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Biometrics: High-impact Emerging Technology - What You Need to Know: Definitions, Adoptions, Impact, Benefits, Maturity, Vendors

Biometrics: High-impact Emerging Technology - What You Need to Know: Definitions, Adoptions, Impact, Benefits, Maturity, Vendors

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Published by Emereo Publishing
Biometrics consists of methods for uniquely recognizing humans based upon one or more intrinsic physical or behavioral traits. In computer science, in particular, biometrics is used as a form of identity access management and access control. It is also used to identify individuals in groups that are under surveillance.

This book is your ultimate resource for Biometrics. Here you will find the most up-to-date information, analysis, background and everything you need to know.

In easy to read chapters, with extensive references and links to get you to know all there is to know about Biometrics right away, covering: Biometrics, Automated fingerprint identification, Biometric Consortium, Biometric Database Law (Israel), Biometric passport, Biometrics Institute, BioSlimDisk, Budapest Declaration on Machine Readable Travel Documents, CBEFF, Combined DNA Index System, DNA barcoding, DNA profiling, E-Channel, Raymond Edmunds, Electropherogram, EURODAC, Expected Progeny Difference, Extended Access Control, Face Recognition Grand Challenge, Facial Recognition Vendor Test 2006, Lydia Fairchild, FERET (facial recognition technology), Fingerprint, Fingerprint Verification Competition, FNAEG, Gait analysis, Generalized Procrustes analysis, Graphology, Hand geometry, Handwriting movement analysis, Henry Classification System, INSPASS, Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System, International Automated Systems, Iris Challenge Evaluation, Iris recognition, Iris Recognition Immigration System, Keystroke dynamics, MALINTENT, Microsoft Fingerprint Reader, Minutiae, Multiple Biometric Grand Challenge, Next Generation Identification, Palm print, Palmar aponeurosis, Pawtograph, Pay By Touch, Physiological interaction, Private biometrics, Procrustes analysis, Radial loop, Retinal scan, RFdump, Biometrics in schools, Second Generation Multiplex, Second Generation Multiplex Plus, Signature, Smartgate, Soft biometrics, Speaker recognition, Telebiometrics, Transportation Worker Identification Credential, Ulnar loop, Vein matching, Voice analysis

This book explains in-depth the real drivers and workings of Biometrics. It reduces the risk of your technology, time and resources investment decisions by enabling you to compare your understanding of Biometrics with the objectivity of experienced professionals.
Biometrics consists of methods for uniquely recognizing humans based upon one or more intrinsic physical or behavioral traits. In computer science, in particular, biometrics is used as a form of identity access management and access control. It is also used to identify individuals in groups that are under surveillance.

This book is your ultimate resource for Biometrics. Here you will find the most up-to-date information, analysis, background and everything you need to know.

In easy to read chapters, with extensive references and links to get you to know all there is to know about Biometrics right away, covering: Biometrics, Automated fingerprint identification, Biometric Consortium, Biometric Database Law (Israel), Biometric passport, Biometrics Institute, BioSlimDisk, Budapest Declaration on Machine Readable Travel Documents, CBEFF, Combined DNA Index System, DNA barcoding, DNA profiling, E-Channel, Raymond Edmunds, Electropherogram, EURODAC, Expected Progeny Difference, Extended Access Control, Face Recognition Grand Challenge, Facial Recognition Vendor Test 2006, Lydia Fairchild, FERET (facial recognition technology), Fingerprint, Fingerprint Verification Competition, FNAEG, Gait analysis, Generalized Procrustes analysis, Graphology, Hand geometry, Handwriting movement analysis, Henry Classification System, INSPASS, Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System, International Automated Systems, Iris Challenge Evaluation, Iris recognition, Iris Recognition Immigration System, Keystroke dynamics, MALINTENT, Microsoft Fingerprint Reader, Minutiae, Multiple Biometric Grand Challenge, Next Generation Identification, Palm print, Palmar aponeurosis, Pawtograph, Pay By Touch, Physiological interaction, Private biometrics, Procrustes analysis, Radial loop, Retinal scan, RFdump, Biometrics in schools, Second Generation Multiplex, Second Generation Multiplex Plus, Signature, Smartgate, Soft biometrics, Speaker recognition, Telebiometrics, Transportation Worker Identification Credential, Ulnar loop, Vein matching, Voice analysis

This book explains in-depth the real drivers and workings of Biometrics. It reduces the risk of your technology, time and resources investment decisions by enabling you to compare your understanding of Biometrics with the objectivity of experienced professionals.

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10/31/2014

Sections

  • Automated fingerprint identification
  • Biometric Consortium
  • Biometric Database Law (Israel)
  • Biometric passport
  • Biometrics Institute
  • BioSlimDisk
  • Budapest Declaration on Machine Readable Travel Documents
  • CBEFF
  • Combined DNA Index System
  • DNA barcoding
  • DNA profiling
  • E-Channel
  • Raymond Edmunds
  • Electropherogram
  • EURODAC
  • Expected Progeny Difference
  • Extended Access Control
  • Face Recognition Grand Challenge
  • Facial Recognition Vendor Test 2006
  • Lydia Fairchild
  • FERET (facial recognition technology)
  • Fingerprint
  • Fingerprint Verification Competition
  • FNAEG
  • Gait analysis
  • Generalized Procrustes analysis
  • Graphology
  • Hand geometry
  • Handwriting movement analysis
  • Henry Classification System
  • INSPASS
  • Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System
  • International Automated Systems
  • Iris Challenge Evaluation
  • Iris recognition
  • Iris Recognition Immigration System
  • Keystroke dynamics
  • MALINTENT
  • Microsoft Fingerprint Reader
  • Minutiae
  • Multiple Biometric Grand Challenge
  • Next Generation Identification
  • Palm print
  • Palmar aponeurosis
  • The palmar aponeurosis
  • Pawtograph
  • Pay By Touch
  • Physiological interaction
  • Private biometrics
  • Procrustes analysis
  • Radial loop
  • Retinal scan
  • RFdump
  • Biometrics in schools
  • Second Generation Multiplex
  • Second Generation Multiplex Plus
  • Signature
  • Smartgate
  • Soft biometrics
  • Speaker recognition
  • Telebiometrics
  • Transportation Worker Identification Credential
  • Ulnar loop
  • Vein matching
  • Voice analysis
  • Article Sources and Contributors
  • Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
  • License

Biometrics

IN-DEPTH: THE REAL DRIVERS AND
WORKINGS

Kevin Roebuck

REDUCES THE RISK OF YOUR TECHNOLOGY, TIME AND RESOURCES
INVESTMENT DECISIONS

ENABLING YOU TO COMPARE YOUR
UNDERSTANDING WITH THE OBJECTIVITY OF EXPERIENCED PROFESSIONALS

High-impact Emerging Technology - What You Need to Know: Definitions, Adoptions, Impact, Benefits, Maturity, Vendors

Topic relevant selected content from the highest rated entries, typeset, printed and shipped. Combine the advantages of up-to-date and in-depth knowledge with the convenience of printed books. A portion of the proceeds of each book will be donated to the Wikimedia Foundation to support their mission: to empower and engage people around the world to collect and develop educational content under a free license or in the public domain, and to disseminate it effectively and globally. The content within this book was generated collaboratively by volunteers. Please be advised that nothing found here has necessarily been reviewed by people with the expertise required to provide you with complete, accurate or reliable information. Some information in this book maybe misleading or simply wrong. The publisher does not guarantee the validity of the information found here. If you need specific advice (for example, medical, legal, financial, or risk management) please seek a professional who is licensed or knowledgeable in that area. Sources, licenses and contributors of the articles and images are listed in the section entitled “References”. Parts of the books may be licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. A copy of this license is included in the section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License” All used third-party trademarks belong to their respective owners.

Contents
Articles
Biometrics Automated fingerprint identification Biometric Consortium Biometric Database Law (Israel) Biometric passport Biometrics Institute BioSlimDisk Budapest Declaration on Machine Readable Travel Documents CBEFF Combined DNA Index System DNA barcoding DNA profiling E-Channel Raymond Edmunds Electropherogram EURODAC Expected Progeny Difference Extended Access Control Face Recognition Grand Challenge Facial Recognition Vendor Test 2006 Lydia Fairchild FERET (facial recognition technology) Fingerprint Fingerprint Verification Competition FNAEG Gait analysis Generalized Procrustes analysis Graphology Hand geometry Handwriting movement analysis Henry Classification System INSPASS Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System International Automated Systems 1 9 11 12 14 29 31 32 32 33 36 42 55 57 58 59 59 61 62 65 67 68 72 91 95 96 100 101 112 112 118 120 122 123

Licenses and Contributors 182 186 Article Licenses License 187 .Iris Challenge Evaluation Iris recognition Iris Recognition Immigration System Keystroke dynamics MALINTENT Microsoft Fingerprint Reader Minutiae Multiple Biometric Grand Challenge Next Generation Identification Palm print Palmar aponeurosis Pawtograph Pay By Touch Physiological interaction Private biometrics Procrustes analysis Radial loop Retinal scan RFdump Biometrics in schools Second Generation Multiplex Second Generation Multiplex Plus Signature Smartgate Soft biometrics Speaker recognition Telebiometrics Transportation Worker Identification Credential Ulnar loop Vein matching Voice analysis 124 126 132 133 139 139 140 141 144 145 146 147 148 149 151 153 156 156 158 159 163 164 167 169 171 172 174 175 177 178 180 References Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources.

Circumvention – ease of use of a substitute. face recognition. and robustness of technology used. speed. iris recognition. Note that it is crucial that storage and retrieval of such systems themselves be secure if the biometric system is to be robust. biometric information is detected and compared with the information stored at the time of enrollment. In subsequent uses. biometric information from an individual is stored. The identification only succeeds in identifying the individual if the comparison of the biometric sample to a template in the database falls within a previously set threshold. gait. but voice recognition is mainly based on the study of the way a person speaks. but it can change according to the characteristics desired. In the third block necessary features are extracted. removing background noise). It is also used to identify individuals in groups that are under surveillance. Collectability – ease of acquisition for measurement. to use some kind of normalization. A biometric system can operate in the following two modes: • Verification – A one to one comparison of a captured biometric with a stored template to verify that the individual is who he claims to be. but are not limited to typing rhythm. in particular. Uniqueness – is how well the biometric separates individuals from another. Some researchers[1] have coined the term behaviometrics for this class of biometrics. username or ID number. DNA. and voice. commonly classified as behavioral. etc. In computer science. Strictly speaking. At Walt Disney World biometric measurements are taken from the fingers of guests to ensure that the person's ticket is used by the same person from day to day • Behavioral are related to the behavior of a person. Examples include. it has to acquire all the necessary data. voice is also a physiological trait because every person has a different vocal tract. but are not limited to fingerprint. hand geometry. Palm print. Examples include. The second block performs all the necessary pre-processing: it has to remove artifacts from the sensor. Acceptability – degree of approval of a technology. Biometric characteristics can be divided in two main classes: • Physiological are related to the shape of the body. Most of the times it is an image acquisition system. to enhance the input (e. Performance – accuracy. The first block (sensor) is the interface between the real world and the system. It is possible to understand if a human characteristic can be used for biometrics in terms of the following [2] parameters: • • • • • • • Universality – each person should have the characteristic. biometrics is used as a form of identity access management and access control. Permanence – measures how well a biometric resists aging and other variance over time. Can be done in conjunction with a smart card. which has largely replaced retina.g. During the enrollment. • Identification – A one to many comparison of the captured biometric against a biometric database in attempt to identify an unknown individual. The first time an individual uses a biometric system is called an enrollment. This step is an important step as the correct . and odour/scent.Biometrics 1 Biometrics Biometrics consists of methods for uniquely recognizing humans based upon one or more intrinsic physical or behavioral traits.

If enrollment is being performed. then knowledge of the identity of the user at the terminal does not materially improve network security or aid law enforcement activities. 2 Performance The following are used as performance metrics for biometric systems:[3] • false accept rate or false match rate (FAR or FMR) – the probability that the system incorrectly matches the input pattern to a non-matching template in the database. • equal error rate or crossover error rate (EER or CER) – the rate at which both accept and reject errors are equal. entrance in a restricted area). However. a higher threshold will reduce the FAR but increase the FRR. The matching program will analyze the template with the input. • failure to enroll rate (FTE or FER) – the rate at which attempts to create a template from an input is unsuccessful. if control of the computer has been subverted. If the threshold is reduced. the obtained template is passed to a matcher that compares it with other existing templates. Hamming distance). for example in which the computer is part of a botnet controlled by a hacker. • receiver operating characteristic or relative operating characteristic (ROC) – The ROC plot is a visual characterization of the trade-off between the FAR and the FRR.g. the device with the lowest EER is most accurate. A template is a synthesis of the relevant characteristics extracted from the source. the matching algorithm performs a decision based on a threshold which determines how close to a template the input needs to be for it to be considered a match.Biometrics features need to be extracted in the optimal way. Correspondingly. A common variation is the Detection error trade-off (DET). A basic premise in the above proposal is that the person that has uniquely authenticated themselves using biometrics with the computer is in fact also the agent performing potentially malicious actions from that computer. • false reject rate or false non-match rate (FRR or FNMR) – the probability that the system fails to detect a match between the input pattern and a matching template in the database. Current. the template is simply stored somewhere (on a card or within a database or both). estimating the distance between them using any algorithm (e. A vector of numbers or an image with particular properties is used to create a template. there will be less false non-matches but more false accepts. which is obtained using normal deviate scales on both axes. In general. . a former Director of US National Intelligence. Elements of the biometric measurement that are not used in the comparison algorithm are discarded in the template to reduce the filesize and to protect the identity of the enrollee. emerging and future applications of biometrics Proposal calls for biometric authentication to access certain public networks John Michael (Mike) McConnell. It measures the percent of valid inputs which are incorrectly rejected. If a matching phase is being performed. the probability that the system fails to detect a biometric input when presented correctly. • template capacity – the maximum number of sets of data which can be stored in the system. This will then be output for any specified use or purpose (e. This more linear graph illuminates the differences for higher performances (rarer errors). In general.g. The value of the EER can be easily obtained from the ROC curve. • failure to capture rate (FTC) – Within automatic systems. and Senior Vice President of Booz Allen Hamilton promoted the development of a future capability to require biometric authentication to access certain public networks in his Keynote Speech[4] at the 2009 Biometric Consortium Conference [5]. This is most commonly caused by low quality inputs. It measures the percent of invalid inputs which are incorrectly accepted. The EER is a quick way to compare the accuracy of devices with different ROC curves. a former vice admiral in the United States Navy.

Some of the proposed techniques operate using their own recognition engines. ” . additionally they are fully available to everyone (e. If the item is secured with a biometric device. height. Malaysian car thieves cut off the finger of a Mercedes-Benz S-Class owner when attempting to steal the car. the damage to the owner could be irreversible. If a token or a password is lost or stolen. If someone’s face is compromised from a database. Every time a foreign leader has visited Washington during the last few years. The first fingerprint based cancelable biometric system was designed and developed by Tulyakov et al. Cancelable biometrics is a way in which to incorporate protection and the replacement features into biometrics. Although this increases the restrictions on the protection system. gender) which makes them privacy-safe. the United States Defense Department is under pressure to share biometric data. This is not naturally available in biometrics.g. it makes the cancellable templates more accessible for available biometric technologies. International trading of biometric data Many countries.[10] whereas other methods. They allow to describe a subject starting from his/her physical attributes. they cannot cancel or reissue it.[9] and Savvides et al. It was first proposed by Ratha et al.Biometrics 3 Issues and concerns Privacy and discrimination It is possible that data obtained during biometric enrollment may be used in ways for which the enrolled individual has not consented. and potentially cost more than the secured property.. the State Department has made sure they sign such an agreement. such as Dabbah et al. (a consultant to the Office of Homeland Defense and America’s security affairs) said the United States has bi-lateral agreements to share biometric data with about 25 countries.[13] To quote that article: “ Miller. Magnuson in the National Defense Magazine. there is a chance that the thieves will stalk and assault the property owner to gain access. weight. it can be cancelled and replaced by a newer version. such as Teoh et al.[6] Cancelable biometrics One advantage of passwords over biometrics is that they can be re-issued.[11] take the advantage of the advancement of the well-established biometric research for their recognition front-end to conduct recognition. thus not capable of identification performance. To quote a 2009 testimony made before the US House Appropriations Committee. Danger to owners of secured items When thieves cannot get access to secure properties.[8] Essentially. Subcommittee on Homeland Security on “biometric identification” by Kathleen Kraninger and Robert A Mocny [12] According to article written by S. The variability in the distortion parameters provides the cancelable nature of the scheme.. cancelable biometrics perform a distortion of the biometric image or features before matching. in 2005. Those attributes have a low discriminating power.[7] Several methods for generating cancelable biometrics have been proposed. already trade biometric data. Soft biometrics Soft biometrics because of their inner nature are privacy preserving. For example. including the United States.

including their biometric information (thumbprints) is captured in the database. unique to each applicant applying for a card. iris scanning. and contains a chip that holds a digital photograph and one fingerprint from each hand. a passport issued to all German citizens which contain biometric technology. It also has laser-etched photographs and holograms to add security and reduce the risk of falsification. such as kidnapping. non-Gambian ID cards and driver licenses. “The federal government will be a major contributor to this development”. According to Jim Wayman. privacy. “A third biometric identifier – iris scans – could be added at a later stage”. and digital photos”. The new work visas will also include fingerprinting.[17] An increase in the prevalence of biometric technology in Germany is an effort to not only keep citizens safe within German borders but also to comply with the current US deadline for visa-waiver countries to introduce biometric passports.[16] In May 2005 the German Upper House of Parliament approved the implementation of the ePass. though others may be used if these fingers are missing or have extremely distorted prints. An individual’s data. Walt Disney World is the nation's largest single commercial application of biometrics. Currently. usually of the index fingers. A National Identification Number (NIN). This card contains biometric data and digitized photographs. There have been over 10 million of these cards issued.[14] Countries applying biometrics United States Starting in 2005. The ePass has been in circulation since November 2005.Biometrics 4 Governments are unlikely to disclose full capabilities of biometric deployments Certain members of the civilian community are worried about how biometric data is used. and the risk of identity theft. full disclosure may not be forthcoming to the civilian community.[18] . The US Department of Defense (DoD) Common Access Card. “The market size will increase from approximately 120 million € (2004) to 377 million €” (2009). the German government has put in place new requirements for visitors to apply for visas within the country. Unfortunately. The United States (US) and European Union (EU) are proposing new methods for border crossing procedures utilizing biometrics. there is some apprehension in the United States (and the European Union) that the information can be "skimmed" and identify people's citizenship remotely for criminal intent. US passports with facial (image-based) biometric data were scheduled to be produced.[17] In addition to producing biometric passports for German citizens.[15] However. the biometric procedures of fingerprint and facial recognition can profit from the government project. Germany The biometrics market in Germany will experience enormous growth until the year 2009. Privacy activists in many countries have criticized the technology's use for the potential harm to civil liberties. will be affected by the planned biometric registration program. director of the National Biometric Test Center at San Jose State University. which allow more than three months' residence. Employing biometrically enabled travel documents will increase security and expedite travel for legitimate travelers.[16] In particular. is issued to the applicant. residential permits. “Only applicants for long-term visas. is an ID card issued to all US Service personnel and contractors on US Military sites. Biometric documents issued for Gambia include national identity cards. the US-VISIT program will very soon surpass Walt Disney World for biometrics deployment. Gambia The Gambia Biometric Identification System (GAMBIS) allowed for the issuance of Gambia’s first biometric identity documents in July 2009.

who invented one of the most complete tenprint classification systems in existence. photo. All of the data is planned to be stored in ICAO E-passport standard. The Identification number will be stored in a central databases. P Chidambaram. the collected biometrics information is logged into a central database which then allows a user profile to be created. Felix Pacheco at Rio de Janeiro.most notably when Germany last held the Games in Munich in 1972 and 11 Israeli athletes were killed”. and other citizen data. but also by most of the other South American countries. “On registering with the scheme. During account creation. Each state in Brazil is allowed to print its own ID card. Greece in 2004. team management and members of the media”. By the end of 2005. a signature. the influential hacker group Chaos Computer Club published a fingerprint of German Minister of the Interior Wolfgang Schäuble in the March 2008 edition of its magazine Datenschleuder. Officials in India will spend one year classifying India's population according to demographics . such as individual personal history. this would be the biggest implementation of the Biometrics in the world. like Laser perforation. Dr. at that time capital of the Federative Republic. The new passport included several security features. Even if an Iraqi has lost their ID card. The oldest and most traditional ID Institute in Brazil (Instituto de Identificação Félix Pacheco) was integrated at DETRAN[21] (Brazilian equivalent to DMV) into the civil and criminal AFIS system in 1999. Additional information can also be added to each account record. UV hidden symbols. The government will then use the information to issue identity cards. Brazilian citizens have had user ID cards.Biometrics Germany is also one of the first countries to implement biometric technology at the Olympic Games to protect German athletes. but the layout and data are the same for all of them.[19] As a protest against the increasing use of biometric data. their identification can be found and verified by using their unique biometric information. The 2D bar code encodes a color photo. security layer over variable data and etc. Brazilian citizens will have their signature. This technology was developed in 2000 in order to enhance the safety of the Brazilian ID cards. described the process as "the biggest exercise. If implemented. since humankind came into existence". India India is undertaking an ambitious mega project (the Multipurpose National Identity Card) to provide a unique identification number to each of its 1.. Juan Vucetich. This allows for contactless electronic reading of the passport content and Citizens ID verification since fingerprint templates and token facial images will be available for automatic recognition. The Vucetich system was adopted not only in Brazil. India's Home Minister. Pacheco was a friend of Dr. two fingerprints.[20] 5 Brazil Since the beginning of the 20th century. The magazine also included the fingerprint on a film that readers could use to fool fingerprint readers. in Brasilia. The new documents started to be released by the beginning of 2007. consisting the biometric information of the individual. The ID cards printed in Rio de Janeiro are fully digitized using a 2D bar code with information which can be matched against its owner off-line. coaching staff.. The decision by the Brazilian government to adopt fingerprint-based biometrics was spearheaded by Dr. accredited visitors will receive an ID card containing their fingerprint biometrics data that will enable them to access the 'German House'. immune to forgery. Accredited visitors will include athletes. Iraq Biometrics are being used extensively in Iraq to catalogue as many Iraqis as possible providing Iraqis with a verifiable identification card. “The Olympic Games is always a diplomatically tense affair and previous events have been rocked by terrorist attacks .25 billion people. the Brazilian government started the development of its new passport. and 10 rolled fingerprints collected during passport requests.[19] Biometric technology was first used at the Olympic Summer Games in Athens.

