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2 History of Maintenance Definition of Maintenance Objectives and Functions of Maintenance 1.3 Functions of Maintenance Management Quality Aspects in Maintenance Maintenance Organisation Initial Level Repeatable Level Defined Level Managed Level Optimized Level 1.4 Improving Maturity in Maintenance Organizations Training Strategy Work Management Resources Management Supervisory Review Quality Assurance Subcontract Management
Commitment of the Maintenance Personnel. Verification of Implementation Metrics and Process Improvement 1.5 Dynamics of a Maintenance Organisation Maintenance Management Perspectives Types of Maintenance Preventive Maintenance Shut-down Maintenance Opportunistic Maintenance 1.6 Summary 1.7 Terminal Questions 1.8 Answers 1.1 Introduction Rising inflation and increased competition have brought with them the need for greater productivity, and recent years have seen more emphasis being placed on productivity improvement. Moreover, sophisticated equipment and capital intensive units and plants are being increasingly used to achieve the pre-set targets of higher production and productivity. Reliability and maintainability features are now being incorporated in the equipment designs. Although modern equipment has higher levels of reliability, it is not possible to keep this equipment in an operating condition at all times because failures do occur even in the most reliable equipment.1 It is also true that such sophisticated equipment, and units or plants, tend to have high probabilities of failure since in many cases they incorporate newer, and therefore not adequately proven, technologies and designs. They also consist of a large number of assemblies, sub-assemblies and components. Failure and malfunctioning of these items of equipment result in a loss of production. Loss of production is undesirable because it results in corresponding loss in revenue. Whenever an item of equipment is down and fails to perform its intended function, or performs in an undesirable fashion, it must be restored to a state where it performs satisfactorily. At the same time all necessary action must be taken to keep, or retain, such equipment in an operating condition and also to prevent failures. Resources, such as spare parts, manpower skills, tools, instruments and facilities, such as hangars in the case of
aircraft maintenance, are utilized for accomplishment of the restoration processes and preventive actions. Thus the requirement for productivity improvement has brought about the pressing need for a significant improvement in the management of maintenance of equipment, units and plants. Objectives: After studying this unit you shall be able · To Define Maintenance · To assess objective and functions of Maintenance · To describe Quality aspect of Maintenance · To assess key process of Maintenance Management 1.2 History of Maintenance Historically, maintenance activities have been regarded as a necessary evil by the various management functions in an organisation. Enormous costs of maintenance, estimated to be between 15 and 40 per cent of the production costs and the trend towards automation have, however, forced managers to pay more attention to maintenance. The evolution of maintenance can be traced from the days prior to World War II. The attitude of the managers then was ‘to fix the equipment when it breaks’. With fewer items of sophisticated equipment around, and hence, the cost of downtime not being high, prevention of equipment failures was not given much attention. Maintenance, in addition to fixing the broken equipment, involved simple activities like cleaning and lubrication. The period after World War II saw the introduction of the word ‘terotechnology’ which was initially defined by the committee on terotechnology as ‘…a combination of management, financial, engineering and other practices applied to physical assets in pursuit of economic life-cycle costs’. Due to rising costs and inflation, focus was on reducing downtime of equipment and hence preventive maintenance came into being as an important activity. This period also saw a number of researchers working on operations research models for preventive maintenance. Importance of planning maintenance activities also grew during this period. Overhauls of equipment were planned and scheduled. Systems for managing maintenance were also introduced. The period after 1980 has seen some of the worst accidents in industrial history. Leakage of methyl isocyanite (MIC) from a battery/cell manufacturing unit in Bhopal in India and the threat to the survival of mankind caused by the nuclear accident at Chernobyl in the erstwhile Soviet Union have only made the manufacturing industries and the like realize the importance of maintenance. The attitude of ignorance towards maintenance has increasingly been replaced by one which recognizes maintenance also as a strategic issue in the organisation. Besides high cost, the other factors which contributed to this change
Performing maintenance activities requires the use of resources such as spare parts. Maintenance can thus be defined as a set of activities. or tasks. maintenance activities which do not contribute to preserving or restoring the intended functions of assets should be eliminated. or restoring failed equipment to a normal operating condition. manpower. drive for cost reduction and the like. means preserving. To live up to the new expectations demanded of maintenance activities. Modern maintenance management can be considered to be composed of the following functions: · maintenance planning. and warranty and liability factors.2. therefore. maintenance programmes have to be developed to ensure that physical assets will continue to fulfill their intended functions at a minimum expenditure of resources. Techniques such as condition monitoring. and planning and scheduling maintenance resources. The need for reliable equipment has also been realized. ageing plant and equipment. · To extend the useful life of the equipment. The objective of maintenance. neural networks and Markov chains have been used for controlling and managing maintenance activities. an item of equipment in a specified operating condition. tools and facilities. safety issues. or keeping. in general. be to maximize the profitability of the organisation by performing activities which retain working equipment in an acceptable condition. · organizing maintenance resources. the principal objectives of maintenance would be: · to control the availability of the equipment. 1. Alternatively the objective should be to minimize the costs – the labour costs and the material costs as well as the loss in revenue due to loss of production. regulatory matters. 1. . that are related to preserving equipment in a specified operating condition.2. which is linked to the overall organizational objectives. at minimum resource cost. should. The set of tasks or activities that constitute maintenance ranges from simple cleaning operations and lubrication to performing condition monitoring. or return the equipment to an acceptable working condition.include: environmental concerns. The availability and utilization of these resources are of prime importance. Obviously. In case an item of equipment fails it needs to be restored to the same specified operating condition. including staffing/recruiting.2 Objectives and Functions of Maintenance The objective of any business organisation is to make profits. Maintenance.1 Definition of Maintenance Maintenance is an element of a complete production system. In summary. Performing such activities would obviously extend the useful life of the equipment.
involved simple activities like cleaning and lubrication. The principal objectives of maintenance would be to control the availability of the equipment. Maintenance is an element of a complete ___________ system. · controlling the performance of maintenance activities. 3. 4. The attitude of ______________ towards maintenance has increasingly been replaced by one which recognizes maintenance. at minimum ________________.· directing execution of maintenance plan. Maintenance planning includes formulating and identifying organisation-wide policies that would help achieve higher maintenance productivity such as: · Do we repair the equipment or buy a new one? · Do we perform preventive maintenance or corrective maintenance activities? · Do we employ full-time repair personnel or should we subcontract work? Self Assessment Questions 1. · Budgeting. Maintenance planning includes formulating and identifying ___________ policies. . · defining processes for performing maintenance. 5. _____________ in addition to fixing the broken equipment. 2.
The maintenance manager should ensure that the equipment is restored to its normal working condition as quickly as possible.3 Functions of Maintenance Management Responsibility for formulating the maintenance policies lies with top management. Once the activity is complete. then the planned maintenance activity cannot be performed. This way not only is the downtime cost kept to the minimum but also the resources are utilized effectively. In case the task does not get completed within the estimated time then corrective action would need to be taken to ensure further loss in revenue due to loss in production is minimized. Any maintenance activity requires resources. This is a statement of maintenance tasks to be carried out in a specified period.1. The maintenance manager should track the work to completion. work and . the maintenance manager needs to organize the required resources and all these resources need to be available in the right quantity and at the right time. The top management is also responsible for negotiating and authorizing the service level agreement. the maintenance activity can be initiated. Another important task is creation of a master maintenance schedule. This will lead to degradation of equipment performance and can also result in its failure. If the required resources are not available. a review by the manager or the maintenance supervisor would be essential to ensure and authorize that the maintenance work has been carried out properly. Once the required resources are available. In order to carry out maintenance activities as planned. Other common tasks related to maintenance management include generating reports related to equipment.
· A repository of maintenance processes. · It incurs not more than the budgeted cost. the need is for a good maintenance organisation.3. It is more to do with the maturity of the maintenance process such that high-quality maintenance activities are performed.costs. 1. instruments and facilities for performing the activity. when performed properly. · the required tools.2 Maintenance Organisation Maintenance organisation does not mean only the organisation of people in the maintenance department or their reporting structure. A maintenance activity can be considered to be of high quality if: · it restores an item of equipment to its normal working state. An effective maintenance process must consider the relationships of all the tasks. It also includes activities related to collection and analysis of data related to maintenance and reporting to top management.3. An important step in addressing the maintenance management problems is to treat the maintenance task as a process that can be controlled. · In general. the tools and procedures used. 1. · an appropriate ‘on-the-job’ training programme for the repair men to enhance their ability to work. without causing · any damage to the equipment or to any of its parts. produces the desired result. The above-mentioned conditions can be satisfied only when the maintenance organisation has: · skilled and committed repair men available to carry out the required maintenance activity at the required time. training and motivation of the people . · it is initiated on time and the equipment is returned to production at the · required time. A ‘process’ can be defined as a set of tasks that.1 Quality Aspects in Maintenance Quality is not absolute but relative. and the skill. · the required spare parts in the required quantity. measured and improved.
4.3. 1. managed and optimized.3. organizations at this level face risks when presented with new challenges. However. The organisation now has capabilities to face new challenges and achieve success. To reach the defined level. without formalized procedures.involved. The strength to carry out similar activities stems from the prior experience.5 Defined Level The organisation has a repository or a set of defined procedures for carrying out development work. With this. that is. quality assurance and project tracking and oversight. the organisation has to implement a measurement programme to obtain process feedback. Commit resources to execute the plan.4 Repeatable Level Organizations which carry out similar projects with reasonable accuracy with regard to cost and time are at this level. 2. To improve the capabilities of the maintenance organisation the following steps8 must be performed consistently: 1. Understand the status of the current maintenance process or processes. 1. cost estimates and plans.3. 3. the organisation achieves the foundation for continuous improvement in processes. Plan to perform the required actions.3. organizations at this level need to institutionalize basic management processes.*9 The CMM was defined by the software engineering institute (SEI) for software development organizations and it classifies software development organizations into five levels initial. The performance of these steps calls for a process-oriented organisation and such an organisation develops over a period of time as enunciated by the capability maturity model (CMM). 1. 1. To climb up the maturity level.3 Initial Level The organisation operates on an ad hoc basis.6 Managed Level . the most important ones being project management. defined. List down required process improvement actions. repeatable. organizations must have dedicated personnel who take care of the development processes. Tools are neither integrated with the process nor uniformly applied. 5. Determine if the current process is the desired process. In order to improve performance.
Since the data collection process is full-fledged. Quality is not absolute but relative. Self Assessment Questions State whether following statement True or False 6. They are: · training strategy. Problems are identified proactively and eliminated. when performed properly. without formalized procedures. the effectiveness of the process can also be determined. Responsibility for formulating the maintenance policies lies with shop Supervisors. 7. · resources management. The CMM can be adapted to enhance the capabilities of the maintenance organizations as well. 1. Any maintenance activity requires resources. · supervisory review. A few key process areas can be readily identified in this regard. cost estimates and plans. the organisation needs to put in place automatic data collection support tools. .3. that is. To reach the highest level on the CMM. Targets are set for performance and a plan is made out to achieve the pre-set targets. produces the undesired result. A ‘process’ can be defined as a set of tasks that. · work management. 9.4 Improving Maturity in Maintenance Organizations The key process areas (KPAs) involved in enhancing the capability and maturity of a software organisation. 8.The organisation has a way by which performance indicators are measured objectively. The objective is only to identify the key process areas that would enable maintenance organizations to enhance their capabilities and maturity. The organisation operates on an ad hoc basis.7 Optimized Level The organisation has capabilities to identify the weakest links in the development processes and eliminate/improve them. · quality assurance. 1. 10. The objective is not to classify the maintenance organizations also into one of these levels.
a bull’s eye chart may be appropriate for tracking work. For example. The required resources should be available at the right time and in the right quantity. in one organisation an activity that takes only 15 minutes for completion is considered to be small. 1. It therefore becomes necessary to train all the maintenance personnel on the aspects of team work. Individual as well as organisation-wide training programmes should be planned. such as an oil refinery. Training. 1. Resource here means manpower. This is referred to as the work-breakdown structure.2 Work Management Any activity. a small maintenance activity may take not less than 5 hours. An organisation may not always find suitable people for performing a job. can be provided on safety and productivity-related issues. Holding resources in excess of requirements is wasteful while non-availability of required resources at the required time is undesirable since this result in loss of revenue due to loss in production.4. facilities etc. The maintenance manager should identify the training needs of his subordinates and get them trained.4 Supervisory Review Every maintenance activity should be performed under the charge of a supervisor. irrespective of the time it consumes. The supervisor’s responsibility is to ensure that the required resources allotted for performing . is not managed if it is not planned and tracked. scheduled and tracked to completion. Every maintenance activity should be planned. manpower. 1. tools. usage of modern tools etc.· Subcontract management. In such a case it is better if some of the available personnel are re-trained on some trades other than those in which they have specialized. a welder may be re-trained to perform a pipefitter’s job. instruments and facilities.4. Each of the tasks in the work-breakdown structure should have appropriate resources assigned to it. Most maintenance activities are performed in groups.3 Resources Management As mentioned earlier. scheduled and conducted. For small activities. maintenance activities require resources in the form of spare parts. 1. Management of resources is therefore critical to managing the maintenance function.4.4.1 Training Strategy Every maintenance organisation should have a suitable training programme for its personnel. This is the responsibility of the maintenance manager. In some others. tools. The term ‘small activity’ should be defined by the quality assurance personnel because it varies from one organisation to another. It would not be appropriate to track every small activity in the work-breakdown structure to completion. for example. For example. Also the probable time to complete the tasks should be specified. Coordination within a group is critical to completion of the maintenance task on time. A maintenance activity should be broken down into smaller manageable tasks.
the supervisor should inspect the equipment in order to ensure that the equipment is performing as desired. A better option is to subcontract the work. The repair men should be provided with a list of activities that need to be performed as a part of the maintenance. 1. and for analyzing them in order to come up with improved routes and work processes. Ability of the maintenance personnel can be enhanced by providing them with proper and relevant training. Increasing the ability to perform. Yet another goal would be to verify the correctness of the work performed.4. 1. The supervisor should also guide the repair gang in performing the activity. This is the work order management process.the maintenance activity are available to the repair gang on time and in the required numbers. These factors have also been borrowed from the CMM. Like any other internal maintenance activity. List of activities. 1. subcontracted work should also be managed.4.7 Commitment of the Maintenance Personnel The repair men need to be committed to perform the maintenance activities. The selection of the subcontractor should be planned.6 Subcontract Management A few maintenance activities require specialists at the job. This involves establishment of policies and top management sponsorship. The subcontractor manager should select a suitable subcontractor based on a balanced assessment of the capabilities of prospective subcontractors. is expensive.5 Quality Assurance The quality assurance personnel should be responsible for identifying the optimum route for performing a maintenance activity.4. The supervisor should also report completion of the activity to the maintenance manager so that the actual costs incurred are logged. The maintenance manager can also visit premises to inspect the capabilities and to get firsthand information. in most cases. The goals of the subcontract management should be to evaluate and select appropriate subcontractors for performing the maintenance activities. The assessment of the subcontractor can be done by inviting each to present their capabilities and verification of claims through independent references. Five important factors need to be taken care of if each of the key process areas mentioned above need to be implemented in the maintenance organisation. 1.4. A few more basic areas like maintenance planning and configuration management would also need to be considered.8 Verification of Implementation . tools etc. They are responsible for collecting data while the maintenance activity is carried out. Once the activity is complete. Hiring these specialists on a full-time basis.
materials and tools. The maintenance manager is responsible for scheduling maintenance activities. 12. Gathering metrics on every maintenance activity helps in estimating the time requirements and also the cost. Ability of the __________________ can be enhanced by providing them with proper and relevant training. 4. 2. 1. They are as follows: 1. The supervisor group. 13. The selection of the ______________should be planned. The key process areas (KPAs) involved in enhancing the capability and maturity of a ____________________. 1. Feedback on the maintenance activity performed should be given to the concerned repair men. estimated time to complete the work. including manpower. 15. Four entities are important as far as the maintenance activities are concerned.4. 14. tools etc. The resources.The supervisor of the repair men should verify the completion/ implementation of the maintenance activity. The quality assurance group. The supervisor should also make use of this opportunity to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the individual repair men and arrange suitable training for them. Metrics and process improvement is a ___________________. Self Assessment Questions 11. An activity is scheduled (as far as possible during the production windows in the case of preventive maintenance) and initiated depending on the availability of the required .9 Metrics and Process Improvement This is a continuous process. The maintenance manager. Measurement of maintenance activity can be in terms of percentage of work complete to date. 3. Every maintenance organisation should have a suitable ___________ for its personnel. the maintenance productivity and quality of the maintenance work.5 Dynamics of a Maintenance Organisation Coordination within the groups is one of the most important factors that determine the effectiveness of any maintenance organisation.
The equipment is in a failed condition.1 Maintenance Management Perspectives Kelly has described the dynamics of a production maintenance system considering a large process plant. (2) and (3). Fix it when it breaks as in cases (4) and (5). Maintenance is carried out while the equipment is running. Since the equipment is not in an operating condition this maintenance activity results in considerable loss of production. This activity involves simple inspection of replaceable parts. 5. this is called preventive maintenance. Maintenance is being carried out to restore the equipment to an operable condition. this is called corrective maintenance.5.resources. The quality assurance group determines the process of performing the maintenance activity in an optimized manner. 3. 2. This is called the ‘production window’. Due to shortage of resources the maintenance activity is pending. the quality assurance group collects data on the process and analyses them with a view to improving the process. Prevent it from breaking down as in cases (1). 2. The key distinction among the three perspectives relates to the time interval between the recognition of the need to perform a maintenance activity and the time at which the . Relatively more time is spent on performing this type of maintenance activity. It can be seen from the above that there are two perspectives of maintenance management: 1. Since the equipment is being taken out of production this maintenance activity results in loss of production. The equipment is in a failed condition. The equipment is not wanted for production and is available for maintenance. At any time. 4. The equipment is taken out of production for a scheduled maintenance activity. As the maintenance activity is carried out. Since the equipment is in use there is no loss in production while performing this maintenance activity. Ettkin and Jahnig have described the work life cycle for the reactive and proactive perspectives. The equipment is running and is producing the desired output. This maintenance activity also does not incur any loss in production. They have divided corrective maintenance into two perspectives – ‘reactive’ and ‘reactive/proactive’ –and have defined preventive maintenance as a ‘proactive’ perspective. 1. The maintenance manager tracks the activity to completion while the supervisor inspects and ensures the activity is carried out properly. an item of equipment or some part of it can be in one of the five following states: 1.
make changes and prevent failures. the time interval between the recognition and performance is very small as compared to the ‘proactive’ perspective. for example. When an item of equipment is down it results in loss of production which. v performing the maintenance task. This is an approach developed to reduce the likelihood of the failure of critical equipment to the minimum possible.5. Performing a maintenance activity requires usage of resources such as manpower. regardless of the maintenance perspectives. materials and tools. in turn. The level of maintenance activity to be performed is obviously the one where the total cost is minimal. Availability of an item of equipment can be defined as the ratio of uptime to the sum of uptime and downtime. is proportional to the loss in revenue. The cost of unavailability. Just as there is a trade-off between inventory holding costs and the reordering costs. there is a trade-off between the maintenance costs and their benefits. This approach to maintenance becomes essential for any equipment where there are serious dangers to life should a failure occur. v scheduling the maintenance task.2 Types of Maintenance The return of investment on an item of equipment can be maximized by maximizing its availability. the ship and its entire crew are in mortal danger. The total maintenance cost is the sum of direct maintenance costs. results in loss of revenue. consisting of labour costs.activity is actually performed. material costs and direct overheads.5. The cost of utilization of these resources is a direct maintenance cost. 1. The only difference is that of the time interval. Also the indirect costs resulting due to failure decrease. which is an indirect cost. Most situations warrant a considerable mixture of maintenance types. The intention is to detect potential failures early. the direct costs increase. If personnel who operate and maintain the nuclear power plant of the submarine make serious mistakes. corrective and other maintenance practices followed in organizations. involve the following steps: v planning the maintenance task. The preventive actions under such a situation would be to: . In the case of the ‘reactive’ perspective. which are primarily due to loss of production. v Evaluation of the performance. There is rarely any organisation where only one type of maintenance is used.3 Preventive Maintenance Preventive maintenance is a proactive activity. and indirect maintenance costs. in the case of nuclear submarines. 1. All the maintenance activities. The following section describes the preventive. As the level of performing maintenance activity increases.
and replacement of those which are worn out. · Detect the onset of a failure. For example. power plants etc.. This type of maintenance activity is applicable only for those items which exhibit a time-dependent failure . · Inspect each ship and each operation to ensure that every procedure and method is properly understood and executed. These objectives give rise to the following methods of performing preventive · maintenance activities: · fixed-time maintenance. · Report deviations to the admiral-in-charge. and the commanding officer must promptly report on the corrective actions. Analyze even the most trivial errors to determine what went wrong.· Train all the personnel in their own jobs. Fixed-time maintenance is that activity which involves inspection of critical parts of the equipment after a fixed time interval. · Audit the personnel so that they demonstrate satisfactory performance to their job standards. · Condition-based maintenance. · servicing. which includes lubrication. or after generation of a fixed cumulative output. adjustment and similar activities. These activities can prevent serious errors from occurring. The fixed time should not be based on the calendar units but should be based on a fixed number of running units such as kilometers. Primary objectives of this approach to maintenance are to: · Increase the life of critical equipment by preventing failures. hours etc. the level of distilled water in the battery of an automobile is checked after every 1000 kilometers and the brush ploughs of a grinding mill should be replaced after every 500 hours of running. such as car assembly. Planned · activities are carried out and the main functions are: · inspection of critical parts of the equipment. where the cost due to loss in production is very high. This approach to maintenance is also important in highly automated plants. · Replacement of worn-out parts.
Corrective Maintenance Corrective maintenance. which can be measured either visually or by other means. which the case is when the event leading to failure occurs in a predominantly random manner. shock pulses etc. This approach is designed to detect the onset of a failure. and then the parts have to be repaired or replaced. if repair is not economical. A parameter. is a reactive activity and is performed when an item of equipment is not in an operating condition or is operating at a level below its rated capacity. generally occurring in the form of breakdown maintenance. or how the failure can be prevented is not yet known. on the other hand. cracks in the structure of a building etc. replacement of failed parts with new ones. It is an appropriate option for preventive maintenance when the following conditions apply: Prevention of failure is not technically feasible. In organizations where there are very few production windows. This type of maintenance is called running maintenance. analysis of acoustic emissions. For example. This is a proactive-reactive approach to maintenance and results in the following tasks: repair of failed parts of the equipment. checking for leaks in fuel-carrying pipes. Although. Damage is caused to other equipment as a consequence of failure. Along with inspection. Condition-based maintenance is also known as predictive maintenance. such as the setting of warning limits for the Solidification of the lubricant. Corrective maintenance activities are also performed when condition monitoring indicates onset of a failure. Since condition monitoring gives sufficient warning of an impending failure it becomes easy for the maintenance manager to plan a corrective activity at a later time. It is possible to identify a value of that parameter when action may be taken before full failure occurs. as mentioned earlier. Running maintenance is normally carried out in situations where there is no threat to the life of the maintenance personnel. the maintenance personnel can also collect data which can be used as inputs by other methods of condition-based maintenance procedures. With this kind of maintenance policy. In some situations it is possible to carry out some preventive maintenance activities while the equipment or plant is running. A simple case of condition-based maintenance is the visual examination of the brake pads of an automobile. the solidification of the lubricant is an indicator of the machine’s wearing condition. eddy currents. are expensive. Techniques such as oil analysis. correlating to the onset of failure has been identified.mechanism. This method of condition-based maintenance is inexpensive. ultrasonic waves and thermographs also help monitor the condition of the equipment. There is a cost due to loss in production. These methods. the time required to perform this activity is . the maintenance-related costs are usually high for the following reasons: The time required is usually much higher than other maintenance types because the cause of failure has to be identified. Detailed analysis helps in detecting an impending failure. Complex situations require sensors and other high-tech tools to monitor the vibrations. The costs involved in condition monitoring may vary widely. corrective maintenance is predominant. The obvious advantage of carrying out running maintenance is that there is no loss in production.
corrective maintenance work is scheduled and carried out. repair and replace certain other parts of the equipment.5 Opportunistic Maintenance The maintenance work that is carried out is not directed at the primary cause of failure of the equipment or shut-down. When a maintenance activity is carried out on an item of equipment there exists some opportunity to inspect. Five entities are important as far as the maintenance activities are concerned. 1. Whatever be the choice of the maintenance policy. Trained maintenance personnel also have a role to play in reducing the maintenance time. 17. the maintenance department personnel attempt to detect the cause of the failure. The work is deferred to a later date if the priority is low or the equipment is not so critical. an emergency maintenance is carried out. Shut-down maintenance can either be a preventive activity or a corrective activity. Once an item of equipment fails. as well as major repairs and overhauls. this can be reduced considerably if the organisation has all the maintenance procedures and systems in place. The cost of utilization of the resources is a indirect maintenance cost. are carried out after the equipment or plant is shut down. Minor repairs which cannot be performed while the equipment is running. The maintenance manager is responsible for scheduling maintenance activities. 20.much higher than the preventive actions require. . criticality of the equipment and the priority. The cause is usually recorded for future analysis and corrective actions are prescribed. it should be closely associated or integrated with the resources management function. If the priority is high or alternatively if the equipment is critical. Self Assessment Questions State whether the following statement True or False 16. This approach to maintenance is called opportunistic maintenance. 18. 1. The maintenance work that is carried out is not directed at the primary cause of failure of the equipment or shut-down.5. Depending on the availability of resources. The types of maintenance discussed in this section will help top management decide on questions like: should we carry out preventive actions? Or should we fix the equipment when it breaks? As mentioned earlier. 19. While we know that prevention is better than cure. The next chapter describes a few resources management techniques. most situations in organizations warrant a mixture of maintenance types. we also realize that failures are unavoidable.5.4 Shut-down Maintenance Shut-down maintenance can either be a preventive activity or a corrective activity.
3. and has been hastened by the fact that the loss of one hour of production is much more expensive today than it ever was before. Write a note on History of Maintenance. What are the features of Preventive Maintenance? 1. maintenance of plant and machinery was a thankless job and the maintenance function was considered a necessary evil. Maintenance 2. This transformation has taken place in about 40 years and has brought about automation and increasing sophistication of plant and equipment.6 Summary Until recently. True . What are the steps involved in Maintenance Organisation. Organisation-wide 6.7 Terminal Questions 1. Explain Objectives and Functions of Maintenance. Plant and equipment availability is of paramount importance and effective management of the maintenance function goes a long way in ensuring the attainment of the objective of maximization of availability 1. and integrated iron and steel works. False 7. True 8. 4. 2. From this state. Ignorance 3.1. nuclear power generating stations. Production 4. chemical and fertilizer plants.8 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1. it has now come to be accepted as an important function – one of strategic importance – particularly in the capital-intensive continuous-process industries such as power plants. Discuss Dynamics of a Maintenance Organisation. Resource Cost 5. 5.
False 17. Subcontractor 15. Software organisation 12. Page 6 – Part 1. Page 2 – Part 1. .4 5.2 3. True 11. Continuous Process 16.4.Page 11 – Part 1. True 20. False 19. False 10.1. Maintenance Personnel 14.2 4. Training programme 13.2. False Terminal Questions 1.1 2.3 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .9. Page 10 – Part 1. True 18. Page 3 – Part 1.
2 Man Power 2.4 Tools and Facilities 2.OM0006-Unit-02-Business Maintenance Unit-02-Business Maintenance Structure: 2.3 Spare Parts Statistical Inventory Theory Models Inventory Costs How Much to Order? When to Order? Selective Inventory Control Procedures Manufacturing Resource Planning The Bill of Materials Master production Schedule Inventory Status File Requirements Pegging Rescheduling Process 2.5 Effect of Maintenance types on Resources 2.1 Introduction Objectives 2.6 Summary 2.7 Terminal Questions .
8 Answers 2. Important among these are maintenance materials (spare parts). which utilize the theory of minimizing the total cost of unavailability and labor. A Maintenance job is usually performed by a repair gang or repair crew consisting of an optimal mix of skilled workers. plumbers etc. The usage of the models. One solution to this problem would be to schedule individual workers rather than repair gangs. which utilize the theory of minimizing the total cost of unavailability and labor. Queuing models and simulation have been used also for determining the optimal number of tools and facilities such that the maintenance costs are minimized. requires some knowledge of the rate of failure (called arrival rate) and the repair distribution. plumbers etc.2. Historically. rigging etc. Manan . Basker. Techniques used for managing the maintenance resources are also discussed. An important issue in manpower is that of determining the optimal number of skilled repair workers. can be used to determine the optimal number of welders. a maintenance job may require the services of a welder for just about an hour whereas the same job may require a fitter for more than four hours. Queuing models. manpower. For example. however. An important issue in manpower is that of determining the optimal number of skilled repair workers. tools and facilities. The disadvantage of assigning a maintenance job to a repair gang or crew is that the manpower utilization within the gang is not effective.1 Introduction For performing any maintenance activity resources are required. Queuing models. not all skills are required for the same amount of time. In this study the characteristics of the maintenance resources are discussed. fitting. can be used to determine the optimal number of welders. The procedures used are similar to those used for determining the optimal number of repair gangs required for carrying out maintenance activities. Objectives: After studying this unit you shall be able · To explain the characteristics of the maintenance resources · To define techniques used for managing the maintenance resources · To assess comparison of the available resources management techniques 2. However.2 Man Power Almost all the maintenance activities require skilled personnel and most of the activities require more than one skill such as welding. simulation techniques and queuing models have been used for determining the optimal number of repair gangs required to be deployed in a system.
Barnett and Blundell have used the Monte Carlo simulation technique to optimize the number of repair gangs and the size of the repair gangs given that the maintenance jobs generate demand for repair workers from three different trades’ mechanics. In general. The objective is to determine the number of repair workers needed to constitute a repair gang. In addition to the holding and stock-out costs.3. on the other hand.3 Spare Parts The spare parts (maintenance material) problems have been traditionally approached in three ways: 1. Maintaining the spare parts in a store also incurs some cost. there is also a cost of ordering a re-supply of spare parts. Newman and Brammer and Malmborg have utilized a material requirements planning/bill of materials approach to manage the manpower resources. electricians and pipe-fitters. 2. Using selective control procedures along with some heuristics. stock-out and ordering costs.3. two basic questions need to be answered: · How Much to Order? · When to Order? . The objective of spare parts management is therefore to minimize the total of inventory holding.1 Inventory Costs Every organization keeps spare parts so that defective and worn-out parts of equipment can be replaced. 2.1 Statistical Inventory Theory Models 2.and Husband have used the Monte Carlo simulation technique to determine the optimal number of repair workers required to perform the maintenance activities in a shop comprising a finite number of identical machines. and the number of repair gangs required such that the total costs (sum of labor cost and downtime cost) are minimized. By holding spare parts in the inventory the funds of the organization are tied up which could have otherwise been invested in other activities. Using the statistical inventory theory models. 2. Using the material requirements planning/manufacturing resources planning (MRP/ MRP-II) technique. 3.1. not having the required spare part results in a stock-out cost.
The maintenance manager must make sufficient provisions to take care of demand during the lead-time because the cost of stock-out is undesirable in any situation.3. Thus The minimum of TIC can be obtained by differentiating the above equation with respect to Q and equating the resulting derivative to 0. the demand for spare parts resulting from the need to perform maintenance activities needs to be satisfied.3. The following is an illustration of a basic inventory model which takes into account the holding and the ordering costs. During this period.1. . where c is the cost per order. therefore. this is referred to as the lead-time. Let Q be the ordering quantity. we have If The annual demand D for an item is 8000 units The cost of placing an order is Rs. The total inventory cost TIC = the holding cost + ordering cost. The service level is defined as the probability of not having a stock-out situation. If the annual demand for an item is D.00 The rate of interest is 20 per cent annually Then the optimum order quantity. Then the holding cost is given by where p is the unit price of the item and r is the annual stockholding rate related to the stock value.2.3 When to Order? An order placed with a vendor for re-supply of spare parts takes some time to get filled. 8. 100.00 The unit price of the item is Rs.1. is 1000. then the number of orders to be placed is given by The ordering cost is. Mathematical models are however available to determine the timing of placing an order taking into consideration the characteristics of the demand during the lead-time as well as the lead-time itself. Thus. 2. These models help determine what has been traditionally known as the optimum order quantity. obtained by utilizing the above equation for Q. This provision normally takes the form of safety stock which is determined based on the service level. The complexity of the problem lies in the fact that neither the demand nor the lead-time is constant.2 How Much to Order? Several models have been developed based on the principle of minimizing the total inventory costs.
2.2 Selective Inventory Control Procedures The statistical inventory control techniques require that each item.Self Assessment Question 1) Maintenance job is usually performed by a _____________or repair crew consisting of an optimal mix.3. Ramani and Krishnan Kutty have utilized an ABC×VED classification technique where not only the annual value of usage of the part is taken into account but also the criticality of the part is given importance. the safety stock and the minimum and maximum inventory levels require to be determined for each of the items in the stores.1 Most applications found in the literature make use of a combination of selective inventory control procedures because classification or categorization of items based on just one criterion is inadequate for managing the maintenance materials. Items were categorized into homogeneous groups based on their characteristics. The re-order quantity. difficult and easy to procure Procurement lead-times . low Unit price of the parts Scarce. Several procedures for classifying items into homogeneous groups are available. During the days when computers were not available. be given equal importance. 2) Several models have been developed based on the principle of minimizing the total _____________. 3) Every organization keeps spare parts so that defective and ___________ of equipment can be replaced. a few of which have been listed. slow and non-moving Usage rate of the parts High. By this method the spare parts are classified into nine Basics Of Formulation Annual usage value of the parts Vital. Technique Description ABC Pareto rule VED FSN HML SDE Table 2. irrespective of its criticality. The following paragraphs describe some of the applications involving a combination of selective inventory control procedures. paying equal attention to all the inventory items was not feasible. Instead effort was concentrated on a few expensive and fast-moving items. This is the principle of the selective inventory control procedures. 4) _______________ and queuing models have been used for determining the optimal number of repair gangs. essential and desirable Criticality of the parts Fast. medium.
MUSIC-3D. Duchessi. takes into account the annual usage value Bi of the part i and is given by where Ci is the price of the part and Di is the total annual demand. VED and the SDE classification procedures which results in eight categories of items as shown in table 2. In other words. and Ni is the standard deviation of the downtime cost (E denotes expectation). For each of the nine categories. The second dimension makes use of the criticality aspect of the spare part and is based on the revenue lost due to loss in production (Mi) which is given by where pi is the downtime cost per unit time per failure involving the concerned part. Moreover. Tayi and Levy have utilized a two-dimensional classification method. Although the selective control procedures make the managing of the multiple inventory items easier. Saha and Mohanty have developed a spare parts stocking policy with an objective of minimizing the downtime of critical equipment. which categorizes the spare parts into groups based on their criticality.6m where m is the maximum quantity of parts requested at any time. It is the time required to replace or repair the part. a range of service level is specified. A three dimensional classification technique has been used for the purpose. while the categories formed on the basis of criticality of the parts are critical and non-critical. which makes use of the ABC classification criteria. The first dimension utilizes a VED classification methodology. a part may be called critical if the loss of production caused by non-availability of the part is very high. which is based on the procurement leadtime while the third dimension makes use of the FSN classification (usage rate). fi is the number of failures per unit time involving the part i. the multi-unit spare inventory control. These eight categories have been formed by taking only two categories in each of the three dimensions. . For instance. A part may be classified as a critical part if the consequence of running out of stock is severe. statistical inventory control models or heuristics are utilized to determine the ordering parameters such as the order point and the order quantity. the stocking policy for a spare part in the V/S/F category is 2. The second dimension uses an SDE classification. There are several ways by which the criticality of a part can be defined. The two categories formed on the basis of sales value are high sales value and low sales value. A reorder point-order quantity technique is used in conjunction with this method for replenishment of parts. it should be noted that most of the classification criteria are subjective. in the categories formed on the basis of lead-times are long lead-time and short lead-time. makes use of a combination of ABC. The first dimension. The stocking policies for each of the 27 categories are determined using heuristics.categories. For example. If a substitute part is readily available then the part may be less critical.2.
The components can either be manufactured in the shop or can be boughtout items.1 The Bill of Materials The bill of materials defines how one or more items are brought together to make up another item.3 Manufacturing Resources Planning The manufacturing resources planning (MRP-II) technique has been used widely for managing production resources. an inventory status file. is made up of the piston. The bill of materials indicates that the engine consist of three subassemblies – the piston assembly.1 shows the components of MRP. In addition to this.2 shows the bill of materials for a petrol engine. All other constituents of the petrol engine are referred to as items. Later in this section. semi-finished or finished form.3. a bill of materials file. It is an operations as well as a financial system. in turn. The components in the diagram have been described briefly. The technique is based on the principle of dependent demand.2 2. the crankshaft assembly and the cylinder assembly. The bill of materials. defines the constituents of an end-item. The piston assembly. 2. As mentioned earlier in this section. It can also be considered to be an assembly definition. It is also a system simulator. Figure 2. the petrol engine is an end-item. The central idea of MRP is to time production/acquisition of batches of parts/components so that they are available as they are required in assemblies. some applications involving management of maintenance inventories are also discussed. MRP-II possesses two basic characteristics which go beyond the closed-loop material requirements planning (MRP). in general. This section provides a brief overview of the closed-loop technique. any manufacturing organization would want to have the following questions answered: · How much to order? · When to order? Both these questions are also answered by the MRP technique. in a raw. a logic processor and a capacity planning subsystem.3. or derived from the demand of another inventory item. It consists of a master production schedule. The immediate . As seen in the figure.Table 2.3. The demand for an inventory item is termed dependent when it is directly related to. the application of MRP is also very simple. the piston rings and the bearings. An end-item is an item at the highest level of hierarchy in the bill of materials. Figure 2.
for example. Figure 2. is an item whose parent is the piston assembly.2 two bearings (indicated in parenthesis) go into the making of a piston assembly.1 . The piston. the bill of materials also indicates the quantity of an item that goes into making a parent item. The MRP technique uses the bill of materials for computing the requirements through a process called explosion or desegregation.predecessor of an item is called the parent item. The bill of materials also carries with it some other information such as whether the part is bought out or is manufactured within the organization. In addition to defining the relationship between items. As seen from Figure 2.
.2 Master production Schedule A master production schedule is a statement of production of end-items for a given planning horizon. semi-finished and finished parts. This includes raw materials. this can be broken down into 12 production months. Also. This is further broken down into a schedule for specific variants of carbide tools such as SPAN 50. The quantity of all the items to be produced in a given period must equal the quantity budgeted in the production plan as shown in Table 2. the top management has budgeted 6 tones of carbide tools to be produced during the year.3.3.3. The master production schedule indicates the quantity of items to be produced in a given period. level codes are assigned such that identical items used in different end-items are maintained at the same level. In order to make the computation of the requirements easy. This would mean that 0. The requirement at one level is computed first before proceeding to the next level. It states what end-items need to be produced and how many needs to be produced in a month or week.5 tones of tools need to be produced every month on average.Figure 2. it may so happen that the items are used at two different levels. 2. The priorities for the production of items specified in the master production schedule are set by the sales plan. As shown in Table 2.3. TPAN 75 and CPAN 75 that need to be produced. The total weight of the variants scheduled for production during the month when totaled equals the budgeted weight as shown in Table 2. Since the demand for carbide tools is all through the year.3. which is a budget set by the management. The master production schedule is constrained by the production plan. There may be a case where an item is used in two different end items.2 Every item in the bill of materials is given a number or code such that no two parts have the same number.
The file is kept up to date by posting the transactions which take place as a result of a receipt or issue of parts into and out of the stores.1 0.0 0.5 Tools Master Schedule SPAN 50 0.1 2.3 0.3.5 0.3.1 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.5 0.4 0. the batch sizing policy. the scrap allowances etc.1 0.4 Requirements Pegging .3 0.3 0.3 Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 0.2 TPAN 50 0.1 0.2 0. In addition to the stock data.1 0.1 0.5 0.1 0.2 0. · Quantity on order.1 0.5 0.1 0.3 0.5 0.1 Table 2.1 0.3 0.1 0.2 CPAN 50 0.2 0.Item code Jan Production Plan Carbide 0. In general. the inventory status file also contains the planning factors such as the procurement or manufacturing lead-times.3. the safety stock.3 0. 2.1 0.3 Inventory Status File The inventory status file contains up-to-date information about all the materials stocked in the stores.5 0.1 0.1 0.3.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.1 0. the inventory status file maintains the following data for every item: · Quantity on-hand.5 0.
Activities such as fixed-time maintenance enable managers to determine the exact number of parts required. The inventory status file will not contain up-to-date information about all the materials stocked in the stores. The procedures used are similar to those used for determining the optimal number of repair gangs required for carrying out maintenance activities. 8. in the case of a proactive perspective the maintenance activity is planned and the timing is also determined well in advance. The manpower requirement is also known precisely. . 6. The scheduled receipts are taken into account while computing the net requirements. The bill of materials defines how one or more items are brought together to make up another item. Scheduled receipts are orders which have already been released to the shop floor or to the vendors.3. 2.5 Effect of Maintenance Types on Resources As mentioned earlier. The statistical inventory control techniques require that each item. 5. it becomes necessary to trace the demand for an item to its source and this process is referred to as pegging. This is a deterministic situation. A master production schedule is a statement of production of end-items for a given planning horizon. 9. materials on order may be received earlier than the due date while in some others the scheduled receipt may not be expected to be in the stock on time.5 Rescheduling Process Scheduled receipts are orders which have already been released to the shop floor or to the vendors.Explosion is a process concerned with generating gross requirements.3. For audit purposes. not be given equal importance. 2. Self Assessment Questions State whether following statement True or False. 7.4 Tools and Facilities Queuing models and simulation have been used also for determining the optimal number of tools and facilities such that the maintenance costs are minimized. In some cases. irrespective of its criticality. This uncertainty may result in rescheduling of the receipts. 2.
In order to reduce the impact of failures on the profitability of the organization the following techniques are usually adopted: · Increase the number of maintenance personnel. have been used by industries for spare parts planning. · Build-up spare part inventories and tools. namely. and the various models and techniques which are commonly used. then the immediate requirement would be to restore at least one of the items of equipment to a working state. such as the use of ABC and VED classifications. The technique should be able to take into account preventive. The basic purpose of this study is to provide the necessary background and present in a proper perspective the need of the development of an MRP based technique for the management of maintenance resources. explaining the commonly used methods and discussing the work done by researchers working in the area of spare parts management. statistical inventory theory models and selective control approaches for multi-item inventories for spare parts planning and queuing theory and simulation for manpower planning. Managers in some organizations carry out cannibalization as a last resort in order to meet the production requirements. if not both. however. As per the definition of maintenance. Cannibalization. Since failures occur randomly it becomes difficult to predict the resource requirements. · Use standby equipment. There are some . and corrective maintenance activities (and not just one of them).In the case of a reactive perspective. this happens to be an undesirable situation and should be avoided.6 Summary The problem of management of maintenance resources has been discussed. This approach to maintenance is called cannibalization. 2. the maintenance activity is neither planned nor scheduled in advance. does not reduce the number of inoperable parts. Statistical inventory theory models and techniques for selective control have been discussed in detail. Selective control procedures. condition-based. If a failure occurs and the required resources are not available to restore the equipment to a working state the equipment is kept waiting in the repair queue. and if manpower is a constraint. cannibalization can lead to severe control problems at a later time. If the required maintenance materials are not available in the stores then one option available is to replace the failed parts of one with the working parts of the other failed item of equipment. If the equipment is critical. Consider a situation where two identical items of equipment have failed due to different failure modes. In some cases cannibalization is also practiced. This perspective has been created by initially discussing the various types of maintenance resources and their characteristics.
2. researchers have suggested the use of multidimensional classifications. such as the re-order point and order quantity. Simulation techniques . chains. are utilized to determine the ordering parameters. ABC×FSN. based on just one criterion is adequate. such as ABC×VED. Classifying spare parts into homogeneous groups using a classification scheme is difficult since different types of spare parts require different classification schemes. Worn-out parts 4. Such classification schemes. 2. belts. 5. 2. Define Statistical Inventory Theory Models. Explain Man Power.fundamental problems encountered in the use of selective control techniques for spare parts management and these are as follows: Such classification is always rather subjective and this is more so in the case of spare parts.7 Terminal Questions 1. VED×SDE×FSN and ABC× VED×SDE. in turn. Briefly summarize effect of maintenance types on resources. Explain Master production Schedule. 4. For the above reasons. or heuristics. and these models have their own shortcomings. give rise to a large number of classes of spares with each class having its own planning and control parameters. ABC and FNS are more appropriate for standard spares such as pulleys. For example. statistical inventory control models. 3. In these cases as well. Inventory costs 3. or categorization. whereas VED and SDE may be more appropriate for special spare parts (ones which are used on particular equipment). Repair gang 2. For spare parts. sprockets and bearings.8 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1. classification. Summarize Bill of Materials.
3.4 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .Refer 2. Refer 2.2. True 9.2 4.1 3. False 8. False 7. Refer 2. Refer 2.5.1 5. True 6.2. .3. True Terminal Questions 1.1 2. Refer 2.2.
production.1 Introduction Our goal is to establish excellence in Work Management. selected. To fully understand the breadth of Work Management it is important to understand what Work Management is. Planning & Scheduling. . Scope of work includes maintenance. executed. closed and critiqued. Operations. projects.1 Introduction Objectives 3.6 Answers 3. and R&D activities. waste management. Maintenance.3 Work Management Process 3. scheduled.). etc.4 Summary 3. Work Management – A deliberate process in which a scope of work is identified. The Work Management process requires the full support of the entire organization (e.2 Functional Requirements Equipment Maintenance Function Work Order Management Function Inventory Management Function Vendor Management Function Subcontractor Management Function General Information Systems Specifications 3. planned..g. Engineering.5 Terminal Questions 3.OM0006-Unit-03-Work Management & Identification Unit-03-Work Management & Identification Structure: 3.
Objectives: A maintenance management information system must help you to · Schedule the Maintenance activities.2. Predict failures to a chosen level of confidence. hiring of subcontractors and arranging facilities. Subcontractor management subsystem. Work order management subsystem. Requirements can be gathered by interviewing the prospective users or circulating questionnaires.2 Functional Requirements Before designing the information system. 4. manpower and tools would be available. 2. 3. 4. 3. Plan maintenance work – ensure materials. 2.1 Equipment Maintenance Function The equipment maintenance function needs to perform the following: 1. Store maintenance data including failure and repair data. 5. 5. The functional requirements of the information system should be gathered first. Update data when a failure or preventive maintenance activity is initiated and completed. . 3. · Optimally utilize maintenance resources. 1. at the least. 6. the scope of the system should be clear. Track overall maintenance function performance. Equipment maintenance function. · Report on the performance of the overall maintenance system using standard indicators. Inventory management subsystem. Schedule preventive maintenance work. A maintenance management information system. 3. Vendor management subsystem. should have the following functions. · Plan procurement of resources.
7. Produce reports as desired by the maintenance manager and top management. Alert the maintenance manager to place orders for materials as planned and in the required quantity. 2. 8. 3. 3. Convert critical maintenance requests into work orders. Update materials inventory data as and when an issue or receipt of materials occurs. List pending work. materials and tools.2 Work order management subsystem The work order management function is required to perform the following: 1. 7. 4. Schedule work visually. 5. 3.2. Track maintenance costs. 3. Schedule release of planned orders (materials).3 Inventory management function The inventory management function has to do the following: 1. 5. tools and facilities. Track utilization of manpower. Create maintenance requests. Produce reports as desired by the maintenance manager and top management. Track status of work in progress. Print reports as desired by the maintenance manager and top management. 2. Generate work orders for preventive and corrective actions. 9. Store and maintain inventory data including skills and tools. 3.7. Track status of manpower. 6. 4. Plan capacity.4 Vendor management function The vendor management function needs to perform the following: .2. tools and facilities.2. 6. covering manpower.
5.1. 2) The work order management function is required to perform Plan capacity. Make on-line data entry.6 General Information Systems Specifications The general information systems specifications need to perform the following: 1. top management and middle management. 4. Print related reports.2. Cater for three levels of users’ administration. 3. Maintain vendor information.5 Subcontractor management function The subcontractor management function must: 1. 2. Self Assessment Questions State whether the statement is true or false. Organize skills provided by subcontractors. In order for a system to be efficient. . Track quality of subcontracted work. 6.2. 2. 3. Track cost. 3. Track progress of subcontracted work. each level of management needs to have access to the required information and should be able to extract the data which is needed. Produce reports as desired by maintenance manager. Validate data entry. 3. 3) The equipment maintenance function needs Schedule preventive maintenance work. Maintain data related to subcontracts. Devise metrics for evaluation of vendors. 3. 1) The subcontractor management function must not maintain data related to subcontracts. 2.
The statement of work. Contractors develop management programs to execute much of the work of contracts. Whether mandatory or voluntary on the . 5) The vendor management function needs maintain vendor information.4) General information systems specifications will not validate data entry. The statement of work in the contract provides a description of the mission-related work that DOE expects to be performed. At the top-level these processes and tools include the contract with DOE and management programs committed to by the contractor to execute the statement of work and requirements in the contract. and · Critique the planning. · Close the work item after completion. Identify Work Concept This element describes the processes and tools put in place that determines the work that a contractor performs. Each year DOE and the contractor review the contract and the progress of work as part of the annual budget process. requirements stated in the contract and the annual budget process form the top-level means of identifying the work that will be performed.3 Work Management Process These steps to be followed in work management process are: · Identify the work that needs to be performed. other programs may be developed by the contractor in furtherance of contract execution. · Plan that work. Mechanics The contract between DOE and the contractor provides the top-level mechanisms for work to be identified. · Select the specific work that will be planned. · Execute the work. On a day-to-day basis. 3. · Schedule the work for performance. scheduling and performance of the work that has been accomplished. A number of these programs are mandatory. safety and protecting the environment. they would entail routines used to monitor attributes important to mission execution.
Workers are encouraged to be vigilant in monitoring facility conditions for system or equipment problems. Management The annual budget process provides contractor and DOE management the resources to manage the work that is identified for further planning and execution. These include work requests. From this process the work to be planned and executed in a given year is identified. environmental monitoring. While the threshold for identifying work items needs to be sufficiently low to all capture work items. The Select Work element funnels the work requests through a validation or screening process to determine those work items needing to be completed. Routines are executed to monitor equipment. The identification of work is. Other types of work are converted into work requests. Work requests not supporting the current mission. In furtherance of management programs. contractors often put routines in place. They provide the opportunity to proactively manage the identification of emergent work. Select Work Concept Management programs identify the operational activities and routines that need to be completed to meet mission deliverables. an identified project or specific facility need are screened out and no further resources applied to their resolution. a continuous process. therefore. Work management systems are put in place by contractors to collect work requests into a single place. Program and project plans are updated with the information developed during the annual budget process. or improvements. system and environmental parameters. This process compares the work accomplished and that which remains to the funding that DOE believes will be available to execute work in the coming years. they provide a method to track. prioritize and coordinate the management of several categories of work. operator rounds. Additional management tools that are used in the work identification process also support other elements of the work management process. On-going assessments or reviews may identify the need for corrective actions. The discovery of new information may result in the need for additional research and development or design changes to existing systems and equipment. no contractor has the resources to complete every identified work request. at a high level. changes.part of the contractor. which are initiated by personnel who identify work that needs to be performed to allow the work item to be entered into a work management system. The schedule is also a tool that ensures that work is properly identified. and similar repetitive procedures. Work is also identified on a daily basis. These routines can include Technical Surveillance Requirements/ Limited Condition of Operations TSR/LCO surveillances. these management programs provide one of the primary paths for work to be identified. After the work .
etc. · Need Date: Work requests must clearly indicate any deadline dates and the estimated time period for completing the work. problem symptoms. · Work Duplications: Contractors use Work Management Tools to track work orders. and interface with mission requirements. or management commitments. Or the work request may require a documented resolution. If the work item is a duplicate it should be screened out. or required plant operational modes to facilitate tracking and planning and then entered into the work management system. traded off with lower priority work or put forth as a candidate for additional funding. Location of the work. Mechanics Work selection is a continuous process to handle the work requests identified on a daily basis. if sufficiently important. Work may be tied to contract milestones. equipment identification. The work may be simple enough that no initiating work documents are required (so-called “tool pouch” or “quick fix” items). may all provide key information needed to properly validate the work. Work requests that have equipment impacts must be evaluated and the systems configured to protect equipment and workers. Work requests that are clearly not going to be accomplished due to cost impacts should be screened out at this point. Knowledge of these drivers allows effective prioritization of work planning efforts. This validation process evaluates attributes of the work items to determine if the work item should be processed through the work management system. Attributes evaluated include: · Work Scope Identification: A clear scope statement is necessary to understand what work activities are necessary. coded with respect to like components and systems. . operational requirements. This second type of work will normally be given a relative priority. These tools should be reviewed to determine whether duplicate items are already entered into the system. or. · Work Cost: Work requests may be identified that will require funding that is beyond that available to the contractor.request has been validated a formal work order is entered into the work management tools used by the contractor. · Operational Impact: Work requests that have immediate impact on the health and safety of contractor personnel need to be processed rapidly. The work selection process starts with a work validation. A strong validation process incorporates two-way communications with the work request identifiers. stay in compliance with the established safety basis and operating requirements for that facility or project. Effective work management processes utilize a graded approach to resolving work requests.
Those work requests entered into the work management system result in the generation of work orders. Mature work selection processes incorporate an understanding of a graded approach to work planning.
Contractors need to clearly define who has responsibility and authority to perform the validation activity for their facilities and projects. The validation authority typically resides in the Operations organization because they are responsible for mission execution and normally retain configuration control of the facility systems, structures and components. The work management process descriptions need to define the planning processes used by the contractor staff. Requirements for the type of planning required, based on potential mission impact, hazards analysis and complexity of the work activity, are critical to decision-making during work selection. Plan Work Concept This element describes the process of taking a defined scope of work that has been selected for planning and developing/packaging technical documents to safely and efficiently perform that work. This process includes identification/incorporation of applicable technical specifications and requirements into technical documents, identifying and mitigating job hazards, identifying and obtaining required permits, developing work instructions, and defining post activity acceptance. Mechanics An initial step in planning work is determining what type of work execution vehicle will be used to perform the work. As previously discussed under Work Selection, this decision has often already been made, on a preliminary basis, prior to the initiation of Work Planning; however, it is confirmed as part of this element. Is the work to be performed with a very simple work package where the worker has the knowledge to perform the work and little or no instruction is required or will the work require a work package with more detailed instructions? The following criteria might be used to determine whether work can be performed using a very simple work package: · No medium or high risk activities. · No activities requiring hold points. · Will not alter configuration of equipment from documented design. · Will not present any unusual hazards.
· No hands-on work with radioactive material except incidental or routine work activities that involve low potential of worker exposure or workplace contamination. · No opening of contaminated systems, components, containers. · Minimal external coordination required. · “Skill-of-the-Craft” Work. Such tasks should be documented in a work package by the Field Work Supervisor (FWS) and released to work by operations and documented on the document releasing work.
Work management systems are often put in place to collect work requests and maintain and file documents in a single place. They provide a method to track, prioritize, and coordinate the management of several categories of work. They also provide a means for the work planning organization to interface with the operations organization and ensure that work is moving through the planning pipeline in a manner that supports mission execution. Schedule Work Concept Schedules are tools used by work management organizations to communicate and coordinate work activities. This element describes the processes and tools associated with establishing schedules. Typically, work is identified from various sources (missionrelated commitments, Authorization Basis requirements, maintenance routines, etc.) and flows through a “rolling work week process” (described below) into an integrated schedule. The rolling work week concept is typically established based on either an 8 or 12 week duration.
Most sites have developed a fairly common set of schedules to implement graded approaches to conduct of operations. These commonly include a Plan of the Day (POD) along with a slightly longer view, often one week (so-called Plan of the Week, POW). Various methods exist to move information from longer-term schedules to these two short-term scheduling tools. The rolling work week concept provides an effective tool for managing the development of schedules. It involves setting a specific time frame (or “window”) within a longer-term schedule on which to focus increased management attention. Common time frames are eight to twelve weeks.
· For work that falls within the work window, increased emphasis is placed on planning, detailed schedule concerns and coordination of the work. This time period of increased attention allows: o Optimization of planned outage windows, scheduling all tasks that require particular facility conditions or that impact production commitments; o Development of a detailed technical sequence for complex jobs; o Addressing only items that need to be scheduled in detail, i.e., they require coordination of resources, complex work, etc; o Grouping of similar work to efficiently use resources and equipment by facility mode, available space, system/equipment; and time to verify that parts are available and staged. The work planned during the work window is “Locked-In”, that is, committed to by all concerned, two weeks in advance. This lock-in process adds discipline to the scheduling process and provides focus for final work preparation and coordination. After lock-in, the schedule is under a formal change control process; this encourages people to only lock in work that is truly ready to work. This level of planning and commitment permits the development of precise resource loaded schedules; it supports aligning support resources to the schedule and permits other detailed preparations such as verifying that fully-trained workers are available. This level of planning and scheduling attention also improves task readiness, it allows crews time to review work in advance of working. A formal post work week critique is held to evaluate what got done, what didn’t get done and why. It should be clear from the level of effort inferred above, that the implementation of a rolling work week process requires a commitment from all organizations to make the system work. Work on the rolling work week is facilitated by the existence of schedules that integrate all important work. Management Management tools for a successful scheduling process include: · Senior Management involvement (Frequent and Regular) – Critical Path Meetings · Accountability meeting – weekly schedule commitment meeting · High level schedule change control authority once work is locked in · POD – A daily meeting intended to review facility and schedule status
This work should be completed in parallel with establishing worker protection and industrial safety requirements. The execution of work begins when the work package is released for work by Operations and runs through the completion of work in the field or facility. · Assemble tools and material at job location.· POW – A weekly meeting intended to review and status the higher level facility schedule · Rolling work week process – described above · Outages – scheduled periods where equipment systems or facilities are available to perform pre-determined work · Metrics – tools used to measure success of schedule performance · Documentation of key scheduling assumptions – essential to the development of baseline schedules Execute Work Concept This element describes the processes and tools associated with the actual performance of the work. ensures that procedures and references are the latest revision and that all of the required permits are issued and up to date. Mechanics For each assigned task. · Remove insulation. · Build scaffolding and install lead shielding. · Complete rigging preparations. Applicable work instruction prerequisites are completed to ensure readiness to work. . · Assemble required test equipment. the first-level supervisor performs a final review of the work instruction. This element is centered on the first-level supervisor (the person directly overseeing the work crew) and the crew that is engaged in the performance of the activity. Example components of work execution include the following: Preparations: · Contact job support personnel as required.
Pre-Job Brief: · Scope of the task · Review of prerequisite section of the work instructions · Responsibilities of all participants. job hazards analysis. and water requirements. or facility knowledge · Potential abnormal events and contingency plans After completing preparations and getting their work crew prepared to perform the job. the first line supervisor completes all system/equipment checks described in the work instructions to return equipment to service. Formal programs to have management observe work in the field will provide not only .· Provide necessary temporary air. · Set up welding equipment if required. which monitors the day-to-day progress of work execution. As the work completes. Management Management tools put in place to monitor work execution include the Plan of the Day or other work progress meeting. The supervisor documents relevant as-found conditions and the work performed. · Finish prefabrication work. power. the first-line supervisor oversees and directs the work activities in accordance with the approved work instructions. the first line supervisor reviews the instructions for a complete and accurate work history and performs post activity testing and any rework identified by the post activity testing. Radiological Work Permit. field walk-downs. tents. including expected worker radiological recovery actions · Job-specific hazards and their controls · Applicable precautions and limitations · Required safety equipment · Discuss hold points with employee(s) responsible for the completion of the hold point and employee(s) performing work immediately before or after the hold point · Industrial. and identifies all discrepancies and incomplete work items. · Build contamination control devices (catch basins. Finally. environmental or radiological hazards of the task from the work document. water storage/recovery systems).
but a more accurate feel for work difficulty and potential coordination issues. These steps include the process of verifying that work has been completed. or authorized incomplete/open work items. returning (or turning over) equipment and systems to operations. · Update the files for the affected system/equipment. . including quality. Documentation associated with the work evolution can then be signed off. an inventory of equipment and parts used and feedback to the work management process.. Verification: · Verify all administrative and technical requirements. · Ensure condition tags and other documents are in the completed closure package prior to returning it to the Work Management Center. · Update as-built drawings. regulatory and safety basis requirements. a number of sites use standard computerized templates to capture relevant historical information. normally in the operations organization. Important attributes of these processes are discussed below. · Dispose of excess materials and waste properly. . e.status.g. capturing repair history. based on work completed also provide feedback on work execution. Mechanics The work closure process can be described as several related steps. Documentation: · Document work completion against requirements. documenting the completion of work. · Remove all temporary/test equipment and restore system/components to operable status. Schedule updates. The system/components can be returned to operations subject to any controls defined in the work instructions. resolve any deviations. are satisfied and test results are approved. calibration and preventive maintenance data into the Work Management System. Close Work Concept Work can be closed and declared complete when defined requirements in the approved work package have been met. as appropriate. or exceptions have been authorized by the person responsible for accepting the work.
issues. etc. Critique Work Concept This element describes the processes and tools associated with performing a critical analysis of work to ensure that issues. improvements or lessons learned are identified. e. If there are authorized open items. and incorporated into subsequent work. · Accept the system/equipment for operability and return to service in a timely manner. Management The first-line supervisor is responsible to verify work completion against requirements defined in the approved work package. and lessons learned. ranging from individual job post work critiques to critiquing all of the work performed by a group or a facility within a specified time period. · Release all remaining clearance tags. and ensuring completion of the work closure functions. · Evaluate the authorized incomplete/open work items for any operational impact concerns. Inventory: · Document material used. Return to Operations: · Review work activity and all testing for system/equipment operability. the first line supervisor should consult with the work planner and the systems engineer as needed.· Retain the closure package in accordance with the Site’s records retention requirements.) process takes selected jobs and critiques them to identify good practices. · Return unused parts to the warehouse.g. Mechanics The post work critique (ALARA. Improvement opportunities are . Work critiques take on many forms. the previous work week (Work Week Critique) period. the work package should have been changed and procedures amended by the appropriate formal documentation. drawing and training updates are completed prior to placing the component(s) in service.. · Verify required procedure. and return the system/equipment to the required configuration to support facility operations.
· Work Week Critique Report: A formally prepared report which comprehensively addresses the work week being analyzed. The report should also include: o A breakdown of the types of work scheduled & accomplished for the week. typically covering the previous weeks work activities · Work Week Critique Attendance: Work week critique targeted audience should typically be that of Facility Senior Management. including the specifics regarding what was accomplished. whereby all groups involved in work execution meet to perform a critical analysis of all aspects of the week performance.typically formally documented and followed to closure through a commitment tracking system. Issues should be trended to identify programmatic issues. The applicable post work critique output should be discussed in the work week critique process described below. including Emergency. but was not & what the issues were which prevented that work from being accomplished. o Metrics which track and trend the work week elements. what was initially intended to be accomplished. Management Management tools for a successful critique process include: · Weekly critique meeting · Regularly scheduled meeting following each work week to critically review performance of the previous work week (attended by Senior Management) . etc. Emergent. · Work Week Critique Meeting: A regularly scheduled meeting used to perform a thorough analysis of the work execution. including: § Schedule & Cost Performance § Manpower Utilization § Emergent Work § Backlog · Action Item Tracking: A formal process in which action items from the Work Critique meeting are assigned responsibility & tracked through completion. The work week critique process is a continuous improvement process.
3. Management programs identify the operational activities and routines that need to be completed to meet mission deliverables. Work can be closed and declared complete when defined requirements in the approved work package have been met.5 Terminal Questions 1. Identify Work describes the processes and tools put in place that determines the work that a contractor performs. Describe Close Work in Work Management Process.4 Summary The Work Management process requires the full support of the entire organization. 3. 4. Explain Schedule Work in Detail.· Appropriate Metrics including tracking and trending · Standard Critique reports · Action Item Tracking / Accountability · Worker feedback Self Assessment Questions 6) Management tools for a successful critique process include _________. or exceptions have been authorized by the person responsible for accepting the work. normally in the operations organization. 9) Identify describes the processes and tools put in place that determines the work that a ________ performs. Execute work describes the _______ and ______ associated with the actual performance of the work. Management programs identify the operational activities and routines that need to be completed to meet mission deliverables. 7) _________ can be closed and declared complete when defined requirements in the approved work package have been met. . 3. Explain briefly Identify Work in Work management Process. 2. 10) ___________________ systems are often put in place to collect work requests. 5. Explain Functional Requirements in Work Management. Explain components of work execution.
.6 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1. 5 4) Refer Page 8 5) Refer Pages 9. Close Work 8.3. True 3. False 2. Work management Terminal Questions 1) Refer 3. Contractor 10. Tools 9. True 6. Processes. 10 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .1 2) Refer Page 10 3) Refer Page 4. False 5. True 4. Worker feedback 7.
OM0006-Unit-04-Emergencies or Breakdown Process Paper: ISO 90012000/Qs Elements Unit-04-Emergencies or Breakdown Process Paper: ISO 9001-2000/Qs Elements Structure: 4. .3 Maintenance Strategies Corrective or Breakdown Maintenance 4.4 Maintenance Economics Breakdown-time Distribution Preventive versus Breakdown Maintenance (Single Machine) 4. and were immediately commissioned. etc.1 Introduction Objectives 4. The breakdown of the machines resulted in a great loss of productive time and also led to several problems such as not being able to meet due dates. In the initial stages. The reasons for breakdowns were many: development of high temperature in the bearings. formation of sludge’s and corrosive compounds on the machine parts. and low morale of workers.5 Summary 4. one-year back.2 The Maintenance Function 4. the machines caused a great deal of anxiety to the management by failing quite frequently and unexpectedly.6 Terminal Questions 4. overheating of motors.1 Introduction The turret lathes and gang drills were acquired second-hand. especially while processing important jobs. failure of insulation in electrical circuits.7 Answers 4. breakage and slips of gear and belt drives. misalignment of shafts and pulleys.
The maintenance crews can do breakdown maintenance as well as preventive maintenance for all the four machines.2 The Maintenance Function Maintenance. he selected four technicians for employment. to most people. . Minimizing the failure count or their adverse effects leads to increased safety. Machine and component failures can trigger incidents or cause costly production interruptions. As he wanted technicians with experience on the specific machines he had. the proprietor of the workshop advertised for maintenance specialists for the turret lathes and gang drills. Maintenance work on a machine requires both workers of a crew. or to restore to its favorable operating condition. reduced downtime and cost of operation. and cannot attend to any repairs or maintenance. they are to be paid overtime. Such maintenance is expected to reduce the frequency of machine breakdowns. availability. Objectives After studying this unit you shall be able to · Explain the functions involved in maintenance · Recognize the strategies of maintenance · Distinguish between preventive and breakdown maintenance · Evaluate the economic aspects of maintenance 4. is any activity carried out on an asset in order to ensure that the asset continues to perform its intended functions. or to keep the equipment running.In order to combat these problems. or to repair any equipment that has failed. After a long search. Maintenance is defined as ‘any action that restores failed units to an operational condition or retains non-failed units in an operational state’ or ‘an activity carried out for any equipment or asset to ensure its reliability to perform its functions’. the proprietor had considerable difficulty in finding he maintenance specialists. and consequently higher production efficiency. each crew consisting of two workers. The machine operators can only operate the machine when they are in working condition. It improves the systems overall reliability. The four workers were divided into two crews. Minimizing these adverse effects is the role assigned t maintenance. The technicians accepted the job under the condition that if ever they are required to work in the second shift on a day. Preventive maintenance of a machine consists of dismantling the machine and checking all its important parts and making the necessary adjustments and replacements.
From a simple expectation of keeping equipment running or restoring it to the desired operating condition. · Safety is ensured. product quality and customer service profile of the organization.1 shows the evolution of the maintenance philosophy. energy efficiency. the significance of maintenance and its role in plant operation has changed significantly. The maintenance function plays a supporting role to effective operations. The evolution can be seen to cover 3 different generations of thought. It determines the risk-safety.1: Evolution of Maintenance Philosophy Table 4. · Down-time is minimized. The evolution in the maintenance thought process is rooted in the changing complexity of industry itself. in addition to its traditional roles of enhancing plant availability and lowering costs. Over the past years. It ensures that the equipment is able to maintain quality standards. as well as the quantitative and cost standard of outputs. Maintenance efficiency is viewed as an integral part of business effectiveness. First Generation Second Generation Third Generation · Fix it when broke · Scheduled Overhauls · Condition monitoring · Systems for planning · Design for reliability and and controlling work maintainability · Low-tech computerization · Hazard studies · High-tech computers · Failure modes and effects analysis · Expert systems · Multitasking and teamwork Table 4. management today sees a much larger role for maintenance. and · The cost of operation and maintenance is minimized.The objectives of maintenance are to maintain equipment and facilities in such condition that: · They give trouble-free service and output at rated capacity. . environmental integrity.
First Generation (1930-40) – The first generation represents the earlier days of industrialization where mechanization was low. industry became increasingly dependent on these complex machines. this pattern manifests itself when a collection of machinery is subjected to rigorous operation. With increase in mechanization. How Equipments Fail Maintenance is concerned with controlling the condition of equipment. there was an added interest created in the field of maintenance planning and control systems. In practice. fatigue due to flaws in the molecular structure of the metals or plastics involved. there is a definite pattern of lifespan. unpredictable and cannot be prevented by additional testing or burn-in of the components. but they are thought to be at least partially due to abrupt changes in stress distribution in the components. During the infant mortality period. there is a rather high incidence of early failures.1. Most equipment that survives infancy will continue to perform with few failures occurring. As these components drop out one by one. Repairing and restoration had become more difficult and special skills and more time was needed to maintain and repair equipment. Researchers into the reliability of equipment recognize that within a collection of machines. Factory equipment was basic and repair and the restoration process was simple. the growth of mechanization and automation has become more complex and even small breakdowns in equipment affect the operation of the whole plant. 4. the failure rate is high. downtime became a problem and management tried to find means and ways to minimize and prevent these failures. the weak components from the infant mortality period have either been repaired or replaced. Among collections of equipment. This is the useful period of the machine. The reason for the occurrence of these failures is not fully understood. expert systems and continuous improvement programs have developed. During this period. Downtime did not matter much and no need was felt to treat maintenance as a high priority issue. Third Generation (after the 1980’s) – Since the 80’s. 2. The failures that do occur during the period are truly random. Second Generation (1950-70) – The second generation emerged as the result of growing complexity in equipment and plant design. called infant mortalities. Hence. or sheer quality deficiency in their manufacture.3 Maintenance Strategies . As maintenance costs started to rise sharply relative to other operating costs. 3. As this dependence grew. This led to the concept of preventive maintenance. the failure rate keeps decreasing until a relatively low constant level is obtained. These have led to major developments in maintenance philosophy based on manufacturing reliability systems. reliability and availability have become key issues. primarily due to the presence of weak or substandard components or design inadequacies in not properly understanding the operating conditions.
equipment. maintenance functions may be identified as primary or secondary functions. The primary functions are: a) Maintenance of existing plant.Over the years. d) New installations of equipment and buildings. the prevalent management policies. its size. . b) Plant protection. b) Generation and distribution of utilities. buildings and grounds. many new approaches have been advocated as maintenance strategies that are intended to overcome problems related to equipment breakdown.. The secondary functions are: a) Maintenance stores. etc. c) Alteration to existing equipment and buildings. Some of the common approaches to maintenance are as follows: · Breakdown maintenance · Preventive maintenance · Predictive maintenance · Proactive maintenance Type of Maintenance Strategy Maintenance ApproachSignificance Fix-it when broke Large maintenance budget Scheduled Maintenance Periodic component replacement Condition-based Maintenance decision Monitoring based on equipment condition Detection of Sources of Monitoring and Failures correcting failing root causes Maintenance Strategy Breakdown Maintenance Preventive Maintenance Predictive Maintenance Proactive Maintenance Although the scope of maintenance will vary depending on the type of industry.
usually by replacing or repairing the components that caused the system to fail. It consists of the action(s) taken to restore a failed system to operational status. corrective maintenance is periodically performed on the equipment. c) Verification of the repair action: once the components in question have been repaired or replaced. Corrective maintenance is typically carried out in three steps: a) Diagnosis of the problem: The maintenance technician must take time to locate the failed parts or otherwise satisfactorily assess the cause of the system failure. breakdown maintenance. the repair work is performed only after a piece of equipment has failed. Corrective maintenance is performed at unpredictable intervals because a components failure time is not known a priori. a) To restore the faulty equipment to a healthy operating state as promptly as possible. maintenance is activated on breakdown. · The approach to maintenance is totally reactive. · Corrective maintenance strategy has no routine maintenance task and therefore is also described no scheduled maintenance strategy. · Restoring a failed system usually involves replacing or repairing the component that is responsible for the failure of the overall system. action must be taken to address the cause. d) Salvage. · However.c) Waste disposal.3. It is also called. 4. and as the name suggests. the maintenance technician must verify that the system is again successfully operating. and b) To do this in a cost effective manner. which has broken down or developed a fault. the rectification of the fault should be processed in the same manner as for planned maintenance work schedules. so as to restore it a specified operating state. The goals and objectives of corrective maintenance management are. . To rectify the problem. · Corrective maintenance may be defined as the repairs carried out to restore equipment.1 Corrective or Breakdown Maintenance This is one of the earliest maintenance strategies implemented in the industry. a properly designed fault reporting system must be instituted and similarly. b) Repair and/or replacement of faulty component(s): Once the cause of system failure has been determined.
Restoring a failed system usually involves _________ or repairing the component. As maintenance is an economic decision. Such a distribution will show the frequency of maintenance-free running times for a given number of operating hours. the failure of any one of its parts can cause a breakdown of the machine. But in the case of a complex machine. The growth of __________ and automation has become more complex. A simple machine with few moving parts will probably have breakdowns after a fairly large number of maintenance-free runtime hours.1 Breakdown-time Distribution In order to establish the cost implications.4. each part will have a different failure distribution. · Where capacity and demand are close. Moreover. Machine and component failures can trigger _________. and where production interruptions may be negligible. 2. The breakdown time distribution of the complex machine probably will . breakdowns may affect production and thus reduce profits. management must know how the breakdowntime is distributed. The decision of maintenance policy is more of an economic decision rather than a technical one. In such cases. In such a situation. Self Assessment Questions 1. 4. The first generation represents the earlier days of ___________ where mechanization was low. 5. For example. maintenance engineers should be allowed to consider the possibility. 4. the practice of attending to machines only after they have broken down may be uneconomical. thereby eliminating or at least minimizing the failures. and the adoption of other maintenance practices may reduce interruptions to production. the breakdown maintenance practice may be costlier than other maintenance strategies. what are its cost implications? 4. if careful observations of repeated failures of an equipment or system suggest that the remedy lies in correcting the system. proper feedback to the design department may lead to alterations in design that will reduce or eliminate failures.4 Maintenance Economics Maintenance policy refers to an organization’s policy in respect of the maintenance function of a set of equipments. 3.· Corrective maintenance in a broader perspective may also include activities related to correcting potential causes for failure or malfunction that might not have been adequately considered when the equipment was designed. Even where capacity is not a constraint. _________ Maintenance strategy has no routine maintenance task.
while curve ‘b’ represents a more complex machine. The frequency distribution curve ‘c’ has the same average maintenance.8 ‘0. The variability depicted by curve ‘c’ is typical of complicated equipment that needs ‘fine’. T3 = Average free run time free of breakdowns Figure 4. In this case. B. Say to obtain the ‘a’ curve in figure.show greater variability than the simple machine even though it may have the same average.4 can be used to plot the percentage of breakdowns that exceed a given runtime as the ‘y’-axis. i. adjustments before it can give reasonable trouble-free service.8 and D = 0. if the total system has four sub-systems.8.e.7. It also shows that it is only after a few periods of trouble free running. curve ‘b’ is the exponential distribution and exhibits medium variability and curve ‘c’ exhibits high variability.9. it would amount to (0. Curve ‘a’ exhibits low variability from the average maintenance free breakdown-time ‘Ta’.free run-time as the other two but the distribution has much wider variability. Curve ‘a’ depicts the behavior of a simple machine.4 for the percentage of breakdowns. By reliability we mean the probability that the system will give trouble free service. The same data that we have used to plot figure 4. The total system reliability will be the product of the reliability of each individual system. say A. and the reliability factors are A = 0. that one can be sure the machine will operate reliably.8 ‘0. the reliability of the total system would equal the product f reliability factors of each of the sub-systems.. subtract from 100 the figure 4.9 ‘0.40).7 = 0. B = 0. C = 0.2 represents a graphical description of the degree of variability in free-run-time. maintenance free run-time as that of the simple machine. and plot this against the run-time. . which exceed a given free-run-time.2 Figure 4. If we assume that the failure of any one of the sub-systems can cause the failure of the entire system. C & D. Equipment can be considered as a total system with its sub-assemblies as sub-systems. For example. and the ‘run-times free of breakdowns’ as the ‘x’-axis.
If the distribution has greater variability.2 Preventive versus Breakdown Maintenance (Single Machine) Consider a preventive maintenance schedule. which after a machine has been running for fixed time ‘Tr’.4: Breakdown-time distributions 4. shortening the preventive maintenance cycle can reduce the number of actual breakdowns. Ideally. is equivalent to ‘Tr’ (maintenance free run-time) plus ‘Tm’ (the time take to do the preventive maintenance). The probability of occurrence of a breakdown in the two different cycles depends on the specific breakdown-time distribution of the equipment. This can be considered the standard preventive maintenance cycle time. Since preventive maintenance is meant to reduce the total plant down-time particularly unscheduled event – its timing and frequency are important. the machine is shutdown. there will be breakdowns that occur before the equipment is shutdown for preventive maintenance. preventive maintenance should be performed just a little before normal breakdown is likely to occur. In actual practice. after which the equipment is ready to work. ’Ts’ can be considered the breakdown cycle. more breakdowns are likely to occur during the course of the standard period. The total time period ‘Ta’. Figure 4. When this happens. the average maintenance free run-time. over a period of time.5 gives the percent of time a machine is working for the three distributions of breakdown-time shown in Figure and the ratio of the standard maintenance period to . the running time between the preventive maintenance and the breakdown plus the time taken to repair the breakdown. In such cases. inspected and parts replaced. the situation is slightly different.Figure 4. This preventive maintenance work takes a time ‘Tm’.4. and the length of the standard preventive maintenance cycle.
like those depicted by curve ‘a’. The percentage of machine running time depends on the ratio of the standard maintenance period and the average run-time. it can also be seen that for curves ‘b’ and ‘c’ an increase of the ratio results in an increase in the percentage of machine running time. In this type of situation. First. Second. From figure. This suggests that for breakdown time distribution with low variability.average maintenance-free run-time. there is a similar increase in machine running-time. In the case of curve ‘a’ (for breakdown-time distribution with low variability). since a low ratio would mean too many machine stoppages. This is obvious. as there is better predictability of when breakdowns are likely to occur. preventive maintenance is highly benefited to machines whose breakdown time distributions have low variability. but only till a peak is reached after which lengthening standard maintenance period seems to reduce the percentage of machine running time. and hence less availability. there is an optimum value for the standard maintenance period. ‘Ts’. ‘Ta’ for a given breakdown-time distribution. Unless the preventive maintenance time is less than the repair time.5: Present of time when the machine is working and breakdown distribution Certain generalizations can be made from the above three graphs. there is little gain in . the machine works for a small percentage of time. the relation of preventive maintenance time to repair time is important. Such a relationship is shown for the three different breakdowns time distributions. Figure 4. It can be seen that for low values of the ratio of standard maintenance period to average maintenance free runtime. it is assumed that either preventive maintenance or repair puts the equipment in line for a running time of equal length. a standard preventive maintenance period can be set in such a way that the total downtime is reduced.
Effect on production losses if plant shutdown could have been avoided. Since some parts are most important to machines. when the repair time is equal to maintenance time. Self Assessment Questions State whether the statement is true or false. or more than the time for repair. an increase in the standard period would mean less number of preventive maintenance cycles and more repairs. 2.5 Summary You need to make decisions at the beginning of each shift regarding maintenance. you will deal with jobs. Equipment cannot be considered as a total system with its sub-assemblies as subsystems.6 Terminal Questions 1. We also need to take into account other effects of unscheduled downtime. 4. 8. For a given breakdown time distribution. If preventive maintenance is equal to. The probability of occurrence of a breakdown in the two different cycles depends on the specific breakdown-time distribution of the equipment. all the machines are free and have jus had a preventive maintenance done. 7. the percentage of machine running time continues to increase with the increase of standard preventive maintenance period. 9. Additional stoppage time because maintenance crew cannot start repairing immediately after the breakdown has occurred. In general. 6. The breakdown time distribution of the complex machine probably will not show greater variability than the simple machine. it is better to perform corrective or breakdown maintenance.preventive maintenance. What are the Maintenance Strategies? . 10. Maintenance policy will not refer to any organization’s policy. and 3. Initially. 4. such as 1. both in terms of contribution earned by them as well as their criticality because of their propensity to break-down. Effects of scheduling preventive maintenance for non-productive days or shifts with no loss of production. The percentage of machine running time depends on the ratio of the standard maintenance period.
Corrective 5. Industrialization 4.1 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Explain Preventive versus Breakdown Maintenance. Refer 4. 5. FalseTerminal Questions 1. 3.1 3. Mechanization 2. Refer 4. True 10. Summarize Breakdown and Corrective maintenance.2. Explain Breakdown Time distribution. Replacing 3. Refer 4.2 5. . Explain evolution of Maintenance Policy. 4.2.7 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1. False 7. 4. True 9. Incidents 6. Refer 4.3.3. True 8.2 2.1 4. Refer 4.
5 Terminal Questions 5.OM0006-Unit-05-Types of Maintenance Systems Unit-05-Types of Maintenance Systems Structure: 5. to ensure or restore system performance to specified levels.1 Introduction Once the machinery is purchased it must be maintained.2 Functions & Feature of Maintenance Engineering 5.6 Answers 5. Maintenance is carried out in anticipation of or in reaction to a failure.1 Introduction Objectives 5. which can be achieved through repair. Maintenance covers two aspects of systems – operation and performance. Maintenance is defined as the restoring of an item to its original condition or to working order.3 Types of Maintenance Systems Routine Maintenance Planned /Scheduled / Productive Maintenance Break down or Corrective / Remedial Maintenance Preventive Maintenance Predictive Maintenance Condition Based Maintenance 5.4 Summary 5. replacement of parts or total replacement of .
Sometimes accelerated testing is used to induce failures and know the behaviour of the systems. Objectives: After studying this unit you shall be able . but there is no guarantee here that the exact nature of defect surfaces. operational life can be extended. Through proper maintenance of these machineries. retain the productivity and maintain safe working conditions by reducing the probability of accidents. Machineries lose its efficiency after some point of time due to various factors such as wear and tear. Hence a systematic and structured approach to proper & cost effective maintenance is required. based on the practical and economic grounds Maintenance of any kind performed on machinery or equipment is a consequence of the fact that it started deteriorating before failing.the devices itself. Improperly performed maintenance or not carried out in time can escalate the problems because of faulty parts running. Maintenance management also aims at developing a reliable and high quality production system. misuse etc. Types of maintenance /strategies discussed in this unit are: · Routine Maintenance · Planned Maintenance · Break down Maintenance or Corrective Maintenance · Preventive Maintenance · Predictive Maintenance · Condition Based Maintenance · Total Productivity Maintenance The maintenance plan for a company’s assets can be a combination of the above strategies and could be adopted on the same machine. aging. Developing effective maintenance procedures to restrict such deterioration or failure is vital. It is evident that the best maintenance strategy is selected for reducing breakdowns. Failure to perform maintenance in time to maintain the availability of the machinery will have serious effects ranging from benign to catastrophic. Between these alternatives the management decides.
like repair. requirement of high accuracy. Such high cost and sophisticated state of art machineries need to operate at optimal levels of performance with high degree of reliability. Flexible manufacturing systems. . use of robotics and other Computer Integrated systems are developed and deployed for producing high quality products. improved productivity. To offer these requirements.2 Functions & Feature of Maintenance Engineering Maintenance Engineering is the function of the production management that is concerned with day-to-day problems of keeping the physical plant in good and acceptable operating condition. use of complex processes. etc. · · · · · Rapid strides in the advancement of manufacturing technology and its processes with higher powers and speeds. higher feeds. have all warranted the use of sophisticated machineries for production.· To explain how systems work at their optimum efficiency · To prepare a plan to preserve the value of the assets by different methods · To calculate how to maximize production capability · To prepare a plan and schedule for maintenance work and prevent failures and breakdowns · To Improve quality of products and productivity · To Use of maintenance staff optimally · To Minimize or avoid accidents by periodical inspection and repairs. scheduling and execution of many maintenance activities. Therefore industries have entered into the era of high technology maintenance management to cater to the production requirement of minimum downtime and maximum productivity. high cost CNC machines. equipment and services in proper working condition that involves planning.. rapid traverses. Maintenance management is entrusted with the total task of keeping the machinery. high up-time and prolonged mean time between failures (MTBF). repeatability. breakdown maintenance or preventive maintenance etc. 5.
Malfunctioning of machineries/equipment due to failure to upkeep the operating conditions may result in serious repercussions of reduced capacity. lubricate two machines daily] It can be even day to day operational activities to keep the plant running (say: replacement of light bulbs. inspection etc.3 Types of Maintenance Systems A way of reducing the plant breakdowns is to select the best maintenance strategy. production of low quality products.e. lubricating systems. repairing leaks) which include preventive maintenance and forms part of the annual operating budget.3. small repairs. increased production costs.1 Routine Maintenance [RM] RM is a procedure followed regularly i. RM can be classified as: 1) Running maintenance 2) Shut down maintenance. and equipment by the maintenance staff to preserve such machineries in as near to its original condition as is practical and to realize its normal life expectancy. injury to workmen and finally frequent breakdowns etc may lead to protracted delivery of the product thus inviting customer dissatisfaction. cleaning. reliability and maintainability of a plant is very important for the maintenance engineers. 5. working. Hence the relationship between availability. a cyclic operation recurring periodically. Widely adopted maintenance techniques/strategies are: · Routine Maintenance · Planned Maintenance · Break down Maintenance or Corrective/ Remedial Maintenance · Preventive Maintenance · Predictive Maintenance · Condition Based Maintenance · Total Productivity Maintenance [Discussed in detail in Unit-10] 5. [say: check all compressors first on Mondays. Maintenance is the work performed on an asset such as utility. These aspects are to recognized by the maintenance department.e. machines. These include say greasing or lubricating the bearings / systems. . It includes activities like inspection. outer cleaning. cleaning of machines. 1) Running maintenance is the work carried out when the equipment or the machine is performing some operations i.
3. In this type of service.2 Planned / Scheduled / Productive Maintenance Planned maintenance is the activities carried out according to a predetermined schedule and hence known as scheduled maintenance or productive maintenance. repair and carry out all requisite maintenance before actual break down happens.g. overhaul.2) Shut down maintenance: certain minor maintenance activities cannot be carried out when the machine is running and hence carried out by shutting down the machine. It involves inspection of all machineries.3. E.1. 5. Planned maintenance reduces the machine downtime. thus avoiding a situation of emergency maintenance.2 Disadvantages a) RM may not provide the service specified by the manufacturer b) May ignore information regarding preceding breakdowns c) Service required for a machine at different frequencies may be ignored d) Similar machines are serviced at same frequency irrespective of usage 5. boilers 5. increases productivity as compared to unplanned one and hence it is followed as per the maintenance policy of the company.1. de-scaling furnaces. the emphasis is on machines: a) What does the manufacturer prescribe? b) Is the unit utilised for two or three shifts per day? c) Is it working under normal load? .3.1 Advantages a) Simple to establish & follow b) Little or no clerical work c) High degree of prevention by intercepting developing faults d) A more advanced stage calls for ’service instructions on a pre-printed schedule and checklists’. lubricate. reduces the cost of maintenance.
faithful implementation and recording f) Initial list of planned maintenance will be in detail 5. Also called as ‘on-failure maintenance/corrective maintenance’. Planned repair/rectifying the problem is carried out when it is more convenient and cost effective after its failure rather than to disrupt the production with RM. to bring it back to working order.1 Characteristics of Planned Maintenance a) Instructions are more detailed than in routine maintenance b) Calls for differently timed service for the same unit c) Schedule is drawn with dates d) Establishes the work-load for the crew e) Entails considerable planning effort.3 Break Down or Corrective/ Remedial Maintenance Breakdown Maintenance is the method of operating the machines to run until they fail and then repair in order to restore them to an acceptable condition.3. Corrective maintenance is carried out on all items where the consequences of failure or wearing out are not significant and the cost of corrective maintenance is not greater than preventative maintenance.2. c) Provides as much attention on the equipment for the best judgement of the planner [For details on ‘the principles of planning & scheduled maintenance’ refer Unit 6] 5.d) Are the conditions as good as those envisaged by the manufacturer? e) Do we allow for extra attention owing to corrosion-including conditions? 5.3.3. adjustments are shown in overall plan b) Detailed instructions reduce the chance of missing any activity. can be defined as the maintenance which is required when an item has failed or worn out. Unforeseen work is reduced. replacement of parts.2. .2 Advantages of Planned Maintenance Considers all the changes in conditions of use & increased wear of parts a) Inspections.
Here the machine and the work on that machine stops operating. increased downtime.3. Frayed tempers put unnecessary pressures and disturb delivery commitments. For example: non-critical low cost equipment. Repairs are done after the machine fails and hence this becomes a repair work. involve hazards. drive shaft broken and hence the transmission fails. etc. or where no other strategy will work. Corrective maintenance activities include both emergency repairs (fire fighting) and preventive (or corrective) repairs. On-failure maintenance can be effective if applied correctly. or reconditioning that part to its original or acceptable working condition.3. taken after the failure happens.Corrective maintenance may be programmed.1 Characteristics of Break-down Maintenance System · No services except occasional lubrication unless failure occurs · No maintenance men on regular basis · Maintenance done by sub-contractors · No organised efforts to find out reasons · No stock of spares · No budget · No records · Initially it looks economical · Creates internal problems namely: Who to do the repair? From where to get parts? How do we pay for them? Who will go & buy parts? .e. This system could be called as ‘Operate to Failure (OTP) ’– no predetermined action taken to prevent failure. The need for repairs can result from normal wear. This method is expensive in terms of maintenance cost. Repair is restoring an asset by replacing a part which is broken or damaged. lost output. o Upset schedule resulting in panicky. 5. Ex: electric motor may not start. misuse or improper maintenance. vandalism. The above type of repairing and setting the equipment to working condition can be called as corrective maintenance. i.
4 Disadvantages 1) No warning of failure – safety risk 2) Uncontrolled plant outage – production losses 3) Requires large standby maintenance team 4) Secondary damage – longer repair time 5) Large spares stock requirement 6) Provision of standby plant 5.4 Preventive Maintenance PM is a regularly scheduled maintenance activity. This is normally programmed.3. 5.3.3. with an objective to anticipate problems and correct them before they occur.3.3. detection and prevention of incipient failure.2 Objectives of BD/Corrective Maintenance 1) To put back machinery back to work and minimize production interruptions 2) To control costs of maintenance crew to the minimum 3) To control cost of the operations of repairing 4) To control costs of repair & replacement parts to minimum 5) To control investment cost on purchase of standby or back up machines 6) To carry out appropriate repair intermittently at each malfunction to improve the life of the machine. preventative maintenance is carried out only on those items where a failure would .5. In line with management’s policy on obtaining the best value from the maintenance funds. Preventive maintenance is carried out to prevent an item failing or wearing out by providing systematic inspection.3.3 Advantages 1) Low cost if correctly applied 2) Requires no advanced planning other than ensuring spares availability 5.3.
It is much economical to carry out preventive maintenance. etc. 2. so that the major break downs are avoided & minimizes possibility of unanticipated production interruptions. Many of these items are also subject to a statutory requirement for inspection and preventive maintenance. but it is found that a greater number of machine failures are at the peak when machine gets progressively worse over a period say months/ years. -To avoid breakdown & ensure smooth production following time based activities are practiced: 1. PM’s prerequisites are: a) Proper design and installation of equipment b) periodical inspection of plant and machinery to prevent breakdowns c) repetitive servicing and overhaul d) lubricate.result in expensive consequences. Periodic Inspections .. distribution transformers. Preventive maintenance could be grouped as: 1) Fixed-time Maintenance (FTM) – Here actions carried out at regular intervals (calendar time) e. Routine & planned maintenance includes Preventive maintenance actions. checking.g. clean and up keep To achieve prevention of break-downs planned service is carried out with the explicit additional objective of detecting wear points and ensure perfect functioning by replacing parts Here the safe overhaul interval is selected. etc. item replacement. 2) Condition-based Maintenance [explained below] 3) Opportunity Maintenance (find out the opportune moment for maintenance) The preventive maintenance is carried out at irregular intervals and this interval is determined by seeing the actual condition of the machine. e. lifts. fire alarms. circuit breakers. electricity supply. sub-station transformers. battery back up at sub-station. lubrication.g. Daily Maintenance – Cleaning. repair and major overhaul. isolators.
3. Reduces total down time 5.3. Reduces total work-load 4.3.3 Requirements of Preventive Maintenance Program 1) Good maintenance management department with experienced personnel 2) To firm up plan of PM in consultation with shop personnel 3) A good lubricating and cleaning schedule 4) Detail procedures on maintenance work 5) Proper records maintained along with manuals.4. 2.4. Increases reliability 3. parts list etc 6) Adequate stock of spare parts . More expensive due to more planning &replacement of parts before failing. Restoration to recover deterioration 5. daily maintenance etc and programming the activities with work content. cost estimates etc 2) Use of check lists by maintenance staff and inspectors 3) Identify and allocate well qualified crew & inspectors for making repairs 4) Use of budgeting system for major replacements/ repair 5) Proper procedures laid out for meeting the PM objectives in full 5. Reduces unplanned work 6.1 Preventive Maintenance System is 1.4.3. Reduces total maintenance cost 5. Use of recommended Grades of oils 4.2 Features of PM 1) Proper identification of items in each machineries which warrants fixed time maintenance.
Identifying the job to be taken & appropriate case register 2. repair procedures etc 11) Suppliers recommendations for up keep of machineries. 5. Preparation of maintenance report on the work done 8. Improves reliability of the machineries 6. Preparation of maintenance schedule and detail program of work with time frame for completion 6.4 Steps involved in Preventive Maintenance 1. Improves productivity due to lesser breakdowns 5. Preparation of history card of all the repair work carried on such a machine and the remarks there on 4. Maintenance is planned well in advance 2.3. Labor used cost effectively .7) Properly training maintenance crew Adequate space around machinery for maintenance work 9) Previous data on failure etc of each machine/equipment 10) Systematic approach. Preparation of job specification 5. Preparation of schedule of maintenance 3.3. Preparation of inspection chart 7.4.a guide showing problems.5 Advantages of Preventive Maintenance 1. diagnosis system.4. probable causes. Reduction in breakdown frequency 4. Feed back on the corrective action/ repair work done and its results 5. Higher safety for workers 7. Reduction in wear and tear of machines and increase in their life 3.
188.8.131.52 Differences between Corrective and Preventive Maintenance 1.3. audio gauges. sensors for pressure. Conditions of the machinery can be checked on line periodically or on continuous basis and maintenance crew can take decision & plan overhaul/repair as warranted. Unnecessary and invasive maintenance is carried out 3. 5. amplitude meters. are used to predict ensuing troubles/problems in machineries.5 Predictive Maintenance Predictive Maintenance is one of the modern approaches to preventive maintenance where in sensitive instruments are used to predict anticipated failure of machines & equipment.6 Disadvantages/limitations 1. 12. Maintenance activity and costs increased 2. Identification of parts and its nature and cost involved in repairs is possible 5. Sensitive instruments like vibration analyzer. Preventive maintenance is designed to prevent or at least to minimize failures/breakdowns and reduce the need for corrective maintenance. Applicable only to age related deterioration 4. Leaser rejection and better quality 11. Less stand by equipment requirement 13. Preventive maintenance program controls the repair costs as well as the overall life of the equipment where as in corrective maintenance brings back to the original life depending on the extent of damage the earier breakdown has brought into the equipment. corrective maintenance is carried out to repair the equipment after fault occurs/ breakdown happens. Maintenance sometimes induces failures (infant mortality) 5. temperatures. whereas. It is possible to have planned shutdowns and repair 9. Less breakdown costs.4. Minimizes breakdowns and hence minimum inventory hold ups 10. resistance gauges etc. .3.8.
e. when status or condition so demands It is beneficial to follow a system which is not calendar based but condition based. oil condition. Over maintenance or too frequent maintenance increases extensive downtime resulting in added costs on men. etc. incorrect installation. maintenance is on a pre-determined cycle whereas in a Predictive Maintenance system maintenance is done only. temperature. Hence an optimal maintenance interval has to be arrived at. misalignments.Predict failures well in advance by monitoring parameters and by use of certain techniques (like vibration. i. Main difficulty is in making the correct choice of preventive maintenance intervals based on OEM’s recommendations and own -experiences. which are indicative of malfunctions to decide on corrective treatment. Under maintenance or too long intervals between two successive checks may result in high incidence of failures. A major part of the predictive maintenance involves the ongoing analysis to ensure wear levels that damage the machine are within limits Good ability to predict impending failures well in time to prevent breakdowns. 1) Similar to health monitoring of senior executives to check symptoms. material and time. we should have a continuous knowledge of the machines based on certain critical predetermined / pre-formulated parameters . pump cavitations.) Measuring of physical parameters may not be enough to detect the destructive effects on a machine or process. In a Preventive Maintenance system. health and safety hazards etc) will result in 1) Maximizes the online operations 2) Minimizes downtime 3) Increased plant and Personnel safety 4) Optimal maintenance The above is achieved by continuous plant / equipment monitoring & diagnosing the actual condition by means of online non-destructive testing methods. analysis and tribology. wear debris analysis. The intervals should be carefully selected as over maintenance or under maintenance are both detrimental and hence undesirable. it may result in serious breakdowns. 2) If corrective treatment is not adopted at the right time. (which otherwise cause heavy penalty costs. rotor imbalance.
Temperature changes can be photographed . 5. more universal and better predictive tools and instruments are added in the system. With rapid developments in machining technology through CNC controlled machines.A given machine can continue to be kept in operation as long as the monitored parameters continue to remain within the laid down limits. It is just like a hammer used to strike a wheel to listen for that distinctive sound to say whether there is crack in wheel rim or not. increased leakages etc) CBM is a continuous or periodic measurement and interpretation of data to indicate the condition of an item to determine the need for maintenance. to cut downtime. there is enough time available for the maintenance crew to make adequate advance preparations. Predictive Maintenance is very cost effective where cost of unplanned breakdowns is very high. can save around 30% of maintenance costs and with a bonus of 15% savings in energy costs. CBM involves recording some measurement that gives an indication of the condition (ex: increase in vibration levels. Condition monitoring is merely a tool that is used by crew through touch. it implies that the particular part needs replacement and a special attention.6 Condition Based Maintenance CBM relies on the fact that the majority of failures do not occur instantaneously but develops over a period of time. Between the ‘action limit and the maximum permissible time limit’. smell and through their experience on the existing condition of the equipment/aggregate.3. FMS with artificial intelligent devices and computer simulations and modeling. The main function of condition monitoring is to provide the knowledge of a machine and its rate of change. temperature soars. thus making predictive maintenance more economical as compared to preventive and corrective maintenance strategies. but much before the possible breakdown. etc. In the Condition based maintenance (also known as Dynamic predictive maintenance or Diagnostic maintenance) the plant is maintained just after some problems arisen. Predictive Maintenance. if practiced effectively. An ability to forecast the machine behavior by Condition Monitoring is a pre-requisite for Predictive Maintenance Operators who work with equipment every day can listen to equipment and identify changes in noise levels and vibrations. A sense of confidence is created amongst production and maintenance personnel when they analyze the monitored data and predict that the machines are operated safely till they reach maximum permissible limits. When permissible limits are reached and warning signals are issued by the measuring devices.
Indications like over – temperature. if other parts of the system fail. contaminated cutting fluid Touch – Excessive bearing temperature State-of-the-art CNC systems facilitates adaptive Controls with signals from appropriate transducers. unbalance in rotors. mechanical looseness b) Thermostats – hydraulic oil temperature.6.3.through IR thermograph. An investigation can then be carried out to identify the exact problem. which are to be controlled by maintenance a) Vibration Sensors – to track tool wear/ breakages. corrosion Audible – Unusual noise. etc. which gives warning that something is ‘not right’. are displayed on the screen well in time to facilitate corrective action without disruption of production. Curve when extrapolated can indicate maximum & safe permissible limits 5. alarms. overheating of motors c) Current sensors – cutting load monitored by sensing spindle Condition Monitoring is achieved by the operator’s senses to detect abnormalities Visual – Leakages. This type of maintenance check on performance is vital as the future failures in safety systems can have more catastrophic effects. Action limit curve shows the prescribed for monitoring parameters during normal operations. gear defects. low battery voltage. Chatter Smell – Smoke. Condition Checking & Monitoring a) Trend Monitoring: . Condition monitoring is dependent on sensors and transducers for measuring different parameters.1 Condition Monitoring Methods There are two methods used namely: 1. misalignments. Trend Monitoring. CNC systems have built – in diagnostics which continuously monitor the system hardware to ensure normal functioning. 2.
Prognosis (forecast) subsequent measurement which will then establish the trend and enable the repair schedule to be planned. to monitor the rates of internal corrosion of the wall of the plant. accelerometer. using some suitable indicator & is used as a measure of machine condition at that time. b) Condition Checking: Condition checking is where a check measurement is taken with the machine running. proximity probes) to record vibration level 3) Wear Debris monitoring: This works on the principle that the working surfaces of a machine are washed by the lubricating oil and any damage is detected from particles of wear debris in the oil. 2) Vibration Monitoring: Involves the attachment of a transducer (velocity. d) Economics of Condition Monitoring: The savings. e) Selecting Methods of monitoring Five main techniques of conditioning monitoring 1) Visual monitoring: inspection & recording of surface appearance. which can be made by the application of CM: · Avoiding losses of output due to breakdown of machinery. 5) Corrosion monitoring: Is applied to fixed plant containing aggressive materials. This may be done by . Diagnosis (what) of its origin so that spare parts can be ordered 3. Detection (when) of the developing fault at an early stage 2. 4) Performance and behavior monitoring: Involves checking the performance of a machine to see whether it is behaving correctly.Trend monitoring is the continuous monitoring or regular measurement and interpretation of data collected during machine operation. to indicate variations in the conditions of the machine or its components. c) Condition Monitoring: Includes three stages: 1. · Reduces the cost of maintenance · Capital invested can be recovered faster.
3. Establishing programs and methods specifying the parts to be examined 4. 6. standby availability of machine. Cost of examination.6. Training examiners for the above jobs. Select proper examining technique.6. Some forms of inspection utilising human senses can be inexpensive 3. Maximises equipment availability 2.3. Maintenance can be planned.2 Implementation of Condition Based Maintenance: Involves: 1. standardizations planned. Labour can be organised 8. The hole is then plugged with a suitable leak proof material. cost of maintenance. Allows shutdown before severe damage occurs 4. overall cost of failure. Spares can be assembled 5. contamination etc) to be measured. Cause of failure can be analysed 6.6. 5.3 Advantages 1.drilling a hole through the wall and drilled coupon of material is observed for corrosion. sound.3. 5. operating conditions. Recording data 8.4 Disadvantages 1) Thermograph & Oil Debris Analysis [specialised equipment and training] . 7. Production can be modified to extend unit life 5. failure statistics (MTBF-MTTR). Establish for each part of the machine the severity limits of the machine condition parameter (Vibration. Listing and numbering of machine to have identification and location details 2. 7. Selecting critical machines for CM 3. 5. To arrive at best interval for examination considering the criticality of process.
fixtures and tools d) All the above 2) Which of the following is not an objective of remedial maintenance? a) To put back machinery back to work and minimize production interruptions b) To control costs of maintenance crew to the minimum c) To control cost of the operations of repairing d) Replacing the faulty machine when it starts malfunctioning.e.2) Requires careful choice of the correct technique. a _______________ recurring periodically 5) In the following list find out which one is considered as disadvantage of routine management: . e) To control costs of repair & replacement parts to minimum f) To carry out appropriate repair intermittently at each malfunction to improve the life of the machine. 3) Time is required for trends to develop to know machine condition Self Assessment Questions 1) Which of the following is not a common cause of equipment breakdowns? a) Improper preventive maintenance b) Inadequate lubrication c) Improper setups of jigs. 3) Irregular preventive maintenance do not include a) Repairs b) Overhauls c) Reduction of noise levels and vibrations d) Clean up of leakages etc on all the machine aggregates daily 4) RM is a procedure followed regularly i.
______________________ 5. faithful implementation and recording 6) Initial list of planned maintenance will be in detail Breakdown Maintenance is the method of operating the machines to run ______________ and then repair in order to restore them to an acceptable condition.1) Simple to establish & follow 2) Little or no clerical work 3) High degree of prevention by intercepting developing faults 4) RM may not provide the service specified by the manufacturer 5) A more advanced stage calls for ’service instructions on a pre-printed schedule and checklists’. No maintenance men on regular basis 3. No services except occasional lubrication unless failure occurs 2. 6) Planned maintenance is the activities carried out according to a ______________ and hence known as scheduled maintenance or productive maintenance 7) Characteristics of Planned Maintenance-fill up the missing one: 1) Instructions are more detailed than in routine maintenance 2) Calls for differently timed service for the same unit 3) Schedule is drawn with dates 4) ___________________________ 5) Entails considerable planning effort. 9) Characteristics of Break-down Maintenance System-fill the missing one: 1. Maintenance done by sub-contractors 4. No stock of spares 6. Initially it looks economical .
In the present high tech production. Restoration to recover deterioration 11) Predictive Maintenance is one of the modern approaches to preventive maintenance where in __________ are used to predict ____________ of machines & equipment. Preventive maintenance is undertaken before need for maintenance arises and aims at minimizing the anticipated breakdowns. using high technology machines. etc. with JIT inventory and sophisticated processes. Use of recommended Grades of oils 5. lubrication. Creates internal problems namely: Who to do the repair? From where to get parts? How do we pay for them? Who will go & buy parts? 10) To avoid breakdown & ensure smooth production following time based activities are practiced. . maintenance has been given more importance in the operational plans. predictive and remedial maintenance. and predictive. 2. Maintenance is of three main categories: breakdown. preventive.4 Summary Poorly maintained machines/equipment has severe negative impact on the productivity and the quality of the output in a production unit. 13) There are two methods used namely-Which is the second one 1) Trend Monitoring. checking. 12) CBM relies on the fact that the majority of failures do not occur instantaneously but develops over a period of time. maintenance managers have to decide on a proper balance between preventive. To counter this.which one is not the recommended practice? 1. CBM involves recording some ___________ that gives an indication of the condition.7. In planning. any stoppage due to breakdown in any part of the system will affect the entire production process. Predictive maintenance is a type in which the vital attributes of a system are monitored continuously and any deviations from the accepted limits are taken to rectify the problem. Periodic Inspections 3. 2) ____________________ 5. Check all the machines at firmed up time intervals 4. Daily Maintenance – Cleaning. Breakdown or remedial maintenance is undertaken when a machine breaks down or malfunctions.
What are the important functions of maintenance department 5. but much before the possible breakdown. What are the characteristics & objectives of breakdown/corrective maintenance? 7. What are the advantages & disadvantages of breakdown/corrective maintenance? 8.6 Answers . What is condition based maintenance. Describe the procedures of preventive maintenance program 10.In the Condition based maintenance (also known as Dynamic predictive maintenance or Diagnostic maintenance) the plant is maintained just after some problems arisen. Explain briefly the condition based monitoring methods 15. 14. What are the advantages of Planned Maintenance? 6. Total productivity maintenance is practiced to improve the productivity of the equipment by minimizing the number of breakdowns and malfunctions. What is predictive maintenance? What are its advantages over preventive maintenance? 13. Organizations have realized the importance of maintenance and its planning. Which enables them to reduce breakdowns. Distinguish between preventive and breakdown maintenance 12. accidents and minimizing the costs of maintenance activities? 5. What are the advantages and disadvantages of condition based maintenance? 5.5 Terminal Questions 1. What is meant by planned/scheduled/productive maintenance and what emphasis it pays in maintaining the machine/equipment 4. Outline the various types of maintenance 3. State the objectives of maintenance management? 2. Where this type is applicable. Define preventive maintenance and state its objectives 9. CBM is a continuous or periodic measurement and interpretation of data to indicate the condition of an item to determine the need for maintenance. Discuss the advantages and limitations of preventive maintenance 11.
Refer 5.3.2 5.Self Assessment Questions 1. (4) No organised efforts to find out reasons 10.4. Not occur.4.4 .4 4. Sensitive instruments.3 & 5.1 & 5.4.3. d) All the above 184.108.40.206.4 8. d) Replacing the faulty machine when it starts malfunctioning 3. Predetermined schedule 7.2 6.2. Refer 5.2 7. Cyclic operation 5.2 2. (3) Check all the machines at firmed up time intervals 11. Refer 5. c) Reduction of noise levels and vibrations 4. measurement 13. Condition Checking & Monitoring Terminal Questions 1. Refer 5.3. anticipated failure 12. Refer 5. (4) RM may not provide the service specified by the manufacturer 6. Refer 5.4.3 3.3. Until they fail 9. (4) Establishes the work-load for the crew 8. Refer 5. Refer 5.
6.4. Refer 5.4.5 13.4. Refer 220.127.116.11 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .9.4. Refer 5.6.1 15.4.5 & 5. Refer 18.104.22.168 & 5. Refer 5.4.7 12.4 10.6 11.6 14. .4.4.Refer 5.6. Refer 5.4.
9 Maintenance Planning Principles 6.12 Maintenance scheduling principles 6.14 Summary of Maintenance Scheduling 6.15 Terminal Questions 6.1 Introduction Objectives 6.3 Planning Vision & Mission 6.4 Functions of Maintenance Planner 6.8 Productivity. Project work 6.6 Planning System 6.16 Answers 6.1 Introduction . Specialization & Coordination of Planning 6.OM0006-Unit-06-Maintenance Planning and Scheduling Unit-06-Maintenance Planning and Scheduling Structure: 6.2 Functions of Maintenance Planning 6.7 How much Planning will help? 6.13 Six Maintenance Scheduling Principles 6.5 Benefit of Planning 6.10 Planning Preventive & Predictive Maintenance.11 Summary of Maintenance Planning 6.
qualified personnel. performance. tools. The planner should also give more attention to critical equipment and safety areas. communication. tool rooms. predictive maintenance. and maintenance measurement. tool room facilities. By implementing fundamental planning and scheduling system. The final improvement to over 50% can be achieved through special aids. are included in the job plans. To achieve the desired maintenance efficiency. organizations could improve maintenance productivity to about 40%. engineers. Planning concentrates on adding value. The plant has better control over work that is scheduled. In addition. and project maintenance is essential. and other vendors to cater to the common maintenance tasks on critical equipment and safety equipment. leadership. data collection and research of certain processes etc. but certainly brings together many aspects of maintenance. and safety. Other tools used are work order system. shops. control of inventories. Where does planning fit into? What principles make it work? How planning is required to be done? How to provide additional resources for planners and personnel for maintenance activities? Etc. management. are the subjects being discussion. it is preferred for the organization to become a procedure-based one with teams of experienced technicians. consideration of reliability maintenance as preventive maintenance. planning is very essential. Objectives: After studying this unit you shall be able to · Prepare a plan for maintenance · Analyse the benefits of planning for maintenance · Examine the principles of maintenance planning . as they leverage their expertise into job plans. If detailed procedures and checklists contribute to better reliability. storeroom support. Planning does not solve everything. Planning and scheduling promotes labor productivity by examining potential delays and scheduling work.All manufacturing units having varieties of machineries and equipments require maintenance to keep them up in good working conditions and for sustaining and achieving higher productivity. teamwork. Here procedure already in the file or important information that persons who worked on that equipment have recorded previously. planners. The planning system is designed with procedures to be followed over time through a systematic job plans.
6. a planner develops a work plan after receiving a work request. · Maintenance planning brings together or coordinates the effort of many other aspects of maintenance. · The planner identifies appropriate materials for the specified job and checks whether they are available or be specially obtained. To prepare a job in advance. · Planner does preparatory planning for the crew supervisor and craft persons who executes the work.· Distinguish between preventive and breakdown maintenance planning. · Once the work order is received. procedure for accomplishing task and identify any parts and special tools required. · The time estimates made by planner gives the idea to crew personnel to judge how much work is assigned and what work is there. 6. · The planner specifies appropriate craft skills required for that particular job. the maintenance planning initiates action. For this the maintenance planning will have the following functions: · Coordinating mechanism within the maintenance department. and labor time estimate. identification of craft skill required. · The planner considers the proper scope of work for the job. · The planned information gives the supervisors a reference for expected work and time for completion and helps to have a control through on problems that might lessen productivity. thus enabling a better control over their work. The work plan is nothing but the information a planner makes ready for the technician to execute the work. .2 Functions of Maintenance Planning Maintenance management uses planning as a tool to reduce unnecessary job delays through advance preparation. The work plan includes a job scope.3 Planning Vision & Mission The mission of planning revolves around doing the right jobs that are ready to go. Coordinating function is the key to achieve competitive edge. For ex: Planner has to judge whether the defective valve should be repaired or replaced. · Crew personnel are then assigned the job for execution and avoid problems such as delays stemming by insufficient skills/ not having required materials or tools.
parts. without wasting time.4 Functions of Maintenance Planner 1) Maintenance planning involves identifying parts and tools that are necessary for maintenance jobs. Work plans avoid anticipated delays. Doing the right jobs involves job priorities. 4) Planners evolve good planning methodology that increases maintenance productivity. 6. crew schedules. and allow advance scheduling through which the supervisors will assign and control the proper amount of work. With proper planning or preparation efforts for each job. planning sets the stage for the maintenance force to act upon quickly. considering the safety aspects of the job. 7) If parts are not in the inventory. method of maintenance. clearances. work involved. for easy understanding and identifying the proper parts for his next work. 3) With preparatory work. 2) The planner writes work instructions on how to do the job. release of the work orders to proceed etc. tools. A work crew is ready to go immediately to scheduled work assignments as all instructions. but ready handle judiciously the reactive type of work also. Planning is Information central. bearings etc) along with their identification numbers. Arrange parts required to be placed in a convenient location nearer to the job site before the job starts. improve on past jobs. 6) The planner reserves such required parts in the store to ensure their availability. The entire maintenance organization should be committed to schedule proactive works. 5) The planner writes a job plan that identifies parts needed (such as gaskets. planner initiate action to organize and get them. 9) Planner provide a bill of materials or an illustrated parts diagram both to the stores person and craft men. It also involves identifying the actual work scope. A planning mission statement is: “To increase the Maintenance crew’s ability to complete the work orders quickly”. arrangements are ready. so that technicians need not wait for parts to arrive. and it controls and coordinates and brings resources to leverage productivity. . crew starts their work as per job.The planning mission states “Doing the right jobs & ready to go”. seals.
time estimates.7 How Much Planning Will Help? a) Tangible Help: • Planning provides tangible help for organization to achieve: . 6. specify job scope. procedures for assigning proper amount of work to all the skilled/unskilled crews. 4) Skill levels and time estimates on jobs and proper scheduling are included in the subject work order. Institute a control system that contributes to managing productivity. with identification numbers.5 Benefit of Planning As planning consists of arranging parts and the necessary tools for maintenance work and provide necessary guidelines by use all the inputs effectively through a maintenance system. 6) Establishes through work order system. the maintenance process has the following steps: 1) Receives request from the concerned section for the maintenance work. 7) Prepares Schedules for maintenance works and follow track until complete. fork lifts. 6. pallets etc for easy movement of identified parts and tools to work site in advance. Hence the purpose of planning is to focus on high productivity through an organized planning & scheduling principles. 3) Planner evolves a system and procedure for each type of maintenance work. craft and skill level required.6 Planning System In a proper planning system. 2) Planner plans work order. 6. anticipated parts & tools. resulting benefit achieved are the improved productivity and overall effectiveness or efficiency in maintenance. 12) Planner will arrange material handling equipments like crane. 5) Creates data and information on machineries and equipment and its maintenance methodology for future reference and analysis. 11) Planner identifies special tools needed by the craft man for maintenance activities and reserve such tooling and other accessories at the place of work.10) Planner is required to coordinate with vendors & ensure material supply along with the quality control on vendor supplies.
Is this wrench time a reality? Instances are there in which experienced workforce moved from average 35% wrench time to 55% with fine tuned planning.-Amount of work accomplished rises. -Work force is freed up. also known as wrench time. Crew will plan their work and then executes. intangible benefits of planning were seen in providing a better control of maintenance work. could achieve a remarkable reliable plant capacity within a year through superior availability and a drastic improvement in work force productivity.8 Productivity. thus using the freed 10 trained personnel for other productivity improvement activities. To determine if any of the delay time could be avoidable requires planner’s assistance for analyzing such nonproductive time. · The maximum performance target for wrench time was shown at an average of around 55%. where in the planning addresses and reduces delays. one can calculate and measure the actual amount of increased maintenance productivity. Specialization & Coordination of Planning a) The specific benefit of planning in Wrench time improvements · There are organizations who feel that the planning work is part and parcel of the maintenance crew. In addition. But it proved the other way as seen from the above examples. Practically the total maintenance work was completed by 35 personnel as compared to previous year’s statistics of using around 45 personnel for the same output. thus frees technicians for more productive work. c) “World class” wrench time · Statistical work sampling studies measures productive time. where the management created an exclusive planning group. The practical result of planning-example: In a power station. Improvement here was only possible with the planning in place. Analysis of the nonproductive time is one of the most valuable work-sampling. -Extra labor power can be reallocated to added value activities. b) Improving the Wrench Time and Productivity · Work activities are classified differently. The industry’s average productive maintenance time was less than 30% (the measure of wrench time) when a typical maintenance technician has spent less than 20% on the real work and it is found that the balance time is spent on other nonproductive tasks. Further if there are three crews working with . • • Through proper planning. 6.
4) Planner expertise dictates job estimates. Industry to this day continues to use specialization. Specialization increases productivity per person. 2) Planners concentrate on future work. These principles must be understood by all concerned to have effective planning process. for which they train and maintain separate groups of mechanics. Loading these specialists to achieve higher wrench times also requires a sound planning and proper coordination.wrench time of 30%. b) Specialization and Productivity: · Experienced crew are specializing in a particular field and achieving the specified goals. There is a methodology of work measurement what is commonly known as wrench time and this frequently misunderstood principle and hence must be made clear to everyone concerned. and instrument technicians. the other two crew reached a wrench time of 50%. which is essential for a competitive edge. 1) Company organizes planners into a separate department. and if one is allocated to planning job and with whose instance. Decisions making at each crossroads on the alternative ways to conduct planning and execute is essential and ultimate success of planning depends on this situational oriented decision. But experience has shown that a single planner can plan maintenance jobs for more than 20 persons. electricians. The principles of having planning as a separate department in order to focus on the future work and consequent use of planner’s expertise to create estimates. which spells the importance of planning jobs for maintenance. 6. then total productivity is 100 % [2x 50% +0= 100%. 3) Planners base their files on the component level of systems. 5) Planners recognize the skill of the crafts.9 Maintenance Planning Principles The principles or paradigms that are evolved over the maintenance mission will profoundly affect planning. recognizing skill of the craftsman and measuring performance must be understood by every one concerned with production. Six principles greatly contribute to the overall success of planning. as compared to 3x30=90%]. . Each principle identifies important crossroads.
· The planners must be engaged in preparing work that has not yet begun. The planners ensure that the feedback information is properly filed to aid future work. The feedback consists of any problems. · Because planning contributes to scheduling. feedback is given by the lead technician or supervisor to the Planning Department. . Principle 1: [The Company organizes planners into a separate department] · The planners are organized into a separate department from craft maintenance crews to facilitate specialization in planning and focus on future work. plan changes. The file system enables planners to utilize equipment data and information and their experience on previous work to prepare and improve work plans. Principle 2: [Focus on Future Work] · The vision of planning is to increase labor productivity by preparing the jobs in advance. The supervisor has an obligation to complete the assigned work in an expeditious manner with a minimum of interruptions · The crew focuses exclusively on executing assigned work. the lack of planning effort may decrease the number of work assignments to crew members · The company organizing planners to a separate group. Principle 3: [Component Level Files] · Planning maintains a simple.6) Work sampling of direct work time provide measure of planning effectiveness. · Planners report to a different supervisor/ lead planner who will be responsible to provide direction and ensure consistency within the planning group. Matching identify tags on the machineries are also arranged. · Planners use personal experience and develop work plans to avoid anticipated work delays and quality or safety problems. The Planning Department concentrates on future work and provide the crew to plan their work in advance and remove backlogs · After job completion. or other helpful information so that future work plans and schedules might be improved. which helps planners to become specialized in all the tools and techniques of planning · Planners need to work closely to ensure proper execution of work with consistency. secure file system based on equipment tag numbers. especially on repetitive maintenance tasks.
· This principle dictates that planners depend on the workforce being sufficiently skilled when he is putting a minimum level of detail into the initial job plans. · Craft technicians use their expertise to make the specified repair or replacement. · Planners give information to supervisor for scheduling control. The planner calls for a minimum craft skill on a job plan. The planner’s responsibility is to firm up the scope of the work request including clarification of the originator’s intent wherever necessary. The plan dictates the skill set necessary to accomplish the work given the state of the job plan. The planners also use their own expertise to formalize best practices on individual job plans. These planners rely greatly upon their personal skill and experience in addition to existing information in the files to develop job plans. · Supervisors and plant engineers are trained to access these files to gather information they need with minimal planner assistance. . · Routine maintenance offers the highest potential for planner contribution to company success because more intricate or unusual maintenance tasks receives necessary help from plant engineering department Principle 5: [Recognize the Skill of the Crafts] · The Planning Department recognizes the skill of the crafts. · Plant must choose from among its best craft persons to be planners. The planners and technicians work together over repeated jobs to develop better procedures and checklists. Principle 4: [Estimates Based on Planner Expertise] · Planners use personal experience and file information to develop work plans to avoid anticipated work delays after considering quality and safety problems.· The majority of maintenance tasks are repetitive over a period of time. Any recommended deviations from the job plan must be approved by planning before execution. · Supervisors must train technicians with deficient skills and give proper support and guidance · Technicians must execute the job precisely as planned for three reasons. · The planner then plans the general strategy of the work (such as repair or replace) and includes procedure if it is not already there in the file. File cost information assists in making repair or replace decisions.
Planning can adopt preferred maintenance for higher effectiveness. What is actually important is the analysis of the nonproductive time. 6. Wrench time is measured accurately with a properly structured. . clearance. Starting with a basic system. parts. not the control of planning or the work force.· Finally. instructions. · Work sampling to determine wrench time gives this measure of how much planning is helping in the process. planners visualize the types of work orders to be released for preventive maintenance tasks for the next week. · Measuring wrench time thus gives an overall indication of how well the other principles have been implemented or accepted. the planning system counts on the skilled technicians giving feedback on job plans so that their expertise and the planner’s expertise both contribute to adding information to future plans. Wrench time analysis is an indicator. predictive maintenance.10 Planning Preventive & Predictive Maintenance. · Principle 6 dictates that measuring how much time craft technicians actually spend on their job site versus other activities performed such as obtaining parts or tools. statistical observational techniques & study. The time that employees spend at their job sites working is called direct or productive work. This principle holds that delays in technician’s job should be avoided. travel. Projects The concepts and importance of preventive maintenance. Wrench time is the proportion of available time-to-work time during which the craft technicians are on productive working on a job site. This determines the effectiveness of the maintenance planning program. These reduce the incidence of reactive maintenance work and to increase plant reliability. coordination with other crafts. Principle 6: [Measure Performance with Work Sampling] · Wrench time is the primary measure of workforce efficiency and of planning and scheduling effectiveness. a) Preventive Maintenance [PM] and Planning · The planning department studies and issues PM’s schedules and reviews them periodically. and project work and their relationship to the development of the planning principles and practices are discussed here. Delays such as waiting for assignment. or equipment information are all deducted. tools.
PM plans can include rags for wiping and removing old grease when parts are dissembled. · The planner should allow some extra time in the work order on all PM work for making unspecified excessive cleaning.· A planner should plan each of the PMs with scope and craft requirements such as numbers of persons. and Cleanliness. · This requirement of corrective maintenance is ‘TLC’ i. For ex: tightening of fasteners in the coupling if he found they are loose. Tightness. The plan should also list anticipated parts and special tools. · Cleanliness helps reduce contamination sources and such clean surfaces to reveal the presence of new leaks. · Planners should also review the histories and feedback from all work orders to determine if additional PM work orders are needed. Many do value assigning with experienced personnel to perform PM work orders. · The planner must receive feedback to improve the PM work order itself. repairs. on the work done. · PM plans should specify torque requirements or attach torque charts where appropriate and include torque wrenches as a special tool. · PdM technology greatly moves the plant’s reliability upward as the predictions in predictive maintenance show an important capacity for growth in accuracy. Lubrication. which are contributing to more than 50% of all breakdowns. the technician is empowered to make any minor equipment adjustments or minor repairs during execution of the PM. small adjustments. tightening of bolts. and duration. as improper lubrication leads to total damage to equipment. Planning for parts encourages the replacement of fasteners based on the technician’s decisions. The dirt and grime also add undesirable insulation conditions that may affect equipment performance. For this. lubrications etc.e. work hours. · The scope should extend beyond simple repair and replacement of parts to improve equipment reliability as well. · Lubrication is important part of a PM program. b) Predictive Maintenance [PdM] and Planning · Planning plans and schedules PdM work orders. . PdM personnel make the call on the creation of new work orders. or minor repairs. Predictive maintenance (PdM) uses technology not available to the regular maintenance work force. · Emphasis in all PMs is to inspect the equipment for abnormal situations.
The decision the company makes regarding each situation determines the ultimate success of planning.· Planners must accept PdM work orders for jobs and translate them into the appropriate scope for the maintenance crews. 6. Each principle resolves a crossroads decision that affects the planning effort. Plants treat projects as outages and planned as long-range scheduling. but difference is in the larger nature of projects. with active participation and assistance from the planning group. At each crossroads. · The PdM group can update the technology of the maintenance force. planning group plans and schedules work orders to implement projects as regular jobs. c) Project Work and Planning · Similar to PdM. · Plant normally has the personnel to implement such maintenance project work with the productivity prescribed in the planning and scheduling system. · Planners should facilitate PdM when work on equipment is in process. · Planners must vigorously pursue collecting documentation to establish files and also overview position regarding the project replacement or overhaul. bearing clearances. The application of maintenance planning makes possible the dramatic improvement in maintenance productivity. which involves alignment criteria. Consideration of six basic principles greatly boosts the planning program efforts toward success. The planning effort has mainly focused on making individual jobs ready to go by identifying and planning around potential delays.11 Summary of Maintenance Planning Effective maintenance is vital to provide reliable plant capacity. so that PdM personnel may quickly climb the learning curve. the company has to make a decision regarding alternate ways to conduct planning. . · Planners should insist to utilize standards set by PdM for certain jobs. · Planners should be able to estimate and commit the project schedules with plant engineering and scheduler assistance. · Planners should insist that PdM uses the same equipment tag numbers for ease communication problems. or other rebuild tolerances.
12 Maintenance Scheduling Principles Scheduling principles envisages the vision. . tools. lunch. This aligning of the work to accomplish the desired effective and efficient maintenance led to the principles of scheduling. and shutdown Wrench time concept of measuring the work for each hour of the day. instructions. and measuring planning performance with work sampling for technician’s direct work time. gave a clear picture of how technicians are completing their work. Because most jobs are repetitive.The principle of having planning as a separate department. Wrench time will measure whether the objectives of planning are met or not in reducing job delays. The crews worked on the planned jobs and work sampling study made on it indicated a wrench time of 25% only and further plant could do better job if improved upon. recognizing the skill of the crafts. 6. break. are all in the total system. When work orders are received. Plnners must possess the experience of top level technicians in order to scope jobs. Maintenance needed certain methodology to assigning enough work through the planning process. and estimate times adequately. having component level files. . utilize files. which is discussed below. but also exists for excessive startup. They solved the problems by addressing symptomatic of tools. The planned work packages increases the maintenance department’s ability to complete work orders effectively. Only when planning keeps a separate file for each piece of equipment. The analysis revealed that the large delay times not only for parts. the schedules and job priorities for every forecasted work available. or travel categories. Planners need to avoid continually being interrupted to resolve problems for jobs already under way. it is practical to retrieve information when needed. allowing the crew supervisor to handle day’s work. file history help technicians to avoid previously faced problems. focusing on future work. efficiently. and safely. parts availability problems or not properly planning issues Companies placed an emphasis on planning and also they doubled the parts availability in stores to reduce ordering needs. Planners need to focus on future work not yet begun. the technicians would scope out the jobs with their social & other times. and then measure schedule compliances. the principles or paradigms in order to evolve effective scheduling will come through effective planning process. The principles used for planning and scheduling are for achieving the forecasted skill levels. using planner expertise to create estimates.
craft work hours per level. Does the job require mechanics or machinists? Does the job require three helpers to assist a certified electrician? Etc that are necessary for advance scheduling. It also ensures that a sufficient and the right work are assigned. 5. 6. Plant priority plays a larger role in creating the schedule of work and all involved should treat it as a serious matter.Routine maintenance needs the use of principles. The entire plant must respect the importance of schedules and job priorities. · Advance scheduling of enough work for the entire week sets the goal for maximum utilization of the available craft hours. if required while assigning individuals to execute job plan. § Job plans provide information about the number of persons required.13 Six Maintenance Scheduling Principles Six principles that greatly contribute to the overall success of scheduling are: 1. as they create a framework for successful scheduling of planned work. 2. Crew supervisor matches personnel skills and tasks 6. . 3. 4. and job duration. planners and the plant manager. Schedule compliance of wrench time. provides the measure of scheduling effectiveness. Principle 1: [Planners plan the jobs for lowest required skill levels] § Essential part of Principle 1 is that job plans identify the lowest skill necessary to complete the work with the contention that the supervisor will have higher skill capability also. Planners plan the jobs for lowest required skill levels. · The priority may be reviewed periodically and adjusted in coordination with crew. Crew supervisors forecast available work hours one week ahead by the highest skills available. Each principle sets guidelines on how the maintenance should handle different scheduling process. The appropriate priority for the work is based on established plant guidelines. Principle 2 [Entire plant respect the importance of schedules and job priorities] · Weekly and daily schedules must be adhered to by the crew as per the priorities mentioned in the work orders to prevent undue interruption in schedules. Schedule assigns planned work for every forecasted work hour available. lowest required craft skill level.
and information from job plans. It allows for emergencies/high priority/ reactive jobs by scheduling sufficient amount of work hours. · Scheduler assigns work plans for the crew to execute during the following week for 100% of the forecasted hours i. forecast of highest skill. it is better to delay identified job in full rather than completing half.e. Principle 4: [A week’s schedule will assign work for all the available work hour] · A week’s schedule will assign work for the total work hours. As these may cause unique problems it is better to be avoided. · Crew supervisor matches personnel skills and tasks. If a true emergency arises. job priorities.· Inefficiency peeps through the interruption by low priority jobs coming in way of urgent jobs progressing. crew work load is 1000 worthy labour hours. and reactive jobs as a guide. new high priority. after considering the tasks that are being interrupted · Principle 4 brings all the three previous scheduling principles together. · Over assigning and under assigning work are common and acceptable in industries. · Consideration is also given to multiple jobs on the same equipment or system and of proactive versus reactive work available. Principle 5: [The crew supervisor matches personnel skills and tasks] · Crew supervisor develops a daily schedule one day in advance using current job progress. · Scheduling plan is for performing all the works available in the system. · Scheduler also uses job priority and job plan information. Principle 3 [Develops week’s schedule for each crew & craft hours required] · Develops a week’s schedule for each crew based on craft hours required. · Scheduler uses a forecast of maximum capabilities of the crew for coming week. · Preference is given to completing the higher priority work by utilizing whatever skills available than working on completing the lower priority work. · First two principles are the prerequisites of the principle-3 scheduling · Scheduler selects the week’s worth of work from the overall plant backlog. . This includes proactive work.
· Crew supervisor handles the current day’s work and any other problems in emergency maintenance · Although individual jobs show a wide variance between planned and actual times. In case of delay in actual job progress and the incidence of unexpected reactive work in place. and track schedule compliance. · Each day the crew supervisor assigns the next day’s work to each technician. Adhering to schedules is important as interrupting jobs leads to overall inefficiency. tools. crew supervisor is the best judge to create the daily crew work schedule. · Schedule compliance is the measure of adherence to the one week schedule and its effectiveness. assigns work for all available labour hours. 6. Six basic principles form the foundation of successful scheduling and make schedules and priority systems important. · Planning individual jobs can reduce delays such as waiting to obtain certain parts. Maintenance dept also tracks schedule compliance. Work sampling or wrench time studies quantify delays & gives measures of planning and scheduling effectiveness. When setting craft and time requirements. allow crew supervisors to make daily schedules.14 Summary of Maintenance Scheduling Maintenance management must consider main scheduling in the maintenance planning strategy to avoid problems of improved efficiency. He will ensure that each technician receives assignments totalling to full day’s work Principle 6: [Wrench time is the primary measure of workforce efficiency] · Wrench time is the primary measure of workforce efficiency and of planning and scheduling effectiveness. or technician instructions · Scheduling aims at reducing delays. The priority system must properly identify the right jobs to start. it relatively balances by week end. This increases flexibility in choosing jobs. scheduler to develop schedule in advance. . job plans must plan for the lowest required skill level. Work sampling or wrench time is the best measure of scheduling performance. Knowing of the lowest skills required for jobs and the highest skills available allows developing a schedule with proper work for the week.
Maintenance management uses planning as a tool to reduce …………………. a planner develops a …………… after receiving a work request. and works such as preventive maintenance/ breakdown work and release of the work orders to proceed.. Principles 1 and 2 are prerequisites for scheduling. Further working to the maintenance planning based on the six planning principles along with the six scheduling principles will help improve the productivity.. To prepare a job in advance. 3. . Principle 6 sets overall indicators for scheduling control. efficiently. In the maintenance process given below which one not the step to be considered. Self Assessment Questions 1. 2. 4. 5. The planning mission statement could be ……………………………. and safely. · Crew personnel are assigned the job for execution · The time estimates are made by planner · Maintenance planning brings together or coordinates the effort of many other aspects of maintenance. which one is not relevant? · Coordinating mechanism within the maintenance department. Hence use of planned and scheduled work packages increases the maintenance department’s ability to complete work orders effectively. . through advance preparation. Principles 3 through 5 establish basis of scheduling process. A planning mission statement may be: …………………………………. · A maintenance planner does preparatory planning for the craft persons · The planner identifies appropriate materials for the specified job and checks whether they are available or must be specially obtained. crew schedules. · To arrest the leakages and keep up the lubrication system · The planner specifies the appropriate craft skills required for that particular job. Out of the maintenance planning functions. The planners and crew had to deal differently with urgent reactive work by developing job plans for reactive work.Schedule based on the wrench time has to be practiced. This involves job priorities.
b) A planner plans the work order by specifying job scope.a) Receives request from the concerned section for the maintenance work. Fill in (c) below: a) The amount of work accomplished rises. . Wrench time is the primary measure …………………………………………… Wrench time is the proportion of available time to. also known as wrench time. 8. d) Planner expertise dictates job estimates. Which is sixth one? a) The company organizes planners into a separate department. e) Fix up the wages for each of the work based on the skill level f) Creates data and information on all machineries and equipment and its maintenance methodology for future reference and analysis. as well as specifying anticipated parts and tools. c) Planners base their files on the component level of systems. b) Planners concentrate on future work. c) ……………………………………………… 7. with all their identification numbers. b) The work force is freed up. time estimates.work time during which the craft technicians are on productive working on a job site.. Six principles greatly contribute to overall success of planning. c) Planner evolves a system and procedure for each type of maintenance work d) Skill levels and time estimates on jobs and proper scheduling are included in the subject work order. craft and skill level required. procedures for assigning proper amount of work to all the skilled/unskilled crews h) Prepares Schedules for the maintenance works and follow track until complete. Planning provides tangible help. g) He establishes through work order system. per person 9. Specialization increases ………………………. . Statistical work sampling studies measures ……………. 6.
work and to increase plant reliability. Improper lubrication leads to total ………. 13. a. The principles used for planning and scheduling are for achieving the forecasted higher skill levels..e) Planners recognize the skill of the crafts. 12. c. Cleanliness helps reduce ……………. The crew supervisor matches personnel skills and tasks] f. 14. Explain briefly the functions of maintenance planning.15 Terminal Questions 1.. This requirement of corrective maintenance is ‘TLC’ i. 11. 6.. for every forecasted work available. Crew supervisors forecast available work hours one week ahead by the highest skills available. Fill in the missing principle. 10. 3. Planners plan the jobs for lowest required skill levels.. six principles that greatly contribute to the overall success of scheduling are discussed below. The PdM technology has the potential of greatly moving the plant’s ………. and then measure schedule compliances 15. What are the benefits of maintenance planning? . and such clean surfaces to reveal the presence of new leaks. b.e. Companies strive to do more preventive maintenance. predictive maintenance. ……………………………………………. f) ………………………………………. allowing the crew supervisor to handle day’s work. …….. to equipment. and project work to lessen the ……………………. The entire plant must respect the importance of schedules and job priorities. ………. which are contributing to more than 50% of all breakdowns. ………. Just as in planning. Schedule compliance joins wrench time to provide the measure of scheduling effectiveness. d.. e. upward as the predictions involved in predictive maintenance show an important capacity for growth in accuracy. …………………. Why planning process is essential for efficient maintenance management? 2.
Explain as to how the maintenance planning will help improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the organization 5. and Cleanliness . workforce efficiency and of planning and scheduling effectiveness. (sl. “To increases the Maintenance Department’s ability to complete work orders quickly”. Productivity 9. 7. Doing right jobs which are ready to go 4. The extra labor power can be reallocated to added value activities. no: e) Fix up the wages for each of the work based on the skill level 6. 5. Lubrication. 9. 8. What is wrench time? How it is recognized as a maintenance work measure? 6.4.no:4)To arrest the leakages and keep up the lubrication system 3. What are the maintenance planning principles? How they contribute to the success of planning? 8. Incidence of reactive maintenance 11. Work plan 2. Explain how the specialization in areas of maintenance will help improve the productivity of the maintenance crew. (sl. 7. Productive time. Tightness. Unnecessary job. Work sampling for direct work time provides the primary measure of planning effectiveness 10. Explain briefly the planning approaches in preventive and predictive maintenance processes.16 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1. Why scheduling after proper planning is essential for effective maintenance and meeting the dead line and avoid delays? 10. Explain briefly how the use of six principles will greatly contribute to the overall success of scheduling 6.
9 8. Refer 6.5 4. Refer 6. damage 13.2 3.7 (c) 6. Refer 6.10 a & b 9. Refer 6.13 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .8 (b) 7. Refer 6. . Refer 6.12.12 10. The schedules and job priorities 15. Contamination sources.7 5. Terminal Questions 1.1 2.Refer 6. Reliability 14. (For d): The schedule assigns planned work for every forecasted work hour available. Refer 6. Refer 6. Refer 6.
11 Answers 7.4 Benefits of using ‘UMS’ with Planner’s Functions 7.1 Introduction Automating the maintenance program is a complex task as it requires integrating of people.6 Work Measurement for High-Productivity Maintenance Universal Maintenance Standards [UMS] Five Levels of Data in Ums 7.1 Introduction Objectives 7.8 Overall Craft Effectiveness & its Measurement 7.9 Summary 7.OM0006-Unit-07-Universel Maintenance Practices Unit-07-Universel Maintenance Practices Structure: 7. process and systems.7 ACE Team Benchmarking Process 7.10 Terminal Questions 7. Using a state-of-the-art maintenance management.3 Organization & Processes 7.5 Universal Principles for higher Productive Maintenance 7. organizations have tried and tested different approaches for bringing changes that can result in improvements in both the function and the cost. The new system will become a platform for continuous improvement and will generate long term benefits .2 Planner’s Function in Maintenance & Benefits 7.
· Explain the benefits of UMS · Adopt the ACE system of Benchmarking 7. as the maintenance represents variable operating cost which includes physical plant value. especially when sophisticated high tech machineries and equipments are used for production. maintenance labour. field checks jobs when .The analysis and application of work measurements to ensure improved productivity and cost reduction in maintenance should be the prime consideration by the management. theory. higher quality. a detail analysis and adopting certain state of art principles and improve maintenance productivity are all the focus areas for the above said disciplines. How the Maintenance. Engineering or Industrial Engineering managers spearhead their achievements of dramatic productivity improvements by adopting different methods of work measurements in managing and controlling their activities. Improving Wrench time of the Crew in Maintenance 6. Higher productivity maintenance means better customer service. For achieving the above said prerequisites. Use of the state of art principles. cost reduction and its measurement 5. close communication with supervisors. Adopting ACE system for benchmarking and improvements 4. Achieving excellence in Maintenance Engineering and Management Objectives: After studying this unit you shall be able to: · Outline the functions to be performed by the maintenance planner. are the concepts.2 Planner’s Function In Maintenance & Benefits The planner’s role is varied in nature such as: maintain a backlog of ready-to-work jobs for each technician. materials and overhead. satisfied customers. Benchmarking the best practices 3. principles and theory of new measurement techniques. on-time delivery and ultimately. Implementing new techniques of measurement. systems and techniques of Universal Maintenance Standards [UMS] 2. some of which are listed below: 1. Improving the Overall craft effectiveness [OCE] for productivity.
In addition the resultant productivity improvement that accrues are the benefits to organization in a) cost reductions b) downtime reduction.needed. time reporting on the performance including delays. Importance of work measurement and the standard for the job should be established. and make available to the crew a set of basic processes and craft operations for the process before establishing bench marks. plans work content. b) Processes Processes involve data development and work order planning. 7. The planner also develops bench marks and maintains the data library. do the training. or too many stock-outs. verifies priority. unrealized opportunity etc.3 Organization & Processes The tasks for a maintenance work measurement program fall into two categories namely 1) Organization and 2) Process a) Organization with planner in the forefront Planner maintains and allocates the work and knows all the ratios required for accomplishing the jobs and have good maintenance skills and experience and capabilities to work as the ultimate expert system. crafts needed. the same can be raised to around 80% when a planning function is integrated with UMS times to work together. Both the planners and the maintenance crew should examine to see how the UMS times could be applied. Planners develop all the data. are validated. issue of stores taking too long. materials. plans safety requirements. based on a formal planning function and the Universal Maintenance Standards. . life cycle cost reductions d) on time completion of jobs e) continuous improvements f) improved service to customers. The normal ratio of planners to technicians used is 20 to 30:1. Hence the measurement provides information to determine the savings potential and also justify the maintenance work measurement program. requisitions non-stock or out-of-stock items. etc as well as the stores process to check the inventory value.4 Benefits of Using ‘Ums’ with Planner’s Functions It is found that when a planner’s function is integrated with the UMS resultant impact is of improving the overall maintenance effectiveness. crew size. While the maintenance departments without planners can achieve around 50-60% Productivity. 7. identifies special tools. and time to do the work. They can also establish a computerized maintenance management system. cost of the items.
1 Universal Maintenance Standards [UMS] .6. d) Customer/Service Relationship The customer decides what is needed from an operational viewpoint. Together the customer and maintenance crew decide the priority (based on resources available) and urgency of each task compared to other existing current works. 7. and maintenance decides how the service should be provided. It is universal. They highlight problems or roadblocks for completion of the project. but also helps growth in value added processes. Timely accomplishment is also universal phenomenon. f) Timeliness Large maintenance jobs are divided into smaller work orders. Hence the Universal Standards serve the special needs of maintenance work through the following principles: a) Scientific Principle Best productivity results when each worker has a definite job to do in a definite way within a definite time.6 Work Measurement for High-Productivity Maintenance 7. The standard crew size is one and any other size is exceptions to the general rule. if followed. Lord Kelvin saw this in his scientific investigation of the laws of physics.5 Universal Principles for Higher Productive Maintenance There are several principles that.7. This principle is also universal. lead to the lasting results. maintenance is no exception b) Measurement Before Control The measurement of an activity is basic to its control. which can be accurately planned. Frederick Taylor’s principle applies to all work. c) Activity Responsibility The responsibility for each activity of a work order is necessary to ensure that the work order continues to move toward resolution without delay. e) Crew Size The optimum crew size for a maintenance job is the smallest that can perform the work using a specific method and execute in a safe & efficient manner.
in each of skills of fourteen types of jobs: mechanical. paint. If the time to perform similar tasks is known. but everywhere where maintenance work is performed –manufacturing. custodial. carpenter. is it realistic to measure. some unique characteristics are revealed. There are at least four to five hundred different jobs. time taken for threading a one-inch nut on to a bolt by hand operation takes almost same time like that of screwing in a light bulb into the holder. availability of such standards. The range-of-time technique recognizes the variable nature of maintenance works. If it is a low volume work done by multi skilled crew. For example. The combination of many elements requiring different maintenance tasks and varieties of skills warrants developing and maintain a library of enormous number of standards. Hence breaking long jobs down into elements have resulted in a large number of elements. government. HVAC. masonry. or tasks. the result is that the crew does longer cycle work compared to other production workers. utilities. electrical. the motion pattern for two tasks may be same and also time to perform the work is almost the same. finance. to what volume of work etc. Even though parts are different. how much rust is present on them etc. pipe. labour. as these standards offered flexibility and could be applied not just in one location. b) Evolution of Universal Maintenance Standards (UMS) In the early 1950’s. This range of time is same in 95 % of situations and hence standard average time is applied and practiced 2) Work content comparison. automotive. to what precision. service. weld. Techniques: The UMS system is based on three important techniques: 1) Range-of-time. machining. engineers adopted new methods for analyzing and assigning standards to maintenance work. industry or service enterprise. instrument. or one country.The principles adopted for above said requirements are based on the application of work measurement in maintenance. education or healthcare. which in turn depends on: a) Nature of Maintenance works: In maintenance works. commercial. A simple task such as removing and replacing a part may take more or less time depending on how tight the bolts are. Each element requires further study followed by application of stopwatch time or a predetermined time system analysis to determine the exact time required for each through the method selected. Applying the specific standards to the daily maintenance workload requires answers for: which task standard is required. IT management etc. then the time . sheet metal. called ‘Universal Maintenance Standards’ (UMS).
carpentry. Two widely used predetermined time systems are ‘Methods-Time Measurement’ and ‘Operation Sequence Technique’. Similar craft data for other skilled craft operations such as painting. becomes the standardization process and hence these are universally adopted. position and release. Each of these motions are recorded and these data becomes the established times for future reference and standardization. pipefitting. machine settings and arc striking time etc. machining could be made available for the crew of maintenance 4) Bench Marks Using UMS. distance moved. 4) bench marks and 5) spread sheets. electrical. Five levels of data in the UMS library. common to all crafts. 3) Organizing the data UMS data is organized in a building block fashion. 2) basic operations. using the work content comparison technique is possible. welding operations are made up of manual handling. whether the how clamping of part is done etc are recorded in the table for further use as standards. where work measures are dividing into basic motions such as reach. grasp. which are pooled as weld craft operations data. engineers can typically apply standards to all maintenance work with bench marks covering all the crafts and through the use of spread sheets they can substantially reduce the data library compared to the one with direct standard method. 5) Spread Sheets. move. 3) craft operations. 2) Basic Operations Basic motions are grouped together to form basic operations.that can be applied to any other similar task with + or – 5%. The variables like weight of the part. For instance.6. Spread sheet fills the additional needs of finding quickly the . body motions. 7. a planner is able to establish planning times for a large number of jobs using relative sample data of the benchmark jobs and publicise the data along with the step-by-step process.2 Five Levels of Data in Ums 1) Basic Motions The foundation of UMS data is the predetermined time system for basic motions. This system analyzes and classifies data into basic motions and establishes a relationship between the motions and the time required to perform them. 3) Craft Operations Some operation times are unique to a certain craft. namely 1) basic motions. By using spread sheets.
and in mechanical fields like Belt drives. compressors. This new Benchmarking Tool through ACE. and lubrication and service. which are then imposed on the maintenance force. Spreadsheets include brief descriptions of the benchmark jobs and represent pure wrench time. 2) Objective of ACE Team Benchmarking Process Objective is to determine the reliable planning times for a number of selected “benchmark” jobs and to gain a consensus on the predetermined work content time. clutches and brakes. the technique which was formulated and developed by the ‘The Maintenance Excellence Institute’ [TMEI]. supervisors and planners . have developed a bench marking process for the major work areas/types of maintenance operations. job site time and allowances for personal. which is called as ‘Reliable Planning-Time standards’. Here the emphasis is placed on improving current repair methods. who have performed these jobs earlier and have requisite experience to improve upon them. 3) ACE System: a Team-Based Approach ACE Team process is to obtain the most reliable. continuous improvement and the changing of times in performance and methods. 1) ACE System & UMS Using predetermined standard data. a team of relatively small in number. bringing control systems. Spreadsheets are then provided for each work group having a time slots or range of times. These Benchmarked jobs are then arranged into different time categories on spreadsheets for various craft work areas. 7. say within 95% confidence range. The ACE System is used to develop maintenance performance standards. reasonable estimate of maintenance “work content” time from a group of experienced crafts people. which are reliable and a well-accepted planning times for the entire maintenance crew. reducers and gear boxes. the standards are established.7 ACE Team Benchmarking Process “A Consensus of Experts” (ACE). in generators. The allowances applied to these set times to get a single UMS time calculation for use by the crew. All work order times released for the jobs and it consists of four components: job preparation time. rest and minor unavoidable delays. in motors. outlines a new and highly recommended methodology for establishing ‘team-based maintenance performance standards’. material handling equipment. area travel time.appropriate one for an application or finding the right bench mark for comparison. Ex: Benchmarking and firming up the task can be easily done in areas like lighting. ACE Team Benchmarking Process parallels the UMS approach in that the range of time and the work content times for a representative number of benchmarked jobs are established.
which will provide the management with a valuable input data for backlog determination. b) Investment for Planners: The planner’s activity with the team approach of ACE system will establish maintenance performance standards. risks analysis on jobs that leads to improvements. 4) Recommendation of ACE System ACE Team overcomes many inherent difficulties associated with developing maintenance performance standards and hence recommended as the standard process for modern maintenance management. budgeting and costing. 5) ACE Team Benchmarking Process: ACE System is a true team-based process that utilizes skilled crafts people. as its application promotes a commitment to quality repair procedures. safety and quality b) Establish work content time for selected “benchmark jobs” for planners and others to use in developing reliable planning time.8 Overall Craft Effectiveness [OCE] & Its Measurement a) Craft Performance element of Overall Craft Effectiveness Determining the required standard hours of a technician require a trail run of the task under standard operating conditions. safety practices. and engineered standards such as Universal standards. c) How OCE impacts the bottom line: Craft Labor Improving Overall Craft Effectiveness is getting maximum value from craft labor resources and higher craft productivity. Computerized maintenance management system (CMMS) could also be practiced. historical data. Best practices such as effective maintenance planning/scheduling. technicians. planners and other knowledgeable people to do two things. effective storerooms and .and provides an excellent means to evaluate repair method. Labour standards will be the baseline for determining craft productivity and improved methods. 7. scheduling. 6) The ACE System Supports Reliability Improvement: ACE Team process can contribute significantly to reliability. manpower planning. preventive/predictive maintenance. Other methods used include reasonable estimates. a) Improve current repair methods. supervisors.
documentation etc. e) Productive Wrench Time: Pure wrench time is just the actual output/work done and do not include the miscellaneous waste time caused due to any or many of the following: 1. the personal motivation and effort of each craftsperson. Measuring and improving overall craft effectiveness (OCE) is one of the components of continuous improvements d) Effective Craft Utilization (CU): Craft Utilization or pure wrench time relates to measuring how effective the work is planned and craft resources scheduled so that these assets are doing value-added. productive work (wrench time). 7. 20 to 30 % can be expected from more effective maintenance planning & scheduling. Waiting for the equipment to be shut down for work start Waiting for contractor support to arrive at job site Waiting on other crafts to finish their job Travelling to/from job site Make-ready. Effective planning/ scheduling is the key to increase wrench time and craft utilization. shop clean up time Lack of effective planning and scheduling Craft Utilization (or wrench time) is measured as the ratio of: CU %=100x [Total Productive hours or wrench time]/ [Total craft hours allotted x amount paid] f) Improve Wrench Time original Significant tangible benefits can be realized by increasing the wrench time. Running from emergency to emergency in a reactive. 5. fire fighting mode Waiting on parts and searching parts or part information Waiting for asset info. 9. Craft performance is directly related to individual craft skills and overall trades experience. 6. 3. h) Craft Service Quality (CSQ) Another element affecting the overall Craft Effectiveness relates to the quality of the repair. drawings.e. 2. repair instructions. how efficient the hands-on craft work is done compared to an established planned time or performance standard. where certain jobs possibly require a call back to the initial repair thus requiring another trip to fix it right the second . This element includes quality of the actual work. 4. 8.continuous parts support will all contribute to proactive. g) Craft Performance Another key element of OCE is the craft performance i. planned maintenance and more productive “wrench time”.
b) Benchmarking the best practices. K) Maintenance is For ever Maintenance is a core requirement for profitable survival and total operations success. . Organizations should recognize maintenance as a core business requirement and should establish the necessary core competencies for survival. Organization should not indiscriminately cut craft labour resources when increase OCE is warranted. If the internal core competency for maintenance is not present it must be regained and ensure that they are profit-centred maintenance providers by understanding clearly the UMS. and a detail analysis of: a) Universal Maintenance Standards. implementation of certain state of art principles. patch jobs or inferior repair parts/materials. For improving maintenance productivity.time. c) Adopting ACE system for benchmarking and improvements d) ……………………………………………………………. In relation to OEE. j) Think Profit-Centred Maintenance leaders and crafts people must develop the “profit” mindset to be competitive and stay in business. Profit-centred in-house maintenance in combination with the wise use of high quality contract maintenance services will be the key to the final evolution that occurs. OCE is increased people asset availability and capacity. Measuring and improving Overall Craft Effectiveness and the value received from improving craft assets is an important part of total asset management. the overall Craft Effectiveness and provide value added maintenance services all the time with a profit oriented approach Self Assessment Questions 1. Craft Service Quality will suffer due to hasty repairs. When reliable data is present for all elements. then Overall Craft Effectiveness Factor can be determined by multiplying each of these three elements: Overall Craft Utilization = [Craft utilization (%) x Craft performance (%) x Craft service quality (%)] i) Where Can We Apply OCE Gained Value Maintenance operations that continually fight fires and react to emergency repairs never have enough time to cover all the work (core requirements) that needs to be done. new techniques of measurement. It is gained value that can be calculated and estimated and then measured.
Improved services to customers g. requisitions non-stock or out-of-stock items. based on a formal planning function and the.. The resultant productivity improvement that accrues because of integrating planner’s function with UMS will substantially benefit the organization in the following areas of operations/ functions: a. Cost reduction and its total savings b... .. …………………………………………… e. ACE Team Benchmarking Process parallels the UMS approach in that the ……………………. plans crew size. when once the ‘work content times’ for a representative number of ‘benchmark jobs’ are established. and e) spread sheets. close communication with supervisors. 8. The UMS system is based on three important techniques: a) Range of time b) …………………………… c) organizing the data 7. Life cycle cost reductions d. ………………. Contributes in meeting other goals and objectives in the strategic plan. 9. 4. .. Five levels of data in UMS are: a) basic motions b) Basic operations c) Craft operations d) ………………. 3. The planner’s role is varied in nature such as: maintain a backlog of ready-to-work jobs for each technician.. identifies special tools. have developed a bench marking process for the major work areas/types of operation. 5. ……………. verifies priority.e) Improving the Wrench time of the Crew in Maintenance 2. checks jobs when needed. a team of relatively small number of representatives. Continuous improvement opportunities and gain in competitive advantage f. The Universal Standards serve the special needs of maintenance work through the following principles: a) ………………… b) Measurement before controls c) activity responsibility d) customer/service relationship e) Crew size f) Timeliness 6. Downtime reduction and its savings c.. and time to do the work. ………………………………. ………………………………. who have performed these jobs and have the requisite experience to improve upon them. Hence the measurement provides information to determine the savings potential and also justify the maintenance work measurement program. materials.
.. preventive/ predictive maintenance. 16. ACE System is a true team-based process that utilizes skilled crafts people...... Craft Utilization (or wrench time) is measured as the ratio of: [ .. organizations have tried and tested different approaches for bringing changes that can result in improvements in both the function and the cost.. 11... ....... safety practices.. Pure wrench time is just the ………………………. Best practices such as effective maintenance planning/scheduling. within the 95% confidence range.... .]/ [Total craft hours allotted x amount paid] 19.... ACE Team process is to obtain the most reliable... b) Establish work content time for selected “benchmark jobs” 13......... Spreadsheets are then set up with each work group having a time slots or ……………………. supervisors and planners and provides an excellent means to evaluate repair method.. technicians.. a) …………………………………………………………………….. supervisors.. 12. planners and other knowledgeable people to do two things... risks analysis on jobs that leads to improvements..... Improving ……………………….. reasonable estimate of maintenance …………………. is getting maximum value from craft labor resources and higher craft productivity....... ACE Team process can contribute significantly to ……………… as its application promotes a commitment to quality repair procedures. 18..9 Summary By using a state-of-the-art maintenance management. Spreadsheets include brief descriptions of the benchmark jobs and represent ………………. time from a group of experienced crafts people. planned maintenance and more productive ………………. Overall Craft Utilization = [Craft utilization (%) x .. 17.. The new system will become a platform for continuous improvement and will generate long term benefits ............ Craft Utilization or pure wrench time relates to measuring how effective we are in planning and scheduling craft resources so that these assets are doing …………………. 14.......10.. and do not include the miscellaneous waste time caused due to any of the reasons. (%) x Craft service quality (%)] 7. effective storerooms and continuous parts support will all contribute to proactive.... 15..
Higher productivity maintenance means better customer service. measurements by using UMS and . Pure wrench time is just the actual output/work done Measuring and improving Overall Craft Effectiveness and the value received from improving our craft assets an important part of total asset management. who have performed these jobs earlier and have the requisite experience to improve upon them. or one country. is a team of relatively small number of representatives. Improving Overall Craft Effectiveness is getting maximum value from craft labor resources and higher craft productivity. higher quality. These Benchmarked jobs are then arranged into different time categories on spreadsheets for various craft work areas. satisfied customers. which are reliable and a well-accepted planning times for the entire maintenance crew. life cycle cost reductions d) on time completion of jobs e) continuous improvements f) improved service to customers. principles and theory of new measurement techniques that are used are: a)Universal Maintenance Standards. productive work (wrench time). but everywhere where maintenance work is performed and is based on three important techniques: a) Range of time b) work content comparison c) organizing the data “A Consensus of Experts” (ACE). the concepts. on-time delivery and ultimately. organizations should clear understand of the Overall Craft Effectiveness. Overall Craft Utilization = [Craft utilization (%) x Craft performance (%) x Craft service quality (%)] Maintenance is a core requirement for profitable survival and total operations success. b) Benchmarking the best practices c) ACE system for benchmarking and improvements d) Overall craft effectiveness for improved productivity and cost reduction and its measurement e) Improving the Wrench time of the Crew f) Achieving excellence in Maintenance Engineering and Management The resultant productivity improvement and benefits that accrues because of integrating planner’s function with UMS are: a) cost reductions b) downtime reduction. industry or service enterprise. Craft Utilization or pure wrench time relates to measuring how effective the craft resources so are doing value-added. develops a bench marking process for the major work areas / types of operation. The ACE System is used to develop maintenance performance standards. For achieving high productive maintenance. The Universal Standards serve the special needs of maintenance work through the following principles: a) Scientific control b) Measurement before controls c) activity responsibility d) customer/service relationship e) Crew size f) Timeliness The Universal Maintenance Standards offered flexibility and could be applied not just in one location. For gaining the internal core competency in maintenance.
providing value added maintenance services on a most profitable manner are essential processes. 7.10 Terminal Questions 1. Why application and analysis of work measurements are important in maintenance management? 2. Which are all the concepts, techniques and principles used in measurement of work effectiveness and efficiency in maintenance? 3. Why planner’s role is vital to maintenance and how it improves the effectiveness? 4. Explain briefly the categories to which the tasks of work measurements can be grouped? 5. Explain the benefits that accrue to organization by integrating planner’s works with UMS? 6. Universal Standards serve the special needs of maintenance work through principlesWhich are these universal principles used for higher productive maintenance? 7. What are the three important techniques on which the UMS depends? 8. Explain briefly the five levels of UMS library and how each one is very important criteria for work measurement and analysis? 9. Explain the importance of using spread sheets and bench marks in work measurement to improve maintenance effectiveness? 10. “New Benchmarking Tool through ACE technique outlines a new and highly recommended methodology for establishing ‘team-based maintenance performance standards’, which is called as ‘Reliable Planning-Time standards” –explain how ACE will serve the organization’s needs in maintenance? 11. What is meant by Ace Benchmarking system and to what type of process it is recommended? 12. Explain overall performance effectiveness and how it helps in analyzing the performance of wrench times? 13. What is meant by effective craft utilization and productive wrench time & what are the factors constituting the craft utilization? 7.11 Answers
Self Assessment Questions 1. Improving the Overall craft effectiveness 2. Plans work content 3. On-time completion benefits 4. Universal Maintenance Standards 5. Scientific control 6. Work content comparison 7. Bench marks 8. A Consensus of Experts 9. Range of time concept 10. Range of time and pure wrench time 11. Work content 12. Improve current repair methods, Safety and quality 13. Reliability 14. Overall Craft Effectiveness 15. Wrench time 16. Value-added-productive work. (Wrench time) 17. Actual output/work 18. Total Productive hours or wrench time 19. Craft performance Terminal Questions: 1. Refer 7.1 2. Refer 7.1
3. Refer 7.2 4. Refer 7.3 5. Refer 7.4 6. Refer 7.5 7. Refer 7.6.1.(c) 8. Refer 7.6.2 9. Refer 7.6.2 10. Refer C 11. Refer 7.7.5 12. Refer 7.8 13. Refer 7.8. (d), (e), (f) Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .
Overall strategy for creating QMS documentation.4 QMS Documentation Process 8. .7 Answers 8.3 Documentation Management and Control Role of the Document Controller Types of QMS Documents Document Numbering Document Versioning Document Content 8.OM0006-Unit-08-System Operations and Documentation Unit-08-System Operations and Documentation Structure: 8. Planning for QMS documentation should address the following three elements: 1.1 Introduction Before an organization begins creating QMS documentation.2 Documentation Strategy 8.6 Terminal Questions 8. Planning for QMS documentation refers to planning for “infrastructure level” QMS documentation.1 Introduction Objective 8.5 Summary 8. it must plan for it. Planning for such documentation is performed during the planning phase for a specific project.
Document creation can proceed unhindered once the necessary guidelines are in place to support the creation. made available to users. Process for creating QMS documents. not outside parties. Documentation management and control mechanisms. kept current. will provide you with a documentation set that is usable. changed in a controlled manner. Brainstorming the documentation strategy entails obtaining answers to the following questions: · What approach should be adopted for documenting the QMS (top down or bottom-up)? · Up to what level of detail should processes be documented (breadth and depth of documentation)? · How can the QMS documentation be kept relatively stable and immune from minor changes in the organization or its processes? Documentation management and control Documentation management and control are a key element of an organization’s QMS. approval. rational approach to documenting your QMS will enable you to rapidly develop a QMS that works and has sufficient but not excessive detail. and dissemination of QMS documentation. This entails answering questions such as: · What types of QMS documents are required? · How should the QMS documents be logically structured? · How should the QMS documents be uniquely identified? · Who should review and approve documents? · How should changes to QMS documents be identified and controlled? · How should superseded (or obsolete) documents be handled? . perhaps most importantly.2. After all. A wellthought-out. providing mechanisms to ensure that documentation in the organization is uniquely identifiable reviewed and approved by the appropriate authority prior to release. Agreeing upon such issues up front will facilitate the creation of the QMS documentation. Documentation strategy This is perhaps the most critical element of QMS documentation planning. and 3. not one written primarily to appease external quality auditors. review. and archived when obsolete (to prevent unintentional use). and. the primary users of an organization’s QMS documentation are its employees.
For example.. Similarly.e. virtual) repository? · How employees should be provided access to controlled QMS documentation. a product design guidelines document. hardcopy) repository or an electronic (i. the process that results in a formalized set of product requirements may be identified as the product requirements definition sub process that is documented in a product requirements definition procedure. the process that results in a formal documented design for the product may be identified as the product design sub process that is documented in a product design procedure. approval. that is. review.· How should documents of external origin be controlled? · Should the QMS documentation be stored in a physical (i. and final release of QMS documents.. The procedures describing the sub processes and their interaction should be supported by additional QMS documentation. Objectives: After going through this unit you will be able to: · Describe what is documentation strategy · Outline a documentation strategy for a unit or an enterprise · Construct a process map for documentation · Compose a QMS for a documentation process 8. the overall process that results in a delivered product the product development process may be documented in a product development procedure and/or in a product development process map. Within the product development process.2 Documentation Strategy The top-down approach to implementing and documenting the QMS is highly recommended (as opposed to the bottom-up approach). as appropriate. the product design sub process should be supported by QMS documentation such as a design document template. Another important issue that needs to be addressed regards level of detail. how should the QMS documentation repository be published? · How should the published QMS documentation be organized to maximize ease of use for employees? Documentation process The third element of QMS documentation planning entails the establishment of a process for the creation. rework.e. What is the right level of detail to include in the documentation so that it enables correct and . For example. and other needed documentation.
instead of referring to departments by name. as opposed to referring to individuals by name. for minor operational or organizational changes. 3. inadequate employee training. Sometimes. Therefore. if your organization has a product test department that is called “system test department. If an activity is described in a procedure X. refer to them by the “function performed.” you need not revise your QMS documents if the functional responsibilities for testing the product still reside with this group. Include all information that is specifically required to be documented as per the applicable quality management system standard. Often departments in organizations are renamed or merged into other departments. state in procedure Y that detailed description regarding that activity can be found in procedure X. Creating more QMS documentation is not necessarily the right solution.” For example. or conducting employee training to emphasize key aspects of a process. complexity of the process being documented.” then refer to this department as the test department. organizations should be careful in how they respond when process execution deviates from requirements. To minimize the impact of such reorganizations. or other factors. Below are some guidelines to follow to ensure QMS documentation has the right amount of detail: 1. is the preferred solution. but might result from unclear or ambiguous QMS documentation. For example. review of existing QMS documentation to identify and correct deficiencies. and minimizes impact (on QMS documentation) of minor changes in the business processes and organizational structure? Any breakdown or inconsistency in process execution does not necessarily result from insufficient QMS documentation. and another procedure Y needs to refer to the same activity. and competency level of employees executing the processes. Such an organizational change can have a huge impact on the QMS documents. QMS documents should be written so that they need minimum change. If this department subsequently is renamed the “independent verification and validation department. and control of processes. it is far more convenient to revise one QMS document than to revise multiple documents. if any. state that the requirements document is produced by the requirements engineer. 2. In the event of any change in the execution in that activity. instead of saying that Mark Peterson produces the product requirements document. Some useful tips to accomplish this are: • • • Always refer to roles (or functional areas) that are involved in the execution of a process. . Other factors that have a bearing on extent of QMS documentation include size of the organization. Include only as much information as is necessary to ensure effective planning. type of activities. operation.consistent process execution. Do not document details of an activity in more than one QMS document.
title. A document controller’s responsibilities generally include. QMS documentation that pertains to a specific location (or a specific function) may be controlled locally. the document controller function may be centralized or distributed. and scope than are high-level documents. 5. refer only to its highlevel QMS documents. Document controllers are people who coordinate. such as procedures. QMS documentation includes ______ of the organization. type of activities. Generally.• When referring to another department’s QMS documents. For example. A controlled document is one that is formally approved and is under formal version control. and enforce an organization’s documentation management and control function. 2. Depending on the size of an organization and/or its number of locations.. Avoid references to another department’s work instructions or similar implementation-level documents. it is best to control documents that affect an entire company (e. company quality manual and operating procedures) in a centralized location.g. Self Assessment Questions 1. it is necessary to introduce the concepts of controlled documents and document controller. 4. However. department Y’s procedure refers to department X’s work instructions.3 Documentation Management and Control 8. The ________________ to implementing and documenting the QMS is highly recommended.1 Role of the Document Controller Before discussing different elements of document management and control. _____________ should be written so that they need minimum change. but are not limited to: 1.3. 3. in case of companies with more than one location (or very large companies in a single location). Implementation-level QMS documents typically are more prone to changes in content. Documentation __________ and control are a key element of an organization’s QMS. monitor. Verifying that documents submitted for storage and publishing are: . Certainly it is quite inconvenient for department Y to revise its procedure when department X revises its work instructions such that the reference from department Y’s procedure becomes inaccurate. 8. Documentation process of __________ planning entails the establishment of a process for the creation.
the document controller should verify that the document version accurately reflects the magnitude of change in the latest version. Controlling documents of external origin.3. This includes clearly identifying documents of external origin and storing them in a secure location. In case of changes to previously approved documents. 10. for revised documents. Notifying affected personnel in the event of a change to a previously approved document (or release of a new document) 9. Notifying appropriate personnel. Duly approved c. Verifying that the documents are correctly numbered. 6. This includes withdrawing copies of obsolete controlled documents. this task generally is performed by the document controller. Ensuring that all controlled documents are stored in a secure location. Authorizing internal documents for external release after verifying that approvals for the release have been obtained from relevant management personnel. such as the document author and management personnel from the affected area. an approved document change request should be available) 7. This is necessary because the document author may make document changes in addition to those that were authorized. Correctly storing and publishing (or distributing) controlled documents. Maintaining a master list of controlled documents. when errors or discrepancies are observed. 12.2 Types of QMS Documents Quality Manual . a document number may be generated automatically. When document numbers are issued manually for new documents. Alternatively. Verifying that the documents are correctly versioned. 8. 11. 3. Verifying that all changes made to previously approved documents are clearly identified. 5. Verifying that changes made to previously approved documents were properly authorized (that is. 8. In the correct format (that is. Accompanied by review records (when required) 2. they adhere to standardized templates when applicable) b.a. 4.
followed by separate sections briefly describing each key process in the QMS. 2) Process-based quality manual This structure is being used increasingly in organizations that have successfully transitioned to taking a process-oriented view of their QMS. This can be demonstrated by senior management approval on the quality manual. customers (and potential customers). it is preferable to exclude details regarding the organization’s processes from the quality manual. prefer to structure their manual to mimic the structure of the applicable quality management system standard. answer why the organization is implementing a QMS) and describe how the organization ensures quality in its daily operations. In case of medium and large product development companies. along with a reference to related QMS documentation. Senior management should realize that it is responsible for the manual’s content. as needed. and consequently it gains wider acceptance for daily operations. A significant advantage of this structure is that it is not alien to employees. Such a quality manual includes separate sections (or subsections) for each of the requirements sections (or subsections) in the quality management system standard. When appropriate. and not in the context of a quality management system standard. This approach entails describing the high-level product development process map of the organization. the quality manual references relevant. The QMS is explained in the context of the organizational business processes. in the case of smaller companies. which must be referenced. it may be appropriate to include the procedures in the quality manual itself. An organization’s quality manual is an invaluable document for its employees. Typically. Therefore. such as ISO 9001:2000. employees typically relate more closely to organizational processes than to the requirements in a quality management system standard. However.A quality manual is the highest-level QMS document and is intended primarily to provide an overview of an organization’s QMS. from the quality manual. organizations structure their Quality Manual in one of two ways: 1) Standard-based quality manual Most organizations that are implementing a QMS in accordance with the requirements in a particular quality management system standard. Such quality manuals follow a top-down approach to describing the organization’s QMS. QMS documentation in explaining adherence to each quality management system standard requirement. Each section (or subsection) in the quality manual describes how requirements in the corresponding section (or subsection) in the quality management system standard are adhered to in the organization. This includes describing the purpose and scope of each process. It therefore should reflect the organization’s commitment to quality (in other words. employees invariably prefer such a quality manual. and other parties (such as third-party auditors). The quality manual must reflect the QMS accurately and be kept current at all times. . Such details should be embedded in the appropriate QMS documents.
This helps ensure that the procedure accurately reflects the process and the interaction between various departments.Procedure A procedure is a documented high-level description of a process. Procedures constitute the first level of documentation below the quality manual. Procedures are usually interdepartmental. Procedures are useful for communicating process information at all levels of management between departments. The decision to document a process in a procedure is made by the respective process owner in consultation with the quality assurance department. The practitioners have firsthand experience performing the tasks and therefore typically are the most knowledgeable. They serve as critical reference documents for anyone interested in knowing what a process entails. They provide a step-by-step description of tasks to be executed in order to accomplish each activity in the process. Due to the intradepartmental nature of work instructions. Because a procedure is intended to contain relatively high-level information regarding a process. Who performs the activities (roles and responsibilities). competent. it is a good candidate for splitting into separate procedures. Work instructions typically are intradepartmental and are intended primarily for use by process practitioners. they should be documented and jointly reviewed by practitioners involved in executing the tasks documented. Work instruction A work instruction is a documented low-level description of a process. called work instructions. and experienced personnel for providing information on the execution of specific tasks. a procedure should not be longer than three pages. and Where the activities are performed. practitioners typically need additional process documents. and they constitute the first level of documentation below procedures. If a longer procedure is needed. They describe: What activities comprise a process. As a general rule of thumb. Due to the interdepartmental nature of procedures. they should undergo cross-functional review by all departments involved in the process (or areas affected by the process) being documented. They also serve as a valuable starting point for training process practitioners. Work instructions describe how activities in a process are executed. Procedures are not intended to provide the how to implementation details regarding a process. When each activity in a process is performed. to execute their tasks. because organizational processes typically span multiple departments. When process practitioners do not have the requisite training or are otherwise unskilled for creating effective process .
. processes that are relatively straightforward and without inherent complexity (or sophistication) can be described adequately in a well-documented procedure such that competent personnel can faithfully execute them without compromising quality of process output. the core description of tasks in a work instruction should be limited to about four or five pages in length. to minimize variation.g. work instructions can help ensure consistency and minimize errors. the sequence of tasks to be performed during engine assembly for a passenger vehicle)? Need for consistency Are there expectations regarding a high degree of discipline and consistency in executing a set of tasks (e. in order to secure buy-in of the practitioners and to ensure that the documentation accurately reflects practice.documentation. As a general rule of thumb. Not every procedure needs to be supported by underlying work instructions. the work instructions should be documented with direct input and active involvement of the process practitioners. and to ensure consistency in process execution. In many cases. . is there need to elaborate and provide further explanation on a process documented in a procedure by creating a work instruction (e. Work instructions should be created on an as-needed basis when a need exists to provide detailed step-by-step guidance for process execution. such as the PMC representative for the department.. The need to document a procedure or work instruction may be determined by using criteria such as: Complexity Is the process or the activities in it sufficiently complex that that it needs to be supported by a documented procedure or work instruction? Or.g. the sequence of inspections to be performed before final approval for release of electronic wire assemblies)? Competence of personnel Is the competency level of the personnel executing the process such that it needs to be augmented with appropriate documentation to ensure the process is correctly executed? (For example.) Size of organization Is the process executed by several personnel and/or in multiple locations? The greater the number of personnel involved in a process or the greater the number of locations at which a process is executed. The decision to create a work instruction is made by the line manager or process owner who is responsible for the tasks. this task may be performed by another appropriate person. when new personnel or personnel with varying levels of competence are executing a process. In such a case. the greater the likelihood of inconsistency in process execution.
The numbering convention should be published in a QMS document. Once released. for documenting procedures. They help in ensuring consistency of format and content within a particular type of document. Any change or set of changes made to a document since its last release necessitates that the new revision level of the document be formally identified. but also what revision level of that document to use. while the decision to create a template or form for departmental use may be made by the respective line manager. Therefore. due to their very nature. and should be enforced by the personnel in charge of (or tool used for) issuing the document numbers. An example of a document numbering convention is shown in Table 1. a document typically will undergo revisions until it is withdrawn from use (or considered obsolete. This is because the information contained in the new revision of the document is to some extent different from that contained in the previous revision.4 Document Versioning Documents. it is strongly recommended that a procedure template first be established. evolve. For example. such as procedures or work instructions.Past problems Have there been instances in the past where inconsistencies in employees have been observed in process execution? In such cases. 8.3 Document Numbering In order to uniquely identify and control each QMS document. A form is used to record information.3. The decision to create a template or form for use across departments should be made by the respective process owner in consultation with the quality assurance department (for reasons described earlier). Templates and forms A template is a skeleton for a document intended to be populated with specific information from use. Table 1 . It is recommended that forms and templates have brief instructions embedded in them to guide the user regarding the expected content in each section of the document. but retained for archival purposes). The organization should devise a document numbering convention that meets its needs. The procedure author would start with the procedure template and populate it with information for the process being documented. either for review or for use (after approval).3. 8. documenting an agreed way of executing a process can help. Templates serve as guides for communicating the expected structure and content of a document. directly in the fields provided. one must not only know what document to use. a unique document number and version should be assigned to each document.
Example of a Document Numbering Convention Document number format: AAA-BB-CCCC-DDDD where, AAA: Three-character identifier for department that is the document originator For example, “ENG” may denote engineering, “MKT” may denote marketing, “EXT” may denote the document is of external origin, and so on. BB: Two character identifier for document type. For example, “PR” may denote procedure, “TP” may denote template, “CH” may denote checklist, and so on. CCCC: Four-character alphanumeric identifier for project, product, or task. DDDD: Four-digit sequential number between 0001 and 9999. This sequential number uniquely identifies a specific document (irrespective of its version). 8.3.5 Document Content Following are some guidelines regarding document content (for examples, refer to sample QMS documents in the Appendices): 1. All QMS documents and records should have the same “look and feel.” Consistency in templates and forms can be ensured by following some general guidelines, such as:
The same header and footer on all templates and forms, with information such as:
a) Document title b) Document number c) Document version d) A statement to indicate the company proprietary nature of the document
Each QMS document, when appropriate, should use the same title page, containing the following:
– Standard information, (e.g., organization’s name and logo). The title page also can include a unique logo to indicate that it is a QMS document. This enables quick identification of QMS documents. – Customizable information, (e.g., document title) 2. Each QMS document or record should contain content as per the guidance contained in the associated form or template. Each QMS document must identify its purpose and
scope clearly. Correctness of the document content should be reviewed and enforced during document review meetings. 3. Deletions from the template and forms should not be allowed. If a particular section is not required, it should be marked “not applicable.” 4. Insertion of additional sections in a document created by using a standard form or template should be allowed when necessary; however, certain rules should be established to handle addition of new sections. Self Assessment Questions State whether following statement True or False. 6. All QMS documents and records should have the same “look and feel”. 7. A work instruction is a non-documented low-level description of a process. 8. A procedure is a documented high-level description of a process. 9. A quality manual is the highest-level QMS document. 10. A template is not a skeleton for a document intended to be populated with specific information from use. 8.4 QMS Documentation Process Now that all the necessary elements of a documentation management system have been described, you are ready to begin creating QMS documents. What documentation process should be followed to create, review, and approve QMS documents? This section describes a high-level documentation process that ties together some of the key elements of document management and control. Step 1: Identify suitable document author The first step is to identify a document author who possesses appropriate subject matter expertise. Typically, a management person from the function tasked to create the document selects a suitable document author. Step 2: Create draft version of the document The document author creates a draft version of the document by using the applicable template (if one is available). Step 3: Review the draft document
Once a draft version of the document has been prepared, it is circulated for review to appropriate reviewers (or functions) that are considered stakeholders in a document. The review may be in the form of an informal and/or formal review. Step 4: Rework the document as per reviewer feedback After receiving the feedback from the reviewers, the author reworks the document in accordance with comments provided by the document reviewers. Step 5: Approve and publish the document Once the document rework is complete, and it has been determined that a rearview is not required, the document is circulated for approval to the identified approvers. Once all the required approvals have been obtained, the author submits the master copy of the document along with the review record to the document controller. The document controller stores the document in the controlled repository and makes copies available for use. 8.5 Summary Documentation strategy is perhaps the most critical element of QMS documentation planning. Documentation management and control are a key element of an organization’s QMS, providing mechanisms to ensure that documentation in the organization is uniquely identifiable reviewed and approved by the appropriate authority prior to release. A template is a skeleton for a document intended to be populated with specific information from use. 8.6 Terminal Questions 1. Explain briefly different steps in documentation. 2. Define some guidelines in Documentation Strategy. 3. Explain types of QMS documents. 4. Summarize Document Content. 5. Explain QMS Documentation Process. 8.7 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1. Management 2. QMS documentation
True 10. Refer 8.3. Page 4 3. . 10 5.3 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . True 7. True 9. Refer Pages 9. Size 6.1.2 4.Refer 8.0 2. Top-Down approach 5.2. False Terminal Questions 1. Refer 8. QMS documents 4. Refer 8. False 8.
OM0006-Unit-09-Machine Life and Depreciation
Unit-09-Machine Life and Depreciation Structure: 9.1 Introduction Objectives 9.2 Functional Reliability of Facilities 9.3 Weibull Distribution Curve [Failures and its Analysis] 9.4 Life of Equipment a) Bathtub Curve and MTBF b) Breakdown Time Distribution c) Reliability and Variability of the Equipments 9.5 Critical Analysis 9.6 Maintenance Performance Ratios 9.7 Maintenance Systems 9.8 Reliability and Availability Concepts 9.9 How good is Reliability Performance? a) Root Cause Failure Analysis b) Reliability Centred Maintenance c) Failure Modes Effects Analysis & Total Productivity Maintenance 9.10 Maintenance Economics 9.11 Preventive Vs Breakdown Maintenance
9.12 Measurement of Maintenance Performance 9.13 Asset Life Cycle Management 9.14 Equipment Replacement Plans 9.15 Depreciation & Capital Expenditure based on Life Cycle 9.16 Summary 9.17 Terminal Questions 9.18 Answers to SAQ & Terminal Questions 9.1 Introduction The main function of the maintenance department is to monitor and control the condition of machineries and equipments and improve their functional reliability. The reliability theories on equipment performances have shown that there is a definite pattern of performance in their lifespan. This pattern manifests itself when different machineries are subjected to rigorous operations during the life span. The typical characteristics of the lifespan show a particular behaviour pattern of a bathtub and hence it is called as ‘bathtub curve’, which is discussed later. Objectives: After going through this unit you will be able to: · Describe what are failures in maintenance · Analyze failures through Weibull distribution curve · Discuss Reliability Performance · Construct a measure for performance 9.2 Functional Reliability of Facilities One of the most important objectives of Maintenance management is to improve functional reliability of the production facilities. The functional reliability refers to the consistency of the degree of performance of the machine, equipment or service operation. When it is said that a machine is having 97% reliability means that 97% of the machine time is utilized in performing the standard production for which it is meant for, and the remaining 3% of non performing may be
due to breakdowns or sub-standard performance. Therefore it is the duty of the plant maintenance crew to strive to maintain and increase the functional reliability of the production facilities. The objective of FMEA ( ) and reliability analysis of the plant and equipment is to ensure to excellence in performance of critical assets and achieve the business goals. The application of standard procedures and structured approach to analyse and practice effective method/s required to maintain all the operating plant assets. This process enables the maintenance managers to plan, review and optimise the maintenance operations that have direct impact on plant availability, thereby improving the overall plant performance and minimizing catastrophic failures. The functional reliability of facilities to be maintained or improved upon by the maintenance management requires the use of certain concepts, reliability methodologies, analysis, tools and techniques and measures. Some of these are listed: a) Determinate the appropriate level of maintenance services required. b) Identify specific actions based on equipment failures analysis & risk assessment. c) Prevention and reduction of potential failures by properly identifying defects and implementing corrective actions prior to failure d) To deploy sufficient staff to provide adequate repair and maintenance facilities. e) To provide for the stand-by equipment for key operations and also reasonable slacks in the production system to create some parallel path in a critical situation f) To adopt preventive Maintenance system to replace critical parts, before they fail. g) Each of the above involves costs. The cost involved should be justified on the basis of cost-benefit analysis. The cost of attaining reliability must be lower than the cost advantage available out of the production stoppages, idle machine and labour time, scrap, poor quality, loss of goodwill to keep delivery promises etc. h) Maintenance extends the useful life of assets by reducing wear and tear. i) Maintenance keeps up operational readiness of equipments for emergencies. j) Maintenance contributes a great deal to safety of manpower using the facilities. k) It prevents wastage of spares, tools and materials.
the failure rate dips as the components adjust to the system until it reaches a relatively low constant level. As per the graph. The graph of the failure pattern. which is called the infant mortality. This type of breakdowns may be due physical characteristics of the . fatigue due to flaws in the molecular structure of the metals. Once this phase is over. 9.3 Weibull Distribution Curve [Failure & Its Analysis] For better maintenance planning and control. the weak components from the infant mortality period have either been repaired or replaced. b) Useful Performance phase: Next phase is the useful period of performance with a better reliability.l) More automation calls for sophisticated Maintenance. poor installation. This behaviour pattern reflects ‘hyper-exponential distribution’. a) Infant Mortality phase: Newly installed equipment shows high rate incidence of early failures during initial phase of its life. or sheer quality deficiency in their manufacture. because of its shape. The failure is random and unpredictable. This is the useful period of the machine. and or not adjusted the operating conditions adequately. is shown below. The high rate of failure at infant mortality stage is primarily due to the presence of weak or substandard components or design inadequacies. c) Ageing Phase: Here the rate of failure increases until the equipment succumbs and is characterized by the rapid wear and tear of more and more components until major breakdown happens. During this period. is primarily due to abrupt changes in stress distribution in the components. it is important to know the nature and occurrence of failures over a period of time for the equipment in use. It is also commonly called as ‘Bath Tub Curve’. there are three phases in the equipment performance namely a) Infant mortality phase b) Useful performance phase c) Ageing phase. Most equipment that survives infancy stage will continue to perform better with very few failures. called the ‘Weibull distribution graph’ (after Weibull developed it).
e. In other words. · A simple machine having few moving parts may have breakdowns happenings after a large number of maintenance free run time hours. · From these. the breakdown time distribution of a complex machine will reflect a greater variability than that of a simple machine even if they have the same average maintenance free run time. Distribution shows the frequency of maintenance free running time with respect to total operating hours. anticipated life etc. and may be earlier or later. by which the system reliability. . These causes being external to the equipment and the probability of failing is relatively constant. the failure of any one part may result in the complete machine breakdown.4 Life of Equipment a) Bathtub Curve and MTBF · Weibull distribution or Bath Tub Curve. or how the machine is used. Depending upon the complexity of the machine and severe aging processes because of extreme wear and tear results in an ultimate failure. · Figure below represents the degree of variability in free run time. but in a complex machine. shown above. Mean Time between Failure (MTBF) can be computed. A= [Tn] / [Tn+Td] b) Breakdown time distribution: · It is essential to know how the breakdown time is distributed in order to establish the cost implications in maintenance. the failure fall into a negative exponential distribution. 9. can be assessed. This ageing failure graph shows a bell-shaped normal distribution pattern. · The availability (A) = [Cumulative time of operation in the normal working condition(Tn)] / the cumulative down time (Td)] i. its statistics will help as a diagnostic tool in identifying the exponential nature of the availability and the reliability of equipment.materials used. · When the failures are recurrent. is a combination of three distributions: Hyper exponential. This ultimate may occur at ‘mean’ or ‘average’ time. This means that each part in a particular machine will have different failure distribution. Negative exponential and Normal exponential. availability.
6. the frequency distribution. then the total product reliability is multiple of all these systems i.4. we mean the probability that any system gives a trouble free service. Hence the reliability of the total system depends on the product reliability factors of each of the sub systems.9.While curve A depicts the behaviour of a simple machine. converting the information into the breakdown time distributions versus the percentage of breakdowns that exceeds a given run time. but the distribution shows wider variability.8. before establishing reliability. · When the above reliability factors are plotted in a diagram showing the percentage of breakdowns that exceed a given runtime on the ‘y’ – axis. 0. the resultant graph is shown below. and ‘runtimes free of breakdowns’ on the ‘x’ – axis. Here the data can be recast in the diagram. 0. . curve B exhibits moderate variability while Curve C indicates greater degree of variability from average breakdown time Ta. Curve C has the same average maintenance free runtime as the other two. 0.e.7.and 0. c) Reliability and Variability of the Equipments · Equipment can be considered as a total system and the failure of any one of the sub system can cause failure of the entire system. For example: if the total system has four sub systems having the reliability factors of 0. It can be observed that the Curve A shows lower degree of variability. Curve B of the complex machine. · By reliability. The variability by Curve C is typical of complicated equipment that needs fine adjustments before it starts giving trouble free service.
but the two types of planned maintenance could be carried out. Preventive Maintenance When a sudden breakdown occurs in a machine. electrical or other fault quickly and to correct them. In this type of repair maintenance. the nature of the fault and availability of repair staff etc. the function presupposes the previous breakdowns and actions of disassembling the equipment. Fundamental differences between the strategies discussed earlier and the proactive maintenance discussed now are: 1.5 Critical Analysis Critical analysis of maintenance problems is essential to know as to how serious is the problem for taking quick actions. Focus is not only concentrated on availability but also the reliability . it is a corrective maintenance to restore the machine/parts to acceptable condition again. to reassemble the equipment and then check and restore to its functional capacity. 9. namely: 1. or even a few days as the work involved depends on the size and complexity of the equipment.6 Maintenance Performance Ratios Some of the ratios used in measuring the effectiveness of Maintenance functions are: a) Waste Index = [Waste Quantity] / [Output Quantity] b) Productivity of Maintenance = [Product output] / [Maintenance Cost] c) Maintenance Cost index = 100 x [Maintenance cost] / [Capital Cost] d) Breakdown maintenance index = [Break down hours] / [Man hours available] e) Downtime index = 100 x [Downtime hours] / [Production hours] 9. to locate the faulty/broken part.9. It is the job of the maintenance crew to identify and quickly eliminate or simplify or improve upon these defects. Repair Maintenance 2. As in other types of probabilities. In other words. the repair maintenance crew endeavours to locate mechanical.7 Maintenance Systems The ad hoc unplanned emergency maintenance is not recommended. may contribute to 80 to 85% of the total breakdown time. This activity may take a few minutes. here too is that the small percentage of around 15-20% defects in equipment. to replace it.
For example.9 How Good Is ‘Reliability Performance’? In industrial processes. but the liquid packaging machine may be best at +75% reliability. 3. Using the above definition.8 Reliability and Availability Concepts Reliability and availability have become key issues. Q = Quality performance. but when failures occur. fix the problem as fast as possible.2. and manufacture the quality product at the speed required. the formula used to measure manufacturing reliability (MR) is: MR = [% T] x [% Q] x [% S] [Where. more complex the equipment/ the raw material/ high tech processing. the overall reliability performance of the total process is less and is dictated by the complex machine with lesser reliability. Manufacturing reliability can be defined as a manufacturing system’s capability to operate to its expected operations. and others. 9. · Mean Time between Failure (MTBF) · Measure of mean time between production Loss (MTBPL) (Production losses include loss due to time. T = Time performance. S = Speed performance] Manufacturing reliability model consists of a) process reliability b) equipment reliability and c) reliability maintainability. Say in a paper processing. quality and speed) · Mean production loss (MPL) Thus the reliability index is expressed in terms of the running continuously without production losses. 9. This index is the volume of quality products you measure in the production line divided by the theoretical volume of quality product you could achieve from the same line. There are many ways to measure reliability. where as a less complex automatic lathe may be rated best at + 98%. a tissue processing machine may give a good reliability of +98%. a CNC machine can be very good at 90%. There is a push towards zero downtime or zero in-service breakdowns. then lower is the reliability. Use of improved maintenance tools such as Reliability Centred Maintenance (RCM). Root Cause Failure Analysis (RCFA). .
In this situation. The decision of maintenance policy is more of an economic decision rather than a technical one. RCM provides a flow diagram that tells what type of maintenance to be used. customer service. RCFA is driven by maintenance prevention strategies. production. 9. the team checks for the logical flows and determine what changes are to be made to prevent causes from reoccurring.a) Root cause failure analysis: · The root cause failure analysis (RCFA) method brings a knowledgeable team together to investigate certain failures using evidence left behind from the fault. . Answering to seven questions on all the potential modes of failure will uncover the predictive maintenance strategy requires to mitigate the consequences of the failure. preventive maintenance is highly beneficial to machines whose breakdown time distributions are having low variability. Non contributing causes are removed from the list and contributing factors are taken for analysis. a standard preventive maintenance period can be set in such a way that the total downtime is reduced. quality. the team finds as many causes for the fault as possible and classify them into non contributing and contributing. As maintenance is an economic decision.11 Preventive Vs Breakdown Maintenance Certain generalizations on type of maintenance can be made to improve the reliability: a) First. engineering. Through a fault tree analysis. When implemented together they complement each other and provide the greatest overall benefit to the facility. c) Failure Modes Effects Analysis & Total Productivity Maintenance · Total productive maintenance (TPM) and failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) are other maintenance tools used for improving the reliability through proactive maintenance. · While RCM is driven by preventive maintenance strategies. Through brainstorming sessions. what are its cost implications? 9. It has relevance to high volume production and can improve a company’s maintenance system and help improve the overall productivity of the processes. This practice has impact on many aspects of business. hygiene. planning and organisational leadership. b) Reliability centred Maintenance · The purpose of reliability centred maintenance (RCM) is to determine the maintenance requirements of any physical assets in its operating contexts.10 Maintenance Economics Maintenance refers to an organisation’s policy in respect of the maintenance function of a set of equipments.
or more than the time for repair. 3) direct labour value . nature of repair breakdowns. increases capacity. c) In general. There is little gain in the preventive maintenance. 2. when the repair time is equal to maintenance time. the relation of preventive maintenance time to repair time is important. overhauls and renovations c) Production asset and loss d) Continuous reliability improvements e) Maintenance cost as a ratio of percentage of 1) gross asset value 2) sales value. 9. maintenance cost breakdown. Effects of scheduling preventive maintenance for non-productive days with no loss of production. etc are required to be done and evaluated. reduces costs and eliminate waste. the percentage of machine running time continues to increase with the increase of standard preventive maintenance period.12 Measurement of Maintenance Performance Organizations seeking excellence in their maintenance practices should constantly endeavour to measure and improve upon the performance criteria’s of maintenance. Companies should recognize this fact that maintenance of its assets is to be encouraged as the process will provide advantages in enhancing quality initiative. Additional stoppage time because the maintenance crew cannot start repairing immediately after the breakdown has occurred. Effect on production losses if plant shutdown can be avoided 3. Hence maintenance and management of assets is the core to any business.b) Second. it is better to perform corrective or breakdown maintenance. Some metrics that may help in evaluation are: a) Maintenance man hours as percentage of total man hours b) Shutdown. d) We need to take into account other effects of unscheduled down-time. existing maintenance facilities. Analysis of data of the existing conditions with respect to down time production loss. such as 1. if the maintenance time is less than the repair time and If the preventive maintenance is equal to.
Asset life cycle management system. as evolved by some companies for better results consists of three phases: a) Asset Acquisition Phase: here asset may be new or replaced or change of major components changed before operating activities in this asset is firmed up. Asset dependability and its reliability are to be established.f) Safety and regulatory compliance 9. Factors that are considered while taking decision to replace machine and equipment can be classified as a) Technical factors b) Cost factors. then the asset is disposed off as it has reached the end of its lifecycle. a) Technical factors that dictates replacement 1) Wear and tear of equipment 2) Obsolescence caused by new invention .13 Asset Life Cycle Management In high tech production. companies are required to produce more products of higher quality from fewer resources and hence maintaining higher reliability of assets has been a challenging task for the management.14 Equipment Replacement Plans The systematic equipment development program includes: 1) emergence of equipment replacement 2) classification of equipment replacement 3) assignment of responsibility for equipment replacement 4) selection of the equipment 5) follow up. c) Disposal Phase: when the asset is no longer capable of delivering the required operational performance or cannot be maintained cost effectively to achieve the required level of dependability. b) Maintenance phase: operating environment for each asset is defined and performance goals at the lowest cost are firmed up. 9.
2) By Using Barnes Formula: this formula is used for equipment. old or new. rate of output. having a short life. Hence the time for replacement depends on the condition and characteristics of the equipment. power consumption. The main ingredients of the annual cost are depreciation and interest charges. speed of operations. consumes high power etc 4) Automation requirement for processes 5) To eliminate slack time through line balancing 6) Reduced safety 7) Reliability of performance b) Cost Factors: 1) High repair cost 2) Lesser place requirement 3) Probable economic life of the new machine 4) Consumption of less power 5) Reduction in labour cost because high productive machines purchased 6) Flexibility requirement not in the existing equipment Methods used for replacement after analysis: The replacement analysis becomes more complex due to many technical factors and qualitative considerations.3) Unsuitability of equipment due to size of the work. will pay not only for equipment but also for any unamortized value for next few years. Here the replacement is not advocated unless savings due to the use of new equipment. repair and maintenance costs. accuracy. X = (No. 1) Minimum annual cost method: here the decision to replace the machine (unwanted or life is completed) is based on the operating and capital costs. of years the equipment will pay for itself) = [A+B] / [(E-F) DG + H – C] . While the annual operating costs include wages to operator. material losses etc. Some important methods or replacement of old and unused machineries are 1) minimum annual cost method 2) by using Barnes formula 3) MAPI (Machinery and allied institute) method.
1000. MAPI method concentrates on the comparison of the rate of return of the proposed new project and similar returns when the proposed project is not implemented within next year.10000. 2) The same monetary amount each year . Additionally. Capital expenditure is not recorded in the Profit and Loss account.[where A = cost of new equipment. but shown in the Balance Sheet · Depreciation is an attempt to spread the cost of an asset over its useful economic life. B = depreciated value of the old equipment. C = interest charge of new equipment. 9. G = estimated working days per year for new equipment and H = savings or losses per year in fixed charges other than interest] 3) MAPI method: here the analysis is divided into 35 heads & three main groups. For example.9000 with the income that asset has generated.9000.15 Depreciation & Capital Expenditure based on Life Cycle · This requirement falls into the following groups: a) Calculation of depreciation b) Calculation of profit/loss on disposal c) Accounting for depreciation and disposals Calculation of Depreciation · Capital expenditure is that spent on purchase or improves on fixed assets. kept in use for 8 years. F = estimated labour cost per unit with new equipment. The two most commonly used methods are straight line method and reducing balance method. it has the business cost of Rs. Straight Line method 1) A fixed percentage on cost each year. Depreciation tries to apply the accruals by matching that Rs. and then sold for Rs. the value of the asset in the balance sheet should be reduced by each year’s charge. It emphasizes on immediate return. E = labour cost per unit in old equipment. D = number of units product per day by new equipment. · An annual depreciation charge is shown as an expense in the Profit and Loss account. · Depreciation should be calculated in a way which most closely reflecting the manner in which the asset is being used up. if an asset is purchased for Rs. whilst revenue expenditure is that spent on day to day business expenses.
30000.1500. at the end of which it will be sold for Rs.e. On disposal.Reducing Balance method 1) A fixed percentage on net book value each year 2) A reducing monetary amount each year Example: 1 a) Straight line method A machine is purchased for Rs. This over or under provision of depreciation is shown in the Profit and Loss a/c as a profit or loss on the disposal of fixed assets. ] Reducing balance method (the charge for depreciation reduces each year) a) Year 1 Rs.1500) / 10 = Rs. 6000 b) Year 2 (Rs. the actual disposal proceeds will show the true net cost of the asset. [Note that the expected residual value is ignored & it will have been incorporated into the choice of 20% as an appropriate rate] b) Calculation of Profit/Loss The depreciation charged each year is based on estimates of useful life and residual value. Calculate the depreciation to be charged for each of the first 3 years of the machine’s life.e. This may reveal that two much or too little depreciation has been provided over the asset’s life. i.4800) x 20% =Rs.30000 x 100.6000 – Rs. · [Note that the policy could have been expressed as “straight line at %” or “Depreciation at % pa on cost” – here the percentage is calculated as = Rs.2850 / Rs.30000 – Rs. the annual charge for every year of the machine’s life is Rs. the net cost is simply divided by the expected life.2850.6000) x 20% =Rs. i.30000 – Rs. It is expected that this machine will be used for 10 years.4800 c) Year 3 (Rs. 2850) · So. (Rs. .30000 x 20%= Rs.30000 – Rs.3840 and so on. using: (i) The straight line method (ii) The reducing balance method at 20% pa Solution · Under the straight line method.
2520] c) Accounting for depreciation and disposals · In the above example. there is a profit on disposal of price of Rs.23000.2520 [sale price of Rs. . The functional reliability refers to the ____________________ of the machine.03-2008 =25600 · Depreciation y/e 31. In practice. · Original cost 40000 · Depreciation y/e 31. Calculate the profit or loss arising on this disposal. The asset is sold on 1 January 2009 for Rs. 2.2007 =32000 · Depreciation y/e 31. which necessitates decision regarding depreciation (may be proportionate) · A popular depreciation policy would be: A full year’s charge in the year of acquisition but none in the year of disposal Self Assessment Questions Fill up the blanks with appropriate words: 1.03-2008 (20%)= 6400 · Net book value at 31. and is depreciated using the reducing balance method at 20% pa.03-2009 (20%) =5120 · Net book value at 31. acquisition or disposal may occur part way through the accounting year.03-2009 =20480 · Thus. Solution · Sales proceeds must be compared to the net book value on the date of disposal.40000. 23000 – 20480 (book value) = Rs. The main function of the maintenance department is to monitor and control the condition of machineries and equipments and improve their ____________________.03.03. equipment or service operation.2007 (20%) =8000 · Net book value at 31.Example: 2 An asset is purchased on 1 January 2006 for Rs. the disposal occurred exactly 3 years after the acquisition.
The formula used to measure manufacturing reliability (MR) is: MR = ………………………. In the performance phase is the ______________ period of performance with a better reliability. For better maintenance planning and control. there are three phases in the equipment performance namely a) Infant mortality phase b) Useful performance phase c) _____________________ 6. the failure of any one part may result in the ____________________ . As per the graph. called the ‘Weibull distribution graph’ (after Weibull developed it). 8. The failure of any one of the sub system can cause failure of the __________________. is shown below. In the ____________ . 11. The graph of the failure pattern. Manufacturing reliability can be defined as a manufacturing system’s ____________.3. The objective of FMEA ( ) and reliability analysis of the plant and equipment is to ensure to ____________________ of critical assets and achieve the business goals. . _________________ of maintenance problems is essential to know as to how serious is the problem for taking quick actions. the rate of failure increases until the equipment succumbs and is characterized by the rapid wear and tear of more and more components until major breakdown happens. It is also commonly called as ____________________. 7. Reliability and availability have become key issues. 5. As in other types of probabilities. 4. 9. A simple machine having few moving parts may have breakdowns happenings after a large number of maintenance free run time hours. and manufacture the quality product at the speed required. Hence the reliability of the total system depends on the _________________ of each of the sub systems. Most equipment that survives infancy stage will continue to perform better with very few failures. may contribute to of the ____________ total breakdown time 10. here too is that the small percentage of around 15-20% defects in equipment. which is called the______________. it is important to know the nature and occurrence of failures over a period of time for the equipment in use.. This is the useful period of the machine. but in a complex machine. Newly installed equipment shows high rate incidence of early failures during initial phase of its life. because of its shape.
The functional reliability of facilities to be maintained or improved upon by the maintenance management requires the use of certain concepts. Reliability and availability have become key issues. and manufacture the quality product at the speed required. Some important methods or replacement of old and unused machineries are 1) minimum annual cost method 2) by using ____________________ 3) ____________________ method. anticipated life etc. The purpose of reliability centred maintenance (RCM) is to determine the __________________ in its operating contexts. Therefore it is the duty of the plant maintenance crew to strive to maintain and increase the functional reliability of the production facilities. The functional reliability refers to the consistency of the degree of performance of the machine.16 Summary The main function of the maintenance department is to monitor and control the condition of machineries and improve their functional reliability.[Where. T = Time performance. 9. This pattern manifests itself due to rigorous operations during the life span. analysis. The reliability theories on equipment have shown that there is a definite performance pattern their lifespan. The replacement analysis becomes more complex due to many technical factors and the qualitative consideration. can be assessed. Manufacturing reliability can be defined as a manufacturing system’s capability to operate to its expected operations. tools and techniques and measures. Mean Time between Failure (MTBF) can be computed. 13. by which the system reliability. The objective of FMEA ( ) and reliability analysis of the plant and equipment is to ensure to excellence in performance of critical assets and achieve the business goals. reliability methodologies. as evolved by some companies for better results consists of three phases: a) Asset Acquisition Phase: b) Maintenance phase: c) ____________________ 14. equipment or service operation. . Q = Quality performance. S = Speed performance ] 12. availability. RCM provides a flow diagram that tells what type of maintenance to be used. Asset life cycle management system.
. Total productive maintenance (TPM) and failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) are other maintenance tools used for improving the reliability through proactive maintenance. shows three phases in the equipment performance namely · Infant mortality phase · Useful performance phase · Ageing phase. The purpose of reliability centred maintenance (RCM) is to determine the maintenance requirements of any physical assets in its operating contexts. there must be equipment replacement plan after considering the cost impact and other technical factors. it is important to know the nature and occurrence of failures over a period of time for the equipment in use. · Mean Time between Failure (MTBF) · Mean time between production Loss (MTBPL) · Mean production loss (MPL) Companies should recognize this fact that maintenance of its assets is to be encouraged as the process will provide advantages in enhancing quality initiative. Hence the reliability of the total system depends on the product reliability factors of each of the sub systems. called the ‘Weibull distribution graph’ and known as ‘Bath Tub Curve’. increases capacity. Equipment can be considered as a total system and the failure of any one of the sub system can cause failure of the entire system. There are many ways to measure reliability. Asset life cycle management system. However the methodology to be used depends on the best alternative within the organizations objectives. as evolved by some companies for better results consists of three phases: a) Asset Acquisition Phase b) Maintenance phase c) Disposal Phase Based on the life cycle analysis. because of its shape. reduces costs and eliminate waste. The graph of the failure pattern.For better maintenance planning and control.
Consistency of the degree of performance 3. Excellence in performance 4. How this helps in replacement plans? 9.17 Terminal Questions 1) Define functional reliability? 2) What are the maintenance management concepts. Ageing phase .Capital expenditure based on the life cycle and the depreciation either by straight line or reducing method is used for a comprehensive decision by the management. Bath Tub Curve 5. 9) What are the technical and cost factors to be considered while planning replacement of old machineries? 10) Explain briefly the depreciation methods used in capital expenditure on plant and machineries. Functional reliability 2. Why it also called as bathtub curve? What are the three phases in the life span of equipment? 4) Explain briefly how the life of the equipment is depicted by the variability and availability factors in a) Bathtub Curve and MTBF. methodology used for maintaining the functional reliability? 3) Explain briefly the ‘Weibull distribution curve. Explain few of them? 7) What are the factors considered in measurement of maintenance measurements? How they are evaluated? Briefly explain the three phases of asset life cycle management. 9. b) Breakdown time distribution: and c) Reliability and Variability of the Equipments 5) What are maintenance performance index? How they help in measuring maintenance efforts? 6) There are many ways of measuring reliability and availability.18 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1.
Entire system. Refer 9.6. 8.8 7. Refer 9. Refer 9.2 2. Refer 9.15 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .3 4.13 9. Critical analysis.12 8. Refer 9. Barnes formula. Useful. Refer 9. = [% T] x [%Q] x [%S] 12. Disposal Phase: 14. Refer 9. Capability to operate to its expected operations 11. Infant mortality.6 6. Complete machine breakdown. Ageing phase 7. 80 to 85% 10. MAPI Terminal Questions 1. Refer 9.4 5. .2 3. Refer 9. Product reliability factors 9. Refer 9.14 10. Maintenance requirements of any physical assets 13.
8 Overall Effectiveness of Equipment [basis of TPM] 10.6 Evolution of Maintenance Methods 10.2 Total Productivity Maintenance 10.9 Types of Losses.4 Objectives of TPM 10.11 Implementation of TPM & Steps in TPM program Steps in TPM program 10.5 TPM and its Features 10.7 Other Related issues with TPM 10.1 Introduction Objectives 10.OM0006-Unit-10-Total Productivity Maintenance Unit-10-Total Productivity Maintenance Structure: 10.12 Eight pillars of TPM Autonomous maintenance Kobetsu Kaizen Planned Maintenance Quality Maintenance . 10.3 Goals 10.10 Zero Loss Concepts 10.
a facility. The Japanese have virtually eliminated machine breakdowns by applying Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) techniques to their . Health. Equipment maintenance is basic to competitive manufacturing. Earlier the maintenance management was viewed as a function with a lesser status compared to manufacturing and its role was restricted to one of carrying out breakdown repair when a machine breaks down. material handling equipment and other transport vehicles in proper working conditions. But with the enlarged scope of maintenance functions when very high cost state of art machineries and equipments are used for higher productivity. High tech preventive maintenance routines are performed by experts at frequent intervals and machines are continually upgraded and modified for closer tolerances. cleaning. thus leading to breakdowns and production losses. adjusting. machine failures cannot be tolerated.Development Management Education & Training Safety.17 Terminal Questions 10.18 Answers 10. Environment TPM in offices 10.1 Introduction Manufacturers invest huge capital on productive machines and equipments for production of the desired products.16 Summary 10. to keep a machine.15 Role of TPM in WC-production 10. This will increase the life of the machines and they perform better during their entire life span. faster set ups and fewer adjustments. but they often neglect the very important function of complete maintenance. a more sophisticated well managed preventive – maintenance type programs such as TPM or Reliability centred maintenance (RCM) has warranted. inspecting. Because JIT [Just-inTime] production lines operate very close to capacity in every process. etc.14 Benefits of TPM 10.13 Relevance of TPM to TQM framework 10. repairing. Maintenance covers all those functions such as monitoring.
maximising capacity. 10. It first evolved in Nippon Denso a major supplier of the Toyota car company. relying on team work. consensus building and continuous improvement. Objectives: After studying this unit you will be able to: · Outline the features of TPM · Explain the types of losses related to maintenance · List and explain the steps involved in TPM · Comment on the methods of TPM propounded by experts on Quality. efficiency and effectiveness with zero loss concepts through total participation of all employees with self managing abilities in practices. Reliability and TPM principles call for avoiding crisis. 10. minimising costs and continuously improving processes for manufacturing.3 Goals · Prevention of equipment deterioration · Maintain the equipment in optimal condition · Establishing basic equipment conditions · Operator is competent to operate machine/ equipment · Elimination of quality defects · Elimination of equipment failure · Elimination of cost losses . Here the new quality approach of “prevention at source” was translated to the maintenance environment through the concept of TPM. TPM is defined as the means to achieve high level of productivity. to achieve total customer satisfaction.machines.2 Total Productive Maintenance [TPM] TPM had its genesis in the Japanese car industry in 1970’s. Machines are cleaned and lubricated frequently by the operators who run those machines. TPM is a well defined and organised maintenance program which places a high value on team work.
4 Objectives of TPM The principle objectives of TPM are: · Eliminate all breakdowns of machines and equipment to ensure trouble free continuous production. · Achieve manufacturing excellence. cost. delivery and services. ensuring total effectiveness of the plant for higher quality and lesser downtime. · Boosting morale of employees. waste and accident-free operations] in all the resources over the entire life cycle of a production system through team work and by overlapping small group activities. · To achieve higher reliability/flexibility of equipment and reduce cost through eliminating wastages. · Increase plant efficiency.5 TPM-Its Features TPM no longer confines to the maintenance department. but spreads across as a company-wide culture. · Restoring equipment to a like-new condition · Improve maintenance efficiency and effectiveness · On job training of the labour to improve their job skills · To have a sound equipment maintenance management · Effective use of preventive and predictive maintenance technology · Achieve TPM with active participation & involvement in all levels · “Value Added” activity that the equipment is contributing to your products. · Producing products for customer satisfaction in quality. defect. 10.10. means elimination of micro operational issues · Achieve zero loss Concept – [zero breakdown. · Reduction in manufacturing costs. losses. . reduction in equipment life cycle cost. · Maximise asset and equipment effectiveness through OEE [overall equipment effectiveness] and OPE.
TPM is a means to achieve high level of productivity. · Defect losses due to reduced yields in processing TPM includes three main elements: · Regular preventive maintenance. organizing. to achieve total customer satisfaction There are six types of losses found in a manufacturing firm: · Downtime due to equipment failure. · Speed losses due to discrepancies between designed and actual speeds · Defect losses due to process defects that cause scrap & quality problems. TPM paves way for an excellent planning. leading to another innovative & modern practice under company-wide maintenance practice of TPM? How this evolution has happened and other related issues are briefly given below a) Breakdown Maintenance / Emergency / Corrective Maintenance: Break – down maintenance or emergency maintenance is a remedial or corrective maintenance practice that is undertaken when equipment fails and require repair on an . monitoring and controlling practices through a unique ‘8-Pillars Method’. · Speed losses due to idling and minor stoppages caused by abnormal operations of censors.6 Evolution of Maintenance Methods What are the other maintenance methods that are universally practiced by industries. including housekeeping. TPM is one of the most valuable strategies for those who want to be competitive & meet the World Class Competition 10. · Periodic pre-failure replacement or overhauls and · Intolerance for breakdowns or unsafe conditions. · Downtime for setups and adjustments. through total participation of all employees with self-managing abilities in practice. effectiveness with zero loss concept. blockages etc. efficiency.TPM is a method designed to eliminate the losses caused by break-down of machines and equipments by identifying and attacking all causes of its breakdowns and system down time due to such breakdowns.
7 Other Related Issues a) Improve Repair Capabilities: For reliability and a sound preventive maintenance practices. that results in loss of production due to idling of machinery and labour and reduces system capacity. This promotes employee empowerment and system performance c) Productive maintenance or Predictive maintenance – This is an extended preventive maintenance method that tries to reduce the chances of breakdowns by using modern monitoring and analysis techniques such as computer aided monitoring and forecasting and diagnose the condition of the equipment during operation. Well trained maintenance crew. Preventive maintenance policies and techniques must emphasize on all employees to accept the responsibility for the maintenance and perform all the activities to their capability. . maintenance costs and resultant delay in supply of products to customers as promised. When the distributions curve exhibits a narrow standard deviation. A good maintenance facility should have the following features: 1. servicing and replace parts to ensure that the system does not fail during normal operation. Failure of equipment or machineries may occur at different phases. the productive maintenance tries to identify signs of equipment deterioration or imminent failure and to take corrective action before it fails. the preventive maintenance will be more expensive and incidental if it is other way. firms should build up a level of repair capability in order to get the system back in operation much faster. A study is made on each machine on the MTBF (mean time between failures) distribution. to uncover potential problems and to make repairs. There exists a relationship between the maintenance costs and the cost of failures with which the level of maintenance Vis-a-Vis frequency of maintenance could be firmed up. b) Preventive maintenance Preventive maintenance is the activity that is planned and programmed on a regular basis to inspect the system. especially when mass production or continuous production is planned. 10. This reduces the frequency of machinery break downs and consequent loss of production Break down of a machine in production line can be costly if it means shutting down the entire plant. Here. This idling will increase the production cost. A high failure rate known as the infant mortality exists during the initial working of the machine and then settles in.emergency or priority basis to set it right. Obviously this is not an ideal way of keeping quiet until that breakdown happens.
Ability to design ways to extend MTBF b) Maintenance responsibilities a) Traditional: Maintenance is a functional support activity & employees rely on specialists for custodial services. schedule disruptions etc. The ability of the equipment for operation is determined by mean time between failure (MTBF) and mean time to repair (MTTR) that is: Availability = MTBF / [MTBF + MTTR] d) Equipment problems and competitiveness: Equipment problems and break downs have a direct affect on production costs. c) Reliability and Maintainability – an overview: Quality is multi – dimensional but reliability is a key component of quality. 4. Further these machines may have possible immediate effects such as variability of output. issues are closely related with maintenance and maintainability. At the same time. safety hazard. e) Role of operators in TPM . because of perceive product quality and the exceptional reliability. Reliability is a time based concept of quality. Malfunctioning of machines cause deterioration and results in inefficiency. Reliability considers the performance of a product over time. product quality and production schedules. firms can reduce inventories. 5. Japanese automobile manufacturers have been highly successful in the US market and could gain a high market share. Since the reliability is concerned with the elapsed time between failures of a product. b) Employee ownership TPM: Front-line associates have first responsibility for maintenance in their work places. Specialists work with cross-functional teams & backup responsibility to handle difficult or unusual problems. Ability and authority to do material planning. idling of both machines and the workers using those machines for their work. It is the probability that a product will operate adequately for a given period in its intended application. 3. Adequate resources.2. Hence by reducing equipment mal functions and break downs. Ability to identify the cause of break downs 6. This will ultimately shorten the life of machines and cause high repair costs. accidents to operators. Ability to establish a repair plan and priorities. preventive and repair maintenance. they can improve operator safety and reduce injuries from equipment mal functions.
Understand the manufacturing process to successfully achieve the above. 3. Diagnose and perform repairs for the problems identified.8. To identify design weaknesses and improve equipment for error free operations 3.8 Overall Equipment Effectiveness [OEE]-Key Indicator of TPM · OEE is a way of measuring how the six major losses shown below are affecting the equipment or in other words a way of measuring the amount of “Value added” activity that the equipment is contributing to the product.1 Objectives of OEE: a) It helps see a problem so that it can be fixed. periodic diagnostic tests apart from performing appropriate maintenance system to avoid predicted equipment failure 5. D) Collect data to track equipment performance and document all the data recorded along with production control chart and work order systems. Implement periodical maintenance system that is planned on the data collected from the machine. checking functions of the basic machine AND safety devices. Improve technical maintenance skills of all maintenance personnel through systematic training and work assessments 4. Ensure maintenance is treating the root cause of the problem and not symptoms 7. C) Reduction of minor stoppages and adjustments on aggregates as well as the complete machine. Basic skill levels required by operators include: A) Monitoring and maintaining critical process parameters. Thorough data analysis.1. Restores deteriorated equipment through improvements / related maintenance 2. f) Role of maintenance department in TPM process: 1. Maintain work order system to provide data for calculation of MTBF (mean time before failure) and MTTR (mean time to repair) 6. Data collected must be complete for proper implementation. B) Perform change over and setup the complete machine. 10. replacement of filters lubrication of aggregates. obtain information before such problems are attacked. . manufacturer and also the operators 8. thus developing the capability to operate similar equipment / machines 10. Perform basic equipment maintenance by cleaning of machines. In case the problem is an unknown entity. 2.
88 . Ideal rate of production – 60 parts per min. Number of parts produced – 19271.2 OEE example: A manufacturer working for 8 hours shift with the production data and scheduled breaks is as follows: Shift length = 8 hours. out of which 423 numbers were rejected. Overall Equipment Efficiency [OEE] = [Availability x Performance Efficiency x Quality yield] 10. Downtime of machines – 47 min. · Planned production time 480 – 15 -15-30 = 420 min Operating time = planned production time – downtime = 420 -47 = 373 min · Good quality parts produced = total produced – rejection = 19271 – 423 = 18848 · Availability = A = operating time / planned production time = 373 / 420 = 0. [Target=minimize] 2) Set up down time[Target=zero] 3) Reduced speed of the machines [Target=minimize] 4) Minor unrecognized stoppages [Target=zero] 5) Reject and rework [target=zero] 6) Start up down time and yield from the system [Target= minimize] Availability [(Time available for production – Downtime)] / [Time available for production] Performance Efficiency = [Actual Production or Capacity)] / [Ideal Production or Capacity] Quality Yield [Total Parts Produced-Quantity out of specifications] / Total Quantity produced. Short breaks – 2 short breaks of 15 min each. Lunch break – one lunch break of 30 min. 1) Planned and unplanned downtimes.8.b) It helps visualize ‘Six big losses’ with their targets for meeting OEE.
888 * 0. 3) planned shutdown downtime] b) Performance losses: 4) start up losses.978 = 0. 74.978 · OEE Composite = Availability * performance * quality = 0.e.861 · Quality= (total parts produced – rejection) / total parts produced) = 18848 / 19271 = 0.9 Types of Losses (16) There are 16 types of losses that can be categorized into three namely: Category 1: a) Equipment losses: includes down time losses due to 1) machine failure/breakdown. 11) waiting for instructions.10 Zero-Loss Concept: TPM is based on the elimination of the above said 16 losses along with other five zero loss concepts depicted below: . c) Quality loss: 7) process errors 8 rework/scrap Category 2: Manpower losses: 9) cleaning and checking. Category 3: Material losses: 14) material yield 15) energy losses 16) consumable material losses 10.861 * 0.8 % 10. 6) reducing the capacity. 12) waiting for quality confirmation.· Performance = P = parts produced / (ideal production * operating time) = 19271 / (60 * 373 )= 0. 13) any management losses. 5) minor stopping /idling. 10) waiting for materials.748 i. 2) set up/adjustment time.
f) Office TPM.wide is a major project that requires support from top management. Reaching Excellence in TPM program by Promotion. The main focus on equipment maintenance is for improvement of the overall production system.1 Steps in TPM program 1. Implementation in each of the identified areas is managed directly by a target area committee with assistance from a TPM program team. d) Planned maintenance. even for new areas of operations. c) Kaizen.12 Eight Pillars of TPM . e) Quality maintenance. monitoring and reviewing TPM results and raising levels and revising standards 10. 10. 6.11. Focus on 8 pillars. g) Education and training. This stresses the need to shift focus from equipment to the processes within which it is used. Company commitment 3. Selection of pilot lines 5.11 Implementation of TPM Implementing TPM company. h) Safety and environment committee 4.10. b) Jishu Hozen. Formation of committees and sub committees for a) promotion and steering of TPM. The TPM program team oversees initial planning and coordination of all TPM efforts though ultimately this responsibility is transferred to the maintenance department. Plant audit and initial assessment 2.
In the above house. Flexibility with operators to operate and maintain other equipments 3. Eliminate the defect at source through active employee participation 4.12. Reduce process time 3.1 Pillar-1: Autonomous Maintenance: (Jishu – Hozen) Autonomous maintenance is a phrase coined by the Japanese institute of plant maintenance (JIPM) to describe the shift towards the machine operators maintaining their own machine / equipment JH Policy: 1. 10. 8 Pillars supports a strong structure of TPM for achieving higher productivity is depicted in the following picture. Increase the use of JH Objectives of JH: . Uninterrupted operation of equipment 2. Step wise implementation of JH activities JH Targets: 1. Reduce oil consumption 2.
electrical. Operators should identify and tag the sources of defects / waste that arisen out of the machine operations. 4. control or prevent deterioration of production equipment 2. 7. Improve skill levels and personal growth throughout the company 5. lubrication and mechanical should be clearly understood by all in the production line for quick redressing. Other steps considering the aspects like a) Cooperation from all production related department. Here the operator executes routine verification and adjustments 5. Provide spare parts and tools: Here all the spare parts should be leveraged at the point of use after considering the inventory levels.1. Here operator has to apply and ask for 5 why’s. switch not operating properly etc. team leaders. replace cracked parts or worn out seals etc and repair and setup the machine. Develop standards and data collection: Create standards for clean up and checking of machines. Prevent degradation related failures 3. should be followed to achieve effective results . Repair sources of defect (outside of machines). Initial cleanup It must be closely aligned with 7S of the company and there must be commitment of both the staff and the management for the house keeping. Standards for monitoring key process parameters: To develop methods and standards for routine verification of key process parameters / standards operating conditions. first line supervisor should be trained to understand the basic of the equipment and the functions and the systems working in the machines namely Hydraulic. 2. Examples of such defects are: Crack in the housing leakages. electronic. Increase access and ease of inspection and maintenance 4. Improve predictability through data analysis and communication Steps to Implement JH: 1. In case modification is required for easy inspection / elimination of debris / contamination etc a new aggregate covers may be created 3. JH audit. establish standards for data collection based on the production control chart and develop standards for easy reference. set rules to be followed. Similarly the orderliness of tool availability and display of visual boards can be maintained. pneumatic. Stabilise. Train operators on function and troubleshooting: Operators. quick response. 6. Cleaning of all the surroundings and using Japanese 5S principles for orderly keeping the parts etc. broken / worn out belt.
All out JH: Repeat the cycle 1 – 6 above of the process of managing and monitoring the TPM. 2) Do the necessary change.2 Pillar-2. 10. Here an emphasis is on transferring knowledge and creating self sufficient team for results. Verify the progress made in TPM efforts in planned versus emergency work. MTBF. 10. Here it is aimed at eliminating all 16 losses in the workplace. 2) optimise maintenance costs.Kobetsu Kaizen (Focussed Improvements) 1) PDCA Cycle: Kaizen: here maintenance team should 1) Plan each step. 4) improve reliability and maintainability of machines. Overall Online efficiency (OOE) and Overall Plant efficiency (OPE) 3) Decrease Costs: through controls in inventory and WIP 4) Reduction in customer complaints: reduce total downtime and ensure quick deliver to customers 5) Zero accidents: total safety and all actions to save money.12.12. It is aimed at having trouble free machines and equipment producing defect free products for total customer satisfaction. optimize spare parts location etc. 3) reduce spare parts inventory. Zero accidents and Zero defects. Step 3: Implementation action plan to sustain and develop further possible improvements. These steps are: Step 1: Quick Win Shop floor projects: this is a team based approach targeting specific problem areas and realizing immediate benefits Step 2: Critical analysis: analyze what else needs to be changed to make it fixed and create action plans.3 Pillar: 3: Planned Maintenance [Pm] For Zero Loss · Planned maintenance is a systematic management by maintenance department. 2) Increase in productivity by improving Overall Equipment efficiency (OEE).8. · Planned maintenance policy includes a) achieve and sustain availability of machines. There are three steps that aim at quick but short term process improvements supported by long term organizational change. 4) Act as required to proceed further to improve upon the system/process. Quick change time reduction. 3) Check whether successful or not. optimize machine set ups. MTTR. Six steps followed by planned maintenance are: . which uses maintenance work cycle activities of preventive/predictive/corrective or breakdown maintenance techniques.
12.1) Equipment evaluation and recording of present status 2) Restore deterioration and improve on weak links 3) Builds information management systems 4) Prepare time based information and parts and map out a plan 5) Prepare predictive system plan by introducing diagnostic techniques 6) Evaluation of planned maintenance.12. when a) ease of manufacture.4 Pillar-4-Quality Maintenance for Zero Defects This is a process for controlling the condition of equipment and its components that affect variability in product quality. are analysed. Here also aim is at defect free product to satisfy the customer. Here the customer end defects are known through customer complaints and in-house defects known through the quality control personnel. Results achieved through this pillar are: 1) Improved customer satisfaction and reduction in future complaints 2) Reduction in defects and improved quality 3) Reduction in inspection time 10. root cause is found and improvement action on the process/design are ensured. Benefits from Planned Maintenance 1) Reduction in downtime due to breakdowns. Focus is on eliminating non-conformances in a systematic manner. 3) Reduction in spare parts consumption 4) Reduction in oil and power consumption 5) Reduction in repair cost 6) Reduction in number of inspection points etc 10.5 Pillar-5-Development Management This refers to the learning process that happens in TPM implementation and during different types of maintenance practices. b) policy of . 2) Improvement in MTBF and MTTR.
This systematic education and training will result in: 1) Reduction in downtime.6 Pillar-6-Trining & Education [Flow Of Controls] Through training and education provides the skill and knowledge apart from the experience that enables operators. engineers and managers are in a position to fulfil the expanded role to be played in successful implementation of TPM. c) determination of detailed specifications etc are answered. Poka-Yoke etc will all result in getting the following benefits: 1) Reduction in accident 2) Reduction in noise 3) Create excellent house-keeping & a good looking workshop through 5S action 4) Reduction in downtime because of breakdowns etc 5) Saving in energy consumption 6) Reduction in industrial waste . It is aimed to have multi skilled & revitalized employees.12. Health & Environment [Zero Accidents] Here the focus is to create a safe work place and a surrounding areas that is not detrimental to process or procedures. Some examples of unsafe acts by employees are 1) use of worn out tools. unsafe storage/stacking. breakdowns attributed to lack of knowledge and skills 2) Reduction in further downtime after gaining the knowledge and skills 3) Reductions achieved after training on the number of defects. reworks etc.development of new technologies. too hot areas. d) manufacturing. Point by point safety audit. Development of management involves four phases. 10. e) initial phase production. skills and techniques through a training environment. safety guards. Unsafe conditions like electrical points.7 Pillar-7: Safety. whose morale is high and who are eager to work and perform the required functions effectively and independently. incorporate planned maintenance sheets to eliminate defects.12. skilled workers. a) planning b) implementation. The methodology adopted is for understanding of the present machine structure. providing safe environment place a vital role. noise generations and any such unsafe potential areas must be identified and action taken to make them safe. c) design. The continuous training is on safe working. safety training and monitoring the improvements through Kaizen. goggles etc. and design validation 10. Here the focus is on improvement of the knowledge. operating machines without proper training etc. health and hazards. unsafe working without wearing gloves.
Benefits accrued because of office TPM are 1) Better utilization of work areas. 7) reduced man power 8 clean and pleasant work environment and 10) reduction in equipment due to emergency despatches/purchases. invoices. 10. payment to suppliers. TPM aims at keeping the current plant and equipment at its highest productive level through cooperation of all. the following strengthen the view that TPM is relevant to TQM: . 6) reduction in customer complaints. marketing and sales outlets with high inventories. as a strategy.8 Pilar-8-Office Tpm [Raise Levels & Select Other Areas] Office TPM includes analysing processes and procedures towards increased office automation. It is followed to improve productivity and efficiency in the office administration. etc d) D” logistic losses due to delay in support function. to follow all the principles and procedures laid out in ‘Seven Pillars of TPM’ and achieve the desired overall improvements for the benefit of the organization. Since achieving total productivity is one of the major objectives of TQM. cost of logistics. 4) reduction in inventory carrying costs. 3) reduction in administration costs. It identifies and eliminates losses. cost of inventory carrying. Therefore the Office TPM addresses the seven major losses namely: 1) processing loss 2) communication loss 3) idle loss 4) set up loss 5) accuracy loss 6) non-value added loss 7) cost loss including areas as procurement. 5) reduction in n umber of files. we can infer that total productive maintenance is an extension of TQM philosophy to the maintenance function. stores.13 Relevance of TPM to TQM Framework Good maintenance is fundamental to a productive manufacturing system. customer returns etc c) C: buying cost.10. 2) reduction in repetitive works. in information etc e) S: safety in material handling. manpower etc b) Q: mistakes in cheques. accounting.12. Here the whole organization should focus. Further. In TPM the barrier between maintenance & production personnel is removed. payroll. bills. other safety practices f) M: number of kaizen activities in office areas with improvements not visible TPM is a long range living program. PQCDS&M principles in Office TPM: a) P: production output loss due to want of materials.
zero breakdowns. vibration. Housekeeping is another area in JIT production system. zero accidents and zero defects. defects. This developed by JIPM (Japanese Institution of Plant Maintenance) during late 1960’s combines the American practice of PM with Japanese concept of Total Quality Control [TQC] and Total employee involvement [TEI] 1) TPM aims for greater manufacturing competitiveness through improved effectiveness of machines and equipments. · TPM can have a great impact on the operations decision making process. smell etc spot problems before they develop. 10. TPM aims at the introduction of new and creative ideas which will optimise quality standards and reduce waste and costs to the organisation concerned. tidy and well organised work area will result in better performance Maintenance is the key to achieve zero loss. 2) TPM increases production capacity. since it aims at cost reduction and quality improvements for internal requirements and for customer satisfaction. shortened equipment life and inventory. A comprehensive TPM program aspires to implement process capability and its maintenance. TPM is a value adding activity. The planning. repairs. Process capacity cannot be made available at the cost of quality.14 Benefits of TPM An added benefit is that with the added responsibility of all maintenance activities. morale and pollution control by involving everyone in the process. there is a direct link between TPM and TQM and also the relevance of a comprehensive maintenance policy is proved for successful TQM implementation.· TQM is aimed at satisfying customer requirements. Here too the operators take the responsibility of cleaning their machines and work areas. process reliability and reduces the cost of lost production time. 4) Benefits can be categorized into two types namely: 1) Direct and 2) Indirect a. operators develop a sense of ownership for the machines and give special attention to upkeep the machines for sound. · TPM is continuous improvement activity. scheduling and control of operations depend to a large extent on process capacity and process capability. Clean. by using the principles of 5S. In view of the above. 3) TPM also contributes to improvements in safety. in other words working with a zero sum philosophy. Direct benefits: .
Reliable.15 Role Of TPM In World Class Manufacturing Most of the world class manufacturing firms have implemented JIT systems and TQM philosophy to achieve excellence in manufacturing and to have ability to compete globally. . 1) Productivity: Breakdowns reduced by 85% 2) Quality: Defect rate reduced by 50% 3) Cost: Labour cost reduced by 25%. the entire process or . 4) Delivery: Inventory turnover increased by 150% 5) Morale: Improvement suggestions increased by 105% 6) Safety: Accidents reduced to nil 7) Environment: No pollution created 10. Preventive maintenance requires understanding and maintaining all the physical elements of manufacturing – machine components.a) Increase in productivity and overall plant efficiency b) Elimination of customers complaints c) Elimination of accidents d) Achieve goals by working as a team b. Indirect benefits: a) Higher confidence level among the employees b) Favourable change in the attitude of the operators c) Horizontal deployment of a new concepts in all areas d) The workers get a feeling of owning the machine. Therefore if any equipment breaks down. equipment and systems so that they consistently perform at the levels required of them. energy reduced consumption reduced by 20%. well functioning machines and equipments are a pre requisite for JIT and TQM to be successfully implemented in any manufacturing firm. maintenance cost reduced by 15 -30%. The following results were reported from a typical firm after implementing TPM.
TQM requires quality at the source which implies that machines must be reliable and well functioning. a facility. Here the new quality approach of ………………… was translated to the maintenance environment through the concept of TPM. • Prevention of equipment deterioration • Maintain the equipment in optimal condition • Establishing basic equipment conditions • Operator’s incompetency . to keep a machine.production line comes to a halt. This will facilitate implementation of an effective preventive maintenance program which is essential for a JIT system Self Assessment Questions Fill up the blanks with appropriate words in the following statements: 1) Equipment maintenance is basic to competitive manufacturing. easier to maintain and perform better. Improved equipment functioning has a positive impact on product quality. machinists and operators redesign and reconfigure equipment to make it more reliable. 4) GOALS: one among following is not an applicable goal. In TPM operators / workers perform basic equipment repairs and preventive maintenance. engineers. Maintenance covers all those functions such as ……………… etc. Preventive maintenance practices reduce the breakdown of machines and will keep them in good working condition.. material handling equipment and other transport vehicles in proper working conditions. Identify. In world class companies quality circles form an important component of TQM. efficiency and effectiveness with zero loss concepts through total participation of all employees with self managing abilities in practices. It first evolved in Nippon Denso a major supplier of the Toyota car company. Preventive maintenance is a stepping stone to a higher level of maintenance referred to as “total productive maintenance” (TPM). 2) TPM had its genesis in the Japanese car industry in 1970’s. The involvement of workers in quality circles provides the opportunity for them (members of quality circles) to study maintenance problems. 3) TPM is defined as the means to achieve high level of productivity. In world class companies the responsibility for repairs and preventive maintenance is assigned to workers. to achieve ……………………. while teams of maintenance staff.
blockages etc. manpower etc .. that the equipment is contributing to the product. What is that? • P: production output loss due to want of materials.• Elimination of quality defects • Elimination of equipment failure • Elimination of cost losses 5) There are six types of losses found in a manufacturing firm. 7) Overall Equipment Efficiency-Fill in the other two factors: [OEE] = [Availability x ( ……….. TPM in Offices. ……………. 9) Autonomous maintenance is a phrase coined by the Japanese institute of plant maintenance (JIPM) to describe the shift towards the machine operators ……………………… 10) PQCDS&M principles in Office TPM: In the list below principle D is missing. g) Defect losses due to reduced yields in processing 6) OEE is a way of measuring how the six major losses shown below are affecting the equipment or in other words a way of measuring the amount of …………………….) X (…………)] 8 Out of Eight pillars of TPM. b) Downtime for setups and adjustments. Safety. Health & Environment. Identify a) Downtime due to equipment failure. two are missing in the following list. c) Speed losses due to idling and minor stoppages caused by abnormal operations of censors. d) Habitual absenteism by employees e) Speed losses due to discrepancies between designed and actual speeds f) Defect losses due to process defects that cause scrap & quality problems. One among the following is not the type of loss considered in maintenance. Education & Training. Identify them Autonomous Maintenance. ………. Kobetsu-Kaizen. Development Management..
4) Ability and authority to do material planning. stores..2) Adequate resources. cost of inventory carrying. and total productive maintenance or reliability centred maintenance.16 Summary Japanese firms which implemented JIT production and TQM concepts cannot witness any machine failures that affect quality and delayed production schedules. other safety practices • M: number of kaizen activities in office areas with improvements not visible 11) Results achieved through pillar number Four are: 1) Improved customer satisfaction and reduction in future complaints 2) Reduction in ……………. 5) ……………………. 6) Ability to design ways to extend MTBF. In the TPM approach to maintenance management.. organization should have the following six features. 3) Reduction in inspection time 12) For the above type of TPM. For the above type of TPM. cost of logistics. organization should have the features of 1) Well trained maintenance crew.. 10. . 3) Ability to establish a repair plan and priorities. preventive maintenance. payroll. 2) Adequate resources. They applied TPM techniques to visually eliminate machine breakdowns. Preventive maintenance is a well planned program which involves inspection to uncover potential problem and make the necessary repairs before any breakdown occurs. The frequency of preventive maintenance must be balanced with the cost of equipment failure and keep the total costs of preventive and breakdown maintenance put together at the lowest level possible.• Q: mistakes in cheques. A comprehensive maintenance program consists of breakdown maintenance. Only five are listed. and ……………. 4) Ability and authority to do material planning. 3) Ability to establish a repair plan and priorities. etc •? • S: safety in material handling. bills. While breakdown maintenance is remedial or corrective maintenance or equipment repair when breakdown occurs. customer returns etc • C: buying cost. invoices. Which is the sixth one? 1) Well trained maintenance crew. machines are cleaned and lubricated frequently by the operators themselves who run the machines.
Reduction in costs of lost production. TPM helps to maintain process capability. What is total productive maintenance? Is it different from total preventive maintenance? . idle time. Quality circles. high standards of quality and reliability. 4. poor quality of outputs. high repair costs. Benefits of TPM includes increase in production capacity and process reliability.5) Ability to identify the cause of break downs 6) Ability to design ways to extend MTBF. TPM identifies and attacks all causes of malfunctions and eliminates all consequent losses due to breakdowns. by adopting any of the maintenance systems discussed above. TPM contributes to improved safety. Equipment problems have a direct impact on production costs. high WIP inventories and so on. an important component of TQM provides the opportunity for workers to study maintenance problems and suggest effective maintenance activities which are essential for JIT systems. employee morale and pollution control. especially with the latest TPM as a final and long range solution. Discuss on the guiding features of TPM? 3. stoppage of production. Explain briefly the evolution of maintenance practices leading to TPM. 5. Implementing TPM company-wide is major project requiring top management support. accidents to workers. safety hazards. decrease in productivity. What are the objectives of TPM? 2.17 Terminal Questions 1. 10. which may result in inefficiency of machines. formation of a target committee and program team to oversee initial planning and coordination of all TPM efforts and then transfer the responsibility to the maintenance department. All these help to improve manufacturing competitiveness of world class companies. defects. TPM has great relevance to TQM in improvement of productivity and quality. Distinguish between breakdown maintenance and preventive maintenance. product quality and production schedules. repairs. continuous improvement and has a strong strategic relevance like TQM. shortened equipment life and inventory.
no-(d)] 5. Habitual Absenteeism by employees – [Sl.18 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1. Monitoring. What are the six zero concept that are to be considered while approaching elimination of 16 Losses? 10. What is meant by ‘Overall Equipment Effectiveness’? What are its constituents? How the six losses are addressed through OEE? 8. 4. repairing. Explain briefly as to how planned maintenance under Eight pillars of TPM help achieve zero loss? 14. 10. Explain briefly the sixteen types of losses that are to be considered for elimination by the maintenance department while planning TPM activities. Which are the eight pillars that support TPM in an organization? 11. cleaning. Prevention at source 3. safe environment under TPM? 15. What are the constituents of Kobetsu Kaizen i. adjusting. Focussed Improvements and what steps are used to achieve improvement? 13. Total customer satisfaction.e. 9. Discuss the relevance of total productive maintenance to TQM framework. etc 2.6. 16. What are the unsafe practices and how these are controlled by practicing good and healthy. Describe the role of total productive maintenance in world class manufacturing. inspecting. no (d)] . Operator’s incompetency-[Sl. What are the benefits accrued to a firm by practicing TPM? 17. What are the relative issues that are recognized by maintenance department before attempting introduction of TPM in the plant? 7. What is ‘Autonomous Maintenance? What are its objectives and steps involved in implementing? 12.
Ref. “Value added” – activity 7. 10. Ref.6 5.12.7 15.‘logistic losses due to delay in support function.5 3. in information etc’ 11.1 12.6 6.10 10. payment to suppliers. 10. 10. 10. D. Maintaining their own machine / equipment 10. Ref. 10.8 8. 10. Planned Maintenance & Quality Maintenance 9. 10. 10.9 9.12.3 14.2 13. Ref. Ref. Ability to identify the cause of break downs Terminal Questions: 1. Ref. Ref.12. Ref. Performance Efficiency & Quality yield 8. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.12 11.12. 10. 10. 10.13 . 10. Defects and improved quality 12. Ref.4 2.6. 10.6 4. 10. Ref. Ref.7 7. 10.
10. 10. Ref.14 17. Ref.15 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .16. .