OM0006-Unit-01-Introduction to Maintenance Management Unit-01-Introduction to Maintenance Management Structure: 1.1 Introduction Objectives 1.

2 History of Maintenance Definition of Maintenance Objectives and Functions of Maintenance 1.3 Functions of Maintenance Management Quality Aspects in Maintenance Maintenance Organisation Initial Level Repeatable Level Defined Level Managed Level Optimized Level 1.4 Improving Maturity in Maintenance Organizations Training Strategy Work Management Resources Management Supervisory Review Quality Assurance Subcontract Management

Commitment of the Maintenance Personnel. Verification of Implementation Metrics and Process Improvement 1.5 Dynamics of a Maintenance Organisation Maintenance Management Perspectives Types of Maintenance Preventive Maintenance Shut-down Maintenance Opportunistic Maintenance 1.6 Summary 1.7 Terminal Questions 1.8 Answers 1.1 Introduction Rising inflation and increased competition have brought with them the need for greater productivity, and recent years have seen more emphasis being placed on productivity improvement. Moreover, sophisticated equipment and capital intensive units and plants are being increasingly used to achieve the pre-set targets of higher production and productivity. Reliability and maintainability features are now being incorporated in the equipment designs. Although modern equipment has higher levels of reliability, it is not possible to keep this equipment in an operating condition at all times because failures do occur even in the most reliable equipment.1 It is also true that such sophisticated equipment, and units or plants, tend to have high probabilities of failure since in many cases they incorporate newer, and therefore not adequately proven, technologies and designs. They also consist of a large number of assemblies, sub-assemblies and components. Failure and malfunctioning of these items of equipment result in a loss of production. Loss of production is undesirable because it results in corresponding loss in revenue. Whenever an item of equipment is down and fails to perform its intended function, or performs in an undesirable fashion, it must be restored to a state where it performs satisfactorily. At the same time all necessary action must be taken to keep, or retain, such equipment in an operating condition and also to prevent failures. Resources, such as spare parts, manpower skills, tools, instruments and facilities, such as hangars in the case of

aircraft maintenance, are utilized for accomplishment of the restoration processes and preventive actions. Thus the requirement for productivity improvement has brought about the pressing need for a significant improvement in the management of maintenance of equipment, units and plants. Objectives: After studying this unit you shall be able · To Define Maintenance · To assess objective and functions of Maintenance · To describe Quality aspect of Maintenance · To assess key process of Maintenance Management 1.2 History of Maintenance Historically, maintenance activities have been regarded as a necessary evil by the various management functions in an organisation. Enormous costs of maintenance, estimated to be between 15 and 40 per cent of the production costs and the trend towards automation have, however, forced managers to pay more attention to maintenance. The evolution of maintenance can be traced from the days prior to World War II. The attitude of the managers then was ‘to fix the equipment when it breaks’. With fewer items of sophisticated equipment around, and hence, the cost of downtime not being high, prevention of equipment failures was not given much attention. Maintenance, in addition to fixing the broken equipment, involved simple activities like cleaning and lubrication. The period after World War II saw the introduction of the word ‘terotechnology’ which was initially defined by the committee on terotechnology as ‘…a combination of management, financial, engineering and other practices applied to physical assets in pursuit of economic life-cycle costs’. Due to rising costs and inflation, focus was on reducing downtime of equipment and hence preventive maintenance came into being as an important activity. This period also saw a number of researchers working on operations research models for preventive maintenance. Importance of planning maintenance activities also grew during this period. Overhauls of equipment were planned and scheduled. Systems for managing maintenance were also introduced. The period after 1980 has seen some of the worst accidents in industrial history. Leakage of methyl isocyanite (MIC) from a battery/cell manufacturing unit in Bhopal in India and the threat to the survival of mankind caused by the nuclear accident at Chernobyl in the erstwhile Soviet Union have only made the manufacturing industries and the like realize the importance of maintenance. The attitude of ignorance towards maintenance has increasingly been replaced by one which recognizes maintenance also as a strategic issue in the organisation. Besides high cost, the other factors which contributed to this change

and planning and scheduling maintenance resources. Alternatively the objective should be to minimize the costs – the labour costs and the material costs as well as the loss in revenue due to loss of production. manpower. · organizing maintenance resources. The need for reliable equipment has also been realized. should.2 Objectives and Functions of Maintenance The objective of any business organisation is to make profits. or tasks. . Performing such activities would obviously extend the useful life of the equipment. the principal objectives of maintenance would be: · to control the availability of the equipment. and warranty and liability factors. or return the equipment to an acceptable working condition. or keeping. that are related to preserving equipment in a specified operating condition. 1. Obviously.2. To live up to the new expectations demanded of maintenance activities. In summary. 1.2. Modern maintenance management can be considered to be composed of the following functions: · maintenance planning.1 Definition of Maintenance Maintenance is an element of a complete production system. In case an item of equipment fails it needs to be restored to the same specified operating condition. safety issues. The set of tasks or activities that constitute maintenance ranges from simple cleaning operations and lubrication to performing condition monitoring. at minimum resource cost. The objective of maintenance. which is linked to the overall organizational objectives. maintenance programmes have to be developed to ensure that physical assets will continue to fulfill their intended functions at a minimum expenditure of resources. Techniques such as condition monitoring. Maintenance. an item of equipment in a specified operating condition. tools and facilities. regulatory matters. ageing plant and equipment. neural networks and Markov chains have been used for controlling and managing maintenance activities. maintenance activities which do not contribute to preserving or restoring the intended functions of assets should be eliminated. be to maximize the profitability of the organisation by performing activities which retain working equipment in an acceptable condition.include: environmental concerns. or restoring failed equipment to a normal operating condition. Performing maintenance activities requires the use of resources such as spare parts. therefore. including staffing/recruiting. · To extend the useful life of the equipment. in general. The availability and utilization of these resources are of prime importance. means preserving. Maintenance can thus be defined as a set of activities. drive for cost reduction and the like.

The principal objectives of maintenance would be to control the availability of the equipment.· directing execution of maintenance plan. 2. . · controlling the performance of maintenance activities. Maintenance planning includes formulating and identifying ___________ policies. 3. Maintenance planning includes formulating and identifying organisation-wide policies that would help achieve higher maintenance productivity such as: · Do we repair the equipment or buy a new one? · Do we perform preventive maintenance or corrective maintenance activities? · Do we employ full-time repair personnel or should we subcontract work? Self Assessment Questions 1. · defining processes for performing maintenance. 5. at minimum ________________. _____________ in addition to fixing the broken equipment. The attitude of ______________ towards maintenance has increasingly been replaced by one which recognizes maintenance. · Budgeting. involved simple activities like cleaning and lubrication. 4. Maintenance is an element of a complete ___________ system.

Another important task is creation of a master maintenance schedule. This will lead to degradation of equipment performance and can also result in its failure. Once the activity is complete. work and . Once the required resources are available. the maintenance manager needs to organize the required resources and all these resources need to be available in the right quantity and at the right time. a review by the manager or the maintenance supervisor would be essential to ensure and authorize that the maintenance work has been carried out properly. The maintenance manager should ensure that the equipment is restored to its normal working condition as quickly as possible. The top management is also responsible for negotiating and authorizing the service level agreement. Other common tasks related to maintenance management include generating reports related to equipment. If the required resources are not available. This way not only is the downtime cost kept to the minimum but also the resources are utilized effectively. In order to carry out maintenance activities as planned. then the planned maintenance activity cannot be performed. the maintenance activity can be initiated.1. This is a statement of maintenance tasks to be carried out in a specified period. In case the task does not get completed within the estimated time then corrective action would need to be taken to ensure further loss in revenue due to loss in production is minimized. Any maintenance activity requires resources. The maintenance manager should track the work to completion.3 Functions of Maintenance Management Responsibility for formulating the maintenance policies lies with top management.

An important step in addressing the maintenance management problems is to treat the maintenance task as a process that can be controlled. the tools and procedures used. · It incurs not more than the budgeted cost. without causing · any damage to the equipment or to any of its parts. when performed properly. 1. 1.3. · In general. produces the desired result.2 Maintenance Organisation Maintenance organisation does not mean only the organisation of people in the maintenance department or their reporting structure.3. · A repository of maintenance processes. The above-mentioned conditions can be satisfied only when the maintenance organisation has: · skilled and committed repair men available to carry out the required maintenance activity at the required time. the need is for a good maintenance organisation. · it is initiated on time and the equipment is returned to production at the · required time.costs. A ‘process’ can be defined as a set of tasks that. · an appropriate ‘on-the-job’ training programme for the repair men to enhance their ability to work. · the required spare parts in the required quantity. measured and improved. · the required tools. training and motivation of the people . It also includes activities related to collection and analysis of data related to maintenance and reporting to top management. and the skill. An effective maintenance process must consider the relationships of all the tasks.1 Quality Aspects in Maintenance Quality is not absolute but relative. instruments and facilities for performing the activity. It is more to do with the maturity of the maintenance process such that high-quality maintenance activities are performed. A maintenance activity can be considered to be of high quality if: · it restores an item of equipment to its normal working state.

3. 1. 1. without formalized procedures.3 Initial Level The organisation operates on an ad hoc basis. cost estimates and plans. 1.3.3. the most important ones being project management. The performance of these steps calls for a process-oriented organisation and such an organisation develops over a period of time as enunciated by the capability maturity model (CMM). managed and optimized. quality assurance and project tracking and oversight. repeatable. Understand the status of the current maintenance process or processes. The organisation now has capabilities to face new challenges and achieve success. organizations at this level face risks when presented with new challenges.6 Managed Level . Plan to perform the required actions. the organisation achieves the foundation for continuous improvement in processes. 1. The strength to carry out similar activities stems from the prior experience. With this.5 Defined Level The organisation has a repository or a set of defined procedures for carrying out development work. 4. However. To improve the capabilities of the maintenance organisation the following steps8 must be performed consistently: 1. the organisation has to implement a measurement programme to obtain process feedback. 5. Determine if the current process is the desired process. organizations must have dedicated personnel who take care of the development processes. To climb up the maturity level. 3. Commit resources to execute the plan. To reach the defined level. List down required process improvement actions. 2.4 Repeatable Level Organizations which carry out similar projects with reasonable accuracy with regard to cost and time are at this level.involved. organizations at this level need to institutionalize basic management processes. Tools are neither integrated with the process nor uniformly applied. that is.*9 The CMM was defined by the software engineering institute (SEI) for software development organizations and it classifies software development organizations into five levels initial. defined.3. In order to improve performance.

Problems are identified proactively and eliminated. 1. without formalized procedures.The organisation has a way by which performance indicators are measured objectively. Responsibility for formulating the maintenance policies lies with shop Supervisors. Since the data collection process is full-fledged. Targets are set for performance and a plan is made out to achieve the pre-set targets. when performed properly. . They are: · training strategy. · work management. produces the undesired result. The objective is only to identify the key process areas that would enable maintenance organizations to enhance their capabilities and maturity. Self Assessment Questions State whether following statement True or False 6. A few key process areas can be readily identified in this regard. The organisation operates on an ad hoc basis. 7.4 Improving Maturity in Maintenance Organizations The key process areas (KPAs) involved in enhancing the capability and maturity of a software organisation. Any maintenance activity requires resources.7 Optimized Level The organisation has capabilities to identify the weakest links in the development processes and eliminate/improve them.3. cost estimates and plans. · resources management. 8. 10. the effectiveness of the process can also be determined. 9. that is. · quality assurance. 1. The objective is not to classify the maintenance organizations also into one of these levels. To reach the highest level on the CMM. · supervisory review. A ‘process’ can be defined as a set of tasks that. the organisation needs to put in place automatic data collection support tools. Quality is not absolute but relative. The CMM can be adapted to enhance the capabilities of the maintenance organizations as well.

for example. The required resources should be available at the right time and in the right quantity. In some others. such as an oil refinery. A maintenance activity should be broken down into smaller manageable tasks. can be provided on safety and productivity-related issues. Most maintenance activities are performed in groups. tools.4. For example.4. Individual as well as organisation-wide training programmes should be planned. This is referred to as the work-breakdown structure. irrespective of the time it consumes. scheduled and tracked to completion.2 Work Management Any activity. usage of modern tools etc. This is the responsibility of the maintenance manager. Management of resources is therefore critical to managing the maintenance function. It would not be appropriate to track every small activity in the work-breakdown structure to completion. The supervisor’s responsibility is to ensure that the required resources allotted for performing .4 Supervisory Review Every maintenance activity should be performed under the charge of a supervisor. Each of the tasks in the work-breakdown structure should have appropriate resources assigned to it. For small activities. a small maintenance activity may take not less than 5 hours. For example. 1. It therefore becomes necessary to train all the maintenance personnel on the aspects of team work. Also the probable time to complete the tasks should be specified. An organisation may not always find suitable people for performing a job. facilities etc. The maintenance manager should identify the training needs of his subordinates and get them trained. Coordination within a group is critical to completion of the maintenance task on time.· Subcontract management. Training. The term ‘small activity’ should be defined by the quality assurance personnel because it varies from one organisation to another. tools. Resource here means manpower. scheduled and conducted.4. maintenance activities require resources in the form of spare parts. 1.1 Training Strategy Every maintenance organisation should have a suitable training programme for its personnel.3 Resources Management As mentioned earlier. is not managed if it is not planned and tracked. a welder may be re-trained to perform a pipefitter’s job. 1. in one organisation an activity that takes only 15 minutes for completion is considered to be small. instruments and facilities. Holding resources in excess of requirements is wasteful while non-availability of required resources at the required time is undesirable since this result in loss of revenue due to loss in production. In such a case it is better if some of the available personnel are re-trained on some trades other than those in which they have specialized. 1. Every maintenance activity should be planned.4. manpower. a bull’s eye chart may be appropriate for tracking work.

The selection of the subcontractor should be planned. The maintenance manager can also visit premises to inspect the capabilities and to get firsthand information. 1. in most cases. 1. Once the activity is complete.4. List of activities. 1.4.4.4. Hiring these specialists on a full-time basis. A few more basic areas like maintenance planning and configuration management would also need to be considered.the maintenance activity are available to the repair gang on time and in the required numbers. 1. and for analyzing them in order to come up with improved routes and work processes. Five important factors need to be taken care of if each of the key process areas mentioned above need to be implemented in the maintenance organisation. These factors have also been borrowed from the CMM. Like any other internal maintenance activity. Yet another goal would be to verify the correctness of the work performed. the supervisor should inspect the equipment in order to ensure that the equipment is performing as desired. The goals of the subcontract management should be to evaluate and select appropriate subcontractors for performing the maintenance activities. This is the work order management process. The assessment of the subcontractor can be done by inviting each to present their capabilities and verification of claims through independent references. A better option is to subcontract the work. tools etc. Ability of the maintenance personnel can be enhanced by providing them with proper and relevant training. The supervisor should also guide the repair gang in performing the activity. This involves establishment of policies and top management sponsorship. The supervisor should also report completion of the activity to the maintenance manager so that the actual costs incurred are logged.6 Subcontract Management A few maintenance activities require specialists at the job. The repair men should be provided with a list of activities that need to be performed as a part of the maintenance. subcontracted work should also be managed.7 Commitment of the Maintenance Personnel The repair men need to be committed to perform the maintenance activities.5 Quality Assurance The quality assurance personnel should be responsible for identifying the optimum route for performing a maintenance activity. is expensive. The subcontractor manager should select a suitable subcontractor based on a balanced assessment of the capabilities of prospective subcontractors.8 Verification of Implementation . They are responsible for collecting data while the maintenance activity is carried out. Increasing the ability to perform.

including manpower. The maintenance manager. An activity is scheduled (as far as possible during the production windows in the case of preventive maintenance) and initiated depending on the availability of the required . 13. The selection of the ______________should be planned. 12. Four entities are important as far as the maintenance activities are concerned. 2. Self Assessment Questions 11.The supervisor of the repair men should verify the completion/ implementation of the maintenance activity. The resources. 1. They are as follows: 1. Feedback on the maintenance activity performed should be given to the concerned repair men. Measurement of maintenance activity can be in terms of percentage of work complete to date. The supervisor group. Gathering metrics on every maintenance activity helps in estimating the time requirements and also the cost. The supervisor should also make use of this opportunity to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the individual repair men and arrange suitable training for them. the maintenance productivity and quality of the maintenance work. The quality assurance group. 15. The maintenance manager is responsible for scheduling maintenance activities. 14. estimated time to complete the work. The key process areas (KPAs) involved in enhancing the capability and maturity of a ____________________. Metrics and process improvement is a ___________________. Ability of the __________________ can be enhanced by providing them with proper and relevant training. materials and tools. 1. tools etc.5 Dynamics of a Maintenance Organisation Coordination within the groups is one of the most important factors that determine the effectiveness of any maintenance organisation. Every maintenance organisation should have a suitable ___________ for its personnel.9 Metrics and Process Improvement This is a continuous process. 4.4. 3.

This is called the ‘production window’.1 Maintenance Management Perspectives Kelly has described the dynamics of a production maintenance system considering a large process plant. Due to shortage of resources the maintenance activity is pending. an item of equipment or some part of it can be in one of the five following states: 1.5. 1. The key distinction among the three perspectives relates to the time interval between the recognition of the need to perform a maintenance activity and the time at which the . The equipment is in a failed condition.resources. 4. Since the equipment is in use there is no loss in production while performing this maintenance activity. Since the equipment is being taken out of production this maintenance activity results in loss of production. The maintenance manager tracks the activity to completion while the supervisor inspects and ensures the activity is carried out properly. Relatively more time is spent on performing this type of maintenance activity. 5. this is called preventive maintenance. As the maintenance activity is carried out. Fix it when it breaks as in cases (4) and (5). Ettkin and Jahnig have described the work life cycle for the reactive and proactive perspectives. 2. The equipment is running and is producing the desired output. (2) and (3). Maintenance is carried out while the equipment is running. The equipment is not wanted for production and is available for maintenance. Since the equipment is not in an operating condition this maintenance activity results in considerable loss of production. the quality assurance group collects data on the process and analyses them with a view to improving the process. 2. Maintenance is being carried out to restore the equipment to an operable condition. At any time. They have divided corrective maintenance into two perspectives – ‘reactive’ and ‘reactive/proactive’ –and have defined preventive maintenance as a ‘proactive’ perspective. The equipment is in a failed condition. 3. The equipment is taken out of production for a scheduled maintenance activity. The quality assurance group determines the process of performing the maintenance activity in an optimized manner. This maintenance activity also does not incur any loss in production. Prevent it from breaking down as in cases (1). It can be seen from the above that there are two perspectives of maintenance management: 1. this is called corrective maintenance. This activity involves simple inspection of replaceable parts.

There is rarely any organisation where only one type of maintenance is used. the direct costs increase. make changes and prevent failures. This approach to maintenance becomes essential for any equipment where there are serious dangers to life should a failure occur. materials and tools. The cost of utilization of these resources is a direct maintenance cost. v Evaluation of the performance. The intention is to detect potential failures early. the time interval between the recognition and performance is very small as compared to the ‘proactive’ perspective. consisting of labour costs. 1. is proportional to the loss in revenue. The total maintenance cost is the sum of direct maintenance costs. Availability of an item of equipment can be defined as the ratio of uptime to the sum of uptime and downtime. Performing a maintenance activity requires usage of resources such as manpower. which is an indirect cost. v scheduling the maintenance task. and indirect maintenance costs. in turn. All the maintenance activities. If personnel who operate and maintain the nuclear power plant of the submarine make serious mistakes. The cost of unavailability. 1.2 Types of Maintenance The return of investment on an item of equipment can be maximized by maximizing its availability. corrective and other maintenance practices followed in organizations. there is a trade-off between the maintenance costs and their benefits. The following section describes the preventive.activity is actually performed. which are primarily due to loss of production. involve the following steps: v planning the maintenance task. In the case of the ‘reactive’ perspective. in the case of nuclear submarines. the ship and its entire crew are in mortal danger. Also the indirect costs resulting due to failure decrease.5. Most situations warrant a considerable mixture of maintenance types. Just as there is a trade-off between inventory holding costs and the reordering costs.3 Preventive Maintenance Preventive maintenance is a proactive activity. results in loss of revenue. When an item of equipment is down it results in loss of production which. v performing the maintenance task. The only difference is that of the time interval. for example. regardless of the maintenance perspectives. The level of maintenance activity to be performed is obviously the one where the total cost is minimal. material costs and direct overheads. As the level of performing maintenance activity increases. The preventive actions under such a situation would be to: .5. This is an approach developed to reduce the likelihood of the failure of critical equipment to the minimum possible.

Planned · activities are carried out and the main functions are: · inspection of critical parts of the equipment. This type of maintenance activity is applicable only for those items which exhibit a time-dependent failure . Analyze even the most trivial errors to determine what went wrong. · Inspect each ship and each operation to ensure that every procedure and method is properly understood and executed. adjustment and similar activities. and the commanding officer must promptly report on the corrective actions. hours etc. Primary objectives of this approach to maintenance are to: · Increase the life of critical equipment by preventing failures. The fixed time should not be based on the calendar units but should be based on a fixed number of running units such as kilometers. These objectives give rise to the following methods of performing preventive · maintenance activities: · fixed-time maintenance. · Audit the personnel so that they demonstrate satisfactory performance to their job standards. the level of distilled water in the battery of an automobile is checked after every 1000 kilometers and the brush ploughs of a grinding mill should be replaced after every 500 hours of running. This approach to maintenance is also important in highly automated plants.· Train all the personnel in their own jobs. power plants etc. For example.. · servicing. · Detect the onset of a failure. · Replacement of worn-out parts. Fixed-time maintenance is that activity which involves inspection of critical parts of the equipment after a fixed time interval. which includes lubrication. · Report deviations to the admiral-in-charge. and replacement of those which are worn out. such as car assembly. where the cost due to loss in production is very high. · Condition-based maintenance. These activities can prevent serious errors from occurring. or after generation of a fixed cumulative output.

This type of maintenance is called running maintenance. This method of condition-based maintenance is inexpensive. In organizations where there are very few production windows. cracks in the structure of a building etc. Running maintenance is normally carried out in situations where there is no threat to the life of the maintenance personnel. Along with inspection.mechanism. Corrective Maintenance Corrective maintenance. This is a proactive-reactive approach to maintenance and results in the following tasks: repair of failed parts of the equipment. generally occurring in the form of breakdown maintenance. shock pulses etc. It is an appropriate option for preventive maintenance when the following conditions apply: Prevention of failure is not technically feasible. eddy currents. on the other hand. ultrasonic waves and thermographs also help monitor the condition of the equipment. Corrective maintenance activities are also performed when condition monitoring indicates onset of a failure. There is a cost due to loss in production. as mentioned earlier. which can be measured either visually or by other means. and then the parts have to be repaired or replaced. Detailed analysis helps in detecting an impending failure. checking for leaks in fuel-carrying pipes. corrective maintenance is predominant. such as the setting of warning limits for the Solidification of the lubricant. if repair is not economical. With this kind of maintenance policy. A parameter. the maintenance-related costs are usually high for the following reasons: The time required is usually much higher than other maintenance types because the cause of failure has to be identified. replacement of failed parts with new ones. This approach is designed to detect the onset of a failure. the solidification of the lubricant is an indicator of the machine’s wearing condition. Complex situations require sensors and other high-tech tools to monitor the vibrations. analysis of acoustic emissions. Since condition monitoring gives sufficient warning of an impending failure it becomes easy for the maintenance manager to plan a corrective activity at a later time. It is possible to identify a value of that parameter when action may be taken before full failure occurs. In some situations it is possible to carry out some preventive maintenance activities while the equipment or plant is running. the time required to perform this activity is . The costs involved in condition monitoring may vary widely. These methods. Damage is caused to other equipment as a consequence of failure. correlating to the onset of failure has been identified. A simple case of condition-based maintenance is the visual examination of the brake pads of an automobile. which the case is when the event leading to failure occurs in a predominantly random manner. Condition-based maintenance is also known as predictive maintenance. Although. is a reactive activity and is performed when an item of equipment is not in an operating condition or is operating at a level below its rated capacity. the maintenance personnel can also collect data which can be used as inputs by other methods of condition-based maintenance procedures. or how the failure can be prevented is not yet known. The obvious advantage of carrying out running maintenance is that there is no loss in production. are expensive. For example. Techniques such as oil analysis.

20. are carried out after the equipment or plant is shut down. If the priority is high or alternatively if the equipment is critical.much higher than the preventive actions require. The maintenance manager is responsible for scheduling maintenance activities. 1. Self Assessment Questions State whether the following statement True or False 16. Five entities are important as far as the maintenance activities are concerned.4 Shut-down Maintenance Shut-down maintenance can either be a preventive activity or a corrective activity. Once an item of equipment fails. most situations in organizations warrant a mixture of maintenance types. Minor repairs which cannot be performed while the equipment is running. repair and replace certain other parts of the equipment. When a maintenance activity is carried out on an item of equipment there exists some opportunity to inspect. The maintenance work that is carried out is not directed at the primary cause of failure of the equipment or shut-down. 19. The next chapter describes a few resources management techniques. an emergency maintenance is carried out. This approach to maintenance is called opportunistic maintenance.5 Opportunistic Maintenance The maintenance work that is carried out is not directed at the primary cause of failure of the equipment or shut-down. The cost of utilization of the resources is a indirect maintenance cost. The work is deferred to a later date if the priority is low or the equipment is not so critical. Trained maintenance personnel also have a role to play in reducing the maintenance time.5. The cause is usually recorded for future analysis and corrective actions are prescribed. this can be reduced considerably if the organisation has all the maintenance procedures and systems in place. Depending on the availability of resources.5. The types of maintenance discussed in this section will help top management decide on questions like: should we carry out preventive actions? Or should we fix the equipment when it breaks? As mentioned earlier. . 1. Shut-down maintenance can either be a preventive activity or a corrective activity. While we know that prevention is better than cure. 18. the maintenance department personnel attempt to detect the cause of the failure. 17. criticality of the equipment and the priority. as well as major repairs and overhauls. Whatever be the choice of the maintenance policy. we also realize that failures are unavoidable. it should be closely associated or integrated with the resources management function. corrective maintenance work is scheduled and carried out.

it has now come to be accepted as an important function – one of strategic importance – particularly in the capital-intensive continuous-process industries such as power plants. Ignorance 3. nuclear power generating stations. Write a note on History of Maintenance.7 Terminal Questions 1. and integrated iron and steel works. Resource Cost 5. Organisation-wide 6. Production 4. 2. 5. False 7. What are the steps involved in Maintenance Organisation. This transformation has taken place in about 40 years and has brought about automation and increasing sophistication of plant and equipment. 3.8 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1. True 8. What are the features of Preventive Maintenance? 1. and has been hastened by the fact that the loss of one hour of production is much more expensive today than it ever was before. maintenance of plant and machinery was a thankless job and the maintenance function was considered a necessary evil. From this state. Explain Objectives and Functions of Maintenance. Discuss Dynamics of a Maintenance Organisation. Maintenance 2.6 Summary Until recently. True . 4. chemical and fertilizer plants. Plant and equipment availability is of paramount importance and effective management of the maintenance function goes a long way in ensuring the attainment of the objective of maximization of availability 1.1.

2.4. .2 4.1 2. Maintenance Personnel 14. Page 10 – Part 1.2 3. False Terminal Questions 1. Continuous Process 16. Page 6 – Part 1. False 19. True 18.1. Page 2 – Part 1. True 20.Page 11 – Part 1. Subcontractor 15.4 5. False 17. True 11. Software organisation 12. False 10.3 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .9. Page 3 – Part 1. Training programme 13.

1 Introduction Objectives 2.6 Summary 2.OM0006-Unit-02-Business Maintenance Unit-02-Business Maintenance Structure: 2.7 Terminal Questions .3 Spare Parts Statistical Inventory Theory Models Inventory Costs How Much to Order? When to Order? Selective Inventory Control Procedures Manufacturing Resource Planning The Bill of Materials Master production Schedule Inventory Status File Requirements Pegging Rescheduling Process 2.2 Man Power 2.4 Tools and Facilities 2.5 Effect of Maintenance types on Resources 2.

can be used to determine the optimal number of welders. Manan . however.1 Introduction For performing any maintenance activity resources are required.8 Answers 2. simulation techniques and queuing models have been used for determining the optimal number of repair gangs required to be deployed in a system. a maintenance job may require the services of a welder for just about an hour whereas the same job may require a fitter for more than four hours.2 Man Power Almost all the maintenance activities require skilled personnel and most of the activities require more than one skill such as welding. Basker. tools and facilities. Queuing models. Important among these are maintenance materials (spare parts). In this study the characteristics of the maintenance resources are discussed. Techniques used for managing the maintenance resources are also discussed. Historically. which utilize the theory of minimizing the total cost of unavailability and labor. A Maintenance job is usually performed by a repair gang or repair crew consisting of an optimal mix of skilled workers. The procedures used are similar to those used for determining the optimal number of repair gangs required for carrying out maintenance activities. can be used to determine the optimal number of welders. manpower. rigging etc. which utilize the theory of minimizing the total cost of unavailability and labor. plumbers etc. The disadvantage of assigning a maintenance job to a repair gang or crew is that the manpower utilization within the gang is not effective. not all skills are required for the same amount of time. An important issue in manpower is that of determining the optimal number of skilled repair workers. One solution to this problem would be to schedule individual workers rather than repair gangs. However.2. requires some knowledge of the rate of failure (called arrival rate) and the repair distribution. Objectives: After studying this unit you shall be able · To explain the characteristics of the maintenance resources · To define techniques used for managing the maintenance resources · To assess comparison of the available resources management techniques 2. An important issue in manpower is that of determining the optimal number of skilled repair workers. Queuing models. For example. The usage of the models. fitting. Queuing models and simulation have been used also for determining the optimal number of tools and facilities such that the maintenance costs are minimized. plumbers etc.

The objective of spare parts management is therefore to minimize the total of inventory holding. on the other hand. 2. In general.1 Inventory Costs Every organization keeps spare parts so that defective and worn-out parts of equipment can be replaced. By holding spare parts in the inventory the funds of the organization are tied up which could have otherwise been invested in other activities.3 Spare Parts The spare parts (maintenance material) problems have been traditionally approached in three ways: 1.3. Using the statistical inventory theory models. The objective is to determine the number of repair workers needed to constitute a repair gang. Using the material requirements planning/manufacturing resources planning (MRP/ MRP-II) technique.1. electricians and pipe-fitters. Maintaining the spare parts in a store also incurs some cost. In addition to the holding and stock-out costs. 3. 2. there is also a cost of ordering a re-supply of spare parts. two basic questions need to be answered: · How Much to Order? · When to Order? . Newman and Brammer and Malmborg have utilized a material requirements planning/bill of materials approach to manage the manpower resources. Using selective control procedures along with some heuristics.and Husband have used the Monte Carlo simulation technique to determine the optimal number of repair workers required to perform the maintenance activities in a shop comprising a finite number of identical machines. not having the required spare part results in a stock-out cost. 2. and the number of repair gangs required such that the total costs (sum of labor cost and downtime cost) are minimized.3. Barnett and Blundell have used the Monte Carlo simulation technique to optimize the number of repair gangs and the size of the repair gangs given that the maintenance jobs generate demand for repair workers from three different trades’ mechanics. stock-out and ordering costs.1 Statistical Inventory Theory Models 2.