because any leaks could be used by criminals or hostile individuals against Israeli residents. Public Security Technical Program [25]. Only members of the Biometrics Institute are eligible to subscribe to this Code. the expiry date. and your personal ID number (Dutch tax and social security (SoFi) number). Opponents of the proposed law. Biometric data are already collected from some visa applicants by Immigration. United Kingdom Fingerprint scanners used in some schools to facilitate the subtraction of funds from an account financed by parents for the payment of school dinners. Citizenship and Immigration Canada and the Canada Border Services Agency will probably be the first government institutions to fully implement the technology in Canada. including prominent Israeli scientists and security experts. Dutch passports have included an electronic chip containing the personal details of the holder and a digitised passport photograph. By using such a system nutritional reports can be produced for parents to surveil a child's intake. date of birth and sex. warned that the existence of such a database could damage both civil liberties and state security. the country of issue.[30] . and thus subscription to this Code. The Code includes privacy standards that are at least equivalent to the Australian National Privacy Principles (NPPs) in the Privacy Act and also incorporates higher standards of privacy protection in relation to certain acts and practices. a resident would be issued a new form of an identification card containing these biometrics. the database will contain their fingerprints and facial contours. your nationality. The Biometrics Institute Privacy Code Biometrics Institute [23] forms part of Australian privacy legislation.[29] The chip holds following data: your name (first name(s) and surname). Australia Visitors intending to visit Australia may soon have to submit to biometric authentication as part of the Smartgate system.[27] [28] Netherlands Starting 21 September 2009. Upon enrolling. the document number. Staufen Rome University Tor Vergata . Other concerns arise from the possibility of data leaking from the providers of school meals to interest groups that provide health services such as the NHS and insurance groups that may end up having a detrimental effect on the ability of individuals to enjoy equality of access to services.[22] . during which enrollment is [26] optional. 6 Italy Italy has standardized protocols in use to police forces. Specialist and University Faculty *Enrico Manfredi d'Angrogna Luserna v. The physical count will begin on February 2011. is voluntary. Israel The Israeli government has passed a bill calling for the creation of a biometric database of all Israeli residents. linking individuals to their visas and passports. Australia is the first country to introduce a Biometrics Privacy Code. Biometrics Community of Practice). pending on successful trial. enrollment would be mandatory for all residents. Since 26 August 2006.Biometrics indicators. The law is currently in its trial period. Biometrics Institute membership. Canada Canada has begun research into the use of biometric technology in the area of border security and immigration (Center for Security Sciences [24]. all new Dutch passports and ID cards must include the holder's fingerprints.Siena University. This has raised questions from liberty groups as taking away the liberty of choice from the youth of society. which is established and administered by the Biometrics Institute.

Ross. 2007." presented at IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR'04). K. vol. 1892-1901. but which prick the finger and sample DNA from the resulting blood droplet • The television program MythBusters attempted to break into a commercial security door equipped with biometric authentication as well as a personal laptop so equipped. edu. Dlay. Khosla. "KeyNote Address. Tampa.Robust Shift Invariant PCA based Correlation Filter for Illumination Tolerant Face Recognition. The kiosk and gate system will allow all New Zealand and Australian electronic passport holders over 18 to clear passport control without needing to have their identity checked by a Customs officer.1109/TCSVT. Tampa Convention Center.Biometrics Recent requirements for passport photographs Since 28 August 2006. W. pp. • The movie Gattaca portrays a society in which there are two classes of people: those genetically engineered to be superior (termed "Valid") and the inferior natural humans ("Invalid"). Dabbah.” Proc. and V. Goh. 2004. under EU regulation '2252/2004' all EU member states have been obliged to include a digital image of the holder’s passport photograph. Deputy comptroller of customs John Secker said SmartGate represented probably the biggest single development in border processing in New Zealand in the past two decades. People will have a choice whether they want to use the system or go through normal passport control. .2003. J. The main character changes his official Identity by having his eyes transplanted. B. . the advanced commercial security door with "live" sensing was fooled with a printed scan of a fingerprint after it had been licked. boozallen. Salil (January 2004).[33] Biometrics in popular culture • The 2002 film Minority Report features extensive use of casual Iris/Retina scanning techniques for both personal Identification and Point Of Sale transaction purposes. CIISP 2007. [10] M. Bolle." IBM systems Journal. and access to areas restricted to such persons is controlled by automated biometric scanners similar in appearance to fingerprint scanners. 2005 [9] A. . K. Tulyakov. J. 2006. IEEE Transactions on. Arun. stm). uk/ 2/ hi/ asia-pacific/ 4396831. ccert. Jonathan (31 March 2005). References [1] http:/ / biosecure. L. pp. People considered "Valid" have greater privileges.818349 [3] "CHARACTERISTICS OF BIOMETRIC SYSTEMS" (http:/ / www. html). “Symmetric Hash Functions for Fingerprint Minutiae.. "Enhancing security and privacy in biometrics-based authentication systems. K. "Random Multispace Quantization as an Analytic Mechanism for BioHashing of Biometric and Random Identity Inputs. [8] S. it-sudparis. Savvides. Farooq. and R. pp. Int’l Workshop Pattern Recognition for Crime Prevention." (http:/ / www. 2001. Teoh. co. and later accesses a security system using one of the removed eyes. biometrics. vol. L. Florida. Prabhakar.[31] [32] 7 New Zealand SmartGate was launched by the New Zealand government at Auckland International Airport on Thursday 3 December 2009. K. 2007. B. Woo. Retrieved 11 December 2010." presented at Computational Intelligence in Image and Signal Processing. C.. F. com/ consulting-services/ services_article/ 42861927). org/ bc2009 [6] Kent. and S. A. "Secure Authentication for Face Recognition. 614-634. cn/ education/ cissp/ hism/ 039-041. It will begin operating in Wellington and Christchurch from next year.[34] While the laptop's system proved more difficult to bypass. V. Retrieved 20 February 2010 [5] http:/ / www. "An introduction to biometric recognition". and D. [11] M. pdf [2] Jain. V. M. Kumar. Cernet. doi:10. • In Demolition Man the character Simon Phoenix cuts out a living victim's eye in order to open a locked door which is fitted with iris scanning. and Surveillance. [7] N. "Malaysia car thieves steal finger" (http:/ / news. bbc. Biometric Consortium Conference. and P. eu/ public_html/ biosecure1/ public_docs_deli/ BioSecure_Deliverable_D10-2-3_b3. A. 40." Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. 28. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology 14th (1): 4–20. IEEE Symposium on. Ratha. Govindaraju. H. Mike (January 2009). . ""Corefaces". S. Ngo. 30-38. A. Connell. Security. [4] McConnell. BBC Online (Kuala Lumpur).

Mocny.. osd. stm). com/ reports/ c4206/ ) [17] IDABC . A. • TechCast Article Series. html).shtml) • “Germany to phase-in biometric passports from November 2005”. "Testimony of Deputy Assistant Secretary for Policy Kathleen Kraninger. nl/ dsresource?objectid=4653& type=pdf) (PDF). org/ story/ 2006/ 08/ 14/ walt_disney_world_the_governments) [16] The Biometrics Market in Germany 2004-2009: Anti-terrorism Laws Drive Growth . drdc-rddc. cfm?ID=141) [19] Biometrics used to keep German Olympians safe . bbc. detran. Retrieved 20 February 2010 [15] Article describing Disney's 2006 biometric initiative replacing hand geometric scanners with fingerprint readers (http:/ / newsinitiative.. Retrieved 2006-06-11.org/ Upload/PDFs/634122830612738824_Biometrics-VivianandGayathrilo-res. com/ security/ 0. org/ Feature/ display.C. K. aspx). org/ displaycommon. Unclassified Report of the Defense Science Board Task Force. researchandmarkets. cfm?an=1& subarticlenbr=8%20 [24] http:/ / www. . Retrieved 2008-03-02. R. • “Fingerprints Pay For School Lunch.pdf).Biometrics [12] Kraniger.39123078. [32] Criteria for accepting passport photos in Dutch travel documents Ministry of Foreign Affairs. . nl/ english/ Travel_documents/ Reading_the_chip [31] Ministry of Home Affairs and kingdom relations. • Delac.pdf). Torsten (2008-03-31).aware. Technology. 20301-3140: Office of the Under Secretary of Defense For Acquisition. gov/ ynews/ testimony/ testimony_1237563811984. com/ servlet/ Satellite?pagename=JPost/ JPArticle/ ShowFull& cid=1246443865107) [28] YNET: Biometric Database . css.A Danger to State Security (http:/ / www.biometricscatalog.eu/idabc/en/document/4338/194) . Mocny. aspx?id=162522) [27] Digital World: Getting to know all about you and me (http:/ / fr.” (2001). eu/ idabc/ en/ document/ 4338/ 194) [18] Migration Information Source . europa. co. and Logistics. asp [26] The Jerusalem Post: Knesset approves controversial Biometric Database Law (http:/ / www.vcl. (2004). br/ _documento. Retrieved 6 July 2010. M. cfm?c_id=1501832& objectid=10613348 [34] http:/ / gagspace. NationalDefenseMagazine. Retrieved 20 February 2010 [13] Magnuson. nzherald. paspoortinformatie.Breaking Business and Technology News at silicon.Software . "Biometric passports" (http:/ / www. US-VISIT.39024655. 1 April 2010. jpost.Germany Weighs Biometric Registration Options for Visa Applicants (http:/ / www. [21] http:/ / www. before the House Appropriations Committee. [23] http:/ / www. Use of Biometrics (http://techcast. nl/ en/ Services/ Consular_Services/ Dutch_passport_ID_card/ Biometric_passports). nl/ en/ Services/ Consular_Services/ Dutch_passport_ID_card/ Biometric_passports [30] http:/ / www. "Biometric Identification"" (http:/ / www. com/ Home/ Article. biometricsinstitute. h-online. Heise Media UK Ltd. asp?cod=1438 [22] "India launches biometric census" (http:/ / news. March 2009. S (January 2009). com/ video/ how_to_hack_a_fingerprint_scanner Video of the Mythbusters episode on how to hack fingerprint scanners] 8 Further reading • White Paper . and Director Robert A. minbuza. ynet.. org/ ARCHIVE/ 2009/ JANUARY/ Pages/ DefenseDepartmentUnderPressuretoShareBiometricData. Retrieved 6 July 2010.Identification Flats: A Revolution in Fingerprint Biometrics (http://www. . (http://www. Washington. asp [25] http:/ / www.cbsnews.L-3754468.DE: Germany to phase-in biometric passports from November 2005 (http:/ / ec. uk/ 2/ hi/ south_asia/ 8598159.europa. D. .00. jpost. css.com/stories/2001/ 01/24/national/main266789. "Defense department under pressure to share biometric data. pdf). acq. il/ articles/ 0. paspoortinformatie. Published by the National Biometric Security Project (NBSP). National Protection and Programs Directorate. Retrieved 2010-06-08. BBC News. "CCC publishes fingerprints of German Home Secretary" (http:/ / www. Inc. . Subcommittee on Homeland Security. E-Government News. A Survey of Biometric Recognition Methods (http://www. . [33] http:/ / www. shtm). gc.org/ApprovedDocuments/ evaluation/ceeb3a01-801e-4d2c-b447-bc79d13d2d62. gov. Screening Coordination. co. silicon.Research and Markets (http:/ / www.. co. (http://ec. rj.00. .com/biometrics/ whitepapers. drdc-rddc. "On Defense Biometrics" (http:/ / www. Vivian Chu and Gayathri Rajendran." (http:/ / www. nz/ compute/ news/ article. com/ newsticker/ news/ item/ CCC-publishes-fingerprints-of-German-Home-Secretary-734713.htm). mil/ dsb/ reports/ ADA465930.7340. The H. html) [29] http:/ / www. minbuza.com (http:/ / software. ca/ index-eng.org. migrationinformation. nationaldefensemagazine. (2005). (March 2009). GWU. Retrieved 20 February 2010 [14] Defense Science Board (DSB) (September 2006). Published by Aware.Market Research Reports . htm) [20] Kleinz.fer. "Fotomatrix English" (http:/ / www. US Department of Homeland Security.pdf). gc. the BTAM is a comprehensive reference manual on biometric technology applications. K. • Biometric Technology Application Manual (http://www. ca/ pstp/ about-sujet/ index-eng. dhs. Grgic.hr/papers_pdf/ A Survey of Biometric Recognition Methods.

Argentina. Pakistan. The accuracy of the algorithm. and receipt of credentials (such as passports). robustness to poor image quality. and is managed by the FBI. European police agencies are now required by a European council act[1] to open their AFISes to each other to improve the war on terror and the investigation of cross-border crime. Spain. Automated fingerprint identification systems are primarily used by law enforcement agencies for criminal identification initiatives. Many states also have their own AFIS. With greater frequency in recent years. Another benefit of a civil fingerprint identifications system is its use in background checks for job applicants for highly sensitive posts and educational personnel who have close contact with children. V. Morocco. and various states. including criminal identification. Italy. the "core". applicant background checks. including Canada. and local administrative regions have their own systems. and the characteristics noted above are critical elements of system performance. it is desirable to have. They also vary in terms of features such as image rotation invariance and independence from a reference point (usually. the International Criminal Police Organization. Many other entities.S. which are used for a variety of purposes. at the least. or center of the fingerprint pattern).Biometrics • Oezcan. whereas identification systems determine identity based solely on fingerprints. In general. an initiative between the countries Belgium. Venezuela. receipt of benefits. France. automated fingerprint identification systems have been used in large scale civil identification projects. the European Union. The act followed the Pruem treaty. On a technical level. welfare. Retrieved 2006-06-11. Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System holds all fingerprint sets collected in the country. 9 Automated fingerprint identification Automated fingerprint identification is the process of automatically matching one or many unknown fingerprints against a database of known and unknown prints. (2003). the Netherlands and Austria. While technically not being an AFIS itself. Humboldt University Berlin. the most important of which include identifying a person suspected of committing a crime or linking a suspect to other unsolved crimes. Denmark. Australia. Germany. . the United Kingdom. Chile. Automated fingerprint verification is a closely-related technique used in applications such as attendance and access control systems. electronic image storage. Turkey. print matching speed. AFISes have capabilities such as latent searching. The chief purpose of a civil fingerprint identifications system is to prevent multiple enrollments in an electoral. Some larger AFIS vendors deploy custom hardware while others use software to attain matching speed and throughput. and electronic exchange of fingerprints and responses. provinces. Fingerprint matching algorithms Fingerprint matching algorithms vary greatly in terms of Type I (false positive) and Type II (false negative) error rates. Israel. or similar system. verification systems verify a claimed identity (a user might claim to be John by presenting his PIN or ID card and verify his identity using his fingerprint). a two stage search. Luxembourg. the Pruem treaty's decentral infrastructure allowes AFIS queries on all European criminal AFIS'es within a reasonable timeframe. “Germany Weighs Biometric Registration Options for Visa Applicants”. Fingerprint matching has an enormous computational burden. The first stage will generally make use of global fingerprint characteristics while the second stage is the minutia matcher. driver licensing. Deployed automated fingerprint identification systems The U.

net/ projects/ sourceafis/ . do?uri=OJ:L:2008:210:0001:0011:EN:PDF).Automated fingerprint identification In any case. Apr 2010 References [1] Acts adopted under the EO treaty (http:/ / eur-lex. From the article Peru now uses AFIS fingerprint system . the search systems return results with some numerical measure of the probability of a match (a "score"). livinginperu. jpg [3] http:/ / www. html [5] http:/ / sourceforge. livinginperu. Retrieved 2010-05-10. and is increasingly used in criminal identification systems as well. there should seldom be more than a single candidate unless there are multiple records from the same candidate in the database. "Lights-out" or "auto-confirm" is often used in civil identification systems. [3].. though. eu/ LexUriServ/ LexUriServ. Retrieved 2010-05-10. Belarus • SourceAFIS is an OpenSource fingerprint recognition/matching SDK (library) [5].. The confirmation of system suggested candidates is usually performed by a technician in forensic systems. todes. com/ news/ img/ afis-display. In tenprint searching. by/ en/ dacto2000. as of Jan 2007. In recent years. [2] http:/ / filer. 10 External links • Screen shot of AFIS system used in Peru [2]. and these searches can return from one to ten possible matches. • Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) Dacto 2000 [4]. "lights-out" or "auto-confirm" algorithms produce "identified" or "non-identified" responses without a human operator looking at the prints. provided the matching score is high enough. Latent to tenprint searching will frequently return many (often fifty or more) candidates because of limited and poor quality input data. com/ news/ 3053 [4] http:/ / www. Many systems use a broader search in order to reduce the number of missed identifications. using a "search threshold" parameter to increase accuracy. europa.

The Security Policy Board reports to the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs. and protocols for the community and security policy organizations. development. Dr. • Address the safety. Biometric Consortium logo The main event of this consortium is the Biometric Consortium Conference. • Facilitate symposia/workshops to include the participation of academia and private industry. It serves as the US government focal point for the research. testing. . development. and avoiding duplication of effort within the Government community. 1995 by the Facilities Protection Committee. and ethical issues surrounding this technology. private industry. a committee that reports to the Security Policy Board through the Security Policy Forum. and application of biometric-based personal identification/authentication technology. • Provide a forum for information exchange between the Government. minimizing cost. • Create standardized testing databases. test. The objective of the Biometric Consortium is to provide a forum for information exchange on biometric technology among the Government. legal. In 1994. performance. • Advise and assist member agencies concerning the selection and application of biometric devices. Campbell and Ms. respectively. Both NSA and NIST co-chair the BC. published proceedings. agendas. as required. to address specific areas of need within the Government biometric community. The Biometric Consortium's charter was formally approved on December 7. • to address the following: • Coordinate with the Information Systems Security Committee to foster awareness of biometrics. • Establish a feedback mechanism for issues that are exposed during the actual application of this technology. • to meet regularly to: • Promote the science and performance of biometrics. procedures. evaluation and application of biometric-based personal authentication technology. Facilities Protection Committee. and Information Systems Security Committee. • Establish increased Government and commercial interaction. industry and academia. held every fall. and academia. Benincasa. and meeting minutes to the Chairpersons of the Security Policy Board. Alyea took over as chair and vice chair. evaluation. • Provide copies of all meeting invitations. • to coordinate technological concerns and issues of performance and efficiency within the Government in order to serve the best interests of the taxpayer. History The Biometric Consortium met for the first time on October 1992 under the chairmanship of Dr. • to encourage the use and acceptance of biometric technology in areas of critical need and also concern itself with maximizing performance.Biometric Consortium 11 Biometric Consortium The Biometric Consortium is a US government sponsored consortia created by the National Security Agency (NSA) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Mission The Biometric Consortium's charter states that the mission of the Biometric Consortium is: • to serve as a Government focal point for research. • Establish ad hoc bodies.

Nowadays identification documents are easily forged by criminals. Furthermore. identification of individuals and assist in locating individuals suspected of criminal activity by the law enforcement officials.000 ID cards per year. org/ Biometric Database Law (Israel) The Biometric Database Law (Hebrew: ‫יוהיז יכמסמב םיירטמויב יוהיז ינותנו םיירטמויב יוהיז יעצמא תללכה קוח‬ ‫ )‏9002-ט"סשתה .[1] [2] Law's targets The laws's targets which are presented in its first section are: (1) Determining the arrangements which would allow the identification and verification of the identity of Israeli residents by including biometric identification means and biometric identification data in passports and identity cards. because any leaks could be used by criminals or hostile individuals against Israeli residents. as described in paragraph (1). criminal and economic offenses. biometrics. producing double records for the same person. in question the loss. including: Fake ID cards and passports. The data of the Israeli Police indicates that about 52 percent of the individuals whom submitted requests for new identity . and defining the permitted uses of the database by the Israel Police forces and the Israeli security authorities. biometric identification data generated from them. and that a biometric government database of all Israeli citizens and residents would be created which would be used for biometric identification that would allow the management of access control. (3) Determining the necessary arrangements to protect the privacy of the residents whom provided their biometric data. that the collected data would be integrated onto the Israeli digital identity cards and digital passports. and to determine the permitted uses of such data and measures. determining that fingerprints and facial contours would be collected from all Israeli residents. determining the means of access to the biometric database and securing the information in it. including prominent Israeli scientists and security experts. (2) Establishment of a biometric database which would include biometric identification means which would be integrated onto identification documents. for which submitted requests were handed in for new identity cards. When the law passed in December 2009 it was determined that he law be gradually applied and that at the first phase. and activities which harm Israel's national security. theft and destruction of about 150. the inclusion of one's biometric data in the central database would be voluntary. the facts which led to the passing of the law are also explained: The law is aimed for the dealing with the serious issues which the State of Israel is facing in the recent years in identifying documents which are produced by the Interior Ministry. and identity theft which are caused when using the documentation of a person from whom the identity was stolen. These examples.Biometric Consortium 12 External links • Biometric Consortium official website [1] References [1] http:/ / www. theft and destruction of the ID cards occurred several times for the same resident during these three years. to prevent forgery and the using of a false identity. allow the misuse of identification documents for illegal immigration. From 2005 to 2007 the Interior Ministry reported the loss.עדימ רגאמבו‬Is an Israeli Law which the Knesset passed in December 2009. In many cases. Opponents of the highly controversial law. whom often try to geth the assistance of state workers. warned that the existence of such a database could damage both civil liberties and state security.

idi.)ירטמויבה רגאמה לוהינל תושרה‬This data would be used to issue resident identification documents and for verification of an individual's identity.4055) . 13 Law's clauses The employees of the Interior Ministry would be authorized to collect biometric identification data from the Israeli population.forward.com/Home/Article.7340. between the yers 1995 to 2006 had a criminal record.aspx) . stolen and/or destructed.haaretz.D. by the means of rechecking an individual's biometric identification data by authorized officials (police officer.il/sites/english/BreakingTheNews/Pages/ IsraelAndTheBiometricDatabase. aspx?id=149360) [2] YNET: Biometric Database . aspx?id=149360) . etc. ynet. and to transfer the data to a database which would be managed by the biometric database management authority (‫ .ynetnews.L-3754468. com/ Home/ Article.com/articles/ 0. of which 10 percent have a criminal record of distribution of counterfeit documents. an employee of the Shin Bet.7340.Biometric Database Law (Israel) cards after theirs was lost.Published in jpost. an employee of the Mossad. although selected government officials would be capable of linking between the to databases to retrive additional data.Published on 6/21/2010 .com on 11/16/2009 • The State of Israel and the Biometric Database Law: Political Centrism and the Post-Democratic State / Nitzan Lebovic and Avner Pinchuk (http://www. co.00.Published in ynetnews.L-3614965.com on 10/29/2008 • Digital World: Getting to know all about you and me / David Shamah (http://www.jpost.html) .com/articles/112033/) .com/news/ following-criticism-netanyahu-defers-vote-on-biometric-database-law-1. Database Law / Nathan Jeffay (http://www. jpost.com on 8/12/2009 • Following criticism.org.Published in forward.00.Published in haaretz. The biometric database would be stored separatly from the government's older existing identity database. References [1] Digital World: Getting to know all about you and me (http:/ / www. il/ articles/ 0.). Netanyahu defers vote on biometric database law (http://www.com on 7/21/2009 • Israel Poised To Pass National I.A Danger to State Security (http:/ / www. html) External links • Biometric database bill passes first vote / Erez Ronen (http://www.

