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2 History of Maintenance Definition of Maintenance Objectives and Functions of Maintenance 1.3 Functions of Maintenance Management Quality Aspects in Maintenance Maintenance Organisation Initial Level Repeatable Level Defined Level Managed Level Optimized Level 1.4 Improving Maturity in Maintenance Organizations Training Strategy Work Management Resources Management Supervisory Review Quality Assurance Subcontract Management
Commitment of the Maintenance Personnel. Verification of Implementation Metrics and Process Improvement 1.5 Dynamics of a Maintenance Organisation Maintenance Management Perspectives Types of Maintenance Preventive Maintenance Shut-down Maintenance Opportunistic Maintenance 1.6 Summary 1.7 Terminal Questions 1.8 Answers 1.1 Introduction Rising inflation and increased competition have brought with them the need for greater productivity, and recent years have seen more emphasis being placed on productivity improvement. Moreover, sophisticated equipment and capital intensive units and plants are being increasingly used to achieve the pre-set targets of higher production and productivity. Reliability and maintainability features are now being incorporated in the equipment designs. Although modern equipment has higher levels of reliability, it is not possible to keep this equipment in an operating condition at all times because failures do occur even in the most reliable equipment.1 It is also true that such sophisticated equipment, and units or plants, tend to have high probabilities of failure since in many cases they incorporate newer, and therefore not adequately proven, technologies and designs. They also consist of a large number of assemblies, sub-assemblies and components. Failure and malfunctioning of these items of equipment result in a loss of production. Loss of production is undesirable because it results in corresponding loss in revenue. Whenever an item of equipment is down and fails to perform its intended function, or performs in an undesirable fashion, it must be restored to a state where it performs satisfactorily. At the same time all necessary action must be taken to keep, or retain, such equipment in an operating condition and also to prevent failures. Resources, such as spare parts, manpower skills, tools, instruments and facilities, such as hangars in the case of
aircraft maintenance, are utilized for accomplishment of the restoration processes and preventive actions. Thus the requirement for productivity improvement has brought about the pressing need for a significant improvement in the management of maintenance of equipment, units and plants. Objectives: After studying this unit you shall be able · To Define Maintenance · To assess objective and functions of Maintenance · To describe Quality aspect of Maintenance · To assess key process of Maintenance Management 1.2 History of Maintenance Historically, maintenance activities have been regarded as a necessary evil by the various management functions in an organisation. Enormous costs of maintenance, estimated to be between 15 and 40 per cent of the production costs and the trend towards automation have, however, forced managers to pay more attention to maintenance. The evolution of maintenance can be traced from the days prior to World War II. The attitude of the managers then was ‘to fix the equipment when it breaks’. With fewer items of sophisticated equipment around, and hence, the cost of downtime not being high, prevention of equipment failures was not given much attention. Maintenance, in addition to fixing the broken equipment, involved simple activities like cleaning and lubrication. The period after World War II saw the introduction of the word ‘terotechnology’ which was initially defined by the committee on terotechnology as ‘…a combination of management, financial, engineering and other practices applied to physical assets in pursuit of economic life-cycle costs’. Due to rising costs and inflation, focus was on reducing downtime of equipment and hence preventive maintenance came into being as an important activity. This period also saw a number of researchers working on operations research models for preventive maintenance. Importance of planning maintenance activities also grew during this period. Overhauls of equipment were planned and scheduled. Systems for managing maintenance were also introduced. The period after 1980 has seen some of the worst accidents in industrial history. Leakage of methyl isocyanite (MIC) from a battery/cell manufacturing unit in Bhopal in India and the threat to the survival of mankind caused by the nuclear accident at Chernobyl in the erstwhile Soviet Union have only made the manufacturing industries and the like realize the importance of maintenance. The attitude of ignorance towards maintenance has increasingly been replaced by one which recognizes maintenance also as a strategic issue in the organisation. Besides high cost, the other factors which contributed to this change
maintenance programmes have to be developed to ensure that physical assets will continue to fulfill their intended functions at a minimum expenditure of resources. an item of equipment in a specified operating condition. regulatory matters. or keeping. safety issues. and warranty and liability factors. be to maximize the profitability of the organisation by performing activities which retain working equipment in an acceptable condition. or tasks. which is linked to the overall organizational objectives. 1. In summary. including staffing/recruiting. . drive for cost reduction and the like. tools and facilities. Performing maintenance activities requires the use of resources such as spare parts. or restoring failed equipment to a normal operating condition. Obviously. The objective of maintenance. · organizing maintenance resources. Maintenance. manpower. maintenance activities which do not contribute to preserving or restoring the intended functions of assets should be eliminated.2. ageing plant and equipment. at minimum resource cost. that are related to preserving equipment in a specified operating condition. should. · To extend the useful life of the equipment. Techniques such as condition monitoring. The need for reliable equipment has also been realized. The set of tasks or activities that constitute maintenance ranges from simple cleaning operations and lubrication to performing condition monitoring. means preserving. and planning and scheduling maintenance resources. To live up to the new expectations demanded of maintenance activities.2. The availability and utilization of these resources are of prime importance. the principal objectives of maintenance would be: · to control the availability of the equipment. or return the equipment to an acceptable working condition. Modern maintenance management can be considered to be composed of the following functions: · maintenance planning. Maintenance can thus be defined as a set of activities. Alternatively the objective should be to minimize the costs – the labour costs and the material costs as well as the loss in revenue due to loss of production. in general.include: environmental concerns. In case an item of equipment fails it needs to be restored to the same specified operating condition. neural networks and Markov chains have been used for controlling and managing maintenance activities. therefore.1 Definition of Maintenance Maintenance is an element of a complete production system.2 Objectives and Functions of Maintenance The objective of any business organisation is to make profits. Performing such activities would obviously extend the useful life of the equipment. 1.
· directing execution of maintenance plan. 5. The attitude of ______________ towards maintenance has increasingly been replaced by one which recognizes maintenance. involved simple activities like cleaning and lubrication. 4. at minimum ________________. . · Budgeting. _____________ in addition to fixing the broken equipment. · defining processes for performing maintenance. Maintenance planning includes formulating and identifying organisation-wide policies that would help achieve higher maintenance productivity such as: · Do we repair the equipment or buy a new one? · Do we perform preventive maintenance or corrective maintenance activities? · Do we employ full-time repair personnel or should we subcontract work? Self Assessment Questions 1. 3. 2. Maintenance planning includes formulating and identifying ___________ policies. · controlling the performance of maintenance activities. Maintenance is an element of a complete ___________ system. The principal objectives of maintenance would be to control the availability of the equipment.
Other common tasks related to maintenance management include generating reports related to equipment. work and . If the required resources are not available. This is a statement of maintenance tasks to be carried out in a specified period. the maintenance activity can be initiated. the maintenance manager needs to organize the required resources and all these resources need to be available in the right quantity and at the right time. This way not only is the downtime cost kept to the minimum but also the resources are utilized effectively.1. then the planned maintenance activity cannot be performed. Once the activity is complete. The maintenance manager should track the work to completion. The maintenance manager should ensure that the equipment is restored to its normal working condition as quickly as possible. a review by the manager or the maintenance supervisor would be essential to ensure and authorize that the maintenance work has been carried out properly. Another important task is creation of a master maintenance schedule. Once the required resources are available.3 Functions of Maintenance Management Responsibility for formulating the maintenance policies lies with top management. In order to carry out maintenance activities as planned. Any maintenance activity requires resources. The top management is also responsible for negotiating and authorizing the service level agreement. In case the task does not get completed within the estimated time then corrective action would need to be taken to ensure further loss in revenue due to loss in production is minimized. This will lead to degradation of equipment performance and can also result in its failure.
· it is initiated on time and the equipment is returned to production at the · required time. without causing · any damage to the equipment or to any of its parts. · the required tools. · It incurs not more than the budgeted cost.costs. produces the desired result. · the required spare parts in the required quantity.2 Maintenance Organisation Maintenance organisation does not mean only the organisation of people in the maintenance department or their reporting structure.1 Quality Aspects in Maintenance Quality is not absolute but relative. · an appropriate ‘on-the-job’ training programme for the repair men to enhance their ability to work. the tools and procedures used.3. An important step in addressing the maintenance management problems is to treat the maintenance task as a process that can be controlled. A ‘process’ can be defined as a set of tasks that. instruments and facilities for performing the activity. and the skill. · A repository of maintenance processes. 1. A maintenance activity can be considered to be of high quality if: · it restores an item of equipment to its normal working state. An effective maintenance process must consider the relationships of all the tasks. measured and improved. It is more to do with the maturity of the maintenance process such that high-quality maintenance activities are performed. the need is for a good maintenance organisation.3. training and motivation of the people . The above-mentioned conditions can be satisfied only when the maintenance organisation has: · skilled and committed repair men available to carry out the required maintenance activity at the required time. when performed properly. · In general. It also includes activities related to collection and analysis of data related to maintenance and reporting to top management. 1.
the organisation achieves the foundation for continuous improvement in processes.*9 The CMM was defined by the software engineering institute (SEI) for software development organizations and it classifies software development organizations into five levels initial.3. The organisation now has capabilities to face new challenges and achieve success. To reach the defined level. Plan to perform the required actions. To improve the capabilities of the maintenance organisation the following steps8 must be performed consistently: 1. To climb up the maturity level. that is. 1. the organisation has to implement a measurement programme to obtain process feedback. List down required process improvement actions. 3. The performance of these steps calls for a process-oriented organisation and such an organisation develops over a period of time as enunciated by the capability maturity model (CMM). Understand the status of the current maintenance process or processes.3. quality assurance and project tracking and oversight. organizations must have dedicated personnel who take care of the development processes.3. Tools are neither integrated with the process nor uniformly applied. Determine if the current process is the desired process. Commit resources to execute the plan. the most important ones being project management. organizations at this level need to institutionalize basic management processes. without formalized procedures.4 Repeatable Level Organizations which carry out similar projects with reasonable accuracy with regard to cost and time are at this level. 2. repeatable. cost estimates and plans. 1. 4.involved.3. However. defined. organizations at this level face risks when presented with new challenges.3 Initial Level The organisation operates on an ad hoc basis.5 Defined Level The organisation has a repository or a set of defined procedures for carrying out development work. 5.6 Managed Level . The strength to carry out similar activities stems from the prior experience. 1. In order to improve performance. 1. managed and optimized. With this.
· supervisory review. Quality is not absolute but relative. 1. The objective is only to identify the key process areas that would enable maintenance organizations to enhance their capabilities and maturity. 1. A few key process areas can be readily identified in this regard. when performed properly. without formalized procedures. Since the data collection process is full-fledged. 10.The organisation has a way by which performance indicators are measured objectively. Targets are set for performance and a plan is made out to achieve the pre-set targets. · work management. cost estimates and plans. · resources management. To reach the highest level on the CMM. 8. Responsibility for formulating the maintenance policies lies with shop Supervisors. The CMM can be adapted to enhance the capabilities of the maintenance organizations as well. the organisation needs to put in place automatic data collection support tools. The organisation operates on an ad hoc basis. the effectiveness of the process can also be determined. Any maintenance activity requires resources. Problems are identified proactively and eliminated. 7. They are: · training strategy.3.4 Improving Maturity in Maintenance Organizations The key process areas (KPAs) involved in enhancing the capability and maturity of a software organisation.7 Optimized Level The organisation has capabilities to identify the weakest links in the development processes and eliminate/improve them. Self Assessment Questions State whether following statement True or False 6. produces the undesired result. 9. · quality assurance. A ‘process’ can be defined as a set of tasks that. that is. . The objective is not to classify the maintenance organizations also into one of these levels.
In some others. can be provided on safety and productivity-related issues. It would not be appropriate to track every small activity in the work-breakdown structure to completion. usage of modern tools etc.2 Work Management Any activity. Management of resources is therefore critical to managing the maintenance function. Most maintenance activities are performed in groups. It therefore becomes necessary to train all the maintenance personnel on the aspects of team work.4. Holding resources in excess of requirements is wasteful while non-availability of required resources at the required time is undesirable since this result in loss of revenue due to loss in production. For example. a bull’s eye chart may be appropriate for tracking work. is not managed if it is not planned and tracked. a welder may be re-trained to perform a pipefitter’s job. This is the responsibility of the maintenance manager. A maintenance activity should be broken down into smaller manageable tasks. 1. This is referred to as the work-breakdown structure. facilities etc. 1. instruments and facilities.3 Resources Management As mentioned earlier. The maintenance manager should identify the training needs of his subordinates and get them trained.4.4.· Subcontract management. a small maintenance activity may take not less than 5 hours. irrespective of the time it consumes. For small activities. 1. The term ‘small activity’ should be defined by the quality assurance personnel because it varies from one organisation to another. scheduled and conducted. 1. such as an oil refinery. Resource here means manpower. The required resources should be available at the right time and in the right quantity. Training. For example.4. Also the probable time to complete the tasks should be specified. An organisation may not always find suitable people for performing a job. Each of the tasks in the work-breakdown structure should have appropriate resources assigned to it. Coordination within a group is critical to completion of the maintenance task on time.4 Supervisory Review Every maintenance activity should be performed under the charge of a supervisor. in one organisation an activity that takes only 15 minutes for completion is considered to be small.1 Training Strategy Every maintenance organisation should have a suitable training programme for its personnel. manpower. In such a case it is better if some of the available personnel are re-trained on some trades other than those in which they have specialized. scheduled and tracked to completion. tools. Every maintenance activity should be planned. for example. tools. Individual as well as organisation-wide training programmes should be planned. maintenance activities require resources in the form of spare parts. The supervisor’s responsibility is to ensure that the required resources allotted for performing .
Like any other internal maintenance activity.5 Quality Assurance The quality assurance personnel should be responsible for identifying the optimum route for performing a maintenance activity.6 Subcontract Management A few maintenance activities require specialists at the job. 1. A few more basic areas like maintenance planning and configuration management would also need to be considered. This is the work order management process. This involves establishment of policies and top management sponsorship. The supervisor should also guide the repair gang in performing the activity. tools etc. Increasing the ability to perform. 1. Ability of the maintenance personnel can be enhanced by providing them with proper and relevant training. the supervisor should inspect the equipment in order to ensure that the equipment is performing as desired.4.the maintenance activity are available to the repair gang on time and in the required numbers.4. subcontracted work should also be managed. 1. The subcontractor manager should select a suitable subcontractor based on a balanced assessment of the capabilities of prospective subcontractors. List of activities. The assessment of the subcontractor can be done by inviting each to present their capabilities and verification of claims through independent references. The supervisor should also report completion of the activity to the maintenance manager so that the actual costs incurred are logged. Yet another goal would be to verify the correctness of the work performed. The repair men should be provided with a list of activities that need to be performed as a part of the maintenance. Five important factors need to be taken care of if each of the key process areas mentioned above need to be implemented in the maintenance organisation. is expensive.4. and for analyzing them in order to come up with improved routes and work processes. The goals of the subcontract management should be to evaluate and select appropriate subcontractors for performing the maintenance activities. The maintenance manager can also visit premises to inspect the capabilities and to get firsthand information. These factors have also been borrowed from the CMM. A better option is to subcontract the work.8 Verification of Implementation . in most cases. Hiring these specialists on a full-time basis. The selection of the subcontractor should be planned. Once the activity is complete. 1. They are responsible for collecting data while the maintenance activity is carried out.7 Commitment of the Maintenance Personnel The repair men need to be committed to perform the maintenance activities.4.
4. Feedback on the maintenance activity performed should be given to the concerned repair men. The quality assurance group. The supervisor should also make use of this opportunity to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the individual repair men and arrange suitable training for them. 3. Gathering metrics on every maintenance activity helps in estimating the time requirements and also the cost. Four entities are important as far as the maintenance activities are concerned. including manpower. The selection of the ______________should be planned. The maintenance manager. 1. tools etc.9 Metrics and Process Improvement This is a continuous process. estimated time to complete the work. the maintenance productivity and quality of the maintenance work. 2. The key process areas (KPAs) involved in enhancing the capability and maturity of a ____________________. Ability of the __________________ can be enhanced by providing them with proper and relevant training. materials and tools. The maintenance manager is responsible for scheduling maintenance activities. The supervisor group. They are as follows: 1. Measurement of maintenance activity can be in terms of percentage of work complete to date. Self Assessment Questions 11. 1. Metrics and process improvement is a ___________________. Every maintenance organisation should have a suitable ___________ for its personnel. An activity is scheduled (as far as possible during the production windows in the case of preventive maintenance) and initiated depending on the availability of the required . The resources. 13.The supervisor of the repair men should verify the completion/ implementation of the maintenance activity.5 Dynamics of a Maintenance Organisation Coordination within the groups is one of the most important factors that determine the effectiveness of any maintenance organisation. 14. 12. 15.4.
The equipment is not wanted for production and is available for maintenance. Since the equipment is not in an operating condition this maintenance activity results in considerable loss of production. Due to shortage of resources the maintenance activity is pending. the quality assurance group collects data on the process and analyses them with a view to improving the process. The key distinction among the three perspectives relates to the time interval between the recognition of the need to perform a maintenance activity and the time at which the . this is called corrective maintenance. Maintenance is being carried out to restore the equipment to an operable condition. 3. This maintenance activity also does not incur any loss in production. Since the equipment is in use there is no loss in production while performing this maintenance activity. At any time. an item of equipment or some part of it can be in one of the five following states: 1. 1. The equipment is running and is producing the desired output. It can be seen from the above that there are two perspectives of maintenance management: 1. As the maintenance activity is carried out. 2. Fix it when it breaks as in cases (4) and (5).1 Maintenance Management Perspectives Kelly has described the dynamics of a production maintenance system considering a large process plant. 5. Relatively more time is spent on performing this type of maintenance activity. this is called preventive maintenance. The equipment is taken out of production for a scheduled maintenance activity. This is called the ‘production window’. Prevent it from breaking down as in cases (1). They have divided corrective maintenance into two perspectives – ‘reactive’ and ‘reactive/proactive’ –and have defined preventive maintenance as a ‘proactive’ perspective. The equipment is in a failed condition. 2. Maintenance is carried out while the equipment is running. 4.5. This activity involves simple inspection of replaceable parts. (2) and (3). Ettkin and Jahnig have described the work life cycle for the reactive and proactive perspectives. The maintenance manager tracks the activity to completion while the supervisor inspects and ensures the activity is carried out properly. Since the equipment is being taken out of production this maintenance activity results in loss of production.resources. The equipment is in a failed condition. The quality assurance group determines the process of performing the maintenance activity in an optimized manner.
Also the indirect costs resulting due to failure decrease. material costs and direct overheads. which are primarily due to loss of production. there is a trade-off between the maintenance costs and their benefits. This is an approach developed to reduce the likelihood of the failure of critical equipment to the minimum possible. The total maintenance cost is the sum of direct maintenance costs. This approach to maintenance becomes essential for any equipment where there are serious dangers to life should a failure occur.2 Types of Maintenance The return of investment on an item of equipment can be maximized by maximizing its availability. which is an indirect cost. consisting of labour costs. corrective and other maintenance practices followed in organizations. As the level of performing maintenance activity increases. results in loss of revenue. When an item of equipment is down it results in loss of production which. There is rarely any organisation where only one type of maintenance is used. 1. Availability of an item of equipment can be defined as the ratio of uptime to the sum of uptime and downtime. The intention is to detect potential failures early. If personnel who operate and maintain the nuclear power plant of the submarine make serious mistakes. the direct costs increase. The cost of utilization of these resources is a direct maintenance cost. The level of maintenance activity to be performed is obviously the one where the total cost is minimal. involve the following steps: v planning the maintenance task.5. v performing the maintenance task. regardless of the maintenance perspectives. the ship and its entire crew are in mortal danger. Performing a maintenance activity requires usage of resources such as manpower. make changes and prevent failures. v scheduling the maintenance task. Just as there is a trade-off between inventory holding costs and the reordering costs. for example. All the maintenance activities. v Evaluation of the performance. materials and tools. is proportional to the loss in revenue. in turn.activity is actually performed. in the case of nuclear submarines. In the case of the ‘reactive’ perspective. The only difference is that of the time interval. 1. the time interval between the recognition and performance is very small as compared to the ‘proactive’ perspective. and indirect maintenance costs.5.3 Preventive Maintenance Preventive maintenance is a proactive activity. Most situations warrant a considerable mixture of maintenance types. The following section describes the preventive. The preventive actions under such a situation would be to: . The cost of unavailability.
hours etc. These activities can prevent serious errors from occurring. and the commanding officer must promptly report on the corrective actions. · Audit the personnel so that they demonstrate satisfactory performance to their job standards. These objectives give rise to the following methods of performing preventive · maintenance activities: · fixed-time maintenance. · Condition-based maintenance. adjustment and similar activities. · Inspect each ship and each operation to ensure that every procedure and method is properly understood and executed. Planned · activities are carried out and the main functions are: · inspection of critical parts of the equipment. For example. The fixed time should not be based on the calendar units but should be based on a fixed number of running units such as kilometers.. and replacement of those which are worn out. This approach to maintenance is also important in highly automated plants. such as car assembly. This type of maintenance activity is applicable only for those items which exhibit a time-dependent failure . Analyze even the most trivial errors to determine what went wrong. where the cost due to loss in production is very high. · Replacement of worn-out parts. · Detect the onset of a failure. the level of distilled water in the battery of an automobile is checked after every 1000 kilometers and the brush ploughs of a grinding mill should be replaced after every 500 hours of running. power plants etc. · servicing. Primary objectives of this approach to maintenance are to: · Increase the life of critical equipment by preventing failures. which includes lubrication. or after generation of a fixed cumulative output. · Report deviations to the admiral-in-charge. Fixed-time maintenance is that activity which involves inspection of critical parts of the equipment after a fixed time interval.· Train all the personnel in their own jobs.
Corrective maintenance activities are also performed when condition monitoring indicates onset of a failure. ultrasonic waves and thermographs also help monitor the condition of the equipment. and then the parts have to be repaired or replaced. generally occurring in the form of breakdown maintenance. replacement of failed parts with new ones. the maintenance-related costs are usually high for the following reasons: The time required is usually much higher than other maintenance types because the cause of failure has to be identified. Although. It is possible to identify a value of that parameter when action may be taken before full failure occurs. analysis of acoustic emissions. Since condition monitoring gives sufficient warning of an impending failure it becomes easy for the maintenance manager to plan a corrective activity at a later time. This is a proactive-reactive approach to maintenance and results in the following tasks: repair of failed parts of the equipment. are expensive. This type of maintenance is called running maintenance. which the case is when the event leading to failure occurs in a predominantly random manner. Corrective Maintenance Corrective maintenance. cracks in the structure of a building etc. which can be measured either visually or by other means. With this kind of maintenance policy. shock pulses etc. Condition-based maintenance is also known as predictive maintenance. These methods. There is a cost due to loss in production. is a reactive activity and is performed when an item of equipment is not in an operating condition or is operating at a level below its rated capacity. Running maintenance is normally carried out in situations where there is no threat to the life of the maintenance personnel. eddy currents. correlating to the onset of failure has been identified. This approach is designed to detect the onset of a failure. For example. if repair is not economical. Complex situations require sensors and other high-tech tools to monitor the vibrations. A parameter. A simple case of condition-based maintenance is the visual examination of the brake pads of an automobile. The obvious advantage of carrying out running maintenance is that there is no loss in production. the time required to perform this activity is . corrective maintenance is predominant. It is an appropriate option for preventive maintenance when the following conditions apply: Prevention of failure is not technically feasible. In organizations where there are very few production windows. such as the setting of warning limits for the Solidification of the lubricant. the solidification of the lubricant is an indicator of the machine’s wearing condition. Along with inspection. the maintenance personnel can also collect data which can be used as inputs by other methods of condition-based maintenance procedures. This method of condition-based maintenance is inexpensive. on the other hand.mechanism. as mentioned earlier. or how the failure can be prevented is not yet known. Damage is caused to other equipment as a consequence of failure. Techniques such as oil analysis. Detailed analysis helps in detecting an impending failure. checking for leaks in fuel-carrying pipes. In some situations it is possible to carry out some preventive maintenance activities while the equipment or plant is running. The costs involved in condition monitoring may vary widely.
criticality of the equipment and the priority. Depending on the availability of resources. The cause is usually recorded for future analysis and corrective actions are prescribed. Minor repairs which cannot be performed while the equipment is running. If the priority is high or alternatively if the equipment is critical. The maintenance manager is responsible for scheduling maintenance activities.5. most situations in organizations warrant a mixture of maintenance types. we also realize that failures are unavoidable. as well as major repairs and overhauls. The cost of utilization of the resources is a indirect maintenance cost. an emergency maintenance is carried out. Shut-down maintenance can either be a preventive activity or a corrective activity. Trained maintenance personnel also have a role to play in reducing the maintenance time. Once an item of equipment fails. . Whatever be the choice of the maintenance policy. The maintenance work that is carried out is not directed at the primary cause of failure of the equipment or shut-down. Self Assessment Questions State whether the following statement True or False 16. corrective maintenance work is scheduled and carried out. the maintenance department personnel attempt to detect the cause of the failure. 20. This approach to maintenance is called opportunistic maintenance. this can be reduced considerably if the organisation has all the maintenance procedures and systems in place. The types of maintenance discussed in this section will help top management decide on questions like: should we carry out preventive actions? Or should we fix the equipment when it breaks? As mentioned earlier.5.much higher than the preventive actions require. When a maintenance activity is carried out on an item of equipment there exists some opportunity to inspect. While we know that prevention is better than cure.4 Shut-down Maintenance Shut-down maintenance can either be a preventive activity or a corrective activity. 1. repair and replace certain other parts of the equipment. 18. Five entities are important as far as the maintenance activities are concerned. 1. are carried out after the equipment or plant is shut down. 17. The work is deferred to a later date if the priority is low or the equipment is not so critical. The next chapter describes a few resources management techniques. 19. it should be closely associated or integrated with the resources management function.5 Opportunistic Maintenance The maintenance work that is carried out is not directed at the primary cause of failure of the equipment or shut-down.
and has been hastened by the fact that the loss of one hour of production is much more expensive today than it ever was before. True 8. 3. Write a note on History of Maintenance. What are the features of Preventive Maintenance? 1. From this state. Organisation-wide 6. Production 4. chemical and fertilizer plants. Explain Objectives and Functions of Maintenance.7 Terminal Questions 1. True .6 Summary Until recently. Maintenance 2.1. What are the steps involved in Maintenance Organisation. Ignorance 3. 2. and integrated iron and steel works.8 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1. 5. Discuss Dynamics of a Maintenance Organisation. False 7. 4. it has now come to be accepted as an important function – one of strategic importance – particularly in the capital-intensive continuous-process industries such as power plants. maintenance of plant and machinery was a thankless job and the maintenance function was considered a necessary evil. Plant and equipment availability is of paramount importance and effective management of the maintenance function goes a long way in ensuring the attainment of the objective of maximization of availability 1. Resource Cost 5. This transformation has taken place in about 40 years and has brought about automation and increasing sophistication of plant and equipment. nuclear power generating stations.
Page 6 – Part 1. . Continuous Process 16. False 17.1.4 5. False 19. False 10. True 20.9.2 3. Page 2 – Part 1. Training programme 13. Page 10 – Part 1.Page 11 – Part 1. True 11. Software organisation 12.3 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . True 18. Subcontractor 15.2. Maintenance Personnel 14. Page 3 – Part 1.2 4.1 2. False Terminal Questions 1.4.
5 Effect of Maintenance types on Resources 2.2 Man Power 2.1 Introduction Objectives 2.6 Summary 2.OM0006-Unit-02-Business Maintenance Unit-02-Business Maintenance Structure: 2.3 Spare Parts Statistical Inventory Theory Models Inventory Costs How Much to Order? When to Order? Selective Inventory Control Procedures Manufacturing Resource Planning The Bill of Materials Master production Schedule Inventory Status File Requirements Pegging Rescheduling Process 2.4 Tools and Facilities 2.7 Terminal Questions .
However. Historically.2. fitting.2 Man Power Almost all the maintenance activities require skilled personnel and most of the activities require more than one skill such as welding. tools and facilities. not all skills are required for the same amount of time. A Maintenance job is usually performed by a repair gang or repair crew consisting of an optimal mix of skilled workers.1 Introduction For performing any maintenance activity resources are required. One solution to this problem would be to schedule individual workers rather than repair gangs. can be used to determine the optimal number of welders. plumbers etc. Queuing models and simulation have been used also for determining the optimal number of tools and facilities such that the maintenance costs are minimized. can be used to determine the optimal number of welders. Techniques used for managing the maintenance resources are also discussed. An important issue in manpower is that of determining the optimal number of skilled repair workers. manpower. The usage of the models. Manan . a maintenance job may require the services of a welder for just about an hour whereas the same job may require a fitter for more than four hours. simulation techniques and queuing models have been used for determining the optimal number of repair gangs required to be deployed in a system. An important issue in manpower is that of determining the optimal number of skilled repair workers. Queuing models. plumbers etc. however. requires some knowledge of the rate of failure (called arrival rate) and the repair distribution. For example. Queuing models. The disadvantage of assigning a maintenance job to a repair gang or crew is that the manpower utilization within the gang is not effective. The procedures used are similar to those used for determining the optimal number of repair gangs required for carrying out maintenance activities. Objectives: After studying this unit you shall be able · To explain the characteristics of the maintenance resources · To define techniques used for managing the maintenance resources · To assess comparison of the available resources management techniques 2. which utilize the theory of minimizing the total cost of unavailability and labor. In this study the characteristics of the maintenance resources are discussed. Important among these are maintenance materials (spare parts). Basker. which utilize the theory of minimizing the total cost of unavailability and labor.8 Answers 2. rigging etc.
By holding spare parts in the inventory the funds of the organization are tied up which could have otherwise been invested in other activities. stock-out and ordering costs. Newman and Brammer and Malmborg have utilized a material requirements planning/bill of materials approach to manage the manpower resources. In addition to the holding and stock-out costs. 2. Barnett and Blundell have used the Monte Carlo simulation technique to optimize the number of repair gangs and the size of the repair gangs given that the maintenance jobs generate demand for repair workers from three different trades’ mechanics.1 Statistical Inventory Theory Models 2.1. The objective is to determine the number of repair workers needed to constitute a repair gang. Using the material requirements planning/manufacturing resources planning (MRP/ MRP-II) technique. electricians and pipe-fitters. there is also a cost of ordering a re-supply of spare parts.and Husband have used the Monte Carlo simulation technique to determine the optimal number of repair workers required to perform the maintenance activities in a shop comprising a finite number of identical machines.3. Using the statistical inventory theory models. In general. 2.3. The objective of spare parts management is therefore to minimize the total of inventory holding.3 Spare Parts The spare parts (maintenance material) problems have been traditionally approached in three ways: 1. 3. Using selective control procedures along with some heuristics. and the number of repair gangs required such that the total costs (sum of labor cost and downtime cost) are minimized. Maintaining the spare parts in a store also incurs some cost. two basic questions need to be answered: · How Much to Order? · When to Order? . 2. not having the required spare part results in a stock-out cost. on the other hand.1 Inventory Costs Every organization keeps spare parts so that defective and worn-out parts of equipment can be replaced.