3. obtained by utilizing the above equation for Q. Then the holding cost is given by where p is the unit price of the item and r is the annual stockholding rate related to the stock value. .2.2 How Much to Order? Several models have been developed based on the principle of minimizing the total inventory costs. The complexity of the problem lies in the fact that neither the demand nor the lead-time is constant.00 The rate of interest is 20 per cent annually Then the optimum order quantity. Mathematical models are however available to determine the timing of placing an order taking into consideration the characteristics of the demand during the lead-time as well as the lead-time itself. The following is an illustration of a basic inventory model which takes into account the holding and the ordering costs. Thus. where c is the cost per order. If the annual demand for an item is D. The total inventory cost TIC = the holding cost + ordering cost. The service level is defined as the probability of not having a stock-out situation.3. Let Q be the ordering quantity. During this period. 8. These models help determine what has been traditionally known as the optimum order quantity. The maintenance manager must make sufficient provisions to take care of demand during the lead-time because the cost of stock-out is undesirable in any situation. is 1000. Thus The minimum of TIC can be obtained by differentiating the above equation with respect to Q and equating the resulting derivative to 0.1. 100.3 When to Order? An order placed with a vendor for re-supply of spare parts takes some time to get filled. therefore. 2.00 The unit price of the item is Rs. then the number of orders to be placed is given by The ordering cost is. the demand for spare parts resulting from the need to perform maintenance activities needs to be satisfied. this is referred to as the lead-time. This provision normally takes the form of safety stock which is determined based on the service level.1. we have If The annual demand D for an item is 8000 units The cost of placing an order is Rs.

Several procedures for classifying items into homogeneous groups are available.Self Assessment Question 1) Maintenance job is usually performed by a _____________or repair crew consisting of an optimal mix. During the days when computers were not available. The following paragraphs describe some of the applications involving a combination of selective inventory control procedures.1 Most applications found in the literature make use of a combination of selective inventory control procedures because classification or categorization of items based on just one criterion is inadequate for managing the maintenance materials. Instead effort was concentrated on a few expensive and fast-moving items. By this method the spare parts are classified into nine Basics Of Formulation Annual usage value of the parts Vital. essential and desirable Criticality of the parts Fast. be given equal importance. 4) _______________ and queuing models have been used for determining the optimal number of repair gangs. difficult and easy to procure Procurement lead-times . Ramani and Krishnan Kutty have utilized an ABC×VED classification technique where not only the annual value of usage of the part is taken into account but also the criticality of the part is given importance. the safety stock and the minimum and maximum inventory levels require to be determined for each of the items in the stores. 2) Several models have been developed based on the principle of minimizing the total _____________. 3) Every organization keeps spare parts so that defective and ___________ of equipment can be replaced. medium. Technique Description ABC Pareto rule VED FSN HML SDE Table 2. paying equal attention to all the inventory items was not feasible. slow and non-moving Usage rate of the parts High. low Unit price of the parts Scarce.3. 2. The re-order quantity. a few of which have been listed.2 Selective Inventory Control Procedures The statistical inventory control techniques require that each item. This is the principle of the selective inventory control procedures. Items were categorized into homogeneous groups based on their characteristics. irrespective of its criticality.

while the categories formed on the basis of criticality of the parts are critical and non-critical. Duchessi. statistical inventory control models or heuristics are utilized to determine the ordering parameters such as the order point and the order quantity.6m where m is the maximum quantity of parts requested at any time. which is based on the procurement leadtime while the third dimension makes use of the FSN classification (usage rate). the stocking policy for a spare part in the V/S/F category is 2. The stocking policies for each of the 27 categories are determined using heuristics. The two categories formed on the basis of sales value are high sales value and low sales value. a part may be called critical if the loss of production caused by non-availability of the part is very high. If a substitute part is readily available then the part may be less critical. The second dimension makes use of the criticality aspect of the spare part and is based on the revenue lost due to loss in production (Mi) which is given by where pi is the downtime cost per unit time per failure involving the concerned part. Although the selective control procedures make the managing of the multiple inventory items easier. Tayi and Levy have utilized a two-dimensional classification method.2. VED and the SDE classification procedures which results in eight categories of items as shown in table 2. In other words. Moreover. the multi-unit spare inventory control. For instance. which categorizes the spare parts into groups based on their criticality. takes into account the annual usage value Bi of the part i and is given by where Ci is the price of the part and Di is the total annual demand. makes use of a combination of ABC. The second dimension uses an SDE classification. . A three dimensional classification technique has been used for the purpose. a range of service level is specified. in the categories formed on the basis of lead-times are long lead-time and short lead-time. A part may be classified as a critical part if the consequence of running out of stock is severe.categories. For example. The first dimension utilizes a VED classification methodology. There are several ways by which the criticality of a part can be defined. The first dimension. fi is the number of failures per unit time involving the part i. These eight categories have been formed by taking only two categories in each of the three dimensions. MUSIC-3D. and Ni is the standard deviation of the downtime cost (E denotes expectation). it should be noted that most of the classification criteria are subjective. which makes use of the ABC classification criteria. A reorder point-order quantity technique is used in conjunction with this method for replenishment of parts. It is the time required to replace or repair the part. For each of the nine categories. Saha and Mohanty have developed a spare parts stocking policy with an objective of minimizing the downtime of critical equipment.

In addition to this. Figure 2. in general. The immediate . or derived from the demand of another inventory item. It consists of a master production schedule. The components can either be manufactured in the shop or can be boughtout items.3 Manufacturing Resources Planning The manufacturing resources planning (MRP-II) technique has been used widely for managing production resources. an inventory status file.3. Later in this section. The piston assembly.2 shows the bill of materials for a petrol engine. It can also be considered to be an assembly definition. any manufacturing organization would want to have the following questions answered: · How much to order? · When to order? Both these questions are also answered by the MRP technique. All other constituents of the petrol engine are referred to as items. MRP-II possesses two basic characteristics which go beyond the closed-loop material requirements planning (MRP). the petrol engine is an end-item. the application of MRP is also very simple.3. some applications involving management of maintenance inventories are also discussed. The technique is based on the principle of dependent demand. 2. a bill of materials file. semi-finished or finished form. in turn. The bill of materials. in a raw.3. defines the constituents of an end-item. the crankshaft assembly and the cylinder assembly. the piston rings and the bearings. It is an operations as well as a financial system. As mentioned earlier in this section. Figure 2.2 2. An end-item is an item at the highest level of hierarchy in the bill of materials.1 shows the components of MRP. The central idea of MRP is to time production/acquisition of batches of parts/components so that they are available as they are required in assemblies. a logic processor and a capacity planning subsystem.Table 2. It is also a system simulator. The components in the diagram have been described briefly.1 The Bill of Materials The bill of materials defines how one or more items are brought together to make up another item. This section provides a brief overview of the closed-loop technique. The bill of materials indicates that the engine consist of three subassemblies – the piston assembly. is made up of the piston. The demand for an inventory item is termed dependent when it is directly related to. As seen in the figure.

2 two bearings (indicated in parenthesis) go into the making of a piston assembly.1 . As seen from Figure 2.predecessor of an item is called the parent item. The MRP technique uses the bill of materials for computing the requirements through a process called explosion or desegregation. is an item whose parent is the piston assembly. In addition to defining the relationship between items. Figure 2. The bill of materials also carries with it some other information such as whether the part is bought out or is manufactured within the organization. the bill of materials also indicates the quantity of an item that goes into making a parent item. for example. The piston.

In order to make the computation of the requirements easy. This includes raw materials.5 tones of tools need to be produced every month on average. this can be broken down into 12 production months. level codes are assigned such that identical items used in different end-items are maintained at the same level.2 Every item in the bill of materials is given a number or code such that no two parts have the same number. Since the demand for carbide tools is all through the year.3. As shown in Table 2. The priorities for the production of items specified in the master production schedule are set by the sales plan. The master production schedule indicates the quantity of items to be produced in a given period. Also. This would mean that 0.3. There may be a case where an item is used in two different end items. It states what end-items need to be produced and how many needs to be produced in a month or week. TPAN 75 and CPAN 75 that need to be produced. The total weight of the variants scheduled for production during the month when totaled equals the budgeted weight as shown in Table 2. The requirement at one level is computed first before proceeding to the next level. 2. the top management has budgeted 6 tones of carbide tools to be produced during the year. . which is a budget set by the management.Figure 2. semi-finished and finished parts. The master production schedule is constrained by the production plan. The quantity of all the items to be produced in a given period must equal the quantity budgeted in the production plan as shown in Table 2.3. it may so happen that the items are used at two different levels.2 Master production Schedule A master production schedule is a statement of production of end-items for a given planning horizon. This is further broken down into a schedule for specific variants of carbide tools such as SPAN 50.3.3.

3 0.1 0.1 0. the scrap allowances etc.1 0.5 0.5 0.3. the safety stock.3 0.3 0.5 Tools Master Schedule SPAN 50 0.1 Table 2. In addition to the stock data.3 0.5 0.1 0.3 Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 0.3 0.4 0.2 0. the inventory status file also contains the planning factors such as the procurement or manufacturing lead-times.1 0.2 0.5 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.3.3 0. 2.1 0.5 0. · Quantity on order.1 0.1 0.5 0.1 2.2 TPAN 50 0.1 0.1 0.3 Inventory Status File The inventory status file contains up-to-date information about all the materials stocked in the stores.3 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.2 0.5 0.5 0.1 0.3. In general.3 0.1 0.4 Requirements Pegging .3.1 0.2 0.Item code Jan Production Plan Carbide 0.1 0. The file is kept up to date by posting the transactions which take place as a result of a receipt or issue of parts into and out of the stores. the batch sizing policy.1 0. the inventory status file maintains the following data for every item: · Quantity on-hand.0 0.2 CPAN 50 0.

The manpower requirement is also known precisely. For audit purposes. irrespective of its criticality. 6. 2. The scheduled receipts are taken into account while computing the net requirements. A master production schedule is a statement of production of end-items for a given planning horizon. 7. The bill of materials defines how one or more items are brought together to make up another item. The procedures used are similar to those used for determining the optimal number of repair gangs required for carrying out maintenance activities. .3. in the case of a proactive perspective the maintenance activity is planned and the timing is also determined well in advance. Activities such as fixed-time maintenance enable managers to determine the exact number of parts required. it becomes necessary to trace the demand for an item to its source and this process is referred to as pegging. This uncertainty may result in rescheduling of the receipts. materials on order may be received earlier than the due date while in some others the scheduled receipt may not be expected to be in the stock on time. The inventory status file will not contain up-to-date information about all the materials stocked in the stores. Self Assessment Questions State whether following statement True or False. not be given equal importance. 8. In some cases.4 Tools and Facilities Queuing models and simulation have been used also for determining the optimal number of tools and facilities such that the maintenance costs are minimized. Scheduled receipts are orders which have already been released to the shop floor or to the vendors. 5.5 Effect of Maintenance Types on Resources As mentioned earlier. This is a deterministic situation. 2. The statistical inventory control techniques require that each item.5 Rescheduling Process Scheduled receipts are orders which have already been released to the shop floor or to the vendors. 2.Explosion is a process concerned with generating gross requirements.3. 9.

and corrective maintenance activities (and not just one of them). have been used by industries for spare parts planning. · Use standby equipment. cannibalization can lead to severe control problems at a later time. namely. This perspective has been created by initially discussing the various types of maintenance resources and their characteristics.In the case of a reactive perspective. condition-based. If the required maintenance materials are not available in the stores then one option available is to replace the failed parts of one with the working parts of the other failed item of equipment. Statistical inventory theory models and techniques for selective control have been discussed in detail. explaining the commonly used methods and discussing the work done by researchers working in the area of spare parts management. Cannibalization. The basic purpose of this study is to provide the necessary background and present in a proper perspective the need of the development of an MRP based technique for the management of maintenance resources. if not both. and the various models and techniques which are commonly used. the maintenance activity is neither planned nor scheduled in advance. Since failures occur randomly it becomes difficult to predict the resource requirements. Managers in some organizations carry out cannibalization as a last resort in order to meet the production requirements. In order to reduce the impact of failures on the profitability of the organization the following techniques are usually adopted: · Increase the number of maintenance personnel. The technique should be able to take into account preventive. · Build-up spare part inventories and tools. If the equipment is critical. There are some . and if manpower is a constraint. If a failure occurs and the required resources are not available to restore the equipment to a working state the equipment is kept waiting in the repair queue. then the immediate requirement would be to restore at least one of the items of equipment to a working state. statistical inventory theory models and selective control approaches for multi-item inventories for spare parts planning and queuing theory and simulation for manpower planning. As per the definition of maintenance. In some cases cannibalization is also practiced. 2.6 Summary The problem of management of maintenance resources has been discussed. Selective control procedures. Consider a situation where two identical items of equipment have failed due to different failure modes. this happens to be an undesirable situation and should be avoided. This approach to maintenance is called cannibalization. does not reduce the number of inoperable parts. however. such as the use of ABC and VED classifications.

Summarize Bill of Materials. 2. VED×SDE×FSN and ABC× VED×SDE. Such classification schemes. Classifying spare parts into homogeneous groups using a classification scheme is difficult since different types of spare parts require different classification schemes. chains.7 Terminal Questions 1. belts. researchers have suggested the use of multidimensional classifications. and these models have their own shortcomings. 4. are utilized to determine the ordering parameters. For the above reasons. classification. Worn-out parts 4. 3. Define Statistical Inventory Theory Models. Explain Man Power. 2. Inventory costs 3. ABC×FSN. Simulation techniques . in turn. statistical inventory control models. Repair gang 2.8 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1. such as ABC×VED. such as the re-order point and order quantity. whereas VED and SDE may be more appropriate for special spare parts (ones which are used on particular equipment). For example. For spare parts. Briefly summarize effect of maintenance types on resources. or heuristics. based on just one criterion is adequate. 5. ABC and FNS are more appropriate for standard spares such as pulleys. give rise to a large number of classes of spares with each class having its own planning and control parameters. Explain Master production Schedule. or categorization. sprockets and bearings.fundamental problems encountered in the use of selective control techniques for spare parts management and these are as follows: Such classification is always rather subjective and this is more so in the case of spare parts. 2. In these cases as well.

2. True 9.2. False 8. Refer 2.1 2.1 3. Refer 2.Refer 2. True Terminal Questions 1. False 7. Refer 2.3.2 4. Refer 2.1 5. .2.5.4 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .3. True 6.

closed and critiqued.4 Summary 3. executed.5 Terminal Questions 3. Scope of work includes maintenance. planned. To fully understand the breadth of Work Management it is important to understand what Work Management is. The Work Management process requires the full support of the entire organization (e. scheduled.2 Functional Requirements Equipment Maintenance Function Work Order Management Function Inventory Management Function Vendor Management Function Subcontractor Management Function General Information Systems Specifications 3.).1 Introduction Objectives 3. .. selected. projects. and R&D activities. Engineering. production. Operations. Maintenance.1 Introduction Our goal is to establish excellence in Work Management. Work Management – A deliberate process in which a scope of work is identified. waste management. etc. Planning & Scheduling.OM0006-Unit-03-Work Management & Identification Unit-03-Work Management & Identification Structure: 3.3 Work Management Process 3.6 Answers 3.g.

3. 5. Store maintenance data including failure and repair data. 6. 3.2. the scope of the system should be clear. 1. · Report on the performance of the overall maintenance system using standard indicators. 2. · Plan procurement of resources. A maintenance management information system. 3. Schedule preventive maintenance work. 4. should have the following functions. Track overall maintenance function performance. Predict failures to a chosen level of confidence. at the least. Vendor management subsystem. Requirements can be gathered by interviewing the prospective users or circulating questionnaires. Plan maintenance work – ensure materials. 5. 3. · Optimally utilize maintenance resources.2 Functional Requirements Before designing the information system. 4.Objectives: A maintenance management information system must help you to · Schedule the Maintenance activities. Update data when a failure or preventive maintenance activity is initiated and completed. Equipment maintenance function. . 2. The functional requirements of the information system should be gathered first. manpower and tools would be available.1 Equipment Maintenance Function The equipment maintenance function needs to perform the following: 1. Subcontractor management subsystem. Inventory management subsystem. hiring of subcontractors and arranging facilities. Work order management subsystem.

2. 4. 3. 9.2. 3. materials and tools. Print reports as desired by the maintenance manager and top management. Track utilization of manpower. Convert critical maintenance requests into work orders. tools and facilities. Update materials inventory data as and when an issue or receipt of materials occurs. Track maintenance costs. Schedule release of planned orders (materials).4 Vendor management function The vendor management function needs to perform the following: . 7. Produce reports as desired by the maintenance manager and top management. Generate work orders for preventive and corrective actions. 2. Create maintenance requests. Produce reports as desired by the maintenance manager and top management. 3.3 Inventory management function The inventory management function has to do the following: 1. Store and maintain inventory data including skills and tools.7. List pending work. covering manpower. 7. 6. tools and facilities. Track status of manpower. 5. 4.2. Alert the maintenance manager to place orders for materials as planned and in the required quantity. 8. 5. Schedule work visually.2. 3. Track status of work in progress.2 Work order management subsystem The work order management function is required to perform the following: 1. Plan capacity. 3. 6.

4. Make on-line data entry. Maintain data related to subcontracts.6 General Information Systems Specifications The general information systems specifications need to perform the following: 1. Produce reports as desired by maintenance manager. Print related reports. In order for a system to be efficient. 3) The equipment maintenance function needs Schedule preventive maintenance work. Devise metrics for evaluation of vendors. Track quality of subcontracted work. Maintain vendor information. 2.5 Subcontractor management function The subcontractor management function must: 1. 2. 6. 3. 3. Cater for three levels of users’ administration. each level of management needs to have access to the required information and should be able to extract the data which is needed. Organize skills provided by subcontractors.2. Validate data entry. 3. Self Assessment Questions State whether the statement is true or false.2. 2) The work order management function is required to perform Plan capacity. Track cost. 2. 3.1. 5. . Track progress of subcontracted work. 1) The subcontractor management function must not maintain data related to subcontracts. 3. top management and middle management.

requirements stated in the contract and the annual budget process form the top-level means of identifying the work that will be performed. · Schedule the work for performance. · Close the work item after completion. Each year DOE and the contractor review the contract and the progress of work as part of the annual budget process. and · Critique the planning. 5) The vendor management function needs maintain vendor information. Identify Work Concept This element describes the processes and tools put in place that determines the work that a contractor performs. safety and protecting the environment. other programs may be developed by the contractor in furtherance of contract execution. 3. Whether mandatory or voluntary on the . A number of these programs are mandatory. they would entail routines used to monitor attributes important to mission execution. Contractors develop management programs to execute much of the work of contracts.4) General information systems specifications will not validate data entry. On a day-to-day basis. Mechanics The contract between DOE and the contractor provides the top-level mechanisms for work to be identified. The statement of work in the contract provides a description of the mission-related work that DOE expects to be performed. At the top-level these processes and tools include the contract with DOE and management programs committed to by the contractor to execute the statement of work and requirements in the contract. The statement of work. · Execute the work. · Select the specific work that will be planned. · Plan that work.3 Work Management Process These steps to be followed in work management process are: · Identify the work that needs to be performed. scheduling and performance of the work that has been accomplished.

which are initiated by personnel who identify work that needs to be performed to allow the work item to be entered into a work management system. After the work . no contractor has the resources to complete every identified work request. The schedule is also a tool that ensures that work is properly identified. Work is also identified on a daily basis. Management The annual budget process provides contractor and DOE management the resources to manage the work that is identified for further planning and execution. at a high level. The identification of work is. environmental monitoring. The discovery of new information may result in the need for additional research and development or design changes to existing systems and equipment. or improvements. They provide the opportunity to proactively manage the identification of emergent work. Other types of work are converted into work requests. and similar repetitive procedures. therefore. While the threshold for identifying work items needs to be sufficiently low to all capture work items. prioritize and coordinate the management of several categories of work. These include work requests. they provide a method to track. an identified project or specific facility need are screened out and no further resources applied to their resolution. changes. Workers are encouraged to be vigilant in monitoring facility conditions for system or equipment problems. Work requests not supporting the current mission. Work management systems are put in place by contractors to collect work requests into a single place. On-going assessments or reviews may identify the need for corrective actions. Select Work Concept Management programs identify the operational activities and routines that need to be completed to meet mission deliverables. This process compares the work accomplished and that which remains to the funding that DOE believes will be available to execute work in the coming years. From this process the work to be planned and executed in a given year is identified. system and environmental parameters. contractors often put routines in place. In furtherance of management programs.part of the contractor. operator rounds. The Select Work element funnels the work requests through a validation or screening process to determine those work items needing to be completed. Routines are executed to monitor equipment. these management programs provide one of the primary paths for work to be identified. Program and project plans are updated with the information developed during the annual budget process. Additional management tools that are used in the work identification process also support other elements of the work management process. a continuous process. These routines can include Technical Surveillance Requirements/ Limited Condition of Operations TSR/LCO surveillances.

Knowledge of these drivers allows effective prioritization of work planning efforts. The work selection process starts with a work validation. and interface with mission requirements. or. · Work Cost: Work requests may be identified that will require funding that is beyond that available to the contractor. Or the work request may require a documented resolution. traded off with lower priority work or put forth as a candidate for additional funding. if sufficiently important. Work requests that are clearly not going to be accomplished due to cost impacts should be screened out at this point. Work may be tied to contract milestones. This validation process evaluates attributes of the work items to determine if the work item should be processed through the work management system. may all provide key information needed to properly validate the work. stay in compliance with the established safety basis and operating requirements for that facility or project. etc. problem symptoms. The work may be simple enough that no initiating work documents are required (so-called “tool pouch” or “quick fix” items). This second type of work will normally be given a relative priority. operational requirements. · Work Duplications: Contractors use Work Management Tools to track work orders. . Location of the work. If the work item is a duplicate it should be screened out.request has been validated a formal work order is entered into the work management tools used by the contractor. equipment identification. Effective work management processes utilize a graded approach to resolving work requests. · Operational Impact: Work requests that have immediate impact on the health and safety of contractor personnel need to be processed rapidly. or required plant operational modes to facilitate tracking and planning and then entered into the work management system. Attributes evaluated include: · Work Scope Identification: A clear scope statement is necessary to understand what work activities are necessary. or management commitments. Work requests that have equipment impacts must be evaluated and the systems configured to protect equipment and workers. Mechanics Work selection is a continuous process to handle the work requests identified on a daily basis. A strong validation process incorporates two-way communications with the work request identifiers. coded with respect to like components and systems. These tools should be reviewed to determine whether duplicate items are already entered into the system. · Need Date: Work requests must clearly indicate any deadline dates and the estimated time period for completing the work.

Those work requests entered into the work management system result in the generation of work orders. Mature work selection processes incorporate an understanding of a graded approach to work planning.

Management
Contractors need to clearly define who has responsibility and authority to perform the validation activity for their facilities and projects. The validation authority typically resides in the Operations organization because they are responsible for mission execution and normally retain configuration control of the facility systems, structures and components. The work management process descriptions need to define the planning processes used by the contractor staff. Requirements for the type of planning required, based on potential mission impact, hazards analysis and complexity of the work activity, are critical to decision-making during work selection. Plan Work Concept This element describes the process of taking a defined scope of work that has been selected for planning and developing/packaging technical documents to safely and efficiently perform that work. This process includes identification/incorporation of applicable technical specifications and requirements into technical documents, identifying and mitigating job hazards, identifying and obtaining required permits, developing work instructions, and defining post activity acceptance. Mechanics An initial step in planning work is determining what type of work execution vehicle will be used to perform the work. As previously discussed under Work Selection, this decision has often already been made, on a preliminary basis, prior to the initiation of Work Planning; however, it is confirmed as part of this element. Is the work to be performed with a very simple work package where the worker has the knowledge to perform the work and little or no instruction is required or will the work require a work package with more detailed instructions? The following criteria might be used to determine whether work can be performed using a very simple work package: · No medium or high risk activities. · No activities requiring hold points. · Will not alter configuration of equipment from documented design. · Will not present any unusual hazards.

· No hands-on work with radioactive material except incidental or routine work activities that involve low potential of worker exposure or workplace contamination. · No opening of contaminated systems, components, containers. · Minimal external coordination required. · “Skill-of-the-Craft” Work. Such tasks should be documented in a work package by the Field Work Supervisor (FWS) and released to work by operations and documented on the document releasing work.

Management
Work management systems are often put in place to collect work requests and maintain and file documents in a single place. They provide a method to track, prioritize, and coordinate the management of several categories of work. They also provide a means for the work planning organization to interface with the operations organization and ensure that work is moving through the planning pipeline in a manner that supports mission execution. Schedule Work Concept Schedules are tools used by work management organizations to communicate and coordinate work activities. This element describes the processes and tools associated with establishing schedules. Typically, work is identified from various sources (missionrelated commitments, Authorization Basis requirements, maintenance routines, etc.) and flows through a “rolling work week process” (described below) into an integrated schedule. The rolling work week concept is typically established based on either an 8 or 12 week duration.

Mechanics
Most sites have developed a fairly common set of schedules to implement graded approaches to conduct of operations. These commonly include a Plan of the Day (POD) along with a slightly longer view, often one week (so-called Plan of the Week, POW). Various methods exist to move information from longer-term schedules to these two short-term scheduling tools. The rolling work week concept provides an effective tool for managing the development of schedules. It involves setting a specific time frame (or “window”) within a longer-term schedule on which to focus increased management attention. Common time frames are eight to twelve weeks.

· For work that falls within the work window, increased emphasis is placed on planning, detailed schedule concerns and coordination of the work. This time period of increased attention allows: o Optimization of planned outage windows, scheduling all tasks that require particular facility conditions or that impact production commitments; o Development of a detailed technical sequence for complex jobs; o Addressing only items that need to be scheduled in detail, i.e., they require coordination of resources, complex work, etc; o Grouping of similar work to efficiently use resources and equipment by facility mode, available space, system/equipment; and time to verify that parts are available and staged. The work planned during the work window is “Locked-In”, that is, committed to by all concerned, two weeks in advance. This lock-in process adds discipline to the scheduling process and provides focus for final work preparation and coordination. After lock-in, the schedule is under a formal change control process; this encourages people to only lock in work that is truly ready to work. This level of planning and commitment permits the development of precise resource loaded schedules; it supports aligning support resources to the schedule and permits other detailed preparations such as verifying that fully-trained workers are available. This level of planning and scheduling attention also improves task readiness, it allows crews time to review work in advance of working. A formal post work week critique is held to evaluate what got done, what didn’t get done and why. It should be clear from the level of effort inferred above, that the implementation of a rolling work week process requires a commitment from all organizations to make the system work. Work on the rolling work week is facilitated by the existence of schedules that integrate all important work. Management Management tools for a successful scheduling process include: · Senior Management involvement (Frequent and Regular) – Critical Path Meetings · Accountability meeting – weekly schedule commitment meeting · High level schedule change control authority once work is locked in · POD – A daily meeting intended to review facility and schedule status

. the first-level supervisor performs a final review of the work instruction. Applicable work instruction prerequisites are completed to ensure readiness to work. ensures that procedures and references are the latest revision and that all of the required permits are issued and up to date. The execution of work begins when the work package is released for work by Operations and runs through the completion of work in the field or facility. This element is centered on the first-level supervisor (the person directly overseeing the work crew) and the crew that is engaged in the performance of the activity.· POW – A weekly meeting intended to review and status the higher level facility schedule · Rolling work week process – described above · Outages – scheduled periods where equipment systems or facilities are available to perform pre-determined work · Metrics – tools used to measure success of schedule performance · Documentation of key scheduling assumptions – essential to the development of baseline schedules Execute Work Concept This element describes the processes and tools associated with the actual performance of the work. · Assemble tools and material at job location. Mechanics For each assigned task. · Build scaffolding and install lead shielding. · Assemble required test equipment. This work should be completed in parallel with establishing worker protection and industrial safety requirements. Example components of work execution include the following: Preparations: · Contact job support personnel as required. · Remove insulation. · Complete rigging preparations.

· Provide necessary temporary air. field walk-downs. including expected worker radiological recovery actions · Job-specific hazards and their controls · Applicable precautions and limitations · Required safety equipment · Discuss hold points with employee(s) responsible for the completion of the hold point and employee(s) performing work immediately before or after the hold point · Industrial. environmental or radiological hazards of the task from the work document. Management Management tools put in place to monitor work execution include the Plan of the Day or other work progress meeting. The supervisor documents relevant as-found conditions and the work performed. power. and water requirements. the first line supervisor reviews the instructions for a complete and accurate work history and performs post activity testing and any rework identified by the post activity testing. water storage/recovery systems). and identifies all discrepancies and incomplete work items. tents. · Set up welding equipment if required. As the work completes. which monitors the day-to-day progress of work execution. Pre-Job Brief: · Scope of the task · Review of prerequisite section of the work instructions · Responsibilities of all participants. · Finish prefabrication work. Formal programs to have management observe work in the field will provide not only . · Build contamination control devices (catch basins. the first-line supervisor oversees and directs the work activities in accordance with the approved work instructions. job hazards analysis. the first line supervisor completes all system/equipment checks described in the work instructions to return equipment to service. Finally. or facility knowledge · Potential abnormal events and contingency plans After completing preparations and getting their work crew prepared to perform the job. Radiological Work Permit.