To store biometric data on the contactless chip. Albania and Brazil) are fully ICAO9303 compliant biometric travel documents. The comparison of biometric features is performed outside the passport chip by electronic border control systems (e-borders). fingerprint recognition. it includes a minimum of 32 kilobytes of EEPROM storage memory. as in e-mail) that contains biometric information that can be used to authenticate the identity of travelers. These were adopted after assessment of several different kinds of biometrics including retinal scan. and runs on an interface in accordance with the ISO/IEC 14443 international standard. also known as an e-passport or ePassport. Document and chip characteristics are documented in the International Civil Aviation Organisation's (ICAO) Doc 9303. The ICAO defines the biometric file formats and communication protocols to be used in passports. . Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) is used to authenticate the data stored electronically in the passport chip making it expensive and difficult (as of 2010) to forge when all security mechanisms are fully and correctly implemented. Only the digital image (usually in JPEG or JPEG2000 format) of each biometric feature is actually stored in the chip.Biometric passport 14 Biometric passport A biometric passport. It uses contactless smart card technology. is a combined paper and electronic passport (hence the e-. such as the USA Passport card. amongst others. usually printed on the cover of passports The currently standardized biometrics used for this type of identification system are facial recognition. of the passport. Some national identity cards (e. These standards intend interoperability between different countries and different manufacturers of passport books.[1] [2] [3] The passport's critical information is both printed on the data page of the passport and stored in the chip.g. and iris recognition. or center page. Countries with biometric passports:   Biometric passports available to the general public  Announced future availability of biometric passports Symbol for biometric passports. including a microprocessor chip (computer chip) and antenna (for both power to the chip and communication) embedded in the front or back cover. However others. in the Netherlands. are not.

[9] Note that in some early biometric passports BAC wasn't used at all. Random chip identifiers reply to each request with a different chip number. Attacks Since the introduction of biometric passports several attacks are presented and demonstrated: • Non-traceable chip characteristics. the picture) is changed. For his demonstration Van Beek altered chip information and signed it using his own document signing key of a non-existing country. In 2008 Jeroen van Beek demonstrated that not all passport inspection systems check the cryptographic signature of a passport chips. etc. The resulting lookup table allows an attacker to determine where a chip is from. using EAC is mandatory for all documents issued starting 28 June 2009. the reader needs to provide a key which is derived from the Machine Readable Zone [Mrz]: the date of birth. The digital signature is made using a document signing key which itself is signed by a country signing key. This prevents unauthorized reading. allowing attacker to read the chip's content without providing a key. In 2010 Tom Chothia and Vitaliy Smirnov documented an attack that allows an individual passport to be traced. flight coupons and other public information it's possible to significantly reduce the number of possible keys. BAC protects the communication channel between the chip and the reader by encrypting transmitted information. If a file in the chip (e. In 2008 a Radboud / Lausitz University team demonstrated that it's possible to determine which country a passport chip is from without knowing the key required for reading it. this can be detected since the hash value is incorrect. Using BAC is optional. an attacker cannot (easily) eavesdrop transferred information without knowing the correct key. Using online flight booking sites. • Shielding the chip. Furthermore it uses stronger encryption than BAC. Using EAC is optional.[6] [7] by sending specific BAC authentication requests. • Passive Authentication (PA). Before data can be read from a chip. In 2006 Lukas Grunwald demonstrated that it is trivial to copy passport data from a passport chip into a standard ISO/IEC 14443 smartcard using a standard contactless card interface and a simple file transfer tool. Laurie demonstrated the attack by reading the passport chip of a Daily Mail's reporter in its envelope without opening it. • Extended Access Control (EAC). EAC is typically used to protect finger prints and iris scans. If BAC is used. • Basic Access Control (BAC).including at least the US .g. finger print. In 2006 Adam Laurie wrote software that tries all known passport keys within a given range.[11] Grunwald used a passport that did not use Active Authentication (anti-cloning) and did not change the data held on the copied chip to keep its cryptographic signature valid. EAC adds functionality to check the authenticity of both the chip (chip authentication) and the reader (terminal authentication).Biometric passport 15 Data protection Biometric passports are equipped with protection mechanisms to avoid and / or detect attacks: • Non-traceable chip characteristics. Using PA is mandatory. The chip contains a file (SOD) that stores hash values of all files stored in the chip (picture. • Active Authentication (AA). The chip contains a private key that cannot be read or copied. thus implementing one of Witteman's attacks. Using AA is optional.have integrated a very thin metal mesh into the passport's cover to act as a shield when the passport cover is closed. the date of expiry and the document number. • Basic Access Control (BAC). This prevents tracing of passport chips.[4] The use of shielding is optional.[10] • Passive Authentication (PA). Using random identification numbers is optional. PA prevents modification of passport chip data. AA prevents cloning of passport chips. Readers need access to all used public country keys to check whether the digital signature is generated by a trusted country. In the EU.[8] allowing an attacker to guess / crack the key required for reading the chip.[5] The team fingerprinted error messages of passport chips from different countries. Some countries .) and a digital signature of these hashes. This can only be detected by checking the country signing keys that are used to sign the . In 2005 Marc Witteman showed that the document numbers of Dutch passports were predictable. but its existence can easily be proven.

The main problem they point out is that data on the passports can be transferred with wireless RFID technology.[13] Van Beek did not update the original passport chip: instead an ePassport emulator was used. The attack is documented in supplement 7 of Doc 9303 (R1-p1_v2_sIV_0006)[19] and can be solved by patching inspection system software. Only 5 out of 60+ countries are using this central database. It is supposed to get a higher security level.if the chip design is susceptible to this attack. [stating that] European governments have forced a document on its citizens that dramatically decreases security and increases the [22] risk of identity theft. but the scientific security community recently also addressed the threats from untrustworthy verifiers.required for reading fingerprints and updating certificates . it may also allow anyone with the necessary equipment to perform the same task.[14] Also in 2008. the BBC published an article [21] on the British ePassport. It is not.[15] The release included a video clip that demonstrated problems using a forged Elvis Presley passport that is recognized as a valid US passport. This is not a good idea to use this technology'". citing the above stories and adding that: "Nearly every country issuing this passport has a few security experts who are yelling at the top of their lungs and trying to shout out: 'This is not secure. the information might wind up in the wrong hands.when implemented ." Most security measures are designed against untrusted citizens (the "provers"). There are lots of technical flaws in it and there are things that have just been forgotten. then verifying whether it is right. citing a specialist who states "It is much too complicated. • Extended Access Control (EAC). or nations using poorly implemented. but not yet implemented in biometric passports. It is in places done the wrong way round . If the personal information and passport numbers on the chip are not encrypted.result in a vulnerable inspection process. Note that supplement 7 features vulnerable examples in the same document that .Biometric passport document signing keys.." and adding that the Future of Identity in the Information Society (FIDIS) network's research team (a body of IT security experts funded by the European Union) has "also come out against the ePassport scheme.[20] Grunwald states that if an EAC-key .[16] [17] • Active Authentication (AA). On 15 December 2006.amongst others . These are under scientific study. 16 Opposition Privacy activists in many countries question and protest the lack of information about exactly what the passports' chip will contain. In 2008 Jeroen van Beek demonstrated that optional security mechanisms can be disabled by removing their presence from the passport index file. The Hacker's Choice implemented all attacks and published code to verify the results. and whether they impact civil liberties. which can become a major vulnerability. Although this could allow ID-check computers to obtain a person's information without a physical connection. an attacker can upload a false certificate with an issue date far in the future.[18] This allows an attacker to remove .reading data first.[23] New cryptographic solutions such as private biometrics are being proposed to mitigate threats of mass theft of identity. . unsecure electronic systems.[8] This may allow an attacker to clone passport chips that use the optional Active Authentication anti-cloning mechanism on chips . parsing data. such as corrupt governmental organizations. so it is basically not doing what it is supposed to do. To check country signing keys the ICAO PKD[12] can be used. The affected chips block read access until the future date is reached. In 2005 Marc Witteman showed that the secret Active Authentication key can be retrieved using power analysis. In 2007 Luks Grunwald presented an attack that can make EAC-enabled passport chips unusable.anti-cloning mechanisms (Active Authentication).is stolen or compromised. interpreting data..

[28] According to EU requirements. however this is being considered by the United Kingdom Passport Service.e. Free for people over 65.[25] The specifications are binding for the Schengen agreement parties. As of 29 June 2009. available since 29 March 2010): €20 for adults.06. only national that are signatories to the Schengen Acquis are required to add fingerprint biometrics. The German passports printed after 1 November 2007 contain two fingerprints.[42] • Latvia (available since 20 November 2007): An adult passport costs Ls15 (€21.[32] • Estonia (available since 22 May 2007): EEK 450 (€28. Passports contain fingerprints. an unexpired tax stamp is only required when passing through Italian passport control). The Netherlands also takes fingerprints and is the only EU member that decided to store these fingerprints centrally. valid for 10 years.50. • Cyprus (available since 13 December 2010) : €70.[29] In these EU nations.[31] • Czech Republic (available since 1 September 2006): 600 CZK for adults (valid 10 years).[36] [37] • Greece (available since 26 August 2006) €76. 115 DKK for children (valid for 5 years) and 350 DKK for over 65 (valid for 10 years).90. valid for 5 years.76) (valid for 5 years).[39] [40] • Ireland (available since 16 October 2006): €80. Passports are valid for 5 years. the EU countries.[30] • Belgium (introduced in October 2004): €71 or €41 for children + local taxes.53 [prior to 25 June 2008]). passports contain fingerprints. all newly issued passports contain fingerprints. As of 29 June 2009.[24] This combination of the biometrics aims to create an unrivaled level of security and protection against fraudulent identification papers.2006. i.40 (valid for 5 years). one from each hand.[38] • Hungary (available since 29 August 2006): 6000 HUF (€24). 100 CZK for children (valid 5 years). As of March 2009 all newly issued passports contain fingerprints.[35] • Germany (available since November 2005): ≤23 year old applicants (valid for 6 years) €37. >24 years (valid 10 years) €59 Passports issued from 1 November 2007 on include fingerprints. plus tax stamps of €40. As of 29 June 2009. .[27] Currently. The Romanian passports will also contain two fingerprints. Passports are valid for 5 years.50. no obligation to fingerprint biometrics) • Italy (available since 26 October 2006): €42.2009.Iceland.[34] • France (available since April 2006): €86 or €89 (depending whether applicant provides photographs). while a chip-free child's version costs €26. one from each hand. the price of the passport will be: • Austria (available since 16 June 2006) An adult passport costs €69. valid for 5 years. The European Data Protection Supervisor has stated that the current legal framework fails to "address all the possible and relevant issues triggered by the inherent imperfections of biometric systems". As of January 2010 newly issued passports contain fingerprints. in addition to a digital photograph. all newly issued passports contain fingerprints. the British biometric passport only uses a digital image and not fingerprinting. valid for 10 years.08. valid for 10 years • Denmark (available since 1 August 2006): DKK 600 for adults (valid for 10 years). and fingerprints by 29. As of 16 June 2009.[26] These countries are obliged to implement machine readable facial images in the passports by 28.[41] valid for 10 years. Norway and Switzerland.Biometric passport 17 Types European Union European passports planned to have digital imaging and fingerprint scan biometrics placed on the contactless chip. all newly [33] issued passports contain fingerprints. • Finland (available since 21 August 2006) €53 (valid for max. and three of the four European Free Trade Association countries . Since June 2009.29 per year (first is mandatory. 5 years). Technical specifications for the new passports has been established by the European Commission. • Bulgaria (introduced in July 2009. except Ireland and UK. all newly issued passports contain fingerprints. (Not Signatory to Schengen Acquis. 10000 HUF (€40) valid for 10 years.

Dutch identity cards are lookalike versions of the holder's page of the passport and contain the same biometric information.[45] • Portugal (available since 31 July 2006 . all newly issued passports contain fingerprints. As of 29 June 2009.[43] • Luxembourg (available since 28 August 2006): €30. As of 29 June 2009.33. valid max 5 years. • Slovenia (available since 28 August 2006): €36 for adults.45 (price at the 7 November 2010). new passport includes both facial images and fingerprints. €40 for children under 12. • Romania (available since 31 December 2008): 276 RON (€67). One of the documents – ID card with electronic signature. €31 for children from 3 to 18 years of age.29€. (Aged 30 or less a Spanish passport is valid for 5 years.27€ valid for 5 years and for children under 5 years 8. will be used locally within the country. all newly issued passports contain fingerprints. For persons over 16 years old. • Netherlands (available since 28 August 2006): Approximately €11 on top of regular passport (€38. The passport will be valid for 5 years. €35 for children between 10–16 years (valid for 5 years) and €14 for children under 10 years (valid for 2 years).special passport. Electronic chip of biometric passport will contain digital images of fingerprints and photo of passport holder. and the biometric passport with an electronic chip to be used for traveling abroad. They include fingerprints of both index fingers as of October 2009. €28 for children up to 3 years of age. valid 10 years. valid for 10 years.ordinary passport): €60 for adults (€50 for those who are over 65 years old). • Sweden (available since October 2005): SEK 400 (valid for 5 years).[44] • Malta (available since 8 October 2008): €70 for persons over 16 years old. Albania The Albanian biometric passport is available since May 2009. 28 August 2006 . 70PLN for students. Valid for 5 years. Passports issued from 29 June 2009 include fingerprints of both index fingers. valid for 3 years. costs 6000 Lekë. valid for 10 years. Passports issued from 21 September 2009 include fingerprints. valid for 2 years. • Poland (available since 28 August 2006): 140 PLN (€35) for adults. the photo and all the data written on the passport. All passports have 32 pages. As of 19 Jan 2010.[50] [51] [52] . all newly issued passports contain fingerprints. For children up to 16 years old. none of the issued biometric passports mentioned above include fingerprints as of 5 May 2010.33) cost €49.[48] • UK (introduced March 2006): £77.[47] • Spain (available since 28 August 2006) at a price of €13. valid for 10 years. no obligation to fingerprint biometrics. The microchip contains ten fingerprints. otherwise they remain valid for 10 years). valid for 5 years for those over the age of 6. Armenia In September 2011 Armenia will introduce two new identity documents to replace ordinary passports of Armenian citizens. All passports have 32 pages.[46] • Slovakia (available since 15 January 2008) An adult passport(>13years costs 33. and for 3 years for those under 6. As of 29 June 2009. valid for 5 years. while a chip-free child's(5–13 years) version costs 13. valid for 5 years. a 48-page version is available at a €2 surcharge.19€ valid for 10 years.) 18 Unless otherwise noted.Biometric passport • Lithuania (available since 28 August 2006): LTL 100 (€29). (€50) and is valid for 10 years.[49] (Not Signatory to Schengen Acquis. but valid only for 2 years.50 for adults and £49 for children under the age of 16.

developed by Canada Border Services Agency. .[56] Passport Canada began a pilot project in 2009 for special and diplomatic passport applicants. It was produced by German printer Giesecke & Devrient (G&D) following the Visa Waiver Program's requirements. Since 18 January 2010 only biometric passports can be obtained at issuing offices inside Croatia.[57] China On January 30. Airport security has been upgraded to allow Australian ePassport bearers to clear immigration controls more rapidly. In the 2008 Federal Budget.[60] [61] Croatia Available since 1 July 2009 and costing 390 HRK (€53).[54] Brunei The Bruneian biometric passport was introduced on 17 February 2007. Jim Flaherty.[53] Bosnia and Herzegovina Available since 15 October 2009 and costing 40 KM (€ 20.[55] Canada Canada has recently introduced biometrics in the use of passports with the help of digitized photos. This technology is being used at border crossings that have electronic readers that are able to read the chip in the cards and verify the information present in the card and on the passport. The face. and facial recognition technology has been installed at immigration gates. first in the capital Brasília and Goiás state. The Bruneian ePassport has the same functions as the other biometric passports. The future passports may contain a chip that holds a picture of the person and personal information such as name and date of birth. Valid for 5 years. This method aims at increasing efficiency and accuracy of identifying people at the border crossing. the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China launched a trial issuance of e-passports for public affairs. fingerprint and other biometric features of the passport holder will be [58] [59] digitalized and stored in pre-installed contactless smart chip in the passport. Minister of Finance announced the electronic passport will be introduced in 2011. Brazil Brazil started issuing ICAO compliant passports in December 2006. On 1 June 2010 Bosnia and Herzegovina issued its first EAC passport. Ordinary biometric passports will be introduced by the Ministry of Public Security in the future. Until the end of January 2011 this last will be issued all over Brazil.Biometric passport 19 Australia The Australian biometric passport was introduced in October 2005. including a digitized photograph. Produced by Bundesdruckerei. CANPASS. The microchip contains the same personal information that is on the color photo page of the ePassport.51). However just in December 2010 it began to issue passports with microchips. 2011. Diplomatic missions and consular offices must implement new issuing system until 28 June 2010. The chip contains two fingerprints and a digital photo of the holder. is currently being used by some major airports that have kiosks set up to take digital pictures of a person’s eye as a means of identification.

after which generates access keys to unlock the chip data for reader access.[63] India has also given out a contract to TCS for issuing e-passports through passport seva kendra. [66] . Application fees & procedures remains unchanged. Digital data including holder's personal data and facial image will be contained in the contactless chip embedded in the back cover of e-Passport and e-Doc/I. Hong Kong SAR The Hong Kong Immigration Department has. biometric passports began to be issued in May 2004. about 35-40 USD at that date. The biometric passport has been tested with passport readers abroad and is noted to have a 4 second response time – less than that of a US Passport (10 seconds). India India has recently initiated first phase deployment of Biometric e-Passport for Diplomatic Passport holders in India and abroad. Initially.[64] Indonesia Indonesia will start using e-Passport at January 26. from 5 February 2007. Pratibha Patil. Existing HKSAR Passports and Documents of Identity for Visa Purposes will remain valid until their expiry. Nashik and IIT Kanpur. In Jan 2010. The passport need not be carried in a metal jacket for security reasons as it first needs to be passed through a reader. the India Security Press.000(US$66) for the 48-page. the cost of the passport was 1. It is expected to be made available to ordinary citizens from September 2010 onwards.000IRR ($50 USD) for adults and 250. The Dominican Republic is the only country whose passport does not have the biometric symbol on its cover. On 25 June 2008 Indian Passport Authority issued first e-passport to the President of India. Though the e-passport is not a mandatory until 2015. The cost of a new passport is 500. 2011. introduced the electronic Passport (e-Passport) and electronic Document of Identity for Visa Purposes (e-Doc/I) which are compliant with the standard of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). the processing time is 19 working days. The e-passport is under the first phase of deployment and will be initially restricted to diplomatic passport holders.[65] Iran Iran started issuing diplomatic and service biometric passports in July. 2007.250 DOP. The passport contains a security chip with personal data and digital images. The new passports have been designed indigenously by the Central Passport Organization.00 (US$39) for the 24-page passport. India plans to open 77 such centers across the country to issue these passports. The passport will cost around Rp600. For children under 11 year of age not holding a Hong Kong Permanent Identity Card. Ordinary biometric passports began to be issued on February 20.Biometric passport 20 Dominican Republic In the Dominican Republic. the new passports will have a 64KB chip with a photograph of passport holder and subsequently include the holder's fingerprint(s).000IRR ($25 USD) for minors. The Immigration Department pledges to complete the process of an application within 10 working days. 2011. and Rp350.[62] Iceland Available since 23 May 2006 and costing ISK 5100 (ISK 1900 for under 18 and over 67).

