re-order quantity. This is the principle of the selective inventory control procedures. During the days when computers were not available. Technique Description ABC Pareto rule VED FSN HML SDE Table 2. 4) _______________ and queuing models have been used for determining the optimal number of repair gangs.Self Assessment Question 1) Maintenance job is usually performed by a _____________or repair crew consisting of an optimal mix. Items were categorized into homogeneous groups based on their characteristics. low Unit price of the parts Scarce. 3) Every organization keeps spare parts so that defective and ___________ of equipment can be replaced. be given equal importance. Ramani and Krishnan Kutty have utilized an ABC×VED classification technique where not only the annual value of usage of the part is taken into account but also the criticality of the part is given importance. a few of which have been listed. 2) Several models have been developed based on the principle of minimizing the total _____________. essential and desirable Criticality of the parts Fast. difficult and easy to procure Procurement lead-times . Several procedures for classifying items into homogeneous groups are available. medium. Instead effort was concentrated on a few expensive and fast-moving items.2 Selective Inventory Control Procedures The statistical inventory control techniques require that each item.
The first dimension utilizes a VED classification methodology. For each of the nine categories. takes into account the annual usage value Bi of the part i and is given by where Ci is the price of the part and Di is the total annual demand. Although the selective control procedures make the managing of the multiple inventory items easier. in the categories formed on the basis of lead-times are long lead-time and short lead-time. In other words. the stocking policy for a spare part in the V/S/F category is 2. a part may be called critical if the loss of production caused by non-availability of the part is very high. the multi-unit spare inventory control. statistical inventory control models or heuristics are utilized to determine the ordering parameters such as the order point and the order quantity. The two categories formed on the basis of sales value are high sales value and low sales value. If a substitute part is readily available then the part may be less critical. Tayi and Levy have utilized a two-dimensional classification method. Moreover. For example. There are several ways by which the criticality of a part can be defined. MUSIC-3D.2. VED and the SDE classification procedures which results in eight categories of items as shown in table 2. which categorizes the spare parts into groups based on their criticality. Saha and Mohanty have developed a spare parts stocking policy with an objective of minimizing the downtime of critical equipment. it should be noted that most of the classification criteria are subjective. These eight categories have been formed by taking only two categories in each of the three dimensions.6m where m is the maximum quantity of parts requested at any time. fi is the number of failures per unit time involving the part i. The second dimension uses an SDE classification. which is based on the procurement leadtime while the third dimension makes use of the FSN classification (usage rate). A reorder point-order quantity technique is used in conjunction with this method for replenishment of parts. a range of service level is specified. A three dimensional classification technique has been used for the purpose. Duchessi. The second dimension makes use of the criticality aspect of the spare part and is based on the revenue lost due to loss in production (Mi) which is given by where pi is the downtime cost per unit time per failure involving the concerned part. It is the time required to replace or repair the part. The first dimension.categories. while the categories formed on the basis of criticality of the parts are critical and non-critical. . A part may be classified as a critical part if the consequence of running out of stock is severe. and Ni is the standard deviation of the downtime cost (E denotes expectation). which makes use of the ABC classification criteria. The stocking policies for each of the 27 categories are determined using heuristics. makes use of a combination of ABC. For instance.
3. in turn. It is an operations as well as a financial system. in general. The components can either be manufactured in the shop or can be boughtout items. As mentioned earlier in this section. The central idea of MRP is to time production/acquisition of batches of parts/components so that they are available as they are required in assemblies. It consists of a master production schedule. the application of MRP is also very simple. The technique is based on the principle of dependent demand.2 2.3 Manufacturing Resources Planning The manufacturing resources planning (MRP-II) technique has been used widely for managing production resources. The bill of materials.3. the petrol engine is an end-item.2 shows the bill of materials for a petrol engine. semi-finished or finished form. The components in the diagram have been described briefly. As seen in the figure. or derived from the demand of another inventory item. In addition to this. some applications involving management of maintenance inventories are also discussed. The bill of materials indicates that the engine consist of three subassemblies – the piston assembly. An end-item is an item at the highest level of hierarchy in the bill of materials. It is also a system simulator. in a raw. a logic processor and a capacity planning subsystem.3. 2. defines the constituents of an end-item.1 The Bill of Materials The bill of materials defines how one or more items are brought together to make up another item. This section provides a brief overview of the closed-loop technique. is made up of the piston. the crankshaft assembly and the cylinder assembly. It can also be considered to be an assembly definition. any manufacturing organization would want to have the following questions answered: · How much to order? · When to order? Both these questions are also answered by the MRP technique. Figure 2. MRP-II possesses two basic characteristics which go beyond the closed-loop material requirements planning (MRP). All other constituents of the petrol engine are referred to as items. Figure 2. The piston assembly. Later in this section. a bill of materials file. The demand for an inventory item is termed dependent when it is directly related to.1 shows the components of MRP. an inventory status file. the piston rings and the bearings. The immediate .Table 2.
As seen from Figure 2.2 two bearings (indicated in parenthesis) go into the making of a piston assembly. In addition to defining the relationship between items.1 .predecessor of an item is called the parent item. The MRP technique uses the bill of materials for computing the requirements through a process called explosion or desegregation. for example. The piston. Figure 2. is an item whose parent is the piston assembly. the bill of materials also indicates the quantity of an item that goes into making a parent item. The bill of materials also carries with it some other information such as whether the part is bought out or is manufactured within the organization.
2 Every item in the bill of materials is given a number or code such that no two parts have the same number. Also. this can be broken down into 12 production months. Since the demand for carbide tools is all through the year. semi-finished and finished parts. it may so happen that the items are used at two different levels.3. In order to make the computation of the requirements easy.2 Master production Schedule A master production schedule is a statement of production of end-items for a given planning horizon. The master production schedule is constrained by the production plan. The total weight of the variants scheduled for production during the month when totaled equals the budgeted weight as shown in Table 2. There may be a case where an item is used in two different end items. which is a budget set by the management. 2. The quantity of all the items to be produced in a given period must equal the quantity budgeted in the production plan as shown in Table 2. The requirement at one level is computed first before proceeding to the next level. The master production schedule indicates the quantity of items to be produced in a given period. The priorities for the production of items specified in the master production schedule are set by the sales plan.3. This would mean that 0. It states what end-items need to be produced and how many needs to be produced in a month or week. level codes are assigned such that identical items used in different end-items are maintained at the same level.5 tones of tools need to be produced every month on average. This is further broken down into a schedule for specific variants of carbide tools such as SPAN 50.3.3. This includes raw materials. . As shown in Table 2.3. TPAN 75 and CPAN 75 that need to be produced. the top management has budgeted 6 tones of carbide tools to be produced during the year.Figure 2.
3.1 0.3 0.5 0.1 0. · Quantity on order.1 Table 2.2 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.3.3.4 0.1 0.3 Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 0.3 Inventory Status File The inventory status file contains up-to-date information about all the materials stocked in the stores.4 Requirements Pegging .3 0.1 0. 2.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.5 0. In general. In addition to the stock data.5 0.1 0.5 0.1 0. The file is kept up to date by posting the transactions which take place as a result of a receipt or issue of parts into and out of the stores.1 0.1 0. the inventory status file maintains the following data for every item: · Quantity on-hand.5 0.0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.3 0.3 0.1 0.5 0.5 Tools Master Schedule SPAN 50 0.Item code Jan Production Plan Carbide 0.5 0.1 0.3 0.3. the inventory status file also contains the planning factors such as the procurement or manufacturing lead-times.1 0.1 0.2 CPAN 50 0.1 2.3 0.1 0. the safety stock.3 0.2 TPAN 50 0. the scrap allowances etc. the batch sizing policy.3 0.5 0.2 0.
2. 7. materials on order may be received earlier than the due date while in some others the scheduled receipt may not be expected to be in the stock on time. 8.3. 2.5 Effect of Maintenance Types on Resources As mentioned earlier. The procedures used are similar to those used for determining the optimal number of repair gangs required for carrying out maintenance activities. 2.5 Rescheduling Process Scheduled receipts are orders which have already been released to the shop floor or to the vendors.3.Explosion is a process concerned with generating gross requirements. 9. Self Assessment Questions State whether following statement True or False. For audit purposes. The manpower requirement is also known precisely. irrespective of its criticality. it becomes necessary to trace the demand for an item to its source and this process is referred to as pegging.4 Tools and Facilities Queuing models and simulation have been used also for determining the optimal number of tools and facilities such that the maintenance costs are minimized. A master production schedule is a statement of production of end-items for a given planning horizon. 6. The scheduled receipts are taken into account while computing the net requirements. Activities such as fixed-time maintenance enable managers to determine the exact number of parts required. In some cases. 5. The statistical inventory control techniques require that each item. This uncertainty may result in rescheduling of the receipts. in the case of a proactive perspective the maintenance activity is planned and the timing is also determined well in advance. . The bill of materials defines how one or more items are brought together to make up another item. This is a deterministic situation. not be given equal importance. The inventory status file will not contain up-to-date information about all the materials stocked in the stores. Scheduled receipts are orders which have already been released to the shop floor or to the vendors.
The basic purpose of this study is to provide the necessary background and present in a proper perspective the need of the development of an MRP based technique for the management of maintenance resources. This perspective has been created by initially discussing the various types of maintenance resources and their characteristics. The technique should be able to take into account preventive. namely. however. Cannibalization. As per the definition of maintenance. Since failures occur randomly it becomes difficult to predict the resource requirements. In order to reduce the impact of failures on the profitability of the organization the following techniques are usually adopted: · Increase the number of maintenance personnel. If the required maintenance materials are not available in the stores then one option available is to replace the failed parts of one with the working parts of the other failed item of equipment. such as the use of ABC and VED classifications. · Build-up spare part inventories and tools. have been used by industries for spare parts planning. · Use standby equipment. cannibalization can lead to severe control problems at a later time. does not reduce the number of inoperable parts. Statistical inventory theory models and techniques for selective control have been discussed in detail.6 Summary The problem of management of maintenance resources has been discussed.In the case of a reactive perspective. the maintenance activity is neither planned nor scheduled in advance. There are some . then the immediate requirement would be to restore at least one of the items of equipment to a working state. Selective control procedures. In some cases cannibalization is also practiced. Managers in some organizations carry out cannibalization as a last resort in order to meet the production requirements. this happens to be an undesirable situation and should be avoided. if not both. If the equipment is critical. This approach to maintenance is called cannibalization. explaining the commonly used methods and discussing the work done by researchers working in the area of spare parts management. condition-based. statistical inventory theory models and selective control approaches for multi-item inventories for spare parts planning and queuing theory and simulation for manpower planning. and the various models and techniques which are commonly used. If a failure occurs and the required resources are not available to restore the equipment to a working state the equipment is kept waiting in the repair queue. Consider a situation where two identical items of equipment have failed due to different failure modes. and if manpower is a constraint. and corrective maintenance activities (and not just one of them). 2.
such as ABC×VED. For example.fundamental problems encountered in the use of selective control techniques for spare parts management and these are as follows: Such classification is always rather subjective and this is more so in the case of spare parts. ABC and FNS are more appropriate for standard spares such as pulleys. belts. sprockets and bearings. and these models have their own shortcomings. For spare parts. chains. Repair gang 2. For the above reasons. ABC×FSN. 2.7 Terminal Questions 1. in turn. are utilized to determine the ordering parameters. 5. Inventory costs 3. 2. Simulation techniques . Classifying spare parts into homogeneous groups using a classification scheme is difficult since different types of spare parts require different classification schemes. Such classification schemes. Define Statistical Inventory Theory Models. 3. such as the re-order point and order quantity. 4.8 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1. Explain Man Power. whereas VED and SDE may be more appropriate for special spare parts (ones which are used on particular equipment). classification. or categorization. researchers have suggested the use of multidimensional classifications. Worn-out parts 4. statistical inventory control models. Briefly summarize effect of maintenance types on resources. based on just one criterion is adequate. Summarize Bill of Materials. VED×SDE×FSN and ABC× VED×SDE. or heuristics. give rise to a large number of classes of spares with each class having its own planning and control parameters. In these cases as well. Explain Master production Schedule. 2.
1 2.5. .2.1 3.1 5.4 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . True Terminal Questions 1.2. Refer 2.2. True 6. True 9. False 7.3. Refer 2.Refer 2. Refer 2.3.2 4. Refer 2. False 8.
3 Work Management Process 3.4 Summary 3. production. closed and critiqued. To fully understand the breadth of Work Management it is important to understand what Work Management is.). and R&D activities. executed. waste management. selected. projects.5 Terminal Questions 3.1 Introduction Our goal is to establish excellence in Work Management. Work Management – A deliberate process in which a scope of work is identified. planned.6 Answers 3. Scope of work includes maintenance. Planning & Scheduling.g..2 Functional Requirements Equipment Maintenance Function Work Order Management Function Inventory Management Function Vendor Management Function Subcontractor Management Function General Information Systems Specifications 3. Engineering. Operations.OM0006-Unit-03-Work Management & Identification Unit-03-Work Management & Identification Structure: 3. The Work Management process requires the full support of the entire organization (e. . scheduled. etc. Maintenance.1 Introduction Objectives 3.
Work order management subsystem. hiring of subcontractors and arranging facilities. Predict failures to a chosen level of confidence. Plan maintenance work – ensure materials. Inventory management subsystem. 3. 6.Objectives: A maintenance management information system must help you to · Schedule the Maintenance activities. Requirements can be gathered by interviewing the prospective users or circulating questionnaires. 2. Update data when a failure or preventive maintenance activity is initiated and completed.1 Equipment Maintenance Function The equipment maintenance function needs to perform the following: 1. 3. A maintenance management information system. · Plan procurement of resources. Equipment maintenance function.2. 4. 4. · Report on the performance of the overall maintenance system using standard indicators. Subcontractor management subsystem. 3. Store maintenance data including failure and repair data. the scope of the system should be clear. 1. 5. Schedule preventive maintenance work. should have the following functions. The functional requirements of the information system should be gathered first. . · Optimally utilize maintenance resources. Track overall maintenance function performance. at the least. 3. manpower and tools would be available. Vendor management subsystem.2 Functional Requirements Before designing the information system. 2. 5.
List pending work. 3. Update materials inventory data as and when an issue or receipt of materials occurs. Produce reports as desired by the maintenance manager and top management. 7. Convert critical maintenance requests into work orders. 3.4 Vendor management function The vendor management function needs to perform the following: . 5.7. Plan capacity. Track status of manpower.2. tools and facilities. Alert the maintenance manager to place orders for materials as planned and in the required quantity. Track status of work in progress. Print reports as desired by the maintenance manager and top management.2 Work order management subsystem The work order management function is required to perform the following: 1. covering manpower. 9. 5. Store and maintain inventory data including skills and tools. Generate work orders for preventive and corrective actions. 4. Track maintenance costs. tools and facilities. 7. 4. 2. 2.3 Inventory management function The inventory management function has to do the following: 1. Create maintenance requests. 8. Track utilization of manpower. 6. 3.2. 6.2. 3. 3. Produce reports as desired by the maintenance manager and top management. Schedule work visually. Schedule release of planned orders (materials). materials and tools.
5.2. . 2. 1) The subcontractor management function must not maintain data related to subcontracts. Maintain vendor information. 3. Maintain data related to subcontracts.6 General Information Systems Specifications The general information systems specifications need to perform the following: 1.2. Cater for three levels of users’ administration. 3.5 Subcontractor management function The subcontractor management function must: 1. 2. 6. Make on-line data entry. 2. each level of management needs to have access to the required information and should be able to extract the data which is needed. Track quality of subcontracted work. Track progress of subcontracted work. 2) The work order management function is required to perform Plan capacity. In order for a system to be efficient. 3. Print related reports. 3. 3) The equipment maintenance function needs Schedule preventive maintenance work. 4. Produce reports as desired by maintenance manager. Organize skills provided by subcontractors.1. 3. Devise metrics for evaluation of vendors. Track cost. Validate data entry. Self Assessment Questions State whether the statement is true or false. top management and middle management.
and · Critique the planning.3 Work Management Process These steps to be followed in work management process are: · Identify the work that needs to be performed. Each year DOE and the contractor review the contract and the progress of work as part of the annual budget process. · Execute the work. · Plan that work. The statement of work.4) General information systems specifications will not validate data entry. · Select the specific work that will be planned. A number of these programs are mandatory. Whether mandatory or voluntary on the . · Close the work item after completion. safety and protecting the environment. requirements stated in the contract and the annual budget process form the top-level means of identifying the work that will be performed. Mechanics The contract between DOE and the contractor provides the top-level mechanisms for work to be identified. Identify Work Concept This element describes the processes and tools put in place that determines the work that a contractor performs. On a day-to-day basis. · Schedule the work for performance. scheduling and performance of the work that has been accomplished. other programs may be developed by the contractor in furtherance of contract execution. they would entail routines used to monitor attributes important to mission execution. 3. At the top-level these processes and tools include the contract with DOE and management programs committed to by the contractor to execute the statement of work and requirements in the contract. The statement of work in the contract provides a description of the mission-related work that DOE expects to be performed. Contractors develop management programs to execute much of the work of contracts. 5) The vendor management function needs maintain vendor information.
They provide the opportunity to proactively manage the identification of emergent work. system and environmental parameters. which are initiated by personnel who identify work that needs to be performed to allow the work item to be entered into a work management system. Select Work Concept Management programs identify the operational activities and routines that need to be completed to meet mission deliverables. These routines can include Technical Surveillance Requirements/ Limited Condition of Operations TSR/LCO surveillances. no contractor has the resources to complete every identified work request. Management The annual budget process provides contractor and DOE management the resources to manage the work that is identified for further planning and execution. Routines are executed to monitor equipment. at a high level. they provide a method to track. these management programs provide one of the primary paths for work to be identified. therefore. or improvements. Other types of work are converted into work requests. Work is also identified on a daily basis. changes. This process compares the work accomplished and that which remains to the funding that DOE believes will be available to execute work in the coming years. contractors often put routines in place. prioritize and coordinate the management of several categories of work. The identification of work is.part of the contractor. On-going assessments or reviews may identify the need for corrective actions. Work management systems are put in place by contractors to collect work requests into a single place. Program and project plans are updated with the information developed during the annual budget process. While the threshold for identifying work items needs to be sufficiently low to all capture work items. The discovery of new information may result in the need for additional research and development or design changes to existing systems and equipment. Workers are encouraged to be vigilant in monitoring facility conditions for system or equipment problems. and similar repetitive procedures. a continuous process. operator rounds. The Select Work element funnels the work requests through a validation or screening process to determine those work items needing to be completed. After the work . From this process the work to be planned and executed in a given year is identified. These include work requests. environmental monitoring. an identified project or specific facility need are screened out and no further resources applied to their resolution. Additional management tools that are used in the work identification process also support other elements of the work management process. In furtherance of management programs. The schedule is also a tool that ensures that work is properly identified. Work requests not supporting the current mission.
A strong validation process incorporates two-way communications with the work request identifiers. equipment identification. and interface with mission requirements. If the work item is a duplicate it should be screened out. etc. or management commitments. These tools should be reviewed to determine whether duplicate items are already entered into the system. · Need Date: Work requests must clearly indicate any deadline dates and the estimated time period for completing the work. coded with respect to like components and systems. The work may be simple enough that no initiating work documents are required (so-called “tool pouch” or “quick fix” items). Mechanics Work selection is a continuous process to handle the work requests identified on a daily basis. Work may be tied to contract milestones. · Work Duplications: Contractors use Work Management Tools to track work orders. or. stay in compliance with the established safety basis and operating requirements for that facility or project. Knowledge of these drivers allows effective prioritization of work planning efforts. problem symptoms. This second type of work will normally be given a relative priority. Or the work request may require a documented resolution. Work requests that are clearly not going to be accomplished due to cost impacts should be screened out at this point.request has been validated a formal work order is entered into the work management tools used by the contractor. or required plant operational modes to facilitate tracking and planning and then entered into the work management system. This validation process evaluates attributes of the work items to determine if the work item should be processed through the work management system. traded off with lower priority work or put forth as a candidate for additional funding. . · Work Cost: Work requests may be identified that will require funding that is beyond that available to the contractor. The work selection process starts with a work validation. · Operational Impact: Work requests that have immediate impact on the health and safety of contractor personnel need to be processed rapidly. Location of the work. Attributes evaluated include: · Work Scope Identification: A clear scope statement is necessary to understand what work activities are necessary. Work requests that have equipment impacts must be evaluated and the systems configured to protect equipment and workers. Effective work management processes utilize a graded approach to resolving work requests. may all provide key information needed to properly validate the work. operational requirements. if sufficiently important.
Those work requests entered into the work management system result in the generation of work orders. Mature work selection processes incorporate an understanding of a graded approach to work planning.
Contractors need to clearly define who has responsibility and authority to perform the validation activity for their facilities and projects. The validation authority typically resides in the Operations organization because they are responsible for mission execution and normally retain configuration control of the facility systems, structures and components. The work management process descriptions need to define the planning processes used by the contractor staff. Requirements for the type of planning required, based on potential mission impact, hazards analysis and complexity of the work activity, are critical to decision-making during work selection. Plan Work Concept This element describes the process of taking a defined scope of work that has been selected for planning and developing/packaging technical documents to safely and efficiently perform that work. This process includes identification/incorporation of applicable technical specifications and requirements into technical documents, identifying and mitigating job hazards, identifying and obtaining required permits, developing work instructions, and defining post activity acceptance. Mechanics An initial step in planning work is determining what type of work execution vehicle will be used to perform the work. As previously discussed under Work Selection, this decision has often already been made, on a preliminary basis, prior to the initiation of Work Planning; however, it is confirmed as part of this element. Is the work to be performed with a very simple work package where the worker has the knowledge to perform the work and little or no instruction is required or will the work require a work package with more detailed instructions? The following criteria might be used to determine whether work can be performed using a very simple work package: · No medium or high risk activities. · No activities requiring hold points. · Will not alter configuration of equipment from documented design. · Will not present any unusual hazards.
· No hands-on work with radioactive material except incidental or routine work activities that involve low potential of worker exposure or workplace contamination. · No opening of contaminated systems, components, containers. · Minimal external coordination required. · “Skill-of-the-Craft” Work. Such tasks should be documented in a work package by the Field Work Supervisor (FWS) and released to work by operations and documented on the document releasing work.
Work management systems are often put in place to collect work requests and maintain and file documents in a single place. They provide a method to track, prioritize, and coordinate the management of several categories of work. They also provide a means for the work planning organization to interface with the operations organization and ensure that work is moving through the planning pipeline in a manner that supports mission execution. Schedule Work Concept Schedules are tools used by work management organizations to communicate and coordinate work activities. This element describes the processes and tools associated with establishing schedules. Typically, work is identified from various sources (missionrelated commitments, Authorization Basis requirements, maintenance routines, etc.) and flows through a “rolling work week process” (described below) into an integrated schedule. The rolling work week concept is typically established based on either an 8 or 12 week duration.
Most sites have developed a fairly common set of schedules to implement graded approaches to conduct of operations. These commonly include a Plan of the Day (POD) along with a slightly longer view, often one week (so-called Plan of the Week, POW). Various methods exist to move information from longer-term schedules to these two short-term scheduling tools. The rolling work week concept provides an effective tool for managing the development of schedules. It involves setting a specific time frame (or “window”) within a longer-term schedule on which to focus increased management attention. Common time frames are eight to twelve weeks.