Documentation associated with the work evolution can then be signed off. Close Work Concept Work can be closed and declared complete when defined requirements in the approved work package have been met.status. or authorized incomplete/open work items. as appropriate. but a more accurate feel for work difficulty and potential coordination issues. capturing repair history. Important attributes of these processes are discussed below. Mechanics The work closure process can be described as several related steps. Documentation: · Document work completion against requirements. calibration and preventive maintenance data into the Work Management System. documenting the completion of work. · Update the files for the affected system/equipment. · Ensure condition tags and other documents are in the completed closure package prior to returning it to the Work Management Center. resolve any deviations. · Remove all temporary/test equipment and restore system/components to operable status. · Dispose of excess materials and waste properly. are satisfied and test results are approved. including quality. or exceptions have been authorized by the person responsible for accepting the work. normally in the operations organization. · Update as-built drawings. a number of sites use standard computerized templates to capture relevant historical information. . These steps include the process of verifying that work has been completed. . returning (or turning over) equipment and systems to operations. regulatory and safety basis requirements. e. an inventory of equipment and parts used and feedback to the work management process. based on work completed also provide feedback on work execution. The system/components can be returned to operations subject to any controls defined in the work instructions.g.. Schedule updates. Verification: · Verify all administrative and technical requirements.

ranging from individual job post work critiques to critiquing all of the work performed by a group or a facility within a specified time period. Mechanics The post work critique (ALARA. · Release all remaining clearance tags. Improvement opportunities are . · Evaluate the authorized incomplete/open work items for any operational impact concerns. Work critiques take on many forms. Inventory: · Document material used. improvements or lessons learned are identified. the previous work week (Work Week Critique) period. and lessons learned.) process takes selected jobs and critiques them to identify good practices..g. the first line supervisor should consult with the work planner and the systems engineer as needed. Critique Work Concept This element describes the processes and tools associated with performing a critical analysis of work to ensure that issues. · Verify required procedure. and return the system/equipment to the required configuration to support facility operations. e.· Retain the closure package in accordance with the Site’s records retention requirements. and ensuring completion of the work closure functions. If there are authorized open items. and incorporated into subsequent work. issues. Return to Operations: · Review work activity and all testing for system/equipment operability. · Accept the system/equipment for operability and return to service in a timely manner. Management The first-line supervisor is responsible to verify work completion against requirements defined in the approved work package. etc. the work package should have been changed and procedures amended by the appropriate formal documentation. drawing and training updates are completed prior to placing the component(s) in service. · Return unused parts to the warehouse.

o Metrics which track and trend the work week elements. typically covering the previous weeks work activities · Work Week Critique Attendance: Work week critique targeted audience should typically be that of Facility Senior Management. but was not & what the issues were which prevented that work from being accomplished. including: § Schedule & Cost Performance § Manpower Utilization § Emergent Work § Backlog · Action Item Tracking: A formal process in which action items from the Work Critique meeting are assigned responsibility & tracked through completion. · Work Week Critique Meeting: A regularly scheduled meeting used to perform a thorough analysis of the work execution. Emergent. · Work Week Critique Report: A formally prepared report which comprehensively addresses the work week being analyzed. etc. The applicable post work critique output should be discussed in the work week critique process described below. Issues should be trended to identify programmatic issues. The work week critique process is a continuous improvement process. Management Management tools for a successful critique process include: · Weekly critique meeting · Regularly scheduled meeting following each work week to critically review performance of the previous work week (attended by Senior Management) . whereby all groups involved in work execution meet to perform a critical analysis of all aspects of the week performance. The report should also include: o A breakdown of the types of work scheduled & accomplished for the week. what was initially intended to be accomplished.typically formally documented and followed to closure through a commitment tracking system. including Emergency. including the specifics regarding what was accomplished.

3. Explain Schedule Work in Detail. Explain components of work execution. 9) Identify describes the processes and tools put in place that determines the work that a ________ performs. . 4. Management programs identify the operational activities and routines that need to be completed to meet mission deliverables. or exceptions have been authorized by the person responsible for accepting the work. 5.· Appropriate Metrics including tracking and trending · Standard Critique reports · Action Item Tracking / Accountability · Worker feedback Self Assessment Questions 6) Management tools for a successful critique process include _________. Identify Work describes the processes and tools put in place that determines the work that a contractor performs. 3.5 Terminal Questions 1. 3. normally in the operations organization. Describe Close Work in Work Management Process. Work can be closed and declared complete when defined requirements in the approved work package have been met. 2. Explain briefly Identify Work in Work management Process.4 Summary The Work Management process requires the full support of the entire organization. Explain Functional Requirements in Work Management. Execute work describes the _______ and ______ associated with the actual performance of the work. 7) _________ can be closed and declared complete when defined requirements in the approved work package have been met. 10) ___________________ systems are often put in place to collect work requests. Management programs identify the operational activities and routines that need to be completed to meet mission deliverables.

6 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1. Processes.1 2) Refer Page 10 3) Refer Page 4.3. Tools 9. . True 6. False 2. Worker feedback 7. Contractor 10. 5 4) Refer Page 8 5) Refer Pages 9. 10 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . True 3. True 4. Work management Terminal Questions 1) Refer 3. False 5. Close Work 8.

7 Answers 4.5 Summary 4.OM0006-Unit-04-Emergencies or Breakdown Process Paper: ISO 90012000/Qs Elements Unit-04-Emergencies or Breakdown Process Paper: ISO 9001-2000/Qs Elements Structure: 4.1 Introduction The turret lathes and gang drills were acquired second-hand.3 Maintenance Strategies Corrective or Breakdown Maintenance 4. especially while processing important jobs. In the initial stages.6 Terminal Questions 4. the machines caused a great deal of anxiety to the management by failing quite frequently and unexpectedly. overheating of motors. . formation of sludge’s and corrosive compounds on the machine parts. and low morale of workers. etc. one-year back. breakage and slips of gear and belt drives. The breakdown of the machines resulted in a great loss of productive time and also led to several problems such as not being able to meet due dates.4 Maintenance Economics Breakdown-time Distribution Preventive versus Breakdown Maintenance (Single Machine) 4.2 The Maintenance Function 4. and were immediately commissioned. misalignment of shafts and pulleys. The reasons for breakdowns were many: development of high temperature in the bearings.1 Introduction Objectives 4. failure of insulation in electrical circuits.

or to keep the equipment running. The technicians accepted the job under the condition that if ever they are required to work in the second shift on a day. or to restore to its favorable operating condition. The four workers were divided into two crews. As he wanted technicians with experience on the specific machines he had. Maintenance work on a machine requires both workers of a crew. availability. the proprietor had considerable difficulty in finding he maintenance specialists. each crew consisting of two workers. The machine operators can only operate the machine when they are in working condition. Minimizing these adverse effects is the role assigned t maintenance. and cannot attend to any repairs or maintenance. Maintenance is defined as ‘any action that restores failed units to an operational condition or retains non-failed units in an operational state’ or ‘an activity carried out for any equipment or asset to ensure its reliability to perform its functions’. Preventive maintenance of a machine consists of dismantling the machine and checking all its important parts and making the necessary adjustments and replacements. is any activity carried out on an asset in order to ensure that the asset continues to perform its intended functions. or to repair any equipment that has failed. the proprietor of the workshop advertised for maintenance specialists for the turret lathes and gang drills. Minimizing the failure count or their adverse effects leads to increased safety. they are to be paid overtime. and consequently higher production efficiency. he selected four technicians for employment. Machine and component failures can trigger incidents or cause costly production interruptions. Such maintenance is expected to reduce the frequency of machine breakdowns. reduced downtime and cost of operation. After a long search. The maintenance crews can do breakdown maintenance as well as preventive maintenance for all the four machines.In order to combat these problems. It improves the systems overall reliability.2 The Maintenance Function Maintenance. . Objectives After studying this unit you shall be able to · Explain the functions involved in maintenance · Recognize the strategies of maintenance · Distinguish between preventive and breakdown maintenance · Evaluate the economic aspects of maintenance 4. to most people.

the significance of maintenance and its role in plant operation has changed significantly. It ensures that the equipment is able to maintain quality standards. management today sees a much larger role for maintenance.1: Evolution of Maintenance Philosophy Table 4. Maintenance efficiency is viewed as an integral part of business effectiveness. Over the past years. and · The cost of operation and maintenance is minimized. The maintenance function plays a supporting role to effective operations. in addition to its traditional roles of enhancing plant availability and lowering costs. . From a simple expectation of keeping equipment running or restoring it to the desired operating condition.1 shows the evolution of the maintenance philosophy. The evolution in the maintenance thought process is rooted in the changing complexity of industry itself. energy efficiency. It determines the risk-safety. · Down-time is minimized. The evolution can be seen to cover 3 different generations of thought. · Safety is ensured.The objectives of maintenance are to maintain equipment and facilities in such condition that: · They give trouble-free service and output at rated capacity. environmental integrity. First Generation Second Generation Third Generation · Fix it when broke · Scheduled Overhauls · Condition monitoring · Systems for planning · Design for reliability and and controlling work maintainability · Low-tech computerization · Hazard studies · High-tech computers · Failure modes and effects analysis · Expert systems · Multitasking and teamwork Table 4. product quality and customer service profile of the organization. as well as the quantitative and cost standard of outputs.

Repairing and restoration had become more difficult and special skills and more time was needed to maintain and repair equipment. 3. The reason for the occurrence of these failures is not fully understood. there is a definite pattern of lifespan. Among collections of equipment. industry became increasingly dependent on these complex machines. expert systems and continuous improvement programs have developed. Researchers into the reliability of equipment recognize that within a collection of machines. downtime became a problem and management tried to find means and ways to minimize and prevent these failures. As these components drop out one by one. the weak components from the infant mortality period have either been repaired or replaced. These have led to major developments in maintenance philosophy based on manufacturing reliability systems. Downtime did not matter much and no need was felt to treat maintenance as a high priority issue. primarily due to the presence of weak or substandard components or design inadequacies in not properly understanding the operating conditions. The failures that do occur during the period are truly random. the growth of mechanization and automation has become more complex and even small breakdowns in equipment affect the operation of the whole plant. How Equipments Fail Maintenance is concerned with controlling the condition of equipment. the failure rate is high. 2. During the infant mortality period. the failure rate keeps decreasing until a relatively low constant level is obtained. Factory equipment was basic and repair and the restoration process was simple. there was an added interest created in the field of maintenance planning and control systems.3 Maintenance Strategies . there is a rather high incidence of early failures. Hence. called infant mortalities. Third Generation (after the 1980’s) – Since the 80’s. Most equipment that survives infancy will continue to perform with few failures occurring. This led to the concept of preventive maintenance. unpredictable and cannot be prevented by additional testing or burn-in of the components. This is the useful period of the machine. During this period. With increase in mechanization. reliability and availability have become key issues. but they are thought to be at least partially due to abrupt changes in stress distribution in the components. In practice. As this dependence grew. As maintenance costs started to rise sharply relative to other operating costs. Second Generation (1950-70) – The second generation emerged as the result of growing complexity in equipment and plant design. fatigue due to flaws in the molecular structure of the metals or plastics involved. First Generation (1930-40) – The first generation represents the earlier days of industrialization where mechanization was low. or sheer quality deficiency in their manufacture.1. this pattern manifests itself when a collection of machinery is subjected to rigorous operation. 4.

c) Alteration to existing equipment and buildings. d) New installations of equipment and buildings.. etc. buildings and grounds. The primary functions are: a) Maintenance of existing plant. maintenance functions may be identified as primary or secondary functions. the prevalent management policies. . The secondary functions are: a) Maintenance stores. Some of the common approaches to maintenance are as follows: · Breakdown maintenance · Preventive maintenance · Predictive maintenance · Proactive maintenance Type of Maintenance Strategy Maintenance ApproachSignificance Fix-it when broke Large maintenance budget Scheduled Maintenance Periodic component replacement Condition-based Maintenance decision Monitoring based on equipment condition Detection of Sources of Monitoring and Failures correcting failing root causes Maintenance Strategy Breakdown Maintenance Preventive Maintenance Predictive Maintenance Proactive Maintenance Although the scope of maintenance will vary depending on the type of industry. b) Generation and distribution of utilities. b) Plant protection. its size. equipment. many new approaches have been advocated as maintenance strategies that are intended to overcome problems related to equipment breakdown.Over the years.

3. and b) To do this in a cost effective manner. usually by replacing or repairing the components that caused the system to fail. The goals and objectives of corrective maintenance management are. It is also called. b) Repair and/or replacement of faulty component(s): Once the cause of system failure has been determined. . To rectify the problem. · Corrective maintenance may be defined as the repairs carried out to restore equipment. 4. corrective maintenance is periodically performed on the equipment. the rectification of the fault should be processed in the same manner as for planned maintenance work schedules. a) To restore the faulty equipment to a healthy operating state as promptly as possible.1 Corrective or Breakdown Maintenance This is one of the earliest maintenance strategies implemented in the industry. so as to restore it a specified operating state. which has broken down or developed a fault. · Corrective maintenance strategy has no routine maintenance task and therefore is also described no scheduled maintenance strategy. the repair work is performed only after a piece of equipment has failed. maintenance is activated on breakdown. · However. c) Verification of the repair action: once the components in question have been repaired or replaced. · Restoring a failed system usually involves replacing or repairing the component that is responsible for the failure of the overall system. It consists of the action(s) taken to restore a failed system to operational status. Corrective maintenance is performed at unpredictable intervals because a components failure time is not known a priori. breakdown maintenance. and as the name suggests.c) Waste disposal. the maintenance technician must verify that the system is again successfully operating. Corrective maintenance is typically carried out in three steps: a) Diagnosis of the problem: The maintenance technician must take time to locate the failed parts or otherwise satisfactorily assess the cause of the system failure. action must be taken to address the cause. a properly designed fault reporting system must be instituted and similarly. · The approach to maintenance is totally reactive. d) Salvage.

2. management must know how the breakdowntime is distributed. · Where capacity and demand are close. if careful observations of repeated failures of an equipment or system suggest that the remedy lies in correcting the system. The decision of maintenance policy is more of an economic decision rather than a technical one.4 Maintenance Economics Maintenance policy refers to an organization’s policy in respect of the maintenance function of a set of equipments. breakdowns may affect production and thus reduce profits. _________ Maintenance strategy has no routine maintenance task. the practice of attending to machines only after they have broken down may be uneconomical. the failure of any one of its parts can cause a breakdown of the machine. and the adoption of other maintenance practices may reduce interruptions to production. As maintenance is an economic decision. In such a situation. But in the case of a complex machine. and where production interruptions may be negligible. the breakdown maintenance practice may be costlier than other maintenance strategies. each part will have a different failure distribution. 5.1 Breakdown-time Distribution In order to establish the cost implications. Self Assessment Questions 1. Machine and component failures can trigger _________. 4. In such cases. Moreover. what are its cost implications? 4. proper feedback to the design department may lead to alterations in design that will reduce or eliminate failures. Restoring a failed system usually involves _________ or repairing the component. 4. maintenance engineers should be allowed to consider the possibility.4. Such a distribution will show the frequency of maintenance-free running times for a given number of operating hours. For example. The growth of __________ and automation has become more complex. The breakdown time distribution of the complex machine probably will . thereby eliminating or at least minimizing the failures.· Corrective maintenance in a broader perspective may also include activities related to correcting potential causes for failure or malfunction that might not have been adequately considered when the equipment was designed. The first generation represents the earlier days of ___________ where mechanization was low. Even where capacity is not a constraint. 3. A simple machine with few moving parts will probably have breakdowns after a fairly large number of maintenance-free runtime hours.

B.40). which exceed a given free-run-time. In this case.7 = 0.. if the total system has four sub-systems.4 for the percentage of breakdowns. i.7. By reliability we mean the probability that the system will give trouble free service.show greater variability than the simple machine even though it may have the same average. For example.8. and the reliability factors are A = 0. . while curve ‘b’ represents a more complex machine. adjustments before it can give reasonable trouble-free service. and plot this against the run-time. Equipment can be considered as a total system with its sub-assemblies as sub-systems.8 ‘0. subtract from 100 the figure 4.e.2 Figure 4. say A. Curve ‘a’ exhibits low variability from the average maintenance free breakdown-time ‘Ta’. The total system reliability will be the product of the reliability of each individual system.9. it would amount to (0. The frequency distribution curve ‘c’ has the same average maintenance. T3 = Average free run time free of breakdowns Figure 4. Say to obtain the ‘a’ curve in figure. B = 0. It also shows that it is only after a few periods of trouble free running. maintenance free run-time as that of the simple machine. If we assume that the failure of any one of the sub-systems can cause the failure of the entire system. The same data that we have used to plot figure 4. Curve ‘a’ depicts the behavior of a simple machine. C & D.free run-time as the other two but the distribution has much wider variability.8 and D = 0.8 ‘0. The variability depicted by curve ‘c’ is typical of complicated equipment that needs ‘fine’. and the ‘run-times free of breakdowns’ as the ‘x’-axis.4 can be used to plot the percentage of breakdowns that exceed a given runtime as the ‘y’-axis.9 ‘0. that one can be sure the machine will operate reliably. the reliability of the total system would equal the product f reliability factors of each of the sub-systems.2 represents a graphical description of the degree of variability in free-run-time. curve ‘b’ is the exponential distribution and exhibits medium variability and curve ‘c’ exhibits high variability. C = 0.

there will be breakdowns that occur before the equipment is shutdown for preventive maintenance. Ideally.5 gives the percent of time a machine is working for the three distributions of breakdown-time shown in Figure and the ratio of the standard maintenance period to .4. the situation is slightly different. inspected and parts replaced. This can be considered the standard preventive maintenance cycle time. after which the equipment is ready to work. preventive maintenance should be performed just a little before normal breakdown is likely to occur. The total time period ‘Ta’. the average maintenance free run-time. is equivalent to ‘Tr’ (maintenance free run-time) plus ‘Tm’ (the time take to do the preventive maintenance).Figure 4. Since preventive maintenance is meant to reduce the total plant down-time particularly unscheduled event – its timing and frequency are important. more breakdowns are likely to occur during the course of the standard period. which after a machine has been running for fixed time ‘Tr’. shortening the preventive maintenance cycle can reduce the number of actual breakdowns. This preventive maintenance work takes a time ‘Tm’. ’Ts’ can be considered the breakdown cycle. and the length of the standard preventive maintenance cycle.2 Preventive versus Breakdown Maintenance (Single Machine) Consider a preventive maintenance schedule. In actual practice. over a period of time.4: Breakdown-time distributions 4. the running time between the preventive maintenance and the breakdown plus the time taken to repair the breakdown. When this happens. In such cases. Figure 4. If the distribution has greater variability. The probability of occurrence of a breakdown in the two different cycles depends on the specific breakdown-time distribution of the equipment. the machine is shutdown.

From figure. a standard preventive maintenance period can be set in such a way that the total downtime is reduced. it can also be seen that for curves ‘b’ and ‘c’ an increase of the ratio results in an increase in the percentage of machine running time. The percentage of machine running time depends on the ratio of the standard maintenance period and the average run-time. there is a similar increase in machine running-time. In the case of curve ‘a’ (for breakdown-time distribution with low variability). Unless the preventive maintenance time is less than the repair time. preventive maintenance is highly benefited to machines whose breakdown time distributions have low variability. In this type of situation. Such a relationship is shown for the three different breakdowns time distributions. the machine works for a small percentage of time. the relation of preventive maintenance time to repair time is important. This is obvious. This suggests that for breakdown time distribution with low variability. It can be seen that for low values of the ratio of standard maintenance period to average maintenance free runtime. Second. ‘Ts’. since a low ratio would mean too many machine stoppages. as there is better predictability of when breakdowns are likely to occur. First. but only till a peak is reached after which lengthening standard maintenance period seems to reduce the percentage of machine running time. it is assumed that either preventive maintenance or repair puts the equipment in line for a running time of equal length. there is little gain in . ‘Ta’ for a given breakdown-time distribution.5: Present of time when the machine is working and breakdown distribution Certain generalizations can be made from the above three graphs. and hence less availability. like those depicted by curve ‘a’.average maintenance-free run-time. Figure 4. there is an optimum value for the standard maintenance period.

7. it is better to perform corrective or breakdown maintenance. In general.5 Summary You need to make decisions at the beginning of each shift regarding maintenance. Maintenance policy will not refer to any organization’s policy. Effects of scheduling preventive maintenance for non-productive days or shifts with no loss of production.6 Terminal Questions 1. you will deal with jobs. the percentage of machine running time continues to increase with the increase of standard preventive maintenance period. The probability of occurrence of a breakdown in the two different cycles depends on the specific breakdown-time distribution of the equipment. 4. and 3. Equipment cannot be considered as a total system with its sub-assemblies as subsystems. The breakdown time distribution of the complex machine probably will not show greater variability than the simple machine. What are the Maintenance Strategies? . 6. an increase in the standard period would mean less number of preventive maintenance cycles and more repairs. 4. Since some parts are most important to machines. 8. Initially.preventive maintenance. Effect on production losses if plant shutdown could have been avoided. 9. such as 1. Self Assessment Questions State whether the statement is true or false. 10. 2. If preventive maintenance is equal to. We also need to take into account other effects of unscheduled downtime. or more than the time for repair. Additional stoppage time because maintenance crew cannot start repairing immediately after the breakdown has occurred. both in terms of contribution earned by them as well as their criticality because of their propensity to break-down. when the repair time is equal to maintenance time. For a given breakdown time distribution. The percentage of machine running time depends on the ratio of the standard maintenance period. all the machines are free and have jus had a preventive maintenance done.

3. Refer 4.1 3.3. Industrialization 4. 4.1 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . . Refer 4. Explain Breakdown Time distribution. Mechanization 2.3. FalseTerminal Questions 1.2. True 10. Explain evolution of Maintenance Policy. Explain Preventive versus Breakdown Maintenance. False 7.2. 4. Refer 4. True 9.2 2. 5.1 4.2 5. Replacing 3. Incidents 6. Refer 4.7 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1. Corrective 5. True 8. Refer 4. Summarize Breakdown and Corrective maintenance.

to ensure or restore system performance to specified levels.3 Types of Maintenance Systems Routine Maintenance Planned /Scheduled / Productive Maintenance Break down or Corrective / Remedial Maintenance Preventive Maintenance Predictive Maintenance Condition Based Maintenance 5.OM0006-Unit-05-Types of Maintenance Systems Unit-05-Types of Maintenance Systems Structure: 5. replacement of parts or total replacement of .1 Introduction Once the machinery is purchased it must be maintained.5 Terminal Questions 5. Maintenance covers two aspects of systems – operation and performance. Maintenance is carried out in anticipation of or in reaction to a failure. which can be achieved through repair.1 Introduction Objectives 5.4 Summary 5.6 Answers 5.2 Functions & Feature of Maintenance Engineering 5. Maintenance is defined as the restoring of an item to its original condition or to working order.

Hence a systematic and structured approach to proper & cost effective maintenance is required. Machineries lose its efficiency after some point of time due to various factors such as wear and tear.the devices itself. Types of maintenance /strategies discussed in this unit are: · Routine Maintenance · Planned Maintenance · Break down Maintenance or Corrective Maintenance · Preventive Maintenance · Predictive Maintenance · Condition Based Maintenance · Total Productivity Maintenance The maintenance plan for a company’s assets can be a combination of the above strategies and could be adopted on the same machine. Maintenance management also aims at developing a reliable and high quality production system. Failure to perform maintenance in time to maintain the availability of the machinery will have serious effects ranging from benign to catastrophic. It is evident that the best maintenance strategy is selected for reducing breakdowns. Developing effective maintenance procedures to restrict such deterioration or failure is vital. aging. retain the productivity and maintain safe working conditions by reducing the probability of accidents. Between these alternatives the management decides. misuse etc. but there is no guarantee here that the exact nature of defect surfaces. Sometimes accelerated testing is used to induce failures and know the behaviour of the systems. based on the practical and economic grounds Maintenance of any kind performed on machinery or equipment is a consequence of the fact that it started deteriorating before failing. operational life can be extended. Improperly performed maintenance or not carried out in time can escalate the problems because of faulty parts running. Through proper maintenance of these machineries. Objectives: After studying this unit you shall be able .

· · · · · Rapid strides in the advancement of manufacturing technology and its processes with higher powers and speeds. equipment and services in proper working condition that involves planning. scheduling and execution of many maintenance activities. etc. rapid traverses. To offer these requirements. repeatability. use of complex processes. . Maintenance management is entrusted with the total task of keeping the machinery. Such high cost and sophisticated state of art machineries need to operate at optimal levels of performance with high degree of reliability. like repair. breakdown maintenance or preventive maintenance etc.2 Functions & Feature of Maintenance Engineering Maintenance Engineering is the function of the production management that is concerned with day-to-day problems of keeping the physical plant in good and acceptable operating condition. Flexible manufacturing systems. requirement of high accuracy. high cost CNC machines. Therefore industries have entered into the era of high technology maintenance management to cater to the production requirement of minimum downtime and maximum productivity. improved productivity.· To explain how systems work at their optimum efficiency · To prepare a plan to preserve the value of the assets by different methods · To calculate how to maximize production capability · To prepare a plan and schedule for maintenance work and prevent failures and breakdowns · To Improve quality of products and productivity · To Use of maintenance staff optimally · To Minimize or avoid accidents by periodical inspection and repairs. have all warranted the use of sophisticated machineries for production. use of robotics and other Computer Integrated systems are developed and deployed for producing high quality products.. high up-time and prolonged mean time between failures (MTBF). 5. higher feeds.

lubricate two machines daily] It can be even day to day operational activities to keep the plant running (say: replacement of light bulbs. reliability and maintainability of a plant is very important for the maintenance engineers. These aspects are to recognized by the maintenance department.Malfunctioning of machineries/equipment due to failure to upkeep the operating conditions may result in serious repercussions of reduced capacity. lubricating systems. These include say greasing or lubricating the bearings / systems.e.1 Routine Maintenance [RM] RM is a procedure followed regularly i. Widely adopted maintenance techniques/strategies are: · Routine Maintenance · Planned Maintenance · Break down Maintenance or Corrective/ Remedial Maintenance · Preventive Maintenance · Predictive Maintenance · Condition Based Maintenance · Total Productivity Maintenance [Discussed in detail in Unit-10] 5. working. small repairs. cleaning. increased production costs. injury to workmen and finally frequent breakdowns etc may lead to protracted delivery of the product thus inviting customer dissatisfaction. RM can be classified as: 1) Running maintenance 2) Shut down maintenance. Maintenance is the work performed on an asset such as utility.3 Types of Maintenance Systems A way of reducing the plant breakdowns is to select the best maintenance strategy. production of low quality products.e.3. outer cleaning. repairing leaks) which include preventive maintenance and forms part of the annual operating budget. and equipment by the maintenance staff to preserve such machineries in as near to its original condition as is practical and to realize its normal life expectancy. It includes activities like inspection. a cyclic operation recurring periodically. cleaning of machines. machines. Hence the relationship between availability. . inspection etc. 1) Running maintenance is the work carried out when the equipment or the machine is performing some operations i. 5. [say: check all compressors first on Mondays.

Planned maintenance reduces the machine downtime.3. thus avoiding a situation of emergency maintenance. the emphasis is on machines: a) What does the manufacturer prescribe? b) Is the unit utilised for two or three shifts per day? c) Is it working under normal load? . It involves inspection of all machineries. In this type of service.g. 5. lubricate. de-scaling furnaces. reduces the cost of maintenance.1.3. overhaul. boilers 5. repair and carry out all requisite maintenance before actual break down happens.2 Planned / Scheduled / Productive Maintenance Planned maintenance is the activities carried out according to a predetermined schedule and hence known as scheduled maintenance or productive maintenance. increases productivity as compared to unplanned one and hence it is followed as per the maintenance policy of the company. E.2) Shut down maintenance: certain minor maintenance activities cannot be carried out when the machine is running and hence carried out by shutting down the machine.1 Advantages a) Simple to establish & follow b) Little or no clerical work c) High degree of prevention by intercepting developing faults d) A more advanced stage calls for ’service instructions on a pre-printed schedule and checklists’.2 Disadvantages a) RM may not provide the service specified by the manufacturer b) May ignore information regarding preceding breakdowns c) Service required for a machine at different frequencies may be ignored d) Similar machines are serviced at same frequency irrespective of usage 5.1.3.

3 Break Down or Corrective/ Remedial Maintenance Breakdown Maintenance is the method of operating the machines to run until they fail and then repair in order to restore them to an acceptable condition.3.1 Characteristics of Planned Maintenance a) Instructions are more detailed than in routine maintenance b) Calls for differently timed service for the same unit c) Schedule is drawn with dates d) Establishes the work-load for the crew e) Entails considerable planning effort.3.2. c) Provides as much attention on the equipment for the best judgement of the planner [For details on ‘the principles of planning & scheduled maintenance’ refer Unit 6] 5.2 Advantages of Planned Maintenance Considers all the changes in conditions of use & increased wear of parts a) Inspections. Planned repair/rectifying the problem is carried out when it is more convenient and cost effective after its failure rather than to disrupt the production with RM. can be defined as the maintenance which is required when an item has failed or worn out. to bring it back to working order.2. Also called as ‘on-failure maintenance/corrective maintenance’. adjustments are shown in overall plan b) Detailed instructions reduce the chance of missing any activity.d) Are the conditions as good as those envisaged by the manufacturer? e) Do we allow for extra attention owing to corrosion-including conditions? 5.3. . replacement of parts. faithful implementation and recording f) Initial list of planned maintenance will be in detail 5. Unforeseen work is reduced. Corrective maintenance is carried out on all items where the consequences of failure or wearing out are not significant and the cost of corrective maintenance is not greater than preventative maintenance.

taken after the failure happens. misuse or improper maintenance. On-failure maintenance can be effective if applied correctly. This method is expensive in terms of maintenance cost. Here the machine and the work on that machine stops operating.3. The above type of repairing and setting the equipment to working condition can be called as corrective maintenance.e. Frayed tempers put unnecessary pressures and disturb delivery commitments. or reconditioning that part to its original or acceptable working condition.Corrective maintenance may be programmed. etc. vandalism. 5. increased downtime. involve hazards. Ex: electric motor may not start.3. lost output. i. or where no other strategy will work. This system could be called as ‘Operate to Failure (OTP) ’– no predetermined action taken to prevent failure. Repairs are done after the machine fails and hence this becomes a repair work. For example: non-critical low cost equipment. drive shaft broken and hence the transmission fails. o Upset schedule resulting in panicky. Corrective maintenance activities include both emergency repairs (fire fighting) and preventive (or corrective) repairs. Repair is restoring an asset by replacing a part which is broken or damaged. The need for repairs can result from normal wear.1 Characteristics of Break-down Maintenance System · No services except occasional lubrication unless failure occurs · No maintenance men on regular basis · Maintenance done by sub-contractors · No organised efforts to find out reasons · No stock of spares · No budget · No records · Initially it looks economical · Creates internal problems namely: Who to do the repair? From where to get parts? How do we pay for them? Who will go & buy parts? .