Malaysia is however not a member of the Visa Waiver Program (VWP) and its biometric passport does not conform to the same standards as the VWP biometric document because the Malaysian biometric passport was issued ahead of the VWP requirement.Biometric passport 21 Iraq In April 2009.[68] Macao SAR Applications for electronic passports and electronic travel permits have been started and processed since 1 September 2009. The passport of the Republic of Moldova with biometric data contains a chip which holds digital information. Moldova The Moldovan biometric passport is available from 1 January 2008.[67] Kosovo In May 2011.000 Iraqi dinars or about $20 USD. Macedonia Available since 2 April 2007 and costing 1500 MKD or c. . Also the biometric passport was designed to be read only if the receiving country has the authorization from the Malaysian Immigration Department. the new series is a biometric passport available to the public which would cost 25. Malaysia started issuing ICAO compliant passports from February 2010.the general passports directorate revealed new electronic system to issue the new A-series passports in contract with the German SAFE ID Solutions. as well as the traditional information. €22. The difference lies in the storage of fingerprint template instead of fingerprint image in the chip. the Ministry of Interior of the Republic of Kosovo[a] announced that biometric passports will be issued in the summer of 2011 after the winning firm is chosen and awarded the production of the passports. the Iraqi Ministry of Interior . It is valid for 7 years (for persons over 7) and 4 years (for persons less than 7) respectively. developed the technology. including the holder's signature. Sovereign Military Order of Malta Since 2005 the SMOM diplomatic and service passports include biometric features and are compliant with ICAO standards. of Moldova. the rest of the technologies are the same.U. It was introduced as a request of European Union to safe the borders between the E. after a local company. IRIS Corporation. and R. The new Moldovan biometric passport costs approximately 760 MDL (€45)[69] and is obligatory from 1 January 2011. Malaysia Malaysia was the first country in the world to issue biometric passports in 1998.

€23.). Travellers' data captured in the biometric passport can be accessed instantly and read by any security agent from any spot of the globe through an integrated network of systems configured and linked to a centrally-coordinated passport data bank managed by the Nigerian Immigrations Service. €20.e.0 (was 2.5)[74] (Aged 3 or less a Serbian passport is valid for 3 years. including a hidden encoded image.Biometric passport 22 Montenegro The Montenegrin biometric passport was introduced in 2008.) . and a tamper-proof electronic microchip costing at around 950 pesos. aged 3 to 14 it is valid for 5 years. no optional fingerprint etc. or c. like Australia and the USA.000 RSD or approx. and the biometric passport is available from 25 September 2009 to all Moroccan citizens holders of an electronic identity card. Norway Available since 1 October 2005 and costing NOK 450 for adults. and has done it since 2008. New Zealand is using the facial biometric identifier. and the polycarbonate leaf in the front (version 2009) of the book inside which the chip is located.The harmonized ECOWAS Smart electronic passport issued by the Nigerian Immigrations Service is powered by biometric technology in tandem with the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) specifications for international travels. 2009.500 rubles (approx. There are two identifying factors . €50. BAC-crypted. It costs approximately €40. holographic laminate.[70] It costs 300DH (approximately €27). Philippines On August 11. New Zealand Introduced in November 2005.[71] [72] Russia Russian biometric passport was introduced in 2006. an ultra-thin.the small symbol on the front cover indicating that an electronic chip has been embedded in the passport.[73] Biometric passport issued after 1 March 2010 is valid for 10 years. As of 2010. it costs 2.200 RSD or approx. early limited trials have been extended. the first biometric passport was released for President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. use only printed data and photo (i. NOK 270 for children. Serbia Available since 7 July 2008. and from 16 December 2010 costs 2. Pakistan In 2004 Pakistan became one of the first countries in the world to issue biometric passports compliant to ICAO standards. The new e-passport has various security features. Morocco The Moroccan biometric passport was introduced in 2008. USD 80). otherwise passport remain valid for 10 years. In December 2009. Nigeria Nigeria is currently one of the few nations in Africa that issues biometric passports.

On 27 August 2009. Since 1 March 2010. containing a photograph and two fingerprints recorded electronically.00 for children (-18 years old).000 Won or 55 US Dollars.[83] .[77] South Korea The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade of South Korea started issuing biometric passports to its citizens on August 25.Biometric passport 23 Singapore The Immigation & Checkpoints Authority (ICA) [75] of Singapore introduced the Singapore biometric passport (BioPass) on 15 August 2006.[79] Switzerland The Swiss biometric passport has been available since 4 September 2006. Business men/women who need to travel often will have a commercial passport that will contain 64 pages.600. and the validity of ordinary passport is 10 years. all issued passports are biometric. The cost is fixed to 55. With this. 100$ . and 7 years for the commercial passport. Cost to obtain a new passport will be SDG 250 aprox. The citizen's passport (ordinary passport) will be issued to ordinary citizens and will contain 48 pages.[78] Sudan The Republic of the Sudan started issuing electronic passports to citizens in May 2009.00 adult CHF 60. 2008.[82] Tajikistan Biometric passports will be issued in Tajikistan from 1 February 2010. The new electronic passport will be issued in three categories.[80] The cost is fixed to CHF 140. Singapore has met requirements under the US Visa Waiver Program which calls for countries to roll out their biometric passports before 26 October 2006. and the validity of the citizen's passport will be 5 years. It costs $100 USD to apply for Somalis living inside of Somalia.[81] Republic of China (Taiwan) Available since 29 December 2008 and costing NT$1. 200 for students and 100 for kids.[76] Somalia The new "e-passport" of Somalia was introduced and approved by the nation's Transitional Federal Government on 10 October 2006. Smaller passports that contain 32 pages only will be issued to children. and $150 USD for Somalis living abroad. Tajik Ministry of Foreign Affairs and German Muhlbauer signed a contract on purchase of blank biometric passports and appropriate equipment for Tajikistan. The microprocessor chip will contain the holder's information in addition to fingerprints. Somalia is now the first country on the African continent to have introduced the "e-passport".

a limited quantity of 100 passports a day was issued for Thai citizens. High security required cracking down on counterfeit passports. they are now required to possess machine-readable passports that comply with international standards. Additionally.[86] Colours of the new biometric passports have also be changed. such a passport must be a biometric passport if used to enter the U. development. beginning with January 1. 2009 the President of Uzbekistan signed a decree to change the dates for a phased exchange of populations existing passport to the biometric passport. version of the biometric passport (sometimes referred to as an electronic passport) has descriptive data and a digitized passport photo on its contactless chips.[91] A high level of security became a priority for the United States after the attacks of September 11.Biometric passport 24 Thailand The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Thailand[84] introduced the first biometric passport for Diplomats and Government officials on 26 May 2005. the chip is large enough (64 kilobytes) for inclusion of biometric identifiers.[87] Most recently Turkish Minister of the State announced that the government is printing the new passports at government minting office since the private contractor failed to deliver. bottle green and diplomatic passports wrap black colours. The U. 2001. In the first phase. the production stages of this high-tech passport commenced as the U. it is unclear when such a system will be deployed by the U. 23 June 2009 Islam Karimov issued a Presidential Decree [92] "On measures to further improve the passport system in the Republic of Uzbekistan. In October 2004.S.[89] United States The U.S. Another issue troubling Turks who wish to obtain a passport is the astronomical cost (for Turkish standards) of 360 TL (approximately €183) for a passport valid for 10 years. however. The awards totaled to roughly $1. the biometric passport will be issued to employees of ministries. Non-biometric passports are valid until their expiration dates. Accordingly. on 1 August 2005 a full operational service was installed and Thailand became the first country in Asia to issue an ICAO compliant biometric passport.000.S. individuals ..[85] Turkey Turkish passports which are compatible with European Union standards have been available since 1 June 2010. departments and agencies of the republic.S.S. From 1 June 2005. and does not have fingerprint information placed onto the contactless chip." On December 29. 2006. biometric passports will be phased in. Department of State now issues biometric passports only. and testing. in mid-Asia region to issue an ICAO compliant biometric passport. for travelers holding a valid passport issued on or after October 26. In accordance with this decree.000 for startup. claret red.S. Enhanced Border Security and Visa Entry Reform Act of 2002 (also known as the "Border Security Act"). if they wish to enter U. Passport is available since 10 July 2008. However. which states that such smartcard Identity cards will be able to replace visas. As for foreigners traveling to the U. The driving force of the initiative is the U. Uzbekistan In Uzbekistan.[88] Turkmenistan Turkmenistan became the first country in ex-USSR. special passports.[90] Although a system able to perform a facial-recognition match between the bearer and his or her image stored on the contactless chip is desired.S. visa-free under the Visa Waiver Program (VWP).S. visa-free under the VWP. Government Printing Office (GPO) issued awards to the top bidders of the program. Department of Homeland Security at its ports of entry. 2011. regular passports.

theregister. [12] "Icao Pkd" (http:/ / www2. 26th Jan 2010" (http:/ / www. It declared independence on 17 February 2008. int/ en/ MRTD/ Downloads/ Supplements to Doc 9303/ Supplement to ICAO Doc 9303 Release 7. Part 1. bbc. [3] "ICAO Document 9303. Retrieved 8 September 2010. com/ presentations/ bh-europe-09/ VanBeek/ BlackHat-Europe-2009-VanBeek-ePassports-Mobile-slides. pdf) (PDF). Wired. timesonline. [14] "ePassport emulator" (http:/ / dexlab.int. Volume 2 (e-passports)" (http:/ / hasbrouck. .com. . co. wired.thc. John (30 September 2008). [8] "Attacks on Digital Passports" (http:/ / wiki.Biometric passport who travel abroad or outside the country. html). The second phase will be for the rest of the population who will be to able get new passports for the period from 2012 to 2015. Retrieved 8 September 2010. . . Theregister. Retrieved 8 September 2010. "Defects in e-passports allow real-time tracking. Retrieved 8 September 2010. com/ videoplay?docid=-3185369830560352967). "Fakeproof e-passport is cloned in minutes" (http:/ / www. [7] "A Traceability Attack Against e-Passports. Dexlab. [15] "The Hacker's Choice ePassport tools" (http:/ / freeworld. Dice. cs. whatthehack. dc414. Retrieved 8 September 2010. Budapest. . Opendemocracy. co. 2008). Retrieved 8 September 2010. Retrieved 8 September 2010. ac. RFID chip has photo and fingerprints. "Elvis has left the border: ePassport faking guide unleashed" (http:/ / www. September 2006 [23] "E-government: who controls the controllers?" (http:/ / www.google. Retrieved 8 September 2010. Part 1. uk/ 2010/ 01/ 26/ epassport_rfid_weakness/ ). com/ category/ rfid/ ). int/ en/ MRTD/ Pages/ icaoPKD. jsp#/ thc-epassport/ ). Retrieved 8 September 2010.com.be. Volume 1 (OCR machine-readable passports)" (http:/ / hasbrouck. . Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Serbia and the self-proclaimed Republic of Kosovo. ece). pdf) (PDF).co. . Retrieved 8 September 2010. Sys-security. stm [22] Budapest Declaration on Machine Readable Travel Documents. net/ media-edemocracy/ egovernment_3254.com. [19] Doc 9303 supplement 7 (http:/ / www2. org/ documents/ ICAO9303-pt1-vol2. Newscientist. opendemocracy. [10] "Belgian Biometric Passport does not get a pass" (http:/ / www. Its independence is recognised by 75 UN member states. blackhat.net. org/ images/ 2/ 28/ WTH-slides-Attacks-on-Digital-Passports-Marc-Witteman. co. pdf) (PDF). . Dan (26 January 2010). [5] "Fingerprinting Passports" (http:/ / www. FIDIS NoE.uk. Retrieved 8 September 2010. org/ thc-epassport/ ). . org/ documents/ ICAO9303-pt1-vol1. pdf) (PDF). com/ article/ dn8227-metal-shields-and-encryption-for-us-passports.ac. Retrieved 8 September 2010. google. .org. [6] Goodin.icao. Tom Chothia and Vitaliy Smirnov. [17] Lettice. . Retrieved 8 September 2010. Theregister. [11] Kim Zetter. as well as citizens who receive a passport in connection with the achievement of a certain age or for other grounds provided by law. uk/ 1/ hi/ programmes/ click_online/ 6182207. .ucl. [13] Steve Boggan (August 6. [16] "The Hackers Choice (THC) ePassport RFID Vulnerability Demonstration" (http:/ / video. [21] http:/ / news. pdf) (PDF). 18 March 2007. while Serbia claims it as part of its own sovereign territory. pdf) (PDF).co. Part 3 (credit-card sized ID cards)" (http:/ / hasbrouck. Retrieved 8 September 2010. ru. . Retrieved 8 September 2010. uk/ ~tpc/ Papers/ PassportTrace. icao. nl/ ~erikpoll/ papers/ nluug. uk/ tol/ news/ uk/ crime/ article4467106. The Sunday Times. References: [1] "ICAO Document 9303. be/ crypto/ passport/ index. Video. Dan Goodin. uk/ 2008/ 09/ 30/ epassport_hack_description/ ). Retrieved 8 September 2010. Retrieved 6 October 2010. Retrieved 8 September 2010. pdf#page=35) [20] "PowerPoint Presentation" (http:/ / www.uk. 25 Venezuela Issued after July 2007. thc. . org/ documents/ ICAO9303-pt3. .[93] Notes and references Notes: a. pdf) (PDF). co. theregister. org/ download/ confs/ defcon15/ Speakers/ Grunwald/ Presentation/ dc-15-grunwald. .com. 14th International Conference on Financial Cryptography and Data Security 2010" (http:/ / www. [4] "Metal shields and encryption for US passports" (http:/ / www. Freeworld. Retrieved 8 September 2010. bham. cs. . . icao. . newscientist. . aspx). ac. The Register. pdf) (PDF). "Hackers clone E-Passports" (http:/ / www. [18] "ePassport reloaded goes mobile" (http:/ / www. dice. com/ science/ discoveries/ news/ 2006/ 08/ 71521). [2] "ICAO Document 9303. html). nl/ downloads. html/ ).nl. . . ucl. [9] "RFID-based Passports – What a bad bad idea" (http:/ / sys-security. Retrieved 9 February 20006.

20 October 2009. jsp). Retrieved 5 June 2010. bund. gr/ www. 64) (in Russian). htm) (in Italian). europa. 26 .it. [51] "Общество / Культура: У граждан Армении могут быть два вида паспортов" (http:/ / news. mnz.hu. de/ cln_156/ DE/ Themen/ Sicherheit/ PaesseAusweise/ eReisepass/ eReisepass_node. [42] "Avvio emissione di passaporto elettronico con impronte digitali" (http:/ / www. 25 December 2008.NET. dk/ da/ borgerservice/ pas/ paspriser/ ) (in Danish). 26 May 2009. 29 June 2009. "Decision-making under Pressure: The Negotiation of the Biometric Passports Regulation in the Council" (http:/ / www. Bundesministerium der Justiz. . Bundesministerium des Innern. dokumentai. Szilárd (6 July 2009). [33] "Estonian Passport Application" (http:/ / www.no. [29] COUNCIL REGULATION (EC) No 2252/2004 of 13 December 2004 on standards for security features and biometrics in passports and travel documents issued by Member States (http:/ / eur-lex. 11 January 2010. Consulate General of Estonia in New York. pdf). . 1 October 2009. Retrieved 5 June 2010. Washington. pl/ PressInfoEntry?id=152). . poliziadistato. [48] "Passport and visa" (http:/ / www. cri. asp?group_id=65& nItemID=4793& sSID=3. mfa. [34] "Fingerprints to be included in new passports as from 29 June" (http:/ / www. se/ en/ Start-page/ Travellers/ Travel-planning/ Passport-and-Visa/ ). Commission Decision C(2005)409 adopted on 28 February 2005 and Commission Decision C(2006)2909 adopted on 28 June 2006 [26] Council Regulation (EC) No 2252/2004 (http:/ / eur-lex. [35] "Passeport biométrique" (http:/ / vosdroits. finland. [41] "Passaporto Elettronico Fase II" (http:/ / poliziadistato. it/ pds/ file/ files/ nuovocosto_Passaporto_Elettronico. 29 December 2004. html) (in German). Service-public. Retrieved 8 September 2010. Retrieved 5 June 2010. . . eu/ LexUriServ/ site/ en/ oj/ 2004/ l_385/ l_38520041229en00010006. epractice. 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Retrieved 5 June 2010. . . Embassy of Finland. nrc. do?uri=CELEX:52008XX0806(01):EN:NOT) on the proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Council Regulation (EC) No 2252/2004 on standards for security features and biometrics in passports and travel documents issued by Member States. . 22 June 2009. Retrieved 5 June 2010. Retrieved 5 June 2010. Directgov. php?id=108362). html) (in German).nl. 6 Aug 2008 [28] "Dutch government to store fingerprints" (http:/ / www. [49] "Passport prices rise" (http:/ / www.. aspx?contentid=166960& nodeid=35831& culture=en-US). tv/ html/ eng/ about/ newsroom/ industry_news/ biometrics/ 2010_details_18. europa. Retrieved 5 June 2010. htm). Retrieved 5 June 2010. [25] EC News article (http:/ / ec. [47] "Slovenia to begin issuing second-generation biometric passports" (http:/ / www. si/ nc/ en/ splosno/ cns/ news/ article/ 12027/ 6380/ ). org/ Public/ default. "HU: Fingerprint in Hungarian Passports" (http:/ / www. eu/ LexUriServ/ LexUriServ. mae. .com (Sofia News Agency). . . 29 December 2009. com/ view_news. politi. php). 18 September 2009. [39] Molnár. [44] "Passports" (http:/ / washington. swedavia. it/ Ambasciata_LaValletta/ Archivio_News/ PASSAPORTOIMPRONTE. eu/ en/ news/ 292210). plusworld.A. [30] "Austria Adopts Fingerprint Passports" (http:/ / english.Biometric passport [24] Jonathan P. [43] "New Lithuanian Passport" (http:/ / www. . Arena. Retrieved 6 October 2010.fr. juris. . . Retrieved 5 June 2010. gov. amblavalletta. . 30 March 2009. eu/ justice_home/ news/ intro/ news_0606_en. Retrieved 5 June 2010. Retrieved 5 June 2010. kormanyszovivo. cn/ 6966/ 2009/ 03/ 30/ 2001s469447. do?uri=CELEX:32004R2252:EN:NOT) of 13 December 2004. gov. RCG. Retrieved 5 June 2010. service-public. . . politi. [52] "Армения. 7 July 2009. barev. hu/ news/ show/ news_1891) (in Hungarian). pwpw. Danish National Police. eng. . . ru/ document. Retrieved 5 June 2010. xml) (in (Norwegian)). php). Retrieved 5 June 2010. Kormányszóvivő. mfa. uio. Retrieved 5 June 2010. У граждан будет два типа удостоверений личности" (http:/ / biometrics. [32] "Priser på pas gældende fra 1. Retrieved 5 June 2010. see preamble 10-14 [27] Opinion of the European Data Protection Supervisor (http:/ / eur-lex. europa. Ministry of the Interior. Retrieved 5 June 2010. de/ pa_g_1986/ __5. News (Ministry of the Interior). Official Journal of the European Union.cri. Retrieved 6 October 2010. [46] "First biometric passport in Bucharest" (http:/ / www. pdf). esteri. Retrieved 5 June 2010. no/ publications/ working-papers2006/ papers/ wp06_11. arena. net/ society/ 16123-U-grazhdan-Armenii-mogut-byt-dva-vida-pasportov. xhtml) (in French). Personalisation of Identity Documents Centre. Retrieved 5 June 2010. Embassy of Luxembourg in Washington. nl/ international/ Features/ article2363938. [45] "The new Polish passport with fingerprint" (http:/ / www. . 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27 . Retrieved 5 June 2010. gov. Retrieved 5 June 2010. . globo. indian-tech-news. government says" (http:/ / www. asp?pr_id=582). aspx?id=1876402& ‫ص‬ ‫ص‬ ‫ص صصصص‬ ‫صص صص صص‬ ‫صص‬ ‫صص ص‬ cid=24) (in Arabic). . schweizerpass. . ica. Retrieved 2 March 2011. [61] "中 国 试 点 签 发 因 公 电 子 护 照 " (http:/ / bjyouth. .2010. 北 青 网 . php?cid=1. ru/ content/ view/ 384/ 85/ ) (in Russian). . Retrieved 5 June 2010. Retrieved 15 February 2011. Retrieved January 18. Retrieved 15 February 2011. Retrieved 6 October 2010. Retrieved 5 June 2010. 2009. shabelle. Retrieved 6 October 2010. mfa. html) (in Arabic). [74] "MUP RS . gov. gmanews. go. rs/ cms_cir/ dokumenta. . nsf/ putne-isprave. . html) (in German). gov. Retrieved June 5. ‫صص صصصص‬ [80] "Pass 10" (http:/ / www. August 11.com. . Retrieved 8 September 2010.rs. "Centrul Resurselor Informaţionale de Stat „Registru”" (http:/ / www. ca/ 2008/ pamphlet-depliant/ pamphlet-depliant1-eng. 2011-05-02. Retrieved 5 June 2010. . com/ arabic_news. customs. sd/ newpas. ica. [75] http:/ / www. htm). gov. Retrieved 14 March 2011. [56] Budget 2008: Responsible Leadership for Uncertain Times (http:/ / www. 2010. com. Retrieved 5 June 2010. . registru.net. 中 国 网 . [69] Centrul Resurselor InformaŢionale de Stat «Registru». I4donline. htm). [62] The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . html). cbsa. htm) [57] "CANPASS – Air" (http:/ / www. [82] "?" (http:/ / www. . 6 May 2010. Retrieved 8 September 2010. Ministry of Foreing Affrairs. [72] "Frequently asked questions regarding the 'e-passport'" (http:/ / www. passeport. . [81] "Gebühr/Preis und Gültigkeit" (http:/ / www. ir/ fa/ news/ 149707/ صدور-گذروا٠و-خاووادگو-Ù ‫صص ص صص‬ وتوو-شد) (in Persian). tv/ story/ 169542/ arroyo-first-to-receive-e-passport-from-dfa). [83] Yuldoshev. admin. com/ electronic-chip-enabled-passports-soon-in-india/ 187/ ). com/ article.What is an Australian ePassport?" (http:/ / www. 3 March 2009.com. Canada Border Services Agency. Koha Ditore. cn/ eng/ zxxx/ t791409. sun. gov. net/ news/ news-details. go. ca/ prog/ canpass/ canpassair-eng. . 2009. Retrieved 6 October. Retrieved 8 September 2010. . Retrieved 2011-05-02. . html). [65] Mustaqim Adamrah (February 12. immd. 19 April 2009. .GIM1391229-7823-POLICIA+ FEDERAL+ APRESENTA+ NOVO+ MODELO+ DE+ PASSAPORTE. gc. asiaplus. gmanews. . . i4donline. "First consignment of blank biometric passports for Tajikistan delivered to Dushanbe" (http:/ / www. . . schweizerpass. registru. NDTV. ndtv. cfm?u=5555). [58] "Foreign Minister Yang Jiechi Attends the Launch Ceremony for the Trial Issuance of E-Passports for Public Affairs" (http:/ / www.00. html). Retrieved 8 September 2010. [68] "Gjatë verës nis lëshimi i pasaportave biometrike" (http:/ / www. thejakartapost. 2010). indian-tech-news. ch/ pass/ de/ home/ ausweise/ pass_10. koha. Retrieved 15 February 2011. [60] "公 安 部 外 交 部 筹 备 签 发 电 子 护 照 主 题 图 案 征 求 意 见 " (http:/ / politics. Retrieved 5 June 2010.7. com. 2011. hk/ ehtml/ eppt_edi. 0404. 2010. [78] "Passport Issuance Fees" (http:/ / www. 人 民 网 . boca. 2010). gov. [54] (http:/ / video. gc. au/ site/ page. . gov. [71] "Arroyo first to receive e-passport from DFA" (http:/ / www. [59] "因 公 电 子 护 照 31日 试 点 签 发 可 使 持 照 人 快 速 通 关 " (http:/ / www.Immigration Department (http:/ / www. thejakartapost. htm). cn/ GB/ 1027/ 11837333. Retrieved 8 September 2010. [77] "?" (http:/ / www. ma/ ). th/ ). . asp?newsid=7874). h#).. "After US tests.Biometric passport [53] "SmartGate Frequently Asked Questions . jsp). tj/ en/ news/ 198/ 58564. "E-passport to premiere in January.gov. com/ convergence/ ndtv/ story. [84] "The Minister of Foreign Affairs meets with senior executives of Italian private companies and chairs the meeting of Team Thailand and Honorary Consul Generals of Thailand in Italy" (http:/ / www. md/ pa/ ). Mup. Australian Customs Service. budget. 22 February 2011. [70] "Passport portal of the Kingdom of Morocco" (http:/ / www. Kingdom of Morocco. sg/ [76] "?" (http:/ / app. [79] "‫( " صصصص صصص ص ص ص‬http:/ / passport. cn/ travel/ txt/ 2011-02/ 01/ content_21855650. August 11.com. Retrieved June 5. "Electronic chip enabled passports soon in India!" (http:/ / www. tabnak. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. [67] "‫( "صص ص ص صصص ص ص 01 صص ص ص ص ص ص ص ص ص صص ص ص ص صص صصص صصص صص ص ص ص‬http:// www.57518). [73] "Читаем биометрический паспорт" (http:/ / developers. kr/ passport/ Passport02_3. jsp?oid=76498320). com/ Videos/ Player/ Noticias/ 0. tv/ story/ 169543/ frequently-asked-questions-regarding-the-39e-passport39). china. [64] ITN Staff (January 24. Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. . sg/ pressrelease/ pressrelease_view. Avaz (27 October 2009). html) (in German).md. htm) [63] After US tests. asp?xItem=1239& ctNode=82& mp=1). . India to get first e-passport" (http:/ / www. .Putne isprave" (http:/ / www. aspx?id=NEWEN20080050016& ch=5/ 16/ 2008 11:13:00 AM). . net/ news/ ne1554. gov. radiosawa. India to get first e-passport (16 May 2008). mup. net/ index. com/ news/ 2010/ 12/ 02/ epassport-premiere-january-government-says. admin. . ch/ pass/ de/ home/ ausweise/ pass_10/ gebuehr_und_gueltigkeit. html) [55] "Brunei passport becomes Biometric passport" (http:/ / www. tw/ ct. html). fmprc. [66] "‫( " ص ص صصصص ص ص صص صصصص ص صصص ص‬http:/ / www. Kingdom of Thailand. 25 January 2010. people. . ynet. Retrieved 15 February 2011.