100.3. If the annual demand for an item is D. During this period. obtained by utilizing the above equation for Q. . Thus. Mathematical models are however available to determine the timing of placing an order taking into consideration the characteristics of the demand during the lead-time as well as the lead-time itself. Let Q be the ordering quantity. 2.2. These models help determine what has been traditionally known as the optimum order quantity. 8. where c is the cost per order.1. The complexity of the problem lies in the fact that neither the demand nor the lead-time is constant. therefore. The service level is defined as the probability of not having a stock-out situation. the demand for spare parts resulting from the need to perform maintenance activities needs to be satisfied. Thus The minimum of TIC can be obtained by differentiating the above equation with respect to Q and equating the resulting derivative to 0. this is referred to as the lead-time.3.1. The total inventory cost TIC = the holding cost + ordering cost.3 When to Order? An order placed with a vendor for re-supply of spare parts takes some time to get filled. Then the holding cost is given by where p is the unit price of the item and r is the annual stockholding rate related to the stock value. we have If The annual demand D for an item is 8000 units The cost of placing an order is Rs. The following is an illustration of a basic inventory model which takes into account the holding and the ordering costs.00 The rate of interest is 20 per cent annually Then the optimum order quantity. then the number of orders to be placed is given by The ordering cost is.00 The unit price of the item is Rs. The maintenance manager must make sufficient provisions to take care of demand during the lead-time because the cost of stock-out is undesirable in any situation. is 1000.2 How Much to Order? Several models have been developed based on the principle of minimizing the total inventory costs. This provision normally takes the form of safety stock which is determined based on the service level.
2.Self Assessment Question 1) Maintenance job is usually performed by a _____________or repair crew consisting of an optimal mix. Items were categorized into homogeneous groups based on their characteristics. Several procedures for classifying items into homogeneous groups are available. 2) Several models have been developed based on the principle of minimizing the total _____________. By this method the spare parts are classified into nine Basics Of Formulation Annual usage value of the parts Vital. medium. 3) Every organization keeps spare parts so that defective and ___________ of equipment can be replaced. essential and desirable Criticality of the parts Fast. a few of which have been listed. be given equal importance. The re-order quantity. low Unit price of the parts Scarce. Ramani and Krishnan Kutty have utilized an ABC×VED classification technique where not only the annual value of usage of the part is taken into account but also the criticality of the part is given importance. irrespective of its criticality. difficult and easy to procure Procurement lead-times . Instead effort was concentrated on a few expensive and fast-moving items. During the days when computers were not available. This is the principle of the selective inventory control procedures. slow and non-moving Usage rate of the parts High. the safety stock and the minimum and maximum inventory levels require to be determined for each of the items in the stores.1 Most applications found in the literature make use of a combination of selective inventory control procedures because classification or categorization of items based on just one criterion is inadequate for managing the maintenance materials. paying equal attention to all the inventory items was not feasible.3.2 Selective Inventory Control Procedures The statistical inventory control techniques require that each item. 4) _______________ and queuing models have been used for determining the optimal number of repair gangs. Technique Description ABC Pareto rule VED FSN HML SDE Table 2. The following paragraphs describe some of the applications involving a combination of selective inventory control procedures.
Saha and Mohanty have developed a spare parts stocking policy with an objective of minimizing the downtime of critical equipment. which makes use of the ABC classification criteria. Duchessi. the stocking policy for a spare part in the V/S/F category is 2. VED and the SDE classification procedures which results in eight categories of items as shown in table 2. statistical inventory control models or heuristics are utilized to determine the ordering parameters such as the order point and the order quantity. which categorizes the spare parts into groups based on their criticality.6m where m is the maximum quantity of parts requested at any time. in the categories formed on the basis of lead-times are long lead-time and short lead-time. takes into account the annual usage value Bi of the part i and is given by where Ci is the price of the part and Di is the total annual demand. A reorder point-order quantity technique is used in conjunction with this method for replenishment of parts. fi is the number of failures per unit time involving the part i. a range of service level is specified. For instance. The second dimension uses an SDE classification. the multi-unit spare inventory control. It is the time required to replace or repair the part. The stocking policies for each of the 27 categories are determined using heuristics.categories. Tayi and Levy have utilized a two-dimensional classification method. . a part may be called critical if the loss of production caused by non-availability of the part is very high. while the categories formed on the basis of criticality of the parts are critical and non-critical. The two categories formed on the basis of sales value are high sales value and low sales value. Moreover. The first dimension. Although the selective control procedures make the managing of the multiple inventory items easier. which is based on the procurement leadtime while the third dimension makes use of the FSN classification (usage rate). For example. In other words. For each of the nine categories. makes use of a combination of ABC. The first dimension utilizes a VED classification methodology. and Ni is the standard deviation of the downtime cost (E denotes expectation). MUSIC-3D. These eight categories have been formed by taking only two categories in each of the three dimensions.2. A part may be classified as a critical part if the consequence of running out of stock is severe. There are several ways by which the criticality of a part can be defined. If a substitute part is readily available then the part may be less critical. it should be noted that most of the classification criteria are subjective. The second dimension makes use of the criticality aspect of the spare part and is based on the revenue lost due to loss in production (Mi) which is given by where pi is the downtime cost per unit time per failure involving the concerned part. A three dimensional classification technique has been used for the purpose.
The piston assembly. Figure 2.1 The Bill of Materials The bill of materials defines how one or more items are brought together to make up another item. a logic processor and a capacity planning subsystem.3 Manufacturing Resources Planning The manufacturing resources planning (MRP-II) technique has been used widely for managing production resources. The components can either be manufactured in the shop or can be boughtout items. some applications involving management of maintenance inventories are also discussed. the petrol engine is an end-item.Table 2. An end-item is an item at the highest level of hierarchy in the bill of materials. the crankshaft assembly and the cylinder assembly. In addition to this. It is also a system simulator. 2. in a raw. The technique is based on the principle of dependent demand. As mentioned earlier in this section. a bill of materials file. is made up of the piston. the piston rings and the bearings. The immediate . The bill of materials indicates that the engine consist of three subassemblies – the piston assembly. MRP-II possesses two basic characteristics which go beyond the closed-loop material requirements planning (MRP). As seen in the figure. It can also be considered to be an assembly definition. All other constituents of the petrol engine are referred to as items.2 shows the bill of materials for a petrol engine. the application of MRP is also very simple. in turn. Figure 2.2 2. any manufacturing organization would want to have the following questions answered: · How much to order? · When to order? Both these questions are also answered by the MRP technique.3. semi-finished or finished form. defines the constituents of an end-item.1 shows the components of MRP. Later in this section.3.3. in general. The central idea of MRP is to time production/acquisition of batches of parts/components so that they are available as they are required in assemblies. The components in the diagram have been described briefly. This section provides a brief overview of the closed-loop technique. or derived from the demand of another inventory item. The demand for an inventory item is termed dependent when it is directly related to. an inventory status file. It is an operations as well as a financial system. The bill of materials. It consists of a master production schedule.
1 .predecessor of an item is called the parent item. As seen from Figure 2. the bill of materials also indicates the quantity of an item that goes into making a parent item. The bill of materials also carries with it some other information such as whether the part is bought out or is manufactured within the organization. Figure 2.2 two bearings (indicated in parenthesis) go into the making of a piston assembly. for example. In addition to defining the relationship between items. is an item whose parent is the piston assembly. The MRP technique uses the bill of materials for computing the requirements through a process called explosion or desegregation. The piston.
5 tones of tools need to be produced every month on average. The master production schedule is constrained by the production plan. As shown in Table 2.3.2 Master production Schedule A master production schedule is a statement of production of end-items for a given planning horizon. This would mean that 0. The quantity of all the items to be produced in a given period must equal the quantity budgeted in the production plan as shown in Table 2. 2. the top management has budgeted 6 tones of carbide tools to be produced during the year. it may so happen that the items are used at two different levels. In order to make the computation of the requirements easy. This includes raw materials. Since the demand for carbide tools is all through the year. This is further broken down into a schedule for specific variants of carbide tools such as SPAN 50. level codes are assigned such that identical items used in different end-items are maintained at the same level.3.Figure 2. It states what end-items need to be produced and how many needs to be produced in a month or week. this can be broken down into 12 production months. Also. which is a budget set by the management.3. The priorities for the production of items specified in the master production schedule are set by the sales plan.3.3. The total weight of the variants scheduled for production during the month when totaled equals the budgeted weight as shown in Table 2. There may be a case where an item is used in two different end items. The master production schedule indicates the quantity of items to be produced in a given period. semi-finished and finished parts. . TPAN 75 and CPAN 75 that need to be produced. The requirement at one level is computed first before proceeding to the next level.2 Every item in the bill of materials is given a number or code such that no two parts have the same number.
the safety stock.1 2.3 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.3 0. the inventory status file also contains the planning factors such as the procurement or manufacturing lead-times.1 0.3.4 0.2 0.3 Inventory Status File The inventory status file contains up-to-date information about all the materials stocked in the stores.5 0.3 0. the inventory status file maintains the following data for every item: · Quantity on-hand.5 0.1 0.2 0.2 CPAN 50 0.1 0.1 0.3.4 Requirements Pegging .1 0.1 0.3 0.1 0.3.1 0.3 Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 0.5 0.Item code Jan Production Plan Carbide 0. the scrap allowances etc.5 0.5 0.5 0.3 0.3 0.5 Tools Master Schedule SPAN 50 0.5 0.5 0.1 0.5 0. the batch sizing policy.1 0.1 0. · Quantity on order.3 0. The file is kept up to date by posting the transactions which take place as a result of a receipt or issue of parts into and out of the stores.1 0.5 0.2 0. In addition to the stock data.5 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 Table 2.3 0.1 0.3.2 TPAN 50 0. In general. 2.
in the case of a proactive perspective the maintenance activity is planned and the timing is also determined well in advance. 6.3. The procedures used are similar to those used for determining the optimal number of repair gangs required for carrying out maintenance activities.3. This is a deterministic situation. The statistical inventory control techniques require that each item.Explosion is a process concerned with generating gross requirements.5 Rescheduling Process Scheduled receipts are orders which have already been released to the shop floor or to the vendors. For audit purposes. Scheduled receipts are orders which have already been released to the shop floor or to the vendors. A master production schedule is a statement of production of end-items for a given planning horizon. The inventory status file will not contain up-to-date information about all the materials stocked in the stores. 9.5 Effect of Maintenance Types on Resources As mentioned earlier. it becomes necessary to trace the demand for an item to its source and this process is referred to as pegging. 5. This uncertainty may result in rescheduling of the receipts. 8. Self Assessment Questions State whether following statement True or False. . 2. irrespective of its criticality. 7. The scheduled receipts are taken into account while computing the net requirements. The bill of materials defines how one or more items are brought together to make up another item. 2. not be given equal importance. 2. The manpower requirement is also known precisely. In some cases. materials on order may be received earlier than the due date while in some others the scheduled receipt may not be expected to be in the stock on time.4 Tools and Facilities Queuing models and simulation have been used also for determining the optimal number of tools and facilities such that the maintenance costs are minimized. Activities such as fixed-time maintenance enable managers to determine the exact number of parts required.
cannibalization can lead to severe control problems at a later time. if not both. namely. This perspective has been created by initially discussing the various types of maintenance resources and their characteristics. If a failure occurs and the required resources are not available to restore the equipment to a working state the equipment is kept waiting in the repair queue. and if manpower is a constraint. There are some . however.6 Summary The problem of management of maintenance resources has been discussed. and corrective maintenance activities (and not just one of them). this happens to be an undesirable situation and should be avoided. have been used by industries for spare parts planning. Since failures occur randomly it becomes difficult to predict the resource requirements. If the equipment is critical. · Build-up spare part inventories and tools. and the various models and techniques which are commonly used. Cannibalization. If the required maintenance materials are not available in the stores then one option available is to replace the failed parts of one with the working parts of the other failed item of equipment. does not reduce the number of inoperable parts.In the case of a reactive perspective. the maintenance activity is neither planned nor scheduled in advance. In order to reduce the impact of failures on the profitability of the organization the following techniques are usually adopted: · Increase the number of maintenance personnel. The technique should be able to take into account preventive. then the immediate requirement would be to restore at least one of the items of equipment to a working state. such as the use of ABC and VED classifications. Managers in some organizations carry out cannibalization as a last resort in order to meet the production requirements. condition-based. This approach to maintenance is called cannibalization. Consider a situation where two identical items of equipment have failed due to different failure modes. The basic purpose of this study is to provide the necessary background and present in a proper perspective the need of the development of an MRP based technique for the management of maintenance resources. 2. As per the definition of maintenance. explaining the commonly used methods and discussing the work done by researchers working in the area of spare parts management. Statistical inventory theory models and techniques for selective control have been discussed in detail. In some cases cannibalization is also practiced. · Use standby equipment. statistical inventory theory models and selective control approaches for multi-item inventories for spare parts planning and queuing theory and simulation for manpower planning. Selective control procedures.
2. Classifying spare parts into homogeneous groups using a classification scheme is difficult since different types of spare parts require different classification schemes. 3. in turn. VED×SDE×FSN and ABC× VED×SDE. ABC×FSN. such as ABC×VED. Explain Man Power. 2. researchers have suggested the use of multidimensional classifications. Simulation techniques . For spare parts. Summarize Bill of Materials. and these models have their own shortcomings. Explain Master production Schedule. Worn-out parts 4. belts. For example. based on just one criterion is adequate. classification. such as the re-order point and order quantity.7 Terminal Questions 1. or heuristics. 2. or categorization. In these cases as well. give rise to a large number of classes of spares with each class having its own planning and control parameters. Such classification schemes. are utilized to determine the ordering parameters. Repair gang 2. statistical inventory control models.fundamental problems encountered in the use of selective control techniques for spare parts management and these are as follows: Such classification is always rather subjective and this is more so in the case of spare parts. Briefly summarize effect of maintenance types on resources. Inventory costs 3. Define Statistical Inventory Theory Models. chains. sprockets and bearings. 5. ABC and FNS are more appropriate for standard spares such as pulleys. 4. For the above reasons. whereas VED and SDE may be more appropriate for special spare parts (ones which are used on particular equipment).8 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1.
1 5. True Terminal Questions 1.3. Refer 2. True 9.1 22.214.171.124.Refer 2.4 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .2 4. True 6.3.2. Refer 2.1 2. Refer 2. Refer 2. False 7. . False 8.
projects. waste management. and R&D activities.1 Introduction Objectives 3.).1 Introduction Our goal is to establish excellence in Work Management. production. Engineering. planned. scheduled. Planning & Scheduling. selected.4 Summary 3. Work Management – A deliberate process in which a scope of work is identified. Scope of work includes maintenance.. Operations.5 Terminal Questions 3.2 Functional Requirements Equipment Maintenance Function Work Order Management Function Inventory Management Function Vendor Management Function Subcontractor Management Function General Information Systems Specifications 3.6 Answers 3.g. To fully understand the breadth of Work Management it is important to understand what Work Management is. executed.3 Work Management Process 3. The Work Management process requires the full support of the entire organization (e.OM0006-Unit-03-Work Management & Identification Unit-03-Work Management & Identification Structure: 3. closed and critiqued. . Maintenance. etc.
should have the following functions. The functional requirements of the information system should be gathered first. the scope of the system should be clear. · Optimally utilize maintenance resources. 4. Plan maintenance work – ensure materials. 2.Objectives: A maintenance management information system must help you to · Schedule the Maintenance activities. 3.1 Equipment Maintenance Function The equipment maintenance function needs to perform the following: 1. 4. hiring of subcontractors and arranging facilities. 6. Inventory management subsystem. manpower and tools would be available. · Report on the performance of the overall maintenance system using standard indicators. 3. 5. Track overall maintenance function performance. Vendor management subsystem. Work order management subsystem. 2. 1. Requirements can be gathered by interviewing the prospective users or circulating questionnaires. 5. · Plan procurement of resources. at the least. Predict failures to a chosen level of confidence.2 Functional Requirements Before designing the information system. Schedule preventive maintenance work. Store maintenance data including failure and repair data. Equipment maintenance function. Subcontractor management subsystem. . 3.2. 3. Update data when a failure or preventive maintenance activity is initiated and completed. A maintenance management information system.
8. 3. 7.2.4 Vendor management function The vendor management function needs to perform the following: . Track maintenance costs. Track status of work in progress. 4. Convert critical maintenance requests into work orders. 4. tools and facilities. Alert the maintenance manager to place orders for materials as planned and in the required quantity. 3. tools and facilities. Produce reports as desired by the maintenance manager and top management. Track status of manpower. materials and tools. 6.2. Print reports as desired by the maintenance manager and top management. 2. Plan capacity. 5.7. 3. 7. 2. 3. Track utilization of manpower. Store and maintain inventory data including skills and tools.2. 6. Update materials inventory data as and when an issue or receipt of materials occurs. Create maintenance requests. Produce reports as desired by the maintenance manager and top management. List pending work.3 Inventory management function The inventory management function has to do the following: 1. covering manpower. Schedule work visually. 9. Schedule release of planned orders (materials). 3.2 Work order management subsystem The work order management function is required to perform the following: 1. 5. Generate work orders for preventive and corrective actions.
Print related reports.1. Maintain data related to subcontracts.5 Subcontractor management function The subcontractor management function must: 1. 2. Self Assessment Questions State whether the statement is true or false. . 6. Validate data entry. 1) The subcontractor management function must not maintain data related to subcontracts. 3) The equipment maintenance function needs Schedule preventive maintenance work. each level of management needs to have access to the required information and should be able to extract the data which is needed. Track cost. Make on-line data entry. Organize skills provided by subcontractors. 2. Produce reports as desired by maintenance manager. Devise metrics for evaluation of vendors. Track progress of subcontracted work. 2) The work order management function is required to perform Plan capacity. 3. top management and middle management.2.2. 3. In order for a system to be efficient.6 General Information Systems Specifications The general information systems specifications need to perform the following: 1. Track quality of subcontracted work. 2. 3. 4. 3. 5. Cater for three levels of users’ administration. Maintain vendor information. 3.
The statement of work. Contractors develop management programs to execute much of the work of contracts. safety and protecting the environment. · Schedule the work for performance. · Close the work item after completion. 3. At the top-level these processes and tools include the contract with DOE and management programs committed to by the contractor to execute the statement of work and requirements in the contract. requirements stated in the contract and the annual budget process form the top-level means of identifying the work that will be performed. scheduling and performance of the work that has been accomplished. Each year DOE and the contractor review the contract and the progress of work as part of the annual budget process. The statement of work in the contract provides a description of the mission-related work that DOE expects to be performed.4) General information systems specifications will not validate data entry. On a day-to-day basis. and · Critique the planning. · Execute the work.3 Work Management Process These steps to be followed in work management process are: · Identify the work that needs to be performed. A number of these programs are mandatory. · Select the specific work that will be planned. Mechanics The contract between DOE and the contractor provides the top-level mechanisms for work to be identified. other programs may be developed by the contractor in furtherance of contract execution. Identify Work Concept This element describes the processes and tools put in place that determines the work that a contractor performs. · Plan that work. Whether mandatory or voluntary on the . they would entail routines used to monitor attributes important to mission execution. 5) The vendor management function needs maintain vendor information.
contractors often put routines in place. These include work requests. From this process the work to be planned and executed in a given year is identified. system and environmental parameters. Work requests not supporting the current mission. these management programs provide one of the primary paths for work to be identified. Select Work Concept Management programs identify the operational activities and routines that need to be completed to meet mission deliverables. at a high level. This process compares the work accomplished and that which remains to the funding that DOE believes will be available to execute work in the coming years. The identification of work is. The discovery of new information may result in the need for additional research and development or design changes to existing systems and equipment. Workers are encouraged to be vigilant in monitoring facility conditions for system or equipment problems. Work management systems are put in place by contractors to collect work requests into a single place. While the threshold for identifying work items needs to be sufficiently low to all capture work items.part of the contractor. environmental monitoring. On-going assessments or reviews may identify the need for corrective actions. Work is also identified on a daily basis. a continuous process. Management The annual budget process provides contractor and DOE management the resources to manage the work that is identified for further planning and execution. and similar repetitive procedures. no contractor has the resources to complete every identified work request. which are initiated by personnel who identify work that needs to be performed to allow the work item to be entered into a work management system. The schedule is also a tool that ensures that work is properly identified. In furtherance of management programs. prioritize and coordinate the management of several categories of work. therefore. operator rounds. They provide the opportunity to proactively manage the identification of emergent work. changes. The Select Work element funnels the work requests through a validation or screening process to determine those work items needing to be completed. an identified project or specific facility need are screened out and no further resources applied to their resolution. they provide a method to track. These routines can include Technical Surveillance Requirements/ Limited Condition of Operations TSR/LCO surveillances. Routines are executed to monitor equipment. or improvements. Program and project plans are updated with the information developed during the annual budget process. Other types of work are converted into work requests. Additional management tools that are used in the work identification process also support other elements of the work management process. After the work .
These tools should be reviewed to determine whether duplicate items are already entered into the system. · Need Date: Work requests must clearly indicate any deadline dates and the estimated time period for completing the work. traded off with lower priority work or put forth as a candidate for additional funding. equipment identification. This validation process evaluates attributes of the work items to determine if the work item should be processed through the work management system. · Operational Impact: Work requests that have immediate impact on the health and safety of contractor personnel need to be processed rapidly. or management commitments. etc. if sufficiently important. Work requests that are clearly not going to be accomplished due to cost impacts should be screened out at this point. Effective work management processes utilize a graded approach to resolving work requests. . Or the work request may require a documented resolution. stay in compliance with the established safety basis and operating requirements for that facility or project. This second type of work will normally be given a relative priority. · Work Cost: Work requests may be identified that will require funding that is beyond that available to the contractor. · Work Duplications: Contractors use Work Management Tools to track work orders. The work selection process starts with a work validation. Knowledge of these drivers allows effective prioritization of work planning efforts. Location of the work. or. Attributes evaluated include: · Work Scope Identification: A clear scope statement is necessary to understand what work activities are necessary. and interface with mission requirements. Mechanics Work selection is a continuous process to handle the work requests identified on a daily basis. Work may be tied to contract milestones. or required plant operational modes to facilitate tracking and planning and then entered into the work management system. A strong validation process incorporates two-way communications with the work request identifiers. operational requirements.request has been validated a formal work order is entered into the work management tools used by the contractor. The work may be simple enough that no initiating work documents are required (so-called “tool pouch” or “quick fix” items). Work requests that have equipment impacts must be evaluated and the systems configured to protect equipment and workers. coded with respect to like components and systems. If the work item is a duplicate it should be screened out. problem symptoms. may all provide key information needed to properly validate the work.
Those work requests entered into the work management system result in the generation of work orders. Mature work selection processes incorporate an understanding of a graded approach to work planning.
Contractors need to clearly define who has responsibility and authority to perform the validation activity for their facilities and projects. The validation authority typically resides in the Operations organization because they are responsible for mission execution and normally retain configuration control of the facility systems, structures and components. The work management process descriptions need to define the planning processes used by the contractor staff. Requirements for the type of planning required, based on potential mission impact, hazards analysis and complexity of the work activity, are critical to decision-making during work selection. Plan Work Concept This element describes the process of taking a defined scope of work that has been selected for planning and developing/packaging technical documents to safely and efficiently perform that work. This process includes identification/incorporation of applicable technical specifications and requirements into technical documents, identifying and mitigating job hazards, identifying and obtaining required permits, developing work instructions, and defining post activity acceptance. Mechanics An initial step in planning work is determining what type of work execution vehicle will be used to perform the work. As previously discussed under Work Selection, this decision has often already been made, on a preliminary basis, prior to the initiation of Work Planning; however, it is confirmed as part of this element. Is the work to be performed with a very simple work package where the worker has the knowledge to perform the work and little or no instruction is required or will the work require a work package with more detailed instructions? The following criteria might be used to determine whether work can be performed using a very simple work package: · No medium or high risk activities. · No activities requiring hold points. · Will not alter configuration of equipment from documented design. · Will not present any unusual hazards.
· No hands-on work with radioactive material except incidental or routine work activities that involve low potential of worker exposure or workplace contamination. · No opening of contaminated systems, components, containers. · Minimal external coordination required. · “Skill-of-the-Craft” Work. Such tasks should be documented in a work package by the Field Work Supervisor (FWS) and released to work by operations and documented on the document releasing work.
Work management systems are often put in place to collect work requests and maintain and file documents in a single place. They provide a method to track, prioritize, and coordinate the management of several categories of work. They also provide a means for the work planning organization to interface with the operations organization and ensure that work is moving through the planning pipeline in a manner that supports mission execution. Schedule Work Concept Schedules are tools used by work management organizations to communicate and coordinate work activities. This element describes the processes and tools associated with establishing schedules. Typically, work is identified from various sources (missionrelated commitments, Authorization Basis requirements, maintenance routines, etc.) and flows through a “rolling work week process” (described below) into an integrated schedule. The rolling work week concept is typically established based on either an 8 or 12 week duration.
Most sites have developed a fairly common set of schedules to implement graded approaches to conduct of operations. These commonly include a Plan of the Day (POD) along with a slightly longer view, often one week (so-called Plan of the Week, POW). Various methods exist to move information from longer-term schedules to these two short-term scheduling tools. The rolling work week concept provides an effective tool for managing the development of schedules. It involves setting a specific time frame (or “window”) within a longer-term schedule on which to focus increased management attention. Common time frames are eight to twelve weeks.
· For work that falls within the work window, increased emphasis is placed on planning, detailed schedule concerns and coordination of the work. This time period of increased attention allows: o Optimization of planned outage windows, scheduling all tasks that require particular facility conditions or that impact production commitments; o Development of a detailed technical sequence for complex jobs; o Addressing only items that need to be scheduled in detail, i.e., they require coordination of resources, complex work, etc; o Grouping of similar work to efficiently use resources and equipment by facility mode, available space, system/equipment; and time to verify that parts are available and staged. The work planned during the work window is “Locked-In”, that is, committed to by all concerned, two weeks in advance. This lock-in process adds discipline to the scheduling process and provides focus for final work preparation and coordination. After lock-in, the schedule is under a formal change control process; this encourages people to only lock in work that is truly ready to work. This level of planning and commitment permits the development of precise resource loaded schedules; it supports aligning support resources to the schedule and permits other detailed preparations such as verifying that fully-trained workers are available. This level of planning and scheduling attention also improves task readiness, it allows crews time to review work in advance of working. A formal post work week critique is held to evaluate what got done, what didn’t get done and why. It should be clear from the level of effort inferred above, that the implementation of a rolling work week process requires a commitment from all organizations to make the system work. Work on the rolling work week is facilitated by the existence of schedules that integrate all important work. Management Management tools for a successful scheduling process include: · Senior Management involvement (Frequent and Regular) – Critical Path Meetings · Accountability meeting – weekly schedule commitment meeting · High level schedule change control authority once work is locked in · POD – A daily meeting intended to review facility and schedule status
ensures that procedures and references are the latest revision and that all of the required permits are issued and up to date. · Build scaffolding and install lead shielding. Example components of work execution include the following: Preparations: · Contact job support personnel as required. This work should be completed in parallel with establishing worker protection and industrial safety requirements. · Complete rigging preparations. · Assemble required test equipment. the first-level supervisor performs a final review of the work instruction. Mechanics For each assigned task. Applicable work instruction prerequisites are completed to ensure readiness to work. The execution of work begins when the work package is released for work by Operations and runs through the completion of work in the field or facility. · Remove insulation. · Assemble tools and material at job location.· POW – A weekly meeting intended to review and status the higher level facility schedule · Rolling work week process – described above · Outages – scheduled periods where equipment systems or facilities are available to perform pre-determined work · Metrics – tools used to measure success of schedule performance · Documentation of key scheduling assumptions – essential to the development of baseline schedules Execute Work Concept This element describes the processes and tools associated with the actual performance of the work. This element is centered on the first-level supervisor (the person directly overseeing the work crew) and the crew that is engaged in the performance of the activity. .
Formal programs to have management observe work in the field will provide not only . or facility knowledge · Potential abnormal events and contingency plans After completing preparations and getting their work crew prepared to perform the job. tents. which monitors the day-to-day progress of work execution. Finally. the first-line supervisor oversees and directs the work activities in accordance with the approved work instructions. job hazards analysis. power. field walk-downs. Pre-Job Brief: · Scope of the task · Review of prerequisite section of the work instructions · Responsibilities of all participants. As the work completes. · Build contamination control devices (catch basins. including expected worker radiological recovery actions · Job-specific hazards and their controls · Applicable precautions and limitations · Required safety equipment · Discuss hold points with employee(s) responsible for the completion of the hold point and employee(s) performing work immediately before or after the hold point · Industrial. environmental or radiological hazards of the task from the work document. water storage/recovery systems). · Set up welding equipment if required. the first line supervisor reviews the instructions for a complete and accurate work history and performs post activity testing and any rework identified by the post activity testing. and water requirements.· Provide necessary temporary air. the first line supervisor completes all system/equipment checks described in the work instructions to return equipment to service. · Finish prefabrication work. Management Management tools put in place to monitor work execution include the Plan of the Day or other work progress meeting. Radiological Work Permit. and identifies all discrepancies and incomplete work items. The supervisor documents relevant as-found conditions and the work performed.
g. based on work completed also provide feedback on work execution. including quality. · Update the files for the affected system/equipment. e. are satisfied and test results are approved. as appropriate. capturing repair history. but a more accurate feel for work difficulty and potential coordination issues. These steps include the process of verifying that work has been completed. calibration and preventive maintenance data into the Work Management System. Documentation: · Document work completion against requirements. · Dispose of excess materials and waste properly. returning (or turning over) equipment and systems to operations. or exceptions have been authorized by the person responsible for accepting the work. or authorized incomplete/open work items. Schedule updates. Mechanics The work closure process can be described as several related steps. normally in the operations organization. regulatory and safety basis requirements. · Remove all temporary/test equipment and restore system/components to operable status. . an inventory of equipment and parts used and feedback to the work management process. resolve any deviations. Documentation associated with the work evolution can then be signed off. Close Work Concept Work can be closed and declared complete when defined requirements in the approved work package have been met. a number of sites use standard computerized templates to capture relevant historical information. Important attributes of these processes are discussed below. . Verification: · Verify all administrative and technical requirements. The system/components can be returned to operations subject to any controls defined in the work instructions. documenting the completion of work. · Update as-built drawings.status.. · Ensure condition tags and other documents are in the completed closure package prior to returning it to the Work Management Center.
g. · Accept the system/equipment for operability and return to service in a timely manner. issues. Work critiques take on many forms. · Release all remaining clearance tags. ranging from individual job post work critiques to critiquing all of the work performed by a group or a facility within a specified time period. Return to Operations: · Review work activity and all testing for system/equipment operability. etc. and lessons learned. the first line supervisor should consult with the work planner and the systems engineer as needed. If there are authorized open items. and return the system/equipment to the required configuration to support facility operations.· Retain the closure package in accordance with the Site’s records retention requirements. Inventory: · Document material used. · Return unused parts to the warehouse. the work package should have been changed and procedures amended by the appropriate formal documentation. the previous work week (Work Week Critique) period. e. · Verify required procedure. Management The first-line supervisor is responsible to verify work completion against requirements defined in the approved work package. Critique Work Concept This element describes the processes and tools associated with performing a critical analysis of work to ensure that issues. and incorporated into subsequent work. and ensuring completion of the work closure functions. · Evaluate the authorized incomplete/open work items for any operational impact concerns.. drawing and training updates are completed prior to placing the component(s) in service.) process takes selected jobs and critiques them to identify good practices. Mechanics The post work critique (ALARA. improvements or lessons learned are identified. Improvement opportunities are .