3. preventative maintenance is carried out only on those items where a failure would .3.3.5.4 Preventive Maintenance PM is a regularly scheduled maintenance activity.2 Objectives of BD/Corrective Maintenance 1) To put back machinery back to work and minimize production interruptions 2) To control costs of maintenance crew to the minimum 3) To control cost of the operations of repairing 4) To control costs of repair & replacement parts to minimum 5) To control investment cost on purchase of standby or back up machines 6) To carry out appropriate repair intermittently at each malfunction to improve the life of the machine. with an objective to anticipate problems and correct them before they occur.3. detection and prevention of incipient failure.3. Preventive maintenance is carried out to prevent an item failing or wearing out by providing systematic inspection. 5. In line with management’s policy on obtaining the best value from the maintenance funds.3.3 Advantages 1) Low cost if correctly applied 2) Requires no advanced planning other than ensuring spares availability 5. This is normally programmed.3.4 Disadvantages 1) No warning of failure – safety risk 2) Uncontrolled plant outage – production losses 3) Requires large standby maintenance team 4) Secondary damage – longer repair time 5) Large spares stock requirement 6) Provision of standby plant 5.

result in expensive consequences. lifts. 2) Condition-based Maintenance [explained below] 3) Opportunity Maintenance (find out the opportune moment for maintenance) The preventive maintenance is carried out at irregular intervals and this interval is determined by seeing the actual condition of the machine. but it is found that a greater number of machine failures are at the peak when machine gets progressively worse over a period say months/ years. repair and major overhaul. clean and up keep To achieve prevention of break-downs planned service is carried out with the explicit additional objective of detecting wear points and ensure perfect functioning by replacing parts Here the safe overhaul interval is selected. fire alarms. distribution transformers. sub-station transformers. checking. lubrication. battery back up at sub-station. item replacement. Many of these items are also subject to a statutory requirement for inspection and preventive maintenance. etc.g. -To avoid breakdown & ensure smooth production following time based activities are practiced: 1. isolators. PM’s prerequisites are: a) Proper design and installation of equipment b) periodical inspection of plant and machinery to prevent breakdowns c) repetitive servicing and overhaul d) lubricate. electricity supply. Daily Maintenance – Cleaning.g. 2. It is much economical to carry out preventive maintenance. Periodic Inspections . e.. circuit breakers. Routine & planned maintenance includes Preventive maintenance actions. so that the major break downs are avoided & minimizes possibility of unanticipated production interruptions. etc. Preventive maintenance could be grouped as: 1) Fixed-time Maintenance (FTM) – Here actions carried out at regular intervals (calendar time) e.

Reduces total maintenance cost 5.4.3. parts list etc 6) Adequate stock of spare parts .2 Features of PM 1) Proper identification of items in each machineries which warrants fixed time maintenance.3 Requirements of Preventive Maintenance Program 1) Good maintenance management department with experienced personnel 2) To firm up plan of PM in consultation with shop personnel 3) A good lubricating and cleaning schedule 4) Detail procedures on maintenance work 5) Proper records maintained along with manuals. Reduces total work-load 4. Reduces unplanned work 6.3.4. daily maintenance etc and programming the activities with work content.3.3. Use of recommended Grades of oils 4. Reduces total down time 5.4. cost estimates etc 2) Use of check lists by maintenance staff and inspectors 3) Identify and allocate well qualified crew & inspectors for making repairs 4) Use of budgeting system for major replacements/ repair 5) Proper procedures laid out for meeting the PM objectives in full 5. Restoration to recover deterioration 5. 2. More expensive due to more planning &replacement of parts before failing. Increases reliability 3.1 Preventive Maintenance System is 1.

5. Preparation of inspection chart 7. Preparation of job specification 5. Labor used cost effectively .4 Steps involved in Preventive Maintenance 1. Reduction in breakdown frequency 4. diagnosis system. Improves productivity due to lesser breakdowns 5. repair procedures etc 11) Suppliers recommendations for up keep of machineries. Preparation of schedule of maintenance 3. Preparation of maintenance schedule and detail program of work with time frame for completion 6. Reduction in wear and tear of machines and increase in their life 3. Feed back on the corrective action/ repair work done and its results 5. Maintenance is planned well in advance 2.4. probable causes. Improves reliability of the machineries 6.5 Advantages of Preventive Maintenance 1.a guide showing problems.4. Identifying the job to be taken & appropriate case register 2.3. Higher safety for workers 7.3. Preparation of history card of all the repair work carried on such a machine and the remarks there on 4. Preparation of maintenance report on the work done 8.7) Properly training maintenance crew Adequate space around machinery for maintenance work 9) Previous data on failure etc of each machine/equipment 10) Systematic approach.

are used to predict ensuing troubles/problems in machineries. resistance gauges etc.3. 12. Less stand by equipment requirement 13. Unnecessary and invasive maintenance is carried out 3.4. Preventive maintenance is designed to prevent or at least to minimize failures/breakdowns and reduce the need for corrective maintenance. Preventive maintenance program controls the repair costs as well as the overall life of the equipment where as in corrective maintenance brings back to the original life depending on the extent of damage the earier breakdown has brought into the equipment. Maintenance activity and costs increased 2. Applicable only to age related deterioration 4.6 Disadvantages/limitations 1.3. 2. amplitude meters. Minimizes breakdowns and hence minimum inventory hold ups 10. corrective maintenance is carried out to repair the equipment after fault occurs/ breakdown happens. sensors for pressure. Conditions of the machinery can be checked on line periodically or on continuous basis and maintenance crew can take decision & plan overhaul/repair as warranted.3. Sensitive instruments like vibration analyzer.7 Differences between Corrective and Preventive Maintenance 1. . whereas. Leaser rejection and better quality 11. Identification of parts and its nature and cost involved in repairs is possible 5. audio gauges. It is possible to have planned shutdowns and repair 9. Less breakdown costs.8.5 Predictive Maintenance Predictive Maintenance is one of the modern approaches to preventive maintenance where in sensitive instruments are used to predict anticipated failure of machines & equipment. 5. Maintenance sometimes induces failures (infant mortality) 5.4. temperatures.

pump cavitations. health and safety hazards etc) will result in 1) Maximizes the online operations 2) Minimizes downtime 3) Increased plant and Personnel safety 4) Optimal maintenance The above is achieved by continuous plant / equipment monitoring & diagnosing the actual condition by means of online non-destructive testing methods. Over maintenance or too frequent maintenance increases extensive downtime resulting in added costs on men. temperature. we should have a continuous knowledge of the machines based on certain critical predetermined / pre-formulated parameters . rotor imbalance. In a Preventive Maintenance system. (which otherwise cause heavy penalty costs. Hence an optimal maintenance interval has to be arrived at. misalignments. maintenance is on a pre-determined cycle whereas in a Predictive Maintenance system maintenance is done only. which are indicative of malfunctions to decide on corrective treatment. A major part of the predictive maintenance involves the ongoing analysis to ensure wear levels that damage the machine are within limits Good ability to predict impending failures well in time to prevent breakdowns. analysis and tribology. Under maintenance or too long intervals between two successive checks may result in high incidence of failures. oil condition. 2) If corrective treatment is not adopted at the right time. Main difficulty is in making the correct choice of preventive maintenance intervals based on OEM’s recommendations and own -experiences. material and time. The intervals should be carefully selected as over maintenance or under maintenance are both detrimental and hence undesirable. it may result in serious breakdowns. wear debris analysis. when status or condition so demands It is beneficial to follow a system which is not calendar based but condition based. etc. 1) Similar to health monitoring of senior executives to check symptoms.) Measuring of physical parameters may not be enough to detect the destructive effects on a machine or process.Predict failures well in advance by monitoring parameters and by use of certain techniques (like vibration.e. incorrect installation. i.

Predictive Maintenance. etc. The main function of condition monitoring is to provide the knowledge of a machine and its rate of change. Condition monitoring is merely a tool that is used by crew through touch.6 Condition Based Maintenance CBM relies on the fact that the majority of failures do not occur instantaneously but develops over a period of time. temperature soars. With rapid developments in machining technology through CNC controlled machines. but much before the possible breakdown. more universal and better predictive tools and instruments are added in the system. can save around 30% of maintenance costs and with a bonus of 15% savings in energy costs. A sense of confidence is created amongst production and maintenance personnel when they analyze the monitored data and predict that the machines are operated safely till they reach maximum permissible limits. increased leakages etc) CBM is a continuous or periodic measurement and interpretation of data to indicate the condition of an item to determine the need for maintenance. Between the ‘action limit and the maximum permissible time limit’. Predictive Maintenance is very cost effective where cost of unplanned breakdowns is very high. When permissible limits are reached and warning signals are issued by the measuring devices. An ability to forecast the machine behavior by Condition Monitoring is a pre-requisite for Predictive Maintenance Operators who work with equipment every day can listen to equipment and identify changes in noise levels and vibrations. 5. there is enough time available for the maintenance crew to make adequate advance preparations. FMS with artificial intelligent devices and computer simulations and modeling.A given machine can continue to be kept in operation as long as the monitored parameters continue to remain within the laid down limits.3. In the Condition based maintenance (also known as Dynamic predictive maintenance or Diagnostic maintenance) the plant is maintained just after some problems arisen. it implies that the particular part needs replacement and a special attention. CBM involves recording some measurement that gives an indication of the condition (ex: increase in vibration levels. thus making predictive maintenance more economical as compared to preventive and corrective maintenance strategies. smell and through their experience on the existing condition of the equipment/aggregate. Temperature changes can be photographed . if practiced effectively. It is just like a hammer used to strike a wheel to listen for that distinctive sound to say whether there is crack in wheel rim or not. to cut downtime.

through IR thermograph. Condition Checking & Monitoring a) Trend Monitoring: . Indications like over – temperature. low battery voltage. Action limit curve shows the prescribed for monitoring parameters during normal operations. This type of maintenance check on performance is vital as the future failures in safety systems can have more catastrophic effects. gear defects. which are to be controlled by maintenance a) Vibration Sensors – to track tool wear/ breakages.6. corrosion Audible – Unusual noise. are displayed on the screen well in time to facilitate corrective action without disruption of production. Condition monitoring is dependent on sensors and transducers for measuring different parameters. etc. mechanical looseness b) Thermostats – hydraulic oil temperature. which gives warning that something is ‘not right’. CNC systems have built – in diagnostics which continuously monitor the system hardware to ensure normal functioning.3. unbalance in rotors. An investigation can then be carried out to identify the exact problem.1 Condition Monitoring Methods There are two methods used namely: 1. alarms. 2. overheating of motors c) Current sensors – cutting load monitored by sensing spindle Condition Monitoring is achieved by the operator’s senses to detect abnormalities Visual – Leakages. if other parts of the system fail. misalignments. Trend Monitoring. Curve when extrapolated can indicate maximum & safe permissible limits 5. contaminated cutting fluid Touch – Excessive bearing temperature State-of-the-art CNC systems facilitates adaptive Controls with signals from appropriate transducers. Chatter Smell – Smoke.

This may be done by . to indicate variations in the conditions of the machine or its components. d) Economics of Condition Monitoring: The savings. 5) Corrosion monitoring: Is applied to fixed plant containing aggressive materials. accelerometer. c) Condition Monitoring: Includes three stages: 1.Trend monitoring is the continuous monitoring or regular measurement and interpretation of data collected during machine operation. Detection (when) of the developing fault at an early stage 2. to monitor the rates of internal corrosion of the wall of the plant. Prognosis (forecast) subsequent measurement which will then establish the trend and enable the repair schedule to be planned. b) Condition Checking: Condition checking is where a check measurement is taken with the machine running. Diagnosis (what) of its origin so that spare parts can be ordered 3. which can be made by the application of CM: · Avoiding losses of output due to breakdown of machinery. e) Selecting Methods of monitoring Five main techniques of conditioning monitoring 1) Visual monitoring: inspection & recording of surface appearance. 2) Vibration Monitoring: Involves the attachment of a transducer (velocity. · Reduces the cost of maintenance · Capital invested can be recovered faster. 4) Performance and behavior monitoring: Involves checking the performance of a machine to see whether it is behaving correctly. proximity probes) to record vibration level 3) Wear Debris monitoring: This works on the principle that the working surfaces of a machine are washed by the lubricating oil and any damage is detected from particles of wear debris in the oil. using some suitable indicator & is used as a measure of machine condition at that time.

To arrive at best interval for examination considering the criticality of process. overall cost of failure.4 Disadvantages 1) Thermograph & Oil Debris Analysis [specialised equipment and training] . 6. cost of maintenance. Establish for each part of the machine the severity limits of the machine condition parameter (Vibration.3 Advantages 1.3.6. 7. The hole is then plugged with a suitable leak proof material. 7.drilling a hole through the wall and drilled coupon of material is observed for corrosion. Select proper examining technique. 5. Cause of failure can be analysed 6. Training examiners for the above jobs. Some forms of inspection utilising human senses can be inexpensive 3.6. Spares can be assembled 5. Allows shutdown before severe damage occurs 4. failure statistics (MTBF-MTTR). operating conditions. Maximises equipment availability 2.6. Listing and numbering of machine to have identification and location details 2. Cost of examination. Establishing programs and methods specifying the parts to be examined 4. Production can be modified to extend unit life 5. 5. Labour can be organised 8. standby availability of machine.3.3. standardizations planned. Recording data 8. Selecting critical machines for CM 3. contamination etc) to be measured.2 Implementation of Condition Based Maintenance: Involves: 1. Maintenance can be planned. 5. sound.

fixtures and tools d) All the above 2) Which of the following is not an objective of remedial maintenance? a) To put back machinery back to work and minimize production interruptions b) To control costs of maintenance crew to the minimum c) To control cost of the operations of repairing d) Replacing the faulty machine when it starts malfunctioning.e.2) Requires careful choice of the correct technique. 3) Irregular preventive maintenance do not include a) Repairs b) Overhauls c) Reduction of noise levels and vibrations d) Clean up of leakages etc on all the machine aggregates daily 4) RM is a procedure followed regularly i. e) To control costs of repair & replacement parts to minimum f) To carry out appropriate repair intermittently at each malfunction to improve the life of the machine. 3) Time is required for trends to develop to know machine condition Self Assessment Questions 1) Which of the following is not a common cause of equipment breakdowns? a) Improper preventive maintenance b) Inadequate lubrication c) Improper setups of jigs. a _______________ recurring periodically 5) In the following list find out which one is considered as disadvantage of routine management: .

No stock of spares 6. No services except occasional lubrication unless failure occurs 2. 9) Characteristics of Break-down Maintenance System-fill the missing one: 1. ______________________ 5. 6) Planned maintenance is the activities carried out according to a ______________ and hence known as scheduled maintenance or productive maintenance 7) Characteristics of Planned Maintenance-fill up the missing one: 1) Instructions are more detailed than in routine maintenance 2) Calls for differently timed service for the same unit 3) Schedule is drawn with dates 4) ___________________________ 5) Entails considerable planning effort. faithful implementation and recording 6) Initial list of planned maintenance will be in detail Breakdown Maintenance is the method of operating the machines to run ______________ and then repair in order to restore them to an acceptable condition. Maintenance done by sub-contractors 4. No maintenance men on regular basis 3.1) Simple to establish & follow 2) Little or no clerical work 3) High degree of prevention by intercepting developing faults 4) RM may not provide the service specified by the manufacturer 5) A more advanced stage calls for ’service instructions on a pre-printed schedule and checklists’. Initially it looks economical .

predictive and remedial maintenance. 12) CBM relies on the fact that the majority of failures do not occur instantaneously but develops over a period of time.7. Check all the machines at firmed up time intervals 4. Creates internal problems namely: Who to do the repair? From where to get parts? How do we pay for them? Who will go & buy parts? 10) To avoid breakdown & ensure smooth production following time based activities are practiced. Maintenance is of three main categories: breakdown. Breakdown or remedial maintenance is undertaken when a machine breaks down or malfunctions. etc. Use of recommended Grades of oils 5. . In planning. preventive. maintenance managers have to decide on a proper balance between preventive. and predictive. Restoration to recover deterioration 11) Predictive Maintenance is one of the modern approaches to preventive maintenance where in __________ are used to predict ____________ of machines & equipment. 2. 13) There are two methods used namely-Which is the second one 1) Trend Monitoring. 2) ____________________ 5. lubrication. Periodic Inspections 3. maintenance has been given more importance in the operational plans. using high technology machines. CBM involves recording some ___________ that gives an indication of the condition. To counter this. In the present high tech production. Predictive maintenance is a type in which the vital attributes of a system are monitored continuously and any deviations from the accepted limits are taken to rectify the problem.4 Summary Poorly maintained machines/equipment has severe negative impact on the productivity and the quality of the output in a production unit. Daily Maintenance – Cleaning. Preventive maintenance is undertaken before need for maintenance arises and aims at minimizing the anticipated breakdowns. any stoppage due to breakdown in any part of the system will affect the entire production process.which one is not the recommended practice? 1. with JIT inventory and sophisticated processes. checking.

Describe the procedures of preventive maintenance program 10. Organizations have realized the importance of maintenance and its planning. Define preventive maintenance and state its objectives 9. What is condition based maintenance. What are the advantages and disadvantages of condition based maintenance? 5. What is meant by planned/scheduled/productive maintenance and what emphasis it pays in maintaining the machine/equipment 4. but much before the possible breakdown.In the Condition based maintenance (also known as Dynamic predictive maintenance or Diagnostic maintenance) the plant is maintained just after some problems arisen. CBM is a continuous or periodic measurement and interpretation of data to indicate the condition of an item to determine the need for maintenance. What are the advantages & disadvantages of breakdown/corrective maintenance? 8. Discuss the advantages and limitations of preventive maintenance 11. What are the characteristics & objectives of breakdown/corrective maintenance? 7.6 Answers . Distinguish between preventive and breakdown maintenance 12. Total productivity maintenance is practiced to improve the productivity of the equipment by minimizing the number of breakdowns and malfunctions. Where this type is applicable. Outline the various types of maintenance 3. What are the advantages of Planned Maintenance? 6. What are the important functions of maintenance department 5.5 Terminal Questions 1. What is predictive maintenance? What are its advantages over preventive maintenance? 13. Which enables them to reduce breakdowns. accidents and minimizing the costs of maintenance activities? 5. State the objectives of maintenance management? 2. 14. Explain briefly the condition based monitoring methods 15.

3 3. Refer 5. Refer 5. anticipated failure 12. Until they fail 9. Condition Checking & Monitoring Terminal Questions 1. Sensitive instruments.4 . Cyclic operation 5.2 5. Not occur. d) Replacing the faulty machine when it starts malfunctioning 3.4.4 8.3. measurement 13. Refer 5.2 2.2.4.4. Predetermined schedule 7. Refer 5.4.1 & 5. Refer 5. Refer 5. d) All the above 2. c) Reduction of noise levels and vibrations 4.Self Assessment Questions 1. (4) No organised efforts to find out reasons 10. (4) Establishes the work-load for the crew 8. (4) RM may not provide the service specified by the manufacturer 6.4.3.3 & 5.2 6. (3) Check all the machines at firmed up time intervals 11.4. Refer 5.2 7.4.3.3. Refer 5.4 4.

5 13.4.4.4 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .Refer 5.4.4 10.5.4.4.4. .7 12. Refer 5.1 15. Refer 5. Refer 5.5 & 5. Refer 5. Refer 5.6.4.6.4.6 11.4.6.6 14.4.3 & 5. Refer 5.9.4.4.

11 Summary of Maintenance Planning 6. Specialization & Coordination of Planning 6.13 Six Maintenance Scheduling Principles 6.OM0006-Unit-06-Maintenance Planning and Scheduling Unit-06-Maintenance Planning and Scheduling Structure: 6.3 Planning Vision & Mission 6.1 Introduction Objectives 6.6 Planning System 6.1 Introduction .4 Functions of Maintenance Planner 6.8 Productivity.15 Terminal Questions 6.9 Maintenance Planning Principles 6.14 Summary of Maintenance Scheduling 6.5 Benefit of Planning 6.7 How much Planning will help? 6.16 Answers 6.12 Maintenance scheduling principles 6. Project work 6.10 Planning Preventive & Predictive Maintenance.2 Functions of Maintenance Planning 6.

The plant has better control over work that is scheduled. planning is very essential. If detailed procedures and checklists contribute to better reliability. Other tools used are work order system. The planner should also give more attention to critical equipment and safety areas. and other vendors to cater to the common maintenance tasks on critical equipment and safety equipment. performance. are included in the job plans. Here procedure already in the file or important information that persons who worked on that equipment have recorded previously. teamwork. tools. The planning system is designed with procedures to be followed over time through a systematic job plans. Planning concentrates on adding value. tool rooms. qualified personnel. Where does planning fit into? What principles make it work? How planning is required to be done? How to provide additional resources for planners and personnel for maintenance activities? Etc. The final improvement to over 50% can be achieved through special aids. consideration of reliability maintenance as preventive maintenance. management. control of inventories. Objectives: After studying this unit you shall be able to · Prepare a plan for maintenance · Analyse the benefits of planning for maintenance · Examine the principles of maintenance planning . and safety. and project maintenance is essential. shops. are the subjects being discussion. Planning does not solve everything. and maintenance measurement.All manufacturing units having varieties of machineries and equipments require maintenance to keep them up in good working conditions and for sustaining and achieving higher productivity. but certainly brings together many aspects of maintenance. planners. as they leverage their expertise into job plans. leadership. tool room facilities. it is preferred for the organization to become a procedure-based one with teams of experienced technicians. predictive maintenance. organizations could improve maintenance productivity to about 40%. In addition. storeroom support. Planning and scheduling promotes labor productivity by examining potential delays and scheduling work. communication. engineers. To achieve the desired maintenance efficiency. By implementing fundamental planning and scheduling system. data collection and research of certain processes etc.

The work plan is nothing but the information a planner makes ready for the technician to execute the work. For ex: Planner has to judge whether the defective valve should be repaired or replaced. · The planner considers the proper scope of work for the job. thus enabling a better control over their work. · Planner does preparatory planning for the crew supervisor and craft persons who executes the work. · Maintenance planning brings together or coordinates the effort of many other aspects of maintenance. For this the maintenance planning will have the following functions: · Coordinating mechanism within the maintenance department. · The planner specifies appropriate craft skills required for that particular job. · The time estimates made by planner gives the idea to crew personnel to judge how much work is assigned and what work is there. To prepare a job in advance. 6. a planner develops a work plan after receiving a work request. · Once the work order is received. The work plan includes a job scope. · The planned information gives the supervisors a reference for expected work and time for completion and helps to have a control through on problems that might lessen productivity. the maintenance planning initiates action. · The planner identifies appropriate materials for the specified job and checks whether they are available or be specially obtained. identification of craft skill required.3 Planning Vision & Mission The mission of planning revolves around doing the right jobs that are ready to go. 6.2 Functions of Maintenance Planning Maintenance management uses planning as a tool to reduce unnecessary job delays through advance preparation. . procedure for accomplishing task and identify any parts and special tools required.· Distinguish between preventive and breakdown maintenance planning. and labor time estimate. Coordinating function is the key to achieve competitive edge. · Crew personnel are then assigned the job for execution and avoid problems such as delays stemming by insufficient skills/ not having required materials or tools.

A work crew is ready to go immediately to scheduled work assignments as all instructions. A planning mission statement is: “To increase the Maintenance crew’s ability to complete the work orders quickly”. Arrange parts required to be placed in a convenient location nearer to the job site before the job starts. but ready handle judiciously the reactive type of work also. planner initiate action to organize and get them. seals. 2) The planner writes work instructions on how to do the job. considering the safety aspects of the job. 5) The planner writes a job plan that identifies parts needed (such as gaskets. clearances. . bearings etc) along with their identification numbers. It also involves identifying the actual work scope. arrangements are ready. work involved. Planning is Information central. 3) With preparatory work. without wasting time. planning sets the stage for the maintenance force to act upon quickly. Work plans avoid anticipated delays. 4) Planners evolve good planning methodology that increases maintenance productivity. method of maintenance. for easy understanding and identifying the proper parts for his next work. Doing the right jobs involves job priorities. crew schedules. and allow advance scheduling through which the supervisors will assign and control the proper amount of work. With proper planning or preparation efforts for each job. 9) Planner provide a bill of materials or an illustrated parts diagram both to the stores person and craft men. parts. and it controls and coordinates and brings resources to leverage productivity. release of the work orders to proceed etc. crew starts their work as per job. 6) The planner reserves such required parts in the store to ensure their availability. so that technicians need not wait for parts to arrive.The planning mission states “Doing the right jobs & ready to go”. 7) If parts are not in the inventory. tools. 6. The entire maintenance organization should be committed to schedule proactive works. improve on past jobs.4 Functions of Maintenance Planner 1) Maintenance planning involves identifying parts and tools that are necessary for maintenance jobs.

pallets etc for easy movement of identified parts and tools to work site in advance. procedures for assigning proper amount of work to all the skilled/unskilled crews.6 Planning System In a proper planning system. 7) Prepares Schedules for maintenance works and follow track until complete. 6. 6. 11) Planner identifies special tools needed by the craft man for maintenance activities and reserve such tooling and other accessories at the place of work. specify job scope. 12) Planner will arrange material handling equipments like crane. with identification numbers.5 Benefit of Planning As planning consists of arranging parts and the necessary tools for maintenance work and provide necessary guidelines by use all the inputs effectively through a maintenance system. 2) Planner plans work order. 5) Creates data and information on machineries and equipment and its maintenance methodology for future reference and analysis. the maintenance process has the following steps: 1) Receives request from the concerned section for the maintenance work. time estimates.10) Planner is required to coordinate with vendors & ensure material supply along with the quality control on vendor supplies. Hence the purpose of planning is to focus on high productivity through an organized planning & scheduling principles. 6) Establishes through work order system. fork lifts. resulting benefit achieved are the improved productivity and overall effectiveness or efficiency in maintenance. Institute a control system that contributes to managing productivity. 3) Planner evolves a system and procedure for each type of maintenance work.7 How Much Planning Will Help? a) Tangible Help: • Planning provides tangible help for organization to achieve: . 4) Skill levels and time estimates on jobs and proper scheduling are included in the subject work order. 6. craft and skill level required. anticipated parts & tools.

where the management created an exclusive planning group. 6. thus frees technicians for more productive work. • • Through proper planning. Crew will plan their work and then executes. one can calculate and measure the actual amount of increased maintenance productivity. The practical result of planning-example: In a power station. also known as wrench time. Improvement here was only possible with the planning in place. c) “World class” wrench time · Statistical work sampling studies measures productive time. b) Improving the Wrench Time and Productivity · Work activities are classified differently. where in the planning addresses and reduces delays. But it proved the other way as seen from the above examples. In addition. thus using the freed 10 trained personnel for other productivity improvement activities. could achieve a remarkable reliable plant capacity within a year through superior availability and a drastic improvement in work force productivity.-Amount of work accomplished rises. intangible benefits of planning were seen in providing a better control of maintenance work. Further if there are three crews working with . Is this wrench time a reality? Instances are there in which experienced workforce moved from average 35% wrench time to 55% with fine tuned planning. Analysis of the nonproductive time is one of the most valuable work-sampling. The industry’s average productive maintenance time was less than 30% (the measure of wrench time) when a typical maintenance technician has spent less than 20% on the real work and it is found that the balance time is spent on other nonproductive tasks. -Work force is freed up. Practically the total maintenance work was completed by 35 personnel as compared to previous year’s statistics of using around 45 personnel for the same output. -Extra labor power can be reallocated to added value activities. Specialization & Coordination of Planning a) The specific benefit of planning in Wrench time improvements · There are organizations who feel that the planning work is part and parcel of the maintenance crew. To determine if any of the delay time could be avoidable requires planner’s assistance for analyzing such nonproductive time. · The maximum performance target for wrench time was shown at an average of around 55%.8 Productivity.

which spells the importance of planning jobs for maintenance. There is a methodology of work measurement what is commonly known as wrench time and this frequently misunderstood principle and hence must be made clear to everyone concerned. The principles of having planning as a separate department in order to focus on the future work and consequent use of planner’s expertise to create estimates. as compared to 3x30=90%]. Each principle identifies important crossroads. electricians. But experience has shown that a single planner can plan maintenance jobs for more than 20 persons. Loading these specialists to achieve higher wrench times also requires a sound planning and proper coordination. then total productivity is 100 % [2x 50% +0= 100%. 2) Planners concentrate on future work.9 Maintenance Planning Principles The principles or paradigms that are evolved over the maintenance mission will profoundly affect planning. 4) Planner expertise dictates job estimates. recognizing skill of the craftsman and measuring performance must be understood by every one concerned with production. Six principles greatly contribute to the overall success of planning. These principles must be understood by all concerned to have effective planning process. 1) Company organizes planners into a separate department. Industry to this day continues to use specialization. Decisions making at each crossroads on the alternative ways to conduct planning and execute is essential and ultimate success of planning depends on this situational oriented decision. 5) Planners recognize the skill of the crafts. 3) Planners base their files on the component level of systems. and if one is allocated to planning job and with whose instance. Specialization increases productivity per person.wrench time of 30%. for which they train and maintain separate groups of mechanics. b) Specialization and Productivity: · Experienced crew are specializing in a particular field and achieving the specified goals. 6. which is essential for a competitive edge. the other two crew reached a wrench time of 50%. and instrument technicians. .

feedback is given by the lead technician or supervisor to the Planning Department. · Planners report to a different supervisor/ lead planner who will be responsible to provide direction and ensure consistency within the planning group. Matching identify tags on the machineries are also arranged. The supervisor has an obligation to complete the assigned work in an expeditious manner with a minimum of interruptions · The crew focuses exclusively on executing assigned work. . The planners ensure that the feedback information is properly filed to aid future work. plan changes. The feedback consists of any problems. especially on repetitive maintenance tasks. · Planners use personal experience and develop work plans to avoid anticipated work delays and quality or safety problems. or other helpful information so that future work plans and schedules might be improved. · The planners must be engaged in preparing work that has not yet begun. secure file system based on equipment tag numbers. the lack of planning effort may decrease the number of work assignments to crew members · The company organizing planners to a separate group. which helps planners to become specialized in all the tools and techniques of planning · Planners need to work closely to ensure proper execution of work with consistency. The file system enables planners to utilize equipment data and information and their experience on previous work to prepare and improve work plans.6) Work sampling of direct work time provide measure of planning effectiveness. Principle 3: [Component Level Files] · Planning maintains a simple. The Planning Department concentrates on future work and provide the crew to plan their work in advance and remove backlogs · After job completion. Principle 2: [Focus on Future Work] · The vision of planning is to increase labor productivity by preparing the jobs in advance. Principle 1: [The Company organizes planners into a separate department] · The planners are organized into a separate department from craft maintenance crews to facilitate specialization in planning and focus on future work. · Because planning contributes to scheduling.