Open Source e-Passport reader software and wzMRTD—Open Source library for accessing e-Passports OpenSCDP. 2007. [92] http:/ / www. gov/ passport/ passport_2498.1 smartcards eCL0WN (http://dexlab. de/ haberler/ gundem/ 363040/ cagdas-pasaport-yolda) (in Turkish). Christopher (May 2007).int) • Public Key Directory (http://www2.html) .tr. keesingfightfraud. . tr/ ekonomi/ 14030770. keesingfightfraud. asp?gid=373). pdf) (PDF). [86] "?" (http:/ / www. Scotts Valley.icao.icao. Part 2 (http://www2. Rössling. [91] Bronk.int/en/MRTD/Downloads/Doc 9303/Doc 9303 English/Doc 9303 Part 1 Vol 2.org/) . egm.Complete Open Source X.html) .wzpass. turkmenistan.php).openscdp.com/download.com. ISBN 978-1434823182. Part 1.ejbca. Baker III Institute for Public Policy. CA: CreateSpace. .Biometric passport [85] (English) (Dutch) "Your partner in document verification" (http:/ / www. ePassport: The World's New Electronic Passport: A Report about the ePassport's Benefits.icao.epassport-book. 18 June 2009. Jöran. [88] "Umuma Mahsus (Lacivert) Pasaport Harçları" (http:/ / www. bedel. Part 3. Includes separate java development library for EAC certificates. pasaport. rnv. .Open Source Java Card implementation of the e-passport and Java API ePassport emulator (http://dexlab. archive. 28 Further reading • Gipp.rfdump. org/ Pubs/ Electronic Passport. bakerinstitute.icao.pdf) • ICAO Document 9303.icao.org (http://www.html) . Retrieved June 5.pdf) Free / open source utilities to read and copy passport chips: • • • • • • • • RFDUMP. . harc. . mgr [93] "Nuevo pasaporte electrónico entrará en vigencia a finales de año" (http:/ / www. org/ Pubs/ Electronic+ Passport.nl/downloads. The James A. ru/ ?page_id=3& lang_id=en& elem_id=13207& type=event). External links ICAO related information: • International Civil Aviation Organization (http://www. 2010. state. asp) (in Turkish). Risks and its Security (http://www.com. . Retrieved June 5. ut. com.pdf) • ICAO Document 9303. uz/ eng/ newsline/ uzbekistan_citizens_to_receive_a_biometric_passport.Open Source EAC-PKI for development and testing EJBCA.org/) . Retrieved 5 June 2010.free software for cloning / making your own ePassport chip using JCOP v4. org/ web/ 20070912190322/ http:/ / bakerinstitute. .org/) GPL tool for RFID ISO-Readers RFIDIOt.pdf) • ICAO Document 9303.org/scripts/icao/eacpki. Retrieved 5 June 2010. [89] "Turkmenistan introduces passports with biometric data of their holders" (http:/ / www. gov. Beel. Part 1. hurriyet. Electronic Passport" (http:/ / travel. hurriyet.int/en/MRTD/Downloads/Doc 9303/Doc 9303 English/Doc 9303 Part 1 Vol 1. 22 September 2006. Volume 1 (http://www2.aspx) • ICAO passport standards: • ICAO Document 9303. . Ivo (2007).org (http://jmrtd. Volume 1 (http://www2. ve/ noticias/ index. Retrieved 5 June 2010.S.free software for reading and cloning ePassport chip content using a Nokia NFC-enabled cell phone wzPASS (http://www.icao. pdf) on September 12. "Innovation by Policy: A Study of the Electronic Passport" (http:/ / web.nl/downloads.509 and EAC PKI.net/) .Open Source RFID python library with e-passport test tools JMRTD. R.org (http://rfidiot. gob.org (http://www.int/en/MRTD/Downloads/Doc 9303/Doc 9303 English/ Doc 9303 Part 2.int/en/MRTD/Pages/icaoPKD. . html). 2010. html). (Turkish) [87] "Çağdaş pasaport yolda" (http:/ / www. 10 July 2008.org (http://www. Volume 2 (http://www2. Retrieved 5 June 2010. php?act=ST& f=2& t=38137) (in Spanish). Archived from the original (http:/ / www.org/) . tr/ hizmet. hurriyet. [90] "The U. Bela. com/ site/ en/ recently-launched/ thailand-leads-the-way-in-asia-the-introduction-of-the-thai-e-passport-by-natenapa-kon.int/en/MRTD/Downloads/Doc 9303/Doc 9303 English/Doc 9303 Part 3 Vol 1.

The Biometrics Vulnerability Assessment Methodology Although there has been significant recent research into the vulnerability of various biometric systems to spoofing attacks. The objective of the Biometrics Institute is to provide a forum for information and education on biometric technologies for users. once collected.[8] This Code was approved by the Australian Privacy Commission in September 2006 in order to protect consumer personal data beyond the current protections offered by the Australian Privacy Act. The goal is to develop a general methodology for vulnerability assessment applicable to any biometric system. and to apply it to a number of biometrics. History The Biometric Institute was founded by Ted Dunstone[5] in October 2001 with initial funding from the Australian government. for a given system and method of attack. transport etc. This is a practical measure which is readily incorporated into system design. Testing of a voice biometric system will begin in the near future. financial services. Since 2007. a level of assurance about the maximum proportion of attacks likely to succeed. partly co-funded by the Australian Government through the Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet. academia and other key stakeholders. suppliers. For example the Biometrics Institute addresses the responsible use of Biometrics in schools by encouraging organisations to consider any issues that may impact on a person's privacy before implementing biometrics and recommends Privacy Impact Assessments [9]. Suggested countermeasures to identified risks are also provided. This set up is very different from most other biometrics associations.) double the voting rights than the suppliers. The organisation is based in Australia and has over 100 member organisations [2] from around the world. The Biometrics Institute addressed this issue in 2004 with the development of a Privacy Code. It is predominately a user group representing government departments and private organisations who are using or looking at using biometrics. there is as yet no generally agreed method of assessing the degree of vulnerability in a principled fashion. a Biometrics Institute Privacy Code [23] and a Biometrics Vulnerability Assessment Methodology [7]. the Biometrics Institute New Zealand Conference in March in Wellington[4] and a Technology Exhibition in November in Canberra every year. The Biometrics Institute Privacy Code A concern is how a person's biometric. the Biometrics Institute has been working on this problem. education.[6] The Biometrics Institute constitution was designed that way that it allows those user organisations (governments. research and testing of biometrics in Australia and New Zealand. The association holds three Biometrics Institute conferences [3] every year: the Biometrics Institute Australia Conference in May in Sydney.Biometrics Institute 29 Biometrics Institute The Biometrics Institute is the independent Not for profit association providing information. can be protected. Its Board of Directors also has to have a majority of those user organisations. The aim of the methodology is to provide. . A methodology has been developed and applied to a number of face and fingerprint biometric systems. The Biometrics Institute has been working on two government co-funded projects.[1] but suppliers also form part of the membership.

Retrieved 2008-10-28. Retrieved 2008-10-28. it educates and informs members. biometricsinstitute. The Age (Melbourne). biometricsinstitute. html). com. accessmylibrary. zdnet. cfm?an=1& subarticlenbr=27 External links • Biometrics Institute official website (http://www. 15 August 2007.biometricsinstitute. it promotes the development and awareness of standards. com. . Retrieved 2008-10-28. potential users and vendors. org/ displaycommon. 27 September 2004. [5] "Companies get into a biometrics groove" (http:/ / www. org/ displaycommon. cio. . ZDNet Australia. org/ displaycommon.139023764. theage. au/ news/ security/ soa/ Biometrics-The-body-and-soul-of-security/ 0. au/ insight/ security/ soa/ Biometrics-Still-searching-for-a-pulse/ 0.139187129-3. 6 April 2005. [7] http:/ / www. . . pl?path=/ articles/ 2003/ 12/ 22/ 1071941669236. htm). biometricsinstitute. The Dominion Post. .00. au/ cgi-bin/ common/ popupPrintArticle. it is a forum for discussion about biometrics between members. de/ news/ cio_worldnews/ 841068/ ).org/) . [6] "Biometrics: The body and soul of security" (http:/ / www. cfm?an=1& subarticlenbr=48 [8] "Biometrics: Still searching for a pulse" (http:/ / www. htm). com. References [1] "Institute pushes Australia's smart card plan" (http:/ / www.120263453. Retrieved 2008-10-28. cfm?an=1& subarticlenbr=16 [3] http:/ / www. ZDNet Australia. cfm?an=1& subarticlenbr=9 [4] "Meeting eyes biometric security. business and the community about biometrics. CIO. [2] http:/ / www.00. zdnet. 23 December 2003. benchmarks and test regimes for the industry and provides policy input to governments in partnership with members and key stakeholders biometrics. including due consideration to privacy concerns.Biometrics Institute 30 Mission & Objectives The Biometrics Institute promotes the responsible and ethical use of biometrics. org/ displaycommon. biometricsinstitute.130061744." (http:/ / www. com/ coms2/ summary_0286-13513686_ITM). [9] http:/ / www. Retrieved 2008-10-28.

InfoSecurity Review (http://www. Geek.infosecurityadviser. 2010).com/review/ bioslimdisk_portable_encrypted_solutions/53/) • The Limitations of Password Based Software Encryption (http://www. DarkReading. Retrieved 2010-02-08. darkreading.com. Review. [2] "Review: BioSlimDisk Signature 512MB – New Tech Gadgets & Electronic Devices" (http:/ / www. . . Tweakers.net.com/articles/gadgets/ review-bioslimdisk-signature-512mb-20081126/) • Tweaker's BioSlimDisk Signature Test Report (NL) (http://tweakers.com/insiderthreat/security/ encryption/showArticle. Retrieved 2010-02-08.html) • Bioslimdisk Portable Encrypted Solutions. rohos. .net/reviews/754/ de-bioslimdisk-signature-nader-bekeken. com/ review/ bioslimdisk_portable_encrypted_solutions/ 53/ ). 2010-01-14. html) (in Dutch). geek. net/ reviews/ 754/ de-bioslimdisk-signature-nader-bekeken. jhtml?articleID=222200174). Rohos. Comparison" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2010-02-08. External links • BioSlimDisk official website (http://www.rohos. .geek. If it were cracked.jhtml?articleID=222200174) World Leader . com/ 2010/ 01/ bioslimdisk-biometric-security-token-review-comparison/ ).[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] References [1] "Blog Archive » BioSlimDisk biometric security token.bioslimdisk. "De BioSlimDisk Signature nader bekeken | Inleiding | Core" (http:/ / tweakers.com. com/ articles/ gadgets/ review-bioslimdisk-signature-512mb-20081126/ ). Signature The biometric USB hardware is encryption coupled with dual fingerprint authentication methodology to prevent crackers bypassing the encryption.com/) • Rohos BioSlimDisk Signature Review (http://www. com/ BioSlimDisk is the world's first biometric USB storage device. "Secure USB Flaw Exposed" (http:/ / www. [5] Kelly Jackson Higgins (January 4. com/ insiderthreat/ security/ encryption/ showArticle. Dual fingerprint authentication function increases the difficulty for crackers and prevents access from the outside into the secured non-volatile internal memory storage. 2009-04-28. [3] Peter de Boer (31 October 2007). Signature is designed so that the encryption key is stored randomly in the flash memory.com/2010/01/ bioslimdisk-biometric-security-token-review-comparison/) • Geek's BioSlimDisk Signature Review (http://www.BioSlimDisk 31 BioSlimDisk BioSlimDisk Website http:/ / www. . Infosecurityadviser. a self destruct feature will trigger it to reformat and destroy all data stored in the device. Retrieved 2010-02-08.darkreading. bioslimdisk. infosecurityadviser. Retrieved 2010-02-08. [4] "Bioslimdisk Portable Encrypted Solutions | Product Review | Infosecurity Security Adviser" (http:/ / www.

November 17.htm) • IBIA CBEFF Biometric Organizations (http://www. theregister. and its current implementation in passports of the European Union that creates some threats related to identity theft. stm). fidis.globalsecurity.ibia. to raise the concern to the public to the risks associated by a security architecture related to the management of Machine Readable Travel Documents (MRTDs). net/ press-events/ press-releases/ budapest-declaration/ ) [2] Biometric ID cards an insecure menace. doj. optional Sub-Headers. Steve Boggan The Guardian. and privacy. BBC News. The CBEFF Basic Structure consists of a single SBH (Standard Biometric Header) followed by a BSMB (Biometric Specific Memory Block) and an optional SB (Signature Block). 10th November 2006 [3] Cracked it! (http:/ / www. says EU ID outfit (http:/ / www.org/security/systems/biometrics-cbeff. 2006 [4] ePassports 'at risk' from cloning (http:/ / news.pdf) • Biometrics-CBEFF (http://www. CBEFF Basic Structure(s). co. The CBEFF Nested Structure consists of a Root Header. This standard provides the ability for different biometric devices and applications to exchange biometric information between system components efficiently. References [1] http:/ / www. guardian. uk/ technology/ 2006/ nov/ 17/ news. The Register.nist. homeaffairs). In order to support biometric technologies in a common way the CBEFF structure describes a set of necessary data elements. 15 December 2006 CBEFF CBEFF (Common Biometric Exchange Formats Framework) was developed from 1999 to 2000 by the CBEFF Development Team (NIST) and the BioAPI Consortium [1] . co.[2] [3] [4] References [1] Budapest Declaration on Machine Readable Travel Documents (MRTDs) (http:/ / www. The declaration was proclaimed in Budapest in September 2006.gov/publications/nistir/NISTIR6529A.org/cbeff/organizations. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ programmes/ click_online/ 6182207.Budapest Declaration on Machine Readable Travel Documents 32 Budapest Declaration on Machine Readable Travel Documents The Budapest Declaration on Machine Readable Travel Documents[1] is a declaration issued by the Future of Identity in the Information Society (FIDIS). uk/ 2006/ 11/ 10/ fidis_budapest_mrtd_declaration/ ).php) . htm External links • CBEFF NISTIR 6529 (http://csrc. state. bbc. and an optional SB (Signature Block). us/ les/ nist-itl/ example_cbeff. a Network of Excellence. wi.

to some.Combined DNA Index System 33 Combined DNA Index System The Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) is a DNA database funded by the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Although the Act was passed in 1994. The TWGDAM guidelines served as interim standards until recommendations were provided by a DNA Advisory Board required under the Act. to accelerate development of laboratory guidelines and peer-reviewed papers to support forensic DNA testing which was. The FBI Laboratory began a pilot project with six state and local crime laboratories to develop software to support each laboratory's DNA testing and allow sharing of DNA profiles with other crime laboratories. TWGDAM was sponsored by the FBI Laboratory which hosted several scientific meetings a year at Quantico. with the ability to search the database to assist in the identification of suspects in crimes. and local crime laboratories in the United States.[1] Origins CODIS was an outgrowth of the Technical Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods (TWGDAM. The DNA Identification Act of 1994 formally authorized the FBI to operate CODIS and set national standards for forensic DNA testing. It is a computer system that stores DNA profiles created by federal. now SWGDAM) which developed guidelines for standards of practice in the United States and Canadian crime laboratories as they began DNA testing in the late 1980s. CODIS FBI Logo Markers CODIS identifies 13 markers. an unproven forensic tool. Virginia. state. TWGDAM completed a white paper in October 1989 which provided conceptual and operational concepts for a Combined DNA Index System to share DNA profiles among crime laboratories similarly to automated fingerprint identification which had become commonplace in law enforcement during the 1980s. plus AMEL to determine sex:[2] • • • • • • • • • • CSF1PO D3S1358 D5s818 D7s820 D8S1179 D13s317 D16s539 D18s51 D21s11 FGA CODIS 13 STR Profile • THO1 • TPOX • vWA . CODIS did not become fully operational until 1998.

