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2 History of Maintenance Definition of Maintenance Objectives and Functions of Maintenance 1.3 Functions of Maintenance Management Quality Aspects in Maintenance Maintenance Organisation Initial Level Repeatable Level Defined Level Managed Level Optimized Level 1.4 Improving Maturity in Maintenance Organizations Training Strategy Work Management Resources Management Supervisory Review Quality Assurance Subcontract Management
Commitment of the Maintenance Personnel. Verification of Implementation Metrics and Process Improvement 1.5 Dynamics of a Maintenance Organisation Maintenance Management Perspectives Types of Maintenance Preventive Maintenance Shut-down Maintenance Opportunistic Maintenance 1.6 Summary 1.7 Terminal Questions 1.8 Answers 1.1 Introduction Rising inflation and increased competition have brought with them the need for greater productivity, and recent years have seen more emphasis being placed on productivity improvement. Moreover, sophisticated equipment and capital intensive units and plants are being increasingly used to achieve the pre-set targets of higher production and productivity. Reliability and maintainability features are now being incorporated in the equipment designs. Although modern equipment has higher levels of reliability, it is not possible to keep this equipment in an operating condition at all times because failures do occur even in the most reliable equipment.1 It is also true that such sophisticated equipment, and units or plants, tend to have high probabilities of failure since in many cases they incorporate newer, and therefore not adequately proven, technologies and designs. They also consist of a large number of assemblies, sub-assemblies and components. Failure and malfunctioning of these items of equipment result in a loss of production. Loss of production is undesirable because it results in corresponding loss in revenue. Whenever an item of equipment is down and fails to perform its intended function, or performs in an undesirable fashion, it must be restored to a state where it performs satisfactorily. At the same time all necessary action must be taken to keep, or retain, such equipment in an operating condition and also to prevent failures. Resources, such as spare parts, manpower skills, tools, instruments and facilities, such as hangars in the case of
aircraft maintenance, are utilized for accomplishment of the restoration processes and preventive actions. Thus the requirement for productivity improvement has brought about the pressing need for a significant improvement in the management of maintenance of equipment, units and plants. Objectives: After studying this unit you shall be able · To Define Maintenance · To assess objective and functions of Maintenance · To describe Quality aspect of Maintenance · To assess key process of Maintenance Management 1.2 History of Maintenance Historically, maintenance activities have been regarded as a necessary evil by the various management functions in an organisation. Enormous costs of maintenance, estimated to be between 15 and 40 per cent of the production costs and the trend towards automation have, however, forced managers to pay more attention to maintenance. The evolution of maintenance can be traced from the days prior to World War II. The attitude of the managers then was ‘to fix the equipment when it breaks’. With fewer items of sophisticated equipment around, and hence, the cost of downtime not being high, prevention of equipment failures was not given much attention. Maintenance, in addition to fixing the broken equipment, involved simple activities like cleaning and lubrication. The period after World War II saw the introduction of the word ‘terotechnology’ which was initially defined by the committee on terotechnology as ‘…a combination of management, financial, engineering and other practices applied to physical assets in pursuit of economic life-cycle costs’. Due to rising costs and inflation, focus was on reducing downtime of equipment and hence preventive maintenance came into being as an important activity. This period also saw a number of researchers working on operations research models for preventive maintenance. Importance of planning maintenance activities also grew during this period. Overhauls of equipment were planned and scheduled. Systems for managing maintenance were also introduced. The period after 1980 has seen some of the worst accidents in industrial history. Leakage of methyl isocyanite (MIC) from a battery/cell manufacturing unit in Bhopal in India and the threat to the survival of mankind caused by the nuclear accident at Chernobyl in the erstwhile Soviet Union have only made the manufacturing industries and the like realize the importance of maintenance. The attitude of ignorance towards maintenance has increasingly been replaced by one which recognizes maintenance also as a strategic issue in the organisation. Besides high cost, the other factors which contributed to this change
safety issues. Maintenance. The need for reliable equipment has also been realized. The set of tasks or activities that constitute maintenance ranges from simple cleaning operations and lubrication to performing condition monitoring. Alternatively the objective should be to minimize the costs – the labour costs and the material costs as well as the loss in revenue due to loss of production. tools and facilities. neural networks and Markov chains have been used for controlling and managing maintenance activities. Modern maintenance management can be considered to be composed of the following functions: · maintenance planning.1 Definition of Maintenance Maintenance is an element of a complete production system. In case an item of equipment fails it needs to be restored to the same specified operating condition. including staffing/recruiting. maintenance activities which do not contribute to preserving or restoring the intended functions of assets should be eliminated. in general. or keeping. regulatory matters. In summary. should.2. or return the equipment to an acceptable working condition. maintenance programmes have to be developed to ensure that physical assets will continue to fulfill their intended functions at a minimum expenditure of resources. · To extend the useful life of the equipment. manpower. which is linked to the overall organizational objectives. be to maximize the profitability of the organisation by performing activities which retain working equipment in an acceptable condition. the principal objectives of maintenance would be: · to control the availability of the equipment. or restoring failed equipment to a normal operating condition. Maintenance can thus be defined as a set of activities. The objective of maintenance. and warranty and liability factors. Techniques such as condition monitoring. an item of equipment in a specified operating condition.2. Performing such activities would obviously extend the useful life of the equipment. at minimum resource cost. To live up to the new expectations demanded of maintenance activities. ageing plant and equipment. 1. drive for cost reduction and the like. 1. . or tasks. and planning and scheduling maintenance resources.include: environmental concerns. Obviously. · organizing maintenance resources. The availability and utilization of these resources are of prime importance. that are related to preserving equipment in a specified operating condition.2 Objectives and Functions of Maintenance The objective of any business organisation is to make profits. Performing maintenance activities requires the use of resources such as spare parts. means preserving. therefore.
· controlling the performance of maintenance activities. The principal objectives of maintenance would be to control the availability of the equipment. involved simple activities like cleaning and lubrication. 3. 4. Maintenance planning includes formulating and identifying ___________ policies. . at minimum ________________. 2. _____________ in addition to fixing the broken equipment.· directing execution of maintenance plan. The attitude of ______________ towards maintenance has increasingly been replaced by one which recognizes maintenance. · Budgeting. 5. Maintenance is an element of a complete ___________ system. Maintenance planning includes formulating and identifying organisation-wide policies that would help achieve higher maintenance productivity such as: · Do we repair the equipment or buy a new one? · Do we perform preventive maintenance or corrective maintenance activities? · Do we employ full-time repair personnel or should we subcontract work? Self Assessment Questions 1. · defining processes for performing maintenance.
The maintenance manager should ensure that the equipment is restored to its normal working condition as quickly as possible. work and . then the planned maintenance activity cannot be performed.3 Functions of Maintenance Management Responsibility for formulating the maintenance policies lies with top management.1. a review by the manager or the maintenance supervisor would be essential to ensure and authorize that the maintenance work has been carried out properly. In order to carry out maintenance activities as planned. This way not only is the downtime cost kept to the minimum but also the resources are utilized effectively. If the required resources are not available. The top management is also responsible for negotiating and authorizing the service level agreement. Another important task is creation of a master maintenance schedule. This is a statement of maintenance tasks to be carried out in a specified period. This will lead to degradation of equipment performance and can also result in its failure. Once the required resources are available. Any maintenance activity requires resources. the maintenance activity can be initiated. the maintenance manager needs to organize the required resources and all these resources need to be available in the right quantity and at the right time. In case the task does not get completed within the estimated time then corrective action would need to be taken to ensure further loss in revenue due to loss in production is minimized. Other common tasks related to maintenance management include generating reports related to equipment. Once the activity is complete. The maintenance manager should track the work to completion.
3. 1. A maintenance activity can be considered to be of high quality if: · it restores an item of equipment to its normal working state. produces the desired result. · it is initiated on time and the equipment is returned to production at the · required time. without causing · any damage to the equipment or to any of its parts. the tools and procedures used. the need is for a good maintenance organisation. It is more to do with the maturity of the maintenance process such that high-quality maintenance activities are performed. 1. An effective maintenance process must consider the relationships of all the tasks.3. The above-mentioned conditions can be satisfied only when the maintenance organisation has: · skilled and committed repair men available to carry out the required maintenance activity at the required time.costs. A ‘process’ can be defined as a set of tasks that. measured and improved. training and motivation of the people .1 Quality Aspects in Maintenance Quality is not absolute but relative. · the required tools. when performed properly. · A repository of maintenance processes. · It incurs not more than the budgeted cost. and the skill. · the required spare parts in the required quantity. It also includes activities related to collection and analysis of data related to maintenance and reporting to top management.2 Maintenance Organisation Maintenance organisation does not mean only the organisation of people in the maintenance department or their reporting structure. · an appropriate ‘on-the-job’ training programme for the repair men to enhance their ability to work. An important step in addressing the maintenance management problems is to treat the maintenance task as a process that can be controlled. instruments and facilities for performing the activity. · In general.
repeatable. Plan to perform the required actions.3. 3. The strength to carry out similar activities stems from the prior experience.4 Repeatable Level Organizations which carry out similar projects with reasonable accuracy with regard to cost and time are at this level. With this. Commit resources to execute the plan. managed and optimized. 4. cost estimates and plans. 5. However. 1. organizations must have dedicated personnel who take care of the development processes.3. Determine if the current process is the desired process. organizations at this level need to institutionalize basic management processes. without formalized procedures.6 Managed Level . The performance of these steps calls for a process-oriented organisation and such an organisation develops over a period of time as enunciated by the capability maturity model (CMM). 1. The organisation now has capabilities to face new challenges and achieve success. organizations at this level face risks when presented with new challenges.3 Initial Level The organisation operates on an ad hoc basis. the most important ones being project management. that is. To climb up the maturity level. the organisation achieves the foundation for continuous improvement in processes. Understand the status of the current maintenance process or processes. List down required process improvement actions.involved. the organisation has to implement a measurement programme to obtain process feedback.*9 The CMM was defined by the software engineering institute (SEI) for software development organizations and it classifies software development organizations into five levels initial. To reach the defined level. 1. To improve the capabilities of the maintenance organisation the following steps8 must be performed consistently: 1. In order to improve performance. 1. 2.5 Defined Level The organisation has a repository or a set of defined procedures for carrying out development work. quality assurance and project tracking and oversight. defined.3.3. Tools are neither integrated with the process nor uniformly applied.
1. the effectiveness of the process can also be determined. To reach the highest level on the CMM. · supervisory review. Any maintenance activity requires resources. 8. Responsibility for formulating the maintenance policies lies with shop Supervisors. the organisation needs to put in place automatic data collection support tools. Since the data collection process is full-fledged. The CMM can be adapted to enhance the capabilities of the maintenance organizations as well. Quality is not absolute but relative. 7. 1. · work management. The objective is only to identify the key process areas that would enable maintenance organizations to enhance their capabilities and maturity. Self Assessment Questions State whether following statement True or False 6. . The organisation operates on an ad hoc basis. when performed properly. 10. They are: · training strategy. A ‘process’ can be defined as a set of tasks that. · quality assurance.4 Improving Maturity in Maintenance Organizations The key process areas (KPAs) involved in enhancing the capability and maturity of a software organisation. produces the undesired result. Targets are set for performance and a plan is made out to achieve the pre-set targets. 9. A few key process areas can be readily identified in this regard.3. without formalized procedures. · resources management.The organisation has a way by which performance indicators are measured objectively. Problems are identified proactively and eliminated. cost estimates and plans. The objective is not to classify the maintenance organizations also into one of these levels. that is.7 Optimized Level The organisation has capabilities to identify the weakest links in the development processes and eliminate/improve them.
scheduled and tracked to completion. irrespective of the time it consumes. It would not be appropriate to track every small activity in the work-breakdown structure to completion. Resource here means manpower. The required resources should be available at the right time and in the right quantity. 1. in one organisation an activity that takes only 15 minutes for completion is considered to be small.3 Resources Management As mentioned earlier. Training.4 Supervisory Review Every maintenance activity should be performed under the charge of a supervisor.1 Training Strategy Every maintenance organisation should have a suitable training programme for its personnel. 1.4. instruments and facilities. In some others. For example. Every maintenance activity should be planned. It therefore becomes necessary to train all the maintenance personnel on the aspects of team work. a welder may be re-trained to perform a pipefitter’s job. 1. For small activities. Individual as well as organisation-wide training programmes should be planned. is not managed if it is not planned and tracked. In such a case it is better if some of the available personnel are re-trained on some trades other than those in which they have specialized. This is the responsibility of the maintenance manager. This is referred to as the work-breakdown structure. Holding resources in excess of requirements is wasteful while non-availability of required resources at the required time is undesirable since this result in loss of revenue due to loss in production. 1. Most maintenance activities are performed in groups.4.· Subcontract management. usage of modern tools etc. Also the probable time to complete the tasks should be specified. such as an oil refinery. Management of resources is therefore critical to managing the maintenance function. tools. A maintenance activity should be broken down into smaller manageable tasks. facilities etc.2 Work Management Any activity. a small maintenance activity may take not less than 5 hours. maintenance activities require resources in the form of spare parts. can be provided on safety and productivity-related issues.4. scheduled and conducted. for example. The maintenance manager should identify the training needs of his subordinates and get them trained. The term ‘small activity’ should be defined by the quality assurance personnel because it varies from one organisation to another. The supervisor’s responsibility is to ensure that the required resources allotted for performing . For example. tools. Coordination within a group is critical to completion of the maintenance task on time.4. manpower. An organisation may not always find suitable people for performing a job. Each of the tasks in the work-breakdown structure should have appropriate resources assigned to it. a bull’s eye chart may be appropriate for tracking work.
Yet another goal would be to verify the correctness of the work performed. This involves establishment of policies and top management sponsorship. Like any other internal maintenance activity.4. A better option is to subcontract the work. 1. This is the work order management process.6 Subcontract Management A few maintenance activities require specialists at the job.the maintenance activity are available to the repair gang on time and in the required numbers. 1. The supervisor should also report completion of the activity to the maintenance manager so that the actual costs incurred are logged. the supervisor should inspect the equipment in order to ensure that the equipment is performing as desired. 1. The selection of the subcontractor should be planned.4. The goals of the subcontract management should be to evaluate and select appropriate subcontractors for performing the maintenance activities.4.5 Quality Assurance The quality assurance personnel should be responsible for identifying the optimum route for performing a maintenance activity. The repair men should be provided with a list of activities that need to be performed as a part of the maintenance. Once the activity is complete.4. and for analyzing them in order to come up with improved routes and work processes. A few more basic areas like maintenance planning and configuration management would also need to be considered. List of activities.7 Commitment of the Maintenance Personnel The repair men need to be committed to perform the maintenance activities. tools etc. They are responsible for collecting data while the maintenance activity is carried out. The assessment of the subcontractor can be done by inviting each to present their capabilities and verification of claims through independent references. The supervisor should also guide the repair gang in performing the activity. in most cases. is expensive.8 Verification of Implementation . subcontracted work should also be managed. The maintenance manager can also visit premises to inspect the capabilities and to get firsthand information. The subcontractor manager should select a suitable subcontractor based on a balanced assessment of the capabilities of prospective subcontractors. Hiring these specialists on a full-time basis. These factors have also been borrowed from the CMM. Increasing the ability to perform. Ability of the maintenance personnel can be enhanced by providing them with proper and relevant training. Five important factors need to be taken care of if each of the key process areas mentioned above need to be implemented in the maintenance organisation. 1.
4. Metrics and process improvement is a ___________________. 2. The maintenance manager. 1. 12. 3. The resources. 15.The supervisor of the repair men should verify the completion/ implementation of the maintenance activity. 1. Feedback on the maintenance activity performed should be given to the concerned repair men. The quality assurance group. Every maintenance organisation should have a suitable ___________ for its personnel. The supervisor group. materials and tools. Gathering metrics on every maintenance activity helps in estimating the time requirements and also the cost. Measurement of maintenance activity can be in terms of percentage of work complete to date. Four entities are important as far as the maintenance activities are concerned. 13. the maintenance productivity and quality of the maintenance work.5 Dynamics of a Maintenance Organisation Coordination within the groups is one of the most important factors that determine the effectiveness of any maintenance organisation. including manpower. The supervisor should also make use of this opportunity to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the individual repair men and arrange suitable training for them. The key process areas (KPAs) involved in enhancing the capability and maturity of a ____________________. 4. The selection of the ______________should be planned. 14.9 Metrics and Process Improvement This is a continuous process. Ability of the __________________ can be enhanced by providing them with proper and relevant training. The maintenance manager is responsible for scheduling maintenance activities. tools etc. estimated time to complete the work. Self Assessment Questions 11. An activity is scheduled (as far as possible during the production windows in the case of preventive maintenance) and initiated depending on the availability of the required . They are as follows: 1.
5. Since the equipment is not in an operating condition this maintenance activity results in considerable loss of production. The equipment is in a failed condition. Due to shortage of resources the maintenance activity is pending. Maintenance is being carried out to restore the equipment to an operable condition.1 Maintenance Management Perspectives Kelly has described the dynamics of a production maintenance system considering a large process plant. 1. this is called preventive maintenance. Relatively more time is spent on performing this type of maintenance activity. 4. As the maintenance activity is carried out. 2. The quality assurance group determines the process of performing the maintenance activity in an optimized manner. 2. The key distinction among the three perspectives relates to the time interval between the recognition of the need to perform a maintenance activity and the time at which the . This is called the ‘production window’. Since the equipment is in use there is no loss in production while performing this maintenance activity.resources. this is called corrective maintenance. Maintenance is carried out while the equipment is running. This maintenance activity also does not incur any loss in production. The equipment is not wanted for production and is available for maintenance. This activity involves simple inspection of replaceable parts. The equipment is running and is producing the desired output. Fix it when it breaks as in cases (4) and (5). (2) and (3). They have divided corrective maintenance into two perspectives – ‘reactive’ and ‘reactive/proactive’ –and have defined preventive maintenance as a ‘proactive’ perspective. It can be seen from the above that there are two perspectives of maintenance management: 1. the quality assurance group collects data on the process and analyses them with a view to improving the process. Ettkin and Jahnig have described the work life cycle for the reactive and proactive perspectives. The equipment is taken out of production for a scheduled maintenance activity. The equipment is in a failed condition. At any time. Since the equipment is being taken out of production this maintenance activity results in loss of production. The maintenance manager tracks the activity to completion while the supervisor inspects and ensures the activity is carried out properly. 3. Prevent it from breaking down as in cases (1). 5. an item of equipment or some part of it can be in one of the five following states: 1.
which are primarily due to loss of production. The only difference is that of the time interval. The total maintenance cost is the sum of direct maintenance costs. corrective and other maintenance practices followed in organizations. Also the indirect costs resulting due to failure decrease. the ship and its entire crew are in mortal danger.5. v scheduling the maintenance task. The cost of unavailability. regardless of the maintenance perspectives. and indirect maintenance costs. If personnel who operate and maintain the nuclear power plant of the submarine make serious mistakes. Most situations warrant a considerable mixture of maintenance types. 1. The preventive actions under such a situation would be to: . The intention is to detect potential failures early. The cost of utilization of these resources is a direct maintenance cost. in turn. The following section describes the preventive. Availability of an item of equipment can be defined as the ratio of uptime to the sum of uptime and downtime. material costs and direct overheads.5. the direct costs increase. Performing a maintenance activity requires usage of resources such as manpower. In the case of the ‘reactive’ perspective. The level of maintenance activity to be performed is obviously the one where the total cost is minimal. When an item of equipment is down it results in loss of production which. there is a trade-off between the maintenance costs and their benefits. This approach to maintenance becomes essential for any equipment where there are serious dangers to life should a failure occur. the time interval between the recognition and performance is very small as compared to the ‘proactive’ perspective. involve the following steps: v planning the maintenance task. This is an approach developed to reduce the likelihood of the failure of critical equipment to the minimum possible. All the maintenance activities. which is an indirect cost.3 Preventive Maintenance Preventive maintenance is a proactive activity. v Evaluation of the performance. make changes and prevent failures.2 Types of Maintenance The return of investment on an item of equipment can be maximized by maximizing its availability. 1. consisting of labour costs. for example. There is rarely any organisation where only one type of maintenance is used.activity is actually performed. Just as there is a trade-off between inventory holding costs and the reordering costs. results in loss of revenue. in the case of nuclear submarines. As the level of performing maintenance activity increases. materials and tools. v performing the maintenance task. is proportional to the loss in revenue.
adjustment and similar activities. which includes lubrication. · Inspect each ship and each operation to ensure that every procedure and method is properly understood and executed. power plants etc. and the commanding officer must promptly report on the corrective actions. The fixed time should not be based on the calendar units but should be based on a fixed number of running units such as kilometers. · servicing. Analyze even the most trivial errors to determine what went wrong. such as car assembly. · Replacement of worn-out parts. These activities can prevent serious errors from occurring.· Train all the personnel in their own jobs. hours etc. These objectives give rise to the following methods of performing preventive · maintenance activities: · fixed-time maintenance. · Condition-based maintenance. Planned · activities are carried out and the main functions are: · inspection of critical parts of the equipment. · Detect the onset of a failure. · Report deviations to the admiral-in-charge.. For example. This approach to maintenance is also important in highly automated plants. or after generation of a fixed cumulative output. the level of distilled water in the battery of an automobile is checked after every 1000 kilometers and the brush ploughs of a grinding mill should be replaced after every 500 hours of running. Primary objectives of this approach to maintenance are to: · Increase the life of critical equipment by preventing failures. and replacement of those which are worn out. · Audit the personnel so that they demonstrate satisfactory performance to their job standards. Fixed-time maintenance is that activity which involves inspection of critical parts of the equipment after a fixed time interval. This type of maintenance activity is applicable only for those items which exhibit a time-dependent failure . where the cost due to loss in production is very high.
the maintenance personnel can also collect data which can be used as inputs by other methods of condition-based maintenance procedures. on the other hand. It is an appropriate option for preventive maintenance when the following conditions apply: Prevention of failure is not technically feasible. This approach is designed to detect the onset of a failure. corrective maintenance is predominant. if repair is not economical. This type of maintenance is called running maintenance. the maintenance-related costs are usually high for the following reasons: The time required is usually much higher than other maintenance types because the cause of failure has to be identified. and then the parts have to be repaired or replaced. It is possible to identify a value of that parameter when action may be taken before full failure occurs. checking for leaks in fuel-carrying pipes. Damage is caused to other equipment as a consequence of failure. is a reactive activity and is performed when an item of equipment is not in an operating condition or is operating at a level below its rated capacity. Techniques such as oil analysis. as mentioned earlier. which the case is when the event leading to failure occurs in a predominantly random manner. A parameter. This method of condition-based maintenance is inexpensive. Corrective Maintenance Corrective maintenance. are expensive. the time required to perform this activity is . Since condition monitoring gives sufficient warning of an impending failure it becomes easy for the maintenance manager to plan a corrective activity at a later time. which can be measured either visually or by other means. This is a proactive-reactive approach to maintenance and results in the following tasks: repair of failed parts of the equipment. eddy currents. Corrective maintenance activities are also performed when condition monitoring indicates onset of a failure. There is a cost due to loss in production. the solidification of the lubricant is an indicator of the machine’s wearing condition. In some situations it is possible to carry out some preventive maintenance activities while the equipment or plant is running. Running maintenance is normally carried out in situations where there is no threat to the life of the maintenance personnel. The obvious advantage of carrying out running maintenance is that there is no loss in production. such as the setting of warning limits for the Solidification of the lubricant.mechanism. cracks in the structure of a building etc. ultrasonic waves and thermographs also help monitor the condition of the equipment. analysis of acoustic emissions. Although. In organizations where there are very few production windows. or how the failure can be prevented is not yet known. Detailed analysis helps in detecting an impending failure. Condition-based maintenance is also known as predictive maintenance. shock pulses etc. Along with inspection. For example. A simple case of condition-based maintenance is the visual examination of the brake pads of an automobile. These methods. replacement of failed parts with new ones. correlating to the onset of failure has been identified. generally occurring in the form of breakdown maintenance. Complex situations require sensors and other high-tech tools to monitor the vibrations. The costs involved in condition monitoring may vary widely. With this kind of maintenance policy.
17. Shut-down maintenance can either be a preventive activity or a corrective activity.much higher than the preventive actions require. as well as major repairs and overhauls. criticality of the equipment and the priority. While we know that prevention is better than cure. 1. we also realize that failures are unavoidable. The maintenance work that is carried out is not directed at the primary cause of failure of the equipment or shut-down. The cause is usually recorded for future analysis and corrective actions are prescribed. The types of maintenance discussed in this section will help top management decide on questions like: should we carry out preventive actions? Or should we fix the equipment when it breaks? As mentioned earlier. the maintenance department personnel attempt to detect the cause of the failure. an emergency maintenance is carried out. Five entities are important as far as the maintenance activities are concerned. If the priority is high or alternatively if the equipment is critical. Whatever be the choice of the maintenance policy. Minor repairs which cannot be performed while the equipment is running.5. it should be closely associated or integrated with the resources management function.5 Opportunistic Maintenance The maintenance work that is carried out is not directed at the primary cause of failure of the equipment or shut-down. corrective maintenance work is scheduled and carried out. The next chapter describes a few resources management techniques. are carried out after the equipment or plant is shut down. most situations in organizations warrant a mixture of maintenance types. The maintenance manager is responsible for scheduling maintenance activities.5. Once an item of equipment fails. Self Assessment Questions State whether the following statement True or False 16. 1.4 Shut-down Maintenance Shut-down maintenance can either be a preventive activity or a corrective activity. 18. Depending on the availability of resources. When a maintenance activity is carried out on an item of equipment there exists some opportunity to inspect. Trained maintenance personnel also have a role to play in reducing the maintenance time. The cost of utilization of the resources is a indirect maintenance cost. This approach to maintenance is called opportunistic maintenance. 19. 20. . The work is deferred to a later date if the priority is low or the equipment is not so critical. repair and replace certain other parts of the equipment. this can be reduced considerably if the organisation has all the maintenance procedures and systems in place.
Plant and equipment availability is of paramount importance and effective management of the maintenance function goes a long way in ensuring the attainment of the objective of maximization of availability 1. True . This transformation has taken place in about 40 years and has brought about automation and increasing sophistication of plant and equipment.8 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1. 4. and integrated iron and steel works. 3. What are the steps involved in Maintenance Organisation. Explain Objectives and Functions of Maintenance. Discuss Dynamics of a Maintenance Organisation.6 Summary Until recently. Resource Cost 5. From this state. 2. False 7. Production 4. it has now come to be accepted as an important function – one of strategic importance – particularly in the capital-intensive continuous-process industries such as power plants. Maintenance 2. nuclear power generating stations. True 8.7 Terminal Questions 1.1. 5. Organisation-wide 6. and has been hastened by the fact that the loss of one hour of production is much more expensive today than it ever was before. Write a note on History of Maintenance. chemical and fertilizer plants. maintenance of plant and machinery was a thankless job and the maintenance function was considered a necessary evil. Ignorance 3. What are the features of Preventive Maintenance? 1.
9. False 19.2.2 4.1 2. Maintenance Personnel 14. True 11.Page 11 – Part 1. True 20.3 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .2 3. False 10. True 18.1. Subcontractor 15. Page 6 – Part 1. . Page 3 – Part 1. Page 10 – Part 1. Continuous Process 16. False Terminal Questions 1. False 17. Training programme 13.4 5. Page 2 – Part 1.4. Software organisation 12.
7 Terminal Questions .1 Introduction Objectives 2.2 Man Power 2.4 Tools and Facilities 2.6 Summary 2.OM0006-Unit-02-Business Maintenance Unit-02-Business Maintenance Structure: 2.3 Spare Parts Statistical Inventory Theory Models Inventory Costs How Much to Order? When to Order? Selective Inventory Control Procedures Manufacturing Resource Planning The Bill of Materials Master production Schedule Inventory Status File Requirements Pegging Rescheduling Process 2.5 Effect of Maintenance types on Resources 2.
One solution to this problem would be to schedule individual workers rather than repair gangs. Queuing models. simulation techniques and queuing models have been used for determining the optimal number of repair gangs required to be deployed in a system. can be used to determine the optimal number of welders. An important issue in manpower is that of determining the optimal number of skilled repair workers. Techniques used for managing the maintenance resources are also discussed. however. tools and facilities. Historically. plumbers etc. The usage of the models. manpower. not all skills are required for the same amount of time.8 Answers 2. requires some knowledge of the rate of failure (called arrival rate) and the repair distribution. Basker. Objectives: After studying this unit you shall be able · To explain the characteristics of the maintenance resources · To define techniques used for managing the maintenance resources · To assess comparison of the available resources management techniques 2. A Maintenance job is usually performed by a repair gang or repair crew consisting of an optimal mix of skilled workers. which utilize the theory of minimizing the total cost of unavailability and labor. For example. However.2. fitting. The procedures used are similar to those used for determining the optimal number of repair gangs required for carrying out maintenance activities. which utilize the theory of minimizing the total cost of unavailability and labor. plumbers etc. Queuing models. a maintenance job may require the services of a welder for just about an hour whereas the same job may require a fitter for more than four hours.2 Man Power Almost all the maintenance activities require skilled personnel and most of the activities require more than one skill such as welding. rigging etc. In this study the characteristics of the maintenance resources are discussed. can be used to determine the optimal number of welders. Manan . Important among these are maintenance materials (spare parts). Queuing models and simulation have been used also for determining the optimal number of tools and facilities such that the maintenance costs are minimized.1 Introduction For performing any maintenance activity resources are required. The disadvantage of assigning a maintenance job to a repair gang or crew is that the manpower utilization within the gang is not effective. An important issue in manpower is that of determining the optimal number of skilled repair workers.
1. Using selective control procedures along with some heuristics. By holding spare parts in the inventory the funds of the organization are tied up which could have otherwise been invested in other activities.1 Inventory Costs Every organization keeps spare parts so that defective and worn-out parts of equipment can be replaced. electricians and pipe-fitters. Barnett and Blundell have used the Monte Carlo simulation technique to optimize the number of repair gangs and the size of the repair gangs given that the maintenance jobs generate demand for repair workers from three different trades’ mechanics. 3. 2. stock-out and ordering costs. Newman and Brammer and Malmborg have utilized a material requirements planning/bill of materials approach to manage the manpower resources. on the other hand. 2. In addition to the holding and stock-out costs.and Husband have used the Monte Carlo simulation technique to determine the optimal number of repair workers required to perform the maintenance activities in a shop comprising a finite number of identical machines. Using the statistical inventory theory models.3 Spare Parts The spare parts (maintenance material) problems have been traditionally approached in three ways: 1. The objective of spare parts management is therefore to minimize the total of inventory holding. and the number of repair gangs required such that the total costs (sum of labor cost and downtime cost) are minimized. two basic questions need to be answered: · How Much to Order? · When to Order? .3. In general. 2.1 Statistical Inventory Theory Models 2. not having the required spare part results in a stock-out cost. there is also a cost of ordering a re-supply of spare parts. The objective is to determine the number of repair workers needed to constitute a repair gang. Maintaining the spare parts in a store also incurs some cost. Using the material requirements planning/manufacturing resources planning (MRP/ MRP-II) technique.3.