Any recommended deviations from the job plan must be approved by planning before execution. · Supervisors and plant engineers are trained to access these files to gather information they need with minimal planner assistance. The plan dictates the skill set necessary to accomplish the work given the state of the job plan. The planner’s responsibility is to firm up the scope of the work request including clarification of the originator’s intent wherever necessary. The planners and technicians work together over repeated jobs to develop better procedures and checklists. · Craft technicians use their expertise to make the specified repair or replacement. File cost information assists in making repair or replace decisions. · The planner then plans the general strategy of the work (such as repair or replace) and includes procedure if it is not already there in the file. These planners rely greatly upon their personal skill and experience in addition to existing information in the files to develop job plans. Principle 4: [Estimates Based on Planner Expertise] · Planners use personal experience and file information to develop work plans to avoid anticipated work delays after considering quality and safety problems. · This principle dictates that planners depend on the workforce being sufficiently skilled when he is putting a minimum level of detail into the initial job plans. · Planners give information to supervisor for scheduling control. The planners also use their own expertise to formalize best practices on individual job plans. · Plant must choose from among its best craft persons to be planners. The planner calls for a minimum craft skill on a job plan. · Routine maintenance offers the highest potential for planner contribution to company success because more intricate or unusual maintenance tasks receives necessary help from plant engineering department Principle 5: [Recognize the Skill of the Crafts] · The Planning Department recognizes the skill of the crafts.· The majority of maintenance tasks are repetitive over a period of time. · Supervisors must train technicians with deficient skills and give proper support and guidance · Technicians must execute the job precisely as planned for three reasons. .

travel. Delays such as waiting for assignment. planners visualize the types of work orders to be released for preventive maintenance tasks for the next week. Projects The concepts and importance of preventive maintenance.10 Planning Preventive & Predictive Maintenance. or equipment information are all deducted. instructions. statistical observational techniques & study. Wrench time is the proportion of available time-to-work time during which the craft technicians are on productive working on a job site. predictive maintenance. Wrench time analysis is an indicator. not the control of planning or the work force. Planning can adopt preferred maintenance for higher effectiveness. This principle holds that delays in technician’s job should be avoided. · Principle 6 dictates that measuring how much time craft technicians actually spend on their job site versus other activities performed such as obtaining parts or tools. · Measuring wrench time thus gives an overall indication of how well the other principles have been implemented or accepted. What is actually important is the analysis of the nonproductive time. Wrench time is measured accurately with a properly structured.· Finally. These reduce the incidence of reactive maintenance work and to increase plant reliability. · Work sampling to determine wrench time gives this measure of how much planning is helping in the process. a) Preventive Maintenance [PM] and Planning · The planning department studies and issues PM’s schedules and reviews them periodically. coordination with other crafts. parts. the planning system counts on the skilled technicians giving feedback on job plans so that their expertise and the planner’s expertise both contribute to adding information to future plans. The time that employees spend at their job sites working is called direct or productive work. Starting with a basic system. 6. tools. clearance. This determines the effectiveness of the maintenance planning program. . and project work and their relationship to the development of the planning principles and practices are discussed here. Principle 6: [Measure Performance with Work Sampling] · Wrench time is the primary measure of workforce efficiency and of planning and scheduling effectiveness.

PM plans can include rags for wiping and removing old grease when parts are dissembled. For this. · The planner should allow some extra time in the work order on all PM work for making unspecified excessive cleaning. . · Emphasis in all PMs is to inspect the equipment for abnormal situations. the technician is empowered to make any minor equipment adjustments or minor repairs during execution of the PM.· A planner should plan each of the PMs with scope and craft requirements such as numbers of persons. b) Predictive Maintenance [PdM] and Planning · Planning plans and schedules PdM work orders. which are contributing to more than 50% of all breakdowns. For ex: tightening of fasteners in the coupling if he found they are loose.e. repairs. Tightness. work hours. · PM plans should specify torque requirements or attach torque charts where appropriate and include torque wrenches as a special tool. small adjustments. The dirt and grime also add undesirable insulation conditions that may affect equipment performance. · The planner must receive feedback to improve the PM work order itself. Lubrication. · This requirement of corrective maintenance is ‘TLC’ i. Planning for parts encourages the replacement of fasteners based on the technician’s decisions. and Cleanliness. · Cleanliness helps reduce contamination sources and such clean surfaces to reveal the presence of new leaks. tightening of bolts. or minor repairs. · Planners should also review the histories and feedback from all work orders to determine if additional PM work orders are needed. as improper lubrication leads to total damage to equipment. The plan should also list anticipated parts and special tools. · Lubrication is important part of a PM program. Predictive maintenance (PdM) uses technology not available to the regular maintenance work force. Many do value assigning with experienced personnel to perform PM work orders. lubrications etc. and duration. on the work done. PdM personnel make the call on the creation of new work orders. · PdM technology greatly moves the plant’s reliability upward as the predictions in predictive maintenance show an important capacity for growth in accuracy. · The scope should extend beyond simple repair and replacement of parts to improve equipment reliability as well.

At each crossroads. Each principle resolves a crossroads decision that affects the planning effort. The planning effort has mainly focused on making individual jobs ready to go by identifying and planning around potential delays. c) Project Work and Planning · Similar to PdM. · Planners must vigorously pursue collecting documentation to establish files and also overview position regarding the project replacement or overhaul. with active participation and assistance from the planning group. · Planners should facilitate PdM when work on equipment is in process. but difference is in the larger nature of projects. The application of maintenance planning makes possible the dramatic improvement in maintenance productivity. · Planners should insist to utilize standards set by PdM for certain jobs. which involves alignment criteria.· Planners must accept PdM work orders for jobs and translate them into the appropriate scope for the maintenance crews. the company has to make a decision regarding alternate ways to conduct planning. or other rebuild tolerances. · Plant normally has the personnel to implement such maintenance project work with the productivity prescribed in the planning and scheduling system.11 Summary of Maintenance Planning Effective maintenance is vital to provide reliable plant capacity. planning group plans and schedules work orders to implement projects as regular jobs. · Planners should be able to estimate and commit the project schedules with plant engineering and scheduler assistance. 6. so that PdM personnel may quickly climb the learning curve. Consideration of six basic principles greatly boosts the planning program efforts toward success. bearing clearances. . · The PdM group can update the technology of the maintenance force. The decision the company makes regarding each situation determines the ultimate success of planning. · Planners should insist that PdM uses the same equipment tag numbers for ease communication problems. Plants treat projects as outages and planned as long-range scheduling.

allowing the crew supervisor to handle day’s work. and shutdown Wrench time concept of measuring the work for each hour of the day. Plnners must possess the experience of top level technicians in order to scope jobs. the technicians would scope out the jobs with their social & other times. and then measure schedule compliances. 6. having component level files. The planned work packages increases the maintenance department’s ability to complete work orders effectively. tools. are all in the total system. utilize files. gave a clear picture of how technicians are completing their work. Maintenance needed certain methodology to assigning enough work through the planning process. The principles used for planning and scheduling are for achieving the forecasted skill levels. Planners need to avoid continually being interrupted to resolve problems for jobs already under way. The crews worked on the planned jobs and work sampling study made on it indicated a wrench time of 25% only and further plant could do better job if improved upon. and estimate times adequately.12 Maintenance Scheduling Principles Scheduling principles envisages the vision. or travel categories. This aligning of the work to accomplish the desired effective and efficient maintenance led to the principles of scheduling. which is discussed below. it is practical to retrieve information when needed. the principles or paradigms in order to evolve effective scheduling will come through effective planning process. lunch. and safely. Wrench time will measure whether the objectives of planning are met or not in reducing job delays. They solved the problems by addressing symptomatic of tools. focusing on future work. efficiently. The analysis revealed that the large delay times not only for parts. Only when planning keeps a separate file for each piece of equipment. using planner expertise to create estimates. recognizing the skill of the crafts. and measuring planning performance with work sampling for technician’s direct work time. When work orders are received. the schedules and job priorities for every forecasted work available.The principle of having planning as a separate department. Planners need to focus on future work not yet begun. Because most jobs are repetitive. instructions. . but also exists for excessive startup. break. file history help technicians to avoid previously faced problems. . parts availability problems or not properly planning issues Companies placed an emphasis on planning and also they doubled the parts availability in stores to reduce ordering needs.

5. The appropriate priority for the work is based on established plant guidelines. The entire plant must respect the importance of schedules and job priorities. Crew supervisors forecast available work hours one week ahead by the highest skills available. · The priority may be reviewed periodically and adjusted in coordination with crew. Plant priority plays a larger role in creating the schedule of work and all involved should treat it as a serious matter. Schedule assigns planned work for every forecasted work hour available. Principle 2 [Entire plant respect the importance of schedules and job priorities] · Weekly and daily schedules must be adhered to by the crew as per the priorities mentioned in the work orders to prevent undue interruption in schedules. as they create a framework for successful scheduling of planned work. · Advance scheduling of enough work for the entire week sets the goal for maximum utilization of the available craft hours. 6. and job duration. Does the job require mechanics or machinists? Does the job require three helpers to assist a certified electrician? Etc that are necessary for advance scheduling. provides the measure of scheduling effectiveness. craft work hours per level. lowest required craft skill level. 3. planners and the plant manager. 4. Principle 1: [Planners plan the jobs for lowest required skill levels] § Essential part of Principle 1 is that job plans identify the lowest skill necessary to complete the work with the contention that the supervisor will have higher skill capability also. 2. Crew supervisor matches personnel skills and tasks 6.Routine maintenance needs the use of principles. It also ensures that a sufficient and the right work are assigned. Planners plan the jobs for lowest required skill levels.13 Six Maintenance Scheduling Principles Six principles that greatly contribute to the overall success of scheduling are: 1. § Job plans provide information about the number of persons required. Schedule compliance of wrench time. if required while assigning individuals to execute job plan. . Each principle sets guidelines on how the maintenance should handle different scheduling process.

job priorities. Principle 5: [The crew supervisor matches personnel skills and tasks] · Crew supervisor develops a daily schedule one day in advance using current job progress. after considering the tasks that are being interrupted · Principle 4 brings all the three previous scheduling principles together.e. This includes proactive work. and reactive jobs as a guide. forecast of highest skill. Principle 3 [Develops week’s schedule for each crew & craft hours required] · Develops a week’s schedule for each crew based on craft hours required. Principle 4: [A week’s schedule will assign work for all the available work hour] · A week’s schedule will assign work for the total work hours. · Over assigning and under assigning work are common and acceptable in industries. It allows for emergencies/high priority/ reactive jobs by scheduling sufficient amount of work hours. . · Scheduler uses a forecast of maximum capabilities of the crew for coming week. new high priority. crew work load is 1000 worthy labour hours. · First two principles are the prerequisites of the principle-3 scheduling · Scheduler selects the week’s worth of work from the overall plant backlog. · Preference is given to completing the higher priority work by utilizing whatever skills available than working on completing the lower priority work. As these may cause unique problems it is better to be avoided. and information from job plans. · Scheduler also uses job priority and job plan information. · Scheduling plan is for performing all the works available in the system. · Crew supervisor matches personnel skills and tasks. it is better to delay identified job in full rather than completing half. If a true emergency arises. · Scheduler assigns work plans for the crew to execute during the following week for 100% of the forecasted hours i.· Inefficiency peeps through the interruption by low priority jobs coming in way of urgent jobs progressing. · Consideration is also given to multiple jobs on the same equipment or system and of proactive versus reactive work available.

· Crew supervisor handles the current day’s work and any other problems in emergency maintenance · Although individual jobs show a wide variance between planned and actual times. and track schedule compliance. Six basic principles form the foundation of successful scheduling and make schedules and priority systems important. Work sampling or wrench time studies quantify delays & gives measures of planning and scheduling effectiveness. Maintenance dept also tracks schedule compliance. · Planning individual jobs can reduce delays such as waiting to obtain certain parts. Adhering to schedules is important as interrupting jobs leads to overall inefficiency. 6. When setting craft and time requirements. · Schedule compliance is the measure of adherence to the one week schedule and its effectiveness. crew supervisor is the best judge to create the daily crew work schedule. Knowing of the lowest skills required for jobs and the highest skills available allows developing a schedule with proper work for the week. or technician instructions · Scheduling aims at reducing delays. Work sampling or wrench time is the best measure of scheduling performance. In case of delay in actual job progress and the incidence of unexpected reactive work in place. job plans must plan for the lowest required skill level. allow crew supervisors to make daily schedules. The priority system must properly identify the right jobs to start. . tools. scheduler to develop schedule in advance. · Each day the crew supervisor assigns the next day’s work to each technician. He will ensure that each technician receives assignments totalling to full day’s work Principle 6: [Wrench time is the primary measure of workforce efficiency] · Wrench time is the primary measure of workforce efficiency and of planning and scheduling effectiveness. it relatively balances by week end. This increases flexibility in choosing jobs.14 Summary of Maintenance Scheduling Maintenance management must consider main scheduling in the maintenance planning strategy to avoid problems of improved efficiency. assigns work for all available labour hours.

. · Crew personnel are assigned the job for execution · The time estimates are made by planner · Maintenance planning brings together or coordinates the effort of many other aspects of maintenance. 5. and safely. The planning mission statement could be ……………………………. Hence use of planned and scheduled work packages increases the maintenance department’s ability to complete work orders effectively. A planning mission statement may be: …………………………………. The planners and crew had to deal differently with urgent reactive work by developing job plans for reactive work. 3. through advance preparation. Principles 3 through 5 establish basis of scheduling process. · To arrest the leakages and keep up the lubrication system · The planner specifies the appropriate craft skills required for that particular job... To prepare a job in advance. 4. Principle 6 sets overall indicators for scheduling control.Schedule based on the wrench time has to be practiced. efficiently. Principles 1 and 2 are prerequisites for scheduling. Self Assessment Questions 1. Out of the maintenance planning functions. a planner develops a …………… after receiving a work request. Further working to the maintenance planning based on the six planning principles along with the six scheduling principles will help improve the productivity. and works such as preventive maintenance/ breakdown work and release of the work orders to proceed. In the maintenance process given below which one not the step to be considered. . Maintenance management uses planning as a tool to reduce …………………. crew schedules. This involves job priorities. which one is not relevant? · Coordinating mechanism within the maintenance department. 2. · A maintenance planner does preparatory planning for the craft persons · The planner identifies appropriate materials for the specified job and checks whether they are available or must be specially obtained.

. b) A planner plans the work order by specifying job scope. . Wrench time is the primary measure …………………………………………… Wrench time is the proportion of available time to. time estimates. b) Planners concentrate on future work. Planning provides tangible help. per person 9. craft and skill level required. d) Planner expertise dictates job estimates.a) Receives request from the concerned section for the maintenance work. Specialization increases ………………………. Which is sixth one? a) The company organizes planners into a separate department. procedures for assigning proper amount of work to all the skilled/unskilled crews h) Prepares Schedules for the maintenance works and follow track until complete. g) He establishes through work order system. 6. 8. e) Fix up the wages for each of the work based on the skill level f) Creates data and information on all machineries and equipment and its maintenance methodology for future reference and analysis. c) ……………………………………………… 7. also known as wrench time. c) Planners base their files on the component level of systems. Six principles greatly contribute to overall success of planning.work time during which the craft technicians are on productive working on a job site. c) Planner evolves a system and procedure for each type of maintenance work d) Skill levels and time estimates on jobs and proper scheduling are included in the subject work order. as well as specifying anticipated parts and tools. with all their identification numbers. Statistical work sampling studies measures ……………. Fill in (c) below: a) The amount of work accomplished rises. b) The work force is freed up..

Cleanliness helps reduce ……………. and then measure schedule compliances 15. Why planning process is essential for efficient maintenance management? 2.. ………. ……………………………………………. for every forecasted work available. upward as the predictions involved in predictive maintenance show an important capacity for growth in accuracy.e) Planners recognize the skill of the crafts. to equipment. The crew supervisor matches personnel skills and tasks] f. This requirement of corrective maintenance is ‘TLC’ i.15 Terminal Questions 1. Companies strive to do more preventive maintenance. Planners plan the jobs for lowest required skill levels. d. …………………. e. Explain briefly the functions of maintenance planning. 10. 12. work and to increase plant reliability. f) ………………………………………. The principles used for planning and scheduling are for achieving the forecasted higher skill levels. and project work to lessen the …………………….. Crew supervisors forecast available work hours one week ahead by the highest skills available. six principles that greatly contribute to the overall success of scheduling are discussed below.. allowing the crew supervisor to handle day’s work. ……. 14.. What are the benefits of maintenance planning? . c.. The PdM technology has the potential of greatly moving the plant’s ………. which are contributing to more than 50% of all breakdowns. Schedule compliance joins wrench time to provide the measure of scheduling effectiveness. 3.e. 13. 6.. b. Just as in planning. ………. Improper lubrication leads to total ………. predictive maintenance. The entire plant must respect the importance of schedules and job priorities. Fill in the missing principle. and such clean surfaces to reveal the presence of new leaks. 11. a.

Unnecessary job. Explain briefly the planning approaches in preventive and predictive maintenance processes. Work plan 2. (sl. Explain briefly how the use of six principles will greatly contribute to the overall success of scheduling 6. “To increases the Maintenance Department’s ability to complete work orders quickly”. workforce efficiency and of planning and scheduling effectiveness.16 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1. Tightness. (sl.4. 5. Lubrication. Explain how the specialization in areas of maintenance will help improve the productivity of the maintenance crew. What is wrench time? How it is recognized as a maintenance work measure? 6. 7. Productive time. no: e) Fix up the wages for each of the work based on the skill level 6. 8.no:4)To arrest the leakages and keep up the lubrication system 3. Incidence of reactive maintenance 11. Why scheduling after proper planning is essential for effective maintenance and meeting the dead line and avoid delays? 10. Productivity 9. The extra labor power can be reallocated to added value activities. and Cleanliness . 9. 7. Doing right jobs which are ready to go 4. Explain as to how the maintenance planning will help improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the organization 5. What are the maintenance planning principles? How they contribute to the success of planning? 8. Work sampling for direct work time provides the primary measure of planning effectiveness 10.

9 8.7 5.1 2.12. Refer 6. Terminal Questions 1.Refer 6. Reliability 14.5 4. . Refer 6. Refer 6.8 (b) 7. Refer 6. damage 13.12 10. The schedules and job priorities 15. Refer 6.10 a & b 9. (For d): The schedule assigns planned work for every forecasted work hour available. Refer 6. Refer 6.2 3.7 (c) 6. Contamination sources.13 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Refer 6. Refer 6.

7 ACE Team Benchmarking Process 7.1 Introduction Objectives 7.8 Overall Craft Effectiveness & its Measurement 7.5 Universal Principles for higher Productive Maintenance 7. process and systems. The new system will become a platform for continuous improvement and will generate long term benefits .9 Summary 7.10 Terminal Questions 7.4 Benefits of using ‘UMS’ with Planner’s Functions 7.3 Organization & Processes 7.2 Planner’s Function in Maintenance & Benefits 7.OM0006-Unit-07-Universel Maintenance Practices Unit-07-Universel Maintenance Practices Structure: 7.1 Introduction Automating the maintenance program is a complex task as it requires integrating of people.11 Answers 7. organizations have tried and tested different approaches for bringing changes that can result in improvements in both the function and the cost. Using a state-of-the-art maintenance management.6 Work Measurement for High-Productivity Maintenance Universal Maintenance Standards [UMS] Five Levels of Data in Ums 7.

on-time delivery and ultimately. Higher productivity maintenance means better customer service. satisfied customers. Adopting ACE system for benchmarking and improvements 4. Use of the state of art principles.The analysis and application of work measurements to ensure improved productivity and cost reduction in maintenance should be the prime consideration by the management. Achieving excellence in Maintenance Engineering and Management Objectives: After studying this unit you shall be able to: · Outline the functions to be performed by the maintenance planner. materials and overhead. theory. maintenance labour. close communication with supervisors. Implementing new techniques of measurement.2 Planner’s Function In Maintenance & Benefits The planner’s role is varied in nature such as: maintain a backlog of ready-to-work jobs for each technician. Engineering or Industrial Engineering managers spearhead their achievements of dramatic productivity improvements by adopting different methods of work measurements in managing and controlling their activities. a detail analysis and adopting certain state of art principles and improve maintenance productivity are all the focus areas for the above said disciplines. Improving the Overall craft effectiveness [OCE] for productivity. Improving Wrench time of the Crew in Maintenance 6. For achieving the above said prerequisites. field checks jobs when . higher quality. cost reduction and its measurement 5. especially when sophisticated high tech machineries and equipments are used for production. some of which are listed below: 1. How the Maintenance. Benchmarking the best practices 3. are the concepts. systems and techniques of Universal Maintenance Standards [UMS] 2. · Explain the benefits of UMS · Adopt the ACE system of Benchmarking 7. as the maintenance represents variable operating cost which includes physical plant value. principles and theory of new measurement techniques.

crafts needed. cost of the items. based on a formal planning function and the Universal Maintenance Standards. time reporting on the performance including delays. Hence the measurement provides information to determine the savings potential and also justify the maintenance work measurement program. verifies priority. In addition the resultant productivity improvement that accrues are the benefits to organization in a) cost reductions b) downtime reduction. etc as well as the stores process to check the inventory value. or too many stock-outs. identifies special tools. 7. materials. the same can be raised to around 80% when a planning function is integrated with UMS times to work together. requisitions non-stock or out-of-stock items. They can also establish a computerized maintenance management system. The planner also develops bench marks and maintains the data library. Planners develop all the data. unrealized opportunity etc.needed. plans safety requirements. and time to do the work. Importance of work measurement and the standard for the job should be established. 7. b) Processes Processes involve data development and work order planning. are validated. crew size. Both the planners and the maintenance crew should examine to see how the UMS times could be applied. plans work content. and make available to the crew a set of basic processes and craft operations for the process before establishing bench marks.3 Organization & Processes The tasks for a maintenance work measurement program fall into two categories namely 1) Organization and 2) Process a) Organization with planner in the forefront Planner maintains and allocates the work and knows all the ratios required for accomplishing the jobs and have good maintenance skills and experience and capabilities to work as the ultimate expert system. life cycle cost reductions d) on time completion of jobs e) continuous improvements f) improved service to customers. do the training. issue of stores taking too long.4 Benefits of Using ‘Ums’ with Planner’s Functions It is found that when a planner’s function is integrated with the UMS resultant impact is of improving the overall maintenance effectiveness. While the maintenance departments without planners can achieve around 50-60% Productivity. The normal ratio of planners to technicians used is 20 to 30:1. .

They highlight problems or roadblocks for completion of the project. The standard crew size is one and any other size is exceptions to the general rule. Timely accomplishment is also universal phenomenon. Together the customer and maintenance crew decide the priority (based on resources available) and urgency of each task compared to other existing current works.6. f) Timeliness Large maintenance jobs are divided into smaller work orders.7. if followed. but also helps growth in value added processes. This principle is also universal. Lord Kelvin saw this in his scientific investigation of the laws of physics. maintenance is no exception b) Measurement Before Control The measurement of an activity is basic to its control. lead to the lasting results. e) Crew Size The optimum crew size for a maintenance job is the smallest that can perform the work using a specific method and execute in a safe & efficient manner.6 Work Measurement for High-Productivity Maintenance 7. 7. and maintenance decides how the service should be provided. It is universal. c) Activity Responsibility The responsibility for each activity of a work order is necessary to ensure that the work order continues to move toward resolution without delay. Hence the Universal Standards serve the special needs of maintenance work through the following principles: a) Scientific Principle Best productivity results when each worker has a definite job to do in a definite way within a definite time.5 Universal Principles for Higher Productive Maintenance There are several principles that.1 Universal Maintenance Standards [UMS] . d) Customer/Service Relationship The customer decides what is needed from an operational viewpoint. which can be accurately planned. Frederick Taylor’s principle applies to all work.

sheet metal. weld. then the time . time taken for threading a one-inch nut on to a bolt by hand operation takes almost same time like that of screwing in a light bulb into the holder. which in turn depends on: a) Nature of Maintenance works: In maintenance works. If it is a low volume work done by multi skilled crew. A simple task such as removing and replacing a part may take more or less time depending on how tight the bolts are. custodial. paint. the motion pattern for two tasks may be same and also time to perform the work is almost the same. how much rust is present on them etc. Techniques: The UMS system is based on three important techniques: 1) Range-of-time. to what precision. called ‘Universal Maintenance Standards’ (UMS). This range of time is same in 95 % of situations and hence standard average time is applied and practiced 2) Work content comparison. availability of such standards. There are at least four to five hundred different jobs. labour. instrument. finance. engineers adopted new methods for analyzing and assigning standards to maintenance work. or one country. electrical. Each element requires further study followed by application of stopwatch time or a predetermined time system analysis to determine the exact time required for each through the method selected. is it realistic to measure. the result is that the crew does longer cycle work compared to other production workers. automotive. but everywhere where maintenance work is performed –manufacturing. masonry. industry or service enterprise. as these standards offered flexibility and could be applied not just in one location. commercial. Applying the specific standards to the daily maintenance workload requires answers for: which task standard is required. Hence breaking long jobs down into elements have resulted in a large number of elements. b) Evolution of Universal Maintenance Standards (UMS) In the early 1950’s. HVAC. government.The principles adopted for above said requirements are based on the application of work measurement in maintenance. IT management etc. Even though parts are different. education or healthcare. or tasks. machining. pipe. If the time to perform similar tasks is known. in each of skills of fourteen types of jobs: mechanical. carpenter. to what volume of work etc. some unique characteristics are revealed. service. The combination of many elements requiring different maintenance tasks and varieties of skills warrants developing and maintain a library of enormous number of standards. For example. The range-of-time technique recognizes the variable nature of maintenance works. utilities.

body motions. machining could be made available for the crew of maintenance 4) Bench Marks Using UMS. namely 1) basic motions. Five levels of data in the UMS library. electrical. machine settings and arc striking time etc. whether the how clamping of part is done etc are recorded in the table for further use as standards. engineers can typically apply standards to all maintenance work with bench marks covering all the crafts and through the use of spread sheets they can substantially reduce the data library compared to the one with direct standard method. This system analyzes and classifies data into basic motions and establishes a relationship between the motions and the time required to perform them. Each of these motions are recorded and these data becomes the established times for future reference and standardization. For instance.6. grasp. common to all crafts. where work measures are dividing into basic motions such as reach. a planner is able to establish planning times for a large number of jobs using relative sample data of the benchmark jobs and publicise the data along with the step-by-step process. position and release. becomes the standardization process and hence these are universally adopted. using the work content comparison technique is possible. 4) bench marks and 5) spread sheets. carpentry. pipefitting. By using spread sheets. 3) craft operations. distance moved. 7. 3) Organizing the data UMS data is organized in a building block fashion.2 Five Levels of Data in Ums 1) Basic Motions The foundation of UMS data is the predetermined time system for basic motions. Spread sheet fills the additional needs of finding quickly the . 3) Craft Operations Some operation times are unique to a certain craft. move. Similar craft data for other skilled craft operations such as painting. 2) Basic Operations Basic motions are grouped together to form basic operations. 5) Spread Sheets. Two widely used predetermined time systems are ‘Methods-Time Measurement’ and ‘Operation Sequence Technique’.that can be applied to any other similar task with + or – 5%. The variables like weight of the part. 2) basic operations. welding operations are made up of manual handling. which are pooled as weld craft operations data.