Management Management tools for a successful critique process include: · Weekly critique meeting · Regularly scheduled meeting following each work week to critically review performance of the previous work week (attended by Senior Management) . including the specifics regarding what was accomplished. · Work Week Critique Report: A formally prepared report which comprehensively addresses the work week being analyzed. · Work Week Critique Meeting: A regularly scheduled meeting used to perform a thorough analysis of the work execution. o Metrics which track and trend the work week elements. including Emergency. whereby all groups involved in work execution meet to perform a critical analysis of all aspects of the week performance. The report should also include: o A breakdown of the types of work scheduled & accomplished for the week.typically formally documented and followed to closure through a commitment tracking system. Issues should be trended to identify programmatic issues. etc. including: § Schedule & Cost Performance § Manpower Utilization § Emergent Work § Backlog · Action Item Tracking: A formal process in which action items from the Work Critique meeting are assigned responsibility & tracked through completion. what was initially intended to be accomplished. The applicable post work critique output should be discussed in the work week critique process described below. Emergent. typically covering the previous weeks work activities · Work Week Critique Attendance: Work week critique targeted audience should typically be that of Facility Senior Management. The work week critique process is a continuous improvement process. but was not & what the issues were which prevented that work from being accomplished.
9) Identify describes the processes and tools put in place that determines the work that a ________ performs. Explain Functional Requirements in Work Management.4 Summary The Work Management process requires the full support of the entire organization. 2.· Appropriate Metrics including tracking and trending · Standard Critique reports · Action Item Tracking / Accountability · Worker feedback Self Assessment Questions 6) Management tools for a successful critique process include _________. 3. 5. 7) _________ can be closed and declared complete when defined requirements in the approved work package have been met. Work can be closed and declared complete when defined requirements in the approved work package have been met. Explain components of work execution. 4. . Explain Schedule Work in Detail. normally in the operations organization. Management programs identify the operational activities and routines that need to be completed to meet mission deliverables. Explain briefly Identify Work in Work management Process.5 Terminal Questions 1. Execute work describes the _______ and ______ associated with the actual performance of the work. or exceptions have been authorized by the person responsible for accepting the work. 3. Identify Work describes the processes and tools put in place that determines the work that a contractor performs. 3. 10) ___________________ systems are often put in place to collect work requests. Describe Close Work in Work Management Process. Management programs identify the operational activities and routines that need to be completed to meet mission deliverables.
10 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . True 4. Contractor 10. Tools 9.1 2) Refer Page 10 3) Refer Page 4. Work management Terminal Questions 1) Refer 3. Close Work 8. Worker feedback 7. False 2. True 3. 5 4) Refer Page 8 5) Refer Pages 9.6 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1. . False 5.3. Processes. True 6.
1 Introduction Objectives 4. the machines caused a great deal of anxiety to the management by failing quite frequently and unexpectedly. one-year back.3 Maintenance Strategies Corrective or Breakdown Maintenance 4. especially while processing important jobs.7 Answers 4. The breakdown of the machines resulted in a great loss of productive time and also led to several problems such as not being able to meet due dates.1 Introduction The turret lathes and gang drills were acquired second-hand. . misalignment of shafts and pulleys.4 Maintenance Economics Breakdown-time Distribution Preventive versus Breakdown Maintenance (Single Machine) 4.6 Terminal Questions 4. The reasons for breakdowns were many: development of high temperature in the bearings. overheating of motors.2 The Maintenance Function 4. and low morale of workers.5 Summary 4. breakage and slips of gear and belt drives. and were immediately commissioned. In the initial stages.OM0006-Unit-04-Emergencies or Breakdown Process Paper: ISO 90012000/Qs Elements Unit-04-Emergencies or Breakdown Process Paper: ISO 9001-2000/Qs Elements Structure: 4. formation of sludge’s and corrosive compounds on the machine parts. failure of insulation in electrical circuits. etc.
each crew consisting of two workers. or to restore to its favorable operating condition. After a long search. or to repair any equipment that has failed. they are to be paid overtime. Such maintenance is expected to reduce the frequency of machine breakdowns. and consequently higher production efficiency. or to keep the equipment running. to most people. . The machine operators can only operate the machine when they are in working condition. is any activity carried out on an asset in order to ensure that the asset continues to perform its intended functions. The four workers were divided into two crews. The technicians accepted the job under the condition that if ever they are required to work in the second shift on a day.In order to combat these problems.2 The Maintenance Function Maintenance. Machine and component failures can trigger incidents or cause costly production interruptions. Minimizing the failure count or their adverse effects leads to increased safety. As he wanted technicians with experience on the specific machines he had. Preventive maintenance of a machine consists of dismantling the machine and checking all its important parts and making the necessary adjustments and replacements. availability. and cannot attend to any repairs or maintenance. the proprietor of the workshop advertised for maintenance specialists for the turret lathes and gang drills. he selected four technicians for employment. reduced downtime and cost of operation. Maintenance work on a machine requires both workers of a crew. the proprietor had considerable difficulty in finding he maintenance specialists. Objectives After studying this unit you shall be able to · Explain the functions involved in maintenance · Recognize the strategies of maintenance · Distinguish between preventive and breakdown maintenance · Evaluate the economic aspects of maintenance 4. Minimizing these adverse effects is the role assigned t maintenance. The maintenance crews can do breakdown maintenance as well as preventive maintenance for all the four machines. It improves the systems overall reliability. Maintenance is defined as ‘any action that restores failed units to an operational condition or retains non-failed units in an operational state’ or ‘an activity carried out for any equipment or asset to ensure its reliability to perform its functions’.
energy efficiency. The evolution can be seen to cover 3 different generations of thought.1: Evolution of Maintenance Philosophy Table 4. in addition to its traditional roles of enhancing plant availability and lowering costs. environmental integrity. It ensures that the equipment is able to maintain quality standards. product quality and customer service profile of the organization. management today sees a much larger role for maintenance. . · Down-time is minimized. Over the past years. Maintenance efficiency is viewed as an integral part of business effectiveness. From a simple expectation of keeping equipment running or restoring it to the desired operating condition. The maintenance function plays a supporting role to effective operations.The objectives of maintenance are to maintain equipment and facilities in such condition that: · They give trouble-free service and output at rated capacity. It determines the risk-safety.1 shows the evolution of the maintenance philosophy. and · The cost of operation and maintenance is minimized. the significance of maintenance and its role in plant operation has changed significantly. · Safety is ensured. First Generation Second Generation Third Generation · Fix it when broke · Scheduled Overhauls · Condition monitoring · Systems for planning · Design for reliability and and controlling work maintainability · Low-tech computerization · Hazard studies · High-tech computers · Failure modes and effects analysis · Expert systems · Multitasking and teamwork Table 4. as well as the quantitative and cost standard of outputs. The evolution in the maintenance thought process is rooted in the changing complexity of industry itself.
expert systems and continuous improvement programs have developed. or sheer quality deficiency in their manufacture. Among collections of equipment. 4. With increase in mechanization. but they are thought to be at least partially due to abrupt changes in stress distribution in the components. the weak components from the infant mortality period have either been repaired or replaced.3 Maintenance Strategies . reliability and availability have become key issues. Second Generation (1950-70) – The second generation emerged as the result of growing complexity in equipment and plant design. downtime became a problem and management tried to find means and ways to minimize and prevent these failures. Researchers into the reliability of equipment recognize that within a collection of machines. Repairing and restoration had become more difficult and special skills and more time was needed to maintain and repair equipment. Third Generation (after the 1980’s) – Since the 80’s. As maintenance costs started to rise sharply relative to other operating costs. This led to the concept of preventive maintenance. Hence. This is the useful period of the machine. there is a rather high incidence of early failures. As this dependence grew. 2. the failure rate keeps decreasing until a relatively low constant level is obtained. During the infant mortality period. First Generation (1930-40) – The first generation represents the earlier days of industrialization where mechanization was low. called infant mortalities. primarily due to the presence of weak or substandard components or design inadequacies in not properly understanding the operating conditions. this pattern manifests itself when a collection of machinery is subjected to rigorous operation. As these components drop out one by one. During this period. the failure rate is high. unpredictable and cannot be prevented by additional testing or burn-in of the components. fatigue due to flaws in the molecular structure of the metals or plastics involved. Most equipment that survives infancy will continue to perform with few failures occurring. Downtime did not matter much and no need was felt to treat maintenance as a high priority issue. The failures that do occur during the period are truly random. there is a definite pattern of lifespan. These have led to major developments in maintenance philosophy based on manufacturing reliability systems. How Equipments Fail Maintenance is concerned with controlling the condition of equipment. The reason for the occurrence of these failures is not fully understood. In practice. there was an added interest created in the field of maintenance planning and control systems. industry became increasingly dependent on these complex machines. 3. the growth of mechanization and automation has become more complex and even small breakdowns in equipment affect the operation of the whole plant. Factory equipment was basic and repair and the restoration process was simple.1.
The secondary functions are: a) Maintenance stores.Over the years. maintenance functions may be identified as primary or secondary functions. many new approaches have been advocated as maintenance strategies that are intended to overcome problems related to equipment breakdown.. etc. buildings and grounds. . equipment. b) Plant protection. its size. b) Generation and distribution of utilities. Some of the common approaches to maintenance are as follows: · Breakdown maintenance · Preventive maintenance · Predictive maintenance · Proactive maintenance Type of Maintenance Strategy Maintenance ApproachSignificance Fix-it when broke Large maintenance budget Scheduled Maintenance Periodic component replacement Condition-based Maintenance decision Monitoring based on equipment condition Detection of Sources of Monitoring and Failures correcting failing root causes Maintenance Strategy Breakdown Maintenance Preventive Maintenance Predictive Maintenance Proactive Maintenance Although the scope of maintenance will vary depending on the type of industry. the prevalent management policies. c) Alteration to existing equipment and buildings. d) New installations of equipment and buildings. The primary functions are: a) Maintenance of existing plant.
the rectification of the fault should be processed in the same manner as for planned maintenance work schedules. It is also called. breakdown maintenance.c) Waste disposal. · Restoring a failed system usually involves replacing or repairing the component that is responsible for the failure of the overall system. 4. Corrective maintenance is performed at unpredictable intervals because a components failure time is not known a priori. usually by replacing or repairing the components that caused the system to fail. · The approach to maintenance is totally reactive. d) Salvage. To rectify the problem.3. action must be taken to address the cause. a properly designed fault reporting system must be instituted and similarly. the repair work is performed only after a piece of equipment has failed. and b) To do this in a cost effective manner. It consists of the action(s) taken to restore a failed system to operational status. so as to restore it a specified operating state. Corrective maintenance is typically carried out in three steps: a) Diagnosis of the problem: The maintenance technician must take time to locate the failed parts or otherwise satisfactorily assess the cause of the system failure. · Corrective maintenance may be defined as the repairs carried out to restore equipment. maintenance is activated on breakdown. · However. The goals and objectives of corrective maintenance management are. the maintenance technician must verify that the system is again successfully operating.1 Corrective or Breakdown Maintenance This is one of the earliest maintenance strategies implemented in the industry. corrective maintenance is periodically performed on the equipment. b) Repair and/or replacement of faulty component(s): Once the cause of system failure has been determined. c) Verification of the repair action: once the components in question have been repaired or replaced. and as the name suggests. a) To restore the faulty equipment to a healthy operating state as promptly as possible. · Corrective maintenance strategy has no routine maintenance task and therefore is also described no scheduled maintenance strategy. which has broken down or developed a fault. .
The growth of __________ and automation has become more complex. each part will have a different failure distribution. management must know how the breakdowntime is distributed. Such a distribution will show the frequency of maintenance-free running times for a given number of operating hours. As maintenance is an economic decision. _________ Maintenance strategy has no routine maintenance task. 5. if careful observations of repeated failures of an equipment or system suggest that the remedy lies in correcting the system. In such a situation. breakdowns may affect production and thus reduce profits. For example. 2.1 Breakdown-time Distribution In order to establish the cost implications. thereby eliminating or at least minimizing the failures. Restoring a failed system usually involves _________ or repairing the component. In such cases. the practice of attending to machines only after they have broken down may be uneconomical. and the adoption of other maintenance practices may reduce interruptions to production.4 Maintenance Economics Maintenance policy refers to an organization’s policy in respect of the maintenance function of a set of equipments. 4. The first generation represents the earlier days of ___________ where mechanization was low. The decision of maintenance policy is more of an economic decision rather than a technical one. Moreover. what are its cost implications? 4. Machine and component failures can trigger _________. Self Assessment Questions 1. · Where capacity and demand are close. maintenance engineers should be allowed to consider the possibility.4. 4. A simple machine with few moving parts will probably have breakdowns after a fairly large number of maintenance-free runtime hours. But in the case of a complex machine. the failure of any one of its parts can cause a breakdown of the machine. Even where capacity is not a constraint. 3. proper feedback to the design department may lead to alterations in design that will reduce or eliminate failures. the breakdown maintenance practice may be costlier than other maintenance strategies. The breakdown time distribution of the complex machine probably will . and where production interruptions may be negligible.· Corrective maintenance in a broader perspective may also include activities related to correcting potential causes for failure or malfunction that might not have been adequately considered when the equipment was designed.
Curve ‘a’ exhibits low variability from the average maintenance free breakdown-time ‘Ta’. if the total system has four sub-systems.7 = 0. that one can be sure the machine will operate reliably. Equipment can be considered as a total system with its sub-assemblies as sub-systems. T3 = Average free run time free of breakdowns Figure 4.show greater variability than the simple machine even though it may have the same average. the reliability of the total system would equal the product f reliability factors of each of the sub-systems. and the reliability factors are A = 0.40).8 ‘0. If we assume that the failure of any one of the sub-systems can cause the failure of the entire system.9 ‘0. while curve ‘b’ represents a more complex machine. which exceed a given free-run-time. C & D. The frequency distribution curve ‘c’ has the same average maintenance. and the ‘run-times free of breakdowns’ as the ‘x’-axis. The same data that we have used to plot figure 4. It also shows that it is only after a few periods of trouble free running.8 ‘0. By reliability we mean the probability that the system will give trouble free service. and plot this against the run-time. C = 0.. In this case. B = 0.4 can be used to plot the percentage of breakdowns that exceed a given runtime as the ‘y’-axis.2 represents a graphical description of the degree of variability in free-run-time.8 and D = 0. For example.8.9. .free run-time as the other two but the distribution has much wider variability. maintenance free run-time as that of the simple machine. Curve ‘a’ depicts the behavior of a simple machine. The variability depicted by curve ‘c’ is typical of complicated equipment that needs ‘fine’. say A. it would amount to (0.7.2 Figure 4.e. subtract from 100 the figure 4. curve ‘b’ is the exponential distribution and exhibits medium variability and curve ‘c’ exhibits high variability. adjustments before it can give reasonable trouble-free service. i. Say to obtain the ‘a’ curve in figure. The total system reliability will be the product of the reliability of each individual system.4 for the percentage of breakdowns. B.
and the length of the standard preventive maintenance cycle. is equivalent to ‘Tr’ (maintenance free run-time) plus ‘Tm’ (the time take to do the preventive maintenance). inspected and parts replaced. more breakdowns are likely to occur during the course of the standard period.2 Preventive versus Breakdown Maintenance (Single Machine) Consider a preventive maintenance schedule. Ideally. the machine is shutdown. This preventive maintenance work takes a time ‘Tm’.4: Breakdown-time distributions 4. preventive maintenance should be performed just a little before normal breakdown is likely to occur.Figure 4.5 gives the percent of time a machine is working for the three distributions of breakdown-time shown in Figure and the ratio of the standard maintenance period to .4. Since preventive maintenance is meant to reduce the total plant down-time particularly unscheduled event – its timing and frequency are important. The total time period ‘Ta’. In such cases. shortening the preventive maintenance cycle can reduce the number of actual breakdowns. the average maintenance free run-time. over a period of time. ’Ts’ can be considered the breakdown cycle. When this happens. after which the equipment is ready to work. Figure 4. the situation is slightly different. If the distribution has greater variability. This can be considered the standard preventive maintenance cycle time. the running time between the preventive maintenance and the breakdown plus the time taken to repair the breakdown. there will be breakdowns that occur before the equipment is shutdown for preventive maintenance. which after a machine has been running for fixed time ‘Tr’. In actual practice. The probability of occurrence of a breakdown in the two different cycles depends on the specific breakdown-time distribution of the equipment.
there is a similar increase in machine running-time. since a low ratio would mean too many machine stoppages. ‘Ts’. it can also be seen that for curves ‘b’ and ‘c’ an increase of the ratio results in an increase in the percentage of machine running time. it is assumed that either preventive maintenance or repair puts the equipment in line for a running time of equal length. First. This suggests that for breakdown time distribution with low variability. and hence less availability. Unless the preventive maintenance time is less than the repair time. like those depicted by curve ‘a’.average maintenance-free run-time. the machine works for a small percentage of time. there is little gain in . the relation of preventive maintenance time to repair time is important. there is an optimum value for the standard maintenance period. Figure 4. Second. The percentage of machine running time depends on the ratio of the standard maintenance period and the average run-time. preventive maintenance is highly benefited to machines whose breakdown time distributions have low variability. From figure. ‘Ta’ for a given breakdown-time distribution. Such a relationship is shown for the three different breakdowns time distributions. In this type of situation. a standard preventive maintenance period can be set in such a way that the total downtime is reduced. but only till a peak is reached after which lengthening standard maintenance period seems to reduce the percentage of machine running time. It can be seen that for low values of the ratio of standard maintenance period to average maintenance free runtime. In the case of curve ‘a’ (for breakdown-time distribution with low variability).5: Present of time when the machine is working and breakdown distribution Certain generalizations can be made from the above three graphs. as there is better predictability of when breakdowns are likely to occur. This is obvious.
4. all the machines are free and have jus had a preventive maintenance done. The percentage of machine running time depends on the ratio of the standard maintenance period. In general. What are the Maintenance Strategies? .preventive maintenance. Initially. Effect on production losses if plant shutdown could have been avoided. 9. If preventive maintenance is equal to. 7. you will deal with jobs. 2. an increase in the standard period would mean less number of preventive maintenance cycles and more repairs. the percentage of machine running time continues to increase with the increase of standard preventive maintenance period. Equipment cannot be considered as a total system with its sub-assemblies as subsystems.6 Terminal Questions 1. 10. Self Assessment Questions State whether the statement is true or false. We also need to take into account other effects of unscheduled downtime. 8. 6. it is better to perform corrective or breakdown maintenance. and 3. The breakdown time distribution of the complex machine probably will not show greater variability than the simple machine. Effects of scheduling preventive maintenance for non-productive days or shifts with no loss of production. or more than the time for repair. such as 1. Additional stoppage time because maintenance crew cannot start repairing immediately after the breakdown has occurred. when the repair time is equal to maintenance time. 4. The probability of occurrence of a breakdown in the two different cycles depends on the specific breakdown-time distribution of the equipment. both in terms of contribution earned by them as well as their criticality because of their propensity to break-down. Maintenance policy will not refer to any organization’s policy.5 Summary You need to make decisions at the beginning of each shift regarding maintenance. For a given breakdown time distribution. Since some parts are most important to machines.
True 8. Summarize Breakdown and Corrective maintenance.1 4. FalseTerminal Questions 1. True 9. 4.3.2 2.3. Explain Breakdown Time distribution. Explain Preventive versus Breakdown Maintenance.2 5. Incidents 6. 5. Refer 4. . True 10. False 7. Mechanization 2. Refer 4. Industrialization 4. Corrective 5. 3.2.1 3. Refer 4. Replacing 3. Explain evolution of Maintenance Policy. Refer 4.2.1 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Refer 4.7 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1. 4.
6 Answers 5.2 Functions & Feature of Maintenance Engineering 5. replacement of parts or total replacement of . Maintenance covers two aspects of systems – operation and performance.5 Terminal Questions 5. Maintenance is defined as the restoring of an item to its original condition or to working order.3 Types of Maintenance Systems Routine Maintenance Planned /Scheduled / Productive Maintenance Break down or Corrective / Remedial Maintenance Preventive Maintenance Predictive Maintenance Condition Based Maintenance 5.1 Introduction Once the machinery is purchased it must be maintained.4 Summary 5. to ensure or restore system performance to specified levels. which can be achieved through repair. Maintenance is carried out in anticipation of or in reaction to a failure.1 Introduction Objectives 5.OM0006-Unit-05-Types of Maintenance Systems Unit-05-Types of Maintenance Systems Structure: 5.
Objectives: After studying this unit you shall be able . but there is no guarantee here that the exact nature of defect surfaces. operational life can be extended. misuse etc.the devices itself. Developing effective maintenance procedures to restrict such deterioration or failure is vital. aging. Machineries lose its efficiency after some point of time due to various factors such as wear and tear. Improperly performed maintenance or not carried out in time can escalate the problems because of faulty parts running. Sometimes accelerated testing is used to induce failures and know the behaviour of the systems. Types of maintenance /strategies discussed in this unit are: · Routine Maintenance · Planned Maintenance · Break down Maintenance or Corrective Maintenance · Preventive Maintenance · Predictive Maintenance · Condition Based Maintenance · Total Productivity Maintenance The maintenance plan for a company’s assets can be a combination of the above strategies and could be adopted on the same machine. It is evident that the best maintenance strategy is selected for reducing breakdowns. based on the practical and economic grounds Maintenance of any kind performed on machinery or equipment is a consequence of the fact that it started deteriorating before failing. Between these alternatives the management decides. retain the productivity and maintain safe working conditions by reducing the probability of accidents. Maintenance management also aims at developing a reliable and high quality production system. Through proper maintenance of these machineries. Failure to perform maintenance in time to maintain the availability of the machinery will have serious effects ranging from benign to catastrophic. Hence a systematic and structured approach to proper & cost effective maintenance is required.
Maintenance management is entrusted with the total task of keeping the machinery.· To explain how systems work at their optimum efficiency · To prepare a plan to preserve the value of the assets by different methods · To calculate how to maximize production capability · To prepare a plan and schedule for maintenance work and prevent failures and breakdowns · To Improve quality of products and productivity · To Use of maintenance staff optimally · To Minimize or avoid accidents by periodical inspection and repairs.. rapid traverses. equipment and services in proper working condition that involves planning. improved productivity. breakdown maintenance or preventive maintenance etc. etc. like repair. · · · · · Rapid strides in the advancement of manufacturing technology and its processes with higher powers and speeds. requirement of high accuracy. high up-time and prolonged mean time between failures (MTBF). repeatability. use of robotics and other Computer Integrated systems are developed and deployed for producing high quality products. 5. higher feeds. Therefore industries have entered into the era of high technology maintenance management to cater to the production requirement of minimum downtime and maximum productivity. high cost CNC machines. Flexible manufacturing systems. have all warranted the use of sophisticated machineries for production. use of complex processes. To offer these requirements. Such high cost and sophisticated state of art machineries need to operate at optimal levels of performance with high degree of reliability.2 Functions & Feature of Maintenance Engineering Maintenance Engineering is the function of the production management that is concerned with day-to-day problems of keeping the physical plant in good and acceptable operating condition. scheduling and execution of many maintenance activities. .
e. 5. machines. It includes activities like inspection. lubricating systems. Widely adopted maintenance techniques/strategies are: · Routine Maintenance · Planned Maintenance · Break down Maintenance or Corrective/ Remedial Maintenance · Preventive Maintenance · Predictive Maintenance · Condition Based Maintenance · Total Productivity Maintenance [Discussed in detail in Unit-10] 5. These aspects are to recognized by the maintenance department. 1) Running maintenance is the work carried out when the equipment or the machine is performing some operations i. outer cleaning. [say: check all compressors first on Mondays. a cyclic operation recurring periodically. injury to workmen and finally frequent breakdowns etc may lead to protracted delivery of the product thus inviting customer dissatisfaction. Hence the relationship between availability. reliability and maintainability of a plant is very important for the maintenance engineers.e. These include say greasing or lubricating the bearings / systems.3 Types of Maintenance Systems A way of reducing the plant breakdowns is to select the best maintenance strategy.3.Malfunctioning of machineries/equipment due to failure to upkeep the operating conditions may result in serious repercussions of reduced capacity. increased production costs. working. inspection etc. repairing leaks) which include preventive maintenance and forms part of the annual operating budget. and equipment by the maintenance staff to preserve such machineries in as near to its original condition as is practical and to realize its normal life expectancy. small repairs. . Maintenance is the work performed on an asset such as utility.1 Routine Maintenance [RM] RM is a procedure followed regularly i. cleaning of machines. production of low quality products. RM can be classified as: 1) Running maintenance 2) Shut down maintenance. lubricate two machines daily] It can be even day to day operational activities to keep the plant running (say: replacement of light bulbs. cleaning.
lubricate. repair and carry out all requisite maintenance before actual break down happens.1. 5. In this type of service. Planned maintenance reduces the machine downtime.1. the emphasis is on machines: a) What does the manufacturer prescribe? b) Is the unit utilised for two or three shifts per day? c) Is it working under normal load? .2 Planned / Scheduled / Productive Maintenance Planned maintenance is the activities carried out according to a predetermined schedule and hence known as scheduled maintenance or productive maintenance.2 Disadvantages a) RM may not provide the service specified by the manufacturer b) May ignore information regarding preceding breakdowns c) Service required for a machine at different frequencies may be ignored d) Similar machines are serviced at same frequency irrespective of usage 5. boilers 5.3. increases productivity as compared to unplanned one and hence it is followed as per the maintenance policy of the company. de-scaling furnaces. E.g.1 Advantages a) Simple to establish & follow b) Little or no clerical work c) High degree of prevention by intercepting developing faults d) A more advanced stage calls for ’service instructions on a pre-printed schedule and checklists’. It involves inspection of all machineries. reduces the cost of maintenance.3.2) Shut down maintenance: certain minor maintenance activities cannot be carried out when the machine is running and hence carried out by shutting down the machine. thus avoiding a situation of emergency maintenance. overhaul.3.
3.3. . replacement of parts. Planned repair/rectifying the problem is carried out when it is more convenient and cost effective after its failure rather than to disrupt the production with RM.2 Advantages of Planned Maintenance Considers all the changes in conditions of use & increased wear of parts a) Inspections. Corrective maintenance is carried out on all items where the consequences of failure or wearing out are not significant and the cost of corrective maintenance is not greater than preventative maintenance. can be defined as the maintenance which is required when an item has failed or worn out.1 Characteristics of Planned Maintenance a) Instructions are more detailed than in routine maintenance b) Calls for differently timed service for the same unit c) Schedule is drawn with dates d) Establishes the work-load for the crew e) Entails considerable planning effort. adjustments are shown in overall plan b) Detailed instructions reduce the chance of missing any activity. Also called as ‘on-failure maintenance/corrective maintenance’.3 Break Down or Corrective/ Remedial Maintenance Breakdown Maintenance is the method of operating the machines to run until they fail and then repair in order to restore them to an acceptable condition. Unforeseen work is reduced.2. to bring it back to working order.3.2. faithful implementation and recording f) Initial list of planned maintenance will be in detail 5.d) Are the conditions as good as those envisaged by the manufacturer? e) Do we allow for extra attention owing to corrosion-including conditions? 5. c) Provides as much attention on the equipment for the best judgement of the planner [For details on ‘the principles of planning & scheduled maintenance’ refer Unit 6] 5.
1 Characteristics of Break-down Maintenance System · No services except occasional lubrication unless failure occurs · No maintenance men on regular basis · Maintenance done by sub-contractors · No organised efforts to find out reasons · No stock of spares · No budget · No records · Initially it looks economical · Creates internal problems namely: Who to do the repair? From where to get parts? How do we pay for them? Who will go & buy parts? . or where no other strategy will work. increased downtime. vandalism.3. This system could be called as ‘Operate to Failure (OTP) ’– no predetermined action taken to prevent failure. Repairs are done after the machine fails and hence this becomes a repair work. o Upset schedule resulting in panicky. drive shaft broken and hence the transmission fails. Corrective maintenance activities include both emergency repairs (fire fighting) and preventive (or corrective) repairs. misuse or improper maintenance. The above type of repairing and setting the equipment to working condition can be called as corrective maintenance. or reconditioning that part to its original or acceptable working condition. involve hazards. lost output. etc.Corrective maintenance may be programmed.3. Frayed tempers put unnecessary pressures and disturb delivery commitments. Ex: electric motor may not start. i. taken after the failure happens. For example: non-critical low cost equipment.e. The need for repairs can result from normal wear. On-failure maintenance can be effective if applied correctly. This method is expensive in terms of maintenance cost. Repair is restoring an asset by replacing a part which is broken or damaged. Here the machine and the work on that machine stops operating. 5.
3.3.4 Disadvantages 1) No warning of failure – safety risk 2) Uncontrolled plant outage – production losses 3) Requires large standby maintenance team 4) Secondary damage – longer repair time 5) Large spares stock requirement 6) Provision of standby plant 5. 5.3.2 Objectives of BD/Corrective Maintenance 1) To put back machinery back to work and minimize production interruptions 2) To control costs of maintenance crew to the minimum 3) To control cost of the operations of repairing 4) To control costs of repair & replacement parts to minimum 5) To control investment cost on purchase of standby or back up machines 6) To carry out appropriate repair intermittently at each malfunction to improve the life of the machine.3. with an objective to anticipate problems and correct them before they occur. preventative maintenance is carried out only on those items where a failure would . Preventive maintenance is carried out to prevent an item failing or wearing out by providing systematic inspection. In line with management’s policy on obtaining the best value from the maintenance funds.3.5.3. detection and prevention of incipient failure.4 Preventive Maintenance PM is a regularly scheduled maintenance activity.3.3 Advantages 1) Low cost if correctly applied 2) Requires no advanced planning other than ensuring spares availability 5. This is normally programmed.
result in expensive consequences. It is much economical to carry out preventive maintenance. checking.. -To avoid breakdown & ensure smooth production following time based activities are practiced: 1. Periodic Inspections . isolators. e. Preventive maintenance could be grouped as: 1) Fixed-time Maintenance (FTM) – Here actions carried out at regular intervals (calendar time) e. clean and up keep To achieve prevention of break-downs planned service is carried out with the explicit additional objective of detecting wear points and ensure perfect functioning by replacing parts Here the safe overhaul interval is selected. distribution transformers. circuit breakers. item replacement. etc. sub-station transformers. Routine & planned maintenance includes Preventive maintenance actions.g.g. but it is found that a greater number of machine failures are at the peak when machine gets progressively worse over a period say months/ years. Daily Maintenance – Cleaning. Many of these items are also subject to a statutory requirement for inspection and preventive maintenance. battery back up at sub-station. etc. PM’s prerequisites are: a) Proper design and installation of equipment b) periodical inspection of plant and machinery to prevent breakdowns c) repetitive servicing and overhaul d) lubricate. repair and major overhaul. 2. lifts. fire alarms. 2) Condition-based Maintenance [explained below] 3) Opportunity Maintenance (find out the opportune moment for maintenance) The preventive maintenance is carried out at irregular intervals and this interval is determined by seeing the actual condition of the machine. so that the major break downs are avoided & minimizes possibility of unanticipated production interruptions. lubrication. electricity supply.
Use of recommended Grades of oils 4.4. More expensive due to more planning &replacement of parts before failing. cost estimates etc 2) Use of check lists by maintenance staff and inspectors 3) Identify and allocate well qualified crew & inspectors for making repairs 4) Use of budgeting system for major replacements/ repair 5) Proper procedures laid out for meeting the PM objectives in full 5.3. 2.1 Preventive Maintenance System is 1. Reduces total work-load 4. Reduces unplanned work 6. daily maintenance etc and programming the activities with work content.3.3. Reduces total down time 5.4. Restoration to recover deterioration 5.2 Features of PM 1) Proper identification of items in each machineries which warrants fixed time maintenance.3 Requirements of Preventive Maintenance Program 1) Good maintenance management department with experienced personnel 2) To firm up plan of PM in consultation with shop personnel 3) A good lubricating and cleaning schedule 4) Detail procedures on maintenance work 5) Proper records maintained along with manuals. parts list etc 6) Adequate stock of spare parts .4. Increases reliability 3.3. Reduces total maintenance cost 5.
Maintenance is planned well in advance 2. Improves productivity due to lesser breakdowns 5. probable causes. 5.3. Improves reliability of the machineries 6. repair procedures etc 11) Suppliers recommendations for up keep of machineries.4. Preparation of history card of all the repair work carried on such a machine and the remarks there on 4. diagnosis system.a guide showing problems.7) Properly training maintenance crew Adequate space around machinery for maintenance work 9) Previous data on failure etc of each machine/equipment 10) Systematic approach. Labor used cost effectively . Preparation of schedule of maintenance 3. Reduction in wear and tear of machines and increase in their life 3. Preparation of maintenance schedule and detail program of work with time frame for completion 126.96.36.199 Steps involved in Preventive Maintenance 1. Identifying the job to be taken & appropriate case register 2. Preparation of job specification 5. Higher safety for workers 7.5 Advantages of Preventive Maintenance 1. Feed back on the corrective action/ repair work done and its results 5. Reduction in breakdown frequency 4. Preparation of maintenance report on the work done 8. Preparation of inspection chart 7.
5 Predictive Maintenance Predictive Maintenance is one of the modern approaches to preventive maintenance where in sensitive instruments are used to predict anticipated failure of machines & equipment. sensors for pressure. Identification of parts and its nature and cost involved in repairs is possible 5.8.4. Minimizes breakdowns and hence minimum inventory hold ups 10. Maintenance sometimes induces failures (infant mortality) 5. Less stand by equipment requirement 13. resistance gauges etc. Sensitive instruments like vibration analyzer. amplitude meters. audio gauges.6 Disadvantages/limitations 1.3. 5. 2. Less breakdown costs. corrective maintenance is carried out to repair the equipment after fault occurs/ breakdown happens.4. Maintenance activity and costs increased 2.7 Differences between Corrective and Preventive Maintenance 1. Preventive maintenance is designed to prevent or at least to minimize failures/breakdowns and reduce the need for corrective maintenance. are used to predict ensuing troubles/problems in machineries. whereas. It is possible to have planned shutdowns and repair 9. Leaser rejection and better quality 11. Unnecessary and invasive maintenance is carried out 3. 12. Preventive maintenance program controls the repair costs as well as the overall life of the equipment where as in corrective maintenance brings back to the original life depending on the extent of damage the earier breakdown has brought into the equipment.3. Applicable only to age related deterioration 4. Conditions of the machinery can be checked on line periodically or on continuous basis and maintenance crew can take decision & plan overhaul/repair as warranted. . temperatures.3.
2) If corrective treatment is not adopted at the right time. temperature. when status or condition so demands It is beneficial to follow a system which is not calendar based but condition based. rotor imbalance. oil condition. Under maintenance or too long intervals between two successive checks may result in high incidence of failures. which are indicative of malfunctions to decide on corrective treatment. we should have a continuous knowledge of the machines based on certain critical predetermined / pre-formulated parameters . analysis and tribology. Main difficulty is in making the correct choice of preventive maintenance intervals based on OEM’s recommendations and own -experiences. i. Hence an optimal maintenance interval has to be arrived at. Over maintenance or too frequent maintenance increases extensive downtime resulting in added costs on men. misalignments. material and time. A major part of the predictive maintenance involves the ongoing analysis to ensure wear levels that damage the machine are within limits Good ability to predict impending failures well in time to prevent breakdowns.Predict failures well in advance by monitoring parameters and by use of certain techniques (like vibration. etc. wear debris analysis.) Measuring of physical parameters may not be enough to detect the destructive effects on a machine or process. pump cavitations. 1) Similar to health monitoring of senior executives to check symptoms. In a Preventive Maintenance system.e. (which otherwise cause heavy penalty costs. maintenance is on a pre-determined cycle whereas in a Predictive Maintenance system maintenance is done only. it may result in serious breakdowns. health and safety hazards etc) will result in 1) Maximizes the online operations 2) Minimizes downtime 3) Increased plant and Personnel safety 4) Optimal maintenance The above is achieved by continuous plant / equipment monitoring & diagnosing the actual condition by means of online non-destructive testing methods. incorrect installation. The intervals should be carefully selected as over maintenance or under maintenance are both detrimental and hence undesirable.
if practiced effectively. smell and through their experience on the existing condition of the equipment/aggregate. increased leakages etc) CBM is a continuous or periodic measurement and interpretation of data to indicate the condition of an item to determine the need for maintenance. thus making predictive maintenance more economical as compared to preventive and corrective maintenance strategies.A given machine can continue to be kept in operation as long as the monitored parameters continue to remain within the laid down limits. Predictive Maintenance is very cost effective where cost of unplanned breakdowns is very high.6 Condition Based Maintenance CBM relies on the fact that the majority of failures do not occur instantaneously but develops over a period of time. etc. more universal and better predictive tools and instruments are added in the system. Temperature changes can be photographed . 5. In the Condition based maintenance (also known as Dynamic predictive maintenance or Diagnostic maintenance) the plant is maintained just after some problems arisen. temperature soars. The main function of condition monitoring is to provide the knowledge of a machine and its rate of change. A sense of confidence is created amongst production and maintenance personnel when they analyze the monitored data and predict that the machines are operated safely till they reach maximum permissible limits. Predictive Maintenance. CBM involves recording some measurement that gives an indication of the condition (ex: increase in vibration levels. When permissible limits are reached and warning signals are issued by the measuring devices. An ability to forecast the machine behavior by Condition Monitoring is a pre-requisite for Predictive Maintenance Operators who work with equipment every day can listen to equipment and identify changes in noise levels and vibrations. It is just like a hammer used to strike a wheel to listen for that distinctive sound to say whether there is crack in wheel rim or not. but much before the possible breakdown. there is enough time available for the maintenance crew to make adequate advance preparations. With rapid developments in machining technology through CNC controlled machines. FMS with artificial intelligent devices and computer simulations and modeling. can save around 30% of maintenance costs and with a bonus of 15% savings in energy costs. Condition monitoring is merely a tool that is used by crew through touch.3. Between the ‘action limit and the maximum permissible time limit’. it implies that the particular part needs replacement and a special attention. to cut downtime.
Condition Checking & Monitoring a) Trend Monitoring: . which are to be controlled by maintenance a) Vibration Sensors – to track tool wear/ breakages. Curve when extrapolated can indicate maximum & safe permissible limits 5. CNC systems have built – in diagnostics which continuously monitor the system hardware to ensure normal functioning. if other parts of the system fail. contaminated cutting fluid Touch – Excessive bearing temperature State-of-the-art CNC systems facilitates adaptive Controls with signals from appropriate transducers. Trend Monitoring. etc. This type of maintenance check on performance is vital as the future failures in safety systems can have more catastrophic effects.1 Condition Monitoring Methods There are two methods used namely: 1. alarms. low battery voltage. which gives warning that something is ‘not right’. unbalance in rotors. overheating of motors c) Current sensors – cutting load monitored by sensing spindle Condition Monitoring is achieved by the operator’s senses to detect abnormalities Visual – Leakages. are displayed on the screen well in time to facilitate corrective action without disruption of production.3. Indications like over – temperature.through IR thermograph. Action limit curve shows the prescribed for monitoring parameters during normal operations. 2. misalignments. corrosion Audible – Unusual noise. mechanical looseness b) Thermostats – hydraulic oil temperature. An investigation can then be carried out to identify the exact problem. Chatter Smell – Smoke. Condition monitoring is dependent on sensors and transducers for measuring different parameters.6. gear defects.
using some suitable indicator & is used as a measure of machine condition at that time. accelerometer. proximity probes) to record vibration level 3) Wear Debris monitoring: This works on the principle that the working surfaces of a machine are washed by the lubricating oil and any damage is detected from particles of wear debris in the oil. Diagnosis (what) of its origin so that spare parts can be ordered 3. to monitor the rates of internal corrosion of the wall of the plant. c) Condition Monitoring: Includes three stages: 1. 5) Corrosion monitoring: Is applied to fixed plant containing aggressive materials. This may be done by .Trend monitoring is the continuous monitoring or regular measurement and interpretation of data collected during machine operation. d) Economics of Condition Monitoring: The savings. e) Selecting Methods of monitoring Five main techniques of conditioning monitoring 1) Visual monitoring: inspection & recording of surface appearance. Prognosis (forecast) subsequent measurement which will then establish the trend and enable the repair schedule to be planned. Detection (when) of the developing fault at an early stage 2. · Reduces the cost of maintenance · Capital invested can be recovered faster. b) Condition Checking: Condition checking is where a check measurement is taken with the machine running. 2) Vibration Monitoring: Involves the attachment of a transducer (velocity. which can be made by the application of CM: · Avoiding losses of output due to breakdown of machinery. 4) Performance and behavior monitoring: Involves checking the performance of a machine to see whether it is behaving correctly. to indicate variations in the conditions of the machine or its components.
Listing and numbering of machine to have identification and location details 2. Select proper examining technique. sound. Cost of examination. Spares can be assembled 5. 5. Some forms of inspection utilising human senses can be inexpensive 3.6. 7. Selecting critical machines for CM 3. Allows shutdown before severe damage occurs 4. Cause of failure can be analysed 6. 7. Establish for each part of the machine the severity limits of the machine condition parameter (Vibration.3. Production can be modified to extend unit life 5.4 Disadvantages 1) Thermograph & Oil Debris Analysis [specialised equipment and training] . standby availability of machine.2 Implementation of Condition Based Maintenance: Involves: 1. The hole is then plugged with a suitable leak proof material. 5. 5.drilling a hole through the wall and drilled coupon of material is observed for corrosion. To arrive at best interval for examination considering the criticality of process. cost of maintenance.3. Training examiners for the above jobs. failure statistics (MTBF-MTTR).6. Labour can be organised 8. overall cost of failure. Maintenance can be planned.3. standardizations planned. Establishing programs and methods specifying the parts to be examined 4.6. contamination etc) to be measured. Recording data 8. Maximises equipment availability 2. operating conditions.3 Advantages 1. 6.
3) Irregular preventive maintenance do not include a) Repairs b) Overhauls c) Reduction of noise levels and vibrations d) Clean up of leakages etc on all the machine aggregates daily 4) RM is a procedure followed regularly i. 3) Time is required for trends to develop to know machine condition Self Assessment Questions 1) Which of the following is not a common cause of equipment breakdowns? a) Improper preventive maintenance b) Inadequate lubrication c) Improper setups of jigs.2) Requires careful choice of the correct technique. fixtures and tools d) All the above 2) Which of the following is not an objective of remedial maintenance? a) To put back machinery back to work and minimize production interruptions b) To control costs of maintenance crew to the minimum c) To control cost of the operations of repairing d) Replacing the faulty machine when it starts malfunctioning. a _______________ recurring periodically 5) In the following list find out which one is considered as disadvantage of routine management: . e) To control costs of repair & replacement parts to minimum f) To carry out appropriate repair intermittently at each malfunction to improve the life of the machine.e.
No maintenance men on regular basis 3. 6) Planned maintenance is the activities carried out according to a ______________ and hence known as scheduled maintenance or productive maintenance 7) Characteristics of Planned Maintenance-fill up the missing one: 1) Instructions are more detailed than in routine maintenance 2) Calls for differently timed service for the same unit 3) Schedule is drawn with dates 4) ___________________________ 5) Entails considerable planning effort. No services except occasional lubrication unless failure occurs 2. No stock of spares 6. faithful implementation and recording 6) Initial list of planned maintenance will be in detail Breakdown Maintenance is the method of operating the machines to run ______________ and then repair in order to restore them to an acceptable condition. Maintenance done by sub-contractors 4. 9) Characteristics of Break-down Maintenance System-fill the missing one: 1. Initially it looks economical .1) Simple to establish & follow 2) Little or no clerical work 3) High degree of prevention by intercepting developing faults 4) RM may not provide the service specified by the manufacturer 5) A more advanced stage calls for ’service instructions on a pre-printed schedule and checklists’. ______________________ 5.
predictive and remedial maintenance. 2) ____________________ 5. CBM involves recording some ___________ that gives an indication of the condition. To counter this. Breakdown or remedial maintenance is undertaken when a machine breaks down or malfunctions. Daily Maintenance – Cleaning. . Restoration to recover deterioration 11) Predictive Maintenance is one of the modern approaches to preventive maintenance where in __________ are used to predict ____________ of machines & equipment.which one is not the recommended practice? 1. maintenance has been given more importance in the operational plans. Use of recommended Grades of oils 5. 13) There are two methods used namely-Which is the second one 1) Trend Monitoring. Preventive maintenance is undertaken before need for maintenance arises and aims at minimizing the anticipated breakdowns. 12) CBM relies on the fact that the majority of failures do not occur instantaneously but develops over a period of time. preventive. In the present high tech production. lubrication. Predictive maintenance is a type in which the vital attributes of a system are monitored continuously and any deviations from the accepted limits are taken to rectify the problem. any stoppage due to breakdown in any part of the system will affect the entire production process. checking. with JIT inventory and sophisticated processes. Maintenance is of three main categories: breakdown. Check all the machines at firmed up time intervals 4. Creates internal problems namely: Who to do the repair? From where to get parts? How do we pay for them? Who will go & buy parts? 10) To avoid breakdown & ensure smooth production following time based activities are practiced. and predictive. using high technology machines. In planning.7. maintenance managers have to decide on a proper balance between preventive. Periodic Inspections 3. 2. etc.4 Summary Poorly maintained machines/equipment has severe negative impact on the productivity and the quality of the output in a production unit.
5 Terminal Questions 1. 14. What is predictive maintenance? What are its advantages over preventive maintenance? 13. What are the advantages and disadvantages of condition based maintenance? 5. Where this type is applicable. What are the characteristics & objectives of breakdown/corrective maintenance? 7. What is condition based maintenance. Define preventive maintenance and state its objectives 9. Organizations have realized the importance of maintenance and its planning. but much before the possible breakdown. What are the advantages of Planned Maintenance? 6. Discuss the advantages and limitations of preventive maintenance 11. State the objectives of maintenance management? 2. Distinguish between preventive and breakdown maintenance 12. Outline the various types of maintenance 3. CBM is a continuous or periodic measurement and interpretation of data to indicate the condition of an item to determine the need for maintenance. What are the advantages & disadvantages of breakdown/corrective maintenance? 8. accidents and minimizing the costs of maintenance activities? 5. What are the important functions of maintenance department 5.In the Condition based maintenance (also known as Dynamic predictive maintenance or Diagnostic maintenance) the plant is maintained just after some problems arisen. What is meant by planned/scheduled/productive maintenance and what emphasis it pays in maintaining the machine/equipment 4.6 Answers . Which enables them to reduce breakdowns. Explain briefly the condition based monitoring methods 15. Total productivity maintenance is practiced to improve the productivity of the equipment by minimizing the number of breakdowns and malfunctions. Describe the procedures of preventive maintenance program 10.
2 5.1 & 188.8.131.52.Self Assessment Questions 1.4. Refer 5.4 . Predetermined schedule 7.4.4. (4) Establishes the work-load for the crew 8.3. (4) No organised efforts to find out reasons 10.2. Refer 5. Refer 5. Refer 5. Cyclic operation 5.3. d) Replacing the faulty machine when it starts malfunctioning 3.2 6.3. Until they fail 9. Refer 5.4. anticipated failure 12.2 7. (4) RM may not provide the service specified by the manufacturer 6.2 2. measurement 13. Refer 5. Not occur.3 3.3 & 5.4 8. d) All the above 2.4 4. Refer 5.3. c) Reduction of noise levels and vibrations 4. Condition Checking & Monitoring Terminal Questions 1. Refer 5. Sensitive instruments. (3) Check all the machines at firmed up time intervals 11.
4.4.4. Refer 5. .4.4 10. Refer 5.Refer 5.5 13.4.6 11.5.4. Refer 5.4. Refer 5.7 184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11 & 5.1 15. Refer 5.6 14. Refer 5.6.4 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .4.4.3 & 5.
12 Maintenance scheduling principles 6.9 Maintenance Planning Principles 6.5 Benefit of Planning 6.1 Introduction .6 Planning System 6.3 Planning Vision & Mission 6.1 Introduction Objectives 6.8 Productivity.7 How much Planning will help? 6.16 Answers 6.OM0006-Unit-06-Maintenance Planning and Scheduling Unit-06-Maintenance Planning and Scheduling Structure: 6.15 Terminal Questions 6.13 Six Maintenance Scheduling Principles 6.10 Planning Preventive & Predictive Maintenance.11 Summary of Maintenance Planning 6.2 Functions of Maintenance Planning 6.4 Functions of Maintenance Planner 6. Project work 6.14 Summary of Maintenance Scheduling 6. Specialization & Coordination of Planning 6.
Planning and scheduling promotes labor productivity by examining potential delays and scheduling work.All manufacturing units having varieties of machineries and equipments require maintenance to keep them up in good working conditions and for sustaining and achieving higher productivity. Objectives: After studying this unit you shall be able to · Prepare a plan for maintenance · Analyse the benefits of planning for maintenance · Examine the principles of maintenance planning . are the subjects being discussion. tools. If detailed procedures and checklists contribute to better reliability. consideration of reliability maintenance as preventive maintenance. as they leverage their expertise into job plans. and other vendors to cater to the common maintenance tasks on critical equipment and safety equipment. communication. tool room facilities. tool rooms. Planning concentrates on adding value. and maintenance measurement. Planning does not solve everything. shops. teamwork. management. planning is very essential. The planning system is designed with procedures to be followed over time through a systematic job plans. control of inventories. The final improvement to over 50% can be achieved through special aids. Other tools used are work order system. data collection and research of certain processes etc. In addition. leadership. but certainly brings together many aspects of maintenance. performance. are included in the job plans. Where does planning fit into? What principles make it work? How planning is required to be done? How to provide additional resources for planners and personnel for maintenance activities? Etc. By implementing fundamental planning and scheduling system. and safety. To achieve the desired maintenance efficiency. it is preferred for the organization to become a procedure-based one with teams of experienced technicians. The planner should also give more attention to critical equipment and safety areas. qualified personnel. planners. predictive maintenance. and project maintenance is essential. The plant has better control over work that is scheduled. engineers. Here procedure already in the file or important information that persons who worked on that equipment have recorded previously. storeroom support. organizations could improve maintenance productivity to about 40%.
6. identification of craft skill required. · The planner identifies appropriate materials for the specified job and checks whether they are available or be specially obtained. · The planner specifies appropriate craft skills required for that particular job. · Once the work order is received. To prepare a job in advance. 6.· Distinguish between preventive and breakdown maintenance planning.3 Planning Vision & Mission The mission of planning revolves around doing the right jobs that are ready to go. · The planned information gives the supervisors a reference for expected work and time for completion and helps to have a control through on problems that might lessen productivity. and labor time estimate. The work plan includes a job scope. a planner develops a work plan after receiving a work request. The work plan is nothing but the information a planner makes ready for the technician to execute the work. · Planner does preparatory planning for the crew supervisor and craft persons who executes the work. procedure for accomplishing task and identify any parts and special tools required. Coordinating function is the key to achieve competitive edge. For ex: Planner has to judge whether the defective valve should be repaired or replaced. · The planner considers the proper scope of work for the job. . For this the maintenance planning will have the following functions: · Coordinating mechanism within the maintenance department. thus enabling a better control over their work. the maintenance planning initiates action. · Maintenance planning brings together or coordinates the effort of many other aspects of maintenance. · The time estimates made by planner gives the idea to crew personnel to judge how much work is assigned and what work is there. · Crew personnel are then assigned the job for execution and avoid problems such as delays stemming by insufficient skills/ not having required materials or tools.2 Functions of Maintenance Planning Maintenance management uses planning as a tool to reduce unnecessary job delays through advance preparation.
Work plans avoid anticipated delays. seals. It also involves identifying the actual work scope. work involved. . tools. improve on past jobs. Planning is Information central. crew schedules. considering the safety aspects of the job. 7) If parts are not in the inventory. without wasting time. clearances. A work crew is ready to go immediately to scheduled work assignments as all instructions.The planning mission states “Doing the right jobs & ready to go”. 6) The planner reserves such required parts in the store to ensure their availability. With proper planning or preparation efforts for each job. release of the work orders to proceed etc. 4) Planners evolve good planning methodology that increases maintenance productivity. Arrange parts required to be placed in a convenient location nearer to the job site before the job starts. 5) The planner writes a job plan that identifies parts needed (such as gaskets. planner initiate action to organize and get them.4 Functions of Maintenance Planner 1) Maintenance planning involves identifying parts and tools that are necessary for maintenance jobs. arrangements are ready. A planning mission statement is: “To increase the Maintenance crew’s ability to complete the work orders quickly”. 3) With preparatory work. 9) Planner provide a bill of materials or an illustrated parts diagram both to the stores person and craft men. so that technicians need not wait for parts to arrive. and allow advance scheduling through which the supervisors will assign and control the proper amount of work. and it controls and coordinates and brings resources to leverage productivity. The entire maintenance organization should be committed to schedule proactive works. for easy understanding and identifying the proper parts for his next work. parts. method of maintenance. but ready handle judiciously the reactive type of work also. planning sets the stage for the maintenance force to act upon quickly. crew starts their work as per job. 2) The planner writes work instructions on how to do the job. bearings etc) along with their identification numbers. Doing the right jobs involves job priorities. 6.
4) Skill levels and time estimates on jobs and proper scheduling are included in the subject work order. fork lifts. resulting benefit achieved are the improved productivity and overall effectiveness or efficiency in maintenance. procedures for assigning proper amount of work to all the skilled/unskilled crews. 11) Planner identifies special tools needed by the craft man for maintenance activities and reserve such tooling and other accessories at the place of work. Institute a control system that contributes to managing productivity.10) Planner is required to coordinate with vendors & ensure material supply along with the quality control on vendor supplies. anticipated parts & tools. with identification numbers. the maintenance process has the following steps: 1) Receives request from the concerned section for the maintenance work.6 Planning System In a proper planning system. 3) Planner evolves a system and procedure for each type of maintenance work. 5) Creates data and information on machineries and equipment and its maintenance methodology for future reference and analysis. 12) Planner will arrange material handling equipments like crane. craft and skill level required. 6. pallets etc for easy movement of identified parts and tools to work site in advance. 2) Planner plans work order.5 Benefit of Planning As planning consists of arranging parts and the necessary tools for maintenance work and provide necessary guidelines by use all the inputs effectively through a maintenance system. 6. 6) Establishes through work order system. 6.7 How Much Planning Will Help? a) Tangible Help: • Planning provides tangible help for organization to achieve: . time estimates. Hence the purpose of planning is to focus on high productivity through an organized planning & scheduling principles. 7) Prepares Schedules for maintenance works and follow track until complete. specify job scope.
c) “World class” wrench time · Statistical work sampling studies measures productive time. The practical result of planning-example: In a power station. thus frees technicians for more productive work. Specialization & Coordination of Planning a) The specific benefit of planning in Wrench time improvements · There are organizations who feel that the planning work is part and parcel of the maintenance crew. Further if there are three crews working with .8 Productivity. one can calculate and measure the actual amount of increased maintenance productivity. Improvement here was only possible with the planning in place. Analysis of the nonproductive time is one of the most valuable work-sampling. • • Through proper planning. where the management created an exclusive planning group. In addition. where in the planning addresses and reduces delays. 6. intangible benefits of planning were seen in providing a better control of maintenance work. Crew will plan their work and then executes. To determine if any of the delay time could be avoidable requires planner’s assistance for analyzing such nonproductive time. -Work force is freed up. But it proved the other way as seen from the above examples. Practically the total maintenance work was completed by 35 personnel as compared to previous year’s statistics of using around 45 personnel for the same output. · The maximum performance target for wrench time was shown at an average of around 55%.-Amount of work accomplished rises. The industry’s average productive maintenance time was less than 30% (the measure of wrench time) when a typical maintenance technician has spent less than 20% on the real work and it is found that the balance time is spent on other nonproductive tasks. thus using the freed 10 trained personnel for other productivity improvement activities. also known as wrench time. b) Improving the Wrench Time and Productivity · Work activities are classified differently. could achieve a remarkable reliable plant capacity within a year through superior availability and a drastic improvement in work force productivity. -Extra labor power can be reallocated to added value activities. Is this wrench time a reality? Instances are there in which experienced workforce moved from average 35% wrench time to 55% with fine tuned planning.
which is essential for a competitive edge. Industry to this day continues to use specialization.wrench time of 30%. which spells the importance of planning jobs for maintenance. Loading these specialists to achieve higher wrench times also requires a sound planning and proper coordination. 5) Planners recognize the skill of the crafts. 6. These principles must be understood by all concerned to have effective planning process. then total productivity is 100 % [2x 50% +0= 100%. and if one is allocated to planning job and with whose instance. for which they train and maintain separate groups of mechanics.9 Maintenance Planning Principles The principles or paradigms that are evolved over the maintenance mission will profoundly affect planning. as compared to 3x30=90%]. But experience has shown that a single planner can plan maintenance jobs for more than 20 persons. Specialization increases productivity per person. Six principles greatly contribute to the overall success of planning. Each principle identifies important crossroads. There is a methodology of work measurement what is commonly known as wrench time and this frequently misunderstood principle and hence must be made clear to everyone concerned. 2) Planners concentrate on future work. recognizing skill of the craftsman and measuring performance must be understood by every one concerned with production. The principles of having planning as a separate department in order to focus on the future work and consequent use of planner’s expertise to create estimates. 3) Planners base their files on the component level of systems. Decisions making at each crossroads on the alternative ways to conduct planning and execute is essential and ultimate success of planning depends on this situational oriented decision. 4) Planner expertise dictates job estimates. and instrument technicians. electricians. . 1) Company organizes planners into a separate department. the other two crew reached a wrench time of 50%. b) Specialization and Productivity: · Experienced crew are specializing in a particular field and achieving the specified goals.
Principle 1: [The Company organizes planners into a separate department] · The planners are organized into a separate department from craft maintenance crews to facilitate specialization in planning and focus on future work. plan changes. or other helpful information so that future work plans and schedules might be improved. · Because planning contributes to scheduling. the lack of planning effort may decrease the number of work assignments to crew members · The company organizing planners to a separate group. . feedback is given by the lead technician or supervisor to the Planning Department. The supervisor has an obligation to complete the assigned work in an expeditious manner with a minimum of interruptions · The crew focuses exclusively on executing assigned work. secure file system based on equipment tag numbers. The Planning Department concentrates on future work and provide the crew to plan their work in advance and remove backlogs · After job completion.6) Work sampling of direct work time provide measure of planning effectiveness. The feedback consists of any problems. especially on repetitive maintenance tasks. The file system enables planners to utilize equipment data and information and their experience on previous work to prepare and improve work plans. which helps planners to become specialized in all the tools and techniques of planning · Planners need to work closely to ensure proper execution of work with consistency. Principle 2: [Focus on Future Work] · The vision of planning is to increase labor productivity by preparing the jobs in advance. Matching identify tags on the machineries are also arranged. · Planners use personal experience and develop work plans to avoid anticipated work delays and quality or safety problems. · Planners report to a different supervisor/ lead planner who will be responsible to provide direction and ensure consistency within the planning group. The planners ensure that the feedback information is properly filed to aid future work. · The planners must be engaged in preparing work that has not yet begun. Principle 3: [Component Level Files] · Planning maintains a simple.
These planners rely greatly upon their personal skill and experience in addition to existing information in the files to develop job plans. · Supervisors must train technicians with deficient skills and give proper support and guidance · Technicians must execute the job precisely as planned for three reasons. · Supervisors and plant engineers are trained to access these files to gather information they need with minimal planner assistance. .· The majority of maintenance tasks are repetitive over a period of time. Principle 4: [Estimates Based on Planner Expertise] · Planners use personal experience and file information to develop work plans to avoid anticipated work delays after considering quality and safety problems. The plan dictates the skill set necessary to accomplish the work given the state of the job plan. · Planners give information to supervisor for scheduling control. The planner’s responsibility is to firm up the scope of the work request including clarification of the originator’s intent wherever necessary. · This principle dictates that planners depend on the workforce being sufficiently skilled when he is putting a minimum level of detail into the initial job plans. · Plant must choose from among its best craft persons to be planners. · Routine maintenance offers the highest potential for planner contribution to company success because more intricate or unusual maintenance tasks receives necessary help from plant engineering department Principle 5: [Recognize the Skill of the Crafts] · The Planning Department recognizes the skill of the crafts. · Craft technicians use their expertise to make the specified repair or replacement. · The planner then plans the general strategy of the work (such as repair or replace) and includes procedure if it is not already there in the file. The planners also use their own expertise to formalize best practices on individual job plans. File cost information assists in making repair or replace decisions. Any recommended deviations from the job plan must be approved by planning before execution. The planners and technicians work together over repeated jobs to develop better procedures and checklists. The planner calls for a minimum craft skill on a job plan.
Planning can adopt preferred maintenance for higher effectiveness. The time that employees spend at their job sites working is called direct or productive work.10 Planning Preventive & Predictive Maintenance. · Principle 6 dictates that measuring how much time craft technicians actually spend on their job site versus other activities performed such as obtaining parts or tools. statistical observational techniques & study. not the control of planning or the work force. a) Preventive Maintenance [PM] and Planning · The planning department studies and issues PM’s schedules and reviews them periodically. What is actually important is the analysis of the nonproductive time. parts. tools. or equipment information are all deducted. Projects The concepts and importance of preventive maintenance. planners visualize the types of work orders to be released for preventive maintenance tasks for the next week. coordination with other crafts. Wrench time is the proportion of available time-to-work time during which the craft technicians are on productive working on a job site. Starting with a basic system. Wrench time is measured accurately with a properly structured. These reduce the incidence of reactive maintenance work and to increase plant reliability. travel. · Work sampling to determine wrench time gives this measure of how much planning is helping in the process. . 6. predictive maintenance. This determines the effectiveness of the maintenance planning program. the planning system counts on the skilled technicians giving feedback on job plans so that their expertise and the planner’s expertise both contribute to adding information to future plans. · Measuring wrench time thus gives an overall indication of how well the other principles have been implemented or accepted. Delays such as waiting for assignment. Wrench time analysis is an indicator. and project work and their relationship to the development of the planning principles and practices are discussed here. clearance. Principle 6: [Measure Performance with Work Sampling] · Wrench time is the primary measure of workforce efficiency and of planning and scheduling effectiveness.· Finally. instructions. This principle holds that delays in technician’s job should be avoided.
and Cleanliness. work hours. . small adjustments. on the work done. · Cleanliness helps reduce contamination sources and such clean surfaces to reveal the presence of new leaks. lubrications etc. which are contributing to more than 50% of all breakdowns.· A planner should plan each of the PMs with scope and craft requirements such as numbers of persons. · Lubrication is important part of a PM program. · The scope should extend beyond simple repair and replacement of parts to improve equipment reliability as well. PdM personnel make the call on the creation of new work orders. · Emphasis in all PMs is to inspect the equipment for abnormal situations. Lubrication. Tightness. repairs. Many do value assigning with experienced personnel to perform PM work orders. For this. · The planner must receive feedback to improve the PM work order itself. Planning for parts encourages the replacement of fasteners based on the technician’s decisions. as improper lubrication leads to total damage to equipment. The dirt and grime also add undesirable insulation conditions that may affect equipment performance. · Planners should also review the histories and feedback from all work orders to determine if additional PM work orders are needed. For ex: tightening of fasteners in the coupling if he found they are loose. tightening of bolts. · PdM technology greatly moves the plant’s reliability upward as the predictions in predictive maintenance show an important capacity for growth in accuracy. The plan should also list anticipated parts and special tools. · The planner should allow some extra time in the work order on all PM work for making unspecified excessive cleaning. the technician is empowered to make any minor equipment adjustments or minor repairs during execution of the PM. PM plans can include rags for wiping and removing old grease when parts are dissembled. or minor repairs. and duration. · This requirement of corrective maintenance is ‘TLC’ i. · PM plans should specify torque requirements or attach torque charts where appropriate and include torque wrenches as a special tool.e. Predictive maintenance (PdM) uses technology not available to the regular maintenance work force. b) Predictive Maintenance [PdM] and Planning · Planning plans and schedules PdM work orders.
with active participation and assistance from the planning group. so that PdM personnel may quickly climb the learning curve. The application of maintenance planning makes possible the dramatic improvement in maintenance productivity. 6. Each principle resolves a crossroads decision that affects the planning effort. . or other rebuild tolerances. The decision the company makes regarding each situation determines the ultimate success of planning. At each crossroads.11 Summary of Maintenance Planning Effective maintenance is vital to provide reliable plant capacity. but difference is in the larger nature of projects. the company has to make a decision regarding alternate ways to conduct planning. Plants treat projects as outages and planned as long-range scheduling. · Planners should insist to utilize standards set by PdM for certain jobs.· Planners must accept PdM work orders for jobs and translate them into the appropriate scope for the maintenance crews. c) Project Work and Planning · Similar to PdM. Consideration of six basic principles greatly boosts the planning program efforts toward success. The planning effort has mainly focused on making individual jobs ready to go by identifying and planning around potential delays. bearing clearances. · Planners should be able to estimate and commit the project schedules with plant engineering and scheduler assistance. · Planners should facilitate PdM when work on equipment is in process. which involves alignment criteria. · Planners should insist that PdM uses the same equipment tag numbers for ease communication problems. planning group plans and schedules work orders to implement projects as regular jobs. · The PdM group can update the technology of the maintenance force. · Planners must vigorously pursue collecting documentation to establish files and also overview position regarding the project replacement or overhaul. · Plant normally has the personnel to implement such maintenance project work with the productivity prescribed in the planning and scheduling system.
tools. the schedules and job priorities for every forecasted work available. The crews worked on the planned jobs and work sampling study made on it indicated a wrench time of 25% only and further plant could do better job if improved upon. and measuring planning performance with work sampling for technician’s direct work time. the principles or paradigms in order to evolve effective scheduling will come through effective planning process. break.The principle of having planning as a separate department. and then measure schedule compliances. and estimate times adequately. Because most jobs are repetitive. recognizing the skill of the crafts. and shutdown Wrench time concept of measuring the work for each hour of the day. Planners need to avoid continually being interrupted to resolve problems for jobs already under way. Plnners must possess the experience of top level technicians in order to scope jobs. using planner expertise to create estimates. Only when planning keeps a separate file for each piece of equipment. Maintenance needed certain methodology to assigning enough work through the planning process. but also exists for excessive startup. which is discussed below. Planners need to focus on future work not yet begun. gave a clear picture of how technicians are completing their work. or travel categories. are all in the total system. When work orders are received. .12 Maintenance Scheduling Principles Scheduling principles envisages the vision. They solved the problems by addressing symptomatic of tools. The analysis revealed that the large delay times not only for parts. the technicians would scope out the jobs with their social & other times. focusing on future work. parts availability problems or not properly planning issues Companies placed an emphasis on planning and also they doubled the parts availability in stores to reduce ordering needs. Wrench time will measure whether the objectives of planning are met or not in reducing job delays. . file history help technicians to avoid previously faced problems. allowing the crew supervisor to handle day’s work. efficiently. The planned work packages increases the maintenance department’s ability to complete work orders effectively. and safely. utilize files. instructions. This aligning of the work to accomplish the desired effective and efficient maintenance led to the principles of scheduling. 6. The principles used for planning and scheduling are for achieving the forecasted skill levels. lunch. having component level files. it is practical to retrieve information when needed.
4. Schedule assigns planned work for every forecasted work hour available. · The priority may be reviewed periodically and adjusted in coordination with crew. § Job plans provide information about the number of persons required. if required while assigning individuals to execute job plan. Schedule compliance of wrench time.Routine maintenance needs the use of principles. and job duration. planners and the plant manager. Principle 2 [Entire plant respect the importance of schedules and job priorities] · Weekly and daily schedules must be adhered to by the crew as per the priorities mentioned in the work orders to prevent undue interruption in schedules. The appropriate priority for the work is based on established plant guidelines. Planners plan the jobs for lowest required skill levels. 5. Crew supervisor matches personnel skills and tasks 6. Crew supervisors forecast available work hours one week ahead by the highest skills available. craft work hours per level.13 Six Maintenance Scheduling Principles Six principles that greatly contribute to the overall success of scheduling are: 1. lowest required craft skill level. Does the job require mechanics or machinists? Does the job require three helpers to assist a certified electrician? Etc that are necessary for advance scheduling. Principle 1: [Planners plan the jobs for lowest required skill levels] § Essential part of Principle 1 is that job plans identify the lowest skill necessary to complete the work with the contention that the supervisor will have higher skill capability also. 3. provides the measure of scheduling effectiveness. Each principle sets guidelines on how the maintenance should handle different scheduling process. Plant priority plays a larger role in creating the schedule of work and all involved should treat it as a serious matter. . 2. 6. The entire plant must respect the importance of schedules and job priorities. · Advance scheduling of enough work for the entire week sets the goal for maximum utilization of the available craft hours. as they create a framework for successful scheduling of planned work. It also ensures that a sufficient and the right work are assigned.
Principle 3 [Develops week’s schedule for each crew & craft hours required] · Develops a week’s schedule for each crew based on craft hours required. If a true emergency arises. and information from job plans. · Scheduler uses a forecast of maximum capabilities of the crew for coming week. job priorities.e. after considering the tasks that are being interrupted · Principle 4 brings all the three previous scheduling principles together. As these may cause unique problems it is better to be avoided. forecast of highest skill. This includes proactive work. it is better to delay identified job in full rather than completing half. · Crew supervisor matches personnel skills and tasks. · Scheduler also uses job priority and job plan information. crew work load is 1000 worthy labour hours. new high priority. · Scheduling plan is for performing all the works available in the system. · Preference is given to completing the higher priority work by utilizing whatever skills available than working on completing the lower priority work. · Over assigning and under assigning work are common and acceptable in industries. Principle 5: [The crew supervisor matches personnel skills and tasks] · Crew supervisor develops a daily schedule one day in advance using current job progress. and reactive jobs as a guide.· Inefficiency peeps through the interruption by low priority jobs coming in way of urgent jobs progressing. · Scheduler assigns work plans for the crew to execute during the following week for 100% of the forecasted hours i. It allows for emergencies/high priority/ reactive jobs by scheduling sufficient amount of work hours. · First two principles are the prerequisites of the principle-3 scheduling · Scheduler selects the week’s worth of work from the overall plant backlog. . · Consideration is also given to multiple jobs on the same equipment or system and of proactive versus reactive work available. Principle 4: [A week’s schedule will assign work for all the available work hour] · A week’s schedule will assign work for the total work hours.
scheduler to develop schedule in advance. it relatively balances by week end. Maintenance dept also tracks schedule compliance. allow crew supervisors to make daily schedules. Work sampling or wrench time is the best measure of scheduling performance. This increases flexibility in choosing jobs. · Schedule compliance is the measure of adherence to the one week schedule and its effectiveness. job plans must plan for the lowest required skill level. . · Planning individual jobs can reduce delays such as waiting to obtain certain parts. assigns work for all available labour hours.14 Summary of Maintenance Scheduling Maintenance management must consider main scheduling in the maintenance planning strategy to avoid problems of improved efficiency. tools. 6. and track schedule compliance. or technician instructions · Scheduling aims at reducing delays.· Crew supervisor handles the current day’s work and any other problems in emergency maintenance · Although individual jobs show a wide variance between planned and actual times. Work sampling or wrench time studies quantify delays & gives measures of planning and scheduling effectiveness. He will ensure that each technician receives assignments totalling to full day’s work Principle 6: [Wrench time is the primary measure of workforce efficiency] · Wrench time is the primary measure of workforce efficiency and of planning and scheduling effectiveness. · Each day the crew supervisor assigns the next day’s work to each technician. Adhering to schedules is important as interrupting jobs leads to overall inefficiency. Knowing of the lowest skills required for jobs and the highest skills available allows developing a schedule with proper work for the week. In case of delay in actual job progress and the incidence of unexpected reactive work in place. crew supervisor is the best judge to create the daily crew work schedule. The priority system must properly identify the right jobs to start. When setting craft and time requirements. Six basic principles form the foundation of successful scheduling and make schedules and priority systems important.
efficiently. 4. and works such as preventive maintenance/ breakdown work and release of the work orders to proceed. 5. a planner develops a …………… after receiving a work request.Schedule based on the wrench time has to be practiced.. Further working to the maintenance planning based on the six planning principles along with the six scheduling principles will help improve the productivity. Hence use of planned and scheduled work packages increases the maintenance department’s ability to complete work orders effectively. Principles 3 through 5 establish basis of scheduling process. Maintenance management uses planning as a tool to reduce …………………. Principles 1 and 2 are prerequisites for scheduling. The planners and crew had to deal differently with urgent reactive work by developing job plans for reactive work. · To arrest the leakages and keep up the lubrication system · The planner specifies the appropriate craft skills required for that particular job. In the maintenance process given below which one not the step to be considered. . · Crew personnel are assigned the job for execution · The time estimates are made by planner · Maintenance planning brings together or coordinates the effort of many other aspects of maintenance. . Out of the maintenance planning functions. and safely. The planning mission statement could be ……………………………. 3. crew schedules. through advance preparation. Self Assessment Questions 1. which one is not relevant? · Coordinating mechanism within the maintenance department. A planning mission statement may be: …………………………………. To prepare a job in advance. 2.. This involves job priorities. Principle 6 sets overall indicators for scheduling control. · A maintenance planner does preparatory planning for the craft persons · The planner identifies appropriate materials for the specified job and checks whether they are available or must be specially obtained.
Wrench time is the primary measure …………………………………………… Wrench time is the proportion of available time to. . c) Planners base their files on the component level of systems. b) A planner plans the work order by specifying job scope. Which is sixth one? a) The company organizes planners into a separate department.a) Receives request from the concerned section for the maintenance work.. b) Planners concentrate on future work. per person 9. Statistical work sampling studies measures ……………. 8. c) ……………………………………………… 7. procedures for assigning proper amount of work to all the skilled/unskilled crews h) Prepares Schedules for the maintenance works and follow track until complete. Six principles greatly contribute to overall success of planning. time estimates. Planning provides tangible help. with all their identification numbers. also known as wrench time. craft and skill level required. d) Planner expertise dictates job estimates. Specialization increases ………………………. 6. as well as specifying anticipated parts and tools. e) Fix up the wages for each of the work based on the skill level f) Creates data and information on all machineries and equipment and its maintenance methodology for future reference and analysis. g) He establishes through work order system. Fill in (c) below: a) The amount of work accomplished rises. b) The work force is freed up. c) Planner evolves a system and procedure for each type of maintenance work d) Skill levels and time estimates on jobs and proper scheduling are included in the subject work order.work time during which the craft technicians are on productive working on a job site. .
to equipment. 3. The entire plant must respect the importance of schedules and job priorities. 13. c. b. Fill in the missing principle. which are contributing to more than 50% of all breakdowns. Just as in planning. The principles used for planning and scheduling are for achieving the forecasted higher skill levels. and project work to lessen the ……………………. Explain briefly the functions of maintenance planning. Improper lubrication leads to total ……….e) Planners recognize the skill of the crafts.15 Terminal Questions 1. ……………………………………………. The PdM technology has the potential of greatly moving the plant’s ………. Schedule compliance joins wrench time to provide the measure of scheduling effectiveness. a. ……. 12. ………. for every forecasted work available. 10. ……….... …………………. d. e. upward as the predictions involved in predictive maintenance show an important capacity for growth in accuracy. Companies strive to do more preventive maintenance. Why planning process is essential for efficient maintenance management? 2... Cleanliness helps reduce …………….e. The crew supervisor matches personnel skills and tasks] f. 6. and such clean surfaces to reveal the presence of new leaks.. f) ………………………………………. Crew supervisors forecast available work hours one week ahead by the highest skills available. and then measure schedule compliances 15. What are the benefits of maintenance planning? . predictive maintenance. six principles that greatly contribute to the overall success of scheduling are discussed below. allowing the crew supervisor to handle day’s work. This requirement of corrective maintenance is ‘TLC’ i. 11. 14. work and to increase plant reliability. Planners plan the jobs for lowest required skill levels.
What is wrench time? How it is recognized as a maintenance work measure? 6. (sl. no: e) Fix up the wages for each of the work based on the skill level 6. Unnecessary job. Incidence of reactive maintenance 11. Explain briefly the planning approaches in preventive and predictive maintenance processes. 9. Work plan 2. Explain briefly how the use of six principles will greatly contribute to the overall success of scheduling 6. (sl.4. 8. Tightness.no:4)To arrest the leakages and keep up the lubrication system 3. Productive time. Doing right jobs which are ready to go 4. workforce efficiency and of planning and scheduling effectiveness. Productivity 9. The extra labor power can be reallocated to added value activities. 7.16 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1. Work sampling for direct work time provides the primary measure of planning effectiveness 10. Explain how the specialization in areas of maintenance will help improve the productivity of the maintenance crew. Lubrication. “To increases the Maintenance Department’s ability to complete work orders quickly”. 5. 7. Why scheduling after proper planning is essential for effective maintenance and meeting the dead line and avoid delays? 10. Explain as to how the maintenance planning will help improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the organization 5. and Cleanliness . What are the maintenance planning principles? How they contribute to the success of planning? 8.
2 3.Refer 6. Refer 6. Refer 6. Refer 6. Refer 6. damage 13.5 4. The schedules and job priorities 15. Terminal Questions 1. (For d): The schedule assigns planned work for every forecasted work hour available.10 a & b 9.13 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .12 10. .7 (c) 6. Refer 6.1 2. Refer 6. Refer 6.7 5.8 (b) 7. Reliability 14.12. Refer 6. Refer 6. Contamination sources.9 8.
4 Benefits of using ‘UMS’ with Planner’s Functions 7.11 Answers 7.5 Universal Principles for higher Productive Maintenance 7.7 ACE Team Benchmarking Process 7. process and systems. The new system will become a platform for continuous improvement and will generate long term benefits .1 Introduction Automating the maintenance program is a complex task as it requires integrating of people. Using a state-of-the-art maintenance management.1 Introduction Objectives 7. organizations have tried and tested different approaches for bringing changes that can result in improvements in both the function and the cost.8 Overall Craft Effectiveness & its Measurement 7.9 Summary 7.2 Planner’s Function in Maintenance & Benefits 7.3 Organization & Processes 7.6 Work Measurement for High-Productivity Maintenance Universal Maintenance Standards [UMS] Five Levels of Data in Ums 7.OM0006-Unit-07-Universel Maintenance Practices Unit-07-Universel Maintenance Practices Structure: 7.10 Terminal Questions 7.
· Explain the benefits of UMS · Adopt the ACE system of Benchmarking 7. materials and overhead. Use of the state of art principles. theory. especially when sophisticated high tech machineries and equipments are used for production. satisfied customers. maintenance labour. cost reduction and its measurement 5. higher quality. Implementing new techniques of measurement. on-time delivery and ultimately.2 Planner’s Function In Maintenance & Benefits The planner’s role is varied in nature such as: maintain a backlog of ready-to-work jobs for each technician. principles and theory of new measurement techniques. are the concepts. close communication with supervisors. a detail analysis and adopting certain state of art principles and improve maintenance productivity are all the focus areas for the above said disciplines. Adopting ACE system for benchmarking and improvements 4. Engineering or Industrial Engineering managers spearhead their achievements of dramatic productivity improvements by adopting different methods of work measurements in managing and controlling their activities. Improving the Overall craft effectiveness [OCE] for productivity. Higher productivity maintenance means better customer service.The analysis and application of work measurements to ensure improved productivity and cost reduction in maintenance should be the prime consideration by the management. systems and techniques of Universal Maintenance Standards [UMS] 2. Benchmarking the best practices 3. Improving Wrench time of the Crew in Maintenance 6. as the maintenance represents variable operating cost which includes physical plant value. For achieving the above said prerequisites. field checks jobs when . How the Maintenance. some of which are listed below: 1. Achieving excellence in Maintenance Engineering and Management Objectives: After studying this unit you shall be able to: · Outline the functions to be performed by the maintenance planner.
the same can be raised to around 80% when a planning function is integrated with UMS times to work together. unrealized opportunity etc. identifies special tools. verifies priority. The planner also develops bench marks and maintains the data library. plans safety requirements. Planners develop all the data. Hence the measurement provides information to determine the savings potential and also justify the maintenance work measurement program. While the maintenance departments without planners can achieve around 50-60% Productivity. based on a formal planning function and the Universal Maintenance Standards. plans work content. do the training. and time to do the work. 7. crafts needed. or too many stock-outs. b) Processes Processes involve data development and work order planning. crew size. cost of the items. Importance of work measurement and the standard for the job should be established. 7. In addition the resultant productivity improvement that accrues are the benefits to organization in a) cost reductions b) downtime reduction. Both the planners and the maintenance crew should examine to see how the UMS times could be applied. requisitions non-stock or out-of-stock items. They can also establish a computerized maintenance management system.needed. are validated. etc as well as the stores process to check the inventory value. time reporting on the performance including delays. materials.3 Organization & Processes The tasks for a maintenance work measurement program fall into two categories namely 1) Organization and 2) Process a) Organization with planner in the forefront Planner maintains and allocates the work and knows all the ratios required for accomplishing the jobs and have good maintenance skills and experience and capabilities to work as the ultimate expert system. and make available to the crew a set of basic processes and craft operations for the process before establishing bench marks. .4 Benefits of Using ‘Ums’ with Planner’s Functions It is found that when a planner’s function is integrated with the UMS resultant impact is of improving the overall maintenance effectiveness. issue of stores taking too long. The normal ratio of planners to technicians used is 20 to 30:1. life cycle cost reductions d) on time completion of jobs e) continuous improvements f) improved service to customers.
This principle is also universal. They highlight problems or roadblocks for completion of the project. c) Activity Responsibility The responsibility for each activity of a work order is necessary to ensure that the work order continues to move toward resolution without delay. The standard crew size is one and any other size is exceptions to the general rule. f) Timeliness Large maintenance jobs are divided into smaller work orders. It is universal. Timely accomplishment is also universal phenomenon. Lord Kelvin saw this in his scientific investigation of the laws of physics. d) Customer/Service Relationship The customer decides what is needed from an operational viewpoint. if followed. maintenance is no exception b) Measurement Before Control The measurement of an activity is basic to its control.1 Universal Maintenance Standards [UMS] . and maintenance decides how the service should be provided. lead to the lasting results. 7. Frederick Taylor’s principle applies to all work.7.6 Work Measurement for High-Productivity Maintenance 7.6. but also helps growth in value added processes.5 Universal Principles for Higher Productive Maintenance There are several principles that. Hence the Universal Standards serve the special needs of maintenance work through the following principles: a) Scientific Principle Best productivity results when each worker has a definite job to do in a definite way within a definite time. Together the customer and maintenance crew decide the priority (based on resources available) and urgency of each task compared to other existing current works. which can be accurately planned. e) Crew Size The optimum crew size for a maintenance job is the smallest that can perform the work using a specific method and execute in a safe & efficient manner.
called ‘Universal Maintenance Standards’ (UMS). If it is a low volume work done by multi skilled crew. or tasks. automotive. b) Evolution of Universal Maintenance Standards (UMS) In the early 1950’s. but everywhere where maintenance work is performed –manufacturing. There are at least four to five hundred different jobs. Techniques: The UMS system is based on three important techniques: 1) Range-of-time. service. Applying the specific standards to the daily maintenance workload requires answers for: which task standard is required. Each element requires further study followed by application of stopwatch time or a predetermined time system analysis to determine the exact time required for each through the method selected. or one country. machining. in each of skills of fourteen types of jobs: mechanical. electrical. If the time to perform similar tasks is known. The range-of-time technique recognizes the variable nature of maintenance works. availability of such standards. some unique characteristics are revealed.The principles adopted for above said requirements are based on the application of work measurement in maintenance. custodial. This range of time is same in 95 % of situations and hence standard average time is applied and practiced 2) Work content comparison. labour. The combination of many elements requiring different maintenance tasks and varieties of skills warrants developing and maintain a library of enormous number of standards. utilities. the motion pattern for two tasks may be same and also time to perform the work is almost the same. finance. industry or service enterprise. masonry. Even though parts are different. time taken for threading a one-inch nut on to a bolt by hand operation takes almost same time like that of screwing in a light bulb into the holder. government. instrument. pipe. education or healthcare. sheet metal. the result is that the crew does longer cycle work compared to other production workers. which in turn depends on: a) Nature of Maintenance works: In maintenance works. engineers adopted new methods for analyzing and assigning standards to maintenance work. Hence breaking long jobs down into elements have resulted in a large number of elements. is it realistic to measure. For example. as these standards offered flexibility and could be applied not just in one location. to what precision. carpenter. paint. A simple task such as removing and replacing a part may take more or less time depending on how tight the bolts are. HVAC. commercial. weld. then the time . how much rust is present on them etc. to what volume of work etc. IT management etc.
3) Organizing the data UMS data is organized in a building block fashion. carpentry. welding operations are made up of manual handling. 7. Similar craft data for other skilled craft operations such as painting. This system analyzes and classifies data into basic motions and establishes a relationship between the motions and the time required to perform them. which are pooled as weld craft operations data. grasp. Each of these motions are recorded and these data becomes the established times for future reference and standardization. becomes the standardization process and hence these are universally adopted. distance moved. 2) basic operations. whether the how clamping of part is done etc are recorded in the table for further use as standards. 3) craft operations.2 Five Levels of Data in Ums 1) Basic Motions The foundation of UMS data is the predetermined time system for basic motions. For instance. 2) Basic Operations Basic motions are grouped together to form basic operations. electrical. engineers can typically apply standards to all maintenance work with bench marks covering all the crafts and through the use of spread sheets they can substantially reduce the data library compared to the one with direct standard method. move. common to all crafts. 5) Spread Sheets.that can be applied to any other similar task with + or – 5%. 3) Craft Operations Some operation times are unique to a certain craft. pipefitting.6. By using spread sheets. Two widely used predetermined time systems are ‘Methods-Time Measurement’ and ‘Operation Sequence Technique’. Spread sheet fills the additional needs of finding quickly the . where work measures are dividing into basic motions such as reach. machine settings and arc striking time etc. position and release. using the work content comparison technique is possible. Five levels of data in the UMS library. 4) bench marks and 5) spread sheets. The variables like weight of the part. namely 1) basic motions. a planner is able to establish planning times for a large number of jobs using relative sample data of the benchmark jobs and publicise the data along with the step-by-step process. body motions. machining could be made available for the crew of maintenance 4) Bench Marks Using UMS.
compressors. job site time and allowances for personal. outlines a new and highly recommended methodology for establishing ‘team-based maintenance performance standards’. These Benchmarked jobs are then arranged into different time categories on spreadsheets for various craft work areas. who have performed these jobs earlier and have requisite experience to improve upon them. ACE Team Benchmarking Process parallels the UMS approach in that the range of time and the work content times for a representative number of benchmarked jobs are established. which are reliable and a well-accepted planning times for the entire maintenance crew. Ex: Benchmarking and firming up the task can be easily done in areas like lighting. say within 95% confidence range.appropriate one for an application or finding the right bench mark for comparison. continuous improvement and the changing of times in performance and methods. a team of relatively small in number. have developed a bench marking process for the major work areas/types of maintenance operations. the standards are established. and in mechanical fields like Belt drives. and lubrication and service. Here the emphasis is placed on improving current repair methods. 3) ACE System: a Team-Based Approach ACE Team process is to obtain the most reliable. The ACE System is used to develop maintenance performance standards. in generators. 2) Objective of ACE Team Benchmarking Process Objective is to determine the reliable planning times for a number of selected “benchmark” jobs and to gain a consensus on the predetermined work content time. bringing control systems. 7. reducers and gear boxes.7 ACE Team Benchmarking Process “A Consensus of Experts” (ACE). the technique which was formulated and developed by the ‘The Maintenance Excellence Institute’ [TMEI]. The allowances applied to these set times to get a single UMS time calculation for use by the crew. All work order times released for the jobs and it consists of four components: job preparation time. 1) ACE System & UMS Using predetermined standard data. Spreadsheets are then provided for each work group having a time slots or range of times. Spreadsheets include brief descriptions of the benchmark jobs and represent pure wrench time. clutches and brakes. supervisors and planners . which is called as ‘Reliable Planning-Time standards’. rest and minor unavoidable delays. which are then imposed on the maintenance force. in motors. area travel time. reasonable estimate of maintenance “work content” time from a group of experienced crafts people. material handling equipment. This new Benchmarking Tool through ACE.
historical data. b) Investment for Planners: The planner’s activity with the team approach of ACE system will establish maintenance performance standards. risks analysis on jobs that leads to improvements. 7. Other methods used include reasonable estimates. Labour standards will be the baseline for determining craft productivity and improved methods. effective storerooms and .8 Overall Craft Effectiveness [OCE] & Its Measurement a) Craft Performance element of Overall Craft Effectiveness Determining the required standard hours of a technician require a trail run of the task under standard operating conditions. Best practices such as effective maintenance planning/scheduling. 5) ACE Team Benchmarking Process: ACE System is a true team-based process that utilizes skilled crafts people. preventive/predictive maintenance. 4) Recommendation of ACE System ACE Team overcomes many inherent difficulties associated with developing maintenance performance standards and hence recommended as the standard process for modern maintenance management. budgeting and costing. c) How OCE impacts the bottom line: Craft Labor Improving Overall Craft Effectiveness is getting maximum value from craft labor resources and higher craft productivity. which will provide the management with a valuable input data for backlog determination. safety practices. and engineered standards such as Universal standards. planners and other knowledgeable people to do two things. technicians. manpower planning. scheduling. as its application promotes a commitment to quality repair procedures. safety and quality b) Establish work content time for selected “benchmark jobs” for planners and others to use in developing reliable planning time. a) Improve current repair methods. supervisors. 6) The ACE System Supports Reliability Improvement: ACE Team process can contribute significantly to reliability. Computerized maintenance management system (CMMS) could also be practiced.and provides an excellent means to evaluate repair method.
g) Craft Performance Another key element of OCE is the craft performance i. Waiting for the equipment to be shut down for work start Waiting for contractor support to arrive at job site Waiting on other crafts to finish their job Travelling to/from job site Make-ready. 7. 4. Effective planning/ scheduling is the key to increase wrench time and craft utilization. planned maintenance and more productive “wrench time”. This element includes quality of the actual work. productive work (wrench time). Craft performance is directly related to individual craft skills and overall trades experience. 20 to 30 % can be expected from more effective maintenance planning & scheduling. the personal motivation and effort of each craftsperson. Measuring and improving overall craft effectiveness (OCE) is one of the components of continuous improvements d) Effective Craft Utilization (CU): Craft Utilization or pure wrench time relates to measuring how effective the work is planned and craft resources scheduled so that these assets are doing value-added. documentation etc. fire fighting mode Waiting on parts and searching parts or part information Waiting for asset info.e. 3. 9. drawings. Running from emergency to emergency in a reactive. 2. how efficient the hands-on craft work is done compared to an established planned time or performance standard. h) Craft Service Quality (CSQ) Another element affecting the overall Craft Effectiveness relates to the quality of the repair. shop clean up time Lack of effective planning and scheduling Craft Utilization (or wrench time) is measured as the ratio of: CU %=100x [Total Productive hours or wrench time]/ [Total craft hours allotted x amount paid] f) Improve Wrench Time original Significant tangible benefits can be realized by increasing the wrench time. e) Productive Wrench Time: Pure wrench time is just the actual output/work done and do not include the miscellaneous waste time caused due to any or many of the following: 1. where certain jobs possibly require a call back to the initial repair thus requiring another trip to fix it right the second . 5. repair instructions. 8.continuous parts support will all contribute to proactive. 6.
In relation to OEE. When reliable data is present for all elements. OCE is increased people asset availability and capacity. j) Think Profit-Centred Maintenance leaders and crafts people must develop the “profit” mindset to be competitive and stay in business. It is gained value that can be calculated and estimated and then measured. Profit-centred in-house maintenance in combination with the wise use of high quality contract maintenance services will be the key to the final evolution that occurs. Organizations should recognize maintenance as a core business requirement and should establish the necessary core competencies for survival.time. Organization should not indiscriminately cut craft labour resources when increase OCE is warranted. implementation of certain state of art principles. new techniques of measurement. . Measuring and improving Overall Craft Effectiveness and the value received from improving craft assets is an important part of total asset management. c) Adopting ACE system for benchmarking and improvements d) ……………………………………………………………. If the internal core competency for maintenance is not present it must be regained and ensure that they are profit-centred maintenance providers by understanding clearly the UMS. patch jobs or inferior repair parts/materials. b) Benchmarking the best practices. and a detail analysis of: a) Universal Maintenance Standards. then Overall Craft Effectiveness Factor can be determined by multiplying each of these three elements: Overall Craft Utilization = [Craft utilization (%) x Craft performance (%) x Craft service quality (%)] i) Where Can We Apply OCE Gained Value Maintenance operations that continually fight fires and react to emergency repairs never have enough time to cover all the work (core requirements) that needs to be done. K) Maintenance is For ever Maintenance is a core requirement for profitable survival and total operations success. Craft Service Quality will suffer due to hasty repairs. the overall Craft Effectiveness and provide value added maintenance services all the time with a profit oriented approach Self Assessment Questions 1. For improving maintenance productivity.
4.. Five levels of data in UMS are: a) basic motions b) Basic operations c) Craft operations d) ………………. The resultant productivity improvement that accrues because of integrating planner’s function with UMS will substantially benefit the organization in the following areas of operations/ functions: a. ………………………………. 5.. ………………………………. The Universal Standards serve the special needs of maintenance work through the following principles: a) ………………… b) Measurement before controls c) activity responsibility d) customer/service relationship e) Crew size f) Timeliness 6. ……………….. Life cycle cost reductions d. . The UMS system is based on three important techniques: a) Range of time b) …………………………… c) organizing the data 7. when once the ‘work content times’ for a representative number of ‘benchmark jobs’ are established. materials. ……………. 9. ACE Team Benchmarking Process parallels the UMS approach in that the ……………………. checks jobs when needed. close communication with supervisors. and e) spread sheets. and time to do the work. …………………………………………… e. have developed a bench marking process for the major work areas/types of operation.e) Improving the Wrench time of the Crew in Maintenance 2. Cost reduction and its total savings b. who have performed these jobs and have the requisite experience to improve upon them. requisitions non-stock or out-of-stock items.. verifies priority. . a team of relatively small number of representatives. Continuous improvement opportunities and gain in competitive advantage f. based on a formal planning function and the. 8. Downtime reduction and its savings c. Contributes in meeting other goals and objectives in the strategic plan. 3. plans crew size. Hence the measurement provides information to determine the savings potential and also justify the maintenance work measurement program. identifies special tools. Improved services to customers g.. The planner’s role is varied in nature such as: maintain a backlog of ready-to-work jobs for each technician...
.... ACE Team process is to obtain the most reliable.. The new system will become a platform for continuous improvement and will generate long term benefits . ACE Team process can contribute significantly to ……………… as its application promotes a commitment to quality repair procedures. effective storerooms and continuous parts support will all contribute to proactive.]/ [Total craft hours allotted x amount paid] 19......... organizations have tried and tested different approaches for bringing changes that can result in improvements in both the function and the cost............ Spreadsheets are then set up with each work group having a time slots or ……………………. supervisors and planners and provides an excellent means to evaluate repair method.. 17.. is getting maximum value from craft labor resources and higher craft productivity...... safety practices.. and do not include the miscellaneous waste time caused due to any of the reasons..... 12. a) ……………………………………………………………………..... supervisors. 16.. time from a group of experienced crafts people. Craft Utilization (or wrench time) is measured as the ratio of: [ .. preventive/ predictive maintenance.. reasonable estimate of maintenance …………………. 18... (%) x Craft service quality (%)] 7... Spreadsheets include brief descriptions of the benchmark jobs and represent ……………….. Pure wrench time is just the ………………………. 11.9 Summary By using a state-of-the-art maintenance management.... risks analysis on jobs that leads to improvements..... Best practices such as effective maintenance planning/scheduling... ACE System is a true team-based process that utilizes skilled crafts people.... 14.... Craft Utilization or pure wrench time relates to measuring how effective we are in planning and scheduling craft resources so that these assets are doing …………………. within the 95% confidence range. planned maintenance and more productive ………………. Overall Craft Utilization = [Craft utilization (%) x . . .10. technicians...... planners and other knowledgeable people to do two things...... b) Establish work content time for selected “benchmark jobs” 13.. 15. Improving ………………………...
Higher productivity maintenance means better customer service. measurements by using UMS and . For achieving high productive maintenance. organizations should clear understand of the Overall Craft Effectiveness. Pure wrench time is just the actual output/work done Measuring and improving Overall Craft Effectiveness and the value received from improving our craft assets an important part of total asset management. These Benchmarked jobs are then arranged into different time categories on spreadsheets for various craft work areas. the concepts. develops a bench marking process for the major work areas / types of operation. higher quality. is a team of relatively small number of representatives. Improving Overall Craft Effectiveness is getting maximum value from craft labor resources and higher craft productivity. Craft Utilization or pure wrench time relates to measuring how effective the craft resources so are doing value-added. life cycle cost reductions d) on time completion of jobs e) continuous improvements f) improved service to customers. on-time delivery and ultimately. The Universal Standards serve the special needs of maintenance work through the following principles: a) Scientific control b) Measurement before controls c) activity responsibility d) customer/service relationship e) Crew size f) Timeliness The Universal Maintenance Standards offered flexibility and could be applied not just in one location. who have performed these jobs earlier and have the requisite experience to improve upon them. productive work (wrench time). For gaining the internal core competency in maintenance. or one country. principles and theory of new measurement techniques that are used are: a)Universal Maintenance Standards. industry or service enterprise. Overall Craft Utilization = [Craft utilization (%) x Craft performance (%) x Craft service quality (%)] Maintenance is a core requirement for profitable survival and total operations success. b) Benchmarking the best practices c) ACE system for benchmarking and improvements d) Overall craft effectiveness for improved productivity and cost reduction and its measurement e) Improving the Wrench time of the Crew f) Achieving excellence in Maintenance Engineering and Management The resultant productivity improvement and benefits that accrues because of integrating planner’s function with UMS are: a) cost reductions b) downtime reduction. but everywhere where maintenance work is performed and is based on three important techniques: a) Range of time b) work content comparison c) organizing the data “A Consensus of Experts” (ACE). satisfied customers. which are reliable and a well-accepted planning times for the entire maintenance crew. The ACE System is used to develop maintenance performance standards.
providing value added maintenance services on a most profitable manner are essential processes. 7.10 Terminal Questions 1. Why application and analysis of work measurements are important in maintenance management? 2. Which are all the concepts, techniques and principles used in measurement of work effectiveness and efficiency in maintenance? 3. Why planner’s role is vital to maintenance and how it improves the effectiveness? 4. Explain briefly the categories to which the tasks of work measurements can be grouped? 5. Explain the benefits that accrue to organization by integrating planner’s works with UMS? 6. Universal Standards serve the special needs of maintenance work through principlesWhich are these universal principles used for higher productive maintenance? 7. What are the three important techniques on which the UMS depends? 8. Explain briefly the five levels of UMS library and how each one is very important criteria for work measurement and analysis? 9. Explain the importance of using spread sheets and bench marks in work measurement to improve maintenance effectiveness? 10. “New Benchmarking Tool through ACE technique outlines a new and highly recommended methodology for establishing ‘team-based maintenance performance standards’, which is called as ‘Reliable Planning-Time standards” –explain how ACE will serve the organization’s needs in maintenance? 11. What is meant by Ace Benchmarking system and to what type of process it is recommended? 12. Explain overall performance effectiveness and how it helps in analyzing the performance of wrench times? 13. What is meant by effective craft utilization and productive wrench time & what are the factors constituting the craft utilization? 7.11 Answers
Self Assessment Questions 1. Improving the Overall craft effectiveness 2. Plans work content 3. On-time completion benefits 4. Universal Maintenance Standards 5. Scientific control 6. Work content comparison 7. Bench marks 8. A Consensus of Experts 9. Range of time concept 10. Range of time and pure wrench time 11. Work content 12. Improve current repair methods, Safety and quality 13. Reliability 14. Overall Craft Effectiveness 15. Wrench time 16. Value-added-productive work. (Wrench time) 17. Actual output/work 18. Total Productive hours or wrench time 19. Craft performance Terminal Questions: 1. Refer 7.1 2. Refer 7.1
3. Refer 7.2 4. Refer 7.3 5. Refer 7.4 6. Refer 7.5 7. Refer 7.6.1.(c) 8. Refer 7.6.2 9. Refer 7.6.2 10. Refer C 11. Refer 7.7.5 12. Refer 7.8 13. Refer 7.8. (d), (e), (f) Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .
Planning for QMS documentation refers to planning for “infrastructure level” QMS documentation.5 Summary 8. Planning for such documentation is performed during the planning phase for a specific project. Overall strategy for creating QMS documentation.4 QMS Documentation Process 8.3 Documentation Management and Control Role of the Document Controller Types of QMS Documents Document Numbering Document Versioning Document Content 8.1 Introduction Objective 8.6 Terminal Questions 8.1 Introduction Before an organization begins creating QMS documentation. Planning for QMS documentation should address the following three elements: 1.7 Answers 8.OM0006-Unit-08-System Operations and Documentation Unit-08-System Operations and Documentation Structure: 8. .2 Documentation Strategy 8. it must plan for it.
Brainstorming the documentation strategy entails obtaining answers to the following questions: · What approach should be adopted for documenting the QMS (top down or bottom-up)? · Up to what level of detail should processes be documented (breadth and depth of documentation)? · How can the QMS documentation be kept relatively stable and immune from minor changes in the organization or its processes? Documentation management and control Documentation management and control are a key element of an organization’s QMS. A wellthought-out. changed in a controlled manner. will provide you with a documentation set that is usable. Process for creating QMS documents. providing mechanisms to ensure that documentation in the organization is uniquely identifiable reviewed and approved by the appropriate authority prior to release. Agreeing upon such issues up front will facilitate the creation of the QMS documentation. rational approach to documenting your QMS will enable you to rapidly develop a QMS that works and has sufficient but not excessive detail. and 3. not one written primarily to appease external quality auditors. perhaps most importantly. This entails answering questions such as: · What types of QMS documents are required? · How should the QMS documents be logically structured? · How should the QMS documents be uniquely identified? · Who should review and approve documents? · How should changes to QMS documents be identified and controlled? · How should superseded (or obsolete) documents be handled? . the primary users of an organization’s QMS documentation are its employees. approval. review. Document creation can proceed unhindered once the necessary guidelines are in place to support the creation. kept current. and. and archived when obsolete (to prevent unintentional use). After all.2. made available to users. and dissemination of QMS documentation. Documentation management and control mechanisms. Documentation strategy This is perhaps the most critical element of QMS documentation planning. not outside parties.
how should the QMS documentation repository be published? · How should the published QMS documentation be organized to maximize ease of use for employees? Documentation process The third element of QMS documentation planning entails the establishment of a process for the creation. that is. hardcopy) repository or an electronic (i. Another important issue that needs to be addressed regards level of detail. For example. the overall process that results in a delivered product the product development process may be documented in a product development procedure and/or in a product development process map. review. the product design sub process should be supported by QMS documentation such as a design document template. the process that results in a formal documented design for the product may be identified as the product design sub process that is documented in a product design procedure. The procedures describing the sub processes and their interaction should be supported by additional QMS documentation.2 Documentation Strategy The top-down approach to implementing and documenting the QMS is highly recommended (as opposed to the bottom-up approach). virtual) repository? · How employees should be provided access to controlled QMS documentation.e. What is the right level of detail to include in the documentation so that it enables correct and . Within the product development process. Similarly.. the process that results in a formalized set of product requirements may be identified as the product requirements definition sub process that is documented in a product requirements definition procedure. Objectives: After going through this unit you will be able to: · Describe what is documentation strategy · Outline a documentation strategy for a unit or an enterprise · Construct a process map for documentation · Compose a QMS for a documentation process 8. and final release of QMS documents.. a product design guidelines document. For example. as appropriate. approval.e. rework.· How should documents of external origin be controlled? · Should the QMS documentation be stored in a physical (i. and other needed documentation.
but might result from unclear or ambiguous QMS documentation. 3. and another procedure Y needs to refer to the same activity. Include only as much information as is necessary to ensure effective planning. QMS documents should be written so that they need minimum change. Such an organizational change can have a huge impact on the QMS documents. for minor operational or organizational changes. it is far more convenient to revise one QMS document than to revise multiple documents. Therefore. inadequate employee training. For example. type of activities.consistent process execution. is the preferred solution. or other factors. If this department subsequently is renamed the “independent verification and validation department.” For example. If an activity is described in a procedure X. and control of processes. complexity of the process being documented. and competency level of employees executing the processes. if any. instead of referring to departments by name. state that the requirements document is produced by the requirements engineer. . as opposed to referring to individuals by name. review of existing QMS documentation to identify and correct deficiencies.” then refer to this department as the test department. refer to them by the “function performed. state in procedure Y that detailed description regarding that activity can be found in procedure X. In the event of any change in the execution in that activity. Do not document details of an activity in more than one QMS document. if your organization has a product test department that is called “system test department. and minimizes impact (on QMS documentation) of minor changes in the business processes and organizational structure? Any breakdown or inconsistency in process execution does not necessarily result from insufficient QMS documentation.” you need not revise your QMS documents if the functional responsibilities for testing the product still reside with this group. Below are some guidelines to follow to ensure QMS documentation has the right amount of detail: 1. Some useful tips to accomplish this are: • • • Always refer to roles (or functional areas) that are involved in the execution of a process. instead of saying that Mark Peterson produces the product requirements document. To minimize the impact of such reorganizations. organizations should be careful in how they respond when process execution deviates from requirements. Creating more QMS documentation is not necessarily the right solution. Often departments in organizations are renamed or merged into other departments. or conducting employee training to emphasize key aspects of a process. Sometimes. 2. Other factors that have a bearing on extent of QMS documentation include size of the organization. operation. Include all information that is specifically required to be documented as per the applicable quality management system standard.
type of activities. QMS documentation includes ______ of the organization. 8. 5. 3.3 Documentation Management and Control 8. it is necessary to introduce the concepts of controlled documents and document controller. 2. but are not limited to: 1. A document controller’s responsibilities generally include. such as procedures. Documentation process of __________ planning entails the establishment of a process for the creation. _____________ should be written so that they need minimum change. The ________________ to implementing and documenting the QMS is highly recommended. title. company quality manual and operating procedures) in a centralized location. A controlled document is one that is formally approved and is under formal version control. Certainly it is quite inconvenient for department Y to revise its procedure when department X revises its work instructions such that the reference from department Y’s procedure becomes inaccurate. Depending on the size of an organization and/or its number of locations. Generally.. Self Assessment Questions 1. Verifying that documents submitted for storage and publishing are: . However. and enforce an organization’s documentation management and control function. Avoid references to another department’s work instructions or similar implementation-level documents. in case of companies with more than one location (or very large companies in a single location).3. and scope than are high-level documents. QMS documentation that pertains to a specific location (or a specific function) may be controlled locally.1 Role of the Document Controller Before discussing different elements of document management and control. the document controller function may be centralized or distributed. For example. Document controllers are people who coordinate. 4.g. Documentation __________ and control are a key element of an organization’s QMS. monitor. it is best to control documents that affect an entire company (e. refer only to its highlevel QMS documents. Implementation-level QMS documents typically are more prone to changes in content. department Y’s procedure refers to department X’s work instructions.• When referring to another department’s QMS documents.
Notifying appropriate personnel. Accompanied by review records (when required) 2. 11. Duly approved c. the document controller should verify that the document version accurately reflects the magnitude of change in the latest version. Alternatively.3. When document numbers are issued manually for new documents. Ensuring that all controlled documents are stored in a secure location. 8. Verifying that all changes made to previously approved documents are clearly identified. a document number may be generated automatically. 8. 10. Authorizing internal documents for external release after verifying that approvals for the release have been obtained from relevant management personnel. when errors or discrepancies are observed. 12. Verifying that changes made to previously approved documents were properly authorized (that is. 4. Maintaining a master list of controlled documents. for revised documents. In case of changes to previously approved documents. an approved document change request should be available) 7. they adhere to standardized templates when applicable) b. 3. Notifying affected personnel in the event of a change to a previously approved document (or release of a new document) 9. This includes clearly identifying documents of external origin and storing them in a secure location. such as the document author and management personnel from the affected area. this task generally is performed by the document controller. This is necessary because the document author may make document changes in addition to those that were authorized. Controlling documents of external origin.a. 6. Correctly storing and publishing (or distributing) controlled documents. In the correct format (that is.2 Types of QMS Documents Quality Manual . Verifying that the documents are correctly versioned. This includes withdrawing copies of obsolete controlled documents. Verifying that the documents are correctly numbered. 5.
2) Process-based quality manual This structure is being used increasingly in organizations that have successfully transitioned to taking a process-oriented view of their QMS. Such quality manuals follow a top-down approach to describing the organization’s QMS. followed by separate sections briefly describing each key process in the QMS. Each section (or subsection) in the quality manual describes how requirements in the corresponding section (or subsection) in the quality management system standard are adhered to in the organization. such as ISO 9001:2000. This includes describing the purpose and scope of each process. in the case of smaller companies. Senior management should realize that it is responsible for the manual’s content. . QMS documentation in explaining adherence to each quality management system standard requirement. and consequently it gains wider acceptance for daily operations. When appropriate. from the quality manual. However. organizations structure their Quality Manual in one of two ways: 1) Standard-based quality manual Most organizations that are implementing a QMS in accordance with the requirements in a particular quality management system standard. prefer to structure their manual to mimic the structure of the applicable quality management system standard. This can be demonstrated by senior management approval on the quality manual. In case of medium and large product development companies. and not in the context of a quality management system standard. An organization’s quality manual is an invaluable document for its employees. answer why the organization is implementing a QMS) and describe how the organization ensures quality in its daily operations. it is preferable to exclude details regarding the organization’s processes from the quality manual. Such details should be embedded in the appropriate QMS documents. which must be referenced. This approach entails describing the high-level product development process map of the organization.A quality manual is the highest-level QMS document and is intended primarily to provide an overview of an organization’s QMS. Such a quality manual includes separate sections (or subsections) for each of the requirements sections (or subsections) in the quality management system standard. The quality manual must reflect the QMS accurately and be kept current at all times. employees invariably prefer such a quality manual. Typically. The QMS is explained in the context of the organizational business processes. it may be appropriate to include the procedures in the quality manual itself. as needed. It therefore should reflect the organization’s commitment to quality (in other words. employees typically relate more closely to organizational processes than to the requirements in a quality management system standard. Therefore. customers (and potential customers). the quality manual references relevant. and other parties (such as third-party auditors). A significant advantage of this structure is that it is not alien to employees. along with a reference to related QMS documentation.
They describe: What activities comprise a process. it is a good candidate for splitting into separate procedures. they should be documented and jointly reviewed by practitioners involved in executing the tasks documented. Due to the intradepartmental nature of work instructions. because organizational processes typically span multiple departments. called work instructions. Procedures are useful for communicating process information at all levels of management between departments. Because a procedure is intended to contain relatively high-level information regarding a process. The decision to document a process in a procedure is made by the respective process owner in consultation with the quality assurance department. a procedure should not be longer than three pages. They serve as critical reference documents for anyone interested in knowing what a process entails. Due to the interdepartmental nature of procedures. They provide a step-by-step description of tasks to be executed in order to accomplish each activity in the process. Procedures are not intended to provide the how to implementation details regarding a process.Procedure A procedure is a documented high-level description of a process. and they constitute the first level of documentation below procedures. When each activity in a process is performed. competent. practitioners typically need additional process documents. Work instructions typically are intradepartmental and are intended primarily for use by process practitioners. they should undergo cross-functional review by all departments involved in the process (or areas affected by the process) being documented. Who performs the activities (roles and responsibilities). and experienced personnel for providing information on the execution of specific tasks. As a general rule of thumb. to execute their tasks. and Where the activities are performed. They also serve as a valuable starting point for training process practitioners. Procedures constitute the first level of documentation below the quality manual. Work instruction A work instruction is a documented low-level description of a process. The practitioners have firsthand experience performing the tasks and therefore typically are the most knowledgeable. Procedures are usually interdepartmental. This helps ensure that the procedure accurately reflects the process and the interaction between various departments. Work instructions describe how activities in a process are executed. If a longer procedure is needed. When process practitioners do not have the requisite training or are otherwise unskilled for creating effective process .
work instructions can help ensure consistency and minimize errors. In many cases. the sequence of tasks to be performed during engine assembly for a passenger vehicle)? Need for consistency Are there expectations regarding a high degree of discipline and consistency in executing a set of tasks (e. such as the PMC representative for the department.documentation. Work instructions should be created on an as-needed basis when a need exists to provide detailed step-by-step guidance for process execution. . In such a case. the work instructions should be documented with direct input and active involvement of the process practitioners.g. to minimize variation. the core description of tasks in a work instruction should be limited to about four or five pages in length. when new personnel or personnel with varying levels of competence are executing a process. The need to document a procedure or work instruction may be determined by using criteria such as: Complexity Is the process or the activities in it sufficiently complex that that it needs to be supported by a documented procedure or work instruction? Or..g. this task may be performed by another appropriate person.. the sequence of inspections to be performed before final approval for release of electronic wire assemblies)? Competence of personnel Is the competency level of the personnel executing the process such that it needs to be augmented with appropriate documentation to ensure the process is correctly executed? (For example. The decision to create a work instruction is made by the line manager or process owner who is responsible for the tasks.) Size of organization Is the process executed by several personnel and/or in multiple locations? The greater the number of personnel involved in a process or the greater the number of locations at which a process is executed. Not every procedure needs to be supported by underlying work instructions. and to ensure consistency in process execution. in order to secure buy-in of the practitioners and to ensure that the documentation accurately reflects practice. is there need to elaborate and provide further explanation on a process documented in a procedure by creating a work instruction (e. the greater the likelihood of inconsistency in process execution. As a general rule of thumb. processes that are relatively straightforward and without inherent complexity (or sophistication) can be described adequately in a well-documented procedure such that competent personnel can faithfully execute them without compromising quality of process output.
The procedure author would start with the procedure template and populate it with information for the process being documented. It is recommended that forms and templates have brief instructions embedded in them to guide the user regarding the expected content in each section of the document. but also what revision level of that document to use.3.4 Document Versioning Documents. one must not only know what document to use. 8. either for review or for use (after approval). but retained for archival purposes). Any change or set of changes made to a document since its last release necessitates that the new revision level of the document be formally identified. such as procedures or work instructions. while the decision to create a template or form for departmental use may be made by the respective line manager.3. They help in ensuring consistency of format and content within a particular type of document. and should be enforced by the personnel in charge of (or tool used for) issuing the document numbers. The decision to create a template or form for use across departments should be made by the respective process owner in consultation with the quality assurance department (for reasons described earlier). due to their very nature. it is strongly recommended that a procedure template first be established. Templates serve as guides for communicating the expected structure and content of a document. directly in the fields provided. documenting an agreed way of executing a process can help. A form is used to record information. The organization should devise a document numbering convention that meets its needs. The numbering convention should be published in a QMS document.Past problems Have there been instances in the past where inconsistencies in employees have been observed in process execution? In such cases.3 Document Numbering In order to uniquely identify and control each QMS document. For example. Table 1 . evolve. Templates and forms A template is a skeleton for a document intended to be populated with specific information from use. a unique document number and version should be assigned to each document. for documenting procedures. This is because the information contained in the new revision of the document is to some extent different from that contained in the previous revision. An example of a document numbering convention is shown in Table 1. a document typically will undergo revisions until it is withdrawn from use (or considered obsolete. Once released. Therefore. 8.
Example of a Document Numbering Convention Document number format: AAA-BB-CCCC-DDDD where, AAA: Three-character identifier for department that is the document originator For example, “ENG” may denote engineering, “MKT” may denote marketing, “EXT” may denote the document is of external origin, and so on. BB: Two character identifier for document type. For example, “PR” may denote procedure, “TP” may denote template, “CH” may denote checklist, and so on. CCCC: Four-character alphanumeric identifier for project, product, or task. DDDD: Four-digit sequential number between 0001 and 9999. This sequential number uniquely identifies a specific document (irrespective of its version). 8.3.5 Document Content Following are some guidelines regarding document content (for examples, refer to sample QMS documents in the Appendices): 1. All QMS documents and records should have the same “look and feel.” Consistency in templates and forms can be ensured by following some general guidelines, such as:
The same header and footer on all templates and forms, with information such as:
a) Document title b) Document number c) Document version d) A statement to indicate the company proprietary nature of the document
Each QMS document, when appropriate, should use the same title page, containing the following:
– Standard information, (e.g., organization’s name and logo). The title page also can include a unique logo to indicate that it is a QMS document. This enables quick identification of QMS documents. – Customizable information, (e.g., document title) 2. Each QMS document or record should contain content as per the guidance contained in the associated form or template. Each QMS document must identify its purpose and
scope clearly. Correctness of the document content should be reviewed and enforced during document review meetings. 3. Deletions from the template and forms should not be allowed. If a particular section is not required, it should be marked “not applicable.” 4. Insertion of additional sections in a document created by using a standard form or template should be allowed when necessary; however, certain rules should be established to handle addition of new sections. Self Assessment Questions State whether following statement True or False. 6. All QMS documents and records should have the same “look and feel”. 7. A work instruction is a non-documented low-level description of a process. 8. A procedure is a documented high-level description of a process. 9. A quality manual is the highest-level QMS document. 10. A template is not a skeleton for a document intended to be populated with specific information from use. 8.4 QMS Documentation Process Now that all the necessary elements of a documentation management system have been described, you are ready to begin creating QMS documents. What documentation process should be followed to create, review, and approve QMS documents? This section describes a high-level documentation process that ties together some of the key elements of document management and control. Step 1: Identify suitable document author The first step is to identify a document author who possesses appropriate subject matter expertise. Typically, a management person from the function tasked to create the document selects a suitable document author. Step 2: Create draft version of the document The document author creates a draft version of the document by using the applicable template (if one is available). Step 3: Review the draft document
Once a draft version of the document has been prepared, it is circulated for review to appropriate reviewers (or functions) that are considered stakeholders in a document. The review may be in the form of an informal and/or formal review. Step 4: Rework the document as per reviewer feedback After receiving the feedback from the reviewers, the author reworks the document in accordance with comments provided by the document reviewers. Step 5: Approve and publish the document Once the document rework is complete, and it has been determined that a rearview is not required, the document is circulated for approval to the identified approvers. Once all the required approvals have been obtained, the author submits the master copy of the document along with the review record to the document controller. The document controller stores the document in the controlled repository and makes copies available for use. 8.5 Summary Documentation strategy is perhaps the most critical element of QMS documentation planning. Documentation management and control are a key element of an organization’s QMS, providing mechanisms to ensure that documentation in the organization is uniquely identifiable reviewed and approved by the appropriate authority prior to release. A template is a skeleton for a document intended to be populated with specific information from use. 8.6 Terminal Questions 1. Explain briefly different steps in documentation. 2. Define some guidelines in Documentation Strategy. 3. Explain types of QMS documents. 4. Summarize Document Content. 5. Explain QMS Documentation Process. 8.7 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1. Management 2. QMS documentation
True 7. Refer Pages 9. Refer 8.0 2. .3.2. Page 4 3. Refer 8.Refer 8.3 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .1. QMS documents 4. Top-Down approach 5. True 10. Refer 8. False 8. True 9. False Terminal Questions 1. 10 5. Size 6.2 4.