685 forensic profiles and 6.473 offender profiles. (To become Qualified. CODIS is not a criminal history database. known as a CODIS DNA profile. A Forensic to Forensic match provides an investigative lead that connects two or more previously unlinked cases.) CODIS databases exist at the local.Combined DNA Index System These markers do not overlap with the ones commonly used for genealogical DNA testing. such as names. For solving rapes and homicides.400 matches to requests.000 investigations. Relative size As of October 2007. approximately 180 laboratories in all 50 states participate in CODIS.[5] As of the same date. and does not contain any personal identity information. .) The Forensic Index contains profiles developed from biological material found at crime-scenes. consists of an individual's DNA profile. like the National Crime Information Center (NCIC).[6] By October 2008.[3] 34 Indexes and database structure CODIS is an index of pointers to assist US public crime laboratories to compare and exchange DNA profiles. CODIS searches the Forensic Index against itself and against the Offender Index.000 hits assisting in more than 93.[4] making it the largest DNA database in the world. the Missing or Unidentified Persons Index. together with the sample's identifier and an identifier of the laboratory responsible for the profile. A Forensic to Offender match actually provides a suspect for an otherwise unsolved case. the Arrestee Index. At the national level. but in recent years. CODIS has produced over 49. As of July 2009.785 forensic profiles and 5. and the Missing Persons Reference Index have been added. for example. Some may be indicative of genetic diseases. the US National DNA Index (NDIS) has grown to over 241. A record in the CODIS database. which increased the scope of the DNA database. (All 50 states have passed DNA legislation authorizing the collection of DNA profiles from convicted offenders for submission to CODIS. the National DNA Index System. or NDIS. which consisted of an estimated 3. As of 2006. CODIS has produced over 94.976. Political measures such as California Proposition 69 (2004). and national levels. CODIS held 194. state. Each candidate match is confirmed or refuted by a Qualified DNA Analyst. This tiered architecture allows crime laboratories to control their own data—each laboratory decides which profiles it will share with the rest of the country. Forensic profiles only require 10 of the STRs to be present for an upload. have already met with a significant increase in numbers of investigations aided.070. State law governs which specific crimes are eligible for CODIS. CODIS consisted of the Convicted Offender Index and the Forensic Index.379 offender profiles.[7] The growing public approval of DNA databases has seen the creation and expansion of many states' own DNA databases. dates of birth. is operated by the FBI at an undisclosed location.090 profiles as of June 2007. CODIS has a matching algorithm that searches the various indexes against one another according to strict rules that protect personal privacy. In order to decrease the number of irrelevant matches at NDIS. assisting in more than 50. It is important to note that the CODIS matching algorithm only produces a list of candidate matches. California currently maintains the third largest DNA database in the world. the Convicted Offender Index requires all 13 CODIS STRs to be present for a profile upload. a DNA Analyst must meet specific education and experience requirements and undergo semi-annual proficiency tests administered by a third party.384. surpassing the United Kingdom National DNA Database. Originally. and social security numbers. The Convicted Offender Index contains profiles of individuals convicted of crimes.343 investigations.

nih.gov/hq/lab/html/codis1. nlm. December 4. (http://www. CBS.cbsnews. even if their crime has no civilian equivalent (for example adultery). ACLU.com/news/17973779/ detail. Criminal Minds. will have their DNA collected starting in 2009. Along with the ACLU. NCIS. all suspects arrested for a felony. Other states have gone further in collecting DNA samples from juveniles and all suspects arrested. the ACLU is concerned with the increased use of collecting DNA from arrested suspects rather than DNA testing for convicted felons. htm) [2] learn about dna : glossary : CODIS markers (http:/ / dnaconsultants. 2008. htm_spnew5& URL=/ pa/ cm200607/ cmhansrd/ cm070620/ text/ 70620w0037. gov/ pubmed/ 19189602) [4] CODIS . fbi. • A Not So Perfect Match (http://www. as a result of Proposition 69 in 2004. fbi. 2007 • " Anne Pressly: Detailed Cases and Informed Opinions On DNA (http://www. htm) [5] House of Commons Hansard Written Answers for 20 Jun 2007 (pt 0037) (http:/ / www. 2008. html) [3] Association of the tyrosine hydroxylase gene polymorphism with schizophrenia in the population of central Poland (http:/ / www. and 47 states collect DNA from all convicted felons. Law & Order: SVU. Bones. In California.aclu. March 1. fbi.DNA didn't prove anything.fbi.wsmv. htm) [7] CODIS—NDIS Statistics (http:/ / www. gov/ hq/ lab/ codis/ clickmap. gov/ hq/ lab/ codis/ aidedmap. • " .com/article/ 263070)". as well as some individuals convicted of misdemeanors. the investigators often match DNA with the CODIS database. as it only had five points out of 13. this has expanded. publications. htm_spnew5) [6] Investigations Aided (http:/ / www.org/ privacy/genetic/15062prs19990301. References [1] Mission (http:/ / www. November 13. .com/stories/2007/03/23/60minutes/main2600721.National DNA Index System (http:/ / www.html)". gov/ hq/ lab/ codis/ national. and Dexter. Juror Explains Verdict In Double Murder.html)". civil libertarians oppose the use of a DNA database for privacy concerns as well as possible institutionalized discrimination policies in collection. fbi. gov/ hq/ lab/ html/ codis1. Currently all fifty states have mandatory DNA collection from certain felony offenses such as sexual assault and homicide. all members of the US Armed Services who are convicted at a Special court martial and above are ordered to provide DNA samples. htm) External links • CODIS homepage (http://www. Numb3rs.Combined DNA Index System 35 Controversies Privacy concerns The CODIS database originally was primarily used to collect DNA of convicted sex offenders. In popular culture In forensics television series such as CSI.htm) • " ACLU Warns of Privacy Abuses in Government Plan to Expand DNA Databases (http://www. ncbi. 1999. . shtml?source=search_story). parliament. Over time.digitaljournal. Currently. htm#70620w0037. uk/ cgi-bin/ newhtml_hl?DB=semukparl& STEMMER=en& WORDS=ndnad& ALL=& ANY=& PHRASE=& CATEGORIES=& SIMPLE=ndnad& SPEAKER=& COLOUR=red& STYLE=s& ANCHOR=70620w0037. In addition to this. com/ Detailed/ 335.

[3] Applications include. a collaboration of a large group of plant DNA barcode researchers proposed two chloroplast genes.[13] or for one species to have more than one mtDNA sequence exhibited among different individuals).[11] cytoplasmic incompatibility-inducing symbionts (e. the concatenation of the rbcL and matK chloroplast genes[5] Mitochondrial DNA DNA barcoding is based on a relatively simple concept. databases of CO1 sequences included at least 620.e.DNA barcoding 36 DNA barcoding DNA barcoding is a taxonomic method that uses a short genetic marker in an organism's DNA to identify it as belonging to a particular species.[2] the utility of DNA barcoding for these purposes is subject to debate. Most eukaryote cells contain mitochondria.000 species of animals. the mitochondrial CO1 gene • For land plants. a DNA barcode researcher not involved in that .[1] Choice of Locus A desirable locus for DNA barcoding should be standardized (so that large databases of sequences for that locus can be developed). herbal supplements or wood). any occurrences of hybridization. a common set of choices are: • For animals and many other eukaryotes. rbcL and matK. However.g. a comparatively small variance within species. for example.[7] Although several loci have been suggested.[16] Identifying flowering plants Kress et al. which results in significant variation in mtDNA sequences between species and. identifying plant leaves even when flowers or fruit are not available. horizontal gene transfer (such as via cellular symbionts[12] ).[10] male-killing microoroganisms.[5] present in most of the taxa of interest and sequencable without species-specific PCR primers.[6] One 2005 proposal was the nuclear internal transcribed spacer region and the plastid trnH-psbA intergenic spacer. taken together. it is possible for two different species to share mtDNA. in principle. as a barcode for plants. A 648-bp region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene was proposed as a potential 'barcode'.[14] [15] As of 2009. A series of experiments was then conducted to find a more suitable region of the genome for use in the DNA barcoding of flowering plants (or the larger group of land plants). Wolbachia[11] ).[6] and provide a large variation between species yet a relatively small amount of variation within a species. identifying insect larvae (which typically have fewer diagnostic characters than adults). and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has a relatively fast mutation rate.. identifying the diet of an animal based on stomach contents or faeces.[6] In 2009.[1] Although barcodes are sometimes used in an effort to identify unknown species or assess whether species should be combined or separated. larger than databases available for any other gene.[4] and identifying products in commerce (for example.[5] Jesse Ausubel. It differs from molecular phylogeny in that the main goal is not to determine classification but to identify an unknown sample in terms of a known classification.[1] other researchers advocated other regions such as matK.[5] short enough to be easily sequenced with current technology. because all mtDNA genes are maternally inherited (direct evidence for recombination in mtDNA is available in some bivalves such as Mytilus[8] but it is suspected that it may be more widespread[9] ).000 specimens from over 58. or other "reticulate" evolutionary phenomena in a lineage can lead to misleading results (i. (2005[1] ) suggest that the use of the COI sequence “is not appropriate for most species of plants because of a much slower rate of cytochrome c oxidase I gene evolution in higher plants than in animals”..

COI variations between species averaged 7..43%. Delimiting cryptic species The next major study into the efficacy of DNA barcoding was focused on the neotropical skipper butterfly. or whether past identifications were sound. Hebert et al. cultured cell lines. Hebert and co-workers sequenced DNA barcodes of 260 of the 667 bird species that breed in North America (Hebert et al. however. Therefore. In 2003. Hebert et al. who pointed out numerous serious flaws in the analysis. in all of these species. DNA barcoding provides a standardised method for this process via the use of a short DNA sequence from a particular region of the genome to provide a 'barcode' for identifying species. proposed the compilation of a public library of DNA barcodes that would be linked to named specimens.DNA barcoding effort. These results. this threshold.[16] 37 Vouchered specimens DNA sequence databases like GenBank contain many sequences that are not tied to vouchered specimens (for example. and representatives” from the three major ecosystems where Astraptes fulgerator is found. which in turn led to the redrawing of the evolutionary tree. COI sequences were either identical or were most similar to sequences of the same species. so the process of delimiting cryptic species using . cheaper sequencing”. This is problematic in the face of taxonomic issues such as whether several species should be split or combined. 2004a[19] ). and mtDNAvage ) have been successfully used in molecular systematics for decades.N. as well as an unusually large variety of caterpillar food plants. Canada. Paul D. This library would “provide a new master key for identifying species. Hebert et al. was defined as 10 times the mean intraspecific variation for the group under study. the so-called "barcoding gap". Hebert from the University of Guelph.[17] [18] Origin The use of nucleotide sequence variations to investigate evolutionary relationships is not a new concept. and concluded that the original data could support no more than the possibility of three to seven cryptic taxa rather than ten cryptic species. Ontario. allozymes. In four cases there were deep intraspecific divergences.'s (2004a[19] ) results reinforce these views and strengthen the case for DNA barcoding. and molecular markers (e. best practice for DNA barcoding is to sequence vouchered specimens. indicating possible new species. suggested that standardizing on a sequence was the best way to produce a large database of plant sequences. one whose power will rise with increased taxon coverage and with faster. 130 species were represented by two or more specimens. They found that every single one of the 260 species had a different COI sequence. However. due to subtle morphological differences. This species was already known as a cryptic species complex. rDNA. several years would have been required for taxonomists to completely delimit species.93%. extremes and intermediates of adult and caterpillar color variation. This sample included “at least 20 individuals reared from each species of food plant. (2004b[20] ) sequenced the COI gene of 484 specimens from the ACG. also proposed a standard sequence threshold to define new species. herbarium specimens. Hebert et al. Astraptes fulgerator at the Area Conservacion de Guanacaste (ACG) in north-western Costa Rica. This highlights that the results of DNA barcoding analyses can be dependent upon the choice of analytical methods used by the investigators.g. Carl Woese used sequence differences in ribosomal RNA (rRNA) to discover archaea. were subsequently challenged by Brower (2006[21] ). (2004b[20] ) concluded that Astraptes fulgerator consists of 10 different species in north-western Costa Rica. Three out of these four polytypic species are already split into two by some taxonomists. Case studies Identification of birds In an effort to find a correspondence between traditional species boundaries established by taxonomy and those inferred by DNA barcoding. whereas variation within species averaged 0. or sometimes images). and that time would tell whether this choice would be sufficiently good at distinguishing different plant species.

which is inconsistent with Hebert's recommendation that the threshold value be based on the group under study. we conclude that identification at the species level based on mitochondrial sequence might not be possible for many insects. Given that Wolbachia is known to infect between 15 and 75% of insect species. Barcoding not only discriminated among all 17 highly host-specific morphospecies of ACG Belvosia. and if the technique had been applied. The COI gene of a group of extinct ratite birds. a standard sequence threshold of 2. the group detected six moa species. As with Hebert's results. They attributed the failure of barcoding to the non-monophyly of many of the species at the mitochondrial level. (ii) a pair of morphologically cryptic generalist species.[23] examined whether a COI DNA barcode could function as a tool for identification and discovery for the 20 morphospecies of Belvosia [24] parasitoid flies (Tachinidae) that have been reared from caterpillars in ACG. expanded on these results by barcoding 2. known to be infected with the endosymbiotic bacteria Wolbachia. the moa. This exception suggested a possible complex of species which was previously unidentified. In addition.7% COI sequence difference initially used was far too high. This value resulted in 10 moa species which corresponded with the previously known species with one exception. The authors went on to state: The pattern of Wolbachia infection strongly suggests that the lack of within-species monophyly results from introgressive hybridization associated with Wolbachia infection. and. Each of the 16 initially apparent generalist species were categorized into one of four patterns: (i) a single generalist species. On the other hand. However. or (iv) a complex of specialists with no remaining generalist.24%. that the 2.24% was also used.7% COI sequence difference was set. as in the previous study. it would have underestimated the species number in the genus by 75%. to identify new species. there is no set value of molecular difference at which populations can be assumed to have irrevocably started to undergo speciation. it is probable that the interspecies variation is rather low. as these lineages are supported by collateral ecological information. To determine new species. where tested.[22] In 2006 Smith et al.[17] though cases of "shared barcodes" (e. In sum.[14] They investigated the performance of barcoding in the fly genus Protocalliphora. reported that flies in the related family Calliphoridae could not be discriminated by barcoding. non-unique) have been documented in cichlid fishes and cowries[15] 38 Cataloguing ancient life Lambert et al. by independent nuclear markers (28S and ITS1).DNA barcoding DNA barcodes can be as subjective as any other form of taxonomy. This value is 10 times the average intraspecies difference of North American birds. . It is safe to say.[14] Marine biologists have also considered the value of the technique in identifying cryptic and polymorphic species and have suggested that the technique may be helpful when associations with voucher specimens are maintained. each species sequenced had a unique barcode and intraspecific COI sequence variance ranged from 0 to 1. Given the slow rate of growth and reproduction of moa. Assignment of unknown individuals to species was impossible for 60% of the species. however.[25] They encountered 73 mitochondrial lineages separated by an average of 4% sequence divergence and. Using this value. A more recent example used DNA barcoding for the identification of cryptic species included in the ongoing long-term database of tropical caterpillar life generated by Dan Janzen and Winnie Hallwachs in Costa Rica at the ACG. a further standard sequence threshold of 1. Whitworth et al. in one case.g. were sequenced using 26 subfossil moa bones. also in 2007. but it also suggested that the species count could be as high as 32 by indicating that each of the three generalist species might actually be arrays of highly host-specific cryptic species. In 2007 Smith et al. the authors therefore viewed these lineages as provisional species.. (iii) a complex of specialist species plus a generalist. there remained 9 generalist species classified among the 73 mitochondrial lineages analyzed. individuals from four different species had identical barcodes. (2005[26] ) examined the possibility of using DNA barcoding to assess the past diversity of the Earth's biota.134 flies belonging to what appeared to be the 16 most generalist of the ACG tachinid morphospecies.

but barcoders respond that they compete for funding not with fields like taxonomy. The software back-end to the Moore Biocode Project is Geneious Pro and two custom-developed plugins from the New Zealand-based company. UC Berkeley. 2005[33] ). of the 39 species comparisons reported by Johnson and Cicero. Wolbachia)[11] are also particularly common among insects.[35] this suggests that while mtDNA barcoding may work for vertebrates. only 8 actually use COI data to arrive at their conclusions. France’s National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS).[30] For example. Johnson and Cicero's (2004[37] ) finding that 74% of sister species comparisons fall below the 2. These criticisms are somewhat misleading considering that. the island of Moorea in Tahiti. indicating that using an mtDNA barcode to assign a species name to an animal will be ambiguous or erroneous some 23% of the time (see also Meyer & Paulay. these 'barcodes' refer to an unpublished 723-bp sequence of ND6 which has never been suggested as a likely candidate for DNA barcoding. while a commercial copy of Geneious Pro is required for researchers involved int data creation and analysis. 2005. And. not classification. and other partners.[14] Others resent what they see as a gross oversimplification of the science of taxonomy.7% threshold suggested by Hebert et al. Biomatters. such as medicine and genomics. It remains to be seen whether what is now touted as a revolution in taxonomy will eventually go the same way as phenetic approaches. animal and fungi on the island that will be provided as a publicly available database resource for ecologists and evolutionary biologists around the world. Supported by a grant from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. some suggest that recently diverged species might not be distinguishable on the basis of their COI sequences.DNA barcoding 39 The Moorea Biocode Project The Biocode Project [27] is a barcoding initiative to create the first comprehensive inventory of all non-microbial life in a complex tropical ecosystem. many stress the fact that DNA barcoding does not provide reliable information above the species level.[14] Wiemers & Fiedler. but instead with other big science fields. but rather from expectations. it may not be effective for the majority of known organisms. namely.. Studies with insects suggest an equal or even greater error rate.'s interpretation. 2007. while others indicate that it is inapplicable at the species level. The DNA barcoding debate resembles the phenetics debate of decades gone by. Other critics fear a "big science" initiative like barcoding will make funding even more scarce for already underfunded disciplines like taxonomy.[31] Due to various phenomena. The Biocode LIMS and Genbank Submission [28] plugins have been made freely available to the public[29] and users of the free Geneious Basic software will be able to access and view the Biocode database upon completion of the project. 2007[34] ). of which was claimed exactly the same decades ago. The outcome of the project is a library of genetic markers and physical identifiers for every species of plant.g. Johnson and Cicero (2004[37] ) have also claimed to have detected bird species with identical DNA barcodes. but may still have merit for higher-level groups. the Moorea Biocode Project is a 3-year project that brings together researchers from the Smithsonian Institution. Hurst and Jiggins.. Criticisms DNA barcoding has met with spirited reaction from scientists. extravagant claims that it will supersede or radically transform traditional taxonomy. Problems with mtDNA arising from male-killing microoroganisms and cytoplasmic incompatibility-inducing symbionts (e. due to the frequent lack of correlation between the mitochondrial genome and the nuclear genome or the lack of a barcoding gap (e. Moritz and Cicero (2004[36] ) have questioned the efficacy of DNA barcoding by suggesting that other avian data is inconsistent with Hebert et al. more practically. especially systematists.[39] Barcoders also maintain that they are being dragged into long-standing debates over the definition of a species and that barcoding is less controversial when viewed primarily as a method of identification.. however.[12] Whitworth et al. ranging from enthusiastic endorsement to vociferous opposition. but which were all but rejected when they failed to live up to overblown [38] Controversy surrounding DNA barcoding stems not so much from the method itself. Given that insects represent over 75% of all known organisms.[1] [18] . Funk & Omland (2003[32] ) found that some 23% of animal species are polyphyletic if their mtDNA data are accurate.g.

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DNA barcoding 42 External links Barcode of Life Data Systems (http://www. which can also be used as the person's identifier.barcodeoflife.si. banked sperm or biopsy tissue).edu/PDF/Guidelines for non-CO1 selection 4 June. because a court order may be needed and not obtainable) other methods may need to be used to collect a sample of blood. unless they are monozygotic twins.g. The DNA profile is then compared against another sample to determine whether there is a genetic match. as this reduces the possibility of contamination. enough of the DNA is different to distinguish one individual from another.boldsystems. When this is not available (e. but so variable that unrelated individuals are extremely unlikely to have the same VNTRs.[5] DNA profiling process The process begins with a sample of an individual's DNA (typically called a "reference sample"). Dr.edu/barcode/blog/) • DNA Barcoding Community Network (http://connect.[1] It is used in. when a chemical company.ibol.org) Fish Barcode of Life Initiative (FISH-BOL) (http://www.g. Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI).polarbarcoding. DNA profiling should not be confused with full genome sequencing.org) (Latest outpost in the Canadian Arctic in the field) • The Barcode of Life Blog (http://phe. particularly short tandem repeats (STR)s.net/) • Guidelines for non COI gene selection (http://www.) or from stored samples (e. as could human remains which had been previously profiled. toothbrush. started a blood-testing centre in England. parental testing and criminal investigation. discussed below.org/) Consortium for the Barcode of Life (http://www. VNTRs loci are very similar between closely related humans.[2] DNA profiling uses repetitive ("repeat") sequences that are highly variable. Jeffreys's genetic fingerprinting was made commercially available in 1987. A reference sample is then analyzed to create the individual's DNA profile using one of a number of techniques. semen. Although 99.org/) International Barcode of Life (http://www.[2] called variable number tandem repeats (VNTR).pdf) • • • • • • DNA profiling DNA profiling (also called DNA testing. Samples obtained from blood relatives (biological relative) can provide an indication of an individual's profile. .org) All Birds Barcoding Initiative (ABBI) (http://barcoding. or genetic fingerprinting) is a technique employed by forensic scientists to assist in the identification of individuals by their respective DNA profiles.fishbol.barcoding. or other appropriate fluid or tissue from personal items (e.si. DNA typing. saliva.[4] and is now the basis of several national DNA databases.barcodeoflife. The DNA profiling technique was first reported in 1984[3] by Sir Alec Jeffreys at the University of Leicester in England. for example.htm) Polar Flora and Fauna Barcoding website (http://www.g. etc. razor.edu/AllBirds. DNA profiles are encrypted sets of numbers that reflect a person's DNA makeup. The most desirable method of collecting a reference sample is the use of a buccal swab.9% of human DNA sequences are the same in every person.rockefeller.