These Benchmarked jobs are then arranged into different time categories on spreadsheets for various craft work areas. area travel time. have developed a bench marking process for the major work areas/types of maintenance operations. 3) ACE System: a Team-Based Approach ACE Team process is to obtain the most reliable. material handling equipment. and in mechanical fields like Belt drives. say within 95% confidence range. outlines a new and highly recommended methodology for establishing ‘team-based maintenance performance standards’. The ACE System is used to develop maintenance performance standards. which is called as ‘Reliable Planning-Time standards’. 7. Here the emphasis is placed on improving current repair methods. clutches and brakes. compressors. rest and minor unavoidable delays. which are reliable and a well-accepted planning times for the entire maintenance crew. supervisors and planners . continuous improvement and the changing of times in performance and methods. which are then imposed on the maintenance force. in generators. Spreadsheets are then provided for each work group having a time slots or range of times. job site time and allowances for personal. 1) ACE System & UMS Using predetermined standard data. All work order times released for the jobs and it consists of four components: job preparation time. the standards are established.7 ACE Team Benchmarking Process “A Consensus of Experts” (ACE). Ex: Benchmarking and firming up the task can be easily done in areas like lighting. The allowances applied to these set times to get a single UMS time calculation for use by the crew. the technique which was formulated and developed by the ‘The Maintenance Excellence Institute’ [TMEI]. in motors. This new Benchmarking Tool through ACE. 2) Objective of ACE Team Benchmarking Process Objective is to determine the reliable planning times for a number of selected “benchmark” jobs and to gain a consensus on the predetermined work content time. ACE Team Benchmarking Process parallels the UMS approach in that the range of time and the work content times for a representative number of benchmarked jobs are established. reducers and gear boxes. and lubrication and service. reasonable estimate of maintenance “work content” time from a group of experienced crafts people. bringing control systems. who have performed these jobs earlier and have requisite experience to improve upon them. a team of relatively small in number. Spreadsheets include brief descriptions of the benchmark jobs and represent pure wrench time.appropriate one for an application or finding the right bench mark for comparison.

which will provide the management with a valuable input data for backlog determination. technicians. scheduling. safety practices. and engineered standards such as Universal standards. budgeting and costing. effective storerooms and . safety and quality b) Establish work content time for selected “benchmark jobs” for planners and others to use in developing reliable planning time. Best practices such as effective maintenance planning/scheduling. supervisors. preventive/predictive maintenance. risks analysis on jobs that leads to improvements. 7. c) How OCE impacts the bottom line: Craft Labor Improving Overall Craft Effectiveness is getting maximum value from craft labor resources and higher craft productivity. b) Investment for Planners: The planner’s activity with the team approach of ACE system will establish maintenance performance standards. historical data. Labour standards will be the baseline for determining craft productivity and improved methods. 4) Recommendation of ACE System ACE Team overcomes many inherent difficulties associated with developing maintenance performance standards and hence recommended as the standard process for modern maintenance management. Other methods used include reasonable estimates. Computerized maintenance management system (CMMS) could also be practiced. 5) ACE Team Benchmarking Process: ACE System is a true team-based process that utilizes skilled crafts people. 6) The ACE System Supports Reliability Improvement: ACE Team process can contribute significantly to reliability.and provides an excellent means to evaluate repair method. as its application promotes a commitment to quality repair procedures. a) Improve current repair methods.8 Overall Craft Effectiveness [OCE] & Its Measurement a) Craft Performance element of Overall Craft Effectiveness Determining the required standard hours of a technician require a trail run of the task under standard operating conditions. manpower planning. planners and other knowledgeable people to do two things.

e) Productive Wrench Time: Pure wrench time is just the actual output/work done and do not include the miscellaneous waste time caused due to any or many of the following: 1. 20 to 30 % can be expected from more effective maintenance planning & scheduling. shop clean up time Lack of effective planning and scheduling Craft Utilization (or wrench time) is measured as the ratio of: CU %=100x [Total Productive hours or wrench time]/ [Total craft hours allotted x amount paid] f) Improve Wrench Time original Significant tangible benefits can be realized by increasing the wrench time. Effective planning/ scheduling is the key to increase wrench time and craft utilization. 2. Measuring and improving overall craft effectiveness (OCE) is one of the components of continuous improvements d) Effective Craft Utilization (CU): Craft Utilization or pure wrench time relates to measuring how effective the work is planned and craft resources scheduled so that these assets are doing value-added. 5. drawings.e. Running from emergency to emergency in a reactive. where certain jobs possibly require a call back to the initial repair thus requiring another trip to fix it right the second . 3. Craft performance is directly related to individual craft skills and overall trades experience. repair instructions. the personal motivation and effort of each craftsperson. planned maintenance and more productive “wrench time”. g) Craft Performance Another key element of OCE is the craft performance i. 9. Waiting for the equipment to be shut down for work start Waiting for contractor support to arrive at job site Waiting on other crafts to finish their job Travelling to/from job site Make-ready. 7. fire fighting mode Waiting on parts and searching parts or part information Waiting for asset info. h) Craft Service Quality (CSQ) Another element affecting the overall Craft Effectiveness relates to the quality of the repair. productive work (wrench time).continuous parts support will all contribute to proactive. 4. how efficient the hands-on craft work is done compared to an established planned time or performance standard. documentation etc. This element includes quality of the actual work. 6. 8.

new techniques of measurement. It is gained value that can be calculated and estimated and then measured. . patch jobs or inferior repair parts/materials. Craft Service Quality will suffer due to hasty repairs. OCE is increased people asset availability and capacity.time. then Overall Craft Effectiveness Factor can be determined by multiplying each of these three elements: Overall Craft Utilization = [Craft utilization (%) x Craft performance (%) x Craft service quality (%)] i) Where Can We Apply OCE Gained Value Maintenance operations that continually fight fires and react to emergency repairs never have enough time to cover all the work (core requirements) that needs to be done. the overall Craft Effectiveness and provide value added maintenance services all the time with a profit oriented approach Self Assessment Questions 1. b) Benchmarking the best practices. Organizations should recognize maintenance as a core business requirement and should establish the necessary core competencies for survival. When reliable data is present for all elements. If the internal core competency for maintenance is not present it must be regained and ensure that they are profit-centred maintenance providers by understanding clearly the UMS. and a detail analysis of: a) Universal Maintenance Standards. c) Adopting ACE system for benchmarking and improvements d) ……………………………………………………………. implementation of certain state of art principles. In relation to OEE. Organization should not indiscriminately cut craft labour resources when increase OCE is warranted. Profit-centred in-house maintenance in combination with the wise use of high quality contract maintenance services will be the key to the final evolution that occurs. For improving maintenance productivity. j) Think Profit-Centred Maintenance leaders and crafts people must develop the “profit” mindset to be competitive and stay in business. K) Maintenance is For ever Maintenance is a core requirement for profitable survival and total operations success. Measuring and improving Overall Craft Effectiveness and the value received from improving craft assets is an important part of total asset management.

5.e) Improving the Wrench time of the Crew in Maintenance 2. and time to do the work. requisitions non-stock or out-of-stock items. 8. verifies priority. Downtime reduction and its savings c. Cost reduction and its total savings b... ………………………………. and e) spread sheets. Continuous improvement opportunities and gain in competitive advantage f. identifies special tools. Hence the measurement provides information to determine the savings potential and also justify the maintenance work measurement program... plans crew size. ………………………………. 3. based on a formal planning function and the. Five levels of data in UMS are: a) basic motions b) Basic operations c) Craft operations d) ………………. have developed a bench marking process for the major work areas/types of operation. . The planner’s role is varied in nature such as: maintain a backlog of ready-to-work jobs for each technician. Contributes in meeting other goals and objectives in the strategic plan. …………………………………………… e.. The Universal Standards serve the special needs of maintenance work through the following principles: a) ………………… b) Measurement before controls c) activity responsibility d) customer/service relationship e) Crew size f) Timeliness 6. materials. a team of relatively small number of representatives. 9. The UMS system is based on three important techniques: a) Range of time b) …………………………… c) organizing the data 7. Life cycle cost reductions d. The resultant productivity improvement that accrues because of integrating planner’s function with UMS will substantially benefit the organization in the following areas of operations/ functions: a. Improved services to customers g. ……………. close communication with supervisors. checks jobs when needed. ………………. ACE Team Benchmarking Process parallels the UMS approach in that the …………………….. . when once the ‘work content times’ for a representative number of ‘benchmark jobs’ are established.. 4. who have performed these jobs and have the requisite experience to improve upon them.

. Spreadsheets include brief descriptions of the benchmark jobs and represent ………………...10.. The new system will become a platform for continuous improvement and will generate long term benefits . organizations have tried and tested different approaches for bringing changes that can result in improvements in both the function and the cost..... technicians.. planned maintenance and more productive ………………. effective storerooms and continuous parts support will all contribute to proactive.. and do not include the miscellaneous waste time caused due to any of the reasons......... within the 95% confidence range....... Craft Utilization (or wrench time) is measured as the ratio of: [ ... 18.]/ [Total craft hours allotted x amount paid] 19. Best practices such as effective maintenance planning/scheduling. (%) x Craft service quality (%)] 7...... 11. 14. is getting maximum value from craft labor resources and higher craft productivity... Craft Utilization or pure wrench time relates to measuring how effective we are in planning and scheduling craft resources so that these assets are doing ………………….. 15. planners and other knowledgeable people to do two things. supervisors... a) ……………………………………………………………………. safety practices.. Pure wrench time is just the ………………………...... ACE Team process can contribute significantly to ……………… as its application promotes a commitment to quality repair procedures.. Spreadsheets are then set up with each work group having a time slots or …………………….. supervisors and planners and provides an excellent means to evaluate repair method...... b) Establish work content time for selected “benchmark jobs” 13.. 12. preventive/ predictive maintenance... ACE Team process is to obtain the most reliable..... . risks analysis on jobs that leads to improvements... ACE System is a true team-based process that utilizes skilled crafts people.. time from a group of experienced crafts people. Overall Craft Utilization = [Craft utilization (%) x . .. 17..... 16......9 Summary By using a state-of-the-art maintenance management.... Improving ……………………….. reasonable estimate of maintenance …………………....

Craft Utilization or pure wrench time relates to measuring how effective the craft resources so are doing value-added. For gaining the internal core competency in maintenance. Overall Craft Utilization = [Craft utilization (%) x Craft performance (%) x Craft service quality (%)] Maintenance is a core requirement for profitable survival and total operations success. The Universal Standards serve the special needs of maintenance work through the following principles: a) Scientific control b) Measurement before controls c) activity responsibility d) customer/service relationship e) Crew size f) Timeliness The Universal Maintenance Standards offered flexibility and could be applied not just in one location. These Benchmarked jobs are then arranged into different time categories on spreadsheets for various craft work areas. productive work (wrench time). organizations should clear understand of the Overall Craft Effectiveness. develops a bench marking process for the major work areas / types of operation. Improving Overall Craft Effectiveness is getting maximum value from craft labor resources and higher craft productivity. life cycle cost reductions d) on time completion of jobs e) continuous improvements f) improved service to customers.Higher productivity maintenance means better customer service. higher quality. industry or service enterprise. principles and theory of new measurement techniques that are used are: a)Universal Maintenance Standards. or one country. the concepts. which are reliable and a well-accepted planning times for the entire maintenance crew. on-time delivery and ultimately. but everywhere where maintenance work is performed and is based on three important techniques: a) Range of time b) work content comparison c) organizing the data “A Consensus of Experts” (ACE). who have performed these jobs earlier and have the requisite experience to improve upon them. measurements by using UMS and . The ACE System is used to develop maintenance performance standards. For achieving high productive maintenance. satisfied customers. is a team of relatively small number of representatives. b) Benchmarking the best practices c) ACE system for benchmarking and improvements d) Overall craft effectiveness for improved productivity and cost reduction and its measurement e) Improving the Wrench time of the Crew f) Achieving excellence in Maintenance Engineering and Management The resultant productivity improvement and benefits that accrues because of integrating planner’s function with UMS are: a) cost reductions b) downtime reduction. Pure wrench time is just the actual output/work done Measuring and improving Overall Craft Effectiveness and the value received from improving our craft assets an important part of total asset management.

providing value added maintenance services on a most profitable manner are essential processes. 7.10 Terminal Questions 1. Why application and analysis of work measurements are important in maintenance management? 2. Which are all the concepts, techniques and principles used in measurement of work effectiveness and efficiency in maintenance? 3. Why planner’s role is vital to maintenance and how it improves the effectiveness? 4. Explain briefly the categories to which the tasks of work measurements can be grouped? 5. Explain the benefits that accrue to organization by integrating planner’s works with UMS? 6. Universal Standards serve the special needs of maintenance work through principlesWhich are these universal principles used for higher productive maintenance? 7. What are the three important techniques on which the UMS depends? 8. Explain briefly the five levels of UMS library and how each one is very important criteria for work measurement and analysis? 9. Explain the importance of using spread sheets and bench marks in work measurement to improve maintenance effectiveness? 10. “New Benchmarking Tool through ACE technique outlines a new and highly recommended methodology for establishing ‘team-based maintenance performance standards’, which is called as ‘Reliable Planning-Time standards” –explain how ACE will serve the organization’s needs in maintenance? 11. What is meant by Ace Benchmarking system and to what type of process it is recommended? 12. Explain overall performance effectiveness and how it helps in analyzing the performance of wrench times? 13. What is meant by effective craft utilization and productive wrench time & what are the factors constituting the craft utilization? 7.11 Answers

Self Assessment Questions 1. Improving the Overall craft effectiveness 2. Plans work content 3. On-time completion benefits 4. Universal Maintenance Standards 5. Scientific control 6. Work content comparison 7. Bench marks 8. A Consensus of Experts 9. Range of time concept 10. Range of time and pure wrench time 11. Work content 12. Improve current repair methods, Safety and quality 13. Reliability 14. Overall Craft Effectiveness 15. Wrench time 16. Value-added-productive work. (Wrench time) 17. Actual output/work 18. Total Productive hours or wrench time 19. Craft performance Terminal Questions: 1. Refer 7.1 2. Refer 7.1

3. Refer 7.2 4. Refer 7.3 5. Refer 7.4 6. Refer 7.5 7. Refer 7.6.1.(c) 8. Refer 7.6.2 9. Refer 7.6.2 10. Refer C 11. Refer 7.7.5 12. Refer 7.8 13. Refer 7.8. (d), (e), (f) Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .

4 QMS Documentation Process 8. Planning for such documentation is performed during the planning phase for a specific project.OM0006-Unit-08-System Operations and Documentation Unit-08-System Operations and Documentation Structure: 8. .7 Answers 8.3 Documentation Management and Control Role of the Document Controller Types of QMS Documents Document Numbering Document Versioning Document Content 8. Planning for QMS documentation refers to planning for “infrastructure level” QMS documentation. it must plan for it.1 Introduction Before an organization begins creating QMS documentation.6 Terminal Questions 8.1 Introduction Objective 8. Overall strategy for creating QMS documentation. Planning for QMS documentation should address the following three elements: 1.5 Summary 8.2 Documentation Strategy 8.

2. and 3. Document creation can proceed unhindered once the necessary guidelines are in place to support the creation. not outside parties. Agreeing upon such issues up front will facilitate the creation of the QMS documentation. Process for creating QMS documents. This entails answering questions such as: · What types of QMS documents are required? · How should the QMS documents be logically structured? · How should the QMS documents be uniquely identified? · Who should review and approve documents? · How should changes to QMS documents be identified and controlled? · How should superseded (or obsolete) documents be handled? . Brainstorming the documentation strategy entails obtaining answers to the following questions: · What approach should be adopted for documenting the QMS (top down or bottom-up)? · Up to what level of detail should processes be documented (breadth and depth of documentation)? · How can the QMS documentation be kept relatively stable and immune from minor changes in the organization or its processes? Documentation management and control Documentation management and control are a key element of an organization’s QMS. made available to users. Documentation management and control mechanisms. perhaps most importantly. providing mechanisms to ensure that documentation in the organization is uniquely identifiable reviewed and approved by the appropriate authority prior to release. the primary users of an organization’s QMS documentation are its employees. and dissemination of QMS documentation. and. approval. review. A wellthought-out. will provide you with a documentation set that is usable. Documentation strategy This is perhaps the most critical element of QMS documentation planning. changed in a controlled manner. rational approach to documenting your QMS will enable you to rapidly develop a QMS that works and has sufficient but not excessive detail. not one written primarily to appease external quality auditors. kept current. and archived when obsolete (to prevent unintentional use). After all.

the overall process that results in a delivered product the product development process may be documented in a product development procedure and/or in a product development process map. a product design guidelines document. the process that results in a formalized set of product requirements may be identified as the product requirements definition sub process that is documented in a product requirements definition procedure. and final release of QMS documents. For example.. rework. the process that results in a formal documented design for the product may be identified as the product design sub process that is documented in a product design procedure. review. as appropriate.e. Objectives: After going through this unit you will be able to: · Describe what is documentation strategy · Outline a documentation strategy for a unit or an enterprise · Construct a process map for documentation · Compose a QMS for a documentation process 8. virtual) repository? · How employees should be provided access to controlled QMS documentation.2 Documentation Strategy The top-down approach to implementing and documenting the QMS is highly recommended (as opposed to the bottom-up approach). approval. Similarly. how should the QMS documentation repository be published? · How should the published QMS documentation be organized to maximize ease of use for employees? Documentation process The third element of QMS documentation planning entails the establishment of a process for the creation. that is. The procedures describing the sub processes and their interaction should be supported by additional QMS documentation. the product design sub process should be supported by QMS documentation such as a design document template. For example. Within the product development process.· How should documents of external origin be controlled? · Should the QMS documentation be stored in a physical (i. and other needed documentation. hardcopy) repository or an electronic (i. What is the right level of detail to include in the documentation so that it enables correct and .e. Another important issue that needs to be addressed regards level of detail..

Do not document details of an activity in more than one QMS document.” For example. is the preferred solution. Include only as much information as is necessary to ensure effective planning. Other factors that have a bearing on extent of QMS documentation include size of the organization. if your organization has a product test department that is called “system test department. In the event of any change in the execution in that activity. To minimize the impact of such reorganizations. For example. as opposed to referring to individuals by name. but might result from unclear or ambiguous QMS documentation. refer to them by the “function performed. type of activities.consistent process execution. Below are some guidelines to follow to ensure QMS documentation has the right amount of detail: 1. or other factors. Such an organizational change can have a huge impact on the QMS documents. inadequate employee training. Include all information that is specifically required to be documented as per the applicable quality management system standard. . Creating more QMS documentation is not necessarily the right solution. it is far more convenient to revise one QMS document than to revise multiple documents. Some useful tips to accomplish this are: • • • Always refer to roles (or functional areas) that are involved in the execution of a process. and another procedure Y needs to refer to the same activity. 2. and minimizes impact (on QMS documentation) of minor changes in the business processes and organizational structure? Any breakdown or inconsistency in process execution does not necessarily result from insufficient QMS documentation. review of existing QMS documentation to identify and correct deficiencies. operation. and competency level of employees executing the processes. organizations should be careful in how they respond when process execution deviates from requirements. If this department subsequently is renamed the “independent verification and validation department. Often departments in organizations are renamed or merged into other departments. 3. state that the requirements document is produced by the requirements engineer. if any. or conducting employee training to emphasize key aspects of a process. instead of referring to departments by name. for minor operational or organizational changes. Sometimes. complexity of the process being documented. and control of processes. instead of saying that Mark Peterson produces the product requirements document. state in procedure Y that detailed description regarding that activity can be found in procedure X.” you need not revise your QMS documents if the functional responsibilities for testing the product still reside with this group.” then refer to this department as the test department. If an activity is described in a procedure X. Therefore. QMS documents should be written so that they need minimum change.

Self Assessment Questions 1. 4.• When referring to another department’s QMS documents. Verifying that documents submitted for storage and publishing are: . company quality manual and operating procedures) in a centralized location. A document controller’s responsibilities generally include.1 Role of the Document Controller Before discussing different elements of document management and control. and scope than are high-level documents. such as procedures. QMS documentation includes ______ of the organization. 3.3 Documentation Management and Control 8. in case of companies with more than one location (or very large companies in a single location). Depending on the size of an organization and/or its number of locations. and enforce an organization’s documentation management and control function. Implementation-level QMS documents typically are more prone to changes in content.g. Documentation __________ and control are a key element of an organization’s QMS. the document controller function may be centralized or distributed.. department Y’s procedure refers to department X’s work instructions. title. it is best to control documents that affect an entire company (e. Document controllers are people who coordinate. 2. Avoid references to another department’s work instructions or similar implementation-level documents. The ________________ to implementing and documenting the QMS is highly recommended. it is necessary to introduce the concepts of controlled documents and document controller.3. Documentation process of __________ planning entails the establishment of a process for the creation. 5. monitor. QMS documentation that pertains to a specific location (or a specific function) may be controlled locally. _____________ should be written so that they need minimum change. A controlled document is one that is formally approved and is under formal version control. type of activities. For example. 8. but are not limited to: 1. refer only to its highlevel QMS documents. Generally. Certainly it is quite inconvenient for department Y to revise its procedure when department X revises its work instructions such that the reference from department Y’s procedure becomes inaccurate. However.

for revised documents. Verifying that all changes made to previously approved documents are clearly identified. when errors or discrepancies are observed. Duly approved c. they adhere to standardized templates when applicable) b. Notifying affected personnel in the event of a change to a previously approved document (or release of a new document) 9. 6. 10. Notifying appropriate personnel. Maintaining a master list of controlled documents. Verifying that the documents are correctly numbered. In the correct format (that is. Alternatively. 4. 12. Authorizing internal documents for external release after verifying that approvals for the release have been obtained from relevant management personnel. 3.2 Types of QMS Documents Quality Manual . This includes withdrawing copies of obsolete controlled documents. 8. When document numbers are issued manually for new documents. Verifying that the documents are correctly versioned. Controlling documents of external origin. This includes clearly identifying documents of external origin and storing them in a secure location. This is necessary because the document author may make document changes in addition to those that were authorized. a document number may be generated automatically. the document controller should verify that the document version accurately reflects the magnitude of change in the latest version. 5. 11. Accompanied by review records (when required) 2. an approved document change request should be available) 7.3. such as the document author and management personnel from the affected area. this task generally is performed by the document controller.a. 8. Ensuring that all controlled documents are stored in a secure location. Correctly storing and publishing (or distributing) controlled documents. In case of changes to previously approved documents. Verifying that changes made to previously approved documents were properly authorized (that is.

employees typically relate more closely to organizational processes than to the requirements in a quality management system standard. followed by separate sections briefly describing each key process in the QMS. and consequently it gains wider acceptance for daily operations. An organization’s quality manual is an invaluable document for its employees. A significant advantage of this structure is that it is not alien to employees. as needed. However. Therefore. In case of medium and large product development companies. . such as ISO 9001:2000. which must be referenced. it is preferable to exclude details regarding the organization’s processes from the quality manual. and other parties (such as third-party auditors). answer why the organization is implementing a QMS) and describe how the organization ensures quality in its daily operations. organizations structure their Quality Manual in one of two ways: 1) Standard-based quality manual Most organizations that are implementing a QMS in accordance with the requirements in a particular quality management system standard. employees invariably prefer such a quality manual. in the case of smaller companies. Senior management should realize that it is responsible for the manual’s content. Such details should be embedded in the appropriate QMS documents. This approach entails describing the high-level product development process map of the organization. along with a reference to related QMS documentation. from the quality manual. This includes describing the purpose and scope of each process. it may be appropriate to include the procedures in the quality manual itself. 2) Process-based quality manual This structure is being used increasingly in organizations that have successfully transitioned to taking a process-oriented view of their QMS. Such a quality manual includes separate sections (or subsections) for each of the requirements sections (or subsections) in the quality management system standard. prefer to structure their manual to mimic the structure of the applicable quality management system standard. This can be demonstrated by senior management approval on the quality manual. Typically. and not in the context of a quality management system standard. the quality manual references relevant. The quality manual must reflect the QMS accurately and be kept current at all times.A quality manual is the highest-level QMS document and is intended primarily to provide an overview of an organization’s QMS. It therefore should reflect the organization’s commitment to quality (in other words. customers (and potential customers). When appropriate. Such quality manuals follow a top-down approach to describing the organization’s QMS. The QMS is explained in the context of the organizational business processes. QMS documentation in explaining adherence to each quality management system standard requirement. Each section (or subsection) in the quality manual describes how requirements in the corresponding section (or subsection) in the quality management system standard are adhered to in the organization.

Who performs the activities (roles and responsibilities). Work instructions describe how activities in a process are executed. They provide a step-by-step description of tasks to be executed in order to accomplish each activity in the process. a procedure should not be longer than three pages. Because a procedure is intended to contain relatively high-level information regarding a process. They serve as critical reference documents for anyone interested in knowing what a process entails. Due to the intradepartmental nature of work instructions. When each activity in a process is performed.Procedure A procedure is a documented high-level description of a process. They describe: What activities comprise a process. to execute their tasks. Procedures are useful for communicating process information at all levels of management between departments. practitioners typically need additional process documents. If a longer procedure is needed. because organizational processes typically span multiple departments. they should undergo cross-functional review by all departments involved in the process (or areas affected by the process) being documented. The practitioners have firsthand experience performing the tasks and therefore typically are the most knowledgeable. they should be documented and jointly reviewed by practitioners involved in executing the tasks documented. and they constitute the first level of documentation below procedures. When process practitioners do not have the requisite training or are otherwise unskilled for creating effective process . Procedures are usually interdepartmental. As a general rule of thumb. They also serve as a valuable starting point for training process practitioners. Procedures are not intended to provide the how to implementation details regarding a process. Work instructions typically are intradepartmental and are intended primarily for use by process practitioners. called work instructions. This helps ensure that the procedure accurately reflects the process and the interaction between various departments. Procedures constitute the first level of documentation below the quality manual. Work instruction A work instruction is a documented low-level description of a process. The decision to document a process in a procedure is made by the respective process owner in consultation with the quality assurance department. it is a good candidate for splitting into separate procedures. competent. and Where the activities are performed. Due to the interdepartmental nature of procedures. and experienced personnel for providing information on the execution of specific tasks.

g. As a general rule of thumb. work instructions can help ensure consistency and minimize errors. this task may be performed by another appropriate person. Not every procedure needs to be supported by underlying work instructions.documentation. the core description of tasks in a work instruction should be limited to about four or five pages in length. In many cases. The need to document a procedure or work instruction may be determined by using criteria such as: Complexity Is the process or the activities in it sufficiently complex that that it needs to be supported by a documented procedure or work instruction? Or. the work instructions should be documented with direct input and active involvement of the process practitioners. is there need to elaborate and provide further explanation on a process documented in a procedure by creating a work instruction (e. and to ensure consistency in process execution.) Size of organization Is the process executed by several personnel and/or in multiple locations? The greater the number of personnel involved in a process or the greater the number of locations at which a process is executed. such as the PMC representative for the department.. to minimize variation. the sequence of tasks to be performed during engine assembly for a passenger vehicle)? Need for consistency Are there expectations regarding a high degree of discipline and consistency in executing a set of tasks (e. The decision to create a work instruction is made by the line manager or process owner who is responsible for the tasks. in order to secure buy-in of the practitioners and to ensure that the documentation accurately reflects practice. . the sequence of inspections to be performed before final approval for release of electronic wire assemblies)? Competence of personnel Is the competency level of the personnel executing the process such that it needs to be augmented with appropriate documentation to ensure the process is correctly executed? (For example.. In such a case. processes that are relatively straightforward and without inherent complexity (or sophistication) can be described adequately in a well-documented procedure such that competent personnel can faithfully execute them without compromising quality of process output.g. the greater the likelihood of inconsistency in process execution. when new personnel or personnel with varying levels of competence are executing a process. Work instructions should be created on an as-needed basis when a need exists to provide detailed step-by-step guidance for process execution.

It is recommended that forms and templates have brief instructions embedded in them to guide the user regarding the expected content in each section of the document. due to their very nature. and should be enforced by the personnel in charge of (or tool used for) issuing the document numbers. Once released. for documenting procedures. but retained for archival purposes).4 Document Versioning Documents. either for review or for use (after approval). a unique document number and version should be assigned to each document. The decision to create a template or form for use across departments should be made by the respective process owner in consultation with the quality assurance department (for reasons described earlier). Templates and forms A template is a skeleton for a document intended to be populated with specific information from use. while the decision to create a template or form for departmental use may be made by the respective line manager. such as procedures or work instructions. For example. An example of a document numbering convention is shown in Table 1. The numbering convention should be published in a QMS document. a document typically will undergo revisions until it is withdrawn from use (or considered obsolete. The procedure author would start with the procedure template and populate it with information for the process being documented. They help in ensuring consistency of format and content within a particular type of document. This is because the information contained in the new revision of the document is to some extent different from that contained in the previous revision. Table 1 .3.3. evolve. one must not only know what document to use. 8.3 Document Numbering In order to uniquely identify and control each QMS document. but also what revision level of that document to use. Any change or set of changes made to a document since its last release necessitates that the new revision level of the document be formally identified. 8. it is strongly recommended that a procedure template first be established.Past problems Have there been instances in the past where inconsistencies in employees have been observed in process execution? In such cases. Templates serve as guides for communicating the expected structure and content of a document. A form is used to record information. The organization should devise a document numbering convention that meets its needs. Therefore. directly in the fields provided. documenting an agreed way of executing a process can help.

Example of a Document Numbering Convention Document number format: AAA-BB-CCCC-DDDD where, AAA: Three-character identifier for department that is the document originator For example, “ENG” may denote engineering, “MKT” may denote marketing, “EXT” may denote the document is of external origin, and so on. BB: Two character identifier for document type. For example, “PR” may denote procedure, “TP” may denote template, “CH” may denote checklist, and so on. CCCC: Four-character alphanumeric identifier for project, product, or task. DDDD: Four-digit sequential number between 0001 and 9999. This sequential number uniquely identifies a specific document (irrespective of its version). 8.3.5 Document Content Following are some guidelines regarding document content (for examples, refer to sample QMS documents in the Appendices): 1. All QMS documents and records should have the same “look and feel.” Consistency in templates and forms can be ensured by following some general guidelines, such as:

The same header and footer on all templates and forms, with information such as:

a) Document title b) Document number c) Document version d) A statement to indicate the company proprietary nature of the document

Each QMS document, when appropriate, should use the same title page, containing the following:

– Standard information, (e.g., organization’s name and logo). The title page also can include a unique logo to indicate that it is a QMS document. This enables quick identification of QMS documents. – Customizable information, (e.g., document title) 2. Each QMS document or record should contain content as per the guidance contained in the associated form or template. Each QMS document must identify its purpose and

scope clearly. Correctness of the document content should be reviewed and enforced during document review meetings. 3. Deletions from the template and forms should not be allowed. If a particular section is not required, it should be marked “not applicable.” 4. Insertion of additional sections in a document created by using a standard form or template should be allowed when necessary; however, certain rules should be established to handle addition of new sections. Self Assessment Questions State whether following statement True or False. 6. All QMS documents and records should have the same “look and feel”. 7. A work instruction is a non-documented low-level description of a process. 8. A procedure is a documented high-level description of a process. 9. A quality manual is the highest-level QMS document. 10. A template is not a skeleton for a document intended to be populated with specific information from use. 8.4 QMS Documentation Process Now that all the necessary elements of a documentation management system have been described, you are ready to begin creating QMS documents. What documentation process should be followed to create, review, and approve QMS documents? This section describes a high-level documentation process that ties together some of the key elements of document management and control. Step 1: Identify suitable document author The first step is to identify a document author who possesses appropriate subject matter expertise. Typically, a management person from the function tasked to create the document selects a suitable document author. Step 2: Create draft version of the document The document author creates a draft version of the document by using the applicable template (if one is available). Step 3: Review the draft document

Once a draft version of the document has been prepared, it is circulated for review to appropriate reviewers (or functions) that are considered stakeholders in a document. The review may be in the form of an informal and/or formal review. Step 4: Rework the document as per reviewer feedback After receiving the feedback from the reviewers, the author reworks the document in accordance with comments provided by the document reviewers. Step 5: Approve and publish the document Once the document rework is complete, and it has been determined that a rearview is not required, the document is circulated for approval to the identified approvers. Once all the required approvals have been obtained, the author submits the master copy of the document along with the review record to the document controller. The document controller stores the document in the controlled repository and makes copies available for use. 8.5 Summary Documentation strategy is perhaps the most critical element of QMS documentation planning. Documentation management and control are a key element of an organization’s QMS, providing mechanisms to ensure that documentation in the organization is uniquely identifiable reviewed and approved by the appropriate authority prior to release. A template is a skeleton for a document intended to be populated with specific information from use. 8.6 Terminal Questions 1. Explain briefly different steps in documentation. 2. Define some guidelines in Documentation Strategy. 3. Explain types of QMS documents. 4. Summarize Document Content. 5. Explain QMS Documentation Process. 8.7 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1. Management 2. QMS documentation

. Top-Down approach 5.3 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .1.2 4. Refer 8.3. Page 4 3. Refer 8.2.0 2. True 9. Refer 8. Refer Pages 9.Refer 8. True 10. 10 5. False Terminal Questions 1. Size 6. True 7. QMS documents 4. False 8.