OM0006-Unit-09-Machine Life and Depreciation
Unit-09-Machine Life and Depreciation Structure: 9.1 Introduction Objectives 9.2 Functional Reliability of Facilities 9.3 Weibull Distribution Curve [Failures and its Analysis] 9.4 Life of Equipment a) Bathtub Curve and MTBF b) Breakdown Time Distribution c) Reliability and Variability of the Equipments 9.5 Critical Analysis 9.6 Maintenance Performance Ratios 9.7 Maintenance Systems 9.8 Reliability and Availability Concepts 9.9 How good is Reliability Performance? a) Root Cause Failure Analysis b) Reliability Centred Maintenance c) Failure Modes Effects Analysis & Total Productivity Maintenance 9.10 Maintenance Economics 9.11 Preventive Vs Breakdown Maintenance
9.12 Measurement of Maintenance Performance 9.13 Asset Life Cycle Management 9.14 Equipment Replacement Plans 9.15 Depreciation & Capital Expenditure based on Life Cycle 9.16 Summary 9.17 Terminal Questions 9.18 Answers to SAQ & Terminal Questions 9.1 Introduction The main function of the maintenance department is to monitor and control the condition of machineries and equipments and improve their functional reliability. The reliability theories on equipment performances have shown that there is a definite pattern of performance in their lifespan. This pattern manifests itself when different machineries are subjected to rigorous operations during the life span. The typical characteristics of the lifespan show a particular behaviour pattern of a bathtub and hence it is called as ‘bathtub curve’, which is discussed later. Objectives: After going through this unit you will be able to: · Describe what are failures in maintenance · Analyze failures through Weibull distribution curve · Discuss Reliability Performance · Construct a measure for performance 9.2 Functional Reliability of Facilities One of the most important objectives of Maintenance management is to improve functional reliability of the production facilities. The functional reliability refers to the consistency of the degree of performance of the machine, equipment or service operation. When it is said that a machine is having 97% reliability means that 97% of the machine time is utilized in performing the standard production for which it is meant for, and the remaining 3% of non performing may be
due to breakdowns or sub-standard performance. Therefore it is the duty of the plant maintenance crew to strive to maintain and increase the functional reliability of the production facilities. The objective of FMEA ( ) and reliability analysis of the plant and equipment is to ensure to excellence in performance of critical assets and achieve the business goals. The application of standard procedures and structured approach to analyse and practice effective method/s required to maintain all the operating plant assets. This process enables the maintenance managers to plan, review and optimise the maintenance operations that have direct impact on plant availability, thereby improving the overall plant performance and minimizing catastrophic failures. The functional reliability of facilities to be maintained or improved upon by the maintenance management requires the use of certain concepts, reliability methodologies, analysis, tools and techniques and measures. Some of these are listed: a) Determinate the appropriate level of maintenance services required. b) Identify specific actions based on equipment failures analysis & risk assessment. c) Prevention and reduction of potential failures by properly identifying defects and implementing corrective actions prior to failure d) To deploy sufficient staff to provide adequate repair and maintenance facilities. e) To provide for the stand-by equipment for key operations and also reasonable slacks in the production system to create some parallel path in a critical situation f) To adopt preventive Maintenance system to replace critical parts, before they fail. g) Each of the above involves costs. The cost involved should be justified on the basis of cost-benefit analysis. The cost of attaining reliability must be lower than the cost advantage available out of the production stoppages, idle machine and labour time, scrap, poor quality, loss of goodwill to keep delivery promises etc. h) Maintenance extends the useful life of assets by reducing wear and tear. i) Maintenance keeps up operational readiness of equipments for emergencies. j) Maintenance contributes a great deal to safety of manpower using the facilities. k) It prevents wastage of spares, tools and materials.
called the ‘Weibull distribution graph’ (after Weibull developed it). This is the useful period of the machine. or sheer quality deficiency in their manufacture. and or not adjusted the operating conditions adequately. there are three phases in the equipment performance namely a) Infant mortality phase b) Useful performance phase c) Ageing phase. During this period.3 Weibull Distribution Curve [Failure & Its Analysis] For better maintenance planning and control. b) Useful Performance phase: Next phase is the useful period of performance with a better reliability. As per the graph. This type of breakdowns may be due physical characteristics of the . it is important to know the nature and occurrence of failures over a period of time for the equipment in use. It is also commonly called as ‘Bath Tub Curve’. The failure is random and unpredictable. Once this phase is over. which is called the infant mortality. is shown below. a) Infant Mortality phase: Newly installed equipment shows high rate incidence of early failures during initial phase of its life. because of its shape. fatigue due to flaws in the molecular structure of the metals. the weak components from the infant mortality period have either been repaired or replaced.l) More automation calls for sophisticated Maintenance. the failure rate dips as the components adjust to the system until it reaches a relatively low constant level. c) Ageing Phase: Here the rate of failure increases until the equipment succumbs and is characterized by the rapid wear and tear of more and more components until major breakdown happens. This behaviour pattern reflects ‘hyper-exponential distribution’. poor installation. The graph of the failure pattern. Most equipment that survives infancy stage will continue to perform better with very few failures. The high rate of failure at infant mortality stage is primarily due to the presence of weak or substandard components or design inadequacies. is primarily due to abrupt changes in stress distribution in the components. 9.
Mean Time between Failure (MTBF) can be computed.e. This means that each part in a particular machine will have different failure distribution. the failure of any one part may result in the complete machine breakdown. shown above. · The availability (A) = [Cumulative time of operation in the normal working condition(Tn)] / the cumulative down time (Td)] i. the breakdown time distribution of a complex machine will reflect a greater variability than that of a simple machine even if they have the same average maintenance free run time. by which the system reliability. can be assessed. Depending upon the complexity of the machine and severe aging processes because of extreme wear and tear results in an ultimate failure. · A simple machine having few moving parts may have breakdowns happenings after a large number of maintenance free run time hours. In other words. anticipated life etc. but in a complex machine. This ageing failure graph shows a bell-shaped normal distribution pattern. A= [Tn] / [Tn+Td] b) Breakdown time distribution: · It is essential to know how the breakdown time is distributed in order to establish the cost implications in maintenance. its statistics will help as a diagnostic tool in identifying the exponential nature of the availability and the reliability of equipment. · From these.4 Life of Equipment a) Bathtub Curve and MTBF · Weibull distribution or Bath Tub Curve. 9. · Figure below represents the degree of variability in free run time. This ultimate may occur at ‘mean’ or ‘average’ time. and may be earlier or later. These causes being external to the equipment and the probability of failing is relatively constant. Negative exponential and Normal exponential. . or how the machine is used.materials used. the failure fall into a negative exponential distribution. is a combination of three distributions: Hyper exponential. · When the failures are recurrent. Distribution shows the frequency of maintenance free running time with respect to total operating hours. availability.
and 0. Hence the reliability of the total system depends on the product reliability factors of each of the sub systems. Here the data can be recast in the diagram. 0.e. Curve B of the complex machine. · When the above reliability factors are plotted in a diagram showing the percentage of breakdowns that exceed a given runtime on the ‘y’ – axis. before establishing reliability. then the total product reliability is multiple of all these systems i. For example: if the total system has four sub systems having the reliability factors of 0. . It can be observed that the Curve A shows lower degree of variability. we mean the probability that any system gives a trouble free service.8. but the distribution shows wider variability. curve B exhibits moderate variability while Curve C indicates greater degree of variability from average breakdown time Ta. c) Reliability and Variability of the Equipments · Equipment can be considered as a total system and the failure of any one of the sub system can cause failure of the entire system.9. converting the information into the breakdown time distributions versus the percentage of breakdowns that exceeds a given run time. The variability by Curve C is typical of complicated equipment that needs fine adjustments before it starts giving trouble free service. the resultant graph is shown below.7.While curve A depicts the behaviour of a simple machine.6. · By reliability. the frequency distribution.4. and ‘runtimes free of breakdowns’ on the ‘x’ – axis. Curve C has the same average maintenance free runtime as the other two. 0. 0.
may contribute to 80 to 85% of the total breakdown time. In this type of repair maintenance. In other words. to replace it. to reassemble the equipment and then check and restore to its functional capacity.9. Repair Maintenance 2. It is the job of the maintenance crew to identify and quickly eliminate or simplify or improve upon these defects. electrical or other fault quickly and to correct them. it is a corrective maintenance to restore the machine/parts to acceptable condition again. namely: 1.5 Critical Analysis Critical analysis of maintenance problems is essential to know as to how serious is the problem for taking quick actions.6 Maintenance Performance Ratios Some of the ratios used in measuring the effectiveness of Maintenance functions are: a) Waste Index = [Waste Quantity] / [Output Quantity] b) Productivity of Maintenance = [Product output] / [Maintenance Cost] c) Maintenance Cost index = 100 x [Maintenance cost] / [Capital Cost] d) Breakdown maintenance index = [Break down hours] / [Man hours available] e) Downtime index = 100 x [Downtime hours] / [Production hours] 9. Focus is not only concentrated on availability but also the reliability . Fundamental differences between the strategies discussed earlier and the proactive maintenance discussed now are: 1.7 Maintenance Systems The ad hoc unplanned emergency maintenance is not recommended. the repair maintenance crew endeavours to locate mechanical. or even a few days as the work involved depends on the size and complexity of the equipment. As in other types of probabilities. the nature of the fault and availability of repair staff etc. to locate the faulty/broken part. but the two types of planned maintenance could be carried out. 9. Preventive Maintenance When a sudden breakdown occurs in a machine. here too is that the small percentage of around 15-20% defects in equipment. the function presupposes the previous breakdowns and actions of disassembling the equipment. This activity may take a few minutes.
a tissue processing machine may give a good reliability of +98%. quality and speed) · Mean production loss (MPL) Thus the reliability index is expressed in terms of the running continuously without production losses. There are many ways to measure reliability. but the liquid packaging machine may be best at +75% reliability. more complex the equipment/ the raw material/ high tech processing. Q = Quality performance. Say in a paper processing.8 Reliability and Availability Concepts Reliability and availability have become key issues. and manufacture the quality product at the speed required.9 How Good Is ‘Reliability Performance’? In industrial processes. the overall reliability performance of the total process is less and is dictated by the complex machine with lesser reliability. Using the above definition. the formula used to measure manufacturing reliability (MR) is: MR = [% T] x [% Q] x [% S] [Where. S = Speed performance] Manufacturing reliability model consists of a) process reliability b) equipment reliability and c) reliability maintainability. Root Cause Failure Analysis (RCFA).2. and others. Use of improved maintenance tools such as Reliability Centred Maintenance (RCM). then lower is the reliability. 3. but when failures occur. 9. For example. 9. This index is the volume of quality products you measure in the production line divided by the theoretical volume of quality product you could achieve from the same line. There is a push towards zero downtime or zero in-service breakdowns. Manufacturing reliability can be defined as a manufacturing system’s capability to operate to its expected operations. fix the problem as fast as possible. where as a less complex automatic lathe may be rated best at + 98%. · Mean Time between Failure (MTBF) · Measure of mean time between production Loss (MTBPL) (Production losses include loss due to time. T = Time performance. . a CNC machine can be very good at 90%.
a) Root cause failure analysis: · The root cause failure analysis (RCFA) method brings a knowledgeable team together to investigate certain failures using evidence left behind from the fault. · While RCM is driven by preventive maintenance strategies. RCM provides a flow diagram that tells what type of maintenance to be used. As maintenance is an economic decision. Answering to seven questions on all the potential modes of failure will uncover the predictive maintenance strategy requires to mitigate the consequences of the failure. Through brainstorming sessions.11 Preventive Vs Breakdown Maintenance Certain generalizations on type of maintenance can be made to improve the reliability: a) First. planning and organisational leadership. It has relevance to high volume production and can improve a company’s maintenance system and help improve the overall productivity of the processes. The decision of maintenance policy is more of an economic decision rather than a technical one. engineering. the team finds as many causes for the fault as possible and classify them into non contributing and contributing. quality. a standard preventive maintenance period can be set in such a way that the total downtime is reduced. Through a fault tree analysis. c) Failure Modes Effects Analysis & Total Productivity Maintenance · Total productive maintenance (TPM) and failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) are other maintenance tools used for improving the reliability through proactive maintenance. customer service. . what are its cost implications? 9. RCFA is driven by maintenance prevention strategies. When implemented together they complement each other and provide the greatest overall benefit to the facility. the team checks for the logical flows and determine what changes are to be made to prevent causes from reoccurring. production. In this situation.10 Maintenance Economics Maintenance refers to an organisation’s policy in respect of the maintenance function of a set of equipments. hygiene. Non contributing causes are removed from the list and contributing factors are taken for analysis. b) Reliability centred Maintenance · The purpose of reliability centred maintenance (RCM) is to determine the maintenance requirements of any physical assets in its operating contexts. preventive maintenance is highly beneficial to machines whose breakdown time distributions are having low variability. 9. This practice has impact on many aspects of business.
3) direct labour value . Additional stoppage time because the maintenance crew cannot start repairing immediately after the breakdown has occurred. reduces costs and eliminate waste. increases capacity. existing maintenance facilities. There is little gain in the preventive maintenance.b) Second. Effects of scheduling preventive maintenance for non-productive days with no loss of production. if the maintenance time is less than the repair time and If the preventive maintenance is equal to. Companies should recognize this fact that maintenance of its assets is to be encouraged as the process will provide advantages in enhancing quality initiative. the percentage of machine running time continues to increase with the increase of standard preventive maintenance period. Some metrics that may help in evaluation are: a) Maintenance man hours as percentage of total man hours b) Shutdown. d) We need to take into account other effects of unscheduled down-time. the relation of preventive maintenance time to repair time is important. maintenance cost breakdown. or more than the time for repair. overhauls and renovations c) Production asset and loss d) Continuous reliability improvements e) Maintenance cost as a ratio of percentage of 1) gross asset value 2) sales value. c) In general. 2. etc are required to be done and evaluated. such as 1. Analysis of data of the existing conditions with respect to down time production loss. 9. nature of repair breakdowns. when the repair time is equal to maintenance time. it is better to perform corrective or breakdown maintenance. Hence maintenance and management of assets is the core to any business. Effect on production losses if plant shutdown can be avoided 3.12 Measurement of Maintenance Performance Organizations seeking excellence in their maintenance practices should constantly endeavour to measure and improve upon the performance criteria’s of maintenance.
then the asset is disposed off as it has reached the end of its lifecycle.13 Asset Life Cycle Management In high tech production. a) Technical factors that dictates replacement 1) Wear and tear of equipment 2) Obsolescence caused by new invention .14 Equipment Replacement Plans The systematic equipment development program includes: 1) emergence of equipment replacement 2) classification of equipment replacement 3) assignment of responsibility for equipment replacement 4) selection of the equipment 5) follow up. Asset life cycle management system. as evolved by some companies for better results consists of three phases: a) Asset Acquisition Phase: here asset may be new or replaced or change of major components changed before operating activities in this asset is firmed up. Factors that are considered while taking decision to replace machine and equipment can be classified as a) Technical factors b) Cost factors. Asset dependability and its reliability are to be established. 9. b) Maintenance phase: operating environment for each asset is defined and performance goals at the lowest cost are firmed up.f) Safety and regulatory compliance 9. companies are required to produce more products of higher quality from fewer resources and hence maintaining higher reliability of assets has been a challenging task for the management. c) Disposal Phase: when the asset is no longer capable of delivering the required operational performance or cannot be maintained cost effectively to achieve the required level of dependability.
old or new. Here the replacement is not advocated unless savings due to the use of new equipment. repair and maintenance costs. consumes high power etc 4) Automation requirement for processes 5) To eliminate slack time through line balancing 6) Reduced safety 7) Reliability of performance b) Cost Factors: 1) High repair cost 2) Lesser place requirement 3) Probable economic life of the new machine 4) Consumption of less power 5) Reduction in labour cost because high productive machines purchased 6) Flexibility requirement not in the existing equipment Methods used for replacement after analysis: The replacement analysis becomes more complex due to many technical factors and qualitative considerations. 1) Minimum annual cost method: here the decision to replace the machine (unwanted or life is completed) is based on the operating and capital costs. 2) By Using Barnes Formula: this formula is used for equipment. power consumption. X = (No. will pay not only for equipment but also for any unamortized value for next few years. having a short life. accuracy.3) Unsuitability of equipment due to size of the work. rate of output. While the annual operating costs include wages to operator. speed of operations. of years the equipment will pay for itself) = [A+B] / [(E-F) DG + H – C] . Some important methods or replacement of old and unused machineries are 1) minimum annual cost method 2) by using Barnes formula 3) MAPI (Machinery and allied institute) method. Hence the time for replacement depends on the condition and characteristics of the equipment. material losses etc. The main ingredients of the annual cost are depreciation and interest charges.
whilst revenue expenditure is that spent on day to day business expenses. · Depreciation should be calculated in a way which most closely reflecting the manner in which the asset is being used up. For example.9000 with the income that asset has generated. and then sold for Rs. Additionally. F = estimated labour cost per unit with new equipment.[where A = cost of new equipment. G = estimated working days per year for new equipment and H = savings or losses per year in fixed charges other than interest] 3) MAPI method: here the analysis is divided into 35 heads & three main groups. kept in use for 8 years. It emphasizes on immediate return. Depreciation tries to apply the accruals by matching that Rs.1000.9000. the value of the asset in the balance sheet should be reduced by each year’s charge. D = number of units product per day by new equipment. it has the business cost of Rs. 9. if an asset is purchased for Rs.10000. C = interest charge of new equipment. but shown in the Balance Sheet · Depreciation is an attempt to spread the cost of an asset over its useful economic life. 2) The same monetary amount each year . Straight Line method 1) A fixed percentage on cost each year. Capital expenditure is not recorded in the Profit and Loss account. E = labour cost per unit in old equipment.15 Depreciation & Capital Expenditure based on Life Cycle · This requirement falls into the following groups: a) Calculation of depreciation b) Calculation of profit/loss on disposal c) Accounting for depreciation and disposals Calculation of Depreciation · Capital expenditure is that spent on purchase or improves on fixed assets. · An annual depreciation charge is shown as an expense in the Profit and Loss account. B = depreciated value of the old equipment. MAPI method concentrates on the comparison of the rate of return of the proposed new project and similar returns when the proposed project is not implemented within next year. The two most commonly used methods are straight line method and reducing balance method.
On disposal. the net cost is simply divided by the expected life. (Rs. This over or under provision of depreciation is shown in the Profit and Loss a/c as a profit or loss on the disposal of fixed assets. ] Reducing balance method (the charge for depreciation reduces each year) a) Year 1 Rs.30000 – Rs.30000 x 20%= Rs.2850 / Rs. [Note that the expected residual value is ignored & it will have been incorporated into the choice of 20% as an appropriate rate] b) Calculation of Profit/Loss The depreciation charged each year is based on estimates of useful life and residual value. . the actual disposal proceeds will show the true net cost of the asset. It is expected that this machine will be used for 10 years.2850.4800 c) Year 3 (Rs.e. 2850) · So. using: (i) The straight line method (ii) The reducing balance method at 20% pa Solution · Under the straight line method. the annual charge for every year of the machine’s life is Rs.1500) / 10 = Rs. at the end of which it will be sold for Rs.e.30000 – Rs. 6000 b) Year 2 (Rs.30000.6000 – Rs.4800) x 20% =Rs.1500. · [Note that the policy could have been expressed as “straight line at %” or “Depreciation at % pa on cost” – here the percentage is calculated as = Rs.Reducing Balance method 1) A fixed percentage on net book value each year 2) A reducing monetary amount each year Example: 1 a) Straight line method A machine is purchased for Rs.30000 x 100. Calculate the depreciation to be charged for each of the first 3 years of the machine’s life. i.3840 and so on.30000 – Rs. i.6000) x 20% =Rs. This may reveal that two much or too little depreciation has been provided over the asset’s life.
2007 (20%) =8000 · Net book value at 31. In practice.03. which necessitates decision regarding depreciation (may be proportionate) · A popular depreciation policy would be: A full year’s charge in the year of acquisition but none in the year of disposal Self Assessment Questions Fill up the blanks with appropriate words: 1. equipment or service operation. Calculate the profit or loss arising on this disposal. acquisition or disposal may occur part way through the accounting year. The functional reliability refers to the ____________________ of the machine.03-2008 =25600 · Depreciation y/e 31.03-2008 (20%)= 6400 · Net book value at 31. 2520] c) Accounting for depreciation and disposals · In the above example.2007 =32000 · Depreciation y/e 31. there is a profit on disposal of price of Rs. Solution · Sales proceeds must be compared to the net book value on the date of disposal.Example: 2 An asset is purchased on 1 January 2006 for Rs. 23000 – 20480 (book value) = Rs. and is depreciated using the reducing balance method at 20% pa.2520 [sale price of Rs.03-2009 (20%) =5120 · Net book value at 31.23000. The asset is sold on 1 January 2009 for Rs. 2.40000. . the disposal occurred exactly 3 years after the acquisition.03-2009 =20480 · Thus. The main function of the maintenance department is to monitor and control the condition of machineries and equipments and improve their ____________________.03. · Original cost 40000 · Depreciation y/e 31.
It is also commonly called as ____________________. 5. . Newly installed equipment shows high rate incidence of early failures during initial phase of its life. is shown below. In the performance phase is the ______________ period of performance with a better reliability. _________________ of maintenance problems is essential to know as to how serious is the problem for taking quick actions. which is called the______________. For better maintenance planning and control. The objective of FMEA ( ) and reliability analysis of the plant and equipment is to ensure to ____________________ of critical assets and achieve the business goals. it is important to know the nature and occurrence of failures over a period of time for the equipment in use. because of its shape. A simple machine having few moving parts may have breakdowns happenings after a large number of maintenance free run time hours. the failure of any one part may result in the ____________________ . The graph of the failure pattern. 11. 9. may contribute to of the ____________ total breakdown time 10. there are three phases in the equipment performance namely a) Infant mortality phase b) Useful performance phase c) _____________________ 6. The formula used to measure manufacturing reliability (MR) is: MR = ………………………. As in other types of probabilities. In the ____________ . here too is that the small percentage of around 15-20% defects in equipment. This is the useful period of the machine. Most equipment that survives infancy stage will continue to perform better with very few failures. 8. the rate of failure increases until the equipment succumbs and is characterized by the rapid wear and tear of more and more components until major breakdown happens.. and manufacture the quality product at the speed required.3. 7. The failure of any one of the sub system can cause failure of the __________________. 4. Reliability and availability have become key issues. As per the graph. Manufacturing reliability can be defined as a manufacturing system’s ____________. called the ‘Weibull distribution graph’ (after Weibull developed it). Hence the reliability of the total system depends on the _________________ of each of the sub systems. but in a complex machine.
The functional reliability of facilities to be maintained or improved upon by the maintenance management requires the use of certain concepts. analysis. tools and techniques and measures. Mean Time between Failure (MTBF) can be computed. RCM provides a flow diagram that tells what type of maintenance to be used. Some important methods or replacement of old and unused machineries are 1) minimum annual cost method 2) by using ____________________ 3) ____________________ method. The reliability theories on equipment have shown that there is a definite performance pattern their lifespan. The functional reliability refers to the consistency of the degree of performance of the machine. as evolved by some companies for better results consists of three phases: a) Asset Acquisition Phase: b) Maintenance phase: c) ____________________ 14. can be assessed. 9. The purpose of reliability centred maintenance (RCM) is to determine the __________________ in its operating contexts. and manufacture the quality product at the speed required. S = Speed performance ] 12. Therefore it is the duty of the plant maintenance crew to strive to maintain and increase the functional reliability of the production facilities. equipment or service operation. 13. The objective of FMEA ( ) and reliability analysis of the plant and equipment is to ensure to excellence in performance of critical assets and achieve the business goals. by which the system reliability. reliability methodologies. Reliability and availability have become key issues. Asset life cycle management system.16 Summary The main function of the maintenance department is to monitor and control the condition of machineries and improve their functional reliability. The replacement analysis becomes more complex due to many technical factors and the qualitative consideration. . Q = Quality performance. T = Time performance. availability. anticipated life etc.[Where. Manufacturing reliability can be defined as a manufacturing system’s capability to operate to its expected operations. This pattern manifests itself due to rigorous operations during the life span.
However the methodology to be used depends on the best alternative within the organizations objectives. called the ‘Weibull distribution graph’ and known as ‘Bath Tub Curve’. Total productive maintenance (TPM) and failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) are other maintenance tools used for improving the reliability through proactive maintenance. Equipment can be considered as a total system and the failure of any one of the sub system can cause failure of the entire system. Hence the reliability of the total system depends on the product reliability factors of each of the sub systems. · Mean Time between Failure (MTBF) · Mean time between production Loss (MTBPL) · Mean production loss (MPL) Companies should recognize this fact that maintenance of its assets is to be encouraged as the process will provide advantages in enhancing quality initiative. . The graph of the failure pattern. it is important to know the nature and occurrence of failures over a period of time for the equipment in use. reduces costs and eliminate waste. increases capacity. as evolved by some companies for better results consists of three phases: a) Asset Acquisition Phase b) Maintenance phase c) Disposal Phase Based on the life cycle analysis. There are many ways to measure reliability. there must be equipment replacement plan after considering the cost impact and other technical factors. because of its shape.For better maintenance planning and control. Asset life cycle management system. shows three phases in the equipment performance namely · Infant mortality phase · Useful performance phase · Ageing phase. The purpose of reliability centred maintenance (RCM) is to determine the maintenance requirements of any physical assets in its operating contexts.
Ageing phase .17 Terminal Questions 1) Define functional reliability? 2) What are the maintenance management concepts. Explain few of them? 7) What are the factors considered in measurement of maintenance measurements? How they are evaluated? Briefly explain the three phases of asset life cycle management. Excellence in performance 4. Functional reliability 2. 9. methodology used for maintaining the functional reliability? 3) Explain briefly the ‘Weibull distribution curve. b) Breakdown time distribution: and c) Reliability and Variability of the Equipments 5) What are maintenance performance index? How they help in measuring maintenance efforts? 6) There are many ways of measuring reliability and availability.18 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1. 9) What are the technical and cost factors to be considered while planning replacement of old machineries? 10) Explain briefly the depreciation methods used in capital expenditure on plant and machineries. Why it also called as bathtub curve? What are the three phases in the life span of equipment? 4) Explain briefly how the life of the equipment is depicted by the variability and availability factors in a) Bathtub Curve and MTBF.Capital expenditure based on the life cycle and the depreciation either by straight line or reducing method is used for a comprehensive decision by the management. Bath Tub Curve 5. Consistency of the degree of performance 3. How this helps in replacement plans? 9.
3 4. Refer 9.2 2. Refer 9.4 5. Refer 9.14 10. Refer 9. Refer 9. Complete machine breakdown.6 6. 80 to 85% 10. Infant mortality.15 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Capability to operate to its expected operations 11.6.8 7. Refer 9.13 9. Disposal Phase: 14. Refer 9. 8. . Useful. Critical analysis. Ageing phase 7. Entire system. MAPI Terminal Questions 1.12 8. = [% T] x [%Q] x [%S] 12.2 3. Refer 9. Barnes formula. Refer 9. Refer 9. Product reliability factors 9. Maintenance requirements of any physical assets 13.
9 Types of Losses.11 Implementation of TPM & Steps in TPM program Steps in TPM program 10.3 Goals 10. 10.5 TPM and its Features 10.2 Total Productivity Maintenance 10.7 Other Related issues with TPM 10.4 Objectives of TPM 10.12 Eight pillars of TPM Autonomous maintenance Kobetsu Kaizen Planned Maintenance Quality Maintenance .OM0006-Unit-10-Total Productivity Maintenance Unit-10-Total Productivity Maintenance Structure: 10.10 Zero Loss Concepts 10.8 Overall Effectiveness of Equipment [basis of TPM] 10.1 Introduction Objectives 10.6 Evolution of Maintenance Methods 10.
etc. This will increase the life of the machines and they perform better during their entire life span.18 Answers 10. but they often neglect the very important function of complete maintenance.14 Benefits of TPM 10. a more sophisticated well managed preventive – maintenance type programs such as TPM or Reliability centred maintenance (RCM) has warranted.13 Relevance of TPM to TQM framework 10. a facility.17 Terminal Questions 10. thus leading to breakdowns and production losses. Environment TPM in offices 10. High tech preventive maintenance routines are performed by experts at frequent intervals and machines are continually upgraded and modified for closer tolerances. Health. adjusting. The Japanese have virtually eliminated machine breakdowns by applying Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) techniques to their .Development Management Education & Training Safety.15 Role of TPM in WC-production 10. But with the enlarged scope of maintenance functions when very high cost state of art machineries and equipments are used for higher productivity. to keep a machine. machine failures cannot be tolerated. material handling equipment and other transport vehicles in proper working conditions. repairing. Equipment maintenance is basic to competitive manufacturing. faster set ups and fewer adjustments. cleaning. Maintenance covers all those functions such as monitoring.1 Introduction Manufacturers invest huge capital on productive machines and equipments for production of the desired products. Earlier the maintenance management was viewed as a function with a lesser status compared to manufacturing and its role was restricted to one of carrying out breakdown repair when a machine breaks down.16 Summary 10. inspecting. Because JIT [Just-inTime] production lines operate very close to capacity in every process.
It first evolved in Nippon Denso a major supplier of the Toyota car company. relying on team work. efficiency and effectiveness with zero loss concepts through total participation of all employees with self managing abilities in practices. minimising costs and continuously improving processes for manufacturing.machines. 10. Reliability and TPM principles call for avoiding crisis.3 Goals · Prevention of equipment deterioration · Maintain the equipment in optimal condition · Establishing basic equipment conditions · Operator is competent to operate machine/ equipment · Elimination of quality defects · Elimination of equipment failure · Elimination of cost losses .2 Total Productive Maintenance [TPM] TPM had its genesis in the Japanese car industry in 1970’s. to achieve total customer satisfaction. consensus building and continuous improvement. Objectives: After studying this unit you will be able to: · Outline the features of TPM · Explain the types of losses related to maintenance · List and explain the steps involved in TPM · Comment on the methods of TPM propounded by experts on Quality. TPM is a well defined and organised maintenance program which places a high value on team work. 10. Here the new quality approach of “prevention at source” was translated to the maintenance environment through the concept of TPM. maximising capacity. TPM is defined as the means to achieve high level of productivity. Machines are cleaned and lubricated frequently by the operators who run those machines.
cost. losses. means elimination of micro operational issues · Achieve zero loss Concept – [zero breakdown.4 Objectives of TPM The principle objectives of TPM are: · Eliminate all breakdowns of machines and equipment to ensure trouble free continuous production. · Achieve manufacturing excellence. but spreads across as a company-wide culture. · Increase plant efficiency. waste and accident-free operations] in all the resources over the entire life cycle of a production system through team work and by overlapping small group activities. · Maximise asset and equipment effectiveness through OEE [overall equipment effectiveness] and OPE. delivery and services. ensuring total effectiveness of the plant for higher quality and lesser downtime. . · Reduction in manufacturing costs. · Restoring equipment to a like-new condition · Improve maintenance efficiency and effectiveness · On job training of the labour to improve their job skills · To have a sound equipment maintenance management · Effective use of preventive and predictive maintenance technology · Achieve TPM with active participation & involvement in all levels · “Value Added” activity that the equipment is contributing to your products. 10. · Producing products for customer satisfaction in quality. · To achieve higher reliability/flexibility of equipment and reduce cost through eliminating wastages.10. defect.5 TPM-Its Features TPM no longer confines to the maintenance department. · Boosting morale of employees. reduction in equipment life cycle cost.
TPM is a method designed to eliminate the losses caused by break-down of machines and equipments by identifying and attacking all causes of its breakdowns and system down time due to such breakdowns. through total participation of all employees with self-managing abilities in practice. TPM is one of the most valuable strategies for those who want to be competitive & meet the World Class Competition 10. including housekeeping. TPM paves way for an excellent planning. · Speed losses due to idling and minor stoppages caused by abnormal operations of censors. blockages etc. · Periodic pre-failure replacement or overhauls and · Intolerance for breakdowns or unsafe conditions. · Speed losses due to discrepancies between designed and actual speeds · Defect losses due to process defects that cause scrap & quality problems. monitoring and controlling practices through a unique ‘8-Pillars Method’. leading to another innovative & modern practice under company-wide maintenance practice of TPM? How this evolution has happened and other related issues are briefly given below a) Breakdown Maintenance / Emergency / Corrective Maintenance: Break – down maintenance or emergency maintenance is a remedial or corrective maintenance practice that is undertaken when equipment fails and require repair on an . TPM is a means to achieve high level of productivity. · Downtime for setups and adjustments. effectiveness with zero loss concept. · Defect losses due to reduced yields in processing TPM includes three main elements: · Regular preventive maintenance. to achieve total customer satisfaction There are six types of losses found in a manufacturing firm: · Downtime due to equipment failure. organizing.6 Evolution of Maintenance Methods What are the other maintenance methods that are universally practiced by industries. efficiency.
emergency or priority basis to set it right. b) Preventive maintenance Preventive maintenance is the activity that is planned and programmed on a regular basis to inspect the system. Obviously this is not an ideal way of keeping quiet until that breakdown happens. servicing and replace parts to ensure that the system does not fail during normal operation. This idling will increase the production cost. the productive maintenance tries to identify signs of equipment deterioration or imminent failure and to take corrective action before it fails. A high failure rate known as the infant mortality exists during the initial working of the machine and then settles in. to uncover potential problems and to make repairs.7 Other Related Issues a) Improve Repair Capabilities: For reliability and a sound preventive maintenance practices. Failure of equipment or machineries may occur at different phases. Here. A study is made on each machine on the MTBF (mean time between failures) distribution. There exists a relationship between the maintenance costs and the cost of failures with which the level of maintenance Vis-a-Vis frequency of maintenance could be firmed up. that results in loss of production due to idling of machinery and labour and reduces system capacity. 10. Preventive maintenance policies and techniques must emphasize on all employees to accept the responsibility for the maintenance and perform all the activities to their capability. This promotes employee empowerment and system performance c) Productive maintenance or Predictive maintenance – This is an extended preventive maintenance method that tries to reduce the chances of breakdowns by using modern monitoring and analysis techniques such as computer aided monitoring and forecasting and diagnose the condition of the equipment during operation. This reduces the frequency of machinery break downs and consequent loss of production Break down of a machine in production line can be costly if it means shutting down the entire plant. A good maintenance facility should have the following features: 1. firms should build up a level of repair capability in order to get the system back in operation much faster. especially when mass production or continuous production is planned. maintenance costs and resultant delay in supply of products to customers as promised. . the preventive maintenance will be more expensive and incidental if it is other way. When the distributions curve exhibits a narrow standard deviation. Well trained maintenance crew.
It is the probability that a product will operate adequately for a given period in its intended application. c) Reliability and Maintainability – an overview: Quality is multi – dimensional but reliability is a key component of quality. Further these machines may have possible immediate effects such as variability of output. Ability and authority to do material planning. because of perceive product quality and the exceptional reliability. Malfunctioning of machines cause deterioration and results in inefficiency. product quality and production schedules. The ability of the equipment for operation is determined by mean time between failure (MTBF) and mean time to repair (MTTR) that is: Availability = MTBF / [MTBF + MTTR] d) Equipment problems and competitiveness: Equipment problems and break downs have a direct affect on production costs. This will ultimately shorten the life of machines and cause high repair costs. Ability to establish a repair plan and priorities. 3. idling of both machines and the workers using those machines for their work. firms can reduce inventories. At the same time. 5. Reliability considers the performance of a product over time. 4. Reliability is a time based concept of quality. safety hazard. Specialists work with cross-functional teams & backup responsibility to handle difficult or unusual problems. schedule disruptions etc. e) Role of operators in TPM . Ability to design ways to extend MTBF b) Maintenance responsibilities a) Traditional: Maintenance is a functional support activity & employees rely on specialists for custodial services. b) Employee ownership TPM: Front-line associates have first responsibility for maintenance in their work places. preventive and repair maintenance. Japanese automobile manufacturers have been highly successful in the US market and could gain a high market share. Hence by reducing equipment mal functions and break downs. accidents to operators. Ability to identify the cause of break downs 6. they can improve operator safety and reduce injuries from equipment mal functions.2. Adequate resources. issues are closely related with maintenance and maintainability. Since the reliability is concerned with the elapsed time between failures of a product.
Understand the manufacturing process to successfully achieve the above. Restores deteriorated equipment through improvements / related maintenance 2.8 Overall Equipment Effectiveness [OEE]-Key Indicator of TPM · OEE is a way of measuring how the six major losses shown below are affecting the equipment or in other words a way of measuring the amount of “Value added” activity that the equipment is contributing to the product. To identify design weaknesses and improve equipment for error free operations 3. checking functions of the basic machine AND safety devices. Basic skill levels required by operators include: A) Monitoring and maintaining critical process parameters.8. Maintain work order system to provide data for calculation of MTBF (mean time before failure) and MTTR (mean time to repair) 6. Perform basic equipment maintenance by cleaning of machines. .1 Objectives of OEE: a) It helps see a problem so that it can be fixed. Ensure maintenance is treating the root cause of the problem and not symptoms 7. 10. replacement of filters lubrication of aggregates. Data collected must be complete for proper implementation. Improve technical maintenance skills of all maintenance personnel through systematic training and work assessments 4. B) Perform change over and setup the complete machine. periodic diagnostic tests apart from performing appropriate maintenance system to avoid predicted equipment failure 5. In case the problem is an unknown entity. f) Role of maintenance department in TPM process: 1. 2. Diagnose and perform repairs for the problems identified. obtain information before such problems are attacked. manufacturer and also the operators 8. Thorough data analysis. 3. C) Reduction of minor stoppages and adjustments on aggregates as well as the complete machine. Implement periodical maintenance system that is planned on the data collected from the machine. D) Collect data to track equipment performance and document all the data recorded along with production control chart and work order systems. thus developing the capability to operate similar equipment / machines 10.1.
8.88 . [Target=minimize] 2) Set up down time[Target=zero] 3) Reduced speed of the machines [Target=minimize] 4) Minor unrecognized stoppages [Target=zero] 5) Reject and rework [target=zero] 6) Start up down time and yield from the system [Target= minimize] Availability [(Time available for production – Downtime)] / [Time available for production] Performance Efficiency = [Actual Production or Capacity)] / [Ideal Production or Capacity] Quality Yield [Total Parts Produced-Quantity out of specifications] / Total Quantity produced. Downtime of machines – 47 min. Ideal rate of production – 60 parts per min. Overall Equipment Efficiency [OEE] = [Availability x Performance Efficiency x Quality yield] 10. 1) Planned and unplanned downtimes. out of which 423 numbers were rejected. Short breaks – 2 short breaks of 15 min each.2 OEE example: A manufacturer working for 8 hours shift with the production data and scheduled breaks is as follows: Shift length = 8 hours. · Planned production time 480 – 15 -15-30 = 420 min Operating time = planned production time – downtime = 420 -47 = 373 min · Good quality parts produced = total produced – rejection = 19271 – 423 = 18848 · Availability = A = operating time / planned production time = 373 / 420 = 0. Number of parts produced – 19271. Lunch break – one lunch break of 30 min.b) It helps visualize ‘Six big losses’ with their targets for meeting OEE.
e.978 = 0.748 i.· Performance = P = parts produced / (ideal production * operating time) = 19271 / (60 * 373 )= 0. Category 3: Material losses: 14) material yield 15) energy losses 16) consumable material losses 10. 11) waiting for instructions.978 · OEE Composite = Availability * performance * quality = 0.9 Types of Losses (16) There are 16 types of losses that can be categorized into three namely: Category 1: a) Equipment losses: includes down time losses due to 1) machine failure/breakdown. 74.861 * 0.861 · Quality= (total parts produced – rejection) / total parts produced) = 18848 / 19271 = 0. c) Quality loss: 7) process errors 8 rework/scrap Category 2: Manpower losses: 9) cleaning and checking.888 * 0. 13) any management losses. 10) waiting for materials. 12) waiting for quality confirmation. 5) minor stopping /idling. 6) reducing the capacity. 3) planned shutdown downtime] b) Performance losses: 4) start up losses.10 Zero-Loss Concept: TPM is based on the elimination of the above said 16 losses along with other five zero loss concepts depicted below: . 2) set up/adjustment time.8 % 10.
11. Formation of committees and sub committees for a) promotion and steering of TPM. even for new areas of operations.10. Plant audit and initial assessment 2. Selection of pilot lines 5. monitoring and reviewing TPM results and raising levels and revising standards 10. Company commitment 3. The TPM program team oversees initial planning and coordination of all TPM efforts though ultimately this responsibility is transferred to the maintenance department. 6.11 Implementation of TPM Implementing TPM company. This stresses the need to shift focus from equipment to the processes within which it is used. c) Kaizen. Implementation in each of the identified areas is managed directly by a target area committee with assistance from a TPM program team.12 Eight Pillars of TPM . b) Jishu Hozen. h) Safety and environment committee 4. e) Quality maintenance.wide is a major project that requires support from top management.1 Steps in TPM program 1. d) Planned maintenance. Reaching Excellence in TPM program by Promotion. g) Education and training. 10. The main focus on equipment maintenance is for improvement of the overall production system. Focus on 8 pillars. f) Office TPM.
10. Eliminate the defect at source through active employee participation 4.12. Step wise implementation of JH activities JH Targets: 1.In the above house. Flexibility with operators to operate and maintain other equipments 3. Reduce oil consumption 2. Increase the use of JH Objectives of JH: . 8 Pillars supports a strong structure of TPM for achieving higher productivity is depicted in the following picture. Reduce process time 3. Uninterrupted operation of equipment 2.1 Pillar-1: Autonomous Maintenance: (Jishu – Hozen) Autonomous maintenance is a phrase coined by the Japanese institute of plant maintenance (JIPM) to describe the shift towards the machine operators maintaining their own machine / equipment JH Policy: 1.
In case modification is required for easy inspection / elimination of debris / contamination etc a new aggregate covers may be created 3. Initial cleanup It must be closely aligned with 7S of the company and there must be commitment of both the staff and the management for the house keeping. team leaders. 2. Improve skill levels and personal growth throughout the company 5. Develop standards and data collection: Create standards for clean up and checking of machines. Repair sources of defect (outside of machines). electronic. Similarly the orderliness of tool availability and display of visual boards can be maintained. Stabilise. broken / worn out belt. quick response. 4. Train operators on function and troubleshooting: Operators. control or prevent deterioration of production equipment 2. lubrication and mechanical should be clearly understood by all in the production line for quick redressing. Other steps considering the aspects like a) Cooperation from all production related department. Operators should identify and tag the sources of defects / waste that arisen out of the machine operations. Prevent degradation related failures 3. set rules to be followed. Standards for monitoring key process parameters: To develop methods and standards for routine verification of key process parameters / standards operating conditions. Increase access and ease of inspection and maintenance 4. JH audit. switch not operating properly etc. establish standards for data collection based on the production control chart and develop standards for easy reference. Here operator has to apply and ask for 5 why’s.1. 7. first line supervisor should be trained to understand the basic of the equipment and the functions and the systems working in the machines namely Hydraulic. pneumatic. Here the operator executes routine verification and adjustments 5. Improve predictability through data analysis and communication Steps to Implement JH: 1. Cleaning of all the surroundings and using Japanese 5S principles for orderly keeping the parts etc. 6. electrical. Provide spare parts and tools: Here all the spare parts should be leveraged at the point of use after considering the inventory levels. replace cracked parts or worn out seals etc and repair and setup the machine. Examples of such defects are: Crack in the housing leakages. should be followed to achieve effective results .
Kobetsu Kaizen (Focussed Improvements) 1) PDCA Cycle: Kaizen: here maintenance team should 1) Plan each step. MTBF. Here it is aimed at eliminating all 16 losses in the workplace. Verify the progress made in TPM efforts in planned versus emergency work. There are three steps that aim at quick but short term process improvements supported by long term organizational change. Six steps followed by planned maintenance are: . Quick change time reduction. 2) Do the necessary change.12. It is aimed at having trouble free machines and equipment producing defect free products for total customer satisfaction. · Planned maintenance policy includes a) achieve and sustain availability of machines. 4) Act as required to proceed further to improve upon the system/process. All out JH: Repeat the cycle 1 – 6 above of the process of managing and monitoring the TPM. 10. 10.8. optimize machine set ups. Step 3: Implementation action plan to sustain and develop further possible improvements. optimize spare parts location etc.12. Zero accidents and Zero defects. 3) reduce spare parts inventory. 2) Increase in productivity by improving Overall Equipment efficiency (OEE).2 Pillar-2. Overall Online efficiency (OOE) and Overall Plant efficiency (OPE) 3) Decrease Costs: through controls in inventory and WIP 4) Reduction in customer complaints: reduce total downtime and ensure quick deliver to customers 5) Zero accidents: total safety and all actions to save money. 4) improve reliability and maintainability of machines. 3) Check whether successful or not.3 Pillar: 3: Planned Maintenance [Pm] For Zero Loss · Planned maintenance is a systematic management by maintenance department. which uses maintenance work cycle activities of preventive/predictive/corrective or breakdown maintenance techniques. MTTR. 2) optimise maintenance costs. Here an emphasis is on transferring knowledge and creating self sufficient team for results. These steps are: Step 1: Quick Win Shop floor projects: this is a team based approach targeting specific problem areas and realizing immediate benefits Step 2: Critical analysis: analyze what else needs to be changed to make it fixed and create action plans.
4 Pillar-4-Quality Maintenance for Zero Defects This is a process for controlling the condition of equipment and its components that affect variability in product quality. 2) Improvement in MTBF and MTTR.5 Pillar-5-Development Management This refers to the learning process that happens in TPM implementation and during different types of maintenance practices. are analysed.1) Equipment evaluation and recording of present status 2) Restore deterioration and improve on weak links 3) Builds information management systems 4) Prepare time based information and parts and map out a plan 5) Prepare predictive system plan by introducing diagnostic techniques 6) Evaluation of planned maintenance. 3) Reduction in spare parts consumption 4) Reduction in oil and power consumption 5) Reduction in repair cost 6) Reduction in number of inspection points etc 10. Here the customer end defects are known through customer complaints and in-house defects known through the quality control personnel.12. Benefits from Planned Maintenance 1) Reduction in downtime due to breakdowns. root cause is found and improvement action on the process/design are ensured. b) policy of . Results achieved through this pillar are: 1) Improved customer satisfaction and reduction in future complaints 2) Reduction in defects and improved quality 3) Reduction in inspection time 10. when a) ease of manufacture. Focus is on eliminating non-conformances in a systematic manner.12. Here also aim is at defect free product to satisfy the customer.
and design validation 10. whose morale is high and who are eager to work and perform the required functions effectively and independently. skilled workers. unsafe storage/stacking. c) determination of detailed specifications etc are answered. It is aimed to have multi skilled & revitalized employees.6 Pillar-6-Trining & Education [Flow Of Controls] Through training and education provides the skill and knowledge apart from the experience that enables operators. Here the focus is on improvement of the knowledge. reworks etc. noise generations and any such unsafe potential areas must be identified and action taken to make them safe. skills and techniques through a training environment. a) planning b) implementation. incorporate planned maintenance sheets to eliminate defects. Point by point safety audit.12. c) design. safety training and monitoring the improvements through Kaizen. safety guards. operating machines without proper training etc. Unsafe conditions like electrical points. Some examples of unsafe acts by employees are 1) use of worn out tools. providing safe environment place a vital role.7 Pillar-7: Safety.development of new technologies. 10. The methodology adopted is for understanding of the present machine structure. too hot areas. health and hazards. d) manufacturing. This systematic education and training will result in: 1) Reduction in downtime.12. Poka-Yoke etc will all result in getting the following benefits: 1) Reduction in accident 2) Reduction in noise 3) Create excellent house-keeping & a good looking workshop through 5S action 4) Reduction in downtime because of breakdowns etc 5) Saving in energy consumption 6) Reduction in industrial waste . The continuous training is on safe working. Development of management involves four phases. Health & Environment [Zero Accidents] Here the focus is to create a safe work place and a surrounding areas that is not detrimental to process or procedures. breakdowns attributed to lack of knowledge and skills 2) Reduction in further downtime after gaining the knowledge and skills 3) Reductions achieved after training on the number of defects. goggles etc. unsafe working without wearing gloves. e) initial phase production. engineers and managers are in a position to fulfil the expanded role to be played in successful implementation of TPM.
Since achieving total productivity is one of the major objectives of TQM. It is followed to improve productivity and efficiency in the office administration. manpower etc b) Q: mistakes in cheques. accounting. in information etc e) S: safety in material handling. It identifies and eliminates losses. cost of inventory carrying. 7) reduced man power 8 clean and pleasant work environment and 10) reduction in equipment due to emergency despatches/purchases. 2) reduction in repetitive works. PQCDS&M principles in Office TPM: a) P: production output loss due to want of materials. stores. 3) reduction in administration costs. to follow all the principles and procedures laid out in ‘Seven Pillars of TPM’ and achieve the desired overall improvements for the benefit of the organization. Further. marketing and sales outlets with high inventories. we can infer that total productive maintenance is an extension of TQM philosophy to the maintenance function. the following strengthen the view that TPM is relevant to TQM: . TPM aims at keeping the current plant and equipment at its highest productive level through cooperation of all. invoices. payroll.8 Pilar-8-Office Tpm [Raise Levels & Select Other Areas] Office TPM includes analysing processes and procedures towards increased office automation. as a strategy. Benefits accrued because of office TPM are 1) Better utilization of work areas. cost of logistics. 5) reduction in n umber of files. etc d) D” logistic losses due to delay in support function. payment to suppliers. other safety practices f) M: number of kaizen activities in office areas with improvements not visible TPM is a long range living program. 6) reduction in customer complaints.10.13 Relevance of TPM to TQM Framework Good maintenance is fundamental to a productive manufacturing system. Here the whole organization should focus. In TPM the barrier between maintenance & production personnel is removed. 4) reduction in inventory carrying costs. bills.12. Therefore the Office TPM addresses the seven major losses namely: 1) processing loss 2) communication loss 3) idle loss 4) set up loss 5) accuracy loss 6) non-value added loss 7) cost loss including areas as procurement. customer returns etc c) C: buying cost. 10.
there is a direct link between TPM and TQM and also the relevance of a comprehensive maintenance policy is proved for successful TQM implementation. zero accidents and zero defects. shortened equipment life and inventory. smell etc spot problems before they develop. A comprehensive TPM program aspires to implement process capability and its maintenance. 3) TPM also contributes to improvements in safety. zero breakdowns. 2) TPM increases production capacity. in other words working with a zero sum philosophy. The planning. scheduling and control of operations depend to a large extent on process capacity and process capability. tidy and well organised work area will result in better performance Maintenance is the key to achieve zero loss. process reliability and reduces the cost of lost production time.14 Benefits of TPM An added benefit is that with the added responsibility of all maintenance activities. 10. Process capacity cannot be made available at the cost of quality. by using the principles of 5S. Housekeeping is another area in JIT production system. operators develop a sense of ownership for the machines and give special attention to upkeep the machines for sound. 4) Benefits can be categorized into two types namely: 1) Direct and 2) Indirect a. Direct benefits: . defects. vibration. TPM aims at the introduction of new and creative ideas which will optimise quality standards and reduce waste and costs to the organisation concerned. Clean.· TQM is aimed at satisfying customer requirements. since it aims at cost reduction and quality improvements for internal requirements and for customer satisfaction. This developed by JIPM (Japanese Institution of Plant Maintenance) during late 1960’s combines the American practice of PM with Japanese concept of Total Quality Control [TQC] and Total employee involvement [TEI] 1) TPM aims for greater manufacturing competitiveness through improved effectiveness of machines and equipments. morale and pollution control by involving everyone in the process. Here too the operators take the responsibility of cleaning their machines and work areas. · TPM is continuous improvement activity. In view of the above. · TPM can have a great impact on the operations decision making process. repairs. TPM is a value adding activity.
equipment and systems so that they consistently perform at the levels required of them. Preventive maintenance requires understanding and maintaining all the physical elements of manufacturing – machine components.a) Increase in productivity and overall plant efficiency b) Elimination of customers complaints c) Elimination of accidents d) Achieve goals by working as a team b. Therefore if any equipment breaks down.15 Role Of TPM In World Class Manufacturing Most of the world class manufacturing firms have implemented JIT systems and TQM philosophy to achieve excellence in manufacturing and to have ability to compete globally. the entire process or . The following results were reported from a typical firm after implementing TPM. Reliable. 4) Delivery: Inventory turnover increased by 150% 5) Morale: Improvement suggestions increased by 105% 6) Safety: Accidents reduced to nil 7) Environment: No pollution created 10. 1) Productivity: Breakdowns reduced by 85% 2) Quality: Defect rate reduced by 50% 3) Cost: Labour cost reduced by 25%. well functioning machines and equipments are a pre requisite for JIT and TQM to be successfully implemented in any manufacturing firm. Indirect benefits: a) Higher confidence level among the employees b) Favourable change in the attitude of the operators c) Horizontal deployment of a new concepts in all areas d) The workers get a feeling of owning the machine. maintenance cost reduced by 15 -30%. energy reduced consumption reduced by 20%. .
Improved equipment functioning has a positive impact on product quality. The involvement of workers in quality circles provides the opportunity for them (members of quality circles) to study maintenance problems. a facility. Maintenance covers all those functions such as ……………… etc. to keep a machine. while teams of maintenance staff. Here the new quality approach of ………………… was translated to the maintenance environment through the concept of TPM. Preventive maintenance practices reduce the breakdown of machines and will keep them in good working condition. • Prevention of equipment deterioration • Maintain the equipment in optimal condition • Establishing basic equipment conditions • Operator’s incompetency . Identify. It first evolved in Nippon Denso a major supplier of the Toyota car company.production line comes to a halt. In TPM operators / workers perform basic equipment repairs and preventive maintenance. In world class companies the responsibility for repairs and preventive maintenance is assigned to workers. 2) TPM had its genesis in the Japanese car industry in 1970’s. TQM requires quality at the source which implies that machines must be reliable and well functioning.. 3) TPM is defined as the means to achieve high level of productivity. In world class companies quality circles form an important component of TQM. machinists and operators redesign and reconfigure equipment to make it more reliable. material handling equipment and other transport vehicles in proper working conditions. This will facilitate implementation of an effective preventive maintenance program which is essential for a JIT system Self Assessment Questions Fill up the blanks with appropriate words in the following statements: 1) Equipment maintenance is basic to competitive manufacturing. efficiency and effectiveness with zero loss concepts through total participation of all employees with self managing abilities in practices. easier to maintain and perform better. engineers. to achieve ……………………. Preventive maintenance is a stepping stone to a higher level of maintenance referred to as “total productive maintenance” (TPM). 4) GOALS: one among following is not an applicable goal.
Identify a) Downtime due to equipment failure.. What is that? • P: production output loss due to want of materials. ………. Kobetsu-Kaizen. 9) Autonomous maintenance is a phrase coined by the Japanese institute of plant maintenance (JIPM) to describe the shift towards the machine operators ……………………… 10) PQCDS&M principles in Office TPM: In the list below principle D is missing. 7) Overall Equipment Efficiency-Fill in the other two factors: [OEE] = [Availability x ( ………. TPM in Offices. Health & Environment.) X (…………)] 8 Out of Eight pillars of TPM. Identify them Autonomous Maintenance. b) Downtime for setups and adjustments. d) Habitual absenteism by employees e) Speed losses due to discrepancies between designed and actual speeds f) Defect losses due to process defects that cause scrap & quality problems... One among the following is not the type of loss considered in maintenance. c) Speed losses due to idling and minor stoppages caused by abnormal operations of censors. Development Management. …………….• Elimination of quality defects • Elimination of equipment failure • Elimination of cost losses 5) There are six types of losses found in a manufacturing firm. two are missing in the following list. blockages etc. manpower etc . Education & Training. that the equipment is contributing to the product. g) Defect losses due to reduced yields in processing 6) OEE is a way of measuring how the six major losses shown below are affecting the equipment or in other words a way of measuring the amount of ……………………. Safety.
cost of logistics. . For the above type of TPM. payroll. other safety practices • M: number of kaizen activities in office areas with improvements not visible 11) Results achieved through pillar number Four are: 1) Improved customer satisfaction and reduction in future complaints 2) Reduction in ……………. In the TPM approach to maintenance management. 3) Ability to establish a repair plan and priorities. 5) …………………….2) Adequate resources. machines are cleaned and lubricated frequently by the operators themselves who run the machines. invoices.. and ……………. etc •? • S: safety in material handling. A comprehensive maintenance program consists of breakdown maintenance. Preventive maintenance is a well planned program which involves inspection to uncover potential problem and make the necessary repairs before any breakdown occurs. Only five are listed. customer returns etc • C: buying cost. 2) Adequate resources. 10. 6) Ability to design ways to extend MTBF. stores. 4) Ability and authority to do material planning. While breakdown maintenance is remedial or corrective maintenance or equipment repair when breakdown occurs. 3) Ability to establish a repair plan and priorities. organization should have the features of 1) Well trained maintenance crew. 4) Ability and authority to do material planning. The frequency of preventive maintenance must be balanced with the cost of equipment failure and keep the total costs of preventive and breakdown maintenance put together at the lowest level possible.16 Summary Japanese firms which implemented JIT production and TQM concepts cannot witness any machine failures that affect quality and delayed production schedules. bills. and total productive maintenance or reliability centred maintenance. organization should have the following six features. cost of inventory carrying. They applied TPM techniques to visually eliminate machine breakdowns. 3) Reduction in inspection time 12) For the above type of TPM..• Q: mistakes in cheques. preventive maintenance. Which is the sixth one? 1) Well trained maintenance crew..
by adopting any of the maintenance systems discussed above.17 Terminal Questions 1. 10. Discuss on the guiding features of TPM? 3. high WIP inventories and so on. 5. TPM identifies and attacks all causes of malfunctions and eliminates all consequent losses due to breakdowns. employee morale and pollution control. continuous improvement and has a strong strategic relevance like TQM. TPM has great relevance to TQM in improvement of productivity and quality. decrease in productivity. Explain briefly the evolution of maintenance practices leading to TPM. safety hazards. formation of a target committee and program team to oversee initial planning and coordination of all TPM efforts and then transfer the responsibility to the maintenance department. high standards of quality and reliability. high repair costs. TPM contributes to improved safety. stoppage of production. defects. accidents to workers. Distinguish between breakdown maintenance and preventive maintenance. TPM helps to maintain process capability. What are the objectives of TPM? 2. which may result in inefficiency of machines. shortened equipment life and inventory. repairs. Reduction in costs of lost production. What is total productive maintenance? Is it different from total preventive maintenance? . poor quality of outputs.5) Ability to identify the cause of break downs 6) Ability to design ways to extend MTBF. 4. Benefits of TPM includes increase in production capacity and process reliability. Implementing TPM company-wide is major project requiring top management support. especially with the latest TPM as a final and long range solution. product quality and production schedules. idle time. Quality circles. All these help to improve manufacturing competitiveness of world class companies. an important component of TQM provides the opportunity for workers to study maintenance problems and suggest effective maintenance activities which are essential for JIT systems. Equipment problems have a direct impact on production costs.
Explain briefly the sixteen types of losses that are to be considered for elimination by the maintenance department while planning TPM activities. What are the relative issues that are recognized by maintenance department before attempting introduction of TPM in the plant? 7. Total customer satisfaction. adjusting. Discuss the relevance of total productive maintenance to TQM framework. Habitual Absenteeism by employees – [Sl. safe environment under TPM? 15.e. What are the unsafe practices and how these are controlled by practicing good and healthy. etc 2. Operator’s incompetency-[Sl. 4. Which are the eight pillars that support TPM in an organization? 11.6. Monitoring. What are the six zero concept that are to be considered while approaching elimination of 16 Losses? 10. 10. 16. What are the benefits accrued to a firm by practicing TPM? 17. cleaning. 9. What is meant by ‘Overall Equipment Effectiveness’? What are its constituents? How the six losses are addressed through OEE? 8. no (d)] . What are the constituents of Kobetsu Kaizen i. repairing. no-(d)] 5. Explain briefly as to how planned maintenance under Eight pillars of TPM help achieve zero loss? 14.18 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1. Focussed Improvements and what steps are used to achieve improvement? 13. Describe the role of total productive maintenance in world class manufacturing. inspecting. What is ‘Autonomous Maintenance? What are its objectives and steps involved in implementing? 12. Prevention at source 3.
Performance Efficiency & Quality yield 8. 10. Ref.8 8.12. 10. 10. Ref. 10.6 6. D. Ref.‘logistic losses due to delay in support function. “Value added” – activity 7. 10.13 . Ref.10 10.4 2.6 4. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. 10. Planned Maintenance & Quality Maintenance 9. 10. Ref. Ref.6 5.7 15.1 12. Ref.12. payment to suppliers. Defects and improved quality 12. 10.7 7. 10.6. 10.2 13. 10.9 9. 10.12 11. 10. 10.5 3. Ref.12. Maintaining their own machine / equipment 10.3 14. Ref. in information etc’ 11. Ref.12. Ability to identify the cause of break downs Terminal Questions: 1. 10. Ref.
14 17.16.15 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Ref. 10. 10. Ref. .