The DNA fragments that result are then separated and detected using electrophoresis. many of the STR regions used are the same. DNA profiling took huge strides forward in both discriminating power and the ability to recover information from very small (or degraded) starting samples. Karl Brown's original technique looked at many minisatellite loci at the same time. PCR greatly amplifies the amounts of a specific region of DNA. The more STR regions that are tested in an individual the more discriminating the test becomes. such as a vaginal swab from a sexual assault victim. including 3 and 5 bases). Because unrelated people almost certainly have different numbers of repeat units.20% of individuals. STR analysis The method of DNA profiling used today is based on PCR and uses short tandem repeats (STR) a type of VNTR. requires large amounts of undegraded sample DNA. increasing the observed variability. However they were not as discriminating as RFLP. while in the UK the SGM+ 10 loci system (which is compatible with The National DNA Database). There are two common methods of separation and detection. but there are other lengths in use. From country to country. This method uses highly polymorphic regions that have short repeated sequences of DNA (the most common is 4 bases repeated. the number of alleles is very small. whereby many STR regions will be tested at the same time. These STR loci (locations on a chromosome) are targeted with sequence-specific primers and amplified using PCR. systems which amplify the CODIS 13 core loci are almost universal. PCR analysis With the invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Early assays such as the HLA-DQ alpha reverse dot blot strips grew to be very popular due to their ease of use. However. Thus STR analysis provides an excellent identification tool. Also. Fortunately. The power of STR analysis comes from looking at multiple STR loci simultaneously. capillary electrophoresis (CE) and gel electrophoresis. These DNA-profiling systems are based on multiplex reactions. more commonly the enzymes and DNA probes were used to analyze VNTR loci. particularly STR loci. These early techniques have been supplanted by PCR-based assays. the Southern blot technique is laborious. different STR-based DNA-profiling systems are in use.DNA profiling 43 RFLP analysis The first methods for finding out genetics used for DNA profiling involved restriction enzyme digestion. followed by Southern blot analysis. the PCR method was readily adaptable for analyzing VNTR. Typically each STR allele will be shared by around 5 . . In North America. and the speed with which a result could be obtained. Although polymorphisms can exist in the restriction enzyme cleavage sites. It was also difficult to determine a DNA profile for mixed samples. however. and Variations of VNTR allele lengths in 6 individuals. is in use. The pattern of alleles can identify an individual quite accurately. using oligonucleotide primers and a thermostable DNA polymerase. Whichever system is used. but making it hard to discern individual alleles (and thereby precluding parental testing). STRs can be used to discriminate between unrelated individuals. Each STR is polymorphic.

a victim is a major source of contamination for any other samples brought into a lab. AmpFLP. blood or other types of samples. During conception. because the analysis is done on a gel. This technique was also faster than RFLP analysis and used PCR to amplify DNA samples. Because the 13 loci that are currently used for discrimination in CODIS are independently assorted (having a certain number of repeats at one locus doesn't change the likelihood of having any number of repeats at any other locus). AmpFLP remains popular in lower income countries. each containing half the amount of DNA found in other body cells. all the cells forming the body contain the same DNA—half from the father and half from the mother. In practice. At some special locations (called loci) in the junk DNA.000 DNA samples in Maryland in January 2007. This zygote divides and multiplies into an embryo and later. the markers used are Short . DNA analysis is widely applied to determine genetic family relationships such as paternity. where the three loci were independent. DNA database searches showed much more frequent than expected false DNA profile matches including one perfect 13 locus match out of only 30. For that reason. Bands could be visualized by silver staining the gel. which were separated on a polyacrylamide gel using an allelic ladder (as opposed to a molecular weight ladder). In addition. Logically. multiple control-samples are typically tested. This means that if someone has the DNA type of ABC. Unexpected matches (or variations) in several control-samples indicates a high probability of contamination for the actual test samples. the risk of contaminated-matching is much greater than matching a distant relative. However. a full human being. DNA family relationship analysis Using PCR technology. meet and fuse to form a fertilized egg. It relied on variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphisms to distinguish various alleles. which is currently used for human identification. called a zygote. the risk is greater for matching the most common person in the samples: everything collected from.DNA profiling The true power of STR analysis is in its statistical power of discrimination. there is some called junk DNA. This fact allows the relationship testing to use all types of all samples including loose cells from the cheeks collected using buccal swabs. the theoretical probability is not accurate. the product rule for probabilities can be applied.[6] Moreover. siblingship and other kinships. since there are about 12 million monozygotic twins on Earth. As with all PCR based methods. the full DNA profiles should differ (except for twins). very high number repeats may bunch together at the top of the gel. such as a sample being contaminated from nearby objects. we can say that the probability of having that DNA type is the probability of having type A times the probability of having type B times the probability of having type C. In a routine DNA paternity test. One popular locus for fingerprinting was the D1S80 locus. Due to its relatively low cost and ease of set-up and operation. These locations contain specific DNA markers that DNA scientists use to identify individuals. At each stage of development. The zygote contains a complete set of DNA molecules. maternity. AmpFLP analysis can be highly automated. making it difficult to resolve. to prove that a person wasn't actually matched as being related to their own DNA in another sample. when prepared during the same period as the actual test samples. the father’s sperm cell and the mother’s egg cell. or amplified fragment length polymorphism was also put into practice during the early 1990s. a unique combination of DNA from both parents. and allows for easy creation of phylogenetic trees based on comparing individual samples of DNA. While a lot of DNA contains information for a certain function. highly degraded DNA or very small amounts of DNA may cause allelic dropout (causing a mistake in thinking a heterozygote is a homozygote) or other stochastic effects. In a relationship test. This has resulted in the ability to generate match probabilities of 1 in a quintillion (1 with 18 zeros after it) or more. predictable inheritance patterns were found to be useful in determining biological relationships. or in contact with. to ensure that they stayed clean. or from left-over cells transferred from a prior test. 44 AmpFLP Another technique.

Mitochondrial analysis For highly degraded samples. such as a Siblingship Index. which allows resolution of a mixed DNA sample from a male and female and/or cases in which a differential extraction is not possible. depending on the markers inherited from the parents. 31 11. is reported. 11 14. 31 10. The PI of each marker is multiplied with each other to generate the Combined Paternity Index (CPI). such as one's maternal . The CPI is then converted into a Probability of Paternity showing the degree of relatedness between the alleged father and child. the following sample report from this commercial DNA paternity testing laboratory Universal Genetics signifies how relatedness between parents and child is identified on those special markers: DNA Marker D21S11 D7S820 TH01 D13S317 D19S433 Mother 28.2 Child 28. so Y-STR analysis can help in the identification of paternally related males. Y-chromosome analysis Recent innovations have included the creation of primers targeting polymorphic regions on the Y-chromosome (Y-STR). 16 8. For example. 30 9. 17 45 The partial results indicate that the child and the alleged father’s DNA match among these five markers. each marker is assigned with a Paternity Index (PI). Forensic scientists amplify the HV1 and HV2 regions of the mtDNA. then sequence each region and compare single-nucleotide differences to a reference. 16 7. 9 14. When determining the relationship between two individuals. which is a statistical measure of how powerfully a match at a particular marker indicates paternity. Y-chromosomes are paternally inherited. it is sometimes impossible to get a complete profile of the 13 CODIS STRs. such as grandparentage and siblingship tests. 15 Alleged father 29. while there may only be 1-2 copies of the nuclear DNA. 16. Within a population. 9 15. In these situations. The report shows the genetic profiles of each tested person. 15 7. their genetic profiles are compared to see if they share the same inheritance patterns at a statistically conclusive rate.DNA profiling Tandem Repeats (STRs). 12 15. is similar to a paternity test report. The combination of marker sizes found in each person makes up his/her unique genetic profile. a different value. The DNA test report in other family relationship tests. Instead of the Combined Paternity Index. Each person’s DNA contains two copies of these markers—one copy inherited from the father and one from the mother. Scientifically. 8 14. the probability of biological relationship is calculated to determine how likely the tested individuals share the same markers due to a blood relationship. the markers at each person’s DNA location could differ in length and sometimes sequence. The complete test results show this correlation on 16 markers between the child and the tested man to draw a conclusion of whether or not the man is the biological father. directly linked maternal relatives can be used as match references. mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is sometimes typed due to there being many copies of mtDNA in a cell. 10 14. which indicates the overall probability of an individual being the biological father of the tested child relative to any random man from the entire population of the same race. Because mtDNA is maternally inherited. short pieces of DNA that occur in highly differential repeat patterns among individuals. Y-STR analysis was performed in the Sally Hemings controversy to determine if Thomas Jefferson had sired a son with one of his slaves. If there are markers shared among the tested individuals.

a jury should consider how likely it is that an individual matching the genetic profile would also have been a suspect in the case for other reasons. The United States maintains the largest DNA database. where police have wide-ranging powers to take samples and retain them even in the event of acquittal.000. This argument is not sound unless the suspect was drawn at random from the population of the country.S. sensitive and easier . but a laboratory worker may conclude that similar—but not precisely identical—band patterns result from identical genetic samples with some imperfection in the agarose gel. mtDNA is useful in determining clear identities.[7] The United Kingdom maintains the National DNA Database (NDNAD). with the Combined DNA Index System. A difference of two or more nucleotides is generally considered to be an exclusion. A cold hit is of value in referring the police agency to a specific suspect but is of less evidential value than a DNA match made from outside the DNA Databank. the American offices of the company can't divulge to their subsidiaries/offices in other countries the reasons that these DNA samples are sought or by whom.DNA profiling grandmother's daughter's son. a company operating in the U. accurately compute a match probability was sometimes unavailable. or head office of. and often actual laboratory procedures do not reflect the theory under which the coincidence probabilities were computed.000). Under the act.[9] Considerations when evaluating DNA evidence In the early days of the use of genetic fingerprinting as criminal evidence. government to get DNA samples from other countries if they are either a division of. the rate of laboratory error is almost certainly higher than this. the lawyer would argue that this meant that in a country of say 60 million people there were 12 people who would also match the profile.[11] Today.[8] The U. When a match is made from a National DNA Databank to link a crime scene to an offender who has provided a DNA Sample to a databank that link is often referred to as a cold hit. the laboratory worker increases the coincidence risk by expanding the criteria for declaring a match. In fact. the coincidence probabilities may be calculated based on the probabilities that markers in two samples have bands in precisely the same location. but most of the largest databases are government controlled. mtDNA testing was used in determining that Anna Anderson was not the Russian princess she had claimed to be. Recent studies have quoted relatively high error [10] In the early days of genetic fingerprinting. Some are private. so some expertise on the part of the analyst is required. arbitrary low ceilings were controversially put on match probabilities used in RFLP analysis rather than the higher theoretically computed ones.S.S. holding over 5 million records as of 2007. RFLP has become widely disused due to the advent of more discriminating. Between 1992 and 1996.2% of the human population. although the practical risk is actually 1 in 1000 because monozygotic twins are 0. Anastasia Romanov. 46 DNA databases There are now several DNA databases in existence around the world. and its rate of growth. For example. However. despite the UK's smaller population.000. This was then translated to a 1 in 12 chance of the suspect being the guilty one. the theoretical risk of a coincidental match is 1 in 100 billion (100. the necessary population data to rates which may be cause for concern. juries were often swayed by spurious statistical arguments by defense lawyers along these lines: given a match that had a 1 in 5 million probability of occurring by chance. When using RFLP. Patriot Act of the United States provides a means for the U. mtDNA can be obtained from such material as hair shafts and old bones/teeth. is giving concern to civil liberties groups in the UK. Moreover. such as those of missing people when a maternally linked relative can be found. The size of this database. which is of similar size. Heteroplasmy and poly-C differences may throw off straight sequence comparisons. in this case. Another spurious statistical argument is based on the false assumption that a 1 in 5 million probability of a match automatically translates into a 1 in 5 million probability of innocence and is known as the prosecutor's fallacy.

The company's product specification said that the swabs were guaranteed to be sterile. and the swabs had all been produced at the same factory in Austria.[13] [14] After all other leads have been exhausted. It turned out that he had surgically inserted a Penrose drain into his arm and filled it with foreign blood and anticoagulants. DNA evidence as evidence in criminal trials Familial DNA searching Familial DNA searching (sometimes referred to as “Familial DNA” or “Familial DNA Database Searching”) is the practice of creating new investigative leads in cases where DNA evidence found at the scene of a crime (forensic profile) strongly resembles that of an existing DNA profile (offender profile) in a state DNA database but there is not an exact match. In one case. John Schneeberger raped one of his sedated patients in 1992 and left semen on her underwear. Germany and France . chimerism is one such instance where the lack of a genetic match may unfairly exclude a suspect. More rarely. It should be noted that figures of this magnitude are not considered to be statistically supportable by scientists in the UK. police detectives found DNA traces from the same woman on various crime scenes in Austria. known as "chimeras". Police drew what they believed to be Schneeberger's blood and compared its DNA against the crime scene semen DNA on three occasions. However. a criminal even planted fake DNA evidence in his own body: Dr. Since 1998 the DNA profiling system supported by The National DNA Database in the UK is the SGM+ DNA profiling system which includes 10 STR regions and a sex indicating test.among them murders. There have been several cases of DNA profiling that falsely "proved" that a mother was unrelated to her children. While almost all individuals have a single and distinct set of genes. In the case of the Phantom of Heilbronn. rare individuals. crime lab technicians conduct Y-STR analysis that confirms the familial relationships suggested by the first list.[15] To eliminate the majority of this list.DNA profiling technologies. but not DNA-free. have at least two different sets of genes. detectives began to have serious doubts about the DNA evidence. for unrelated individuals with full matching DNA profiles a match probability of 1 in a billion is considered statistically supportable. Only after the DNA of the "woman" matched the DNA sampled from the burned body of a male asylum seeker in France.[12] Fake DNA evidence The value of DNA evidence has to be seen in light of recent cases where criminals planted fake DNA samples at crime scenes. burglaries and robberies. investigators may use specially developed software to compare the forensic profile to all profiles taken from a state’s DNA database in order to generate a list of those offenders most likely to be a close relative of the forensic profile. 47 Evidence of genetic relationship It's also possible to use DNA profiling as evidence of genetic relationship. with any DNA technique. but testing that shows no relationship is absolutely certain. In that case. Contamination with other evidence (secondary transfer) is a key source of incorrect DNA profiles and raising doubts as to whether a sample has been adulterated is a favorite defense technique. In a study conducted by the life science company Nucleix and published in the journal Forensic Science International. STRs do not suffer from such subjectivity and provide similar power of discrimination (1 in 10^13 for unrelated individuals if using a full SGM+ profile). DNA traces were already present on the cotton swabs used to collect the samples at the crime scene. never showing a match. scientists found that an In vitro synthesized sample of DNA matching any desired genetic profile can be constructed using standard molecular biology techniques without obtaining any actual tissue from that person. Using . the cautious juror should not convict on genetic fingerprint evidence alone if other factors raise doubt.

investigators with Denver District Attorney’s Office successfully identified a suspect in a property theft case using a familial DNA search. familial DNA database searching is not conducted on a national level in the United States. living out of state or being incarcerated when the crime was committed. the suspect’s blood left at the scene of the crime strongly resembled that of a current Colorado Department of Corrections prisoner. Partial matching has been used to identify suspects in several cases in the UK and US.[16] Currently. They may also use other leads from the case. in accordance with well established and constitutionally accepted practices.[17] California was the first state to implement a policy for familial searching under then Attorney General. Familial DNA database searching is a more accurate tool to identify relatives than partial DNA profile matching.[24] Hunt was exonerated in 2004 when a DNA database search produced a remarkably close match between a convicted felon and the forensic profile from the case. Colorado in 2008 using software developed under the leadership of Denver District Attorney Mitch Morrissey and Denver Police Department Crime Lab Director Gregg LaBerge. authorities always conduct a normal DNA test to match the suspect’s DNA with that of the DNA left at the crime scene. Darryl Hunt was wrongly convicted in connection with the rape and murder of a young woman in 1984 in North Carolina.[28] Using publicly available records. The partial match led investigators to the felon’s brother. The technique was used to catch the Los Angeles serial killer known as the “Grim Sleeper” in 2010[19] and more recently led to the arrest of 21-year-old Elvis Garcia on charges of sexual assault and false imprisonment of a woman in Santa Cruz in 2008.[26] The Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals in United States v. The family tree is populated from information gathered from public records and criminal justice records. but the suspect actually volunteered to come to a police station and give a 48 . Familial DNA database searching was first used to convict Craig Harman of manslaughter in the United Kingdom on April 19. The first familial DNA search and subsequent conviction in the United States was conducted in Denver.[25] Some scholars have pointed out that the privacy concerns surrounding familial searching are no more threatening than other police search techniques. but are the result of moderate stringency CODIS searches that produce a potential match that shares at least one allele at every locus. and therefore often misses sibling relationships. who confessed to the crime when confronted by police. This suspect DNA profile is then compared to the sample found at the crime scene. as well as all of the females (the crime scene DNA profile was that of a male). For instance. or additional Y-STR analysis. Investigators obtained a court order to collect the suspect’s DNA. Partial matches are not searches themselves.[20] In March of 2011 Virginia Governor Bob McDonnell announced that Virginia would begin using familial DNA searches. now Governor. Pool ruled that this practice is somewhat analogous to a witness looking at a photograph of one person and stating that it looked like the perpetrator. to identify a suspect. such as witness or victim statements. the investigators created a family tree. investigators seek to legally obtain a DNA sample from the suspect. Once a suspect has been identified. In this example. which leads law enforcement to show the witness photos of similar looking individuals. Willard E. Jerry Brown. 2004. They then eliminated all the family members who were incarcerated at the time of the offense. one of whom is identified as the perpetrator.[23] and has also been used as a tool to exonerate the falsely accused.[22] Partial matching does not involve the use of a special software such as those used in the UK and Denver. States determine their own policies and decision making processes for how and when to conduct familial searches.[21] Other states are expected to follow.DNA profiling standard investigative techniques. authorities are then able to build a family tree. former Alameda County Prosecutor Rock Harmon is widely considered to have been the catalyst in the adoption of familial search technology in California. to definitively identify the suspect as the source of the crime scene DNA. Investigators rule out family members’ involvement in the crime by finding excluding factors such as sex. ending the long ordeal for this innocent man. Brown. A judge then signed an order to dismiss the case with prejudice against Hunt. Critics of familial DNA database searches argue that the technique may be an invasion of an individual’s 4th Amendment rights.[27] Regardless of whether familial DNA searching was the method used to identify the suspect.[18] In his role as consultant to the Familial Search Working Group of the California Department of Justice.

but that does not provide grounds for excluding relevant evidence that is available and otherwise admissible. so as to avoid "confusion. Greenwood (1985).[33] Presentation and evaluation of evidence of partial or incomplete DNA profiles In R v Bates. such as Bayes' theorem.DNA profiling DNA sample. the fact that there exists in the case of all partial profile evidence the possibility that a "missing" allele might exculpate the accused altogether does not provide sufficient grounds for rejecting such evidence. If that is the position. even if they do realize it. In many there is a possibility (at least in theory) that evidence exists which would assist the accused and perhaps even exculpate him altogether. failing to destroy a used coffee cup. though it does make it important to ensure that the jury are given [35] sufficient information to enable them to evaluate that evidence properly”. the suspect pled guilty to criminal trespass at the first court date and was sentenced to two years probation. during which the Supreme Court held that the Fourth Amendment does not prohibit the warrantless search and seizure of garbage left for collection outside the curtilage of a home. the Human Tissue Act 2004 prohibited private individuals from covertly collecting biological samples (hair.) for DNA analysis. Critics of this practice underline the fact that this analogy ignores that "most people have no idea that they risk surrendering their genetic identity to the police by. fingernails. for instance."[29] In the UK. .[31] The judge must ensure that the jury must understand the significance of DNA matches and mismatches in the profiles. Later confronted with an exact match to the forensic profile. After providing the sample. Doheny[32] Phillips LJ gave this example of a summing up. there is no way to avoid abandoning one’s DNA in public. it has been accepted. In 1996 R v. Legality of this mode of proceeding has been questioned in Australia. if you accept the scientific evidence called by the Crown. There may be cases where the match probability in relation to all the samples tested is so great that the judge would consider its probative value to be minimal and decide to exclude the evidence in the exercise of his discretion. and use it as evidence. the decision you have to reach. The Defendant is one of them. Juries should weigh up conflicting and corroborative evidence. this indicates that there are probably only four or five white males in the United Kingdom from whom that semen stain could have come. citing California v. The judge must also ensure that the jury does not confuse the 'match probability' (the probability that a person that is chosen at random has a matching DNA profile to the sample from the scene) with the 'likelihood ratio' (the probability that a person with matching DNA committed the crime). is whether you are sure that it was the Defendant who left that stain or whether it is possible that it was one of that other small group of men who share the same DNA characteristics. Moreover. etc.[34] Moore-Bick LJ said: “We can see no reason why partial profile DNA evidence should not be admissible provided that the jury are made aware of its inherent limitations and are given a sufficient explanation to enable them to evaluate it. but excluded medical and criminal investigations from the offence. courts often claiming that there was no expectation of privacy. using their own common sense and not by using mathematical formulae.[30] England and Wales Evidence from an expert who has compared DNA samples must be accompanied by evidence as to the sources of the samples and the procedures for obtaining the DNA profiles. which should be carefully tailored to the particular facts in each case: Members of the Jury. the suspect walked free without further interrogation or detainment. but this gives rise to no new question of principle and can be left for decision on a case by case basis. misunderstanding and misjudgment". 49 Surreptitious DNA collecting Police forces may collect DNA samples without the suspects' knowledge. on all the evidence. However. In the United States.

. which appears to be a serious issue. DNA methylation.[41] • In 1987. DNA. 1987. scientists in Israel raised serious doubts concerning the use of DNA by law enforcement as the ultimate method of identification.[38] Dr. Daniel Frumkin. initially convicted of one of Spencer's crimes. Anna Anderson claimed that she was Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna of Russia. British baker Colin Pitchfork was the first criminal caught and convicted using DNA fingerprinting. thus falsifying DNA evidence. The synthetic DNA oligos required for the procedure are common in molecular laboratories. He was executed on April 27.DNA profiling 50 DNA testing in the US There are state laws on DNA profiling in all 50 states of the United States. it is possible to take information from a profile and manufacture DNA to match it. The scientists fabricated saliva and blood samples.[37] Development of artificial DNA In August 2009.[43] • In 1987. "You can just engineer a crime scene.[44] [45] • In 1988. after her death. he was convicted on November 6. David Vasquez. In the 1980s. the city where DNA profiling was first discovered. In a paper published in the journal Forensic Science International: Genetics."[38] Dr. police departments currently use the test. in particular. and sentenced to 22 years in prison. Florida rapist Tommy Lee Andrews was the first person in the United States to be convicted as a result of DNA evidence. any biology undergraduate could perform this. 1994. for raping a woman during a burglary.[40] • In 1986. meaning it contains methyl group modifications within a CpG dinucleotide context. samples of her tissue that had been stored at a Charlottesville. Methylation at the promoter region is associated with gene silencing. despite having admitted to the rape and murder of a teenager near Leicester. lead author on the paper. Virginia. for several rape and murder charges. which allows the test to distinguish manufactured DNA from original. genuine. using a DNA database.. was quoted in The New York Times saying. No police lab has publicly announced that it is using the new test to verify DNA results. genetic fingerprinting was used in criminal court for the first time in the trial of a man accused of unlawful intercourse with a mentally handicapped 14-year-old female who gave birth to his baby.[39] Cases • In the 1950s.[38] It is unknown how many. Timothy Wilson Spencer was the first man in Virginia to be sentenced to death through DNA testing. if any. Seventy percent of the DNA in any human genome is methylated. the Israeli researchers demonstrated that it is possible to manufacture DNA in a laboratory. The synthetic DNA lacks this epigenetic modification.[36] Detailed information on database laws in each state can be found at the National Conference of State Legislatures website. and showed that she bore no relation to the Romanovs.[42] • In 1987. in the same case as Buckland. and that this can be done without access to any actual DNA from the person whose DNA they are duplicating. This was the first use of DNA finger printing in a criminal investigation. even though any forensic laboratory doing DNA identification could adopt this test to authenticate its results as "real" DNA. which originally contained DNA from a person other than the supposed donor of the blood and saliva. He was later charged with rape and 1st degree murder and was sentenced to death. He was dubbed "The South Side Strangler" because he killed victims on the south side of Richmond. Virginia hospital following a medical procedure were tested using DNA fingerprinting. became the first man in America exonerated based on DNA evidence. . Frumkin perfected a test that can differentiate real DNA samples from fake ones.[38] The researchers also showed that. Richard Buckland was exonerated. His test detects epigenetic modifications.