OM0006-Unit-09-Machine Life and Depreciation
Unit-09-Machine Life and Depreciation Structure: 9.1 Introduction Objectives 9.2 Functional Reliability of Facilities 9.3 Weibull Distribution Curve [Failures and its Analysis] 9.4 Life of Equipment a) Bathtub Curve and MTBF b) Breakdown Time Distribution c) Reliability and Variability of the Equipments 9.5 Critical Analysis 9.6 Maintenance Performance Ratios 9.7 Maintenance Systems 9.8 Reliability and Availability Concepts 9.9 How good is Reliability Performance? a) Root Cause Failure Analysis b) Reliability Centred Maintenance c) Failure Modes Effects Analysis & Total Productivity Maintenance 9.10 Maintenance Economics 9.11 Preventive Vs Breakdown Maintenance

9.12 Measurement of Maintenance Performance 9.13 Asset Life Cycle Management 9.14 Equipment Replacement Plans 9.15 Depreciation & Capital Expenditure based on Life Cycle 9.16 Summary 9.17 Terminal Questions 9.18 Answers to SAQ & Terminal Questions 9.1 Introduction The main function of the maintenance department is to monitor and control the condition of machineries and equipments and improve their functional reliability. The reliability theories on equipment performances have shown that there is a definite pattern of performance in their lifespan. This pattern manifests itself when different machineries are subjected to rigorous operations during the life span. The typical characteristics of the lifespan show a particular behaviour pattern of a bathtub and hence it is called as ‘bathtub curve’, which is discussed later. Objectives: After going through this unit you will be able to: · Describe what are failures in maintenance · Analyze failures through Weibull distribution curve · Discuss Reliability Performance · Construct a measure for performance 9.2 Functional Reliability of Facilities One of the most important objectives of Maintenance management is to improve functional reliability of the production facilities. The functional reliability refers to the consistency of the degree of performance of the machine, equipment or service operation. When it is said that a machine is having 97% reliability means that 97% of the machine time is utilized in performing the standard production for which it is meant for, and the remaining 3% of non performing may be

due to breakdowns or sub-standard performance. Therefore it is the duty of the plant maintenance crew to strive to maintain and increase the functional reliability of the production facilities. The objective of FMEA ( ) and reliability analysis of the plant and equipment is to ensure to excellence in performance of critical assets and achieve the business goals. The application of standard procedures and structured approach to analyse and practice effective method/s required to maintain all the operating plant assets. This process enables the maintenance managers to plan, review and optimise the maintenance operations that have direct impact on plant availability, thereby improving the overall plant performance and minimizing catastrophic failures. The functional reliability of facilities to be maintained or improved upon by the maintenance management requires the use of certain concepts, reliability methodologies, analysis, tools and techniques and measures. Some of these are listed: a) Determinate the appropriate level of maintenance services required. b) Identify specific actions based on equipment failures analysis & risk assessment. c) Prevention and reduction of potential failures by properly identifying defects and implementing corrective actions prior to failure d) To deploy sufficient staff to provide adequate repair and maintenance facilities. e) To provide for the stand-by equipment for key operations and also reasonable slacks in the production system to create some parallel path in a critical situation f) To adopt preventive Maintenance system to replace critical parts, before they fail. g) Each of the above involves costs. The cost involved should be justified on the basis of cost-benefit analysis. The cost of attaining reliability must be lower than the cost advantage available out of the production stoppages, idle machine and labour time, scrap, poor quality, loss of goodwill to keep delivery promises etc. h) Maintenance extends the useful life of assets by reducing wear and tear. i) Maintenance keeps up operational readiness of equipments for emergencies. j) Maintenance contributes a great deal to safety of manpower using the facilities. k) It prevents wastage of spares, tools and materials.

the failure rate dips as the components adjust to the system until it reaches a relatively low constant level. As per the graph. the weak components from the infant mortality period have either been repaired or replaced. This is the useful period of the machine.3 Weibull Distribution Curve [Failure & Its Analysis] For better maintenance planning and control. poor installation. It is also commonly called as ‘Bath Tub Curve’. is shown below. called the ‘Weibull distribution graph’ (after Weibull developed it). This type of breakdowns may be due physical characteristics of the . because of its shape. and or not adjusted the operating conditions adequately. there are three phases in the equipment performance namely a) Infant mortality phase b) Useful performance phase c) Ageing phase. b) Useful Performance phase: Next phase is the useful period of performance with a better reliability. 9. During this period. it is important to know the nature and occurrence of failures over a period of time for the equipment in use. The graph of the failure pattern. Once this phase is over. c) Ageing Phase: Here the rate of failure increases until the equipment succumbs and is characterized by the rapid wear and tear of more and more components until major breakdown happens. a) Infant Mortality phase: Newly installed equipment shows high rate incidence of early failures during initial phase of its life. which is called the infant mortality. The high rate of failure at infant mortality stage is primarily due to the presence of weak or substandard components or design inadequacies. This behaviour pattern reflects ‘hyper-exponential distribution’. Most equipment that survives infancy stage will continue to perform better with very few failures. The failure is random and unpredictable.l) More automation calls for sophisticated Maintenance. is primarily due to abrupt changes in stress distribution in the components. fatigue due to flaws in the molecular structure of the metals. or sheer quality deficiency in their manufacture.

Depending upon the complexity of the machine and severe aging processes because of extreme wear and tear results in an ultimate failure.e.4 Life of Equipment a) Bathtub Curve and MTBF · Weibull distribution or Bath Tub Curve. or how the machine is used. · The availability (A) = [Cumulative time of operation in the normal working condition(Tn)] / the cumulative down time (Td)] i. is a combination of three distributions: Hyper exponential. but in a complex machine. This means that each part in a particular machine will have different failure distribution. 9. In other words. anticipated life etc. · A simple machine having few moving parts may have breakdowns happenings after a large number of maintenance free run time hours. the breakdown time distribution of a complex machine will reflect a greater variability than that of a simple machine even if they have the same average maintenance free run time.materials used. This ageing failure graph shows a bell-shaped normal distribution pattern. Distribution shows the frequency of maintenance free running time with respect to total operating hours. by which the system reliability. . This ultimate may occur at ‘mean’ or ‘average’ time. These causes being external to the equipment and the probability of failing is relatively constant. · When the failures are recurrent. its statistics will help as a diagnostic tool in identifying the exponential nature of the availability and the reliability of equipment. Negative exponential and Normal exponential. can be assessed. the failure of any one part may result in the complete machine breakdown. and may be earlier or later. availability. A= [Tn] / [Tn+Td] b) Breakdown time distribution: · It is essential to know how the breakdown time is distributed in order to establish the cost implications in maintenance. · From these. · Figure below represents the degree of variability in free run time. Mean Time between Failure (MTBF) can be computed. shown above. the failure fall into a negative exponential distribution.

The variability by Curve C is typical of complicated equipment that needs fine adjustments before it starts giving trouble free service. Curve B of the complex machine.4.While curve A depicts the behaviour of a simple machine. · By reliability. before establishing reliability. Hence the reliability of the total system depends on the product reliability factors of each of the sub systems. 0. .8. c) Reliability and Variability of the Equipments · Equipment can be considered as a total system and the failure of any one of the sub system can cause failure of the entire system. curve B exhibits moderate variability while Curve C indicates greater degree of variability from average breakdown time Ta. the resultant graph is shown below. 0.9.e. the frequency distribution. converting the information into the breakdown time distributions versus the percentage of breakdowns that exceeds a given run time. · When the above reliability factors are plotted in a diagram showing the percentage of breakdowns that exceed a given runtime on the ‘y’ – axis. Curve C has the same average maintenance free runtime as the other two.6. and ‘runtimes free of breakdowns’ on the ‘x’ – axis.and 0. but the distribution shows wider variability. we mean the probability that any system gives a trouble free service.7. For example: if the total system has four sub systems having the reliability factors of 0. It can be observed that the Curve A shows lower degree of variability. Here the data can be recast in the diagram. 0. then the total product reliability is multiple of all these systems i.

7 Maintenance Systems The ad hoc unplanned emergency maintenance is not recommended. 9. to reassemble the equipment and then check and restore to its functional capacity. Fundamental differences between the strategies discussed earlier and the proactive maintenance discussed now are: 1. As in other types of probabilities.9. namely: 1. In other words.5 Critical Analysis Critical analysis of maintenance problems is essential to know as to how serious is the problem for taking quick actions. In this type of repair maintenance. may contribute to 80 to 85% of the total breakdown time. the function presupposes the previous breakdowns and actions of disassembling the equipment. Preventive Maintenance When a sudden breakdown occurs in a machine. to replace it. or even a few days as the work involved depends on the size and complexity of the equipment. here too is that the small percentage of around 15-20% defects in equipment. Repair Maintenance 2. but the two types of planned maintenance could be carried out. the nature of the fault and availability of repair staff etc.6 Maintenance Performance Ratios Some of the ratios used in measuring the effectiveness of Maintenance functions are: a) Waste Index = [Waste Quantity] / [Output Quantity] b) Productivity of Maintenance = [Product output] / [Maintenance Cost] c) Maintenance Cost index = 100 x [Maintenance cost] / [Capital Cost] d) Breakdown maintenance index = [Break down hours] / [Man hours available] e) Downtime index = 100 x [Downtime hours] / [Production hours] 9. the repair maintenance crew endeavours to locate mechanical. to locate the faulty/broken part. Focus is not only concentrated on availability but also the reliability . it is a corrective maintenance to restore the machine/parts to acceptable condition again. It is the job of the maintenance crew to identify and quickly eliminate or simplify or improve upon these defects. This activity may take a few minutes. electrical or other fault quickly and to correct them.

and manufacture the quality product at the speed required. and others. 9. S = Speed performance] Manufacturing reliability model consists of a) process reliability b) equipment reliability and c) reliability maintainability. the formula used to measure manufacturing reliability (MR) is: MR = [% T] x [% Q] x [% S] [Where. There is a push towards zero downtime or zero in-service breakdowns. Manufacturing reliability can be defined as a manufacturing system’s capability to operate to its expected operations. more complex the equipment/ the raw material/ high tech processing. a tissue processing machine may give a good reliability of +98%. For example.9 How Good Is ‘Reliability Performance’? In industrial processes. but the liquid packaging machine may be best at +75% reliability. Root Cause Failure Analysis (RCFA). 9. Q = Quality performance. but when failures occur. where as a less complex automatic lathe may be rated best at + 98%. Using the above definition. · Mean Time between Failure (MTBF) · Measure of mean time between production Loss (MTBPL) (Production losses include loss due to time. then lower is the reliability. a CNC machine can be very good at 90%.2. quality and speed) · Mean production loss (MPL) Thus the reliability index is expressed in terms of the running continuously without production losses. Use of improved maintenance tools such as Reliability Centred Maintenance (RCM). T = Time performance. Say in a paper processing. .8 Reliability and Availability Concepts Reliability and availability have become key issues. This index is the volume of quality products you measure in the production line divided by the theoretical volume of quality product you could achieve from the same line. 3. the overall reliability performance of the total process is less and is dictated by the complex machine with lesser reliability. fix the problem as fast as possible. There are many ways to measure reliability.

customer service. · While RCM is driven by preventive maintenance strategies. In this situation. Answering to seven questions on all the potential modes of failure will uncover the predictive maintenance strategy requires to mitigate the consequences of the failure. the team finds as many causes for the fault as possible and classify them into non contributing and contributing. . As maintenance is an economic decision. engineering. the team checks for the logical flows and determine what changes are to be made to prevent causes from reoccurring. hygiene. planning and organisational leadership. preventive maintenance is highly beneficial to machines whose breakdown time distributions are having low variability. b) Reliability centred Maintenance · The purpose of reliability centred maintenance (RCM) is to determine the maintenance requirements of any physical assets in its operating contexts. c) Failure Modes Effects Analysis & Total Productivity Maintenance · Total productive maintenance (TPM) and failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) are other maintenance tools used for improving the reliability through proactive maintenance. a standard preventive maintenance period can be set in such a way that the total downtime is reduced. what are its cost implications? 9. It has relevance to high volume production and can improve a company’s maintenance system and help improve the overall productivity of the processes.a) Root cause failure analysis: · The root cause failure analysis (RCFA) method brings a knowledgeable team together to investigate certain failures using evidence left behind from the fault. Through brainstorming sessions. production. quality. RCM provides a flow diagram that tells what type of maintenance to be used. The decision of maintenance policy is more of an economic decision rather than a technical one. RCFA is driven by maintenance prevention strategies. Non contributing causes are removed from the list and contributing factors are taken for analysis.11 Preventive Vs Breakdown Maintenance Certain generalizations on type of maintenance can be made to improve the reliability: a) First. When implemented together they complement each other and provide the greatest overall benefit to the facility.10 Maintenance Economics Maintenance refers to an organisation’s policy in respect of the maintenance function of a set of equipments. This practice has impact on many aspects of business. 9. Through a fault tree analysis.

etc are required to be done and evaluated. 3) direct labour value .12 Measurement of Maintenance Performance Organizations seeking excellence in their maintenance practices should constantly endeavour to measure and improve upon the performance criteria’s of maintenance. or more than the time for repair. c) In general. reduces costs and eliminate waste. it is better to perform corrective or breakdown maintenance. 9. maintenance cost breakdown.b) Second. Hence maintenance and management of assets is the core to any business. Effect on production losses if plant shutdown can be avoided 3. Analysis of data of the existing conditions with respect to down time production loss. if the maintenance time is less than the repair time and If the preventive maintenance is equal to. Some metrics that may help in evaluation are: a) Maintenance man hours as percentage of total man hours b) Shutdown. existing maintenance facilities. 2. Additional stoppage time because the maintenance crew cannot start repairing immediately after the breakdown has occurred. when the repair time is equal to maintenance time. such as 1. d) We need to take into account other effects of unscheduled down-time. There is little gain in the preventive maintenance. the percentage of machine running time continues to increase with the increase of standard preventive maintenance period. overhauls and renovations c) Production asset and loss d) Continuous reliability improvements e) Maintenance cost as a ratio of percentage of 1) gross asset value 2) sales value. Effects of scheduling preventive maintenance for non-productive days with no loss of production. nature of repair breakdowns. increases capacity. the relation of preventive maintenance time to repair time is important. Companies should recognize this fact that maintenance of its assets is to be encouraged as the process will provide advantages in enhancing quality initiative.

Asset dependability and its reliability are to be established.14 Equipment Replacement Plans The systematic equipment development program includes: 1) emergence of equipment replacement 2) classification of equipment replacement 3) assignment of responsibility for equipment replacement 4) selection of the equipment 5) follow up. Asset life cycle management system. a) Technical factors that dictates replacement 1) Wear and tear of equipment 2) Obsolescence caused by new invention .f) Safety and regulatory compliance 9. as evolved by some companies for better results consists of three phases: a) Asset Acquisition Phase: here asset may be new or replaced or change of major components changed before operating activities in this asset is firmed up. c) Disposal Phase: when the asset is no longer capable of delivering the required operational performance or cannot be maintained cost effectively to achieve the required level of dependability.13 Asset Life Cycle Management In high tech production. 9. b) Maintenance phase: operating environment for each asset is defined and performance goals at the lowest cost are firmed up. companies are required to produce more products of higher quality from fewer resources and hence maintaining higher reliability of assets has been a challenging task for the management. then the asset is disposed off as it has reached the end of its lifecycle. Factors that are considered while taking decision to replace machine and equipment can be classified as a) Technical factors b) Cost factors.

While the annual operating costs include wages to operator. The main ingredients of the annual cost are depreciation and interest charges. power consumption. having a short life. 2) By Using Barnes Formula: this formula is used for equipment. rate of output. consumes high power etc 4) Automation requirement for processes 5) To eliminate slack time through line balancing 6) Reduced safety 7) Reliability of performance b) Cost Factors: 1) High repair cost 2) Lesser place requirement 3) Probable economic life of the new machine 4) Consumption of less power 5) Reduction in labour cost because high productive machines purchased 6) Flexibility requirement not in the existing equipment Methods used for replacement after analysis: The replacement analysis becomes more complex due to many technical factors and qualitative considerations. Here the replacement is not advocated unless savings due to the use of new equipment. Hence the time for replacement depends on the condition and characteristics of the equipment. Some important methods or replacement of old and unused machineries are 1) minimum annual cost method 2) by using Barnes formula 3) MAPI (Machinery and allied institute) method. accuracy. speed of operations. material losses etc. old or new. X = (No. of years the equipment will pay for itself) = [A+B] / [(E-F) DG + H – C] . 1) Minimum annual cost method: here the decision to replace the machine (unwanted or life is completed) is based on the operating and capital costs.3) Unsuitability of equipment due to size of the work. will pay not only for equipment but also for any unamortized value for next few years. repair and maintenance costs.

C = interest charge of new equipment. it has the business cost of Rs. Capital expenditure is not recorded in the Profit and Loss account. 9. Depreciation tries to apply the accruals by matching that Rs. the value of the asset in the balance sheet should be reduced by each year’s charge. if an asset is purchased for Rs. · An annual depreciation charge is shown as an expense in the Profit and Loss account. E = labour cost per unit in old equipment. kept in use for 8 years. Additionally. Straight Line method 1) A fixed percentage on cost each year.9000 with the income that asset has generated. The two most commonly used methods are straight line method and reducing balance method. · Depreciation should be calculated in a way which most closely reflecting the manner in which the asset is being used up. It emphasizes on immediate return.10000. D = number of units product per day by new equipment. whilst revenue expenditure is that spent on day to day business expenses. B = depreciated value of the old equipment. and then sold for Rs.1000. F = estimated labour cost per unit with new equipment.15 Depreciation & Capital Expenditure based on Life Cycle · This requirement falls into the following groups: a) Calculation of depreciation b) Calculation of profit/loss on disposal c) Accounting for depreciation and disposals Calculation of Depreciation · Capital expenditure is that spent on purchase or improves on fixed assets. but shown in the Balance Sheet · Depreciation is an attempt to spread the cost of an asset over its useful economic life.9000. G = estimated working days per year for new equipment and H = savings or losses per year in fixed charges other than interest] 3) MAPI method: here the analysis is divided into 35 heads & three main groups. MAPI method concentrates on the comparison of the rate of return of the proposed new project and similar returns when the proposed project is not implemented within next year. For example. 2) The same monetary amount each year .[where A = cost of new equipment.

Calculate the depreciation to be charged for each of the first 3 years of the machine’s life.e. . It is expected that this machine will be used for 10 years. This may reveal that two much or too little depreciation has been provided over the asset’s life. at the end of which it will be sold for Rs.30000 – Rs. 2850) · So. ] Reducing balance method (the charge for depreciation reduces each year) a) Year 1 Rs.1500) / 10 = Rs. using: (i) The straight line method (ii) The reducing balance method at 20% pa Solution · Under the straight line method.6000) x 20% =Rs. the annual charge for every year of the machine’s life is Rs.Reducing Balance method 1) A fixed percentage on net book value each year 2) A reducing monetary amount each year Example: 1 a) Straight line method A machine is purchased for Rs. i. i.2850 / Rs. · [Note that the policy could have been expressed as “straight line at %” or “Depreciation at % pa on cost” – here the percentage is calculated as = Rs.30000. On disposal.4800) x 20% =Rs. the actual disposal proceeds will show the true net cost of the asset.30000 x 100.e. This over or under provision of depreciation is shown in the Profit and Loss a/c as a profit or loss on the disposal of fixed assets. the net cost is simply divided by the expected life.2850.30000 x 20%= Rs.1500.6000 – Rs. [Note that the expected residual value is ignored & it will have been incorporated into the choice of 20% as an appropriate rate] b) Calculation of Profit/Loss The depreciation charged each year is based on estimates of useful life and residual value.30000 – Rs.3840 and so on.30000 – Rs.4800 c) Year 3 (Rs. (Rs. 6000 b) Year 2 (Rs.

The main function of the maintenance department is to monitor and control the condition of machineries and equipments and improve their ____________________. Calculate the profit or loss arising on this disposal.Example: 2 An asset is purchased on 1 January 2006 for Rs. the disposal occurred exactly 3 years after the acquisition. and is depreciated using the reducing balance method at 20% pa.03-2008 (20%)= 6400 · Net book value at 31. which necessitates decision regarding depreciation (may be proportionate) · A popular depreciation policy would be: A full year’s charge in the year of acquisition but none in the year of disposal Self Assessment Questions Fill up the blanks with appropriate words: 1.40000. . Solution · Sales proceeds must be compared to the net book value on the date of disposal. acquisition or disposal may occur part way through the accounting year. The functional reliability refers to the ____________________ of the machine.2520 [sale price of Rs. In practice. The asset is sold on 1 January 2009 for Rs. equipment or service operation. 2520] c) Accounting for depreciation and disposals · In the above example.03-2009 (20%) =5120 · Net book value at 31. · Original cost 40000 · Depreciation y/e 31. there is a profit on disposal of price of Rs.03.23000.2007 =32000 · Depreciation y/e 31.03-2008 =25600 · Depreciation y/e 31.03. 2.03-2009 =20480 · Thus.2007 (20%) =8000 · Net book value at 31. 23000 – 20480 (book value) = Rs.

Newly installed equipment shows high rate incidence of early failures during initial phase of its life. and manufacture the quality product at the speed required. Most equipment that survives infancy stage will continue to perform better with very few failures. here too is that the small percentage of around 15-20% defects in equipment. called the ‘Weibull distribution graph’ (after Weibull developed it). Hence the reliability of the total system depends on the _________________ of each of the sub systems. it is important to know the nature and occurrence of failures over a period of time for the equipment in use. the failure of any one part may result in the ____________________ . The objective of FMEA ( ) and reliability analysis of the plant and equipment is to ensure to ____________________ of critical assets and achieve the business goals. This is the useful period of the machine. . A simple machine having few moving parts may have breakdowns happenings after a large number of maintenance free run time hours. Reliability and availability have become key issues. but in a complex machine. It is also commonly called as ____________________. The graph of the failure pattern. may contribute to of the ____________ total breakdown time 10.. 11. Manufacturing reliability can be defined as a manufacturing system’s ____________. because of its shape. _________________ of maintenance problems is essential to know as to how serious is the problem for taking quick actions. 9. As in other types of probabilities. 8.3. the rate of failure increases until the equipment succumbs and is characterized by the rapid wear and tear of more and more components until major breakdown happens. The failure of any one of the sub system can cause failure of the __________________. For better maintenance planning and control. 5. As per the graph. In the performance phase is the ______________ period of performance with a better reliability. The formula used to measure manufacturing reliability (MR) is: MR = ………………………. 7. there are three phases in the equipment performance namely a) Infant mortality phase b) Useful performance phase c) _____________________ 6. is shown below. 4. In the ____________ . which is called the______________.

Manufacturing reliability can be defined as a manufacturing system’s capability to operate to its expected operations. can be assessed. Q = Quality performance. as evolved by some companies for better results consists of three phases: a) Asset Acquisition Phase: b) Maintenance phase: c) ____________________ 14. Some important methods or replacement of old and unused machineries are 1) minimum annual cost method 2) by using ____________________ 3) ____________________ method. . analysis. by which the system reliability.[Where. tools and techniques and measures. Asset life cycle management system. The functional reliability refers to the consistency of the degree of performance of the machine. S = Speed performance ] 12. Reliability and availability have become key issues. T = Time performance. The objective of FMEA ( ) and reliability analysis of the plant and equipment is to ensure to excellence in performance of critical assets and achieve the business goals. Mean Time between Failure (MTBF) can be computed. anticipated life etc. The replacement analysis becomes more complex due to many technical factors and the qualitative consideration. 9. Therefore it is the duty of the plant maintenance crew to strive to maintain and increase the functional reliability of the production facilities. 13. availability. The reliability theories on equipment have shown that there is a definite performance pattern their lifespan. and manufacture the quality product at the speed required. reliability methodologies.16 Summary The main function of the maintenance department is to monitor and control the condition of machineries and improve their functional reliability. The functional reliability of facilities to be maintained or improved upon by the maintenance management requires the use of certain concepts. RCM provides a flow diagram that tells what type of maintenance to be used. This pattern manifests itself due to rigorous operations during the life span. equipment or service operation. The purpose of reliability centred maintenance (RCM) is to determine the __________________ in its operating contexts.

There are many ways to measure reliability. Hence the reliability of the total system depends on the product reliability factors of each of the sub systems. The purpose of reliability centred maintenance (RCM) is to determine the maintenance requirements of any physical assets in its operating contexts. The graph of the failure pattern. it is important to know the nature and occurrence of failures over a period of time for the equipment in use. Equipment can be considered as a total system and the failure of any one of the sub system can cause failure of the entire system. increases capacity. Total productive maintenance (TPM) and failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) are other maintenance tools used for improving the reliability through proactive maintenance. there must be equipment replacement plan after considering the cost impact and other technical factors. · Mean Time between Failure (MTBF) · Mean time between production Loss (MTBPL) · Mean production loss (MPL) Companies should recognize this fact that maintenance of its assets is to be encouraged as the process will provide advantages in enhancing quality initiative. shows three phases in the equipment performance namely · Infant mortality phase · Useful performance phase · Ageing phase. Asset life cycle management system. because of its shape. called the ‘Weibull distribution graph’ and known as ‘Bath Tub Curve’. However the methodology to be used depends on the best alternative within the organizations objectives. reduces costs and eliminate waste. as evolved by some companies for better results consists of three phases: a) Asset Acquisition Phase b) Maintenance phase c) Disposal Phase Based on the life cycle analysis. .For better maintenance planning and control.

Functional reliability 2. Consistency of the degree of performance 3. Explain few of them? 7) What are the factors considered in measurement of maintenance measurements? How they are evaluated? Briefly explain the three phases of asset life cycle management. Why it also called as bathtub curve? What are the three phases in the life span of equipment? 4) Explain briefly how the life of the equipment is depicted by the variability and availability factors in a) Bathtub Curve and MTBF. Excellence in performance 4. b) Breakdown time distribution: and c) Reliability and Variability of the Equipments 5) What are maintenance performance index? How they help in measuring maintenance efforts? 6) There are many ways of measuring reliability and availability.17 Terminal Questions 1) Define functional reliability? 2) What are the maintenance management concepts. How this helps in replacement plans? 9. 9) What are the technical and cost factors to be considered while planning replacement of old machineries? 10) Explain briefly the depreciation methods used in capital expenditure on plant and machineries.18 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1.Capital expenditure based on the life cycle and the depreciation either by straight line or reducing method is used for a comprehensive decision by the management. 9. methodology used for maintaining the functional reliability? 3) Explain briefly the ‘Weibull distribution curve. Ageing phase . Bath Tub Curve 5.

Refer 9.6 6. = [% T] x [%Q] x [%S] 12. Capability to operate to its expected operations 11. Entire system. Disposal Phase: 14. Refer 9.12 8. . Critical analysis.2 3. 8. Useful. Complete machine breakdown.14 10. Refer 9.13 9. Product reliability factors 9. Refer 9.15 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Refer 9.6. 80 to 85% 10. Refer 9. Maintenance requirements of any physical assets 13. Refer 9. Refer 9.2 2. MAPI Terminal Questions 1. Barnes formula. Ageing phase 7. Refer 9.8 7.4 5. Infant mortality. Refer 9.3 4.

1 Introduction Objectives 10.3 Goals 10.7 Other Related issues with TPM 10.12 Eight pillars of TPM Autonomous maintenance Kobetsu Kaizen Planned Maintenance Quality Maintenance . 10.4 Objectives of TPM 10.10 Zero Loss Concepts 10.8 Overall Effectiveness of Equipment [basis of TPM] 10.9 Types of Losses.OM0006-Unit-10-Total Productivity Maintenance Unit-10-Total Productivity Maintenance Structure: 10.11 Implementation of TPM & Steps in TPM program Steps in TPM program 10.6 Evolution of Maintenance Methods 10.2 Total Productivity Maintenance 10.5 TPM and its Features 10.

Because JIT [Just-inTime] production lines operate very close to capacity in every process.18 Answers 10. a more sophisticated well managed preventive – maintenance type programs such as TPM or Reliability centred maintenance (RCM) has warranted.1 Introduction Manufacturers invest huge capital on productive machines and equipments for production of the desired products. to keep a machine. This will increase the life of the machines and they perform better during their entire life span. adjusting.Development Management Education & Training Safety. Environment TPM in offices 10. machine failures cannot be tolerated. Earlier the maintenance management was viewed as a function with a lesser status compared to manufacturing and its role was restricted to one of carrying out breakdown repair when a machine breaks down. cleaning. Equipment maintenance is basic to competitive manufacturing. repairing. faster set ups and fewer adjustments. High tech preventive maintenance routines are performed by experts at frequent intervals and machines are continually upgraded and modified for closer tolerances.17 Terminal Questions 10. But with the enlarged scope of maintenance functions when very high cost state of art machineries and equipments are used for higher productivity. Maintenance covers all those functions such as monitoring. thus leading to breakdowns and production losses. inspecting. Health. material handling equipment and other transport vehicles in proper working conditions. but they often neglect the very important function of complete maintenance. The Japanese have virtually eliminated machine breakdowns by applying Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) techniques to their .15 Role of TPM in WC-production 10.16 Summary 10. etc.14 Benefits of TPM 10.13 Relevance of TPM to TQM framework 10. a facility.

minimising costs and continuously improving processes for manufacturing. Here the new quality approach of “prevention at source” was translated to the maintenance environment through the concept of TPM. maximising capacity.2 Total Productive Maintenance [TPM] TPM had its genesis in the Japanese car industry in 1970’s. Machines are cleaned and lubricated frequently by the operators who run those machines. TPM is defined as the means to achieve high level of productivity. 10. to achieve total customer satisfaction. TPM is a well defined and organised maintenance program which places a high value on team work.machines. 10. efficiency and effectiveness with zero loss concepts through total participation of all employees with self managing abilities in practices. Reliability and TPM principles call for avoiding crisis. It first evolved in Nippon Denso a major supplier of the Toyota car company. consensus building and continuous improvement. relying on team work.3 Goals · Prevention of equipment deterioration · Maintain the equipment in optimal condition · Establishing basic equipment conditions · Operator is competent to operate machine/ equipment · Elimination of quality defects · Elimination of equipment failure · Elimination of cost losses . Objectives: After studying this unit you will be able to: · Outline the features of TPM · Explain the types of losses related to maintenance · List and explain the steps involved in TPM · Comment on the methods of TPM propounded by experts on Quality.