Thus The minimum of TIC can be obtained by differentiating the above equation with respect to Q and equating the resulting derivative to 0. . Then the holding cost is given by where p is the unit price of the item and r is the annual stockholding rate related to the stock value. The maintenance manager must make sufficient provisions to take care of demand during the lead-time because the cost of stock-out is undesirable in any situation. Thus. Let Q be the ordering quantity. The service level is defined as the probability of not having a stock-out situation. The following is an illustration of a basic inventory model which takes into account the holding and the ordering costs. this is referred to as the lead-time. The complexity of the problem lies in the fact that neither the demand nor the lead-time is constant. 8. The total inventory cost TIC = the holding cost + ordering cost.1. 2.1.3. If the annual demand for an item is D. where c is the cost per order.3. 100.2 How Much to Order? Several models have been developed based on the principle of minimizing the total inventory costs. the demand for spare parts resulting from the need to perform maintenance activities needs to be satisfied. This provision normally takes the form of safety stock which is determined based on the service level. During this period. therefore. obtained by utilizing the above equation for Q.3 When to Order? An order placed with a vendor for re-supply of spare parts takes some time to get filled. Mathematical models are however available to determine the timing of placing an order taking into consideration the characteristics of the demand during the lead-time as well as the lead-time itself. is 1000. These models help determine what has been traditionally known as the optimum order quantity. we have If The annual demand D for an item is 8000 units The cost of placing an order is Rs.00 The rate of interest is 20 per cent annually Then the optimum order quantity. then the number of orders to be placed is given by The ordering cost is.00 The unit price of the item is Rs.2.
This is the principle of the selective inventory control procedures. difficult and easy to procure Procurement lead-times . irrespective of its criticality. essential and desirable Criticality of the parts Fast. the safety stock and the minimum and maximum inventory levels require to be determined for each of the items in the stores. Ramani and Krishnan Kutty have utilized an ABC×VED classification technique where not only the annual value of usage of the part is taken into account but also the criticality of the part is given importance. 3) Every organization keeps spare parts so that defective and ___________ of equipment can be replaced. medium. The re-order quantity. be given equal importance.2 Selective Inventory Control Procedures The statistical inventory control techniques require that each item. During the days when computers were not available. a few of which have been listed. The following paragraphs describe some of the applications involving a combination of selective inventory control procedures. paying equal attention to all the inventory items was not feasible. 2) Several models have been developed based on the principle of minimizing the total _____________. By this method the spare parts are classified into nine Basics Of Formulation Annual usage value of the parts Vital. Instead effort was concentrated on a few expensive and fast-moving items. 4) _______________ and queuing models have been used for determining the optimal number of repair gangs. Several procedures for classifying items into homogeneous groups are available. 2. slow and non-moving Usage rate of the parts High.Self Assessment Question 1) Maintenance job is usually performed by a _____________or repair crew consisting of an optimal mix.3. Items were categorized into homogeneous groups based on their characteristics. low Unit price of the parts Scarce. Technique Description ABC Pareto rule VED FSN HML SDE Table 2.1 Most applications found in the literature make use of a combination of selective inventory control procedures because classification or categorization of items based on just one criterion is inadequate for managing the maintenance materials.
It is the time required to replace or repair the part.2. which makes use of the ABC classification criteria. the stocking policy for a spare part in the V/S/F category is 2. The stocking policies for each of the 27 categories are determined using heuristics. statistical inventory control models or heuristics are utilized to determine the ordering parameters such as the order point and the order quantity. The first dimension utilizes a VED classification methodology. A part may be classified as a critical part if the consequence of running out of stock is severe. Tayi and Levy have utilized a two-dimensional classification method. Duchessi. Moreover. a part may be called critical if the loss of production caused by non-availability of the part is very high. For example. while the categories formed on the basis of criticality of the parts are critical and non-critical. .categories.6m where m is the maximum quantity of parts requested at any time. Saha and Mohanty have developed a spare parts stocking policy with an objective of minimizing the downtime of critical equipment. The second dimension makes use of the criticality aspect of the spare part and is based on the revenue lost due to loss in production (Mi) which is given by where pi is the downtime cost per unit time per failure involving the concerned part. Although the selective control procedures make the managing of the multiple inventory items easier. the multi-unit spare inventory control. These eight categories have been formed by taking only two categories in each of the three dimensions. The two categories formed on the basis of sales value are high sales value and low sales value. takes into account the annual usage value Bi of the part i and is given by where Ci is the price of the part and Di is the total annual demand. makes use of a combination of ABC. In other words. which is based on the procurement leadtime while the third dimension makes use of the FSN classification (usage rate). The first dimension. which categorizes the spare parts into groups based on their criticality. For each of the nine categories. a range of service level is specified. VED and the SDE classification procedures which results in eight categories of items as shown in table 2. A reorder point-order quantity technique is used in conjunction with this method for replenishment of parts. in the categories formed on the basis of lead-times are long lead-time and short lead-time. There are several ways by which the criticality of a part can be defined. and Ni is the standard deviation of the downtime cost (E denotes expectation). The second dimension uses an SDE classification. A three dimensional classification technique has been used for the purpose. If a substitute part is readily available then the part may be less critical. For instance. fi is the number of failures per unit time involving the part i. MUSIC-3D. it should be noted that most of the classification criteria are subjective.
3. some applications involving management of maintenance inventories are also discussed. MRP-II possesses two basic characteristics which go beyond the closed-loop material requirements planning (MRP). in a raw. semi-finished or finished form. Figure 2.Table 2. any manufacturing organization would want to have the following questions answered: · How much to order? · When to order? Both these questions are also answered by the MRP technique. This section provides a brief overview of the closed-loop technique. 2. defines the constituents of an end-item. The immediate . The demand for an inventory item is termed dependent when it is directly related to. The bill of materials indicates that the engine consist of three subassemblies – the piston assembly. As seen in the figure. It is an operations as well as a financial system. is made up of the piston. a logic processor and a capacity planning subsystem. The components in the diagram have been described briefly. the piston rings and the bearings. Later in this section.3 Manufacturing Resources Planning The manufacturing resources planning (MRP-II) technique has been used widely for managing production resources. In addition to this. the crankshaft assembly and the cylinder assembly. The technique is based on the principle of dependent demand. in general.2 2.1 shows the components of MRP. An end-item is an item at the highest level of hierarchy in the bill of materials. a bill of materials file. The central idea of MRP is to time production/acquisition of batches of parts/components so that they are available as they are required in assemblies.3. or derived from the demand of another inventory item.2 shows the bill of materials for a petrol engine. in turn. The bill of materials. As mentioned earlier in this section. It is also a system simulator. the petrol engine is an end-item. It consists of a master production schedule. an inventory status file. Figure 2. The components can either be manufactured in the shop or can be boughtout items. It can also be considered to be an assembly definition. The piston assembly.1 The Bill of Materials The bill of materials defines how one or more items are brought together to make up another item. All other constituents of the petrol engine are referred to as items. the application of MRP is also very simple.3.
the bill of materials also indicates the quantity of an item that goes into making a parent item. In addition to defining the relationship between items. is an item whose parent is the piston assembly.1 . As seen from Figure 2. for example.predecessor of an item is called the parent item. The piston.2 two bearings (indicated in parenthesis) go into the making of a piston assembly. Figure 2. The bill of materials also carries with it some other information such as whether the part is bought out or is manufactured within the organization. The MRP technique uses the bill of materials for computing the requirements through a process called explosion or desegregation.
This includes raw materials. In order to make the computation of the requirements easy.3. This is further broken down into a schedule for specific variants of carbide tools such as SPAN 50.2 Master production Schedule A master production schedule is a statement of production of end-items for a given planning horizon. which is a budget set by the management. The requirement at one level is computed first before proceeding to the next level. It states what end-items need to be produced and how many needs to be produced in a month or week. 2. this can be broken down into 12 production months. The master production schedule is constrained by the production plan. semi-finished and finished parts. .5 tones of tools need to be produced every month on average.3. it may so happen that the items are used at two different levels. The master production schedule indicates the quantity of items to be produced in a given period. The quantity of all the items to be produced in a given period must equal the quantity budgeted in the production plan as shown in Table 2. Since the demand for carbide tools is all through the year.3. the top management has budgeted 6 tones of carbide tools to be produced during the year. As shown in Table 2.3. The priorities for the production of items specified in the master production schedule are set by the sales plan.3.2 Every item in the bill of materials is given a number or code such that no two parts have the same number.Figure 2. There may be a case where an item is used in two different end items. level codes are assigned such that identical items used in different end-items are maintained at the same level. TPAN 75 and CPAN 75 that need to be produced. The total weight of the variants scheduled for production during the month when totaled equals the budgeted weight as shown in Table 2. This would mean that 0. Also.
5 0.1 0. 2.1 0.5 0.1 0.3.0 0.1 0.3 0.1 0.2 0.5 0.1 0. the batch sizing policy.Item code Jan Production Plan Carbide 0.4 Requirements Pegging .3.3 0.5 0.2 0.1 0.3 Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 0.5 0. · Quantity on order.1 Table 2.3.5 0. the inventory status file maintains the following data for every item: · Quantity on-hand.2 CPAN 50 0.1 0.5 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.3 Inventory Status File The inventory status file contains up-to-date information about all the materials stocked in the stores. The file is kept up to date by posting the transactions which take place as a result of a receipt or issue of parts into and out of the stores.1 0.1 0.1 2. the safety stock.2 TPAN 50 0.3 0.5 Tools Master Schedule SPAN 50 0.4 0.3 0.1 0.1 0. In general.1 0. In addition to the stock data.3 0.3. the inventory status file also contains the planning factors such as the procurement or manufacturing lead-times.3 0.1 0. the scrap allowances etc.5 0.5 0.5 0.1 0.5 0.3 0.1 0.
materials on order may be received earlier than the due date while in some others the scheduled receipt may not be expected to be in the stock on time. The scheduled receipts are taken into account while computing the net requirements. 5. 9. 2. For audit purposes. 8. .4 Tools and Facilities Queuing models and simulation have been used also for determining the optimal number of tools and facilities such that the maintenance costs are minimized. Scheduled receipts are orders which have already been released to the shop floor or to the vendors.5 Effect of Maintenance Types on Resources As mentioned earlier. This is a deterministic situation. This uncertainty may result in rescheduling of the receipts. The procedures used are similar to those used for determining the optimal number of repair gangs required for carrying out maintenance activities. The statistical inventory control techniques require that each item. 7. The manpower requirement is also known precisely. A master production schedule is a statement of production of end-items for a given planning horizon. in the case of a proactive perspective the maintenance activity is planned and the timing is also determined well in advance. 6. In some cases.3. irrespective of its criticality. The inventory status file will not contain up-to-date information about all the materials stocked in the stores.5 Rescheduling Process Scheduled receipts are orders which have already been released to the shop floor or to the vendors. The bill of materials defines how one or more items are brought together to make up another item. not be given equal importance.Explosion is a process concerned with generating gross requirements. 2. it becomes necessary to trace the demand for an item to its source and this process is referred to as pegging. Self Assessment Questions State whether following statement True or False. 2.3. Activities such as fixed-time maintenance enable managers to determine the exact number of parts required.
statistical inventory theory models and selective control approaches for multi-item inventories for spare parts planning and queuing theory and simulation for manpower planning. · Build-up spare part inventories and tools. This perspective has been created by initially discussing the various types of maintenance resources and their characteristics. and if manpower is a constraint. however. Managers in some organizations carry out cannibalization as a last resort in order to meet the production requirements. 2. The technique should be able to take into account preventive. In some cases cannibalization is also practiced. If the equipment is critical. explaining the commonly used methods and discussing the work done by researchers working in the area of spare parts management. If a failure occurs and the required resources are not available to restore the equipment to a working state the equipment is kept waiting in the repair queue. This approach to maintenance is called cannibalization. Selective control procedures. the maintenance activity is neither planned nor scheduled in advance. As per the definition of maintenance. does not reduce the number of inoperable parts. and corrective maintenance activities (and not just one of them). Consider a situation where two identical items of equipment have failed due to different failure modes.In the case of a reactive perspective. such as the use of ABC and VED classifications. If the required maintenance materials are not available in the stores then one option available is to replace the failed parts of one with the working parts of the other failed item of equipment. namely. condition-based. In order to reduce the impact of failures on the profitability of the organization the following techniques are usually adopted: · Increase the number of maintenance personnel. if not both. Statistical inventory theory models and techniques for selective control have been discussed in detail. then the immediate requirement would be to restore at least one of the items of equipment to a working state. this happens to be an undesirable situation and should be avoided. cannibalization can lead to severe control problems at a later time. · Use standby equipment. There are some .6 Summary The problem of management of maintenance resources has been discussed. The basic purpose of this study is to provide the necessary background and present in a proper perspective the need of the development of an MRP based technique for the management of maintenance resources. Cannibalization. have been used by industries for spare parts planning. and the various models and techniques which are commonly used. Since failures occur randomly it becomes difficult to predict the resource requirements.
For spare parts. VED×SDE×FSN and ABC× VED×SDE. Explain Master production Schedule. classification. are utilized to determine the ordering parameters. 2. For example.8 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1. based on just one criterion is adequate. 3. Repair gang 2. Summarize Bill of Materials. Such classification schemes. sprockets and bearings. 2. 2. such as ABC×VED. or heuristics. whereas VED and SDE may be more appropriate for special spare parts (ones which are used on particular equipment). and these models have their own shortcomings. 5. Classifying spare parts into homogeneous groups using a classification scheme is difficult since different types of spare parts require different classification schemes. Explain Man Power. chains. Inventory costs 3. such as the re-order point and order quantity. 4. give rise to a large number of classes of spares with each class having its own planning and control parameters.fundamental problems encountered in the use of selective control techniques for spare parts management and these are as follows: Such classification is always rather subjective and this is more so in the case of spare parts. Simulation techniques . ABC×FSN. statistical inventory control models. researchers have suggested the use of multidimensional classifications. In these cases as well. Define Statistical Inventory Theory Models. For the above reasons. in turn. Worn-out parts 4.7 Terminal Questions 1. belts. Briefly summarize effect of maintenance types on resources. or categorization. ABC and FNS are more appropriate for standard spares such as pulleys.
1 5.1 3. True 9.2 4. Refer 2. Refer 2.2.Refer 2. True 6.3. False 7. . False 8.2. Refer 2. True Terminal Questions 1.4 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .3.5.2. Refer 2.1 2.
The Work Management process requires the full support of the entire organization (e. selected.). waste management. etc.2 Functional Requirements Equipment Maintenance Function Work Order Management Function Inventory Management Function Vendor Management Function Subcontractor Management Function General Information Systems Specifications 3. Operations. and R&D activities.OM0006-Unit-03-Work Management & Identification Unit-03-Work Management & Identification Structure: 3.3 Work Management Process 3. Planning & Scheduling. closed and critiqued. .g. Maintenance..6 Answers 3. To fully understand the breadth of Work Management it is important to understand what Work Management is.1 Introduction Our goal is to establish excellence in Work Management.5 Terminal Questions 3. executed.4 Summary 3. scheduled. Work Management – A deliberate process in which a scope of work is identified. production. projects. Scope of work includes maintenance. planned. Engineering.1 Introduction Objectives 3.
2. at the least. Store maintenance data including failure and repair data. 3. should have the following functions.1 Equipment Maintenance Function The equipment maintenance function needs to perform the following: 1. 4. Update data when a failure or preventive maintenance activity is initiated and completed. 1. Track overall maintenance function performance. · Optimally utilize maintenance resources. 2. · Plan procurement of resources. hiring of subcontractors and arranging facilities. 3. A maintenance management information system. Work order management subsystem. manpower and tools would be available. 6. 3. 5. . Subcontractor management subsystem. Predict failures to a chosen level of confidence.2. Vendor management subsystem.Objectives: A maintenance management information system must help you to · Schedule the Maintenance activities. 4. Requirements can be gathered by interviewing the prospective users or circulating questionnaires. · Report on the performance of the overall maintenance system using standard indicators. Plan maintenance work – ensure materials. Inventory management subsystem. 3.2 Functional Requirements Before designing the information system. Schedule preventive maintenance work. The functional requirements of the information system should be gathered first. Equipment maintenance function. the scope of the system should be clear. 5.
Produce reports as desired by the maintenance manager and top management. covering manpower. Store and maintain inventory data including skills and tools. 8. 2. Track status of manpower. Track maintenance costs. 3.2. 5.2. Plan capacity.7. 5. Convert critical maintenance requests into work orders. Update materials inventory data as and when an issue or receipt of materials occurs. Create maintenance requests.2. 3. Print reports as desired by the maintenance manager and top management. Produce reports as desired by the maintenance manager and top management. Schedule release of planned orders (materials). 4. tools and facilities. 3. 3. Schedule work visually. materials and tools.2 Work order management subsystem The work order management function is required to perform the following: 1. Generate work orders for preventive and corrective actions. Track utilization of manpower.4 Vendor management function The vendor management function needs to perform the following: . 6. 4. Alert the maintenance manager to place orders for materials as planned and in the required quantity. 3. 6.3 Inventory management function The inventory management function has to do the following: 1. tools and facilities. 2. List pending work. 7. 9. 7. Track status of work in progress.
Make on-line data entry. 4. Produce reports as desired by maintenance manager. 3. top management and middle management.2. 2.6 General Information Systems Specifications The general information systems specifications need to perform the following: 1. 2) The work order management function is required to perform Plan capacity. 3) The equipment maintenance function needs Schedule preventive maintenance work.1. 2. Organize skills provided by subcontractors.5 Subcontractor management function The subcontractor management function must: 1.2. In order for a system to be efficient. Print related reports. 2. Self Assessment Questions State whether the statement is true or false. Maintain data related to subcontracts. each level of management needs to have access to the required information and should be able to extract the data which is needed. Track progress of subcontracted work. 1) The subcontractor management function must not maintain data related to subcontracts. 3. Validate data entry. 3. 6. Track cost. 3. Cater for three levels of users’ administration. 5. Devise metrics for evaluation of vendors. 3. . Maintain vendor information. Track quality of subcontracted work.
they would entail routines used to monitor attributes important to mission execution. and · Critique the planning. The statement of work in the contract provides a description of the mission-related work that DOE expects to be performed. · Select the specific work that will be planned. safety and protecting the environment. · Plan that work. Whether mandatory or voluntary on the . The statement of work.3 Work Management Process These steps to be followed in work management process are: · Identify the work that needs to be performed. At the top-level these processes and tools include the contract with DOE and management programs committed to by the contractor to execute the statement of work and requirements in the contract. · Schedule the work for performance. On a day-to-day basis. Each year DOE and the contractor review the contract and the progress of work as part of the annual budget process. other programs may be developed by the contractor in furtherance of contract execution. · Close the work item after completion. Contractors develop management programs to execute much of the work of contracts. A number of these programs are mandatory. 3.4) General information systems specifications will not validate data entry. scheduling and performance of the work that has been accomplished. · Execute the work. requirements stated in the contract and the annual budget process form the top-level means of identifying the work that will be performed. Mechanics The contract between DOE and the contractor provides the top-level mechanisms for work to be identified. Identify Work Concept This element describes the processes and tools put in place that determines the work that a contractor performs. 5) The vendor management function needs maintain vendor information.
Work is also identified on a daily basis. Work management systems are put in place by contractors to collect work requests into a single place. On-going assessments or reviews may identify the need for corrective actions. or improvements. prioritize and coordinate the management of several categories of work.part of the contractor. Select Work Concept Management programs identify the operational activities and routines that need to be completed to meet mission deliverables. no contractor has the resources to complete every identified work request. In furtherance of management programs. a continuous process. Additional management tools that are used in the work identification process also support other elements of the work management process. and similar repetitive procedures. From this process the work to be planned and executed in a given year is identified. Management The annual budget process provides contractor and DOE management the resources to manage the work that is identified for further planning and execution. The schedule is also a tool that ensures that work is properly identified. these management programs provide one of the primary paths for work to be identified. system and environmental parameters. The identification of work is. contractors often put routines in place. changes. They provide the opportunity to proactively manage the identification of emergent work. they provide a method to track. This process compares the work accomplished and that which remains to the funding that DOE believes will be available to execute work in the coming years. Routines are executed to monitor equipment. These include work requests. at a high level. While the threshold for identifying work items needs to be sufficiently low to all capture work items. Program and project plans are updated with the information developed during the annual budget process. Work requests not supporting the current mission. The Select Work element funnels the work requests through a validation or screening process to determine those work items needing to be completed. therefore. operator rounds. Workers are encouraged to be vigilant in monitoring facility conditions for system or equipment problems. The discovery of new information may result in the need for additional research and development or design changes to existing systems and equipment. an identified project or specific facility need are screened out and no further resources applied to their resolution. which are initiated by personnel who identify work that needs to be performed to allow the work item to be entered into a work management system. Other types of work are converted into work requests. environmental monitoring. These routines can include Technical Surveillance Requirements/ Limited Condition of Operations TSR/LCO surveillances. After the work .
Knowledge of these drivers allows effective prioritization of work planning efforts. operational requirements. Work may be tied to contract milestones. · Work Duplications: Contractors use Work Management Tools to track work orders. Location of the work. stay in compliance with the established safety basis and operating requirements for that facility or project.request has been validated a formal work order is entered into the work management tools used by the contractor. or. These tools should be reviewed to determine whether duplicate items are already entered into the system. The work may be simple enough that no initiating work documents are required (so-called “tool pouch” or “quick fix” items). This second type of work will normally be given a relative priority. and interface with mission requirements. . Attributes evaluated include: · Work Scope Identification: A clear scope statement is necessary to understand what work activities are necessary. This validation process evaluates attributes of the work items to determine if the work item should be processed through the work management system. coded with respect to like components and systems. or management commitments. may all provide key information needed to properly validate the work. Work requests that are clearly not going to be accomplished due to cost impacts should be screened out at this point. The work selection process starts with a work validation. If the work item is a duplicate it should be screened out. A strong validation process incorporates two-way communications with the work request identifiers. problem symptoms. Or the work request may require a documented resolution. if sufficiently important. Effective work management processes utilize a graded approach to resolving work requests. · Need Date: Work requests must clearly indicate any deadline dates and the estimated time period for completing the work. or required plant operational modes to facilitate tracking and planning and then entered into the work management system. · Work Cost: Work requests may be identified that will require funding that is beyond that available to the contractor. etc. equipment identification. Work requests that have equipment impacts must be evaluated and the systems configured to protect equipment and workers. Mechanics Work selection is a continuous process to handle the work requests identified on a daily basis. · Operational Impact: Work requests that have immediate impact on the health and safety of contractor personnel need to be processed rapidly. traded off with lower priority work or put forth as a candidate for additional funding.
Those work requests entered into the work management system result in the generation of work orders. Mature work selection processes incorporate an understanding of a graded approach to work planning.
Contractors need to clearly define who has responsibility and authority to perform the validation activity for their facilities and projects. The validation authority typically resides in the Operations organization because they are responsible for mission execution and normally retain configuration control of the facility systems, structures and components. The work management process descriptions need to define the planning processes used by the contractor staff. Requirements for the type of planning required, based on potential mission impact, hazards analysis and complexity of the work activity, are critical to decision-making during work selection. Plan Work Concept This element describes the process of taking a defined scope of work that has been selected for planning and developing/packaging technical documents to safely and efficiently perform that work. This process includes identification/incorporation of applicable technical specifications and requirements into technical documents, identifying and mitigating job hazards, identifying and obtaining required permits, developing work instructions, and defining post activity acceptance. Mechanics An initial step in planning work is determining what type of work execution vehicle will be used to perform the work. As previously discussed under Work Selection, this decision has often already been made, on a preliminary basis, prior to the initiation of Work Planning; however, it is confirmed as part of this element. Is the work to be performed with a very simple work package where the worker has the knowledge to perform the work and little or no instruction is required or will the work require a work package with more detailed instructions? The following criteria might be used to determine whether work can be performed using a very simple work package: · No medium or high risk activities. · No activities requiring hold points. · Will not alter configuration of equipment from documented design. · Will not present any unusual hazards.
· No hands-on work with radioactive material except incidental or routine work activities that involve low potential of worker exposure or workplace contamination. · No opening of contaminated systems, components, containers. · Minimal external coordination required. · “Skill-of-the-Craft” Work. Such tasks should be documented in a work package by the Field Work Supervisor (FWS) and released to work by operations and documented on the document releasing work.
Work management systems are often put in place to collect work requests and maintain and file documents in a single place. They provide a method to track, prioritize, and coordinate the management of several categories of work. They also provide a means for the work planning organization to interface with the operations organization and ensure that work is moving through the planning pipeline in a manner that supports mission execution. Schedule Work Concept Schedules are tools used by work management organizations to communicate and coordinate work activities. This element describes the processes and tools associated with establishing schedules. Typically, work is identified from various sources (missionrelated commitments, Authorization Basis requirements, maintenance routines, etc.) and flows through a “rolling work week process” (described below) into an integrated schedule. The rolling work week concept is typically established based on either an 8 or 12 week duration.
Most sites have developed a fairly common set of schedules to implement graded approaches to conduct of operations. These commonly include a Plan of the Day (POD) along with a slightly longer view, often one week (so-called Plan of the Week, POW). Various methods exist to move information from longer-term schedules to these two short-term scheduling tools. The rolling work week concept provides an effective tool for managing the development of schedules. It involves setting a specific time frame (or “window”) within a longer-term schedule on which to focus increased management attention. Common time frames are eight to twelve weeks.
· For work that falls within the work window, increased emphasis is placed on planning, detailed schedule concerns and coordination of the work. This time period of increased attention allows: o Optimization of planned outage windows, scheduling all tasks that require particular facility conditions or that impact production commitments; o Development of a detailed technical sequence for complex jobs; o Addressing only items that need to be scheduled in detail, i.e., they require coordination of resources, complex work, etc; o Grouping of similar work to efficiently use resources and equipment by facility mode, available space, system/equipment; and time to verify that parts are available and staged. The work planned during the work window is “Locked-In”, that is, committed to by all concerned, two weeks in advance. This lock-in process adds discipline to the scheduling process and provides focus for final work preparation and coordination. After lock-in, the schedule is under a formal change control process; this encourages people to only lock in work that is truly ready to work. This level of planning and commitment permits the development of precise resource loaded schedules; it supports aligning support resources to the schedule and permits other detailed preparations such as verifying that fully-trained workers are available. This level of planning and scheduling attention also improves task readiness, it allows crews time to review work in advance of working. A formal post work week critique is held to evaluate what got done, what didn’t get done and why. It should be clear from the level of effort inferred above, that the implementation of a rolling work week process requires a commitment from all organizations to make the system work. Work on the rolling work week is facilitated by the existence of schedules that integrate all important work. Management Management tools for a successful scheduling process include: · Senior Management involvement (Frequent and Regular) – Critical Path Meetings · Accountability meeting – weekly schedule commitment meeting · High level schedule change control authority once work is locked in · POD – A daily meeting intended to review facility and schedule status
· Remove insulation.· POW – A weekly meeting intended to review and status the higher level facility schedule · Rolling work week process – described above · Outages – scheduled periods where equipment systems or facilities are available to perform pre-determined work · Metrics – tools used to measure success of schedule performance · Documentation of key scheduling assumptions – essential to the development of baseline schedules Execute Work Concept This element describes the processes and tools associated with the actual performance of the work. · Assemble required test equipment. Mechanics For each assigned task. the first-level supervisor performs a final review of the work instruction. ensures that procedures and references are the latest revision and that all of the required permits are issued and up to date. This work should be completed in parallel with establishing worker protection and industrial safety requirements. · Assemble tools and material at job location. · Build scaffolding and install lead shielding. · Complete rigging preparations. . Applicable work instruction prerequisites are completed to ensure readiness to work. The execution of work begins when the work package is released for work by Operations and runs through the completion of work in the field or facility. This element is centered on the first-level supervisor (the person directly overseeing the work crew) and the crew that is engaged in the performance of the activity. Example components of work execution include the following: Preparations: · Contact job support personnel as required.
The supervisor documents relevant as-found conditions and the work performed. and identifies all discrepancies and incomplete work items. job hazards analysis. the first-line supervisor oversees and directs the work activities in accordance with the approved work instructions. Finally.· Provide necessary temporary air. Pre-Job Brief: · Scope of the task · Review of prerequisite section of the work instructions · Responsibilities of all participants. Management Management tools put in place to monitor work execution include the Plan of the Day or other work progress meeting. including expected worker radiological recovery actions · Job-specific hazards and their controls · Applicable precautions and limitations · Required safety equipment · Discuss hold points with employee(s) responsible for the completion of the hold point and employee(s) performing work immediately before or after the hold point · Industrial. tents. which monitors the day-to-day progress of work execution. Formal programs to have management observe work in the field will provide not only . As the work completes. environmental or radiological hazards of the task from the work document. · Finish prefabrication work. the first line supervisor reviews the instructions for a complete and accurate work history and performs post activity testing and any rework identified by the post activity testing. · Build contamination control devices (catch basins. or facility knowledge · Potential abnormal events and contingency plans After completing preparations and getting their work crew prepared to perform the job. Radiological Work Permit. · Set up welding equipment if required. power. and water requirements. field walk-downs. water storage/recovery systems). the first line supervisor completes all system/equipment checks described in the work instructions to return equipment to service.
