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2 History of Maintenance Definition of Maintenance Objectives and Functions of Maintenance 1.3 Functions of Maintenance Management Quality Aspects in Maintenance Maintenance Organisation Initial Level Repeatable Level Defined Level Managed Level Optimized Level 1.4 Improving Maturity in Maintenance Organizations Training Strategy Work Management Resources Management Supervisory Review Quality Assurance Subcontract Management
Commitment of the Maintenance Personnel. Verification of Implementation Metrics and Process Improvement 1.5 Dynamics of a Maintenance Organisation Maintenance Management Perspectives Types of Maintenance Preventive Maintenance Shut-down Maintenance Opportunistic Maintenance 1.6 Summary 1.7 Terminal Questions 1.8 Answers 1.1 Introduction Rising inflation and increased competition have brought with them the need for greater productivity, and recent years have seen more emphasis being placed on productivity improvement. Moreover, sophisticated equipment and capital intensive units and plants are being increasingly used to achieve the pre-set targets of higher production and productivity. Reliability and maintainability features are now being incorporated in the equipment designs. Although modern equipment has higher levels of reliability, it is not possible to keep this equipment in an operating condition at all times because failures do occur even in the most reliable equipment.1 It is also true that such sophisticated equipment, and units or plants, tend to have high probabilities of failure since in many cases they incorporate newer, and therefore not adequately proven, technologies and designs. They also consist of a large number of assemblies, sub-assemblies and components. Failure and malfunctioning of these items of equipment result in a loss of production. Loss of production is undesirable because it results in corresponding loss in revenue. Whenever an item of equipment is down and fails to perform its intended function, or performs in an undesirable fashion, it must be restored to a state where it performs satisfactorily. At the same time all necessary action must be taken to keep, or retain, such equipment in an operating condition and also to prevent failures. Resources, such as spare parts, manpower skills, tools, instruments and facilities, such as hangars in the case of
aircraft maintenance, are utilized for accomplishment of the restoration processes and preventive actions. Thus the requirement for productivity improvement has brought about the pressing need for a significant improvement in the management of maintenance of equipment, units and plants. Objectives: After studying this unit you shall be able · To Define Maintenance · To assess objective and functions of Maintenance · To describe Quality aspect of Maintenance · To assess key process of Maintenance Management 1.2 History of Maintenance Historically, maintenance activities have been regarded as a necessary evil by the various management functions in an organisation. Enormous costs of maintenance, estimated to be between 15 and 40 per cent of the production costs and the trend towards automation have, however, forced managers to pay more attention to maintenance. The evolution of maintenance can be traced from the days prior to World War II. The attitude of the managers then was ‘to fix the equipment when it breaks’. With fewer items of sophisticated equipment around, and hence, the cost of downtime not being high, prevention of equipment failures was not given much attention. Maintenance, in addition to fixing the broken equipment, involved simple activities like cleaning and lubrication. The period after World War II saw the introduction of the word ‘terotechnology’ which was initially defined by the committee on terotechnology as ‘…a combination of management, financial, engineering and other practices applied to physical assets in pursuit of economic life-cycle costs’. Due to rising costs and inflation, focus was on reducing downtime of equipment and hence preventive maintenance came into being as an important activity. This period also saw a number of researchers working on operations research models for preventive maintenance. Importance of planning maintenance activities also grew during this period. Overhauls of equipment were planned and scheduled. Systems for managing maintenance were also introduced. The period after 1980 has seen some of the worst accidents in industrial history. Leakage of methyl isocyanite (MIC) from a battery/cell manufacturing unit in Bhopal in India and the threat to the survival of mankind caused by the nuclear accident at Chernobyl in the erstwhile Soviet Union have only made the manufacturing industries and the like realize the importance of maintenance. The attitude of ignorance towards maintenance has increasingly been replaced by one which recognizes maintenance also as a strategic issue in the organisation. Besides high cost, the other factors which contributed to this change
which is linked to the overall organizational objectives. ageing plant and equipment. Performing maintenance activities requires the use of resources such as spare parts. In case an item of equipment fails it needs to be restored to the same specified operating condition. should. The objective of maintenance. The set of tasks or activities that constitute maintenance ranges from simple cleaning operations and lubrication to performing condition monitoring. The availability and utilization of these resources are of prime importance. The need for reliable equipment has also been realized. Performing such activities would obviously extend the useful life of the equipment. that are related to preserving equipment in a specified operating condition. and warranty and liability factors. drive for cost reduction and the like. .include: environmental concerns. or tasks. or restoring failed equipment to a normal operating condition. at minimum resource cost. Maintenance can thus be defined as a set of activities. Alternatively the objective should be to minimize the costs – the labour costs and the material costs as well as the loss in revenue due to loss of production. an item of equipment in a specified operating condition.1 Definition of Maintenance Maintenance is an element of a complete production system. safety issues. in general. 1. maintenance activities which do not contribute to preserving or restoring the intended functions of assets should be eliminated. Maintenance. or keeping. neural networks and Markov chains have been used for controlling and managing maintenance activities.2 Objectives and Functions of Maintenance The objective of any business organisation is to make profits. · organizing maintenance resources. maintenance programmes have to be developed to ensure that physical assets will continue to fulfill their intended functions at a minimum expenditure of resources. the principal objectives of maintenance would be: · to control the availability of the equipment. means preserving. or return the equipment to an acceptable working condition. be to maximize the profitability of the organisation by performing activities which retain working equipment in an acceptable condition. 1. In summary.2. Obviously. · To extend the useful life of the equipment. and planning and scheduling maintenance resources. To live up to the new expectations demanded of maintenance activities. regulatory matters. including staffing/recruiting.2. manpower. tools and facilities. Modern maintenance management can be considered to be composed of the following functions: · maintenance planning. therefore. Techniques such as condition monitoring.
· directing execution of maintenance plan. Maintenance planning includes formulating and identifying organisation-wide policies that would help achieve higher maintenance productivity such as: · Do we repair the equipment or buy a new one? · Do we perform preventive maintenance or corrective maintenance activities? · Do we employ full-time repair personnel or should we subcontract work? Self Assessment Questions 1. . Maintenance planning includes formulating and identifying ___________ policies. at minimum ________________. 3. involved simple activities like cleaning and lubrication. 4. 2. · Budgeting. 5. Maintenance is an element of a complete ___________ system. · defining processes for performing maintenance. The attitude of ______________ towards maintenance has increasingly been replaced by one which recognizes maintenance. · controlling the performance of maintenance activities. The principal objectives of maintenance would be to control the availability of the equipment. _____________ in addition to fixing the broken equipment.
work and . In case the task does not get completed within the estimated time then corrective action would need to be taken to ensure further loss in revenue due to loss in production is minimized. the maintenance activity can be initiated.3 Functions of Maintenance Management Responsibility for formulating the maintenance policies lies with top management. This will lead to degradation of equipment performance and can also result in its failure. If the required resources are not available. Another important task is creation of a master maintenance schedule. Once the activity is complete. The maintenance manager should track the work to completion. a review by the manager or the maintenance supervisor would be essential to ensure and authorize that the maintenance work has been carried out properly. The top management is also responsible for negotiating and authorizing the service level agreement. Once the required resources are available.1. then the planned maintenance activity cannot be performed. This way not only is the downtime cost kept to the minimum but also the resources are utilized effectively. the maintenance manager needs to organize the required resources and all these resources need to be available in the right quantity and at the right time. Any maintenance activity requires resources. In order to carry out maintenance activities as planned. The maintenance manager should ensure that the equipment is restored to its normal working condition as quickly as possible. This is a statement of maintenance tasks to be carried out in a specified period. Other common tasks related to maintenance management include generating reports related to equipment.
1. when performed properly. instruments and facilities for performing the activity. · the required tools. measured and improved. It also includes activities related to collection and analysis of data related to maintenance and reporting to top management. and the skill. An important step in addressing the maintenance management problems is to treat the maintenance task as a process that can be controlled. produces the desired result. A ‘process’ can be defined as a set of tasks that.1 Quality Aspects in Maintenance Quality is not absolute but relative. the tools and procedures used.3. the need is for a good maintenance organisation. · the required spare parts in the required quantity. 1. The above-mentioned conditions can be satisfied only when the maintenance organisation has: · skilled and committed repair men available to carry out the required maintenance activity at the required time. · it is initiated on time and the equipment is returned to production at the · required time. · an appropriate ‘on-the-job’ training programme for the repair men to enhance their ability to work.2 Maintenance Organisation Maintenance organisation does not mean only the organisation of people in the maintenance department or their reporting structure.3. · A repository of maintenance processes. An effective maintenance process must consider the relationships of all the tasks. without causing · any damage to the equipment or to any of its parts. A maintenance activity can be considered to be of high quality if: · it restores an item of equipment to its normal working state. It is more to do with the maturity of the maintenance process such that high-quality maintenance activities are performed. · It incurs not more than the budgeted cost. training and motivation of the people .costs. · In general.
the organisation achieves the foundation for continuous improvement in processes. 2.3. To reach the defined level.5 Defined Level The organisation has a repository or a set of defined procedures for carrying out development work.*9 The CMM was defined by the software engineering institute (SEI) for software development organizations and it classifies software development organizations into five levels initial. Commit resources to execute the plan. 1. that is. cost estimates and plans. defined. Understand the status of the current maintenance process or processes. 1. With this. 1. List down required process improvement actions. the most important ones being project management. organizations must have dedicated personnel who take care of the development processes. To improve the capabilities of the maintenance organisation the following steps8 must be performed consistently: 1. The performance of these steps calls for a process-oriented organisation and such an organisation develops over a period of time as enunciated by the capability maturity model (CMM).3. 5.involved. In order to improve performance.3. 3.3 Initial Level The organisation operates on an ad hoc basis.3. Tools are neither integrated with the process nor uniformly applied. Plan to perform the required actions. organizations at this level need to institutionalize basic management processes. quality assurance and project tracking and oversight. The strength to carry out similar activities stems from the prior experience.4 Repeatable Level Organizations which carry out similar projects with reasonable accuracy with regard to cost and time are at this level. To climb up the maturity level. 1. Determine if the current process is the desired process. organizations at this level face risks when presented with new challenges. 4. the organisation has to implement a measurement programme to obtain process feedback. repeatable. The organisation now has capabilities to face new challenges and achieve success.6 Managed Level . However. without formalized procedures. managed and optimized.
The CMM can be adapted to enhance the capabilities of the maintenance organizations as well. To reach the highest level on the CMM. · supervisory review. cost estimates and plans. when performed properly. produces the undesired result. Quality is not absolute but relative. Since the data collection process is full-fledged. A ‘process’ can be defined as a set of tasks that. · work management. 9. the organisation needs to put in place automatic data collection support tools. A few key process areas can be readily identified in this regard. · resources management. Problems are identified proactively and eliminated.3. The organisation operates on an ad hoc basis. Responsibility for formulating the maintenance policies lies with shop Supervisors.4 Improving Maturity in Maintenance Organizations The key process areas (KPAs) involved in enhancing the capability and maturity of a software organisation. The objective is only to identify the key process areas that would enable maintenance organizations to enhance their capabilities and maturity. 1. Any maintenance activity requires resources. without formalized procedures. the effectiveness of the process can also be determined. The objective is not to classify the maintenance organizations also into one of these levels. Targets are set for performance and a plan is made out to achieve the pre-set targets. 8. 10. 1.The organisation has a way by which performance indicators are measured objectively. . · quality assurance. 7.7 Optimized Level The organisation has capabilities to identify the weakest links in the development processes and eliminate/improve them. They are: · training strategy. Self Assessment Questions State whether following statement True or False 6. that is.
For example. can be provided on safety and productivity-related issues. scheduled and conducted. Individual as well as organisation-wide training programmes should be planned. Resource here means manpower. a welder may be re-trained to perform a pipefitter’s job. Every maintenance activity should be planned. in one organisation an activity that takes only 15 minutes for completion is considered to be small. The term ‘small activity’ should be defined by the quality assurance personnel because it varies from one organisation to another. 1.2 Work Management Any activity. For small activities. Management of resources is therefore critical to managing the maintenance function. facilities etc. 1. This is referred to as the work-breakdown structure.4. The supervisor’s responsibility is to ensure that the required resources allotted for performing . Coordination within a group is critical to completion of the maintenance task on time.3 Resources Management As mentioned earlier. scheduled and tracked to completion. Most maintenance activities are performed in groups. The maintenance manager should identify the training needs of his subordinates and get them trained. It would not be appropriate to track every small activity in the work-breakdown structure to completion. An organisation may not always find suitable people for performing a job. a small maintenance activity may take not less than 5 hours. manpower. for example. The required resources should be available at the right time and in the right quantity.1 Training Strategy Every maintenance organisation should have a suitable training programme for its personnel. 1. In some others. For example. tools. Training. is not managed if it is not planned and tracked. 1. A maintenance activity should be broken down into smaller manageable tasks. Also the probable time to complete the tasks should be specified. maintenance activities require resources in the form of spare parts.4. instruments and facilities.4.· Subcontract management. irrespective of the time it consumes. Each of the tasks in the work-breakdown structure should have appropriate resources assigned to it. In such a case it is better if some of the available personnel are re-trained on some trades other than those in which they have specialized. Holding resources in excess of requirements is wasteful while non-availability of required resources at the required time is undesirable since this result in loss of revenue due to loss in production.4. It therefore becomes necessary to train all the maintenance personnel on the aspects of team work. such as an oil refinery. a bull’s eye chart may be appropriate for tracking work. usage of modern tools etc.4 Supervisory Review Every maintenance activity should be performed under the charge of a supervisor. This is the responsibility of the maintenance manager. tools.
The selection of the subcontractor should be planned. is expensive.6 Subcontract Management A few maintenance activities require specialists at the job.5 Quality Assurance The quality assurance personnel should be responsible for identifying the optimum route for performing a maintenance activity.4. tools etc. These factors have also been borrowed from the CMM. 1. Ability of the maintenance personnel can be enhanced by providing them with proper and relevant training. Five important factors need to be taken care of if each of the key process areas mentioned above need to be implemented in the maintenance organisation. The assessment of the subcontractor can be done by inviting each to present their capabilities and verification of claims through independent references.4. The maintenance manager can also visit premises to inspect the capabilities and to get firsthand information. Increasing the ability to perform. Yet another goal would be to verify the correctness of the work performed. This involves establishment of policies and top management sponsorship. in most cases. The subcontractor manager should select a suitable subcontractor based on a balanced assessment of the capabilities of prospective subcontractors. 1. and for analyzing them in order to come up with improved routes and work processes. A few more basic areas like maintenance planning and configuration management would also need to be considered. They are responsible for collecting data while the maintenance activity is carried out.4.8 Verification of Implementation .7 Commitment of the Maintenance Personnel The repair men need to be committed to perform the maintenance activities. Once the activity is complete. The supervisor should also report completion of the activity to the maintenance manager so that the actual costs incurred are logged. Hiring these specialists on a full-time basis. 1. List of activities. the supervisor should inspect the equipment in order to ensure that the equipment is performing as desired. Like any other internal maintenance activity. The repair men should be provided with a list of activities that need to be performed as a part of the maintenance. The supervisor should also guide the repair gang in performing the activity. subcontracted work should also be managed. 1. A better option is to subcontract the work.4.the maintenance activity are available to the repair gang on time and in the required numbers. The goals of the subcontract management should be to evaluate and select appropriate subcontractors for performing the maintenance activities. This is the work order management process.
1. The maintenance manager. The resources. The selection of the ______________should be planned. They are as follows: 1. Every maintenance organisation should have a suitable ___________ for its personnel. The supervisor group. Metrics and process improvement is a ___________________. Ability of the __________________ can be enhanced by providing them with proper and relevant training. tools etc. Feedback on the maintenance activity performed should be given to the concerned repair men. The key process areas (KPAs) involved in enhancing the capability and maturity of a ____________________. 14. The maintenance manager is responsible for scheduling maintenance activities. 4. including manpower.4. 13. The supervisor should also make use of this opportunity to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the individual repair men and arrange suitable training for them. 3.5 Dynamics of a Maintenance Organisation Coordination within the groups is one of the most important factors that determine the effectiveness of any maintenance organisation. Gathering metrics on every maintenance activity helps in estimating the time requirements and also the cost. 15. estimated time to complete the work. 1. Measurement of maintenance activity can be in terms of percentage of work complete to date. 2. An activity is scheduled (as far as possible during the production windows in the case of preventive maintenance) and initiated depending on the availability of the required . Self Assessment Questions 11. the maintenance productivity and quality of the maintenance work. 12.The supervisor of the repair men should verify the completion/ implementation of the maintenance activity. Four entities are important as far as the maintenance activities are concerned.9 Metrics and Process Improvement This is a continuous process. The quality assurance group. materials and tools.
Maintenance is carried out while the equipment is running. The equipment is in a failed condition. this is called corrective maintenance. Ettkin and Jahnig have described the work life cycle for the reactive and proactive perspectives. Since the equipment is not in an operating condition this maintenance activity results in considerable loss of production. This activity involves simple inspection of replaceable parts. 5. It can be seen from the above that there are two perspectives of maintenance management: 1. this is called preventive maintenance. the quality assurance group collects data on the process and analyses them with a view to improving the process. The equipment is running and is producing the desired output. (2) and (3). 4. At any time. 2. Due to shortage of resources the maintenance activity is pending. The equipment is in a failed condition. an item of equipment or some part of it can be in one of the five following states: 1. The equipment is taken out of production for a scheduled maintenance activity. 3. The key distinction among the three perspectives relates to the time interval between the recognition of the need to perform a maintenance activity and the time at which the . As the maintenance activity is carried out. Fix it when it breaks as in cases (4) and (5). Prevent it from breaking down as in cases (1). Maintenance is being carried out to restore the equipment to an operable condition. Since the equipment is being taken out of production this maintenance activity results in loss of production. This is called the ‘production window’. The maintenance manager tracks the activity to completion while the supervisor inspects and ensures the activity is carried out properly. The quality assurance group determines the process of performing the maintenance activity in an optimized manner. They have divided corrective maintenance into two perspectives – ‘reactive’ and ‘reactive/proactive’ –and have defined preventive maintenance as a ‘proactive’ perspective. Since the equipment is in use there is no loss in production while performing this maintenance activity.resources.5. 1. The equipment is not wanted for production and is available for maintenance.1 Maintenance Management Perspectives Kelly has described the dynamics of a production maintenance system considering a large process plant. This maintenance activity also does not incur any loss in production. 2. Relatively more time is spent on performing this type of maintenance activity.
5. v Evaluation of the performance. All the maintenance activities. the direct costs increase. Availability of an item of equipment can be defined as the ratio of uptime to the sum of uptime and downtime. which is an indirect cost. involve the following steps: v planning the maintenance task. is proportional to the loss in revenue. The cost of utilization of these resources is a direct maintenance cost.2 Types of Maintenance The return of investment on an item of equipment can be maximized by maximizing its availability. There is rarely any organisation where only one type of maintenance is used. Performing a maintenance activity requires usage of resources such as manpower. The cost of unavailability. v performing the maintenance task. When an item of equipment is down it results in loss of production which. in the case of nuclear submarines. The intention is to detect potential failures early. for example. The total maintenance cost is the sum of direct maintenance costs. 1.5. materials and tools. which are primarily due to loss of production. consisting of labour costs. material costs and direct overheads. As the level of performing maintenance activity increases. The preventive actions under such a situation would be to: . The only difference is that of the time interval. The following section describes the preventive. This approach to maintenance becomes essential for any equipment where there are serious dangers to life should a failure occur. This is an approach developed to reduce the likelihood of the failure of critical equipment to the minimum possible. results in loss of revenue. The level of maintenance activity to be performed is obviously the one where the total cost is minimal. In the case of the ‘reactive’ perspective. 1. there is a trade-off between the maintenance costs and their benefits. in turn. regardless of the maintenance perspectives. and indirect maintenance costs. Most situations warrant a considerable mixture of maintenance types. corrective and other maintenance practices followed in organizations. v scheduling the maintenance task. the time interval between the recognition and performance is very small as compared to the ‘proactive’ perspective. Just as there is a trade-off between inventory holding costs and the reordering costs. Also the indirect costs resulting due to failure decrease.activity is actually performed. make changes and prevent failures. the ship and its entire crew are in mortal danger. If personnel who operate and maintain the nuclear power plant of the submarine make serious mistakes.3 Preventive Maintenance Preventive maintenance is a proactive activity.
· Replacement of worn-out parts. The fixed time should not be based on the calendar units but should be based on a fixed number of running units such as kilometers. which includes lubrication. the level of distilled water in the battery of an automobile is checked after every 1000 kilometers and the brush ploughs of a grinding mill should be replaced after every 500 hours of running. or after generation of a fixed cumulative output. · Condition-based maintenance. and the commanding officer must promptly report on the corrective actions. This type of maintenance activity is applicable only for those items which exhibit a time-dependent failure . These objectives give rise to the following methods of performing preventive · maintenance activities: · fixed-time maintenance. · Detect the onset of a failure. power plants etc. Analyze even the most trivial errors to determine what went wrong.. · Audit the personnel so that they demonstrate satisfactory performance to their job standards. and replacement of those which are worn out. These activities can prevent serious errors from occurring. This approach to maintenance is also important in highly automated plants. · Inspect each ship and each operation to ensure that every procedure and method is properly understood and executed. hours etc. where the cost due to loss in production is very high. Primary objectives of this approach to maintenance are to: · Increase the life of critical equipment by preventing failures. · servicing. adjustment and similar activities. Planned · activities are carried out and the main functions are: · inspection of critical parts of the equipment. Fixed-time maintenance is that activity which involves inspection of critical parts of the equipment after a fixed time interval. · Report deviations to the admiral-in-charge. such as car assembly. For example.· Train all the personnel in their own jobs.
correlating to the onset of failure has been identified. Techniques such as oil analysis. corrective maintenance is predominant. shock pulses etc. A simple case of condition-based maintenance is the visual examination of the brake pads of an automobile. generally occurring in the form of breakdown maintenance. For example. ultrasonic waves and thermographs also help monitor the condition of the equipment. as mentioned earlier. Complex situations require sensors and other high-tech tools to monitor the vibrations. and then the parts have to be repaired or replaced. Detailed analysis helps in detecting an impending failure. eddy currents. Corrective maintenance activities are also performed when condition monitoring indicates onset of a failure. on the other hand. such as the setting of warning limits for the Solidification of the lubricant. In organizations where there are very few production windows. which the case is when the event leading to failure occurs in a predominantly random manner. replacement of failed parts with new ones. if repair is not economical.mechanism. or how the failure can be prevented is not yet known. It is an appropriate option for preventive maintenance when the following conditions apply: Prevention of failure is not technically feasible. These methods. This type of maintenance is called running maintenance. The costs involved in condition monitoring may vary widely. This approach is designed to detect the onset of a failure. the maintenance personnel can also collect data which can be used as inputs by other methods of condition-based maintenance procedures. A parameter. There is a cost due to loss in production. With this kind of maintenance policy. the solidification of the lubricant is an indicator of the machine’s wearing condition. checking for leaks in fuel-carrying pipes. analysis of acoustic emissions. is a reactive activity and is performed when an item of equipment is not in an operating condition or is operating at a level below its rated capacity. Since condition monitoring gives sufficient warning of an impending failure it becomes easy for the maintenance manager to plan a corrective activity at a later time. This method of condition-based maintenance is inexpensive. In some situations it is possible to carry out some preventive maintenance activities while the equipment or plant is running. It is possible to identify a value of that parameter when action may be taken before full failure occurs. cracks in the structure of a building etc. Along with inspection. which can be measured either visually or by other means. are expensive. The obvious advantage of carrying out running maintenance is that there is no loss in production. Damage is caused to other equipment as a consequence of failure. Although. Running maintenance is normally carried out in situations where there is no threat to the life of the maintenance personnel. Corrective Maintenance Corrective maintenance. the maintenance-related costs are usually high for the following reasons: The time required is usually much higher than other maintenance types because the cause of failure has to be identified. the time required to perform this activity is . This is a proactive-reactive approach to maintenance and results in the following tasks: repair of failed parts of the equipment. Condition-based maintenance is also known as predictive maintenance.
. The work is deferred to a later date if the priority is low or the equipment is not so critical. The next chapter describes a few resources management techniques. Minor repairs which cannot be performed while the equipment is running. Depending on the availability of resources. as well as major repairs and overhauls.5. 17. Once an item of equipment fails. criticality of the equipment and the priority. are carried out after the equipment or plant is shut down. 1.4 Shut-down Maintenance Shut-down maintenance can either be a preventive activity or a corrective activity. corrective maintenance work is scheduled and carried out.much higher than the preventive actions require.5 Opportunistic Maintenance The maintenance work that is carried out is not directed at the primary cause of failure of the equipment or shut-down. This approach to maintenance is called opportunistic maintenance. the maintenance department personnel attempt to detect the cause of the failure. 20. Whatever be the choice of the maintenance policy. repair and replace certain other parts of the equipment. When a maintenance activity is carried out on an item of equipment there exists some opportunity to inspect. 1. The maintenance work that is carried out is not directed at the primary cause of failure of the equipment or shut-down. an emergency maintenance is carried out. The cost of utilization of the resources is a indirect maintenance cost. If the priority is high or alternatively if the equipment is critical. The maintenance manager is responsible for scheduling maintenance activities. we also realize that failures are unavoidable. most situations in organizations warrant a mixture of maintenance types. Shut-down maintenance can either be a preventive activity or a corrective activity. 19. While we know that prevention is better than cure. Self Assessment Questions State whether the following statement True or False 16. The cause is usually recorded for future analysis and corrective actions are prescribed. The types of maintenance discussed in this section will help top management decide on questions like: should we carry out preventive actions? Or should we fix the equipment when it breaks? As mentioned earlier. Five entities are important as far as the maintenance activities are concerned. Trained maintenance personnel also have a role to play in reducing the maintenance time. it should be closely associated or integrated with the resources management function.5. this can be reduced considerably if the organisation has all the maintenance procedures and systems in place. 18.
7 Terminal Questions 1. What are the steps involved in Maintenance Organisation. True 8. it has now come to be accepted as an important function – one of strategic importance – particularly in the capital-intensive continuous-process industries such as power plants. False 7. Maintenance 2. Plant and equipment availability is of paramount importance and effective management of the maintenance function goes a long way in ensuring the attainment of the objective of maximization of availability 1. Ignorance 3.8 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1.6 Summary Until recently. This transformation has taken place in about 40 years and has brought about automation and increasing sophistication of plant and equipment. Resource Cost 5. What are the features of Preventive Maintenance? 1. 2. and integrated iron and steel works. 3. maintenance of plant and machinery was a thankless job and the maintenance function was considered a necessary evil. Explain Objectives and Functions of Maintenance. chemical and fertilizer plants. True . Production 4. 4. From this state. Discuss Dynamics of a Maintenance Organisation. Write a note on History of Maintenance. and has been hastened by the fact that the loss of one hour of production is much more expensive today than it ever was before. nuclear power generating stations. 5.1. Organisation-wide 6.
False Terminal Questions 1.1 2.3 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .2. True 11.4 5. True 20. False 17. Page 2 – Part 1. Page 6 – Part 1. True 18. Maintenance Personnel 14. Software organisation 12. False 10.2 3.9.2 4. Page 3 – Part 1. Continuous Process 16. . False 19. Subcontractor 15.4.Page 11 – Part 1. Training programme 13.1. Page 10 – Part 1.
OM0006-Unit-02-Business Maintenance Unit-02-Business Maintenance Structure: 2.6 Summary 2.4 Tools and Facilities 2.2 Man Power 2.3 Spare Parts Statistical Inventory Theory Models Inventory Costs How Much to Order? When to Order? Selective Inventory Control Procedures Manufacturing Resource Planning The Bill of Materials Master production Schedule Inventory Status File Requirements Pegging Rescheduling Process 2.7 Terminal Questions .1 Introduction Objectives 2.5 Effect of Maintenance types on Resources 2.
For example. The procedures used are similar to those used for determining the optimal number of repair gangs required for carrying out maintenance activities. The disadvantage of assigning a maintenance job to a repair gang or crew is that the manpower utilization within the gang is not effective. An important issue in manpower is that of determining the optimal number of skilled repair workers. In this study the characteristics of the maintenance resources are discussed. a maintenance job may require the services of a welder for just about an hour whereas the same job may require a fitter for more than four hours. Manan . requires some knowledge of the rate of failure (called arrival rate) and the repair distribution.2. Objectives: After studying this unit you shall be able · To explain the characteristics of the maintenance resources · To define techniques used for managing the maintenance resources · To assess comparison of the available resources management techniques 2. However. not all skills are required for the same amount of time. fitting. plumbers etc. which utilize the theory of minimizing the total cost of unavailability and labor. manpower. A Maintenance job is usually performed by a repair gang or repair crew consisting of an optimal mix of skilled workers. plumbers etc. Queuing models. can be used to determine the optimal number of welders. Techniques used for managing the maintenance resources are also discussed. Historically. which utilize the theory of minimizing the total cost of unavailability and labor. One solution to this problem would be to schedule individual workers rather than repair gangs. rigging etc. however. Basker. Queuing models and simulation have been used also for determining the optimal number of tools and facilities such that the maintenance costs are minimized.8 Answers 2. An important issue in manpower is that of determining the optimal number of skilled repair workers.2 Man Power Almost all the maintenance activities require skilled personnel and most of the activities require more than one skill such as welding. Queuing models.1 Introduction For performing any maintenance activity resources are required. simulation techniques and queuing models have been used for determining the optimal number of repair gangs required to be deployed in a system. The usage of the models. can be used to determine the optimal number of welders. Important among these are maintenance materials (spare parts). tools and facilities.
Using selective control procedures along with some heuristics. 2. Barnett and Blundell have used the Monte Carlo simulation technique to optimize the number of repair gangs and the size of the repair gangs given that the maintenance jobs generate demand for repair workers from three different trades’ mechanics. stock-out and ordering costs. two basic questions need to be answered: · How Much to Order? · When to Order? . Newman and Brammer and Malmborg have utilized a material requirements planning/bill of materials approach to manage the manpower resources. Using the material requirements planning/manufacturing resources planning (MRP/ MRP-II) technique. on the other hand.1 Statistical Inventory Theory Models 2. The objective of spare parts management is therefore to minimize the total of inventory holding. In general. 3.and Husband have used the Monte Carlo simulation technique to determine the optimal number of repair workers required to perform the maintenance activities in a shop comprising a finite number of identical machines. electricians and pipe-fitters. In addition to the holding and stock-out costs. 2.3. Maintaining the spare parts in a store also incurs some cost.1.3 Spare Parts The spare parts (maintenance material) problems have been traditionally approached in three ways: 1. 2. By holding spare parts in the inventory the funds of the organization are tied up which could have otherwise been invested in other activities.1 Inventory Costs Every organization keeps spare parts so that defective and worn-out parts of equipment can be replaced. and the number of repair gangs required such that the total costs (sum of labor cost and downtime cost) are minimized.3. there is also a cost of ordering a re-supply of spare parts. Using the statistical inventory theory models. The objective is to determine the number of repair workers needed to constitute a repair gang. not having the required spare part results in a stock-out cost.
100.2 How Much to Order? Several models have been developed based on the principle of minimizing the total inventory costs. . During this period. Then the holding cost is given by where p is the unit price of the item and r is the annual stockholding rate related to the stock value. The total inventory cost TIC = the holding cost + ordering cost. This provision normally takes the form of safety stock which is determined based on the service level.3. Thus The minimum of TIC can be obtained by differentiating the above equation with respect to Q and equating the resulting derivative to 0. 8. These models help determine what has been traditionally known as the optimum order quantity. the demand for spare parts resulting from the need to perform maintenance activities needs to be satisfied. If the annual demand for an item is D.2. 2. then the number of orders to be placed is given by The ordering cost is. Let Q be the ordering quantity.00 The unit price of the item is Rs.1. is 1000. The complexity of the problem lies in the fact that neither the demand nor the lead-time is constant.00 The rate of interest is 20 per cent annually Then the optimum order quantity. obtained by utilizing the above equation for Q. The service level is defined as the probability of not having a stock-out situation. where c is the cost per order.3. Thus. we have If The annual demand D for an item is 8000 units The cost of placing an order is Rs. Mathematical models are however available to determine the timing of placing an order taking into consideration the characteristics of the demand during the lead-time as well as the lead-time itself. The following is an illustration of a basic inventory model which takes into account the holding and the ordering costs. this is referred to as the lead-time. The maintenance manager must make sufficient provisions to take care of demand during the lead-time because the cost of stock-out is undesirable in any situation.3 When to Order? An order placed with a vendor for re-supply of spare parts takes some time to get filled.1. therefore.
4) _______________ and queuing models have been used for determining the optimal number of repair gangs. Instead effort was concentrated on a few expensive and fast-moving items.Self Assessment Question 1) Maintenance job is usually performed by a _____________or repair crew consisting of an optimal mix. slow and non-moving Usage rate of the parts High. By this method the spare parts are classified into nine Basics Of Formulation Annual usage value of the parts Vital. the safety stock and the minimum and maximum inventory levels require to be determined for each of the items in the stores.2 Selective Inventory Control Procedures The statistical inventory control techniques require that each item. paying equal attention to all the inventory items was not feasible. medium.1 Most applications found in the literature make use of a combination of selective inventory control procedures because classification or categorization of items based on just one criterion is inadequate for managing the maintenance materials. difficult and easy to procure Procurement lead-times . essential and desirable Criticality of the parts Fast. Items were categorized into homogeneous groups based on their characteristics. 2) Several models have been developed based on the principle of minimizing the total _____________. low Unit price of the parts Scarce. This is the principle of the selective inventory control procedures. Technique Description ABC Pareto rule VED FSN HML SDE Table 2. irrespective of its criticality. The re-order quantity. During the days when computers were not available. Ramani and Krishnan Kutty have utilized an ABC×VED classification technique where not only the annual value of usage of the part is taken into account but also the criticality of the part is given importance. a few of which have been listed. 3) Every organization keeps spare parts so that defective and ___________ of equipment can be replaced. Several procedures for classifying items into homogeneous groups are available. be given equal importance. 2. The following paragraphs describe some of the applications involving a combination of selective inventory control procedures.3.
If a substitute part is readily available then the part may be less critical. Although the selective control procedures make the managing of the multiple inventory items easier. a range of service level is specified. makes use of a combination of ABC. which makes use of the ABC classification criteria. The first dimension utilizes a VED classification methodology. VED and the SDE classification procedures which results in eight categories of items as shown in table 2.6m where m is the maximum quantity of parts requested at any time. statistical inventory control models or heuristics are utilized to determine the ordering parameters such as the order point and the order quantity. Saha and Mohanty have developed a spare parts stocking policy with an objective of minimizing the downtime of critical equipment. For instance. There are several ways by which the criticality of a part can be defined. which is based on the procurement leadtime while the third dimension makes use of the FSN classification (usage rate). while the categories formed on the basis of criticality of the parts are critical and non-critical. the stocking policy for a spare part in the V/S/F category is 2. Moreover. . the multi-unit spare inventory control. fi is the number of failures per unit time involving the part i. it should be noted that most of the classification criteria are subjective. A reorder point-order quantity technique is used in conjunction with this method for replenishment of parts. A three dimensional classification technique has been used for the purpose. MUSIC-3D.2. The two categories formed on the basis of sales value are high sales value and low sales value. which categorizes the spare parts into groups based on their criticality. For example. The second dimension uses an SDE classification. and Ni is the standard deviation of the downtime cost (E denotes expectation). For each of the nine categories. The second dimension makes use of the criticality aspect of the spare part and is based on the revenue lost due to loss in production (Mi) which is given by where pi is the downtime cost per unit time per failure involving the concerned part. The first dimension. A part may be classified as a critical part if the consequence of running out of stock is severe. It is the time required to replace or repair the part.categories. Tayi and Levy have utilized a two-dimensional classification method. In other words. takes into account the annual usage value Bi of the part i and is given by where Ci is the price of the part and Di is the total annual demand. Duchessi. The stocking policies for each of the 27 categories are determined using heuristics. in the categories formed on the basis of lead-times are long lead-time and short lead-time. a part may be called critical if the loss of production caused by non-availability of the part is very high. These eight categories have been formed by taking only two categories in each of the three dimensions.
Later in this section.3 Manufacturing Resources Planning The manufacturing resources planning (MRP-II) technique has been used widely for managing production resources. any manufacturing organization would want to have the following questions answered: · How much to order? · When to order? Both these questions are also answered by the MRP technique. the application of MRP is also very simple. It can also be considered to be an assembly definition.2 2. in general. As mentioned earlier in this section. The bill of materials. It is an operations as well as a financial system. As seen in the figure. This section provides a brief overview of the closed-loop technique. The technique is based on the principle of dependent demand. The components can either be manufactured in the shop or can be boughtout items.1 The Bill of Materials The bill of materials defines how one or more items are brought together to make up another item. It consists of a master production schedule. In addition to this. or derived from the demand of another inventory item.3. The components in the diagram have been described briefly. a logic processor and a capacity planning subsystem. It is also a system simulator. in a raw. 2. the crankshaft assembly and the cylinder assembly. the piston rings and the bearings. The piston assembly.1 shows the components of MRP. The central idea of MRP is to time production/acquisition of batches of parts/components so that they are available as they are required in assemblies. is made up of the piston. the petrol engine is an end-item. Figure 2.3. The immediate . an inventory status file.2 shows the bill of materials for a petrol engine. MRP-II possesses two basic characteristics which go beyond the closed-loop material requirements planning (MRP). All other constituents of the petrol engine are referred to as items. in turn. The demand for an inventory item is termed dependent when it is directly related to. An end-item is an item at the highest level of hierarchy in the bill of materials. The bill of materials indicates that the engine consist of three subassemblies – the piston assembly.Table 2. semi-finished or finished form.3. a bill of materials file. defines the constituents of an end-item. Figure 2. some applications involving management of maintenance inventories are also discussed.
The MRP technique uses the bill of materials for computing the requirements through a process called explosion or desegregation. for example. the bill of materials also indicates the quantity of an item that goes into making a parent item.2 two bearings (indicated in parenthesis) go into the making of a piston assembly. The bill of materials also carries with it some other information such as whether the part is bought out or is manufactured within the organization. In addition to defining the relationship between items. The piston. As seen from Figure 2. Figure 2. is an item whose parent is the piston assembly.1 .predecessor of an item is called the parent item.
In order to make the computation of the requirements easy.Figure 2. This includes raw materials. Also. The master production schedule indicates the quantity of items to be produced in a given period.2 Master production Schedule A master production schedule is a statement of production of end-items for a given planning horizon. As shown in Table 220.127.116.11 tones of tools need to be produced every month on average.3. This is further broken down into a schedule for specific variants of carbide tools such as SPAN 50. 2. the top management has budgeted 6 tones of carbide tools to be produced during the year. TPAN 75 and CPAN 75 that need to be produced. The priorities for the production of items specified in the master production schedule are set by the sales plan. There may be a case where an item is used in two different end items. The requirement at one level is computed first before proceeding to the next level. which is a budget set by the management. semi-finished and finished parts. level codes are assigned such that identical items used in different end-items are maintained at the same level. It states what end-items need to be produced and how many needs to be produced in a month or week. Since the demand for carbide tools is all through the year.2 Every item in the bill of materials is given a number or code such that no two parts have the same number.3. this can be broken down into 12 production months. This would mean that 0. The master production schedule is constrained by the production plan. . The quantity of all the items to be produced in a given period must equal the quantity budgeted in the production plan as shown in Table 2. it may so happen that the items are used at two different levels.3. The total weight of the variants scheduled for production during the month when totaled equals the budgeted weight as shown in Table 2.
3.3 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.5 0.3 0.1 0.3 Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 0.1 0.5 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.2 0.0 0.2 CPAN 50 0.5 Tools Master Schedule SPAN 50 0.3. the inventory status file also contains the planning factors such as the procurement or manufacturing lead-times.3 0.Item code Jan Production Plan Carbide 0.4 Requirements Pegging . the inventory status file maintains the following data for every item: · Quantity on-hand.2 0.1 0.3 Inventory Status File The inventory status file contains up-to-date information about all the materials stocked in the stores. the scrap allowances etc. the batch sizing policy.5 0.3 0.2 0.5 0.1 0.1 Table 2.1 0. 2.5 0.1 0.1 0. In addition to the stock data.3 0.2 TPAN 50 0.3.1 0.1 0.3 0.1 0.3 0. the safety stock. · Quantity on order.1 0.2 0. In general. The file is kept up to date by posting the transactions which take place as a result of a receipt or issue of parts into and out of the stores.1 2.5 0.5 0.5 0.1 0.1 0.5 0.3.
materials on order may be received earlier than the due date while in some others the scheduled receipt may not be expected to be in the stock on time.5 Rescheduling Process Scheduled receipts are orders which have already been released to the shop floor or to the vendors. In some cases. The scheduled receipts are taken into account while computing the net requirements. For audit purposes. 2. Activities such as fixed-time maintenance enable managers to determine the exact number of parts required. Scheduled receipts are orders which have already been released to the shop floor or to the vendors. irrespective of its criticality. The inventory status file will not contain up-to-date information about all the materials stocked in the stores. The bill of materials defines how one or more items are brought together to make up another item. This uncertainty may result in rescheduling of the receipts. A master production schedule is a statement of production of end-items for a given planning horizon. The manpower requirement is also known precisely. not be given equal importance. This is a deterministic situation. in the case of a proactive perspective the maintenance activity is planned and the timing is also determined well in advance. 9. 7.3. Self Assessment Questions State whether following statement True or False. . 6. it becomes necessary to trace the demand for an item to its source and this process is referred to as pegging.5 Effect of Maintenance Types on Resources As mentioned earlier. The statistical inventory control techniques require that each item.3. 5. 2. The procedures used are similar to those used for determining the optimal number of repair gangs required for carrying out maintenance activities. 8. 2.4 Tools and Facilities Queuing models and simulation have been used also for determining the optimal number of tools and facilities such that the maintenance costs are minimized.Explosion is a process concerned with generating gross requirements.
cannibalization can lead to severe control problems at a later time. If the required maintenance materials are not available in the stores then one option available is to replace the failed parts of one with the working parts of the other failed item of equipment. Since failures occur randomly it becomes difficult to predict the resource requirements. Selective control procedures. · Build-up spare part inventories and tools. This approach to maintenance is called cannibalization. and the various models and techniques which are commonly used. does not reduce the number of inoperable parts. As per the definition of maintenance. Consider a situation where two identical items of equipment have failed due to different failure modes. In some cases cannibalization is also practiced. statistical inventory theory models and selective control approaches for multi-item inventories for spare parts planning and queuing theory and simulation for manpower planning. Cannibalization. have been used by industries for spare parts planning.In the case of a reactive perspective. This perspective has been created by initially discussing the various types of maintenance resources and their characteristics. 2. such as the use of ABC and VED classifications. if not both. If the equipment is critical. The technique should be able to take into account preventive. however. the maintenance activity is neither planned nor scheduled in advance. Statistical inventory theory models and techniques for selective control have been discussed in detail. Managers in some organizations carry out cannibalization as a last resort in order to meet the production requirements. In order to reduce the impact of failures on the profitability of the organization the following techniques are usually adopted: · Increase the number of maintenance personnel. this happens to be an undesirable situation and should be avoided. then the immediate requirement would be to restore at least one of the items of equipment to a working state. There are some . and if manpower is a constraint.6 Summary The problem of management of maintenance resources has been discussed. explaining the commonly used methods and discussing the work done by researchers working in the area of spare parts management. and corrective maintenance activities (and not just one of them). namely. · Use standby equipment. The basic purpose of this study is to provide the necessary background and present in a proper perspective the need of the development of an MRP based technique for the management of maintenance resources. If a failure occurs and the required resources are not available to restore the equipment to a working state the equipment is kept waiting in the repair queue. condition-based.
ABC and FNS are more appropriate for standard spares such as pulleys. Such classification schemes. belts. are utilized to determine the ordering parameters. Explain Master production Schedule. and these models have their own shortcomings. or heuristics. 2. Simulation techniques . For the above reasons. 2. Briefly summarize effect of maintenance types on resources. Repair gang 2. in turn. chains. based on just one criterion is adequate. For example.fundamental problems encountered in the use of selective control techniques for spare parts management and these are as follows: Such classification is always rather subjective and this is more so in the case of spare parts. sprockets and bearings. such as ABC×VED. For spare parts. such as the re-order point and order quantity. Classifying spare parts into homogeneous groups using a classification scheme is difficult since different types of spare parts require different classification schemes. give rise to a large number of classes of spares with each class having its own planning and control parameters.7 Terminal Questions 1. statistical inventory control models. Inventory costs 3.8 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1. researchers have suggested the use of multidimensional classifications. or categorization. VED×SDE×FSN and ABC× VED×SDE. 5. ABC×FSN. Explain Man Power. Summarize Bill of Materials. Worn-out parts 4. classification. In these cases as well. 4. 2. 3. whereas VED and SDE may be more appropriate for special spare parts (ones which are used on particular equipment). Define Statistical Inventory Theory Models.
Refer 2. Refer 18.104.22.168. .Refer 2.4 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Refer 2.2.1 3.1 2.1 5. True 9.5.2 4. Refer 2. False 7. True 6.3. True Terminal Questions 1. False 8.
Work Management – A deliberate process in which a scope of work is identified.2 Functional Requirements Equipment Maintenance Function Work Order Management Function Inventory Management Function Vendor Management Function Subcontractor Management Function General Information Systems Specifications 3.). scheduled.1 Introduction Our goal is to establish excellence in Work Management.1 Introduction Objectives 3.g.4 Summary 3. The Work Management process requires the full support of the entire organization (e.. . and R&D activities. planned. projects. waste management. executed.5 Terminal Questions 3. Maintenance. selected. closed and critiqued. Scope of work includes maintenance. Planning & Scheduling. Engineering.OM0006-Unit-03-Work Management & Identification Unit-03-Work Management & Identification Structure: 3. production.6 Answers 3.3 Work Management Process 3. To fully understand the breadth of Work Management it is important to understand what Work Management is. etc. Operations.
should have the following functions. Plan maintenance work – ensure materials. 2. Store maintenance data including failure and repair data. 3. 4. Schedule preventive maintenance work. 3. Vendor management subsystem. Requirements can be gathered by interviewing the prospective users or circulating questionnaires. 2. 3. · Report on the performance of the overall maintenance system using standard indicators. Work order management subsystem. 3. · Plan procurement of resources. 5. Subcontractor management subsystem. 1. · Optimally utilize maintenance resources. Update data when a failure or preventive maintenance activity is initiated and completed. .1 Equipment Maintenance Function The equipment maintenance function needs to perform the following: 1. A maintenance management information system. Predict failures to a chosen level of confidence. 6.Objectives: A maintenance management information system must help you to · Schedule the Maintenance activities.2 Functional Requirements Before designing the information system. the scope of the system should be clear.2. hiring of subcontractors and arranging facilities. The functional requirements of the information system should be gathered first. Equipment maintenance function. Track overall maintenance function performance. manpower and tools would be available. 5. 4. Inventory management subsystem. at the least.
7. Plan capacity. Store and maintain inventory data including skills and tools. tools and facilities. Update materials inventory data as and when an issue or receipt of materials occurs.2. Create maintenance requests.2 Work order management subsystem The work order management function is required to perform the following: 1. 4. Track utilization of manpower. Produce reports as desired by the maintenance manager and top management.3 Inventory management function The inventory management function has to do the following: 1. 2. 4. 3. List pending work. 3. 8. 3. Track maintenance costs. Print reports as desired by the maintenance manager and top management. Track status of work in progress. Alert the maintenance manager to place orders for materials as planned and in the required quantity. Convert critical maintenance requests into work orders. Produce reports as desired by the maintenance manager and top management.4 Vendor management function The vendor management function needs to perform the following: . 9. 2. Schedule release of planned orders (materials). 6.2. 7. 3. materials and tools. 6. Schedule work visually.7. covering manpower. Generate work orders for preventive and corrective actions. tools and facilities. 5. 5.2. Track status of manpower. 3.
3. Make on-line data entry. 2. Devise metrics for evaluation of vendors. 4. 5. 3. In order for a system to be efficient. Track progress of subcontracted work. top management and middle management.2. 3. Validate data entry. Produce reports as desired by maintenance manager. 3. Self Assessment Questions State whether the statement is true or false. 2) The work order management function is required to perform Plan capacity. 2.5 Subcontractor management function The subcontractor management function must: 1. Track quality of subcontracted work. Organize skills provided by subcontractors.6 General Information Systems Specifications The general information systems specifications need to perform the following: 1. each level of management needs to have access to the required information and should be able to extract the data which is needed. 1) The subcontractor management function must not maintain data related to subcontracts.2. . Track cost. 6. Print related reports. 3) The equipment maintenance function needs Schedule preventive maintenance work. Cater for three levels of users’ administration. 2. 3. Maintain data related to subcontracts.1. Maintain vendor information.
Each year DOE and the contractor review the contract and the progress of work as part of the annual budget process. · Execute the work. Contractors develop management programs to execute much of the work of contracts. Whether mandatory or voluntary on the . A number of these programs are mandatory. and · Critique the planning. On a day-to-day basis. 3. requirements stated in the contract and the annual budget process form the top-level means of identifying the work that will be performed. · Schedule the work for performance. Mechanics The contract between DOE and the contractor provides the top-level mechanisms for work to be identified. other programs may be developed by the contractor in furtherance of contract execution. At the top-level these processes and tools include the contract with DOE and management programs committed to by the contractor to execute the statement of work and requirements in the contract. scheduling and performance of the work that has been accomplished. · Close the work item after completion. Identify Work Concept This element describes the processes and tools put in place that determines the work that a contractor performs. 5) The vendor management function needs maintain vendor information. The statement of work in the contract provides a description of the mission-related work that DOE expects to be performed. · Select the specific work that will be planned. they would entail routines used to monitor attributes important to mission execution.4) General information systems specifications will not validate data entry.3 Work Management Process These steps to be followed in work management process are: · Identify the work that needs to be performed. safety and protecting the environment. The statement of work. · Plan that work.
The discovery of new information may result in the need for additional research and development or design changes to existing systems and equipment. therefore. Other types of work are converted into work requests. The Select Work element funnels the work requests through a validation or screening process to determine those work items needing to be completed. which are initiated by personnel who identify work that needs to be performed to allow the work item to be entered into a work management system. a continuous process. These include work requests. After the work . prioritize and coordinate the management of several categories of work. Work requests not supporting the current mission. Select Work Concept Management programs identify the operational activities and routines that need to be completed to meet mission deliverables. these management programs provide one of the primary paths for work to be identified. Work management systems are put in place by contractors to collect work requests into a single place. operator rounds.part of the contractor. environmental monitoring. and similar repetitive procedures. changes. This process compares the work accomplished and that which remains to the funding that DOE believes will be available to execute work in the coming years. Routines are executed to monitor equipment. Workers are encouraged to be vigilant in monitoring facility conditions for system or equipment problems. While the threshold for identifying work items needs to be sufficiently low to all capture work items. or improvements. In furtherance of management programs. These routines can include Technical Surveillance Requirements/ Limited Condition of Operations TSR/LCO surveillances. an identified project or specific facility need are screened out and no further resources applied to their resolution. at a high level. Additional management tools that are used in the work identification process also support other elements of the work management process. They provide the opportunity to proactively manage the identification of emergent work. Management The annual budget process provides contractor and DOE management the resources to manage the work that is identified for further planning and execution. From this process the work to be planned and executed in a given year is identified. system and environmental parameters. contractors often put routines in place. they provide a method to track. On-going assessments or reviews may identify the need for corrective actions. no contractor has the resources to complete every identified work request. The identification of work is. Work is also identified on a daily basis. The schedule is also a tool that ensures that work is properly identified. Program and project plans are updated with the information developed during the annual budget process.
If the work item is a duplicate it should be screened out. A strong validation process incorporates two-way communications with the work request identifiers. · Need Date: Work requests must clearly indicate any deadline dates and the estimated time period for completing the work. Effective work management processes utilize a graded approach to resolving work requests. Attributes evaluated include: · Work Scope Identification: A clear scope statement is necessary to understand what work activities are necessary. The work selection process starts with a work validation. traded off with lower priority work or put forth as a candidate for additional funding. problem symptoms. Or the work request may require a documented resolution. The work may be simple enough that no initiating work documents are required (so-called “tool pouch” or “quick fix” items). Knowledge of these drivers allows effective prioritization of work planning efforts. or management commitments. coded with respect to like components and systems. etc. equipment identification. This validation process evaluates attributes of the work items to determine if the work item should be processed through the work management system. Mechanics Work selection is a continuous process to handle the work requests identified on a daily basis. or. Work requests that are clearly not going to be accomplished due to cost impacts should be screened out at this point. Work may be tied to contract milestones. may all provide key information needed to properly validate the work. · Work Duplications: Contractors use Work Management Tools to track work orders. · Operational Impact: Work requests that have immediate impact on the health and safety of contractor personnel need to be processed rapidly. These tools should be reviewed to determine whether duplicate items are already entered into the system. if sufficiently important. Work requests that have equipment impacts must be evaluated and the systems configured to protect equipment and workers. stay in compliance with the established safety basis and operating requirements for that facility or project. . · Work Cost: Work requests may be identified that will require funding that is beyond that available to the contractor. This second type of work will normally be given a relative priority.request has been validated a formal work order is entered into the work management tools used by the contractor. operational requirements. Location of the work. and interface with mission requirements. or required plant operational modes to facilitate tracking and planning and then entered into the work management system.
Those work requests entered into the work management system result in the generation of work orders. Mature work selection processes incorporate an understanding of a graded approach to work planning.
Contractors need to clearly define who has responsibility and authority to perform the validation activity for their facilities and projects. The validation authority typically resides in the Operations organization because they are responsible for mission execution and normally retain configuration control of the facility systems, structures and components. The work management process descriptions need to define the planning processes used by the contractor staff. Requirements for the type of planning required, based on potential mission impact, hazards analysis and complexity of the work activity, are critical to decision-making during work selection. Plan Work Concept This element describes the process of taking a defined scope of work that has been selected for planning and developing/packaging technical documents to safely and efficiently perform that work. This process includes identification/incorporation of applicable technical specifications and requirements into technical documents, identifying and mitigating job hazards, identifying and obtaining required permits, developing work instructions, and defining post activity acceptance. Mechanics An initial step in planning work is determining what type of work execution vehicle will be used to perform the work. As previously discussed under Work Selection, this decision has often already been made, on a preliminary basis, prior to the initiation of Work Planning; however, it is confirmed as part of this element. Is the work to be performed with a very simple work package where the worker has the knowledge to perform the work and little or no instruction is required or will the work require a work package with more detailed instructions? The following criteria might be used to determine whether work can be performed using a very simple work package: · No medium or high risk activities. · No activities requiring hold points. · Will not alter configuration of equipment from documented design. · Will not present any unusual hazards.
· No hands-on work with radioactive material except incidental or routine work activities that involve low potential of worker exposure or workplace contamination. · No opening of contaminated systems, components, containers. · Minimal external coordination required. · “Skill-of-the-Craft” Work. Such tasks should be documented in a work package by the Field Work Supervisor (FWS) and released to work by operations and documented on the document releasing work.
Work management systems are often put in place to collect work requests and maintain and file documents in a single place. They provide a method to track, prioritize, and coordinate the management of several categories of work. They also provide a means for the work planning organization to interface with the operations organization and ensure that work is moving through the planning pipeline in a manner that supports mission execution. Schedule Work Concept Schedules are tools used by work management organizations to communicate and coordinate work activities. This element describes the processes and tools associated with establishing schedules. Typically, work is identified from various sources (missionrelated commitments, Authorization Basis requirements, maintenance routines, etc.) and flows through a “rolling work week process” (described below) into an integrated schedule. The rolling work week concept is typically established based on either an 8 or 12 week duration.
Most sites have developed a fairly common set of schedules to implement graded approaches to conduct of operations. These commonly include a Plan of the Day (POD) along with a slightly longer view, often one week (so-called Plan of the Week, POW). Various methods exist to move information from longer-term schedules to these two short-term scheduling tools. The rolling work week concept provides an effective tool for managing the development of schedules. It involves setting a specific time frame (or “window”) within a longer-term schedule on which to focus increased management attention. Common time frames are eight to twelve weeks.
· For work that falls within the work window, increased emphasis is placed on planning, detailed schedule concerns and coordination of the work. This time period of increased attention allows: o Optimization of planned outage windows, scheduling all tasks that require particular facility conditions or that impact production commitments; o Development of a detailed technical sequence for complex jobs; o Addressing only items that need to be scheduled in detail, i.e., they require coordination of resources, complex work, etc; o Grouping of similar work to efficiently use resources and equipment by facility mode, available space, system/equipment; and time to verify that parts are available and staged. The work planned during the work window is “Locked-In”, that is, committed to by all concerned, two weeks in advance. This lock-in process adds discipline to the scheduling process and provides focus for final work preparation and coordination. After lock-in, the schedule is under a formal change control process; this encourages people to only lock in work that is truly ready to work. This level of planning and commitment permits the development of precise resource loaded schedules; it supports aligning support resources to the schedule and permits other detailed preparations such as verifying that fully-trained workers are available. This level of planning and scheduling attention also improves task readiness, it allows crews time to review work in advance of working. A formal post work week critique is held to evaluate what got done, what didn’t get done and why. It should be clear from the level of effort inferred above, that the implementation of a rolling work week process requires a commitment from all organizations to make the system work. Work on the rolling work week is facilitated by the existence of schedules that integrate all important work. Management Management tools for a successful scheduling process include: · Senior Management involvement (Frequent and Regular) – Critical Path Meetings · Accountability meeting – weekly schedule commitment meeting · High level schedule change control authority once work is locked in · POD – A daily meeting intended to review facility and schedule status
· Build scaffolding and install lead shielding. the first-level supervisor performs a final review of the work instruction. · Complete rigging preparations. This element is centered on the first-level supervisor (the person directly overseeing the work crew) and the crew that is engaged in the performance of the activity. Mechanics For each assigned task. Applicable work instruction prerequisites are completed to ensure readiness to work. The execution of work begins when the work package is released for work by Operations and runs through the completion of work in the field or facility. Example components of work execution include the following: Preparations: · Contact job support personnel as required. · Remove insulation. ensures that procedures and references are the latest revision and that all of the required permits are issued and up to date. . This work should be completed in parallel with establishing worker protection and industrial safety requirements. · Assemble required test equipment. · Assemble tools and material at job location.· POW – A weekly meeting intended to review and status the higher level facility schedule · Rolling work week process – described above · Outages – scheduled periods where equipment systems or facilities are available to perform pre-determined work · Metrics – tools used to measure success of schedule performance · Documentation of key scheduling assumptions – essential to the development of baseline schedules Execute Work Concept This element describes the processes and tools associated with the actual performance of the work.
the first line supervisor reviews the instructions for a complete and accurate work history and performs post activity testing and any rework identified by the post activity testing. The supervisor documents relevant as-found conditions and the work performed. Management Management tools put in place to monitor work execution include the Plan of the Day or other work progress meeting. field walk-downs. job hazards analysis. Radiological Work Permit. power. Formal programs to have management observe work in the field will provide not only . tents. As the work completes. · Set up welding equipment if required. and identifies all discrepancies and incomplete work items. Finally. · Build contamination control devices (catch basins.· Provide necessary temporary air. · Finish prefabrication work. and water requirements. Pre-Job Brief: · Scope of the task · Review of prerequisite section of the work instructions · Responsibilities of all participants. environmental or radiological hazards of the task from the work document. water storage/recovery systems). the first line supervisor completes all system/equipment checks described in the work instructions to return equipment to service. the first-line supervisor oversees and directs the work activities in accordance with the approved work instructions. or facility knowledge · Potential abnormal events and contingency plans After completing preparations and getting their work crew prepared to perform the job. including expected worker radiological recovery actions · Job-specific hazards and their controls · Applicable precautions and limitations · Required safety equipment · Discuss hold points with employee(s) responsible for the completion of the hold point and employee(s) performing work immediately before or after the hold point · Industrial. which monitors the day-to-day progress of work execution.
based on work completed also provide feedback on work execution. Verification: · Verify all administrative and technical requirements. Important attributes of these processes are discussed below. including quality. but a more accurate feel for work difficulty and potential coordination issues. Schedule updates. or authorized incomplete/open work items. returning (or turning over) equipment and systems to operations. . resolve any deviations. · Dispose of excess materials and waste properly.g. calibration and preventive maintenance data into the Work Management System. · Ensure condition tags and other documents are in the completed closure package prior to returning it to the Work Management Center. as appropriate.. normally in the operations organization.status. · Remove all temporary/test equipment and restore system/components to operable status. capturing repair history. e. Documentation associated with the work evolution can then be signed off. are satisfied and test results are approved. Close Work Concept Work can be closed and declared complete when defined requirements in the approved work package have been met. The system/components can be returned to operations subject to any controls defined in the work instructions. Documentation: · Document work completion against requirements. a number of sites use standard computerized templates to capture relevant historical information. · Update as-built drawings. . Mechanics The work closure process can be described as several related steps. documenting the completion of work. an inventory of equipment and parts used and feedback to the work management process. · Update the files for the affected system/equipment. regulatory and safety basis requirements. or exceptions have been authorized by the person responsible for accepting the work. These steps include the process of verifying that work has been completed.
Improvement opportunities are . e. Work critiques take on many forms. Return to Operations: · Review work activity and all testing for system/equipment operability. Management The first-line supervisor is responsible to verify work completion against requirements defined in the approved work package.g. and ensuring completion of the work closure functions..· Retain the closure package in accordance with the Site’s records retention requirements. issues. ranging from individual job post work critiques to critiquing all of the work performed by a group or a facility within a specified time period. improvements or lessons learned are identified.) process takes selected jobs and critiques them to identify good practices. the first line supervisor should consult with the work planner and the systems engineer as needed. Critique Work Concept This element describes the processes and tools associated with performing a critical analysis of work to ensure that issues. the previous work week (Work Week Critique) period. etc. and return the system/equipment to the required configuration to support facility operations. · Return unused parts to the warehouse. Inventory: · Document material used. drawing and training updates are completed prior to placing the component(s) in service. · Release all remaining clearance tags. Mechanics The post work critique (ALARA. · Verify required procedure. and lessons learned. · Accept the system/equipment for operability and return to service in a timely manner. If there are authorized open items. · Evaluate the authorized incomplete/open work items for any operational impact concerns. the work package should have been changed and procedures amended by the appropriate formal documentation. and incorporated into subsequent work.
The report should also include: o A breakdown of the types of work scheduled & accomplished for the week. The applicable post work critique output should be discussed in the work week critique process described below. etc. Issues should be trended to identify programmatic issues. Management Management tools for a successful critique process include: · Weekly critique meeting · Regularly scheduled meeting following each work week to critically review performance of the previous work week (attended by Senior Management) . o Metrics which track and trend the work week elements. what was initially intended to be accomplished. · Work Week Critique Meeting: A regularly scheduled meeting used to perform a thorough analysis of the work execution. Emergent. typically covering the previous weeks work activities · Work Week Critique Attendance: Work week critique targeted audience should typically be that of Facility Senior Management. including Emergency. including the specifics regarding what was accomplished. · Work Week Critique Report: A formally prepared report which comprehensively addresses the work week being analyzed. whereby all groups involved in work execution meet to perform a critical analysis of all aspects of the week performance. but was not & what the issues were which prevented that work from being accomplished.typically formally documented and followed to closure through a commitment tracking system. The work week critique process is a continuous improvement process. including: § Schedule & Cost Performance § Manpower Utilization § Emergent Work § Backlog · Action Item Tracking: A formal process in which action items from the Work Critique meeting are assigned responsibility & tracked through completion.
Explain briefly Identify Work in Work management Process. 5. Work can be closed and declared complete when defined requirements in the approved work package have been met. 4. Management programs identify the operational activities and routines that need to be completed to meet mission deliverables. Identify Work describes the processes and tools put in place that determines the work that a contractor performs. Explain components of work execution. 3. 7) _________ can be closed and declared complete when defined requirements in the approved work package have been met. Describe Close Work in Work Management Process. 10) ___________________ systems are often put in place to collect work requests.· Appropriate Metrics including tracking and trending · Standard Critique reports · Action Item Tracking / Accountability · Worker feedback Self Assessment Questions 6) Management tools for a successful critique process include _________. 2.5 Terminal Questions 1. normally in the operations organization. 3. Explain Schedule Work in Detail. Explain Functional Requirements in Work Management.4 Summary The Work Management process requires the full support of the entire organization. Execute work describes the _______ and ______ associated with the actual performance of the work. or exceptions have been authorized by the person responsible for accepting the work. 9) Identify describes the processes and tools put in place that determines the work that a ________ performs. 3. Management programs identify the operational activities and routines that need to be completed to meet mission deliverables. .
10 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . .6 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1. Tools 9. False 5.1 2) Refer Page 10 3) Refer Page 4. Processes. Close Work 8. Worker feedback 7. Contractor 10. Work management Terminal Questions 1) Refer 3. True 4. True 3. True 6. 5 4) Refer Page 8 5) Refer Pages 9. False 2.3.
. breakage and slips of gear and belt drives.7 Answers 4. failure of insulation in electrical circuits. especially while processing important jobs.3 Maintenance Strategies Corrective or Breakdown Maintenance 4. In the initial stages. etc. formation of sludge’s and corrosive compounds on the machine parts. misalignment of shafts and pulleys. overheating of motors.5 Summary 4.6 Terminal Questions 4. and were immediately commissioned.1 Introduction Objectives 4.OM0006-Unit-04-Emergencies or Breakdown Process Paper: ISO 90012000/Qs Elements Unit-04-Emergencies or Breakdown Process Paper: ISO 9001-2000/Qs Elements Structure: 4. The reasons for breakdowns were many: development of high temperature in the bearings.1 Introduction The turret lathes and gang drills were acquired second-hand. The breakdown of the machines resulted in a great loss of productive time and also led to several problems such as not being able to meet due dates. one-year back. and low morale of workers. the machines caused a great deal of anxiety to the management by failing quite frequently and unexpectedly.4 Maintenance Economics Breakdown-time Distribution Preventive versus Breakdown Maintenance (Single Machine) 4.2 The Maintenance Function 4.
In order to combat these problems. After a long search. The technicians accepted the job under the condition that if ever they are required to work in the second shift on a day. It improves the systems overall reliability. or to keep the equipment running. the proprietor of the workshop advertised for maintenance specialists for the turret lathes and gang drills. Minimizing the failure count or their adverse effects leads to increased safety. is any activity carried out on an asset in order to ensure that the asset continues to perform its intended functions. The machine operators can only operate the machine when they are in working condition. reduced downtime and cost of operation. they are to be paid overtime. . Machine and component failures can trigger incidents or cause costly production interruptions. As he wanted technicians with experience on the specific machines he had. Maintenance is defined as ‘any action that restores failed units to an operational condition or retains non-failed units in an operational state’ or ‘an activity carried out for any equipment or asset to ensure its reliability to perform its functions’. Maintenance work on a machine requires both workers of a crew. and consequently higher production efficiency. he selected four technicians for employment. The four workers were divided into two crews. Minimizing these adverse effects is the role assigned t maintenance. Preventive maintenance of a machine consists of dismantling the machine and checking all its important parts and making the necessary adjustments and replacements.2 The Maintenance Function Maintenance. availability. Objectives After studying this unit you shall be able to · Explain the functions involved in maintenance · Recognize the strategies of maintenance · Distinguish between preventive and breakdown maintenance · Evaluate the economic aspects of maintenance 4. and cannot attend to any repairs or maintenance. the proprietor had considerable difficulty in finding he maintenance specialists. The maintenance crews can do breakdown maintenance as well as preventive maintenance for all the four machines. Such maintenance is expected to reduce the frequency of machine breakdowns. to most people. or to repair any equipment that has failed. each crew consisting of two workers. or to restore to its favorable operating condition.
. environmental integrity.The objectives of maintenance are to maintain equipment and facilities in such condition that: · They give trouble-free service and output at rated capacity. Maintenance efficiency is viewed as an integral part of business effectiveness. energy efficiency. as well as the quantitative and cost standard of outputs. in addition to its traditional roles of enhancing plant availability and lowering costs. Over the past years. · Down-time is minimized. management today sees a much larger role for maintenance.1 shows the evolution of the maintenance philosophy. It ensures that the equipment is able to maintain quality standards. and · The cost of operation and maintenance is minimized. product quality and customer service profile of the organization. The maintenance function plays a supporting role to effective operations.1: Evolution of Maintenance Philosophy Table 4. · Safety is ensured. The evolution in the maintenance thought process is rooted in the changing complexity of industry itself. First Generation Second Generation Third Generation · Fix it when broke · Scheduled Overhauls · Condition monitoring · Systems for planning · Design for reliability and and controlling work maintainability · Low-tech computerization · Hazard studies · High-tech computers · Failure modes and effects analysis · Expert systems · Multitasking and teamwork Table 4. the significance of maintenance and its role in plant operation has changed significantly. It determines the risk-safety. From a simple expectation of keeping equipment running or restoring it to the desired operating condition. The evolution can be seen to cover 3 different generations of thought.
reliability and availability have become key issues. How Equipments Fail Maintenance is concerned with controlling the condition of equipment. the failure rate is high. 4. expert systems and continuous improvement programs have developed.1. The reason for the occurrence of these failures is not fully understood. In practice. there is a rather high incidence of early failures. the failure rate keeps decreasing until a relatively low constant level is obtained. As this dependence grew. 3. Third Generation (after the 1980’s) – Since the 80’s. Second Generation (1950-70) – The second generation emerged as the result of growing complexity in equipment and plant design. Researchers into the reliability of equipment recognize that within a collection of machines. With increase in mechanization. or sheer quality deficiency in their manufacture. Among collections of equipment. Most equipment that survives infancy will continue to perform with few failures occurring. the growth of mechanization and automation has become more complex and even small breakdowns in equipment affect the operation of the whole plant. there is a definite pattern of lifespan. there was an added interest created in the field of maintenance planning and control systems. The failures that do occur during the period are truly random. unpredictable and cannot be prevented by additional testing or burn-in of the components. This led to the concept of preventive maintenance. Repairing and restoration had become more difficult and special skills and more time was needed to maintain and repair equipment. During the infant mortality period. downtime became a problem and management tried to find means and ways to minimize and prevent these failures. but they are thought to be at least partially due to abrupt changes in stress distribution in the components. As these components drop out one by one. This is the useful period of the machine. primarily due to the presence of weak or substandard components or design inadequacies in not properly understanding the operating conditions. As maintenance costs started to rise sharply relative to other operating costs. Factory equipment was basic and repair and the restoration process was simple. industry became increasingly dependent on these complex machines. Downtime did not matter much and no need was felt to treat maintenance as a high priority issue. this pattern manifests itself when a collection of machinery is subjected to rigorous operation. fatigue due to flaws in the molecular structure of the metals or plastics involved. 2. These have led to major developments in maintenance philosophy based on manufacturing reliability systems. the weak components from the infant mortality period have either been repaired or replaced.3 Maintenance Strategies . called infant mortalities. First Generation (1930-40) – The first generation represents the earlier days of industrialization where mechanization was low. Hence. During this period.
etc. many new approaches have been advocated as maintenance strategies that are intended to overcome problems related to equipment breakdown. . the prevalent management policies. Some of the common approaches to maintenance are as follows: · Breakdown maintenance · Preventive maintenance · Predictive maintenance · Proactive maintenance Type of Maintenance Strategy Maintenance ApproachSignificance Fix-it when broke Large maintenance budget Scheduled Maintenance Periodic component replacement Condition-based Maintenance decision Monitoring based on equipment condition Detection of Sources of Monitoring and Failures correcting failing root causes Maintenance Strategy Breakdown Maintenance Preventive Maintenance Predictive Maintenance Proactive Maintenance Although the scope of maintenance will vary depending on the type of industry. b) Plant protection. its size. buildings and grounds. d) New installations of equipment and buildings. The secondary functions are: a) Maintenance stores. The primary functions are: a) Maintenance of existing plant. maintenance functions may be identified as primary or secondary functions. c) Alteration to existing equipment and buildings. b) Generation and distribution of utilities. equipment.Over the years..
so as to restore it a specified operating state. · Corrective maintenance may be defined as the repairs carried out to restore equipment. corrective maintenance is periodically performed on the equipment. 4. · The approach to maintenance is totally reactive. The goals and objectives of corrective maintenance management are. and b) To do this in a cost effective manner. a) To restore the faulty equipment to a healthy operating state as promptly as possible. . It is also called. the maintenance technician must verify that the system is again successfully operating.3.1 Corrective or Breakdown Maintenance This is one of the earliest maintenance strategies implemented in the industry. d) Salvage. It consists of the action(s) taken to restore a failed system to operational status. · Corrective maintenance strategy has no routine maintenance task and therefore is also described no scheduled maintenance strategy. c) Verification of the repair action: once the components in question have been repaired or replaced. action must be taken to address the cause. the repair work is performed only after a piece of equipment has failed. the rectification of the fault should be processed in the same manner as for planned maintenance work schedules. usually by replacing or repairing the components that caused the system to fail. breakdown maintenance.c) Waste disposal. Corrective maintenance is typically carried out in three steps: a) Diagnosis of the problem: The maintenance technician must take time to locate the failed parts or otherwise satisfactorily assess the cause of the system failure. · Restoring a failed system usually involves replacing or repairing the component that is responsible for the failure of the overall system. a properly designed fault reporting system must be instituted and similarly. · However. and as the name suggests. Corrective maintenance is performed at unpredictable intervals because a components failure time is not known a priori. b) Repair and/or replacement of faulty component(s): Once the cause of system failure has been determined. To rectify the problem. maintenance is activated on breakdown. which has broken down or developed a fault.
The growth of __________ and automation has become more complex. 5.4 Maintenance Economics Maintenance policy refers to an organization’s policy in respect of the maintenance function of a set of equipments. Machine and component failures can trigger _________. Such a distribution will show the frequency of maintenance-free running times for a given number of operating hours. A simple machine with few moving parts will probably have breakdowns after a fairly large number of maintenance-free runtime hours. 2. each part will have a different failure distribution. In such cases.4. The breakdown time distribution of the complex machine probably will . _________ Maintenance strategy has no routine maintenance task.· Corrective maintenance in a broader perspective may also include activities related to correcting potential causes for failure or malfunction that might not have been adequately considered when the equipment was designed. the practice of attending to machines only after they have broken down may be uneconomical. thereby eliminating or at least minimizing the failures. the breakdown maintenance practice may be costlier than other maintenance strategies. The decision of maintenance policy is more of an economic decision rather than a technical one. Restoring a failed system usually involves _________ or repairing the component.1 Breakdown-time Distribution In order to establish the cost implications. As maintenance is an economic decision. the failure of any one of its parts can cause a breakdown of the machine. breakdowns may affect production and thus reduce profits. and where production interruptions may be negligible. For example. But in the case of a complex machine. maintenance engineers should be allowed to consider the possibility. The first generation represents the earlier days of ___________ where mechanization was low. what are its cost implications? 4. In such a situation. Self Assessment Questions 1. 3. Moreover. if careful observations of repeated failures of an equipment or system suggest that the remedy lies in correcting the system. · Where capacity and demand are close. 4. proper feedback to the design department may lead to alterations in design that will reduce or eliminate failures. Even where capacity is not a constraint. management must know how the breakdowntime is distributed. and the adoption of other maintenance practices may reduce interruptions to production. 4.
curve ‘b’ is the exponential distribution and exhibits medium variability and curve ‘c’ exhibits high variability.4 can be used to plot the percentage of breakdowns that exceed a given runtime as the ‘y’-axis.free run-time as the other two but the distribution has much wider variability.show greater variability than the simple machine even though it may have the same average. subtract from 100 the figure 4. i. T3 = Average free run time free of breakdowns Figure 4. . Equipment can be considered as a total system with its sub-assemblies as sub-systems. maintenance free run-time as that of the simple machine.. Curve ‘a’ exhibits low variability from the average maintenance free breakdown-time ‘Ta’. It also shows that it is only after a few periods of trouble free running. and plot this against the run-time. The same data that we have used to plot figure 4.40).9.2 represents a graphical description of the degree of variability in free-run-time. B = 0. In this case. adjustments before it can give reasonable trouble-free service.4 for the percentage of breakdowns.8. The variability depicted by curve ‘c’ is typical of complicated equipment that needs ‘fine’.8 and D = 0. By reliability we mean the probability that the system will give trouble free service. For example. If we assume that the failure of any one of the sub-systems can cause the failure of the entire system. it would amount to (0. say A. that one can be sure the machine will operate reliably. which exceed a given free-run-time. and the ‘run-times free of breakdowns’ as the ‘x’-axis.7 = 0. Curve ‘a’ depicts the behavior of a simple machine.9 ‘0. The total system reliability will be the product of the reliability of each individual system.8 ‘0. B. Say to obtain the ‘a’ curve in figure. if the total system has four sub-systems. The frequency distribution curve ‘c’ has the same average maintenance.2 Figure 4. and the reliability factors are A = 0. C & D. the reliability of the total system would equal the product f reliability factors of each of the sub-systems.8 ‘0.e.7. while curve ‘b’ represents a more complex machine. C = 0.
the running time between the preventive maintenance and the breakdown plus the time taken to repair the breakdown. The total time period ‘Ta’. ’Ts’ can be considered the breakdown cycle.5 gives the percent of time a machine is working for the three distributions of breakdown-time shown in Figure and the ratio of the standard maintenance period to .Figure 4. In such cases.2 Preventive versus Breakdown Maintenance (Single Machine) Consider a preventive maintenance schedule.4. In actual practice. The probability of occurrence of a breakdown in the two different cycles depends on the specific breakdown-time distribution of the equipment. This preventive maintenance work takes a time ‘Tm’. the machine is shutdown. shortening the preventive maintenance cycle can reduce the number of actual breakdowns. the situation is slightly different. there will be breakdowns that occur before the equipment is shutdown for preventive maintenance. inspected and parts replaced. This can be considered the standard preventive maintenance cycle time.4: Breakdown-time distributions 4. over a period of time. Ideally. If the distribution has greater variability. When this happens. the average maintenance free run-time. Figure 4. and the length of the standard preventive maintenance cycle. Since preventive maintenance is meant to reduce the total plant down-time particularly unscheduled event – its timing and frequency are important. is equivalent to ‘Tr’ (maintenance free run-time) plus ‘Tm’ (the time take to do the preventive maintenance). more breakdowns are likely to occur during the course of the standard period. which after a machine has been running for fixed time ‘Tr’. preventive maintenance should be performed just a little before normal breakdown is likely to occur. after which the equipment is ready to work.
The percentage of machine running time depends on the ratio of the standard maintenance period and the average run-time.average maintenance-free run-time. preventive maintenance is highly benefited to machines whose breakdown time distributions have low variability. This is obvious. as there is better predictability of when breakdowns are likely to occur. and hence less availability. Unless the preventive maintenance time is less than the repair time. ‘Ts’. First. It can be seen that for low values of the ratio of standard maintenance period to average maintenance free runtime. like those depicted by curve ‘a’. it is assumed that either preventive maintenance or repair puts the equipment in line for a running time of equal length. there is an optimum value for the standard maintenance period. but only till a peak is reached after which lengthening standard maintenance period seems to reduce the percentage of machine running time. Figure 4. This suggests that for breakdown time distribution with low variability. the machine works for a small percentage of time. In the case of curve ‘a’ (for breakdown-time distribution with low variability). Second. there is little gain in .5: Present of time when the machine is working and breakdown distribution Certain generalizations can be made from the above three graphs. In this type of situation. the relation of preventive maintenance time to repair time is important. since a low ratio would mean too many machine stoppages. ‘Ta’ for a given breakdown-time distribution. it can also be seen that for curves ‘b’ and ‘c’ an increase of the ratio results in an increase in the percentage of machine running time. Such a relationship is shown for the three different breakdowns time distributions. there is a similar increase in machine running-time. a standard preventive maintenance period can be set in such a way that the total downtime is reduced. From figure.
2. 7. Since some parts are most important to machines. The percentage of machine running time depends on the ratio of the standard maintenance period. Self Assessment Questions State whether the statement is true or false. Effect on production losses if plant shutdown could have been avoided. 9. For a given breakdown time distribution. The probability of occurrence of a breakdown in the two different cycles depends on the specific breakdown-time distribution of the equipment. it is better to perform corrective or breakdown maintenance. Initially. We also need to take into account other effects of unscheduled downtime. when the repair time is equal to maintenance time. If preventive maintenance is equal to. Additional stoppage time because maintenance crew cannot start repairing immediately after the breakdown has occurred. 6. In general.preventive maintenance. 8. the percentage of machine running time continues to increase with the increase of standard preventive maintenance period.5 Summary You need to make decisions at the beginning of each shift regarding maintenance. 10. Equipment cannot be considered as a total system with its sub-assemblies as subsystems. such as 1. Maintenance policy will not refer to any organization’s policy.6 Terminal Questions 1. and 3. you will deal with jobs. The breakdown time distribution of the complex machine probably will not show greater variability than the simple machine. or more than the time for repair. all the machines are free and have jus had a preventive maintenance done. What are the Maintenance Strategies? . Effects of scheduling preventive maintenance for non-productive days or shifts with no loss of production. both in terms of contribution earned by them as well as their criticality because of their propensity to break-down. an increase in the standard period would mean less number of preventive maintenance cycles and more repairs. 4. 4.
2 2.2. True 10. Refer 4.2. Refer 4. True 9. 3.3. Replacing 3. 4. Refer 4. Industrialization 4. Incidents 6. True 8. Refer 4.1 3. Mechanization 2. FalseTerminal Questions 1.7 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1.1 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . 5.2 5. Corrective 5.3.1 4. . Explain evolution of Maintenance Policy. Refer 4. Summarize Breakdown and Corrective maintenance. 4. Explain Breakdown Time distribution. False 7. Explain Preventive versus Breakdown Maintenance.
Maintenance covers two aspects of systems – operation and performance. to ensure or restore system performance to specified levels. Maintenance is defined as the restoring of an item to its original condition or to working order.5 Terminal Questions 5. which can be achieved through repair.3 Types of Maintenance Systems Routine Maintenance Planned /Scheduled / Productive Maintenance Break down or Corrective / Remedial Maintenance Preventive Maintenance Predictive Maintenance Condition Based Maintenance 5.4 Summary 5.2 Functions & Feature of Maintenance Engineering 5.6 Answers 5. replacement of parts or total replacement of .OM0006-Unit-05-Types of Maintenance Systems Unit-05-Types of Maintenance Systems Structure: 5.1 Introduction Objectives 5.1 Introduction Once the machinery is purchased it must be maintained. Maintenance is carried out in anticipation of or in reaction to a failure.
Types of maintenance /strategies discussed in this unit are: · Routine Maintenance · Planned Maintenance · Break down Maintenance or Corrective Maintenance · Preventive Maintenance · Predictive Maintenance · Condition Based Maintenance · Total Productivity Maintenance The maintenance plan for a company’s assets can be a combination of the above strategies and could be adopted on the same machine. Objectives: After studying this unit you shall be able . Machineries lose its efficiency after some point of time due to various factors such as wear and tear. based on the practical and economic grounds Maintenance of any kind performed on machinery or equipment is a consequence of the fact that it started deteriorating before failing. misuse etc. but there is no guarantee here that the exact nature of defect surfaces. Between these alternatives the management decides. Developing effective maintenance procedures to restrict such deterioration or failure is vital. Failure to perform maintenance in time to maintain the availability of the machinery will have serious effects ranging from benign to catastrophic. Hence a systematic and structured approach to proper & cost effective maintenance is required.the devices itself. aging. operational life can be extended. It is evident that the best maintenance strategy is selected for reducing breakdowns. Maintenance management also aims at developing a reliable and high quality production system. retain the productivity and maintain safe working conditions by reducing the probability of accidents. Improperly performed maintenance or not carried out in time can escalate the problems because of faulty parts running. Through proper maintenance of these machineries. Sometimes accelerated testing is used to induce failures and know the behaviour of the systems.
use of robotics and other Computer Integrated systems are developed and deployed for producing high quality products. requirement of high accuracy. · · · · · Rapid strides in the advancement of manufacturing technology and its processes with higher powers and speeds. Therefore industries have entered into the era of high technology maintenance management to cater to the production requirement of minimum downtime and maximum productivity. rapid traverses. Flexible manufacturing systems. improved productivity.2 Functions & Feature of Maintenance Engineering Maintenance Engineering is the function of the production management that is concerned with day-to-day problems of keeping the physical plant in good and acceptable operating condition. high up-time and prolonged mean time between failures (MTBF). high cost CNC machines. Maintenance management is entrusted with the total task of keeping the machinery. repeatability. To offer these requirements.. use of complex processes. higher feeds.· To explain how systems work at their optimum efficiency · To prepare a plan to preserve the value of the assets by different methods · To calculate how to maximize production capability · To prepare a plan and schedule for maintenance work and prevent failures and breakdowns · To Improve quality of products and productivity · To Use of maintenance staff optimally · To Minimize or avoid accidents by periodical inspection and repairs. equipment and services in proper working condition that involves planning. scheduling and execution of many maintenance activities. breakdown maintenance or preventive maintenance etc. . Such high cost and sophisticated state of art machineries need to operate at optimal levels of performance with high degree of reliability. have all warranted the use of sophisticated machineries for production. 5. like repair. etc.
outer cleaning. repairing leaks) which include preventive maintenance and forms part of the annual operating budget. lubricating systems.e. These include say greasing or lubricating the bearings / systems. [say: check all compressors first on Mondays. These aspects are to recognized by the maintenance department. small repairs. and equipment by the maintenance staff to preserve such machineries in as near to its original condition as is practical and to realize its normal life expectancy. . production of low quality products. 5. machines. inspection etc. cleaning of machines.1 Routine Maintenance [RM] RM is a procedure followed regularly i.e. reliability and maintainability of a plant is very important for the maintenance engineers. a cyclic operation recurring periodically. Hence the relationship between availability.3. cleaning. 1) Running maintenance is the work carried out when the equipment or the machine is performing some operations i.Malfunctioning of machineries/equipment due to failure to upkeep the operating conditions may result in serious repercussions of reduced capacity.3 Types of Maintenance Systems A way of reducing the plant breakdowns is to select the best maintenance strategy. lubricate two machines daily] It can be even day to day operational activities to keep the plant running (say: replacement of light bulbs. working. RM can be classified as: 1) Running maintenance 2) Shut down maintenance. increased production costs. Widely adopted maintenance techniques/strategies are: · Routine Maintenance · Planned Maintenance · Break down Maintenance or Corrective/ Remedial Maintenance · Preventive Maintenance · Predictive Maintenance · Condition Based Maintenance · Total Productivity Maintenance [Discussed in detail in Unit-10] 5. Maintenance is the work performed on an asset such as utility. injury to workmen and finally frequent breakdowns etc may lead to protracted delivery of the product thus inviting customer dissatisfaction. It includes activities like inspection.
repair and carry out all requisite maintenance before actual break down happens. the emphasis is on machines: a) What does the manufacturer prescribe? b) Is the unit utilised for two or three shifts per day? c) Is it working under normal load? .3.3.2 Planned / Scheduled / Productive Maintenance Planned maintenance is the activities carried out according to a predetermined schedule and hence known as scheduled maintenance or productive maintenance. E.g. Planned maintenance reduces the machine downtime. thus avoiding a situation of emergency maintenance. boilers 5. It involves inspection of all machineries. reduces the cost of maintenance.1 Advantages a) Simple to establish & follow b) Little or no clerical work c) High degree of prevention by intercepting developing faults d) A more advanced stage calls for ’service instructions on a pre-printed schedule and checklists’. 5.2 Disadvantages a) RM may not provide the service specified by the manufacturer b) May ignore information regarding preceding breakdowns c) Service required for a machine at different frequencies may be ignored d) Similar machines are serviced at same frequency irrespective of usage 5. de-scaling furnaces. lubricate.1. In this type of service. increases productivity as compared to unplanned one and hence it is followed as per the maintenance policy of the company. overhaul.1.3.2) Shut down maintenance: certain minor maintenance activities cannot be carried out when the machine is running and hence carried out by shutting down the machine.
3.2. adjustments are shown in overall plan b) Detailed instructions reduce the chance of missing any activity.3. faithful implementation and recording f) Initial list of planned maintenance will be in detail 5. Planned repair/rectifying the problem is carried out when it is more convenient and cost effective after its failure rather than to disrupt the production with RM. Unforeseen work is reduced. can be defined as the maintenance which is required when an item has failed or worn out. replacement of parts.2 Advantages of Planned Maintenance Considers all the changes in conditions of use & increased wear of parts a) Inspections.1 Characteristics of Planned Maintenance a) Instructions are more detailed than in routine maintenance b) Calls for differently timed service for the same unit c) Schedule is drawn with dates d) Establishes the work-load for the crew e) Entails considerable planning effort. to bring it back to working order.3.3 Break Down or Corrective/ Remedial Maintenance Breakdown Maintenance is the method of operating the machines to run until they fail and then repair in order to restore them to an acceptable condition. . Corrective maintenance is carried out on all items where the consequences of failure or wearing out are not significant and the cost of corrective maintenance is not greater than preventative maintenance. c) Provides as much attention on the equipment for the best judgement of the planner [For details on ‘the principles of planning & scheduled maintenance’ refer Unit 6] 5.d) Are the conditions as good as those envisaged by the manufacturer? e) Do we allow for extra attention owing to corrosion-including conditions? 5.2. Also called as ‘on-failure maintenance/corrective maintenance’.
This system could be called as ‘Operate to Failure (OTP) ’– no predetermined action taken to prevent failure. vandalism.e. or reconditioning that part to its original or acceptable working condition.1 Characteristics of Break-down Maintenance System · No services except occasional lubrication unless failure occurs · No maintenance men on regular basis · Maintenance done by sub-contractors · No organised efforts to find out reasons · No stock of spares · No budget · No records · Initially it looks economical · Creates internal problems namely: Who to do the repair? From where to get parts? How do we pay for them? Who will go & buy parts? . Frayed tempers put unnecessary pressures and disturb delivery commitments.3. etc. taken after the failure happens. lost output.Corrective maintenance may be programmed. On-failure maintenance can be effective if applied correctly. o Upset schedule resulting in panicky. 5. The need for repairs can result from normal wear.3. i. The above type of repairing and setting the equipment to working condition can be called as corrective maintenance. or where no other strategy will work. increased downtime. Repair is restoring an asset by replacing a part which is broken or damaged. involve hazards. Repairs are done after the machine fails and hence this becomes a repair work. Corrective maintenance activities include both emergency repairs (fire fighting) and preventive (or corrective) repairs. For example: non-critical low cost equipment. drive shaft broken and hence the transmission fails. Here the machine and the work on that machine stops operating. This method is expensive in terms of maintenance cost. misuse or improper maintenance. Ex: electric motor may not start.
5.2 Objectives of BD/Corrective Maintenance 1) To put back machinery back to work and minimize production interruptions 2) To control costs of maintenance crew to the minimum 3) To control cost of the operations of repairing 4) To control costs of repair & replacement parts to minimum 5) To control investment cost on purchase of standby or back up machines 6) To carry out appropriate repair intermittently at each malfunction to improve the life of the machine.3. This is normally programmed.4 Preventive Maintenance PM is a regularly scheduled maintenance activity. detection and prevention of incipient failure.3.3.3. Preventive maintenance is carried out to prevent an item failing or wearing out by providing systematic inspection. preventative maintenance is carried out only on those items where a failure would .3. with an objective to anticipate problems and correct them before they occur.4 Disadvantages 1) No warning of failure – safety risk 2) Uncontrolled plant outage – production losses 3) Requires large standby maintenance team 4) Secondary damage – longer repair time 5) Large spares stock requirement 6) Provision of standby plant 5.3 Advantages 1) Low cost if correctly applied 2) Requires no advanced planning other than ensuring spares availability 22.214.171.124. In line with management’s policy on obtaining the best value from the maintenance funds.
It is much economical to carry out preventive maintenance. so that the major break downs are avoided & minimizes possibility of unanticipated production interruptions. lubrication. clean and up keep To achieve prevention of break-downs planned service is carried out with the explicit additional objective of detecting wear points and ensure perfect functioning by replacing parts Here the safe overhaul interval is selected. electricity supply.. Daily Maintenance – Cleaning. item replacement. battery back up at sub-station. distribution transformers. 2.result in expensive consequences. etc. lifts. but it is found that a greater number of machine failures are at the peak when machine gets progressively worse over a period say months/ years. e.g. Periodic Inspections . sub-station transformers. isolators. Routine & planned maintenance includes Preventive maintenance actions. 2) Condition-based Maintenance [explained below] 3) Opportunity Maintenance (find out the opportune moment for maintenance) The preventive maintenance is carried out at irregular intervals and this interval is determined by seeing the actual condition of the machine. repair and major overhaul. Many of these items are also subject to a statutory requirement for inspection and preventive maintenance. fire alarms. circuit breakers. etc. -To avoid breakdown & ensure smooth production following time based activities are practiced: 1. checking. Preventive maintenance could be grouped as: 1) Fixed-time Maintenance (FTM) – Here actions carried out at regular intervals (calendar time) e.g. PM’s prerequisites are: a) Proper design and installation of equipment b) periodical inspection of plant and machinery to prevent breakdowns c) repetitive servicing and overhaul d) lubricate.
Reduces total down time 5. Reduces total work-load 4.2 Features of PM 1) Proper identification of items in each machineries which warrants fixed time maintenance. Reduces total maintenance cost 5. Use of recommended Grades of oils 4.1 Preventive Maintenance System is 1. Reduces unplanned work 6.3. Increases reliability 3. Restoration to recover deterioration 5.3.3 Requirements of Preventive Maintenance Program 1) Good maintenance management department with experienced personnel 2) To firm up plan of PM in consultation with shop personnel 3) A good lubricating and cleaning schedule 4) Detail procedures on maintenance work 5) Proper records maintained along with manuals.4.3.4. daily maintenance etc and programming the activities with work content. 2.3. parts list etc 6) Adequate stock of spare parts .4. cost estimates etc 2) Use of check lists by maintenance staff and inspectors 3) Identify and allocate well qualified crew & inspectors for making repairs 4) Use of budgeting system for major replacements/ repair 5) Proper procedures laid out for meeting the PM objectives in full 5. More expensive due to more planning &replacement of parts before failing.
Preparation of history card of all the repair work carried on such a machine and the remarks there on 4. Identifying the job to be taken & appropriate case register 2. 5.7) Properly training maintenance crew Adequate space around machinery for maintenance work 9) Previous data on failure etc of each machine/equipment 10) Systematic approach.4.5 Advantages of Preventive Maintenance 1. Reduction in wear and tear of machines and increase in their life 3.4. probable causes. Improves reliability of the machineries 6. Labor used cost effectively . Reduction in breakdown frequency 4.3. Preparation of job specification 5. Preparation of inspection chart 7. Maintenance is planned well in advance 2.4 Steps involved in Preventive Maintenance 1. repair procedures etc 11) Suppliers recommendations for up keep of machineries. Higher safety for workers 7. Preparation of schedule of maintenance 3. Preparation of maintenance schedule and detail program of work with time frame for completion 6. diagnosis system. Feed back on the corrective action/ repair work done and its results 5. Improves productivity due to lesser breakdowns 5.a guide showing problems.3. Preparation of maintenance report on the work done 8.
3. whereas. Preventive maintenance program controls the repair costs as well as the overall life of the equipment where as in corrective maintenance brings back to the original life depending on the extent of damage the earier breakdown has brought into the equipment. Conditions of the machinery can be checked on line periodically or on continuous basis and maintenance crew can take decision & plan overhaul/repair as warranted. amplitude meters. 12. Applicable only to age related deterioration 4. Leaser rejection and better quality 11. are used to predict ensuing troubles/problems in machineries. Preventive maintenance is designed to prevent or at least to minimize failures/breakdowns and reduce the need for corrective maintenance. Sensitive instruments like vibration analyzer. resistance gauges etc. 2. Identification of parts and its nature and cost involved in repairs is possible 5.3.5 Predictive Maintenance Predictive Maintenance is one of the modern approaches to preventive maintenance where in sensitive instruments are used to predict anticipated failure of machines & equipment. Minimizes breakdowns and hence minimum inventory hold ups 10. audio gauges. Less breakdown costs.6 Disadvantages/limitations 1.3. sensors for pressure.4.7 Differences between Corrective and Preventive Maintenance 1. corrective maintenance is carried out to repair the equipment after fault occurs/ breakdown happens. temperatures. Maintenance activity and costs increased 2. Maintenance sometimes induces failures (infant mortality) 5. . Unnecessary and invasive maintenance is carried out 3. 5. Less stand by equipment requirement 13.8. It is possible to have planned shutdowns and repair 9.4.
i. maintenance is on a pre-determined cycle whereas in a Predictive Maintenance system maintenance is done only. wear debris analysis.e. which are indicative of malfunctions to decide on corrective treatment. we should have a continuous knowledge of the machines based on certain critical predetermined / pre-formulated parameters . material and time. analysis and tribology. rotor imbalance. In a Preventive Maintenance system. Under maintenance or too long intervals between two successive checks may result in high incidence of failures. misalignments. Main difficulty is in making the correct choice of preventive maintenance intervals based on OEM’s recommendations and own -experiences. it may result in serious breakdowns. incorrect installation. The intervals should be carefully selected as over maintenance or under maintenance are both detrimental and hence undesirable. (which otherwise cause heavy penalty costs. etc. health and safety hazards etc) will result in 1) Maximizes the online operations 2) Minimizes downtime 3) Increased plant and Personnel safety 4) Optimal maintenance The above is achieved by continuous plant / equipment monitoring & diagnosing the actual condition by means of online non-destructive testing methods. 2) If corrective treatment is not adopted at the right time.Predict failures well in advance by monitoring parameters and by use of certain techniques (like vibration. 1) Similar to health monitoring of senior executives to check symptoms.) Measuring of physical parameters may not be enough to detect the destructive effects on a machine or process. A major part of the predictive maintenance involves the ongoing analysis to ensure wear levels that damage the machine are within limits Good ability to predict impending failures well in time to prevent breakdowns. temperature. pump cavitations. oil condition. when status or condition so demands It is beneficial to follow a system which is not calendar based but condition based. Hence an optimal maintenance interval has to be arrived at. Over maintenance or too frequent maintenance increases extensive downtime resulting in added costs on men.
it implies that the particular part needs replacement and a special attention. thus making predictive maintenance more economical as compared to preventive and corrective maintenance strategies.A given machine can continue to be kept in operation as long as the monitored parameters continue to remain within the laid down limits. etc. temperature soars. An ability to forecast the machine behavior by Condition Monitoring is a pre-requisite for Predictive Maintenance Operators who work with equipment every day can listen to equipment and identify changes in noise levels and vibrations. CBM involves recording some measurement that gives an indication of the condition (ex: increase in vibration levels. The main function of condition monitoring is to provide the knowledge of a machine and its rate of change.3. Predictive Maintenance. It is just like a hammer used to strike a wheel to listen for that distinctive sound to say whether there is crack in wheel rim or not. Predictive Maintenance is very cost effective where cost of unplanned breakdowns is very high.6 Condition Based Maintenance CBM relies on the fact that the majority of failures do not occur instantaneously but develops over a period of time. With rapid developments in machining technology through CNC controlled machines. there is enough time available for the maintenance crew to make adequate advance preparations. When permissible limits are reached and warning signals are issued by the measuring devices. but much before the possible breakdown. Temperature changes can be photographed . FMS with artificial intelligent devices and computer simulations and modeling. Condition monitoring is merely a tool that is used by crew through touch. can save around 30% of maintenance costs and with a bonus of 15% savings in energy costs. 5. In the Condition based maintenance (also known as Dynamic predictive maintenance or Diagnostic maintenance) the plant is maintained just after some problems arisen. more universal and better predictive tools and instruments are added in the system. if practiced effectively. to cut downtime. Between the ‘action limit and the maximum permissible time limit’. smell and through their experience on the existing condition of the equipment/aggregate. increased leakages etc) CBM is a continuous or periodic measurement and interpretation of data to indicate the condition of an item to determine the need for maintenance. A sense of confidence is created amongst production and maintenance personnel when they analyze the monitored data and predict that the machines are operated safely till they reach maximum permissible limits.
Condition monitoring is dependent on sensors and transducers for measuring different parameters. unbalance in rotors. This type of maintenance check on performance is vital as the future failures in safety systems can have more catastrophic effects. etc. which are to be controlled by maintenance a) Vibration Sensors – to track tool wear/ breakages. low battery voltage. Trend Monitoring. contaminated cutting fluid Touch – Excessive bearing temperature State-of-the-art CNC systems facilitates adaptive Controls with signals from appropriate transducers.through IR thermograph. if other parts of the system fail. Indications like over – temperature.6. CNC systems have built – in diagnostics which continuously monitor the system hardware to ensure normal functioning.1 Condition Monitoring Methods There are two methods used namely: 1. Condition Checking & Monitoring a) Trend Monitoring: . Curve when extrapolated can indicate maximum & safe permissible limits 5. Action limit curve shows the prescribed for monitoring parameters during normal operations. which gives warning that something is ‘not right’.3. 2. are displayed on the screen well in time to facilitate corrective action without disruption of production. corrosion Audible – Unusual noise. gear defects. alarms. mechanical looseness b) Thermostats – hydraulic oil temperature. misalignments. An investigation can then be carried out to identify the exact problem. Chatter Smell – Smoke. overheating of motors c) Current sensors – cutting load monitored by sensing spindle Condition Monitoring is achieved by the operator’s senses to detect abnormalities Visual – Leakages.
accelerometer. c) Condition Monitoring: Includes three stages: 1. 2) Vibration Monitoring: Involves the attachment of a transducer (velocity. proximity probes) to record vibration level 3) Wear Debris monitoring: This works on the principle that the working surfaces of a machine are washed by the lubricating oil and any damage is detected from particles of wear debris in the oil. to monitor the rates of internal corrosion of the wall of the plant. This may be done by . Detection (when) of the developing fault at an early stage 2. Diagnosis (what) of its origin so that spare parts can be ordered 3. e) Selecting Methods of monitoring Five main techniques of conditioning monitoring 1) Visual monitoring: inspection & recording of surface appearance. · Reduces the cost of maintenance · Capital invested can be recovered faster. b) Condition Checking: Condition checking is where a check measurement is taken with the machine running. which can be made by the application of CM: · Avoiding losses of output due to breakdown of machinery. using some suitable indicator & is used as a measure of machine condition at that time. to indicate variations in the conditions of the machine or its components. 5) Corrosion monitoring: Is applied to fixed plant containing aggressive materials. d) Economics of Condition Monitoring: The savings. Prognosis (forecast) subsequent measurement which will then establish the trend and enable the repair schedule to be planned.Trend monitoring is the continuous monitoring or regular measurement and interpretation of data collected during machine operation. 4) Performance and behavior monitoring: Involves checking the performance of a machine to see whether it is behaving correctly.
4 Disadvantages 1) Thermograph & Oil Debris Analysis [specialised equipment and training] . Labour can be organised 8. 6. 7.2 Implementation of Condition Based Maintenance: Involves: 1. Maintenance can be planned. To arrive at best interval for examination considering the criticality of process.6. Cost of examination. overall cost of failure.3. 5. Maximises equipment availability 2.6.6. The hole is then plugged with a suitable leak proof material. cost of maintenance. 5. Training examiners for the above jobs. Production can be modified to extend unit life 5. Cause of failure can be analysed 6. Allows shutdown before severe damage occurs 4. Select proper examining technique.3. 5. Establishing programs and methods specifying the parts to be examined 4. Selecting critical machines for CM 3. standardizations planned. Establish for each part of the machine the severity limits of the machine condition parameter (Vibration. Some forms of inspection utilising human senses can be inexpensive 3. Spares can be assembled 5.drilling a hole through the wall and drilled coupon of material is observed for corrosion. operating conditions. sound.3 Advantages 1. contamination etc) to be measured. Listing and numbering of machine to have identification and location details 2. 7. failure statistics (MTBF-MTTR).3. standby availability of machine. Recording data 8.
2) Requires careful choice of the correct technique. a _______________ recurring periodically 5) In the following list find out which one is considered as disadvantage of routine management: . 3) Irregular preventive maintenance do not include a) Repairs b) Overhauls c) Reduction of noise levels and vibrations d) Clean up of leakages etc on all the machine aggregates daily 4) RM is a procedure followed regularly i.e. fixtures and tools d) All the above 2) Which of the following is not an objective of remedial maintenance? a) To put back machinery back to work and minimize production interruptions b) To control costs of maintenance crew to the minimum c) To control cost of the operations of repairing d) Replacing the faulty machine when it starts malfunctioning. 3) Time is required for trends to develop to know machine condition Self Assessment Questions 1) Which of the following is not a common cause of equipment breakdowns? a) Improper preventive maintenance b) Inadequate lubrication c) Improper setups of jigs. e) To control costs of repair & replacement parts to minimum f) To carry out appropriate repair intermittently at each malfunction to improve the life of the machine.
Initially it looks economical . 9) Characteristics of Break-down Maintenance System-fill the missing one: 1. Maintenance done by sub-contractors 4. ______________________ 5. faithful implementation and recording 6) Initial list of planned maintenance will be in detail Breakdown Maintenance is the method of operating the machines to run ______________ and then repair in order to restore them to an acceptable condition. No stock of spares 6.1) Simple to establish & follow 2) Little or no clerical work 3) High degree of prevention by intercepting developing faults 4) RM may not provide the service specified by the manufacturer 5) A more advanced stage calls for ’service instructions on a pre-printed schedule and checklists’. No services except occasional lubrication unless failure occurs 2. 6) Planned maintenance is the activities carried out according to a ______________ and hence known as scheduled maintenance or productive maintenance 7) Characteristics of Planned Maintenance-fill up the missing one: 1) Instructions are more detailed than in routine maintenance 2) Calls for differently timed service for the same unit 3) Schedule is drawn with dates 4) ___________________________ 5) Entails considerable planning effort. No maintenance men on regular basis 3.
maintenance has been given more importance in the operational plans. predictive and remedial maintenance. preventive. Daily Maintenance – Cleaning. with JIT inventory and sophisticated processes. 13) There are two methods used namely-Which is the second one 1) Trend Monitoring. 2. Periodic Inspections 3. Creates internal problems namely: Who to do the repair? From where to get parts? How do we pay for them? Who will go & buy parts? 10) To avoid breakdown & ensure smooth production following time based activities are practiced. and predictive.4 Summary Poorly maintained machines/equipment has severe negative impact on the productivity and the quality of the output in a production unit. etc. . 12) CBM relies on the fact that the majority of failures do not occur instantaneously but develops over a period of time. maintenance managers have to decide on a proper balance between preventive.7. In the present high tech production. Breakdown or remedial maintenance is undertaken when a machine breaks down or malfunctions. Maintenance is of three main categories: breakdown. Restoration to recover deterioration 11) Predictive Maintenance is one of the modern approaches to preventive maintenance where in __________ are used to predict ____________ of machines & equipment. Predictive maintenance is a type in which the vital attributes of a system are monitored continuously and any deviations from the accepted limits are taken to rectify the problem. lubrication. CBM involves recording some ___________ that gives an indication of the condition. using high technology machines. Preventive maintenance is undertaken before need for maintenance arises and aims at minimizing the anticipated breakdowns. In planning. Check all the machines at firmed up time intervals 4. any stoppage due to breakdown in any part of the system will affect the entire production process. To counter this. Use of recommended Grades of oils 5. 2) ____________________ 5. checking.which one is not the recommended practice? 1.
Discuss the advantages and limitations of preventive maintenance 11.In the Condition based maintenance (also known as Dynamic predictive maintenance or Diagnostic maintenance) the plant is maintained just after some problems arisen. Explain briefly the condition based monitoring methods 15. Organizations have realized the importance of maintenance and its planning. What are the important functions of maintenance department 5. Describe the procedures of preventive maintenance program 10. State the objectives of maintenance management? 2. Total productivity maintenance is practiced to improve the productivity of the equipment by minimizing the number of breakdowns and malfunctions. What are the advantages & disadvantages of breakdown/corrective maintenance? 8. What is condition based maintenance. Define preventive maintenance and state its objectives 9. accidents and minimizing the costs of maintenance activities? 5. What are the advantages of Planned Maintenance? 6. 14. CBM is a continuous or periodic measurement and interpretation of data to indicate the condition of an item to determine the need for maintenance. What are the advantages and disadvantages of condition based maintenance? 5. What are the characteristics & objectives of breakdown/corrective maintenance? 7. Where this type is applicable.5 Terminal Questions 1. but much before the possible breakdown. What is meant by planned/scheduled/productive maintenance and what emphasis it pays in maintaining the machine/equipment 4. Outline the various types of maintenance 3. Distinguish between preventive and breakdown maintenance 12. What is predictive maintenance? What are its advantages over preventive maintenance? 13. Which enables them to reduce breakdowns.6 Answers .
d) All the above 2. Condition Checking & Monitoring Terminal Questions 1. Refer 5. Refer 5.3.4 4. d) Replacing the faulty machine when it starts malfunctioning 3. Refer 5. Refer 5.4.3. anticipated failure 12.3. Until they fail 9.Self Assessment Questions 1. c) Reduction of noise levels and vibrations 126.96.36.199.2 5.4. Refer 5.3 & 5.4. Predetermined schedule 7.1 & 5. Sensitive instruments.4. measurement 13. Not occur.2 7.4 8. (4) Establishes the work-load for the crew 8. (3) Check all the machines at firmed up time intervals 11.4.3 3.4 .2 2.3. (4) No organised efforts to find out reasons 10. Cyclic operation 5. Refer 5. (4) RM may not provide the service specified by the manufacturer 6. Refer 5.2 6. Refer 5.
4.4.4 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .6 14.3 & 5.6.5 & 5.4.6 11. Refer 5.5 188.8.131.52.7 12. Refer 5.1 184.108.40.206.9.4.4. Refer 5.4.Refer 5.4.6. Refer 5. Refer 5.4.4 10. . Refer 5.
7 How much Planning will help? 6.3 Planning Vision & Mission 6.13 Six Maintenance Scheduling Principles 6.9 Maintenance Planning Principles 6. Project work 6.12 Maintenance scheduling principles 6.15 Terminal Questions 6.8 Productivity.11 Summary of Maintenance Planning 6.6 Planning System 6.10 Planning Preventive & Predictive Maintenance.14 Summary of Maintenance Scheduling 6.2 Functions of Maintenance Planning 6.1 Introduction Objectives 6.4 Functions of Maintenance Planner 6.16 Answers 6.5 Benefit of Planning 6.OM0006-Unit-06-Maintenance Planning and Scheduling Unit-06-Maintenance Planning and Scheduling Structure: 6.1 Introduction . Specialization & Coordination of Planning 6.
leadership. and project maintenance is essential. are included in the job plans. management.All manufacturing units having varieties of machineries and equipments require maintenance to keep them up in good working conditions and for sustaining and achieving higher productivity. consideration of reliability maintenance as preventive maintenance. The final improvement to over 50% can be achieved through special aids. Objectives: After studying this unit you shall be able to · Prepare a plan for maintenance · Analyse the benefits of planning for maintenance · Examine the principles of maintenance planning . The plant has better control over work that is scheduled. performance. tool rooms. predictive maintenance. The planning system is designed with procedures to be followed over time through a systematic job plans. Planning and scheduling promotes labor productivity by examining potential delays and scheduling work. shops. Planning does not solve everything. Here procedure already in the file or important information that persons who worked on that equipment have recorded previously. tools. Planning concentrates on adding value. qualified personnel. If detailed procedures and checklists contribute to better reliability. and safety. In addition. The planner should also give more attention to critical equipment and safety areas. organizations could improve maintenance productivity to about 40%. data collection and research of certain processes etc. are the subjects being discussion. Where does planning fit into? What principles make it work? How planning is required to be done? How to provide additional resources for planners and personnel for maintenance activities? Etc. Other tools used are work order system. control of inventories. By implementing fundamental planning and scheduling system. and other vendors to cater to the common maintenance tasks on critical equipment and safety equipment. but certainly brings together many aspects of maintenance. tool room facilities. planning is very essential. and maintenance measurement. To achieve the desired maintenance efficiency. communication. it is preferred for the organization to become a procedure-based one with teams of experienced technicians. engineers. teamwork. as they leverage their expertise into job plans. planners. storeroom support.
The work plan is nothing but the information a planner makes ready for the technician to execute the work. 6. The work plan includes a job scope. procedure for accomplishing task and identify any parts and special tools required. · The planned information gives the supervisors a reference for expected work and time for completion and helps to have a control through on problems that might lessen productivity. a planner develops a work plan after receiving a work request. · Crew personnel are then assigned the job for execution and avoid problems such as delays stemming by insufficient skills/ not having required materials or tools. · The planner identifies appropriate materials for the specified job and checks whether they are available or be specially obtained. · Planner does preparatory planning for the crew supervisor and craft persons who executes the work. · Once the work order is received. For ex: Planner has to judge whether the defective valve should be repaired or replaced. To prepare a job in advance. the maintenance planning initiates action. and labor time estimate. For this the maintenance planning will have the following functions: · Coordinating mechanism within the maintenance department. thus enabling a better control over their work. 6. · The planner specifies appropriate craft skills required for that particular job.· Distinguish between preventive and breakdown maintenance planning. · Maintenance planning brings together or coordinates the effort of many other aspects of maintenance.3 Planning Vision & Mission The mission of planning revolves around doing the right jobs that are ready to go. Coordinating function is the key to achieve competitive edge. · The planner considers the proper scope of work for the job. identification of craft skill required. · The time estimates made by planner gives the idea to crew personnel to judge how much work is assigned and what work is there.2 Functions of Maintenance Planning Maintenance management uses planning as a tool to reduce unnecessary job delays through advance preparation. .
but ready handle judiciously the reactive type of work also. 3) With preparatory work. 5) The planner writes a job plan that identifies parts needed (such as gaskets. method of maintenance. 9) Planner provide a bill of materials or an illustrated parts diagram both to the stores person and craft men. Doing the right jobs involves job priorities. A planning mission statement is: “To increase the Maintenance crew’s ability to complete the work orders quickly”. arrangements are ready. seals. Work plans avoid anticipated delays. so that technicians need not wait for parts to arrive. 4) Planners evolve good planning methodology that increases maintenance productivity. A work crew is ready to go immediately to scheduled work assignments as all instructions. without wasting time. 6. 6) The planner reserves such required parts in the store to ensure their availability. It also involves identifying the actual work scope. The entire maintenance organization should be committed to schedule proactive works.4 Functions of Maintenance Planner 1) Maintenance planning involves identifying parts and tools that are necessary for maintenance jobs. bearings etc) along with their identification numbers. for easy understanding and identifying the proper parts for his next work. crew schedules. considering the safety aspects of the job. improve on past jobs. crew starts their work as per job. clearances. planner initiate action to organize and get them. parts. tools. 7) If parts are not in the inventory. 2) The planner writes work instructions on how to do the job. . and it controls and coordinates and brings resources to leverage productivity. work involved. With proper planning or preparation efforts for each job. Arrange parts required to be placed in a convenient location nearer to the job site before the job starts. Planning is Information central. release of the work orders to proceed etc.The planning mission states “Doing the right jobs & ready to go”. and allow advance scheduling through which the supervisors will assign and control the proper amount of work. planning sets the stage for the maintenance force to act upon quickly.
Hence the purpose of planning is to focus on high productivity through an organized planning & scheduling principles.10) Planner is required to coordinate with vendors & ensure material supply along with the quality control on vendor supplies. 6. fork lifts. 6. craft and skill level required. 4) Skill levels and time estimates on jobs and proper scheduling are included in the subject work order. 7) Prepares Schedules for maintenance works and follow track until complete. 6. time estimates. 2) Planner plans work order. procedures for assigning proper amount of work to all the skilled/unskilled crews.5 Benefit of Planning As planning consists of arranging parts and the necessary tools for maintenance work and provide necessary guidelines by use all the inputs effectively through a maintenance system. 5) Creates data and information on machineries and equipment and its maintenance methodology for future reference and analysis.6 Planning System In a proper planning system. 3) Planner evolves a system and procedure for each type of maintenance work. pallets etc for easy movement of identified parts and tools to work site in advance. specify job scope. anticipated parts & tools. resulting benefit achieved are the improved productivity and overall effectiveness or efficiency in maintenance. 12) Planner will arrange material handling equipments like crane. 6) Establishes through work order system.7 How Much Planning Will Help? a) Tangible Help: • Planning provides tangible help for organization to achieve: . Institute a control system that contributes to managing productivity. the maintenance process has the following steps: 1) Receives request from the concerned section for the maintenance work. 11) Planner identifies special tools needed by the craft man for maintenance activities and reserve such tooling and other accessories at the place of work. with identification numbers.
The practical result of planning-example: In a power station. Further if there are three crews working with . thus using the freed 10 trained personnel for other productivity improvement activities. b) Improving the Wrench Time and Productivity · Work activities are classified differently. • • Through proper planning. -Extra labor power can be reallocated to added value activities.8 Productivity. · The maximum performance target for wrench time was shown at an average of around 55%. also known as wrench time. 6. c) “World class” wrench time · Statistical work sampling studies measures productive time. -Work force is freed up. one can calculate and measure the actual amount of increased maintenance productivity. thus frees technicians for more productive work. The industry’s average productive maintenance time was less than 30% (the measure of wrench time) when a typical maintenance technician has spent less than 20% on the real work and it is found that the balance time is spent on other nonproductive tasks. Analysis of the nonproductive time is one of the most valuable work-sampling. where the management created an exclusive planning group. intangible benefits of planning were seen in providing a better control of maintenance work. In addition. Specialization & Coordination of Planning a) The specific benefit of planning in Wrench time improvements · There are organizations who feel that the planning work is part and parcel of the maintenance crew. Practically the total maintenance work was completed by 35 personnel as compared to previous year’s statistics of using around 45 personnel for the same output. Improvement here was only possible with the planning in place. Is this wrench time a reality? Instances are there in which experienced workforce moved from average 35% wrench time to 55% with fine tuned planning.-Amount of work accomplished rises. could achieve a remarkable reliable plant capacity within a year through superior availability and a drastic improvement in work force productivity. where in the planning addresses and reduces delays. Crew will plan their work and then executes. To determine if any of the delay time could be avoidable requires planner’s assistance for analyzing such nonproductive time. But it proved the other way as seen from the above examples.
then total productivity is 100 % [2x 50% +0= 100%. Loading these specialists to achieve higher wrench times also requires a sound planning and proper coordination. electricians. These principles must be understood by all concerned to have effective planning process. which spells the importance of planning jobs for maintenance. 4) Planner expertise dictates job estimates. Each principle identifies important crossroads. the other two crew reached a wrench time of 50%. Specialization increases productivity per person. The principles of having planning as a separate department in order to focus on the future work and consequent use of planner’s expertise to create estimates. b) Specialization and Productivity: · Experienced crew are specializing in a particular field and achieving the specified goals.9 Maintenance Planning Principles The principles or paradigms that are evolved over the maintenance mission will profoundly affect planning. 1) Company organizes planners into a separate department. There is a methodology of work measurement what is commonly known as wrench time and this frequently misunderstood principle and hence must be made clear to everyone concerned. and if one is allocated to planning job and with whose instance. 6. recognizing skill of the craftsman and measuring performance must be understood by every one concerned with production. But experience has shown that a single planner can plan maintenance jobs for more than 20 persons. and instrument technicians. 5) Planners recognize the skill of the crafts. Decisions making at each crossroads on the alternative ways to conduct planning and execute is essential and ultimate success of planning depends on this situational oriented decision. . Six principles greatly contribute to the overall success of planning. for which they train and maintain separate groups of mechanics. Industry to this day continues to use specialization.wrench time of 30%. 2) Planners concentrate on future work. as compared to 3x30=90%]. which is essential for a competitive edge. 3) Planners base their files on the component level of systems.
· Planners report to a different supervisor/ lead planner who will be responsible to provide direction and ensure consistency within the planning group.6) Work sampling of direct work time provide measure of planning effectiveness. · The planners must be engaged in preparing work that has not yet begun. the lack of planning effort may decrease the number of work assignments to crew members · The company organizing planners to a separate group. or other helpful information so that future work plans and schedules might be improved. secure file system based on equipment tag numbers. The feedback consists of any problems. · Planners use personal experience and develop work plans to avoid anticipated work delays and quality or safety problems. . The planners ensure that the feedback information is properly filed to aid future work. Principle 3: [Component Level Files] · Planning maintains a simple. The Planning Department concentrates on future work and provide the crew to plan their work in advance and remove backlogs · After job completion. which helps planners to become specialized in all the tools and techniques of planning · Planners need to work closely to ensure proper execution of work with consistency. especially on repetitive maintenance tasks. The supervisor has an obligation to complete the assigned work in an expeditious manner with a minimum of interruptions · The crew focuses exclusively on executing assigned work. plan changes. The file system enables planners to utilize equipment data and information and their experience on previous work to prepare and improve work plans. Matching identify tags on the machineries are also arranged. · Because planning contributes to scheduling. Principle 2: [Focus on Future Work] · The vision of planning is to increase labor productivity by preparing the jobs in advance. feedback is given by the lead technician or supervisor to the Planning Department. Principle 1: [The Company organizes planners into a separate department] · The planners are organized into a separate department from craft maintenance crews to facilitate specialization in planning and focus on future work.