· For work that falls within the work window, increased emphasis is placed on planning, detailed schedule concerns and coordination of the work. This time period of increased attention allows: o Optimization of planned outage windows, scheduling all tasks that require particular facility conditions or that impact production commitments; o Development of a detailed technical sequence for complex jobs; o Addressing only items that need to be scheduled in detail, i.e., they require coordination of resources, complex work, etc; o Grouping of similar work to efficiently use resources and equipment by facility mode, available space, system/equipment; and time to verify that parts are available and staged. The work planned during the work window is “Locked-In”, that is, committed to by all concerned, two weeks in advance. This lock-in process adds discipline to the scheduling process and provides focus for final work preparation and coordination. After lock-in, the schedule is under a formal change control process; this encourages people to only lock in work that is truly ready to work. This level of planning and commitment permits the development of precise resource loaded schedules; it supports aligning support resources to the schedule and permits other detailed preparations such as verifying that fully-trained workers are available. This level of planning and scheduling attention also improves task readiness, it allows crews time to review work in advance of working. A formal post work week critique is held to evaluate what got done, what didn’t get done and why. It should be clear from the level of effort inferred above, that the implementation of a rolling work week process requires a commitment from all organizations to make the system work. Work on the rolling work week is facilitated by the existence of schedules that integrate all important work. Management Management tools for a successful scheduling process include: · Senior Management involvement (Frequent and Regular) – Critical Path Meetings · Accountability meeting – weekly schedule commitment meeting · High level schedule change control authority once work is locked in · POD – A daily meeting intended to review facility and schedule status
· Assemble required test equipment. Example components of work execution include the following: Preparations: · Contact job support personnel as required. · Complete rigging preparations. This element is centered on the first-level supervisor (the person directly overseeing the work crew) and the crew that is engaged in the performance of the activity. Applicable work instruction prerequisites are completed to ensure readiness to work. . ensures that procedures and references are the latest revision and that all of the required permits are issued and up to date. Mechanics For each assigned task. · Assemble tools and material at job location. The execution of work begins when the work package is released for work by Operations and runs through the completion of work in the field or facility. · Build scaffolding and install lead shielding. · Remove insulation.· POW – A weekly meeting intended to review and status the higher level facility schedule · Rolling work week process – described above · Outages – scheduled periods where equipment systems or facilities are available to perform pre-determined work · Metrics – tools used to measure success of schedule performance · Documentation of key scheduling assumptions – essential to the development of baseline schedules Execute Work Concept This element describes the processes and tools associated with the actual performance of the work. This work should be completed in parallel with establishing worker protection and industrial safety requirements. the first-level supervisor performs a final review of the work instruction.
environmental or radiological hazards of the task from the work document. As the work completes. Management Management tools put in place to monitor work execution include the Plan of the Day or other work progress meeting. job hazards analysis. Radiological Work Permit. · Build contamination control devices (catch basins. or facility knowledge · Potential abnormal events and contingency plans After completing preparations and getting their work crew prepared to perform the job. Finally. the first-line supervisor oversees and directs the work activities in accordance with the approved work instructions. · Finish prefabrication work. field walk-downs.· Provide necessary temporary air. and water requirements. Pre-Job Brief: · Scope of the task · Review of prerequisite section of the work instructions · Responsibilities of all participants. the first line supervisor reviews the instructions for a complete and accurate work history and performs post activity testing and any rework identified by the post activity testing. tents. The supervisor documents relevant as-found conditions and the work performed. and identifies all discrepancies and incomplete work items. which monitors the day-to-day progress of work execution. Formal programs to have management observe work in the field will provide not only . · Set up welding equipment if required. including expected worker radiological recovery actions · Job-specific hazards and their controls · Applicable precautions and limitations · Required safety equipment · Discuss hold points with employee(s) responsible for the completion of the hold point and employee(s) performing work immediately before or after the hold point · Industrial. the first line supervisor completes all system/equipment checks described in the work instructions to return equipment to service. power. water storage/recovery systems).
an inventory of equipment and parts used and feedback to the work management process. Mechanics The work closure process can be described as several related steps. documenting the completion of work. regulatory and safety basis requirements. e. · Ensure condition tags and other documents are in the completed closure package prior to returning it to the Work Management Center. capturing repair history. . Close Work Concept Work can be closed and declared complete when defined requirements in the approved work package have been met. or authorized incomplete/open work items. · Remove all temporary/test equipment and restore system/components to operable status. resolve any deviations. are satisfied and test results are approved. a number of sites use standard computerized templates to capture relevant historical information. · Update as-built drawings. . Documentation: · Document work completion against requirements. Important attributes of these processes are discussed below. Documentation associated with the work evolution can then be signed off. Schedule updates. based on work completed also provide feedback on work execution. · Dispose of excess materials and waste properly. including quality. but a more accurate feel for work difficulty and potential coordination issues.status. · Update the files for the affected system/equipment. calibration and preventive maintenance data into the Work Management System. normally in the operations organization. These steps include the process of verifying that work has been completed. The system/components can be returned to operations subject to any controls defined in the work instructions.g.. or exceptions have been authorized by the person responsible for accepting the work. Verification: · Verify all administrative and technical requirements. as appropriate. returning (or turning over) equipment and systems to operations.
the previous work week (Work Week Critique) period. Return to Operations: · Review work activity and all testing for system/equipment operability. etc. Mechanics The post work critique (ALARA. Improvement opportunities are . Work critiques take on many forms. issues. and lessons learned. Critique Work Concept This element describes the processes and tools associated with performing a critical analysis of work to ensure that issues. · Verify required procedure.g. Inventory: · Document material used. ranging from individual job post work critiques to critiquing all of the work performed by a group or a facility within a specified time period.) process takes selected jobs and critiques them to identify good practices. drawing and training updates are completed prior to placing the component(s) in service. If there are authorized open items. the work package should have been changed and procedures amended by the appropriate formal documentation.· Retain the closure package in accordance with the Site’s records retention requirements. Management The first-line supervisor is responsible to verify work completion against requirements defined in the approved work package. the first line supervisor should consult with the work planner and the systems engineer as needed. e. · Evaluate the authorized incomplete/open work items for any operational impact concerns. improvements or lessons learned are identified. · Release all remaining clearance tags. and return the system/equipment to the required configuration to support facility operations.. and incorporated into subsequent work. · Return unused parts to the warehouse. · Accept the system/equipment for operability and return to service in a timely manner. and ensuring completion of the work closure functions.
whereby all groups involved in work execution meet to perform a critical analysis of all aspects of the week performance. what was initially intended to be accomplished. but was not & what the issues were which prevented that work from being accomplished. The work week critique process is a continuous improvement process. The report should also include: o A breakdown of the types of work scheduled & accomplished for the week. o Metrics which track and trend the work week elements. Emergent. The applicable post work critique output should be discussed in the work week critique process described below. Issues should be trended to identify programmatic issues. Management Management tools for a successful critique process include: · Weekly critique meeting · Regularly scheduled meeting following each work week to critically review performance of the previous work week (attended by Senior Management) . etc. · Work Week Critique Meeting: A regularly scheduled meeting used to perform a thorough analysis of the work execution. including the specifics regarding what was accomplished. including Emergency. typically covering the previous weeks work activities · Work Week Critique Attendance: Work week critique targeted audience should typically be that of Facility Senior Management. including: § Schedule & Cost Performance § Manpower Utilization § Emergent Work § Backlog · Action Item Tracking: A formal process in which action items from the Work Critique meeting are assigned responsibility & tracked through completion. · Work Week Critique Report: A formally prepared report which comprehensively addresses the work week being analyzed.typically formally documented and followed to closure through a commitment tracking system.
4 Summary The Work Management process requires the full support of the entire organization. 7) _________ can be closed and declared complete when defined requirements in the approved work package have been met. Describe Close Work in Work Management Process. normally in the operations organization. 3. Explain briefly Identify Work in Work management Process. . Execute work describes the _______ and ______ associated with the actual performance of the work. 5.· Appropriate Metrics including tracking and trending · Standard Critique reports · Action Item Tracking / Accountability · Worker feedback Self Assessment Questions 6) Management tools for a successful critique process include _________. 3. or exceptions have been authorized by the person responsible for accepting the work.5 Terminal Questions 1. 3. Management programs identify the operational activities and routines that need to be completed to meet mission deliverables. 4. Work can be closed and declared complete when defined requirements in the approved work package have been met. Management programs identify the operational activities and routines that need to be completed to meet mission deliverables. Explain Functional Requirements in Work Management. 9) Identify describes the processes and tools put in place that determines the work that a ________ performs. Explain components of work execution. Explain Schedule Work in Detail. 2. 10) ___________________ systems are often put in place to collect work requests. Identify Work describes the processes and tools put in place that determines the work that a contractor performs.
3. Processes. Contractor 10. False 2. 10 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Worker feedback 7. False 5. Close Work 8.6 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1. True 6. 5 4) Refer Page 8 5) Refer Pages 9. Work management Terminal Questions 1) Refer 3.1 2) Refer Page 10 3) Refer Page 4. True 3. Tools 9. True 4. .
the machines caused a great deal of anxiety to the management by failing quite frequently and unexpectedly. and low morale of workers.3 Maintenance Strategies Corrective or Breakdown Maintenance 4. one-year back. failure of insulation in electrical circuits. breakage and slips of gear and belt drives. etc. overheating of motors. formation of sludge’s and corrosive compounds on the machine parts.6 Terminal Questions 4. In the initial stages. especially while processing important jobs.4 Maintenance Economics Breakdown-time Distribution Preventive versus Breakdown Maintenance (Single Machine) 4.5 Summary 4.2 The Maintenance Function 4. and were immediately commissioned.7 Answers 4. misalignment of shafts and pulleys.1 Introduction Objectives 4. The breakdown of the machines resulted in a great loss of productive time and also led to several problems such as not being able to meet due dates. The reasons for breakdowns were many: development of high temperature in the bearings.OM0006-Unit-04-Emergencies or Breakdown Process Paper: ISO 90012000/Qs Elements Unit-04-Emergencies or Breakdown Process Paper: ISO 9001-2000/Qs Elements Structure: 4.1 Introduction The turret lathes and gang drills were acquired second-hand. .
Maintenance work on a machine requires both workers of a crew. and consequently higher production efficiency. Preventive maintenance of a machine consists of dismantling the machine and checking all its important parts and making the necessary adjustments and replacements. Maintenance is defined as ‘any action that restores failed units to an operational condition or retains non-failed units in an operational state’ or ‘an activity carried out for any equipment or asset to ensure its reliability to perform its functions’. and cannot attend to any repairs or maintenance. The technicians accepted the job under the condition that if ever they are required to work in the second shift on a day. the proprietor had considerable difficulty in finding he maintenance specialists. each crew consisting of two workers. or to restore to its favorable operating condition. The maintenance crews can do breakdown maintenance as well as preventive maintenance for all the four machines. Minimizing these adverse effects is the role assigned t maintenance. is any activity carried out on an asset in order to ensure that the asset continues to perform its intended functions. As he wanted technicians with experience on the specific machines he had. Such maintenance is expected to reduce the frequency of machine breakdowns. Minimizing the failure count or their adverse effects leads to increased safety. or to repair any equipment that has failed. Machine and component failures can trigger incidents or cause costly production interruptions. The machine operators can only operate the machine when they are in working condition.2 The Maintenance Function Maintenance. to most people. Objectives After studying this unit you shall be able to · Explain the functions involved in maintenance · Recognize the strategies of maintenance · Distinguish between preventive and breakdown maintenance · Evaluate the economic aspects of maintenance 4. reduced downtime and cost of operation. he selected four technicians for employment. availability. they are to be paid overtime. After a long search. The four workers were divided into two crews. . It improves the systems overall reliability. or to keep the equipment running. the proprietor of the workshop advertised for maintenance specialists for the turret lathes and gang drills.In order to combat these problems.
environmental integrity. energy efficiency. Over the past years. The evolution can be seen to cover 3 different generations of thought. in addition to its traditional roles of enhancing plant availability and lowering costs. The evolution in the maintenance thought process is rooted in the changing complexity of industry itself. management today sees a much larger role for maintenance. . as well as the quantitative and cost standard of outputs. and · The cost of operation and maintenance is minimized. It determines the risk-safety. First Generation Second Generation Third Generation · Fix it when broke · Scheduled Overhauls · Condition monitoring · Systems for planning · Design for reliability and and controlling work maintainability · Low-tech computerization · Hazard studies · High-tech computers · Failure modes and effects analysis · Expert systems · Multitasking and teamwork Table 4.The objectives of maintenance are to maintain equipment and facilities in such condition that: · They give trouble-free service and output at rated capacity. · Down-time is minimized.1 shows the evolution of the maintenance philosophy. product quality and customer service profile of the organization.1: Evolution of Maintenance Philosophy Table 4. Maintenance efficiency is viewed as an integral part of business effectiveness. The maintenance function plays a supporting role to effective operations. It ensures that the equipment is able to maintain quality standards. From a simple expectation of keeping equipment running or restoring it to the desired operating condition. the significance of maintenance and its role in plant operation has changed significantly. · Safety is ensured.
In practice. the growth of mechanization and automation has become more complex and even small breakdowns in equipment affect the operation of the whole plant. Most equipment that survives infancy will continue to perform with few failures occurring. there is a definite pattern of lifespan. Downtime did not matter much and no need was felt to treat maintenance as a high priority issue. As this dependence grew. 2. expert systems and continuous improvement programs have developed. The reason for the occurrence of these failures is not fully understood. How Equipments Fail Maintenance is concerned with controlling the condition of equipment. this pattern manifests itself when a collection of machinery is subjected to rigorous operation. With increase in mechanization. there was an added interest created in the field of maintenance planning and control systems. First Generation (1930-40) – The first generation represents the earlier days of industrialization where mechanization was low. During this period. Among collections of equipment. Third Generation (after the 1980’s) – Since the 80’s. unpredictable and cannot be prevented by additional testing or burn-in of the components. As these components drop out one by one. This is the useful period of the machine. These have led to major developments in maintenance philosophy based on manufacturing reliability systems. 4.3 Maintenance Strategies . the failure rate keeps decreasing until a relatively low constant level is obtained. industry became increasingly dependent on these complex machines. Factory equipment was basic and repair and the restoration process was simple. fatigue due to flaws in the molecular structure of the metals or plastics involved. reliability and availability have become key issues.1. Hence. Repairing and restoration had become more difficult and special skills and more time was needed to maintain and repair equipment. or sheer quality deficiency in their manufacture. the failure rate is high. there is a rather high incidence of early failures. called infant mortalities. As maintenance costs started to rise sharply relative to other operating costs. The failures that do occur during the period are truly random. 3. Researchers into the reliability of equipment recognize that within a collection of machines. primarily due to the presence of weak or substandard components or design inadequacies in not properly understanding the operating conditions. but they are thought to be at least partially due to abrupt changes in stress distribution in the components. Second Generation (1950-70) – The second generation emerged as the result of growing complexity in equipment and plant design. This led to the concept of preventive maintenance. During the infant mortality period. the weak components from the infant mortality period have either been repaired or replaced. downtime became a problem and management tried to find means and ways to minimize and prevent these failures.
Over the years. d) New installations of equipment and buildings. . Some of the common approaches to maintenance are as follows: · Breakdown maintenance · Preventive maintenance · Predictive maintenance · Proactive maintenance Type of Maintenance Strategy Maintenance ApproachSignificance Fix-it when broke Large maintenance budget Scheduled Maintenance Periodic component replacement Condition-based Maintenance decision Monitoring based on equipment condition Detection of Sources of Monitoring and Failures correcting failing root causes Maintenance Strategy Breakdown Maintenance Preventive Maintenance Predictive Maintenance Proactive Maintenance Although the scope of maintenance will vary depending on the type of industry. the prevalent management policies. c) Alteration to existing equipment and buildings.. etc. maintenance functions may be identified as primary or secondary functions. b) Plant protection. The primary functions are: a) Maintenance of existing plant. b) Generation and distribution of utilities. buildings and grounds. equipment. many new approaches have been advocated as maintenance strategies that are intended to overcome problems related to equipment breakdown. its size. The secondary functions are: a) Maintenance stores.
action must be taken to address the cause. It is also called. · Corrective maintenance strategy has no routine maintenance task and therefore is also described no scheduled maintenance strategy. a) To restore the faulty equipment to a healthy operating state as promptly as possible. breakdown maintenance. 4. d) Salvage. which has broken down or developed a fault. .3. It consists of the action(s) taken to restore a failed system to operational status. · However.c) Waste disposal. the rectification of the fault should be processed in the same manner as for planned maintenance work schedules. The goals and objectives of corrective maintenance management are. the maintenance technician must verify that the system is again successfully operating. b) Repair and/or replacement of faulty component(s): Once the cause of system failure has been determined. To rectify the problem. and b) To do this in a cost effective manner. a properly designed fault reporting system must be instituted and similarly. · Corrective maintenance may be defined as the repairs carried out to restore equipment. · The approach to maintenance is totally reactive. c) Verification of the repair action: once the components in question have been repaired or replaced.1 Corrective or Breakdown Maintenance This is one of the earliest maintenance strategies implemented in the industry. the repair work is performed only after a piece of equipment has failed. usually by replacing or repairing the components that caused the system to fail. so as to restore it a specified operating state. corrective maintenance is periodically performed on the equipment. · Restoring a failed system usually involves replacing or repairing the component that is responsible for the failure of the overall system. Corrective maintenance is typically carried out in three steps: a) Diagnosis of the problem: The maintenance technician must take time to locate the failed parts or otherwise satisfactorily assess the cause of the system failure. Corrective maintenance is performed at unpredictable intervals because a components failure time is not known a priori. maintenance is activated on breakdown. and as the name suggests.
if careful observations of repeated failures of an equipment or system suggest that the remedy lies in correcting the system. breakdowns may affect production and thus reduce profits. 5. The decision of maintenance policy is more of an economic decision rather than a technical one. The growth of __________ and automation has become more complex. Moreover. Such a distribution will show the frequency of maintenance-free running times for a given number of operating hours. thereby eliminating or at least minimizing the failures. management must know how the breakdowntime is distributed. Self Assessment Questions 1. The breakdown time distribution of the complex machine probably will . In such cases. what are its cost implications? 4. The first generation represents the earlier days of ___________ where mechanization was low. A simple machine with few moving parts will probably have breakdowns after a fairly large number of maintenance-free runtime hours. each part will have a different failure distribution. In such a situation. For example. Restoring a failed system usually involves _________ or repairing the component.4. Machine and component failures can trigger _________. But in the case of a complex machine. Even where capacity is not a constraint. 3. the breakdown maintenance practice may be costlier than other maintenance strategies. and the adoption of other maintenance practices may reduce interruptions to production. _________ Maintenance strategy has no routine maintenance task. 4. and where production interruptions may be negligible.· Corrective maintenance in a broader perspective may also include activities related to correcting potential causes for failure or malfunction that might not have been adequately considered when the equipment was designed. 2. As maintenance is an economic decision. the failure of any one of its parts can cause a breakdown of the machine. maintenance engineers should be allowed to consider the possibility.1 Breakdown-time Distribution In order to establish the cost implications. 4. proper feedback to the design department may lead to alterations in design that will reduce or eliminate failures. the practice of attending to machines only after they have broken down may be uneconomical. · Where capacity and demand are close.4 Maintenance Economics Maintenance policy refers to an organization’s policy in respect of the maintenance function of a set of equipments.
8 ‘0. T3 = Average free run time free of breakdowns Figure 4. that one can be sure the machine will operate reliably. . and the ‘run-times free of breakdowns’ as the ‘x’-axis.9. The total system reliability will be the product of the reliability of each individual system. B. Curve ‘a’ exhibits low variability from the average maintenance free breakdown-time ‘Ta’. By reliability we mean the probability that the system will give trouble free service. say A.2 represents a graphical description of the degree of variability in free-run-time. C & D.free run-time as the other two but the distribution has much wider variability. Say to obtain the ‘a’ curve in figure. B = 0. and plot this against the run-time.show greater variability than the simple machine even though it may have the same average. For example.4 can be used to plot the percentage of breakdowns that exceed a given runtime as the ‘y’-axis.8 ‘0.e. Curve ‘a’ depicts the behavior of a simple machine.2 Figure 4.4 for the percentage of breakdowns. Equipment can be considered as a total system with its sub-assemblies as sub-systems.9 ‘0. it would amount to (0. the reliability of the total system would equal the product f reliability factors of each of the sub-systems. In this case. subtract from 100 the figure 4. The variability depicted by curve ‘c’ is typical of complicated equipment that needs ‘fine’. The same data that we have used to plot figure 4. adjustments before it can give reasonable trouble-free service.8 and D = 0.40). i. if the total system has four sub-systems. It also shows that it is only after a few periods of trouble free running..8. C = 0. which exceed a given free-run-time. maintenance free run-time as that of the simple machine.7. curve ‘b’ is the exponential distribution and exhibits medium variability and curve ‘c’ exhibits high variability. If we assume that the failure of any one of the sub-systems can cause the failure of the entire system. The frequency distribution curve ‘c’ has the same average maintenance. while curve ‘b’ represents a more complex machine.7 = 0. and the reliability factors are A = 0.
inspected and parts replaced. more breakdowns are likely to occur during the course of the standard period. over a period of time. ’Ts’ can be considered the breakdown cycle. This can be considered the standard preventive maintenance cycle time. The probability of occurrence of a breakdown in the two different cycles depends on the specific breakdown-time distribution of the equipment. is equivalent to ‘Tr’ (maintenance free run-time) plus ‘Tm’ (the time take to do the preventive maintenance).5 gives the percent of time a machine is working for the three distributions of breakdown-time shown in Figure and the ratio of the standard maintenance period to . the situation is slightly different. This preventive maintenance work takes a time ‘Tm’. shortening the preventive maintenance cycle can reduce the number of actual breakdowns.Figure 4.2 Preventive versus Breakdown Maintenance (Single Machine) Consider a preventive maintenance schedule. In such cases.4: Breakdown-time distributions 4. In actual practice. When this happens. If the distribution has greater variability. the average maintenance free run-time. and the length of the standard preventive maintenance cycle.4. Figure 4. Ideally. which after a machine has been running for fixed time ‘Tr’. the running time between the preventive maintenance and the breakdown plus the time taken to repair the breakdown. after which the equipment is ready to work. preventive maintenance should be performed just a little before normal breakdown is likely to occur. The total time period ‘Ta’. the machine is shutdown. there will be breakdowns that occur before the equipment is shutdown for preventive maintenance. Since preventive maintenance is meant to reduce the total plant down-time particularly unscheduled event – its timing and frequency are important.
there is little gain in . This suggests that for breakdown time distribution with low variability. it can also be seen that for curves ‘b’ and ‘c’ an increase of the ratio results in an increase in the percentage of machine running time.average maintenance-free run-time. a standard preventive maintenance period can be set in such a way that the total downtime is reduced. In this type of situation. preventive maintenance is highly benefited to machines whose breakdown time distributions have low variability. Figure 4. it is assumed that either preventive maintenance or repair puts the equipment in line for a running time of equal length. Such a relationship is shown for the three different breakdowns time distributions. the machine works for a small percentage of time. and hence less availability. This is obvious. First. the relation of preventive maintenance time to repair time is important. there is a similar increase in machine running-time. ‘Ta’ for a given breakdown-time distribution. ‘Ts’. since a low ratio would mean too many machine stoppages. From figure. It can be seen that for low values of the ratio of standard maintenance period to average maintenance free runtime. as there is better predictability of when breakdowns are likely to occur. Unless the preventive maintenance time is less than the repair time. there is an optimum value for the standard maintenance period. The percentage of machine running time depends on the ratio of the standard maintenance period and the average run-time.5: Present of time when the machine is working and breakdown distribution Certain generalizations can be made from the above three graphs. In the case of curve ‘a’ (for breakdown-time distribution with low variability). but only till a peak is reached after which lengthening standard maintenance period seems to reduce the percentage of machine running time. Second. like those depicted by curve ‘a’.
Since some parts are most important to machines. For a given breakdown time distribution. The percentage of machine running time depends on the ratio of the standard maintenance period. and 3. 7. 4. 4.6 Terminal Questions 1. the percentage of machine running time continues to increase with the increase of standard preventive maintenance period. 2. when the repair time is equal to maintenance time. The probability of occurrence of a breakdown in the two different cycles depends on the specific breakdown-time distribution of the equipment. both in terms of contribution earned by them as well as their criticality because of their propensity to break-down. you will deal with jobs. If preventive maintenance is equal to. or more than the time for repair. Equipment cannot be considered as a total system with its sub-assemblies as subsystems. Initially. Effects of scheduling preventive maintenance for non-productive days or shifts with no loss of production. Effect on production losses if plant shutdown could have been avoided. an increase in the standard period would mean less number of preventive maintenance cycles and more repairs. In general. 9. 8. all the machines are free and have jus had a preventive maintenance done. What are the Maintenance Strategies? .5 Summary You need to make decisions at the beginning of each shift regarding maintenance.preventive maintenance. We also need to take into account other effects of unscheduled downtime. it is better to perform corrective or breakdown maintenance. Self Assessment Questions State whether the statement is true or false. 6. Additional stoppage time because maintenance crew cannot start repairing immediately after the breakdown has occurred. such as 1. 10. Maintenance policy will not refer to any organization’s policy. The breakdown time distribution of the complex machine probably will not show greater variability than the simple machine.
FalseTerminal Questions 1. 5.1 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Summarize Breakdown and Corrective maintenance. Explain Preventive versus Breakdown Maintenance. Explain Breakdown Time distribution.3. Refer 4.3. Incidents 6.1 4. Explain evolution of Maintenance Policy. 3. . Mechanization 2. Corrective 5. Refer 4.2 2. Replacing 3. True 10. Refer 4. False 7. 4.7 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1. Refer 4.2. 4.2. True 9. Industrialization 4. True 8. Refer 4.2 5.1 3.
Maintenance is carried out in anticipation of or in reaction to a failure. Maintenance is defined as the restoring of an item to its original condition or to working order. replacement of parts or total replacement of .OM0006-Unit-05-Types of Maintenance Systems Unit-05-Types of Maintenance Systems Structure: 5.3 Types of Maintenance Systems Routine Maintenance Planned /Scheduled / Productive Maintenance Break down or Corrective / Remedial Maintenance Preventive Maintenance Predictive Maintenance Condition Based Maintenance 5.5 Terminal Questions 5.1 Introduction Once the machinery is purchased it must be maintained. to ensure or restore system performance to specified levels. which can be achieved through repair.2 Functions & Feature of Maintenance Engineering 5.1 Introduction Objectives 5. Maintenance covers two aspects of systems – operation and performance.4 Summary 5.6 Answers 5.
Machineries lose its efficiency after some point of time due to various factors such as wear and tear. Maintenance management also aims at developing a reliable and high quality production system. It is evident that the best maintenance strategy is selected for reducing breakdowns. Between these alternatives the management decides. Improperly performed maintenance or not carried out in time can escalate the problems because of faulty parts running. Sometimes accelerated testing is used to induce failures and know the behaviour of the systems. aging. Objectives: After studying this unit you shall be able . Types of maintenance /strategies discussed in this unit are: · Routine Maintenance · Planned Maintenance · Break down Maintenance or Corrective Maintenance · Preventive Maintenance · Predictive Maintenance · Condition Based Maintenance · Total Productivity Maintenance The maintenance plan for a company’s assets can be a combination of the above strategies and could be adopted on the same machine. operational life can be extended. Through proper maintenance of these machineries. Failure to perform maintenance in time to maintain the availability of the machinery will have serious effects ranging from benign to catastrophic. misuse etc. Developing effective maintenance procedures to restrict such deterioration or failure is vital. Hence a systematic and structured approach to proper & cost effective maintenance is required. but there is no guarantee here that the exact nature of defect surfaces.the devices itself. based on the practical and economic grounds Maintenance of any kind performed on machinery or equipment is a consequence of the fact that it started deteriorating before failing. retain the productivity and maintain safe working conditions by reducing the probability of accidents.
Therefore industries have entered into the era of high technology maintenance management to cater to the production requirement of minimum downtime and maximum productivity. use of robotics and other Computer Integrated systems are developed and deployed for producing high quality products.2 Functions & Feature of Maintenance Engineering Maintenance Engineering is the function of the production management that is concerned with day-to-day problems of keeping the physical plant in good and acceptable operating condition. Such high cost and sophisticated state of art machineries need to operate at optimal levels of performance with high degree of reliability. breakdown maintenance or preventive maintenance etc. Flexible manufacturing systems. etc.. have all warranted the use of sophisticated machineries for production. . requirement of high accuracy. To offer these requirements. Maintenance management is entrusted with the total task of keeping the machinery.· To explain how systems work at their optimum efficiency · To prepare a plan to preserve the value of the assets by different methods · To calculate how to maximize production capability · To prepare a plan and schedule for maintenance work and prevent failures and breakdowns · To Improve quality of products and productivity · To Use of maintenance staff optimally · To Minimize or avoid accidents by periodical inspection and repairs. improved productivity. high cost CNC machines. equipment and services in proper working condition that involves planning. rapid traverses. use of complex processes. scheduling and execution of many maintenance activities. repeatability. like repair. · · · · · Rapid strides in the advancement of manufacturing technology and its processes with higher powers and speeds. high up-time and prolonged mean time between failures (MTBF). 5. higher feeds.
. Maintenance is the work performed on an asset such as utility. RM can be classified as: 1) Running maintenance 2) Shut down maintenance. lubricate two machines daily] It can be even day to day operational activities to keep the plant running (say: replacement of light bulbs. working. a cyclic operation recurring periodically.1 Routine Maintenance [RM] RM is a procedure followed regularly i. and equipment by the maintenance staff to preserve such machineries in as near to its original condition as is practical and to realize its normal life expectancy. Widely adopted maintenance techniques/strategies are: · Routine Maintenance · Planned Maintenance · Break down Maintenance or Corrective/ Remedial Maintenance · Preventive Maintenance · Predictive Maintenance · Condition Based Maintenance · Total Productivity Maintenance [Discussed in detail in Unit-10] 5. increased production costs. [say: check all compressors first on Mondays. cleaning of machines. 5. repairing leaks) which include preventive maintenance and forms part of the annual operating budget. production of low quality products.Malfunctioning of machineries/equipment due to failure to upkeep the operating conditions may result in serious repercussions of reduced capacity. small repairs. cleaning. lubricating systems. 1) Running maintenance is the work carried out when the equipment or the machine is performing some operations i.e. It includes activities like inspection. injury to workmen and finally frequent breakdowns etc may lead to protracted delivery of the product thus inviting customer dissatisfaction. These aspects are to recognized by the maintenance department. inspection etc. These include say greasing or lubricating the bearings / systems.e.3 Types of Maintenance Systems A way of reducing the plant breakdowns is to select the best maintenance strategy.3. outer cleaning. machines. reliability and maintainability of a plant is very important for the maintenance engineers. Hence the relationship between availability.
In this type of service.1. Planned maintenance reduces the machine downtime. lubricate. thus avoiding a situation of emergency maintenance. boilers 5. repair and carry out all requisite maintenance before actual break down happens. de-scaling furnaces. It involves inspection of all machineries.1.1 Advantages a) Simple to establish & follow b) Little or no clerical work c) High degree of prevention by intercepting developing faults d) A more advanced stage calls for ’service instructions on a pre-printed schedule and checklists’.2 Disadvantages a) RM may not provide the service specified by the manufacturer b) May ignore information regarding preceding breakdowns c) Service required for a machine at different frequencies may be ignored d) Similar machines are serviced at same frequency irrespective of usage 5. overhaul. reduces the cost of maintenance.2) Shut down maintenance: certain minor maintenance activities cannot be carried out when the machine is running and hence carried out by shutting down the machine.2 Planned / Scheduled / Productive Maintenance Planned maintenance is the activities carried out according to a predetermined schedule and hence known as scheduled maintenance or productive maintenance. increases productivity as compared to unplanned one and hence it is followed as per the maintenance policy of the company. 5.g. the emphasis is on machines: a) What does the manufacturer prescribe? b) Is the unit utilised for two or three shifts per day? c) Is it working under normal load? .3.3. E.3.
3 Break Down or Corrective/ Remedial Maintenance Breakdown Maintenance is the method of operating the machines to run until they fail and then repair in order to restore them to an acceptable condition. replacement of parts. Unforeseen work is reduced.2 Advantages of Planned Maintenance Considers all the changes in conditions of use & increased wear of parts a) Inspections.3.2. to bring it back to working order. Planned repair/rectifying the problem is carried out when it is more convenient and cost effective after its failure rather than to disrupt the production with RM. .1 Characteristics of Planned Maintenance a) Instructions are more detailed than in routine maintenance b) Calls for differently timed service for the same unit c) Schedule is drawn with dates d) Establishes the work-load for the crew e) Entails considerable planning effort. Corrective maintenance is carried out on all items where the consequences of failure or wearing out are not significant and the cost of corrective maintenance is not greater than preventative maintenance. can be defined as the maintenance which is required when an item has failed or worn out. adjustments are shown in overall plan b) Detailed instructions reduce the chance of missing any activity.d) Are the conditions as good as those envisaged by the manufacturer? e) Do we allow for extra attention owing to corrosion-including conditions? 5.3.3. Also called as ‘on-failure maintenance/corrective maintenance’. faithful implementation and recording f) Initial list of planned maintenance will be in detail 5. c) Provides as much attention on the equipment for the best judgement of the planner [For details on ‘the principles of planning & scheduled maintenance’ refer Unit 6] 5.2.
lost output.e.Corrective maintenance may be programmed. Repairs are done after the machine fails and hence this becomes a repair work. increased downtime. Corrective maintenance activities include both emergency repairs (fire fighting) and preventive (or corrective) repairs. or where no other strategy will work. The above type of repairing and setting the equipment to working condition can be called as corrective maintenance. The need for repairs can result from normal wear. or reconditioning that part to its original or acceptable working condition.1 Characteristics of Break-down Maintenance System · No services except occasional lubrication unless failure occurs · No maintenance men on regular basis · Maintenance done by sub-contractors · No organised efforts to find out reasons · No stock of spares · No budget · No records · Initially it looks economical · Creates internal problems namely: Who to do the repair? From where to get parts? How do we pay for them? Who will go & buy parts? . o Upset schedule resulting in panicky. misuse or improper maintenance. Frayed tempers put unnecessary pressures and disturb delivery commitments. taken after the failure happens. involve hazards. Ex: electric motor may not start. etc. Here the machine and the work on that machine stops operating. vandalism. Repair is restoring an asset by replacing a part which is broken or damaged.3. For example: non-critical low cost equipment.3. On-failure maintenance can be effective if applied correctly. drive shaft broken and hence the transmission fails. This method is expensive in terms of maintenance cost. i. This system could be called as ‘Operate to Failure (OTP) ’– no predetermined action taken to prevent failure. 5.
with an objective to anticipate problems and correct them before they occur.3.2 Objectives of BD/Corrective Maintenance 1) To put back machinery back to work and minimize production interruptions 2) To control costs of maintenance crew to the minimum 3) To control cost of the operations of repairing 4) To control costs of repair & replacement parts to minimum 5) To control investment cost on purchase of standby or back up machines 6) To carry out appropriate repair intermittently at each malfunction to improve the life of the machine. 5. Preventive maintenance is carried out to prevent an item failing or wearing out by providing systematic inspection.3. In line with management’s policy on obtaining the best value from the maintenance funds.18.104.22.168.4 Disadvantages 1) No warning of failure – safety risk 2) Uncontrolled plant outage – production losses 3) Requires large standby maintenance team 4) Secondary damage – longer repair time 5) Large spares stock requirement 6) Provision of standby plant 5. detection and prevention of incipient failure. This is normally programmed.3.4 Preventive Maintenance PM is a regularly scheduled maintenance activity. preventative maintenance is carried out only on those items where a failure would .3 Advantages 1) Low cost if correctly applied 2) Requires no advanced planning other than ensuring spares availability 5.3.
2. checking.g. Periodic Inspections . PM’s prerequisites are: a) Proper design and installation of equipment b) periodical inspection of plant and machinery to prevent breakdowns c) repetitive servicing and overhaul d) lubricate. Preventive maintenance could be grouped as: 1) Fixed-time Maintenance (FTM) – Here actions carried out at regular intervals (calendar time) e. Many of these items are also subject to a statutory requirement for inspection and preventive maintenance. etc. so that the major break downs are avoided & minimizes possibility of unanticipated production interruptions. fire alarms. repair and major overhaul. Daily Maintenance – Cleaning.. clean and up keep To achieve prevention of break-downs planned service is carried out with the explicit additional objective of detecting wear points and ensure perfect functioning by replacing parts Here the safe overhaul interval is selected. but it is found that a greater number of machine failures are at the peak when machine gets progressively worse over a period say months/ years. sub-station transformers. item replacement. electricity supply. isolators. It is much economical to carry out preventive maintenance.g. Routine & planned maintenance includes Preventive maintenance actions.result in expensive consequences. battery back up at sub-station. e. -To avoid breakdown & ensure smooth production following time based activities are practiced: 1. circuit breakers. lifts. 2) Condition-based Maintenance [explained below] 3) Opportunity Maintenance (find out the opportune moment for maintenance) The preventive maintenance is carried out at irregular intervals and this interval is determined by seeing the actual condition of the machine. etc. distribution transformers. lubrication.
Use of recommended Grades of oils 4.1 Preventive Maintenance System is 1.2 Features of PM 1) Proper identification of items in each machineries which warrants fixed time maintenance. More expensive due to more planning &replacement of parts before failing. Increases reliability 3.3. Reduces total down time 5. Reduces unplanned work 6.3 Requirements of Preventive Maintenance Program 1) Good maintenance management department with experienced personnel 2) To firm up plan of PM in consultation with shop personnel 3) A good lubricating and cleaning schedule 4) Detail procedures on maintenance work 5) Proper records maintained along with manuals.4. daily maintenance etc and programming the activities with work content. Reduces total work-load 4.4.3. 2.4. Restoration to recover deterioration 5.3. Reduces total maintenance cost 5.3. cost estimates etc 2) Use of check lists by maintenance staff and inspectors 3) Identify and allocate well qualified crew & inspectors for making repairs 4) Use of budgeting system for major replacements/ repair 5) Proper procedures laid out for meeting the PM objectives in full 5. parts list etc 6) Adequate stock of spare parts .
Preparation of history card of all the repair work carried on such a machine and the remarks there on 4.4. probable causes. Improves reliability of the machineries 6. Reduction in wear and tear of machines and increase in their life 3.4. Preparation of schedule of maintenance 3.4 Steps involved in Preventive Maintenance 1. Preparation of job specification 5. repair procedures etc 11) Suppliers recommendations for up keep of machineries. Higher safety for workers 7. 5. Preparation of maintenance schedule and detail program of work with time frame for completion 6. Maintenance is planned well in advance 2. Feed back on the corrective action/ repair work done and its results 5.5 Advantages of Preventive Maintenance 1. diagnosis system. Preparation of maintenance report on the work done 8. Improves productivity due to lesser breakdowns 5.a guide showing problems.3. Identifying the job to be taken & appropriate case register 2.3.7) Properly training maintenance crew Adequate space around machinery for maintenance work 9) Previous data on failure etc of each machine/equipment 10) Systematic approach. Preparation of inspection chart 7. Labor used cost effectively . Reduction in breakdown frequency 4.
Unnecessary and invasive maintenance is carried out 3.6 Disadvantages/limitations 1. Sensitive instruments like vibration analyzer. Identification of parts and its nature and cost involved in repairs is possible 5.3. Preventive maintenance program controls the repair costs as well as the overall life of the equipment where as in corrective maintenance brings back to the original life depending on the extent of damage the earier breakdown has brought into the equipment. sensors for pressure. temperatures. Minimizes breakdowns and hence minimum inventory hold ups 10.4. are used to predict ensuing troubles/problems in machineries. Conditions of the machinery can be checked on line periodically or on continuous basis and maintenance crew can take decision & plan overhaul/repair as warranted. resistance gauges etc.3. whereas. Applicable only to age related deterioration 4. . Leaser rejection and better quality 11. Maintenance sometimes induces failures (infant mortality) 5. 12. It is possible to have planned shutdowns and repair 9. Preventive maintenance is designed to prevent or at least to minimize failures/breakdowns and reduce the need for corrective maintenance. audio gauges. 5. Maintenance activity and costs increased 2. 2. corrective maintenance is carried out to repair the equipment after fault occurs/ breakdown happens. Less breakdown costs.7 Differences between Corrective and Preventive Maintenance 1. amplitude meters.5 Predictive Maintenance Predictive Maintenance is one of the modern approaches to preventive maintenance where in sensitive instruments are used to predict anticipated failure of machines & equipment.4.8.3. Less stand by equipment requirement 13.
wear debris analysis. The intervals should be carefully selected as over maintenance or under maintenance are both detrimental and hence undesirable. maintenance is on a pre-determined cycle whereas in a Predictive Maintenance system maintenance is done only. A major part of the predictive maintenance involves the ongoing analysis to ensure wear levels that damage the machine are within limits Good ability to predict impending failures well in time to prevent breakdowns. incorrect installation. Under maintenance or too long intervals between two successive checks may result in high incidence of failures. Hence an optimal maintenance interval has to be arrived at.) Measuring of physical parameters may not be enough to detect the destructive effects on a machine or process. oil condition. i. analysis and tribology. it may result in serious breakdowns. when status or condition so demands It is beneficial to follow a system which is not calendar based but condition based. etc. we should have a continuous knowledge of the machines based on certain critical predetermined / pre-formulated parameters . temperature. misalignments. Main difficulty is in making the correct choice of preventive maintenance intervals based on OEM’s recommendations and own -experiences. 2) If corrective treatment is not adopted at the right time.Predict failures well in advance by monitoring parameters and by use of certain techniques (like vibration. 1) Similar to health monitoring of senior executives to check symptoms. material and time. health and safety hazards etc) will result in 1) Maximizes the online operations 2) Minimizes downtime 3) Increased plant and Personnel safety 4) Optimal maintenance The above is achieved by continuous plant / equipment monitoring & diagnosing the actual condition by means of online non-destructive testing methods. which are indicative of malfunctions to decide on corrective treatment.e. Over maintenance or too frequent maintenance increases extensive downtime resulting in added costs on men. In a Preventive Maintenance system. (which otherwise cause heavy penalty costs. rotor imbalance. pump cavitations.
Condition monitoring is merely a tool that is used by crew through touch.3. thus making predictive maintenance more economical as compared to preventive and corrective maintenance strategies. to cut downtime. It is just like a hammer used to strike a wheel to listen for that distinctive sound to say whether there is crack in wheel rim or not. increased leakages etc) CBM is a continuous or periodic measurement and interpretation of data to indicate the condition of an item to determine the need for maintenance. 5. Predictive Maintenance. In the Condition based maintenance (also known as Dynamic predictive maintenance or Diagnostic maintenance) the plant is maintained just after some problems arisen. but much before the possible breakdown. An ability to forecast the machine behavior by Condition Monitoring is a pre-requisite for Predictive Maintenance Operators who work with equipment every day can listen to equipment and identify changes in noise levels and vibrations. smell and through their experience on the existing condition of the equipment/aggregate. The main function of condition monitoring is to provide the knowledge of a machine and its rate of change.A given machine can continue to be kept in operation as long as the monitored parameters continue to remain within the laid down limits. temperature soars. Predictive Maintenance is very cost effective where cost of unplanned breakdowns is very high. With rapid developments in machining technology through CNC controlled machines. A sense of confidence is created amongst production and maintenance personnel when they analyze the monitored data and predict that the machines are operated safely till they reach maximum permissible limits. CBM involves recording some measurement that gives an indication of the condition (ex: increase in vibration levels. if practiced effectively. FMS with artificial intelligent devices and computer simulations and modeling. etc. Between the ‘action limit and the maximum permissible time limit’. it implies that the particular part needs replacement and a special attention. more universal and better predictive tools and instruments are added in the system. there is enough time available for the maintenance crew to make adequate advance preparations. can save around 30% of maintenance costs and with a bonus of 15% savings in energy costs. Temperature changes can be photographed .6 Condition Based Maintenance CBM relies on the fact that the majority of failures do not occur instantaneously but develops over a period of time. When permissible limits are reached and warning signals are issued by the measuring devices.
unbalance in rotors. contaminated cutting fluid Touch – Excessive bearing temperature State-of-the-art CNC systems facilitates adaptive Controls with signals from appropriate transducers. if other parts of the system fail. Condition monitoring is dependent on sensors and transducers for measuring different parameters. corrosion Audible – Unusual noise.through IR thermograph. alarms. 2. Action limit curve shows the prescribed for monitoring parameters during normal operations. misalignments. An investigation can then be carried out to identify the exact problem.1 Condition Monitoring Methods There are two methods used namely: 1. This type of maintenance check on performance is vital as the future failures in safety systems can have more catastrophic effects. CNC systems have built – in diagnostics which continuously monitor the system hardware to ensure normal functioning. low battery voltage. mechanical looseness b) Thermostats – hydraulic oil temperature.6.3. gear defects. which gives warning that something is ‘not right’. Chatter Smell – Smoke. are displayed on the screen well in time to facilitate corrective action without disruption of production. Curve when extrapolated can indicate maximum & safe permissible limits 5. etc. Trend Monitoring. Condition Checking & Monitoring a) Trend Monitoring: . Indications like over – temperature. overheating of motors c) Current sensors – cutting load monitored by sensing spindle Condition Monitoring is achieved by the operator’s senses to detect abnormalities Visual – Leakages. which are to be controlled by maintenance a) Vibration Sensors – to track tool wear/ breakages.
b) Condition Checking: Condition checking is where a check measurement is taken with the machine running. which can be made by the application of CM: · Avoiding losses of output due to breakdown of machinery. accelerometer. 4) Performance and behavior monitoring: Involves checking the performance of a machine to see whether it is behaving correctly.Trend monitoring is the continuous monitoring or regular measurement and interpretation of data collected during machine operation. 5) Corrosion monitoring: Is applied to fixed plant containing aggressive materials. to indicate variations in the conditions of the machine or its components. c) Condition Monitoring: Includes three stages: 1. Diagnosis (what) of its origin so that spare parts can be ordered 3. Detection (when) of the developing fault at an early stage 2. 2) Vibration Monitoring: Involves the attachment of a transducer (velocity. e) Selecting Methods of monitoring Five main techniques of conditioning monitoring 1) Visual monitoring: inspection & recording of surface appearance. d) Economics of Condition Monitoring: The savings. proximity probes) to record vibration level 3) Wear Debris monitoring: This works on the principle that the working surfaces of a machine are washed by the lubricating oil and any damage is detected from particles of wear debris in the oil. Prognosis (forecast) subsequent measurement which will then establish the trend and enable the repair schedule to be planned. · Reduces the cost of maintenance · Capital invested can be recovered faster. This may be done by . using some suitable indicator & is used as a measure of machine condition at that time. to monitor the rates of internal corrosion of the wall of the plant.
Production can be modified to extend unit life 5.6. 7. 7. sound. Recording data 8. Selecting critical machines for CM 3. To arrive at best interval for examination considering the criticality of process. 5. Cause of failure can be analysed 6.3. cost of maintenance.3. Establishing programs and methods specifying the parts to be examined 4. Labour can be organised 8. operating conditions. Maintenance can be planned. The hole is then plugged with a suitable leak proof material.drilling a hole through the wall and drilled coupon of material is observed for corrosion. Establish for each part of the machine the severity limits of the machine condition parameter (Vibration. overall cost of failure. 5. Some forms of inspection utilising human senses can be inexpensive 3. Spares can be assembled 5. Maximises equipment availability 2.3. Training examiners for the above jobs. contamination etc) to be measured. 5.4 Disadvantages 1) Thermograph & Oil Debris Analysis [specialised equipment and training] . failure statistics (MTBF-MTTR).3 Advantages 1. Select proper examining technique. 6.6. standardizations planned. standby availability of machine. Listing and numbering of machine to have identification and location details 2.6. Cost of examination. Allows shutdown before severe damage occurs 4.2 Implementation of Condition Based Maintenance: Involves: 1.
e. e) To control costs of repair & replacement parts to minimum f) To carry out appropriate repair intermittently at each malfunction to improve the life of the machine. 3) Time is required for trends to develop to know machine condition Self Assessment Questions 1) Which of the following is not a common cause of equipment breakdowns? a) Improper preventive maintenance b) Inadequate lubrication c) Improper setups of jigs. a _______________ recurring periodically 5) In the following list find out which one is considered as disadvantage of routine management: . 3) Irregular preventive maintenance do not include a) Repairs b) Overhauls c) Reduction of noise levels and vibrations d) Clean up of leakages etc on all the machine aggregates daily 4) RM is a procedure followed regularly i. fixtures and tools d) All the above 2) Which of the following is not an objective of remedial maintenance? a) To put back machinery back to work and minimize production interruptions b) To control costs of maintenance crew to the minimum c) To control cost of the operations of repairing d) Replacing the faulty machine when it starts malfunctioning.2) Requires careful choice of the correct technique.
Maintenance done by sub-contractors 4. Initially it looks economical . 9) Characteristics of Break-down Maintenance System-fill the missing one: 1. ______________________ 5. No stock of spares 6. No maintenance men on regular basis 3. No services except occasional lubrication unless failure occurs 2. 6) Planned maintenance is the activities carried out according to a ______________ and hence known as scheduled maintenance or productive maintenance 7) Characteristics of Planned Maintenance-fill up the missing one: 1) Instructions are more detailed than in routine maintenance 2) Calls for differently timed service for the same unit 3) Schedule is drawn with dates 4) ___________________________ 5) Entails considerable planning effort. faithful implementation and recording 6) Initial list of planned maintenance will be in detail Breakdown Maintenance is the method of operating the machines to run ______________ and then repair in order to restore them to an acceptable condition.1) Simple to establish & follow 2) Little or no clerical work 3) High degree of prevention by intercepting developing faults 4) RM may not provide the service specified by the manufacturer 5) A more advanced stage calls for ’service instructions on a pre-printed schedule and checklists’.
2. Creates internal problems namely: Who to do the repair? From where to get parts? How do we pay for them? Who will go & buy parts? 10) To avoid breakdown & ensure smooth production following time based activities are practiced. checking. etc. maintenance has been given more importance in the operational plans. Use of recommended Grades of oils 5. using high technology machines. Daily Maintenance – Cleaning. maintenance managers have to decide on a proper balance between preventive. 12) CBM relies on the fact that the majority of failures do not occur instantaneously but develops over a period of time.7. any stoppage due to breakdown in any part of the system will affect the entire production process. 13) There are two methods used namely-Which is the second one 1) Trend Monitoring. predictive and remedial maintenance.which one is not the recommended practice? 1. To counter this. Breakdown or remedial maintenance is undertaken when a machine breaks down or malfunctions. and predictive.4 Summary Poorly maintained machines/equipment has severe negative impact on the productivity and the quality of the output in a production unit. Check all the machines at firmed up time intervals 4. lubrication. preventive. In the present high tech production. with JIT inventory and sophisticated processes. Predictive maintenance is a type in which the vital attributes of a system are monitored continuously and any deviations from the accepted limits are taken to rectify the problem. . 2) ____________________ 5. Preventive maintenance is undertaken before need for maintenance arises and aims at minimizing the anticipated breakdowns. Maintenance is of three main categories: breakdown. CBM involves recording some ___________ that gives an indication of the condition. Periodic Inspections 3. Restoration to recover deterioration 11) Predictive Maintenance is one of the modern approaches to preventive maintenance where in __________ are used to predict ____________ of machines & equipment. In planning.
Where this type is applicable. What are the characteristics & objectives of breakdown/corrective maintenance? 7. What are the important functions of maintenance department 5. What are the advantages & disadvantages of breakdown/corrective maintenance? 8. Explain briefly the condition based monitoring methods 15. Define preventive maintenance and state its objectives 9. accidents and minimizing the costs of maintenance activities? 5. State the objectives of maintenance management? 2. What is condition based maintenance. What are the advantages of Planned Maintenance? 6. but much before the possible breakdown. 14. Describe the procedures of preventive maintenance program 10. Discuss the advantages and limitations of preventive maintenance 11.5 Terminal Questions 1. What is predictive maintenance? What are its advantages over preventive maintenance? 13.In the Condition based maintenance (also known as Dynamic predictive maintenance or Diagnostic maintenance) the plant is maintained just after some problems arisen. Distinguish between preventive and breakdown maintenance 12. Total productivity maintenance is practiced to improve the productivity of the equipment by minimizing the number of breakdowns and malfunctions. Organizations have realized the importance of maintenance and its planning.6 Answers . What is meant by planned/scheduled/productive maintenance and what emphasis it pays in maintaining the machine/equipment 4. What are the advantages and disadvantages of condition based maintenance? 5. Outline the various types of maintenance 3. CBM is a continuous or periodic measurement and interpretation of data to indicate the condition of an item to determine the need for maintenance. Which enables them to reduce breakdowns.
4 8. Sensitive instruments.3.1 & 5.2 7.2 2. Condition Checking & Monitoring Terminal Questions 1.4. Refer 5. Refer 5.3 & 5.2 6. Refer 5. (3) Check all the machines at firmed up time intervals 11. (4) Establishes the work-load for the crew 8.3. d) All the above 2.4. Until they fail 9. Cyclic operation 5. (4) No organised efforts to find out reasons 10. Refer 5. Not occur.4 .4.4 22.214.171.124.2. (4) RM may not provide the service specified by the manufacturer 6.Self Assessment Questions 1. Refer 5.4. Predetermined schedule 7. d) Replacing the faulty machine when it starts malfunctioning 3.2 5.3 3. measurement 13. anticipated failure 12. Refer 5. Refer 5.4.3. c) Reduction of noise levels and vibrations 4. Refer 5.
126.96.36.199 11.4.6 14.9. Refer 188.8.131.52 & 5.4.5 13.4.4 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .Refer 5. Refer 184.108.40.206 220.127.116.11 & 5.5.1 15.4.4 10. .4. Refer 5. Refer 5. Refer 5.4. Refer 5.
4 Functions of Maintenance Planner 6.8 Productivity.14 Summary of Maintenance Scheduling 6.2 Functions of Maintenance Planning 6.5 Benefit of Planning 6.9 Maintenance Planning Principles 6.7 How much Planning will help? 6. Project work 6.15 Terminal Questions 6.11 Summary of Maintenance Planning 6.12 Maintenance scheduling principles 6.6 Planning System 6.3 Planning Vision & Mission 6. Specialization & Coordination of Planning 6.13 Six Maintenance Scheduling Principles 6.1 Introduction .16 Answers 6.OM0006-Unit-06-Maintenance Planning and Scheduling Unit-06-Maintenance Planning and Scheduling Structure: 6.10 Planning Preventive & Predictive Maintenance.1 Introduction Objectives 6.
Planning does not solve everything. engineers. tool rooms. The final improvement to over 50% can be achieved through special aids. performance. The planner should also give more attention to critical equipment and safety areas. predictive maintenance. management. and safety. are included in the job plans. Where does planning fit into? What principles make it work? How planning is required to be done? How to provide additional resources for planners and personnel for maintenance activities? Etc. control of inventories. planners. leadership. In addition. it is preferred for the organization to become a procedure-based one with teams of experienced technicians. Other tools used are work order system. By implementing fundamental planning and scheduling system. If detailed procedures and checklists contribute to better reliability. and other vendors to cater to the common maintenance tasks on critical equipment and safety equipment. Here procedure already in the file or important information that persons who worked on that equipment have recorded previously. communication. and project maintenance is essential. tool room facilities. data collection and research of certain processes etc.All manufacturing units having varieties of machineries and equipments require maintenance to keep them up in good working conditions and for sustaining and achieving higher productivity. are the subjects being discussion. Planning concentrates on adding value. shops. The plant has better control over work that is scheduled. The planning system is designed with procedures to be followed over time through a systematic job plans. consideration of reliability maintenance as preventive maintenance. qualified personnel. as they leverage their expertise into job plans. Objectives: After studying this unit you shall be able to · Prepare a plan for maintenance · Analyse the benefits of planning for maintenance · Examine the principles of maintenance planning . To achieve the desired maintenance efficiency. planning is very essential. but certainly brings together many aspects of maintenance. organizations could improve maintenance productivity to about 40%. storeroom support. tools. Planning and scheduling promotes labor productivity by examining potential delays and scheduling work. and maintenance measurement. teamwork.
· The time estimates made by planner gives the idea to crew personnel to judge how much work is assigned and what work is there. · The planner considers the proper scope of work for the job. · Once the work order is received. The work plan is nothing but the information a planner makes ready for the technician to execute the work.2 Functions of Maintenance Planning Maintenance management uses planning as a tool to reduce unnecessary job delays through advance preparation. the maintenance planning initiates action. The work plan includes a job scope. procedure for accomplishing task and identify any parts and special tools required. · The planner identifies appropriate materials for the specified job and checks whether they are available or be specially obtained. To prepare a job in advance. For this the maintenance planning will have the following functions: · Coordinating mechanism within the maintenance department. 6. · The planned information gives the supervisors a reference for expected work and time for completion and helps to have a control through on problems that might lessen productivity. · The planner specifies appropriate craft skills required for that particular job. . · Crew personnel are then assigned the job for execution and avoid problems such as delays stemming by insufficient skills/ not having required materials or tools. and labor time estimate. · Planner does preparatory planning for the crew supervisor and craft persons who executes the work.3 Planning Vision & Mission The mission of planning revolves around doing the right jobs that are ready to go. For ex: Planner has to judge whether the defective valve should be repaired or replaced. identification of craft skill required. 6. · Maintenance planning brings together or coordinates the effort of many other aspects of maintenance. thus enabling a better control over their work. Coordinating function is the key to achieve competitive edge. a planner develops a work plan after receiving a work request.· Distinguish between preventive and breakdown maintenance planning.
planner initiate action to organize and get them. 9) Planner provide a bill of materials or an illustrated parts diagram both to the stores person and craft men.4 Functions of Maintenance Planner 1) Maintenance planning involves identifying parts and tools that are necessary for maintenance jobs. so that technicians need not wait for parts to arrive. and allow advance scheduling through which the supervisors will assign and control the proper amount of work. crew starts their work as per job. With proper planning or preparation efforts for each job. work involved. It also involves identifying the actual work scope. bearings etc) along with their identification numbers. 3) With preparatory work. parts. Doing the right jobs involves job priorities. but ready handle judiciously the reactive type of work also. The entire maintenance organization should be committed to schedule proactive works. 5) The planner writes a job plan that identifies parts needed (such as gaskets. 6. 4) Planners evolve good planning methodology that increases maintenance productivity. Planning is Information central. improve on past jobs. A work crew is ready to go immediately to scheduled work assignments as all instructions. Arrange parts required to be placed in a convenient location nearer to the job site before the job starts. and it controls and coordinates and brings resources to leverage productivity. tools. clearances. . 6) The planner reserves such required parts in the store to ensure their availability. release of the work orders to proceed etc. without wasting time. planning sets the stage for the maintenance force to act upon quickly. considering the safety aspects of the job. for easy understanding and identifying the proper parts for his next work. arrangements are ready. crew schedules. Work plans avoid anticipated delays. 7) If parts are not in the inventory. seals. A planning mission statement is: “To increase the Maintenance crew’s ability to complete the work orders quickly”.The planning mission states “Doing the right jobs & ready to go”. method of maintenance. 2) The planner writes work instructions on how to do the job.
the maintenance process has the following steps: 1) Receives request from the concerned section for the maintenance work.10) Planner is required to coordinate with vendors & ensure material supply along with the quality control on vendor supplies. time estimates. pallets etc for easy movement of identified parts and tools to work site in advance. 6. 4) Skill levels and time estimates on jobs and proper scheduling are included in the subject work order. 2) Planner plans work order. 3) Planner evolves a system and procedure for each type of maintenance work.5 Benefit of Planning As planning consists of arranging parts and the necessary tools for maintenance work and provide necessary guidelines by use all the inputs effectively through a maintenance system. fork lifts. procedures for assigning proper amount of work to all the skilled/unskilled crews. Hence the purpose of planning is to focus on high productivity through an organized planning & scheduling principles. specify job scope.7 How Much Planning Will Help? a) Tangible Help: • Planning provides tangible help for organization to achieve: . Institute a control system that contributes to managing productivity. with identification numbers. 6) Establishes through work order system. 12) Planner will arrange material handling equipments like crane. 5) Creates data and information on machineries and equipment and its maintenance methodology for future reference and analysis. anticipated parts & tools. 6.6 Planning System In a proper planning system. 7) Prepares Schedules for maintenance works and follow track until complete. craft and skill level required. 6. resulting benefit achieved are the improved productivity and overall effectiveness or efficiency in maintenance. 11) Planner identifies special tools needed by the craft man for maintenance activities and reserve such tooling and other accessories at the place of work.
Crew will plan their work and then executes. Is this wrench time a reality? Instances are there in which experienced workforce moved from average 35% wrench time to 55% with fine tuned planning. Practically the total maintenance work was completed by 35 personnel as compared to previous year’s statistics of using around 45 personnel for the same output. b) Improving the Wrench Time and Productivity · Work activities are classified differently. -Work force is freed up. Improvement here was only possible with the planning in place. thus using the freed 10 trained personnel for other productivity improvement activities. In addition. where in the planning addresses and reduces delays. Analysis of the nonproductive time is one of the most valuable work-sampling. where the management created an exclusive planning group. Further if there are three crews working with .8 Productivity. 6.-Amount of work accomplished rises. Specialization & Coordination of Planning a) The specific benefit of planning in Wrench time improvements · There are organizations who feel that the planning work is part and parcel of the maintenance crew. · The maximum performance target for wrench time was shown at an average of around 55%. one can calculate and measure the actual amount of increased maintenance productivity. -Extra labor power can be reallocated to added value activities. But it proved the other way as seen from the above examples. To determine if any of the delay time could be avoidable requires planner’s assistance for analyzing such nonproductive time. • • Through proper planning. thus frees technicians for more productive work. could achieve a remarkable reliable plant capacity within a year through superior availability and a drastic improvement in work force productivity. The industry’s average productive maintenance time was less than 30% (the measure of wrench time) when a typical maintenance technician has spent less than 20% on the real work and it is found that the balance time is spent on other nonproductive tasks. c) “World class” wrench time · Statistical work sampling studies measures productive time. The practical result of planning-example: In a power station. also known as wrench time. intangible benefits of planning were seen in providing a better control of maintenance work.
These principles must be understood by all concerned to have effective planning process. Loading these specialists to achieve higher wrench times also requires a sound planning and proper coordination. recognizing skill of the craftsman and measuring performance must be understood by every one concerned with production. the other two crew reached a wrench time of 50%. and if one is allocated to planning job and with whose instance. which spells the importance of planning jobs for maintenance. 6. 4) Planner expertise dictates job estimates.9 Maintenance Planning Principles The principles or paradigms that are evolved over the maintenance mission will profoundly affect planning. and instrument technicians. 3) Planners base their files on the component level of systems. as compared to 3x30=90%]. Each principle identifies important crossroads. . which is essential for a competitive edge. b) Specialization and Productivity: · Experienced crew are specializing in a particular field and achieving the specified goals. The principles of having planning as a separate department in order to focus on the future work and consequent use of planner’s expertise to create estimates. 1) Company organizes planners into a separate department. 5) Planners recognize the skill of the crafts. Industry to this day continues to use specialization. 2) Planners concentrate on future work. Specialization increases productivity per person. But experience has shown that a single planner can plan maintenance jobs for more than 20 persons. for which they train and maintain separate groups of mechanics. Six principles greatly contribute to the overall success of planning. electricians. There is a methodology of work measurement what is commonly known as wrench time and this frequently misunderstood principle and hence must be made clear to everyone concerned.wrench time of 30%. Decisions making at each crossroads on the alternative ways to conduct planning and execute is essential and ultimate success of planning depends on this situational oriented decision. then total productivity is 100 % [2x 50% +0= 100%.
plan changes. especially on repetitive maintenance tasks. The file system enables planners to utilize equipment data and information and their experience on previous work to prepare and improve work plans. The Planning Department concentrates on future work and provide the crew to plan their work in advance and remove backlogs · After job completion. · Because planning contributes to scheduling. Matching identify tags on the machineries are also arranged. secure file system based on equipment tag numbers. or other helpful information so that future work plans and schedules might be improved. . Principle 1: [The Company organizes planners into a separate department] · The planners are organized into a separate department from craft maintenance crews to facilitate specialization in planning and focus on future work. which helps planners to become specialized in all the tools and techniques of planning · Planners need to work closely to ensure proper execution of work with consistency. feedback is given by the lead technician or supervisor to the Planning Department.6) Work sampling of direct work time provide measure of planning effectiveness. The feedback consists of any problems. Principle 3: [Component Level Files] · Planning maintains a simple. the lack of planning effort may decrease the number of work assignments to crew members · The company organizing planners to a separate group. Principle 2: [Focus on Future Work] · The vision of planning is to increase labor productivity by preparing the jobs in advance. · Planners use personal experience and develop work plans to avoid anticipated work delays and quality or safety problems. · The planners must be engaged in preparing work that has not yet begun. · Planners report to a different supervisor/ lead planner who will be responsible to provide direction and ensure consistency within the planning group. The supervisor has an obligation to complete the assigned work in an expeditious manner with a minimum of interruptions · The crew focuses exclusively on executing assigned work. The planners ensure that the feedback information is properly filed to aid future work.
The planner calls for a minimum craft skill on a job plan. · Craft technicians use their expertise to make the specified repair or replacement. · Routine maintenance offers the highest potential for planner contribution to company success because more intricate or unusual maintenance tasks receives necessary help from plant engineering department Principle 5: [Recognize the Skill of the Crafts] · The Planning Department recognizes the skill of the crafts. The planners and technicians work together over repeated jobs to develop better procedures and checklists.· The majority of maintenance tasks are repetitive over a period of time. Principle 4: [Estimates Based on Planner Expertise] · Planners use personal experience and file information to develop work plans to avoid anticipated work delays after considering quality and safety problems. · Planners give information to supervisor for scheduling control. · Plant must choose from among its best craft persons to be planners. Any recommended deviations from the job plan must be approved by planning before execution. · The planner then plans the general strategy of the work (such as repair or replace) and includes procedure if it is not already there in the file. The planners also use their own expertise to formalize best practices on individual job plans. · Supervisors must train technicians with deficient skills and give proper support and guidance · Technicians must execute the job precisely as planned for three reasons. · Supervisors and plant engineers are trained to access these files to gather information they need with minimal planner assistance. These planners rely greatly upon their personal skill and experience in addition to existing information in the files to develop job plans. File cost information assists in making repair or replace decisions. . The planner’s responsibility is to firm up the scope of the work request including clarification of the originator’s intent wherever necessary. The plan dictates the skill set necessary to accomplish the work given the state of the job plan. · This principle dictates that planners depend on the workforce being sufficiently skilled when he is putting a minimum level of detail into the initial job plans.
. Wrench time analysis is an indicator.· Finally. tools. · Principle 6 dictates that measuring how much time craft technicians actually spend on their job site versus other activities performed such as obtaining parts or tools. · Measuring wrench time thus gives an overall indication of how well the other principles have been implemented or accepted. statistical observational techniques & study. Principle 6: [Measure Performance with Work Sampling] · Wrench time is the primary measure of workforce efficiency and of planning and scheduling effectiveness. not the control of planning or the work force. the planning system counts on the skilled technicians giving feedback on job plans so that their expertise and the planner’s expertise both contribute to adding information to future plans. predictive maintenance. planners visualize the types of work orders to be released for preventive maintenance tasks for the next week. or equipment information are all deducted. 6. Projects The concepts and importance of preventive maintenance. travel. This determines the effectiveness of the maintenance planning program. instructions. Planning can adopt preferred maintenance for higher effectiveness. These reduce the incidence of reactive maintenance work and to increase plant reliability. a) Preventive Maintenance [PM] and Planning · The planning department studies and issues PM’s schedules and reviews them periodically.10 Planning Preventive & Predictive Maintenance. Wrench time is the proportion of available time-to-work time during which the craft technicians are on productive working on a job site. · Work sampling to determine wrench time gives this measure of how much planning is helping in the process. clearance. parts. coordination with other crafts. This principle holds that delays in technician’s job should be avoided. Delays such as waiting for assignment. and project work and their relationship to the development of the planning principles and practices are discussed here. What is actually important is the analysis of the nonproductive time. Starting with a basic system. Wrench time is measured accurately with a properly structured. The time that employees spend at their job sites working is called direct or productive work.
e. For this. PM plans can include rags for wiping and removing old grease when parts are dissembled. Lubrication. lubrications etc. Tightness. · Emphasis in all PMs is to inspect the equipment for abnormal situations. work hours. Many do value assigning with experienced personnel to perform PM work orders. · The planner must receive feedback to improve the PM work order itself. · This requirement of corrective maintenance is ‘TLC’ i. · PdM technology greatly moves the plant’s reliability upward as the predictions in predictive maintenance show an important capacity for growth in accuracy. small adjustments. · The planner should allow some extra time in the work order on all PM work for making unspecified excessive cleaning. · Cleanliness helps reduce contamination sources and such clean surfaces to reveal the presence of new leaks. . as improper lubrication leads to total damage to equipment. and duration.· A planner should plan each of the PMs with scope and craft requirements such as numbers of persons. For ex: tightening of fasteners in the coupling if he found they are loose. · PM plans should specify torque requirements or attach torque charts where appropriate and include torque wrenches as a special tool. · Lubrication is important part of a PM program. · The scope should extend beyond simple repair and replacement of parts to improve equipment reliability as well. The dirt and grime also add undesirable insulation conditions that may affect equipment performance. The plan should also list anticipated parts and special tools. · Planners should also review the histories and feedback from all work orders to determine if additional PM work orders are needed. Predictive maintenance (PdM) uses technology not available to the regular maintenance work force. PdM personnel make the call on the creation of new work orders. which are contributing to more than 50% of all breakdowns. tightening of bolts. b) Predictive Maintenance [PdM] and Planning · Planning plans and schedules PdM work orders. repairs. the technician is empowered to make any minor equipment adjustments or minor repairs during execution of the PM. on the work done. Planning for parts encourages the replacement of fasteners based on the technician’s decisions. and Cleanliness. or minor repairs.
6. bearing clearances. the company has to make a decision regarding alternate ways to conduct planning. · Planners should be able to estimate and commit the project schedules with plant engineering and scheduler assistance. so that PdM personnel may quickly climb the learning curve. planning group plans and schedules work orders to implement projects as regular jobs. The planning effort has mainly focused on making individual jobs ready to go by identifying and planning around potential delays. · Planners must vigorously pursue collecting documentation to establish files and also overview position regarding the project replacement or overhaul.11 Summary of Maintenance Planning Effective maintenance is vital to provide reliable plant capacity. with active participation and assistance from the planning group. Each principle resolves a crossroads decision that affects the planning effort.· Planners must accept PdM work orders for jobs and translate them into the appropriate scope for the maintenance crews. Consideration of six basic principles greatly boosts the planning program efforts toward success. The decision the company makes regarding each situation determines the ultimate success of planning. · Planners should insist to utilize standards set by PdM for certain jobs. Plants treat projects as outages and planned as long-range scheduling. or other rebuild tolerances. · Planners should facilitate PdM when work on equipment is in process. · The PdM group can update the technology of the maintenance force. The application of maintenance planning makes possible the dramatic improvement in maintenance productivity. · Plant normally has the personnel to implement such maintenance project work with the productivity prescribed in the planning and scheduling system. which involves alignment criteria. c) Project Work and Planning · Similar to PdM. . At each crossroads. · Planners should insist that PdM uses the same equipment tag numbers for ease communication problems. but difference is in the larger nature of projects.
the principles or paradigms in order to evolve effective scheduling will come through effective planning process. recognizing the skill of the crafts. using planner expertise to create estimates. They solved the problems by addressing symptomatic of tools. lunch. Plnners must possess the experience of top level technicians in order to scope jobs. focusing on future work. Only when planning keeps a separate file for each piece of equipment. The principles used for planning and scheduling are for achieving the forecasted skill levels. allowing the crew supervisor to handle day’s work. This aligning of the work to accomplish the desired effective and efficient maintenance led to the principles of scheduling. it is practical to retrieve information when needed. having component level files. The analysis revealed that the large delay times not only for parts. tools.12 Maintenance Scheduling Principles Scheduling principles envisages the vision. Wrench time will measure whether the objectives of planning are met or not in reducing job delays. and then measure schedule compliances. and safely. and shutdown Wrench time concept of measuring the work for each hour of the day. gave a clear picture of how technicians are completing their work. the schedules and job priorities for every forecasted work available. instructions. file history help technicians to avoid previously faced problems. parts availability problems or not properly planning issues Companies placed an emphasis on planning and also they doubled the parts availability in stores to reduce ordering needs. Planners need to focus on future work not yet begun. utilize files. 6. or travel categories. but also exists for excessive startup.The principle of having planning as a separate department. . which is discussed below. The crews worked on the planned jobs and work sampling study made on it indicated a wrench time of 25% only and further plant could do better job if improved upon. and estimate times adequately. break. Because most jobs are repetitive. Maintenance needed certain methodology to assigning enough work through the planning process. and measuring planning performance with work sampling for technician’s direct work time. the technicians would scope out the jobs with their social & other times. When work orders are received. The planned work packages increases the maintenance department’s ability to complete work orders effectively. . Planners need to avoid continually being interrupted to resolve problems for jobs already under way. efficiently. are all in the total system.
as they create a framework for successful scheduling of planned work.Routine maintenance needs the use of principles. Plant priority plays a larger role in creating the schedule of work and all involved should treat it as a serious matter. Schedule compliance of wrench time. It also ensures that a sufficient and the right work are assigned. Principle 1: [Planners plan the jobs for lowest required skill levels] § Essential part of Principle 1 is that job plans identify the lowest skill necessary to complete the work with the contention that the supervisor will have higher skill capability also. craft work hours per level. Crew supervisors forecast available work hours one week ahead by the highest skills available. lowest required craft skill level. · The priority may be reviewed periodically and adjusted in coordination with crew. Crew supervisor matches personnel skills and tasks 6. . Each principle sets guidelines on how the maintenance should handle different scheduling process. and job duration.13 Six Maintenance Scheduling Principles Six principles that greatly contribute to the overall success of scheduling are: 1. 5. The entire plant must respect the importance of schedules and job priorities. 4. planners and the plant manager. The appropriate priority for the work is based on established plant guidelines. Planners plan the jobs for lowest required skill levels. Does the job require mechanics or machinists? Does the job require three helpers to assist a certified electrician? Etc that are necessary for advance scheduling. 2. 6. · Advance scheduling of enough work for the entire week sets the goal for maximum utilization of the available craft hours. Schedule assigns planned work for every forecasted work hour available. if required while assigning individuals to execute job plan. 3. provides the measure of scheduling effectiveness. § Job plans provide information about the number of persons required. Principle 2 [Entire plant respect the importance of schedules and job priorities] · Weekly and daily schedules must be adhered to by the crew as per the priorities mentioned in the work orders to prevent undue interruption in schedules.
· Scheduler assigns work plans for the crew to execute during the following week for 100% of the forecasted hours i. new high priority. and information from job plans. · Crew supervisor matches personnel skills and tasks. This includes proactive work. · Scheduling plan is for performing all the works available in the system. · Scheduler also uses job priority and job plan information. after considering the tasks that are being interrupted · Principle 4 brings all the three previous scheduling principles together. job priorities. crew work load is 1000 worthy labour hours.e.· Inefficiency peeps through the interruption by low priority jobs coming in way of urgent jobs progressing. it is better to delay identified job in full rather than completing half. and reactive jobs as a guide. It allows for emergencies/high priority/ reactive jobs by scheduling sufficient amount of work hours. . If a true emergency arises. forecast of highest skill. · Over assigning and under assigning work are common and acceptable in industries. · Scheduler uses a forecast of maximum capabilities of the crew for coming week. · Preference is given to completing the higher priority work by utilizing whatever skills available than working on completing the lower priority work. · Consideration is also given to multiple jobs on the same equipment or system and of proactive versus reactive work available. · First two principles are the prerequisites of the principle-3 scheduling · Scheduler selects the week’s worth of work from the overall plant backlog. As these may cause unique problems it is better to be avoided. Principle 3 [Develops week’s schedule for each crew & craft hours required] · Develops a week’s schedule for each crew based on craft hours required. Principle 5: [The crew supervisor matches personnel skills and tasks] · Crew supervisor develops a daily schedule one day in advance using current job progress. Principle 4: [A week’s schedule will assign work for all the available work hour] · A week’s schedule will assign work for the total work hours.
· Each day the crew supervisor assigns the next day’s work to each technician. Work sampling or wrench time is the best measure of scheduling performance. Six basic principles form the foundation of successful scheduling and make schedules and priority systems important. Maintenance dept also tracks schedule compliance. 6. Knowing of the lowest skills required for jobs and the highest skills available allows developing a schedule with proper work for the week.· Crew supervisor handles the current day’s work and any other problems in emergency maintenance · Although individual jobs show a wide variance between planned and actual times. assigns work for all available labour hours. tools. He will ensure that each technician receives assignments totalling to full day’s work Principle 6: [Wrench time is the primary measure of workforce efficiency] · Wrench time is the primary measure of workforce efficiency and of planning and scheduling effectiveness. Adhering to schedules is important as interrupting jobs leads to overall inefficiency. · Schedule compliance is the measure of adherence to the one week schedule and its effectiveness. The priority system must properly identify the right jobs to start. In case of delay in actual job progress and the incidence of unexpected reactive work in place. and track schedule compliance. allow crew supervisors to make daily schedules. it relatively balances by week end. · Planning individual jobs can reduce delays such as waiting to obtain certain parts. Work sampling or wrench time studies quantify delays & gives measures of planning and scheduling effectiveness. or technician instructions · Scheduling aims at reducing delays. crew supervisor is the best judge to create the daily crew work schedule.14 Summary of Maintenance Scheduling Maintenance management must consider main scheduling in the maintenance planning strategy to avoid problems of improved efficiency. scheduler to develop schedule in advance. This increases flexibility in choosing jobs. When setting craft and time requirements. job plans must plan for the lowest required skill level. .
Principle 6 sets overall indicators for scheduling control. · A maintenance planner does preparatory planning for the craft persons · The planner identifies appropriate materials for the specified job and checks whether they are available or must be specially obtained.. Self Assessment Questions 1. 3. Hence use of planned and scheduled work packages increases the maintenance department’s ability to complete work orders effectively. · To arrest the leakages and keep up the lubrication system · The planner specifies the appropriate craft skills required for that particular job. a planner develops a …………… after receiving a work request.. The planners and crew had to deal differently with urgent reactive work by developing job plans for reactive work. Further working to the maintenance planning based on the six planning principles along with the six scheduling principles will help improve the productivity. A planning mission statement may be: …………………………………. In the maintenance process given below which one not the step to be considered. through advance preparation. 4.Schedule based on the wrench time has to be practiced. and works such as preventive maintenance/ breakdown work and release of the work orders to proceed. 2. · Crew personnel are assigned the job for execution · The time estimates are made by planner · Maintenance planning brings together or coordinates the effort of many other aspects of maintenance. 5. To prepare a job in advance. which one is not relevant? · Coordinating mechanism within the maintenance department. Maintenance management uses planning as a tool to reduce …………………. and safely. efficiently. This involves job priorities. Principles 3 through 5 establish basis of scheduling process. crew schedules. Out of the maintenance planning functions. Principles 1 and 2 are prerequisites for scheduling. . . The planning mission statement could be …………………………….
Six principles greatly contribute to overall success of planning. 8. . b) Planners concentrate on future work. craft and skill level required. e) Fix up the wages for each of the work based on the skill level f) Creates data and information on all machineries and equipment and its maintenance methodology for future reference and analysis. Planning provides tangible help. also known as wrench time. c) Planners base their files on the component level of systems. as well as specifying anticipated parts and tools. b) A planner plans the work order by specifying job scope. procedures for assigning proper amount of work to all the skilled/unskilled crews h) Prepares Schedules for the maintenance works and follow track until complete. 6.a) Receives request from the concerned section for the maintenance work. with all their identification numbers. g) He establishes through work order system. per person 9. Which is sixth one? a) The company organizes planners into a separate department. . c) Planner evolves a system and procedure for each type of maintenance work d) Skill levels and time estimates on jobs and proper scheduling are included in the subject work order. time estimates. c) ……………………………………………… 7.work time during which the craft technicians are on productive working on a job site. Wrench time is the primary measure …………………………………………… Wrench time is the proportion of available time to. b) The work force is freed up.. d) Planner expertise dictates job estimates. Fill in (c) below: a) The amount of work accomplished rises. Specialization increases ………………………. Statistical work sampling studies measures …………….
Planners plan the jobs for lowest required skill levels. 10. a. Just as in planning. predictive maintenance.15 Terminal Questions 1. 12. 6. Cleanliness helps reduce …………….. which are contributing to more than 50% of all breakdowns. ………. Why planning process is essential for efficient maintenance management? 2. to equipment. This requirement of corrective maintenance is ‘TLC’ i. ……. f) ………………………………………. Fill in the missing principle. What are the benefits of maintenance planning? .e.. e. Crew supervisors forecast available work hours one week ahead by the highest skills available. Explain briefly the functions of maintenance planning. d. c. and such clean surfaces to reveal the presence of new leaks.. b. allowing the crew supervisor to handle day’s work. The entire plant must respect the importance of schedules and job priorities. Companies strive to do more preventive maintenance. and project work to lessen the ……………………. ……………………………………………. for every forecasted work available. Improper lubrication leads to total ………. six principles that greatly contribute to the overall success of scheduling are discussed below. 11. upward as the predictions involved in predictive maintenance show an important capacity for growth in accuracy. The crew supervisor matches personnel skills and tasks] f. The PdM technology has the potential of greatly moving the plant’s ………. The principles used for planning and scheduling are for achieving the forecasted higher skill levels. ……….e) Planners recognize the skill of the crafts. work and to increase plant reliability. 3.. 14. …………………. 13.. and then measure schedule compliances 15.. Schedule compliance joins wrench time to provide the measure of scheduling effectiveness.
workforce efficiency and of planning and scheduling effectiveness. 5. 8. and Cleanliness .16 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1. Explain as to how the maintenance planning will help improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the organization 5. The extra labor power can be reallocated to added value activities. 7. “To increases the Maintenance Department’s ability to complete work orders quickly”. Productive time. Productivity 9. What are the maintenance planning principles? How they contribute to the success of planning? 8. Incidence of reactive maintenance 11. Explain how the specialization in areas of maintenance will help improve the productivity of the maintenance crew. 7. Work plan 2. 9. Explain briefly how the use of six principles will greatly contribute to the overall success of scheduling 6. Tightness. (sl. Explain briefly the planning approaches in preventive and predictive maintenance processes. Lubrication. Doing right jobs which are ready to go 4. Work sampling for direct work time provides the primary measure of planning effectiveness 10. no: e) Fix up the wages for each of the work based on the skill level 6. Why scheduling after proper planning is essential for effective maintenance and meeting the dead line and avoid delays? 10. Unnecessary job. (sl.no:4)To arrest the leakages and keep up the lubrication system 3. What is wrench time? How it is recognized as a maintenance work measure? 6.4.
13 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Refer 6.12.9 8. Terminal Questions 1.2 3. Refer 6. Refer 6. Refer 6. Refer 6. Refer 6. The schedules and job priorities 15.1 2. .5 4.7 (c) 6.12 10. Contamination sources.Refer 6. (For d): The schedule assigns planned work for every forecasted work hour available. Refer 6. Refer 6.8 (b) 7.10 a & b 9.7 5. Reliability 14. damage 13. Refer 6.
1 Introduction Automating the maintenance program is a complex task as it requires integrating of people.11 Answers 7.9 Summary 7.8 Overall Craft Effectiveness & its Measurement 7.7 ACE Team Benchmarking Process 7. The new system will become a platform for continuous improvement and will generate long term benefits .6 Work Measurement for High-Productivity Maintenance Universal Maintenance Standards [UMS] Five Levels of Data in Ums 7. organizations have tried and tested different approaches for bringing changes that can result in improvements in both the function and the cost.5 Universal Principles for higher Productive Maintenance 7.3 Organization & Processes 7.OM0006-Unit-07-Universel Maintenance Practices Unit-07-Universel Maintenance Practices Structure: 7.10 Terminal Questions 7.2 Planner’s Function in Maintenance & Benefits 7. process and systems.4 Benefits of using ‘UMS’ with Planner’s Functions 7. Using a state-of-the-art maintenance management.1 Introduction Objectives 7.
field checks jobs when . on-time delivery and ultimately. close communication with supervisors. Improving Wrench time of the Crew in Maintenance 6. How the Maintenance. · Explain the benefits of UMS · Adopt the ACE system of Benchmarking 7. Achieving excellence in Maintenance Engineering and Management Objectives: After studying this unit you shall be able to: · Outline the functions to be performed by the maintenance planner. For achieving the above said prerequisites. Higher productivity maintenance means better customer service. Implementing new techniques of measurement. cost reduction and its measurement 5. Improving the Overall craft effectiveness [OCE] for productivity. theory. a detail analysis and adopting certain state of art principles and improve maintenance productivity are all the focus areas for the above said disciplines. systems and techniques of Universal Maintenance Standards [UMS] 2. materials and overhead.The analysis and application of work measurements to ensure improved productivity and cost reduction in maintenance should be the prime consideration by the management. principles and theory of new measurement techniques. maintenance labour. Adopting ACE system for benchmarking and improvements 4. Use of the state of art principles. some of which are listed below: 1. are the concepts. especially when sophisticated high tech machineries and equipments are used for production. satisfied customers. as the maintenance represents variable operating cost which includes physical plant value. higher quality. Engineering or Industrial Engineering managers spearhead their achievements of dramatic productivity improvements by adopting different methods of work measurements in managing and controlling their activities.2 Planner’s Function In Maintenance & Benefits The planner’s role is varied in nature such as: maintain a backlog of ready-to-work jobs for each technician. Benchmarking the best practices 3.
are validated. . requisitions non-stock or out-of-stock items. 7. The planner also develops bench marks and maintains the data library. life cycle cost reductions d) on time completion of jobs e) continuous improvements f) improved service to customers. Hence the measurement provides information to determine the savings potential and also justify the maintenance work measurement program. They can also establish a computerized maintenance management system. Both the planners and the maintenance crew should examine to see how the UMS times could be applied. time reporting on the performance including delays. etc as well as the stores process to check the inventory value. and make available to the crew a set of basic processes and craft operations for the process before establishing bench marks. unrealized opportunity etc. Importance of work measurement and the standard for the job should be established. identifies special tools.needed. issue of stores taking too long. plans work content. or too many stock-outs.4 Benefits of Using ‘Ums’ with Planner’s Functions It is found that when a planner’s function is integrated with the UMS resultant impact is of improving the overall maintenance effectiveness. verifies priority. do the training. 7. cost of the items. and time to do the work. While the maintenance departments without planners can achieve around 50-60% Productivity. based on a formal planning function and the Universal Maintenance Standards. crafts needed. b) Processes Processes involve data development and work order planning.3 Organization & Processes The tasks for a maintenance work measurement program fall into two categories namely 1) Organization and 2) Process a) Organization with planner in the forefront Planner maintains and allocates the work and knows all the ratios required for accomplishing the jobs and have good maintenance skills and experience and capabilities to work as the ultimate expert system. Planners develop all the data. materials. plans safety requirements. In addition the resultant productivity improvement that accrues are the benefits to organization in a) cost reductions b) downtime reduction. crew size. the same can be raised to around 80% when a planning function is integrated with UMS times to work together. The normal ratio of planners to technicians used is 20 to 30:1.
but also helps growth in value added processes. d) Customer/Service Relationship The customer decides what is needed from an operational viewpoint. Lord Kelvin saw this in his scientific investigation of the laws of physics. Hence the Universal Standards serve the special needs of maintenance work through the following principles: a) Scientific Principle Best productivity results when each worker has a definite job to do in a definite way within a definite time. The standard crew size is one and any other size is exceptions to the general rule. c) Activity Responsibility The responsibility for each activity of a work order is necessary to ensure that the work order continues to move toward resolution without delay.1 Universal Maintenance Standards [UMS] . 7. maintenance is no exception b) Measurement Before Control The measurement of an activity is basic to its control. Frederick Taylor’s principle applies to all work.6.5 Universal Principles for Higher Productive Maintenance There are several principles that. if followed. They highlight problems or roadblocks for completion of the project. and maintenance decides how the service should be provided. Together the customer and maintenance crew decide the priority (based on resources available) and urgency of each task compared to other existing current works. which can be accurately planned.7. Timely accomplishment is also universal phenomenon. e) Crew Size The optimum crew size for a maintenance job is the smallest that can perform the work using a specific method and execute in a safe & efficient manner. f) Timeliness Large maintenance jobs are divided into smaller work orders. It is universal. This principle is also universal.6 Work Measurement for High-Productivity Maintenance 7. lead to the lasting results.
carpenter. If it is a low volume work done by multi skilled crew. Each element requires further study followed by application of stopwatch time or a predetermined time system analysis to determine the exact time required for each through the method selected. education or healthcare. in each of skills of fourteen types of jobs: mechanical. availability of such standards. masonry. sheet metal. engineers adopted new methods for analyzing and assigning standards to maintenance work. Hence breaking long jobs down into elements have resulted in a large number of elements.The principles adopted for above said requirements are based on the application of work measurement in maintenance. This range of time is same in 95 % of situations and hence standard average time is applied and practiced 2) Work content comparison. Applying the specific standards to the daily maintenance workload requires answers for: which task standard is required. industry or service enterprise. to what precision. IT management etc. to what volume of work etc. The range-of-time technique recognizes the variable nature of maintenance works. Even though parts are different. b) Evolution of Universal Maintenance Standards (UMS) In the early 1950’s. some unique characteristics are revealed. government. or one country. For example. then the time . the motion pattern for two tasks may be same and also time to perform the work is almost the same. called ‘Universal Maintenance Standards’ (UMS). or tasks. machining. finance. is it realistic to measure. automotive. A simple task such as removing and replacing a part may take more or less time depending on how tight the bolts are. but everywhere where maintenance work is performed –manufacturing. instrument. HVAC. utilities. commercial. There are at least four to five hundred different jobs. custodial. electrical. as these standards offered flexibility and could be applied not just in one location. the result is that the crew does longer cycle work compared to other production workers. pipe. labour. The combination of many elements requiring different maintenance tasks and varieties of skills warrants developing and maintain a library of enormous number of standards. If the time to perform similar tasks is known. paint. service. which in turn depends on: a) Nature of Maintenance works: In maintenance works. time taken for threading a one-inch nut on to a bolt by hand operation takes almost same time like that of screwing in a light bulb into the holder. how much rust is present on them etc. weld. Techniques: The UMS system is based on three important techniques: 1) Range-of-time.
2) Basic Operations Basic motions are grouped together to form basic operations. machining could be made available for the crew of maintenance 4) Bench Marks Using UMS. grasp. For instance. Each of these motions are recorded and these data becomes the established times for future reference and standardization.2 Five Levels of Data in Ums 1) Basic Motions The foundation of UMS data is the predetermined time system for basic motions.6. a planner is able to establish planning times for a large number of jobs using relative sample data of the benchmark jobs and publicise the data along with the step-by-step process. distance moved. 2) basic operations. This system analyzes and classifies data into basic motions and establishes a relationship between the motions and the time required to perform them. body motions.that can be applied to any other similar task with + or – 5%. 3) Craft Operations Some operation times are unique to a certain craft. common to all crafts. Two widely used predetermined time systems are ‘Methods-Time Measurement’ and ‘Operation Sequence Technique’. carpentry. using the work content comparison technique is possible. 3) Organizing the data UMS data is organized in a building block fashion. Spread sheet fills the additional needs of finding quickly the . Five levels of data in the UMS library. Similar craft data for other skilled craft operations such as painting. The variables like weight of the part. namely 1) basic motions. whether the how clamping of part is done etc are recorded in the table for further use as standards. electrical. move. By using spread sheets. 7. welding operations are made up of manual handling. which are pooled as weld craft operations data. 4) bench marks and 5) spread sheets. 3) craft operations. engineers can typically apply standards to all maintenance work with bench marks covering all the crafts and through the use of spread sheets they can substantially reduce the data library compared to the one with direct standard method. pipefitting. where work measures are dividing into basic motions such as reach. machine settings and arc striking time etc. 5) Spread Sheets. position and release. becomes the standardization process and hence these are universally adopted.
Here the emphasis is placed on improving current repair methods. outlines a new and highly recommended methodology for establishing ‘team-based maintenance performance standards’. and in mechanical fields like Belt drives. The ACE System is used to develop maintenance performance standards. which is called as ‘Reliable Planning-Time standards’. 7. the standards are established. The allowances applied to these set times to get a single UMS time calculation for use by the crew. reducers and gear boxes. Ex: Benchmarking and firming up the task can be easily done in areas like lighting. clutches and brakes. This new Benchmarking Tool through ACE. have developed a bench marking process for the major work areas/types of maintenance operations. These Benchmarked jobs are then arranged into different time categories on spreadsheets for various craft work areas. in motors.appropriate one for an application or finding the right bench mark for comparison. material handling equipment. job site time and allowances for personal. ACE Team Benchmarking Process parallels the UMS approach in that the range of time and the work content times for a representative number of benchmarked jobs are established. which are reliable and a well-accepted planning times for the entire maintenance crew. Spreadsheets include brief descriptions of the benchmark jobs and represent pure wrench time. 1) ACE System & UMS Using predetermined standard data.7 ACE Team Benchmarking Process “A Consensus of Experts” (ACE). reasonable estimate of maintenance “work content” time from a group of experienced crafts people. who have performed these jobs earlier and have requisite experience to improve upon them. which are then imposed on the maintenance force. supervisors and planners . continuous improvement and the changing of times in performance and methods. All work order times released for the jobs and it consists of four components: job preparation time. area travel time. say within 95% confidence range. Spreadsheets are then provided for each work group having a time slots or range of times. rest and minor unavoidable delays. a team of relatively small in number. the technique which was formulated and developed by the ‘The Maintenance Excellence Institute’ [TMEI]. 2) Objective of ACE Team Benchmarking Process Objective is to determine the reliable planning times for a number of selected “benchmark” jobs and to gain a consensus on the predetermined work content time. compressors. 3) ACE System: a Team-Based Approach ACE Team process is to obtain the most reliable. bringing control systems. in generators. and lubrication and service.
8 Overall Craft Effectiveness [OCE] & Its Measurement a) Craft Performance element of Overall Craft Effectiveness Determining the required standard hours of a technician require a trail run of the task under standard operating conditions. c) How OCE impacts the bottom line: Craft Labor Improving Overall Craft Effectiveness is getting maximum value from craft labor resources and higher craft productivity. a) Improve current repair methods. planners and other knowledgeable people to do two things. historical data. Labour standards will be the baseline for determining craft productivity and improved methods. supervisors. safety and quality b) Establish work content time for selected “benchmark jobs” for planners and others to use in developing reliable planning time. 5) ACE Team Benchmarking Process: ACE System is a true team-based process that utilizes skilled crafts people. safety practices. and engineered standards such as Universal standards. Other methods used include reasonable estimates. Computerized maintenance management system (CMMS) could also be practiced. b) Investment for Planners: The planner’s activity with the team approach of ACE system will establish maintenance performance standards. manpower planning. risks analysis on jobs that leads to improvements. 4) Recommendation of ACE System ACE Team overcomes many inherent difficulties associated with developing maintenance performance standards and hence recommended as the standard process for modern maintenance management. effective storerooms and . 6) The ACE System Supports Reliability Improvement: ACE Team process can contribute significantly to reliability. Best practices such as effective maintenance planning/scheduling. budgeting and costing. preventive/predictive maintenance. scheduling. which will provide the management with a valuable input data for backlog determination. as its application promotes a commitment to quality repair procedures. technicians. 7.and provides an excellent means to evaluate repair method.
documentation etc. planned maintenance and more productive “wrench time”. g) Craft Performance Another key element of OCE is the craft performance i. 9. 2.e.continuous parts support will all contribute to proactive. Effective planning/ scheduling is the key to increase wrench time and craft utilization. Craft performance is directly related to individual craft skills and overall trades experience. the personal motivation and effort of each craftsperson. 5. h) Craft Service Quality (CSQ) Another element affecting the overall Craft Effectiveness relates to the quality of the repair. Running from emergency to emergency in a reactive. fire fighting mode Waiting on parts and searching parts or part information Waiting for asset info. 4. 3. repair instructions. This element includes quality of the actual work. 7. Measuring and improving overall craft effectiveness (OCE) is one of the components of continuous improvements d) Effective Craft Utilization (CU): Craft Utilization or pure wrench time relates to measuring how effective the work is planned and craft resources scheduled so that these assets are doing value-added. 6. 8. how efficient the hands-on craft work is done compared to an established planned time or performance standard. 20 to 30 % can be expected from more effective maintenance planning & scheduling. Waiting for the equipment to be shut down for work start Waiting for contractor support to arrive at job site Waiting on other crafts to finish their job Travelling to/from job site Make-ready. drawings. where certain jobs possibly require a call back to the initial repair thus requiring another trip to fix it right the second . productive work (wrench time). shop clean up time Lack of effective planning and scheduling Craft Utilization (or wrench time) is measured as the ratio of: CU %=100x [Total Productive hours or wrench time]/ [Total craft hours allotted x amount paid] f) Improve Wrench Time original Significant tangible benefits can be realized by increasing the wrench time. e) Productive Wrench Time: Pure wrench time is just the actual output/work done and do not include the miscellaneous waste time caused due to any or many of the following: 1.
. It is gained value that can be calculated and estimated and then measured. b) Benchmarking the best practices. and a detail analysis of: a) Universal Maintenance Standards. implementation of certain state of art principles. patch jobs or inferior repair parts/materials. then Overall Craft Effectiveness Factor can be determined by multiplying each of these three elements: Overall Craft Utilization = [Craft utilization (%) x Craft performance (%) x Craft service quality (%)] i) Where Can We Apply OCE Gained Value Maintenance operations that continually fight fires and react to emergency repairs never have enough time to cover all the work (core requirements) that needs to be done. Organizations should recognize maintenance as a core business requirement and should establish the necessary core competencies for survival. Measuring and improving Overall Craft Effectiveness and the value received from improving craft assets is an important part of total asset management. Organization should not indiscriminately cut craft labour resources when increase OCE is warranted. If the internal core competency for maintenance is not present it must be regained and ensure that they are profit-centred maintenance providers by understanding clearly the UMS. K) Maintenance is For ever Maintenance is a core requirement for profitable survival and total operations success. When reliable data is present for all elements. the overall Craft Effectiveness and provide value added maintenance services all the time with a profit oriented approach Self Assessment Questions 1. OCE is increased people asset availability and capacity. Profit-centred in-house maintenance in combination with the wise use of high quality contract maintenance services will be the key to the final evolution that occurs.time. new techniques of measurement. For improving maintenance productivity. In relation to OEE. j) Think Profit-Centred Maintenance leaders and crafts people must develop the “profit” mindset to be competitive and stay in business. Craft Service Quality will suffer due to hasty repairs. c) Adopting ACE system for benchmarking and improvements d) …………………………………………………………….
…………………………………………… e. and time to do the work. The resultant productivity improvement that accrues because of integrating planner’s function with UMS will substantially benefit the organization in the following areas of operations/ functions: a. 9. 3.. Five levels of data in UMS are: a) basic motions b) Basic operations c) Craft operations d) ………………. The UMS system is based on three important techniques: a) Range of time b) …………………………… c) organizing the data 7.. . ……………….. ……………. checks jobs when needed. Contributes in meeting other goals and objectives in the strategic plan. who have performed these jobs and have the requisite experience to improve upon them. when once the ‘work content times’ for a representative number of ‘benchmark jobs’ are established. Cost reduction and its total savings b. ACE Team Benchmarking Process parallels the UMS approach in that the ……………………. and e) spread sheets. 5. close communication with supervisors. based on a formal planning function and the. . requisitions non-stock or out-of-stock items. have developed a bench marking process for the major work areas/types of operation.. The planner’s role is varied in nature such as: maintain a backlog of ready-to-work jobs for each technician. verifies priority.. a team of relatively small number of representatives. Life cycle cost reductions d. identifies special tools. Improved services to customers g..e) Improving the Wrench time of the Crew in Maintenance 2. Downtime reduction and its savings c. ………………………………. Continuous improvement opportunities and gain in competitive advantage f. ………………………………. plans crew size. materials.. 8. The Universal Standards serve the special needs of maintenance work through the following principles: a) ………………… b) Measurement before controls c) activity responsibility d) customer/service relationship e) Crew size f) Timeliness 6. Hence the measurement provides information to determine the savings potential and also justify the maintenance work measurement program. 4.
and do not include the miscellaneous waste time caused due to any of the reasons. Spreadsheets are then set up with each work group having a time slots or …………………….... technicians... 15. Improving ………………………. (%) x Craft service quality (%)] 7... Overall Craft Utilization = [Craft utilization (%) x .. Pure wrench time is just the ………………………... 12........ within the 95% confidence range... Spreadsheets include brief descriptions of the benchmark jobs and represent ……………….......10.. 14. effective storerooms and continuous parts support will all contribute to proactive...... supervisors. risks analysis on jobs that leads to improvements..... b) Establish work content time for selected “benchmark jobs” 13..... ACE System is a true team-based process that utilizes skilled crafts people. 11... 17.. ...9 Summary By using a state-of-the-art maintenance management... planned maintenance and more productive ………………. preventive/ predictive maintenance. ACE Team process is to obtain the most reliable....... .. 16.. The new system will become a platform for continuous improvement and will generate long term benefits .... planners and other knowledgeable people to do two things...... Best practices such as effective maintenance planning/scheduling... time from a group of experienced crafts people.... safety practices... supervisors and planners and provides an excellent means to evaluate repair method.. 18. a) …………………………………………………………………….]/ [Total craft hours allotted x amount paid] 19. organizations have tried and tested different approaches for bringing changes that can result in improvements in both the function and the cost... is getting maximum value from craft labor resources and higher craft productivity.... Craft Utilization (or wrench time) is measured as the ratio of: [ . reasonable estimate of maintenance ………………….. Craft Utilization or pure wrench time relates to measuring how effective we are in planning and scheduling craft resources so that these assets are doing …………………. ACE Team process can contribute significantly to ……………… as its application promotes a commitment to quality repair procedures.
is a team of relatively small number of representatives. productive work (wrench time). which are reliable and a well-accepted planning times for the entire maintenance crew. For achieving high productive maintenance. life cycle cost reductions d) on time completion of jobs e) continuous improvements f) improved service to customers. b) Benchmarking the best practices c) ACE system for benchmarking and improvements d) Overall craft effectiveness for improved productivity and cost reduction and its measurement e) Improving the Wrench time of the Crew f) Achieving excellence in Maintenance Engineering and Management The resultant productivity improvement and benefits that accrues because of integrating planner’s function with UMS are: a) cost reductions b) downtime reduction. These Benchmarked jobs are then arranged into different time categories on spreadsheets for various craft work areas. or one country. Overall Craft Utilization = [Craft utilization (%) x Craft performance (%) x Craft service quality (%)] Maintenance is a core requirement for profitable survival and total operations success. on-time delivery and ultimately. The Universal Standards serve the special needs of maintenance work through the following principles: a) Scientific control b) Measurement before controls c) activity responsibility d) customer/service relationship e) Crew size f) Timeliness The Universal Maintenance Standards offered flexibility and could be applied not just in one location. but everywhere where maintenance work is performed and is based on three important techniques: a) Range of time b) work content comparison c) organizing the data “A Consensus of Experts” (ACE). principles and theory of new measurement techniques that are used are: a)Universal Maintenance Standards. who have performed these jobs earlier and have the requisite experience to improve upon them. organizations should clear understand of the Overall Craft Effectiveness. For gaining the internal core competency in maintenance. develops a bench marking process for the major work areas / types of operation. the concepts.Higher productivity maintenance means better customer service. Pure wrench time is just the actual output/work done Measuring and improving Overall Craft Effectiveness and the value received from improving our craft assets an important part of total asset management. higher quality. Craft Utilization or pure wrench time relates to measuring how effective the craft resources so are doing value-added. industry or service enterprise. satisfied customers. The ACE System is used to develop maintenance performance standards. Improving Overall Craft Effectiveness is getting maximum value from craft labor resources and higher craft productivity. measurements by using UMS and .
providing value added maintenance services on a most profitable manner are essential processes. 7.10 Terminal Questions 1. Why application and analysis of work measurements are important in maintenance management? 2. Which are all the concepts, techniques and principles used in measurement of work effectiveness and efficiency in maintenance? 3. Why planner’s role is vital to maintenance and how it improves the effectiveness? 4. Explain briefly the categories to which the tasks of work measurements can be grouped? 5. Explain the benefits that accrue to organization by integrating planner’s works with UMS? 6. Universal Standards serve the special needs of maintenance work through principlesWhich are these universal principles used for higher productive maintenance? 7. What are the three important techniques on which the UMS depends? 8. Explain briefly the five levels of UMS library and how each one is very important criteria for work measurement and analysis? 9. Explain the importance of using spread sheets and bench marks in work measurement to improve maintenance effectiveness? 10. “New Benchmarking Tool through ACE technique outlines a new and highly recommended methodology for establishing ‘team-based maintenance performance standards’, which is called as ‘Reliable Planning-Time standards” –explain how ACE will serve the organization’s needs in maintenance? 11. What is meant by Ace Benchmarking system and to what type of process it is recommended? 12. Explain overall performance effectiveness and how it helps in analyzing the performance of wrench times? 13. What is meant by effective craft utilization and productive wrench time & what are the factors constituting the craft utilization? 7.11 Answers
Self Assessment Questions 1. Improving the Overall craft effectiveness 2. Plans work content 3. On-time completion benefits 4. Universal Maintenance Standards 5. Scientific control 6. Work content comparison 7. Bench marks 8. A Consensus of Experts 9. Range of time concept 10. Range of time and pure wrench time 11. Work content 12. Improve current repair methods, Safety and quality 13. Reliability 14. Overall Craft Effectiveness 15. Wrench time 16. Value-added-productive work. (Wrench time) 17. Actual output/work 18. Total Productive hours or wrench time 19. Craft performance Terminal Questions: 1. Refer 7.1 2. Refer 7.1
3. Refer 7.2 4. Refer 7.3 5. Refer 7.4 6. Refer 7.5 7. Refer 7.6.1.(c) 8. Refer 7.6.2 9. Refer 7.6.2 10. Refer C 11. Refer 7.7.5 12. Refer 7.8 13. Refer 7.8. (d), (e), (f) Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .
OM0006-Unit-08-System Operations and Documentation Unit-08-System Operations and Documentation Structure: 8. it must plan for it.3 Documentation Management and Control Role of the Document Controller Types of QMS Documents Document Numbering Document Versioning Document Content 8.5 Summary 8.1 Introduction Objective 8.1 Introduction Before an organization begins creating QMS documentation.7 Answers 8.4 QMS Documentation Process 8. Planning for QMS documentation should address the following three elements: 1. . Planning for such documentation is performed during the planning phase for a specific project. Planning for QMS documentation refers to planning for “infrastructure level” QMS documentation. Overall strategy for creating QMS documentation.2 Documentation Strategy 8.6 Terminal Questions 8.
and dissemination of QMS documentation. Agreeing upon such issues up front will facilitate the creation of the QMS documentation. kept current. Documentation management and control mechanisms. perhaps most importantly. approval. made available to users. and 3. Document creation can proceed unhindered once the necessary guidelines are in place to support the creation. and. This entails answering questions such as: · What types of QMS documents are required? · How should the QMS documents be logically structured? · How should the QMS documents be uniquely identified? · Who should review and approve documents? · How should changes to QMS documents be identified and controlled? · How should superseded (or obsolete) documents be handled? . A wellthought-out. review. providing mechanisms to ensure that documentation in the organization is uniquely identifiable reviewed and approved by the appropriate authority prior to release. not outside parties. rational approach to documenting your QMS will enable you to rapidly develop a QMS that works and has sufficient but not excessive detail. Brainstorming the documentation strategy entails obtaining answers to the following questions: · What approach should be adopted for documenting the QMS (top down or bottom-up)? · Up to what level of detail should processes be documented (breadth and depth of documentation)? · How can the QMS documentation be kept relatively stable and immune from minor changes in the organization or its processes? Documentation management and control Documentation management and control are a key element of an organization’s QMS. the primary users of an organization’s QMS documentation are its employees. After all. Documentation strategy This is perhaps the most critical element of QMS documentation planning. changed in a controlled manner. Process for creating QMS documents. and archived when obsolete (to prevent unintentional use). not one written primarily to appease external quality auditors.2. will provide you with a documentation set that is usable.
Another important issue that needs to be addressed regards level of detail. Objectives: After going through this unit you will be able to: · Describe what is documentation strategy · Outline a documentation strategy for a unit or an enterprise · Construct a process map for documentation · Compose a QMS for a documentation process 8. review. approval. What is the right level of detail to include in the documentation so that it enables correct and . how should the QMS documentation repository be published? · How should the published QMS documentation be organized to maximize ease of use for employees? Documentation process The third element of QMS documentation planning entails the establishment of a process for the creation. and final release of QMS documents. Within the product development process.· How should documents of external origin be controlled? · Should the QMS documentation be stored in a physical (i. the process that results in a formal documented design for the product may be identified as the product design sub process that is documented in a product design procedure.. For example. a product design guidelines document. Similarly. the product design sub process should be supported by QMS documentation such as a design document template. the overall process that results in a delivered product the product development process may be documented in a product development procedure and/or in a product development process map. the process that results in a formalized set of product requirements may be identified as the product requirements definition sub process that is documented in a product requirements definition procedure. For example. The procedures describing the sub processes and their interaction should be supported by additional QMS documentation.. that is. hardcopy) repository or an electronic (i. virtual) repository? · How employees should be provided access to controlled QMS documentation.e.e. as appropriate. and other needed documentation.2 Documentation Strategy The top-down approach to implementing and documenting the QMS is highly recommended (as opposed to the bottom-up approach). rework.
3. or other factors. Therefore.” then refer to this department as the test department. If this department subsequently is renamed the “independent verification and validation department. For example. Sometimes. if any. Include only as much information as is necessary to ensure effective planning. Creating more QMS documentation is not necessarily the right solution. as opposed to referring to individuals by name. 2. and minimizes impact (on QMS documentation) of minor changes in the business processes and organizational structure? Any breakdown or inconsistency in process execution does not necessarily result from insufficient QMS documentation.” For example. operation. Other factors that have a bearing on extent of QMS documentation include size of the organization. state in procedure Y that detailed description regarding that activity can be found in procedure X. In the event of any change in the execution in that activity. refer to them by the “function performed. Include all information that is specifically required to be documented as per the applicable quality management system standard. instead of referring to departments by name. complexity of the process being documented. type of activities. Do not document details of an activity in more than one QMS document. and competency level of employees executing the processes. for minor operational or organizational changes. inadequate employee training. Below are some guidelines to follow to ensure QMS documentation has the right amount of detail: 1. state that the requirements document is produced by the requirements engineer. and another procedure Y needs to refer to the same activity. if your organization has a product test department that is called “system test department. Some useful tips to accomplish this are: • • • Always refer to roles (or functional areas) that are involved in the execution of a process. QMS documents should be written so that they need minimum change. If an activity is described in a procedure X.consistent process execution. To minimize the impact of such reorganizations. it is far more convenient to revise one QMS document than to revise multiple documents. or conducting employee training to emphasize key aspects of a process. Often departments in organizations are renamed or merged into other departments. organizations should be careful in how they respond when process execution deviates from requirements. instead of saying that Mark Peterson produces the product requirements document. but might result from unclear or ambiguous QMS documentation. Such an organizational change can have a huge impact on the QMS documents. and control of processes. review of existing QMS documentation to identify and correct deficiencies. .” you need not revise your QMS documents if the functional responsibilities for testing the product still reside with this group. is the preferred solution.
it is necessary to introduce the concepts of controlled documents and document controller. and enforce an organization’s documentation management and control function. and scope than are high-level documents. The ________________ to implementing and documenting the QMS is highly recommended. 4. type of activities. _____________ should be written so that they need minimum change. Document controllers are people who coordinate. it is best to control documents that affect an entire company (e. Verifying that documents submitted for storage and publishing are: . company quality manual and operating procedures) in a centralized location. Self Assessment Questions 1. Documentation process of __________ planning entails the establishment of a process for the creation. title. A controlled document is one that is formally approved and is under formal version control. such as procedures. department Y’s procedure refers to department X’s work instructions. Implementation-level QMS documents typically are more prone to changes in content. the document controller function may be centralized or distributed. Certainly it is quite inconvenient for department Y to revise its procedure when department X revises its work instructions such that the reference from department Y’s procedure becomes inaccurate. in case of companies with more than one location (or very large companies in a single location). Generally. 8. refer only to its highlevel QMS documents. but are not limited to: 1.1 Role of the Document Controller Before discussing different elements of document management and control. However. Documentation __________ and control are a key element of an organization’s QMS.• When referring to another department’s QMS documents. Avoid references to another department’s work instructions or similar implementation-level documents. QMS documentation that pertains to a specific location (or a specific function) may be controlled locally. monitor.3. 2..3 Documentation Management and Control 8. Depending on the size of an organization and/or its number of locations.g. QMS documentation includes ______ of the organization. A document controller’s responsibilities generally include. 3. For example. 5.
Duly approved c. Accompanied by review records (when required) 2. Maintaining a master list of controlled documents. Ensuring that all controlled documents are stored in a secure location. In case of changes to previously approved documents. 5. Verifying that the documents are correctly versioned. 8.a. 8. 12. 6. a document number may be generated automatically. This includes clearly identifying documents of external origin and storing them in a secure location. this task generally is performed by the document controller. the document controller should verify that the document version accurately reflects the magnitude of change in the latest version. when errors or discrepancies are observed. This is necessary because the document author may make document changes in addition to those that were authorized. Verifying that the documents are correctly numbered. Notifying affected personnel in the event of a change to a previously approved document (or release of a new document) 9. Alternatively.2 Types of QMS Documents Quality Manual . an approved document change request should be available) 7. they adhere to standardized templates when applicable) b. Correctly storing and publishing (or distributing) controlled documents. 10. for revised documents. 4. 3. When document numbers are issued manually for new documents. such as the document author and management personnel from the affected area. 11. Controlling documents of external origin. In the correct format (that is. This includes withdrawing copies of obsolete controlled documents. Verifying that all changes made to previously approved documents are clearly identified. Verifying that changes made to previously approved documents were properly authorized (that is. Notifying appropriate personnel.3. Authorizing internal documents for external release after verifying that approvals for the release have been obtained from relevant management personnel.
This includes describing the purpose and scope of each process. An organization’s quality manual is an invaluable document for its employees. organizations structure their Quality Manual in one of two ways: 1) Standard-based quality manual Most organizations that are implementing a QMS in accordance with the requirements in a particular quality management system standard. employees invariably prefer such a quality manual. such as ISO 9001:2000. Each section (or subsection) in the quality manual describes how requirements in the corresponding section (or subsection) in the quality management system standard are adhered to in the organization. followed by separate sections briefly describing each key process in the QMS. It therefore should reflect the organization’s commitment to quality (in other words. QMS documentation in explaining adherence to each quality management system standard requirement. 2) Process-based quality manual This structure is being used increasingly in organizations that have successfully transitioned to taking a process-oriented view of their QMS. customers (and potential customers). Senior management should realize that it is responsible for the manual’s content. from the quality manual. A significant advantage of this structure is that it is not alien to employees. in the case of smaller companies. Therefore. . When appropriate. the quality manual references relevant. prefer to structure their manual to mimic the structure of the applicable quality management system standard. This can be demonstrated by senior management approval on the quality manual. The quality manual must reflect the QMS accurately and be kept current at all times. answer why the organization is implementing a QMS) and describe how the organization ensures quality in its daily operations. and not in the context of a quality management system standard. Such details should be embedded in the appropriate QMS documents. Such quality manuals follow a top-down approach to describing the organization’s QMS. employees typically relate more closely to organizational processes than to the requirements in a quality management system standard. along with a reference to related QMS documentation. This approach entails describing the high-level product development process map of the organization.A quality manual is the highest-level QMS document and is intended primarily to provide an overview of an organization’s QMS. and other parties (such as third-party auditors). In case of medium and large product development companies. it is preferable to exclude details regarding the organization’s processes from the quality manual. as needed. Such a quality manual includes separate sections (or subsections) for each of the requirements sections (or subsections) in the quality management system standard. and consequently it gains wider acceptance for daily operations. it may be appropriate to include the procedures in the quality manual itself. However. The QMS is explained in the context of the organizational business processes. Typically. which must be referenced.
Procedure A procedure is a documented high-level description of a process. When process practitioners do not have the requisite training or are otherwise unskilled for creating effective process . As a general rule of thumb. Work instructions typically are intradepartmental and are intended primarily for use by process practitioners. Because a procedure is intended to contain relatively high-level information regarding a process. The practitioners have firsthand experience performing the tasks and therefore typically are the most knowledgeable. called work instructions. Due to the interdepartmental nature of procedures. Procedures are useful for communicating process information at all levels of management between departments. and experienced personnel for providing information on the execution of specific tasks. They describe: What activities comprise a process. and Where the activities are performed. and they constitute the first level of documentation below procedures. they should be documented and jointly reviewed by practitioners involved in executing the tasks documented. They provide a step-by-step description of tasks to be executed in order to accomplish each activity in the process. because organizational processes typically span multiple departments. practitioners typically need additional process documents. competent. When each activity in a process is performed. Procedures are usually interdepartmental. Work instructions describe how activities in a process are executed. it is a good candidate for splitting into separate procedures. If a longer procedure is needed. They serve as critical reference documents for anyone interested in knowing what a process entails. Due to the intradepartmental nature of work instructions. a procedure should not be longer than three pages. they should undergo cross-functional review by all departments involved in the process (or areas affected by the process) being documented. They also serve as a valuable starting point for training process practitioners. This helps ensure that the procedure accurately reflects the process and the interaction between various departments. Procedures are not intended to provide the how to implementation details regarding a process. The decision to document a process in a procedure is made by the respective process owner in consultation with the quality assurance department. Procedures constitute the first level of documentation below the quality manual. Who performs the activities (roles and responsibilities). Work instruction A work instruction is a documented low-level description of a process. to execute their tasks.
the work instructions should be documented with direct input and active involvement of the process practitioners. such as the PMC representative for the department. The need to document a procedure or work instruction may be determined by using criteria such as: Complexity Is the process or the activities in it sufficiently complex that that it needs to be supported by a documented procedure or work instruction? Or. the core description of tasks in a work instruction should be limited to about four or five pages in length..g.. the greater the likelihood of inconsistency in process execution. the sequence of tasks to be performed during engine assembly for a passenger vehicle)? Need for consistency Are there expectations regarding a high degree of discipline and consistency in executing a set of tasks (e.documentation. In many cases. Work instructions should be created on an as-needed basis when a need exists to provide detailed step-by-step guidance for process execution. Not every procedure needs to be supported by underlying work instructions. in order to secure buy-in of the practitioners and to ensure that the documentation accurately reflects practice. and to ensure consistency in process execution. processes that are relatively straightforward and without inherent complexity (or sophistication) can be described adequately in a well-documented procedure such that competent personnel can faithfully execute them without compromising quality of process output. .) Size of organization Is the process executed by several personnel and/or in multiple locations? The greater the number of personnel involved in a process or the greater the number of locations at which a process is executed. the sequence of inspections to be performed before final approval for release of electronic wire assemblies)? Competence of personnel Is the competency level of the personnel executing the process such that it needs to be augmented with appropriate documentation to ensure the process is correctly executed? (For example. In such a case. to minimize variation. work instructions can help ensure consistency and minimize errors. The decision to create a work instruction is made by the line manager or process owner who is responsible for the tasks. this task may be performed by another appropriate person. is there need to elaborate and provide further explanation on a process documented in a procedure by creating a work instruction (e. As a general rule of thumb.g. when new personnel or personnel with varying levels of competence are executing a process.
8. a unique document number and version should be assigned to each document. but retained for archival purposes). Templates and forms A template is a skeleton for a document intended to be populated with specific information from use. A form is used to record information.Past problems Have there been instances in the past where inconsistencies in employees have been observed in process execution? In such cases. it is strongly recommended that a procedure template first be established. such as procedures or work instructions. documenting an agreed way of executing a process can help. a document typically will undergo revisions until it is withdrawn from use (or considered obsolete. The procedure author would start with the procedure template and populate it with information for the process being documented. For example. It is recommended that forms and templates have brief instructions embedded in them to guide the user regarding the expected content in each section of the document. due to their very nature.3. Therefore. The numbering convention should be published in a QMS document. This is because the information contained in the new revision of the document is to some extent different from that contained in the previous revision. Once released. while the decision to create a template or form for departmental use may be made by the respective line manager. Templates serve as guides for communicating the expected structure and content of a document. The organization should devise a document numbering convention that meets its needs. one must not only know what document to use. An example of a document numbering convention is shown in Table 1. evolve. Table 1 . 8. but also what revision level of that document to use.3. Any change or set of changes made to a document since its last release necessitates that the new revision level of the document be formally identified.4 Document Versioning Documents.3 Document Numbering In order to uniquely identify and control each QMS document. They help in ensuring consistency of format and content within a particular type of document. The decision to create a template or form for use across departments should be made by the respective process owner in consultation with the quality assurance department (for reasons described earlier). for documenting procedures. directly in the fields provided. and should be enforced by the personnel in charge of (or tool used for) issuing the document numbers. either for review or for use (after approval).
Example of a Document Numbering Convention Document number format: AAA-BB-CCCC-DDDD where, AAA: Three-character identifier for department that is the document originator For example, “ENG” may denote engineering, “MKT” may denote marketing, “EXT” may denote the document is of external origin, and so on. BB: Two character identifier for document type. For example, “PR” may denote procedure, “TP” may denote template, “CH” may denote checklist, and so on. CCCC: Four-character alphanumeric identifier for project, product, or task. DDDD: Four-digit sequential number between 0001 and 9999. This sequential number uniquely identifies a specific document (irrespective of its version). 8.3.5 Document Content Following are some guidelines regarding document content (for examples, refer to sample QMS documents in the Appendices): 1. All QMS documents and records should have the same “look and feel.” Consistency in templates and forms can be ensured by following some general guidelines, such as:
The same header and footer on all templates and forms, with information such as:
a) Document title b) Document number c) Document version d) A statement to indicate the company proprietary nature of the document
Each QMS document, when appropriate, should use the same title page, containing the following:
– Standard information, (e.g., organization’s name and logo). The title page also can include a unique logo to indicate that it is a QMS document. This enables quick identification of QMS documents. – Customizable information, (e.g., document title) 2. Each QMS document or record should contain content as per the guidance contained in the associated form or template. Each QMS document must identify its purpose and
scope clearly. Correctness of the document content should be reviewed and enforced during document review meetings. 3. Deletions from the template and forms should not be allowed. If a particular section is not required, it should be marked “not applicable.” 4. Insertion of additional sections in a document created by using a standard form or template should be allowed when necessary; however, certain rules should be established to handle addition of new sections. Self Assessment Questions State whether following statement True or False. 6. All QMS documents and records should have the same “look and feel”. 7. A work instruction is a non-documented low-level description of a process. 8. A procedure is a documented high-level description of a process. 9. A quality manual is the highest-level QMS document. 10. A template is not a skeleton for a document intended to be populated with specific information from use. 8.4 QMS Documentation Process Now that all the necessary elements of a documentation management system have been described, you are ready to begin creating QMS documents. What documentation process should be followed to create, review, and approve QMS documents? This section describes a high-level documentation process that ties together some of the key elements of document management and control. Step 1: Identify suitable document author The first step is to identify a document author who possesses appropriate subject matter expertise. Typically, a management person from the function tasked to create the document selects a suitable document author. Step 2: Create draft version of the document The document author creates a draft version of the document by using the applicable template (if one is available). Step 3: Review the draft document
Once a draft version of the document has been prepared, it is circulated for review to appropriate reviewers (or functions) that are considered stakeholders in a document. The review may be in the form of an informal and/or formal review. Step 4: Rework the document as per reviewer feedback After receiving the feedback from the reviewers, the author reworks the document in accordance with comments provided by the document reviewers. Step 5: Approve and publish the document Once the document rework is complete, and it has been determined that a rearview is not required, the document is circulated for approval to the identified approvers. Once all the required approvals have been obtained, the author submits the master copy of the document along with the review record to the document controller. The document controller stores the document in the controlled repository and makes copies available for use. 8.5 Summary Documentation strategy is perhaps the most critical element of QMS documentation planning. Documentation management and control are a key element of an organization’s QMS, providing mechanisms to ensure that documentation in the organization is uniquely identifiable reviewed and approved by the appropriate authority prior to release. A template is a skeleton for a document intended to be populated with specific information from use. 8.6 Terminal Questions 1. Explain briefly different steps in documentation. 2. Define some guidelines in Documentation Strategy. 3. Explain types of QMS documents. 4. Summarize Document Content. 5. Explain QMS Documentation Process. 8.7 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1. Management 2. QMS documentation
True 9. True 7. False Terminal Questions 1. Top-Down approach 5. Size 6. QMS documents 4. Page 4 3.Refer 8.2. 10 5.2 4.0 2. Refer 8.1.3 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Refer 8. Refer Pages 9. False 8. . Refer 8. True 10.3.
OM0006-Unit-09-Machine Life and Depreciation
Unit-09-Machine Life and Depreciation Structure: 9.1 Introduction Objectives 9.2 Functional Reliability of Facilities 9.3 Weibull Distribution Curve [Failures and its Analysis] 9.4 Life of Equipment a) Bathtub Curve and MTBF b) Breakdown Time Distribution c) Reliability and Variability of the Equipments 9.5 Critical Analysis 9.6 Maintenance Performance Ratios 9.7 Maintenance Systems 9.8 Reliability and Availability Concepts 9.9 How good is Reliability Performance? a) Root Cause Failure Analysis b) Reliability Centred Maintenance c) Failure Modes Effects Analysis & Total Productivity Maintenance 9.10 Maintenance Economics 9.11 Preventive Vs Breakdown Maintenance
9.12 Measurement of Maintenance Performance 9.13 Asset Life Cycle Management 9.14 Equipment Replacement Plans 9.15 Depreciation & Capital Expenditure based on Life Cycle 9.16 Summary 9.17 Terminal Questions 9.18 Answers to SAQ & Terminal Questions 9.1 Introduction The main function of the maintenance department is to monitor and control the condition of machineries and equipments and improve their functional reliability. The reliability theories on equipment performances have shown that there is a definite pattern of performance in their lifespan. This pattern manifests itself when different machineries are subjected to rigorous operations during the life span. The typical characteristics of the lifespan show a particular behaviour pattern of a bathtub and hence it is called as ‘bathtub curve’, which is discussed later. Objectives: After going through this unit you will be able to: · Describe what are failures in maintenance · Analyze failures through Weibull distribution curve · Discuss Reliability Performance · Construct a measure for performance 9.2 Functional Reliability of Facilities One of the most important objectives of Maintenance management is to improve functional reliability of the production facilities. The functional reliability refers to the consistency of the degree of performance of the machine, equipment or service operation. When it is said that a machine is having 97% reliability means that 97% of the machine time is utilized in performing the standard production for which it is meant for, and the remaining 3% of non performing may be
due to breakdowns or sub-standard performance. Therefore it is the duty of the plant maintenance crew to strive to maintain and increase the functional reliability of the production facilities. The objective of FMEA ( ) and reliability analysis of the plant and equipment is to ensure to excellence in performance of critical assets and achieve the business goals. The application of standard procedures and structured approach to analyse and practice effective method/s required to maintain all the operating plant assets. This process enables the maintenance managers to plan, review and optimise the maintenance operations that have direct impact on plant availability, thereby improving the overall plant performance and minimizing catastrophic failures. The functional reliability of facilities to be maintained or improved upon by the maintenance management requires the use of certain concepts, reliability methodologies, analysis, tools and techniques and measures. Some of these are listed: a) Determinate the appropriate level of maintenance services required. b) Identify specific actions based on equipment failures analysis & risk assessment. c) Prevention and reduction of potential failures by properly identifying defects and implementing corrective actions prior to failure d) To deploy sufficient staff to provide adequate repair and maintenance facilities. e) To provide for the stand-by equipment for key operations and also reasonable slacks in the production system to create some parallel path in a critical situation f) To adopt preventive Maintenance system to replace critical parts, before they fail. g) Each of the above involves costs. The cost involved should be justified on the basis of cost-benefit analysis. The cost of attaining reliability must be lower than the cost advantage available out of the production stoppages, idle machine and labour time, scrap, poor quality, loss of goodwill to keep delivery promises etc. h) Maintenance extends the useful life of assets by reducing wear and tear. i) Maintenance keeps up operational readiness of equipments for emergencies. j) Maintenance contributes a great deal to safety of manpower using the facilities. k) It prevents wastage of spares, tools and materials.
is primarily due to abrupt changes in stress distribution in the components. 9.l) More automation calls for sophisticated Maintenance. This type of breakdowns may be due physical characteristics of the . a) Infant Mortality phase: Newly installed equipment shows high rate incidence of early failures during initial phase of its life. because of its shape. the weak components from the infant mortality period have either been repaired or replaced. As per the graph. the failure rate dips as the components adjust to the system until it reaches a relatively low constant level. b) Useful Performance phase: Next phase is the useful period of performance with a better reliability. This is the useful period of the machine. called the ‘Weibull distribution graph’ (after Weibull developed it). there are three phases in the equipment performance namely a) Infant mortality phase b) Useful performance phase c) Ageing phase. Once this phase is over. fatigue due to flaws in the molecular structure of the metals. The graph of the failure pattern. is shown below. or sheer quality deficiency in their manufacture. poor installation. it is important to know the nature and occurrence of failures over a period of time for the equipment in use. Most equipment that survives infancy stage will continue to perform better with very few failures.3 Weibull Distribution Curve [Failure & Its Analysis] For better maintenance planning and control. The failure is random and unpredictable. During this period. which is called the infant mortality. It is also commonly called as ‘Bath Tub Curve’. c) Ageing Phase: Here the rate of failure increases until the equipment succumbs and is characterized by the rapid wear and tear of more and more components until major breakdown happens. This behaviour pattern reflects ‘hyper-exponential distribution’. and or not adjusted the operating conditions adequately. The high rate of failure at infant mortality stage is primarily due to the presence of weak or substandard components or design inadequacies.
the breakdown time distribution of a complex machine will reflect a greater variability than that of a simple machine even if they have the same average maintenance free run time. Negative exponential and Normal exponential.materials used.4 Life of Equipment a) Bathtub Curve and MTBF · Weibull distribution or Bath Tub Curve. A= [Tn] / [Tn+Td] b) Breakdown time distribution: · It is essential to know how the breakdown time is distributed in order to establish the cost implications in maintenance. Distribution shows the frequency of maintenance free running time with respect to total operating hours. and may be earlier or later. but in a complex machine. · A simple machine having few moving parts may have breakdowns happenings after a large number of maintenance free run time hours. This means that each part in a particular machine will have different failure distribution. These causes being external to the equipment and the probability of failing is relatively constant. . or how the machine is used. the failure fall into a negative exponential distribution. This ultimate may occur at ‘mean’ or ‘average’ time. the failure of any one part may result in the complete machine breakdown. can be assessed.e. This ageing failure graph shows a bell-shaped normal distribution pattern. shown above. · When the failures are recurrent. Mean Time between Failure (MTBF) can be computed. 9. In other words. · Figure below represents the degree of variability in free run time. is a combination of three distributions: Hyper exponential. · The availability (A) = [Cumulative time of operation in the normal working condition(Tn)] / the cumulative down time (Td)] i. Depending upon the complexity of the machine and severe aging processes because of extreme wear and tear results in an ultimate failure. availability. · From these. anticipated life etc. by which the system reliability. its statistics will help as a diagnostic tool in identifying the exponential nature of the availability and the reliability of equipment.
converting the information into the breakdown time distributions versus the percentage of breakdowns that exceeds a given run time.9. but the distribution shows wider variability. 0. the frequency distribution.and 0. Curve B of the complex machine. 0. It can be observed that the Curve A shows lower degree of variability. before establishing reliability. For example: if the total system has four sub systems having the reliability factors of 0.7.4. we mean the probability that any system gives a trouble free service.6. Hence the reliability of the total system depends on the product reliability factors of each of the sub systems. then the total product reliability is multiple of all these systems i.While curve A depicts the behaviour of a simple machine. . and ‘runtimes free of breakdowns’ on the ‘x’ – axis. · When the above reliability factors are plotted in a diagram showing the percentage of breakdowns that exceed a given runtime on the ‘y’ – axis. The variability by Curve C is typical of complicated equipment that needs fine adjustments before it starts giving trouble free service. Curve C has the same average maintenance free runtime as the other two. c) Reliability and Variability of the Equipments · Equipment can be considered as a total system and the failure of any one of the sub system can cause failure of the entire system. curve B exhibits moderate variability while Curve C indicates greater degree of variability from average breakdown time Ta. the resultant graph is shown below.e. · By reliability. Here the data can be recast in the diagram.8. 0.
As in other types of probabilities.7 Maintenance Systems The ad hoc unplanned emergency maintenance is not recommended. It is the job of the maintenance crew to identify and quickly eliminate or simplify or improve upon these defects.5 Critical Analysis Critical analysis of maintenance problems is essential to know as to how serious is the problem for taking quick actions. to locate the faulty/broken part. or even a few days as the work involved depends on the size and complexity of the equipment. here too is that the small percentage of around 15-20% defects in equipment. Fundamental differences between the strategies discussed earlier and the proactive maintenance discussed now are: 1. to reassemble the equipment and then check and restore to its functional capacity. but the two types of planned maintenance could be carried out. electrical or other fault quickly and to correct them. the repair maintenance crew endeavours to locate mechanical. This activity may take a few minutes. Preventive Maintenance When a sudden breakdown occurs in a machine. Focus is not only concentrated on availability but also the reliability . In other words. the function presupposes the previous breakdowns and actions of disassembling the equipment. In this type of repair maintenance. namely: 1. it is a corrective maintenance to restore the machine/parts to acceptable condition again. to replace it. Repair Maintenance 2. may contribute to 80 to 85% of the total breakdown time. the nature of the fault and availability of repair staff etc.9.6 Maintenance Performance Ratios Some of the ratios used in measuring the effectiveness of Maintenance functions are: a) Waste Index = [Waste Quantity] / [Output Quantity] b) Productivity of Maintenance = [Product output] / [Maintenance Cost] c) Maintenance Cost index = 100 x [Maintenance cost] / [Capital Cost] d) Breakdown maintenance index = [Break down hours] / [Man hours available] e) Downtime index = 100 x [Downtime hours] / [Production hours] 9. 9.
2. 9. There is a push towards zero downtime or zero in-service breakdowns. Q = Quality performance. For example. Root Cause Failure Analysis (RCFA). Manufacturing reliability can be defined as a manufacturing system’s capability to operate to its expected operations. Using the above definition. then lower is the reliability. the overall reliability performance of the total process is less and is dictated by the complex machine with lesser reliability. · Mean Time between Failure (MTBF) · Measure of mean time between production Loss (MTBPL) (Production losses include loss due to time. 9. quality and speed) · Mean production loss (MPL) Thus the reliability index is expressed in terms of the running continuously without production losses. This index is the volume of quality products you measure in the production line divided by the theoretical volume of quality product you could achieve from the same line. a CNC machine can be very good at 90%. the formula used to measure manufacturing reliability (MR) is: MR = [% T] x [% Q] x [% S] [Where. and others. Use of improved maintenance tools such as Reliability Centred Maintenance (RCM).9 How Good Is ‘Reliability Performance’? In industrial processes.8 Reliability and Availability Concepts Reliability and availability have become key issues. a tissue processing machine may give a good reliability of +98%. but the liquid packaging machine may be best at +75% reliability. S = Speed performance] Manufacturing reliability model consists of a) process reliability b) equipment reliability and c) reliability maintainability. more complex the equipment/ the raw material/ high tech processing. 3. . where as a less complex automatic lathe may be rated best at + 98%. T = Time performance. fix the problem as fast as possible. and manufacture the quality product at the speed required. There are many ways to measure reliability. Say in a paper processing. but when failures occur.
This practice has impact on many aspects of business. · While RCM is driven by preventive maintenance strategies. the team finds as many causes for the fault as possible and classify them into non contributing and contributing. 9. Non contributing causes are removed from the list and contributing factors are taken for analysis. planning and organisational leadership.11 Preventive Vs Breakdown Maintenance Certain generalizations on type of maintenance can be made to improve the reliability: a) First. c) Failure Modes Effects Analysis & Total Productivity Maintenance · Total productive maintenance (TPM) and failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) are other maintenance tools used for improving the reliability through proactive maintenance. As maintenance is an economic decision. what are its cost implications? 9. Through brainstorming sessions. hygiene. .a) Root cause failure analysis: · The root cause failure analysis (RCFA) method brings a knowledgeable team together to investigate certain failures using evidence left behind from the fault. It has relevance to high volume production and can improve a company’s maintenance system and help improve the overall productivity of the processes. quality. RCFA is driven by maintenance prevention strategies. b) Reliability centred Maintenance · The purpose of reliability centred maintenance (RCM) is to determine the maintenance requirements of any physical assets in its operating contexts. preventive maintenance is highly beneficial to machines whose breakdown time distributions are having low variability. customer service. a standard preventive maintenance period can be set in such a way that the total downtime is reduced. production. engineering. In this situation. When implemented together they complement each other and provide the greatest overall benefit to the facility. RCM provides a flow diagram that tells what type of maintenance to be used. Answering to seven questions on all the potential modes of failure will uncover the predictive maintenance strategy requires to mitigate the consequences of the failure. Through a fault tree analysis. the team checks for the logical flows and determine what changes are to be made to prevent causes from reoccurring.10 Maintenance Economics Maintenance refers to an organisation’s policy in respect of the maintenance function of a set of equipments. The decision of maintenance policy is more of an economic decision rather than a technical one.
overhauls and renovations c) Production asset and loss d) Continuous reliability improvements e) Maintenance cost as a ratio of percentage of 1) gross asset value 2) sales value. 2. Additional stoppage time because the maintenance crew cannot start repairing immediately after the breakdown has occurred. c) In general. if the maintenance time is less than the repair time and If the preventive maintenance is equal to. or more than the time for repair.12 Measurement of Maintenance Performance Organizations seeking excellence in their maintenance practices should constantly endeavour to measure and improve upon the performance criteria’s of maintenance. reduces costs and eliminate waste. d) We need to take into account other effects of unscheduled down-time. Effect on production losses if plant shutdown can be avoided 3.b) Second. such as 1. Effects of scheduling preventive maintenance for non-productive days with no loss of production. Some metrics that may help in evaluation are: a) Maintenance man hours as percentage of total man hours b) Shutdown. existing maintenance facilities. 3) direct labour value . maintenance cost breakdown. the percentage of machine running time continues to increase with the increase of standard preventive maintenance period. when the repair time is equal to maintenance time. Hence maintenance and management of assets is the core to any business. increases capacity. Companies should recognize this fact that maintenance of its assets is to be encouraged as the process will provide advantages in enhancing quality initiative. it is better to perform corrective or breakdown maintenance. the relation of preventive maintenance time to repair time is important. nature of repair breakdowns. There is little gain in the preventive maintenance. Analysis of data of the existing conditions with respect to down time production loss. 9. etc are required to be done and evaluated.
then the asset is disposed off as it has reached the end of its lifecycle. a) Technical factors that dictates replacement 1) Wear and tear of equipment 2) Obsolescence caused by new invention .f) Safety and regulatory compliance 9. Factors that are considered while taking decision to replace machine and equipment can be classified as a) Technical factors b) Cost factors. Asset life cycle management system.14 Equipment Replacement Plans The systematic equipment development program includes: 1) emergence of equipment replacement 2) classification of equipment replacement 3) assignment of responsibility for equipment replacement 4) selection of the equipment 5) follow up. b) Maintenance phase: operating environment for each asset is defined and performance goals at the lowest cost are firmed up. companies are required to produce more products of higher quality from fewer resources and hence maintaining higher reliability of assets has been a challenging task for the management. c) Disposal Phase: when the asset is no longer capable of delivering the required operational performance or cannot be maintained cost effectively to achieve the required level of dependability.13 Asset Life Cycle Management In high tech production. as evolved by some companies for better results consists of three phases: a) Asset Acquisition Phase: here asset may be new or replaced or change of major components changed before operating activities in this asset is firmed up. 9. Asset dependability and its reliability are to be established.
of years the equipment will pay for itself) = [A+B] / [(E-F) DG + H – C] . speed of operations. Hence the time for replacement depends on the condition and characteristics of the equipment. Some important methods or replacement of old and unused machineries are 1) minimum annual cost method 2) by using Barnes formula 3) MAPI (Machinery and allied institute) method. old or new. X = (No. power consumption. will pay not only for equipment but also for any unamortized value for next few years. 1) Minimum annual cost method: here the decision to replace the machine (unwanted or life is completed) is based on the operating and capital costs. material losses etc. Here the replacement is not advocated unless savings due to the use of new equipment. While the annual operating costs include wages to operator.3) Unsuitability of equipment due to size of the work. repair and maintenance costs. having a short life. rate of output. consumes high power etc 4) Automation requirement for processes 5) To eliminate slack time through line balancing 6) Reduced safety 7) Reliability of performance b) Cost Factors: 1) High repair cost 2) Lesser place requirement 3) Probable economic life of the new machine 4) Consumption of less power 5) Reduction in labour cost because high productive machines purchased 6) Flexibility requirement not in the existing equipment Methods used for replacement after analysis: The replacement analysis becomes more complex due to many technical factors and qualitative considerations. accuracy. The main ingredients of the annual cost are depreciation and interest charges. 2) By Using Barnes Formula: this formula is used for equipment.
Depreciation tries to apply the accruals by matching that Rs. Additionally. It emphasizes on immediate return. The two most commonly used methods are straight line method and reducing balance method. and then sold for Rs.15 Depreciation & Capital Expenditure based on Life Cycle · This requirement falls into the following groups: a) Calculation of depreciation b) Calculation of profit/loss on disposal c) Accounting for depreciation and disposals Calculation of Depreciation · Capital expenditure is that spent on purchase or improves on fixed assets.[where A = cost of new equipment. · An annual depreciation charge is shown as an expense in the Profit and Loss account. MAPI method concentrates on the comparison of the rate of return of the proposed new project and similar returns when the proposed project is not implemented within next year.10000. but shown in the Balance Sheet · Depreciation is an attempt to spread the cost of an asset over its useful economic life. it has the business cost of Rs. · Depreciation should be calculated in a way which most closely reflecting the manner in which the asset is being used up. if an asset is purchased for Rs. B = depreciated value of the old equipment. Straight Line method 1) A fixed percentage on cost each year. 2) The same monetary amount each year . 9. E = labour cost per unit in old equipment.9000 with the income that asset has generated. Capital expenditure is not recorded in the Profit and Loss account. G = estimated working days per year for new equipment and H = savings or losses per year in fixed charges other than interest] 3) MAPI method: here the analysis is divided into 35 heads & three main groups. C = interest charge of new equipment.1000. D = number of units product per day by new equipment. kept in use for 8 years.9000. the value of the asset in the balance sheet should be reduced by each year’s charge. F = estimated labour cost per unit with new equipment. whilst revenue expenditure is that spent on day to day business expenses. For example.
the annual charge for every year of the machine’s life is Rs.30000.Reducing Balance method 1) A fixed percentage on net book value each year 2) A reducing monetary amount each year Example: 1 a) Straight line method A machine is purchased for Rs.30000 – Rs. 6000 b) Year 2 (Rs. ] Reducing balance method (the charge for depreciation reduces each year) a) Year 1 Rs.30000 x 100. at the end of which it will be sold for Rs. (Rs.2850. It is expected that this machine will be used for 10 years. the actual disposal proceeds will show the true net cost of the asset. On disposal. i. This may reveal that two much or too little depreciation has been provided over the asset’s life. This over or under provision of depreciation is shown in the Profit and Loss a/c as a profit or loss on the disposal of fixed assets.1500) / 10 = Rs. · [Note that the policy could have been expressed as “straight line at %” or “Depreciation at % pa on cost” – here the percentage is calculated as = Rs.4800) x 20% =Rs.4800 c) Year 3 (Rs.e. .30000 – Rs.3840 and so on.e.1500. i.2850 / Rs.30000 – Rs.6000) x 20% =Rs. Calculate the depreciation to be charged for each of the first 3 years of the machine’s life. [Note that the expected residual value is ignored & it will have been incorporated into the choice of 20% as an appropriate rate] b) Calculation of Profit/Loss The depreciation charged each year is based on estimates of useful life and residual value.6000 – Rs. 2850) · So. using: (i) The straight line method (ii) The reducing balance method at 20% pa Solution · Under the straight line method. the net cost is simply divided by the expected life.30000 x 20%= Rs.
Solution · Sales proceeds must be compared to the net book value on the date of disposal.03-2009 =20480 · Thus. 2520] c) Accounting for depreciation and disposals · In the above example. acquisition or disposal may occur part way through the accounting year. Calculate the profit or loss arising on this disposal.40000. 2. . 23000 – 20480 (book value) = Rs.23000. and is depreciated using the reducing balance method at 20% pa.03-2008 =25600 · Depreciation y/e 31.03-2009 (20%) =5120 · Net book value at 31. In practice.2520 [sale price of Rs. The asset is sold on 1 January 2009 for Rs. The main function of the maintenance department is to monitor and control the condition of machineries and equipments and improve their ____________________. which necessitates decision regarding depreciation (may be proportionate) · A popular depreciation policy would be: A full year’s charge in the year of acquisition but none in the year of disposal Self Assessment Questions Fill up the blanks with appropriate words: 1. equipment or service operation.2007 (20%) =8000 · Net book value at 31.03-2008 (20%)= 6400 · Net book value at 31.03.2007 =32000 · Depreciation y/e 31. · Original cost 40000 · Depreciation y/e 31.03. there is a profit on disposal of price of Rs. the disposal occurred exactly 3 years after the acquisition.Example: 2 An asset is purchased on 1 January 2006 for Rs. The functional reliability refers to the ____________________ of the machine.
it is important to know the nature and occurrence of failures over a period of time for the equipment in use. Reliability and availability have become key issues. 9. The graph of the failure pattern. Newly installed equipment shows high rate incidence of early failures during initial phase of its life. The failure of any one of the sub system can cause failure of the __________________. is shown below. _________________ of maintenance problems is essential to know as to how serious is the problem for taking quick actions. Most equipment that survives infancy stage will continue to perform better with very few failures. It is also commonly called as ____________________. The formula used to measure manufacturing reliability (MR) is: MR = ……………………….. and manufacture the quality product at the speed required. there are three phases in the equipment performance namely a) Infant mortality phase b) Useful performance phase c) _____________________ 6. Manufacturing reliability can be defined as a manufacturing system’s ____________. the rate of failure increases until the equipment succumbs and is characterized by the rapid wear and tear of more and more components until major breakdown happens. A simple machine having few moving parts may have breakdowns happenings after a large number of maintenance free run time hours. 5. but in a complex machine. For better maintenance planning and control. 7. . called the ‘Weibull distribution graph’ (after Weibull developed it). 11. The objective of FMEA ( ) and reliability analysis of the plant and equipment is to ensure to ____________________ of critical assets and achieve the business goals. here too is that the small percentage of around 15-20% defects in equipment. the failure of any one part may result in the ____________________ . 4. 8.3. Hence the reliability of the total system depends on the _________________ of each of the sub systems. because of its shape. may contribute to of the ____________ total breakdown time 10. This is the useful period of the machine. In the ____________ . In the performance phase is the ______________ period of performance with a better reliability. As in other types of probabilities. As per the graph. which is called the______________.
reliability methodologies. The reliability theories on equipment have shown that there is a definite performance pattern their lifespan. by which the system reliability. The functional reliability refers to the consistency of the degree of performance of the machine. Q = Quality performance. The replacement analysis becomes more complex due to many technical factors and the qualitative consideration. analysis. This pattern manifests itself due to rigorous operations during the life span. The objective of FMEA ( ) and reliability analysis of the plant and equipment is to ensure to excellence in performance of critical assets and achieve the business goals. equipment or service operation. The functional reliability of facilities to be maintained or improved upon by the maintenance management requires the use of certain concepts. 9. as evolved by some companies for better results consists of three phases: a) Asset Acquisition Phase: b) Maintenance phase: c) ____________________ 14.16 Summary The main function of the maintenance department is to monitor and control the condition of machineries and improve their functional reliability. Therefore it is the duty of the plant maintenance crew to strive to maintain and increase the functional reliability of the production facilities. . Reliability and availability have become key issues. The purpose of reliability centred maintenance (RCM) is to determine the __________________ in its operating contexts. Mean Time between Failure (MTBF) can be computed. 13. tools and techniques and measures.[Where. S = Speed performance ] 12. RCM provides a flow diagram that tells what type of maintenance to be used. Some important methods or replacement of old and unused machineries are 1) minimum annual cost method 2) by using ____________________ 3) ____________________ method. can be assessed. Manufacturing reliability can be defined as a manufacturing system’s capability to operate to its expected operations. anticipated life etc. availability. and manufacture the quality product at the speed required. Asset life cycle management system. T = Time performance.
The graph of the failure pattern. called the ‘Weibull distribution graph’ and known as ‘Bath Tub Curve’. shows three phases in the equipment performance namely · Infant mortality phase · Useful performance phase · Ageing phase. Asset life cycle management system. there must be equipment replacement plan after considering the cost impact and other technical factors. There are many ways to measure reliability. as evolved by some companies for better results consists of three phases: a) Asset Acquisition Phase b) Maintenance phase c) Disposal Phase Based on the life cycle analysis. · Mean Time between Failure (MTBF) · Mean time between production Loss (MTBPL) · Mean production loss (MPL) Companies should recognize this fact that maintenance of its assets is to be encouraged as the process will provide advantages in enhancing quality initiative. . The purpose of reliability centred maintenance (RCM) is to determine the maintenance requirements of any physical assets in its operating contexts. Hence the reliability of the total system depends on the product reliability factors of each of the sub systems. because of its shape. increases capacity. reduces costs and eliminate waste.For better maintenance planning and control. Equipment can be considered as a total system and the failure of any one of the sub system can cause failure of the entire system. it is important to know the nature and occurrence of failures over a period of time for the equipment in use. Total productive maintenance (TPM) and failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) are other maintenance tools used for improving the reliability through proactive maintenance. However the methodology to be used depends on the best alternative within the organizations objectives.
Capital expenditure based on the life cycle and the depreciation either by straight line or reducing method is used for a comprehensive decision by the management.18 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1. Explain few of them? 7) What are the factors considered in measurement of maintenance measurements? How they are evaluated? Briefly explain the three phases of asset life cycle management. Excellence in performance 4. methodology used for maintaining the functional reliability? 3) Explain briefly the ‘Weibull distribution curve. Ageing phase . How this helps in replacement plans? 9. b) Breakdown time distribution: and c) Reliability and Variability of the Equipments 5) What are maintenance performance index? How they help in measuring maintenance efforts? 6) There are many ways of measuring reliability and availability.17 Terminal Questions 1) Define functional reliability? 2) What are the maintenance management concepts. 9) What are the technical and cost factors to be considered while planning replacement of old machineries? 10) Explain briefly the depreciation methods used in capital expenditure on plant and machineries. 9. Bath Tub Curve 5. Why it also called as bathtub curve? What are the three phases in the life span of equipment? 4) Explain briefly how the life of the equipment is depicted by the variability and availability factors in a) Bathtub Curve and MTBF. Consistency of the degree of performance 3. Functional reliability 2.
Refer 9. Complete machine breakdown. Refer 9. MAPI Terminal Questions 1. Maintenance requirements of any physical assets 13. Infant mortality. Ageing phase 7. Refer 9.6 6.2 3.8 7.6. Refer 9.15 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Entire system. 80 to 85% 10. Refer 9. Product reliability factors 9. Refer 9. Disposal Phase: 14. 8. Refer 9. Capability to operate to its expected operations 11.13 9.14 10.12 8. . Refer 9.3 4. Barnes formula. = [% T] x [%Q] x [%S] 12.4 5. Useful. Refer 9. Refer 9. Critical analysis.2 2.
10 Zero Loss Concepts 10.5 TPM and its Features 10.12 Eight pillars of TPM Autonomous maintenance Kobetsu Kaizen Planned Maintenance Quality Maintenance .7 Other Related issues with TPM 10.4 Objectives of TPM 10.3 Goals 10.8 Overall Effectiveness of Equipment [basis of TPM] 10. 10.OM0006-Unit-10-Total Productivity Maintenance Unit-10-Total Productivity Maintenance Structure: 10.2 Total Productivity Maintenance 10.9 Types of Losses.11 Implementation of TPM & Steps in TPM program Steps in TPM program 10.6 Evolution of Maintenance Methods 10.1 Introduction Objectives 10.
16 Summary 10. This will increase the life of the machines and they perform better during their entire life span. inspecting. faster set ups and fewer adjustments. cleaning. High tech preventive maintenance routines are performed by experts at frequent intervals and machines are continually upgraded and modified for closer tolerances. But with the enlarged scope of maintenance functions when very high cost state of art machineries and equipments are used for higher productivity. but they often neglect the very important function of complete maintenance. repairing. Environment TPM in offices 10. Equipment maintenance is basic to competitive manufacturing.18 Answers 10.17 Terminal Questions 10.15 Role of TPM in WC-production 10. a facility.Development Management Education & Training Safety. etc.14 Benefits of TPM 10. Health. machine failures cannot be tolerated. The Japanese have virtually eliminated machine breakdowns by applying Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) techniques to their . to keep a machine. thus leading to breakdowns and production losses.13 Relevance of TPM to TQM framework 10. material handling equipment and other transport vehicles in proper working conditions. a more sophisticated well managed preventive – maintenance type programs such as TPM or Reliability centred maintenance (RCM) has warranted.1 Introduction Manufacturers invest huge capital on productive machines and equipments for production of the desired products. Maintenance covers all those functions such as monitoring. Earlier the maintenance management was viewed as a function with a lesser status compared to manufacturing and its role was restricted to one of carrying out breakdown repair when a machine breaks down. Because JIT [Just-inTime] production lines operate very close to capacity in every process. adjusting.
maximising capacity. to achieve total customer satisfaction. consensus building and continuous improvement. TPM is defined as the means to achieve high level of productivity. Objectives: After studying this unit you will be able to: · Outline the features of TPM · Explain the types of losses related to maintenance · List and explain the steps involved in TPM · Comment on the methods of TPM propounded by experts on Quality.machines. Machines are cleaned and lubricated frequently by the operators who run those machines. It first evolved in Nippon Denso a major supplier of the Toyota car company. TPM is a well defined and organised maintenance program which places a high value on team work. 10. minimising costs and continuously improving processes for manufacturing. relying on team work. efficiency and effectiveness with zero loss concepts through total participation of all employees with self managing abilities in practices. 10. Reliability and TPM principles call for avoiding crisis. Here the new quality approach of “prevention at source” was translated to the maintenance environment through the concept of TPM.3 Goals · Prevention of equipment deterioration · Maintain the equipment in optimal condition · Establishing basic equipment conditions · Operator is competent to operate machine/ equipment · Elimination of quality defects · Elimination of equipment failure · Elimination of cost losses .2 Total Productive Maintenance [TPM] TPM had its genesis in the Japanese car industry in 1970’s.
losses. · Achieve manufacturing excellence. . but spreads across as a company-wide culture. · To achieve higher reliability/flexibility of equipment and reduce cost through eliminating wastages. · Producing products for customer satisfaction in quality. cost. delivery and services. reduction in equipment life cycle cost. · Maximise asset and equipment effectiveness through OEE [overall equipment effectiveness] and OPE. ensuring total effectiveness of the plant for higher quality and lesser downtime. means elimination of micro operational issues · Achieve zero loss Concept – [zero breakdown. · Restoring equipment to a like-new condition · Improve maintenance efficiency and effectiveness · On job training of the labour to improve their job skills · To have a sound equipment maintenance management · Effective use of preventive and predictive maintenance technology · Achieve TPM with active participation & involvement in all levels · “Value Added” activity that the equipment is contributing to your products. 10.5 TPM-Its Features TPM no longer confines to the maintenance department.4 Objectives of TPM The principle objectives of TPM are: · Eliminate all breakdowns of machines and equipment to ensure trouble free continuous production. defect.10. waste and accident-free operations] in all the resources over the entire life cycle of a production system through team work and by overlapping small group activities. · Reduction in manufacturing costs. · Increase plant efficiency. · Boosting morale of employees.
TPM is a means to achieve high level of productivity. · Defect losses due to reduced yields in processing TPM includes three main elements: · Regular preventive maintenance. efficiency.TPM is a method designed to eliminate the losses caused by break-down of machines and equipments by identifying and attacking all causes of its breakdowns and system down time due to such breakdowns.6 Evolution of Maintenance Methods What are the other maintenance methods that are universally practiced by industries. monitoring and controlling practices through a unique ‘8-Pillars Method’. including housekeeping. · Downtime for setups and adjustments. through total participation of all employees with self-managing abilities in practice. TPM is one of the most valuable strategies for those who want to be competitive & meet the World Class Competition 10. TPM paves way for an excellent planning. organizing. · Speed losses due to idling and minor stoppages caused by abnormal operations of censors. leading to another innovative & modern practice under company-wide maintenance practice of TPM? How this evolution has happened and other related issues are briefly given below a) Breakdown Maintenance / Emergency / Corrective Maintenance: Break – down maintenance or emergency maintenance is a remedial or corrective maintenance practice that is undertaken when equipment fails and require repair on an . to achieve total customer satisfaction There are six types of losses found in a manufacturing firm: · Downtime due to equipment failure. · Periodic pre-failure replacement or overhauls and · Intolerance for breakdowns or unsafe conditions. blockages etc. · Speed losses due to discrepancies between designed and actual speeds · Defect losses due to process defects that cause scrap & quality problems. effectiveness with zero loss concept.
A high failure rate known as the infant mortality exists during the initial working of the machine and then settles in. . This reduces the frequency of machinery break downs and consequent loss of production Break down of a machine in production line can be costly if it means shutting down the entire plant. b) Preventive maintenance Preventive maintenance is the activity that is planned and programmed on a regular basis to inspect the system. A good maintenance facility should have the following features: 1. This promotes employee empowerment and system performance c) Productive maintenance or Predictive maintenance – This is an extended preventive maintenance method that tries to reduce the chances of breakdowns by using modern monitoring and analysis techniques such as computer aided monitoring and forecasting and diagnose the condition of the equipment during operation. There exists a relationship between the maintenance costs and the cost of failures with which the level of maintenance Vis-a-Vis frequency of maintenance could be firmed up. servicing and replace parts to ensure that the system does not fail during normal operation. A study is made on each machine on the MTBF (mean time between failures) distribution. that results in loss of production due to idling of machinery and labour and reduces system capacity. 10.7 Other Related Issues a) Improve Repair Capabilities: For reliability and a sound preventive maintenance practices. Here. This idling will increase the production cost. Preventive maintenance policies and techniques must emphasize on all employees to accept the responsibility for the maintenance and perform all the activities to their capability. maintenance costs and resultant delay in supply of products to customers as promised. to uncover potential problems and to make repairs. the preventive maintenance will be more expensive and incidental if it is other way. especially when mass production or continuous production is planned. the productive maintenance tries to identify signs of equipment deterioration or imminent failure and to take corrective action before it fails. Failure of equipment or machineries may occur at different phases. firms should build up a level of repair capability in order to get the system back in operation much faster. Well trained maintenance crew. Obviously this is not an ideal way of keeping quiet until that breakdown happens.emergency or priority basis to set it right. When the distributions curve exhibits a narrow standard deviation.
e) Role of operators in TPM . Specialists work with cross-functional teams & backup responsibility to handle difficult or unusual problems. Ability to design ways to extend MTBF b) Maintenance responsibilities a) Traditional: Maintenance is a functional support activity & employees rely on specialists for custodial services. Ability and authority to do material planning. c) Reliability and Maintainability – an overview: Quality is multi – dimensional but reliability is a key component of quality. preventive and repair maintenance. accidents to operators. issues are closely related with maintenance and maintainability. schedule disruptions etc. Reliability considers the performance of a product over time. 5. Malfunctioning of machines cause deterioration and results in inefficiency. Further these machines may have possible immediate effects such as variability of output. they can improve operator safety and reduce injuries from equipment mal functions. product quality and production schedules. Ability to identify the cause of break downs 6. This will ultimately shorten the life of machines and cause high repair costs. Since the reliability is concerned with the elapsed time between failures of a product. idling of both machines and the workers using those machines for their work. b) Employee ownership TPM: Front-line associates have first responsibility for maintenance in their work places. Ability to establish a repair plan and priorities. The ability of the equipment for operation is determined by mean time between failure (MTBF) and mean time to repair (MTTR) that is: Availability = MTBF / [MTBF + MTTR] d) Equipment problems and competitiveness: Equipment problems and break downs have a direct affect on production costs. It is the probability that a product will operate adequately for a given period in its intended application. Hence by reducing equipment mal functions and break downs.2. Japanese automobile manufacturers have been highly successful in the US market and could gain a high market share. Reliability is a time based concept of quality. firms can reduce inventories. At the same time. 4. because of perceive product quality and the exceptional reliability. Adequate resources. 3. safety hazard.