The system/components can be returned to operations subject to any controls defined in the work instructions. · Update as-built drawings. . . capturing repair history. Mechanics The work closure process can be described as several related steps. · Update the files for the affected system/equipment. · Ensure condition tags and other documents are in the completed closure package prior to returning it to the Work Management Center. but a more accurate feel for work difficulty and potential coordination issues. an inventory of equipment and parts used and feedback to the work management process. documenting the completion of work.g. regulatory and safety basis requirements. returning (or turning over) equipment and systems to operations.. resolve any deviations. or exceptions have been authorized by the person responsible for accepting the work. a number of sites use standard computerized templates to capture relevant historical information.status. Documentation: · Document work completion against requirements. Important attributes of these processes are discussed below. including quality. are satisfied and test results are approved. These steps include the process of verifying that work has been completed. Documentation associated with the work evolution can then be signed off. normally in the operations organization. e. or authorized incomplete/open work items. Close Work Concept Work can be closed and declared complete when defined requirements in the approved work package have been met. Schedule updates. · Dispose of excess materials and waste properly. Verification: · Verify all administrative and technical requirements. as appropriate. · Remove all temporary/test equipment and restore system/components to operable status. calibration and preventive maintenance data into the Work Management System. based on work completed also provide feedback on work execution.
etc. · Release all remaining clearance tags. drawing and training updates are completed prior to placing the component(s) in service. Inventory: · Document material used. Work critiques take on many forms. improvements or lessons learned are identified. and lessons learned. · Accept the system/equipment for operability and return to service in a timely manner. Management The first-line supervisor is responsible to verify work completion against requirements defined in the approved work package. the work package should have been changed and procedures amended by the appropriate formal documentation.. and incorporated into subsequent work. · Evaluate the authorized incomplete/open work items for any operational impact concerns. and ensuring completion of the work closure functions. the previous work week (Work Week Critique) period. e. Mechanics The post work critique (ALARA.) process takes selected jobs and critiques them to identify good practices. · Return unused parts to the warehouse. Improvement opportunities are . issues. ranging from individual job post work critiques to critiquing all of the work performed by a group or a facility within a specified time period. Critique Work Concept This element describes the processes and tools associated with performing a critical analysis of work to ensure that issues. the first line supervisor should consult with the work planner and the systems engineer as needed.g. and return the system/equipment to the required configuration to support facility operations.· Retain the closure package in accordance with the Site’s records retention requirements. If there are authorized open items. · Verify required procedure. Return to Operations: · Review work activity and all testing for system/equipment operability.
Management Management tools for a successful critique process include: · Weekly critique meeting · Regularly scheduled meeting following each work week to critically review performance of the previous work week (attended by Senior Management) . The work week critique process is a continuous improvement process. o Metrics which track and trend the work week elements. The report should also include: o A breakdown of the types of work scheduled & accomplished for the week. but was not & what the issues were which prevented that work from being accomplished. including the specifics regarding what was accomplished. etc. · Work Week Critique Report: A formally prepared report which comprehensively addresses the work week being analyzed. whereby all groups involved in work execution meet to perform a critical analysis of all aspects of the week performance. what was initially intended to be accomplished. typically covering the previous weeks work activities · Work Week Critique Attendance: Work week critique targeted audience should typically be that of Facility Senior Management. Issues should be trended to identify programmatic issues. · Work Week Critique Meeting: A regularly scheduled meeting used to perform a thorough analysis of the work execution.typically formally documented and followed to closure through a commitment tracking system. Emergent. including: § Schedule & Cost Performance § Manpower Utilization § Emergent Work § Backlog · Action Item Tracking: A formal process in which action items from the Work Critique meeting are assigned responsibility & tracked through completion. The applicable post work critique output should be discussed in the work week critique process described below. including Emergency.
3. Management programs identify the operational activities and routines that need to be completed to meet mission deliverables. Explain briefly Identify Work in Work management Process. 4. Explain Functional Requirements in Work Management. Management programs identify the operational activities and routines that need to be completed to meet mission deliverables. 9) Identify describes the processes and tools put in place that determines the work that a ________ performs.4 Summary The Work Management process requires the full support of the entire organization. . 7) _________ can be closed and declared complete when defined requirements in the approved work package have been met. Describe Close Work in Work Management Process.5 Terminal Questions 1. Explain Schedule Work in Detail. 10) ___________________ systems are often put in place to collect work requests. normally in the operations organization.· Appropriate Metrics including tracking and trending · Standard Critique reports · Action Item Tracking / Accountability · Worker feedback Self Assessment Questions 6) Management tools for a successful critique process include _________. Identify Work describes the processes and tools put in place that determines the work that a contractor performs. 5. Explain components of work execution. 3. or exceptions have been authorized by the person responsible for accepting the work. Execute work describes the _______ and ______ associated with the actual performance of the work. Work can be closed and declared complete when defined requirements in the approved work package have been met. 3. 2.
. Worker feedback 7. False 5. Work management Terminal Questions 1) Refer 3. True 6. Processes. True 3. Contractor 10. 5 4) Refer Page 8 5) Refer Pages 9.6 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1.3. False 2. True 4. Tools 9. 10 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .1 2) Refer Page 10 3) Refer Page 4. Close Work 8.
1 Introduction The turret lathes and gang drills were acquired second-hand.6 Terminal Questions 4.7 Answers 4. breakage and slips of gear and belt drives.OM0006-Unit-04-Emergencies or Breakdown Process Paper: ISO 90012000/Qs Elements Unit-04-Emergencies or Breakdown Process Paper: ISO 9001-2000/Qs Elements Structure: 4. the machines caused a great deal of anxiety to the management by failing quite frequently and unexpectedly. and low morale of workers. . The breakdown of the machines resulted in a great loss of productive time and also led to several problems such as not being able to meet due dates. The reasons for breakdowns were many: development of high temperature in the bearings. failure of insulation in electrical circuits.4 Maintenance Economics Breakdown-time Distribution Preventive versus Breakdown Maintenance (Single Machine) 4. In the initial stages. formation of sludge’s and corrosive compounds on the machine parts. misalignment of shafts and pulleys. etc.5 Summary 4. and were immediately commissioned. especially while processing important jobs.3 Maintenance Strategies Corrective or Breakdown Maintenance 4.2 The Maintenance Function 4.1 Introduction Objectives 4. one-year back. overheating of motors.
is any activity carried out on an asset in order to ensure that the asset continues to perform its intended functions. The four workers were divided into two crews. The technicians accepted the job under the condition that if ever they are required to work in the second shift on a day. After a long search. Maintenance is defined as ‘any action that restores failed units to an operational condition or retains non-failed units in an operational state’ or ‘an activity carried out for any equipment or asset to ensure its reliability to perform its functions’. The machine operators can only operate the machine when they are in working condition. the proprietor of the workshop advertised for maintenance specialists for the turret lathes and gang drills. Preventive maintenance of a machine consists of dismantling the machine and checking all its important parts and making the necessary adjustments and replacements. Minimizing these adverse effects is the role assigned t maintenance. and consequently higher production efficiency. availability. or to repair any equipment that has failed. or to restore to its favorable operating condition. Machine and component failures can trigger incidents or cause costly production interruptions. Such maintenance is expected to reduce the frequency of machine breakdowns. and cannot attend to any repairs or maintenance. The maintenance crews can do breakdown maintenance as well as preventive maintenance for all the four machines.2 The Maintenance Function Maintenance. to most people. Minimizing the failure count or their adverse effects leads to increased safety. As he wanted technicians with experience on the specific machines he had.In order to combat these problems. . he selected four technicians for employment. they are to be paid overtime. each crew consisting of two workers. Maintenance work on a machine requires both workers of a crew. the proprietor had considerable difficulty in finding he maintenance specialists. It improves the systems overall reliability. reduced downtime and cost of operation. or to keep the equipment running. Objectives After studying this unit you shall be able to · Explain the functions involved in maintenance · Recognize the strategies of maintenance · Distinguish between preventive and breakdown maintenance · Evaluate the economic aspects of maintenance 4.
energy efficiency. The evolution in the maintenance thought process is rooted in the changing complexity of industry itself. · Safety is ensured. Maintenance efficiency is viewed as an integral part of business effectiveness. · Down-time is minimized. as well as the quantitative and cost standard of outputs. It determines the risk-safety. The maintenance function plays a supporting role to effective operations. environmental integrity. . The evolution can be seen to cover 3 different generations of thought.1 shows the evolution of the maintenance philosophy.1: Evolution of Maintenance Philosophy Table 4. the significance of maintenance and its role in plant operation has changed significantly. From a simple expectation of keeping equipment running or restoring it to the desired operating condition. It ensures that the equipment is able to maintain quality standards. Over the past years. First Generation Second Generation Third Generation · Fix it when broke · Scheduled Overhauls · Condition monitoring · Systems for planning · Design for reliability and and controlling work maintainability · Low-tech computerization · Hazard studies · High-tech computers · Failure modes and effects analysis · Expert systems · Multitasking and teamwork Table 4.The objectives of maintenance are to maintain equipment and facilities in such condition that: · They give trouble-free service and output at rated capacity. management today sees a much larger role for maintenance. and · The cost of operation and maintenance is minimized. product quality and customer service profile of the organization. in addition to its traditional roles of enhancing plant availability and lowering costs.
As these components drop out one by one. the failure rate is high.1. Downtime did not matter much and no need was felt to treat maintenance as a high priority issue. or sheer quality deficiency in their manufacture. Second Generation (1950-70) – The second generation emerged as the result of growing complexity in equipment and plant design. Most equipment that survives infancy will continue to perform with few failures occurring. This is the useful period of the machine. These have led to major developments in maintenance philosophy based on manufacturing reliability systems. With increase in mechanization. In practice. The reason for the occurrence of these failures is not fully understood. unpredictable and cannot be prevented by additional testing or burn-in of the components.3 Maintenance Strategies . Researchers into the reliability of equipment recognize that within a collection of machines. reliability and availability have become key issues. there is a definite pattern of lifespan. 4. First Generation (1930-40) – The first generation represents the earlier days of industrialization where mechanization was low. fatigue due to flaws in the molecular structure of the metals or plastics involved. This led to the concept of preventive maintenance. 3. During this period. the weak components from the infant mortality period have either been repaired or replaced. How Equipments Fail Maintenance is concerned with controlling the condition of equipment. During the infant mortality period. but they are thought to be at least partially due to abrupt changes in stress distribution in the components. called infant mortalities. The failures that do occur during the period are truly random. downtime became a problem and management tried to find means and ways to minimize and prevent these failures. primarily due to the presence of weak or substandard components or design inadequacies in not properly understanding the operating conditions. there was an added interest created in the field of maintenance planning and control systems. Hence. the failure rate keeps decreasing until a relatively low constant level is obtained. As this dependence grew. industry became increasingly dependent on these complex machines. this pattern manifests itself when a collection of machinery is subjected to rigorous operation. As maintenance costs started to rise sharply relative to other operating costs. expert systems and continuous improvement programs have developed. 2. Third Generation (after the 1980’s) – Since the 80’s. Factory equipment was basic and repair and the restoration process was simple. Repairing and restoration had become more difficult and special skills and more time was needed to maintain and repair equipment. there is a rather high incidence of early failures. Among collections of equipment. the growth of mechanization and automation has become more complex and even small breakdowns in equipment affect the operation of the whole plant.
c) Alteration to existing equipment and buildings. Some of the common approaches to maintenance are as follows: · Breakdown maintenance · Preventive maintenance · Predictive maintenance · Proactive maintenance Type of Maintenance Strategy Maintenance ApproachSignificance Fix-it when broke Large maintenance budget Scheduled Maintenance Periodic component replacement Condition-based Maintenance decision Monitoring based on equipment condition Detection of Sources of Monitoring and Failures correcting failing root causes Maintenance Strategy Breakdown Maintenance Preventive Maintenance Predictive Maintenance Proactive Maintenance Although the scope of maintenance will vary depending on the type of industry. its size..Over the years. d) New installations of equipment and buildings. buildings and grounds. the prevalent management policies. The secondary functions are: a) Maintenance stores. . many new approaches have been advocated as maintenance strategies that are intended to overcome problems related to equipment breakdown. etc. maintenance functions may be identified as primary or secondary functions. b) Generation and distribution of utilities. equipment. b) Plant protection. The primary functions are: a) Maintenance of existing plant.
action must be taken to address the cause. · Corrective maintenance strategy has no routine maintenance task and therefore is also described no scheduled maintenance strategy.1 Corrective or Breakdown Maintenance This is one of the earliest maintenance strategies implemented in the industry.c) Waste disposal. a properly designed fault reporting system must be instituted and similarly. so as to restore it a specified operating state. and as the name suggests. corrective maintenance is periodically performed on the equipment. 4. a) To restore the faulty equipment to a healthy operating state as promptly as possible. maintenance is activated on breakdown. It is also called. and b) To do this in a cost effective manner. · Restoring a failed system usually involves replacing or repairing the component that is responsible for the failure of the overall system. d) Salvage. Corrective maintenance is performed at unpredictable intervals because a components failure time is not known a priori. b) Repair and/or replacement of faulty component(s): Once the cause of system failure has been determined. which has broken down or developed a fault. the repair work is performed only after a piece of equipment has failed. c) Verification of the repair action: once the components in question have been repaired or replaced. breakdown maintenance. It consists of the action(s) taken to restore a failed system to operational status. usually by replacing or repairing the components that caused the system to fail.3. The goals and objectives of corrective maintenance management are. Corrective maintenance is typically carried out in three steps: a) Diagnosis of the problem: The maintenance technician must take time to locate the failed parts or otherwise satisfactorily assess the cause of the system failure. the maintenance technician must verify that the system is again successfully operating. . · The approach to maintenance is totally reactive. · However. · Corrective maintenance may be defined as the repairs carried out to restore equipment. the rectification of the fault should be processed in the same manner as for planned maintenance work schedules. To rectify the problem.
the failure of any one of its parts can cause a breakdown of the machine. Machine and component failures can trigger _________. breakdowns may affect production and thus reduce profits. As maintenance is an economic decision. _________ Maintenance strategy has no routine maintenance task. 4. and the adoption of other maintenance practices may reduce interruptions to production. 5. and where production interruptions may be negligible.1 Breakdown-time Distribution In order to establish the cost implications.4. Even where capacity is not a constraint.4 Maintenance Economics Maintenance policy refers to an organization’s policy in respect of the maintenance function of a set of equipments. Moreover. The breakdown time distribution of the complex machine probably will . management must know how the breakdowntime is distributed. each part will have a different failure distribution. the breakdown maintenance practice may be costlier than other maintenance strategies. 3. In such a situation. In such cases. Such a distribution will show the frequency of maintenance-free running times for a given number of operating hours. 4. · Where capacity and demand are close. what are its cost implications? 4. For example. thereby eliminating or at least minimizing the failures. the practice of attending to machines only after they have broken down may be uneconomical. Self Assessment Questions 1. A simple machine with few moving parts will probably have breakdowns after a fairly large number of maintenance-free runtime hours.· Corrective maintenance in a broader perspective may also include activities related to correcting potential causes for failure or malfunction that might not have been adequately considered when the equipment was designed. 2. But in the case of a complex machine. Restoring a failed system usually involves _________ or repairing the component. maintenance engineers should be allowed to consider the possibility. proper feedback to the design department may lead to alterations in design that will reduce or eliminate failures. The decision of maintenance policy is more of an economic decision rather than a technical one. The growth of __________ and automation has become more complex. if careful observations of repeated failures of an equipment or system suggest that the remedy lies in correcting the system. The first generation represents the earlier days of ___________ where mechanization was low.
The same data that we have used to plot figure 4. B = 0.8 ‘0.8 ‘0. Curve ‘a’ exhibits low variability from the average maintenance free breakdown-time ‘Ta’. In this case.7.40). which exceed a given free-run-time. and the reliability factors are A = 0.8 and D = 0. .9. Say to obtain the ‘a’ curve in figure.8. that one can be sure the machine will operate reliably.4 for the percentage of breakdowns.2 Figure 4. adjustments before it can give reasonable trouble-free service. maintenance free run-time as that of the simple machine. For example. The total system reliability will be the product of the reliability of each individual system. T3 = Average free run time free of breakdowns Figure 4. The variability depicted by curve ‘c’ is typical of complicated equipment that needs ‘fine’. and the ‘run-times free of breakdowns’ as the ‘x’-axis. it would amount to (0.4 can be used to plot the percentage of breakdowns that exceed a given runtime as the ‘y’-axis.9 ‘0. C = 0. subtract from 100 the figure 4.. if the total system has four sub-systems.e.7 = 0. Equipment can be considered as a total system with its sub-assemblies as sub-systems. i. B. By reliability we mean the probability that the system will give trouble free service. If we assume that the failure of any one of the sub-systems can cause the failure of the entire system. and plot this against the run-time. say A. C & D. the reliability of the total system would equal the product f reliability factors of each of the sub-systems. It also shows that it is only after a few periods of trouble free running. Curve ‘a’ depicts the behavior of a simple machine.free run-time as the other two but the distribution has much wider variability. while curve ‘b’ represents a more complex machine.2 represents a graphical description of the degree of variability in free-run-time. The frequency distribution curve ‘c’ has the same average maintenance.show greater variability than the simple machine even though it may have the same average. curve ‘b’ is the exponential distribution and exhibits medium variability and curve ‘c’ exhibits high variability.
When this happens.5 gives the percent of time a machine is working for the three distributions of breakdown-time shown in Figure and the ratio of the standard maintenance period to . ’Ts’ can be considered the breakdown cycle.Figure 4. In such cases. This can be considered the standard preventive maintenance cycle time.4: Breakdown-time distributions 4.2 Preventive versus Breakdown Maintenance (Single Machine) Consider a preventive maintenance schedule. inspected and parts replaced. the machine is shutdown. which after a machine has been running for fixed time ‘Tr’. the average maintenance free run-time. is equivalent to ‘Tr’ (maintenance free run-time) plus ‘Tm’ (the time take to do the preventive maintenance). preventive maintenance should be performed just a little before normal breakdown is likely to occur. The total time period ‘Ta’. Ideally. the situation is slightly different. This preventive maintenance work takes a time ‘Tm’. shortening the preventive maintenance cycle can reduce the number of actual breakdowns. Figure 4. after which the equipment is ready to work.4. and the length of the standard preventive maintenance cycle. more breakdowns are likely to occur during the course of the standard period. In actual practice. If the distribution has greater variability. The probability of occurrence of a breakdown in the two different cycles depends on the specific breakdown-time distribution of the equipment. there will be breakdowns that occur before the equipment is shutdown for preventive maintenance. Since preventive maintenance is meant to reduce the total plant down-time particularly unscheduled event – its timing and frequency are important. over a period of time. the running time between the preventive maintenance and the breakdown plus the time taken to repair the breakdown.
This is obvious. as there is better predictability of when breakdowns are likely to occur. This suggests that for breakdown time distribution with low variability. like those depicted by curve ‘a’. there is an optimum value for the standard maintenance period. Figure 4. ‘Ta’ for a given breakdown-time distribution. Second. a standard preventive maintenance period can be set in such a way that the total downtime is reduced. ‘Ts’. In this type of situation.average maintenance-free run-time. The percentage of machine running time depends on the ratio of the standard maintenance period and the average run-time. but only till a peak is reached after which lengthening standard maintenance period seems to reduce the percentage of machine running time. First. the machine works for a small percentage of time. it is assumed that either preventive maintenance or repair puts the equipment in line for a running time of equal length. since a low ratio would mean too many machine stoppages. it can also be seen that for curves ‘b’ and ‘c’ an increase of the ratio results in an increase in the percentage of machine running time. Such a relationship is shown for the three different breakdowns time distributions. and hence less availability.5: Present of time when the machine is working and breakdown distribution Certain generalizations can be made from the above three graphs. In the case of curve ‘a’ (for breakdown-time distribution with low variability). preventive maintenance is highly benefited to machines whose breakdown time distributions have low variability. Unless the preventive maintenance time is less than the repair time. there is little gain in . the relation of preventive maintenance time to repair time is important. It can be seen that for low values of the ratio of standard maintenance period to average maintenance free runtime. there is a similar increase in machine running-time. From figure.
8. 4. Equipment cannot be considered as a total system with its sub-assemblies as subsystems. We also need to take into account other effects of unscheduled downtime. an increase in the standard period would mean less number of preventive maintenance cycles and more repairs. What are the Maintenance Strategies? . In general. it is better to perform corrective or breakdown maintenance. The probability of occurrence of a breakdown in the two different cycles depends on the specific breakdown-time distribution of the equipment. Additional stoppage time because maintenance crew cannot start repairing immediately after the breakdown has occurred. Since some parts are most important to machines. or more than the time for repair.6 Terminal Questions 1. 6. and 3. the percentage of machine running time continues to increase with the increase of standard preventive maintenance period. 10. Maintenance policy will not refer to any organization’s policy. Self Assessment Questions State whether the statement is true or false.5 Summary You need to make decisions at the beginning of each shift regarding maintenance. all the machines are free and have jus had a preventive maintenance done. both in terms of contribution earned by them as well as their criticality because of their propensity to break-down. 7. For a given breakdown time distribution. 9. you will deal with jobs. 4. The percentage of machine running time depends on the ratio of the standard maintenance period. Effect on production losses if plant shutdown could have been avoided. when the repair time is equal to maintenance time. Initially. 2. Effects of scheduling preventive maintenance for non-productive days or shifts with no loss of production. such as 1.preventive maintenance. If preventive maintenance is equal to. The breakdown time distribution of the complex machine probably will not show greater variability than the simple machine.
Refer 4.3. Explain Breakdown Time distribution. True 9.2. Industrialization 4.1 3. Explain Preventive versus Breakdown Maintenance.1 4. 5. Refer 4. 4.2. Explain evolution of Maintenance Policy. Refer 4. 3. Corrective 5. Replacing 3. Summarize Breakdown and Corrective maintenance. Mechanization 2. Refer 4. Incidents 6.3. . True 10.7 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1. 4.2 5. False 7.2 2. FalseTerminal Questions 1. True 8. Refer 4.1 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .
6 Answers 5. to ensure or restore system performance to specified levels. Maintenance is defined as the restoring of an item to its original condition or to working order.1 Introduction Once the machinery is purchased it must be maintained.2 Functions & Feature of Maintenance Engineering 5.3 Types of Maintenance Systems Routine Maintenance Planned /Scheduled / Productive Maintenance Break down or Corrective / Remedial Maintenance Preventive Maintenance Predictive Maintenance Condition Based Maintenance 5.OM0006-Unit-05-Types of Maintenance Systems Unit-05-Types of Maintenance Systems Structure: 5.4 Summary 5.1 Introduction Objectives 5. replacement of parts or total replacement of .5 Terminal Questions 5. Maintenance covers two aspects of systems – operation and performance. Maintenance is carried out in anticipation of or in reaction to a failure. which can be achieved through repair.
Objectives: After studying this unit you shall be able . Hence a systematic and structured approach to proper & cost effective maintenance is required. Between these alternatives the management decides. Failure to perform maintenance in time to maintain the availability of the machinery will have serious effects ranging from benign to catastrophic. based on the practical and economic grounds Maintenance of any kind performed on machinery or equipment is a consequence of the fact that it started deteriorating before failing. Types of maintenance /strategies discussed in this unit are: · Routine Maintenance · Planned Maintenance · Break down Maintenance or Corrective Maintenance · Preventive Maintenance · Predictive Maintenance · Condition Based Maintenance · Total Productivity Maintenance The maintenance plan for a company’s assets can be a combination of the above strategies and could be adopted on the same machine. Maintenance management also aims at developing a reliable and high quality production system. Through proper maintenance of these machineries. Machineries lose its efficiency after some point of time due to various factors such as wear and tear. but there is no guarantee here that the exact nature of defect surfaces. misuse etc.the devices itself. It is evident that the best maintenance strategy is selected for reducing breakdowns. retain the productivity and maintain safe working conditions by reducing the probability of accidents. operational life can be extended. Developing effective maintenance procedures to restrict such deterioration or failure is vital. Sometimes accelerated testing is used to induce failures and know the behaviour of the systems. aging. Improperly performed maintenance or not carried out in time can escalate the problems because of faulty parts running.
. higher feeds. breakdown maintenance or preventive maintenance etc. Such high cost and sophisticated state of art machineries need to operate at optimal levels of performance with high degree of reliability. improved productivity.· To explain how systems work at their optimum efficiency · To prepare a plan to preserve the value of the assets by different methods · To calculate how to maximize production capability · To prepare a plan and schedule for maintenance work and prevent failures and breakdowns · To Improve quality of products and productivity · To Use of maintenance staff optimally · To Minimize or avoid accidents by periodical inspection and repairs. high up-time and prolonged mean time between failures (MTBF). have all warranted the use of sophisticated machineries for production. etc. . requirement of high accuracy. Flexible manufacturing systems. Therefore industries have entered into the era of high technology maintenance management to cater to the production requirement of minimum downtime and maximum productivity. scheduling and execution of many maintenance activities. repeatability. use of robotics and other Computer Integrated systems are developed and deployed for producing high quality products. To offer these requirements. rapid traverses. equipment and services in proper working condition that involves planning. Maintenance management is entrusted with the total task of keeping the machinery. like repair.2 Functions & Feature of Maintenance Engineering Maintenance Engineering is the function of the production management that is concerned with day-to-day problems of keeping the physical plant in good and acceptable operating condition. 5. high cost CNC machines. · · · · · Rapid strides in the advancement of manufacturing technology and its processes with higher powers and speeds. use of complex processes.
1 Routine Maintenance [RM] RM is a procedure followed regularly i.e. RM can be classified as: 1) Running maintenance 2) Shut down maintenance. repairing leaks) which include preventive maintenance and forms part of the annual operating budget. Maintenance is the work performed on an asset such as utility.Malfunctioning of machineries/equipment due to failure to upkeep the operating conditions may result in serious repercussions of reduced capacity. outer cleaning. machines. [say: check all compressors first on Mondays.3 Types of Maintenance Systems A way of reducing the plant breakdowns is to select the best maintenance strategy. lubricate two machines daily] It can be even day to day operational activities to keep the plant running (say: replacement of light bulbs. cleaning. cleaning of machines. and equipment by the maintenance staff to preserve such machineries in as near to its original condition as is practical and to realize its normal life expectancy. a cyclic operation recurring periodically. lubricating systems. These aspects are to recognized by the maintenance department. Widely adopted maintenance techniques/strategies are: · Routine Maintenance · Planned Maintenance · Break down Maintenance or Corrective/ Remedial Maintenance · Preventive Maintenance · Predictive Maintenance · Condition Based Maintenance · Total Productivity Maintenance [Discussed in detail in Unit-10] 5. inspection etc. small repairs. Hence the relationship between availability. reliability and maintainability of a plant is very important for the maintenance engineers. injury to workmen and finally frequent breakdowns etc may lead to protracted delivery of the product thus inviting customer dissatisfaction. It includes activities like inspection. These include say greasing or lubricating the bearings / systems. increased production costs. 1) Running maintenance is the work carried out when the equipment or the machine is performing some operations i. production of low quality products.e. working. 5.3. .
It involves inspection of all machineries.1. the emphasis is on machines: a) What does the manufacturer prescribe? b) Is the unit utilised for two or three shifts per day? c) Is it working under normal load? . repair and carry out all requisite maintenance before actual break down happens. 5.3.1 Advantages a) Simple to establish & follow b) Little or no clerical work c) High degree of prevention by intercepting developing faults d) A more advanced stage calls for ’service instructions on a pre-printed schedule and checklists’.g. overhaul.2 Disadvantages a) RM may not provide the service specified by the manufacturer b) May ignore information regarding preceding breakdowns c) Service required for a machine at different frequencies may be ignored d) Similar machines are serviced at same frequency irrespective of usage 5. thus avoiding a situation of emergency maintenance.3. boilers 5. E. de-scaling furnaces.2 Planned / Scheduled / Productive Maintenance Planned maintenance is the activities carried out according to a predetermined schedule and hence known as scheduled maintenance or productive maintenance. lubricate. Planned maintenance reduces the machine downtime.1. reduces the cost of maintenance.3. increases productivity as compared to unplanned one and hence it is followed as per the maintenance policy of the company.2) Shut down maintenance: certain minor maintenance activities cannot be carried out when the machine is running and hence carried out by shutting down the machine. In this type of service.
3.1 Characteristics of Planned Maintenance a) Instructions are more detailed than in routine maintenance b) Calls for differently timed service for the same unit c) Schedule is drawn with dates d) Establishes the work-load for the crew e) Entails considerable planning effort. c) Provides as much attention on the equipment for the best judgement of the planner [For details on ‘the principles of planning & scheduled maintenance’ refer Unit 6] 5. Planned repair/rectifying the problem is carried out when it is more convenient and cost effective after its failure rather than to disrupt the production with RM.3.2. to bring it back to working order.3.d) Are the conditions as good as those envisaged by the manufacturer? e) Do we allow for extra attention owing to corrosion-including conditions? 5. faithful implementation and recording f) Initial list of planned maintenance will be in detail 5. Also called as ‘on-failure maintenance/corrective maintenance’. Unforeseen work is reduced. adjustments are shown in overall plan b) Detailed instructions reduce the chance of missing any activity.2.3 Break Down or Corrective/ Remedial Maintenance Breakdown Maintenance is the method of operating the machines to run until they fail and then repair in order to restore them to an acceptable condition. can be defined as the maintenance which is required when an item has failed or worn out. replacement of parts.2 Advantages of Planned Maintenance Considers all the changes in conditions of use & increased wear of parts a) Inspections. . Corrective maintenance is carried out on all items where the consequences of failure or wearing out are not significant and the cost of corrective maintenance is not greater than preventative maintenance.
i. lost output.Corrective maintenance may be programmed. involve hazards. Repair is restoring an asset by replacing a part which is broken or damaged. Corrective maintenance activities include both emergency repairs (fire fighting) and preventive (or corrective) repairs. For example: non-critical low cost equipment. or where no other strategy will work. or reconditioning that part to its original or acceptable working condition. 5. On-failure maintenance can be effective if applied correctly. This method is expensive in terms of maintenance cost. increased downtime.1 Characteristics of Break-down Maintenance System · No services except occasional lubrication unless failure occurs · No maintenance men on regular basis · Maintenance done by sub-contractors · No organised efforts to find out reasons · No stock of spares · No budget · No records · Initially it looks economical · Creates internal problems namely: Who to do the repair? From where to get parts? How do we pay for them? Who will go & buy parts? . etc. o Upset schedule resulting in panicky. The above type of repairing and setting the equipment to working condition can be called as corrective maintenance. This system could be called as ‘Operate to Failure (OTP) ’– no predetermined action taken to prevent failure. taken after the failure happens. Here the machine and the work on that machine stops operating.e. Ex: electric motor may not start. misuse or improper maintenance. Repairs are done after the machine fails and hence this becomes a repair work. vandalism.3. drive shaft broken and hence the transmission fails. The need for repairs can result from normal wear. Frayed tempers put unnecessary pressures and disturb delivery commitments.3.
184.108.40.206.4 Preventive Maintenance PM is a regularly scheduled maintenance activity. preventative maintenance is carried out only on those items where a failure would . 5.2 Objectives of BD/Corrective Maintenance 1) To put back machinery back to work and minimize production interruptions 2) To control costs of maintenance crew to the minimum 3) To control cost of the operations of repairing 4) To control costs of repair & replacement parts to minimum 5) To control investment cost on purchase of standby or back up machines 6) To carry out appropriate repair intermittently at each malfunction to improve the life of the machine. This is normally programmed. detection and prevention of incipient failure.5.4 Disadvantages 1) No warning of failure – safety risk 2) Uncontrolled plant outage – production losses 3) Requires large standby maintenance team 4) Secondary damage – longer repair time 5) Large spares stock requirement 6) Provision of standby plant 5. In line with management’s policy on obtaining the best value from the maintenance funds.3 Advantages 1) Low cost if correctly applied 2) Requires no advanced planning other than ensuring spares availability 5.3.3. with an objective to anticipate problems and correct them before they occur.3. Preventive maintenance is carried out to prevent an item failing or wearing out by providing systematic inspection.
sub-station transformers.. checking. repair and major overhaul. 2) Condition-based Maintenance [explained below] 3) Opportunity Maintenance (find out the opportune moment for maintenance) The preventive maintenance is carried out at irregular intervals and this interval is determined by seeing the actual condition of the machine. etc.result in expensive consequences.g. -To avoid breakdown & ensure smooth production following time based activities are practiced: 1. circuit breakers. but it is found that a greater number of machine failures are at the peak when machine gets progressively worse over a period say months/ years. lubrication. clean and up keep To achieve prevention of break-downs planned service is carried out with the explicit additional objective of detecting wear points and ensure perfect functioning by replacing parts Here the safe overhaul interval is selected. lifts. Preventive maintenance could be grouped as: 1) Fixed-time Maintenance (FTM) – Here actions carried out at regular intervals (calendar time) e.g. Many of these items are also subject to a statutory requirement for inspection and preventive maintenance. PM’s prerequisites are: a) Proper design and installation of equipment b) periodical inspection of plant and machinery to prevent breakdowns c) repetitive servicing and overhaul d) lubricate. battery back up at sub-station. It is much economical to carry out preventive maintenance. etc. Periodic Inspections . Daily Maintenance – Cleaning. isolators. fire alarms. Routine & planned maintenance includes Preventive maintenance actions. so that the major break downs are avoided & minimizes possibility of unanticipated production interruptions. 2. item replacement. e. electricity supply. distribution transformers.
Use of recommended Grades of oils 4. Reduces total down time 5. Reduces unplanned work 6. Reduces total maintenance cost 220.127.116.11 Requirements of Preventive Maintenance Program 1) Good maintenance management department with experienced personnel 2) To firm up plan of PM in consultation with shop personnel 3) A good lubricating and cleaning schedule 4) Detail procedures on maintenance work 5) Proper records maintained along with manuals. Reduces total work-load 4.3.1 Preventive Maintenance System is 1.4. daily maintenance etc and programming the activities with work content.3. Increases reliability 3. cost estimates etc 2) Use of check lists by maintenance staff and inspectors 3) Identify and allocate well qualified crew & inspectors for making repairs 4) Use of budgeting system for major replacements/ repair 5) Proper procedures laid out for meeting the PM objectives in full 5.2 Features of PM 1) Proper identification of items in each machineries which warrants fixed time maintenance. 2. parts list etc 6) Adequate stock of spare parts .4. More expensive due to more planning &replacement of parts before failing.3. Restoration to recover deterioration 5.
5. probable causes.3.5 Advantages of Preventive Maintenance 1. Improves productivity due to lesser breakdowns 5. Reduction in breakdown frequency 4. Labor used cost effectively . Preparation of maintenance schedule and detail program of work with time frame for completion 6. Preparation of schedule of maintenance 3.4. Reduction in wear and tear of machines and increase in their life 3. Maintenance is planned well in advance 2. Feed back on the corrective action/ repair work done and its results 5. Preparation of maintenance report on the work done 8. Preparation of job specification 5.7) Properly training maintenance crew Adequate space around machinery for maintenance work 9) Previous data on failure etc of each machine/equipment 10) Systematic approach. diagnosis system.a guide showing problems.4. Preparation of inspection chart 7. Preparation of history card of all the repair work carried on such a machine and the remarks there on 4. Improves reliability of the machineries 6.3. Identifying the job to be taken & appropriate case register 2.4 Steps involved in Preventive Maintenance 1. Higher safety for workers 7. repair procedures etc 11) Suppliers recommendations for up keep of machineries.
Leaser rejection and better quality 11. Less stand by equipment requirement 13. temperatures. audio gauges. are used to predict ensuing troubles/problems in machineries. 12. Applicable only to age related deterioration 4.3. 5.6 Disadvantages/limitations 1. whereas. Maintenance sometimes induces failures (infant mortality) 5.7 Differences between Corrective and Preventive Maintenance 1. corrective maintenance is carried out to repair the equipment after fault occurs/ breakdown happens. It is possible to have planned shutdowns and repair 9. resistance gauges etc. Minimizes breakdowns and hence minimum inventory hold ups 10. Sensitive instruments like vibration analyzer. amplitude meters. Conditions of the machinery can be checked on line periodically or on continuous basis and maintenance crew can take decision & plan overhaul/repair as warranted.4.4. Preventive maintenance is designed to prevent or at least to minimize failures/breakdowns and reduce the need for corrective maintenance. Less breakdown costs.8.5 Predictive Maintenance Predictive Maintenance is one of the modern approaches to preventive maintenance where in sensitive instruments are used to predict anticipated failure of machines & equipment. Unnecessary and invasive maintenance is carried out 3.3. Maintenance activity and costs increased 2. Preventive maintenance program controls the repair costs as well as the overall life of the equipment where as in corrective maintenance brings back to the original life depending on the extent of damage the earier breakdown has brought into the equipment. Identification of parts and its nature and cost involved in repairs is possible 5. sensors for pressure. 2.3. .
pump cavitations. oil condition. we should have a continuous knowledge of the machines based on certain critical predetermined / pre-formulated parameters . 2) If corrective treatment is not adopted at the right time. i.) Measuring of physical parameters may not be enough to detect the destructive effects on a machine or process.Predict failures well in advance by monitoring parameters and by use of certain techniques (like vibration. rotor imbalance. temperature. 1) Similar to health monitoring of senior executives to check symptoms. analysis and tribology. which are indicative of malfunctions to decide on corrective treatment. Under maintenance or too long intervals between two successive checks may result in high incidence of failures. incorrect installation. Hence an optimal maintenance interval has to be arrived at. wear debris analysis.e. (which otherwise cause heavy penalty costs. misalignments. Main difficulty is in making the correct choice of preventive maintenance intervals based on OEM’s recommendations and own -experiences. it may result in serious breakdowns. Over maintenance or too frequent maintenance increases extensive downtime resulting in added costs on men. health and safety hazards etc) will result in 1) Maximizes the online operations 2) Minimizes downtime 3) Increased plant and Personnel safety 4) Optimal maintenance The above is achieved by continuous plant / equipment monitoring & diagnosing the actual condition by means of online non-destructive testing methods. A major part of the predictive maintenance involves the ongoing analysis to ensure wear levels that damage the machine are within limits Good ability to predict impending failures well in time to prevent breakdowns. material and time. In a Preventive Maintenance system. maintenance is on a pre-determined cycle whereas in a Predictive Maintenance system maintenance is done only. when status or condition so demands It is beneficial to follow a system which is not calendar based but condition based. The intervals should be carefully selected as over maintenance or under maintenance are both detrimental and hence undesirable. etc.
smell and through their experience on the existing condition of the equipment/aggregate. etc. With rapid developments in machining technology through CNC controlled machines. Predictive Maintenance. more universal and better predictive tools and instruments are added in the system. it implies that the particular part needs replacement and a special attention.A given machine can continue to be kept in operation as long as the monitored parameters continue to remain within the laid down limits. When permissible limits are reached and warning signals are issued by the measuring devices. A sense of confidence is created amongst production and maintenance personnel when they analyze the monitored data and predict that the machines are operated safely till they reach maximum permissible limits. if practiced effectively. An ability to forecast the machine behavior by Condition Monitoring is a pre-requisite for Predictive Maintenance Operators who work with equipment every day can listen to equipment and identify changes in noise levels and vibrations. temperature soars.3. Temperature changes can be photographed . increased leakages etc) CBM is a continuous or periodic measurement and interpretation of data to indicate the condition of an item to determine the need for maintenance. It is just like a hammer used to strike a wheel to listen for that distinctive sound to say whether there is crack in wheel rim or not. Between the ‘action limit and the maximum permissible time limit’. Predictive Maintenance is very cost effective where cost of unplanned breakdowns is very high. 5. CBM involves recording some measurement that gives an indication of the condition (ex: increase in vibration levels. can save around 30% of maintenance costs and with a bonus of 15% savings in energy costs. In the Condition based maintenance (also known as Dynamic predictive maintenance or Diagnostic maintenance) the plant is maintained just after some problems arisen.6 Condition Based Maintenance CBM relies on the fact that the majority of failures do not occur instantaneously but develops over a period of time. there is enough time available for the maintenance crew to make adequate advance preparations. thus making predictive maintenance more economical as compared to preventive and corrective maintenance strategies. The main function of condition monitoring is to provide the knowledge of a machine and its rate of change. to cut downtime. Condition monitoring is merely a tool that is used by crew through touch. but much before the possible breakdown. FMS with artificial intelligent devices and computer simulations and modeling.
etc. An investigation can then be carried out to identify the exact problem. which are to be controlled by maintenance a) Vibration Sensors – to track tool wear/ breakages. Trend Monitoring. This type of maintenance check on performance is vital as the future failures in safety systems can have more catastrophic effects. alarms. mechanical looseness b) Thermostats – hydraulic oil temperature.3. unbalance in rotors. Condition monitoring is dependent on sensors and transducers for measuring different parameters. Curve when extrapolated can indicate maximum & safe permissible limits 5.through IR thermograph. are displayed on the screen well in time to facilitate corrective action without disruption of production. which gives warning that something is ‘not right’. corrosion Audible – Unusual noise. gear defects. CNC systems have built – in diagnostics which continuously monitor the system hardware to ensure normal functioning. low battery voltage. misalignments. 2. Condition Checking & Monitoring a) Trend Monitoring: .1 Condition Monitoring Methods There are two methods used namely: 1. if other parts of the system fail. Chatter Smell – Smoke. Action limit curve shows the prescribed for monitoring parameters during normal operations. Indications like over – temperature.6. overheating of motors c) Current sensors – cutting load monitored by sensing spindle Condition Monitoring is achieved by the operator’s senses to detect abnormalities Visual – Leakages. contaminated cutting fluid Touch – Excessive bearing temperature State-of-the-art CNC systems facilitates adaptive Controls with signals from appropriate transducers.
This may be done by . 2) Vibration Monitoring: Involves the attachment of a transducer (velocity. accelerometer. e) Selecting Methods of monitoring Five main techniques of conditioning monitoring 1) Visual monitoring: inspection & recording of surface appearance. 4) Performance and behavior monitoring: Involves checking the performance of a machine to see whether it is behaving correctly. using some suitable indicator & is used as a measure of machine condition at that time. Detection (when) of the developing fault at an early stage 2. proximity probes) to record vibration level 3) Wear Debris monitoring: This works on the principle that the working surfaces of a machine are washed by the lubricating oil and any damage is detected from particles of wear debris in the oil. d) Economics of Condition Monitoring: The savings. Prognosis (forecast) subsequent measurement which will then establish the trend and enable the repair schedule to be planned. c) Condition Monitoring: Includes three stages: 1. to monitor the rates of internal corrosion of the wall of the plant. b) Condition Checking: Condition checking is where a check measurement is taken with the machine running. which can be made by the application of CM: · Avoiding losses of output due to breakdown of machinery. Diagnosis (what) of its origin so that spare parts can be ordered 3. 5) Corrosion monitoring: Is applied to fixed plant containing aggressive materials. · Reduces the cost of maintenance · Capital invested can be recovered faster. to indicate variations in the conditions of the machine or its components.Trend monitoring is the continuous monitoring or regular measurement and interpretation of data collected during machine operation.
Labour can be organised 8. standardizations planned. Cause of failure can be analysed 6. 7. 6. Cost of examination.drilling a hole through the wall and drilled coupon of material is observed for corrosion.3. Training examiners for the above jobs. Maintenance can be planned. overall cost of failure. Maximises equipment availability 2.3 Advantages 1. Establish for each part of the machine the severity limits of the machine condition parameter (Vibration. Production can be modified to extend unit life 5. sound.6. Selecting critical machines for CM 3. To arrive at best interval for examination considering the criticality of process. 5. 5. contamination etc) to be measured.6.3. Spares can be assembled 5. The hole is then plugged with a suitable leak proof material.3. Select proper examining technique.4 Disadvantages 1) Thermograph & Oil Debris Analysis [specialised equipment and training] . standby availability of machine.2 Implementation of Condition Based Maintenance: Involves: 1. Allows shutdown before severe damage occurs 4.6. 7. 5. Establishing programs and methods specifying the parts to be examined 4. Listing and numbering of machine to have identification and location details 2. Some forms of inspection utilising human senses can be inexpensive 3. cost of maintenance. failure statistics (MTBF-MTTR). Recording data 8. operating conditions.
a _______________ recurring periodically 5) In the following list find out which one is considered as disadvantage of routine management: .e. 3) Time is required for trends to develop to know machine condition Self Assessment Questions 1) Which of the following is not a common cause of equipment breakdowns? a) Improper preventive maintenance b) Inadequate lubrication c) Improper setups of jigs. fixtures and tools d) All the above 2) Which of the following is not an objective of remedial maintenance? a) To put back machinery back to work and minimize production interruptions b) To control costs of maintenance crew to the minimum c) To control cost of the operations of repairing d) Replacing the faulty machine when it starts malfunctioning.2) Requires careful choice of the correct technique. e) To control costs of repair & replacement parts to minimum f) To carry out appropriate repair intermittently at each malfunction to improve the life of the machine. 3) Irregular preventive maintenance do not include a) Repairs b) Overhauls c) Reduction of noise levels and vibrations d) Clean up of leakages etc on all the machine aggregates daily 4) RM is a procedure followed regularly i.
Initially it looks economical . 9) Characteristics of Break-down Maintenance System-fill the missing one: 1. No stock of spares 6. Maintenance done by sub-contractors 4. ______________________ 5. No services except occasional lubrication unless failure occurs 2. faithful implementation and recording 6) Initial list of planned maintenance will be in detail Breakdown Maintenance is the method of operating the machines to run ______________ and then repair in order to restore them to an acceptable condition. No maintenance men on regular basis 3. 6) Planned maintenance is the activities carried out according to a ______________ and hence known as scheduled maintenance or productive maintenance 7) Characteristics of Planned Maintenance-fill up the missing one: 1) Instructions are more detailed than in routine maintenance 2) Calls for differently timed service for the same unit 3) Schedule is drawn with dates 4) ___________________________ 5) Entails considerable planning effort.1) Simple to establish & follow 2) Little or no clerical work 3) High degree of prevention by intercepting developing faults 4) RM may not provide the service specified by the manufacturer 5) A more advanced stage calls for ’service instructions on a pre-printed schedule and checklists’.
Maintenance is of three main categories: breakdown. lubrication. 13) There are two methods used namely-Which is the second one 1) Trend Monitoring. checking. Restoration to recover deterioration 11) Predictive Maintenance is one of the modern approaches to preventive maintenance where in __________ are used to predict ____________ of machines & equipment. 12) CBM relies on the fact that the majority of failures do not occur instantaneously but develops over a period of time.7. maintenance managers have to decide on a proper balance between preventive. Periodic Inspections 3. predictive and remedial maintenance. 2) ____________________ 5. maintenance has been given more importance in the operational plans. any stoppage due to breakdown in any part of the system will affect the entire production process. In planning. and predictive. 2. Predictive maintenance is a type in which the vital attributes of a system are monitored continuously and any deviations from the accepted limits are taken to rectify the problem. preventive. Daily Maintenance – Cleaning. To counter this. with JIT inventory and sophisticated processes. In the present high tech production. Breakdown or remedial maintenance is undertaken when a machine breaks down or malfunctions. Preventive maintenance is undertaken before need for maintenance arises and aims at minimizing the anticipated breakdowns. . Creates internal problems namely: Who to do the repair? From where to get parts? How do we pay for them? Who will go & buy parts? 10) To avoid breakdown & ensure smooth production following time based activities are practiced. etc.4 Summary Poorly maintained machines/equipment has severe negative impact on the productivity and the quality of the output in a production unit.which one is not the recommended practice? 1. Use of recommended Grades of oils 5. Check all the machines at firmed up time intervals 4. CBM involves recording some ___________ that gives an indication of the condition. using high technology machines.
In the Condition based maintenance (also known as Dynamic predictive maintenance or Diagnostic maintenance) the plant is maintained just after some problems arisen. What is predictive maintenance? What are its advantages over preventive maintenance? 13. What is meant by planned/scheduled/productive maintenance and what emphasis it pays in maintaining the machine/equipment 4. 14. What are the advantages of Planned Maintenance? 6. State the objectives of maintenance management? 2.6 Answers . Total productivity maintenance is practiced to improve the productivity of the equipment by minimizing the number of breakdowns and malfunctions. Discuss the advantages and limitations of preventive maintenance 11. Which enables them to reduce breakdowns. CBM is a continuous or periodic measurement and interpretation of data to indicate the condition of an item to determine the need for maintenance. Where this type is applicable. Distinguish between preventive and breakdown maintenance 12. Outline the various types of maintenance 3. What are the advantages & disadvantages of breakdown/corrective maintenance? 8. What are the advantages and disadvantages of condition based maintenance? 5. but much before the possible breakdown. Organizations have realized the importance of maintenance and its planning. What are the characteristics & objectives of breakdown/corrective maintenance? 7.5 Terminal Questions 1. Define preventive maintenance and state its objectives 9. Describe the procedures of preventive maintenance program 10. What are the important functions of maintenance department 5. Explain briefly the condition based monitoring methods 15. accidents and minimizing the costs of maintenance activities? 5. What is condition based maintenance.
3 3.1 & 5. Refer 5. Sensitive instruments. Refer 5.4. c) Reduction of noise levels and vibrations 4. Condition Checking & Monitoring Terminal Questions 1.2 2. Refer 5.4 8.Self Assessment Questions 1.3.4 4.2 7. Refer 5.4.2 6. d) Replacing the faulty machine when it starts malfunctioning 3. (4) No organised efforts to find out reasons 10. Refer 5.2. Predetermined schedule 18.104.22.168 . Refer 5. Refer 5.4. (3) Check all the machines at firmed up time intervals 11. measurement 13. (4) RM may not provide the service specified by the manufacturer 6.2 5. Refer 5.3 & 5.4. (4) Establishes the work-load for the crew 8.4. Cyclic operation 5.4. Not occur. d) All the above 2. Until they fail 9.3.4. anticipated failure 12.
Refer 5.4.1 15.6 14. Refer 22.214.171.124.5.5 13.4.7 126.96.36.199.4. Refer 5. Refer 5.4.4 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .6.5 & 5. .6 11.9.4.Refer 5.6.4. Refer 5.3 & 5. Refer 5.6.4 10.
8 Productivity. Project work 6.OM0006-Unit-06-Maintenance Planning and Scheduling Unit-06-Maintenance Planning and Scheduling Structure: 6.2 Functions of Maintenance Planning 6.11 Summary of Maintenance Planning 6.10 Planning Preventive & Predictive Maintenance.7 How much Planning will help? 6.14 Summary of Maintenance Scheduling 6. Specialization & Coordination of Planning 6.6 Planning System 6.9 Maintenance Planning Principles 6.1 Introduction .16 Answers 6.1 Introduction Objectives 6.5 Benefit of Planning 6.12 Maintenance scheduling principles 6.15 Terminal Questions 6.3 Planning Vision & Mission 6.4 Functions of Maintenance Planner 6.13 Six Maintenance Scheduling Principles 6.
tools. engineers.All manufacturing units having varieties of machineries and equipments require maintenance to keep them up in good working conditions and for sustaining and achieving higher productivity. are included in the job plans. qualified personnel. By implementing fundamental planning and scheduling system. To achieve the desired maintenance efficiency. planners. storeroom support. teamwork. it is preferred for the organization to become a procedure-based one with teams of experienced technicians. tool room facilities. Here procedure already in the file or important information that persons who worked on that equipment have recorded previously. tool rooms. as they leverage their expertise into job plans. shops. Objectives: After studying this unit you shall be able to · Prepare a plan for maintenance · Analyse the benefits of planning for maintenance · Examine the principles of maintenance planning . are the subjects being discussion. The plant has better control over work that is scheduled. communication. data collection and research of certain processes etc. Planning concentrates on adding value. and safety. In addition. The planning system is designed with procedures to be followed over time through a systematic job plans. performance. The planner should also give more attention to critical equipment and safety areas. Planning and scheduling promotes labor productivity by examining potential delays and scheduling work. management. consideration of reliability maintenance as preventive maintenance. planning is very essential. Where does planning fit into? What principles make it work? How planning is required to be done? How to provide additional resources for planners and personnel for maintenance activities? Etc. The final improvement to over 50% can be achieved through special aids. predictive maintenance. leadership. and project maintenance is essential. control of inventories. but certainly brings together many aspects of maintenance. organizations could improve maintenance productivity to about 40%. If detailed procedures and checklists contribute to better reliability. and maintenance measurement. Other tools used are work order system. Planning does not solve everything. and other vendors to cater to the common maintenance tasks on critical equipment and safety equipment.
2 Functions of Maintenance Planning Maintenance management uses planning as a tool to reduce unnecessary job delays through advance preparation. . · Maintenance planning brings together or coordinates the effort of many other aspects of maintenance. identification of craft skill required. · Planner does preparatory planning for the crew supervisor and craft persons who executes the work. Coordinating function is the key to achieve competitive edge. and labor time estimate. thus enabling a better control over their work. The work plan is nothing but the information a planner makes ready for the technician to execute the work. · Once the work order is received. · The planner identifies appropriate materials for the specified job and checks whether they are available or be specially obtained. · The time estimates made by planner gives the idea to crew personnel to judge how much work is assigned and what work is there. · The planned information gives the supervisors a reference for expected work and time for completion and helps to have a control through on problems that might lessen productivity. 6. The work plan includes a job scope. · Crew personnel are then assigned the job for execution and avoid problems such as delays stemming by insufficient skills/ not having required materials or tools. a planner develops a work plan after receiving a work request.3 Planning Vision & Mission The mission of planning revolves around doing the right jobs that are ready to go.· Distinguish between preventive and breakdown maintenance planning. procedure for accomplishing task and identify any parts and special tools required. · The planner considers the proper scope of work for the job. 6. To prepare a job in advance. For ex: Planner has to judge whether the defective valve should be repaired or replaced. For this the maintenance planning will have the following functions: · Coordinating mechanism within the maintenance department. · The planner specifies appropriate craft skills required for that particular job. the maintenance planning initiates action.
4) Planners evolve good planning methodology that increases maintenance productivity. 5) The planner writes a job plan that identifies parts needed (such as gaskets. release of the work orders to proceed etc. clearances. 7) If parts are not in the inventory. 2) The planner writes work instructions on how to do the job. bearings etc) along with their identification numbers. It also involves identifying the actual work scope. but ready handle judiciously the reactive type of work also. work involved. seals. 9) Planner provide a bill of materials or an illustrated parts diagram both to the stores person and craft men. The entire maintenance organization should be committed to schedule proactive works. A planning mission statement is: “To increase the Maintenance crew’s ability to complete the work orders quickly”. 6. considering the safety aspects of the job. A work crew is ready to go immediately to scheduled work assignments as all instructions. and allow advance scheduling through which the supervisors will assign and control the proper amount of work. With proper planning or preparation efforts for each job. Work plans avoid anticipated delays. for easy understanding and identifying the proper parts for his next work. 3) With preparatory work. parts. arrangements are ready. crew starts their work as per job. crew schedules. Doing the right jobs involves job priorities. so that technicians need not wait for parts to arrive.4 Functions of Maintenance Planner 1) Maintenance planning involves identifying parts and tools that are necessary for maintenance jobs. improve on past jobs.The planning mission states “Doing the right jobs & ready to go”. and it controls and coordinates and brings resources to leverage productivity. 6) The planner reserves such required parts in the store to ensure their availability. planning sets the stage for the maintenance force to act upon quickly. without wasting time. Planning is Information central. . method of maintenance. tools. planner initiate action to organize and get them. Arrange parts required to be placed in a convenient location nearer to the job site before the job starts.
5 Benefit of Planning As planning consists of arranging parts and the necessary tools for maintenance work and provide necessary guidelines by use all the inputs effectively through a maintenance system. resulting benefit achieved are the improved productivity and overall effectiveness or efficiency in maintenance. specify job scope. anticipated parts & tools. with identification numbers. Institute a control system that contributes to managing productivity. 6. 11) Planner identifies special tools needed by the craft man for maintenance activities and reserve such tooling and other accessories at the place of work. 6. pallets etc for easy movement of identified parts and tools to work site in advance. 6. 4) Skill levels and time estimates on jobs and proper scheduling are included in the subject work order. 12) Planner will arrange material handling equipments like crane. time estimates. Hence the purpose of planning is to focus on high productivity through an organized planning & scheduling principles.7 How Much Planning Will Help? a) Tangible Help: • Planning provides tangible help for organization to achieve: . 5) Creates data and information on machineries and equipment and its maintenance methodology for future reference and analysis. procedures for assigning proper amount of work to all the skilled/unskilled crews. 6) Establishes through work order system.6 Planning System In a proper planning system. craft and skill level required. 3) Planner evolves a system and procedure for each type of maintenance work. fork lifts. 2) Planner plans work order. 7) Prepares Schedules for maintenance works and follow track until complete. the maintenance process has the following steps: 1) Receives request from the concerned section for the maintenance work.10) Planner is required to coordinate with vendors & ensure material supply along with the quality control on vendor supplies.
Is this wrench time a reality? Instances are there in which experienced workforce moved from average 35% wrench time to 55% with fine tuned planning. Improvement here was only possible with the planning in place. Crew will plan their work and then executes. Further if there are three crews working with . c) “World class” wrench time · Statistical work sampling studies measures productive time. · The maximum performance target for wrench time was shown at an average of around 55%. The practical result of planning-example: In a power station. The industry’s average productive maintenance time was less than 30% (the measure of wrench time) when a typical maintenance technician has spent less than 20% on the real work and it is found that the balance time is spent on other nonproductive tasks. thus frees technicians for more productive work. Specialization & Coordination of Planning a) The specific benefit of planning in Wrench time improvements · There are organizations who feel that the planning work is part and parcel of the maintenance crew. In addition. could achieve a remarkable reliable plant capacity within a year through superior availability and a drastic improvement in work force productivity. intangible benefits of planning were seen in providing a better control of maintenance work. thus using the freed 10 trained personnel for other productivity improvement activities.-Amount of work accomplished rises. 6. -Extra labor power can be reallocated to added value activities. b) Improving the Wrench Time and Productivity · Work activities are classified differently. -Work force is freed up. where the management created an exclusive planning group. where in the planning addresses and reduces delays. But it proved the other way as seen from the above examples. one can calculate and measure the actual amount of increased maintenance productivity. Practically the total maintenance work was completed by 35 personnel as compared to previous year’s statistics of using around 45 personnel for the same output. • • Through proper planning.8 Productivity. also known as wrench time. Analysis of the nonproductive time is one of the most valuable work-sampling. To determine if any of the delay time could be avoidable requires planner’s assistance for analyzing such nonproductive time.
There is a methodology of work measurement what is commonly known as wrench time and this frequently misunderstood principle and hence must be made clear to everyone concerned. The principles of having planning as a separate department in order to focus on the future work and consequent use of planner’s expertise to create estimates. 1) Company organizes planners into a separate department. and if one is allocated to planning job and with whose instance. as compared to 3x30=90%].wrench time of 30%. . which is essential for a competitive edge. then total productivity is 100 % [2x 50% +0= 100%. Industry to this day continues to use specialization. the other two crew reached a wrench time of 50%. Specialization increases productivity per person. Six principles greatly contribute to the overall success of planning. 2) Planners concentrate on future work. b) Specialization and Productivity: · Experienced crew are specializing in a particular field and achieving the specified goals. for which they train and maintain separate groups of mechanics. 6. Loading these specialists to achieve higher wrench times also requires a sound planning and proper coordination. and instrument technicians. 3) Planners base their files on the component level of systems. electricians. recognizing skill of the craftsman and measuring performance must be understood by every one concerned with production. But experience has shown that a single planner can plan maintenance jobs for more than 20 persons.9 Maintenance Planning Principles The principles or paradigms that are evolved over the maintenance mission will profoundly affect planning. which spells the importance of planning jobs for maintenance. 5) Planners recognize the skill of the crafts. Each principle identifies important crossroads. These principles must be understood by all concerned to have effective planning process. 4) Planner expertise dictates job estimates. Decisions making at each crossroads on the alternative ways to conduct planning and execute is essential and ultimate success of planning depends on this situational oriented decision.
The file system enables planners to utilize equipment data and information and their experience on previous work to prepare and improve work plans. Principle 1: [The Company organizes planners into a separate department] · The planners are organized into a separate department from craft maintenance crews to facilitate specialization in planning and focus on future work. . Matching identify tags on the machineries are also arranged. Principle 2: [Focus on Future Work] · The vision of planning is to increase labor productivity by preparing the jobs in advance. which helps planners to become specialized in all the tools and techniques of planning · Planners need to work closely to ensure proper execution of work with consistency. The supervisor has an obligation to complete the assigned work in an expeditious manner with a minimum of interruptions · The crew focuses exclusively on executing assigned work. · Planners report to a different supervisor/ lead planner who will be responsible to provide direction and ensure consistency within the planning group. The planners ensure that the feedback information is properly filed to aid future work. the lack of planning effort may decrease the number of work assignments to crew members · The company organizing planners to a separate group. The Planning Department concentrates on future work and provide the crew to plan their work in advance and remove backlogs · After job completion. · The planners must be engaged in preparing work that has not yet begun. · Planners use personal experience and develop work plans to avoid anticipated work delays and quality or safety problems.6) Work sampling of direct work time provide measure of planning effectiveness. especially on repetitive maintenance tasks. Principle 3: [Component Level Files] · Planning maintains a simple. or other helpful information so that future work plans and schedules might be improved. The feedback consists of any problems. feedback is given by the lead technician or supervisor to the Planning Department. secure file system based on equipment tag numbers. · Because planning contributes to scheduling. plan changes.
The planners and technicians work together over repeated jobs to develop better procedures and checklists. The planner calls for a minimum craft skill on a job plan. The planners also use their own expertise to formalize best practices on individual job plans. Principle 4: [Estimates Based on Planner Expertise] · Planners use personal experience and file information to develop work plans to avoid anticipated work delays after considering quality and safety problems. · Plant must choose from among its best craft persons to be planners. · Routine maintenance offers the highest potential for planner contribution to company success because more intricate or unusual maintenance tasks receives necessary help from plant engineering department Principle 5: [Recognize the Skill of the Crafts] · The Planning Department recognizes the skill of the crafts. File cost information assists in making repair or replace decisions. . · Supervisors must train technicians with deficient skills and give proper support and guidance · Technicians must execute the job precisely as planned for three reasons. · Supervisors and plant engineers are trained to access these files to gather information they need with minimal planner assistance. · Craft technicians use their expertise to make the specified repair or replacement. The planner’s responsibility is to firm up the scope of the work request including clarification of the originator’s intent wherever necessary. The plan dictates the skill set necessary to accomplish the work given the state of the job plan. · This principle dictates that planners depend on the workforce being sufficiently skilled when he is putting a minimum level of detail into the initial job plans.· The majority of maintenance tasks are repetitive over a period of time. · Planners give information to supervisor for scheduling control. Any recommended deviations from the job plan must be approved by planning before execution. · The planner then plans the general strategy of the work (such as repair or replace) and includes procedure if it is not already there in the file. These planners rely greatly upon their personal skill and experience in addition to existing information in the files to develop job plans.
coordination with other crafts. · Principle 6 dictates that measuring how much time craft technicians actually spend on their job site versus other activities performed such as obtaining parts or tools. a) Preventive Maintenance [PM] and Planning · The planning department studies and issues PM’s schedules and reviews them periodically. These reduce the incidence of reactive maintenance work and to increase plant reliability. · Measuring wrench time thus gives an overall indication of how well the other principles have been implemented or accepted. parts. Planning can adopt preferred maintenance for higher effectiveness. This determines the effectiveness of the maintenance planning program. Principle 6: [Measure Performance with Work Sampling] · Wrench time is the primary measure of workforce efficiency and of planning and scheduling effectiveness. clearance. not the control of planning or the work force. the planning system counts on the skilled technicians giving feedback on job plans so that their expertise and the planner’s expertise both contribute to adding information to future plans. Wrench time is measured accurately with a properly structured. planners visualize the types of work orders to be released for preventive maintenance tasks for the next week. Wrench time analysis is an indicator. . travel. instructions. What is actually important is the analysis of the nonproductive time. predictive maintenance. Delays such as waiting for assignment.10 Planning Preventive & Predictive Maintenance. · Work sampling to determine wrench time gives this measure of how much planning is helping in the process. statistical observational techniques & study. The time that employees spend at their job sites working is called direct or productive work. Projects The concepts and importance of preventive maintenance. 6. or equipment information are all deducted. and project work and their relationship to the development of the planning principles and practices are discussed here. Wrench time is the proportion of available time-to-work time during which the craft technicians are on productive working on a job site. tools.· Finally. This principle holds that delays in technician’s job should be avoided. Starting with a basic system.
PdM personnel make the call on the creation of new work orders. Lubrication. lubrications etc. · Planners should also review the histories and feedback from all work orders to determine if additional PM work orders are needed. For ex: tightening of fasteners in the coupling if he found they are loose. · PdM technology greatly moves the plant’s reliability upward as the predictions in predictive maintenance show an important capacity for growth in accuracy. and duration. Predictive maintenance (PdM) uses technology not available to the regular maintenance work force. or minor repairs. Many do value assigning with experienced personnel to perform PM work orders. · Lubrication is important part of a PM program. and Cleanliness. Tightness. · The planner must receive feedback to improve the PM work order itself. as improper lubrication leads to total damage to equipment. · Emphasis in all PMs is to inspect the equipment for abnormal situations. · PM plans should specify torque requirements or attach torque charts where appropriate and include torque wrenches as a special tool. tightening of bolts. · Cleanliness helps reduce contamination sources and such clean surfaces to reveal the presence of new leaks. b) Predictive Maintenance [PdM] and Planning · Planning plans and schedules PdM work orders.e. · The scope should extend beyond simple repair and replacement of parts to improve equipment reliability as well. PM plans can include rags for wiping and removing old grease when parts are dissembled. work hours. · This requirement of corrective maintenance is ‘TLC’ i. . The plan should also list anticipated parts and special tools. Planning for parts encourages the replacement of fasteners based on the technician’s decisions. the technician is empowered to make any minor equipment adjustments or minor repairs during execution of the PM. The dirt and grime also add undesirable insulation conditions that may affect equipment performance. which are contributing to more than 50% of all breakdowns. small adjustments. repairs. · The planner should allow some extra time in the work order on all PM work for making unspecified excessive cleaning.· A planner should plan each of the PMs with scope and craft requirements such as numbers of persons. For this. on the work done.
11 Summary of Maintenance Planning Effective maintenance is vital to provide reliable plant capacity. so that PdM personnel may quickly climb the learning curve. c) Project Work and Planning · Similar to PdM. At each crossroads. · The PdM group can update the technology of the maintenance force. · Planners should be able to estimate and commit the project schedules with plant engineering and scheduler assistance. The application of maintenance planning makes possible the dramatic improvement in maintenance productivity. 6. Each principle resolves a crossroads decision that affects the planning effort. · Planners should insist to utilize standards set by PdM for certain jobs. but difference is in the larger nature of projects. the company has to make a decision regarding alternate ways to conduct planning. Consideration of six basic principles greatly boosts the planning program efforts toward success. The planning effort has mainly focused on making individual jobs ready to go by identifying and planning around potential delays. . · Planners must vigorously pursue collecting documentation to establish files and also overview position regarding the project replacement or overhaul.· Planners must accept PdM work orders for jobs and translate them into the appropriate scope for the maintenance crews. · Planners should insist that PdM uses the same equipment tag numbers for ease communication problems. planning group plans and schedules work orders to implement projects as regular jobs. · Planners should facilitate PdM when work on equipment is in process. · Plant normally has the personnel to implement such maintenance project work with the productivity prescribed in the planning and scheduling system. bearing clearances. or other rebuild tolerances. with active participation and assistance from the planning group. The decision the company makes regarding each situation determines the ultimate success of planning. which involves alignment criteria. Plants treat projects as outages and planned as long-range scheduling.
allowing the crew supervisor to handle day’s work. file history help technicians to avoid previously faced problems. and shutdown Wrench time concept of measuring the work for each hour of the day. Only when planning keeps a separate file for each piece of equipment. Wrench time will measure whether the objectives of planning are met or not in reducing job delays. Plnners must possess the experience of top level technicians in order to scope jobs. and measuring planning performance with work sampling for technician’s direct work time. and safely. are all in the total system. 6. or travel categories. the technicians would scope out the jobs with their social & other times. it is practical to retrieve information when needed. . break. Maintenance needed certain methodology to assigning enough work through the planning process. The crews worked on the planned jobs and work sampling study made on it indicated a wrench time of 25% only and further plant could do better job if improved upon. instructions. . the schedules and job priorities for every forecasted work available. but also exists for excessive startup. They solved the problems by addressing symptomatic of tools. parts availability problems or not properly planning issues Companies placed an emphasis on planning and also they doubled the parts availability in stores to reduce ordering needs. using planner expertise to create estimates. The planned work packages increases the maintenance department’s ability to complete work orders effectively. This aligning of the work to accomplish the desired effective and efficient maintenance led to the principles of scheduling. focusing on future work. having component level files. utilize files. Planners need to avoid continually being interrupted to resolve problems for jobs already under way. The principles used for planning and scheduling are for achieving the forecasted skill levels. Because most jobs are repetitive. The analysis revealed that the large delay times not only for parts. tools. Planners need to focus on future work not yet begun. and estimate times adequately. gave a clear picture of how technicians are completing their work. efficiently. lunch.12 Maintenance Scheduling Principles Scheduling principles envisages the vision. the principles or paradigms in order to evolve effective scheduling will come through effective planning process. recognizing the skill of the crafts. and then measure schedule compliances.The principle of having planning as a separate department. When work orders are received. which is discussed below.
and job duration. The appropriate priority for the work is based on established plant guidelines. Does the job require mechanics or machinists? Does the job require three helpers to assist a certified electrician? Etc that are necessary for advance scheduling. planners and the plant manager.13 Six Maintenance Scheduling Principles Six principles that greatly contribute to the overall success of scheduling are: 1. provides the measure of scheduling effectiveness. § Job plans provide information about the number of persons required. Principle 1: [Planners plan the jobs for lowest required skill levels] § Essential part of Principle 1 is that job plans identify the lowest skill necessary to complete the work with the contention that the supervisor will have higher skill capability also.Routine maintenance needs the use of principles. 2. Schedule assigns planned work for every forecasted work hour available. · Advance scheduling of enough work for the entire week sets the goal for maximum utilization of the available craft hours. 3. Planners plan the jobs for lowest required skill levels. The entire plant must respect the importance of schedules and job priorities. Crew supervisors forecast available work hours one week ahead by the highest skills available. lowest required craft skill level. 4. Crew supervisor matches personnel skills and tasks 6. Each principle sets guidelines on how the maintenance should handle different scheduling process. if required while assigning individuals to execute job plan. It also ensures that a sufficient and the right work are assigned. Principle 2 [Entire plant respect the importance of schedules and job priorities] · Weekly and daily schedules must be adhered to by the crew as per the priorities mentioned in the work orders to prevent undue interruption in schedules. · The priority may be reviewed periodically and adjusted in coordination with crew. as they create a framework for successful scheduling of planned work. Plant priority plays a larger role in creating the schedule of work and all involved should treat it as a serious matter. craft work hours per level. Schedule compliance of wrench time. . 5. 6.
· First two principles are the prerequisites of the principle-3 scheduling · Scheduler selects the week’s worth of work from the overall plant backlog. · Scheduler also uses job priority and job plan information. new high priority. · Consideration is also given to multiple jobs on the same equipment or system and of proactive versus reactive work available. job priorities. forecast of highest skill. · Over assigning and under assigning work are common and acceptable in industries. Principle 5: [The crew supervisor matches personnel skills and tasks] · Crew supervisor develops a daily schedule one day in advance using current job progress. and reactive jobs as a guide.e. after considering the tasks that are being interrupted · Principle 4 brings all the three previous scheduling principles together. · Preference is given to completing the higher priority work by utilizing whatever skills available than working on completing the lower priority work. Principle 4: [A week’s schedule will assign work for all the available work hour] · A week’s schedule will assign work for the total work hours. · Crew supervisor matches personnel skills and tasks. Principle 3 [Develops week’s schedule for each crew & craft hours required] · Develops a week’s schedule for each crew based on craft hours required. · Scheduling plan is for performing all the works available in the system. and information from job plans. crew work load is 1000 worthy labour hours. it is better to delay identified job in full rather than completing half. If a true emergency arises. It allows for emergencies/high priority/ reactive jobs by scheduling sufficient amount of work hours. · Scheduler assigns work plans for the crew to execute during the following week for 100% of the forecasted hours i. . This includes proactive work. · Scheduler uses a forecast of maximum capabilities of the crew for coming week.· Inefficiency peeps through the interruption by low priority jobs coming in way of urgent jobs progressing. As these may cause unique problems it is better to be avoided.
· Schedule compliance is the measure of adherence to the one week schedule and its effectiveness. tools. He will ensure that each technician receives assignments totalling to full day’s work Principle 6: [Wrench time is the primary measure of workforce efficiency] · Wrench time is the primary measure of workforce efficiency and of planning and scheduling effectiveness. This increases flexibility in choosing jobs. job plans must plan for the lowest required skill level. In case of delay in actual job progress and the incidence of unexpected reactive work in place. 6. scheduler to develop schedule in advance. Maintenance dept also tracks schedule compliance. · Each day the crew supervisor assigns the next day’s work to each technician. or technician instructions · Scheduling aims at reducing delays. Work sampling or wrench time studies quantify delays & gives measures of planning and scheduling effectiveness.· Crew supervisor handles the current day’s work and any other problems in emergency maintenance · Although individual jobs show a wide variance between planned and actual times.14 Summary of Maintenance Scheduling Maintenance management must consider main scheduling in the maintenance planning strategy to avoid problems of improved efficiency. · Planning individual jobs can reduce delays such as waiting to obtain certain parts. . The priority system must properly identify the right jobs to start. Work sampling or wrench time is the best measure of scheduling performance. assigns work for all available labour hours. Six basic principles form the foundation of successful scheduling and make schedules and priority systems important. Adhering to schedules is important as interrupting jobs leads to overall inefficiency. Knowing of the lowest skills required for jobs and the highest skills available allows developing a schedule with proper work for the week. crew supervisor is the best judge to create the daily crew work schedule. and track schedule compliance. allow crew supervisors to make daily schedules. it relatively balances by week end. When setting craft and time requirements.
a planner develops a …………… after receiving a work request. This involves job priorities. Self Assessment Questions 1. through advance preparation.. crew schedules. Out of the maintenance planning functions. The planners and crew had to deal differently with urgent reactive work by developing job plans for reactive work. which one is not relevant? · Coordinating mechanism within the maintenance department. The planning mission statement could be ……………………………. · To arrest the leakages and keep up the lubrication system · The planner specifies the appropriate craft skills required for that particular job. Principle 6 sets overall indicators for scheduling control. 2. 4. . Further working to the maintenance planning based on the six planning principles along with the six scheduling principles will help improve the productivity. . and works such as preventive maintenance/ breakdown work and release of the work orders to proceed. · Crew personnel are assigned the job for execution · The time estimates are made by planner · Maintenance planning brings together or coordinates the effort of many other aspects of maintenance. A planning mission statement may be: …………………………………. 5. To prepare a job in advance. Hence use of planned and scheduled work packages increases the maintenance department’s ability to complete work orders effectively. Maintenance management uses planning as a tool to reduce …………………. 3. Principles 1 and 2 are prerequisites for scheduling. Principles 3 through 5 establish basis of scheduling process.. and safely. In the maintenance process given below which one not the step to be considered.Schedule based on the wrench time has to be practiced. efficiently. · A maintenance planner does preparatory planning for the craft persons · The planner identifies appropriate materials for the specified job and checks whether they are available or must be specially obtained.
Specialization increases ………………………. Wrench time is the primary measure …………………………………………… Wrench time is the proportion of available time to. procedures for assigning proper amount of work to all the skilled/unskilled crews h) Prepares Schedules for the maintenance works and follow track until complete. Six principles greatly contribute to overall success of planning. Planning provides tangible help. time estimates. b) A planner plans the work order by specifying job scope. 8. with all their identification numbers. craft and skill level required.work time during which the craft technicians are on productive working on a job site. c) ……………………………………………… 7. c) Planners base their files on the component level of systems. . as well as specifying anticipated parts and tools. c) Planner evolves a system and procedure for each type of maintenance work d) Skill levels and time estimates on jobs and proper scheduling are included in the subject work order. . Statistical work sampling studies measures …………….. g) He establishes through work order system. b) Planners concentrate on future work. b) The work force is freed up. 6.a) Receives request from the concerned section for the maintenance work. Which is sixth one? a) The company organizes planners into a separate department. e) Fix up the wages for each of the work based on the skill level f) Creates data and information on all machineries and equipment and its maintenance methodology for future reference and analysis. per person 9. d) Planner expertise dictates job estimates. also known as wrench time. Fill in (c) below: a) The amount of work accomplished rises.
……. 12. d. What are the benefits of maintenance planning? . 11. Cleanliness helps reduce ……………. 6. six principles that greatly contribute to the overall success of scheduling are discussed below. Improper lubrication leads to total ………. and project work to lessen the ……………………. 3. Fill in the missing principle. The principles used for planning and scheduling are for achieving the forecasted higher skill levels. upward as the predictions involved in predictive maintenance show an important capacity for growth in accuracy. Explain briefly the functions of maintenance planning. predictive maintenance. Schedule compliance joins wrench time to provide the measure of scheduling effectiveness.15 Terminal Questions 1. to equipment.. e. …………………. The crew supervisor matches personnel skills and tasks] f.e.. which are contributing to more than 50% of all breakdowns. ………. c.. Crew supervisors forecast available work hours one week ahead by the highest skills available.. ……………………………………………. 10. This requirement of corrective maintenance is ‘TLC’ i. work and to increase plant reliability. 13. Why planning process is essential for efficient maintenance management? 2. and such clean surfaces to reveal the presence of new leaks.e) Planners recognize the skill of the crafts.. f) ………………………………………. and then measure schedule compliances 15. b. 14. a. for every forecasted work available. ………. The entire plant must respect the importance of schedules and job priorities. The PdM technology has the potential of greatly moving the plant’s ……….. Planners plan the jobs for lowest required skill levels. Companies strive to do more preventive maintenance. allowing the crew supervisor to handle day’s work. Just as in planning.
and Cleanliness . workforce efficiency and of planning and scheduling effectiveness. Explain how the specialization in areas of maintenance will help improve the productivity of the maintenance crew. Tightness. Work plan 2. Explain as to how the maintenance planning will help improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the organization 5. Explain briefly the planning approaches in preventive and predictive maintenance processes. (sl. 7. Incidence of reactive maintenance 11. Productivity 9.4. What is wrench time? How it is recognized as a maintenance work measure? 6. “To increases the Maintenance Department’s ability to complete work orders quickly”. 8. Explain briefly how the use of six principles will greatly contribute to the overall success of scheduling 6. Unnecessary job. Doing right jobs which are ready to go 4. 5.16 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1. What are the maintenance planning principles? How they contribute to the success of planning? 8. The extra labor power can be reallocated to added value activities. Lubrication. (sl. Productive time. 9. Work sampling for direct work time provides the primary measure of planning effectiveness 10. no: e) Fix up the wages for each of the work based on the skill level 6.no:4)To arrest the leakages and keep up the lubrication system 3. 7. Why scheduling after proper planning is essential for effective maintenance and meeting the dead line and avoid delays? 10.
Refer 6. Refer 6.13 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Refer 6.7 5.9 8.12. Refer 6. (For d): The schedule assigns planned work for every forecasted work hour available. Refer 6.5 4.12 10. The schedules and job priorities 15. Terminal Questions 1. Reliability 14.1 2.10 a & b 9.Refer 6. Refer 6.7 (c) 6. . Refer 6.8 (b) 7.2 3. Contamination sources. Refer 6. Refer 6. damage 13.
3 Organization & Processes 7.4 Benefits of using ‘UMS’ with Planner’s Functions 7.6 Work Measurement for High-Productivity Maintenance Universal Maintenance Standards [UMS] Five Levels of Data in Ums 7. process and systems.2 Planner’s Function in Maintenance & Benefits 7.1 Introduction Automating the maintenance program is a complex task as it requires integrating of people. Using a state-of-the-art maintenance management. organizations have tried and tested different approaches for bringing changes that can result in improvements in both the function and the cost.11 Answers 7.OM0006-Unit-07-Universel Maintenance Practices Unit-07-Universel Maintenance Practices Structure: 7. The new system will become a platform for continuous improvement and will generate long term benefits .5 Universal Principles for higher Productive Maintenance 7.9 Summary 7.7 ACE Team Benchmarking Process 7.8 Overall Craft Effectiveness & its Measurement 7.1 Introduction Objectives 7.10 Terminal Questions 7.
are the concepts. systems and techniques of Universal Maintenance Standards [UMS] 2. higher quality. Higher productivity maintenance means better customer service. principles and theory of new measurement techniques. Improving Wrench time of the Crew in Maintenance 6. theory. Benchmarking the best practices 3. a detail analysis and adopting certain state of art principles and improve maintenance productivity are all the focus areas for the above said disciplines. satisfied customers. Engineering or Industrial Engineering managers spearhead their achievements of dramatic productivity improvements by adopting different methods of work measurements in managing and controlling their activities. How the Maintenance. materials and overhead. on-time delivery and ultimately. For achieving the above said prerequisites.The analysis and application of work measurements to ensure improved productivity and cost reduction in maintenance should be the prime consideration by the management. Implementing new techniques of measurement. close communication with supervisors. maintenance labour. · Explain the benefits of UMS · Adopt the ACE system of Benchmarking 7. Achieving excellence in Maintenance Engineering and Management Objectives: After studying this unit you shall be able to: · Outline the functions to be performed by the maintenance planner. especially when sophisticated high tech machineries and equipments are used for production. Use of the state of art principles. Adopting ACE system for benchmarking and improvements 4. cost reduction and its measurement 5. field checks jobs when . Improving the Overall craft effectiveness [OCE] for productivity. as the maintenance represents variable operating cost which includes physical plant value.2 Planner’s Function In Maintenance & Benefits The planner’s role is varied in nature such as: maintain a backlog of ready-to-work jobs for each technician. some of which are listed below: 1.
In addition the resultant productivity improvement that accrues are the benefits to organization in a) cost reductions b) downtime reduction. They can also establish a computerized maintenance management system.4 Benefits of Using ‘Ums’ with Planner’s Functions It is found that when a planner’s function is integrated with the UMS resultant impact is of improving the overall maintenance effectiveness. etc as well as the stores process to check the inventory value. unrealized opportunity etc. Both the planners and the maintenance crew should examine to see how the UMS times could be applied. The planner also develops bench marks and maintains the data library. the same can be raised to around 80% when a planning function is integrated with UMS times to work together. based on a formal planning function and the Universal Maintenance Standards. and time to do the work. b) Processes Processes involve data development and work order planning. issue of stores taking too long. 7.3 Organization & Processes The tasks for a maintenance work measurement program fall into two categories namely 1) Organization and 2) Process a) Organization with planner in the forefront Planner maintains and allocates the work and knows all the ratios required for accomplishing the jobs and have good maintenance skills and experience and capabilities to work as the ultimate expert system. time reporting on the performance including delays. are validated. do the training. Hence the measurement provides information to determine the savings potential and also justify the maintenance work measurement program. plans work content. and make available to the crew a set of basic processes and craft operations for the process before establishing bench marks. While the maintenance departments without planners can achieve around 50-60% Productivity. crew size. 7. cost of the items. requisitions non-stock or out-of-stock items. or too many stock-outs. materials. plans safety requirements.needed. Importance of work measurement and the standard for the job should be established. verifies priority. crafts needed. The normal ratio of planners to technicians used is 20 to 30:1. . identifies special tools. life cycle cost reductions d) on time completion of jobs e) continuous improvements f) improved service to customers. Planners develop all the data.
7. f) Timeliness Large maintenance jobs are divided into smaller work orders. 7. but also helps growth in value added processes. Frederick Taylor’s principle applies to all work.6. lead to the lasting results. d) Customer/Service Relationship The customer decides what is needed from an operational viewpoint. if followed. Hence the Universal Standards serve the special needs of maintenance work through the following principles: a) Scientific Principle Best productivity results when each worker has a definite job to do in a definite way within a definite time.6 Work Measurement for High-Productivity Maintenance 7. and maintenance decides how the service should be provided.5 Universal Principles for Higher Productive Maintenance There are several principles that. which can be accurately planned. maintenance is no exception b) Measurement Before Control The measurement of an activity is basic to its control. They highlight problems or roadblocks for completion of the project. Together the customer and maintenance crew decide the priority (based on resources available) and urgency of each task compared to other existing current works. The standard crew size is one and any other size is exceptions to the general rule. c) Activity Responsibility The responsibility for each activity of a work order is necessary to ensure that the work order continues to move toward resolution without delay. Timely accomplishment is also universal phenomenon. Lord Kelvin saw this in his scientific investigation of the laws of physics.1 Universal Maintenance Standards [UMS] . e) Crew Size The optimum crew size for a maintenance job is the smallest that can perform the work using a specific method and execute in a safe & efficient manner. It is universal. This principle is also universal.
Techniques: The UMS system is based on three important techniques: 1) Range-of-time. in each of skills of fourteen types of jobs: mechanical. b) Evolution of Universal Maintenance Standards (UMS) In the early 1950’s. which in turn depends on: a) Nature of Maintenance works: In maintenance works. masonry. HVAC. If the time to perform similar tasks is known. availability of such standards. some unique characteristics are revealed. utilities. time taken for threading a one-inch nut on to a bolt by hand operation takes almost same time like that of screwing in a light bulb into the holder. service. automotive. paint. A simple task such as removing and replacing a part may take more or less time depending on how tight the bolts are. Each element requires further study followed by application of stopwatch time or a predetermined time system analysis to determine the exact time required for each through the method selected. sheet metal. government. labour. to what precision. or one country. pipe. then the time . but everywhere where maintenance work is performed –manufacturing. commercial. instrument. education or healthcare. how much rust is present on them etc. Applying the specific standards to the daily maintenance workload requires answers for: which task standard is required. For example. industry or service enterprise. machining. is it realistic to measure. IT management etc. There are at least four to five hundred different jobs. the result is that the crew does longer cycle work compared to other production workers. or tasks. to what volume of work etc. electrical. This range of time is same in 95 % of situations and hence standard average time is applied and practiced 2) Work content comparison. engineers adopted new methods for analyzing and assigning standards to maintenance work. If it is a low volume work done by multi skilled crew. as these standards offered flexibility and could be applied not just in one location. Hence breaking long jobs down into elements have resulted in a large number of elements. custodial. the motion pattern for two tasks may be same and also time to perform the work is almost the same. finance. carpenter. weld. called ‘Universal Maintenance Standards’ (UMS).The principles adopted for above said requirements are based on the application of work measurement in maintenance. Even though parts are different. The combination of many elements requiring different maintenance tasks and varieties of skills warrants developing and maintain a library of enormous number of standards. The range-of-time technique recognizes the variable nature of maintenance works.
3) craft operations. machine settings and arc striking time etc. For instance. grasp. body motions. carpentry.that can be applied to any other similar task with + or – 5%.2 Five Levels of Data in Ums 1) Basic Motions The foundation of UMS data is the predetermined time system for basic motions. Spread sheet fills the additional needs of finding quickly the . 4) bench marks and 5) spread sheets. 2) basic operations. Each of these motions are recorded and these data becomes the established times for future reference and standardization. Five levels of data in the UMS library. whether the how clamping of part is done etc are recorded in the table for further use as standards. 7. becomes the standardization process and hence these are universally adopted. engineers can typically apply standards to all maintenance work with bench marks covering all the crafts and through the use of spread sheets they can substantially reduce the data library compared to the one with direct standard method. which are pooled as weld craft operations data. distance moved. where work measures are dividing into basic motions such as reach. 3) Organizing the data UMS data is organized in a building block fashion.6. The variables like weight of the part. common to all crafts. machining could be made available for the crew of maintenance 4) Bench Marks Using UMS. Similar craft data for other skilled craft operations such as painting. 3) Craft Operations Some operation times are unique to a certain craft. Two widely used predetermined time systems are ‘Methods-Time Measurement’ and ‘Operation Sequence Technique’. 5) Spread Sheets. namely 1) basic motions. using the work content comparison technique is possible. welding operations are made up of manual handling. pipefitting. position and release. electrical. This system analyzes and classifies data into basic motions and establishes a relationship between the motions and the time required to perform them. By using spread sheets. 2) Basic Operations Basic motions are grouped together to form basic operations. a planner is able to establish planning times for a large number of jobs using relative sample data of the benchmark jobs and publicise the data along with the step-by-step process. move.
in generators. reasonable estimate of maintenance “work content” time from a group of experienced crafts people. which are reliable and a well-accepted planning times for the entire maintenance crew. in motors. clutches and brakes.appropriate one for an application or finding the right bench mark for comparison. supervisors and planners . the technique which was formulated and developed by the ‘The Maintenance Excellence Institute’ [TMEI].7 ACE Team Benchmarking Process “A Consensus of Experts” (ACE). 1) ACE System & UMS Using predetermined standard data. job site time and allowances for personal. who have performed these jobs earlier and have requisite experience to improve upon them. compressors. outlines a new and highly recommended methodology for establishing ‘team-based maintenance performance standards’. the standards are established. material handling equipment. and in mechanical fields like Belt drives. Spreadsheets are then provided for each work group having a time slots or range of times. The allowances applied to these set times to get a single UMS time calculation for use by the crew. have developed a bench marking process for the major work areas/types of maintenance operations. Ex: Benchmarking and firming up the task can be easily done in areas like lighting. 2) Objective of ACE Team Benchmarking Process Objective is to determine the reliable planning times for a number of selected “benchmark” jobs and to gain a consensus on the predetermined work content time. and lubrication and service. continuous improvement and the changing of times in performance and methods. which is called as ‘Reliable Planning-Time standards’. area travel time. These Benchmarked jobs are then arranged into different time categories on spreadsheets for various craft work areas. which are then imposed on the maintenance force. a team of relatively small in number. The ACE System is used to develop maintenance performance standards. rest and minor unavoidable delays. 7. All work order times released for the jobs and it consists of four components: job preparation time. Spreadsheets include brief descriptions of the benchmark jobs and represent pure wrench time. ACE Team Benchmarking Process parallels the UMS approach in that the range of time and the work content times for a representative number of benchmarked jobs are established. 3) ACE System: a Team-Based Approach ACE Team process is to obtain the most reliable. bringing control systems. This new Benchmarking Tool through ACE. Here the emphasis is placed on improving current repair methods. reducers and gear boxes. say within 95% confidence range.
Other methods used include reasonable estimates. 5) ACE Team Benchmarking Process: ACE System is a true team-based process that utilizes skilled crafts people. historical data. planners and other knowledgeable people to do two things. 6) The ACE System Supports Reliability Improvement: ACE Team process can contribute significantly to reliability. budgeting and costing. effective storerooms and .and provides an excellent means to evaluate repair method. a) Improve current repair methods. c) How OCE impacts the bottom line: Craft Labor Improving Overall Craft Effectiveness is getting maximum value from craft labor resources and higher craft productivity. as its application promotes a commitment to quality repair procedures. Computerized maintenance management system (CMMS) could also be practiced. 7. manpower planning. supervisors. safety and quality b) Establish work content time for selected “benchmark jobs” for planners and others to use in developing reliable planning time. preventive/predictive maintenance. b) Investment for Planners: The planner’s activity with the team approach of ACE system will establish maintenance performance standards. risks analysis on jobs that leads to improvements. which will provide the management with a valuable input data for backlog determination. safety practices. technicians. Best practices such as effective maintenance planning/scheduling.8 Overall Craft Effectiveness [OCE] & Its Measurement a) Craft Performance element of Overall Craft Effectiveness Determining the required standard hours of a technician require a trail run of the task under standard operating conditions. and engineered standards such as Universal standards. 4) Recommendation of ACE System ACE Team overcomes many inherent difficulties associated with developing maintenance performance standards and hence recommended as the standard process for modern maintenance management. scheduling. Labour standards will be the baseline for determining craft productivity and improved methods.
7. e) Productive Wrench Time: Pure wrench time is just the actual output/work done and do not include the miscellaneous waste time caused due to any or many of the following: 1. Running from emergency to emergency in a reactive. g) Craft Performance Another key element of OCE is the craft performance i. repair instructions. Effective planning/ scheduling is the key to increase wrench time and craft utilization. where certain jobs possibly require a call back to the initial repair thus requiring another trip to fix it right the second .e. This element includes quality of the actual work. drawings. 5. 8. 2. how efficient the hands-on craft work is done compared to an established planned time or performance standard. Craft performance is directly related to individual craft skills and overall trades experience. productive work (wrench time). 3. h) Craft Service Quality (CSQ) Another element affecting the overall Craft Effectiveness relates to the quality of the repair.continuous parts support will all contribute to proactive. 20 to 30 % can be expected from more effective maintenance planning & scheduling. fire fighting mode Waiting on parts and searching parts or part information Waiting for asset info. the personal motivation and effort of each craftsperson. shop clean up time Lack of effective planning and scheduling Craft Utilization (or wrench time) is measured as the ratio of: CU %=100x [Total Productive hours or wrench time]/ [Total craft hours allotted x amount paid] f) Improve Wrench Time original Significant tangible benefits can be realized by increasing the wrench time. 9. Measuring and improving overall craft effectiveness (OCE) is one of the components of continuous improvements d) Effective Craft Utilization (CU): Craft Utilization or pure wrench time relates to measuring how effective the work is planned and craft resources scheduled so that these assets are doing value-added. Waiting for the equipment to be shut down for work start Waiting for contractor support to arrive at job site Waiting on other crafts to finish their job Travelling to/from job site Make-ready. 4. documentation etc. planned maintenance and more productive “wrench time”. 6.
b) Benchmarking the best practices. the overall Craft Effectiveness and provide value added maintenance services all the time with a profit oriented approach Self Assessment Questions 1.time. OCE is increased people asset availability and capacity. c) Adopting ACE system for benchmarking and improvements d) ……………………………………………………………. K) Maintenance is For ever Maintenance is a core requirement for profitable survival and total operations success. Craft Service Quality will suffer due to hasty repairs. and a detail analysis of: a) Universal Maintenance Standards. Profit-centred in-house maintenance in combination with the wise use of high quality contract maintenance services will be the key to the final evolution that occurs. It is gained value that can be calculated and estimated and then measured. . In relation to OEE. When reliable data is present for all elements. Organizations should recognize maintenance as a core business requirement and should establish the necessary core competencies for survival. j) Think Profit-Centred Maintenance leaders and crafts people must develop the “profit” mindset to be competitive and stay in business. Organization should not indiscriminately cut craft labour resources when increase OCE is warranted. then Overall Craft Effectiveness Factor can be determined by multiplying each of these three elements: Overall Craft Utilization = [Craft utilization (%) x Craft performance (%) x Craft service quality (%)] i) Where Can We Apply OCE Gained Value Maintenance operations that continually fight fires and react to emergency repairs never have enough time to cover all the work (core requirements) that needs to be done. new techniques of measurement. implementation of certain state of art principles. Measuring and improving Overall Craft Effectiveness and the value received from improving craft assets is an important part of total asset management. For improving maintenance productivity. If the internal core competency for maintenance is not present it must be regained and ensure that they are profit-centred maintenance providers by understanding clearly the UMS. patch jobs or inferior repair parts/materials.
when once the ‘work content times’ for a representative number of ‘benchmark jobs’ are established.. …………………………………………… e.. checks jobs when needed.. The Universal Standards serve the special needs of maintenance work through the following principles: a) ………………… b) Measurement before controls c) activity responsibility d) customer/service relationship e) Crew size f) Timeliness 6. ………………………………. materials.. 4. Hence the measurement provides information to determine the savings potential and also justify the maintenance work measurement program. ……………. verifies priority. ACE Team Benchmarking Process parallels the UMS approach in that the …………………….. Improved services to customers g. . who have performed these jobs and have the requisite experience to improve upon them. Cost reduction and its total savings b. requisitions non-stock or out-of-stock items. based on a formal planning function and the. plans crew size. Downtime reduction and its savings c. have developed a bench marking process for the major work areas/types of operation.. Continuous improvement opportunities and gain in competitive advantage f. 8.. 5. .e) Improving the Wrench time of the Crew in Maintenance 2. The UMS system is based on three important techniques: a) Range of time b) …………………………… c) organizing the data 7. identifies special tools. Life cycle cost reductions d. Contributes in meeting other goals and objectives in the strategic plan. ………………………………. 3. ………………. The planner’s role is varied in nature such as: maintain a backlog of ready-to-work jobs for each technician. and time to do the work. and e) spread sheets. a team of relatively small number of representatives. Five levels of data in UMS are: a) basic motions b) Basic operations c) Craft operations d) ………………. The resultant productivity improvement that accrues because of integrating planner’s function with UMS will substantially benefit the organization in the following areas of operations/ functions: a. 9. close communication with supervisors.
. b) Establish work content time for selected “benchmark jobs” 13...... preventive/ predictive maintenance.. Improving ………………………. 11...... a) ……………………………………………………………………........ supervisors and planners and provides an excellent means to evaluate repair method.. is getting maximum value from craft labor resources and higher craft productivity... Spreadsheets include brief descriptions of the benchmark jobs and represent ………………... safety practices.. (%) x Craft service quality (%)] 7... reasonable estimate of maintenance …………………. . Best practices such as effective maintenance planning/scheduling. planners and other knowledgeable people to do two things...... Spreadsheets are then set up with each work group having a time slots or ……………………..... planned maintenance and more productive ………………. organizations have tried and tested different approaches for bringing changes that can result in improvements in both the function and the cost...9 Summary By using a state-of-the-art maintenance management. Craft Utilization (or wrench time) is measured as the ratio of: [ .... 16.... within the 95% confidence range. The new system will become a platform for continuous improvement and will generate long term benefits . 12... risks analysis on jobs that leads to improvements. Pure wrench time is just the ………………………... ACE Team process is to obtain the most reliable. time from a group of experienced crafts people.. 17.... 14. Overall Craft Utilization = [Craft utilization (%) x .... effective storerooms and continuous parts support will all contribute to proactive. Craft Utilization or pure wrench time relates to measuring how effective we are in planning and scheduling craft resources so that these assets are doing ………………….... and do not include the miscellaneous waste time caused due to any of the reasons. technicians...10... 18........]/ [Total craft hours allotted x amount paid] 19.. supervisors.. ... 15. ACE System is a true team-based process that utilizes skilled crafts people.. ACE Team process can contribute significantly to ……………… as its application promotes a commitment to quality repair procedures...
Improving Overall Craft Effectiveness is getting maximum value from craft labor resources and higher craft productivity. These Benchmarked jobs are then arranged into different time categories on spreadsheets for various craft work areas. life cycle cost reductions d) on time completion of jobs e) continuous improvements f) improved service to customers. which are reliable and a well-accepted planning times for the entire maintenance crew. is a team of relatively small number of representatives. industry or service enterprise. on-time delivery and ultimately. Overall Craft Utilization = [Craft utilization (%) x Craft performance (%) x Craft service quality (%)] Maintenance is a core requirement for profitable survival and total operations success. who have performed these jobs earlier and have the requisite experience to improve upon them. principles and theory of new measurement techniques that are used are: a)Universal Maintenance Standards. organizations should clear understand of the Overall Craft Effectiveness. b) Benchmarking the best practices c) ACE system for benchmarking and improvements d) Overall craft effectiveness for improved productivity and cost reduction and its measurement e) Improving the Wrench time of the Crew f) Achieving excellence in Maintenance Engineering and Management The resultant productivity improvement and benefits that accrues because of integrating planner’s function with UMS are: a) cost reductions b) downtime reduction. productive work (wrench time). The ACE System is used to develop maintenance performance standards. higher quality. Craft Utilization or pure wrench time relates to measuring how effective the craft resources so are doing value-added.Higher productivity maintenance means better customer service. satisfied customers. The Universal Standards serve the special needs of maintenance work through the following principles: a) Scientific control b) Measurement before controls c) activity responsibility d) customer/service relationship e) Crew size f) Timeliness The Universal Maintenance Standards offered flexibility and could be applied not just in one location. For gaining the internal core competency in maintenance. or one country. Pure wrench time is just the actual output/work done Measuring and improving Overall Craft Effectiveness and the value received from improving our craft assets an important part of total asset management. measurements by using UMS and . develops a bench marking process for the major work areas / types of operation. For achieving high productive maintenance. the concepts. but everywhere where maintenance work is performed and is based on three important techniques: a) Range of time b) work content comparison c) organizing the data “A Consensus of Experts” (ACE).
providing value added maintenance services on a most profitable manner are essential processes. 7.10 Terminal Questions 1. Why application and analysis of work measurements are important in maintenance management? 2. Which are all the concepts, techniques and principles used in measurement of work effectiveness and efficiency in maintenance? 3. Why planner’s role is vital to maintenance and how it improves the effectiveness? 4. Explain briefly the categories to which the tasks of work measurements can be grouped? 5. Explain the benefits that accrue to organization by integrating planner’s works with UMS? 6. Universal Standards serve the special needs of maintenance work through principlesWhich are these universal principles used for higher productive maintenance? 7. What are the three important techniques on which the UMS depends? 8. Explain briefly the five levels of UMS library and how each one is very important criteria for work measurement and analysis? 9. Explain the importance of using spread sheets and bench marks in work measurement to improve maintenance effectiveness? 10. “New Benchmarking Tool through ACE technique outlines a new and highly recommended methodology for establishing ‘team-based maintenance performance standards’, which is called as ‘Reliable Planning-Time standards” –explain how ACE will serve the organization’s needs in maintenance? 11. What is meant by Ace Benchmarking system and to what type of process it is recommended? 12. Explain overall performance effectiveness and how it helps in analyzing the performance of wrench times? 13. What is meant by effective craft utilization and productive wrench time & what are the factors constituting the craft utilization? 7.11 Answers
Self Assessment Questions 1. Improving the Overall craft effectiveness 2. Plans work content 3. On-time completion benefits 4. Universal Maintenance Standards 5. Scientific control 6. Work content comparison 7. Bench marks 8. A Consensus of Experts 9. Range of time concept 10. Range of time and pure wrench time 11. Work content 12. Improve current repair methods, Safety and quality 13. Reliability 14. Overall Craft Effectiveness 15. Wrench time 16. Value-added-productive work. (Wrench time) 17. Actual output/work 18. Total Productive hours or wrench time 19. Craft performance Terminal Questions: 1. Refer 7.1 2. Refer 7.1
3. Refer 7.2 4. Refer 7.3 5. Refer 7.4 6. Refer 7.5 7. Refer 7.6.1.(c) 8. Refer 7.6.2 9. Refer 7.6.2 10. Refer C 11. Refer 7.7.5 12. Refer 7.8 13. Refer 7.8. (d), (e), (f) Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .
1 Introduction Objective 8.7 Answers 8. Planning for QMS documentation should address the following three elements: 1. it must plan for it. .5 Summary 8.4 QMS Documentation Process 8. Overall strategy for creating QMS documentation.OM0006-Unit-08-System Operations and Documentation Unit-08-System Operations and Documentation Structure: 8.1 Introduction Before an organization begins creating QMS documentation.2 Documentation Strategy 8. Planning for such documentation is performed during the planning phase for a specific project.6 Terminal Questions 8.3 Documentation Management and Control Role of the Document Controller Types of QMS Documents Document Numbering Document Versioning Document Content 8. Planning for QMS documentation refers to planning for “infrastructure level” QMS documentation.
Document creation can proceed unhindered once the necessary guidelines are in place to support the creation. Documentation management and control mechanisms. Agreeing upon such issues up front will facilitate the creation of the QMS documentation. changed in a controlled manner. made available to users. will provide you with a documentation set that is usable. kept current. providing mechanisms to ensure that documentation in the organization is uniquely identifiable reviewed and approved by the appropriate authority prior to release. rational approach to documenting your QMS will enable you to rapidly develop a QMS that works and has sufficient but not excessive detail. Documentation strategy This is perhaps the most critical element of QMS documentation planning. A wellthought-out. After all. This entails answering questions such as: · What types of QMS documents are required? · How should the QMS documents be logically structured? · How should the QMS documents be uniquely identified? · Who should review and approve documents? · How should changes to QMS documents be identified and controlled? · How should superseded (or obsolete) documents be handled? . and 3. review. and. perhaps most importantly. Process for creating QMS documents. not one written primarily to appease external quality auditors. not outside parties. Brainstorming the documentation strategy entails obtaining answers to the following questions: · What approach should be adopted for documenting the QMS (top down or bottom-up)? · Up to what level of detail should processes be documented (breadth and depth of documentation)? · How can the QMS documentation be kept relatively stable and immune from minor changes in the organization or its processes? Documentation management and control Documentation management and control are a key element of an organization’s QMS. and dissemination of QMS documentation. and archived when obsolete (to prevent unintentional use). approval.2. the primary users of an organization’s QMS documentation are its employees.
rework. the process that results in a formalized set of product requirements may be identified as the product requirements definition sub process that is documented in a product requirements definition procedure. The procedures describing the sub processes and their interaction should be supported by additional QMS documentation. hardcopy) repository or an electronic (i. Within the product development process. and final release of QMS documents. the product design sub process should be supported by QMS documentation such as a design document template. a product design guidelines document.· How should documents of external origin be controlled? · Should the QMS documentation be stored in a physical (i. Similarly. For example. approval. and other needed documentation.e.2 Documentation Strategy The top-down approach to implementing and documenting the QMS is highly recommended (as opposed to the bottom-up approach). that is..e. For example. as appropriate. virtual) repository? · How employees should be provided access to controlled QMS documentation. Objectives: After going through this unit you will be able to: · Describe what is documentation strategy · Outline a documentation strategy for a unit or an enterprise · Construct a process map for documentation · Compose a QMS for a documentation process 8. review. What is the right level of detail to include in the documentation so that it enables correct and .. Another important issue that needs to be addressed regards level of detail. how should the QMS documentation repository be published? · How should the published QMS documentation be organized to maximize ease of use for employees? Documentation process The third element of QMS documentation planning entails the establishment of a process for the creation. the overall process that results in a delivered product the product development process may be documented in a product development procedure and/or in a product development process map. the process that results in a formal documented design for the product may be identified as the product design sub process that is documented in a product design procedure.
for minor operational or organizational changes. complexity of the process being documented. Often departments in organizations are renamed or merged into other departments. if your organization has a product test department that is called “system test department. Other factors that have a bearing on extent of QMS documentation include size of the organization. For example. organizations should be careful in how they respond when process execution deviates from requirements. and minimizes impact (on QMS documentation) of minor changes in the business processes and organizational structure? Any breakdown or inconsistency in process execution does not necessarily result from insufficient QMS documentation.” then refer to this department as the test department. Include all information that is specifically required to be documented as per the applicable quality management system standard. . To minimize the impact of such reorganizations. refer to them by the “function performed. Some useful tips to accomplish this are: • • • Always refer to roles (or functional areas) that are involved in the execution of a process. type of activities. operation.consistent process execution. review of existing QMS documentation to identify and correct deficiencies. as opposed to referring to individuals by name. QMS documents should be written so that they need minimum change. state in procedure Y that detailed description regarding that activity can be found in procedure X. Sometimes. Below are some guidelines to follow to ensure QMS documentation has the right amount of detail: 1. and control of processes. If this department subsequently is renamed the “independent verification and validation department. Therefore. if any. and another procedure Y needs to refer to the same activity. inadequate employee training. Do not document details of an activity in more than one QMS document. or conducting employee training to emphasize key aspects of a process. state that the requirements document is produced by the requirements engineer. Include only as much information as is necessary to ensure effective planning. instead of saying that Mark Peterson produces the product requirements document. and competency level of employees executing the processes. or other factors. 2. is the preferred solution.” For example. 3. instead of referring to departments by name. Creating more QMS documentation is not necessarily the right solution. Such an organizational change can have a huge impact on the QMS documents. it is far more convenient to revise one QMS document than to revise multiple documents. In the event of any change in the execution in that activity.” you need not revise your QMS documents if the functional responsibilities for testing the product still reside with this group. If an activity is described in a procedure X. but might result from unclear or ambiguous QMS documentation.
monitor. 4. Self Assessment Questions 1. in case of companies with more than one location (or very large companies in a single location).3. 2. Implementation-level QMS documents typically are more prone to changes in content. A document controller’s responsibilities generally include. department Y’s procedure refers to department X’s work instructions. Avoid references to another department’s work instructions or similar implementation-level documents. title. refer only to its highlevel QMS documents.3 Documentation Management and Control 8. company quality manual and operating procedures) in a centralized location. but are not limited to: 1. and scope than are high-level documents.1 Role of the Document Controller Before discussing different elements of document management and control. and enforce an organization’s documentation management and control function. Documentation process of __________ planning entails the establishment of a process for the creation. it is necessary to introduce the concepts of controlled documents and document controller.g. QMS documentation that pertains to a specific location (or a specific function) may be controlled locally. type of activities.• When referring to another department’s QMS documents. Documentation __________ and control are a key element of an organization’s QMS. The ________________ to implementing and documenting the QMS is highly recommended. the document controller function may be centralized or distributed. However. Certainly it is quite inconvenient for department Y to revise its procedure when department X revises its work instructions such that the reference from department Y’s procedure becomes inaccurate. For example. QMS documentation includes ______ of the organization. such as procedures. 8.. it is best to control documents that affect an entire company (e. Depending on the size of an organization and/or its number of locations. _____________ should be written so that they need minimum change. Verifying that documents submitted for storage and publishing are: . 3. Generally. A controlled document is one that is formally approved and is under formal version control. Document controllers are people who coordinate. 5.
11. Correctly storing and publishing (or distributing) controlled documents.3. Authorizing internal documents for external release after verifying that approvals for the release have been obtained from relevant management personnel. Controlling documents of external origin. Maintaining a master list of controlled documents. when errors or discrepancies are observed. Verifying that all changes made to previously approved documents are clearly identified. this task generally is performed by the document controller. In case of changes to previously approved documents. Notifying affected personnel in the event of a change to a previously approved document (or release of a new document) 9. 5. 8. Verifying that the documents are correctly versioned. Verifying that changes made to previously approved documents were properly authorized (that is. Alternatively.a. for revised documents. Notifying appropriate personnel. Accompanied by review records (when required) 2. 12. When document numbers are issued manually for new documents. a document number may be generated automatically.2 Types of QMS Documents Quality Manual . This includes clearly identifying documents of external origin and storing them in a secure location. an approved document change request should be available) 7. 6. Ensuring that all controlled documents are stored in a secure location. This includes withdrawing copies of obsolete controlled documents. such as the document author and management personnel from the affected area. 3. 10. the document controller should verify that the document version accurately reflects the magnitude of change in the latest version. Verifying that the documents are correctly numbered. they adhere to standardized templates when applicable) b. Duly approved c. In the correct format (that is. 4. This is necessary because the document author may make document changes in addition to those that were authorized. 8.
. Senior management should realize that it is responsible for the manual’s content. 2) Process-based quality manual This structure is being used increasingly in organizations that have successfully transitioned to taking a process-oriented view of their QMS. Such quality manuals follow a top-down approach to describing the organization’s QMS. which must be referenced. Such details should be embedded in the appropriate QMS documents. This can be demonstrated by senior management approval on the quality manual. such as ISO 9001:2000. and other parties (such as third-party auditors). However. Each section (or subsection) in the quality manual describes how requirements in the corresponding section (or subsection) in the quality management system standard are adhered to in the organization. it is preferable to exclude details regarding the organization’s processes from the quality manual. This approach entails describing the high-level product development process map of the organization. from the quality manual. prefer to structure their manual to mimic the structure of the applicable quality management system standard. and consequently it gains wider acceptance for daily operations. as needed. Therefore. it may be appropriate to include the procedures in the quality manual itself. employees typically relate more closely to organizational processes than to the requirements in a quality management system standard. employees invariably prefer such a quality manual. and not in the context of a quality management system standard. A significant advantage of this structure is that it is not alien to employees. customers (and potential customers). along with a reference to related QMS documentation.A quality manual is the highest-level QMS document and is intended primarily to provide an overview of an organization’s QMS. followed by separate sections briefly describing each key process in the QMS. This includes describing the purpose and scope of each process. It therefore should reflect the organization’s commitment to quality (in other words. in the case of smaller companies. answer why the organization is implementing a QMS) and describe how the organization ensures quality in its daily operations. In case of medium and large product development companies. Such a quality manual includes separate sections (or subsections) for each of the requirements sections (or subsections) in the quality management system standard. When appropriate. organizations structure their Quality Manual in one of two ways: 1) Standard-based quality manual Most organizations that are implementing a QMS in accordance with the requirements in a particular quality management system standard. the quality manual references relevant. Typically. An organization’s quality manual is an invaluable document for its employees. The QMS is explained in the context of the organizational business processes. QMS documentation in explaining adherence to each quality management system standard requirement. The quality manual must reflect the QMS accurately and be kept current at all times.
This helps ensure that the procedure accurately reflects the process and the interaction between various departments. Work instruction A work instruction is a documented low-level description of a process. The practitioners have firsthand experience performing the tasks and therefore typically are the most knowledgeable. Due to the intradepartmental nature of work instructions. they should be documented and jointly reviewed by practitioners involved in executing the tasks documented. If a longer procedure is needed. They serve as critical reference documents for anyone interested in knowing what a process entails. competent. Work instructions typically are intradepartmental and are intended primarily for use by process practitioners. Procedures are usually interdepartmental. and they constitute the first level of documentation below procedures. Procedures constitute the first level of documentation below the quality manual. Who performs the activities (roles and responsibilities). Due to the interdepartmental nature of procedures. They also serve as a valuable starting point for training process practitioners. The decision to document a process in a procedure is made by the respective process owner in consultation with the quality assurance department. They describe: What activities comprise a process. practitioners typically need additional process documents. When each activity in a process is performed. because organizational processes typically span multiple departments. to execute their tasks. Because a procedure is intended to contain relatively high-level information regarding a process.Procedure A procedure is a documented high-level description of a process. called work instructions. and experienced personnel for providing information on the execution of specific tasks. and Where the activities are performed. it is a good candidate for splitting into separate procedures. When process practitioners do not have the requisite training or are otherwise unskilled for creating effective process . As a general rule of thumb. a procedure should not be longer than three pages. Procedures are useful for communicating process information at all levels of management between departments. they should undergo cross-functional review by all departments involved in the process (or areas affected by the process) being documented. Procedures are not intended to provide the how to implementation details regarding a process. Work instructions describe how activities in a process are executed. They provide a step-by-step description of tasks to be executed in order to accomplish each activity in the process.
In such a case. the work instructions should be documented with direct input and active involvement of the process practitioners.documentation. to minimize variation. In many cases. in order to secure buy-in of the practitioners and to ensure that the documentation accurately reflects practice.g. the sequence of tasks to be performed during engine assembly for a passenger vehicle)? Need for consistency Are there expectations regarding a high degree of discipline and consistency in executing a set of tasks (e. Work instructions should be created on an as-needed basis when a need exists to provide detailed step-by-step guidance for process execution. the sequence of inspections to be performed before final approval for release of electronic wire assemblies)? Competence of personnel Is the competency level of the personnel executing the process such that it needs to be augmented with appropriate documentation to ensure the process is correctly executed? (For example.g. the greater the likelihood of inconsistency in process execution. The need to document a procedure or work instruction may be determined by using criteria such as: Complexity Is the process or the activities in it sufficiently complex that that it needs to be supported by a documented procedure or work instruction? Or. .. the core description of tasks in a work instruction should be limited to about four or five pages in length. when new personnel or personnel with varying levels of competence are executing a process. The decision to create a work instruction is made by the line manager or process owner who is responsible for the tasks.. processes that are relatively straightforward and without inherent complexity (or sophistication) can be described adequately in a well-documented procedure such that competent personnel can faithfully execute them without compromising quality of process output. Not every procedure needs to be supported by underlying work instructions. and to ensure consistency in process execution.) Size of organization Is the process executed by several personnel and/or in multiple locations? The greater the number of personnel involved in a process or the greater the number of locations at which a process is executed. work instructions can help ensure consistency and minimize errors. such as the PMC representative for the department. this task may be performed by another appropriate person. As a general rule of thumb. is there need to elaborate and provide further explanation on a process documented in a procedure by creating a work instruction (e.
a document typically will undergo revisions until it is withdrawn from use (or considered obsolete. directly in the fields provided. for documenting procedures. such as procedures or work instructions.3.4 Document Versioning Documents. a unique document number and version should be assigned to each document. The procedure author would start with the procedure template and populate it with information for the process being documented.3. The organization should devise a document numbering convention that meets its needs. It is recommended that forms and templates have brief instructions embedded in them to guide the user regarding the expected content in each section of the document. it is strongly recommended that a procedure template first be established. one must not only know what document to use. A form is used to record information. They help in ensuring consistency of format and content within a particular type of document. Table 1 . This is because the information contained in the new revision of the document is to some extent different from that contained in the previous revision. Therefore. and should be enforced by the personnel in charge of (or tool used for) issuing the document numbers. but retained for archival purposes). while the decision to create a template or form for departmental use may be made by the respective line manager. For example. either for review or for use (after approval). evolve. Any change or set of changes made to a document since its last release necessitates that the new revision level of the document be formally identified. due to their very nature.Past problems Have there been instances in the past where inconsistencies in employees have been observed in process execution? In such cases. 8. Templates serve as guides for communicating the expected structure and content of a document. Templates and forms A template is a skeleton for a document intended to be populated with specific information from use. An example of a document numbering convention is shown in Table 1. The decision to create a template or form for use across departments should be made by the respective process owner in consultation with the quality assurance department (for reasons described earlier).3 Document Numbering In order to uniquely identify and control each QMS document. 8. Once released. documenting an agreed way of executing a process can help. The numbering convention should be published in a QMS document. but also what revision level of that document to use.
Example of a Document Numbering Convention Document number format: AAA-BB-CCCC-DDDD where, AAA: Three-character identifier for department that is the document originator For example, “ENG” may denote engineering, “MKT” may denote marketing, “EXT” may denote the document is of external origin, and so on. BB: Two character identifier for document type. For example, “PR” may denote procedure, “TP” may denote template, “CH” may denote checklist, and so on. CCCC: Four-character alphanumeric identifier for project, product, or task. DDDD: Four-digit sequential number between 0001 and 9999. This sequential number uniquely identifies a specific document (irrespective of its version). 8.3.5 Document Content Following are some guidelines regarding document content (for examples, refer to sample QMS documents in the Appendices): 1. All QMS documents and records should have the same “look and feel.” Consistency in templates and forms can be ensured by following some general guidelines, such as:
The same header and footer on all templates and forms, with information such as:
a) Document title b) Document number c) Document version d) A statement to indicate the company proprietary nature of the document
Each QMS document, when appropriate, should use the same title page, containing the following:
– Standard information, (e.g., organization’s name and logo). The title page also can include a unique logo to indicate that it is a QMS document. This enables quick identification of QMS documents. – Customizable information, (e.g., document title) 2. Each QMS document or record should contain content as per the guidance contained in the associated form or template. Each QMS document must identify its purpose and
scope clearly. Correctness of the document content should be reviewed and enforced during document review meetings. 3. Deletions from the template and forms should not be allowed. If a particular section is not required, it should be marked “not applicable.” 4. Insertion of additional sections in a document created by using a standard form or template should be allowed when necessary; however, certain rules should be established to handle addition of new sections. Self Assessment Questions State whether following statement True or False. 6. All QMS documents and records should have the same “look and feel”. 7. A work instruction is a non-documented low-level description of a process. 8. A procedure is a documented high-level description of a process. 9. A quality manual is the highest-level QMS document. 10. A template is not a skeleton for a document intended to be populated with specific information from use. 8.4 QMS Documentation Process Now that all the necessary elements of a documentation management system have been described, you are ready to begin creating QMS documents. What documentation process should be followed to create, review, and approve QMS documents? This section describes a high-level documentation process that ties together some of the key elements of document management and control. Step 1: Identify suitable document author The first step is to identify a document author who possesses appropriate subject matter expertise. Typically, a management person from the function tasked to create the document selects a suitable document author. Step 2: Create draft version of the document The document author creates a draft version of the document by using the applicable template (if one is available). Step 3: Review the draft document
Once a draft version of the document has been prepared, it is circulated for review to appropriate reviewers (or functions) that are considered stakeholders in a document. The review may be in the form of an informal and/or formal review. Step 4: Rework the document as per reviewer feedback After receiving the feedback from the reviewers, the author reworks the document in accordance with comments provided by the document reviewers. Step 5: Approve and publish the document Once the document rework is complete, and it has been determined that a rearview is not required, the document is circulated for approval to the identified approvers. Once all the required approvals have been obtained, the author submits the master copy of the document along with the review record to the document controller. The document controller stores the document in the controlled repository and makes copies available for use. 8.5 Summary Documentation strategy is perhaps the most critical element of QMS documentation planning. Documentation management and control are a key element of an organization’s QMS, providing mechanisms to ensure that documentation in the organization is uniquely identifiable reviewed and approved by the appropriate authority prior to release. A template is a skeleton for a document intended to be populated with specific information from use. 8.6 Terminal Questions 1. Explain briefly different steps in documentation. 2. Define some guidelines in Documentation Strategy. 3. Explain types of QMS documents. 4. Summarize Document Content. 5. Explain QMS Documentation Process. 8.7 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1. Management 2. QMS documentation
Refer Pages 9. 10 5.1. Refer 8. Top-Down approach 5.Refer 8. True 7. Refer 8. Size 6. True 9. Refer 8. False 8.2 4.3.2. .0 2. False Terminal Questions 1. Page 4 3. True 10.3 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . QMS documents 4.
OM0006-Unit-09-Machine Life and Depreciation
Unit-09-Machine Life and Depreciation Structure: 9.1 Introduction Objectives 9.2 Functional Reliability of Facilities 9.3 Weibull Distribution Curve [Failures and its Analysis] 9.4 Life of Equipment a) Bathtub Curve and MTBF b) Breakdown Time Distribution c) Reliability and Variability of the Equipments 9.5 Critical Analysis 9.6 Maintenance Performance Ratios 9.7 Maintenance Systems 9.8 Reliability and Availability Concepts 9.9 How good is Reliability Performance? a) Root Cause Failure Analysis b) Reliability Centred Maintenance c) Failure Modes Effects Analysis & Total Productivity Maintenance 9.10 Maintenance Economics 9.11 Preventive Vs Breakdown Maintenance
9.12 Measurement of Maintenance Performance 9.13 Asset Life Cycle Management 9.14 Equipment Replacement Plans 9.15 Depreciation & Capital Expenditure based on Life Cycle 9.16 Summary 9.17 Terminal Questions 9.18 Answers to SAQ & Terminal Questions 9.1 Introduction The main function of the maintenance department is to monitor and control the condition of machineries and equipments and improve their functional reliability. The reliability theories on equipment performances have shown that there is a definite pattern of performance in their lifespan. This pattern manifests itself when different machineries are subjected to rigorous operations during the life span. The typical characteristics of the lifespan show a particular behaviour pattern of a bathtub and hence it is called as ‘bathtub curve’, which is discussed later. Objectives: After going through this unit you will be able to: · Describe what are failures in maintenance · Analyze failures through Weibull distribution curve · Discuss Reliability Performance · Construct a measure for performance 9.2 Functional Reliability of Facilities One of the most important objectives of Maintenance management is to improve functional reliability of the production facilities. The functional reliability refers to the consistency of the degree of performance of the machine, equipment or service operation. When it is said that a machine is having 97% reliability means that 97% of the machine time is utilized in performing the standard production for which it is meant for, and the remaining 3% of non performing may be
due to breakdowns or sub-standard performance. Therefore it is the duty of the plant maintenance crew to strive to maintain and increase the functional reliability of the production facilities. The objective of FMEA ( ) and reliability analysis of the plant and equipment is to ensure to excellence in performance of critical assets and achieve the business goals. The application of standard procedures and structured approach to analyse and practice effective method/s required to maintain all the operating plant assets. This process enables the maintenance managers to plan, review and optimise the maintenance operations that have direct impact on plant availability, thereby improving the overall plant performance and minimizing catastrophic failures. The functional reliability of facilities to be maintained or improved upon by the maintenance management requires the use of certain concepts, reliability methodologies, analysis, tools and techniques and measures. Some of these are listed: a) Determinate the appropriate level of maintenance services required. b) Identify specific actions based on equipment failures analysis & risk assessment. c) Prevention and reduction of potential failures by properly identifying defects and implementing corrective actions prior to failure d) To deploy sufficient staff to provide adequate repair and maintenance facilities. e) To provide for the stand-by equipment for key operations and also reasonable slacks in the production system to create some parallel path in a critical situation f) To adopt preventive Maintenance system to replace critical parts, before they fail. g) Each of the above involves costs. The cost involved should be justified on the basis of cost-benefit analysis. The cost of attaining reliability must be lower than the cost advantage available out of the production stoppages, idle machine and labour time, scrap, poor quality, loss of goodwill to keep delivery promises etc. h) Maintenance extends the useful life of assets by reducing wear and tear. i) Maintenance keeps up operational readiness of equipments for emergencies. j) Maintenance contributes a great deal to safety of manpower using the facilities. k) It prevents wastage of spares, tools and materials.
Once this phase is over.3 Weibull Distribution Curve [Failure & Its Analysis] For better maintenance planning and control. is primarily due to abrupt changes in stress distribution in the components. a) Infant Mortality phase: Newly installed equipment shows high rate incidence of early failures during initial phase of its life. This behaviour pattern reflects ‘hyper-exponential distribution’. poor installation. called the ‘Weibull distribution graph’ (after Weibull developed it). Most equipment that survives infancy stage will continue to perform better with very few failures. The graph of the failure pattern.l) More automation calls for sophisticated Maintenance. which is called the infant mortality. the weak components from the infant mortality period have either been repaired or replaced. b) Useful Performance phase: Next phase is the useful period of performance with a better reliability. c) Ageing Phase: Here the rate of failure increases until the equipment succumbs and is characterized by the rapid wear and tear of more and more components until major breakdown happens. As per the graph. The failure is random and unpredictable. During this period. there are three phases in the equipment performance namely a) Infant mortality phase b) Useful performance phase c) Ageing phase. It is also commonly called as ‘Bath Tub Curve’. or sheer quality deficiency in their manufacture. it is important to know the nature and occurrence of failures over a period of time for the equipment in use. This type of breakdowns may be due physical characteristics of the . and or not adjusted the operating conditions adequately. The high rate of failure at infant mortality stage is primarily due to the presence of weak or substandard components or design inadequacies. This is the useful period of the machine. 9. is shown below. because of its shape. the failure rate dips as the components adjust to the system until it reaches a relatively low constant level. fatigue due to flaws in the molecular structure of the metals.
.e. · A simple machine having few moving parts may have breakdowns happenings after a large number of maintenance free run time hours. the failure fall into a negative exponential distribution. Distribution shows the frequency of maintenance free running time with respect to total operating hours. · From these. Depending upon the complexity of the machine and severe aging processes because of extreme wear and tear results in an ultimate failure. the breakdown time distribution of a complex machine will reflect a greater variability than that of a simple machine even if they have the same average maintenance free run time. its statistics will help as a diagnostic tool in identifying the exponential nature of the availability and the reliability of equipment. · When the failures are recurrent. and may be earlier or later. can be assessed. availability. A= [Tn] / [Tn+Td] b) Breakdown time distribution: · It is essential to know how the breakdown time is distributed in order to establish the cost implications in maintenance. by which the system reliability. In other words. This ageing failure graph shows a bell-shaped normal distribution pattern. the failure of any one part may result in the complete machine breakdown.4 Life of Equipment a) Bathtub Curve and MTBF · Weibull distribution or Bath Tub Curve. 9. This ultimate may occur at ‘mean’ or ‘average’ time. is a combination of three distributions: Hyper exponential. or how the machine is used. Negative exponential and Normal exponential. anticipated life etc. shown above. These causes being external to the equipment and the probability of failing is relatively constant. · The availability (A) = [Cumulative time of operation in the normal working condition(Tn)] / the cumulative down time (Td)] i. but in a complex machine. · Figure below represents the degree of variability in free run time.materials used. Mean Time between Failure (MTBF) can be computed. This means that each part in a particular machine will have different failure distribution.
Hence the reliability of the total system depends on the product reliability factors of each of the sub systems.and 0. Here the data can be recast in the diagram. For example: if the total system has four sub systems having the reliability factors of 0. we mean the probability that any system gives a trouble free service.4. but the distribution shows wider variability.7. converting the information into the breakdown time distributions versus the percentage of breakdowns that exceeds a given run time. · When the above reliability factors are plotted in a diagram showing the percentage of breakdowns that exceed a given runtime on the ‘y’ – axis. and ‘runtimes free of breakdowns’ on the ‘x’ – axis. .9. Curve B of the complex machine. the resultant graph is shown below.8. 0. curve B exhibits moderate variability while Curve C indicates greater degree of variability from average breakdown time Ta.While curve A depicts the behaviour of a simple machine. It can be observed that the Curve A shows lower degree of variability. · By reliability. then the total product reliability is multiple of all these systems i.e. Curve C has the same average maintenance free runtime as the other two. the frequency distribution. 0. before establishing reliability. The variability by Curve C is typical of complicated equipment that needs fine adjustments before it starts giving trouble free service.6. c) Reliability and Variability of the Equipments · Equipment can be considered as a total system and the failure of any one of the sub system can cause failure of the entire system. 0.
Focus is not only concentrated on availability but also the reliability . may contribute to 80 to 85% of the total breakdown time. Repair Maintenance 2. but the two types of planned maintenance could be carried out.9. As in other types of probabilities. or even a few days as the work involved depends on the size and complexity of the equipment. the nature of the fault and availability of repair staff etc. it is a corrective maintenance to restore the machine/parts to acceptable condition again. It is the job of the maintenance crew to identify and quickly eliminate or simplify or improve upon these defects.5 Critical Analysis Critical analysis of maintenance problems is essential to know as to how serious is the problem for taking quick actions.6 Maintenance Performance Ratios Some of the ratios used in measuring the effectiveness of Maintenance functions are: a) Waste Index = [Waste Quantity] / [Output Quantity] b) Productivity of Maintenance = [Product output] / [Maintenance Cost] c) Maintenance Cost index = 100 x [Maintenance cost] / [Capital Cost] d) Breakdown maintenance index = [Break down hours] / [Man hours available] e) Downtime index = 100 x [Downtime hours] / [Production hours] 9. In other words. here too is that the small percentage of around 15-20% defects in equipment. In this type of repair maintenance. Preventive Maintenance When a sudden breakdown occurs in a machine. to replace it. namely: 1. the repair maintenance crew endeavours to locate mechanical. electrical or other fault quickly and to correct them. the function presupposes the previous breakdowns and actions of disassembling the equipment. 9.7 Maintenance Systems The ad hoc unplanned emergency maintenance is not recommended. to locate the faulty/broken part. to reassemble the equipment and then check and restore to its functional capacity. This activity may take a few minutes. Fundamental differences between the strategies discussed earlier and the proactive maintenance discussed now are: 1.
Using the above definition. 9. This index is the volume of quality products you measure in the production line divided by the theoretical volume of quality product you could achieve from the same line. the formula used to measure manufacturing reliability (MR) is: MR = [% T] x [% Q] x [% S] [Where.2. Root Cause Failure Analysis (RCFA). a CNC machine can be very good at 90%. Use of improved maintenance tools such as Reliability Centred Maintenance (RCM). a tissue processing machine may give a good reliability of +98%. but the liquid packaging machine may be best at +75% reliability. S = Speed performance] Manufacturing reliability model consists of a) process reliability b) equipment reliability and c) reliability maintainability. where as a less complex automatic lathe may be rated best at + 98%. T = Time performance. For example. quality and speed) · Mean production loss (MPL) Thus the reliability index is expressed in terms of the running continuously without production losses. · Mean Time between Failure (MTBF) · Measure of mean time between production Loss (MTBPL) (Production losses include loss due to time.8 Reliability and Availability Concepts Reliability and availability have become key issues. and manufacture the quality product at the speed required. more complex the equipment/ the raw material/ high tech processing. then lower is the reliability. Say in a paper processing. but when failures occur. 3. and others. There is a push towards zero downtime or zero in-service breakdowns.9 How Good Is ‘Reliability Performance’? In industrial processes. the overall reliability performance of the total process is less and is dictated by the complex machine with lesser reliability. Q = Quality performance. fix the problem as fast as possible. . Manufacturing reliability can be defined as a manufacturing system’s capability to operate to its expected operations. 9. There are many ways to measure reliability.
the team finds as many causes for the fault as possible and classify them into non contributing and contributing. Through a fault tree analysis. engineering. customer service. c) Failure Modes Effects Analysis & Total Productivity Maintenance · Total productive maintenance (TPM) and failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) are other maintenance tools used for improving the reliability through proactive maintenance. This practice has impact on many aspects of business. a standard preventive maintenance period can be set in such a way that the total downtime is reduced. RCM provides a flow diagram that tells what type of maintenance to be used. It has relevance to high volume production and can improve a company’s maintenance system and help improve the overall productivity of the processes.11 Preventive Vs Breakdown Maintenance Certain generalizations on type of maintenance can be made to improve the reliability: a) First. · While RCM is driven by preventive maintenance strategies. Non contributing causes are removed from the list and contributing factors are taken for analysis. The decision of maintenance policy is more of an economic decision rather than a technical one. b) Reliability centred Maintenance · The purpose of reliability centred maintenance (RCM) is to determine the maintenance requirements of any physical assets in its operating contexts. Answering to seven questions on all the potential modes of failure will uncover the predictive maintenance strategy requires to mitigate the consequences of the failure. production. In this situation. hygiene. RCFA is driven by maintenance prevention strategies. When implemented together they complement each other and provide the greatest overall benefit to the facility. what are its cost implications? 9. As maintenance is an economic decision.a) Root cause failure analysis: · The root cause failure analysis (RCFA) method brings a knowledgeable team together to investigate certain failures using evidence left behind from the fault. . preventive maintenance is highly beneficial to machines whose breakdown time distributions are having low variability. quality.10 Maintenance Economics Maintenance refers to an organisation’s policy in respect of the maintenance function of a set of equipments. 9. the team checks for the logical flows and determine what changes are to be made to prevent causes from reoccurring. planning and organisational leadership. Through brainstorming sessions.
c) In general.b) Second. when the repair time is equal to maintenance time. if the maintenance time is less than the repair time and If the preventive maintenance is equal to. Some metrics that may help in evaluation are: a) Maintenance man hours as percentage of total man hours b) Shutdown. the percentage of machine running time continues to increase with the increase of standard preventive maintenance period. or more than the time for repair. Companies should recognize this fact that maintenance of its assets is to be encouraged as the process will provide advantages in enhancing quality initiative. the relation of preventive maintenance time to repair time is important. 9. Additional stoppage time because the maintenance crew cannot start repairing immediately after the breakdown has occurred. 2. existing maintenance facilities. 3) direct labour value . maintenance cost breakdown. Analysis of data of the existing conditions with respect to down time production loss.12 Measurement of Maintenance Performance Organizations seeking excellence in their maintenance practices should constantly endeavour to measure and improve upon the performance criteria’s of maintenance. such as 1. reduces costs and eliminate waste. it is better to perform corrective or breakdown maintenance. increases capacity. Effects of scheduling preventive maintenance for non-productive days with no loss of production. etc are required to be done and evaluated. Effect on production losses if plant shutdown can be avoided 3. Hence maintenance and management of assets is the core to any business. d) We need to take into account other effects of unscheduled down-time. There is little gain in the preventive maintenance. nature of repair breakdowns. overhauls and renovations c) Production asset and loss d) Continuous reliability improvements e) Maintenance cost as a ratio of percentage of 1) gross asset value 2) sales value.
14 Equipment Replacement Plans The systematic equipment development program includes: 1) emergence of equipment replacement 2) classification of equipment replacement 3) assignment of responsibility for equipment replacement 4) selection of the equipment 5) follow up. Asset life cycle management system.13 Asset Life Cycle Management In high tech production. Factors that are considered while taking decision to replace machine and equipment can be classified as a) Technical factors b) Cost factors.f) Safety and regulatory compliance 9. then the asset is disposed off as it has reached the end of its lifecycle. as evolved by some companies for better results consists of three phases: a) Asset Acquisition Phase: here asset may be new or replaced or change of major components changed before operating activities in this asset is firmed up. 9. Asset dependability and its reliability are to be established. companies are required to produce more products of higher quality from fewer resources and hence maintaining higher reliability of assets has been a challenging task for the management. b) Maintenance phase: operating environment for each asset is defined and performance goals at the lowest cost are firmed up. c) Disposal Phase: when the asset is no longer capable of delivering the required operational performance or cannot be maintained cost effectively to achieve the required level of dependability. a) Technical factors that dictates replacement 1) Wear and tear of equipment 2) Obsolescence caused by new invention .
Some important methods or replacement of old and unused machineries are 1) minimum annual cost method 2) by using Barnes formula 3) MAPI (Machinery and allied institute) method. X = (No. having a short life. accuracy. of years the equipment will pay for itself) = [A+B] / [(E-F) DG + H – C] . 1) Minimum annual cost method: here the decision to replace the machine (unwanted or life is completed) is based on the operating and capital costs. The main ingredients of the annual cost are depreciation and interest charges. will pay not only for equipment but also for any unamortized value for next few years. material losses etc.3) Unsuitability of equipment due to size of the work. 2) By Using Barnes Formula: this formula is used for equipment. Hence the time for replacement depends on the condition and characteristics of the equipment. Here the replacement is not advocated unless savings due to the use of new equipment. old or new. rate of output. consumes high power etc 4) Automation requirement for processes 5) To eliminate slack time through line balancing 6) Reduced safety 7) Reliability of performance b) Cost Factors: 1) High repair cost 2) Lesser place requirement 3) Probable economic life of the new machine 4) Consumption of less power 5) Reduction in labour cost because high productive machines purchased 6) Flexibility requirement not in the existing equipment Methods used for replacement after analysis: The replacement analysis becomes more complex due to many technical factors and qualitative considerations. power consumption. speed of operations. While the annual operating costs include wages to operator. repair and maintenance costs.
whilst revenue expenditure is that spent on day to day business expenses. Straight Line method 1) A fixed percentage on cost each year.9000 with the income that asset has generated. The two most commonly used methods are straight line method and reducing balance method. · Depreciation should be calculated in a way which most closely reflecting the manner in which the asset is being used up. · An annual depreciation charge is shown as an expense in the Profit and Loss account. the value of the asset in the balance sheet should be reduced by each year’s charge. it has the business cost of Rs.9000. E = labour cost per unit in old equipment. if an asset is purchased for Rs. but shown in the Balance Sheet · Depreciation is an attempt to spread the cost of an asset over its useful economic life.10000. D = number of units product per day by new equipment. B = depreciated value of the old equipment. 2) The same monetary amount each year .[where A = cost of new equipment. Depreciation tries to apply the accruals by matching that Rs.15 Depreciation & Capital Expenditure based on Life Cycle · This requirement falls into the following groups: a) Calculation of depreciation b) Calculation of profit/loss on disposal c) Accounting for depreciation and disposals Calculation of Depreciation · Capital expenditure is that spent on purchase or improves on fixed assets.1000. and then sold for Rs. For example. Additionally. C = interest charge of new equipment. kept in use for 8 years. MAPI method concentrates on the comparison of the rate of return of the proposed new project and similar returns when the proposed project is not implemented within next year. 9. Capital expenditure is not recorded in the Profit and Loss account. F = estimated labour cost per unit with new equipment. G = estimated working days per year for new equipment and H = savings or losses per year in fixed charges other than interest] 3) MAPI method: here the analysis is divided into 35 heads & three main groups. It emphasizes on immediate return.
30000 x 100. i.3840 and so on.4800 c) Year 3 (Rs.1500.30000 – Rs. (Rs. · [Note that the policy could have been expressed as “straight line at %” or “Depreciation at % pa on cost” – here the percentage is calculated as = Rs. at the end of which it will be sold for Rs.Reducing Balance method 1) A fixed percentage on net book value each year 2) A reducing monetary amount each year Example: 1 a) Straight line method A machine is purchased for Rs. Calculate the depreciation to be charged for each of the first 3 years of the machine’s life.30000 – Rs. the actual disposal proceeds will show the true net cost of the asset. On disposal. ] Reducing balance method (the charge for depreciation reduces each year) a) Year 1 Rs. 2850) · So.1500) / 10 = Rs. i.6000 – Rs. the net cost is simply divided by the expected life. the annual charge for every year of the machine’s life is Rs.30000 x 20%= Rs. [Note that the expected residual value is ignored & it will have been incorporated into the choice of 20% as an appropriate rate] b) Calculation of Profit/Loss The depreciation charged each year is based on estimates of useful life and residual value. It is expected that this machine will be used for 10 years.2850.e. using: (i) The straight line method (ii) The reducing balance method at 20% pa Solution · Under the straight line method.e. This over or under provision of depreciation is shown in the Profit and Loss a/c as a profit or loss on the disposal of fixed assets.30000. This may reveal that two much or too little depreciation has been provided over the asset’s life. .6000) x 20% =Rs.4800) x 20% =Rs. 6000 b) Year 2 (Rs.30000 – Rs.2850 / Rs.
2520] c) Accounting for depreciation and disposals · In the above example. The main function of the maintenance department is to monitor and control the condition of machineries and equipments and improve their ____________________. 23000 – 20480 (book value) = Rs. and is depreciated using the reducing balance method at 20% pa.2007 =32000 · Depreciation y/e 31.03-2009 =20480 · Thus.Example: 2 An asset is purchased on 1 January 2006 for Rs.03-2009 (20%) =5120 · Net book value at 31. there is a profit on disposal of price of Rs.03. Solution · Sales proceeds must be compared to the net book value on the date of disposal. the disposal occurred exactly 3 years after the acquisition.23000.40000. . In practice. Calculate the profit or loss arising on this disposal.03-2008 =25600 · Depreciation y/e 31. equipment or service operation. which necessitates decision regarding depreciation (may be proportionate) · A popular depreciation policy would be: A full year’s charge in the year of acquisition but none in the year of disposal Self Assessment Questions Fill up the blanks with appropriate words: 1.03-2008 (20%)= 6400 · Net book value at 31. · Original cost 40000 · Depreciation y/e 31.2520 [sale price of Rs. 2.2007 (20%) =8000 · Net book value at 31. The asset is sold on 1 January 2009 for Rs.03. The functional reliability refers to the ____________________ of the machine. acquisition or disposal may occur part way through the accounting year.
For better maintenance planning and control. Most equipment that survives infancy stage will continue to perform better with very few failures. but in a complex machine. 11. because of its shape. The failure of any one of the sub system can cause failure of the __________________. It is also commonly called as ____________________. As per the graph. is shown below. Newly installed equipment shows high rate incidence of early failures during initial phase of its life. In the ____________ . The objective of FMEA ( ) and reliability analysis of the plant and equipment is to ensure to ____________________ of critical assets and achieve the business goals.3. there are three phases in the equipment performance namely a) Infant mortality phase b) Useful performance phase c) _____________________ 6. _________________ of maintenance problems is essential to know as to how serious is the problem for taking quick actions. may contribute to of the ____________ total breakdown time 10. called the ‘Weibull distribution graph’ (after Weibull developed it). 9. . the failure of any one part may result in the ____________________ . Manufacturing reliability can be defined as a manufacturing system’s ____________. here too is that the small percentage of around 15-20% defects in equipment. 8. 4. the rate of failure increases until the equipment succumbs and is characterized by the rapid wear and tear of more and more components until major breakdown happens. Hence the reliability of the total system depends on the _________________ of each of the sub systems. and manufacture the quality product at the speed required. The graph of the failure pattern. A simple machine having few moving parts may have breakdowns happenings after a large number of maintenance free run time hours. 7. This is the useful period of the machine. As in other types of probabilities. In the performance phase is the ______________ period of performance with a better reliability. Reliability and availability have become key issues. 5. which is called the______________. The formula used to measure manufacturing reliability (MR) is: MR = ………………………. it is important to know the nature and occurrence of failures over a period of time for the equipment in use..
Therefore it is the duty of the plant maintenance crew to strive to maintain and increase the functional reliability of the production facilities. The reliability theories on equipment have shown that there is a definite performance pattern their lifespan. 13.[Where. Reliability and availability have become key issues.16 Summary The main function of the maintenance department is to monitor and control the condition of machineries and improve their functional reliability. equipment or service operation. tools and techniques and measures. S = Speed performance ] 12. can be assessed. availability. T = Time performance. and manufacture the quality product at the speed required. . This pattern manifests itself due to rigorous operations during the life span. by which the system reliability. Mean Time between Failure (MTBF) can be computed. reliability methodologies. The functional reliability refers to the consistency of the degree of performance of the machine. Asset life cycle management system. analysis. The objective of FMEA ( ) and reliability analysis of the plant and equipment is to ensure to excellence in performance of critical assets and achieve the business goals. as evolved by some companies for better results consists of three phases: a) Asset Acquisition Phase: b) Maintenance phase: c) ____________________ 14. anticipated life etc. The functional reliability of facilities to be maintained or improved upon by the maintenance management requires the use of certain concepts. Some important methods or replacement of old and unused machineries are 1) minimum annual cost method 2) by using ____________________ 3) ____________________ method. The replacement analysis becomes more complex due to many technical factors and the qualitative consideration. Q = Quality performance. 9. Manufacturing reliability can be defined as a manufacturing system’s capability to operate to its expected operations. RCM provides a flow diagram that tells what type of maintenance to be used. The purpose of reliability centred maintenance (RCM) is to determine the __________________ in its operating contexts.
. increases capacity. · Mean Time between Failure (MTBF) · Mean time between production Loss (MTBPL) · Mean production loss (MPL) Companies should recognize this fact that maintenance of its assets is to be encouraged as the process will provide advantages in enhancing quality initiative. Equipment can be considered as a total system and the failure of any one of the sub system can cause failure of the entire system. called the ‘Weibull distribution graph’ and known as ‘Bath Tub Curve’. shows three phases in the equipment performance namely · Infant mortality phase · Useful performance phase · Ageing phase. it is important to know the nature and occurrence of failures over a period of time for the equipment in use. Total productive maintenance (TPM) and failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) are other maintenance tools used for improving the reliability through proactive maintenance. The graph of the failure pattern. as evolved by some companies for better results consists of three phases: a) Asset Acquisition Phase b) Maintenance phase c) Disposal Phase Based on the life cycle analysis. because of its shape. Asset life cycle management system. However the methodology to be used depends on the best alternative within the organizations objectives. there must be equipment replacement plan after considering the cost impact and other technical factors. Hence the reliability of the total system depends on the product reliability factors of each of the sub systems. reduces costs and eliminate waste.For better maintenance planning and control. The purpose of reliability centred maintenance (RCM) is to determine the maintenance requirements of any physical assets in its operating contexts. There are many ways to measure reliability.
Excellence in performance 4. Why it also called as bathtub curve? What are the three phases in the life span of equipment? 4) Explain briefly how the life of the equipment is depicted by the variability and availability factors in a) Bathtub Curve and MTBF. b) Breakdown time distribution: and c) Reliability and Variability of the Equipments 5) What are maintenance performance index? How they help in measuring maintenance efforts? 6) There are many ways of measuring reliability and availability.17 Terminal Questions 1) Define functional reliability? 2) What are the maintenance management concepts. Functional reliability 2.Capital expenditure based on the life cycle and the depreciation either by straight line or reducing method is used for a comprehensive decision by the management. 9) What are the technical and cost factors to be considered while planning replacement of old machineries? 10) Explain briefly the depreciation methods used in capital expenditure on plant and machineries. 9. methodology used for maintaining the functional reliability? 3) Explain briefly the ‘Weibull distribution curve. Explain few of them? 7) What are the factors considered in measurement of maintenance measurements? How they are evaluated? Briefly explain the three phases of asset life cycle management. Consistency of the degree of performance 3. Bath Tub Curve 5. How this helps in replacement plans? 9.18 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1. Ageing phase .
MAPI Terminal Questions 1. Refer 9. Refer 9. Refer 9.13 9. Barnes formula.15 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Refer 9.4 5. Maintenance requirements of any physical assets 13. Useful. Ageing phase 7.8 7.6 6. Refer 9. Capability to operate to its expected operations 11. Critical analysis. Refer 9. 8. Refer 9.2 3. Entire system. Disposal Phase: 14.2 2. Refer 9.3 4. . Complete machine breakdown.6. Infant mortality. 80 to 85% 10. Refer 9. Refer 9. Product reliability factors 9.12 8.14 10. = [% T] x [%Q] x [%S] 12.
3 Goals 10.1 Introduction Objectives 10.OM0006-Unit-10-Total Productivity Maintenance Unit-10-Total Productivity Maintenance Structure: 10.4 Objectives of TPM 10.11 Implementation of TPM & Steps in TPM program Steps in TPM program 10. 10.6 Evolution of Maintenance Methods 10.9 Types of Losses.10 Zero Loss Concepts 10.8 Overall Effectiveness of Equipment [basis of TPM] 10.5 TPM and its Features 10.12 Eight pillars of TPM Autonomous maintenance Kobetsu Kaizen Planned Maintenance Quality Maintenance .7 Other Related issues with TPM 10.2 Total Productivity Maintenance 10.
inspecting. Because JIT [Just-inTime] production lines operate very close to capacity in every process. thus leading to breakdowns and production losses. a more sophisticated well managed preventive – maintenance type programs such as TPM or Reliability centred maintenance (RCM) has warranted. This will increase the life of the machines and they perform better during their entire life span.18 Answers 10. a facility.17 Terminal Questions 10. High tech preventive maintenance routines are performed by experts at frequent intervals and machines are continually upgraded and modified for closer tolerances. material handling equipment and other transport vehicles in proper working conditions. machine failures cannot be tolerated. But with the enlarged scope of maintenance functions when very high cost state of art machineries and equipments are used for higher productivity.16 Summary 10.1 Introduction Manufacturers invest huge capital on productive machines and equipments for production of the desired products. adjusting. faster set ups and fewer adjustments. Environment TPM in offices 10. etc. Health. to keep a machine.Development Management Education & Training Safety.15 Role of TPM in WC-production 10. repairing.14 Benefits of TPM 10. but they often neglect the very important function of complete maintenance. cleaning. Maintenance covers all those functions such as monitoring. Earlier the maintenance management was viewed as a function with a lesser status compared to manufacturing and its role was restricted to one of carrying out breakdown repair when a machine breaks down. Equipment maintenance is basic to competitive manufacturing.13 Relevance of TPM to TQM framework 10. The Japanese have virtually eliminated machine breakdowns by applying Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) techniques to their .
consensus building and continuous improvement. TPM is defined as the means to achieve high level of productivity. to achieve total customer satisfaction. 10. Reliability and TPM principles call for avoiding crisis. Objectives: After studying this unit you will be able to: · Outline the features of TPM · Explain the types of losses related to maintenance · List and explain the steps involved in TPM · Comment on the methods of TPM propounded by experts on Quality. 10.2 Total Productive Maintenance [TPM] TPM had its genesis in the Japanese car industry in 1970’s. maximising capacity. Machines are cleaned and lubricated frequently by the operators who run those machines. efficiency and effectiveness with zero loss concepts through total participation of all employees with self managing abilities in practices. relying on team work. minimising costs and continuously improving processes for manufacturing. TPM is a well defined and organised maintenance program which places a high value on team work.3 Goals · Prevention of equipment deterioration · Maintain the equipment in optimal condition · Establishing basic equipment conditions · Operator is competent to operate machine/ equipment · Elimination of quality defects · Elimination of equipment failure · Elimination of cost losses . Here the new quality approach of “prevention at source” was translated to the maintenance environment through the concept of TPM. It first evolved in Nippon Denso a major supplier of the Toyota car company.machines.
4 Objectives of TPM The principle objectives of TPM are: · Eliminate all breakdowns of machines and equipment to ensure trouble free continuous production. defect. · Boosting morale of employees. · Reduction in manufacturing costs. means elimination of micro operational issues · Achieve zero loss Concept – [zero breakdown.10. · Maximise asset and equipment effectiveness through OEE [overall equipment effectiveness] and OPE. · Restoring equipment to a like-new condition · Improve maintenance efficiency and effectiveness · On job training of the labour to improve their job skills · To have a sound equipment maintenance management · Effective use of preventive and predictive maintenance technology · Achieve TPM with active participation & involvement in all levels · “Value Added” activity that the equipment is contributing to your products. reduction in equipment life cycle cost. ensuring total effectiveness of the plant for higher quality and lesser downtime. 10. · To achieve higher reliability/flexibility of equipment and reduce cost through eliminating wastages.5 TPM-Its Features TPM no longer confines to the maintenance department. · Producing products for customer satisfaction in quality. cost. delivery and services. . waste and accident-free operations] in all the resources over the entire life cycle of a production system through team work and by overlapping small group activities. · Achieve manufacturing excellence. · Increase plant efficiency. losses. but spreads across as a company-wide culture.
leading to another innovative & modern practice under company-wide maintenance practice of TPM? How this evolution has happened and other related issues are briefly given below a) Breakdown Maintenance / Emergency / Corrective Maintenance: Break – down maintenance or emergency maintenance is a remedial or corrective maintenance practice that is undertaken when equipment fails and require repair on an . blockages etc. to achieve total customer satisfaction There are six types of losses found in a manufacturing firm: · Downtime due to equipment failure. TPM is one of the most valuable strategies for those who want to be competitive & meet the World Class Competition 10. organizing.6 Evolution of Maintenance Methods What are the other maintenance methods that are universally practiced by industries. through total participation of all employees with self-managing abilities in practice.TPM is a method designed to eliminate the losses caused by break-down of machines and equipments by identifying and attacking all causes of its breakdowns and system down time due to such breakdowns. · Speed losses due to discrepancies between designed and actual speeds · Defect losses due to process defects that cause scrap & quality problems. · Speed losses due to idling and minor stoppages caused by abnormal operations of censors. · Defect losses due to reduced yields in processing TPM includes three main elements: · Regular preventive maintenance. · Periodic pre-failure replacement or overhauls and · Intolerance for breakdowns or unsafe conditions. efficiency. monitoring and controlling practices through a unique ‘8-Pillars Method’. TPM is a means to achieve high level of productivity. TPM paves way for an excellent planning. effectiveness with zero loss concept. · Downtime for setups and adjustments. including housekeeping.
10.emergency or priority basis to set it right. maintenance costs and resultant delay in supply of products to customers as promised. There exists a relationship between the maintenance costs and the cost of failures with which the level of maintenance Vis-a-Vis frequency of maintenance could be firmed up. b) Preventive maintenance Preventive maintenance is the activity that is planned and programmed on a regular basis to inspect the system. that results in loss of production due to idling of machinery and labour and reduces system capacity. servicing and replace parts to ensure that the system does not fail during normal operation. Preventive maintenance policies and techniques must emphasize on all employees to accept the responsibility for the maintenance and perform all the activities to their capability. Obviously this is not an ideal way of keeping quiet until that breakdown happens. A high failure rate known as the infant mortality exists during the initial working of the machine and then settles in. to uncover potential problems and to make repairs. especially when mass production or continuous production is planned. firms should build up a level of repair capability in order to get the system back in operation much faster. Well trained maintenance crew. When the distributions curve exhibits a narrow standard deviation. This reduces the frequency of machinery break downs and consequent loss of production Break down of a machine in production line can be costly if it means shutting down the entire plant. Failure of equipment or machineries may occur at different phases. the preventive maintenance will be more expensive and incidental if it is other way. Here.7 Other Related Issues a) Improve Repair Capabilities: For reliability and a sound preventive maintenance practices. This idling will increase the production cost. A good maintenance facility should have the following features: 1. This promotes employee empowerment and system performance c) Productive maintenance or Predictive maintenance – This is an extended preventive maintenance method that tries to reduce the chances of breakdowns by using modern monitoring and analysis techniques such as computer aided monitoring and forecasting and diagnose the condition of the equipment during operation. . A study is made on each machine on the MTBF (mean time between failures) distribution. the productive maintenance tries to identify signs of equipment deterioration or imminent failure and to take corrective action before it fails.
4. It is the probability that a product will operate adequately for a given period in its intended application. Reliability is a time based concept of quality. idling of both machines and the workers using those machines for their work. Ability and authority to do material planning. e) Role of operators in TPM . Ability to establish a repair plan and priorities. Specialists work with cross-functional teams & backup responsibility to handle difficult or unusual problems. firms can reduce inventories. Ability to identify the cause of break downs 6. Hence by reducing equipment mal functions and break downs. accidents to operators. preventive and repair maintenance. schedule disruptions etc. c) Reliability and Maintainability – an overview: Quality is multi – dimensional but reliability is a key component of quality. because of perceive product quality and the exceptional reliability.2. issues are closely related with maintenance and maintainability. b) Employee ownership TPM: Front-line associates have first responsibility for maintenance in their work places. Malfunctioning of machines cause deterioration and results in inefficiency. safety hazard. This will ultimately shorten the life of machines and cause high repair costs. The ability of the equipment for operation is determined by mean time between failure (MTBF) and mean time to repair (MTTR) that is: Availability = MTBF / [MTBF + MTTR] d) Equipment problems and competitiveness: Equipment problems and break downs have a direct affect on production costs. Adequate resources. 3. Japanese automobile manufacturers have been highly successful in the US market and could gain a high market share. Since the reliability is concerned with the elapsed time between failures of a product. product quality and production schedules. Further these machines may have possible immediate effects such as variability of output. At the same time. Ability to design ways to extend MTBF b) Maintenance responsibilities a) Traditional: Maintenance is a functional support activity & employees rely on specialists for custodial services. 5. they can improve operator safety and reduce injuries from equipment mal functions. Reliability considers the performance of a product over time.
Ensure maintenance is treating the root cause of the problem and not symptoms 7.8 Overall Equipment Effectiveness [OEE]-Key Indicator of TPM · OEE is a way of measuring how the six major losses shown below are affecting the equipment or in other words a way of measuring the amount of “Value added” activity that the equipment is contributing to the product. Perform basic equipment maintenance by cleaning of machines. f) Role of maintenance department in TPM process: 1. Understand the manufacturing process to successfully achieve the above.8. Diagnose and perform repairs for the problems identified.1. Restores deteriorated equipment through improvements / related maintenance 2. C) Reduction of minor stoppages and adjustments on aggregates as well as the complete machine. Thorough data analysis. manufacturer and also the operators 8. periodic diagnostic tests apart from performing appropriate maintenance system to avoid predicted equipment failure 5. D) Collect data to track equipment performance and document all the data recorded along with production control chart and work order systems. 2. Maintain work order system to provide data for calculation of MTBF (mean time before failure) and MTTR (mean time to repair) 6. .1 Objectives of OEE: a) It helps see a problem so that it can be fixed. In case the problem is an unknown entity. replacement of filters lubrication of aggregates. 10. To identify design weaknesses and improve equipment for error free operations 3. Data collected must be complete for proper implementation. Implement periodical maintenance system that is planned on the data collected from the machine. thus developing the capability to operate similar equipment / machines 10. obtain information before such problems are attacked. 3. B) Perform change over and setup the complete machine. Improve technical maintenance skills of all maintenance personnel through systematic training and work assessments 4. checking functions of the basic machine AND safety devices. Basic skill levels required by operators include: A) Monitoring and maintaining critical process parameters.
Number of parts produced – 19271. Short breaks – 2 short breaks of 15 min each. · Planned production time 480 – 15 -15-30 = 420 min Operating time = planned production time – downtime = 420 -47 = 373 min · Good quality parts produced = total produced – rejection = 19271 – 423 = 18848 · Availability = A = operating time / planned production time = 373 / 420 = 0.88 .b) It helps visualize ‘Six big losses’ with their targets for meeting OEE. [Target=minimize] 2) Set up down time[Target=zero] 3) Reduced speed of the machines [Target=minimize] 4) Minor unrecognized stoppages [Target=zero] 5) Reject and rework [target=zero] 6) Start up down time and yield from the system [Target= minimize] Availability [(Time available for production – Downtime)] / [Time available for production] Performance Efficiency = [Actual Production or Capacity)] / [Ideal Production or Capacity] Quality Yield [Total Parts Produced-Quantity out of specifications] / Total Quantity produced.2 OEE example: A manufacturer working for 8 hours shift with the production data and scheduled breaks is as follows: Shift length = 8 hours. Overall Equipment Efficiency [OEE] = [Availability x Performance Efficiency x Quality yield] 10. Ideal rate of production – 60 parts per min. Lunch break – one lunch break of 30 min. 1) Planned and unplanned downtimes. Downtime of machines – 47 min. out of which 423 numbers were rejected.8.
c) Quality loss: 7) process errors 8 rework/scrap Category 2: Manpower losses: 9) cleaning and checking. 74.888 * 0. 6) reducing the capacity. 13) any management losses. 12) waiting for quality confirmation. 11) waiting for instructions.10 Zero-Loss Concept: TPM is based on the elimination of the above said 16 losses along with other five zero loss concepts depicted below: .861 · Quality= (total parts produced – rejection) / total parts produced) = 18848 / 19271 = 0.· Performance = P = parts produced / (ideal production * operating time) = 19271 / (60 * 373 )= 0. 3) planned shutdown downtime] b) Performance losses: 4) start up losses. Category 3: Material losses: 14) material yield 15) energy losses 16) consumable material losses 10.e. 2) set up/adjustment time.861 * 0.978 · OEE Composite = Availability * performance * quality = 0. 10) waiting for materials.8 % 10.748 i.978 = 0.9 Types of Losses (16) There are 16 types of losses that can be categorized into three namely: Category 1: a) Equipment losses: includes down time losses due to 1) machine failure/breakdown. 5) minor stopping /idling.
e) Quality maintenance. d) Planned maintenance. even for new areas of operations. Reaching Excellence in TPM program by Promotion. g) Education and training. c) Kaizen. 6. f) Office TPM.10.12 Eight Pillars of TPM .1 Steps in TPM program 1.11 Implementation of TPM Implementing TPM company. Implementation in each of the identified areas is managed directly by a target area committee with assistance from a TPM program team.wide is a major project that requires support from top management. Formation of committees and sub committees for a) promotion and steering of TPM. b) Jishu Hozen. Company commitment 3. 10. Focus on 8 pillars. h) Safety and environment committee 4. Plant audit and initial assessment 2. monitoring and reviewing TPM results and raising levels and revising standards 10. The TPM program team oversees initial planning and coordination of all TPM efforts though ultimately this responsibility is transferred to the maintenance department. Selection of pilot lines 5. The main focus on equipment maintenance is for improvement of the overall production system. This stresses the need to shift focus from equipment to the processes within which it is used.11.
Reduce process time 3.12. 8 Pillars supports a strong structure of TPM for achieving higher productivity is depicted in the following picture.In the above house.1 Pillar-1: Autonomous Maintenance: (Jishu – Hozen) Autonomous maintenance is a phrase coined by the Japanese institute of plant maintenance (JIPM) to describe the shift towards the machine operators maintaining their own machine / equipment JH Policy: 1. Eliminate the defect at source through active employee participation 4. Uninterrupted operation of equipment 2. Increase the use of JH Objectives of JH: . Flexibility with operators to operate and maintain other equipments 3. Step wise implementation of JH activities JH Targets: 1. Reduce oil consumption 2. 10.
should be followed to achieve effective results . control or prevent deterioration of production equipment 2. Operators should identify and tag the sources of defects / waste that arisen out of the machine operations. pneumatic. 7. Improve predictability through data analysis and communication Steps to Implement JH: 1. Train operators on function and troubleshooting: Operators. set rules to be followed. team leaders. Other steps considering the aspects like a) Cooperation from all production related department. replace cracked parts or worn out seals etc and repair and setup the machine. quick response. Increase access and ease of inspection and maintenance 4. JH audit. establish standards for data collection based on the production control chart and develop standards for easy reference. Examples of such defects are: Crack in the housing leakages. lubrication and mechanical should be clearly understood by all in the production line for quick redressing. switch not operating properly etc. Cleaning of all the surroundings and using Japanese 5S principles for orderly keeping the parts etc. Provide spare parts and tools: Here all the spare parts should be leveraged at the point of use after considering the inventory levels. Here operator has to apply and ask for 5 why’s. Stabilise. electronic. Develop standards and data collection: Create standards for clean up and checking of machines. first line supervisor should be trained to understand the basic of the equipment and the functions and the systems working in the machines namely Hydraulic. 2. Improve skill levels and personal growth throughout the company 5. Here the operator executes routine verification and adjustments 5. electrical. In case modification is required for easy inspection / elimination of debris / contamination etc a new aggregate covers may be created 3. broken / worn out belt.1. Similarly the orderliness of tool availability and display of visual boards can be maintained. Initial cleanup It must be closely aligned with 7S of the company and there must be commitment of both the staff and the management for the house keeping. 4. Standards for monitoring key process parameters: To develop methods and standards for routine verification of key process parameters / standards operating conditions. Prevent degradation related failures 3. 6. Repair sources of defect (outside of machines).
Overall Online efficiency (OOE) and Overall Plant efficiency (OPE) 3) Decrease Costs: through controls in inventory and WIP 4) Reduction in customer complaints: reduce total downtime and ensure quick deliver to customers 5) Zero accidents: total safety and all actions to save money. 10. It is aimed at having trouble free machines and equipment producing defect free products for total customer satisfaction. There are three steps that aim at quick but short term process improvements supported by long term organizational change. 2) Increase in productivity by improving Overall Equipment efficiency (OEE). All out JH: Repeat the cycle 1 – 6 above of the process of managing and monitoring the TPM.12. 3) reduce spare parts inventory. 4) improve reliability and maintainability of machines. which uses maintenance work cycle activities of preventive/predictive/corrective or breakdown maintenance techniques. Verify the progress made in TPM efforts in planned versus emergency work. Here it is aimed at eliminating all 16 losses in the workplace. Zero accidents and Zero defects. 2) Do the necessary change. Here an emphasis is on transferring knowledge and creating self sufficient team for results. optimize spare parts location etc.8. These steps are: Step 1: Quick Win Shop floor projects: this is a team based approach targeting specific problem areas and realizing immediate benefits Step 2: Critical analysis: analyze what else needs to be changed to make it fixed and create action plans. 4) Act as required to proceed further to improve upon the system/process. MTTR. Six steps followed by planned maintenance are: . Quick change time reduction. MTBF. 3) Check whether successful or not.3 Pillar: 3: Planned Maintenance [Pm] For Zero Loss · Planned maintenance is a systematic management by maintenance department.12. · Planned maintenance policy includes a) achieve and sustain availability of machines. Step 3: Implementation action plan to sustain and develop further possible improvements. 10. optimize machine set ups. 2) optimise maintenance costs.Kobetsu Kaizen (Focussed Improvements) 1) PDCA Cycle: Kaizen: here maintenance team should 1) Plan each step.2 Pillar-2.
Benefits from Planned Maintenance 1) Reduction in downtime due to breakdowns.1) Equipment evaluation and recording of present status 2) Restore deterioration and improve on weak links 3) Builds information management systems 4) Prepare time based information and parts and map out a plan 5) Prepare predictive system plan by introducing diagnostic techniques 6) Evaluation of planned maintenance. root cause is found and improvement action on the process/design are ensured.4 Pillar-4-Quality Maintenance for Zero Defects This is a process for controlling the condition of equipment and its components that affect variability in product quality. 2) Improvement in MTBF and MTTR.5 Pillar-5-Development Management This refers to the learning process that happens in TPM implementation and during different types of maintenance practices. Focus is on eliminating non-conformances in a systematic manner. Here also aim is at defect free product to satisfy the customer. are analysed. Results achieved through this pillar are: 1) Improved customer satisfaction and reduction in future complaints 2) Reduction in defects and improved quality 3) Reduction in inspection time 10.12. 3) Reduction in spare parts consumption 4) Reduction in oil and power consumption 5) Reduction in repair cost 6) Reduction in number of inspection points etc 10. when a) ease of manufacture.12. b) policy of . Here the customer end defects are known through customer complaints and in-house defects known through the quality control personnel.
development of new technologies.7 Pillar-7: Safety. Unsafe conditions like electrical points. providing safe environment place a vital role. e) initial phase production. breakdowns attributed to lack of knowledge and skills 2) Reduction in further downtime after gaining the knowledge and skills 3) Reductions achieved after training on the number of defects. safety training and monitoring the improvements through Kaizen. too hot areas. Health & Environment [Zero Accidents] Here the focus is to create a safe work place and a surrounding areas that is not detrimental to process or procedures. skilled workers. Point by point safety audit.6 Pillar-6-Trining & Education [Flow Of Controls] Through training and education provides the skill and knowledge apart from the experience that enables operators. a) planning b) implementation. It is aimed to have multi skilled & revitalized employees. safety guards. whose morale is high and who are eager to work and perform the required functions effectively and independently. The continuous training is on safe working. goggles etc. Some examples of unsafe acts by employees are 1) use of worn out tools. c) design. skills and techniques through a training environment. reworks etc. incorporate planned maintenance sheets to eliminate defects. and design validation 10. noise generations and any such unsafe potential areas must be identified and action taken to make them safe. The methodology adopted is for understanding of the present machine structure. Poka-Yoke etc will all result in getting the following benefits: 1) Reduction in accident 2) Reduction in noise 3) Create excellent house-keeping & a good looking workshop through 5S action 4) Reduction in downtime because of breakdowns etc 5) Saving in energy consumption 6) Reduction in industrial waste . c) determination of detailed specifications etc are answered. d) manufacturing. Here the focus is on improvement of the knowledge. engineers and managers are in a position to fulfil the expanded role to be played in successful implementation of TPM.12. Development of management involves four phases. unsafe working without wearing gloves. operating machines without proper training etc. unsafe storage/stacking. health and hazards.12. 10. This systematic education and training will result in: 1) Reduction in downtime.
accounting. to follow all the principles and procedures laid out in ‘Seven Pillars of TPM’ and achieve the desired overall improvements for the benefit of the organization. payroll. we can infer that total productive maintenance is an extension of TQM philosophy to the maintenance function. 3) reduction in administration costs. Here the whole organization should focus. It identifies and eliminates losses. 6) reduction in customer complaints. cost of inventory carrying. It is followed to improve productivity and efficiency in the office administration.8 Pilar-8-Office Tpm [Raise Levels & Select Other Areas] Office TPM includes analysing processes and procedures towards increased office automation. other safety practices f) M: number of kaizen activities in office areas with improvements not visible TPM is a long range living program. invoices. the following strengthen the view that TPM is relevant to TQM: . PQCDS&M principles in Office TPM: a) P: production output loss due to want of materials. etc d) D” logistic losses due to delay in support function.13 Relevance of TPM to TQM Framework Good maintenance is fundamental to a productive manufacturing system. 10. as a strategy.10.12. Benefits accrued because of office TPM are 1) Better utilization of work areas. Further. marketing and sales outlets with high inventories. cost of logistics. 2) reduction in repetitive works. TPM aims at keeping the current plant and equipment at its highest productive level through cooperation of all. manpower etc b) Q: mistakes in cheques. in information etc e) S: safety in material handling. 5) reduction in n umber of files. Since achieving total productivity is one of the major objectives of TQM. payment to suppliers. In TPM the barrier between maintenance & production personnel is removed. stores. customer returns etc c) C: buying cost. Therefore the Office TPM addresses the seven major losses namely: 1) processing loss 2) communication loss 3) idle loss 4) set up loss 5) accuracy loss 6) non-value added loss 7) cost loss including areas as procurement. bills. 7) reduced man power 8 clean and pleasant work environment and 10) reduction in equipment due to emergency despatches/purchases. 4) reduction in inventory carrying costs.
The planning. TPM is a value adding activity. Housekeeping is another area in JIT production system. Here too the operators take the responsibility of cleaning their machines and work areas. vibration. zero accidents and zero defects. there is a direct link between TPM and TQM and also the relevance of a comprehensive maintenance policy is proved for successful TQM implementation. 2) TPM increases production capacity. tidy and well organised work area will result in better performance Maintenance is the key to achieve zero loss. Direct benefits: . operators develop a sense of ownership for the machines and give special attention to upkeep the machines for sound. morale and pollution control by involving everyone in the process.· TQM is aimed at satisfying customer requirements. Process capacity cannot be made available at the cost of quality. repairs. 3) TPM also contributes to improvements in safety. by using the principles of 5S. This developed by JIPM (Japanese Institution of Plant Maintenance) during late 1960’s combines the American practice of PM with Japanese concept of Total Quality Control [TQC] and Total employee involvement [TEI] 1) TPM aims for greater manufacturing competitiveness through improved effectiveness of machines and equipments. A comprehensive TPM program aspires to implement process capability and its maintenance. TPM aims at the introduction of new and creative ideas which will optimise quality standards and reduce waste and costs to the organisation concerned. In view of the above. zero breakdowns. smell etc spot problems before they develop. scheduling and control of operations depend to a large extent on process capacity and process capability. · TPM is continuous improvement activity. shortened equipment life and inventory. Clean. defects. 4) Benefits can be categorized into two types namely: 1) Direct and 2) Indirect a. since it aims at cost reduction and quality improvements for internal requirements and for customer satisfaction. 10.14 Benefits of TPM An added benefit is that with the added responsibility of all maintenance activities. · TPM can have a great impact on the operations decision making process. process reliability and reduces the cost of lost production time. in other words working with a zero sum philosophy.
. The following results were reported from a typical firm after implementing TPM.15 Role Of TPM In World Class Manufacturing Most of the world class manufacturing firms have implemented JIT systems and TQM philosophy to achieve excellence in manufacturing and to have ability to compete globally. Reliable. 1) Productivity: Breakdowns reduced by 85% 2) Quality: Defect rate reduced by 50% 3) Cost: Labour cost reduced by 25%. Indirect benefits: a) Higher confidence level among the employees b) Favourable change in the attitude of the operators c) Horizontal deployment of a new concepts in all areas d) The workers get a feeling of owning the machine. Preventive maintenance requires understanding and maintaining all the physical elements of manufacturing – machine components.a) Increase in productivity and overall plant efficiency b) Elimination of customers complaints c) Elimination of accidents d) Achieve goals by working as a team b. Therefore if any equipment breaks down. equipment and systems so that they consistently perform at the levels required of them. energy reduced consumption reduced by 20%. well functioning machines and equipments are a pre requisite for JIT and TQM to be successfully implemented in any manufacturing firm. the entire process or . 4) Delivery: Inventory turnover increased by 150% 5) Morale: Improvement suggestions increased by 105% 6) Safety: Accidents reduced to nil 7) Environment: No pollution created 10. maintenance cost reduced by 15 -30%.
In world class companies quality circles form an important component of TQM. The involvement of workers in quality circles provides the opportunity for them (members of quality circles) to study maintenance problems. 2) TPM had its genesis in the Japanese car industry in 1970’s. It first evolved in Nippon Denso a major supplier of the Toyota car company. Improved equipment functioning has a positive impact on product quality. This will facilitate implementation of an effective preventive maintenance program which is essential for a JIT system Self Assessment Questions Fill up the blanks with appropriate words in the following statements: 1) Equipment maintenance is basic to competitive manufacturing. efficiency and effectiveness with zero loss concepts through total participation of all employees with self managing abilities in practices. In world class companies the responsibility for repairs and preventive maintenance is assigned to workers. a facility. to achieve ……………………. 3) TPM is defined as the means to achieve high level of productivity. Here the new quality approach of ………………… was translated to the maintenance environment through the concept of TPM. while teams of maintenance staff. Maintenance covers all those functions such as ……………… etc. Preventive maintenance practices reduce the breakdown of machines and will keep them in good working condition. TQM requires quality at the source which implies that machines must be reliable and well functioning.production line comes to a halt. material handling equipment and other transport vehicles in proper working conditions. machinists and operators redesign and reconfigure equipment to make it more reliable. Preventive maintenance is a stepping stone to a higher level of maintenance referred to as “total productive maintenance” (TPM). easier to maintain and perform better. Identify.. • Prevention of equipment deterioration • Maintain the equipment in optimal condition • Establishing basic equipment conditions • Operator’s incompetency . engineers. In TPM operators / workers perform basic equipment repairs and preventive maintenance. 4) GOALS: one among following is not an applicable goal. to keep a machine.
Identify them Autonomous Maintenance. blockages etc. Health & Environment. manpower etc . b) Downtime for setups and adjustments. One among the following is not the type of loss considered in maintenance. Development Management. g) Defect losses due to reduced yields in processing 6) OEE is a way of measuring how the six major losses shown below are affecting the equipment or in other words a way of measuring the amount of ……………………. TPM in Offices. ………. 7) Overall Equipment Efficiency-Fill in the other two factors: [OEE] = [Availability x ( ……….. Education & Training. two are missing in the following list. d) Habitual absenteism by employees e) Speed losses due to discrepancies between designed and actual speeds f) Defect losses due to process defects that cause scrap & quality problems. ……………. Identify a) Downtime due to equipment failure. that the equipment is contributing to the product.. 9) Autonomous maintenance is a phrase coined by the Japanese institute of plant maintenance (JIPM) to describe the shift towards the machine operators ……………………… 10) PQCDS&M principles in Office TPM: In the list below principle D is missing. Kobetsu-Kaizen. What is that? • P: production output loss due to want of materials..• Elimination of quality defects • Elimination of equipment failure • Elimination of cost losses 5) There are six types of losses found in a manufacturing firm. c) Speed losses due to idling and minor stoppages caused by abnormal operations of censors.) X (…………)] 8 Out of Eight pillars of TPM. Safety.
3) Ability to establish a repair plan and priorities. 2) Adequate resources. 3) Reduction in inspection time 12) For the above type of TPM. They applied TPM techniques to visually eliminate machine breakdowns. payroll.. stores. . For the above type of TPM. A comprehensive maintenance program consists of breakdown maintenance. invoices. other safety practices • M: number of kaizen activities in office areas with improvements not visible 11) Results achieved through pillar number Four are: 1) Improved customer satisfaction and reduction in future complaints 2) Reduction in ……………. bills. cost of logistics.. and ……………. etc •? • S: safety in material handling. 5) ……………………. preventive maintenance.2) Adequate resources. and total productive maintenance or reliability centred maintenance. machines are cleaned and lubricated frequently by the operators themselves who run the machines. organization should have the following six features. Preventive maintenance is a well planned program which involves inspection to uncover potential problem and make the necessary repairs before any breakdown occurs. 3) Ability to establish a repair plan and priorities. 4) Ability and authority to do material planning.• Q: mistakes in cheques. Which is the sixth one? 1) Well trained maintenance crew. 4) Ability and authority to do material planning. cost of inventory carrying. customer returns etc • C: buying cost.16 Summary Japanese firms which implemented JIT production and TQM concepts cannot witness any machine failures that affect quality and delayed production schedules. organization should have the features of 1) Well trained maintenance crew. The frequency of preventive maintenance must be balanced with the cost of equipment failure and keep the total costs of preventive and breakdown maintenance put together at the lowest level possible. While breakdown maintenance is remedial or corrective maintenance or equipment repair when breakdown occurs. 6) Ability to design ways to extend MTBF. In the TPM approach to maintenance management. Only five are listed. 10..
poor quality of outputs. 4. continuous improvement and has a strong strategic relevance like TQM. 10. 5. All these help to improve manufacturing competitiveness of world class companies. Discuss on the guiding features of TPM? 3. TPM identifies and attacks all causes of malfunctions and eliminates all consequent losses due to breakdowns. Equipment problems have a direct impact on production costs. repairs. formation of a target committee and program team to oversee initial planning and coordination of all TPM efforts and then transfer the responsibility to the maintenance department. TPM has great relevance to TQM in improvement of productivity and quality. Implementing TPM company-wide is major project requiring top management support.17 Terminal Questions 1. defects. What is total productive maintenance? Is it different from total preventive maintenance? . high WIP inventories and so on. TPM helps to maintain process capability. product quality and production schedules. Distinguish between breakdown maintenance and preventive maintenance. TPM contributes to improved safety. employee morale and pollution control. high repair costs. Explain briefly the evolution of maintenance practices leading to TPM. which may result in inefficiency of machines. Reduction in costs of lost production. accidents to workers. especially with the latest TPM as a final and long range solution. safety hazards. by adopting any of the maintenance systems discussed above. Benefits of TPM includes increase in production capacity and process reliability. shortened equipment life and inventory. decrease in productivity. What are the objectives of TPM? 2.5) Ability to identify the cause of break downs 6) Ability to design ways to extend MTBF. an important component of TQM provides the opportunity for workers to study maintenance problems and suggest effective maintenance activities which are essential for JIT systems. idle time. high standards of quality and reliability. stoppage of production. Quality circles.
6. no-(d)] 5. no (d)] . 10. What is ‘Autonomous Maintenance? What are its objectives and steps involved in implementing? 12. 16. Monitoring. Discuss the relevance of total productive maintenance to TQM framework. Prevention at source 3. Focussed Improvements and what steps are used to achieve improvement? 13. What is meant by ‘Overall Equipment Effectiveness’? What are its constituents? How the six losses are addressed through OEE? 8. Describe the role of total productive maintenance in world class manufacturing. What are the unsafe practices and how these are controlled by practicing good and healthy. etc 2. What are the benefits accrued to a firm by practicing TPM? 17. safe environment under TPM? 15. Operator’s incompetency-[Sl. Which are the eight pillars that support TPM in an organization? 11.e. What are the six zero concept that are to be considered while approaching elimination of 16 Losses? 10. What are the relative issues that are recognized by maintenance department before attempting introduction of TPM in the plant? 7. What are the constituents of Kobetsu Kaizen i. Explain briefly the sixteen types of losses that are to be considered for elimination by the maintenance department while planning TPM activities. Habitual Absenteeism by employees – [Sl.18 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1. 9. repairing. cleaning. inspecting. Explain briefly as to how planned maintenance under Eight pillars of TPM help achieve zero loss? 14. adjusting. 4. Total customer satisfaction.
12. 10. Ref. 10.‘logistic losses due to delay in support function. Defects and improved quality 12.6 5.8 8.10 10. Ref.2 13. 10. 10. 10. payment to suppliers.3 14. Planned Maintenance & Quality Maintenance 9. 10.12.12.4 2. Performance Efficiency & Quality yield 8. Ref. Ref. Ref. 10. Ability to identify the cause of break downs Terminal Questions: 1. Ref.6 6. Ref. Ref.12 11.7 15.5 3. 10. 10.6.9 9. 10.1 12. Ref. Ref. Ref. 10. Ref. D. 10. “Value added” – activity 7.6 4. 10. Ref. Ref. 10. Maintaining their own machine / equipment 10.13 . in information etc’ 11. Ref.7 7.12. 10.
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