Any recommended deviations from the job plan must be approved by planning before execution. The planner’s responsibility is to firm up the scope of the work request including clarification of the originator’s intent wherever necessary. · Plant must choose from among its best craft persons to be planners. These planners rely greatly upon their personal skill and experience in addition to existing information in the files to develop job plans. Principle 4: [Estimates Based on Planner Expertise] · Planners use personal experience and file information to develop work plans to avoid anticipated work delays after considering quality and safety problems. · Supervisors must train technicians with deficient skills and give proper support and guidance · Technicians must execute the job precisely as planned for three reasons. . The planners also use their own expertise to formalize best practices on individual job plans. File cost information assists in making repair or replace decisions. · Supervisors and plant engineers are trained to access these files to gather information they need with minimal planner assistance. The planner calls for a minimum craft skill on a job plan. · Planners give information to supervisor for scheduling control. The planners and technicians work together over repeated jobs to develop better procedures and checklists. · Routine maintenance offers the highest potential for planner contribution to company success because more intricate or unusual maintenance tasks receives necessary help from plant engineering department Principle 5: [Recognize the Skill of the Crafts] · The Planning Department recognizes the skill of the crafts.· The majority of maintenance tasks are repetitive over a period of time. · Craft technicians use their expertise to make the specified repair or replacement. · This principle dictates that planners depend on the workforce being sufficiently skilled when he is putting a minimum level of detail into the initial job plans. The plan dictates the skill set necessary to accomplish the work given the state of the job plan. · The planner then plans the general strategy of the work (such as repair or replace) and includes procedure if it is not already there in the file.
· Finally. Delays such as waiting for assignment. predictive maintenance. the planning system counts on the skilled technicians giving feedback on job plans so that their expertise and the planner’s expertise both contribute to adding information to future plans. coordination with other crafts. This determines the effectiveness of the maintenance planning program. Projects The concepts and importance of preventive maintenance. and project work and their relationship to the development of the planning principles and practices are discussed here. Wrench time is the proportion of available time-to-work time during which the craft technicians are on productive working on a job site. statistical observational techniques & study. parts. . planners visualize the types of work orders to be released for preventive maintenance tasks for the next week. clearance.10 Planning Preventive & Predictive Maintenance. What is actually important is the analysis of the nonproductive time. This principle holds that delays in technician’s job should be avoided. 6. The time that employees spend at their job sites working is called direct or productive work. Starting with a basic system. a) Preventive Maintenance [PM] and Planning · The planning department studies and issues PM’s schedules and reviews them periodically. · Measuring wrench time thus gives an overall indication of how well the other principles have been implemented or accepted. Wrench time is measured accurately with a properly structured. tools. Principle 6: [Measure Performance with Work Sampling] · Wrench time is the primary measure of workforce efficiency and of planning and scheduling effectiveness. instructions. travel. Wrench time analysis is an indicator. Planning can adopt preferred maintenance for higher effectiveness. · Work sampling to determine wrench time gives this measure of how much planning is helping in the process. not the control of planning or the work force. These reduce the incidence of reactive maintenance work and to increase plant reliability. or equipment information are all deducted. · Principle 6 dictates that measuring how much time craft technicians actually spend on their job site versus other activities performed such as obtaining parts or tools.
· This requirement of corrective maintenance is ‘TLC’ i. and Cleanliness. which are contributing to more than 50% of all breakdowns. Tightness.e. Many do value assigning with experienced personnel to perform PM work orders. the technician is empowered to make any minor equipment adjustments or minor repairs during execution of the PM. repairs. b) Predictive Maintenance [PdM] and Planning · Planning plans and schedules PdM work orders. . · PM plans should specify torque requirements or attach torque charts where appropriate and include torque wrenches as a special tool. or minor repairs. · The scope should extend beyond simple repair and replacement of parts to improve equipment reliability as well. small adjustments. Planning for parts encourages the replacement of fasteners based on the technician’s decisions. · The planner should allow some extra time in the work order on all PM work for making unspecified excessive cleaning. · Planners should also review the histories and feedback from all work orders to determine if additional PM work orders are needed. on the work done. The dirt and grime also add undesirable insulation conditions that may affect equipment performance. · Cleanliness helps reduce contamination sources and such clean surfaces to reveal the presence of new leaks. PdM personnel make the call on the creation of new work orders. For ex: tightening of fasteners in the coupling if he found they are loose.· A planner should plan each of the PMs with scope and craft requirements such as numbers of persons. Lubrication. PM plans can include rags for wiping and removing old grease when parts are dissembled. The plan should also list anticipated parts and special tools. as improper lubrication leads to total damage to equipment. For this. lubrications etc. work hours. Predictive maintenance (PdM) uses technology not available to the regular maintenance work force. · Lubrication is important part of a PM program. · PdM technology greatly moves the plant’s reliability upward as the predictions in predictive maintenance show an important capacity for growth in accuracy. and duration. tightening of bolts. · The planner must receive feedback to improve the PM work order itself. · Emphasis in all PMs is to inspect the equipment for abnormal situations.
but difference is in the larger nature of projects. which involves alignment criteria. c) Project Work and Planning · Similar to PdM. so that PdM personnel may quickly climb the learning curve. Each principle resolves a crossroads decision that affects the planning effort. · Planners should be able to estimate and commit the project schedules with plant engineering and scheduler assistance. At each crossroads. or other rebuild tolerances. · Planners should insist to utilize standards set by PdM for certain jobs. The decision the company makes regarding each situation determines the ultimate success of planning.· Planners must accept PdM work orders for jobs and translate them into the appropriate scope for the maintenance crews. · Planners must vigorously pursue collecting documentation to establish files and also overview position regarding the project replacement or overhaul. · Planners should insist that PdM uses the same equipment tag numbers for ease communication problems. . 6. Plants treat projects as outages and planned as long-range scheduling. planning group plans and schedules work orders to implement projects as regular jobs. · Planners should facilitate PdM when work on equipment is in process. with active participation and assistance from the planning group. · The PdM group can update the technology of the maintenance force. · Plant normally has the personnel to implement such maintenance project work with the productivity prescribed in the planning and scheduling system.11 Summary of Maintenance Planning Effective maintenance is vital to provide reliable plant capacity. the company has to make a decision regarding alternate ways to conduct planning. bearing clearances. Consideration of six basic principles greatly boosts the planning program efforts toward success. The application of maintenance planning makes possible the dramatic improvement in maintenance productivity. The planning effort has mainly focused on making individual jobs ready to go by identifying and planning around potential delays.
break. Only when planning keeps a separate file for each piece of equipment. the technicians would scope out the jobs with their social & other times. The planned work packages increases the maintenance department’s ability to complete work orders effectively. and estimate times adequately.The principle of having planning as a separate department. which is discussed below. efficiently. the principles or paradigms in order to evolve effective scheduling will come through effective planning process. gave a clear picture of how technicians are completing their work. . and measuring planning performance with work sampling for technician’s direct work time. The principles used for planning and scheduling are for achieving the forecasted skill levels. the schedules and job priorities for every forecasted work available. tools. 6. and then measure schedule compliances. and safely. lunch. Planners need to focus on future work not yet begun. The analysis revealed that the large delay times not only for parts. or travel categories. but also exists for excessive startup. instructions. The crews worked on the planned jobs and work sampling study made on it indicated a wrench time of 25% only and further plant could do better job if improved upon. Because most jobs are repetitive. focusing on future work. utilize files. Planners need to avoid continually being interrupted to resolve problems for jobs already under way. parts availability problems or not properly planning issues Companies placed an emphasis on planning and also they doubled the parts availability in stores to reduce ordering needs. Plnners must possess the experience of top level technicians in order to scope jobs. and shutdown Wrench time concept of measuring the work for each hour of the day. . are all in the total system. They solved the problems by addressing symptomatic of tools. using planner expertise to create estimates. recognizing the skill of the crafts. allowing the crew supervisor to handle day’s work.12 Maintenance Scheduling Principles Scheduling principles envisages the vision. having component level files. Maintenance needed certain methodology to assigning enough work through the planning process. Wrench time will measure whether the objectives of planning are met or not in reducing job delays. file history help technicians to avoid previously faced problems. When work orders are received. it is practical to retrieve information when needed. This aligning of the work to accomplish the desired effective and efficient maintenance led to the principles of scheduling.
. Plant priority plays a larger role in creating the schedule of work and all involved should treat it as a serious matter.Routine maintenance needs the use of principles. Schedule compliance of wrench time. provides the measure of scheduling effectiveness. 6. and job duration. · Advance scheduling of enough work for the entire week sets the goal for maximum utilization of the available craft hours. Principle 1: [Planners plan the jobs for lowest required skill levels] § Essential part of Principle 1 is that job plans identify the lowest skill necessary to complete the work with the contention that the supervisor will have higher skill capability also. 4. Crew supervisor matches personnel skills and tasks 6. Planners plan the jobs for lowest required skill levels. Does the job require mechanics or machinists? Does the job require three helpers to assist a certified electrician? Etc that are necessary for advance scheduling. 2. Principle 2 [Entire plant respect the importance of schedules and job priorities] · Weekly and daily schedules must be adhered to by the crew as per the priorities mentioned in the work orders to prevent undue interruption in schedules. Each principle sets guidelines on how the maintenance should handle different scheduling process. lowest required craft skill level. Crew supervisors forecast available work hours one week ahead by the highest skills available.13 Six Maintenance Scheduling Principles Six principles that greatly contribute to the overall success of scheduling are: 1. planners and the plant manager. Schedule assigns planned work for every forecasted work hour available. 3. · The priority may be reviewed periodically and adjusted in coordination with crew. if required while assigning individuals to execute job plan. 5. The entire plant must respect the importance of schedules and job priorities. It also ensures that a sufficient and the right work are assigned. craft work hours per level. § Job plans provide information about the number of persons required. as they create a framework for successful scheduling of planned work. The appropriate priority for the work is based on established plant guidelines.
it is better to delay identified job in full rather than completing half. Principle 4: [A week’s schedule will assign work for all the available work hour] · A week’s schedule will assign work for the total work hours. · Over assigning and under assigning work are common and acceptable in industries.e. As these may cause unique problems it is better to be avoided. It allows for emergencies/high priority/ reactive jobs by scheduling sufficient amount of work hours. · Consideration is also given to multiple jobs on the same equipment or system and of proactive versus reactive work available. Principle 3 [Develops week’s schedule for each crew & craft hours required] · Develops a week’s schedule for each crew based on craft hours required. · First two principles are the prerequisites of the principle-3 scheduling · Scheduler selects the week’s worth of work from the overall plant backlog. forecast of highest skill. · Scheduling plan is for performing all the works available in the system. and reactive jobs as a guide. and information from job plans. · Preference is given to completing the higher priority work by utilizing whatever skills available than working on completing the lower priority work. This includes proactive work. · Scheduler assigns work plans for the crew to execute during the following week for 100% of the forecasted hours i. .· Inefficiency peeps through the interruption by low priority jobs coming in way of urgent jobs progressing. new high priority. · Scheduler also uses job priority and job plan information. Principle 5: [The crew supervisor matches personnel skills and tasks] · Crew supervisor develops a daily schedule one day in advance using current job progress. If a true emergency arises. job priorities. · Scheduler uses a forecast of maximum capabilities of the crew for coming week. · Crew supervisor matches personnel skills and tasks. after considering the tasks that are being interrupted · Principle 4 brings all the three previous scheduling principles together. crew work load is 1000 worthy labour hours.
Six basic principles form the foundation of successful scheduling and make schedules and priority systems important.· Crew supervisor handles the current day’s work and any other problems in emergency maintenance · Although individual jobs show a wide variance between planned and actual times. This increases flexibility in choosing jobs. He will ensure that each technician receives assignments totalling to full day’s work Principle 6: [Wrench time is the primary measure of workforce efficiency] · Wrench time is the primary measure of workforce efficiency and of planning and scheduling effectiveness. it relatively balances by week end. · Planning individual jobs can reduce delays such as waiting to obtain certain parts. Work sampling or wrench time is the best measure of scheduling performance. and track schedule compliance. . · Each day the crew supervisor assigns the next day’s work to each technician. The priority system must properly identify the right jobs to start. or technician instructions · Scheduling aims at reducing delays. 6. crew supervisor is the best judge to create the daily crew work schedule.14 Summary of Maintenance Scheduling Maintenance management must consider main scheduling in the maintenance planning strategy to avoid problems of improved efficiency. scheduler to develop schedule in advance. Adhering to schedules is important as interrupting jobs leads to overall inefficiency. Maintenance dept also tracks schedule compliance. Work sampling or wrench time studies quantify delays & gives measures of planning and scheduling effectiveness. assigns work for all available labour hours. When setting craft and time requirements. In case of delay in actual job progress and the incidence of unexpected reactive work in place. job plans must plan for the lowest required skill level. allow crew supervisors to make daily schedules. Knowing of the lowest skills required for jobs and the highest skills available allows developing a schedule with proper work for the week. · Schedule compliance is the measure of adherence to the one week schedule and its effectiveness. tools.
· To arrest the leakages and keep up the lubrication system · The planner specifies the appropriate craft skills required for that particular job. Maintenance management uses planning as a tool to reduce ………………….Schedule based on the wrench time has to be practiced. Out of the maintenance planning functions. Hence use of planned and scheduled work packages increases the maintenance department’s ability to complete work orders effectively. a planner develops a …………… after receiving a work request. crew schedules. To prepare a job in advance. This involves job priorities. · A maintenance planner does preparatory planning for the craft persons · The planner identifies appropriate materials for the specified job and checks whether they are available or must be specially obtained. 3. 4. Self Assessment Questions 1. 5. In the maintenance process given below which one not the step to be considered. through advance preparation. and safely. efficiently. Principles 3 through 5 establish basis of scheduling process. . A planning mission statement may be: …………………………………. The planners and crew had to deal differently with urgent reactive work by developing job plans for reactive work. Further working to the maintenance planning based on the six planning principles along with the six scheduling principles will help improve the productivity. The planning mission statement could be ……………………………. 2. Principles 1 and 2 are prerequisites for scheduling. and works such as preventive maintenance/ breakdown work and release of the work orders to proceed. .. Principle 6 sets overall indicators for scheduling control.. · Crew personnel are assigned the job for execution · The time estimates are made by planner · Maintenance planning brings together or coordinates the effort of many other aspects of maintenance. which one is not relevant? · Coordinating mechanism within the maintenance department.
Statistical work sampling studies measures ……………. c) Planners base their files on the component level of systems. also known as wrench time. time estimates..work time during which the craft technicians are on productive working on a job site. 6. procedures for assigning proper amount of work to all the skilled/unskilled crews h) Prepares Schedules for the maintenance works and follow track until complete. b) Planners concentrate on future work. with all their identification numbers. Which is sixth one? a) The company organizes planners into a separate department. per person 9. e) Fix up the wages for each of the work based on the skill level f) Creates data and information on all machineries and equipment and its maintenance methodology for future reference and analysis. c) ……………………………………………… 7. craft and skill level required. c) Planner evolves a system and procedure for each type of maintenance work d) Skill levels and time estimates on jobs and proper scheduling are included in the subject work order. g) He establishes through work order system. Wrench time is the primary measure …………………………………………… Wrench time is the proportion of available time to. Planning provides tangible help. Specialization increases ………………………. . Six principles greatly contribute to overall success of planning. 8. Fill in (c) below: a) The amount of work accomplished rises.a) Receives request from the concerned section for the maintenance work. d) Planner expertise dictates job estimates. b) A planner plans the work order by specifying job scope. b) The work force is freed up. as well as specifying anticipated parts and tools. .
upward as the predictions involved in predictive maintenance show an important capacity for growth in accuracy. Companies strive to do more preventive maintenance. Fill in the missing principle. work and to increase plant reliability.15 Terminal Questions 1. This requirement of corrective maintenance is ‘TLC’ i. allowing the crew supervisor to handle day’s work. e. …………………. Improper lubrication leads to total ……….e) Planners recognize the skill of the crafts. f) ………………………………………. 12.. 11. 3. Crew supervisors forecast available work hours one week ahead by the highest skills available. 14.. What are the benefits of maintenance planning? . b. Why planning process is essential for efficient maintenance management? 2. and such clean surfaces to reveal the presence of new leaks.. Just as in planning. ……………………………………………. which are contributing to more than 50% of all breakdowns.e. and project work to lessen the ……………………. The PdM technology has the potential of greatly moving the plant’s ……….. ……. d. The crew supervisor matches personnel skills and tasks] f. 10. Cleanliness helps reduce ……………. and then measure schedule compliances 15. for every forecasted work available. 13. Schedule compliance joins wrench time to provide the measure of scheduling effectiveness. Planners plan the jobs for lowest required skill levels.. ………. c. 6. The principles used for planning and scheduling are for achieving the forecasted higher skill levels. to equipment. six principles that greatly contribute to the overall success of scheduling are discussed below. Explain briefly the functions of maintenance planning. ………. predictive maintenance. The entire plant must respect the importance of schedules and job priorities. a..
16 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1. 8. Doing right jobs which are ready to go 4. Productivity 9. 9. “To increases the Maintenance Department’s ability to complete work orders quickly”. Explain as to how the maintenance planning will help improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the organization 5. 7. Work sampling for direct work time provides the primary measure of planning effectiveness 10. Explain briefly how the use of six principles will greatly contribute to the overall success of scheduling 6. workforce efficiency and of planning and scheduling effectiveness. (sl. Explain how the specialization in areas of maintenance will help improve the productivity of the maintenance crew. Tightness. Unnecessary job. (sl. Incidence of reactive maintenance 11. The extra labor power can be reallocated to added value activities. What is wrench time? How it is recognized as a maintenance work measure? 6.4. Work plan 2. What are the maintenance planning principles? How they contribute to the success of planning? 8. Productive time. Lubrication. Explain briefly the planning approaches in preventive and predictive maintenance processes. 5. 7. and Cleanliness .no:4)To arrest the leakages and keep up the lubrication system 3. Why scheduling after proper planning is essential for effective maintenance and meeting the dead line and avoid delays? 10. no: e) Fix up the wages for each of the work based on the skill level 6.
12 10.8 (b) 7.7 (c) 6.9 8. Refer 6. Terminal Questions 1.Refer 6.7 5. Refer 6. damage 13. (For d): The schedule assigns planned work for every forecasted work hour available. Refer 6.5 4. Refer 6. Refer 6. Contamination sources.2 3. . Refer 6.12. Refer 6. The schedules and job priorities 15.1 2. Refer 6.10 a & b 9.13 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Reliability 14. Refer 6.
Using a state-of-the-art maintenance management.4 Benefits of using ‘UMS’ with Planner’s Functions 7.11 Answers 7.7 ACE Team Benchmarking Process 7. organizations have tried and tested different approaches for bringing changes that can result in improvements in both the function and the cost.5 Universal Principles for higher Productive Maintenance 7. The new system will become a platform for continuous improvement and will generate long term benefits .1 Introduction Objectives 7. process and systems.2 Planner’s Function in Maintenance & Benefits 7.10 Terminal Questions 7.3 Organization & Processes 7.9 Summary 7.8 Overall Craft Effectiveness & its Measurement 7.OM0006-Unit-07-Universel Maintenance Practices Unit-07-Universel Maintenance Practices Structure: 7.1 Introduction Automating the maintenance program is a complex task as it requires integrating of people.6 Work Measurement for High-Productivity Maintenance Universal Maintenance Standards [UMS] Five Levels of Data in Ums 7.
on-time delivery and ultimately. · Explain the benefits of UMS · Adopt the ACE system of Benchmarking 7. theory. Improving the Overall craft effectiveness [OCE] for productivity. especially when sophisticated high tech machineries and equipments are used for production. principles and theory of new measurement techniques. Use of the state of art principles. For achieving the above said prerequisites. as the maintenance represents variable operating cost which includes physical plant value.2 Planner’s Function In Maintenance & Benefits The planner’s role is varied in nature such as: maintain a backlog of ready-to-work jobs for each technician. maintenance labour. Implementing new techniques of measurement. Higher productivity maintenance means better customer service. systems and techniques of Universal Maintenance Standards [UMS] 2. some of which are listed below: 1. satisfied customers. Improving Wrench time of the Crew in Maintenance 6. Benchmarking the best practices 3. cost reduction and its measurement 5. are the concepts. Achieving excellence in Maintenance Engineering and Management Objectives: After studying this unit you shall be able to: · Outline the functions to be performed by the maintenance planner. close communication with supervisors. How the Maintenance. a detail analysis and adopting certain state of art principles and improve maintenance productivity are all the focus areas for the above said disciplines. Engineering or Industrial Engineering managers spearhead their achievements of dramatic productivity improvements by adopting different methods of work measurements in managing and controlling their activities. field checks jobs when . materials and overhead.The analysis and application of work measurements to ensure improved productivity and cost reduction in maintenance should be the prime consideration by the management. higher quality. Adopting ACE system for benchmarking and improvements 4.
Planners develop all the data. In addition the resultant productivity improvement that accrues are the benefits to organization in a) cost reductions b) downtime reduction. life cycle cost reductions d) on time completion of jobs e) continuous improvements f) improved service to customers. 7. The normal ratio of planners to technicians used is 20 to 30:1. They can also establish a computerized maintenance management system.3 Organization & Processes The tasks for a maintenance work measurement program fall into two categories namely 1) Organization and 2) Process a) Organization with planner in the forefront Planner maintains and allocates the work and knows all the ratios required for accomplishing the jobs and have good maintenance skills and experience and capabilities to work as the ultimate expert system. 7. and make available to the crew a set of basic processes and craft operations for the process before establishing bench marks. issue of stores taking too long. plans safety requirements. . b) Processes Processes involve data development and work order planning. Hence the measurement provides information to determine the savings potential and also justify the maintenance work measurement program. cost of the items. based on a formal planning function and the Universal Maintenance Standards. unrealized opportunity etc. materials. etc as well as the stores process to check the inventory value. the same can be raised to around 80% when a planning function is integrated with UMS times to work together. Importance of work measurement and the standard for the job should be established. While the maintenance departments without planners can achieve around 50-60% Productivity. Both the planners and the maintenance crew should examine to see how the UMS times could be applied. crew size. do the training. The planner also develops bench marks and maintains the data library. and time to do the work. or too many stock-outs. crafts needed. requisitions non-stock or out-of-stock items. plans work content. are validated. identifies special tools.4 Benefits of Using ‘Ums’ with Planner’s Functions It is found that when a planner’s function is integrated with the UMS resultant impact is of improving the overall maintenance effectiveness. time reporting on the performance including delays.needed. verifies priority.
if followed. They highlight problems or roadblocks for completion of the project.1 Universal Maintenance Standards [UMS] . 7. Lord Kelvin saw this in his scientific investigation of the laws of physics. c) Activity Responsibility The responsibility for each activity of a work order is necessary to ensure that the work order continues to move toward resolution without delay. This principle is also universal. The standard crew size is one and any other size is exceptions to the general rule. but also helps growth in value added processes. lead to the lasting results. maintenance is no exception b) Measurement Before Control The measurement of an activity is basic to its control. Frederick Taylor’s principle applies to all work.6. e) Crew Size The optimum crew size for a maintenance job is the smallest that can perform the work using a specific method and execute in a safe & efficient manner. and maintenance decides how the service should be provided. It is universal. d) Customer/Service Relationship The customer decides what is needed from an operational viewpoint. Hence the Universal Standards serve the special needs of maintenance work through the following principles: a) Scientific Principle Best productivity results when each worker has a definite job to do in a definite way within a definite time.7.5 Universal Principles for Higher Productive Maintenance There are several principles that. which can be accurately planned. f) Timeliness Large maintenance jobs are divided into smaller work orders. Together the customer and maintenance crew decide the priority (based on resources available) and urgency of each task compared to other existing current works. Timely accomplishment is also universal phenomenon.6 Work Measurement for High-Productivity Maintenance 7.
some unique characteristics are revealed. automotive. utilities. The range-of-time technique recognizes the variable nature of maintenance works. For example. paint. or one country.The principles adopted for above said requirements are based on the application of work measurement in maintenance. Techniques: The UMS system is based on three important techniques: 1) Range-of-time. labour. commercial. The combination of many elements requiring different maintenance tasks and varieties of skills warrants developing and maintain a library of enormous number of standards. time taken for threading a one-inch nut on to a bolt by hand operation takes almost same time like that of screwing in a light bulb into the holder. Hence breaking long jobs down into elements have resulted in a large number of elements. Applying the specific standards to the daily maintenance workload requires answers for: which task standard is required. If the time to perform similar tasks is known. the result is that the crew does longer cycle work compared to other production workers. weld. carpenter. custodial. the motion pattern for two tasks may be same and also time to perform the work is almost the same. IT management etc. pipe. b) Evolution of Universal Maintenance Standards (UMS) In the early 1950’s. education or healthcare. government. then the time . is it realistic to measure. to what precision. service. Even though parts are different. finance. There are at least four to five hundred different jobs. A simple task such as removing and replacing a part may take more or less time depending on how tight the bolts are. availability of such standards. to what volume of work etc. but everywhere where maintenance work is performed –manufacturing. called ‘Universal Maintenance Standards’ (UMS). This range of time is same in 95 % of situations and hence standard average time is applied and practiced 2) Work content comparison. HVAC. industry or service enterprise. instrument. or tasks. electrical. which in turn depends on: a) Nature of Maintenance works: In maintenance works. as these standards offered flexibility and could be applied not just in one location. Each element requires further study followed by application of stopwatch time or a predetermined time system analysis to determine the exact time required for each through the method selected. engineers adopted new methods for analyzing and assigning standards to maintenance work. masonry. machining. how much rust is present on them etc. If it is a low volume work done by multi skilled crew. in each of skills of fourteen types of jobs: mechanical. sheet metal.
body motions. becomes the standardization process and hence these are universally adopted. 3) Organizing the data UMS data is organized in a building block fashion. common to all crafts. distance moved. machining could be made available for the crew of maintenance 4) Bench Marks Using UMS. The variables like weight of the part. Five levels of data in the UMS library. electrical. 3) craft operations. By using spread sheets. 2) Basic Operations Basic motions are grouped together to form basic operations. carpentry. pipefitting. Each of these motions are recorded and these data becomes the established times for future reference and standardization. whether the how clamping of part is done etc are recorded in the table for further use as standards. Two widely used predetermined time systems are ‘Methods-Time Measurement’ and ‘Operation Sequence Technique’. move. a planner is able to establish planning times for a large number of jobs using relative sample data of the benchmark jobs and publicise the data along with the step-by-step process. where work measures are dividing into basic motions such as reach. Similar craft data for other skilled craft operations such as painting. 5) Spread Sheets. For instance. This system analyzes and classifies data into basic motions and establishes a relationship between the motions and the time required to perform them. 2) basic operations. 7. 4) bench marks and 5) spread sheets. using the work content comparison technique is possible. which are pooled as weld craft operations data. position and release. Spread sheet fills the additional needs of finding quickly the . grasp. welding operations are made up of manual handling. engineers can typically apply standards to all maintenance work with bench marks covering all the crafts and through the use of spread sheets they can substantially reduce the data library compared to the one with direct standard method.6. machine settings and arc striking time etc.2 Five Levels of Data in Ums 1) Basic Motions The foundation of UMS data is the predetermined time system for basic motions. namely 1) basic motions.that can be applied to any other similar task with + or – 5%. 3) Craft Operations Some operation times are unique to a certain craft.
Here the emphasis is placed on improving current repair methods. All work order times released for the jobs and it consists of four components: job preparation time. reducers and gear boxes. reasonable estimate of maintenance “work content” time from a group of experienced crafts people. which are then imposed on the maintenance force. in generators. the standards are established. The allowances applied to these set times to get a single UMS time calculation for use by the crew. and lubrication and service. 2) Objective of ACE Team Benchmarking Process Objective is to determine the reliable planning times for a number of selected “benchmark” jobs and to gain a consensus on the predetermined work content time. the technique which was formulated and developed by the ‘The Maintenance Excellence Institute’ [TMEI]. and in mechanical fields like Belt drives. ACE Team Benchmarking Process parallels the UMS approach in that the range of time and the work content times for a representative number of benchmarked jobs are established. Spreadsheets are then provided for each work group having a time slots or range of times. This new Benchmarking Tool through ACE. which is called as ‘Reliable Planning-Time standards’. 3) ACE System: a Team-Based Approach ACE Team process is to obtain the most reliable. compressors.appropriate one for an application or finding the right bench mark for comparison. rest and minor unavoidable delays. which are reliable and a well-accepted planning times for the entire maintenance crew. say within 95% confidence range. 7. a team of relatively small in number. clutches and brakes. outlines a new and highly recommended methodology for establishing ‘team-based maintenance performance standards’. Ex: Benchmarking and firming up the task can be easily done in areas like lighting.7 ACE Team Benchmarking Process “A Consensus of Experts” (ACE). job site time and allowances for personal. supervisors and planners . bringing control systems. The ACE System is used to develop maintenance performance standards. Spreadsheets include brief descriptions of the benchmark jobs and represent pure wrench time. continuous improvement and the changing of times in performance and methods. who have performed these jobs earlier and have requisite experience to improve upon them. 1) ACE System & UMS Using predetermined standard data. have developed a bench marking process for the major work areas/types of maintenance operations. These Benchmarked jobs are then arranged into different time categories on spreadsheets for various craft work areas. in motors. material handling equipment. area travel time.
c) How OCE impacts the bottom line: Craft Labor Improving Overall Craft Effectiveness is getting maximum value from craft labor resources and higher craft productivity. and engineered standards such as Universal standards. 4) Recommendation of ACE System ACE Team overcomes many inherent difficulties associated with developing maintenance performance standards and hence recommended as the standard process for modern maintenance management. a) Improve current repair methods. budgeting and costing. technicians. scheduling. historical data.8 Overall Craft Effectiveness [OCE] & Its Measurement a) Craft Performance element of Overall Craft Effectiveness Determining the required standard hours of a technician require a trail run of the task under standard operating conditions. Best practices such as effective maintenance planning/scheduling. as its application promotes a commitment to quality repair procedures. planners and other knowledgeable people to do two things. effective storerooms and . Labour standards will be the baseline for determining craft productivity and improved methods. safety and quality b) Establish work content time for selected “benchmark jobs” for planners and others to use in developing reliable planning time. Computerized maintenance management system (CMMS) could also be practiced. 7. supervisors. manpower planning. b) Investment for Planners: The planner’s activity with the team approach of ACE system will establish maintenance performance standards. Other methods used include reasonable estimates. 6) The ACE System Supports Reliability Improvement: ACE Team process can contribute significantly to reliability. 5) ACE Team Benchmarking Process: ACE System is a true team-based process that utilizes skilled crafts people. preventive/predictive maintenance.and provides an excellent means to evaluate repair method. which will provide the management with a valuable input data for backlog determination. safety practices. risks analysis on jobs that leads to improvements.
Effective planning/ scheduling is the key to increase wrench time and craft utilization. Running from emergency to emergency in a reactive. 7. where certain jobs possibly require a call back to the initial repair thus requiring another trip to fix it right the second . Waiting for the equipment to be shut down for work start Waiting for contractor support to arrive at job site Waiting on other crafts to finish their job Travelling to/from job site Make-ready. This element includes quality of the actual work. productive work (wrench time). Measuring and improving overall craft effectiveness (OCE) is one of the components of continuous improvements d) Effective Craft Utilization (CU): Craft Utilization or pure wrench time relates to measuring how effective the work is planned and craft resources scheduled so that these assets are doing value-added. how efficient the hands-on craft work is done compared to an established planned time or performance standard.e. fire fighting mode Waiting on parts and searching parts or part information Waiting for asset info. the personal motivation and effort of each craftsperson. planned maintenance and more productive “wrench time”. g) Craft Performance Another key element of OCE is the craft performance i. repair instructions. drawings. 3. 2.continuous parts support will all contribute to proactive. 8. 20 to 30 % can be expected from more effective maintenance planning & scheduling. 4. 5. 9. h) Craft Service Quality (CSQ) Another element affecting the overall Craft Effectiveness relates to the quality of the repair. e) Productive Wrench Time: Pure wrench time is just the actual output/work done and do not include the miscellaneous waste time caused due to any or many of the following: 1. documentation etc. Craft performance is directly related to individual craft skills and overall trades experience. 6. shop clean up time Lack of effective planning and scheduling Craft Utilization (or wrench time) is measured as the ratio of: CU %=100x [Total Productive hours or wrench time]/ [Total craft hours allotted x amount paid] f) Improve Wrench Time original Significant tangible benefits can be realized by increasing the wrench time.
OCE is increased people asset availability and capacity. For improving maintenance productivity. It is gained value that can be calculated and estimated and then measured. Craft Service Quality will suffer due to hasty repairs. patch jobs or inferior repair parts/materials. j) Think Profit-Centred Maintenance leaders and crafts people must develop the “profit” mindset to be competitive and stay in business. In relation to OEE. Profit-centred in-house maintenance in combination with the wise use of high quality contract maintenance services will be the key to the final evolution that occurs. . b) Benchmarking the best practices. Measuring and improving Overall Craft Effectiveness and the value received from improving craft assets is an important part of total asset management. Organization should not indiscriminately cut craft labour resources when increase OCE is warranted. K) Maintenance is For ever Maintenance is a core requirement for profitable survival and total operations success. then Overall Craft Effectiveness Factor can be determined by multiplying each of these three elements: Overall Craft Utilization = [Craft utilization (%) x Craft performance (%) x Craft service quality (%)] i) Where Can We Apply OCE Gained Value Maintenance operations that continually fight fires and react to emergency repairs never have enough time to cover all the work (core requirements) that needs to be done.time. new techniques of measurement. the overall Craft Effectiveness and provide value added maintenance services all the time with a profit oriented approach Self Assessment Questions 1. and a detail analysis of: a) Universal Maintenance Standards. Organizations should recognize maintenance as a core business requirement and should establish the necessary core competencies for survival. When reliable data is present for all elements. If the internal core competency for maintenance is not present it must be regained and ensure that they are profit-centred maintenance providers by understanding clearly the UMS. c) Adopting ACE system for benchmarking and improvements d) ……………………………………………………………. implementation of certain state of art principles.
Continuous improvement opportunities and gain in competitive advantage f. ACE Team Benchmarking Process parallels the UMS approach in that the ……………………. ……………………………….. Life cycle cost reductions d. Improved services to customers g. ………………. checks jobs when needed. 9. 8. Hence the measurement provides information to determine the savings potential and also justify the maintenance work measurement program.. The UMS system is based on three important techniques: a) Range of time b) …………………………… c) organizing the data 7. plans crew size. 5. requisitions non-stock or out-of-stock items. Five levels of data in UMS are: a) basic motions b) Basic operations c) Craft operations d) ………………. have developed a bench marking process for the major work areas/types of operation. who have performed these jobs and have the requisite experience to improve upon them.. ……………. identifies special tools. Cost reduction and its total savings b. The planner’s role is varied in nature such as: maintain a backlog of ready-to-work jobs for each technician. Contributes in meeting other goals and objectives in the strategic plan. verifies priority.. ………………………………. a team of relatively small number of representatives.. . Downtime reduction and its savings c. when once the ‘work content times’ for a representative number of ‘benchmark jobs’ are established. based on a formal planning function and the. close communication with supervisors. . materials..e) Improving the Wrench time of the Crew in Maintenance 2. 3. 4. The resultant productivity improvement that accrues because of integrating planner’s function with UMS will substantially benefit the organization in the following areas of operations/ functions: a. …………………………………………… e.. and e) spread sheets. The Universal Standards serve the special needs of maintenance work through the following principles: a) ………………… b) Measurement before controls c) activity responsibility d) customer/service relationship e) Crew size f) Timeliness 6. and time to do the work.
16.... Spreadsheets include brief descriptions of the benchmark jobs and represent ……………….. time from a group of experienced crafts people............. supervisors.. preventive/ predictive maintenance.. within the 95% confidence range. Craft Utilization (or wrench time) is measured as the ratio of: [ .... Improving ………………………. Craft Utilization or pure wrench time relates to measuring how effective we are in planning and scheduling craft resources so that these assets are doing ………………….. Spreadsheets are then set up with each work group having a time slots or ……………………........... Best practices such as effective maintenance planning/scheduling..... effective storerooms and continuous parts support will all contribute to proactive.. ACE System is a true team-based process that utilizes skilled crafts people. planners and other knowledgeable people to do two things...10. safety practices.. b) Establish work content time for selected “benchmark jobs” 13.. a) …………………………………………………………………….. ACE Team process is to obtain the most reliable.....]/ [Total craft hours allotted x amount paid] 19........ organizations have tried and tested different approaches for bringing changes that can result in improvements in both the function and the cost.9 Summary By using a state-of-the-art maintenance management.... 14.. technicians. 17. supervisors and planners and provides an excellent means to evaluate repair method.. risks analysis on jobs that leads to improvements. Pure wrench time is just the ………………………. is getting maximum value from craft labor resources and higher craft productivity... planned maintenance and more productive ……………….. (%) x Craft service quality (%)] 7.. Overall Craft Utilization = [Craft utilization (%) x .. ........ 18. .. and do not include the miscellaneous waste time caused due to any of the reasons.. 15. 11.... 12. reasonable estimate of maintenance ………………….. The new system will become a platform for continuous improvement and will generate long term benefits . ACE Team process can contribute significantly to ……………… as its application promotes a commitment to quality repair procedures.
or one country.Higher productivity maintenance means better customer service. principles and theory of new measurement techniques that are used are: a)Universal Maintenance Standards. These Benchmarked jobs are then arranged into different time categories on spreadsheets for various craft work areas. which are reliable and a well-accepted planning times for the entire maintenance crew. higher quality. For achieving high productive maintenance. Pure wrench time is just the actual output/work done Measuring and improving Overall Craft Effectiveness and the value received from improving our craft assets an important part of total asset management. organizations should clear understand of the Overall Craft Effectiveness. on-time delivery and ultimately. who have performed these jobs earlier and have the requisite experience to improve upon them. Craft Utilization or pure wrench time relates to measuring how effective the craft resources so are doing value-added. is a team of relatively small number of representatives. life cycle cost reductions d) on time completion of jobs e) continuous improvements f) improved service to customers. Improving Overall Craft Effectiveness is getting maximum value from craft labor resources and higher craft productivity. the concepts. The Universal Standards serve the special needs of maintenance work through the following principles: a) Scientific control b) Measurement before controls c) activity responsibility d) customer/service relationship e) Crew size f) Timeliness The Universal Maintenance Standards offered flexibility and could be applied not just in one location. but everywhere where maintenance work is performed and is based on three important techniques: a) Range of time b) work content comparison c) organizing the data “A Consensus of Experts” (ACE). industry or service enterprise. satisfied customers. b) Benchmarking the best practices c) ACE system for benchmarking and improvements d) Overall craft effectiveness for improved productivity and cost reduction and its measurement e) Improving the Wrench time of the Crew f) Achieving excellence in Maintenance Engineering and Management The resultant productivity improvement and benefits that accrues because of integrating planner’s function with UMS are: a) cost reductions b) downtime reduction. The ACE System is used to develop maintenance performance standards. develops a bench marking process for the major work areas / types of operation. measurements by using UMS and . For gaining the internal core competency in maintenance. Overall Craft Utilization = [Craft utilization (%) x Craft performance (%) x Craft service quality (%)] Maintenance is a core requirement for profitable survival and total operations success. productive work (wrench time).
providing value added maintenance services on a most profitable manner are essential processes. 7.10 Terminal Questions 1. Why application and analysis of work measurements are important in maintenance management? 2. Which are all the concepts, techniques and principles used in measurement of work effectiveness and efficiency in maintenance? 3. Why planner’s role is vital to maintenance and how it improves the effectiveness? 4. Explain briefly the categories to which the tasks of work measurements can be grouped? 5. Explain the benefits that accrue to organization by integrating planner’s works with UMS? 6. Universal Standards serve the special needs of maintenance work through principlesWhich are these universal principles used for higher productive maintenance? 7. What are the three important techniques on which the UMS depends? 8. Explain briefly the five levels of UMS library and how each one is very important criteria for work measurement and analysis? 9. Explain the importance of using spread sheets and bench marks in work measurement to improve maintenance effectiveness? 10. “New Benchmarking Tool through ACE technique outlines a new and highly recommended methodology for establishing ‘team-based maintenance performance standards’, which is called as ‘Reliable Planning-Time standards” –explain how ACE will serve the organization’s needs in maintenance? 11. What is meant by Ace Benchmarking system and to what type of process it is recommended? 12. Explain overall performance effectiveness and how it helps in analyzing the performance of wrench times? 13. What is meant by effective craft utilization and productive wrench time & what are the factors constituting the craft utilization? 7.11 Answers
Self Assessment Questions 1. Improving the Overall craft effectiveness 2. Plans work content 3. On-time completion benefits 4. Universal Maintenance Standards 5. Scientific control 6. Work content comparison 7. Bench marks 8. A Consensus of Experts 9. Range of time concept 10. Range of time and pure wrench time 11. Work content 12. Improve current repair methods, Safety and quality 13. Reliability 14. Overall Craft Effectiveness 15. Wrench time 16. Value-added-productive work. (Wrench time) 17. Actual output/work 18. Total Productive hours or wrench time 19. Craft performance Terminal Questions: 1. Refer 7.1 2. Refer 7.1
3. Refer 7.2 4. Refer 7.3 5. Refer 7.4 6. Refer 7.5 7. Refer 7.6.1.(c) 8. Refer 7.6.2 9. Refer 7.6.2 10. Refer C 11. Refer 7.7.5 12. Refer 7.8 13. Refer 7.8. (d), (e), (f) Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .
5 Summary 8. it must plan for it.OM0006-Unit-08-System Operations and Documentation Unit-08-System Operations and Documentation Structure: 8. Planning for such documentation is performed during the planning phase for a specific project. Planning for QMS documentation refers to planning for “infrastructure level” QMS documentation. Overall strategy for creating QMS documentation.6 Terminal Questions 8.2 Documentation Strategy 8.7 Answers 8.1 Introduction Objective 8.3 Documentation Management and Control Role of the Document Controller Types of QMS Documents Document Numbering Document Versioning Document Content 8.4 QMS Documentation Process 8. Planning for QMS documentation should address the following three elements: 1. .1 Introduction Before an organization begins creating QMS documentation.
and dissemination of QMS documentation. kept current. and archived when obsolete (to prevent unintentional use). After all. rational approach to documenting your QMS will enable you to rapidly develop a QMS that works and has sufficient but not excessive detail. Brainstorming the documentation strategy entails obtaining answers to the following questions: · What approach should be adopted for documenting the QMS (top down or bottom-up)? · Up to what level of detail should processes be documented (breadth and depth of documentation)? · How can the QMS documentation be kept relatively stable and immune from minor changes in the organization or its processes? Documentation management and control Documentation management and control are a key element of an organization’s QMS. not one written primarily to appease external quality auditors. approval. Documentation management and control mechanisms. and 3. Agreeing upon such issues up front will facilitate the creation of the QMS documentation. This entails answering questions such as: · What types of QMS documents are required? · How should the QMS documents be logically structured? · How should the QMS documents be uniquely identified? · Who should review and approve documents? · How should changes to QMS documents be identified and controlled? · How should superseded (or obsolete) documents be handled? . Document creation can proceed unhindered once the necessary guidelines are in place to support the creation. A wellthought-out. the primary users of an organization’s QMS documentation are its employees. perhaps most importantly. changed in a controlled manner. Process for creating QMS documents. review. and. will provide you with a documentation set that is usable. providing mechanisms to ensure that documentation in the organization is uniquely identifiable reviewed and approved by the appropriate authority prior to release.2. Documentation strategy This is perhaps the most critical element of QMS documentation planning. made available to users. not outside parties.
approval.2 Documentation Strategy The top-down approach to implementing and documenting the QMS is highly recommended (as opposed to the bottom-up approach).e. the overall process that results in a delivered product the product development process may be documented in a product development procedure and/or in a product development process map.e. as appropriate. Within the product development process. and final release of QMS documents. the process that results in a formal documented design for the product may be identified as the product design sub process that is documented in a product design procedure. For example.. the product design sub process should be supported by QMS documentation such as a design document template. the process that results in a formalized set of product requirements may be identified as the product requirements definition sub process that is documented in a product requirements definition procedure. hardcopy) repository or an electronic (i. that is. and other needed documentation. virtual) repository? · How employees should be provided access to controlled QMS documentation. For example. a product design guidelines document. rework. What is the right level of detail to include in the documentation so that it enables correct and . review.. Objectives: After going through this unit you will be able to: · Describe what is documentation strategy · Outline a documentation strategy for a unit or an enterprise · Construct a process map for documentation · Compose a QMS for a documentation process 8. Another important issue that needs to be addressed regards level of detail. The procedures describing the sub processes and their interaction should be supported by additional QMS documentation. Similarly. how should the QMS documentation repository be published? · How should the published QMS documentation be organized to maximize ease of use for employees? Documentation process The third element of QMS documentation planning entails the establishment of a process for the creation.· How should documents of external origin be controlled? · Should the QMS documentation be stored in a physical (i.
or other factors. it is far more convenient to revise one QMS document than to revise multiple documents. instead of referring to departments by name. refer to them by the “function performed. state in procedure Y that detailed description regarding that activity can be found in procedure X.” For example. review of existing QMS documentation to identify and correct deficiencies. if any. complexity of the process being documented. and competency level of employees executing the processes. type of activities. Some useful tips to accomplish this are: • • • Always refer to roles (or functional areas) that are involved in the execution of a process. Do not document details of an activity in more than one QMS document. Other factors that have a bearing on extent of QMS documentation include size of the organization. Below are some guidelines to follow to ensure QMS documentation has the right amount of detail: 1. QMS documents should be written so that they need minimum change. To minimize the impact of such reorganizations. 3. If an activity is described in a procedure X. or conducting employee training to emphasize key aspects of a process. but might result from unclear or ambiguous QMS documentation. Sometimes. operation. Often departments in organizations are renamed or merged into other departments. inadequate employee training. if your organization has a product test department that is called “system test department. organizations should be careful in how they respond when process execution deviates from requirements.” you need not revise your QMS documents if the functional responsibilities for testing the product still reside with this group. instead of saying that Mark Peterson produces the product requirements document. Creating more QMS documentation is not necessarily the right solution. as opposed to referring to individuals by name. If this department subsequently is renamed the “independent verification and validation department. and minimizes impact (on QMS documentation) of minor changes in the business processes and organizational structure? Any breakdown or inconsistency in process execution does not necessarily result from insufficient QMS documentation. 2. for minor operational or organizational changes. Include only as much information as is necessary to ensure effective planning. . Therefore. and another procedure Y needs to refer to the same activity. Include all information that is specifically required to be documented as per the applicable quality management system standard. Such an organizational change can have a huge impact on the QMS documents. is the preferred solution. In the event of any change in the execution in that activity.consistent process execution. state that the requirements document is produced by the requirements engineer. For example.” then refer to this department as the test department. and control of processes.
2. Depending on the size of an organization and/or its number of locations. Certainly it is quite inconvenient for department Y to revise its procedure when department X revises its work instructions such that the reference from department Y’s procedure becomes inaccurate. Generally. 4.g. it is necessary to introduce the concepts of controlled documents and document controller. it is best to control documents that affect an entire company (e. However. and enforce an organization’s documentation management and control function. company quality manual and operating procedures) in a centralized location.• When referring to another department’s QMS documents. such as procedures.3 Documentation Management and Control 8.1 Role of the Document Controller Before discussing different elements of document management and control. A controlled document is one that is formally approved and is under formal version control. 3. For example. Avoid references to another department’s work instructions or similar implementation-level documents. 8. Verifying that documents submitted for storage and publishing are: ..3. title. _____________ should be written so that they need minimum change. A document controller’s responsibilities generally include. but are not limited to: 1. in case of companies with more than one location (or very large companies in a single location). The ________________ to implementing and documenting the QMS is highly recommended. monitor. QMS documentation includes ______ of the organization. Document controllers are people who coordinate. and scope than are high-level documents. Documentation process of __________ planning entails the establishment of a process for the creation. QMS documentation that pertains to a specific location (or a specific function) may be controlled locally. Self Assessment Questions 1. the document controller function may be centralized or distributed. department Y’s procedure refers to department X’s work instructions. type of activities. Implementation-level QMS documents typically are more prone to changes in content. Documentation __________ and control are a key element of an organization’s QMS. refer only to its highlevel QMS documents. 5.
Controlling documents of external origin. Notifying affected personnel in the event of a change to a previously approved document (or release of a new document) 9. Alternatively. Verifying that changes made to previously approved documents were properly authorized (that is.3. Duly approved c. Notifying appropriate personnel. 8. Verifying that all changes made to previously approved documents are clearly identified. 12.2 Types of QMS Documents Quality Manual . Maintaining a master list of controlled documents. Authorizing internal documents for external release after verifying that approvals for the release have been obtained from relevant management personnel. This includes withdrawing copies of obsolete controlled documents. when errors or discrepancies are observed. When document numbers are issued manually for new documents. 3. a document number may be generated automatically. Correctly storing and publishing (or distributing) controlled documents.a. such as the document author and management personnel from the affected area. Accompanied by review records (when required) 2. for revised documents. Verifying that the documents are correctly versioned. 6. 8. 4. the document controller should verify that the document version accurately reflects the magnitude of change in the latest version. This includes clearly identifying documents of external origin and storing them in a secure location. In case of changes to previously approved documents. 10. Ensuring that all controlled documents are stored in a secure location. 11. 5. Verifying that the documents are correctly numbered. this task generally is performed by the document controller. they adhere to standardized templates when applicable) b. This is necessary because the document author may make document changes in addition to those that were authorized. an approved document change request should be available) 7. In the correct format (that is.
customers (and potential customers). which must be referenced. it may be appropriate to include the procedures in the quality manual itself. Therefore. along with a reference to related QMS documentation. Such quality manuals follow a top-down approach to describing the organization’s QMS. The QMS is explained in the context of the organizational business processes. In case of medium and large product development companies. QMS documentation in explaining adherence to each quality management system standard requirement. employees typically relate more closely to organizational processes than to the requirements in a quality management system standard. it is preferable to exclude details regarding the organization’s processes from the quality manual. A significant advantage of this structure is that it is not alien to employees. An organization’s quality manual is an invaluable document for its employees. 2) Process-based quality manual This structure is being used increasingly in organizations that have successfully transitioned to taking a process-oriented view of their QMS. in the case of smaller companies. and consequently it gains wider acceptance for daily operations. Senior management should realize that it is responsible for the manual’s content. It therefore should reflect the organization’s commitment to quality (in other words.A quality manual is the highest-level QMS document and is intended primarily to provide an overview of an organization’s QMS. followed by separate sections briefly describing each key process in the QMS. prefer to structure their manual to mimic the structure of the applicable quality management system standard. answer why the organization is implementing a QMS) and describe how the organization ensures quality in its daily operations. organizations structure their Quality Manual in one of two ways: 1) Standard-based quality manual Most organizations that are implementing a QMS in accordance with the requirements in a particular quality management system standard. employees invariably prefer such a quality manual. The quality manual must reflect the QMS accurately and be kept current at all times. as needed. This can be demonstrated by senior management approval on the quality manual. Each section (or subsection) in the quality manual describes how requirements in the corresponding section (or subsection) in the quality management system standard are adhered to in the organization. such as ISO 9001:2000. Such a quality manual includes separate sections (or subsections) for each of the requirements sections (or subsections) in the quality management system standard. When appropriate. from the quality manual. Such details should be embedded in the appropriate QMS documents. This approach entails describing the high-level product development process map of the organization. and other parties (such as third-party auditors). This includes describing the purpose and scope of each process. However. Typically. . and not in the context of a quality management system standard. the quality manual references relevant.
Due to the interdepartmental nature of procedures. Procedures are useful for communicating process information at all levels of management between departments. The decision to document a process in a procedure is made by the respective process owner in consultation with the quality assurance department. Procedures are usually interdepartmental. The practitioners have firsthand experience performing the tasks and therefore typically are the most knowledgeable. Work instructions describe how activities in a process are executed. If a longer procedure is needed. called work instructions. a procedure should not be longer than three pages. They describe: What activities comprise a process. This helps ensure that the procedure accurately reflects the process and the interaction between various departments. They serve as critical reference documents for anyone interested in knowing what a process entails. to execute their tasks. Who performs the activities (roles and responsibilities). competent. Because a procedure is intended to contain relatively high-level information regarding a process. Work instruction A work instruction is a documented low-level description of a process. Procedures constitute the first level of documentation below the quality manual. Procedures are not intended to provide the how to implementation details regarding a process. it is a good candidate for splitting into separate procedures. As a general rule of thumb. they should be documented and jointly reviewed by practitioners involved in executing the tasks documented. and Where the activities are performed. When process practitioners do not have the requisite training or are otherwise unskilled for creating effective process . They also serve as a valuable starting point for training process practitioners. because organizational processes typically span multiple departments. Due to the intradepartmental nature of work instructions. They provide a step-by-step description of tasks to be executed in order to accomplish each activity in the process. When each activity in a process is performed. and they constitute the first level of documentation below procedures.Procedure A procedure is a documented high-level description of a process. practitioners typically need additional process documents. Work instructions typically are intradepartmental and are intended primarily for use by process practitioners. and experienced personnel for providing information on the execution of specific tasks. they should undergo cross-functional review by all departments involved in the process (or areas affected by the process) being documented.
The decision to create a work instruction is made by the line manager or process owner who is responsible for the tasks. the work instructions should be documented with direct input and active involvement of the process practitioners. In many cases. and to ensure consistency in process execution. is there need to elaborate and provide further explanation on a process documented in a procedure by creating a work instruction (e. this task may be performed by another appropriate person.. As a general rule of thumb.) Size of organization Is the process executed by several personnel and/or in multiple locations? The greater the number of personnel involved in a process or the greater the number of locations at which a process is executed. The need to document a procedure or work instruction may be determined by using criteria such as: Complexity Is the process or the activities in it sufficiently complex that that it needs to be supported by a documented procedure or work instruction? Or. when new personnel or personnel with varying levels of competence are executing a process. the greater the likelihood of inconsistency in process execution.g. work instructions can help ensure consistency and minimize errors. to minimize variation. processes that are relatively straightforward and without inherent complexity (or sophistication) can be described adequately in a well-documented procedure such that competent personnel can faithfully execute them without compromising quality of process output. Work instructions should be created on an as-needed basis when a need exists to provide detailed step-by-step guidance for process execution. the sequence of inspections to be performed before final approval for release of electronic wire assemblies)? Competence of personnel Is the competency level of the personnel executing the process such that it needs to be augmented with appropriate documentation to ensure the process is correctly executed? (For example. in order to secure buy-in of the practitioners and to ensure that the documentation accurately reflects practice. Not every procedure needs to be supported by underlying work instructions.g.documentation. such as the PMC representative for the department. the sequence of tasks to be performed during engine assembly for a passenger vehicle)? Need for consistency Are there expectations regarding a high degree of discipline and consistency in executing a set of tasks (e. the core description of tasks in a work instruction should be limited to about four or five pages in length. . In such a case..
Templates and forms A template is a skeleton for a document intended to be populated with specific information from use. directly in the fields provided. such as procedures or work instructions. The procedure author would start with the procedure template and populate it with information for the process being documented. 8. This is because the information contained in the new revision of the document is to some extent different from that contained in the previous revision. The decision to create a template or form for use across departments should be made by the respective process owner in consultation with the quality assurance department (for reasons described earlier).Past problems Have there been instances in the past where inconsistencies in employees have been observed in process execution? In such cases. Templates serve as guides for communicating the expected structure and content of a document. it is strongly recommended that a procedure template first be established. Table 1 . Therefore.3. documenting an agreed way of executing a process can help. due to their very nature. while the decision to create a template or form for departmental use may be made by the respective line manager. Once released. The numbering convention should be published in a QMS document. a document typically will undergo revisions until it is withdrawn from use (or considered obsolete. Any change or set of changes made to a document since its last release necessitates that the new revision level of the document be formally identified. 8. evolve. The organization should devise a document numbering convention that meets its needs. They help in ensuring consistency of format and content within a particular type of document. one must not only know what document to use. but also what revision level of that document to use. but retained for archival purposes).3. a unique document number and version should be assigned to each document.3 Document Numbering In order to uniquely identify and control each QMS document. An example of a document numbering convention is shown in Table 1. For example. for documenting procedures. It is recommended that forms and templates have brief instructions embedded in them to guide the user regarding the expected content in each section of the document. and should be enforced by the personnel in charge of (or tool used for) issuing the document numbers. either for review or for use (after approval).4 Document Versioning Documents. A form is used to record information.
Example of a Document Numbering Convention Document number format: AAA-BB-CCCC-DDDD where, AAA: Three-character identifier for department that is the document originator For example, “ENG” may denote engineering, “MKT” may denote marketing, “EXT” may denote the document is of external origin, and so on. BB: Two character identifier for document type. For example, “PR” may denote procedure, “TP” may denote template, “CH” may denote checklist, and so on. CCCC: Four-character alphanumeric identifier for project, product, or task. DDDD: Four-digit sequential number between 0001 and 9999. This sequential number uniquely identifies a specific document (irrespective of its version). 8.3.5 Document Content Following are some guidelines regarding document content (for examples, refer to sample QMS documents in the Appendices): 1. All QMS documents and records should have the same “look and feel.” Consistency in templates and forms can be ensured by following some general guidelines, such as:
The same header and footer on all templates and forms, with information such as:
a) Document title b) Document number c) Document version d) A statement to indicate the company proprietary nature of the document
Each QMS document, when appropriate, should use the same title page, containing the following:
– Standard information, (e.g., organization’s name and logo). The title page also can include a unique logo to indicate that it is a QMS document. This enables quick identification of QMS documents. – Customizable information, (e.g., document title) 2. Each QMS document or record should contain content as per the guidance contained in the associated form or template. Each QMS document must identify its purpose and
scope clearly. Correctness of the document content should be reviewed and enforced during document review meetings. 3. Deletions from the template and forms should not be allowed. If a particular section is not required, it should be marked “not applicable.” 4. Insertion of additional sections in a document created by using a standard form or template should be allowed when necessary; however, certain rules should be established to handle addition of new sections. Self Assessment Questions State whether following statement True or False. 6. All QMS documents and records should have the same “look and feel”. 7. A work instruction is a non-documented low-level description of a process. 8. A procedure is a documented high-level description of a process. 9. A quality manual is the highest-level QMS document. 10. A template is not a skeleton for a document intended to be populated with specific information from use. 8.4 QMS Documentation Process Now that all the necessary elements of a documentation management system have been described, you are ready to begin creating QMS documents. What documentation process should be followed to create, review, and approve QMS documents? This section describes a high-level documentation process that ties together some of the key elements of document management and control. Step 1: Identify suitable document author The first step is to identify a document author who possesses appropriate subject matter expertise. Typically, a management person from the function tasked to create the document selects a suitable document author. Step 2: Create draft version of the document The document author creates a draft version of the document by using the applicable template (if one is available). Step 3: Review the draft document
Once a draft version of the document has been prepared, it is circulated for review to appropriate reviewers (or functions) that are considered stakeholders in a document. The review may be in the form of an informal and/or formal review. Step 4: Rework the document as per reviewer feedback After receiving the feedback from the reviewers, the author reworks the document in accordance with comments provided by the document reviewers. Step 5: Approve and publish the document Once the document rework is complete, and it has been determined that a rearview is not required, the document is circulated for approval to the identified approvers. Once all the required approvals have been obtained, the author submits the master copy of the document along with the review record to the document controller. The document controller stores the document in the controlled repository and makes copies available for use. 8.5 Summary Documentation strategy is perhaps the most critical element of QMS documentation planning. Documentation management and control are a key element of an organization’s QMS, providing mechanisms to ensure that documentation in the organization is uniquely identifiable reviewed and approved by the appropriate authority prior to release. A template is a skeleton for a document intended to be populated with specific information from use. 8.6 Terminal Questions 1. Explain briefly different steps in documentation. 2. Define some guidelines in Documentation Strategy. 3. Explain types of QMS documents. 4. Summarize Document Content. 5. Explain QMS Documentation Process. 8.7 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1. Management 2. QMS documentation
QMS documents 4.0 2. True 7. Refer Pages 9. Size 6. Refer 8. True 10. False 8. Refer 8.3 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . False Terminal Questions 1. Page 4 3. True 9.Refer 8. Top-Down approach 5.1. . Refer 8.2 4.2. 10 5.3.
OM0006-Unit-09-Machine Life and Depreciation
Unit-09-Machine Life and Depreciation Structure: 9.1 Introduction Objectives 9.2 Functional Reliability of Facilities 9.3 Weibull Distribution Curve [Failures and its Analysis] 9.4 Life of Equipment a) Bathtub Curve and MTBF b) Breakdown Time Distribution c) Reliability and Variability of the Equipments 9.5 Critical Analysis 9.6 Maintenance Performance Ratios 9.7 Maintenance Systems 9.8 Reliability and Availability Concepts 9.9 How good is Reliability Performance? a) Root Cause Failure Analysis b) Reliability Centred Maintenance c) Failure Modes Effects Analysis & Total Productivity Maintenance 9.10 Maintenance Economics 9.11 Preventive Vs Breakdown Maintenance
9.12 Measurement of Maintenance Performance 9.13 Asset Life Cycle Management 9.14 Equipment Replacement Plans 9.15 Depreciation & Capital Expenditure based on Life Cycle 9.16 Summary 9.17 Terminal Questions 9.18 Answers to SAQ & Terminal Questions 9.1 Introduction The main function of the maintenance department is to monitor and control the condition of machineries and equipments and improve their functional reliability. The reliability theories on equipment performances have shown that there is a definite pattern of performance in their lifespan. This pattern manifests itself when different machineries are subjected to rigorous operations during the life span. The typical characteristics of the lifespan show a particular behaviour pattern of a bathtub and hence it is called as ‘bathtub curve’, which is discussed later. Objectives: After going through this unit you will be able to: · Describe what are failures in maintenance · Analyze failures through Weibull distribution curve · Discuss Reliability Performance · Construct a measure for performance 9.2 Functional Reliability of Facilities One of the most important objectives of Maintenance management is to improve functional reliability of the production facilities. The functional reliability refers to the consistency of the degree of performance of the machine, equipment or service operation. When it is said that a machine is having 97% reliability means that 97% of the machine time is utilized in performing the standard production for which it is meant for, and the remaining 3% of non performing may be
due to breakdowns or sub-standard performance. Therefore it is the duty of the plant maintenance crew to strive to maintain and increase the functional reliability of the production facilities. The objective of FMEA ( ) and reliability analysis of the plant and equipment is to ensure to excellence in performance of critical assets and achieve the business goals. The application of standard procedures and structured approach to analyse and practice effective method/s required to maintain all the operating plant assets. This process enables the maintenance managers to plan, review and optimise the maintenance operations that have direct impact on plant availability, thereby improving the overall plant performance and minimizing catastrophic failures. The functional reliability of facilities to be maintained or improved upon by the maintenance management requires the use of certain concepts, reliability methodologies, analysis, tools and techniques and measures. Some of these are listed: a) Determinate the appropriate level of maintenance services required. b) Identify specific actions based on equipment failures analysis & risk assessment. c) Prevention and reduction of potential failures by properly identifying defects and implementing corrective actions prior to failure d) To deploy sufficient staff to provide adequate repair and maintenance facilities. e) To provide for the stand-by equipment for key operations and also reasonable slacks in the production system to create some parallel path in a critical situation f) To adopt preventive Maintenance system to replace critical parts, before they fail. g) Each of the above involves costs. The cost involved should be justified on the basis of cost-benefit analysis. The cost of attaining reliability must be lower than the cost advantage available out of the production stoppages, idle machine and labour time, scrap, poor quality, loss of goodwill to keep delivery promises etc. h) Maintenance extends the useful life of assets by reducing wear and tear. i) Maintenance keeps up operational readiness of equipments for emergencies. j) Maintenance contributes a great deal to safety of manpower using the facilities. k) It prevents wastage of spares, tools and materials.
the failure rate dips as the components adjust to the system until it reaches a relatively low constant level. During this period. It is also commonly called as ‘Bath Tub Curve’. because of its shape.3 Weibull Distribution Curve [Failure & Its Analysis] For better maintenance planning and control. As per the graph.l) More automation calls for sophisticated Maintenance. c) Ageing Phase: Here the rate of failure increases until the equipment succumbs and is characterized by the rapid wear and tear of more and more components until major breakdown happens. poor installation. called the ‘Weibull distribution graph’ (after Weibull developed it). and or not adjusted the operating conditions adequately. The high rate of failure at infant mortality stage is primarily due to the presence of weak or substandard components or design inadequacies. a) Infant Mortality phase: Newly installed equipment shows high rate incidence of early failures during initial phase of its life. Most equipment that survives infancy stage will continue to perform better with very few failures. The failure is random and unpredictable. 9. there are three phases in the equipment performance namely a) Infant mortality phase b) Useful performance phase c) Ageing phase. The graph of the failure pattern. b) Useful Performance phase: Next phase is the useful period of performance with a better reliability. is primarily due to abrupt changes in stress distribution in the components. or sheer quality deficiency in their manufacture. This is the useful period of the machine. fatigue due to flaws in the molecular structure of the metals. it is important to know the nature and occurrence of failures over a period of time for the equipment in use. the weak components from the infant mortality period have either been repaired or replaced. which is called the infant mortality. Once this phase is over. This behaviour pattern reflects ‘hyper-exponential distribution’. is shown below. This type of breakdowns may be due physical characteristics of the .
its statistics will help as a diagnostic tool in identifying the exponential nature of the availability and the reliability of equipment. · Figure below represents the degree of variability in free run time. Mean Time between Failure (MTBF) can be computed. or how the machine is used. This means that each part in a particular machine will have different failure distribution. the failure fall into a negative exponential distribution. the breakdown time distribution of a complex machine will reflect a greater variability than that of a simple machine even if they have the same average maintenance free run time. · From these. Negative exponential and Normal exponential. but in a complex machine. and may be earlier or later. This ageing failure graph shows a bell-shaped normal distribution pattern.e. This ultimate may occur at ‘mean’ or ‘average’ time. A= [Tn] / [Tn+Td] b) Breakdown time distribution: · It is essential to know how the breakdown time is distributed in order to establish the cost implications in maintenance. · The availability (A) = [Cumulative time of operation in the normal working condition(Tn)] / the cumulative down time (Td)] i. anticipated life etc. . In other words. · When the failures are recurrent.4 Life of Equipment a) Bathtub Curve and MTBF · Weibull distribution or Bath Tub Curve. is a combination of three distributions: Hyper exponential. Depending upon the complexity of the machine and severe aging processes because of extreme wear and tear results in an ultimate failure. can be assessed. availability. Distribution shows the frequency of maintenance free running time with respect to total operating hours. 9. the failure of any one part may result in the complete machine breakdown. · A simple machine having few moving parts may have breakdowns happenings after a large number of maintenance free run time hours.materials used. shown above. These causes being external to the equipment and the probability of failing is relatively constant. by which the system reliability.
curve B exhibits moderate variability while Curve C indicates greater degree of variability from average breakdown time Ta. then the total product reliability is multiple of all these systems i. and ‘runtimes free of breakdowns’ on the ‘x’ – axis. It can be observed that the Curve A shows lower degree of variability.While curve A depicts the behaviour of a simple machine. the resultant graph is shown below. the frequency distribution.4. converting the information into the breakdown time distributions versus the percentage of breakdowns that exceeds a given run time.7. before establishing reliability. · By reliability. 0.8. . Hence the reliability of the total system depends on the product reliability factors of each of the sub systems. Here the data can be recast in the diagram.6. c) Reliability and Variability of the Equipments · Equipment can be considered as a total system and the failure of any one of the sub system can cause failure of the entire system.and 0. 0. For example: if the total system has four sub systems having the reliability factors of 0. but the distribution shows wider variability. Curve B of the complex machine. 0.9. Curve C has the same average maintenance free runtime as the other two. The variability by Curve C is typical of complicated equipment that needs fine adjustments before it starts giving trouble free service. we mean the probability that any system gives a trouble free service.e. · When the above reliability factors are plotted in a diagram showing the percentage of breakdowns that exceed a given runtime on the ‘y’ – axis.
it is a corrective maintenance to restore the machine/parts to acceptable condition again. the nature of the fault and availability of repair staff etc. In this type of repair maintenance.9. to locate the faulty/broken part. This activity may take a few minutes. It is the job of the maintenance crew to identify and quickly eliminate or simplify or improve upon these defects.6 Maintenance Performance Ratios Some of the ratios used in measuring the effectiveness of Maintenance functions are: a) Waste Index = [Waste Quantity] / [Output Quantity] b) Productivity of Maintenance = [Product output] / [Maintenance Cost] c) Maintenance Cost index = 100 x [Maintenance cost] / [Capital Cost] d) Breakdown maintenance index = [Break down hours] / [Man hours available] e) Downtime index = 100 x [Downtime hours] / [Production hours] 9. the function presupposes the previous breakdowns and actions of disassembling the equipment. namely: 1. In other words. Preventive Maintenance When a sudden breakdown occurs in a machine. to reassemble the equipment and then check and restore to its functional capacity.5 Critical Analysis Critical analysis of maintenance problems is essential to know as to how serious is the problem for taking quick actions. to replace it. As in other types of probabilities. or even a few days as the work involved depends on the size and complexity of the equipment. Repair Maintenance 2. but the two types of planned maintenance could be carried out. the repair maintenance crew endeavours to locate mechanical. may contribute to 80 to 85% of the total breakdown time. here too is that the small percentage of around 15-20% defects in equipment. electrical or other fault quickly and to correct them. 9. Focus is not only concentrated on availability but also the reliability . Fundamental differences between the strategies discussed earlier and the proactive maintenance discussed now are: 1.7 Maintenance Systems The ad hoc unplanned emergency maintenance is not recommended.
Root Cause Failure Analysis (RCFA). but when failures occur. and manufacture the quality product at the speed required. There is a push towards zero downtime or zero in-service breakdowns. 3. and others. . · Mean Time between Failure (MTBF) · Measure of mean time between production Loss (MTBPL) (Production losses include loss due to time. Q = Quality performance. a CNC machine can be very good at 90%. then lower is the reliability. but the liquid packaging machine may be best at +75% reliability. Use of improved maintenance tools such as Reliability Centred Maintenance (RCM). 9. where as a less complex automatic lathe may be rated best at + 98%. T = Time performance. There are many ways to measure reliability. more complex the equipment/ the raw material/ high tech processing. quality and speed) · Mean production loss (MPL) Thus the reliability index is expressed in terms of the running continuously without production losses. Say in a paper processing. This index is the volume of quality products you measure in the production line divided by the theoretical volume of quality product you could achieve from the same line.8 Reliability and Availability Concepts Reliability and availability have become key issues. Using the above definition. fix the problem as fast as possible. the overall reliability performance of the total process is less and is dictated by the complex machine with lesser reliability. For example. S = Speed performance] Manufacturing reliability model consists of a) process reliability b) equipment reliability and c) reliability maintainability.9 How Good Is ‘Reliability Performance’? In industrial processes. 9. a tissue processing machine may give a good reliability of +98%. the formula used to measure manufacturing reliability (MR) is: MR = [% T] x [% Q] x [% S] [Where. Manufacturing reliability can be defined as a manufacturing system’s capability to operate to its expected operations.2.
· While RCM is driven by preventive maintenance strategies. planning and organisational leadership. what are its cost implications? 9. customer service. The decision of maintenance policy is more of an economic decision rather than a technical one. Answering to seven questions on all the potential modes of failure will uncover the predictive maintenance strategy requires to mitigate the consequences of the failure. When implemented together they complement each other and provide the greatest overall benefit to the facility. b) Reliability centred Maintenance · The purpose of reliability centred maintenance (RCM) is to determine the maintenance requirements of any physical assets in its operating contexts. a standard preventive maintenance period can be set in such a way that the total downtime is reduced.a) Root cause failure analysis: · The root cause failure analysis (RCFA) method brings a knowledgeable team together to investigate certain failures using evidence left behind from the fault. c) Failure Modes Effects Analysis & Total Productivity Maintenance · Total productive maintenance (TPM) and failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) are other maintenance tools used for improving the reliability through proactive maintenance. 9. Through a fault tree analysis. This practice has impact on many aspects of business. the team checks for the logical flows and determine what changes are to be made to prevent causes from reoccurring.10 Maintenance Economics Maintenance refers to an organisation’s policy in respect of the maintenance function of a set of equipments. As maintenance is an economic decision. Non contributing causes are removed from the list and contributing factors are taken for analysis. preventive maintenance is highly beneficial to machines whose breakdown time distributions are having low variability. the team finds as many causes for the fault as possible and classify them into non contributing and contributing. It has relevance to high volume production and can improve a company’s maintenance system and help improve the overall productivity of the processes. hygiene. quality. . RCM provides a flow diagram that tells what type of maintenance to be used. production.11 Preventive Vs Breakdown Maintenance Certain generalizations on type of maintenance can be made to improve the reliability: a) First. RCFA is driven by maintenance prevention strategies. In this situation. engineering. Through brainstorming sessions.
or more than the time for repair. increases capacity. existing maintenance facilities. Analysis of data of the existing conditions with respect to down time production loss. Additional stoppage time because the maintenance crew cannot start repairing immediately after the breakdown has occurred. Effect on production losses if plant shutdown can be avoided 3. it is better to perform corrective or breakdown maintenance. 3) direct labour value . Effects of scheduling preventive maintenance for non-productive days with no loss of production.12 Measurement of Maintenance Performance Organizations seeking excellence in their maintenance practices should constantly endeavour to measure and improve upon the performance criteria’s of maintenance. nature of repair breakdowns. maintenance cost breakdown. the relation of preventive maintenance time to repair time is important. reduces costs and eliminate waste. etc are required to be done and evaluated. 9. d) We need to take into account other effects of unscheduled down-time. such as 1.b) Second. when the repair time is equal to maintenance time. the percentage of machine running time continues to increase with the increase of standard preventive maintenance period. Companies should recognize this fact that maintenance of its assets is to be encouraged as the process will provide advantages in enhancing quality initiative. Hence maintenance and management of assets is the core to any business. Some metrics that may help in evaluation are: a) Maintenance man hours as percentage of total man hours b) Shutdown. There is little gain in the preventive maintenance. c) In general. 2. overhauls and renovations c) Production asset and loss d) Continuous reliability improvements e) Maintenance cost as a ratio of percentage of 1) gross asset value 2) sales value. if the maintenance time is less than the repair time and If the preventive maintenance is equal to.
b) Maintenance phase: operating environment for each asset is defined and performance goals at the lowest cost are firmed up.f) Safety and regulatory compliance 9. then the asset is disposed off as it has reached the end of its lifecycle. Factors that are considered while taking decision to replace machine and equipment can be classified as a) Technical factors b) Cost factors.13 Asset Life Cycle Management In high tech production. as evolved by some companies for better results consists of three phases: a) Asset Acquisition Phase: here asset may be new or replaced or change of major components changed before operating activities in this asset is firmed up. 9. c) Disposal Phase: when the asset is no longer capable of delivering the required operational performance or cannot be maintained cost effectively to achieve the required level of dependability. a) Technical factors that dictates replacement 1) Wear and tear of equipment 2) Obsolescence caused by new invention . companies are required to produce more products of higher quality from fewer resources and hence maintaining higher reliability of assets has been a challenging task for the management. Asset dependability and its reliability are to be established. Asset life cycle management system.14 Equipment Replacement Plans The systematic equipment development program includes: 1) emergence of equipment replacement 2) classification of equipment replacement 3) assignment of responsibility for equipment replacement 4) selection of the equipment 5) follow up.
rate of output. While the annual operating costs include wages to operator. will pay not only for equipment but also for any unamortized value for next few years. speed of operations. material losses etc.3) Unsuitability of equipment due to size of the work. Here the replacement is not advocated unless savings due to the use of new equipment. accuracy. of years the equipment will pay for itself) = [A+B] / [(E-F) DG + H – C] . old or new. having a short life. consumes high power etc 4) Automation requirement for processes 5) To eliminate slack time through line balancing 6) Reduced safety 7) Reliability of performance b) Cost Factors: 1) High repair cost 2) Lesser place requirement 3) Probable economic life of the new machine 4) Consumption of less power 5) Reduction in labour cost because high productive machines purchased 6) Flexibility requirement not in the existing equipment Methods used for replacement after analysis: The replacement analysis becomes more complex due to many technical factors and qualitative considerations. 2) By Using Barnes Formula: this formula is used for equipment. Some important methods or replacement of old and unused machineries are 1) minimum annual cost method 2) by using Barnes formula 3) MAPI (Machinery and allied institute) method. repair and maintenance costs. 1) Minimum annual cost method: here the decision to replace the machine (unwanted or life is completed) is based on the operating and capital costs. Hence the time for replacement depends on the condition and characteristics of the equipment. power consumption. The main ingredients of the annual cost are depreciation and interest charges. X = (No.
Capital expenditure is not recorded in the Profit and Loss account.15 Depreciation & Capital Expenditure based on Life Cycle · This requirement falls into the following groups: a) Calculation of depreciation b) Calculation of profit/loss on disposal c) Accounting for depreciation and disposals Calculation of Depreciation · Capital expenditure is that spent on purchase or improves on fixed assets. Depreciation tries to apply the accruals by matching that Rs. MAPI method concentrates on the comparison of the rate of return of the proposed new project and similar returns when the proposed project is not implemented within next year. The two most commonly used methods are straight line method and reducing balance method. G = estimated working days per year for new equipment and H = savings or losses per year in fixed charges other than interest] 3) MAPI method: here the analysis is divided into 35 heads & three main groups.9000 with the income that asset has generated. F = estimated labour cost per unit with new equipment. · An annual depreciation charge is shown as an expense in the Profit and Loss account. E = labour cost per unit in old equipment. whilst revenue expenditure is that spent on day to day business expenses. it has the business cost of Rs. D = number of units product per day by new equipment. kept in use for 8 years. the value of the asset in the balance sheet should be reduced by each year’s charge. Additionally.1000. 9. C = interest charge of new equipment. 2) The same monetary amount each year . if an asset is purchased for Rs.[where A = cost of new equipment.10000. but shown in the Balance Sheet · Depreciation is an attempt to spread the cost of an asset over its useful economic life.9000. · Depreciation should be calculated in a way which most closely reflecting the manner in which the asset is being used up. Straight Line method 1) A fixed percentage on cost each year. and then sold for Rs. For example. It emphasizes on immediate return. B = depreciated value of the old equipment.
4800 c) Year 3 (Rs. On disposal.e. This over or under provision of depreciation is shown in the Profit and Loss a/c as a profit or loss on the disposal of fixed assets. i. the net cost is simply divided by the expected life. the annual charge for every year of the machine’s life is Rs.30000 – Rs. It is expected that this machine will be used for 10 years.1500. 2850) · So.6000 – Rs. . · [Note that the policy could have been expressed as “straight line at %” or “Depreciation at % pa on cost” – here the percentage is calculated as = Rs.e. 6000 b) Year 2 (Rs. at the end of which it will be sold for Rs.3840 and so on. This may reveal that two much or too little depreciation has been provided over the asset’s life.30000 x 100. [Note that the expected residual value is ignored & it will have been incorporated into the choice of 20% as an appropriate rate] b) Calculation of Profit/Loss The depreciation charged each year is based on estimates of useful life and residual value.4800) x 20% =Rs.30000 – Rs. Calculate the depreciation to be charged for each of the first 3 years of the machine’s life.30000 x 20%= Rs. the actual disposal proceeds will show the true net cost of the asset.2850 / Rs. i. using: (i) The straight line method (ii) The reducing balance method at 20% pa Solution · Under the straight line method. ] Reducing balance method (the charge for depreciation reduces each year) a) Year 1 Rs.Reducing Balance method 1) A fixed percentage on net book value each year 2) A reducing monetary amount each year Example: 1 a) Straight line method A machine is purchased for Rs.1500) / 10 = Rs.6000) x 20% =Rs.2850.30000.30000 – Rs. (Rs.
03.40000.Example: 2 An asset is purchased on 1 January 2006 for Rs. there is a profit on disposal of price of Rs.23000.2520 [sale price of Rs.03-2009 (20%) =5120 · Net book value at 31. In practice. equipment or service operation. the disposal occurred exactly 3 years after the acquisition. which necessitates decision regarding depreciation (may be proportionate) · A popular depreciation policy would be: A full year’s charge in the year of acquisition but none in the year of disposal Self Assessment Questions Fill up the blanks with appropriate words: 1.03-2008 (20%)= 6400 · Net book value at 31. acquisition or disposal may occur part way through the accounting year. Calculate the profit or loss arising on this disposal. 23000 – 20480 (book value) = Rs. and is depreciated using the reducing balance method at 20% pa. The functional reliability refers to the ____________________ of the machine. The main function of the maintenance department is to monitor and control the condition of machineries and equipments and improve their ____________________. Solution · Sales proceeds must be compared to the net book value on the date of disposal. · Original cost 40000 · Depreciation y/e 31.03-2009 =20480 · Thus. .03. 2520] c) Accounting for depreciation and disposals · In the above example.2007 (20%) =8000 · Net book value at 31.2007 =32000 · Depreciation y/e 31.03-2008 =25600 · Depreciation y/e 31. 2. The asset is sold on 1 January 2009 for Rs.
_________________ of maintenance problems is essential to know as to how serious is the problem for taking quick actions. which is called the______________. the failure of any one part may result in the ____________________ . 5. The objective of FMEA ( ) and reliability analysis of the plant and equipment is to ensure to ____________________ of critical assets and achieve the business goals. 11. is shown below. 4. because of its shape. it is important to know the nature and occurrence of failures over a period of time for the equipment in use. As in other types of probabilities. the rate of failure increases until the equipment succumbs and is characterized by the rapid wear and tear of more and more components until major breakdown happens. The graph of the failure pattern. may contribute to of the ____________ total breakdown time 10. The failure of any one of the sub system can cause failure of the __________________. 8. It is also commonly called as ____________________. As per the graph. A simple machine having few moving parts may have breakdowns happenings after a large number of maintenance free run time hours. Reliability and availability have become key issues. 7. there are three phases in the equipment performance namely a) Infant mortality phase b) Useful performance phase c) _____________________ 6. Hence the reliability of the total system depends on the _________________ of each of the sub systems. In the performance phase is the ______________ period of performance with a better reliability.3. In the ____________ . For better maintenance planning and control.. Most equipment that survives infancy stage will continue to perform better with very few failures. and manufacture the quality product at the speed required. here too is that the small percentage of around 15-20% defects in equipment. called the ‘Weibull distribution graph’ (after Weibull developed it). Manufacturing reliability can be defined as a manufacturing system’s ____________. 9. The formula used to measure manufacturing reliability (MR) is: MR = ………………………. Newly installed equipment shows high rate incidence of early failures during initial phase of its life. but in a complex machine. This is the useful period of the machine. .
by which the system reliability. Q = Quality performance. Reliability and availability have become key issues. The functional reliability refers to the consistency of the degree of performance of the machine. 13. as evolved by some companies for better results consists of three phases: a) Asset Acquisition Phase: b) Maintenance phase: c) ____________________ 14. availability. Asset life cycle management system. The objective of FMEA ( ) and reliability analysis of the plant and equipment is to ensure to excellence in performance of critical assets and achieve the business goals. The replacement analysis becomes more complex due to many technical factors and the qualitative consideration. 9.16 Summary The main function of the maintenance department is to monitor and control the condition of machineries and improve their functional reliability. Manufacturing reliability can be defined as a manufacturing system’s capability to operate to its expected operations. equipment or service operation. anticipated life etc. The reliability theories on equipment have shown that there is a definite performance pattern their lifespan. S = Speed performance ] 12. reliability methodologies. T = Time performance. tools and techniques and measures. This pattern manifests itself due to rigorous operations during the life span. RCM provides a flow diagram that tells what type of maintenance to be used. The purpose of reliability centred maintenance (RCM) is to determine the __________________ in its operating contexts. can be assessed. Therefore it is the duty of the plant maintenance crew to strive to maintain and increase the functional reliability of the production facilities. Mean Time between Failure (MTBF) can be computed.[Where. and manufacture the quality product at the speed required. Some important methods or replacement of old and unused machineries are 1) minimum annual cost method 2) by using ____________________ 3) ____________________ method. . The functional reliability of facilities to be maintained or improved upon by the maintenance management requires the use of certain concepts. analysis.
There are many ways to measure reliability.For better maintenance planning and control. However the methodology to be used depends on the best alternative within the organizations objectives. The graph of the failure pattern. Equipment can be considered as a total system and the failure of any one of the sub system can cause failure of the entire system. increases capacity. there must be equipment replacement plan after considering the cost impact and other technical factors. called the ‘Weibull distribution graph’ and known as ‘Bath Tub Curve’. Asset life cycle management system. Total productive maintenance (TPM) and failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) are other maintenance tools used for improving the reliability through proactive maintenance. The purpose of reliability centred maintenance (RCM) is to determine the maintenance requirements of any physical assets in its operating contexts. reduces costs and eliminate waste. · Mean Time between Failure (MTBF) · Mean time between production Loss (MTBPL) · Mean production loss (MPL) Companies should recognize this fact that maintenance of its assets is to be encouraged as the process will provide advantages in enhancing quality initiative. . as evolved by some companies for better results consists of three phases: a) Asset Acquisition Phase b) Maintenance phase c) Disposal Phase Based on the life cycle analysis. shows three phases in the equipment performance namely · Infant mortality phase · Useful performance phase · Ageing phase. because of its shape. it is important to know the nature and occurrence of failures over a period of time for the equipment in use. Hence the reliability of the total system depends on the product reliability factors of each of the sub systems.
How this helps in replacement plans? 9. Ageing phase . methodology used for maintaining the functional reliability? 3) Explain briefly the ‘Weibull distribution curve. b) Breakdown time distribution: and c) Reliability and Variability of the Equipments 5) What are maintenance performance index? How they help in measuring maintenance efforts? 6) There are many ways of measuring reliability and availability. Explain few of them? 7) What are the factors considered in measurement of maintenance measurements? How they are evaluated? Briefly explain the three phases of asset life cycle management. Consistency of the degree of performance 3. Functional reliability 2.17 Terminal Questions 1) Define functional reliability? 2) What are the maintenance management concepts. Bath Tub Curve 5. 9) What are the technical and cost factors to be considered while planning replacement of old machineries? 10) Explain briefly the depreciation methods used in capital expenditure on plant and machineries.18 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1. Excellence in performance 4.Capital expenditure based on the life cycle and the depreciation either by straight line or reducing method is used for a comprehensive decision by the management. Why it also called as bathtub curve? What are the three phases in the life span of equipment? 4) Explain briefly how the life of the equipment is depicted by the variability and availability factors in a) Bathtub Curve and MTBF. 9.
Complete machine breakdown. Critical analysis. Refer 9.15 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Refer 9. Capability to operate to its expected operations 11. 80 to 85% 10.8 7. Infant mortality. Ageing phase 7. Entire system. Product reliability factors 9. Refer 9.3 4.2 2.14 10. Useful. Refer 9.6 6. Refer 9.13 9.6. Barnes formula.2 3. Refer 9.4 5. MAPI Terminal Questions 1. = [% T] x [%Q] x [%S] 12. Disposal Phase: 14. Refer 9. . 8. Refer 9. Refer 9. Maintenance requirements of any physical assets 13. Refer 9.12 8.
4 Objectives of TPM 10.11 Implementation of TPM & Steps in TPM program Steps in TPM program 10. 10.2 Total Productivity Maintenance 10.12 Eight pillars of TPM Autonomous maintenance Kobetsu Kaizen Planned Maintenance Quality Maintenance .10 Zero Loss Concepts 10.7 Other Related issues with TPM 10.5 TPM and its Features 10.9 Types of Losses.6 Evolution of Maintenance Methods 10.8 Overall Effectiveness of Equipment [basis of TPM] 10.OM0006-Unit-10-Total Productivity Maintenance Unit-10-Total Productivity Maintenance Structure: 10.1 Introduction Objectives 10.3 Goals 10.
machine failures cannot be tolerated. repairing. a facility.18 Answers 10. to keep a machine. Equipment maintenance is basic to competitive manufacturing. cleaning. Earlier the maintenance management was viewed as a function with a lesser status compared to manufacturing and its role was restricted to one of carrying out breakdown repair when a machine breaks down.14 Benefits of TPM 10. Maintenance covers all those functions such as monitoring. thus leading to breakdowns and production losses. but they often neglect the very important function of complete maintenance. faster set ups and fewer adjustments. Environment TPM in offices 10. High tech preventive maintenance routines are performed by experts at frequent intervals and machines are continually upgraded and modified for closer tolerances. This will increase the life of the machines and they perform better during their entire life span. adjusting. a more sophisticated well managed preventive – maintenance type programs such as TPM or Reliability centred maintenance (RCM) has warranted. Health. material handling equipment and other transport vehicles in proper working conditions. But with the enlarged scope of maintenance functions when very high cost state of art machineries and equipments are used for higher productivity.13 Relevance of TPM to TQM framework 10.Development Management Education & Training Safety. The Japanese have virtually eliminated machine breakdowns by applying Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) techniques to their . etc.1 Introduction Manufacturers invest huge capital on productive machines and equipments for production of the desired products.16 Summary 10.17 Terminal Questions 10. inspecting.15 Role of TPM in WC-production 10. Because JIT [Just-inTime] production lines operate very close to capacity in every process.
machines. maximising capacity. 10. consensus building and continuous improvement. Here the new quality approach of “prevention at source” was translated to the maintenance environment through the concept of TPM. to achieve total customer satisfaction.3 Goals · Prevention of equipment deterioration · Maintain the equipment in optimal condition · Establishing basic equipment conditions · Operator is competent to operate machine/ equipment · Elimination of quality defects · Elimination of equipment failure · Elimination of cost losses . 10. minimising costs and continuously improving processes for manufacturing. Machines are cleaned and lubricated frequently by the operators who run those machines. Objectives: After studying this unit you will be able to: · Outline the features of TPM · Explain the types of losses related to maintenance · List and explain the steps involved in TPM · Comment on the methods of TPM propounded by experts on Quality. efficiency and effectiveness with zero loss concepts through total participation of all employees with self managing abilities in practices. TPM is defined as the means to achieve high level of productivity. TPM is a well defined and organised maintenance program which places a high value on team work. It first evolved in Nippon Denso a major supplier of the Toyota car company. relying on team work. Reliability and TPM principles call for avoiding crisis.2 Total Productive Maintenance [TPM] TPM had its genesis in the Japanese car industry in 1970’s.
ensuring total effectiveness of the plant for higher quality and lesser downtime.4 Objectives of TPM The principle objectives of TPM are: · Eliminate all breakdowns of machines and equipment to ensure trouble free continuous production. cost. delivery and services. 10. losses. but spreads across as a company-wide culture. · Restoring equipment to a like-new condition · Improve maintenance efficiency and effectiveness · On job training of the labour to improve their job skills · To have a sound equipment maintenance management · Effective use of preventive and predictive maintenance technology · Achieve TPM with active participation & involvement in all levels · “Value Added” activity that the equipment is contributing to your products. · Reduction in manufacturing costs. defect. · Maximise asset and equipment effectiveness through OEE [overall equipment effectiveness] and OPE. reduction in equipment life cycle cost. · Boosting morale of employees. · Increase plant efficiency. · Producing products for customer satisfaction in quality.5 TPM-Its Features TPM no longer confines to the maintenance department.10. . · Achieve manufacturing excellence. means elimination of micro operational issues · Achieve zero loss Concept – [zero breakdown. waste and accident-free operations] in all the resources over the entire life cycle of a production system through team work and by overlapping small group activities. · To achieve higher reliability/flexibility of equipment and reduce cost through eliminating wastages.
· Downtime for setups and adjustments. · Defect losses due to reduced yields in processing TPM includes three main elements: · Regular preventive maintenance. TPM is a means to achieve high level of productivity. to achieve total customer satisfaction There are six types of losses found in a manufacturing firm: · Downtime due to equipment failure. efficiency. monitoring and controlling practices through a unique ‘8-Pillars Method’. through total participation of all employees with self-managing abilities in practice. · Speed losses due to idling and minor stoppages caused by abnormal operations of censors. TPM paves way for an excellent planning. · Periodic pre-failure replacement or overhauls and · Intolerance for breakdowns or unsafe conditions. organizing. TPM is one of the most valuable strategies for those who want to be competitive & meet the World Class Competition 10.6 Evolution of Maintenance Methods What are the other maintenance methods that are universally practiced by industries. blockages etc. including housekeeping. effectiveness with zero loss concept.TPM is a method designed to eliminate the losses caused by break-down of machines and equipments by identifying and attacking all causes of its breakdowns and system down time due to such breakdowns. leading to another innovative & modern practice under company-wide maintenance practice of TPM? How this evolution has happened and other related issues are briefly given below a) Breakdown Maintenance / Emergency / Corrective Maintenance: Break – down maintenance or emergency maintenance is a remedial or corrective maintenance practice that is undertaken when equipment fails and require repair on an . · Speed losses due to discrepancies between designed and actual speeds · Defect losses due to process defects that cause scrap & quality problems.
firms should build up a level of repair capability in order to get the system back in operation much faster. b) Preventive maintenance Preventive maintenance is the activity that is planned and programmed on a regular basis to inspect the system. Failure of equipment or machineries may occur at different phases. Here. A good maintenance facility should have the following features: 1.emergency or priority basis to set it right. When the distributions curve exhibits a narrow standard deviation. the preventive maintenance will be more expensive and incidental if it is other way. Preventive maintenance policies and techniques must emphasize on all employees to accept the responsibility for the maintenance and perform all the activities to their capability. Well trained maintenance crew. This reduces the frequency of machinery break downs and consequent loss of production Break down of a machine in production line can be costly if it means shutting down the entire plant. There exists a relationship between the maintenance costs and the cost of failures with which the level of maintenance Vis-a-Vis frequency of maintenance could be firmed up. the productive maintenance tries to identify signs of equipment deterioration or imminent failure and to take corrective action before it fails. . especially when mass production or continuous production is planned. This idling will increase the production cost. servicing and replace parts to ensure that the system does not fail during normal operation. to uncover potential problems and to make repairs.7 Other Related Issues a) Improve Repair Capabilities: For reliability and a sound preventive maintenance practices. A study is made on each machine on the MTBF (mean time between failures) distribution. A high failure rate known as the infant mortality exists during the initial working of the machine and then settles in. Obviously this is not an ideal way of keeping quiet until that breakdown happens. This promotes employee empowerment and system performance c) Productive maintenance or Predictive maintenance – This is an extended preventive maintenance method that tries to reduce the chances of breakdowns by using modern monitoring and analysis techniques such as computer aided monitoring and forecasting and diagnose the condition of the equipment during operation. maintenance costs and resultant delay in supply of products to customers as promised. 10. that results in loss of production due to idling of machinery and labour and reduces system capacity.
Since the reliability is concerned with the elapsed time between failures of a product. This will ultimately shorten the life of machines and cause high repair costs.2. Hence by reducing equipment mal functions and break downs. At the same time. preventive and repair maintenance. 3. issues are closely related with maintenance and maintainability. idling of both machines and the workers using those machines for their work. Adequate resources. they can improve operator safety and reduce injuries from equipment mal functions. product quality and production schedules. Ability to identify the cause of break downs 6. Ability to establish a repair plan and priorities. firms can reduce inventories. because of perceive product quality and the exceptional reliability. accidents to operators. Ability and authority to do material planning. schedule disruptions etc. Further these machines may have possible immediate effects such as variability of output. safety hazard. 5. It is the probability that a product will operate adequately for a given period in its intended application. Reliability considers the performance of a product over time. c) Reliability and Maintainability – an overview: Quality is multi – dimensional but reliability is a key component of quality. 4. e) Role of operators in TPM . Specialists work with cross-functional teams & backup responsibility to handle difficult or unusual problems. Reliability is a time based concept of quality. Ability to design ways to extend MTBF b) Maintenance responsibilities a) Traditional: Maintenance is a functional support activity & employees rely on specialists for custodial services. b) Employee ownership TPM: Front-line associates have first responsibility for maintenance in their work places. The ability of the equipment for operation is determined by mean time between failure (MTBF) and mean time to repair (MTTR) that is: Availability = MTBF / [MTBF + MTTR] d) Equipment problems and competitiveness: Equipment problems and break downs have a direct affect on production costs. Malfunctioning of machines cause deterioration and results in inefficiency. Japanese automobile manufacturers have been highly successful in the US market and could gain a high market share.
D) Collect data to track equipment performance and document all the data recorded along with production control chart and work order systems. Diagnose and perform repairs for the problems identified. 10. To identify design weaknesses and improve equipment for error free operations 3.8 Overall Equipment Effectiveness [OEE]-Key Indicator of TPM · OEE is a way of measuring how the six major losses shown below are affecting the equipment or in other words a way of measuring the amount of “Value added” activity that the equipment is contributing to the product. . Ensure maintenance is treating the root cause of the problem and not symptoms 7. replacement of filters lubrication of aggregates. Basic skill levels required by operators include: A) Monitoring and maintaining critical process parameters. Understand the manufacturing process to successfully achieve the above. 3. checking functions of the basic machine AND safety devices. In case the problem is an unknown entity. f) Role of maintenance department in TPM process: 1. 2. manufacturer and also the operators 8. obtain information before such problems are attacked. Improve technical maintenance skills of all maintenance personnel through systematic training and work assessments 4. periodic diagnostic tests apart from performing appropriate maintenance system to avoid predicted equipment failure 5. Data collected must be complete for proper implementation. Thorough data analysis. B) Perform change over and setup the complete machine. Maintain work order system to provide data for calculation of MTBF (mean time before failure) and MTTR (mean time to repair) 6.8.1 Objectives of OEE: a) It helps see a problem so that it can be fixed. Restores deteriorated equipment through improvements / related maintenance 2. Implement periodical maintenance system that is planned on the data collected from the machine. C) Reduction of minor stoppages and adjustments on aggregates as well as the complete machine. Perform basic equipment maintenance by cleaning of machines.1. thus developing the capability to operate similar equipment / machines 10.
88 . [Target=minimize] 2) Set up down time[Target=zero] 3) Reduced speed of the machines [Target=minimize] 4) Minor unrecognized stoppages [Target=zero] 5) Reject and rework [target=zero] 6) Start up down time and yield from the system [Target= minimize] Availability [(Time available for production – Downtime)] / [Time available for production] Performance Efficiency = [Actual Production or Capacity)] / [Ideal Production or Capacity] Quality Yield [Total Parts Produced-Quantity out of specifications] / Total Quantity produced. Ideal rate of production – 60 parts per min. · Planned production time 480 – 15 -15-30 = 420 min Operating time = planned production time – downtime = 420 -47 = 373 min · Good quality parts produced = total produced – rejection = 19271 – 423 = 18848 · Availability = A = operating time / planned production time = 373 / 420 = 0. Short breaks – 2 short breaks of 15 min each. Number of parts produced – 19271. out of which 423 numbers were rejected. Downtime of machines – 47 min. Overall Equipment Efficiency [OEE] = [Availability x Performance Efficiency x Quality yield] 10. 1) Planned and unplanned downtimes.2 OEE example: A manufacturer working for 8 hours shift with the production data and scheduled breaks is as follows: Shift length = 8 hours.b) It helps visualize ‘Six big losses’ with their targets for meeting OEE. Lunch break – one lunch break of 30 min.8.
11) waiting for instructions.e.9 Types of Losses (16) There are 16 types of losses that can be categorized into three namely: Category 1: a) Equipment losses: includes down time losses due to 1) machine failure/breakdown. 3) planned shutdown downtime] b) Performance losses: 4) start up losses.10 Zero-Loss Concept: TPM is based on the elimination of the above said 16 losses along with other five zero loss concepts depicted below: .748 i.· Performance = P = parts produced / (ideal production * operating time) = 19271 / (60 * 373 )= 0. 6) reducing the capacity.888 * 0. 5) minor stopping /idling. c) Quality loss: 7) process errors 8 rework/scrap Category 2: Manpower losses: 9) cleaning and checking. Category 3: Material losses: 14) material yield 15) energy losses 16) consumable material losses 10.861 · Quality= (total parts produced – rejection) / total parts produced) = 18848 / 19271 = 0.978 · OEE Composite = Availability * performance * quality = 0.978 = 0. 74. 10) waiting for materials. 13) any management losses.8 % 10. 12) waiting for quality confirmation. 2) set up/adjustment time.861 * 0.
e) Quality maintenance. g) Education and training.11. The main focus on equipment maintenance is for improvement of the overall production system. even for new areas of operations. 10. b) Jishu Hozen.10. d) Planned maintenance.12 Eight Pillars of TPM . Reaching Excellence in TPM program by Promotion. The TPM program team oversees initial planning and coordination of all TPM efforts though ultimately this responsibility is transferred to the maintenance department. monitoring and reviewing TPM results and raising levels and revising standards 10. This stresses the need to shift focus from equipment to the processes within which it is used. Selection of pilot lines 5. Plant audit and initial assessment 2. f) Office TPM.wide is a major project that requires support from top management. Company commitment 3. c) Kaizen.1 Steps in TPM program 1. Focus on 8 pillars. h) Safety and environment committee 4. 6. Implementation in each of the identified areas is managed directly by a target area committee with assistance from a TPM program team.11 Implementation of TPM Implementing TPM company. Formation of committees and sub committees for a) promotion and steering of TPM.
Increase the use of JH Objectives of JH: . Uninterrupted operation of equipment 2. 10. 8 Pillars supports a strong structure of TPM for achieving higher productivity is depicted in the following picture.In the above house.12. Reduce oil consumption 2.1 Pillar-1: Autonomous Maintenance: (Jishu – Hozen) Autonomous maintenance is a phrase coined by the Japanese institute of plant maintenance (JIPM) to describe the shift towards the machine operators maintaining their own machine / equipment JH Policy: 1. Reduce process time 3. Flexibility with operators to operate and maintain other equipments 3. Eliminate the defect at source through active employee participation 4. Step wise implementation of JH activities JH Targets: 1.
Improve skill levels and personal growth throughout the company 5. Standards for monitoring key process parameters: To develop methods and standards for routine verification of key process parameters / standards operating conditions. Repair sources of defect (outside of machines). Other steps considering the aspects like a) Cooperation from all production related department. Here the operator executes routine verification and adjustments 5. In case modification is required for easy inspection / elimination of debris / contamination etc a new aggregate covers may be created 3. quick response. electronic. Train operators on function and troubleshooting: Operators. 4. team leaders. lubrication and mechanical should be clearly understood by all in the production line for quick redressing. Here operator has to apply and ask for 5 why’s. replace cracked parts or worn out seals etc and repair and setup the machine.1. Provide spare parts and tools: Here all the spare parts should be leveraged at the point of use after considering the inventory levels. establish standards for data collection based on the production control chart and develop standards for easy reference. electrical. Cleaning of all the surroundings and using Japanese 5S principles for orderly keeping the parts etc. Initial cleanup It must be closely aligned with 7S of the company and there must be commitment of both the staff and the management for the house keeping. Stabilise. control or prevent deterioration of production equipment 2. Operators should identify and tag the sources of defects / waste that arisen out of the machine operations. switch not operating properly etc. JH audit. Prevent degradation related failures 3. Examples of such defects are: Crack in the housing leakages. 6. Increase access and ease of inspection and maintenance 4. should be followed to achieve effective results . first line supervisor should be trained to understand the basic of the equipment and the functions and the systems working in the machines namely Hydraulic. pneumatic. 2. Improve predictability through data analysis and communication Steps to Implement JH: 1. broken / worn out belt. Develop standards and data collection: Create standards for clean up and checking of machines. set rules to be followed. Similarly the orderliness of tool availability and display of visual boards can be maintained. 7.
Step 3: Implementation action plan to sustain and develop further possible improvements. MTBF. Six steps followed by planned maintenance are: . Zero accidents and Zero defects. 4) Act as required to proceed further to improve upon the system/process. Verify the progress made in TPM efforts in planned versus emergency work. optimize machine set ups. 3) reduce spare parts inventory.2 Pillar-2. 2) optimise maintenance costs. 10.8.3 Pillar: 3: Planned Maintenance [Pm] For Zero Loss · Planned maintenance is a systematic management by maintenance department. Here an emphasis is on transferring knowledge and creating self sufficient team for results. which uses maintenance work cycle activities of preventive/predictive/corrective or breakdown maintenance techniques. 10. Quick change time reduction.Kobetsu Kaizen (Focussed Improvements) 1) PDCA Cycle: Kaizen: here maintenance team should 1) Plan each step. 2) Increase in productivity by improving Overall Equipment efficiency (OEE). There are three steps that aim at quick but short term process improvements supported by long term organizational change. Here it is aimed at eliminating all 16 losses in the workplace. · Planned maintenance policy includes a) achieve and sustain availability of machines. optimize spare parts location etc. 2) Do the necessary change. 4) improve reliability and maintainability of machines. All out JH: Repeat the cycle 1 – 6 above of the process of managing and monitoring the TPM. Overall Online efficiency (OOE) and Overall Plant efficiency (OPE) 3) Decrease Costs: through controls in inventory and WIP 4) Reduction in customer complaints: reduce total downtime and ensure quick deliver to customers 5) Zero accidents: total safety and all actions to save money. These steps are: Step 1: Quick Win Shop floor projects: this is a team based approach targeting specific problem areas and realizing immediate benefits Step 2: Critical analysis: analyze what else needs to be changed to make it fixed and create action plans. 3) Check whether successful or not.12.12. MTTR. It is aimed at having trouble free machines and equipment producing defect free products for total customer satisfaction.
when a) ease of manufacture. Results achieved through this pillar are: 1) Improved customer satisfaction and reduction in future complaints 2) Reduction in defects and improved quality 3) Reduction in inspection time 10.4 Pillar-4-Quality Maintenance for Zero Defects This is a process for controlling the condition of equipment and its components that affect variability in product quality.12. 2) Improvement in MTBF and MTTR. Benefits from Planned Maintenance 1) Reduction in downtime due to breakdowns. are analysed. b) policy of .5 Pillar-5-Development Management This refers to the learning process that happens in TPM implementation and during different types of maintenance practices. Here the customer end defects are known through customer complaints and in-house defects known through the quality control personnel. 3) Reduction in spare parts consumption 4) Reduction in oil and power consumption 5) Reduction in repair cost 6) Reduction in number of inspection points etc 10. root cause is found and improvement action on the process/design are ensured.12.1) Equipment evaluation and recording of present status 2) Restore deterioration and improve on weak links 3) Builds information management systems 4) Prepare time based information and parts and map out a plan 5) Prepare predictive system plan by introducing diagnostic techniques 6) Evaluation of planned maintenance. Here also aim is at defect free product to satisfy the customer. Focus is on eliminating non-conformances in a systematic manner.
12. too hot areas. Health & Environment [Zero Accidents] Here the focus is to create a safe work place and a surrounding areas that is not detrimental to process or procedures. skills and techniques through a training environment. The methodology adopted is for understanding of the present machine structure. skilled workers. reworks etc. unsafe working without wearing gloves. whose morale is high and who are eager to work and perform the required functions effectively and independently. Point by point safety audit.12.6 Pillar-6-Trining & Education [Flow Of Controls] Through training and education provides the skill and knowledge apart from the experience that enables operators. Development of management involves four phases. 10. goggles etc. c) determination of detailed specifications etc are answered. engineers and managers are in a position to fulfil the expanded role to be played in successful implementation of TPM. The continuous training is on safe working. Unsafe conditions like electrical points. breakdowns attributed to lack of knowledge and skills 2) Reduction in further downtime after gaining the knowledge and skills 3) Reductions achieved after training on the number of defects. Poka-Yoke etc will all result in getting the following benefits: 1) Reduction in accident 2) Reduction in noise 3) Create excellent house-keeping & a good looking workshop through 5S action 4) Reduction in downtime because of breakdowns etc 5) Saving in energy consumption 6) Reduction in industrial waste . Some examples of unsafe acts by employees are 1) use of worn out tools. safety training and monitoring the improvements through Kaizen.7 Pillar-7: Safety. It is aimed to have multi skilled & revitalized employees. noise generations and any such unsafe potential areas must be identified and action taken to make them safe. providing safe environment place a vital role. d) manufacturing. safety guards. health and hazards. c) design. e) initial phase production. a) planning b) implementation.development of new technologies. and design validation 10. unsafe storage/stacking. This systematic education and training will result in: 1) Reduction in downtime. incorporate planned maintenance sheets to eliminate defects. Here the focus is on improvement of the knowledge. operating machines without proper training etc.
3) reduction in administration costs. Therefore the Office TPM addresses the seven major losses namely: 1) processing loss 2) communication loss 3) idle loss 4) set up loss 5) accuracy loss 6) non-value added loss 7) cost loss including areas as procurement. invoices. bills. cost of inventory carrying. Since achieving total productivity is one of the major objectives of TQM. payroll. customer returns etc c) C: buying cost.10. marketing and sales outlets with high inventories. 2) reduction in repetitive works. the following strengthen the view that TPM is relevant to TQM: . to follow all the principles and procedures laid out in ‘Seven Pillars of TPM’ and achieve the desired overall improvements for the benefit of the organization. stores.13 Relevance of TPM to TQM Framework Good maintenance is fundamental to a productive manufacturing system. manpower etc b) Q: mistakes in cheques. 5) reduction in n umber of files. PQCDS&M principles in Office TPM: a) P: production output loss due to want of materials. 10. payment to suppliers. 4) reduction in inventory carrying costs. Benefits accrued because of office TPM are 1) Better utilization of work areas. Further.8 Pilar-8-Office Tpm [Raise Levels & Select Other Areas] Office TPM includes analysing processes and procedures towards increased office automation. TPM aims at keeping the current plant and equipment at its highest productive level through cooperation of all. Here the whole organization should focus. we can infer that total productive maintenance is an extension of TQM philosophy to the maintenance function. in information etc e) S: safety in material handling. etc d) D” logistic losses due to delay in support function. In TPM the barrier between maintenance & production personnel is removed. 7) reduced man power 8 clean and pleasant work environment and 10) reduction in equipment due to emergency despatches/purchases. other safety practices f) M: number of kaizen activities in office areas with improvements not visible TPM is a long range living program. It identifies and eliminates losses. 6) reduction in customer complaints. accounting. It is followed to improve productivity and efficiency in the office administration. cost of logistics.12. as a strategy.
A comprehensive TPM program aspires to implement process capability and its maintenance. TPM aims at the introduction of new and creative ideas which will optimise quality standards and reduce waste and costs to the organisation concerned. TPM is a value adding activity. process reliability and reduces the cost of lost production time. In view of the above.14 Benefits of TPM An added benefit is that with the added responsibility of all maintenance activities. since it aims at cost reduction and quality improvements for internal requirements and for customer satisfaction. scheduling and control of operations depend to a large extent on process capacity and process capability. · TPM is continuous improvement activity. zero breakdowns. Process capacity cannot be made available at the cost of quality. Clean. tidy and well organised work area will result in better performance Maintenance is the key to achieve zero loss. in other words working with a zero sum philosophy. defects. smell etc spot problems before they develop. 10. The planning. · TPM can have a great impact on the operations decision making process. 4) Benefits can be categorized into two types namely: 1) Direct and 2) Indirect a. Here too the operators take the responsibility of cleaning their machines and work areas. Housekeeping is another area in JIT production system.· TQM is aimed at satisfying customer requirements. repairs. 3) TPM also contributes to improvements in safety. shortened equipment life and inventory. there is a direct link between TPM and TQM and also the relevance of a comprehensive maintenance policy is proved for successful TQM implementation. operators develop a sense of ownership for the machines and give special attention to upkeep the machines for sound. by using the principles of 5S. zero accidents and zero defects. This developed by JIPM (Japanese Institution of Plant Maintenance) during late 1960’s combines the American practice of PM with Japanese concept of Total Quality Control [TQC] and Total employee involvement [TEI] 1) TPM aims for greater manufacturing competitiveness through improved effectiveness of machines and equipments. vibration. Direct benefits: . 2) TPM increases production capacity. morale and pollution control by involving everyone in the process.
15 Role Of TPM In World Class Manufacturing Most of the world class manufacturing firms have implemented JIT systems and TQM philosophy to achieve excellence in manufacturing and to have ability to compete globally. well functioning machines and equipments are a pre requisite for JIT and TQM to be successfully implemented in any manufacturing firm. Reliable. equipment and systems so that they consistently perform at the levels required of them. maintenance cost reduced by 15 -30%. 4) Delivery: Inventory turnover increased by 150% 5) Morale: Improvement suggestions increased by 105% 6) Safety: Accidents reduced to nil 7) Environment: No pollution created 10. Preventive maintenance requires understanding and maintaining all the physical elements of manufacturing – machine components. 1) Productivity: Breakdowns reduced by 85% 2) Quality: Defect rate reduced by 50% 3) Cost: Labour cost reduced by 25%. . the entire process or . The following results were reported from a typical firm after implementing TPM. Indirect benefits: a) Higher confidence level among the employees b) Favourable change in the attitude of the operators c) Horizontal deployment of a new concepts in all areas d) The workers get a feeling of owning the machine. energy reduced consumption reduced by 20%. Therefore if any equipment breaks down.a) Increase in productivity and overall plant efficiency b) Elimination of customers complaints c) Elimination of accidents d) Achieve goals by working as a team b.
The involvement of workers in quality circles provides the opportunity for them (members of quality circles) to study maintenance problems. a facility. Improved equipment functioning has a positive impact on product quality. 2) TPM had its genesis in the Japanese car industry in 1970’s. In TPM operators / workers perform basic equipment repairs and preventive maintenance. 4) GOALS: one among following is not an applicable goal. Here the new quality approach of ………………… was translated to the maintenance environment through the concept of TPM. • Prevention of equipment deterioration • Maintain the equipment in optimal condition • Establishing basic equipment conditions • Operator’s incompetency . In world class companies the responsibility for repairs and preventive maintenance is assigned to workers. to achieve ……………………. easier to maintain and perform better. Preventive maintenance is a stepping stone to a higher level of maintenance referred to as “total productive maintenance” (TPM).production line comes to a halt. In world class companies quality circles form an important component of TQM. Identify. to keep a machine. machinists and operators redesign and reconfigure equipment to make it more reliable. It first evolved in Nippon Denso a major supplier of the Toyota car company.. Preventive maintenance practices reduce the breakdown of machines and will keep them in good working condition. This will facilitate implementation of an effective preventive maintenance program which is essential for a JIT system Self Assessment Questions Fill up the blanks with appropriate words in the following statements: 1) Equipment maintenance is basic to competitive manufacturing. engineers. material handling equipment and other transport vehicles in proper working conditions. while teams of maintenance staff. Maintenance covers all those functions such as ……………… etc. TQM requires quality at the source which implies that machines must be reliable and well functioning. 3) TPM is defined as the means to achieve high level of productivity. efficiency and effectiveness with zero loss concepts through total participation of all employees with self managing abilities in practices.
TPM in Offices.) X (…………)] 8 Out of Eight pillars of TPM. Health & Environment.. Education & Training. Safety.• Elimination of quality defects • Elimination of equipment failure • Elimination of cost losses 5) There are six types of losses found in a manufacturing firm. One among the following is not the type of loss considered in maintenance. ………. two are missing in the following list. g) Defect losses due to reduced yields in processing 6) OEE is a way of measuring how the six major losses shown below are affecting the equipment or in other words a way of measuring the amount of ……………………. 9) Autonomous maintenance is a phrase coined by the Japanese institute of plant maintenance (JIPM) to describe the shift towards the machine operators ……………………… 10) PQCDS&M principles in Office TPM: In the list below principle D is missing. manpower etc . Identify a) Downtime due to equipment failure. Development Management. ……………. 7) Overall Equipment Efficiency-Fill in the other two factors: [OEE] = [Availability x ( ………. c) Speed losses due to idling and minor stoppages caused by abnormal operations of censors. What is that? • P: production output loss due to want of materials. Kobetsu-Kaizen. d) Habitual absenteism by employees e) Speed losses due to discrepancies between designed and actual speeds f) Defect losses due to process defects that cause scrap & quality problems.. Identify them Autonomous Maintenance.. b) Downtime for setups and adjustments. blockages etc. that the equipment is contributing to the product.
and total productive maintenance or reliability centred maintenance. customer returns etc • C: buying cost. In the TPM approach to maintenance management. invoices. 4) Ability and authority to do material planning. etc •? • S: safety in material handling. 10. Only five are listed. stores. For the above type of TPM. organization should have the features of 1) Well trained maintenance crew. 3) Ability to establish a repair plan and priorities. A comprehensive maintenance program consists of breakdown maintenance. They applied TPM techniques to visually eliminate machine breakdowns.2) Adequate resources.16 Summary Japanese firms which implemented JIT production and TQM concepts cannot witness any machine failures that affect quality and delayed production schedules. machines are cleaned and lubricated frequently by the operators themselves who run the machines. Preventive maintenance is a well planned program which involves inspection to uncover potential problem and make the necessary repairs before any breakdown occurs. Which is the sixth one? 1) Well trained maintenance crew. and ……………. payroll. The frequency of preventive maintenance must be balanced with the cost of equipment failure and keep the total costs of preventive and breakdown maintenance put together at the lowest level possible. organization should have the following six features.• Q: mistakes in cheques. cost of inventory carrying. 6) Ability to design ways to extend MTBF. 4) Ability and authority to do material planning. 2) Adequate resources. bills. 5) ……………………. other safety practices • M: number of kaizen activities in office areas with improvements not visible 11) Results achieved through pillar number Four are: 1) Improved customer satisfaction and reduction in future complaints 2) Reduction in …………….. While breakdown maintenance is remedial or corrective maintenance or equipment repair when breakdown occurs. preventive maintenance. 3) Ability to establish a repair plan and priorities. . 3) Reduction in inspection time 12) For the above type of TPM. cost of logistics...
5. Equipment problems have a direct impact on production costs. What are the objectives of TPM? 2. TPM helps to maintain process capability. Explain briefly the evolution of maintenance practices leading to TPM. product quality and production schedules. employee morale and pollution control. stoppage of production. Quality circles. Reduction in costs of lost production. especially with the latest TPM as a final and long range solution. decrease in productivity. 4. continuous improvement and has a strong strategic relevance like TQM. Distinguish between breakdown maintenance and preventive maintenance. TPM has great relevance to TQM in improvement of productivity and quality. which may result in inefficiency of machines. TPM contributes to improved safety. Discuss on the guiding features of TPM? 3. poor quality of outputs. defects. Benefits of TPM includes increase in production capacity and process reliability. safety hazards. shortened equipment life and inventory. TPM identifies and attacks all causes of malfunctions and eliminates all consequent losses due to breakdowns. repairs. idle time. high repair costs. high standards of quality and reliability. formation of a target committee and program team to oversee initial planning and coordination of all TPM efforts and then transfer the responsibility to the maintenance department. All these help to improve manufacturing competitiveness of world class companies. accidents to workers. an important component of TQM provides the opportunity for workers to study maintenance problems and suggest effective maintenance activities which are essential for JIT systems. Implementing TPM company-wide is major project requiring top management support.5) Ability to identify the cause of break downs 6) Ability to design ways to extend MTBF. 10. by adopting any of the maintenance systems discussed above. What is total productive maintenance? Is it different from total preventive maintenance? . high WIP inventories and so on.17 Terminal Questions 1.
Explain briefly the sixteen types of losses that are to be considered for elimination by the maintenance department while planning TPM activities. no (d)] . Prevention at source 3. 4. What are the unsafe practices and how these are controlled by practicing good and healthy. What are the constituents of Kobetsu Kaizen i. Describe the role of total productive maintenance in world class manufacturing. cleaning. What are the benefits accrued to a firm by practicing TPM? 17.6. safe environment under TPM? 15. Operator’s incompetency-[Sl. Monitoring. Total customer satisfaction. no-(d)] 5. Discuss the relevance of total productive maintenance to TQM framework. Explain briefly as to how planned maintenance under Eight pillars of TPM help achieve zero loss? 14. What is ‘Autonomous Maintenance? What are its objectives and steps involved in implementing? 12. Focussed Improvements and what steps are used to achieve improvement? 13. adjusting. What are the six zero concept that are to be considered while approaching elimination of 16 Losses? 10. What are the relative issues that are recognized by maintenance department before attempting introduction of TPM in the plant? 7.e.18 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1. 9. What is meant by ‘Overall Equipment Effectiveness’? What are its constituents? How the six losses are addressed through OEE? 8. Habitual Absenteeism by employees – [Sl. repairing. Which are the eight pillars that support TPM in an organization? 11. etc 2. inspecting. 10. 16.
Ref.9 9.12. Ref. Ref. Performance Efficiency & Quality yield 8. 10. Ref. Ref. Ability to identify the cause of break downs Terminal Questions: 1.10 10. Ref. Ref. 10.6. 10. 10. 10. 10.7 7. in information etc’ 11. 10.5 3. Planned Maintenance & Quality Maintenance 9. Ref. Ref.8 8.12 11.3 14. Ref. 10. 10.4 2. 10. Ref. 10.2 13. Defects and improved quality 12.12.6 5. Ref. payment to suppliers.7 15. 10. 10.12. Ref.6 6. Ref.12. D.13 . “Value added” – activity 7. Maintaining their own machine / equipment 10.6 4.1 12. Ref. 10.‘logistic losses due to delay in support function. 10.
10. Ref. .16. 10.15 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Ref.14 17.
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