Ensure maintenance is treating the root cause of the problem and not symptoms 7. Restores deteriorated equipment through improvements / related maintenance 2. In case the problem is an unknown entity. Basic skill levels required by operators include: A) Monitoring and maintaining critical process parameters.8. C) Reduction of minor stoppages and adjustments on aggregates as well as the complete machine. Diagnose and perform repairs for the problems identified. Perform basic equipment maintenance by cleaning of machines.1 Objectives of OEE: a) It helps see a problem so that it can be fixed. Thorough data analysis. replacement of filters lubrication of aggregates. manufacturer and also the operators 8.8 Overall Equipment Effectiveness [OEE]-Key Indicator of TPM · OEE is a way of measuring how the six major losses shown below are affecting the equipment or in other words a way of measuring the amount of “Value added” activity that the equipment is contributing to the product. Understand the manufacturing process to successfully achieve the above. 3. checking functions of the basic machine AND safety devices. 2. D) Collect data to track equipment performance and document all the data recorded along with production control chart and work order systems. . Implement periodical maintenance system that is planned on the data collected from the machine. To identify design weaknesses and improve equipment for error free operations 3. f) Role of maintenance department in TPM process: 1. Improve technical maintenance skills of all maintenance personnel through systematic training and work assessments 4. periodic diagnostic tests apart from performing appropriate maintenance system to avoid predicted equipment failure 5. thus developing the capability to operate similar equipment / machines 10. Maintain work order system to provide data for calculation of MTBF (mean time before failure) and MTTR (mean time to repair) 6. 10. B) Perform change over and setup the complete machine.1. obtain information before such problems are attacked. Data collected must be complete for proper implementation.
b) It helps visualize ‘Six big losses’ with their targets for meeting OEE. · Planned production time 480 – 15 -15-30 = 420 min Operating time = planned production time – downtime = 420 -47 = 373 min · Good quality parts produced = total produced – rejection = 19271 – 423 = 18848 · Availability = A = operating time / planned production time = 373 / 420 = 0. Ideal rate of production – 60 parts per min. 1) Planned and unplanned downtimes. Lunch break – one lunch break of 30 min. out of which 423 numbers were rejected. [Target=minimize] 2) Set up down time[Target=zero] 3) Reduced speed of the machines [Target=minimize] 4) Minor unrecognized stoppages [Target=zero] 5) Reject and rework [target=zero] 6) Start up down time and yield from the system [Target= minimize] Availability [(Time available for production – Downtime)] / [Time available for production] Performance Efficiency = [Actual Production or Capacity)] / [Ideal Production or Capacity] Quality Yield [Total Parts Produced-Quantity out of specifications] / Total Quantity produced. Short breaks – 2 short breaks of 15 min each.8. Overall Equipment Efficiency [OEE] = [Availability x Performance Efficiency x Quality yield] 10. Number of parts produced – 19271.88 .2 OEE example: A manufacturer working for 8 hours shift with the production data and scheduled breaks is as follows: Shift length = 8 hours. Downtime of machines – 47 min.
12) waiting for quality confirmation. Category 3: Material losses: 14) material yield 15) energy losses 16) consumable material losses 10.861 · Quality= (total parts produced – rejection) / total parts produced) = 18848 / 19271 = 0.861 * 0.· Performance = P = parts produced / (ideal production * operating time) = 19271 / (60 * 373 )= 0. 10) waiting for materials.e. c) Quality loss: 7) process errors 8 rework/scrap Category 2: Manpower losses: 9) cleaning and checking.888 * 0.8 % 10.748 i. 5) minor stopping /idling. 11) waiting for instructions. 74.9 Types of Losses (16) There are 16 types of losses that can be categorized into three namely: Category 1: a) Equipment losses: includes down time losses due to 1) machine failure/breakdown. 6) reducing the capacity.10 Zero-Loss Concept: TPM is based on the elimination of the above said 16 losses along with other five zero loss concepts depicted below: .978 · OEE Composite = Availability * performance * quality = 0.978 = 0. 2) set up/adjustment time. 13) any management losses. 3) planned shutdown downtime] b) Performance losses: 4) start up losses.
Formation of committees and sub committees for a) promotion and steering of TPM. This stresses the need to shift focus from equipment to the processes within which it is used.12 Eight Pillars of TPM . Company commitment 3. f) Office TPM. Reaching Excellence in TPM program by Promotion. Implementation in each of the identified areas is managed directly by a target area committee with assistance from a TPM program team. The main focus on equipment maintenance is for improvement of the overall production system. The TPM program team oversees initial planning and coordination of all TPM efforts though ultimately this responsibility is transferred to the maintenance department. Plant audit and initial assessment 2. d) Planned maintenance. Focus on 8 pillars. g) Education and training.11 Implementation of TPM Implementing TPM company. c) Kaizen.1 Steps in TPM program 1. 6.11. 10. Selection of pilot lines 5. e) Quality maintenance. h) Safety and environment committee 4. b) Jishu Hozen.wide is a major project that requires support from top management. monitoring and reviewing TPM results and raising levels and revising standards 10. even for new areas of operations.10.
10. Uninterrupted operation of equipment 2. Increase the use of JH Objectives of JH: . Eliminate the defect at source through active employee participation 4. Reduce oil consumption 2. 8 Pillars supports a strong structure of TPM for achieving higher productivity is depicted in the following picture.In the above house.12. Reduce process time 3. Step wise implementation of JH activities JH Targets: 1. Flexibility with operators to operate and maintain other equipments 3.1 Pillar-1: Autonomous Maintenance: (Jishu – Hozen) Autonomous maintenance is a phrase coined by the Japanese institute of plant maintenance (JIPM) to describe the shift towards the machine operators maintaining their own machine / equipment JH Policy: 1.
pneumatic. control or prevent deterioration of production equipment 2. should be followed to achieve effective results . Here the operator executes routine verification and adjustments 5. Here operator has to apply and ask for 5 why’s. quick response. Train operators on function and troubleshooting: Operators. set rules to be followed. replace cracked parts or worn out seals etc and repair and setup the machine. team leaders. 6. first line supervisor should be trained to understand the basic of the equipment and the functions and the systems working in the machines namely Hydraulic. electrical. Similarly the orderliness of tool availability and display of visual boards can be maintained. JH audit. Examples of such defects are: Crack in the housing leakages. switch not operating properly etc. Prevent degradation related failures 3. 2. Develop standards and data collection: Create standards for clean up and checking of machines. Initial cleanup It must be closely aligned with 7S of the company and there must be commitment of both the staff and the management for the house keeping. Improve predictability through data analysis and communication Steps to Implement JH: 1. Operators should identify and tag the sources of defects / waste that arisen out of the machine operations. 4.1. Other steps considering the aspects like a) Cooperation from all production related department. Stabilise. Increase access and ease of inspection and maintenance 4. In case modification is required for easy inspection / elimination of debris / contamination etc a new aggregate covers may be created 3. establish standards for data collection based on the production control chart and develop standards for easy reference. Repair sources of defect (outside of machines). Provide spare parts and tools: Here all the spare parts should be leveraged at the point of use after considering the inventory levels. Improve skill levels and personal growth throughout the company 5. electronic. Standards for monitoring key process parameters: To develop methods and standards for routine verification of key process parameters / standards operating conditions. lubrication and mechanical should be clearly understood by all in the production line for quick redressing. Cleaning of all the surroundings and using Japanese 5S principles for orderly keeping the parts etc. broken / worn out belt. 7.
Here it is aimed at eliminating all 16 losses in the workplace. 4) improve reliability and maintainability of machines.Kobetsu Kaizen (Focussed Improvements) 1) PDCA Cycle: Kaizen: here maintenance team should 1) Plan each step.8. Step 3: Implementation action plan to sustain and develop further possible improvements. MTBF. It is aimed at having trouble free machines and equipment producing defect free products for total customer satisfaction. Verify the progress made in TPM efforts in planned versus emergency work. 2) optimise maintenance costs. 4) Act as required to proceed further to improve upon the system/process. Here an emphasis is on transferring knowledge and creating self sufficient team for results. 3) reduce spare parts inventory. Zero accidents and Zero defects.3 Pillar: 3: Planned Maintenance [Pm] For Zero Loss · Planned maintenance is a systematic management by maintenance department. 2) Do the necessary change. 10.2 Pillar-2. · Planned maintenance policy includes a) achieve and sustain availability of machines. Six steps followed by planned maintenance are: . Overall Online efficiency (OOE) and Overall Plant efficiency (OPE) 3) Decrease Costs: through controls in inventory and WIP 4) Reduction in customer complaints: reduce total downtime and ensure quick deliver to customers 5) Zero accidents: total safety and all actions to save money. Quick change time reduction. which uses maintenance work cycle activities of preventive/predictive/corrective or breakdown maintenance techniques. 10. All out JH: Repeat the cycle 1 – 6 above of the process of managing and monitoring the TPM.12. optimize spare parts location etc. 2) Increase in productivity by improving Overall Equipment efficiency (OEE). These steps are: Step 1: Quick Win Shop floor projects: this is a team based approach targeting specific problem areas and realizing immediate benefits Step 2: Critical analysis: analyze what else needs to be changed to make it fixed and create action plans.12. 3) Check whether successful or not. There are three steps that aim at quick but short term process improvements supported by long term organizational change. optimize machine set ups. MTTR.
4 Pillar-4-Quality Maintenance for Zero Defects This is a process for controlling the condition of equipment and its components that affect variability in product quality. Here also aim is at defect free product to satisfy the customer. 3) Reduction in spare parts consumption 4) Reduction in oil and power consumption 5) Reduction in repair cost 6) Reduction in number of inspection points etc 10. when a) ease of manufacture. b) policy of . root cause is found and improvement action on the process/design are ensured.12. Benefits from Planned Maintenance 1) Reduction in downtime due to breakdowns.5 Pillar-5-Development Management This refers to the learning process that happens in TPM implementation and during different types of maintenance practices.1) Equipment evaluation and recording of present status 2) Restore deterioration and improve on weak links 3) Builds information management systems 4) Prepare time based information and parts and map out a plan 5) Prepare predictive system plan by introducing diagnostic techniques 6) Evaluation of planned maintenance.12. 2) Improvement in MTBF and MTTR. Here the customer end defects are known through customer complaints and in-house defects known through the quality control personnel. Focus is on eliminating non-conformances in a systematic manner. are analysed. Results achieved through this pillar are: 1) Improved customer satisfaction and reduction in future complaints 2) Reduction in defects and improved quality 3) Reduction in inspection time 10.
health and hazards. too hot areas. safety training and monitoring the improvements through Kaizen. providing safe environment place a vital role. Some examples of unsafe acts by employees are 1) use of worn out tools.12. breakdowns attributed to lack of knowledge and skills 2) Reduction in further downtime after gaining the knowledge and skills 3) Reductions achieved after training on the number of defects. The methodology adopted is for understanding of the present machine structure. Here the focus is on improvement of the knowledge.7 Pillar-7: Safety. This systematic education and training will result in: 1) Reduction in downtime. whose morale is high and who are eager to work and perform the required functions effectively and independently. It is aimed to have multi skilled & revitalized employees. The continuous training is on safe working. incorporate planned maintenance sheets to eliminate defects. goggles etc. Development of management involves four phases. Poka-Yoke etc will all result in getting the following benefits: 1) Reduction in accident 2) Reduction in noise 3) Create excellent house-keeping & a good looking workshop through 5S action 4) Reduction in downtime because of breakdowns etc 5) Saving in energy consumption 6) Reduction in industrial waste . skilled workers. and design validation 10. noise generations and any such unsafe potential areas must be identified and action taken to make them safe.6 Pillar-6-Trining & Education [Flow Of Controls] Through training and education provides the skill and knowledge apart from the experience that enables operators. safety guards. reworks etc. operating machines without proper training etc. unsafe working without wearing gloves. Health & Environment [Zero Accidents] Here the focus is to create a safe work place and a surrounding areas that is not detrimental to process or procedures. a) planning b) implementation. c) determination of detailed specifications etc are answered.development of new technologies. e) initial phase production. skills and techniques through a training environment. 10. Point by point safety audit. unsafe storage/stacking. d) manufacturing.12. engineers and managers are in a position to fulfil the expanded role to be played in successful implementation of TPM. c) design. Unsafe conditions like electrical points.
cost of inventory carrying. payment to suppliers. 3) reduction in administration costs. PQCDS&M principles in Office TPM: a) P: production output loss due to want of materials. Here the whole organization should focus. 4) reduction in inventory carrying costs. Benefits accrued because of office TPM are 1) Better utilization of work areas. the following strengthen the view that TPM is relevant to TQM: . 2) reduction in repetitive works. In TPM the barrier between maintenance & production personnel is removed. 5) reduction in n umber of files. manpower etc b) Q: mistakes in cheques. to follow all the principles and procedures laid out in ‘Seven Pillars of TPM’ and achieve the desired overall improvements for the benefit of the organization. payroll. Further.12. 6) reduction in customer complaints. other safety practices f) M: number of kaizen activities in office areas with improvements not visible TPM is a long range living program. It identifies and eliminates losses. etc d) D” logistic losses due to delay in support function. Therefore the Office TPM addresses the seven major losses namely: 1) processing loss 2) communication loss 3) idle loss 4) set up loss 5) accuracy loss 6) non-value added loss 7) cost loss including areas as procurement. bills. accounting.10. TPM aims at keeping the current plant and equipment at its highest productive level through cooperation of all.8 Pilar-8-Office Tpm [Raise Levels & Select Other Areas] Office TPM includes analysing processes and procedures towards increased office automation. cost of logistics. in information etc e) S: safety in material handling. stores. customer returns etc c) C: buying cost. It is followed to improve productivity and efficiency in the office administration. 10. as a strategy. 7) reduced man power 8 clean and pleasant work environment and 10) reduction in equipment due to emergency despatches/purchases. invoices. Since achieving total productivity is one of the major objectives of TQM. we can infer that total productive maintenance is an extension of TQM philosophy to the maintenance function.13 Relevance of TPM to TQM Framework Good maintenance is fundamental to a productive manufacturing system. marketing and sales outlets with high inventories.
process reliability and reduces the cost of lost production time. scheduling and control of operations depend to a large extent on process capacity and process capability. Direct benefits: . · TPM is continuous improvement activity. there is a direct link between TPM and TQM and also the relevance of a comprehensive maintenance policy is proved for successful TQM implementation. TPM aims at the introduction of new and creative ideas which will optimise quality standards and reduce waste and costs to the organisation concerned.14 Benefits of TPM An added benefit is that with the added responsibility of all maintenance activities. morale and pollution control by involving everyone in the process. Process capacity cannot be made available at the cost of quality. 10. · TPM can have a great impact on the operations decision making process. since it aims at cost reduction and quality improvements for internal requirements and for customer satisfaction. repairs. smell etc spot problems before they develop. 4) Benefits can be categorized into two types namely: 1) Direct and 2) Indirect a. 2) TPM increases production capacity.· TQM is aimed at satisfying customer requirements. The planning. Here too the operators take the responsibility of cleaning their machines and work areas. tidy and well organised work area will result in better performance Maintenance is the key to achieve zero loss. TPM is a value adding activity. Housekeeping is another area in JIT production system. zero breakdowns. shortened equipment life and inventory. This developed by JIPM (Japanese Institution of Plant Maintenance) during late 1960’s combines the American practice of PM with Japanese concept of Total Quality Control [TQC] and Total employee involvement [TEI] 1) TPM aims for greater manufacturing competitiveness through improved effectiveness of machines and equipments. A comprehensive TPM program aspires to implement process capability and its maintenance. operators develop a sense of ownership for the machines and give special attention to upkeep the machines for sound. zero accidents and zero defects. by using the principles of 5S. 3) TPM also contributes to improvements in safety. In view of the above. Clean. defects. in other words working with a zero sum philosophy. vibration.
Indirect benefits: a) Higher confidence level among the employees b) Favourable change in the attitude of the operators c) Horizontal deployment of a new concepts in all areas d) The workers get a feeling of owning the machine. The following results were reported from a typical firm after implementing TPM.a) Increase in productivity and overall plant efficiency b) Elimination of customers complaints c) Elimination of accidents d) Achieve goals by working as a team b. . Therefore if any equipment breaks down. well functioning machines and equipments are a pre requisite for JIT and TQM to be successfully implemented in any manufacturing firm. 1) Productivity: Breakdowns reduced by 85% 2) Quality: Defect rate reduced by 50% 3) Cost: Labour cost reduced by 25%. 4) Delivery: Inventory turnover increased by 150% 5) Morale: Improvement suggestions increased by 105% 6) Safety: Accidents reduced to nil 7) Environment: No pollution created 10. equipment and systems so that they consistently perform at the levels required of them. Preventive maintenance requires understanding and maintaining all the physical elements of manufacturing – machine components. the entire process or . energy reduced consumption reduced by 20%. Reliable.15 Role Of TPM In World Class Manufacturing Most of the world class manufacturing firms have implemented JIT systems and TQM philosophy to achieve excellence in manufacturing and to have ability to compete globally. maintenance cost reduced by 15 -30%.
a facility. The involvement of workers in quality circles provides the opportunity for them (members of quality circles) to study maintenance problems. In TPM operators / workers perform basic equipment repairs and preventive maintenance. 2) TPM had its genesis in the Japanese car industry in 1970’s. machinists and operators redesign and reconfigure equipment to make it more reliable. Preventive maintenance practices reduce the breakdown of machines and will keep them in good working condition. 3) TPM is defined as the means to achieve high level of productivity. In world class companies quality circles form an important component of TQM. TQM requires quality at the source which implies that machines must be reliable and well functioning. It first evolved in Nippon Denso a major supplier of the Toyota car company. to achieve ……………………. to keep a machine. 4) GOALS: one among following is not an applicable goal. This will facilitate implementation of an effective preventive maintenance program which is essential for a JIT system Self Assessment Questions Fill up the blanks with appropriate words in the following statements: 1) Equipment maintenance is basic to competitive manufacturing.. easier to maintain and perform better. efficiency and effectiveness with zero loss concepts through total participation of all employees with self managing abilities in practices. In world class companies the responsibility for repairs and preventive maintenance is assigned to workers. • Prevention of equipment deterioration • Maintain the equipment in optimal condition • Establishing basic equipment conditions • Operator’s incompetency . while teams of maintenance staff. material handling equipment and other transport vehicles in proper working conditions. Here the new quality approach of ………………… was translated to the maintenance environment through the concept of TPM. Maintenance covers all those functions such as ……………… etc. Preventive maintenance is a stepping stone to a higher level of maintenance referred to as “total productive maintenance” (TPM). Improved equipment functioning has a positive impact on product quality. Identify.production line comes to a halt. engineers.
• Elimination of quality defects • Elimination of equipment failure • Elimination of cost losses 5) There are six types of losses found in a manufacturing firm. c) Speed losses due to idling and minor stoppages caused by abnormal operations of censors.) X (…………)] 8 Out of Eight pillars of TPM. TPM in Offices. Development Management. ……………. 9) Autonomous maintenance is a phrase coined by the Japanese institute of plant maintenance (JIPM) to describe the shift towards the machine operators ……………………… 10) PQCDS&M principles in Office TPM: In the list below principle D is missing. Identify a) Downtime due to equipment failure. Health & Environment. 7) Overall Equipment Efficiency-Fill in the other two factors: [OEE] = [Availability x ( ………. that the equipment is contributing to the product. two are missing in the following list. One among the following is not the type of loss considered in maintenance. Kobetsu-Kaizen. Safety.. What is that? • P: production output loss due to want of materials. Identify them Autonomous Maintenance. blockages etc. d) Habitual absenteism by employees e) Speed losses due to discrepancies between designed and actual speeds f) Defect losses due to process defects that cause scrap & quality problems. b) Downtime for setups and adjustments.. manpower etc . ………. g) Defect losses due to reduced yields in processing 6) OEE is a way of measuring how the six major losses shown below are affecting the equipment or in other words a way of measuring the amount of ……………………. Education & Training..
organization should have the following six features. 2) Adequate resources. 3) Ability to establish a repair plan and priorities. customer returns etc • C: buying cost. machines are cleaned and lubricated frequently by the operators themselves who run the machines. stores.2) Adequate resources. etc •? • S: safety in material handling. . Preventive maintenance is a well planned program which involves inspection to uncover potential problem and make the necessary repairs before any breakdown occurs.16 Summary Japanese firms which implemented JIT production and TQM concepts cannot witness any machine failures that affect quality and delayed production schedules. 3) Ability to establish a repair plan and priorities. payroll. cost of logistics.. The frequency of preventive maintenance must be balanced with the cost of equipment failure and keep the total costs of preventive and breakdown maintenance put together at the lowest level possible.. 10. Which is the sixth one? 1) Well trained maintenance crew. For the above type of TPM. preventive maintenance. 4) Ability and authority to do material planning. cost of inventory carrying. and ……………. They applied TPM techniques to visually eliminate machine breakdowns. While breakdown maintenance is remedial or corrective maintenance or equipment repair when breakdown occurs. organization should have the features of 1) Well trained maintenance crew. other safety practices • M: number of kaizen activities in office areas with improvements not visible 11) Results achieved through pillar number Four are: 1) Improved customer satisfaction and reduction in future complaints 2) Reduction in …………….. Only five are listed. bills. and total productive maintenance or reliability centred maintenance.• Q: mistakes in cheques. 4) Ability and authority to do material planning. invoices. 3) Reduction in inspection time 12) For the above type of TPM. 6) Ability to design ways to extend MTBF. In the TPM approach to maintenance management. 5) ……………………. A comprehensive maintenance program consists of breakdown maintenance.
Distinguish between breakdown maintenance and preventive maintenance. Equipment problems have a direct impact on production costs. especially with the latest TPM as a final and long range solution.5) Ability to identify the cause of break downs 6) Ability to design ways to extend MTBF. high standards of quality and reliability. high WIP inventories and so on. 4. What are the objectives of TPM? 2. Reduction in costs of lost production. shortened equipment life and inventory. idle time. poor quality of outputs.17 Terminal Questions 1. Implementing TPM company-wide is major project requiring top management support. decrease in productivity. Explain briefly the evolution of maintenance practices leading to TPM. which may result in inefficiency of machines. employee morale and pollution control. 5. TPM contributes to improved safety. stoppage of production. product quality and production schedules. Quality circles. 10. Benefits of TPM includes increase in production capacity and process reliability. high repair costs. defects. an important component of TQM provides the opportunity for workers to study maintenance problems and suggest effective maintenance activities which are essential for JIT systems. accidents to workers. continuous improvement and has a strong strategic relevance like TQM. safety hazards. TPM identifies and attacks all causes of malfunctions and eliminates all consequent losses due to breakdowns. by adopting any of the maintenance systems discussed above. Discuss on the guiding features of TPM? 3. TPM has great relevance to TQM in improvement of productivity and quality. TPM helps to maintain process capability. What is total productive maintenance? Is it different from total preventive maintenance? . formation of a target committee and program team to oversee initial planning and coordination of all TPM efforts and then transfer the responsibility to the maintenance department. repairs. All these help to improve manufacturing competitiveness of world class companies.
18 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1. repairing. 16. Prevention at source 3. etc 2. What are the relative issues that are recognized by maintenance department before attempting introduction of TPM in the plant? 7.6. What is ‘Autonomous Maintenance? What are its objectives and steps involved in implementing? 12. What are the benefits accrued to a firm by practicing TPM? 17. What are the constituents of Kobetsu Kaizen i. Explain briefly the sixteen types of losses that are to be considered for elimination by the maintenance department while planning TPM activities. What are the six zero concept that are to be considered while approaching elimination of 16 Losses? 10. Which are the eight pillars that support TPM in an organization? 11. Discuss the relevance of total productive maintenance to TQM framework. Habitual Absenteeism by employees – [Sl. Focussed Improvements and what steps are used to achieve improvement? 13. Monitoring.e. What is meant by ‘Overall Equipment Effectiveness’? What are its constituents? How the six losses are addressed through OEE? 8. Describe the role of total productive maintenance in world class manufacturing. What are the unsafe practices and how these are controlled by practicing good and healthy. safe environment under TPM? 15. adjusting. 9. no (d)] . Operator’s incompetency-[Sl. Explain briefly as to how planned maintenance under Eight pillars of TPM help achieve zero loss? 14. no-(d)] 5. inspecting. 4. 10. Total customer satisfaction. cleaning.
Ref.12. Ref. Ability to identify the cause of break downs Terminal Questions: 1. 10. Planned Maintenance & Quality Maintenance 9. Ref. Ref. 10.8 8.12 11.13 . Ref. 10. Ref. Ref. 10.1 12. payment to suppliers.3 14. 10. Defects and improved quality 12.‘logistic losses due to delay in support function. Ref.6 6. 10. D. Ref. 10.6 4.5 18.104.22.168 7. 10.12. in information etc’ 11. Ref. 10.9 9. 10.2 13. Ref. 10. “Value added” – activity 7. Ref.12. 10. Ref. Maintaining their own machine / equipment 10. Ref.4 2. 10. Ref.7 15. 10.10 10. 10. Performance Efficiency & Quality yield 8.6 5.
Ref.14 17. Ref.15 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . . 10.16. 10.
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