· Boosting morale of employees. ensuring total effectiveness of the plant for higher quality and lesser downtime. · Increase plant efficiency. reduction in equipment life cycle cost. losses. waste and accident-free operations] in all the resources over the entire life cycle of a production system through team work and by overlapping small group activities. defect. · Achieve manufacturing excellence.4 Objectives of TPM The principle objectives of TPM are: · Eliminate all breakdowns of machines and equipment to ensure trouble free continuous production. means elimination of micro operational issues · Achieve zero loss Concept – [zero breakdown. cost. · To achieve higher reliability/flexibility of equipment and reduce cost through eliminating wastages. 10. · Reduction in manufacturing costs. but spreads across as a company-wide culture. .5 TPM-Its Features TPM no longer confines to the maintenance department. · Restoring equipment to a like-new condition · Improve maintenance efficiency and effectiveness · On job training of the labour to improve their job skills · To have a sound equipment maintenance management · Effective use of preventive and predictive maintenance technology · Achieve TPM with active participation & involvement in all levels · “Value Added” activity that the equipment is contributing to your products. · Maximise asset and equipment effectiveness through OEE [overall equipment effectiveness] and OPE. · Producing products for customer satisfaction in quality.10. delivery and services.

blockages etc. · Downtime for setups and adjustments. including housekeeping. to achieve total customer satisfaction There are six types of losses found in a manufacturing firm: · Downtime due to equipment failure.6 Evolution of Maintenance Methods What are the other maintenance methods that are universally practiced by industries. organizing. · Speed losses due to idling and minor stoppages caused by abnormal operations of censors.TPM is a method designed to eliminate the losses caused by break-down of machines and equipments by identifying and attacking all causes of its breakdowns and system down time due to such breakdowns. efficiency. TPM is one of the most valuable strategies for those who want to be competitive & meet the World Class Competition 10. monitoring and controlling practices through a unique ‘8-Pillars Method’. TPM paves way for an excellent planning. leading to another innovative & modern practice under company-wide maintenance practice of TPM? How this evolution has happened and other related issues are briefly given below a) Breakdown Maintenance / Emergency / Corrective Maintenance: Break – down maintenance or emergency maintenance is a remedial or corrective maintenance practice that is undertaken when equipment fails and require repair on an . · Periodic pre-failure replacement or overhauls and · Intolerance for breakdowns or unsafe conditions. · Defect losses due to reduced yields in processing TPM includes three main elements: · Regular preventive maintenance. TPM is a means to achieve high level of productivity. effectiveness with zero loss concept. through total participation of all employees with self-managing abilities in practice. · Speed losses due to discrepancies between designed and actual speeds · Defect losses due to process defects that cause scrap & quality problems.

the preventive maintenance will be more expensive and incidental if it is other way. . Obviously this is not an ideal way of keeping quiet until that breakdown happens.emergency or priority basis to set it right. Preventive maintenance policies and techniques must emphasize on all employees to accept the responsibility for the maintenance and perform all the activities to their capability. This reduces the frequency of machinery break downs and consequent loss of production Break down of a machine in production line can be costly if it means shutting down the entire plant. Well trained maintenance crew. especially when mass production or continuous production is planned. A high failure rate known as the infant mortality exists during the initial working of the machine and then settles in. A good maintenance facility should have the following features: 1. A study is made on each machine on the MTBF (mean time between failures) distribution. to uncover potential problems and to make repairs. 10. When the distributions curve exhibits a narrow standard deviation. maintenance costs and resultant delay in supply of products to customers as promised. the productive maintenance tries to identify signs of equipment deterioration or imminent failure and to take corrective action before it fails.7 Other Related Issues a) Improve Repair Capabilities: For reliability and a sound preventive maintenance practices. Failure of equipment or machineries may occur at different phases. Here. that results in loss of production due to idling of machinery and labour and reduces system capacity. servicing and replace parts to ensure that the system does not fail during normal operation. This idling will increase the production cost. This promotes employee empowerment and system performance c) Productive maintenance or Predictive maintenance – This is an extended preventive maintenance method that tries to reduce the chances of breakdowns by using modern monitoring and analysis techniques such as computer aided monitoring and forecasting and diagnose the condition of the equipment during operation. There exists a relationship between the maintenance costs and the cost of failures with which the level of maintenance Vis-a-Vis frequency of maintenance could be firmed up. firms should build up a level of repair capability in order to get the system back in operation much faster. b) Preventive maintenance Preventive maintenance is the activity that is planned and programmed on a regular basis to inspect the system.

Ability to identify the cause of break downs 6. accidents to operators. Ability and authority to do material planning.2. Hence by reducing equipment mal functions and break downs. 3. issues are closely related with maintenance and maintainability. Ability to design ways to extend MTBF b) Maintenance responsibilities a) Traditional: Maintenance is a functional support activity & employees rely on specialists for custodial services. they can improve operator safety and reduce injuries from equipment mal functions. Since the reliability is concerned with the elapsed time between failures of a product. schedule disruptions etc. Adequate resources. It is the probability that a product will operate adequately for a given period in its intended application. Ability to establish a repair plan and priorities. The ability of the equipment for operation is determined by mean time between failure (MTBF) and mean time to repair (MTTR) that is: Availability = MTBF / [MTBF + MTTR] d) Equipment problems and competitiveness: Equipment problems and break downs have a direct affect on production costs. product quality and production schedules. preventive and repair maintenance. Malfunctioning of machines cause deterioration and results in inefficiency. 4. 5. Specialists work with cross-functional teams & backup responsibility to handle difficult or unusual problems. Reliability is a time based concept of quality. safety hazard. idling of both machines and the workers using those machines for their work. Japanese automobile manufacturers have been highly successful in the US market and could gain a high market share. Further these machines may have possible immediate effects such as variability of output. This will ultimately shorten the life of machines and cause high repair costs. b) Employee ownership TPM: Front-line associates have first responsibility for maintenance in their work places. e) Role of operators in TPM . c) Reliability and Maintainability – an overview: Quality is multi – dimensional but reliability is a key component of quality. because of perceive product quality and the exceptional reliability. At the same time. firms can reduce inventories. Reliability considers the performance of a product over time.

Implement periodical maintenance system that is planned on the data collected from the machine. D) Collect data to track equipment performance and document all the data recorded along with production control chart and work order systems. manufacturer and also the operators 8. Thorough data analysis. Ensure maintenance is treating the root cause of the problem and not symptoms 7. 3. 10. Maintain work order system to provide data for calculation of MTBF (mean time before failure) and MTTR (mean time to repair) 6. To identify design weaknesses and improve equipment for error free operations 3. B) Perform change over and setup the complete machine. obtain information before such problems are attacked.1. Restores deteriorated equipment through improvements / related maintenance 2. . Improve technical maintenance skills of all maintenance personnel through systematic training and work assessments 4. thus developing the capability to operate similar equipment / machines 10. checking functions of the basic machine AND safety devices. Perform basic equipment maintenance by cleaning of machines. Diagnose and perform repairs for the problems identified. replacement of filters lubrication of aggregates. periodic diagnostic tests apart from performing appropriate maintenance system to avoid predicted equipment failure 5. Basic skill levels required by operators include: A) Monitoring and maintaining critical process parameters. Understand the manufacturing process to successfully achieve the above. In case the problem is an unknown entity.1 Objectives of OEE: a) It helps see a problem so that it can be fixed. Data collected must be complete for proper implementation.8. f) Role of maintenance department in TPM process: 1. 2.8 Overall Equipment Effectiveness [OEE]-Key Indicator of TPM · OEE is a way of measuring how the six major losses shown below are affecting the equipment or in other words a way of measuring the amount of “Value added” activity that the equipment is contributing to the product. C) Reduction of minor stoppages and adjustments on aggregates as well as the complete machine.

out of which 423 numbers were rejected. · Planned production time 480 – 15 -15-30 = 420 min Operating time = planned production time – downtime = 420 -47 = 373 min · Good quality parts produced = total produced – rejection = 19271 – 423 = 18848 · Availability = A = operating time / planned production time = 373 / 420 = 0. Number of parts produced – 19271.b) It helps visualize ‘Six big losses’ with their targets for meeting OEE.88 . Downtime of machines – 47 min. 1) Planned and unplanned downtimes. Lunch break – one lunch break of 30 min.8. Overall Equipment Efficiency [OEE] = [Availability x Performance Efficiency x Quality yield] 10. Ideal rate of production – 60 parts per min.2 OEE example: A manufacturer working for 8 hours shift with the production data and scheduled breaks is as follows: Shift length = 8 hours. [Target=minimize] 2) Set up down time[Target=zero] 3) Reduced speed of the machines [Target=minimize] 4) Minor unrecognized stoppages [Target=zero] 5) Reject and rework [target=zero] 6) Start up down time and yield from the system [Target= minimize] Availability [(Time available for production – Downtime)] / [Time available for production] Performance Efficiency = [Actual Production or Capacity)] / [Ideal Production or Capacity] Quality Yield [Total Parts Produced-Quantity out of specifications] / Total Quantity produced. Short breaks – 2 short breaks of 15 min each.

11) waiting for instructions. 74. c) Quality loss: 7) process errors 8 rework/scrap Category 2: Manpower losses: 9) cleaning and checking.8 % 10.e. 5) minor stopping /idling. 12) waiting for quality confirmation.888 * 0. 2) set up/adjustment time.10 Zero-Loss Concept: TPM is based on the elimination of the above said 16 losses along with other five zero loss concepts depicted below: .861 · Quality= (total parts produced – rejection) / total parts produced) = 18848 / 19271 = 0.978 = 0. 13) any management losses.748 i.861 * 0. 6) reducing the capacity.· Performance = P = parts produced / (ideal production * operating time) = 19271 / (60 * 373 )= 0. 3) planned shutdown downtime] b) Performance losses: 4) start up losses. Category 3: Material losses: 14) material yield 15) energy losses 16) consumable material losses 10.9 Types of Losses (16) There are 16 types of losses that can be categorized into three namely: Category 1: a) Equipment losses: includes down time losses due to 1) machine failure/breakdown.978 · OEE Composite = Availability * performance * quality = 0. 10) waiting for materials.

wide is a major project that requires support from top management. 10. Implementation in each of the identified areas is managed directly by a target area committee with assistance from a TPM program team. Formation of committees and sub committees for a) promotion and steering of TPM. Reaching Excellence in TPM program by Promotion. The TPM program team oversees initial planning and coordination of all TPM efforts though ultimately this responsibility is transferred to the maintenance department.1 Steps in TPM program 1. c) Kaizen. Company commitment 3. e) Quality maintenance. b) Jishu Hozen.12 Eight Pillars of TPM . This stresses the need to shift focus from equipment to the processes within which it is used. h) Safety and environment committee 4. The main focus on equipment maintenance is for improvement of the overall production system.11.10. monitoring and reviewing TPM results and raising levels and revising standards 10. Selection of pilot lines 5. Plant audit and initial assessment 2. f) Office TPM. 6. even for new areas of operations. Focus on 8 pillars. d) Planned maintenance. g) Education and training.11 Implementation of TPM Implementing TPM company.

Reduce oil consumption 2. Eliminate the defect at source through active employee participation 4.1 Pillar-1: Autonomous Maintenance: (Jishu – Hozen) Autonomous maintenance is a phrase coined by the Japanese institute of plant maintenance (JIPM) to describe the shift towards the machine operators maintaining their own machine / equipment JH Policy: 1.In the above house.12. Uninterrupted operation of equipment 2. Flexibility with operators to operate and maintain other equipments 3. 10. 8 Pillars supports a strong structure of TPM for achieving higher productivity is depicted in the following picture. Reduce process time 3. Step wise implementation of JH activities JH Targets: 1. Increase the use of JH Objectives of JH: .

broken / worn out belt. Stabilise. quick response. team leaders. Cleaning of all the surroundings and using Japanese 5S principles for orderly keeping the parts etc. Prevent degradation related failures 3. should be followed to achieve effective results . Increase access and ease of inspection and maintenance 4. 4. 7.1. In case modification is required for easy inspection / elimination of debris / contamination etc a new aggregate covers may be created 3. 6. Operators should identify and tag the sources of defects / waste that arisen out of the machine operations. Improve predictability through data analysis and communication Steps to Implement JH: 1. electrical. electronic. Repair sources of defect (outside of machines). Examples of such defects are: Crack in the housing leakages. switch not operating properly etc. Other steps considering the aspects like a) Cooperation from all production related department. Improve skill levels and personal growth throughout the company 5. set rules to be followed. control or prevent deterioration of production equipment 2. pneumatic. Here the operator executes routine verification and adjustments 5. 2. first line supervisor should be trained to understand the basic of the equipment and the functions and the systems working in the machines namely Hydraulic. lubrication and mechanical should be clearly understood by all in the production line for quick redressing. Similarly the orderliness of tool availability and display of visual boards can be maintained. JH audit. Develop standards and data collection: Create standards for clean up and checking of machines. Initial cleanup It must be closely aligned with 7S of the company and there must be commitment of both the staff and the management for the house keeping. Standards for monitoring key process parameters: To develop methods and standards for routine verification of key process parameters / standards operating conditions. establish standards for data collection based on the production control chart and develop standards for easy reference. Train operators on function and troubleshooting: Operators. Provide spare parts and tools: Here all the spare parts should be leveraged at the point of use after considering the inventory levels. replace cracked parts or worn out seals etc and repair and setup the machine. Here operator has to apply and ask for 5 why’s.

optimize machine set ups. Six steps followed by planned maintenance are: . Overall Online efficiency (OOE) and Overall Plant efficiency (OPE) 3) Decrease Costs: through controls in inventory and WIP 4) Reduction in customer complaints: reduce total downtime and ensure quick deliver to customers 5) Zero accidents: total safety and all actions to save money. optimize spare parts location etc. Here it is aimed at eliminating all 16 losses in the workplace. 4) Act as required to proceed further to improve upon the system/process. 2) Increase in productivity by improving Overall Equipment efficiency (OEE). Step 3: Implementation action plan to sustain and develop further possible improvements. 4) improve reliability and maintainability of machines. 3) reduce spare parts inventory. Verify the progress made in TPM efforts in planned versus emergency work. Quick change time reduction. There are three steps that aim at quick but short term process improvements supported by long term organizational change. · Planned maintenance policy includes a) achieve and sustain availability of machines. 2) Do the necessary change.12.3 Pillar: 3: Planned Maintenance [Pm] For Zero Loss · Planned maintenance is a systematic management by maintenance department. All out JH: Repeat the cycle 1 – 6 above of the process of managing and monitoring the TPM.8. Zero accidents and Zero defects. 3) Check whether successful or not.2 Pillar-2. 10. which uses maintenance work cycle activities of preventive/predictive/corrective or breakdown maintenance techniques. Here an emphasis is on transferring knowledge and creating self sufficient team for results. 10. MTTR.Kobetsu Kaizen (Focussed Improvements) 1) PDCA Cycle: Kaizen: here maintenance team should 1) Plan each step. MTBF. These steps are: Step 1: Quick Win Shop floor projects: this is a team based approach targeting specific problem areas and realizing immediate benefits Step 2: Critical analysis: analyze what else needs to be changed to make it fixed and create action plans.12. It is aimed at having trouble free machines and equipment producing defect free products for total customer satisfaction. 2) optimise maintenance costs.

are analysed. Benefits from Planned Maintenance 1) Reduction in downtime due to breakdowns. 3) Reduction in spare parts consumption 4) Reduction in oil and power consumption 5) Reduction in repair cost 6) Reduction in number of inspection points etc 10.12. root cause is found and improvement action on the process/design are ensured. Results achieved through this pillar are: 1) Improved customer satisfaction and reduction in future complaints 2) Reduction in defects and improved quality 3) Reduction in inspection time 10.5 Pillar-5-Development Management This refers to the learning process that happens in TPM implementation and during different types of maintenance practices. Focus is on eliminating non-conformances in a systematic manner.1) Equipment evaluation and recording of present status 2) Restore deterioration and improve on weak links 3) Builds information management systems 4) Prepare time based information and parts and map out a plan 5) Prepare predictive system plan by introducing diagnostic techniques 6) Evaluation of planned maintenance. b) policy of . Here also aim is at defect free product to satisfy the customer. Here the customer end defects are known through customer complaints and in-house defects known through the quality control personnel.4 Pillar-4-Quality Maintenance for Zero Defects This is a process for controlling the condition of equipment and its components that affect variability in product quality.12. 2) Improvement in MTBF and MTTR. when a) ease of manufacture.

12. Some examples of unsafe acts by employees are 1) use of worn out tools. Point by point safety audit. Poka-Yoke etc will all result in getting the following benefits: 1) Reduction in accident 2) Reduction in noise 3) Create excellent house-keeping & a good looking workshop through 5S action 4) Reduction in downtime because of breakdowns etc 5) Saving in energy consumption 6) Reduction in industrial waste . This systematic education and training will result in: 1) Reduction in downtime.6 Pillar-6-Trining & Education [Flow Of Controls] Through training and education provides the skill and knowledge apart from the experience that enables operators. engineers and managers are in a position to fulfil the expanded role to be played in successful implementation of TPM. goggles etc. whose morale is high and who are eager to work and perform the required functions effectively and independently. d) manufacturing.7 Pillar-7: Safety. Here the focus is on improvement of the knowledge. operating machines without proper training etc. safety training and monitoring the improvements through Kaizen. c) design. skilled workers. 10.12. The methodology adopted is for understanding of the present machine structure. Health & Environment [Zero Accidents] Here the focus is to create a safe work place and a surrounding areas that is not detrimental to process or procedures. safety guards. unsafe working without wearing gloves. and design validation 10. breakdowns attributed to lack of knowledge and skills 2) Reduction in further downtime after gaining the knowledge and skills 3) Reductions achieved after training on the number of defects. health and hazards. too hot areas. noise generations and any such unsafe potential areas must be identified and action taken to make them safe. a) planning b) implementation. providing safe environment place a vital role. incorporate planned maintenance sheets to eliminate defects. skills and techniques through a training environment. Unsafe conditions like electrical points. e) initial phase production. It is aimed to have multi skilled & revitalized employees. reworks etc. unsafe storage/stacking. Development of management involves four phases.development of new technologies. The continuous training is on safe working. c) determination of detailed specifications etc are answered.

In TPM the barrier between maintenance & production personnel is removed. Further. 10. It identifies and eliminates losses. cost of inventory carrying. stores. 4) reduction in inventory carrying costs.10. payroll. PQCDS&M principles in Office TPM: a) P: production output loss due to want of materials. 6) reduction in customer complaints. marketing and sales outlets with high inventories. 7) reduced man power 8 clean and pleasant work environment and 10) reduction in equipment due to emergency despatches/purchases. Therefore the Office TPM addresses the seven major losses namely: 1) processing loss 2) communication loss 3) idle loss 4) set up loss 5) accuracy loss 6) non-value added loss 7) cost loss including areas as procurement. Benefits accrued because of office TPM are 1) Better utilization of work areas. in information etc e) S: safety in material handling. to follow all the principles and procedures laid out in ‘Seven Pillars of TPM’ and achieve the desired overall improvements for the benefit of the organization. invoices. payment to suppliers. It is followed to improve productivity and efficiency in the office administration.12. the following strengthen the view that TPM is relevant to TQM: . customer returns etc c) C: buying cost. 2) reduction in repetitive works. other safety practices f) M: number of kaizen activities in office areas with improvements not visible TPM is a long range living program. 3) reduction in administration costs.8 Pilar-8-Office Tpm [Raise Levels & Select Other Areas] Office TPM includes analysing processes and procedures towards increased office automation. etc d) D” logistic losses due to delay in support function. accounting. 5) reduction in n umber of files. Here the whole organization should focus. manpower etc b) Q: mistakes in cheques. Since achieving total productivity is one of the major objectives of TQM.13 Relevance of TPM to TQM Framework Good maintenance is fundamental to a productive manufacturing system. cost of logistics. as a strategy. bills. TPM aims at keeping the current plant and equipment at its highest productive level through cooperation of all. we can infer that total productive maintenance is an extension of TQM philosophy to the maintenance function.

defects. · TPM is continuous improvement activity. morale and pollution control by involving everyone in the process. operators develop a sense of ownership for the machines and give special attention to upkeep the machines for sound. TPM aims at the introduction of new and creative ideas which will optimise quality standards and reduce waste and costs to the organisation concerned. there is a direct link between TPM and TQM and also the relevance of a comprehensive maintenance policy is proved for successful TQM implementation. In view of the above. 3) TPM also contributes to improvements in safety. TPM is a value adding activity. since it aims at cost reduction and quality improvements for internal requirements and for customer satisfaction. tidy and well organised work area will result in better performance Maintenance is the key to achieve zero loss. 10. The planning. repairs. smell etc spot problems before they develop. by using the principles of 5S.· TQM is aimed at satisfying customer requirements. shortened equipment life and inventory. This developed by JIPM (Japanese Institution of Plant Maintenance) during late 1960’s combines the American practice of PM with Japanese concept of Total Quality Control [TQC] and Total employee involvement [TEI] 1) TPM aims for greater manufacturing competitiveness through improved effectiveness of machines and equipments. A comprehensive TPM program aspires to implement process capability and its maintenance. 4) Benefits can be categorized into two types namely: 1) Direct and 2) Indirect a. vibration. zero accidents and zero defects. Direct benefits: . Here too the operators take the responsibility of cleaning their machines and work areas. 2) TPM increases production capacity. Process capacity cannot be made available at the cost of quality.14 Benefits of TPM An added benefit is that with the added responsibility of all maintenance activities. Housekeeping is another area in JIT production system. Clean. scheduling and control of operations depend to a large extent on process capacity and process capability. · TPM can have a great impact on the operations decision making process. zero breakdowns. process reliability and reduces the cost of lost production time. in other words working with a zero sum philosophy.

4) Delivery: Inventory turnover increased by 150% 5) Morale: Improvement suggestions increased by 105% 6) Safety: Accidents reduced to nil 7) Environment: No pollution created 10. Reliable. equipment and systems so that they consistently perform at the levels required of them. energy reduced consumption reduced by 20%. The following results were reported from a typical firm after implementing TPM. well functioning machines and equipments are a pre requisite for JIT and TQM to be successfully implemented in any manufacturing firm.15 Role Of TPM In World Class Manufacturing Most of the world class manufacturing firms have implemented JIT systems and TQM philosophy to achieve excellence in manufacturing and to have ability to compete globally. the entire process or . Therefore if any equipment breaks down. Preventive maintenance requires understanding and maintaining all the physical elements of manufacturing – machine components. maintenance cost reduced by 15 -30%. .a) Increase in productivity and overall plant efficiency b) Elimination of customers complaints c) Elimination of accidents d) Achieve goals by working as a team b. 1) Productivity: Breakdowns reduced by 85% 2) Quality: Defect rate reduced by 50% 3) Cost: Labour cost reduced by 25%. Indirect benefits: a) Higher confidence level among the employees b) Favourable change in the attitude of the operators c) Horizontal deployment of a new concepts in all areas d) The workers get a feeling of owning the machine.

efficiency and effectiveness with zero loss concepts through total participation of all employees with self managing abilities in practices. The involvement of workers in quality circles provides the opportunity for them (members of quality circles) to study maintenance problems. while teams of maintenance staff. to keep a machine. It first evolved in Nippon Denso a major supplier of the Toyota car company. In world class companies quality circles form an important component of TQM. Preventive maintenance is a stepping stone to a higher level of maintenance referred to as “total productive maintenance” (TPM). Improved equipment functioning has a positive impact on product quality. Identify. TQM requires quality at the source which implies that machines must be reliable and well functioning. 2) TPM had its genesis in the Japanese car industry in 1970’s. In TPM operators / workers perform basic equipment repairs and preventive maintenance.production line comes to a halt. a facility. 4) GOALS: one among following is not an applicable goal. 3) TPM is defined as the means to achieve high level of productivity. Here the new quality approach of ………………… was translated to the maintenance environment through the concept of TPM. Maintenance covers all those functions such as ……………… etc. This will facilitate implementation of an effective preventive maintenance program which is essential for a JIT system Self Assessment Questions Fill up the blanks with appropriate words in the following statements: 1) Equipment maintenance is basic to competitive manufacturing. material handling equipment and other transport vehicles in proper working conditions. machinists and operators redesign and reconfigure equipment to make it more reliable. engineers. to achieve …………………….. • Prevention of equipment deterioration • Maintain the equipment in optimal condition • Establishing basic equipment conditions • Operator’s incompetency . Preventive maintenance practices reduce the breakdown of machines and will keep them in good working condition. In world class companies the responsibility for repairs and preventive maintenance is assigned to workers. easier to maintain and perform better.

g) Defect losses due to reduced yields in processing 6) OEE is a way of measuring how the six major losses shown below are affecting the equipment or in other words a way of measuring the amount of …………………….) X (…………)] 8 Out of Eight pillars of TPM. that the equipment is contributing to the product. manpower etc . Kobetsu-Kaizen.. One among the following is not the type of loss considered in maintenance.. d) Habitual absenteism by employees e) Speed losses due to discrepancies between designed and actual speeds f) Defect losses due to process defects that cause scrap & quality problems. Safety. Identify a) Downtime due to equipment failure. two are missing in the following list. ………. Education & Training. 9) Autonomous maintenance is a phrase coined by the Japanese institute of plant maintenance (JIPM) to describe the shift towards the machine operators ……………………… 10) PQCDS&M principles in Office TPM: In the list below principle D is missing. What is that? • P: production output loss due to want of materials. blockages etc. Development Management. 7) Overall Equipment Efficiency-Fill in the other two factors: [OEE] = [Availability x ( ………. TPM in Offices. c) Speed losses due to idling and minor stoppages caused by abnormal operations of censors.. Identify them Autonomous Maintenance. Health & Environment. b) Downtime for setups and adjustments.• Elimination of quality defects • Elimination of equipment failure • Elimination of cost losses 5) There are six types of losses found in a manufacturing firm. …………….

4) Ability and authority to do material planning. etc •? • S: safety in material handling. Which is the sixth one? 1) Well trained maintenance crew. 4) Ability and authority to do material planning. 2) Adequate resources. They applied TPM techniques to visually eliminate machine breakdowns. other safety practices • M: number of kaizen activities in office areas with improvements not visible 11) Results achieved through pillar number Four are: 1) Improved customer satisfaction and reduction in future complaints 2) Reduction in ……………. The frequency of preventive maintenance must be balanced with the cost of equipment failure and keep the total costs of preventive and breakdown maintenance put together at the lowest level possible. payroll. invoices. 6) Ability to design ways to extend MTBF.. machines are cleaned and lubricated frequently by the operators themselves who run the machines. cost of inventory carrying. preventive maintenance.• Q: mistakes in cheques.. For the above type of TPM. A comprehensive maintenance program consists of breakdown maintenance. organization should have the features of 1) Well trained maintenance crew. 3) Reduction in inspection time 12) For the above type of TPM. and total productive maintenance or reliability centred maintenance. stores. bills. . 3) Ability to establish a repair plan and priorities. Only five are listed.16 Summary Japanese firms which implemented JIT production and TQM concepts cannot witness any machine failures that affect quality and delayed production schedules. cost of logistics. Preventive maintenance is a well planned program which involves inspection to uncover potential problem and make the necessary repairs before any breakdown occurs. customer returns etc • C: buying cost. organization should have the following six features. In the TPM approach to maintenance management.. 5) ……………………. While breakdown maintenance is remedial or corrective maintenance or equipment repair when breakdown occurs. 10. and ……………. 3) Ability to establish a repair plan and priorities.2) Adequate resources.

TPM identifies and attacks all causes of malfunctions and eliminates all consequent losses due to breakdowns.17 Terminal Questions 1. defects. Discuss on the guiding features of TPM? 3. repairs. shortened equipment life and inventory. What are the objectives of TPM? 2. 5. TPM helps to maintain process capability. TPM has great relevance to TQM in improvement of productivity and quality. an important component of TQM provides the opportunity for workers to study maintenance problems and suggest effective maintenance activities which are essential for JIT systems. 10. decrease in productivity. stoppage of production. high repair costs. poor quality of outputs. Distinguish between breakdown maintenance and preventive maintenance. All these help to improve manufacturing competitiveness of world class companies. Benefits of TPM includes increase in production capacity and process reliability. Explain briefly the evolution of maintenance practices leading to TPM. safety hazards. What is total productive maintenance? Is it different from total preventive maintenance? . continuous improvement and has a strong strategic relevance like TQM. formation of a target committee and program team to oversee initial planning and coordination of all TPM efforts and then transfer the responsibility to the maintenance department. TPM contributes to improved safety. by adopting any of the maintenance systems discussed above. Quality circles. 4. Implementing TPM company-wide is major project requiring top management support. product quality and production schedules. especially with the latest TPM as a final and long range solution. Reduction in costs of lost production. high WIP inventories and so on.5) Ability to identify the cause of break downs 6) Ability to design ways to extend MTBF. which may result in inefficiency of machines. high standards of quality and reliability. employee morale and pollution control. accidents to workers. idle time. Equipment problems have a direct impact on production costs.

Explain briefly as to how planned maintenance under Eight pillars of TPM help achieve zero loss? 14. 16. no-(d)] 5. 4. 9. repairing. Focussed Improvements and what steps are used to achieve improvement? 13. no (d)] . What is ‘Autonomous Maintenance? What are its objectives and steps involved in implementing? 12. safe environment under TPM? 15. Discuss the relevance of total productive maintenance to TQM framework. Describe the role of total productive maintenance in world class manufacturing. Monitoring.6. What is meant by ‘Overall Equipment Effectiveness’? What are its constituents? How the six losses are addressed through OEE? 8. adjusting.18 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1. Total customer satisfaction. What are the unsafe practices and how these are controlled by practicing good and healthy. Prevention at source 3. What are the constituents of Kobetsu Kaizen i. inspecting. What are the relative issues that are recognized by maintenance department before attempting introduction of TPM in the plant? 7. What are the six zero concept that are to be considered while approaching elimination of 16 Losses? 10. Explain briefly the sixteen types of losses that are to be considered for elimination by the maintenance department while planning TPM activities. What are the benefits accrued to a firm by practicing TPM? 17. etc 2. Operator’s incompetency-[Sl. Habitual Absenteeism by employees – [Sl.e. 10. Which are the eight pillars that support TPM in an organization? 11. cleaning.

9 9. 10. 10. 10. 10. “Value added” – activity 7.12. Maintaining their own machine / equipment 10. Ref.6.8 8. 10. Ref.4 2. Ref. Ref.13 . Ref. 10.6 6. in information etc’ 11. Ref. 10.6 4.2 13. Ref.12. Planned Maintenance & Quality Maintenance 9. Ref. Defects and improved quality 12. Ref. 10. 10. 10.7 7. 10. 10. 10. Ref.‘logistic losses due to delay in support function.1 12.12 11. payment to suppliers. D. Ref. 10. Ref.3 14. Ref.12. Ref.10 10. Ability to identify the cause of break downs Terminal Questions: 1.7 15. Ref.6 5. Performance Efficiency & Quality yield 8. 10.5 3.12.

14 17.16.15 Copyright © 2011 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . 10. Ref. Ref. . 10.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful