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2 History of Maintenance Definition of Maintenance Objectives and Functions of Maintenance 1.3 Functions of Maintenance Management Quality Aspects in Maintenance Maintenance Organisation Initial Level Repeatable Level Defined Level Managed Level Optimized Level 1.4 Improving Maturity in Maintenance Organizations Training Strategy Work Management Resources Management Supervisory Review Quality Assurance Subcontract Management
Commitment of the Maintenance Personnel. Verification of Implementation Metrics and Process Improvement 1.5 Dynamics of a Maintenance Organisation Maintenance Management Perspectives Types of Maintenance Preventive Maintenance Shut-down Maintenance Opportunistic Maintenance 1.6 Summary 1.7 Terminal Questions 1.8 Answers 1.1 Introduction Rising inflation and increased competition have brought with them the need for greater productivity, and recent years have seen more emphasis being placed on productivity improvement. Moreover, sophisticated equipment and capital intensive units and plants are being increasingly used to achieve the pre-set targets of higher production and productivity. Reliability and maintainability features are now being incorporated in the equipment designs. Although modern equipment has higher levels of reliability, it is not possible to keep this equipment in an operating condition at all times because failures do occur even in the most reliable equipment.1 It is also true that such sophisticated equipment, and units or plants, tend to have high probabilities of failure since in many cases they incorporate newer, and therefore not adequately proven, technologies and designs. They also consist of a large number of assemblies, sub-assemblies and components. Failure and malfunctioning of these items of equipment result in a loss of production. Loss of production is undesirable because it results in corresponding loss in revenue. Whenever an item of equipment is down and fails to perform its intended function, or performs in an undesirable fashion, it must be restored to a state where it performs satisfactorily. At the same time all necessary action must be taken to keep, or retain, such equipment in an operating condition and also to prevent failures. Resources, such as spare parts, manpower skills, tools, instruments and facilities, such as hangars in the case of
aircraft maintenance, are utilized for accomplishment of the restoration processes and preventive actions. Thus the requirement for productivity improvement has brought about the pressing need for a significant improvement in the management of maintenance of equipment, units and plants. Objectives: After studying this unit you shall be able · To Define Maintenance · To assess objective and functions of Maintenance · To describe Quality aspect of Maintenance · To assess key process of Maintenance Management 1.2 History of Maintenance Historically, maintenance activities have been regarded as a necessary evil by the various management functions in an organisation. Enormous costs of maintenance, estimated to be between 15 and 40 per cent of the production costs and the trend towards automation have, however, forced managers to pay more attention to maintenance. The evolution of maintenance can be traced from the days prior to World War II. The attitude of the managers then was ‘to fix the equipment when it breaks’. With fewer items of sophisticated equipment around, and hence, the cost of downtime not being high, prevention of equipment failures was not given much attention. Maintenance, in addition to fixing the broken equipment, involved simple activities like cleaning and lubrication. The period after World War II saw the introduction of the word ‘terotechnology’ which was initially defined by the committee on terotechnology as ‘…a combination of management, financial, engineering and other practices applied to physical assets in pursuit of economic life-cycle costs’. Due to rising costs and inflation, focus was on reducing downtime of equipment and hence preventive maintenance came into being as an important activity. This period also saw a number of researchers working on operations research models for preventive maintenance. Importance of planning maintenance activities also grew during this period. Overhauls of equipment were planned and scheduled. Systems for managing maintenance were also introduced. The period after 1980 has seen some of the worst accidents in industrial history. Leakage of methyl isocyanite (MIC) from a battery/cell manufacturing unit in Bhopal in India and the threat to the survival of mankind caused by the nuclear accident at Chernobyl in the erstwhile Soviet Union have only made the manufacturing industries and the like realize the importance of maintenance. The attitude of ignorance towards maintenance has increasingly been replaced by one which recognizes maintenance also as a strategic issue in the organisation. Besides high cost, the other factors which contributed to this change
be to maximize the profitability of the organisation by performing activities which retain working equipment in an acceptable condition. The need for reliable equipment has also been realized. should. Alternatively the objective should be to minimize the costs – the labour costs and the material costs as well as the loss in revenue due to loss of production. Obviously.1 Definition of Maintenance Maintenance is an element of a complete production system. or restoring failed equipment to a normal operating condition.2. 1. Performing maintenance activities requires the use of resources such as spare parts. In summary. Maintenance can thus be defined as a set of activities. the principal objectives of maintenance would be: · to control the availability of the equipment. and warranty and liability factors. at minimum resource cost. or tasks. neural networks and Markov chains have been used for controlling and managing maintenance activities. drive for cost reduction and the like. therefore. · To extend the useful life of the equipment.2. or return the equipment to an acceptable working condition. including staffing/recruiting. The objective of maintenance. . that are related to preserving equipment in a specified operating condition. which is linked to the overall organizational objectives. maintenance activities which do not contribute to preserving or restoring the intended functions of assets should be eliminated. Techniques such as condition monitoring. means preserving. The set of tasks or activities that constitute maintenance ranges from simple cleaning operations and lubrication to performing condition monitoring. in general. manpower. or keeping. Modern maintenance management can be considered to be composed of the following functions: · maintenance planning.include: environmental concerns. and planning and scheduling maintenance resources. · organizing maintenance resources. an item of equipment in a specified operating condition.2 Objectives and Functions of Maintenance The objective of any business organisation is to make profits. Performing such activities would obviously extend the useful life of the equipment. 1. ageing plant and equipment. safety issues. The availability and utilization of these resources are of prime importance. tools and facilities. Maintenance. regulatory matters. maintenance programmes have to be developed to ensure that physical assets will continue to fulfill their intended functions at a minimum expenditure of resources. In case an item of equipment fails it needs to be restored to the same specified operating condition. To live up to the new expectations demanded of maintenance activities.
5. . 2. 4. _____________ in addition to fixing the broken equipment. involved simple activities like cleaning and lubrication. · Budgeting. Maintenance is an element of a complete ___________ system. 3. · controlling the performance of maintenance activities. Maintenance planning includes formulating and identifying organisation-wide policies that would help achieve higher maintenance productivity such as: · Do we repair the equipment or buy a new one? · Do we perform preventive maintenance or corrective maintenance activities? · Do we employ full-time repair personnel or should we subcontract work? Self Assessment Questions 1. The attitude of ______________ towards maintenance has increasingly been replaced by one which recognizes maintenance. at minimum ________________. Maintenance planning includes formulating and identifying ___________ policies. The principal objectives of maintenance would be to control the availability of the equipment. · defining processes for performing maintenance.· directing execution of maintenance plan.
the maintenance manager needs to organize the required resources and all these resources need to be available in the right quantity and at the right time. Other common tasks related to maintenance management include generating reports related to equipment. the maintenance activity can be initiated. In case the task does not get completed within the estimated time then corrective action would need to be taken to ensure further loss in revenue due to loss in production is minimized.1. The top management is also responsible for negotiating and authorizing the service level agreement. In order to carry out maintenance activities as planned. Any maintenance activity requires resources. This will lead to degradation of equipment performance and can also result in its failure. Once the activity is complete. If the required resources are not available. The maintenance manager should ensure that the equipment is restored to its normal working condition as quickly as possible. Once the required resources are available. Another important task is creation of a master maintenance schedule. This way not only is the downtime cost kept to the minimum but also the resources are utilized effectively. work and . a review by the manager or the maintenance supervisor would be essential to ensure and authorize that the maintenance work has been carried out properly.3 Functions of Maintenance Management Responsibility for formulating the maintenance policies lies with top management. This is a statement of maintenance tasks to be carried out in a specified period. then the planned maintenance activity cannot be performed. The maintenance manager should track the work to completion.
It is more to do with the maturity of the maintenance process such that high-quality maintenance activities are performed.costs. · an appropriate ‘on-the-job’ training programme for the repair men to enhance their ability to work.1 Quality Aspects in Maintenance Quality is not absolute but relative. the need is for a good maintenance organisation. training and motivation of the people . when performed properly. instruments and facilities for performing the activity. · In general. without causing · any damage to the equipment or to any of its parts. An effective maintenance process must consider the relationships of all the tasks. · the required tools. and the skill. A ‘process’ can be defined as a set of tasks that. 1.2 Maintenance Organisation Maintenance organisation does not mean only the organisation of people in the maintenance department or their reporting structure. An important step in addressing the maintenance management problems is to treat the maintenance task as a process that can be controlled.3. 1. A maintenance activity can be considered to be of high quality if: · it restores an item of equipment to its normal working state. · the required spare parts in the required quantity. the tools and procedures used. produces the desired result. It also includes activities related to collection and analysis of data related to maintenance and reporting to top management. · it is initiated on time and the equipment is returned to production at the · required time.3. measured and improved. · It incurs not more than the budgeted cost. The above-mentioned conditions can be satisfied only when the maintenance organisation has: · skilled and committed repair men available to carry out the required maintenance activity at the required time. · A repository of maintenance processes.
Determine if the current process is the desired process. the organisation has to implement a measurement programme to obtain process feedback. organizations at this level need to institutionalize basic management processes. The strength to carry out similar activities stems from the prior experience. 1. To improve the capabilities of the maintenance organisation the following steps8 must be performed consistently: 1.6 Managed Level . 5. defined. However. With this. without formalized procedures. To reach the defined level. Plan to perform the required actions. that is. The organisation now has capabilities to face new challenges and achieve success.3. 2. the most important ones being project management. To climb up the maturity level. Tools are neither integrated with the process nor uniformly applied. 1. Commit resources to execute the plan. The performance of these steps calls for a process-oriented organisation and such an organisation develops over a period of time as enunciated by the capability maturity model (CMM). repeatable. quality assurance and project tracking and oversight.involved. 3.3.4 Repeatable Level Organizations which carry out similar projects with reasonable accuracy with regard to cost and time are at this level. List down required process improvement actions. 1. organizations at this level face risks when presented with new challenges. cost estimates and plans. organizations must have dedicated personnel who take care of the development processes.3 Initial Level The organisation operates on an ad hoc basis.3. 1. Understand the status of the current maintenance process or processes. managed and optimized. the organisation achieves the foundation for continuous improvement in processes. 4. In order to improve performance.*9 The CMM was defined by the software engineering institute (SEI) for software development organizations and it classifies software development organizations into five levels initial.5 Defined Level The organisation has a repository or a set of defined procedures for carrying out development work.3.
Since the data collection process is full-fledged. without formalized procedures. The organisation operates on an ad hoc basis. · quality assurance. · work management. produces the undesired result. Responsibility for formulating the maintenance policies lies with shop Supervisors. The CMM can be adapted to enhance the capabilities of the maintenance organizations as well. 1. The objective is not to classify the maintenance organizations also into one of these levels. · resources management. 1. cost estimates and plans. To reach the highest level on the CMM. A ‘process’ can be defined as a set of tasks that. . 10. Quality is not absolute but relative. the organisation needs to put in place automatic data collection support tools. Problems are identified proactively and eliminated. 9. The objective is only to identify the key process areas that would enable maintenance organizations to enhance their capabilities and maturity. Targets are set for performance and a plan is made out to achieve the pre-set targets. They are: · training strategy. 8. Any maintenance activity requires resources. 7. A few key process areas can be readily identified in this regard. when performed properly.The organisation has a way by which performance indicators are measured objectively. · supervisory review.7 Optimized Level The organisation has capabilities to identify the weakest links in the development processes and eliminate/improve them. the effectiveness of the process can also be determined. Self Assessment Questions State whether following statement True or False 6.4 Improving Maturity in Maintenance Organizations The key process areas (KPAs) involved in enhancing the capability and maturity of a software organisation. that is.3.
tools. For example. a welder may be re-trained to perform a pipefitter’s job. a small maintenance activity may take not less than 5 hours.· Subcontract management.4. 1. For example. It would not be appropriate to track every small activity in the work-breakdown structure to completion. 1. A maintenance activity should be broken down into smaller manageable tasks. Each of the tasks in the work-breakdown structure should have appropriate resources assigned to it. tools. The term ‘small activity’ should be defined by the quality assurance personnel because it varies from one organisation to another.4 Supervisory Review Every maintenance activity should be performed under the charge of a supervisor. This is the responsibility of the maintenance manager. in one organisation an activity that takes only 15 minutes for completion is considered to be small. Training. such as an oil refinery. Resource here means manpower. 1. instruments and facilities. facilities etc. irrespective of the time it consumes. Most maintenance activities are performed in groups. a bull’s eye chart may be appropriate for tracking work. An organisation may not always find suitable people for performing a job. Holding resources in excess of requirements is wasteful while non-availability of required resources at the required time is undesirable since this result in loss of revenue due to loss in production. scheduled and tracked to completion. 1. manpower. usage of modern tools etc. The supervisor’s responsibility is to ensure that the required resources allotted for performing . Also the probable time to complete the tasks should be specified. Coordination within a group is critical to completion of the maintenance task on time.2 Work Management Any activity.4. Management of resources is therefore critical to managing the maintenance function. In such a case it is better if some of the available personnel are re-trained on some trades other than those in which they have specialized. scheduled and conducted. is not managed if it is not planned and tracked.3 Resources Management As mentioned earlier.1 Training Strategy Every maintenance organisation should have a suitable training programme for its personnel.4. This is referred to as the work-breakdown structure. for example. It therefore becomes necessary to train all the maintenance personnel on the aspects of team work. In some others. For small activities. can be provided on safety and productivity-related issues. Every maintenance activity should be planned. Individual as well as organisation-wide training programmes should be planned.4. maintenance activities require resources in the form of spare parts. The required resources should be available at the right time and in the right quantity. The maintenance manager should identify the training needs of his subordinates and get them trained.
is expensive. These factors have also been borrowed from the CMM. A better option is to subcontract the work. Like any other internal maintenance activity.8 Verification of Implementation . Ability of the maintenance personnel can be enhanced by providing them with proper and relevant training. The subcontractor manager should select a suitable subcontractor based on a balanced assessment of the capabilities of prospective subcontractors.5 Quality Assurance The quality assurance personnel should be responsible for identifying the optimum route for performing a maintenance activity. 1. subcontracted work should also be managed.the maintenance activity are available to the repair gang on time and in the required numbers. 1. The maintenance manager can also visit premises to inspect the capabilities and to get firsthand information. Yet another goal would be to verify the correctness of the work performed. This involves establishment of policies and top management sponsorship. Hiring these specialists on a full-time basis. The supervisor should also report completion of the activity to the maintenance manager so that the actual costs incurred are logged. 1.4. The selection of the subcontractor should be planned. Once the activity is complete. 1.6 Subcontract Management A few maintenance activities require specialists at the job. The repair men should be provided with a list of activities that need to be performed as a part of the maintenance. This is the work order management process. the supervisor should inspect the equipment in order to ensure that the equipment is performing as desired. The assessment of the subcontractor can be done by inviting each to present their capabilities and verification of claims through independent references. and for analyzing them in order to come up with improved routes and work processes.4.7 Commitment of the Maintenance Personnel The repair men need to be committed to perform the maintenance activities. Five important factors need to be taken care of if each of the key process areas mentioned above need to be implemented in the maintenance organisation. Increasing the ability to perform.4. The goals of the subcontract management should be to evaluate and select appropriate subcontractors for performing the maintenance activities. They are responsible for collecting data while the maintenance activity is carried out. A few more basic areas like maintenance planning and configuration management would also need to be considered. The supervisor should also guide the repair gang in performing the activity. in most cases.4. List of activities. tools etc.
Metrics and process improvement is a ___________________. The supervisor should also make use of this opportunity to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the individual repair men and arrange suitable training for them. The supervisor group. Every maintenance organisation should have a suitable ___________ for its personnel. Gathering metrics on every maintenance activity helps in estimating the time requirements and also the cost.9 Metrics and Process Improvement This is a continuous process. Feedback on the maintenance activity performed should be given to the concerned repair men. The key process areas (KPAs) involved in enhancing the capability and maturity of a ____________________. Measurement of maintenance activity can be in terms of percentage of work complete to date. The quality assurance group. estimated time to complete the work. 1. 15. The maintenance manager. tools etc. Four entities are important as far as the maintenance activities are concerned. 4. An activity is scheduled (as far as possible during the production windows in the case of preventive maintenance) and initiated depending on the availability of the required . The maintenance manager is responsible for scheduling maintenance activities. Self Assessment Questions 11. materials and tools. 3. Ability of the __________________ can be enhanced by providing them with proper and relevant training. 2. 12. including manpower.4. 1.5 Dynamics of a Maintenance Organisation Coordination within the groups is one of the most important factors that determine the effectiveness of any maintenance organisation. They are as follows: 1. the maintenance productivity and quality of the maintenance work. The resources. 14. The selection of the ______________should be planned.The supervisor of the repair men should verify the completion/ implementation of the maintenance activity. 13.
The equipment is running and is producing the desired output. (2) and (3).resources. this is called preventive maintenance. The key distinction among the three perspectives relates to the time interval between the recognition of the need to perform a maintenance activity and the time at which the . Since the equipment is not in an operating condition this maintenance activity results in considerable loss of production. 2. As the maintenance activity is carried out. Since the equipment is being taken out of production this maintenance activity results in loss of production. At any time. Ettkin and Jahnig have described the work life cycle for the reactive and proactive perspectives. The equipment is taken out of production for a scheduled maintenance activity. 3. 2. The equipment is in a failed condition. They have divided corrective maintenance into two perspectives – ‘reactive’ and ‘reactive/proactive’ –and have defined preventive maintenance as a ‘proactive’ perspective. The quality assurance group determines the process of performing the maintenance activity in an optimized manner. The equipment is not wanted for production and is available for maintenance. This maintenance activity also does not incur any loss in production. Due to shortage of resources the maintenance activity is pending. Maintenance is being carried out to restore the equipment to an operable condition. The equipment is in a failed condition. this is called corrective maintenance. This is called the ‘production window’. 4. an item of equipment or some part of it can be in one of the five following states: 1. Prevent it from breaking down as in cases (1). This activity involves simple inspection of replaceable parts. Relatively more time is spent on performing this type of maintenance activity. the quality assurance group collects data on the process and analyses them with a view to improving the process. Since the equipment is in use there is no loss in production while performing this maintenance activity. The maintenance manager tracks the activity to completion while the supervisor inspects and ensures the activity is carried out properly. Fix it when it breaks as in cases (4) and (5).1 Maintenance Management Perspectives Kelly has described the dynamics of a production maintenance system considering a large process plant. 5. 1. Maintenance is carried out while the equipment is running.5. It can be seen from the above that there are two perspectives of maintenance management: 1.
This approach to maintenance becomes essential for any equipment where there are serious dangers to life should a failure occur. corrective and other maintenance practices followed in organizations.2 Types of Maintenance The return of investment on an item of equipment can be maximized by maximizing its availability. In the case of the ‘reactive’ perspective. involve the following steps: v planning the maintenance task. for example. and indirect maintenance costs. 1. the direct costs increase. When an item of equipment is down it results in loss of production which. materials and tools. The intention is to detect potential failures early. v Evaluation of the performance.3 Preventive Maintenance Preventive maintenance is a proactive activity.activity is actually performed. There is rarely any organisation where only one type of maintenance is used. The total maintenance cost is the sum of direct maintenance costs. results in loss of revenue. in the case of nuclear submarines. v scheduling the maintenance task. All the maintenance activities. is proportional to the loss in revenue. consisting of labour costs. The cost of unavailability. which are primarily due to loss of production. The following section describes the preventive. As the level of performing maintenance activity increases. in turn. Just as there is a trade-off between inventory holding costs and the reordering costs. Also the indirect costs resulting due to failure decrease. which is an indirect cost. Most situations warrant a considerable mixture of maintenance types. the ship and its entire crew are in mortal danger. material costs and direct overheads. Availability of an item of equipment can be defined as the ratio of uptime to the sum of uptime and downtime. The preventive actions under such a situation would be to: . This is an approach developed to reduce the likelihood of the failure of critical equipment to the minimum possible. The cost of utilization of these resources is a direct maintenance cost. there is a trade-off between the maintenance costs and their benefits. Performing a maintenance activity requires usage of resources such as manpower. The only difference is that of the time interval. If personnel who operate and maintain the nuclear power plant of the submarine make serious mistakes.5. The level of maintenance activity to be performed is obviously the one where the total cost is minimal. make changes and prevent failures. v performing the maintenance task. regardless of the maintenance perspectives.5. the time interval between the recognition and performance is very small as compared to the ‘proactive’ perspective. 1.
For example. · Condition-based maintenance. Fixed-time maintenance is that activity which involves inspection of critical parts of the equipment after a fixed time interval. · Detect the onset of a failure. power plants etc.· Train all the personnel in their own jobs. · Replacement of worn-out parts. This type of maintenance activity is applicable only for those items which exhibit a time-dependent failure . Primary objectives of this approach to maintenance are to: · Increase the life of critical equipment by preventing failures. the level of distilled water in the battery of an automobile is checked after every 1000 kilometers and the brush ploughs of a grinding mill should be replaced after every 500 hours of running. and the commanding officer must promptly report on the corrective actions. The fixed time should not be based on the calendar units but should be based on a fixed number of running units such as kilometers. where the cost due to loss in production is very high. This approach to maintenance is also important in highly automated plants. · servicing. or after generation of a fixed cumulative output. These activities can prevent serious errors from occurring. · Report deviations to the admiral-in-charge.. Planned · activities are carried out and the main functions are: · inspection of critical parts of the equipment. and replacement of those which are worn out. which includes lubrication. These objectives give rise to the following methods of performing preventive · maintenance activities: · fixed-time maintenance. such as car assembly. adjustment and similar activities. Analyze even the most trivial errors to determine what went wrong. · Audit the personnel so that they demonstrate satisfactory performance to their job standards. · Inspect each ship and each operation to ensure that every procedure and method is properly understood and executed. hours etc.
In organizations where there are very few production windows. There is a cost due to loss in production. replacement of failed parts with new ones. Corrective maintenance activities are also performed when condition monitoring indicates onset of a failure. is a reactive activity and is performed when an item of equipment is not in an operating condition or is operating at a level below its rated capacity. Detailed analysis helps in detecting an impending failure. checking for leaks in fuel-carrying pipes. Complex situations require sensors and other high-tech tools to monitor the vibrations. The costs involved in condition monitoring may vary widely. This method of condition-based maintenance is inexpensive. Corrective Maintenance Corrective maintenance. and then the parts have to be repaired or replaced. the time required to perform this activity is . Techniques such as oil analysis. analysis of acoustic emissions. generally occurring in the form of breakdown maintenance. the maintenance-related costs are usually high for the following reasons: The time required is usually much higher than other maintenance types because the cause of failure has to be identified. such as the setting of warning limits for the Solidification of the lubricant.mechanism. A simple case of condition-based maintenance is the visual examination of the brake pads of an automobile. The obvious advantage of carrying out running maintenance is that there is no loss in production. Condition-based maintenance is also known as predictive maintenance. which the case is when the event leading to failure occurs in a predominantly random manner. eddy currents. correlating to the onset of failure has been identified. With this kind of maintenance policy. This type of maintenance is called running maintenance. It is an appropriate option for preventive maintenance when the following conditions apply: Prevention of failure is not technically feasible. Although. These methods. Damage is caused to other equipment as a consequence of failure. Since condition monitoring gives sufficient warning of an impending failure it becomes easy for the maintenance manager to plan a corrective activity at a later time. the solidification of the lubricant is an indicator of the machine’s wearing condition. as mentioned earlier. shock pulses etc. It is possible to identify a value of that parameter when action may be taken before full failure occurs. Running maintenance is normally carried out in situations where there is no threat to the life of the maintenance personnel. are expensive. the maintenance personnel can also collect data which can be used as inputs by other methods of condition-based maintenance procedures. In some situations it is possible to carry out some preventive maintenance activities while the equipment or plant is running. corrective maintenance is predominant. ultrasonic waves and thermographs also help monitor the condition of the equipment. on the other hand. cracks in the structure of a building etc. Along with inspection. or how the failure can be prevented is not yet known. if repair is not economical. For example. This is a proactive-reactive approach to maintenance and results in the following tasks: repair of failed parts of the equipment. which can be measured either visually or by other means. A parameter. This approach is designed to detect the onset of a failure.
an emergency maintenance is carried out. The types of maintenance discussed in this section will help top management decide on questions like: should we carry out preventive actions? Or should we fix the equipment when it breaks? As mentioned earlier. . corrective maintenance work is scheduled and carried out. Self Assessment Questions State whether the following statement True or False 16. 20. most situations in organizations warrant a mixture of maintenance types.5. While we know that prevention is better than cure. 1.much higher than the preventive actions require. The maintenance work that is carried out is not directed at the primary cause of failure of the equipment or shut-down. 18. 1.4 Shut-down Maintenance Shut-down maintenance can either be a preventive activity or a corrective activity. criticality of the equipment and the priority. this can be reduced considerably if the organisation has all the maintenance procedures and systems in place. The cause is usually recorded for future analysis and corrective actions are prescribed.5 Opportunistic Maintenance The maintenance work that is carried out is not directed at the primary cause of failure of the equipment or shut-down. Trained maintenance personnel also have a role to play in reducing the maintenance time. Depending on the availability of resources. Whatever be the choice of the maintenance policy. repair and replace certain other parts of the equipment. The work is deferred to a later date if the priority is low or the equipment is not so critical. The next chapter describes a few resources management techniques. it should be closely associated or integrated with the resources management function. Shut-down maintenance can either be a preventive activity or a corrective activity. are carried out after the equipment or plant is shut down. The maintenance manager is responsible for scheduling maintenance activities. we also realize that failures are unavoidable. Minor repairs which cannot be performed while the equipment is running. Five entities are important as far as the maintenance activities are concerned. If the priority is high or alternatively if the equipment is critical. Once an item of equipment fails.5. The cost of utilization of the resources is a indirect maintenance cost. 19. When a maintenance activity is carried out on an item of equipment there exists some opportunity to inspect. This approach to maintenance is called opportunistic maintenance. as well as major repairs and overhauls. 17. the maintenance department personnel attempt to detect the cause of the failure.
maintenance of plant and machinery was a thankless job and the maintenance function was considered a necessary evil. Explain Objectives and Functions of Maintenance. Plant and equipment availability is of paramount importance and effective management of the maintenance function goes a long way in ensuring the attainment of the objective of maximization of availability 1. Maintenance 2.1. Resource Cost 5. This transformation has taken place in about 40 years and has brought about automation and increasing sophistication of plant and equipment. Production 4. 5.7 Terminal Questions 1. Organisation-wide 6. chemical and fertilizer plants. True . False 7.8 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1. 3. and integrated iron and steel works. it has now come to be accepted as an important function – one of strategic importance – particularly in the capital-intensive continuous-process industries such as power plants. 4. and has been hastened by the fact that the loss of one hour of production is much more expensive today than it ever was before. nuclear power generating stations. Write a note on History of Maintenance. What are the steps involved in Maintenance Organisation. From this state. What are the features of Preventive Maintenance? 1. Ignorance 3. 2. Discuss Dynamics of a Maintenance Organisation. True 8.6 Summary Until recently.
False 10. . Subcontractor 15.3 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . False Terminal Questions 1. Training programme 13. Page 3 – Part 1.4 5. True 11.1 2.4. False 17.2 3. Page 2 – Part 1. False 19. Software organisation 12. True 20.2.1. Continuous Process 16.2 4. Page 6 – Part 1. Page 10 – Part 1. Maintenance Personnel 14.Page 11 – Part 1. True 18.9.
6 Summary 2.7 Terminal Questions .5 Effect of Maintenance types on Resources 2.4 Tools and Facilities 2.3 Spare Parts Statistical Inventory Theory Models Inventory Costs How Much to Order? When to Order? Selective Inventory Control Procedures Manufacturing Resource Planning The Bill of Materials Master production Schedule Inventory Status File Requirements Pegging Rescheduling Process 2.1 Introduction Objectives 2.OM0006-Unit-02-Business Maintenance Unit-02-Business Maintenance Structure: 2.2 Man Power 2.
tools and facilities. A Maintenance job is usually performed by a repair gang or repair crew consisting of an optimal mix of skilled workers.2. The procedures used are similar to those used for determining the optimal number of repair gangs required for carrying out maintenance activities. However. Queuing models. An important issue in manpower is that of determining the optimal number of skilled repair workers. Techniques used for managing the maintenance resources are also discussed. An important issue in manpower is that of determining the optimal number of skilled repair workers. however. Basker. plumbers etc. Queuing models. The usage of the models. plumbers etc. can be used to determine the optimal number of welders. In this study the characteristics of the maintenance resources are discussed. can be used to determine the optimal number of welders. rigging etc. simulation techniques and queuing models have been used for determining the optimal number of repair gangs required to be deployed in a system. which utilize the theory of minimizing the total cost of unavailability and labor. a maintenance job may require the services of a welder for just about an hour whereas the same job may require a fitter for more than four hours. Important among these are maintenance materials (spare parts).1 Introduction For performing any maintenance activity resources are required. manpower. The disadvantage of assigning a maintenance job to a repair gang or crew is that the manpower utilization within the gang is not effective. One solution to this problem would be to schedule individual workers rather than repair gangs. Historically. Objectives: After studying this unit you shall be able · To explain the characteristics of the maintenance resources · To define techniques used for managing the maintenance resources · To assess comparison of the available resources management techniques 2. requires some knowledge of the rate of failure (called arrival rate) and the repair distribution. For example.8 Answers 2. which utilize the theory of minimizing the total cost of unavailability and labor. fitting. Manan .2 Man Power Almost all the maintenance activities require skilled personnel and most of the activities require more than one skill such as welding. not all skills are required for the same amount of time. Queuing models and simulation have been used also for determining the optimal number of tools and facilities such that the maintenance costs are minimized.
stock-out and ordering costs.3.3 Spare Parts The spare parts (maintenance material) problems have been traditionally approached in three ways: 1. The objective is to determine the number of repair workers needed to constitute a repair gang. and the number of repair gangs required such that the total costs (sum of labor cost and downtime cost) are minimized.1 Statistical Inventory Theory Models 2. Newman and Brammer and Malmborg have utilized a material requirements planning/bill of materials approach to manage the manpower resources. Using the statistical inventory theory models. two basic questions need to be answered: · How Much to Order? · When to Order? . on the other hand. 2. electricians and pipe-fitters. 3. In general.3. not having the required spare part results in a stock-out cost.1. there is also a cost of ordering a re-supply of spare parts. Using the material requirements planning/manufacturing resources planning (MRP/ MRP-II) technique.1 Inventory Costs Every organization keeps spare parts so that defective and worn-out parts of equipment can be replaced. 2. In addition to the holding and stock-out costs. Using selective control procedures along with some heuristics.and Husband have used the Monte Carlo simulation technique to determine the optimal number of repair workers required to perform the maintenance activities in a shop comprising a finite number of identical machines. Barnett and Blundell have used the Monte Carlo simulation technique to optimize the number of repair gangs and the size of the repair gangs given that the maintenance jobs generate demand for repair workers from three different trades’ mechanics. Maintaining the spare parts in a store also incurs some cost. 2. The objective of spare parts management is therefore to minimize the total of inventory holding. By holding spare parts in the inventory the funds of the organization are tied up which could have otherwise been invested in other activities.
1. The maintenance manager must make sufficient provisions to take care of demand during the lead-time because the cost of stock-out is undesirable in any situation. 2. If the annual demand for an item is D. we have If The annual demand D for an item is 8000 units The cost of placing an order is Rs.3. Then the holding cost is given by where p is the unit price of the item and r is the annual stockholding rate related to the stock value. This provision normally takes the form of safety stock which is determined based on the service level. this is referred to as the lead-time. Let Q be the ordering quantity. The complexity of the problem lies in the fact that neither the demand nor the lead-time is constant. The following is an illustration of a basic inventory model which takes into account the holding and the ordering costs.2. 8. Thus.3. During this period.3 When to Order? An order placed with a vendor for re-supply of spare parts takes some time to get filled. The total inventory cost TIC = the holding cost + ordering cost. obtained by utilizing the above equation for Q. the demand for spare parts resulting from the need to perform maintenance activities needs to be satisfied. Mathematical models are however available to determine the timing of placing an order taking into consideration the characteristics of the demand during the lead-time as well as the lead-time itself.00 The unit price of the item is Rs.2 How Much to Order? Several models have been developed based on the principle of minimizing the total inventory costs. Thus The minimum of TIC can be obtained by differentiating the above equation with respect to Q and equating the resulting derivative to 0. 100. These models help determine what has been traditionally known as the optimum order quantity. where c is the cost per order. therefore.1. is 1000. then the number of orders to be placed is given by The ordering cost is. The service level is defined as the probability of not having a stock-out situation. .00 The rate of interest is 20 per cent annually Then the optimum order quantity.
3) Every organization keeps spare parts so that defective and ___________ of equipment can be replaced. paying equal attention to all the inventory items was not feasible. 4) _______________ and queuing models have been used for determining the optimal number of repair gangs. essential and desirable Criticality of the parts Fast. Items were categorized into homogeneous groups based on their characteristics. low Unit price of the parts Scarce. Instead effort was concentrated on a few expensive and fast-moving items. Technique Description ABC Pareto rule VED FSN HML SDE Table 2.Self Assessment Question 1) Maintenance job is usually performed by a _____________or repair crew consisting of an optimal mix. be given equal importance. Ramani and Krishnan Kutty have utilized an ABC×VED classification technique where not only the annual value of usage of the part is taken into account but also the criticality of the part is given importance. medium. the safety stock and the minimum and maximum inventory levels require to be determined for each of the items in the stores. irrespective of its criticality.1 Most applications found in the literature make use of a combination of selective inventory control procedures because classification or categorization of items based on just one criterion is inadequate for managing the maintenance materials. 2. By this method the spare parts are classified into nine Basics Of Formulation Annual usage value of the parts Vital. The following paragraphs describe some of the applications involving a combination of selective inventory control procedures. This is the principle of the selective inventory control procedures. During the days when computers were not available. a few of which have been listed. difficult and easy to procure Procurement lead-times . The re-order quantity. slow and non-moving Usage rate of the parts High.3.2 Selective Inventory Control Procedures The statistical inventory control techniques require that each item. Several procedures for classifying items into homogeneous groups are available. 2) Several models have been developed based on the principle of minimizing the total _____________.
For example. If a substitute part is readily available then the part may be less critical. The second dimension uses an SDE classification. The first dimension.categories. Tayi and Levy have utilized a two-dimensional classification method. a part may be called critical if the loss of production caused by non-availability of the part is very high. In other words. it should be noted that most of the classification criteria are subjective. The second dimension makes use of the criticality aspect of the spare part and is based on the revenue lost due to loss in production (Mi) which is given by where pi is the downtime cost per unit time per failure involving the concerned part. For instance. which is based on the procurement leadtime while the third dimension makes use of the FSN classification (usage rate).2. A part may be classified as a critical part if the consequence of running out of stock is severe. Moreover. Although the selective control procedures make the managing of the multiple inventory items easier. MUSIC-3D. and Ni is the standard deviation of the downtime cost (E denotes expectation). For each of the nine categories. fi is the number of failures per unit time involving the part i. These eight categories have been formed by taking only two categories in each of the three dimensions. Saha and Mohanty have developed a spare parts stocking policy with an objective of minimizing the downtime of critical equipment. in the categories formed on the basis of lead-times are long lead-time and short lead-time. which makes use of the ABC classification criteria. the multi-unit spare inventory control. statistical inventory control models or heuristics are utilized to determine the ordering parameters such as the order point and the order quantity. while the categories formed on the basis of criticality of the parts are critical and non-critical. The first dimension utilizes a VED classification methodology. a range of service level is specified. takes into account the annual usage value Bi of the part i and is given by where Ci is the price of the part and Di is the total annual demand. It is the time required to replace or repair the part. A reorder point-order quantity technique is used in conjunction with this method for replenishment of parts. which categorizes the spare parts into groups based on their criticality. There are several ways by which the criticality of a part can be defined. The two categories formed on the basis of sales value are high sales value and low sales value. Duchessi. A three dimensional classification technique has been used for the purpose. VED and the SDE classification procedures which results in eight categories of items as shown in table 2. the stocking policy for a spare part in the V/S/F category is 2. The stocking policies for each of the 27 categories are determined using heuristics.6m where m is the maximum quantity of parts requested at any time. makes use of a combination of ABC. .
This section provides a brief overview of the closed-loop technique. As seen in the figure. An end-item is an item at the highest level of hierarchy in the bill of materials. a logic processor and a capacity planning subsystem.3.1 The Bill of Materials The bill of materials defines how one or more items are brought together to make up another item.3 Manufacturing Resources Planning The manufacturing resources planning (MRP-II) technique has been used widely for managing production resources. in general. MRP-II possesses two basic characteristics which go beyond the closed-loop material requirements planning (MRP). The bill of materials. The piston assembly. is made up of the piston.Table 2. the petrol engine is an end-item. the application of MRP is also very simple. Later in this section. The components in the diagram have been described briefly. the piston rings and the bearings. in turn.3. any manufacturing organization would want to have the following questions answered: · How much to order? · When to order? Both these questions are also answered by the MRP technique. It can also be considered to be an assembly definition. The components can either be manufactured in the shop or can be boughtout items. Figure 2. an inventory status file. The bill of materials indicates that the engine consist of three subassemblies – the piston assembly. or derived from the demand of another inventory item. As mentioned earlier in this section. the crankshaft assembly and the cylinder assembly. Figure 2. The demand for an inventory item is termed dependent when it is directly related to. in a raw. It is an operations as well as a financial system. semi-finished or finished form. defines the constituents of an end-item. The technique is based on the principle of dependent demand. some applications involving management of maintenance inventories are also discussed.2 shows the bill of materials for a petrol engine.1 shows the components of MRP. The immediate . It consists of a master production schedule. a bill of materials file. All other constituents of the petrol engine are referred to as items.3. 2. The central idea of MRP is to time production/acquisition of batches of parts/components so that they are available as they are required in assemblies.2 2. It is also a system simulator. In addition to this.
As seen from Figure 2. In addition to defining the relationship between items.1 . the bill of materials also indicates the quantity of an item that goes into making a parent item. The piston. The bill of materials also carries with it some other information such as whether the part is bought out or is manufactured within the organization.2 two bearings (indicated in parenthesis) go into the making of a piston assembly. for example. The MRP technique uses the bill of materials for computing the requirements through a process called explosion or desegregation. is an item whose parent is the piston assembly.predecessor of an item is called the parent item. Figure 2.
3.3. As shown in Table 2. this can be broken down into 12 production months. TPAN 75 and CPAN 75 that need to be produced. the top management has budgeted 6 tones of carbide tools to be produced during the year. This is further broken down into a schedule for specific variants of carbide tools such as SPAN 50. The quantity of all the items to be produced in a given period must equal the quantity budgeted in the production plan as shown in Table 2. This includes raw materials. In order to make the computation of the requirements easy. 2.3.Figure 2. There may be a case where an item is used in two different end items. which is a budget set by the management.3. The requirement at one level is computed first before proceeding to the next level. The priorities for the production of items specified in the master production schedule are set by the sales plan. It states what end-items need to be produced and how many needs to be produced in a month or week. semi-finished and finished parts. Also. it may so happen that the items are used at two different levels.5 tones of tools need to be produced every month on average. Since the demand for carbide tools is all through the year. The total weight of the variants scheduled for production during the month when totaled equals the budgeted weight as shown in Table 2. The master production schedule is constrained by the production plan. The master production schedule indicates the quantity of items to be produced in a given period.2 Every item in the bill of materials is given a number or code such that no two parts have the same number. .3.2 Master production Schedule A master production schedule is a statement of production of end-items for a given planning horizon. This would mean that 0. level codes are assigned such that identical items used in different end-items are maintained at the same level.
the batch sizing policy.1 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 CPAN 50 0.5 0.3 0.3.3 Inventory Status File The inventory status file contains up-to-date information about all the materials stocked in the stores. 2.1 0.5 0.5 Tools Master Schedule SPAN 50 0.1 0.1 0. the scrap allowances etc.4 Requirements Pegging .3 0. the inventory status file also contains the planning factors such as the procurement or manufacturing lead-times.1 0. In addition to the stock data.5 0.5 0.1 0.1 0.3. The file is kept up to date by posting the transactions which take place as a result of a receipt or issue of parts into and out of the stores.0 0.5 0.1 0.1 Table 2.1 0. In general.4 0.3.3 0.5 0.3 0. · Quantity on order.1 2.1 0.1 0.5 0. the safety stock. the inventory status file maintains the following data for every item: · Quantity on-hand.3 Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.5 0.1 0.5 0.2 0.1 0.3 0.3 0.1 0.2 0.2 TPAN 50 0.1 0.Item code Jan Production Plan Carbide 0.5 0.3.5 0.
For audit purposes. in the case of a proactive perspective the maintenance activity is planned and the timing is also determined well in advance. Activities such as fixed-time maintenance enable managers to determine the exact number of parts required.4 Tools and Facilities Queuing models and simulation have been used also for determining the optimal number of tools and facilities such that the maintenance costs are minimized.3. 7. The inventory status file will not contain up-to-date information about all the materials stocked in the stores. The bill of materials defines how one or more items are brought together to make up another item. . The statistical inventory control techniques require that each item. 9. Self Assessment Questions State whether following statement True or False. Scheduled receipts are orders which have already been released to the shop floor or to the vendors. materials on order may be received earlier than the due date while in some others the scheduled receipt may not be expected to be in the stock on time. 8. This is a deterministic situation. 2. The manpower requirement is also known precisely. In some cases. The scheduled receipts are taken into account while computing the net requirements. The procedures used are similar to those used for determining the optimal number of repair gangs required for carrying out maintenance activities. 6. 5.3. it becomes necessary to trace the demand for an item to its source and this process is referred to as pegging. A master production schedule is a statement of production of end-items for a given planning horizon. 2. 2. This uncertainty may result in rescheduling of the receipts.5 Effect of Maintenance Types on Resources As mentioned earlier.Explosion is a process concerned with generating gross requirements. irrespective of its criticality.5 Rescheduling Process Scheduled receipts are orders which have already been released to the shop floor or to the vendors. not be given equal importance.
Statistical inventory theory models and techniques for selective control have been discussed in detail. If the equipment is critical. have been used by industries for spare parts planning. Since failures occur randomly it becomes difficult to predict the resource requirements. and if manpower is a constraint. If the required maintenance materials are not available in the stores then one option available is to replace the failed parts of one with the working parts of the other failed item of equipment. and corrective maintenance activities (and not just one of them). Managers in some organizations carry out cannibalization as a last resort in order to meet the production requirements. explaining the commonly used methods and discussing the work done by researchers working in the area of spare parts management. This perspective has been created by initially discussing the various types of maintenance resources and their characteristics. If a failure occurs and the required resources are not available to restore the equipment to a working state the equipment is kept waiting in the repair queue. then the immediate requirement would be to restore at least one of the items of equipment to a working state. condition-based. This approach to maintenance is called cannibalization. does not reduce the number of inoperable parts. the maintenance activity is neither planned nor scheduled in advance. if not both. cannibalization can lead to severe control problems at a later time. In order to reduce the impact of failures on the profitability of the organization the following techniques are usually adopted: · Increase the number of maintenance personnel.In the case of a reactive perspective.6 Summary The problem of management of maintenance resources has been discussed. however. · Use standby equipment. 2. this happens to be an undesirable situation and should be avoided. such as the use of ABC and VED classifications. In some cases cannibalization is also practiced. statistical inventory theory models and selective control approaches for multi-item inventories for spare parts planning and queuing theory and simulation for manpower planning. Consider a situation where two identical items of equipment have failed due to different failure modes. There are some . The technique should be able to take into account preventive. namely. The basic purpose of this study is to provide the necessary background and present in a proper perspective the need of the development of an MRP based technique for the management of maintenance resources. · Build-up spare part inventories and tools. Selective control procedures. Cannibalization. and the various models and techniques which are commonly used. As per the definition of maintenance.
Briefly summarize effect of maintenance types on resources. give rise to a large number of classes of spares with each class having its own planning and control parameters. ABC×FSN. belts. 5. classification. For example. such as ABC×VED. whereas VED and SDE may be more appropriate for special spare parts (ones which are used on particular equipment). sprockets and bearings. For the above reasons. Classifying spare parts into homogeneous groups using a classification scheme is difficult since different types of spare parts require different classification schemes. researchers have suggested the use of multidimensional classifications. Explain Man Power. and these models have their own shortcomings. chains. statistical inventory control models. Worn-out parts 4. Simulation techniques . such as the re-order point and order quantity. are utilized to determine the ordering parameters. Define Statistical Inventory Theory Models. or categorization. 4. in turn. Explain Master production Schedule. Summarize Bill of Materials. 2. 2. Such classification schemes. In these cases as well.7 Terminal Questions 1. ABC and FNS are more appropriate for standard spares such as pulleys. Repair gang 2. For spare parts.fundamental problems encountered in the use of selective control techniques for spare parts management and these are as follows: Such classification is always rather subjective and this is more so in the case of spare parts. based on just one criterion is adequate.8 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1. 2. 3. VED×SDE×FSN and ABC× VED×SDE. Inventory costs 3. or heuristics.
True Terminal Questions 1.1 2.Refer 2.2 4. True 6. True 9. Refer 2.2. . False 8.3.2. Refer 2.2. False 7. Refer 2. Refer 2.4 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .1 3.5.1 5.3.
OM0006-Unit-03-Work Management & Identification Unit-03-Work Management & Identification Structure: 3.1 Introduction Our goal is to establish excellence in Work Management. Engineering. production.g.).. Work Management – A deliberate process in which a scope of work is identified. executed.6 Answers 3. planned. The Work Management process requires the full support of the entire organization (e.5 Terminal Questions 3. To fully understand the breadth of Work Management it is important to understand what Work Management is. and R&D activities. selected. Operations. Planning & Scheduling.1 Introduction Objectives 3. closed and critiqued. Maintenance.2 Functional Requirements Equipment Maintenance Function Work Order Management Function Inventory Management Function Vendor Management Function Subcontractor Management Function General Information Systems Specifications 3. waste management. scheduled. projects. . etc.3 Work Management Process 3.4 Summary 3. Scope of work includes maintenance.
hiring of subcontractors and arranging facilities. Plan maintenance work – ensure materials. Update data when a failure or preventive maintenance activity is initiated and completed. · Optimally utilize maintenance resources. · Plan procurement of resources.2 Functional Requirements Before designing the information system. 2. 3. Requirements can be gathered by interviewing the prospective users or circulating questionnaires. Subcontractor management subsystem. 2. Store maintenance data including failure and repair data. 5. . should have the following functions. 5. at the least.1 Equipment Maintenance Function The equipment maintenance function needs to perform the following: 1. Schedule preventive maintenance work. The functional requirements of the information system should be gathered first. Vendor management subsystem. 1.Objectives: A maintenance management information system must help you to · Schedule the Maintenance activities. Predict failures to a chosen level of confidence. A maintenance management information system. · Report on the performance of the overall maintenance system using standard indicators.2. the scope of the system should be clear. Equipment maintenance function. 4. 6. 4. 3. 3. manpower and tools would be available. Track overall maintenance function performance. 3. Inventory management subsystem. Work order management subsystem.
3.4 Vendor management function The vendor management function needs to perform the following: . Track status of work in progress. Convert critical maintenance requests into work orders. 7. Store and maintain inventory data including skills and tools.2 Work order management subsystem The work order management function is required to perform the following: 1. Update materials inventory data as and when an issue or receipt of materials occurs. 3. 3.3 Inventory management function The inventory management function has to do the following: 1. Produce reports as desired by the maintenance manager and top management.2. tools and facilities. 2. covering manpower. 7. tools and facilities. Generate work orders for preventive and corrective actions. Produce reports as desired by the maintenance manager and top management. Alert the maintenance manager to place orders for materials as planned and in the required quantity. 4. 9. Print reports as desired by the maintenance manager and top management. 6.2. 5. 3. Track utilization of manpower. Plan capacity. Schedule work visually. Track maintenance costs. 3. List pending work. 4.2. 8. materials and tools. Schedule release of planned orders (materials).7. Create maintenance requests. 2. 6. Track status of manpower. 5.
Maintain data related to subcontracts. 6. Print related reports. . 3.2. 2. 5. 3. Organize skills provided by subcontractors. each level of management needs to have access to the required information and should be able to extract the data which is needed. Self Assessment Questions State whether the statement is true or false.6 General Information Systems Specifications The general information systems specifications need to perform the following: 1. 4. 3. 3) The equipment maintenance function needs Schedule preventive maintenance work. Make on-line data entry. Validate data entry. 2. Track cost. Cater for three levels of users’ administration.1. 3. In order for a system to be efficient. 3. 2) The work order management function is required to perform Plan capacity. Produce reports as desired by maintenance manager. Track quality of subcontracted work. Devise metrics for evaluation of vendors.2. top management and middle management.5 Subcontractor management function The subcontractor management function must: 1. 1) The subcontractor management function must not maintain data related to subcontracts. Maintain vendor information. Track progress of subcontracted work. 2.
and · Critique the planning. · Select the specific work that will be planned. Contractors develop management programs to execute much of the work of contracts. · Close the work item after completion. A number of these programs are mandatory. other programs may be developed by the contractor in furtherance of contract execution. At the top-level these processes and tools include the contract with DOE and management programs committed to by the contractor to execute the statement of work and requirements in the contract. 5) The vendor management function needs maintain vendor information. Mechanics The contract between DOE and the contractor provides the top-level mechanisms for work to be identified. scheduling and performance of the work that has been accomplished. The statement of work in the contract provides a description of the mission-related work that DOE expects to be performed. Whether mandatory or voluntary on the . requirements stated in the contract and the annual budget process form the top-level means of identifying the work that will be performed. 3. Each year DOE and the contractor review the contract and the progress of work as part of the annual budget process. they would entail routines used to monitor attributes important to mission execution.3 Work Management Process These steps to be followed in work management process are: · Identify the work that needs to be performed.4) General information systems specifications will not validate data entry. Identify Work Concept This element describes the processes and tools put in place that determines the work that a contractor performs. · Execute the work. On a day-to-day basis. · Plan that work. The statement of work. safety and protecting the environment. · Schedule the work for performance.
or improvements. Program and project plans are updated with the information developed during the annual budget process. therefore. operator rounds. an identified project or specific facility need are screened out and no further resources applied to their resolution. Workers are encouraged to be vigilant in monitoring facility conditions for system or equipment problems. Other types of work are converted into work requests. Select Work Concept Management programs identify the operational activities and routines that need to be completed to meet mission deliverables. On-going assessments or reviews may identify the need for corrective actions. no contractor has the resources to complete every identified work request. and similar repetitive procedures. These include work requests. environmental monitoring. The schedule is also a tool that ensures that work is properly identified. Work is also identified on a daily basis. In furtherance of management programs. After the work . These routines can include Technical Surveillance Requirements/ Limited Condition of Operations TSR/LCO surveillances. which are initiated by personnel who identify work that needs to be performed to allow the work item to be entered into a work management system. The Select Work element funnels the work requests through a validation or screening process to determine those work items needing to be completed. contractors often put routines in place. system and environmental parameters. This process compares the work accomplished and that which remains to the funding that DOE believes will be available to execute work in the coming years. these management programs provide one of the primary paths for work to be identified. Routines are executed to monitor equipment.part of the contractor. Work requests not supporting the current mission. The discovery of new information may result in the need for additional research and development or design changes to existing systems and equipment. Work management systems are put in place by contractors to collect work requests into a single place. a continuous process. prioritize and coordinate the management of several categories of work. They provide the opportunity to proactively manage the identification of emergent work. From this process the work to be planned and executed in a given year is identified. While the threshold for identifying work items needs to be sufficiently low to all capture work items. Management The annual budget process provides contractor and DOE management the resources to manage the work that is identified for further planning and execution. at a high level. The identification of work is. changes. Additional management tools that are used in the work identification process also support other elements of the work management process. they provide a method to track.
These tools should be reviewed to determine whether duplicate items are already entered into the system.request has been validated a formal work order is entered into the work management tools used by the contractor. stay in compliance with the established safety basis and operating requirements for that facility or project. This validation process evaluates attributes of the work items to determine if the work item should be processed through the work management system. etc. or management commitments. Knowledge of these drivers allows effective prioritization of work planning efforts. equipment identification. Attributes evaluated include: · Work Scope Identification: A clear scope statement is necessary to understand what work activities are necessary. Mechanics Work selection is a continuous process to handle the work requests identified on a daily basis. coded with respect to like components and systems. or. Effective work management processes utilize a graded approach to resolving work requests. traded off with lower priority work or put forth as a candidate for additional funding. Work requests that are clearly not going to be accomplished due to cost impacts should be screened out at this point. The work may be simple enough that no initiating work documents are required (so-called “tool pouch” or “quick fix” items). · Need Date: Work requests must clearly indicate any deadline dates and the estimated time period for completing the work. · Operational Impact: Work requests that have immediate impact on the health and safety of contractor personnel need to be processed rapidly. A strong validation process incorporates two-way communications with the work request identifiers. . If the work item is a duplicate it should be screened out. and interface with mission requirements. operational requirements. This second type of work will normally be given a relative priority. · Work Duplications: Contractors use Work Management Tools to track work orders. Work may be tied to contract milestones. · Work Cost: Work requests may be identified that will require funding that is beyond that available to the contractor. may all provide key information needed to properly validate the work. problem symptoms. Work requests that have equipment impacts must be evaluated and the systems configured to protect equipment and workers. The work selection process starts with a work validation. or required plant operational modes to facilitate tracking and planning and then entered into the work management system. Or the work request may require a documented resolution. Location of the work. if sufficiently important.
Those work requests entered into the work management system result in the generation of work orders. Mature work selection processes incorporate an understanding of a graded approach to work planning.
Contractors need to clearly define who has responsibility and authority to perform the validation activity for their facilities and projects. The validation authority typically resides in the Operations organization because they are responsible for mission execution and normally retain configuration control of the facility systems, structures and components. The work management process descriptions need to define the planning processes used by the contractor staff. Requirements for the type of planning required, based on potential mission impact, hazards analysis and complexity of the work activity, are critical to decision-making during work selection. Plan Work Concept This element describes the process of taking a defined scope of work that has been selected for planning and developing/packaging technical documents to safely and efficiently perform that work. This process includes identification/incorporation of applicable technical specifications and requirements into technical documents, identifying and mitigating job hazards, identifying and obtaining required permits, developing work instructions, and defining post activity acceptance. Mechanics An initial step in planning work is determining what type of work execution vehicle will be used to perform the work. As previously discussed under Work Selection, this decision has often already been made, on a preliminary basis, prior to the initiation of Work Planning; however, it is confirmed as part of this element. Is the work to be performed with a very simple work package where the worker has the knowledge to perform the work and little or no instruction is required or will the work require a work package with more detailed instructions? The following criteria might be used to determine whether work can be performed using a very simple work package: · No medium or high risk activities. · No activities requiring hold points. · Will not alter configuration of equipment from documented design. · Will not present any unusual hazards.
· No hands-on work with radioactive material except incidental or routine work activities that involve low potential of worker exposure or workplace contamination. · No opening of contaminated systems, components, containers. · Minimal external coordination required. · “Skill-of-the-Craft” Work. Such tasks should be documented in a work package by the Field Work Supervisor (FWS) and released to work by operations and documented on the document releasing work.
Work management systems are often put in place to collect work requests and maintain and file documents in a single place. They provide a method to track, prioritize, and coordinate the management of several categories of work. They also provide a means for the work planning organization to interface with the operations organization and ensure that work is moving through the planning pipeline in a manner that supports mission execution. Schedule Work Concept Schedules are tools used by work management organizations to communicate and coordinate work activities. This element describes the processes and tools associated with establishing schedules. Typically, work is identified from various sources (missionrelated commitments, Authorization Basis requirements, maintenance routines, etc.) and flows through a “rolling work week process” (described below) into an integrated schedule. The rolling work week concept is typically established based on either an 8 or 12 week duration.
Most sites have developed a fairly common set of schedules to implement graded approaches to conduct of operations. These commonly include a Plan of the Day (POD) along with a slightly longer view, often one week (so-called Plan of the Week, POW). Various methods exist to move information from longer-term schedules to these two short-term scheduling tools. The rolling work week concept provides an effective tool for managing the development of schedules. It involves setting a specific time frame (or “window”) within a longer-term schedule on which to focus increased management attention. Common time frames are eight to twelve weeks.
· For work that falls within the work window, increased emphasis is placed on planning, detailed schedule concerns and coordination of the work. This time period of increased attention allows: o Optimization of planned outage windows, scheduling all tasks that require particular facility conditions or that impact production commitments; o Development of a detailed technical sequence for complex jobs; o Addressing only items that need to be scheduled in detail, i.e., they require coordination of resources, complex work, etc; o Grouping of similar work to efficiently use resources and equipment by facility mode, available space, system/equipment; and time to verify that parts are available and staged. The work planned during the work window is “Locked-In”, that is, committed to by all concerned, two weeks in advance. This lock-in process adds discipline to the scheduling process and provides focus for final work preparation and coordination. After lock-in, the schedule is under a formal change control process; this encourages people to only lock in work that is truly ready to work. This level of planning and commitment permits the development of precise resource loaded schedules; it supports aligning support resources to the schedule and permits other detailed preparations such as verifying that fully-trained workers are available. This level of planning and scheduling attention also improves task readiness, it allows crews time to review work in advance of working. A formal post work week critique is held to evaluate what got done, what didn’t get done and why. It should be clear from the level of effort inferred above, that the implementation of a rolling work week process requires a commitment from all organizations to make the system work. Work on the rolling work week is facilitated by the existence of schedules that integrate all important work. Management Management tools for a successful scheduling process include: · Senior Management involvement (Frequent and Regular) – Critical Path Meetings · Accountability meeting – weekly schedule commitment meeting · High level schedule change control authority once work is locked in · POD – A daily meeting intended to review facility and schedule status
Applicable work instruction prerequisites are completed to ensure readiness to work. This work should be completed in parallel with establishing worker protection and industrial safety requirements. The execution of work begins when the work package is released for work by Operations and runs through the completion of work in the field or facility. · Assemble required test equipment. · Build scaffolding and install lead shielding. This element is centered on the first-level supervisor (the person directly overseeing the work crew) and the crew that is engaged in the performance of the activity. · Remove insulation. · Assemble tools and material at job location. . · Complete rigging preparations. ensures that procedures and references are the latest revision and that all of the required permits are issued and up to date. Example components of work execution include the following: Preparations: · Contact job support personnel as required. the first-level supervisor performs a final review of the work instruction. Mechanics For each assigned task.· POW – A weekly meeting intended to review and status the higher level facility schedule · Rolling work week process – described above · Outages – scheduled periods where equipment systems or facilities are available to perform pre-determined work · Metrics – tools used to measure success of schedule performance · Documentation of key scheduling assumptions – essential to the development of baseline schedules Execute Work Concept This element describes the processes and tools associated with the actual performance of the work.
and water requirements. Finally. As the work completes. or facility knowledge · Potential abnormal events and contingency plans After completing preparations and getting their work crew prepared to perform the job. · Finish prefabrication work. the first line supervisor completes all system/equipment checks described in the work instructions to return equipment to service. power. the first-line supervisor oversees and directs the work activities in accordance with the approved work instructions.· Provide necessary temporary air. the first line supervisor reviews the instructions for a complete and accurate work history and performs post activity testing and any rework identified by the post activity testing. including expected worker radiological recovery actions · Job-specific hazards and their controls · Applicable precautions and limitations · Required safety equipment · Discuss hold points with employee(s) responsible for the completion of the hold point and employee(s) performing work immediately before or after the hold point · Industrial. · Build contamination control devices (catch basins. which monitors the day-to-day progress of work execution. water storage/recovery systems). Formal programs to have management observe work in the field will provide not only . environmental or radiological hazards of the task from the work document. field walk-downs. and identifies all discrepancies and incomplete work items. tents. Pre-Job Brief: · Scope of the task · Review of prerequisite section of the work instructions · Responsibilities of all participants. Management Management tools put in place to monitor work execution include the Plan of the Day or other work progress meeting. Radiological Work Permit. job hazards analysis. · Set up welding equipment if required. The supervisor documents relevant as-found conditions and the work performed.
The system/components can be returned to operations subject to any controls defined in the work instructions. or exceptions have been authorized by the person responsible for accepting the work. or authorized incomplete/open work items. based on work completed also provide feedback on work execution. Documentation: · Document work completion against requirements. · Remove all temporary/test equipment and restore system/components to operable status. Close Work Concept Work can be closed and declared complete when defined requirements in the approved work package have been met. Mechanics The work closure process can be described as several related steps. · Update the files for the affected system/equipment. a number of sites use standard computerized templates to capture relevant historical information. including quality. capturing repair history. regulatory and safety basis requirements. e. Schedule updates. · Ensure condition tags and other documents are in the completed closure package prior to returning it to the Work Management Center.status. Documentation associated with the work evolution can then be signed off. These steps include the process of verifying that work has been completed. . documenting the completion of work. Verification: · Verify all administrative and technical requirements. but a more accurate feel for work difficulty and potential coordination issues. as appropriate. Important attributes of these processes are discussed below. an inventory of equipment and parts used and feedback to the work management process. resolve any deviations. . calibration and preventive maintenance data into the Work Management System. · Dispose of excess materials and waste properly. normally in the operations organization. returning (or turning over) equipment and systems to operations. are satisfied and test results are approved. · Update as-built drawings..g.
· Verify required procedure. issues. Improvement opportunities are . · Accept the system/equipment for operability and return to service in a timely manner.) process takes selected jobs and critiques them to identify good practices. Management The first-line supervisor is responsible to verify work completion against requirements defined in the approved work package. Inventory: · Document material used. improvements or lessons learned are identified. ranging from individual job post work critiques to critiquing all of the work performed by a group or a facility within a specified time period. and incorporated into subsequent work. Critique Work Concept This element describes the processes and tools associated with performing a critical analysis of work to ensure that issues. the first line supervisor should consult with the work planner and the systems engineer as needed. e. Work critiques take on many forms. If there are authorized open items. · Evaluate the authorized incomplete/open work items for any operational impact concerns. and return the system/equipment to the required configuration to support facility operations.g. Return to Operations: · Review work activity and all testing for system/equipment operability. and lessons learned. the work package should have been changed and procedures amended by the appropriate formal documentation. the previous work week (Work Week Critique) period. · Release all remaining clearance tags. and ensuring completion of the work closure functions. etc. · Return unused parts to the warehouse.· Retain the closure package in accordance with the Site’s records retention requirements. drawing and training updates are completed prior to placing the component(s) in service.. Mechanics The post work critique (ALARA.
The work week critique process is a continuous improvement process.typically formally documented and followed to closure through a commitment tracking system. whereby all groups involved in work execution meet to perform a critical analysis of all aspects of the week performance. Management Management tools for a successful critique process include: · Weekly critique meeting · Regularly scheduled meeting following each work week to critically review performance of the previous work week (attended by Senior Management) . including Emergency. including the specifics regarding what was accomplished. typically covering the previous weeks work activities · Work Week Critique Attendance: Work week critique targeted audience should typically be that of Facility Senior Management. The report should also include: o A breakdown of the types of work scheduled & accomplished for the week. etc. · Work Week Critique Meeting: A regularly scheduled meeting used to perform a thorough analysis of the work execution. but was not & what the issues were which prevented that work from being accomplished. o Metrics which track and trend the work week elements. The applicable post work critique output should be discussed in the work week critique process described below. · Work Week Critique Report: A formally prepared report which comprehensively addresses the work week being analyzed. Issues should be trended to identify programmatic issues. what was initially intended to be accomplished. including: § Schedule & Cost Performance § Manpower Utilization § Emergent Work § Backlog · Action Item Tracking: A formal process in which action items from the Work Critique meeting are assigned responsibility & tracked through completion. Emergent.
or exceptions have been authorized by the person responsible for accepting the work. 3. 7) _________ can be closed and declared complete when defined requirements in the approved work package have been met. Identify Work describes the processes and tools put in place that determines the work that a contractor performs. 2. 5. Management programs identify the operational activities and routines that need to be completed to meet mission deliverables. normally in the operations organization. Execute work describes the _______ and ______ associated with the actual performance of the work. 4. Explain components of work execution. Explain briefly Identify Work in Work management Process. Explain Schedule Work in Detail. 3. 10) ___________________ systems are often put in place to collect work requests. . Management programs identify the operational activities and routines that need to be completed to meet mission deliverables.· Appropriate Metrics including tracking and trending · Standard Critique reports · Action Item Tracking / Accountability · Worker feedback Self Assessment Questions 6) Management tools for a successful critique process include _________.5 Terminal Questions 1. 3.4 Summary The Work Management process requires the full support of the entire organization. Explain Functional Requirements in Work Management. Work can be closed and declared complete when defined requirements in the approved work package have been met. 9) Identify describes the processes and tools put in place that determines the work that a ________ performs. Describe Close Work in Work Management Process.
True 3. True 6. False 5. Worker feedback 7.1 2) Refer Page 10 3) Refer Page 4. False 2. 5 4) Refer Page 8 5) Refer Pages 9. 10 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Work management Terminal Questions 1) Refer 3. Tools 9. .6 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1. True 4.3. Contractor 10. Processes. Close Work 8.
The reasons for breakdowns were many: development of high temperature in the bearings. The breakdown of the machines resulted in a great loss of productive time and also led to several problems such as not being able to meet due dates. the machines caused a great deal of anxiety to the management by failing quite frequently and unexpectedly.4 Maintenance Economics Breakdown-time Distribution Preventive versus Breakdown Maintenance (Single Machine) 4.6 Terminal Questions 4.OM0006-Unit-04-Emergencies or Breakdown Process Paper: ISO 90012000/Qs Elements Unit-04-Emergencies or Breakdown Process Paper: ISO 9001-2000/Qs Elements Structure: 4. breakage and slips of gear and belt drives. overheating of motors.1 Introduction The turret lathes and gang drills were acquired second-hand.7 Answers 4. In the initial stages.2 The Maintenance Function 4. especially while processing important jobs.3 Maintenance Strategies Corrective or Breakdown Maintenance 4. etc. misalignment of shafts and pulleys. and low morale of workers. and were immediately commissioned. one-year back.5 Summary 4. failure of insulation in electrical circuits.1 Introduction Objectives 4. . formation of sludge’s and corrosive compounds on the machine parts.
The four workers were divided into two crews. they are to be paid overtime. The technicians accepted the job under the condition that if ever they are required to work in the second shift on a day.In order to combat these problems. or to keep the equipment running. to most people. the proprietor of the workshop advertised for maintenance specialists for the turret lathes and gang drills. each crew consisting of two workers. The maintenance crews can do breakdown maintenance as well as preventive maintenance for all the four machines. he selected four technicians for employment. The machine operators can only operate the machine when they are in working condition. After a long search. Objectives After studying this unit you shall be able to · Explain the functions involved in maintenance · Recognize the strategies of maintenance · Distinguish between preventive and breakdown maintenance · Evaluate the economic aspects of maintenance 4. availability. Machine and component failures can trigger incidents or cause costly production interruptions. . Minimizing the failure count or their adverse effects leads to increased safety. Maintenance is defined as ‘any action that restores failed units to an operational condition or retains non-failed units in an operational state’ or ‘an activity carried out for any equipment or asset to ensure its reliability to perform its functions’. or to restore to its favorable operating condition. or to repair any equipment that has failed. Preventive maintenance of a machine consists of dismantling the machine and checking all its important parts and making the necessary adjustments and replacements. Such maintenance is expected to reduce the frequency of machine breakdowns. Minimizing these adverse effects is the role assigned t maintenance. and cannot attend to any repairs or maintenance. is any activity carried out on an asset in order to ensure that the asset continues to perform its intended functions. Maintenance work on a machine requires both workers of a crew. reduced downtime and cost of operation.2 The Maintenance Function Maintenance. As he wanted technicians with experience on the specific machines he had. the proprietor had considerable difficulty in finding he maintenance specialists. and consequently higher production efficiency. It improves the systems overall reliability.
as well as the quantitative and cost standard of outputs. The evolution in the maintenance thought process is rooted in the changing complexity of industry itself. First Generation Second Generation Third Generation · Fix it when broke · Scheduled Overhauls · Condition monitoring · Systems for planning · Design for reliability and and controlling work maintainability · Low-tech computerization · Hazard studies · High-tech computers · Failure modes and effects analysis · Expert systems · Multitasking and teamwork Table 4. The evolution can be seen to cover 3 different generations of thought. management today sees a much larger role for maintenance. .The objectives of maintenance are to maintain equipment and facilities in such condition that: · They give trouble-free service and output at rated capacity. · Safety is ensured.1 shows the evolution of the maintenance philosophy. in addition to its traditional roles of enhancing plant availability and lowering costs. · Down-time is minimized. Over the past years. product quality and customer service profile of the organization. and · The cost of operation and maintenance is minimized. the significance of maintenance and its role in plant operation has changed significantly. It ensures that the equipment is able to maintain quality standards. From a simple expectation of keeping equipment running or restoring it to the desired operating condition. environmental integrity. The maintenance function plays a supporting role to effective operations.1: Evolution of Maintenance Philosophy Table 4. energy efficiency. It determines the risk-safety. Maintenance efficiency is viewed as an integral part of business effectiveness.
or sheer quality deficiency in their manufacture.1. With increase in mechanization. This is the useful period of the machine. the growth of mechanization and automation has become more complex and even small breakdowns in equipment affect the operation of the whole plant. primarily due to the presence of weak or substandard components or design inadequacies in not properly understanding the operating conditions. As this dependence grew. Hence. In practice. called infant mortalities. As these components drop out one by one. Factory equipment was basic and repair and the restoration process was simple. How Equipments Fail Maintenance is concerned with controlling the condition of equipment. During the infant mortality period. 4. Downtime did not matter much and no need was felt to treat maintenance as a high priority issue. These have led to major developments in maintenance philosophy based on manufacturing reliability systems. 2. industry became increasingly dependent on these complex machines. Repairing and restoration had become more difficult and special skills and more time was needed to maintain and repair equipment. the failure rate is high. reliability and availability have become key issues. Researchers into the reliability of equipment recognize that within a collection of machines. This led to the concept of preventive maintenance. Among collections of equipment. but they are thought to be at least partially due to abrupt changes in stress distribution in the components. there is a definite pattern of lifespan. this pattern manifests itself when a collection of machinery is subjected to rigorous operation. expert systems and continuous improvement programs have developed. unpredictable and cannot be prevented by additional testing or burn-in of the components. there was an added interest created in the field of maintenance planning and control systems. fatigue due to flaws in the molecular structure of the metals or plastics involved. there is a rather high incidence of early failures. Third Generation (after the 1980’s) – Since the 80’s. During this period. 3. First Generation (1930-40) – The first generation represents the earlier days of industrialization where mechanization was low. The reason for the occurrence of these failures is not fully understood. the failure rate keeps decreasing until a relatively low constant level is obtained. the weak components from the infant mortality period have either been repaired or replaced. As maintenance costs started to rise sharply relative to other operating costs.3 Maintenance Strategies . Second Generation (1950-70) – The second generation emerged as the result of growing complexity in equipment and plant design. downtime became a problem and management tried to find means and ways to minimize and prevent these failures. Most equipment that survives infancy will continue to perform with few failures occurring. The failures that do occur during the period are truly random.
equipment. etc.Over the years. b) Plant protection. buildings and grounds. many new approaches have been advocated as maintenance strategies that are intended to overcome problems related to equipment breakdown. The primary functions are: a) Maintenance of existing plant. the prevalent management policies. maintenance functions may be identified as primary or secondary functions. d) New installations of equipment and buildings. . The secondary functions are: a) Maintenance stores. its size. c) Alteration to existing equipment and buildings.. b) Generation and distribution of utilities. Some of the common approaches to maintenance are as follows: · Breakdown maintenance · Preventive maintenance · Predictive maintenance · Proactive maintenance Type of Maintenance Strategy Maintenance ApproachSignificance Fix-it when broke Large maintenance budget Scheduled Maintenance Periodic component replacement Condition-based Maintenance decision Monitoring based on equipment condition Detection of Sources of Monitoring and Failures correcting failing root causes Maintenance Strategy Breakdown Maintenance Preventive Maintenance Predictive Maintenance Proactive Maintenance Although the scope of maintenance will vary depending on the type of industry.
It is also called. Corrective maintenance is typically carried out in three steps: a) Diagnosis of the problem: The maintenance technician must take time to locate the failed parts or otherwise satisfactorily assess the cause of the system failure. action must be taken to address the cause. The goals and objectives of corrective maintenance management are. To rectify the problem. · Restoring a failed system usually involves replacing or repairing the component that is responsible for the failure of the overall system. · However. which has broken down or developed a fault. the repair work is performed only after a piece of equipment has failed. It consists of the action(s) taken to restore a failed system to operational status. 4. and as the name suggests. usually by replacing or repairing the components that caused the system to fail. a) To restore the faulty equipment to a healthy operating state as promptly as possible.1 Corrective or Breakdown Maintenance This is one of the earliest maintenance strategies implemented in the industry. c) Verification of the repair action: once the components in question have been repaired or replaced. the rectification of the fault should be processed in the same manner as for planned maintenance work schedules. corrective maintenance is periodically performed on the equipment. the maintenance technician must verify that the system is again successfully operating. so as to restore it a specified operating state. Corrective maintenance is performed at unpredictable intervals because a components failure time is not known a priori. and b) To do this in a cost effective manner. d) Salvage. maintenance is activated on breakdown.3. · The approach to maintenance is totally reactive. b) Repair and/or replacement of faulty component(s): Once the cause of system failure has been determined. · Corrective maintenance strategy has no routine maintenance task and therefore is also described no scheduled maintenance strategy. breakdown maintenance. . a properly designed fault reporting system must be instituted and similarly.c) Waste disposal. · Corrective maintenance may be defined as the repairs carried out to restore equipment.
2. and where production interruptions may be negligible. 4. maintenance engineers should be allowed to consider the possibility. proper feedback to the design department may lead to alterations in design that will reduce or eliminate failures. Such a distribution will show the frequency of maintenance-free running times for a given number of operating hours. A simple machine with few moving parts will probably have breakdowns after a fairly large number of maintenance-free runtime hours. and the adoption of other maintenance practices may reduce interruptions to production. each part will have a different failure distribution. · Where capacity and demand are close. the breakdown maintenance practice may be costlier than other maintenance strategies. In such cases. _________ Maintenance strategy has no routine maintenance task. The decision of maintenance policy is more of an economic decision rather than a technical one. Machine and component failures can trigger _________.4 Maintenance Economics Maintenance policy refers to an organization’s policy in respect of the maintenance function of a set of equipments. The first generation represents the earlier days of ___________ where mechanization was low.1 Breakdown-time Distribution In order to establish the cost implications. Restoring a failed system usually involves _________ or repairing the component. 4. management must know how the breakdowntime is distributed. Moreover. breakdowns may affect production and thus reduce profits. if careful observations of repeated failures of an equipment or system suggest that the remedy lies in correcting the system.· Corrective maintenance in a broader perspective may also include activities related to correcting potential causes for failure or malfunction that might not have been adequately considered when the equipment was designed. Even where capacity is not a constraint. The growth of __________ and automation has become more complex. In such a situation. For example. The breakdown time distribution of the complex machine probably will . the practice of attending to machines only after they have broken down may be uneconomical. the failure of any one of its parts can cause a breakdown of the machine. Self Assessment Questions 1. what are its cost implications? 4. As maintenance is an economic decision. But in the case of a complex machine. 3. 5.4. thereby eliminating or at least minimizing the failures.
2 Figure 4. adjustments before it can give reasonable trouble-free service. Curve ‘a’ depicts the behavior of a simple machine.show greater variability than the simple machine even though it may have the same average.8.2 represents a graphical description of the degree of variability in free-run-time. maintenance free run-time as that of the simple machine. C = 0.7. C & D. and the reliability factors are A = 0. The total system reliability will be the product of the reliability of each individual system.9. The variability depicted by curve ‘c’ is typical of complicated equipment that needs ‘fine’. it would amount to (0. that one can be sure the machine will operate reliably. By reliability we mean the probability that the system will give trouble free service. which exceed a given free-run-time. For example.8 and D = 0. In this case. if the total system has four sub-systems.4 for the percentage of breakdowns. The frequency distribution curve ‘c’ has the same average maintenance. B. i. and plot this against the run-time. . Equipment can be considered as a total system with its sub-assemblies as sub-systems. say A.8 ‘0. while curve ‘b’ represents a more complex machine. T3 = Average free run time free of breakdowns Figure 4. and the ‘run-times free of breakdowns’ as the ‘x’-axis. The same data that we have used to plot figure 4.4 can be used to plot the percentage of breakdowns that exceed a given runtime as the ‘y’-axis.9 ‘0.free run-time as the other two but the distribution has much wider variability. Say to obtain the ‘a’ curve in figure. the reliability of the total system would equal the product f reliability factors of each of the sub-systems. It also shows that it is only after a few periods of trouble free running. curve ‘b’ is the exponential distribution and exhibits medium variability and curve ‘c’ exhibits high variability. B = 0.7 = 0.8 ‘0. Curve ‘a’ exhibits low variability from the average maintenance free breakdown-time ‘Ta’.e.40).. subtract from 100 the figure 4. If we assume that the failure of any one of the sub-systems can cause the failure of the entire system.
In actual practice.4.5 gives the percent of time a machine is working for the three distributions of breakdown-time shown in Figure and the ratio of the standard maintenance period to . This preventive maintenance work takes a time ‘Tm’. the running time between the preventive maintenance and the breakdown plus the time taken to repair the breakdown. This can be considered the standard preventive maintenance cycle time. When this happens. shortening the preventive maintenance cycle can reduce the number of actual breakdowns. after which the equipment is ready to work. In such cases. The total time period ‘Ta’.2 Preventive versus Breakdown Maintenance (Single Machine) Consider a preventive maintenance schedule. inspected and parts replaced. which after a machine has been running for fixed time ‘Tr’.4: Breakdown-time distributions 4.Figure 4. Figure 4. The probability of occurrence of a breakdown in the two different cycles depends on the specific breakdown-time distribution of the equipment. ’Ts’ can be considered the breakdown cycle. over a period of time. is equivalent to ‘Tr’ (maintenance free run-time) plus ‘Tm’ (the time take to do the preventive maintenance). more breakdowns are likely to occur during the course of the standard period. the machine is shutdown. the average maintenance free run-time. the situation is slightly different. and the length of the standard preventive maintenance cycle. Ideally. If the distribution has greater variability. Since preventive maintenance is meant to reduce the total plant down-time particularly unscheduled event – its timing and frequency are important. there will be breakdowns that occur before the equipment is shutdown for preventive maintenance. preventive maintenance should be performed just a little before normal breakdown is likely to occur.
like those depicted by curve ‘a’. as there is better predictability of when breakdowns are likely to occur. Figure 4. The percentage of machine running time depends on the ratio of the standard maintenance period and the average run-time. In this type of situation. This suggests that for breakdown time distribution with low variability. there is an optimum value for the standard maintenance period. In the case of curve ‘a’ (for breakdown-time distribution with low variability). there is little gain in . it is assumed that either preventive maintenance or repair puts the equipment in line for a running time of equal length. the machine works for a small percentage of time. This is obvious. and hence less availability. preventive maintenance is highly benefited to machines whose breakdown time distributions have low variability. Second. the relation of preventive maintenance time to repair time is important.5: Present of time when the machine is working and breakdown distribution Certain generalizations can be made from the above three graphs. but only till a peak is reached after which lengthening standard maintenance period seems to reduce the percentage of machine running time. ‘Ts’. First. Unless the preventive maintenance time is less than the repair time. From figure. ‘Ta’ for a given breakdown-time distribution. a standard preventive maintenance period can be set in such a way that the total downtime is reduced. it can also be seen that for curves ‘b’ and ‘c’ an increase of the ratio results in an increase in the percentage of machine running time. since a low ratio would mean too many machine stoppages. there is a similar increase in machine running-time.average maintenance-free run-time. Such a relationship is shown for the three different breakdowns time distributions. It can be seen that for low values of the ratio of standard maintenance period to average maintenance free runtime.
Self Assessment Questions State whether the statement is true or false. Initially. 10. both in terms of contribution earned by them as well as their criticality because of their propensity to break-down. such as 1. Since some parts are most important to machines. For a given breakdown time distribution. The probability of occurrence of a breakdown in the two different cycles depends on the specific breakdown-time distribution of the equipment. 6. 4. What are the Maintenance Strategies? . 7.5 Summary You need to make decisions at the beginning of each shift regarding maintenance.6 Terminal Questions 1.preventive maintenance. or more than the time for repair. and 3. when the repair time is equal to maintenance time. Effect on production losses if plant shutdown could have been avoided. We also need to take into account other effects of unscheduled downtime. the percentage of machine running time continues to increase with the increase of standard preventive maintenance period. Effects of scheduling preventive maintenance for non-productive days or shifts with no loss of production. an increase in the standard period would mean less number of preventive maintenance cycles and more repairs. 8. Maintenance policy will not refer to any organization’s policy. 2. The percentage of machine running time depends on the ratio of the standard maintenance period. all the machines are free and have jus had a preventive maintenance done. The breakdown time distribution of the complex machine probably will not show greater variability than the simple machine. In general. it is better to perform corrective or breakdown maintenance. 4. Equipment cannot be considered as a total system with its sub-assemblies as subsystems. 9. If preventive maintenance is equal to. Additional stoppage time because maintenance crew cannot start repairing immediately after the breakdown has occurred. you will deal with jobs.
2 2. True 9.7 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1. . Refer 4.3.1 4. False 7. Incidents 6. Explain Preventive versus Breakdown Maintenance.3. Mechanization 2. Refer 4.2.2 5. Summarize Breakdown and Corrective maintenance. FalseTerminal Questions 1. 5. True 8. Replacing 3. Explain Breakdown Time distribution. Refer 4. 4. Refer 4.2. Refer 4. 4. 3. Corrective 5.1 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .1 3. True 10. Explain evolution of Maintenance Policy. Industrialization 4.
1 Introduction Objectives 5.4 Summary 5.OM0006-Unit-05-Types of Maintenance Systems Unit-05-Types of Maintenance Systems Structure: 5. replacement of parts or total replacement of . Maintenance is defined as the restoring of an item to its original condition or to working order.6 Answers 5.3 Types of Maintenance Systems Routine Maintenance Planned /Scheduled / Productive Maintenance Break down or Corrective / Remedial Maintenance Preventive Maintenance Predictive Maintenance Condition Based Maintenance 5. to ensure or restore system performance to specified levels.2 Functions & Feature of Maintenance Engineering 5. Maintenance covers two aspects of systems – operation and performance. which can be achieved through repair. Maintenance is carried out in anticipation of or in reaction to a failure.1 Introduction Once the machinery is purchased it must be maintained.5 Terminal Questions 5.
Improperly performed maintenance or not carried out in time can escalate the problems because of faulty parts running. but there is no guarantee here that the exact nature of defect surfaces. misuse etc. Through proper maintenance of these machineries. Machineries lose its efficiency after some point of time due to various factors such as wear and tear. aging. operational life can be extended. retain the productivity and maintain safe working conditions by reducing the probability of accidents. It is evident that the best maintenance strategy is selected for reducing breakdowns. Hence a systematic and structured approach to proper & cost effective maintenance is required.the devices itself. Developing effective maintenance procedures to restrict such deterioration or failure is vital. Failure to perform maintenance in time to maintain the availability of the machinery will have serious effects ranging from benign to catastrophic. Sometimes accelerated testing is used to induce failures and know the behaviour of the systems. Types of maintenance /strategies discussed in this unit are: · Routine Maintenance · Planned Maintenance · Break down Maintenance or Corrective Maintenance · Preventive Maintenance · Predictive Maintenance · Condition Based Maintenance · Total Productivity Maintenance The maintenance plan for a company’s assets can be a combination of the above strategies and could be adopted on the same machine. Maintenance management also aims at developing a reliable and high quality production system. Between these alternatives the management decides. Objectives: After studying this unit you shall be able . based on the practical and economic grounds Maintenance of any kind performed on machinery or equipment is a consequence of the fact that it started deteriorating before failing.
scheduling and execution of many maintenance activities. Flexible manufacturing systems. high cost CNC machines.· To explain how systems work at their optimum efficiency · To prepare a plan to preserve the value of the assets by different methods · To calculate how to maximize production capability · To prepare a plan and schedule for maintenance work and prevent failures and breakdowns · To Improve quality of products and productivity · To Use of maintenance staff optimally · To Minimize or avoid accidents by periodical inspection and repairs.. use of robotics and other Computer Integrated systems are developed and deployed for producing high quality products. repeatability. breakdown maintenance or preventive maintenance etc. 5. requirement of high accuracy. equipment and services in proper working condition that involves planning. rapid traverses. high up-time and prolonged mean time between failures (MTBF). Maintenance management is entrusted with the total task of keeping the machinery. To offer these requirements. have all warranted the use of sophisticated machineries for production.2 Functions & Feature of Maintenance Engineering Maintenance Engineering is the function of the production management that is concerned with day-to-day problems of keeping the physical plant in good and acceptable operating condition. use of complex processes. · · · · · Rapid strides in the advancement of manufacturing technology and its processes with higher powers and speeds. improved productivity. . Such high cost and sophisticated state of art machineries need to operate at optimal levels of performance with high degree of reliability. higher feeds. Therefore industries have entered into the era of high technology maintenance management to cater to the production requirement of minimum downtime and maximum productivity. like repair. etc.
RM can be classified as: 1) Running maintenance 2) Shut down maintenance. injury to workmen and finally frequent breakdowns etc may lead to protracted delivery of the product thus inviting customer dissatisfaction. 5. increased production costs. lubricating systems. a cyclic operation recurring periodically.3 Types of Maintenance Systems A way of reducing the plant breakdowns is to select the best maintenance strategy. working. . Maintenance is the work performed on an asset such as utility. Hence the relationship between availability. repairing leaks) which include preventive maintenance and forms part of the annual operating budget. small repairs. outer cleaning. These aspects are to recognized by the maintenance department.e. inspection etc. production of low quality products. Widely adopted maintenance techniques/strategies are: · Routine Maintenance · Planned Maintenance · Break down Maintenance or Corrective/ Remedial Maintenance · Preventive Maintenance · Predictive Maintenance · Condition Based Maintenance · Total Productivity Maintenance [Discussed in detail in Unit-10] 5. cleaning of machines.3. lubricate two machines daily] It can be even day to day operational activities to keep the plant running (say: replacement of light bulbs. and equipment by the maintenance staff to preserve such machineries in as near to its original condition as is practical and to realize its normal life expectancy.Malfunctioning of machineries/equipment due to failure to upkeep the operating conditions may result in serious repercussions of reduced capacity. cleaning. machines.1 Routine Maintenance [RM] RM is a procedure followed regularly i. These include say greasing or lubricating the bearings / systems.e. [say: check all compressors first on Mondays. 1) Running maintenance is the work carried out when the equipment or the machine is performing some operations i. It includes activities like inspection. reliability and maintainability of a plant is very important for the maintenance engineers.
thus avoiding a situation of emergency maintenance. de-scaling furnaces.g. Planned maintenance reduces the machine downtime. 5. reduces the cost of maintenance.3. E.1.3.2) Shut down maintenance: certain minor maintenance activities cannot be carried out when the machine is running and hence carried out by shutting down the machine. overhaul.1 Advantages a) Simple to establish & follow b) Little or no clerical work c) High degree of prevention by intercepting developing faults d) A more advanced stage calls for ’service instructions on a pre-printed schedule and checklists’. In this type of service. increases productivity as compared to unplanned one and hence it is followed as per the maintenance policy of the company.3.2 Planned / Scheduled / Productive Maintenance Planned maintenance is the activities carried out according to a predetermined schedule and hence known as scheduled maintenance or productive maintenance.2 Disadvantages a) RM may not provide the service specified by the manufacturer b) May ignore information regarding preceding breakdowns c) Service required for a machine at different frequencies may be ignored d) Similar machines are serviced at same frequency irrespective of usage 5. boilers 5.1. repair and carry out all requisite maintenance before actual break down happens. the emphasis is on machines: a) What does the manufacturer prescribe? b) Is the unit utilised for two or three shifts per day? c) Is it working under normal load? . lubricate. It involves inspection of all machineries.
Corrective maintenance is carried out on all items where the consequences of failure or wearing out are not significant and the cost of corrective maintenance is not greater than preventative maintenance.3.2.1 Characteristics of Planned Maintenance a) Instructions are more detailed than in routine maintenance b) Calls for differently timed service for the same unit c) Schedule is drawn with dates d) Establishes the work-load for the crew e) Entails considerable planning effort. .3 Break Down or Corrective/ Remedial Maintenance Breakdown Maintenance is the method of operating the machines to run until they fail and then repair in order to restore them to an acceptable condition.3.2. to bring it back to working order. Unforeseen work is reduced.3. faithful implementation and recording f) Initial list of planned maintenance will be in detail 5. Also called as ‘on-failure maintenance/corrective maintenance’.2 Advantages of Planned Maintenance Considers all the changes in conditions of use & increased wear of parts a) Inspections. c) Provides as much attention on the equipment for the best judgement of the planner [For details on ‘the principles of planning & scheduled maintenance’ refer Unit 6] 5. replacement of parts. adjustments are shown in overall plan b) Detailed instructions reduce the chance of missing any activity. Planned repair/rectifying the problem is carried out when it is more convenient and cost effective after its failure rather than to disrupt the production with RM.d) Are the conditions as good as those envisaged by the manufacturer? e) Do we allow for extra attention owing to corrosion-including conditions? 5. can be defined as the maintenance which is required when an item has failed or worn out.
3.Corrective maintenance may be programmed. increased downtime. 5. involve hazards. Here the machine and the work on that machine stops operating. Repairs are done after the machine fails and hence this becomes a repair work. Corrective maintenance activities include both emergency repairs (fire fighting) and preventive (or corrective) repairs. etc. taken after the failure happens. or reconditioning that part to its original or acceptable working condition. Frayed tempers put unnecessary pressures and disturb delivery commitments.e. or where no other strategy will work. misuse or improper maintenance. lost output. For example: non-critical low cost equipment. This method is expensive in terms of maintenance cost. vandalism. Repair is restoring an asset by replacing a part which is broken or damaged. On-failure maintenance can be effective if applied correctly. i. o Upset schedule resulting in panicky.3.1 Characteristics of Break-down Maintenance System · No services except occasional lubrication unless failure occurs · No maintenance men on regular basis · Maintenance done by sub-contractors · No organised efforts to find out reasons · No stock of spares · No budget · No records · Initially it looks economical · Creates internal problems namely: Who to do the repair? From where to get parts? How do we pay for them? Who will go & buy parts? . The need for repairs can result from normal wear. drive shaft broken and hence the transmission fails. The above type of repairing and setting the equipment to working condition can be called as corrective maintenance. This system could be called as ‘Operate to Failure (OTP) ’– no predetermined action taken to prevent failure. Ex: electric motor may not start.
Preventive maintenance is carried out to prevent an item failing or wearing out by providing systematic inspection.4 Disadvantages 1) No warning of failure – safety risk 2) Uncontrolled plant outage – production losses 3) Requires large standby maintenance team 4) Secondary damage – longer repair time 5) Large spares stock requirement 6) Provision of standby plant 5.3.3 Advantages 1) Low cost if correctly applied 2) Requires no advanced planning other than ensuring spares availability 5.5.4 Preventive Maintenance PM is a regularly scheduled maintenance activity. In line with management’s policy on obtaining the best value from the maintenance funds.3.3. preventative maintenance is carried out only on those items where a failure would .3.3.3. This is normally programmed.3. with an objective to anticipate problems and correct them before they occur. 5.2 Objectives of BD/Corrective Maintenance 1) To put back machinery back to work and minimize production interruptions 2) To control costs of maintenance crew to the minimum 3) To control cost of the operations of repairing 4) To control costs of repair & replacement parts to minimum 5) To control investment cost on purchase of standby or back up machines 6) To carry out appropriate repair intermittently at each malfunction to improve the life of the machine. detection and prevention of incipient failure.
distribution transformers. battery back up at sub-station. isolators. 2. but it is found that a greater number of machine failures are at the peak when machine gets progressively worse over a period say months/ years. fire alarms. 2) Condition-based Maintenance [explained below] 3) Opportunity Maintenance (find out the opportune moment for maintenance) The preventive maintenance is carried out at irregular intervals and this interval is determined by seeing the actual condition of the machine. sub-station transformers. -To avoid breakdown & ensure smooth production following time based activities are practiced: 1.g.result in expensive consequences. etc. item replacement. Periodic Inspections . checking. e. Preventive maintenance could be grouped as: 1) Fixed-time Maintenance (FTM) – Here actions carried out at regular intervals (calendar time) e.. repair and major overhaul. etc. Many of these items are also subject to a statutory requirement for inspection and preventive maintenance. circuit breakers. lubrication. lifts. It is much economical to carry out preventive maintenance. so that the major break downs are avoided & minimizes possibility of unanticipated production interruptions. electricity supply. PM’s prerequisites are: a) Proper design and installation of equipment b) periodical inspection of plant and machinery to prevent breakdowns c) repetitive servicing and overhaul d) lubricate.g. Daily Maintenance – Cleaning. clean and up keep To achieve prevention of break-downs planned service is carried out with the explicit additional objective of detecting wear points and ensure perfect functioning by replacing parts Here the safe overhaul interval is selected. Routine & planned maintenance includes Preventive maintenance actions.
Reduces unplanned work 6.4. cost estimates etc 2) Use of check lists by maintenance staff and inspectors 3) Identify and allocate well qualified crew & inspectors for making repairs 4) Use of budgeting system for major replacements/ repair 5) Proper procedures laid out for meeting the PM objectives in full 5. More expensive due to more planning &replacement of parts before failing.2 Features of PM 1) Proper identification of items in each machineries which warrants fixed time maintenance. daily maintenance etc and programming the activities with work content.3. Restoration to recover deterioration 5.1 Preventive Maintenance System is 1.4.4. Reduces total maintenance cost 5.3.3. Reduces total down time 5. Reduces total work-load 4. Use of recommended Grades of oils 4. 2.3. parts list etc 6) Adequate stock of spare parts . Increases reliability 3.3 Requirements of Preventive Maintenance Program 1) Good maintenance management department with experienced personnel 2) To firm up plan of PM in consultation with shop personnel 3) A good lubricating and cleaning schedule 4) Detail procedures on maintenance work 5) Proper records maintained along with manuals.
Preparation of schedule of maintenance 3.5 Advantages of Preventive Maintenance 1. probable causes. Labor used cost effectively . Reduction in breakdown frequency 4.3.3. Improves reliability of the machineries 6.4. Preparation of maintenance schedule and detail program of work with time frame for completion 6. Maintenance is planned well in advance 2. Preparation of history card of all the repair work carried on such a machine and the remarks there on 4.7) Properly training maintenance crew Adequate space around machinery for maintenance work 9) Previous data on failure etc of each machine/equipment 10) Systematic approach.4.a guide showing problems.4 Steps involved in Preventive Maintenance 1. Preparation of inspection chart 7. Higher safety for workers 7. diagnosis system. Identifying the job to be taken & appropriate case register 2. repair procedures etc 11) Suppliers recommendations for up keep of machineries. 5. Improves productivity due to lesser breakdowns 5. Preparation of job specification 5. Reduction in wear and tear of machines and increase in their life 3. Preparation of maintenance report on the work done 8. Feed back on the corrective action/ repair work done and its results 5.
Maintenance sometimes induces failures (infant mortality) 5. Preventive maintenance is designed to prevent or at least to minimize failures/breakdowns and reduce the need for corrective maintenance.6 Disadvantages/limitations 1.4. temperatures. Leaser rejection and better quality 11. whereas. 2.3.8. audio gauges. Maintenance activity and costs increased 2. Identification of parts and its nature and cost involved in repairs is possible 5.7 Differences between Corrective and Preventive Maintenance 1. Less stand by equipment requirement 13. Less breakdown costs.5 Predictive Maintenance Predictive Maintenance is one of the modern approaches to preventive maintenance where in sensitive instruments are used to predict anticipated failure of machines & equipment. are used to predict ensuing troubles/problems in machineries. Conditions of the machinery can be checked on line periodically or on continuous basis and maintenance crew can take decision & plan overhaul/repair as warranted.3. corrective maintenance is carried out to repair the equipment after fault occurs/ breakdown happens. It is possible to have planned shutdowns and repair 9.4. Sensitive instruments like vibration analyzer. . Preventive maintenance program controls the repair costs as well as the overall life of the equipment where as in corrective maintenance brings back to the original life depending on the extent of damage the earier breakdown has brought into the equipment. Unnecessary and invasive maintenance is carried out 3. 5. Applicable only to age related deterioration 4. amplitude meters. resistance gauges etc. sensors for pressure. 12. Minimizes breakdowns and hence minimum inventory hold ups 10.3.
A major part of the predictive maintenance involves the ongoing analysis to ensure wear levels that damage the machine are within limits Good ability to predict impending failures well in time to prevent breakdowns. analysis and tribology. (which otherwise cause heavy penalty costs. which are indicative of malfunctions to decide on corrective treatment. when status or condition so demands It is beneficial to follow a system which is not calendar based but condition based. Under maintenance or too long intervals between two successive checks may result in high incidence of failures. wear debris analysis. i. The intervals should be carefully selected as over maintenance or under maintenance are both detrimental and hence undesirable. oil condition. we should have a continuous knowledge of the machines based on certain critical predetermined / pre-formulated parameters . health and safety hazards etc) will result in 1) Maximizes the online operations 2) Minimizes downtime 3) Increased plant and Personnel safety 4) Optimal maintenance The above is achieved by continuous plant / equipment monitoring & diagnosing the actual condition by means of online non-destructive testing methods. pump cavitations. temperature. 1) Similar to health monitoring of senior executives to check symptoms. material and time.) Measuring of physical parameters may not be enough to detect the destructive effects on a machine or process. 2) If corrective treatment is not adopted at the right time. etc. incorrect installation. it may result in serious breakdowns. In a Preventive Maintenance system. Over maintenance or too frequent maintenance increases extensive downtime resulting in added costs on men. Main difficulty is in making the correct choice of preventive maintenance intervals based on OEM’s recommendations and own -experiences.e. maintenance is on a pre-determined cycle whereas in a Predictive Maintenance system maintenance is done only. misalignments. rotor imbalance.Predict failures well in advance by monitoring parameters and by use of certain techniques (like vibration. Hence an optimal maintenance interval has to be arrived at.
to cut downtime. but much before the possible breakdown. there is enough time available for the maintenance crew to make adequate advance preparations. Predictive Maintenance is very cost effective where cost of unplanned breakdowns is very high. When permissible limits are reached and warning signals are issued by the measuring devices. In the Condition based maintenance (also known as Dynamic predictive maintenance or Diagnostic maintenance) the plant is maintained just after some problems arisen. can save around 30% of maintenance costs and with a bonus of 15% savings in energy costs.3. Between the ‘action limit and the maximum permissible time limit’. increased leakages etc) CBM is a continuous or periodic measurement and interpretation of data to indicate the condition of an item to determine the need for maintenance. Temperature changes can be photographed . 5. A sense of confidence is created amongst production and maintenance personnel when they analyze the monitored data and predict that the machines are operated safely till they reach maximum permissible limits. etc. smell and through their experience on the existing condition of the equipment/aggregate. It is just like a hammer used to strike a wheel to listen for that distinctive sound to say whether there is crack in wheel rim or not. thus making predictive maintenance more economical as compared to preventive and corrective maintenance strategies. The main function of condition monitoring is to provide the knowledge of a machine and its rate of change. With rapid developments in machining technology through CNC controlled machines. more universal and better predictive tools and instruments are added in the system. CBM involves recording some measurement that gives an indication of the condition (ex: increase in vibration levels. it implies that the particular part needs replacement and a special attention. An ability to forecast the machine behavior by Condition Monitoring is a pre-requisite for Predictive Maintenance Operators who work with equipment every day can listen to equipment and identify changes in noise levels and vibrations. FMS with artificial intelligent devices and computer simulations and modeling. Predictive Maintenance.A given machine can continue to be kept in operation as long as the monitored parameters continue to remain within the laid down limits.6 Condition Based Maintenance CBM relies on the fact that the majority of failures do not occur instantaneously but develops over a period of time. if practiced effectively. temperature soars. Condition monitoring is merely a tool that is used by crew through touch.
misalignments. CNC systems have built – in diagnostics which continuously monitor the system hardware to ensure normal functioning. alarms. This type of maintenance check on performance is vital as the future failures in safety systems can have more catastrophic effects. 2. low battery voltage. Curve when extrapolated can indicate maximum & safe permissible limits 5. corrosion Audible – Unusual noise. which gives warning that something is ‘not right’. Chatter Smell – Smoke.3. An investigation can then be carried out to identify the exact problem. contaminated cutting fluid Touch – Excessive bearing temperature State-of-the-art CNC systems facilitates adaptive Controls with signals from appropriate transducers. are displayed on the screen well in time to facilitate corrective action without disruption of production.6. unbalance in rotors. overheating of motors c) Current sensors – cutting load monitored by sensing spindle Condition Monitoring is achieved by the operator’s senses to detect abnormalities Visual – Leakages. which are to be controlled by maintenance a) Vibration Sensors – to track tool wear/ breakages.through IR thermograph. gear defects. Condition monitoring is dependent on sensors and transducers for measuring different parameters. if other parts of the system fail. Indications like over – temperature.1 Condition Monitoring Methods There are two methods used namely: 1. etc. Condition Checking & Monitoring a) Trend Monitoring: . Action limit curve shows the prescribed for monitoring parameters during normal operations. Trend Monitoring. mechanical looseness b) Thermostats – hydraulic oil temperature.
This may be done by . proximity probes) to record vibration level 3) Wear Debris monitoring: This works on the principle that the working surfaces of a machine are washed by the lubricating oil and any damage is detected from particles of wear debris in the oil. 5) Corrosion monitoring: Is applied to fixed plant containing aggressive materials. 2) Vibration Monitoring: Involves the attachment of a transducer (velocity. Detection (when) of the developing fault at an early stage 2. which can be made by the application of CM: · Avoiding losses of output due to breakdown of machinery. e) Selecting Methods of monitoring Five main techniques of conditioning monitoring 1) Visual monitoring: inspection & recording of surface appearance. 4) Performance and behavior monitoring: Involves checking the performance of a machine to see whether it is behaving correctly. using some suitable indicator & is used as a measure of machine condition at that time. accelerometer. Diagnosis (what) of its origin so that spare parts can be ordered 3. c) Condition Monitoring: Includes three stages: 1.Trend monitoring is the continuous monitoring or regular measurement and interpretation of data collected during machine operation. d) Economics of Condition Monitoring: The savings. Prognosis (forecast) subsequent measurement which will then establish the trend and enable the repair schedule to be planned. · Reduces the cost of maintenance · Capital invested can be recovered faster. b) Condition Checking: Condition checking is where a check measurement is taken with the machine running. to monitor the rates of internal corrosion of the wall of the plant. to indicate variations in the conditions of the machine or its components.
3. Production can be modified to extend unit life 5. overall cost of failure. Maximises equipment availability 2.6. The hole is then plugged with a suitable leak proof material. Select proper examining technique.6. standby availability of machine. sound. Cause of failure can be analysed 6.4 Disadvantages 1) Thermograph & Oil Debris Analysis [specialised equipment and training] . Maintenance can be planned. Establishing programs and methods specifying the parts to be examined 4. Establish for each part of the machine the severity limits of the machine condition parameter (Vibration. 7. Labour can be organised 8. 5. 7. cost of maintenance.6.3. Listing and numbering of machine to have identification and location details 2. Training examiners for the above jobs. Allows shutdown before severe damage occurs 4. failure statistics (MTBF-MTTR). Cost of examination. Spares can be assembled 5.2 Implementation of Condition Based Maintenance: Involves: 1. 5. standardizations planned.3 Advantages 1. 5. Selecting critical machines for CM 3. operating conditions. contamination etc) to be measured.drilling a hole through the wall and drilled coupon of material is observed for corrosion. Some forms of inspection utilising human senses can be inexpensive 3. To arrive at best interval for examination considering the criticality of process.3. 6. Recording data 8.
a _______________ recurring periodically 5) In the following list find out which one is considered as disadvantage of routine management: . 3) Irregular preventive maintenance do not include a) Repairs b) Overhauls c) Reduction of noise levels and vibrations d) Clean up of leakages etc on all the machine aggregates daily 4) RM is a procedure followed regularly i. e) To control costs of repair & replacement parts to minimum f) To carry out appropriate repair intermittently at each malfunction to improve the life of the machine.2) Requires careful choice of the correct technique. fixtures and tools d) All the above 2) Which of the following is not an objective of remedial maintenance? a) To put back machinery back to work and minimize production interruptions b) To control costs of maintenance crew to the minimum c) To control cost of the operations of repairing d) Replacing the faulty machine when it starts malfunctioning. 3) Time is required for trends to develop to know machine condition Self Assessment Questions 1) Which of the following is not a common cause of equipment breakdowns? a) Improper preventive maintenance b) Inadequate lubrication c) Improper setups of jigs.e.
faithful implementation and recording 6) Initial list of planned maintenance will be in detail Breakdown Maintenance is the method of operating the machines to run ______________ and then repair in order to restore them to an acceptable condition. Initially it looks economical . No stock of spares 6. No services except occasional lubrication unless failure occurs 2. ______________________ 5. Maintenance done by sub-contractors 4. 6) Planned maintenance is the activities carried out according to a ______________ and hence known as scheduled maintenance or productive maintenance 7) Characteristics of Planned Maintenance-fill up the missing one: 1) Instructions are more detailed than in routine maintenance 2) Calls for differently timed service for the same unit 3) Schedule is drawn with dates 4) ___________________________ 5) Entails considerable planning effort. No maintenance men on regular basis 3.1) Simple to establish & follow 2) Little or no clerical work 3) High degree of prevention by intercepting developing faults 4) RM may not provide the service specified by the manufacturer 5) A more advanced stage calls for ’service instructions on a pre-printed schedule and checklists’. 9) Characteristics of Break-down Maintenance System-fill the missing one: 1.
maintenance has been given more importance in the operational plans. any stoppage due to breakdown in any part of the system will affect the entire production process. with JIT inventory and sophisticated processes. predictive and remedial maintenance. Breakdown or remedial maintenance is undertaken when a machine breaks down or malfunctions. Predictive maintenance is a type in which the vital attributes of a system are monitored continuously and any deviations from the accepted limits are taken to rectify the problem. and predictive. Daily Maintenance – Cleaning. lubrication. Restoration to recover deterioration 11) Predictive Maintenance is one of the modern approaches to preventive maintenance where in __________ are used to predict ____________ of machines & equipment. In planning. etc. In the present high tech production. To counter this. 2.4 Summary Poorly maintained machines/equipment has severe negative impact on the productivity and the quality of the output in a production unit. 2) ____________________ 5. 13) There are two methods used namely-Which is the second one 1) Trend Monitoring. 12) CBM relies on the fact that the majority of failures do not occur instantaneously but develops over a period of time. Preventive maintenance is undertaken before need for maintenance arises and aims at minimizing the anticipated breakdowns. .7. Periodic Inspections 3. Use of recommended Grades of oils 5. using high technology machines. checking. preventive. Maintenance is of three main categories: breakdown.which one is not the recommended practice? 1. Creates internal problems namely: Who to do the repair? From where to get parts? How do we pay for them? Who will go & buy parts? 10) To avoid breakdown & ensure smooth production following time based activities are practiced. Check all the machines at firmed up time intervals 4. maintenance managers have to decide on a proper balance between preventive. CBM involves recording some ___________ that gives an indication of the condition.
What are the advantages & disadvantages of breakdown/corrective maintenance? 8. What is meant by planned/scheduled/productive maintenance and what emphasis it pays in maintaining the machine/equipment 4. Organizations have realized the importance of maintenance and its planning. Where this type is applicable. What are the important functions of maintenance department 5.5 Terminal Questions 1. but much before the possible breakdown. What are the characteristics & objectives of breakdown/corrective maintenance? 7. Explain briefly the condition based monitoring methods 15. Outline the various types of maintenance 3. 14.In the Condition based maintenance (also known as Dynamic predictive maintenance or Diagnostic maintenance) the plant is maintained just after some problems arisen. State the objectives of maintenance management? 2. What are the advantages and disadvantages of condition based maintenance? 5. What is condition based maintenance. What are the advantages of Planned Maintenance? 6. CBM is a continuous or periodic measurement and interpretation of data to indicate the condition of an item to determine the need for maintenance. What is predictive maintenance? What are its advantages over preventive maintenance? 13. Discuss the advantages and limitations of preventive maintenance 11. Define preventive maintenance and state its objectives 9. Which enables them to reduce breakdowns. accidents and minimizing the costs of maintenance activities? 5. Describe the procedures of preventive maintenance program 10.6 Answers . Total productivity maintenance is practiced to improve the productivity of the equipment by minimizing the number of breakdowns and malfunctions. Distinguish between preventive and breakdown maintenance 12.
measurement 13. anticipated failure 12.4. (4) No organised efforts to find out reasons 10. d) Replacing the faulty machine when it starts malfunctioning 3.2 5.1 & 5.3. c) Reduction of noise levels and vibrations 4. Refer 5.4. Until they fail 9. Refer 5.4 4. Refer 5.4. Predetermined schedule 7. Refer 5. d) All the above 2. (4) Establishes the work-load for the crew 8.3 3.3.2 7.Self Assessment Questions 1.3. Cyclic operation 5. Condition Checking & Monitoring Terminal Questions 1.4. Not occur. (3) Check all the machines at firmed up time intervals 11. Refer 5.2.4 . (4) RM may not provide the service specified by the manufacturer 22.214.171.124 8.3. Refer 5.4.2 2. Refer 5.2 6. Refer 5.3 & 5. Sensitive instruments.
126.96.36.199. Refer 5.6. .188.8.131.52.4 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Refer 5. Refer 5.1 15.Refer 5. Refer 5.6 14.4.4 10.4.4.4.6. Refer 5.3 & 5.6 11.4.4. Refer 5.5 & 5.7 12.5 13.4.
6 Planning System 6.11 Summary of Maintenance Planning 6. Specialization & Coordination of Planning 6.13 Six Maintenance Scheduling Principles 6. Project work 6.16 Answers 6.14 Summary of Maintenance Scheduling 6.5 Benefit of Planning 6.1 Introduction .8 Productivity.2 Functions of Maintenance Planning 6.OM0006-Unit-06-Maintenance Planning and Scheduling Unit-06-Maintenance Planning and Scheduling Structure: 6.3 Planning Vision & Mission 6.1 Introduction Objectives 6.15 Terminal Questions 6.12 Maintenance scheduling principles 6.9 Maintenance Planning Principles 6.4 Functions of Maintenance Planner 6.7 How much Planning will help? 6.10 Planning Preventive & Predictive Maintenance.
tools. Here procedure already in the file or important information that persons who worked on that equipment have recorded previously. Planning does not solve everything. management.All manufacturing units having varieties of machineries and equipments require maintenance to keep them up in good working conditions and for sustaining and achieving higher productivity. and other vendors to cater to the common maintenance tasks on critical equipment and safety equipment. shops. Where does planning fit into? What principles make it work? How planning is required to be done? How to provide additional resources for planners and personnel for maintenance activities? Etc. and project maintenance is essential. By implementing fundamental planning and scheduling system. are the subjects being discussion. If detailed procedures and checklists contribute to better reliability. planners. data collection and research of certain processes etc. control of inventories. The planner should also give more attention to critical equipment and safety areas. tool rooms. qualified personnel. Other tools used are work order system. The plant has better control over work that is scheduled. leadership. storeroom support. Objectives: After studying this unit you shall be able to · Prepare a plan for maintenance · Analyse the benefits of planning for maintenance · Examine the principles of maintenance planning . and maintenance measurement. teamwork. In addition. The final improvement to over 50% can be achieved through special aids. but certainly brings together many aspects of maintenance. tool room facilities. performance. planning is very essential. Planning and scheduling promotes labor productivity by examining potential delays and scheduling work. as they leverage their expertise into job plans. Planning concentrates on adding value. are included in the job plans. consideration of reliability maintenance as preventive maintenance. To achieve the desired maintenance efficiency. and safety. engineers. predictive maintenance. The planning system is designed with procedures to be followed over time through a systematic job plans. it is preferred for the organization to become a procedure-based one with teams of experienced technicians. communication. organizations could improve maintenance productivity to about 40%.
thus enabling a better control over their work. a planner develops a work plan after receiving a work request. and labor time estimate. The work plan includes a job scope. · The time estimates made by planner gives the idea to crew personnel to judge how much work is assigned and what work is there. 6. 6. . · The planned information gives the supervisors a reference for expected work and time for completion and helps to have a control through on problems that might lessen productivity. procedure for accomplishing task and identify any parts and special tools required. identification of craft skill required.· Distinguish between preventive and breakdown maintenance planning.3 Planning Vision & Mission The mission of planning revolves around doing the right jobs that are ready to go. For ex: Planner has to judge whether the defective valve should be repaired or replaced. For this the maintenance planning will have the following functions: · Coordinating mechanism within the maintenance department. · Once the work order is received.2 Functions of Maintenance Planning Maintenance management uses planning as a tool to reduce unnecessary job delays through advance preparation. · Planner does preparatory planning for the crew supervisor and craft persons who executes the work. Coordinating function is the key to achieve competitive edge. To prepare a job in advance. the maintenance planning initiates action. · Crew personnel are then assigned the job for execution and avoid problems such as delays stemming by insufficient skills/ not having required materials or tools. · The planner identifies appropriate materials for the specified job and checks whether they are available or be specially obtained. · The planner specifies appropriate craft skills required for that particular job. The work plan is nothing but the information a planner makes ready for the technician to execute the work. · The planner considers the proper scope of work for the job. · Maintenance planning brings together or coordinates the effort of many other aspects of maintenance.
Doing the right jobs involves job priorities. Work plans avoid anticipated delays. . 6) The planner reserves such required parts in the store to ensure their availability. The entire maintenance organization should be committed to schedule proactive works. for easy understanding and identifying the proper parts for his next work.4 Functions of Maintenance Planner 1) Maintenance planning involves identifying parts and tools that are necessary for maintenance jobs. 3) With preparatory work. seals. 5) The planner writes a job plan that identifies parts needed (such as gaskets. and it controls and coordinates and brings resources to leverage productivity. bearings etc) along with their identification numbers. A work crew is ready to go immediately to scheduled work assignments as all instructions. planning sets the stage for the maintenance force to act upon quickly. release of the work orders to proceed etc. It also involves identifying the actual work scope.The planning mission states “Doing the right jobs & ready to go”. crew schedules. With proper planning or preparation efforts for each job. 7) If parts are not in the inventory. 6. Planning is Information central. 2) The planner writes work instructions on how to do the job. Arrange parts required to be placed in a convenient location nearer to the job site before the job starts. tools. planner initiate action to organize and get them. arrangements are ready. parts. without wasting time. method of maintenance. clearances. improve on past jobs. crew starts their work as per job. work involved. 4) Planners evolve good planning methodology that increases maintenance productivity. A planning mission statement is: “To increase the Maintenance crew’s ability to complete the work orders quickly”. but ready handle judiciously the reactive type of work also. considering the safety aspects of the job. so that technicians need not wait for parts to arrive. and allow advance scheduling through which the supervisors will assign and control the proper amount of work. 9) Planner provide a bill of materials or an illustrated parts diagram both to the stores person and craft men.
fork lifts. 4) Skill levels and time estimates on jobs and proper scheduling are included in the subject work order. specify job scope. time estimates.7 How Much Planning Will Help? a) Tangible Help: • Planning provides tangible help for organization to achieve: . resulting benefit achieved are the improved productivity and overall effectiveness or efficiency in maintenance. 7) Prepares Schedules for maintenance works and follow track until complete. 6. 6. procedures for assigning proper amount of work to all the skilled/unskilled crews. 5) Creates data and information on machineries and equipment and its maintenance methodology for future reference and analysis. with identification numbers.5 Benefit of Planning As planning consists of arranging parts and the necessary tools for maintenance work and provide necessary guidelines by use all the inputs effectively through a maintenance system. the maintenance process has the following steps: 1) Receives request from the concerned section for the maintenance work. 6. 6) Establishes through work order system.6 Planning System In a proper planning system.10) Planner is required to coordinate with vendors & ensure material supply along with the quality control on vendor supplies. 3) Planner evolves a system and procedure for each type of maintenance work. 11) Planner identifies special tools needed by the craft man for maintenance activities and reserve such tooling and other accessories at the place of work. Hence the purpose of planning is to focus on high productivity through an organized planning & scheduling principles. anticipated parts & tools. Institute a control system that contributes to managing productivity. craft and skill level required. 12) Planner will arrange material handling equipments like crane. pallets etc for easy movement of identified parts and tools to work site in advance. 2) Planner plans work order.
where the management created an exclusive planning group. -Extra labor power can be reallocated to added value activities. intangible benefits of planning were seen in providing a better control of maintenance work. To determine if any of the delay time could be avoidable requires planner’s assistance for analyzing such nonproductive time. The practical result of planning-example: In a power station. Crew will plan their work and then executes. Practically the total maintenance work was completed by 35 personnel as compared to previous year’s statistics of using around 45 personnel for the same output. c) “World class” wrench time · Statistical work sampling studies measures productive time. 6. Analysis of the nonproductive time is one of the most valuable work-sampling. thus frees technicians for more productive work. • • Through proper planning. Improvement here was only possible with the planning in place. one can calculate and measure the actual amount of increased maintenance productivity. b) Improving the Wrench Time and Productivity · Work activities are classified differently. Is this wrench time a reality? Instances are there in which experienced workforce moved from average 35% wrench time to 55% with fine tuned planning. In addition. also known as wrench time. · The maximum performance target for wrench time was shown at an average of around 55%. The industry’s average productive maintenance time was less than 30% (the measure of wrench time) when a typical maintenance technician has spent less than 20% on the real work and it is found that the balance time is spent on other nonproductive tasks. thus using the freed 10 trained personnel for other productivity improvement activities. where in the planning addresses and reduces delays. Further if there are three crews working with . But it proved the other way as seen from the above examples. -Work force is freed up. Specialization & Coordination of Planning a) The specific benefit of planning in Wrench time improvements · There are organizations who feel that the planning work is part and parcel of the maintenance crew.8 Productivity. could achieve a remarkable reliable plant capacity within a year through superior availability and a drastic improvement in work force productivity.-Amount of work accomplished rises.
for which they train and maintain separate groups of mechanics. Six principles greatly contribute to the overall success of planning. Industry to this day continues to use specialization. But experience has shown that a single planner can plan maintenance jobs for more than 20 persons. 2) Planners concentrate on future work. Specialization increases productivity per person. electricians. There is a methodology of work measurement what is commonly known as wrench time and this frequently misunderstood principle and hence must be made clear to everyone concerned. Decisions making at each crossroads on the alternative ways to conduct planning and execute is essential and ultimate success of planning depends on this situational oriented decision. and if one is allocated to planning job and with whose instance. These principles must be understood by all concerned to have effective planning process. 6. Each principle identifies important crossroads. 5) Planners recognize the skill of the crafts.9 Maintenance Planning Principles The principles or paradigms that are evolved over the maintenance mission will profoundly affect planning. . the other two crew reached a wrench time of 50%. and instrument technicians. recognizing skill of the craftsman and measuring performance must be understood by every one concerned with production. as compared to 3x30=90%]. which is essential for a competitive edge. then total productivity is 100 % [2x 50% +0= 100%. 1) Company organizes planners into a separate department. The principles of having planning as a separate department in order to focus on the future work and consequent use of planner’s expertise to create estimates. which spells the importance of planning jobs for maintenance.wrench time of 30%. Loading these specialists to achieve higher wrench times also requires a sound planning and proper coordination. 3) Planners base their files on the component level of systems. b) Specialization and Productivity: · Experienced crew are specializing in a particular field and achieving the specified goals. 4) Planner expertise dictates job estimates.
· Planners report to a different supervisor/ lead planner who will be responsible to provide direction and ensure consistency within the planning group. · Because planning contributes to scheduling. Principle 3: [Component Level Files] · Planning maintains a simple. · The planners must be engaged in preparing work that has not yet begun. or other helpful information so that future work plans and schedules might be improved.6) Work sampling of direct work time provide measure of planning effectiveness. The file system enables planners to utilize equipment data and information and their experience on previous work to prepare and improve work plans. . The supervisor has an obligation to complete the assigned work in an expeditious manner with a minimum of interruptions · The crew focuses exclusively on executing assigned work. Principle 2: [Focus on Future Work] · The vision of planning is to increase labor productivity by preparing the jobs in advance. secure file system based on equipment tag numbers. the lack of planning effort may decrease the number of work assignments to crew members · The company organizing planners to a separate group. which helps planners to become specialized in all the tools and techniques of planning · Planners need to work closely to ensure proper execution of work with consistency. The planners ensure that the feedback information is properly filed to aid future work. The feedback consists of any problems. The Planning Department concentrates on future work and provide the crew to plan their work in advance and remove backlogs · After job completion. especially on repetitive maintenance tasks. Principle 1: [The Company organizes planners into a separate department] · The planners are organized into a separate department from craft maintenance crews to facilitate specialization in planning and focus on future work. plan changes. feedback is given by the lead technician or supervisor to the Planning Department. · Planners use personal experience and develop work plans to avoid anticipated work delays and quality or safety problems. Matching identify tags on the machineries are also arranged.
Principle 4: [Estimates Based on Planner Expertise] · Planners use personal experience and file information to develop work plans to avoid anticipated work delays after considering quality and safety problems. · Plant must choose from among its best craft persons to be planners. . Any recommended deviations from the job plan must be approved by planning before execution. · This principle dictates that planners depend on the workforce being sufficiently skilled when he is putting a minimum level of detail into the initial job plans. · Supervisors must train technicians with deficient skills and give proper support and guidance · Technicians must execute the job precisely as planned for three reasons. · Craft technicians use their expertise to make the specified repair or replacement. The planners also use their own expertise to formalize best practices on individual job plans. · Planners give information to supervisor for scheduling control. The planner calls for a minimum craft skill on a job plan. · Routine maintenance offers the highest potential for planner contribution to company success because more intricate or unusual maintenance tasks receives necessary help from plant engineering department Principle 5: [Recognize the Skill of the Crafts] · The Planning Department recognizes the skill of the crafts. · Supervisors and plant engineers are trained to access these files to gather information they need with minimal planner assistance. File cost information assists in making repair or replace decisions. The planners and technicians work together over repeated jobs to develop better procedures and checklists. These planners rely greatly upon their personal skill and experience in addition to existing information in the files to develop job plans. The plan dictates the skill set necessary to accomplish the work given the state of the job plan. The planner’s responsibility is to firm up the scope of the work request including clarification of the originator’s intent wherever necessary. · The planner then plans the general strategy of the work (such as repair or replace) and includes procedure if it is not already there in the file.· The majority of maintenance tasks are repetitive over a period of time.
clearance.· Finally. 6. · Work sampling to determine wrench time gives this measure of how much planning is helping in the process. Wrench time is the proportion of available time-to-work time during which the craft technicians are on productive working on a job site. Starting with a basic system. and project work and their relationship to the development of the planning principles and practices are discussed here. . Planning can adopt preferred maintenance for higher effectiveness. This determines the effectiveness of the maintenance planning program. · Measuring wrench time thus gives an overall indication of how well the other principles have been implemented or accepted. Principle 6: [Measure Performance with Work Sampling] · Wrench time is the primary measure of workforce efficiency and of planning and scheduling effectiveness. planners visualize the types of work orders to be released for preventive maintenance tasks for the next week. predictive maintenance. statistical observational techniques & study. coordination with other crafts. · Principle 6 dictates that measuring how much time craft technicians actually spend on their job site versus other activities performed such as obtaining parts or tools. the planning system counts on the skilled technicians giving feedback on job plans so that their expertise and the planner’s expertise both contribute to adding information to future plans. not the control of planning or the work force. tools.10 Planning Preventive & Predictive Maintenance. instructions. Delays such as waiting for assignment. These reduce the incidence of reactive maintenance work and to increase plant reliability. Projects The concepts and importance of preventive maintenance. What is actually important is the analysis of the nonproductive time. a) Preventive Maintenance [PM] and Planning · The planning department studies and issues PM’s schedules and reviews them periodically. or equipment information are all deducted. The time that employees spend at their job sites working is called direct or productive work. parts. This principle holds that delays in technician’s job should be avoided. travel. Wrench time analysis is an indicator. Wrench time is measured accurately with a properly structured.
· PdM technology greatly moves the plant’s reliability upward as the predictions in predictive maintenance show an important capacity for growth in accuracy. and duration. The dirt and grime also add undesirable insulation conditions that may affect equipment performance. or minor repairs. tightening of bolts. lubrications etc. · Planners should also review the histories and feedback from all work orders to determine if additional PM work orders are needed. Tightness. as improper lubrication leads to total damage to equipment. repairs. Many do value assigning with experienced personnel to perform PM work orders. b) Predictive Maintenance [PdM] and Planning · Planning plans and schedules PdM work orders. work hours. Lubrication.e. on the work done. · The scope should extend beyond simple repair and replacement of parts to improve equipment reliability as well. which are contributing to more than 50% of all breakdowns. the technician is empowered to make any minor equipment adjustments or minor repairs during execution of the PM. · Emphasis in all PMs is to inspect the equipment for abnormal situations. · Cleanliness helps reduce contamination sources and such clean surfaces to reveal the presence of new leaks. · Lubrication is important part of a PM program. For ex: tightening of fasteners in the coupling if he found they are loose. small adjustments. · The planner must receive feedback to improve the PM work order itself. · PM plans should specify torque requirements or attach torque charts where appropriate and include torque wrenches as a special tool.· A planner should plan each of the PMs with scope and craft requirements such as numbers of persons. PdM personnel make the call on the creation of new work orders. The plan should also list anticipated parts and special tools. Predictive maintenance (PdM) uses technology not available to the regular maintenance work force. Planning for parts encourages the replacement of fasteners based on the technician’s decisions. · The planner should allow some extra time in the work order on all PM work for making unspecified excessive cleaning. . · This requirement of corrective maintenance is ‘TLC’ i. and Cleanliness. PM plans can include rags for wiping and removing old grease when parts are dissembled. For this.
· Planners must vigorously pursue collecting documentation to establish files and also overview position regarding the project replacement or overhaul. with active participation and assistance from the planning group. so that PdM personnel may quickly climb the learning curve. At each crossroads. · Planners should be able to estimate and commit the project schedules with plant engineering and scheduler assistance. or other rebuild tolerances. but difference is in the larger nature of projects. c) Project Work and Planning · Similar to PdM. The decision the company makes regarding each situation determines the ultimate success of planning. bearing clearances. Consideration of six basic principles greatly boosts the planning program efforts toward success. the company has to make a decision regarding alternate ways to conduct planning. · Planners should insist that PdM uses the same equipment tag numbers for ease communication problems. · Planners should facilitate PdM when work on equipment is in process. Plants treat projects as outages and planned as long-range scheduling. Each principle resolves a crossroads decision that affects the planning effort. · Planners should insist to utilize standards set by PdM for certain jobs.11 Summary of Maintenance Planning Effective maintenance is vital to provide reliable plant capacity.· Planners must accept PdM work orders for jobs and translate them into the appropriate scope for the maintenance crews. · Plant normally has the personnel to implement such maintenance project work with the productivity prescribed in the planning and scheduling system. The planning effort has mainly focused on making individual jobs ready to go by identifying and planning around potential delays. planning group plans and schedules work orders to implement projects as regular jobs. The application of maintenance planning makes possible the dramatic improvement in maintenance productivity. · The PdM group can update the technology of the maintenance force. . which involves alignment criteria. 6.
Only when planning keeps a separate file for each piece of equipment. Planners need to avoid continually being interrupted to resolve problems for jobs already under way. are all in the total system. Wrench time will measure whether the objectives of planning are met or not in reducing job delays. Maintenance needed certain methodology to assigning enough work through the planning process. recognizing the skill of the crafts. and measuring planning performance with work sampling for technician’s direct work time. The crews worked on the planned jobs and work sampling study made on it indicated a wrench time of 25% only and further plant could do better job if improved upon. parts availability problems or not properly planning issues Companies placed an emphasis on planning and also they doubled the parts availability in stores to reduce ordering needs. . which is discussed below. using planner expertise to create estimates. tools. 6. When work orders are received. focusing on future work. The analysis revealed that the large delay times not only for parts. and estimate times adequately.The principle of having planning as a separate department. having component level files. The planned work packages increases the maintenance department’s ability to complete work orders effectively. it is practical to retrieve information when needed. Planners need to focus on future work not yet begun. Plnners must possess the experience of top level technicians in order to scope jobs. lunch. the schedules and job priorities for every forecasted work available. utilize files. break. the technicians would scope out the jobs with their social & other times. The principles used for planning and scheduling are for achieving the forecasted skill levels. . Because most jobs are repetitive. This aligning of the work to accomplish the desired effective and efficient maintenance led to the principles of scheduling. the principles or paradigms in order to evolve effective scheduling will come through effective planning process. gave a clear picture of how technicians are completing their work. and shutdown Wrench time concept of measuring the work for each hour of the day. and safely. or travel categories. and then measure schedule compliances. They solved the problems by addressing symptomatic of tools. instructions.12 Maintenance Scheduling Principles Scheduling principles envisages the vision. allowing the crew supervisor to handle day’s work. efficiently. file history help technicians to avoid previously faced problems. but also exists for excessive startup.
The appropriate priority for the work is based on established plant guidelines.Routine maintenance needs the use of principles.13 Six Maintenance Scheduling Principles Six principles that greatly contribute to the overall success of scheduling are: 1. Does the job require mechanics or machinists? Does the job require three helpers to assist a certified electrician? Etc that are necessary for advance scheduling. 6. 4. · The priority may be reviewed periodically and adjusted in coordination with crew. § Job plans provide information about the number of persons required. craft work hours per level. Planners plan the jobs for lowest required skill levels. planners and the plant manager. The entire plant must respect the importance of schedules and job priorities. as they create a framework for successful scheduling of planned work. if required while assigning individuals to execute job plan. Crew supervisor matches personnel skills and tasks 6. Each principle sets guidelines on how the maintenance should handle different scheduling process. Plant priority plays a larger role in creating the schedule of work and all involved should treat it as a serious matter. 3. Schedule compliance of wrench time. Principle 1: [Planners plan the jobs for lowest required skill levels] § Essential part of Principle 1 is that job plans identify the lowest skill necessary to complete the work with the contention that the supervisor will have higher skill capability also. lowest required craft skill level. · Advance scheduling of enough work for the entire week sets the goal for maximum utilization of the available craft hours. 5. and job duration. Principle 2 [Entire plant respect the importance of schedules and job priorities] · Weekly and daily schedules must be adhered to by the crew as per the priorities mentioned in the work orders to prevent undue interruption in schedules. Crew supervisors forecast available work hours one week ahead by the highest skills available. provides the measure of scheduling effectiveness. . It also ensures that a sufficient and the right work are assigned. 2. Schedule assigns planned work for every forecasted work hour available.
new high priority.· Inefficiency peeps through the interruption by low priority jobs coming in way of urgent jobs progressing. · Over assigning and under assigning work are common and acceptable in industries. and reactive jobs as a guide. · Preference is given to completing the higher priority work by utilizing whatever skills available than working on completing the lower priority work. and information from job plans. If a true emergency arises. · First two principles are the prerequisites of the principle-3 scheduling · Scheduler selects the week’s worth of work from the overall plant backlog. . after considering the tasks that are being interrupted · Principle 4 brings all the three previous scheduling principles together. Principle 5: [The crew supervisor matches personnel skills and tasks] · Crew supervisor develops a daily schedule one day in advance using current job progress. · Scheduler uses a forecast of maximum capabilities of the crew for coming week. It allows for emergencies/high priority/ reactive jobs by scheduling sufficient amount of work hours. job priorities. · Scheduling plan is for performing all the works available in the system. crew work load is 1000 worthy labour hours. Principle 4: [A week’s schedule will assign work for all the available work hour] · A week’s schedule will assign work for the total work hours. As these may cause unique problems it is better to be avoided. it is better to delay identified job in full rather than completing half. · Consideration is also given to multiple jobs on the same equipment or system and of proactive versus reactive work available.e. · Scheduler assigns work plans for the crew to execute during the following week for 100% of the forecasted hours i. · Scheduler also uses job priority and job plan information. forecast of highest skill. Principle 3 [Develops week’s schedule for each crew & craft hours required] · Develops a week’s schedule for each crew based on craft hours required. · Crew supervisor matches personnel skills and tasks. This includes proactive work.
.14 Summary of Maintenance Scheduling Maintenance management must consider main scheduling in the maintenance planning strategy to avoid problems of improved efficiency. 6. · Schedule compliance is the measure of adherence to the one week schedule and its effectiveness. Knowing of the lowest skills required for jobs and the highest skills available allows developing a schedule with proper work for the week.· Crew supervisor handles the current day’s work and any other problems in emergency maintenance · Although individual jobs show a wide variance between planned and actual times. When setting craft and time requirements. Work sampling or wrench time studies quantify delays & gives measures of planning and scheduling effectiveness. In case of delay in actual job progress and the incidence of unexpected reactive work in place. He will ensure that each technician receives assignments totalling to full day’s work Principle 6: [Wrench time is the primary measure of workforce efficiency] · Wrench time is the primary measure of workforce efficiency and of planning and scheduling effectiveness. crew supervisor is the best judge to create the daily crew work schedule. allow crew supervisors to make daily schedules. Six basic principles form the foundation of successful scheduling and make schedules and priority systems important. Work sampling or wrench time is the best measure of scheduling performance. Maintenance dept also tracks schedule compliance. or technician instructions · Scheduling aims at reducing delays. The priority system must properly identify the right jobs to start. This increases flexibility in choosing jobs. job plans must plan for the lowest required skill level. tools. · Planning individual jobs can reduce delays such as waiting to obtain certain parts. scheduler to develop schedule in advance. Adhering to schedules is important as interrupting jobs leads to overall inefficiency. assigns work for all available labour hours. and track schedule compliance. · Each day the crew supervisor assigns the next day’s work to each technician. it relatively balances by week end.
and safely. Out of the maintenance planning functions. 5. Maintenance management uses planning as a tool to reduce …………………. . which one is not relevant? · Coordinating mechanism within the maintenance department. This involves job priorities.Schedule based on the wrench time has to be practiced. 3. · Crew personnel are assigned the job for execution · The time estimates are made by planner · Maintenance planning brings together or coordinates the effort of many other aspects of maintenance. Hence use of planned and scheduled work packages increases the maintenance department’s ability to complete work orders effectively.. To prepare a job in advance. Principles 1 and 2 are prerequisites for scheduling. The planning mission statement could be ……………………………. a planner develops a …………… after receiving a work request. 2. through advance preparation. · A maintenance planner does preparatory planning for the craft persons · The planner identifies appropriate materials for the specified job and checks whether they are available or must be specially obtained. crew schedules.. Principle 6 sets overall indicators for scheduling control. . The planners and crew had to deal differently with urgent reactive work by developing job plans for reactive work. A planning mission statement may be: …………………………………. Self Assessment Questions 1. 4. · To arrest the leakages and keep up the lubrication system · The planner specifies the appropriate craft skills required for that particular job. In the maintenance process given below which one not the step to be considered. Principles 3 through 5 establish basis of scheduling process. and works such as preventive maintenance/ breakdown work and release of the work orders to proceed. efficiently. Further working to the maintenance planning based on the six planning principles along with the six scheduling principles will help improve the productivity.
Fill in (c) below: a) The amount of work accomplished rises. . Wrench time is the primary measure …………………………………………… Wrench time is the proportion of available time to. craft and skill level required. . per person 9. as well as specifying anticipated parts and tools. procedures for assigning proper amount of work to all the skilled/unskilled crews h) Prepares Schedules for the maintenance works and follow track until complete. Planning provides tangible help. e) Fix up the wages for each of the work based on the skill level f) Creates data and information on all machineries and equipment and its maintenance methodology for future reference and analysis. Which is sixth one? a) The company organizes planners into a separate department. b) A planner plans the work order by specifying job scope. c) Planners base their files on the component level of systems. 6. time estimates. Statistical work sampling studies measures ……………. b) The work force is freed up. c) Planner evolves a system and procedure for each type of maintenance work d) Skill levels and time estimates on jobs and proper scheduling are included in the subject work order. d) Planner expertise dictates job estimates. c) ……………………………………………… 7. Six principles greatly contribute to overall success of planning.work time during which the craft technicians are on productive working on a job site. b) Planners concentrate on future work.a) Receives request from the concerned section for the maintenance work. with all their identification numbers. Specialization increases ………………………. g) He establishes through work order system. 8.. also known as wrench time.
c.. The principles used for planning and scheduling are for achieving the forecasted higher skill levels. This requirement of corrective maintenance is ‘TLC’ i. Companies strive to do more preventive maintenance. six principles that greatly contribute to the overall success of scheduling are discussed below.. Why planning process is essential for efficient maintenance management? 2. Just as in planning. The entire plant must respect the importance of schedules and job priorities. Improper lubrication leads to total ………. ………. allowing the crew supervisor to handle day’s work. The PdM technology has the potential of greatly moving the plant’s ………. ………. …………………. a. Planners plan the jobs for lowest required skill levels. and such clean surfaces to reveal the presence of new leaks. work and to increase plant reliability.. What are the benefits of maintenance planning? . 3. Explain briefly the functions of maintenance planning. ……………………………………………. Cleanliness helps reduce ……………. and then measure schedule compliances 15.15 Terminal Questions 1. Fill in the missing principle. 10. d. predictive maintenance.. b. and project work to lessen the ……………………. for every forecasted work available.e) Planners recognize the skill of the crafts. …….e. 12. 13. f) ………………………………………. upward as the predictions involved in predictive maintenance show an important capacity for growth in accuracy. 11.. Schedule compliance joins wrench time to provide the measure of scheduling effectiveness. Crew supervisors forecast available work hours one week ahead by the highest skills available. The crew supervisor matches personnel skills and tasks] f. 6.. which are contributing to more than 50% of all breakdowns. 14. to equipment. e.
Explain how the specialization in areas of maintenance will help improve the productivity of the maintenance crew. Work sampling for direct work time provides the primary measure of planning effectiveness 10. What are the maintenance planning principles? How they contribute to the success of planning? 8. 9.no:4)To arrest the leakages and keep up the lubrication system 3. Productive time. “To increases the Maintenance Department’s ability to complete work orders quickly”. (sl. Incidence of reactive maintenance 11.4. Why scheduling after proper planning is essential for effective maintenance and meeting the dead line and avoid delays? 10. 8. Doing right jobs which are ready to go 4. Tightness. Productivity 9. Lubrication. 7. and Cleanliness . 5. (sl. Work plan 2. Unnecessary job. workforce efficiency and of planning and scheduling effectiveness. Explain as to how the maintenance planning will help improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the organization 5. Explain briefly the planning approaches in preventive and predictive maintenance processes. The extra labor power can be reallocated to added value activities. What is wrench time? How it is recognized as a maintenance work measure? 6. no: e) Fix up the wages for each of the work based on the skill level 6.16 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1. 7. Explain briefly how the use of six principles will greatly contribute to the overall success of scheduling 6.
5 4. Refer 6.12. (For d): The schedule assigns planned work for every forecasted work hour available. Terminal Questions 1. Reliability 14.12 10. .8 (b) 7.7 5.7 (c) 6.9 8.2 3.1 2. Refer 6. damage 13.10 a & b 9. Refer 6. Contamination sources. Refer 6. Refer 6.Refer 6. The schedules and job priorities 15. Refer 6. Refer 6.13 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Refer 6. Refer 6.
The new system will become a platform for continuous improvement and will generate long term benefits .11 Answers 7.7 ACE Team Benchmarking Process 7. Using a state-of-the-art maintenance management.8 Overall Craft Effectiveness & its Measurement 7.3 Organization & Processes 7. organizations have tried and tested different approaches for bringing changes that can result in improvements in both the function and the cost.6 Work Measurement for High-Productivity Maintenance Universal Maintenance Standards [UMS] Five Levels of Data in Ums 7.10 Terminal Questions 7.1 Introduction Objectives 7.2 Planner’s Function in Maintenance & Benefits 7.5 Universal Principles for higher Productive Maintenance 7.9 Summary 7.4 Benefits of using ‘UMS’ with Planner’s Functions 7.OM0006-Unit-07-Universel Maintenance Practices Unit-07-Universel Maintenance Practices Structure: 7. process and systems.1 Introduction Automating the maintenance program is a complex task as it requires integrating of people.
some of which are listed below: 1. higher quality. Improving the Overall craft effectiveness [OCE] for productivity. How the Maintenance. Higher productivity maintenance means better customer service. theory. Adopting ACE system for benchmarking and improvements 4. maintenance labour. Benchmarking the best practices 3. especially when sophisticated high tech machineries and equipments are used for production. field checks jobs when . cost reduction and its measurement 5.The analysis and application of work measurements to ensure improved productivity and cost reduction in maintenance should be the prime consideration by the management.2 Planner’s Function In Maintenance & Benefits The planner’s role is varied in nature such as: maintain a backlog of ready-to-work jobs for each technician. Implementing new techniques of measurement. satisfied customers. Achieving excellence in Maintenance Engineering and Management Objectives: After studying this unit you shall be able to: · Outline the functions to be performed by the maintenance planner. on-time delivery and ultimately. · Explain the benefits of UMS · Adopt the ACE system of Benchmarking 7. For achieving the above said prerequisites. Engineering or Industrial Engineering managers spearhead their achievements of dramatic productivity improvements by adopting different methods of work measurements in managing and controlling their activities. a detail analysis and adopting certain state of art principles and improve maintenance productivity are all the focus areas for the above said disciplines. Improving Wrench time of the Crew in Maintenance 6. Use of the state of art principles. as the maintenance represents variable operating cost which includes physical plant value. close communication with supervisors. principles and theory of new measurement techniques. systems and techniques of Universal Maintenance Standards [UMS] 2. are the concepts. materials and overhead.
They can also establish a computerized maintenance management system.needed. based on a formal planning function and the Universal Maintenance Standards. are validated. Both the planners and the maintenance crew should examine to see how the UMS times could be applied. and make available to the crew a set of basic processes and craft operations for the process before establishing bench marks. life cycle cost reductions d) on time completion of jobs e) continuous improvements f) improved service to customers. 7. Hence the measurement provides information to determine the savings potential and also justify the maintenance work measurement program.4 Benefits of Using ‘Ums’ with Planner’s Functions It is found that when a planner’s function is integrated with the UMS resultant impact is of improving the overall maintenance effectiveness. b) Processes Processes involve data development and work order planning. The normal ratio of planners to technicians used is 20 to 30:1. issue of stores taking too long. cost of the items. do the training. 7. Importance of work measurement and the standard for the job should be established. and time to do the work. While the maintenance departments without planners can achieve around 50-60% Productivity. plans work content. plans safety requirements. crew size.3 Organization & Processes The tasks for a maintenance work measurement program fall into two categories namely 1) Organization and 2) Process a) Organization with planner in the forefront Planner maintains and allocates the work and knows all the ratios required for accomplishing the jobs and have good maintenance skills and experience and capabilities to work as the ultimate expert system. Planners develop all the data. verifies priority. requisitions non-stock or out-of-stock items. unrealized opportunity etc. or too many stock-outs. time reporting on the performance including delays. crafts needed. the same can be raised to around 80% when a planning function is integrated with UMS times to work together. In addition the resultant productivity improvement that accrues are the benefits to organization in a) cost reductions b) downtime reduction. . identifies special tools. materials. The planner also develops bench marks and maintains the data library. etc as well as the stores process to check the inventory value.
1 Universal Maintenance Standards [UMS] .7. and maintenance decides how the service should be provided. Timely accomplishment is also universal phenomenon. f) Timeliness Large maintenance jobs are divided into smaller work orders. e) Crew Size The optimum crew size for a maintenance job is the smallest that can perform the work using a specific method and execute in a safe & efficient manner. Together the customer and maintenance crew decide the priority (based on resources available) and urgency of each task compared to other existing current works. The standard crew size is one and any other size is exceptions to the general rule.5 Universal Principles for Higher Productive Maintenance There are several principles that. if followed. which can be accurately planned. c) Activity Responsibility The responsibility for each activity of a work order is necessary to ensure that the work order continues to move toward resolution without delay. lead to the lasting results. d) Customer/Service Relationship The customer decides what is needed from an operational viewpoint.6. 7. but also helps growth in value added processes. Frederick Taylor’s principle applies to all work. They highlight problems or roadblocks for completion of the project. Hence the Universal Standards serve the special needs of maintenance work through the following principles: a) Scientific Principle Best productivity results when each worker has a definite job to do in a definite way within a definite time. It is universal. This principle is also universal.6 Work Measurement for High-Productivity Maintenance 7. Lord Kelvin saw this in his scientific investigation of the laws of physics. maintenance is no exception b) Measurement Before Control The measurement of an activity is basic to its control.
industry or service enterprise. If it is a low volume work done by multi skilled crew. sheet metal. There are at least four to five hundred different jobs. finance. some unique characteristics are revealed. then the time . Even though parts are different. masonry. the result is that the crew does longer cycle work compared to other production workers. which in turn depends on: a) Nature of Maintenance works: In maintenance works. how much rust is present on them etc. education or healthcare. Each element requires further study followed by application of stopwatch time or a predetermined time system analysis to determine the exact time required for each through the method selected. engineers adopted new methods for analyzing and assigning standards to maintenance work. A simple task such as removing and replacing a part may take more or less time depending on how tight the bolts are. as these standards offered flexibility and could be applied not just in one location. in each of skills of fourteen types of jobs: mechanical. availability of such standards. or one country. commercial. The combination of many elements requiring different maintenance tasks and varieties of skills warrants developing and maintain a library of enormous number of standards. HVAC. Hence breaking long jobs down into elements have resulted in a large number of elements.The principles adopted for above said requirements are based on the application of work measurement in maintenance. carpenter. custodial. pipe. IT management etc. called ‘Universal Maintenance Standards’ (UMS). but everywhere where maintenance work is performed –manufacturing. to what volume of work etc. service. If the time to perform similar tasks is known. For example. Applying the specific standards to the daily maintenance workload requires answers for: which task standard is required. This range of time is same in 95 % of situations and hence standard average time is applied and practiced 2) Work content comparison. Techniques: The UMS system is based on three important techniques: 1) Range-of-time. is it realistic to measure. The range-of-time technique recognizes the variable nature of maintenance works. machining. time taken for threading a one-inch nut on to a bolt by hand operation takes almost same time like that of screwing in a light bulb into the holder. weld. instrument. b) Evolution of Universal Maintenance Standards (UMS) In the early 1950’s. government. the motion pattern for two tasks may be same and also time to perform the work is almost the same. electrical. paint. or tasks. automotive. utilities. to what precision. labour.
2 Five Levels of Data in Ums 1) Basic Motions The foundation of UMS data is the predetermined time system for basic motions. For instance. 3) Craft Operations Some operation times are unique to a certain craft. Two widely used predetermined time systems are ‘Methods-Time Measurement’ and ‘Operation Sequence Technique’. using the work content comparison technique is possible. The variables like weight of the part. Each of these motions are recorded and these data becomes the established times for future reference and standardization. common to all crafts. Similar craft data for other skilled craft operations such as painting. This system analyzes and classifies data into basic motions and establishes a relationship between the motions and the time required to perform them. position and release. Spread sheet fills the additional needs of finding quickly the . 7. carpentry. grasp. machining could be made available for the crew of maintenance 4) Bench Marks Using UMS.6. namely 1) basic motions. 3) craft operations. which are pooled as weld craft operations data. where work measures are dividing into basic motions such as reach. By using spread sheets. body motions. electrical. engineers can typically apply standards to all maintenance work with bench marks covering all the crafts and through the use of spread sheets they can substantially reduce the data library compared to the one with direct standard method. pipefitting. 5) Spread Sheets. Five levels of data in the UMS library. 3) Organizing the data UMS data is organized in a building block fashion.that can be applied to any other similar task with + or – 5%. 2) Basic Operations Basic motions are grouped together to form basic operations. becomes the standardization process and hence these are universally adopted. distance moved. welding operations are made up of manual handling. 2) basic operations. move. whether the how clamping of part is done etc are recorded in the table for further use as standards. 4) bench marks and 5) spread sheets. a planner is able to establish planning times for a large number of jobs using relative sample data of the benchmark jobs and publicise the data along with the step-by-step process. machine settings and arc striking time etc.
ACE Team Benchmarking Process parallels the UMS approach in that the range of time and the work content times for a representative number of benchmarked jobs are established. say within 95% confidence range. This new Benchmarking Tool through ACE. These Benchmarked jobs are then arranged into different time categories on spreadsheets for various craft work areas. The ACE System is used to develop maintenance performance standards. and lubrication and service. 1) ACE System & UMS Using predetermined standard data. supervisors and planners . All work order times released for the jobs and it consists of four components: job preparation time. Spreadsheets include brief descriptions of the benchmark jobs and represent pure wrench time. rest and minor unavoidable delays. a team of relatively small in number. 2) Objective of ACE Team Benchmarking Process Objective is to determine the reliable planning times for a number of selected “benchmark” jobs and to gain a consensus on the predetermined work content time. in motors. bringing control systems. and in mechanical fields like Belt drives. the standards are established. compressors. which is called as ‘Reliable Planning-Time standards’. reducers and gear boxes. job site time and allowances for personal.appropriate one for an application or finding the right bench mark for comparison. have developed a bench marking process for the major work areas/types of maintenance operations. 7. in generators. which are then imposed on the maintenance force. who have performed these jobs earlier and have requisite experience to improve upon them. continuous improvement and the changing of times in performance and methods. The allowances applied to these set times to get a single UMS time calculation for use by the crew. Here the emphasis is placed on improving current repair methods. outlines a new and highly recommended methodology for establishing ‘team-based maintenance performance standards’. Ex: Benchmarking and firming up the task can be easily done in areas like lighting. which are reliable and a well-accepted planning times for the entire maintenance crew. material handling equipment. the technique which was formulated and developed by the ‘The Maintenance Excellence Institute’ [TMEI]. 3) ACE System: a Team-Based Approach ACE Team process is to obtain the most reliable.7 ACE Team Benchmarking Process “A Consensus of Experts” (ACE). reasonable estimate of maintenance “work content” time from a group of experienced crafts people. Spreadsheets are then provided for each work group having a time slots or range of times. clutches and brakes. area travel time.
and engineered standards such as Universal standards. c) How OCE impacts the bottom line: Craft Labor Improving Overall Craft Effectiveness is getting maximum value from craft labor resources and higher craft productivity. technicians. Other methods used include reasonable estimates. risks analysis on jobs that leads to improvements. Computerized maintenance management system (CMMS) could also be practiced. 4) Recommendation of ACE System ACE Team overcomes many inherent difficulties associated with developing maintenance performance standards and hence recommended as the standard process for modern maintenance management. budgeting and costing. 5) ACE Team Benchmarking Process: ACE System is a true team-based process that utilizes skilled crafts people. effective storerooms and . Labour standards will be the baseline for determining craft productivity and improved methods. 7. manpower planning. supervisors. a) Improve current repair methods. which will provide the management with a valuable input data for backlog determination. preventive/predictive maintenance. planners and other knowledgeable people to do two things.and provides an excellent means to evaluate repair method. b) Investment for Planners: The planner’s activity with the team approach of ACE system will establish maintenance performance standards. Best practices such as effective maintenance planning/scheduling. safety and quality b) Establish work content time for selected “benchmark jobs” for planners and others to use in developing reliable planning time. as its application promotes a commitment to quality repair procedures.8 Overall Craft Effectiveness [OCE] & Its Measurement a) Craft Performance element of Overall Craft Effectiveness Determining the required standard hours of a technician require a trail run of the task under standard operating conditions. safety practices. 6) The ACE System Supports Reliability Improvement: ACE Team process can contribute significantly to reliability. scheduling. historical data.
Running from emergency to emergency in a reactive. productive work (wrench time). how efficient the hands-on craft work is done compared to an established planned time or performance standard. 2. e) Productive Wrench Time: Pure wrench time is just the actual output/work done and do not include the miscellaneous waste time caused due to any or many of the following: 1. 7. Measuring and improving overall craft effectiveness (OCE) is one of the components of continuous improvements d) Effective Craft Utilization (CU): Craft Utilization or pure wrench time relates to measuring how effective the work is planned and craft resources scheduled so that these assets are doing value-added. the personal motivation and effort of each craftsperson. 5.continuous parts support will all contribute to proactive. fire fighting mode Waiting on parts and searching parts or part information Waiting for asset info. where certain jobs possibly require a call back to the initial repair thus requiring another trip to fix it right the second . g) Craft Performance Another key element of OCE is the craft performance i.e. Craft performance is directly related to individual craft skills and overall trades experience. repair instructions. h) Craft Service Quality (CSQ) Another element affecting the overall Craft Effectiveness relates to the quality of the repair. planned maintenance and more productive “wrench time”. This element includes quality of the actual work. 4. shop clean up time Lack of effective planning and scheduling Craft Utilization (or wrench time) is measured as the ratio of: CU %=100x [Total Productive hours or wrench time]/ [Total craft hours allotted x amount paid] f) Improve Wrench Time original Significant tangible benefits can be realized by increasing the wrench time. 8. documentation etc. 6. 3. 9. Effective planning/ scheduling is the key to increase wrench time and craft utilization. 20 to 30 % can be expected from more effective maintenance planning & scheduling. drawings. Waiting for the equipment to be shut down for work start Waiting for contractor support to arrive at job site Waiting on other crafts to finish their job Travelling to/from job site Make-ready.
OCE is increased people asset availability and capacity. .time. Measuring and improving Overall Craft Effectiveness and the value received from improving craft assets is an important part of total asset management. b) Benchmarking the best practices. patch jobs or inferior repair parts/materials. Profit-centred in-house maintenance in combination with the wise use of high quality contract maintenance services will be the key to the final evolution that occurs. It is gained value that can be calculated and estimated and then measured. K) Maintenance is For ever Maintenance is a core requirement for profitable survival and total operations success. new techniques of measurement. Organization should not indiscriminately cut craft labour resources when increase OCE is warranted. implementation of certain state of art principles. j) Think Profit-Centred Maintenance leaders and crafts people must develop the “profit” mindset to be competitive and stay in business. the overall Craft Effectiveness and provide value added maintenance services all the time with a profit oriented approach Self Assessment Questions 1. then Overall Craft Effectiveness Factor can be determined by multiplying each of these three elements: Overall Craft Utilization = [Craft utilization (%) x Craft performance (%) x Craft service quality (%)] i) Where Can We Apply OCE Gained Value Maintenance operations that continually fight fires and react to emergency repairs never have enough time to cover all the work (core requirements) that needs to be done. When reliable data is present for all elements. Organizations should recognize maintenance as a core business requirement and should establish the necessary core competencies for survival. In relation to OEE. Craft Service Quality will suffer due to hasty repairs. and a detail analysis of: a) Universal Maintenance Standards. For improving maintenance productivity. c) Adopting ACE system for benchmarking and improvements d) ……………………………………………………………. If the internal core competency for maintenance is not present it must be regained and ensure that they are profit-centred maintenance providers by understanding clearly the UMS.
……………. The resultant productivity improvement that accrues because of integrating planner’s function with UMS will substantially benefit the organization in the following areas of operations/ functions: a. …………………………………………… e. 5. . identifies special tools. when once the ‘work content times’ for a representative number of ‘benchmark jobs’ are established.. The Universal Standards serve the special needs of maintenance work through the following principles: a) ………………… b) Measurement before controls c) activity responsibility d) customer/service relationship e) Crew size f) Timeliness 6. verifies priority. materials. based on a formal planning function and the. ………………. Contributes in meeting other goals and objectives in the strategic plan. The planner’s role is varied in nature such as: maintain a backlog of ready-to-work jobs for each technician. Life cycle cost reductions d.. The UMS system is based on three important techniques: a) Range of time b) …………………………… c) organizing the data 7. Five levels of data in UMS are: a) basic motions b) Basic operations c) Craft operations d) ………………. Downtime reduction and its savings c.e) Improving the Wrench time of the Crew in Maintenance 2. have developed a bench marking process for the major work areas/types of operation. a team of relatively small number of representatives. requisitions non-stock or out-of-stock items. 4. ………………………………. who have performed these jobs and have the requisite experience to improve upon them.. 3. Continuous improvement opportunities and gain in competitive advantage f. 8. ACE Team Benchmarking Process parallels the UMS approach in that the …………………….. Improved services to customers g. plans crew size.. close communication with supervisors. and time to do the work.. Hence the measurement provides information to determine the savings potential and also justify the maintenance work measurement program. 9. checks jobs when needed. ……………………………….. and e) spread sheets. Cost reduction and its total savings b. .
. is getting maximum value from craft labor resources and higher craft productivity.. supervisors and planners and provides an excellent means to evaluate repair method. Spreadsheets include brief descriptions of the benchmark jobs and represent ………………. safety practices.... Spreadsheets are then set up with each work group having a time slots or ……………………... and do not include the miscellaneous waste time caused due to any of the reasons. 14.. Best practices such as effective maintenance planning/scheduling.]/ [Total craft hours allotted x amount paid] 19... reasonable estimate of maintenance …………………. organizations have tried and tested different approaches for bringing changes that can result in improvements in both the function and the cost. Craft Utilization or pure wrench time relates to measuring how effective we are in planning and scheduling craft resources so that these assets are doing …………………..... 18..... b) Establish work content time for selected “benchmark jobs” 13. 17............ . Craft Utilization (or wrench time) is measured as the ratio of: [ . ACE System is a true team-based process that utilizes skilled crafts people. .. 15.10. supervisors. 11...... technicians. Improving ………………………... (%) x Craft service quality (%)] 7. time from a group of experienced crafts people........ Overall Craft Utilization = [Craft utilization (%) x . within the 95% confidence range...9 Summary By using a state-of-the-art maintenance management..... ACE Team process can contribute significantly to ……………… as its application promotes a commitment to quality repair procedures......... a) ……………………………………………………………………..... planned maintenance and more productive ………………. Pure wrench time is just the ………………………. ACE Team process is to obtain the most reliable.. planners and other knowledgeable people to do two things... 16. The new system will become a platform for continuous improvement and will generate long term benefits .... 12...... preventive/ predictive maintenance.. effective storerooms and continuous parts support will all contribute to proactive... risks analysis on jobs that leads to improvements.
but everywhere where maintenance work is performed and is based on three important techniques: a) Range of time b) work content comparison c) organizing the data “A Consensus of Experts” (ACE). industry or service enterprise. Pure wrench time is just the actual output/work done Measuring and improving Overall Craft Effectiveness and the value received from improving our craft assets an important part of total asset management. which are reliable and a well-accepted planning times for the entire maintenance crew. principles and theory of new measurement techniques that are used are: a)Universal Maintenance Standards. b) Benchmarking the best practices c) ACE system for benchmarking and improvements d) Overall craft effectiveness for improved productivity and cost reduction and its measurement e) Improving the Wrench time of the Crew f) Achieving excellence in Maintenance Engineering and Management The resultant productivity improvement and benefits that accrues because of integrating planner’s function with UMS are: a) cost reductions b) downtime reduction. The ACE System is used to develop maintenance performance standards. life cycle cost reductions d) on time completion of jobs e) continuous improvements f) improved service to customers. satisfied customers. or one country. Improving Overall Craft Effectiveness is getting maximum value from craft labor resources and higher craft productivity. The Universal Standards serve the special needs of maintenance work through the following principles: a) Scientific control b) Measurement before controls c) activity responsibility d) customer/service relationship e) Crew size f) Timeliness The Universal Maintenance Standards offered flexibility and could be applied not just in one location. Craft Utilization or pure wrench time relates to measuring how effective the craft resources so are doing value-added. These Benchmarked jobs are then arranged into different time categories on spreadsheets for various craft work areas. develops a bench marking process for the major work areas / types of operation. higher quality. For gaining the internal core competency in maintenance. Overall Craft Utilization = [Craft utilization (%) x Craft performance (%) x Craft service quality (%)] Maintenance is a core requirement for profitable survival and total operations success. productive work (wrench time). is a team of relatively small number of representatives. organizations should clear understand of the Overall Craft Effectiveness. who have performed these jobs earlier and have the requisite experience to improve upon them. For achieving high productive maintenance. measurements by using UMS and .Higher productivity maintenance means better customer service. on-time delivery and ultimately. the concepts.
providing value added maintenance services on a most profitable manner are essential processes. 7.10 Terminal Questions 1. Why application and analysis of work measurements are important in maintenance management? 2. Which are all the concepts, techniques and principles used in measurement of work effectiveness and efficiency in maintenance? 3. Why planner’s role is vital to maintenance and how it improves the effectiveness? 4. Explain briefly the categories to which the tasks of work measurements can be grouped? 5. Explain the benefits that accrue to organization by integrating planner’s works with UMS? 6. Universal Standards serve the special needs of maintenance work through principlesWhich are these universal principles used for higher productive maintenance? 7. What are the three important techniques on which the UMS depends? 8. Explain briefly the five levels of UMS library and how each one is very important criteria for work measurement and analysis? 9. Explain the importance of using spread sheets and bench marks in work measurement to improve maintenance effectiveness? 10. “New Benchmarking Tool through ACE technique outlines a new and highly recommended methodology for establishing ‘team-based maintenance performance standards’, which is called as ‘Reliable Planning-Time standards” –explain how ACE will serve the organization’s needs in maintenance? 11. What is meant by Ace Benchmarking system and to what type of process it is recommended? 12. Explain overall performance effectiveness and how it helps in analyzing the performance of wrench times? 13. What is meant by effective craft utilization and productive wrench time & what are the factors constituting the craft utilization? 7.11 Answers
Self Assessment Questions 1. Improving the Overall craft effectiveness 2. Plans work content 3. On-time completion benefits 4. Universal Maintenance Standards 5. Scientific control 6. Work content comparison 7. Bench marks 8. A Consensus of Experts 9. Range of time concept 10. Range of time and pure wrench time 11. Work content 12. Improve current repair methods, Safety and quality 13. Reliability 14. Overall Craft Effectiveness 15. Wrench time 16. Value-added-productive work. (Wrench time) 17. Actual output/work 18. Total Productive hours or wrench time 19. Craft performance Terminal Questions: 1. Refer 7.1 2. Refer 7.1
3. Refer 7.2 4. Refer 7.3 5. Refer 7.4 6. Refer 7.5 7. Refer 7.6.1.(c) 8. Refer 7.6.2 9. Refer 7.6.2 10. Refer C 11. Refer 7.7.5 12. Refer 7.8 13. Refer 7.8. (d), (e), (f) Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .
4 QMS Documentation Process 8.3 Documentation Management and Control Role of the Document Controller Types of QMS Documents Document Numbering Document Versioning Document Content 8. .7 Answers 8. it must plan for it.2 Documentation Strategy 8.6 Terminal Questions 8.1 Introduction Objective 8. Planning for such documentation is performed during the planning phase for a specific project. Planning for QMS documentation refers to planning for “infrastructure level” QMS documentation. Overall strategy for creating QMS documentation.1 Introduction Before an organization begins creating QMS documentation.5 Summary 8.OM0006-Unit-08-System Operations and Documentation Unit-08-System Operations and Documentation Structure: 8. Planning for QMS documentation should address the following three elements: 1.
perhaps most importantly. providing mechanisms to ensure that documentation in the organization is uniquely identifiable reviewed and approved by the appropriate authority prior to release. Document creation can proceed unhindered once the necessary guidelines are in place to support the creation. review. A wellthought-out. Agreeing upon such issues up front will facilitate the creation of the QMS documentation. Brainstorming the documentation strategy entails obtaining answers to the following questions: · What approach should be adopted for documenting the QMS (top down or bottom-up)? · Up to what level of detail should processes be documented (breadth and depth of documentation)? · How can the QMS documentation be kept relatively stable and immune from minor changes in the organization or its processes? Documentation management and control Documentation management and control are a key element of an organization’s QMS. and. After all. Documentation management and control mechanisms.2. rational approach to documenting your QMS will enable you to rapidly develop a QMS that works and has sufficient but not excessive detail. approval. not one written primarily to appease external quality auditors. This entails answering questions such as: · What types of QMS documents are required? · How should the QMS documents be logically structured? · How should the QMS documents be uniquely identified? · Who should review and approve documents? · How should changes to QMS documents be identified and controlled? · How should superseded (or obsolete) documents be handled? . and dissemination of QMS documentation. kept current. not outside parties. the primary users of an organization’s QMS documentation are its employees. and archived when obsolete (to prevent unintentional use). Process for creating QMS documents. changed in a controlled manner. Documentation strategy This is perhaps the most critical element of QMS documentation planning. made available to users. and 3. will provide you with a documentation set that is usable.
rework. the process that results in a formal documented design for the product may be identified as the product design sub process that is documented in a product design procedure. For example. a product design guidelines document.. hardcopy) repository or an electronic (i. Another important issue that needs to be addressed regards level of detail. the product design sub process should be supported by QMS documentation such as a design document template. Objectives: After going through this unit you will be able to: · Describe what is documentation strategy · Outline a documentation strategy for a unit or an enterprise · Construct a process map for documentation · Compose a QMS for a documentation process 8.2 Documentation Strategy The top-down approach to implementing and documenting the QMS is highly recommended (as opposed to the bottom-up approach). What is the right level of detail to include in the documentation so that it enables correct and . The procedures describing the sub processes and their interaction should be supported by additional QMS documentation.· How should documents of external origin be controlled? · Should the QMS documentation be stored in a physical (i..e. and final release of QMS documents. approval. For example. the overall process that results in a delivered product the product development process may be documented in a product development procedure and/or in a product development process map. Similarly.e. and other needed documentation. as appropriate. review. virtual) repository? · How employees should be provided access to controlled QMS documentation. how should the QMS documentation repository be published? · How should the published QMS documentation be organized to maximize ease of use for employees? Documentation process The third element of QMS documentation planning entails the establishment of a process for the creation. the process that results in a formalized set of product requirements may be identified as the product requirements definition sub process that is documented in a product requirements definition procedure. that is. Within the product development process.
review of existing QMS documentation to identify and correct deficiencies. If this department subsequently is renamed the “independent verification and validation department. or conducting employee training to emphasize key aspects of a process. Sometimes. if any. 2. and minimizes impact (on QMS documentation) of minor changes in the business processes and organizational structure? Any breakdown or inconsistency in process execution does not necessarily result from insufficient QMS documentation. and competency level of employees executing the processes. if your organization has a product test department that is called “system test department. for minor operational or organizational changes. complexity of the process being documented. Include all information that is specifically required to be documented as per the applicable quality management system standard. In the event of any change in the execution in that activity. Include only as much information as is necessary to ensure effective planning. instead of saying that Mark Peterson produces the product requirements document. QMS documents should be written so that they need minimum change.consistent process execution. Below are some guidelines to follow to ensure QMS documentation has the right amount of detail: 1. it is far more convenient to revise one QMS document than to revise multiple documents. state in procedure Y that detailed description regarding that activity can be found in procedure X.” For example. Creating more QMS documentation is not necessarily the right solution. If an activity is described in a procedure X. Some useful tips to accomplish this are: • • • Always refer to roles (or functional areas) that are involved in the execution of a process. For example. or other factors. inadequate employee training. Often departments in organizations are renamed or merged into other departments. instead of referring to departments by name. operation. Other factors that have a bearing on extent of QMS documentation include size of the organization.” then refer to this department as the test department. To minimize the impact of such reorganizations.” you need not revise your QMS documents if the functional responsibilities for testing the product still reside with this group. and another procedure Y needs to refer to the same activity. type of activities. refer to them by the “function performed. is the preferred solution. Such an organizational change can have a huge impact on the QMS documents. 3. Therefore. Do not document details of an activity in more than one QMS document. . and control of processes. state that the requirements document is produced by the requirements engineer. organizations should be careful in how they respond when process execution deviates from requirements. as opposed to referring to individuals by name. but might result from unclear or ambiguous QMS documentation.
The ________________ to implementing and documenting the QMS is highly recommended. Implementation-level QMS documents typically are more prone to changes in content. 2. it is necessary to introduce the concepts of controlled documents and document controller. 3.. type of activities. _____________ should be written so that they need minimum change.1 Role of the Document Controller Before discussing different elements of document management and control. A document controller’s responsibilities generally include. Certainly it is quite inconvenient for department Y to revise its procedure when department X revises its work instructions such that the reference from department Y’s procedure becomes inaccurate. 5. the document controller function may be centralized or distributed. However. Documentation __________ and control are a key element of an organization’s QMS. Self Assessment Questions 1. QMS documentation includes ______ of the organization.3 Documentation Management and Control 8. Documentation process of __________ planning entails the establishment of a process for the creation. Depending on the size of an organization and/or its number of locations. refer only to its highlevel QMS documents. company quality manual and operating procedures) in a centralized location. Generally. it is best to control documents that affect an entire company (e. such as procedures. 8. department Y’s procedure refers to department X’s work instructions. and enforce an organization’s documentation management and control function.g.3. QMS documentation that pertains to a specific location (or a specific function) may be controlled locally. Avoid references to another department’s work instructions or similar implementation-level documents. Document controllers are people who coordinate. monitor.• When referring to another department’s QMS documents. and scope than are high-level documents. title. 4. For example. in case of companies with more than one location (or very large companies in a single location). but are not limited to: 1. Verifying that documents submitted for storage and publishing are: . A controlled document is one that is formally approved and is under formal version control.
3. 12. this task generally is performed by the document controller. Notifying affected personnel in the event of a change to a previously approved document (or release of a new document) 9. when errors or discrepancies are observed. Verifying that all changes made to previously approved documents are clearly identified. 6. Verifying that the documents are correctly numbered. Ensuring that all controlled documents are stored in a secure location. an approved document change request should be available) 7. This is necessary because the document author may make document changes in addition to those that were authorized. Verifying that changes made to previously approved documents were properly authorized (that is. a document number may be generated automatically. Accompanied by review records (when required) 2. In case of changes to previously approved documents. Duly approved c. Controlling documents of external origin. the document controller should verify that the document version accurately reflects the magnitude of change in the latest version.a. 10. When document numbers are issued manually for new documents. for revised documents. This includes clearly identifying documents of external origin and storing them in a secure location. Correctly storing and publishing (or distributing) controlled documents. 8.2 Types of QMS Documents Quality Manual . This includes withdrawing copies of obsolete controlled documents. they adhere to standardized templates when applicable) b. 3. 4. Notifying appropriate personnel. Alternatively. 11. 8. Authorizing internal documents for external release after verifying that approvals for the release have been obtained from relevant management personnel. such as the document author and management personnel from the affected area. In the correct format (that is. Verifying that the documents are correctly versioned. Maintaining a master list of controlled documents. 5.
This approach entails describing the high-level product development process map of the organization. answer why the organization is implementing a QMS) and describe how the organization ensures quality in its daily operations. employees invariably prefer such a quality manual. along with a reference to related QMS documentation. This can be demonstrated by senior management approval on the quality manual. A significant advantage of this structure is that it is not alien to employees. In case of medium and large product development companies. employees typically relate more closely to organizational processes than to the requirements in a quality management system standard. Such details should be embedded in the appropriate QMS documents. This includes describing the purpose and scope of each process.A quality manual is the highest-level QMS document and is intended primarily to provide an overview of an organization’s QMS. from the quality manual. When appropriate. prefer to structure their manual to mimic the structure of the applicable quality management system standard. as needed. the quality manual references relevant. Such quality manuals follow a top-down approach to describing the organization’s QMS. . Typically. 2) Process-based quality manual This structure is being used increasingly in organizations that have successfully transitioned to taking a process-oriented view of their QMS. and not in the context of a quality management system standard. such as ISO 9001:2000. it may be appropriate to include the procedures in the quality manual itself. Each section (or subsection) in the quality manual describes how requirements in the corresponding section (or subsection) in the quality management system standard are adhered to in the organization. Therefore. Senior management should realize that it is responsible for the manual’s content. The quality manual must reflect the QMS accurately and be kept current at all times. The QMS is explained in the context of the organizational business processes. in the case of smaller companies. Such a quality manual includes separate sections (or subsections) for each of the requirements sections (or subsections) in the quality management system standard. organizations structure their Quality Manual in one of two ways: 1) Standard-based quality manual Most organizations that are implementing a QMS in accordance with the requirements in a particular quality management system standard. it is preferable to exclude details regarding the organization’s processes from the quality manual. It therefore should reflect the organization’s commitment to quality (in other words. which must be referenced. and other parties (such as third-party auditors). customers (and potential customers). followed by separate sections briefly describing each key process in the QMS. and consequently it gains wider acceptance for daily operations. QMS documentation in explaining adherence to each quality management system standard requirement. An organization’s quality manual is an invaluable document for its employees. However.
and Where the activities are performed. The practitioners have firsthand experience performing the tasks and therefore typically are the most knowledgeable. Work instructions typically are intradepartmental and are intended primarily for use by process practitioners. Due to the interdepartmental nature of procedures. As a general rule of thumb. The decision to document a process in a procedure is made by the respective process owner in consultation with the quality assurance department. This helps ensure that the procedure accurately reflects the process and the interaction between various departments. to execute their tasks. Because a procedure is intended to contain relatively high-level information regarding a process. They describe: What activities comprise a process. They also serve as a valuable starting point for training process practitioners. practitioners typically need additional process documents.Procedure A procedure is a documented high-level description of a process. Work instruction A work instruction is a documented low-level description of a process. and they constitute the first level of documentation below procedures. it is a good candidate for splitting into separate procedures. they should be documented and jointly reviewed by practitioners involved in executing the tasks documented. When process practitioners do not have the requisite training or are otherwise unskilled for creating effective process . Procedures are not intended to provide the how to implementation details regarding a process. If a longer procedure is needed. When each activity in a process is performed. called work instructions. They serve as critical reference documents for anyone interested in knowing what a process entails. Procedures are usually interdepartmental. competent. because organizational processes typically span multiple departments. Procedures are useful for communicating process information at all levels of management between departments. They provide a step-by-step description of tasks to be executed in order to accomplish each activity in the process. Procedures constitute the first level of documentation below the quality manual. Who performs the activities (roles and responsibilities). a procedure should not be longer than three pages. they should undergo cross-functional review by all departments involved in the process (or areas affected by the process) being documented. Work instructions describe how activities in a process are executed. Due to the intradepartmental nature of work instructions. and experienced personnel for providing information on the execution of specific tasks.
. work instructions can help ensure consistency and minimize errors. . in order to secure buy-in of the practitioners and to ensure that the documentation accurately reflects practice. The decision to create a work instruction is made by the line manager or process owner who is responsible for the tasks. Not every procedure needs to be supported by underlying work instructions. As a general rule of thumb. is there need to elaborate and provide further explanation on a process documented in a procedure by creating a work instruction (e. the sequence of inspections to be performed before final approval for release of electronic wire assemblies)? Competence of personnel Is the competency level of the personnel executing the process such that it needs to be augmented with appropriate documentation to ensure the process is correctly executed? (For example. the sequence of tasks to be performed during engine assembly for a passenger vehicle)? Need for consistency Are there expectations regarding a high degree of discipline and consistency in executing a set of tasks (e. processes that are relatively straightforward and without inherent complexity (or sophistication) can be described adequately in a well-documented procedure such that competent personnel can faithfully execute them without compromising quality of process output. such as the PMC representative for the department.g. The need to document a procedure or work instruction may be determined by using criteria such as: Complexity Is the process or the activities in it sufficiently complex that that it needs to be supported by a documented procedure or work instruction? Or. Work instructions should be created on an as-needed basis when a need exists to provide detailed step-by-step guidance for process execution. the work instructions should be documented with direct input and active involvement of the process practitioners. In many cases. In such a case. to minimize variation.g. the greater the likelihood of inconsistency in process execution. the core description of tasks in a work instruction should be limited to about four or five pages in length.) Size of organization Is the process executed by several personnel and/or in multiple locations? The greater the number of personnel involved in a process or the greater the number of locations at which a process is executed. and to ensure consistency in process execution.documentation. when new personnel or personnel with varying levels of competence are executing a process.. this task may be performed by another appropriate person.
Past problems Have there been instances in the past where inconsistencies in employees have been observed in process execution? In such cases. Any change or set of changes made to a document since its last release necessitates that the new revision level of the document be formally identified.3.3. documenting an agreed way of executing a process can help. The decision to create a template or form for use across departments should be made by the respective process owner in consultation with the quality assurance department (for reasons described earlier). a document typically will undergo revisions until it is withdrawn from use (or considered obsolete. The numbering convention should be published in a QMS document. while the decision to create a template or form for departmental use may be made by the respective line manager. and should be enforced by the personnel in charge of (or tool used for) issuing the document numbers. Therefore. either for review or for use (after approval). For example. but also what revision level of that document to use. Once released. Templates and forms A template is a skeleton for a document intended to be populated with specific information from use. They help in ensuring consistency of format and content within a particular type of document. 8. This is because the information contained in the new revision of the document is to some extent different from that contained in the previous revision. a unique document number and version should be assigned to each document. it is strongly recommended that a procedure template first be established. It is recommended that forms and templates have brief instructions embedded in them to guide the user regarding the expected content in each section of the document. due to their very nature. 8. Templates serve as guides for communicating the expected structure and content of a document. The organization should devise a document numbering convention that meets its needs. An example of a document numbering convention is shown in Table 1. evolve. but retained for archival purposes). such as procedures or work instructions.3 Document Numbering In order to uniquely identify and control each QMS document. A form is used to record information. for documenting procedures. The procedure author would start with the procedure template and populate it with information for the process being documented. one must not only know what document to use.4 Document Versioning Documents. directly in the fields provided. Table 1 .
Example of a Document Numbering Convention Document number format: AAA-BB-CCCC-DDDD where, AAA: Three-character identifier for department that is the document originator For example, “ENG” may denote engineering, “MKT” may denote marketing, “EXT” may denote the document is of external origin, and so on. BB: Two character identifier for document type. For example, “PR” may denote procedure, “TP” may denote template, “CH” may denote checklist, and so on. CCCC: Four-character alphanumeric identifier for project, product, or task. DDDD: Four-digit sequential number between 0001 and 9999. This sequential number uniquely identifies a specific document (irrespective of its version). 8.3.5 Document Content Following are some guidelines regarding document content (for examples, refer to sample QMS documents in the Appendices): 1. All QMS documents and records should have the same “look and feel.” Consistency in templates and forms can be ensured by following some general guidelines, such as:
The same header and footer on all templates and forms, with information such as:
a) Document title b) Document number c) Document version d) A statement to indicate the company proprietary nature of the document
Each QMS document, when appropriate, should use the same title page, containing the following:
– Standard information, (e.g., organization’s name and logo). The title page also can include a unique logo to indicate that it is a QMS document. This enables quick identification of QMS documents. – Customizable information, (e.g., document title) 2. Each QMS document or record should contain content as per the guidance contained in the associated form or template. Each QMS document must identify its purpose and
scope clearly. Correctness of the document content should be reviewed and enforced during document review meetings. 3. Deletions from the template and forms should not be allowed. If a particular section is not required, it should be marked “not applicable.” 4. Insertion of additional sections in a document created by using a standard form or template should be allowed when necessary; however, certain rules should be established to handle addition of new sections. Self Assessment Questions State whether following statement True or False. 6. All QMS documents and records should have the same “look and feel”. 7. A work instruction is a non-documented low-level description of a process. 8. A procedure is a documented high-level description of a process. 9. A quality manual is the highest-level QMS document. 10. A template is not a skeleton for a document intended to be populated with specific information from use. 8.4 QMS Documentation Process Now that all the necessary elements of a documentation management system have been described, you are ready to begin creating QMS documents. What documentation process should be followed to create, review, and approve QMS documents? This section describes a high-level documentation process that ties together some of the key elements of document management and control. Step 1: Identify suitable document author The first step is to identify a document author who possesses appropriate subject matter expertise. Typically, a management person from the function tasked to create the document selects a suitable document author. Step 2: Create draft version of the document The document author creates a draft version of the document by using the applicable template (if one is available). Step 3: Review the draft document
Once a draft version of the document has been prepared, it is circulated for review to appropriate reviewers (or functions) that are considered stakeholders in a document. The review may be in the form of an informal and/or formal review. Step 4: Rework the document as per reviewer feedback After receiving the feedback from the reviewers, the author reworks the document in accordance with comments provided by the document reviewers. Step 5: Approve and publish the document Once the document rework is complete, and it has been determined that a rearview is not required, the document is circulated for approval to the identified approvers. Once all the required approvals have been obtained, the author submits the master copy of the document along with the review record to the document controller. The document controller stores the document in the controlled repository and makes copies available for use. 8.5 Summary Documentation strategy is perhaps the most critical element of QMS documentation planning. Documentation management and control are a key element of an organization’s QMS, providing mechanisms to ensure that documentation in the organization is uniquely identifiable reviewed and approved by the appropriate authority prior to release. A template is a skeleton for a document intended to be populated with specific information from use. 8.6 Terminal Questions 1. Explain briefly different steps in documentation. 2. Define some guidelines in Documentation Strategy. 3. Explain types of QMS documents. 4. Summarize Document Content. 5. Explain QMS Documentation Process. 8.7 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1. Management 2. QMS documentation
Size 6.2. Refer 8.0 2.Refer 8. Refer 8. False Terminal Questions 1. Top-Down approach 5.2 4.1. . Refer Pages 9. 10 5.3. Page 4 3. True 9. True 7. True 10. False 8. QMS documents 4.3 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Refer 8.
OM0006-Unit-09-Machine Life and Depreciation
Unit-09-Machine Life and Depreciation Structure: 9.1 Introduction Objectives 9.2 Functional Reliability of Facilities 9.3 Weibull Distribution Curve [Failures and its Analysis] 9.4 Life of Equipment a) Bathtub Curve and MTBF b) Breakdown Time Distribution c) Reliability and Variability of the Equipments 9.5 Critical Analysis 9.6 Maintenance Performance Ratios 9.7 Maintenance Systems 9.8 Reliability and Availability Concepts 9.9 How good is Reliability Performance? a) Root Cause Failure Analysis b) Reliability Centred Maintenance c) Failure Modes Effects Analysis & Total Productivity Maintenance 9.10 Maintenance Economics 9.11 Preventive Vs Breakdown Maintenance
9.12 Measurement of Maintenance Performance 9.13 Asset Life Cycle Management 9.14 Equipment Replacement Plans 9.15 Depreciation & Capital Expenditure based on Life Cycle 9.16 Summary 9.17 Terminal Questions 9.18 Answers to SAQ & Terminal Questions 9.1 Introduction The main function of the maintenance department is to monitor and control the condition of machineries and equipments and improve their functional reliability. The reliability theories on equipment performances have shown that there is a definite pattern of performance in their lifespan. This pattern manifests itself when different machineries are subjected to rigorous operations during the life span. The typical characteristics of the lifespan show a particular behaviour pattern of a bathtub and hence it is called as ‘bathtub curve’, which is discussed later. Objectives: After going through this unit you will be able to: · Describe what are failures in maintenance · Analyze failures through Weibull distribution curve · Discuss Reliability Performance · Construct a measure for performance 9.2 Functional Reliability of Facilities One of the most important objectives of Maintenance management is to improve functional reliability of the production facilities. The functional reliability refers to the consistency of the degree of performance of the machine, equipment or service operation. When it is said that a machine is having 97% reliability means that 97% of the machine time is utilized in performing the standard production for which it is meant for, and the remaining 3% of non performing may be
due to breakdowns or sub-standard performance. Therefore it is the duty of the plant maintenance crew to strive to maintain and increase the functional reliability of the production facilities. The objective of FMEA ( ) and reliability analysis of the plant and equipment is to ensure to excellence in performance of critical assets and achieve the business goals. The application of standard procedures and structured approach to analyse and practice effective method/s required to maintain all the operating plant assets. This process enables the maintenance managers to plan, review and optimise the maintenance operations that have direct impact on plant availability, thereby improving the overall plant performance and minimizing catastrophic failures. The functional reliability of facilities to be maintained or improved upon by the maintenance management requires the use of certain concepts, reliability methodologies, analysis, tools and techniques and measures. Some of these are listed: a) Determinate the appropriate level of maintenance services required. b) Identify specific actions based on equipment failures analysis & risk assessment. c) Prevention and reduction of potential failures by properly identifying defects and implementing corrective actions prior to failure d) To deploy sufficient staff to provide adequate repair and maintenance facilities. e) To provide for the stand-by equipment for key operations and also reasonable slacks in the production system to create some parallel path in a critical situation f) To adopt preventive Maintenance system to replace critical parts, before they fail. g) Each of the above involves costs. The cost involved should be justified on the basis of cost-benefit analysis. The cost of attaining reliability must be lower than the cost advantage available out of the production stoppages, idle machine and labour time, scrap, poor quality, loss of goodwill to keep delivery promises etc. h) Maintenance extends the useful life of assets by reducing wear and tear. i) Maintenance keeps up operational readiness of equipments for emergencies. j) Maintenance contributes a great deal to safety of manpower using the facilities. k) It prevents wastage of spares, tools and materials.
During this period. The high rate of failure at infant mortality stage is primarily due to the presence of weak or substandard components or design inadequacies. the failure rate dips as the components adjust to the system until it reaches a relatively low constant level. It is also commonly called as ‘Bath Tub Curve’. This behaviour pattern reflects ‘hyper-exponential distribution’. The graph of the failure pattern. fatigue due to flaws in the molecular structure of the metals. and or not adjusted the operating conditions adequately. it is important to know the nature and occurrence of failures over a period of time for the equipment in use. the weak components from the infant mortality period have either been repaired or replaced. a) Infant Mortality phase: Newly installed equipment shows high rate incidence of early failures during initial phase of its life. As per the graph.3 Weibull Distribution Curve [Failure & Its Analysis] For better maintenance planning and control. there are three phases in the equipment performance namely a) Infant mortality phase b) Useful performance phase c) Ageing phase. called the ‘Weibull distribution graph’ (after Weibull developed it). Most equipment that survives infancy stage will continue to perform better with very few failures. because of its shape. Once this phase is over. is primarily due to abrupt changes in stress distribution in the components. is shown below. or sheer quality deficiency in their manufacture. This type of breakdowns may be due physical characteristics of the . The failure is random and unpredictable. b) Useful Performance phase: Next phase is the useful period of performance with a better reliability. which is called the infant mortality. This is the useful period of the machine.l) More automation calls for sophisticated Maintenance. poor installation. 9. c) Ageing Phase: Here the rate of failure increases until the equipment succumbs and is characterized by the rapid wear and tear of more and more components until major breakdown happens.
the failure fall into a negative exponential distribution. shown above. · A simple machine having few moving parts may have breakdowns happenings after a large number of maintenance free run time hours. A= [Tn] / [Tn+Td] b) Breakdown time distribution: · It is essential to know how the breakdown time is distributed in order to establish the cost implications in maintenance. and may be earlier or later. by which the system reliability. anticipated life etc. Depending upon the complexity of the machine and severe aging processes because of extreme wear and tear results in an ultimate failure. or how the machine is used. This ageing failure graph shows a bell-shaped normal distribution pattern. In other words. This ultimate may occur at ‘mean’ or ‘average’ time. availability. but in a complex machine.e. . Distribution shows the frequency of maintenance free running time with respect to total operating hours. · From these. is a combination of three distributions: Hyper exponential. Negative exponential and Normal exponential. · The availability (A) = [Cumulative time of operation in the normal working condition(Tn)] / the cumulative down time (Td)] i. These causes being external to the equipment and the probability of failing is relatively constant. the breakdown time distribution of a complex machine will reflect a greater variability than that of a simple machine even if they have the same average maintenance free run time. · Figure below represents the degree of variability in free run time.materials used.4 Life of Equipment a) Bathtub Curve and MTBF · Weibull distribution or Bath Tub Curve. Mean Time between Failure (MTBF) can be computed. its statistics will help as a diagnostic tool in identifying the exponential nature of the availability and the reliability of equipment. the failure of any one part may result in the complete machine breakdown. 9. · When the failures are recurrent. This means that each part in a particular machine will have different failure distribution. can be assessed.
converting the information into the breakdown time distributions versus the percentage of breakdowns that exceeds a given run time.While curve A depicts the behaviour of a simple machine.8.and 0. the resultant graph is shown below. curve B exhibits moderate variability while Curve C indicates greater degree of variability from average breakdown time Ta. and ‘runtimes free of breakdowns’ on the ‘x’ – axis. It can be observed that the Curve A shows lower degree of variability.7.9. the frequency distribution. For example: if the total system has four sub systems having the reliability factors of 0.4. we mean the probability that any system gives a trouble free service. 0.e. The variability by Curve C is typical of complicated equipment that needs fine adjustments before it starts giving trouble free service. then the total product reliability is multiple of all these systems i. 0. c) Reliability and Variability of the Equipments · Equipment can be considered as a total system and the failure of any one of the sub system can cause failure of the entire system. Curve B of the complex machine. Here the data can be recast in the diagram. Hence the reliability of the total system depends on the product reliability factors of each of the sub systems. 0. Curve C has the same average maintenance free runtime as the other two. · By reliability. .6. · When the above reliability factors are plotted in a diagram showing the percentage of breakdowns that exceed a given runtime on the ‘y’ – axis. before establishing reliability. but the distribution shows wider variability.
but the two types of planned maintenance could be carried out. As in other types of probabilities. This activity may take a few minutes. Repair Maintenance 2. the repair maintenance crew endeavours to locate mechanical. namely: 1. here too is that the small percentage of around 15-20% defects in equipment. to locate the faulty/broken part. Focus is not only concentrated on availability but also the reliability . 9. may contribute to 80 to 85% of the total breakdown time. Fundamental differences between the strategies discussed earlier and the proactive maintenance discussed now are: 1.5 Critical Analysis Critical analysis of maintenance problems is essential to know as to how serious is the problem for taking quick actions. or even a few days as the work involved depends on the size and complexity of the equipment. it is a corrective maintenance to restore the machine/parts to acceptable condition again. Preventive Maintenance When a sudden breakdown occurs in a machine.7 Maintenance Systems The ad hoc unplanned emergency maintenance is not recommended. to reassemble the equipment and then check and restore to its functional capacity. the function presupposes the previous breakdowns and actions of disassembling the equipment. It is the job of the maintenance crew to identify and quickly eliminate or simplify or improve upon these defects. In other words. electrical or other fault quickly and to correct them. to replace it.9. the nature of the fault and availability of repair staff etc. In this type of repair maintenance.6 Maintenance Performance Ratios Some of the ratios used in measuring the effectiveness of Maintenance functions are: a) Waste Index = [Waste Quantity] / [Output Quantity] b) Productivity of Maintenance = [Product output] / [Maintenance Cost] c) Maintenance Cost index = 100 x [Maintenance cost] / [Capital Cost] d) Breakdown maintenance index = [Break down hours] / [Man hours available] e) Downtime index = 100 x [Downtime hours] / [Production hours] 9.
a tissue processing machine may give a good reliability of +98%. more complex the equipment/ the raw material/ high tech processing. Using the above definition. 9. There is a push towards zero downtime or zero in-service breakdowns. For example. Use of improved maintenance tools such as Reliability Centred Maintenance (RCM). T = Time performance. .9 How Good Is ‘Reliability Performance’? In industrial processes. fix the problem as fast as possible.2. 9. and others. S = Speed performance] Manufacturing reliability model consists of a) process reliability b) equipment reliability and c) reliability maintainability. Manufacturing reliability can be defined as a manufacturing system’s capability to operate to its expected operations. Say in a paper processing. There are many ways to measure reliability. · Mean Time between Failure (MTBF) · Measure of mean time between production Loss (MTBPL) (Production losses include loss due to time. Root Cause Failure Analysis (RCFA).8 Reliability and Availability Concepts Reliability and availability have become key issues. quality and speed) · Mean production loss (MPL) Thus the reliability index is expressed in terms of the running continuously without production losses. Q = Quality performance. the formula used to measure manufacturing reliability (MR) is: MR = [% T] x [% Q] x [% S] [Where. but the liquid packaging machine may be best at +75% reliability. but when failures occur. then lower is the reliability. the overall reliability performance of the total process is less and is dictated by the complex machine with lesser reliability. a CNC machine can be very good at 90%. and manufacture the quality product at the speed required. This index is the volume of quality products you measure in the production line divided by the theoretical volume of quality product you could achieve from the same line. where as a less complex automatic lathe may be rated best at + 98%. 3.
. When implemented together they complement each other and provide the greatest overall benefit to the facility. c) Failure Modes Effects Analysis & Total Productivity Maintenance · Total productive maintenance (TPM) and failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) are other maintenance tools used for improving the reliability through proactive maintenance. planning and organisational leadership. hygiene.a) Root cause failure analysis: · The root cause failure analysis (RCFA) method brings a knowledgeable team together to investigate certain failures using evidence left behind from the fault. As maintenance is an economic decision. the team checks for the logical flows and determine what changes are to be made to prevent causes from reoccurring. production. Through a fault tree analysis. engineering. · While RCM is driven by preventive maintenance strategies. Non contributing causes are removed from the list and contributing factors are taken for analysis. preventive maintenance is highly beneficial to machines whose breakdown time distributions are having low variability.10 Maintenance Economics Maintenance refers to an organisation’s policy in respect of the maintenance function of a set of equipments. The decision of maintenance policy is more of an economic decision rather than a technical one. b) Reliability centred Maintenance · The purpose of reliability centred maintenance (RCM) is to determine the maintenance requirements of any physical assets in its operating contexts. This practice has impact on many aspects of business. In this situation. 9. a standard preventive maintenance period can be set in such a way that the total downtime is reduced. customer service. RCFA is driven by maintenance prevention strategies. the team finds as many causes for the fault as possible and classify them into non contributing and contributing. Through brainstorming sessions. It has relevance to high volume production and can improve a company’s maintenance system and help improve the overall productivity of the processes. quality.11 Preventive Vs Breakdown Maintenance Certain generalizations on type of maintenance can be made to improve the reliability: a) First. Answering to seven questions on all the potential modes of failure will uncover the predictive maintenance strategy requires to mitigate the consequences of the failure. RCM provides a flow diagram that tells what type of maintenance to be used. what are its cost implications? 9.
the relation of preventive maintenance time to repair time is important. overhauls and renovations c) Production asset and loss d) Continuous reliability improvements e) Maintenance cost as a ratio of percentage of 1) gross asset value 2) sales value. d) We need to take into account other effects of unscheduled down-time. reduces costs and eliminate waste. the percentage of machine running time continues to increase with the increase of standard preventive maintenance period. if the maintenance time is less than the repair time and If the preventive maintenance is equal to. or more than the time for repair. 9. Companies should recognize this fact that maintenance of its assets is to be encouraged as the process will provide advantages in enhancing quality initiative. There is little gain in the preventive maintenance. existing maintenance facilities. maintenance cost breakdown. Hence maintenance and management of assets is the core to any business.b) Second. c) In general. Effect on production losses if plant shutdown can be avoided 3. nature of repair breakdowns. Analysis of data of the existing conditions with respect to down time production loss.12 Measurement of Maintenance Performance Organizations seeking excellence in their maintenance practices should constantly endeavour to measure and improve upon the performance criteria’s of maintenance. when the repair time is equal to maintenance time. 3) direct labour value . increases capacity. etc are required to be done and evaluated. such as 1. Effects of scheduling preventive maintenance for non-productive days with no loss of production. Some metrics that may help in evaluation are: a) Maintenance man hours as percentage of total man hours b) Shutdown. 2. it is better to perform corrective or breakdown maintenance. Additional stoppage time because the maintenance crew cannot start repairing immediately after the breakdown has occurred.
13 Asset Life Cycle Management In high tech production. then the asset is disposed off as it has reached the end of its lifecycle. as evolved by some companies for better results consists of three phases: a) Asset Acquisition Phase: here asset may be new or replaced or change of major components changed before operating activities in this asset is firmed up. b) Maintenance phase: operating environment for each asset is defined and performance goals at the lowest cost are firmed up.f) Safety and regulatory compliance 9. companies are required to produce more products of higher quality from fewer resources and hence maintaining higher reliability of assets has been a challenging task for the management. 9. c) Disposal Phase: when the asset is no longer capable of delivering the required operational performance or cannot be maintained cost effectively to achieve the required level of dependability. Asset dependability and its reliability are to be established. Asset life cycle management system. Factors that are considered while taking decision to replace machine and equipment can be classified as a) Technical factors b) Cost factors.14 Equipment Replacement Plans The systematic equipment development program includes: 1) emergence of equipment replacement 2) classification of equipment replacement 3) assignment of responsibility for equipment replacement 4) selection of the equipment 5) follow up. a) Technical factors that dictates replacement 1) Wear and tear of equipment 2) Obsolescence caused by new invention .
The main ingredients of the annual cost are depreciation and interest charges. 1) Minimum annual cost method: here the decision to replace the machine (unwanted or life is completed) is based on the operating and capital costs. speed of operations. Some important methods or replacement of old and unused machineries are 1) minimum annual cost method 2) by using Barnes formula 3) MAPI (Machinery and allied institute) method. accuracy. having a short life. of years the equipment will pay for itself) = [A+B] / [(E-F) DG + H – C] . power consumption. Here the replacement is not advocated unless savings due to the use of new equipment. old or new. X = (No. will pay not only for equipment but also for any unamortized value for next few years. consumes high power etc 4) Automation requirement for processes 5) To eliminate slack time through line balancing 6) Reduced safety 7) Reliability of performance b) Cost Factors: 1) High repair cost 2) Lesser place requirement 3) Probable economic life of the new machine 4) Consumption of less power 5) Reduction in labour cost because high productive machines purchased 6) Flexibility requirement not in the existing equipment Methods used for replacement after analysis: The replacement analysis becomes more complex due to many technical factors and qualitative considerations. While the annual operating costs include wages to operator. repair and maintenance costs. Hence the time for replacement depends on the condition and characteristics of the equipment.3) Unsuitability of equipment due to size of the work. rate of output. material losses etc. 2) By Using Barnes Formula: this formula is used for equipment.
whilst revenue expenditure is that spent on day to day business expenses.15 Depreciation & Capital Expenditure based on Life Cycle · This requirement falls into the following groups: a) Calculation of depreciation b) Calculation of profit/loss on disposal c) Accounting for depreciation and disposals Calculation of Depreciation · Capital expenditure is that spent on purchase or improves on fixed assets. C = interest charge of new equipment.1000.9000. The two most commonly used methods are straight line method and reducing balance method. It emphasizes on immediate return. E = labour cost per unit in old equipment. F = estimated labour cost per unit with new equipment. Additionally. G = estimated working days per year for new equipment and H = savings or losses per year in fixed charges other than interest] 3) MAPI method: here the analysis is divided into 35 heads & three main groups. MAPI method concentrates on the comparison of the rate of return of the proposed new project and similar returns when the proposed project is not implemented within next year. For example. Depreciation tries to apply the accruals by matching that Rs. Straight Line method 1) A fixed percentage on cost each year.9000 with the income that asset has generated. · Depreciation should be calculated in a way which most closely reflecting the manner in which the asset is being used up. Capital expenditure is not recorded in the Profit and Loss account. but shown in the Balance Sheet · Depreciation is an attempt to spread the cost of an asset over its useful economic life. the value of the asset in the balance sheet should be reduced by each year’s charge. D = number of units product per day by new equipment. 2) The same monetary amount each year . kept in use for 8 years. it has the business cost of Rs. and then sold for Rs.[where A = cost of new equipment. 9. B = depreciated value of the old equipment. if an asset is purchased for Rs.10000. · An annual depreciation charge is shown as an expense in the Profit and Loss account.
30000 x 100.4800 c) Year 3 (Rs. This over or under provision of depreciation is shown in the Profit and Loss a/c as a profit or loss on the disposal of fixed assets. i. using: (i) The straight line method (ii) The reducing balance method at 20% pa Solution · Under the straight line method.2850 / Rs.30000 – Rs.30000 x 20%= Rs.6000) x 20% =Rs.1500) / 10 = Rs. at the end of which it will be sold for Rs. 2850) · So. . the annual charge for every year of the machine’s life is Rs. This may reveal that two much or too little depreciation has been provided over the asset’s life.1500.30000 – Rs.e. [Note that the expected residual value is ignored & it will have been incorporated into the choice of 20% as an appropriate rate] b) Calculation of Profit/Loss The depreciation charged each year is based on estimates of useful life and residual value.3840 and so on. On disposal.Reducing Balance method 1) A fixed percentage on net book value each year 2) A reducing monetary amount each year Example: 1 a) Straight line method A machine is purchased for Rs. (Rs. i. 6000 b) Year 2 (Rs.e.6000 – Rs.30000. · [Note that the policy could have been expressed as “straight line at %” or “Depreciation at % pa on cost” – here the percentage is calculated as = Rs.30000 – Rs.4800) x 20% =Rs. Calculate the depreciation to be charged for each of the first 3 years of the machine’s life. It is expected that this machine will be used for 10 years. the actual disposal proceeds will show the true net cost of the asset.2850. ] Reducing balance method (the charge for depreciation reduces each year) a) Year 1 Rs. the net cost is simply divided by the expected life.
which necessitates decision regarding depreciation (may be proportionate) · A popular depreciation policy would be: A full year’s charge in the year of acquisition but none in the year of disposal Self Assessment Questions Fill up the blanks with appropriate words: 1.40000.03-2009 (20%) =5120 · Net book value at 31. The functional reliability refers to the ____________________ of the machine. The main function of the maintenance department is to monitor and control the condition of machineries and equipments and improve their ____________________.03.2007 =32000 · Depreciation y/e 31. The asset is sold on 1 January 2009 for Rs. there is a profit on disposal of price of Rs.Example: 2 An asset is purchased on 1 January 2006 for Rs. 23000 – 20480 (book value) = Rs.2007 (20%) =8000 · Net book value at 31.23000. · Original cost 40000 · Depreciation y/e 31.03-2008 (20%)= 6400 · Net book value at 31. 2520] c) Accounting for depreciation and disposals · In the above example. acquisition or disposal may occur part way through the accounting year. Calculate the profit or loss arising on this disposal. equipment or service operation.2520 [sale price of Rs.03-2009 =20480 · Thus.03-2008 =25600 · Depreciation y/e 31. 2. .03. Solution · Sales proceeds must be compared to the net book value on the date of disposal. and is depreciated using the reducing balance method at 20% pa. the disposal occurred exactly 3 years after the acquisition. In practice.
may contribute to of the ____________ total breakdown time 10. A simple machine having few moving parts may have breakdowns happenings after a large number of maintenance free run time hours. the failure of any one part may result in the ____________________ . is shown below. 7. it is important to know the nature and occurrence of failures over a period of time for the equipment in use. and manufacture the quality product at the speed required. Reliability and availability have become key issues. 5. . Hence the reliability of the total system depends on the _________________ of each of the sub systems. In the performance phase is the ______________ period of performance with a better reliability. but in a complex machine. _________________ of maintenance problems is essential to know as to how serious is the problem for taking quick actions. For better maintenance planning and control.3. In the ____________ . This is the useful period of the machine. The formula used to measure manufacturing reliability (MR) is: MR = ………………………. called the ‘Weibull distribution graph’ (after Weibull developed it). 11. the rate of failure increases until the equipment succumbs and is characterized by the rapid wear and tear of more and more components until major breakdown happens. which is called the______________. here too is that the small percentage of around 15-20% defects in equipment. Newly installed equipment shows high rate incidence of early failures during initial phase of its life. because of its shape. As in other types of probabilities. 8. The graph of the failure pattern. Most equipment that survives infancy stage will continue to perform better with very few failures. The objective of FMEA ( ) and reliability analysis of the plant and equipment is to ensure to ____________________ of critical assets and achieve the business goals. there are three phases in the equipment performance namely a) Infant mortality phase b) Useful performance phase c) _____________________ 6. Manufacturing reliability can be defined as a manufacturing system’s ____________.. The failure of any one of the sub system can cause failure of the __________________. 9. It is also commonly called as ____________________. 4. As per the graph.
as evolved by some companies for better results consists of three phases: a) Asset Acquisition Phase: b) Maintenance phase: c) ____________________ 14. The functional reliability of facilities to be maintained or improved upon by the maintenance management requires the use of certain concepts. Manufacturing reliability can be defined as a manufacturing system’s capability to operate to its expected operations. tools and techniques and measures. 13. 9. The reliability theories on equipment have shown that there is a definite performance pattern their lifespan. The purpose of reliability centred maintenance (RCM) is to determine the __________________ in its operating contexts. RCM provides a flow diagram that tells what type of maintenance to be used.[Where. anticipated life etc. Q = Quality performance. The functional reliability refers to the consistency of the degree of performance of the machine. by which the system reliability. The objective of FMEA ( ) and reliability analysis of the plant and equipment is to ensure to excellence in performance of critical assets and achieve the business goals. analysis. Reliability and availability have become key issues. Mean Time between Failure (MTBF) can be computed. Asset life cycle management system. reliability methodologies. The replacement analysis becomes more complex due to many technical factors and the qualitative consideration. .16 Summary The main function of the maintenance department is to monitor and control the condition of machineries and improve their functional reliability. equipment or service operation. Therefore it is the duty of the plant maintenance crew to strive to maintain and increase the functional reliability of the production facilities. S = Speed performance ] 12. can be assessed. Some important methods or replacement of old and unused machineries are 1) minimum annual cost method 2) by using ____________________ 3) ____________________ method. This pattern manifests itself due to rigorous operations during the life span. and manufacture the quality product at the speed required. T = Time performance. availability.
The graph of the failure pattern. · Mean Time between Failure (MTBF) · Mean time between production Loss (MTBPL) · Mean production loss (MPL) Companies should recognize this fact that maintenance of its assets is to be encouraged as the process will provide advantages in enhancing quality initiative. The purpose of reliability centred maintenance (RCM) is to determine the maintenance requirements of any physical assets in its operating contexts. there must be equipment replacement plan after considering the cost impact and other technical factors. There are many ways to measure reliability. it is important to know the nature and occurrence of failures over a period of time for the equipment in use. However the methodology to be used depends on the best alternative within the organizations objectives. as evolved by some companies for better results consists of three phases: a) Asset Acquisition Phase b) Maintenance phase c) Disposal Phase Based on the life cycle analysis. shows three phases in the equipment performance namely · Infant mortality phase · Useful performance phase · Ageing phase.For better maintenance planning and control. reduces costs and eliminate waste. Equipment can be considered as a total system and the failure of any one of the sub system can cause failure of the entire system. increases capacity. Total productive maintenance (TPM) and failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) are other maintenance tools used for improving the reliability through proactive maintenance. . called the ‘Weibull distribution graph’ and known as ‘Bath Tub Curve’. Hence the reliability of the total system depends on the product reliability factors of each of the sub systems. Asset life cycle management system. because of its shape.
Bath Tub Curve 5.Capital expenditure based on the life cycle and the depreciation either by straight line or reducing method is used for a comprehensive decision by the management. Ageing phase . How this helps in replacement plans? 9.17 Terminal Questions 1) Define functional reliability? 2) What are the maintenance management concepts. 9) What are the technical and cost factors to be considered while planning replacement of old machineries? 10) Explain briefly the depreciation methods used in capital expenditure on plant and machineries. 9. Consistency of the degree of performance 3.18 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1. Explain few of them? 7) What are the factors considered in measurement of maintenance measurements? How they are evaluated? Briefly explain the three phases of asset life cycle management. Why it also called as bathtub curve? What are the three phases in the life span of equipment? 4) Explain briefly how the life of the equipment is depicted by the variability and availability factors in a) Bathtub Curve and MTBF. Functional reliability 2. Excellence in performance 4. b) Breakdown time distribution: and c) Reliability and Variability of the Equipments 5) What are maintenance performance index? How they help in measuring maintenance efforts? 6) There are many ways of measuring reliability and availability. methodology used for maintaining the functional reliability? 3) Explain briefly the ‘Weibull distribution curve.
Disposal Phase: 14.2 3. Product reliability factors 9. Refer 9. Useful. Entire system. 8. Capability to operate to its expected operations 11. Refer 9.6. Complete machine breakdown. Refer 9.12 8. Critical analysis. Infant mortality.2 2.4 5. Refer 9. Refer 9.6 6. Maintenance requirements of any physical assets 13.15 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .13 9. Barnes formula.3 4. Ageing phase 7. Refer 9.8 7. 80 to 85% 10. = [% T] x [%Q] x [%S] 12. Refer 9. MAPI Terminal Questions 1. Refer 9. Refer 9. Refer 9. .14 10.
10 Zero Loss Concepts 10.6 Evolution of Maintenance Methods 10.3 Goals 10.9 Types of Losses.12 Eight pillars of TPM Autonomous maintenance Kobetsu Kaizen Planned Maintenance Quality Maintenance .5 TPM and its Features 10. 10.7 Other Related issues with TPM 10.4 Objectives of TPM 10.1 Introduction Objectives 10.11 Implementation of TPM & Steps in TPM program Steps in TPM program 10.OM0006-Unit-10-Total Productivity Maintenance Unit-10-Total Productivity Maintenance Structure: 10.2 Total Productivity Maintenance 10.8 Overall Effectiveness of Equipment [basis of TPM] 10.
17 Terminal Questions 10. High tech preventive maintenance routines are performed by experts at frequent intervals and machines are continually upgraded and modified for closer tolerances. The Japanese have virtually eliminated machine breakdowns by applying Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) techniques to their . adjusting. Maintenance covers all those functions such as monitoring.1 Introduction Manufacturers invest huge capital on productive machines and equipments for production of the desired products. thus leading to breakdowns and production losses. faster set ups and fewer adjustments. inspecting.13 Relevance of TPM to TQM framework 10. repairing. Earlier the maintenance management was viewed as a function with a lesser status compared to manufacturing and its role was restricted to one of carrying out breakdown repair when a machine breaks down. But with the enlarged scope of maintenance functions when very high cost state of art machineries and equipments are used for higher productivity. to keep a machine. Equipment maintenance is basic to competitive manufacturing.18 Answers 10. Health. Environment TPM in offices 10.Development Management Education & Training Safety. a more sophisticated well managed preventive – maintenance type programs such as TPM or Reliability centred maintenance (RCM) has warranted. This will increase the life of the machines and they perform better during their entire life span. Because JIT [Just-inTime] production lines operate very close to capacity in every process. etc. a facility. machine failures cannot be tolerated. but they often neglect the very important function of complete maintenance.16 Summary 10.14 Benefits of TPM 10.15 Role of TPM in WC-production 10. cleaning. material handling equipment and other transport vehicles in proper working conditions.
efficiency and effectiveness with zero loss concepts through total participation of all employees with self managing abilities in practices. consensus building and continuous improvement.2 Total Productive Maintenance [TPM] TPM had its genesis in the Japanese car industry in 1970’s. Machines are cleaned and lubricated frequently by the operators who run those machines. to achieve total customer satisfaction. Reliability and TPM principles call for avoiding crisis. TPM is a well defined and organised maintenance program which places a high value on team work. 10. maximising capacity. Here the new quality approach of “prevention at source” was translated to the maintenance environment through the concept of TPM.3 Goals · Prevention of equipment deterioration · Maintain the equipment in optimal condition · Establishing basic equipment conditions · Operator is competent to operate machine/ equipment · Elimination of quality defects · Elimination of equipment failure · Elimination of cost losses . minimising costs and continuously improving processes for manufacturing. Objectives: After studying this unit you will be able to: · Outline the features of TPM · Explain the types of losses related to maintenance · List and explain the steps involved in TPM · Comment on the methods of TPM propounded by experts on Quality. 10. TPM is defined as the means to achieve high level of productivity. It first evolved in Nippon Denso a major supplier of the Toyota car company.machines. relying on team work.
· Restoring equipment to a like-new condition · Improve maintenance efficiency and effectiveness · On job training of the labour to improve their job skills · To have a sound equipment maintenance management · Effective use of preventive and predictive maintenance technology · Achieve TPM with active participation & involvement in all levels · “Value Added” activity that the equipment is contributing to your products. waste and accident-free operations] in all the resources over the entire life cycle of a production system through team work and by overlapping small group activities. losses. delivery and services. means elimination of micro operational issues · Achieve zero loss Concept – [zero breakdown. · Producing products for customer satisfaction in quality. reduction in equipment life cycle cost. · Reduction in manufacturing costs. defect.10. · To achieve higher reliability/flexibility of equipment and reduce cost through eliminating wastages. · Maximise asset and equipment effectiveness through OEE [overall equipment effectiveness] and OPE. .4 Objectives of TPM The principle objectives of TPM are: · Eliminate all breakdowns of machines and equipment to ensure trouble free continuous production. cost. but spreads across as a company-wide culture.5 TPM-Its Features TPM no longer confines to the maintenance department. · Achieve manufacturing excellence. 10. · Boosting morale of employees. · Increase plant efficiency. ensuring total effectiveness of the plant for higher quality and lesser downtime.
to achieve total customer satisfaction There are six types of losses found in a manufacturing firm: · Downtime due to equipment failure. · Downtime for setups and adjustments. leading to another innovative & modern practice under company-wide maintenance practice of TPM? How this evolution has happened and other related issues are briefly given below a) Breakdown Maintenance / Emergency / Corrective Maintenance: Break – down maintenance or emergency maintenance is a remedial or corrective maintenance practice that is undertaken when equipment fails and require repair on an . · Periodic pre-failure replacement or overhauls and · Intolerance for breakdowns or unsafe conditions.TPM is a method designed to eliminate the losses caused by break-down of machines and equipments by identifying and attacking all causes of its breakdowns and system down time due to such breakdowns. including housekeeping. organizing. effectiveness with zero loss concept. · Speed losses due to discrepancies between designed and actual speeds · Defect losses due to process defects that cause scrap & quality problems. TPM is one of the most valuable strategies for those who want to be competitive & meet the World Class Competition 10.6 Evolution of Maintenance Methods What are the other maintenance methods that are universally practiced by industries. blockages etc. TPM paves way for an excellent planning. TPM is a means to achieve high level of productivity. · Defect losses due to reduced yields in processing TPM includes three main elements: · Regular preventive maintenance. through total participation of all employees with self-managing abilities in practice. efficiency. · Speed losses due to idling and minor stoppages caused by abnormal operations of censors. monitoring and controlling practices through a unique ‘8-Pillars Method’.
emergency or priority basis to set it right. This idling will increase the production cost. . This reduces the frequency of machinery break downs and consequent loss of production Break down of a machine in production line can be costly if it means shutting down the entire plant. A good maintenance facility should have the following features: 1. A high failure rate known as the infant mortality exists during the initial working of the machine and then settles in. the preventive maintenance will be more expensive and incidental if it is other way. 10. especially when mass production or continuous production is planned. Obviously this is not an ideal way of keeping quiet until that breakdown happens. Preventive maintenance policies and techniques must emphasize on all employees to accept the responsibility for the maintenance and perform all the activities to their capability. A study is made on each machine on the MTBF (mean time between failures) distribution. b) Preventive maintenance Preventive maintenance is the activity that is planned and programmed on a regular basis to inspect the system. Here. the productive maintenance tries to identify signs of equipment deterioration or imminent failure and to take corrective action before it fails. This promotes employee empowerment and system performance c) Productive maintenance or Predictive maintenance – This is an extended preventive maintenance method that tries to reduce the chances of breakdowns by using modern monitoring and analysis techniques such as computer aided monitoring and forecasting and diagnose the condition of the equipment during operation. Failure of equipment or machineries may occur at different phases. servicing and replace parts to ensure that the system does not fail during normal operation. firms should build up a level of repair capability in order to get the system back in operation much faster. When the distributions curve exhibits a narrow standard deviation. Well trained maintenance crew. maintenance costs and resultant delay in supply of products to customers as promised. There exists a relationship between the maintenance costs and the cost of failures with which the level of maintenance Vis-a-Vis frequency of maintenance could be firmed up.7 Other Related Issues a) Improve Repair Capabilities: For reliability and a sound preventive maintenance practices. to uncover potential problems and to make repairs. that results in loss of production due to idling of machinery and labour and reduces system capacity.
2. It is the probability that a product will operate adequately for a given period in its intended application. Specialists work with cross-functional teams & backup responsibility to handle difficult or unusual problems. Ability to design ways to extend MTBF b) Maintenance responsibilities a) Traditional: Maintenance is a functional support activity & employees rely on specialists for custodial services. schedule disruptions etc. firms can reduce inventories. Ability and authority to do material planning. product quality and production schedules. because of perceive product quality and the exceptional reliability. 3. c) Reliability and Maintainability – an overview: Quality is multi – dimensional but reliability is a key component of quality. Malfunctioning of machines cause deterioration and results in inefficiency. accidents to operators. Hence by reducing equipment mal functions and break downs. Japanese automobile manufacturers have been highly successful in the US market and could gain a high market share. This will ultimately shorten the life of machines and cause high repair costs. b) Employee ownership TPM: Front-line associates have first responsibility for maintenance in their work places. 4. Ability to identify the cause of break downs 6. The ability of the equipment for operation is determined by mean time between failure (MTBF) and mean time to repair (MTTR) that is: Availability = MTBF / [MTBF + MTTR] d) Equipment problems and competitiveness: Equipment problems and break downs have a direct affect on production costs. idling of both machines and the workers using those machines for their work. preventive and repair maintenance. Adequate resources. Reliability considers the performance of a product over time. Since the reliability is concerned with the elapsed time between failures of a product. e) Role of operators in TPM . Reliability is a time based concept of quality. Ability to establish a repair plan and priorities. issues are closely related with maintenance and maintainability. At the same time. safety hazard. they can improve operator safety and reduce injuries from equipment mal functions. Further these machines may have possible immediate effects such as variability of output. 5.
C) Reduction of minor stoppages and adjustments on aggregates as well as the complete machine. Restores deteriorated equipment through improvements / related maintenance 2. thus developing the capability to operate similar equipment / machines 10. In case the problem is an unknown entity. D) Collect data to track equipment performance and document all the data recorded along with production control chart and work order systems. 2. Maintain work order system to provide data for calculation of MTBF (mean time before failure) and MTTR (mean time to repair) 6.1 Objectives of OEE: a) It helps see a problem so that it can be fixed. Basic skill levels required by operators include: A) Monitoring and maintaining critical process parameters.1. Data collected must be complete for proper implementation. Implement periodical maintenance system that is planned on the data collected from the machine. Thorough data analysis. periodic diagnostic tests apart from performing appropriate maintenance system to avoid predicted equipment failure 5. Understand the manufacturing process to successfully achieve the above. 10. Ensure maintenance is treating the root cause of the problem and not symptoms 7. Diagnose and perform repairs for the problems identified. obtain information before such problems are attacked. Perform basic equipment maintenance by cleaning of machines.8 Overall Equipment Effectiveness [OEE]-Key Indicator of TPM · OEE is a way of measuring how the six major losses shown below are affecting the equipment or in other words a way of measuring the amount of “Value added” activity that the equipment is contributing to the product. replacement of filters lubrication of aggregates. f) Role of maintenance department in TPM process: 1. . 3. checking functions of the basic machine AND safety devices. Improve technical maintenance skills of all maintenance personnel through systematic training and work assessments 4. B) Perform change over and setup the complete machine. To identify design weaknesses and improve equipment for error free operations 3. manufacturer and also the operators 8.8.
Lunch break – one lunch break of 30 min. Short breaks – 2 short breaks of 15 min each.8. Ideal rate of production – 60 parts per min. Number of parts produced – 19271.88 . Downtime of machines – 47 min.b) It helps visualize ‘Six big losses’ with their targets for meeting OEE. out of which 423 numbers were rejected. [Target=minimize] 2) Set up down time[Target=zero] 3) Reduced speed of the machines [Target=minimize] 4) Minor unrecognized stoppages [Target=zero] 5) Reject and rework [target=zero] 6) Start up down time and yield from the system [Target= minimize] Availability [(Time available for production – Downtime)] / [Time available for production] Performance Efficiency = [Actual Production or Capacity)] / [Ideal Production or Capacity] Quality Yield [Total Parts Produced-Quantity out of specifications] / Total Quantity produced. 1) Planned and unplanned downtimes. Overall Equipment Efficiency [OEE] = [Availability x Performance Efficiency x Quality yield] 10.2 OEE example: A manufacturer working for 8 hours shift with the production data and scheduled breaks is as follows: Shift length = 8 hours. · Planned production time 480 – 15 -15-30 = 420 min Operating time = planned production time – downtime = 420 -47 = 373 min · Good quality parts produced = total produced – rejection = 19271 – 423 = 18848 · Availability = A = operating time / planned production time = 373 / 420 = 0.
74. 3) planned shutdown downtime] b) Performance losses: 4) start up losses.861 · Quality= (total parts produced – rejection) / total parts produced) = 18848 / 19271 = 0.978 = 0. Category 3: Material losses: 14) material yield 15) energy losses 16) consumable material losses 10. 12) waiting for quality confirmation.888 * 0. 13) any management losses. 2) set up/adjustment time.9 Types of Losses (16) There are 16 types of losses that can be categorized into three namely: Category 1: a) Equipment losses: includes down time losses due to 1) machine failure/breakdown. 6) reducing the capacity.978 · OEE Composite = Availability * performance * quality = 0. 5) minor stopping /idling. c) Quality loss: 7) process errors 8 rework/scrap Category 2: Manpower losses: 9) cleaning and checking.· Performance = P = parts produced / (ideal production * operating time) = 19271 / (60 * 373 )= 0.8 % 10. 10) waiting for materials. 11) waiting for instructions.861 * 0.748 i.10 Zero-Loss Concept: TPM is based on the elimination of the above said 16 losses along with other five zero loss concepts depicted below: .e.
b) Jishu Hozen.1 Steps in TPM program 1. e) Quality maintenance. Company commitment 3.10. h) Safety and environment committee 4.12 Eight Pillars of TPM . The main focus on equipment maintenance is for improvement of the overall production system. This stresses the need to shift focus from equipment to the processes within which it is used. Reaching Excellence in TPM program by Promotion. 10.11 Implementation of TPM Implementing TPM company. c) Kaizen. f) Office TPM. Focus on 8 pillars. The TPM program team oversees initial planning and coordination of all TPM efforts though ultimately this responsibility is transferred to the maintenance department. Implementation in each of the identified areas is managed directly by a target area committee with assistance from a TPM program team. 6. monitoring and reviewing TPM results and raising levels and revising standards 10. even for new areas of operations. d) Planned maintenance. Formation of committees and sub committees for a) promotion and steering of TPM.wide is a major project that requires support from top management.11. Plant audit and initial assessment 2. Selection of pilot lines 5. g) Education and training.
Eliminate the defect at source through active employee participation 4. 8 Pillars supports a strong structure of TPM for achieving higher productivity is depicted in the following picture. Reduce oil consumption 2. Step wise implementation of JH activities JH Targets: 1. Flexibility with operators to operate and maintain other equipments 3.12. Uninterrupted operation of equipment 2. 10. Reduce process time 3. Increase the use of JH Objectives of JH: .In the above house.1 Pillar-1: Autonomous Maintenance: (Jishu – Hozen) Autonomous maintenance is a phrase coined by the Japanese institute of plant maintenance (JIPM) to describe the shift towards the machine operators maintaining their own machine / equipment JH Policy: 1.
Here the operator executes routine verification and adjustments 5. In case modification is required for easy inspection / elimination of debris / contamination etc a new aggregate covers may be created 3. Prevent degradation related failures 3. JH audit. team leaders. should be followed to achieve effective results . Stabilise. electronic. Standards for monitoring key process parameters: To develop methods and standards for routine verification of key process parameters / standards operating conditions. Other steps considering the aspects like a) Cooperation from all production related department. Operators should identify and tag the sources of defects / waste that arisen out of the machine operations. Develop standards and data collection: Create standards for clean up and checking of machines. 4. Repair sources of defect (outside of machines). Improve predictability through data analysis and communication Steps to Implement JH: 1. pneumatic.1. Examples of such defects are: Crack in the housing leakages. Similarly the orderliness of tool availability and display of visual boards can be maintained. quick response. replace cracked parts or worn out seals etc and repair and setup the machine. lubrication and mechanical should be clearly understood by all in the production line for quick redressing. broken / worn out belt. 7. Initial cleanup It must be closely aligned with 7S of the company and there must be commitment of both the staff and the management for the house keeping. Train operators on function and troubleshooting: Operators. Improve skill levels and personal growth throughout the company 5. Increase access and ease of inspection and maintenance 4. Here operator has to apply and ask for 5 why’s. 2. set rules to be followed. Cleaning of all the surroundings and using Japanese 5S principles for orderly keeping the parts etc. control or prevent deterioration of production equipment 2. Provide spare parts and tools: Here all the spare parts should be leveraged at the point of use after considering the inventory levels. switch not operating properly etc. first line supervisor should be trained to understand the basic of the equipment and the functions and the systems working in the machines namely Hydraulic. 6. electrical. establish standards for data collection based on the production control chart and develop standards for easy reference.
4) Act as required to proceed further to improve upon the system/process. which uses maintenance work cycle activities of preventive/predictive/corrective or breakdown maintenance techniques. Verify the progress made in TPM efforts in planned versus emergency work. optimize spare parts location etc. Zero accidents and Zero defects.3 Pillar: 3: Planned Maintenance [Pm] For Zero Loss · Planned maintenance is a systematic management by maintenance department. 2) Do the necessary change. Step 3: Implementation action plan to sustain and develop further possible improvements. Overall Online efficiency (OOE) and Overall Plant efficiency (OPE) 3) Decrease Costs: through controls in inventory and WIP 4) Reduction in customer complaints: reduce total downtime and ensure quick deliver to customers 5) Zero accidents: total safety and all actions to save money. Quick change time reduction. 2) Increase in productivity by improving Overall Equipment efficiency (OEE). 3) reduce spare parts inventory. 10. There are three steps that aim at quick but short term process improvements supported by long term organizational change. 4) improve reliability and maintainability of machines.12. Six steps followed by planned maintenance are: . · Planned maintenance policy includes a) achieve and sustain availability of machines. 3) Check whether successful or not.2 Pillar-2.8. Here an emphasis is on transferring knowledge and creating self sufficient team for results. 10. These steps are: Step 1: Quick Win Shop floor projects: this is a team based approach targeting specific problem areas and realizing immediate benefits Step 2: Critical analysis: analyze what else needs to be changed to make it fixed and create action plans. 2) optimise maintenance costs. Here it is aimed at eliminating all 16 losses in the workplace. All out JH: Repeat the cycle 1 – 6 above of the process of managing and monitoring the TPM.Kobetsu Kaizen (Focussed Improvements) 1) PDCA Cycle: Kaizen: here maintenance team should 1) Plan each step. MTBF. It is aimed at having trouble free machines and equipment producing defect free products for total customer satisfaction. MTTR.12. optimize machine set ups.
Here the customer end defects are known through customer complaints and in-house defects known through the quality control personnel. Benefits from Planned Maintenance 1) Reduction in downtime due to breakdowns.12. when a) ease of manufacture. Here also aim is at defect free product to satisfy the customer. 2) Improvement in MTBF and MTTR.12.5 Pillar-5-Development Management This refers to the learning process that happens in TPM implementation and during different types of maintenance practices.1) Equipment evaluation and recording of present status 2) Restore deterioration and improve on weak links 3) Builds information management systems 4) Prepare time based information and parts and map out a plan 5) Prepare predictive system plan by introducing diagnostic techniques 6) Evaluation of planned maintenance. root cause is found and improvement action on the process/design are ensured. b) policy of . Results achieved through this pillar are: 1) Improved customer satisfaction and reduction in future complaints 2) Reduction in defects and improved quality 3) Reduction in inspection time 10. are analysed.4 Pillar-4-Quality Maintenance for Zero Defects This is a process for controlling the condition of equipment and its components that affect variability in product quality. 3) Reduction in spare parts consumption 4) Reduction in oil and power consumption 5) Reduction in repair cost 6) Reduction in number of inspection points etc 10. Focus is on eliminating non-conformances in a systematic manner.
6 Pillar-6-Trining & Education [Flow Of Controls] Through training and education provides the skill and knowledge apart from the experience that enables operators.12. The methodology adopted is for understanding of the present machine structure. d) manufacturing. too hot areas. operating machines without proper training etc. safety training and monitoring the improvements through Kaizen. unsafe storage/stacking. and design validation 10. Point by point safety audit. providing safe environment place a vital role. unsafe working without wearing gloves. c) design. It is aimed to have multi skilled & revitalized employees. Health & Environment [Zero Accidents] Here the focus is to create a safe work place and a surrounding areas that is not detrimental to process or procedures. Some examples of unsafe acts by employees are 1) use of worn out tools. a) planning b) implementation.development of new technologies. 10. c) determination of detailed specifications etc are answered.7 Pillar-7: Safety. safety guards. noise generations and any such unsafe potential areas must be identified and action taken to make them safe. health and hazards. Here the focus is on improvement of the knowledge. whose morale is high and who are eager to work and perform the required functions effectively and independently. Unsafe conditions like electrical points. skills and techniques through a training environment. Development of management involves four phases. skilled workers. incorporate planned maintenance sheets to eliminate defects. engineers and managers are in a position to fulfil the expanded role to be played in successful implementation of TPM. The continuous training is on safe working. Poka-Yoke etc will all result in getting the following benefits: 1) Reduction in accident 2) Reduction in noise 3) Create excellent house-keeping & a good looking workshop through 5S action 4) Reduction in downtime because of breakdowns etc 5) Saving in energy consumption 6) Reduction in industrial waste . goggles etc. e) initial phase production. reworks etc. breakdowns attributed to lack of knowledge and skills 2) Reduction in further downtime after gaining the knowledge and skills 3) Reductions achieved after training on the number of defects.12. This systematic education and training will result in: 1) Reduction in downtime.
4) reduction in inventory carrying costs. TPM aims at keeping the current plant and equipment at its highest productive level through cooperation of all. payroll. Further. accounting. cost of inventory carrying. to follow all the principles and procedures laid out in ‘Seven Pillars of TPM’ and achieve the desired overall improvements for the benefit of the organization. It identifies and eliminates losses.10.8 Pilar-8-Office Tpm [Raise Levels & Select Other Areas] Office TPM includes analysing processes and procedures towards increased office automation. as a strategy. Since achieving total productivity is one of the major objectives of TQM. we can infer that total productive maintenance is an extension of TQM philosophy to the maintenance function. Therefore the Office TPM addresses the seven major losses namely: 1) processing loss 2) communication loss 3) idle loss 4) set up loss 5) accuracy loss 6) non-value added loss 7) cost loss including areas as procurement. 3) reduction in administration costs. etc d) D” logistic losses due to delay in support function. 2) reduction in repetitive works.13 Relevance of TPM to TQM Framework Good maintenance is fundamental to a productive manufacturing system. Benefits accrued because of office TPM are 1) Better utilization of work areas. 6) reduction in customer complaints.12. manpower etc b) Q: mistakes in cheques. marketing and sales outlets with high inventories. invoices. payment to suppliers. Here the whole organization should focus. other safety practices f) M: number of kaizen activities in office areas with improvements not visible TPM is a long range living program. 10. stores. customer returns etc c) C: buying cost. the following strengthen the view that TPM is relevant to TQM: . PQCDS&M principles in Office TPM: a) P: production output loss due to want of materials. In TPM the barrier between maintenance & production personnel is removed. bills. It is followed to improve productivity and efficiency in the office administration. 5) reduction in n umber of files. 7) reduced man power 8 clean and pleasant work environment and 10) reduction in equipment due to emergency despatches/purchases. cost of logistics. in information etc e) S: safety in material handling.
Process capacity cannot be made available at the cost of quality. Direct benefits: . Housekeeping is another area in JIT production system.14 Benefits of TPM An added benefit is that with the added responsibility of all maintenance activities. scheduling and control of operations depend to a large extent on process capacity and process capability. process reliability and reduces the cost of lost production time. The planning. shortened equipment life and inventory. · TPM is continuous improvement activity. in other words working with a zero sum philosophy. Clean. 3) TPM also contributes to improvements in safety. 2) TPM increases production capacity. zero accidents and zero defects. In view of the above. This developed by JIPM (Japanese Institution of Plant Maintenance) during late 1960’s combines the American practice of PM with Japanese concept of Total Quality Control [TQC] and Total employee involvement [TEI] 1) TPM aims for greater manufacturing competitiveness through improved effectiveness of machines and equipments. morale and pollution control by involving everyone in the process. zero breakdowns. since it aims at cost reduction and quality improvements for internal requirements and for customer satisfaction. operators develop a sense of ownership for the machines and give special attention to upkeep the machines for sound. by using the principles of 5S. 10. TPM is a value adding activity. A comprehensive TPM program aspires to implement process capability and its maintenance. Here too the operators take the responsibility of cleaning their machines and work areas. 4) Benefits can be categorized into two types namely: 1) Direct and 2) Indirect a.· TQM is aimed at satisfying customer requirements. repairs. · TPM can have a great impact on the operations decision making process. TPM aims at the introduction of new and creative ideas which will optimise quality standards and reduce waste and costs to the organisation concerned. tidy and well organised work area will result in better performance Maintenance is the key to achieve zero loss. defects. smell etc spot problems before they develop. there is a direct link between TPM and TQM and also the relevance of a comprehensive maintenance policy is proved for successful TQM implementation. vibration.
energy reduced consumption reduced by 20%. the entire process or . . Indirect benefits: a) Higher confidence level among the employees b) Favourable change in the attitude of the operators c) Horizontal deployment of a new concepts in all areas d) The workers get a feeling of owning the machine. maintenance cost reduced by 15 -30%. The following results were reported from a typical firm after implementing TPM. 4) Delivery: Inventory turnover increased by 150% 5) Morale: Improvement suggestions increased by 105% 6) Safety: Accidents reduced to nil 7) Environment: No pollution created 10. equipment and systems so that they consistently perform at the levels required of them. Preventive maintenance requires understanding and maintaining all the physical elements of manufacturing – machine components.15 Role Of TPM In World Class Manufacturing Most of the world class manufacturing firms have implemented JIT systems and TQM philosophy to achieve excellence in manufacturing and to have ability to compete globally. Therefore if any equipment breaks down. Reliable. 1) Productivity: Breakdowns reduced by 85% 2) Quality: Defect rate reduced by 50% 3) Cost: Labour cost reduced by 25%.a) Increase in productivity and overall plant efficiency b) Elimination of customers complaints c) Elimination of accidents d) Achieve goals by working as a team b. well functioning machines and equipments are a pre requisite for JIT and TQM to be successfully implemented in any manufacturing firm.
Preventive maintenance is a stepping stone to a higher level of maintenance referred to as “total productive maintenance” (TPM). This will facilitate implementation of an effective preventive maintenance program which is essential for a JIT system Self Assessment Questions Fill up the blanks with appropriate words in the following statements: 1) Equipment maintenance is basic to competitive manufacturing. 2) TPM had its genesis in the Japanese car industry in 1970’s. Maintenance covers all those functions such as ……………… etc. Improved equipment functioning has a positive impact on product quality. Identify. In world class companies quality circles form an important component of TQM. It first evolved in Nippon Denso a major supplier of the Toyota car company. Preventive maintenance practices reduce the breakdown of machines and will keep them in good working condition. machinists and operators redesign and reconfigure equipment to make it more reliable. The involvement of workers in quality circles provides the opportunity for them (members of quality circles) to study maintenance problems. In world class companies the responsibility for repairs and preventive maintenance is assigned to workers. In TPM operators / workers perform basic equipment repairs and preventive maintenance. while teams of maintenance staff. 3) TPM is defined as the means to achieve high level of productivity. easier to maintain and perform better. engineers. a facility.production line comes to a halt. efficiency and effectiveness with zero loss concepts through total participation of all employees with self managing abilities in practices.. to achieve ……………………. TQM requires quality at the source which implies that machines must be reliable and well functioning. Here the new quality approach of ………………… was translated to the maintenance environment through the concept of TPM. 4) GOALS: one among following is not an applicable goal. to keep a machine. material handling equipment and other transport vehicles in proper working conditions. • Prevention of equipment deterioration • Maintain the equipment in optimal condition • Establishing basic equipment conditions • Operator’s incompetency .
Kobetsu-Kaizen. d) Habitual absenteism by employees e) Speed losses due to discrepancies between designed and actual speeds f) Defect losses due to process defects that cause scrap & quality problems. TPM in Offices. ……………. Health & Environment.• Elimination of quality defects • Elimination of equipment failure • Elimination of cost losses 5) There are six types of losses found in a manufacturing firm. One among the following is not the type of loss considered in maintenance. blockages etc.. Development Management.. ………. What is that? • P: production output loss due to want of materials. 9) Autonomous maintenance is a phrase coined by the Japanese institute of plant maintenance (JIPM) to describe the shift towards the machine operators ……………………… 10) PQCDS&M principles in Office TPM: In the list below principle D is missing. g) Defect losses due to reduced yields in processing 6) OEE is a way of measuring how the six major losses shown below are affecting the equipment or in other words a way of measuring the amount of ……………………. Safety. Identify a) Downtime due to equipment failure.. 7) Overall Equipment Efficiency-Fill in the other two factors: [OEE] = [Availability x ( ………. b) Downtime for setups and adjustments. Identify them Autonomous Maintenance. c) Speed losses due to idling and minor stoppages caused by abnormal operations of censors. two are missing in the following list.) X (…………)] 8 Out of Eight pillars of TPM. Education & Training. manpower etc . that the equipment is contributing to the product.
. The frequency of preventive maintenance must be balanced with the cost of equipment failure and keep the total costs of preventive and breakdown maintenance put together at the lowest level possible. machines are cleaned and lubricated frequently by the operators themselves who run the machines.. 3) Reduction in inspection time 12) For the above type of TPM.16 Summary Japanese firms which implemented JIT production and TQM concepts cannot witness any machine failures that affect quality and delayed production schedules. For the above type of TPM. In the TPM approach to maintenance management. preventive maintenance. 3) Ability to establish a repair plan and priorities. Preventive maintenance is a well planned program which involves inspection to uncover potential problem and make the necessary repairs before any breakdown occurs. 5) ……………………. 10. and total productive maintenance or reliability centred maintenance.2) Adequate resources. They applied TPM techniques to visually eliminate machine breakdowns. bills.. organization should have the features of 1) Well trained maintenance crew. 3) Ability to establish a repair plan and priorities. cost of logistics. payroll. etc •? • S: safety in material handling. and ……………. A comprehensive maintenance program consists of breakdown maintenance. other safety practices • M: number of kaizen activities in office areas with improvements not visible 11) Results achieved through pillar number Four are: 1) Improved customer satisfaction and reduction in future complaints 2) Reduction in ……………. organization should have the following six features. 4) Ability and authority to do material planning.. customer returns etc • C: buying cost. Only five are listed. cost of inventory carrying. Which is the sixth one? 1) Well trained maintenance crew.• Q: mistakes in cheques. 6) Ability to design ways to extend MTBF. stores. 2) Adequate resources. While breakdown maintenance is remedial or corrective maintenance or equipment repair when breakdown occurs. invoices. 4) Ability and authority to do material planning.
safety hazards. Reduction in costs of lost production. TPM identifies and attacks all causes of malfunctions and eliminates all consequent losses due to breakdowns. product quality and production schedules. 5. shortened equipment life and inventory. What is total productive maintenance? Is it different from total preventive maintenance? . Benefits of TPM includes increase in production capacity and process reliability. All these help to improve manufacturing competitiveness of world class companies. TPM contributes to improved safety. TPM has great relevance to TQM in improvement of productivity and quality. defects. stoppage of production. which may result in inefficiency of machines. Discuss on the guiding features of TPM? 3. TPM helps to maintain process capability.5) Ability to identify the cause of break downs 6) Ability to design ways to extend MTBF. especially with the latest TPM as a final and long range solution. Equipment problems have a direct impact on production costs. Quality circles. by adopting any of the maintenance systems discussed above. idle time.17 Terminal Questions 1. accidents to workers. Distinguish between breakdown maintenance and preventive maintenance. 4. What are the objectives of TPM? 2. employee morale and pollution control. formation of a target committee and program team to oversee initial planning and coordination of all TPM efforts and then transfer the responsibility to the maintenance department. Explain briefly the evolution of maintenance practices leading to TPM. decrease in productivity. 10. high standards of quality and reliability. poor quality of outputs. an important component of TQM provides the opportunity for workers to study maintenance problems and suggest effective maintenance activities which are essential for JIT systems. high WIP inventories and so on. high repair costs. Implementing TPM company-wide is major project requiring top management support. continuous improvement and has a strong strategic relevance like TQM. repairs.
What are the six zero concept that are to be considered while approaching elimination of 16 Losses? 10. 9. Monitoring. Habitual Absenteeism by employees – [Sl. adjusting.18 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1. no-(d)] 5. Explain briefly the sixteen types of losses that are to be considered for elimination by the maintenance department while planning TPM activities. What are the benefits accrued to a firm by practicing TPM? 17. What are the unsafe practices and how these are controlled by practicing good and healthy. Operator’s incompetency-[Sl. Explain briefly as to how planned maintenance under Eight pillars of TPM help achieve zero loss? 14. repairing. 10. 16. 4.e. What is meant by ‘Overall Equipment Effectiveness’? What are its constituents? How the six losses are addressed through OEE? 8. Total customer satisfaction. no (d)] . inspecting. Which are the eight pillars that support TPM in an organization? 11. What are the constituents of Kobetsu Kaizen i. Describe the role of total productive maintenance in world class manufacturing.6. Discuss the relevance of total productive maintenance to TQM framework. safe environment under TPM? 15. Focussed Improvements and what steps are used to achieve improvement? 13. What is ‘Autonomous Maintenance? What are its objectives and steps involved in implementing? 12. What are the relative issues that are recognized by maintenance department before attempting introduction of TPM in the plant? 7. cleaning. etc 2. Prevention at source 3.
‘logistic losses due to delay in support function.6.7 15. 10. Ref. Ref. 10. Ref.3 14. 10. Ref. 10. Ref. Performance Efficiency & Quality yield 8.12.10 10. 10. “Value added” – activity 7. 10. Ability to identify the cause of break downs Terminal Questions: 1.2 13. 10. payment to suppliers. Ref. 10.9 9. Defects and improved quality 12. Ref.6 5.5 3.1 12. Ref.6 4. Ref. 10.12.12 11. Ref.8 8. 10. D. in information etc’ 11.12. 10. Ref.6 6.12. Maintaining their own machine / equipment 10.7 7. 10. Ref. Ref. 10. Planned Maintenance & Quality Maintenance 9. 10. Ref. Ref. 10.13 .4 2.
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