Richard J. Northern Ireland. 23. England.[54] This may be the first known example of the DNA of an innocent yet related individual being used to identify the actual criminal.[49] • In May 2000 Gordon Graham murdered Paul Gault at his home in Lisburn. • In 1994. Schmidt was convicted of attempted second-degree murder when it was shown that there was a link between the viral DNA of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) he had been accused of injecting in his girlfriend and viral DNA from one of his patients with full-blown AIDS. • The trial of Robert Pickton is notable in that DNA evidence is being used primarily to identify the victims. Dr. because of new DNA evidence.DNA profiling • In 1989. He was released due to an inaccurrate DNA match. Annalisa Vincenzi was shot dead in Tuscany. thus marking for the first time in forensic history the use of non-human DNA to identify a criminal. resulting in a match with his nephew.[46] [47] [48] • In 1993.[51] [52] • In 2002. DNA from seed pods of a tree at the crime scene was found to match that of seed pods found in Bogan's truck. The three men had already served eighteen years of their thirty-plus-year sentences. DNA testing was used to exonerate Douglas Echols. Graham was convicted of the murder when his DNA was found on a sports bag left in the house as part of an elaborate ploy to suggest the murder occurred after a burglary had gone wrong. a man who was wrongfully convicted in a 1986 rape case. DNA from a palo verde tree was used to convict Mark Alan Bogan of murder. • In 1991. DNA evidence was used to prove that Nazi doctor Josef Mengele was buried in Brazil under the name Wolfgang Gerhard. was arrested.[50] • In 2001. lead singer for the Seattle punk band The Gits was unsolved 9 years after the murder. This was the first time viral DNA fingerprinting had been used as evidence in a criminal trial. was arrested and detained for 7 hours in connection with a burglary. Chicago man Gary Dotson was the first person whose conviction was overturned using DNA evidence. Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) detectives successfully tested hairs from a cat known as Snowball. John Kogut and John Restivo won a re-trial on their murder conviction. This is the first instance of plant DNA admitted in a criminal case. Allan Legere was the first Canadian to be convicted as a result of DNA evidence. It was the first time Low Copy Number DNA was used in Northern Ireland. • In 1998. for four murders he had committed while an escaped prisoner in 1989. when crime scene evidence collected 12 years earlier was re-examined using STR techniques. his defense argued that the relatively shallow gene pool of the region could lead to false positives. Bartender Peter Hamkin.J. via "familial searching". DNA "proved" he shot her. in Merseyside. but he was [53] cleared on other evidence. The case also brought to light the laboratory difficulties and handling procedure mishaps which can cause such evidence to be significantly doubted. Kirk Bloodsworth was the first person to have been convicted of murder and sentenced to death. a disabled man from Swindon. • The 1993 rape and murder of Mia Zapata. • In August 2002. • In 1999. but the killer's DNA was collected when he was arrested in Florida for burglary and domestic abuse in 2002. and in many cases to prove their existence. 51 . Echols was the 114th person to be exonerated through post-conviction DNA testing. and used the test to link a man to the murder of his wife. Raymond Easton. • In June 2003. • In 1992. A database search in 2001 failed. • In 1992. His DNA had been retained on file after an unrelated domestic incident some time previously. It was the first murder in Australia to be solved using DNA profiling. Graham was having an affair with the victim's wife at the time of the murder. whose conviction was overturned using DNA evidence. in March 2003 on an extradition warrant heard at Bow Street Magistrates' Court in London to establish whether he should be taken to Italy to face a murder charge. • The science was made famous in the United States in 1994 when prosecutors heavily relied on DNA evidence allegedly linking O. During his trial. • In 2003. Dennis Halstead. Wayne Butler was convicted for the murder of Celia Douty. Welshman Jeffrey Gafoor was convicted of the 1988 murder of Lynette White. Simpson to a double murder.

• In March 2009.gov. Wikicrimeline.com.1038/314067a0 [5] Joseph Wambaugh. nap. 52 References [1] Kijk magazine. Tests prove DNA from the scene was not his. Abcnews. "Hypervariable 'minisatellite' regions in human DNA" (http:/ / www. [9] Rose & Goos. 312 Sci. [15] “Science of the Future: Identifying Criminals Through Their Family Members” (http:/ / www. com/ denver/ ci_13801125) The Denver Post accessed April 17. Retrieved 2010-04-03. Fbi. However. wikicrimeline. Los Angeles Times: pp. but another woman claimed that the boy was her son. Wilson V. [12] "Two Women Don't Match Their Kids' DNA" (http:/ / abcnews.co. The courts disbelieved her claim and convicted Walters for the kidnapping. He was allegedly found alive eight months later in the custody of William Cantwell Walters. html) The Huffington Post accessed April 17. DNA — A Practical Guide. [8] "Restrictions on use and destruction of fingerprints and samples" (http:/ / www. nature. aspx#uk).. fbi." (http:/ / www. 2009-09-01. html) 1996. Accessexcellence. DNA in a drop of blood on Mixer's hand was matched to John Ruelas. Toronto: Carswell Publications. [16] Bhattacharya. doi:10. The Blooding (New York. British police have now reopened the case. convicted of killing Teresa De Simone. Sunday 27 January 2002.[55] • In 2005..org. html) The Observer. html). [6] Felch. The boy was raised and known as Bobby Dunbar throughout the rest of his life. com/ article/ dn4908-killer-convicted-thanks-to-relatives-dna. [10] Nick Paton Walsh False result fear over DNA tests (http:/ / www. com/ diane-dimond/ searching-the-family-dna-_b_845340. [4] Jeffreys A. com/ nature/ journal/ v314/ n6006/ abs/ 314067a0. . . accessexcellence. guardian. whom she had entrusted in Walters' custody.(2006) “Finding Criminals Through DNA of Their Relatives” (http:/ / www. com/ Primetime/ story?id=2315693). Sean Hodgson who spent 27 years in jail. 1315. [3] Joseph Wambaugh.640157. latimes. 83. edu/ openbook/ 0309053951/ html/ 35.[56] [57] [58] • In December 2005. Thein S. New York: A Perigord Press Book. 1989). 2011. • In 2004. 22. . dnaforensics. co. P8. 2008). a four-year-old boy who vanished during a fishing trip.J..DNA profiling • In March 2003. htm). [17] Pankratz. [14] Bieber. go." (http:/ / www. in her car in Southampton 30 years ago was released by senior judges. (1984). newscientist. com/ 2008/ jul/ 20/ local/ me-dna20). thus establishing that the boy found in 1912 was not Bobby Dunbar.go. Retrieved 2010-04-03. Howard. who was only four years old in 1969 and was never successfully connected to the case in any other way. com/ FamilialSearches. DNA tests on Dunbar's son and nephew revealed the two were not related. .uk. "Denver Uses ‘Familial DNA Evidence’ to Solve Car Break-Ins. Mr Clark is the 164th person in the United States and the fifth in Georgia to be freed using post-conviction DNA testing. Leiterman's defense unsuccessfully argued that the unexplained match of the blood spot to Ruelas pointed to cross-contamination and raised doubts about the reliability of the lab's identification of Leiterman. "Searching the Family DNA Tree to Solve Crime. uk/ index. . co. org/ RC/ AB/ BA/ Use_of_DNA_Identification. 1315–16. Shaoni “Killer Convicted Thanks to Relative's DNA.2763. Evan Simmons was proven innocent of a 1981 attack on an Atlanta woman after serving twenty-four years in prison.” (http:/ / www. et al (July 20. DNA testing shed new light into the mysterious 1912 disappearance of Bobby Dunbar. 2011. php). Diane. [13] Diamond. New York: A Perigord Press Book. 202. a law student at the University of Michigan. Frederick et al. whose real fate remains unknown. short)Science. [11] The Evaluation of Forensic DNA Evidence (http:/ / www. Bruce Anderson. huffingtonpost. 2006-08-15. Josiah Sutton was released from prison after serving four years of a twelve-year sentence for a sexual assault charge. [7] "CODIS — National DNA Index System" (http:/ / www. . php?title=Identification_by_body_samples_and_impressions#Section_82:_Restrictions_on_use_and_destruction_of_fingerprints_and_samples). 01 January 2009 [2] "Use of DNA in Identification" (http:/ / www. html) New Scientist accessed April 17. "FBI resists scrutiny of 'matches'" (http:/ / articles.00. denverpost. 1989). Retrieved 2010-04-03. uk/ crime/ article/ 0. after DNA found on Mixer's pantyhose was matched to Leiterman. Nature 314: 67–73. The Blooding (New York. sciencemag. Retrieved 2010-04-03. Gary Leiterman was convicted of the 1969 murder of Jane Mixer.W. Questionable DNA samples taken from Sutton were retested in the wake of the Houston Police Department's crime lab scandal of mishandling DNA evidence. Jason. org/ content/ 312/ 5778/ 1315. 2011. gov/ hq/ lab/ codis/ national.

[29] Amy Harmon. html) The New York Times accessed April 17. 316. com/ 2010/ 07/ 09/ us/ 09sleeper. . 369. 2011. Retrieved 2011-04-21. New York: A Perigord Press Book. University of Cambridge. Nicola Benson. bailii. The New York Times. Sonia. uk/ index. 2010. html) (). php?check=true& tag=134). 2010. "Denver Uses ‘Familial DNA Evidence’ to Solve Car Break-Ins. “Familial DNA Search Used In Grim Sleeper Case Leads to Arrest of Santa Cruz Sex Offender. 23. [32] R v.3d 1213. nytimes. Adams [1997] EWCA Crim 2474 (http:/ / www. 2/ 23HarvJLTech309. Rosalind. gov/ datastore/ opinions/ 2010/ 09/ 14/ 09-10303. Forensic Science Service. New York: A Perigord Press Book. uscourts. michiganlawreview. html). Priory House. com/ files/ FindingCriminals. aspx). latimes. 1989). [31] R v. Andrew (August 18. stm). [43] Joseph Wambaugh. UK. . com/ denver/ ci_13801125) The Denver Post accessed April 17. Retrieved April 1. Retrieved 2011-04-21. Wikicrimeline. com/ lanow/ 2011/ 03/ familial-dna-search-used-in-grim-sleeper-case-leads-to-arrest-of-santa-cruz-sex-offender. Lawyers Fight DNA Samples Gained on Sly (http:/ / www. Gillian Tully. Vol. Court of Appeal [35] "WikiCrimeLine DNA profiling" (http:/ / www. Court of Appeal [34] R v Bates [2006] EWCA Crim 1395 (http:/ / www." (http:/ / www. 2011. htm) accessed April 20. 2009). 2011. [44] "Gene Technology — Page 14" (http:/ / www. php?title=DNA_profiling#Presentation_and_evaluation_of_evidence_of_partial_or_incomplete_DNA_profiles). Retrieved 2010-04-03.denverda. 1987-11-06. wikicrimeline. ca9. com/ ng/ journal/ v6/ n2/ abs/ ng0294-130. Erin Elizabeth. The Innocence Project” (http:/ / www. co. Txtwriter. Colin Kimpton. Vol. org/ news/ Blog-Search. . harvard. [24] “Darryl Hunt." (http:/ / www. html?_r=1). Central Research and Support Establishment. 2010. [23] “Denver District Attorney DNA Resources” (http:/ / www. chromosomal-labs. 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September 9. pdf) (2010). html). Pool” (http:/ / www. Forensic Science Service. healthanddna. [47] "DNA Forensics: Angiosperm Witness for the Prosecution" (http:/ / www. UK . . Birmingham B5 6QQ.com. 2011. Retrieved 2010-04-03. nytimes. RG7 4PN. Kevin Sullivan. pbs.DNA profiling [18] Steinhaur. 53 . denverda. dh. html) The Washington Post accessed April 17. Moscow. com/ 2009/ 08/ 18/ science/ 18dna. Denver DA: www. bbc. [36] "Genelex: The DNA Paternity Testing Site" (http:/ / www.uk. Reading. uk/ en/ Publichealth/ Scientificdevelopmentgeneticsandbioethics/ Tissue/ TissueGeneralInformation/ DH_4102169). pdf). Pavel L. Cambridge CB2 3DZ. Retrieved 2010-04-03. Retrieved 2010-04-03. edu/ articles/ pdf/ v23. washingtonpost. bailii. Inc. com/ article/ S1872-4973(09)00099-4/ abstract). Ncsl. denverpost. [19] Dolan. Retrieved April 1. org/ ew/ cases/ EWCA/ Crim/ 2006/ 1395. org/ ew/ cases/ EWCA/ Crim/ 1996/ 728. denverda. org/ assets/ pdfs/ 109/ 3/ murphy. “ All in The Family: Privacy and DNA Familial Searching” (http:/ / jolt. Berkshire. Court of Appeal [33] R v. Jennifer. . "State Laws on DNA Data Banks" (http:/ / www. com/ dna-learning/ book-dna-testing. html). EWCA Crim 734 (2001). com/ blogs/ virginia-politics/ post/ mcdonnell-approves-familial-dna-for-va-crime-fighting/ 2011/ 03/ 21/ ABOK4f6_blog. 1989).com. UK. org/ ew/ cases/ EWCA/ Crim/ 1997/ 2474. . Harvard Journal of Law and Technology. 2009. Healthanddna. . [28] Pankratz. Russia. org/ IssuesResearch/ CivilandCriminalJustice/ StateLawsonDNADataBanks/ tabid/ 12737/ Default. 2011. Maura. "'Grim Sleeper' Arrest Fans Debate on DNA Use. org/ DNA_Documents/ bogan. Maura. com/ 2008/ 04/ 03/ science/ 03dna.org. gov. April 3. [1997] 1 Cr App R 369 (). Doheny [1996] EWCA Crim 728 (http:/ / www. Russian Academy of Sciences. accessed April 22. gov/ sci/ techresources/ Human_Genome/ elsi/ forensics.com. pdf) Michigan Law Review. co. nytimes. [26] Suter. [37] Donna Lyons — Posted by Glenda. Human Genome Project. law. Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology. stanford. . [22] "Finding Criminals Through DNA Testing of Their Relatives" (http:/ / www. html). New York Times. ornl. 291-348. Retrieved 2010-04-03. ncsl. com/ Backgrounders/ Genetech/ GEpage14. [46] "Court of Appeals of Arizona: Denial of Bogan's motion to reverse his conviction and sentence" (http:/ / www. UK. fsigenetics. 2011. uk/ 1/ hi/ programmes/ newsnight/ 8245312. Howard. "A New Track in DNA Search." (http:/ / www. [27] “US v. The Blooding (New York. .org. Ian Evett. Gooch Street North.328. [38] Pollack. [25] Murphy. html) (). bailii. (2009). txtwriter. pdf) LA Times accessed April 17. pdf) Technical Bulletin. innocenceproject. [21] Helderman. 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uk/ 1/ hi/ england/ 2766289. com/ stories/ 2007/ 07/ 17/ earlyshow/ main3065082. shtml) story on the Jane Mixer murder case.html) PBS. [55] " DNA clears man of 1914 kidnapping conviction (http:/ / www.es) . . [53] "Mistaken identity claim over murder" (http:/ / news. 2010. guardian. . botany. Retrieved 2008-06-17. org/ PlantTalkingPoints/ crime. "Freedom in bag for killer Graham?" (http:/ / www. Breed. [56] CBS News (http:/ / www. Associated Press.1933724. "Lynette White Case: How Forensics Caught the Cellophane Man" (http:/ / lifeloom. [51] Dutter. [57] Another CBS News (http:/ / www.co. (May 5. "DNA evidence may not be infallible: experts" (http:/ / www. March 24.html) • Fingerprinting. Retrieved 2008-06-17. telegraph. Belfasttelegraph. com/ I2Sekar. uk/ sunday-life/ news/ freedom-in-bag-for-killer-graham-13906320. co. [49] Jeffries. Retrieved 2010-06-19. Retrieved April 1. uk/ news/ worldnews/ australiaandthepacific/ 1322624/ 18-years-on. 2007. stm). belfasttelegraph. usatoday. [58] An advocacy site (http:/ / www. htm). . 54 External links • DNA Fingerprinting (http://www. php).DNA profiling [48] "Crime Scene Botanicals" (http:/ / www.uk. co.ehu.php?LAN=E&ID=399& FILE=subject&PAGE=1) • Key Dates in the History of DNA Profiling (http://www. 2010.com (http://www. abc.00. au/ 7. .com/) DNA Database and Profiling News and Trends . Botanical Society of America. London: The Telegraph. [50] Gordon.com." USA Today. BBC News.crimtrac. cbsnews. Retrieved 2011-04-21.. . html). man is jailed for murder of Briton in 'paradise'" (http:/ / www. co. net. Stuart (2006-10-08). February 15.com (http://dnaforensics. "Suspect Nation" (http:/ / www. .uk/science/2009/may/24/dna-fingerprinting-alec-jeffreys) Eureka Moment • Create a DNA Fingerprint (http://www.kuleuven. [52] McCutcheon. "18 years on. 2007. by Allen G. 2003. London: The Guardian. Barbie (2001-06-19).php) DNA Fingerprinting Identification and Methods • DNAForensics. html).pbs. [54] Satish Sekar. co.guardian. Stephen (2008-02-17). July 17. 30/ content/ 2004/ s1195029. uk/ comment/ story/ 0. Lifeloom. htm). Retrieved April 1. com/ tech/ news/ 2004-05-05-1914-dna_x.com/dna-fingerprinting.fingerprinting. 2004).org • In silico simulation of Molecular Biology Techniques (http://insilico. Peter (2004-09-08). shtml) story on the Mixer case. . garyisinnocent. bbc. Retrieved 2010-04-03. htm). html).au/systems_projects/ KeyDatesintheHistoryofDNAProfiling.org/wgbh/nova/sheppard/analyze. cbsnews.co.be/cbmer/page. Australian Broadcasting Corporation.A place to learn typing techniques by simulating them • National DNA Databases in the EU (https://www.gov.-man-is-jailed-for-murder-of-Briton-in-'paradise'. org) challenging Leiterman's conviction in the Mixer murder. com/ stories/ 2005/ 11/ 22/ 48hours/ main1066064.

another set of gates in front of him will open allowing him to pass.E-Channel 55 E-Channel E-Channels. Macau and frequent visitors to Hong Kong entering and exiting the territory whether it be by land. . also known as The Automated Passenger Clearance System. once identity has been confirmed. over the past several years the locations have expanded to include:[2] • • • • • • • • • • • Hong Kong International Airport Lo Wu Control Point Hung Hom Lok Ma Chau Lok Ma Chau Spur Line Man Kam To Sha Tau Kok Hong Kong China Ferry Terminal Hong Kong-Macau Ferry Terminal Tuen Mun Ferry Terminal Shenzhen Bay By allowing registered users to utilise the self-service kiosks to pass through Hong Kong immigration. the channel gate will open.[1] Basic Requirements to use the E-Channels • A Hong Kong permanent resident aged 11 or above (using a smart identity card) • A Hong Kong resident aged 11 or above holding a Document of Identity for Visa Purposes (using a smart identity card and carrying a valid Document of Identity for Visa Purposes) • A person aged 11 or above who has the right to land or is on unconditional stay in Hong Kong (using a smart identity card) • A non-permanent resident issued with a notification label (using a smart identity card and carrying a valid travel document) • A registered cross-boundary primary school student under the age of 11 (using the enrolled valid travel document) • A registered frequent visitor aged 18 or above (using the enrolled valid travel document) Getting fingerprint verified • A registered Macau permanent resident aged 11 or above (using a Macau permanent identity card) The user upon entrance to the E-Channel inserts his Hong Kong Identity Card into the card reader (which reads the embedded chip) or place his registered travel document / Macau Identity Card onto the document reader. Locations First made available on 16 December 2004 in Lo Wu Control Point. next he would be requested to place his thumb or finger onto the fingerprint reader. an immigration supervisor will be on hand to assist. the user takes his resident card and steps in and the gate will close behind him. processing [3] time averages around 12 seconds making E-channels far more efficient than traditional immigration counters. If an issue arises whether identity cannot be confirmed or a malfunction occurs. is a border control system introduced by the Hong Kong Immigration Department back in 2004. air or sea via the use of self-service kiosks employed at various border control points. designed to speed up border immigration processes for residents of Hong Kong.

upon arrival of Macau's Outer Harbour Ferry Terminal. References [1] (http:/ / unpan1. instead of queuing up at immigration counters. the program expanded in 12 September 2006. Vice versa. One Stop Customs and Immigration Clearance A special E-Channel has been erected for Shenzhen Bay known as One Stop Customs and Immigration Clearance for goods vehicle passing through the Shenzhen Bay Control Point. org/ intradoc/ groups/ public/ documents/ unpan/ unpan027893. un. Or A Hong Kong resident departs from the Hong Kong-Macau Ferry Terminal clearing through Hong Kong immigration via E-channel. hk/ yr09-10/ english/ panels/ se/ papers/ se0601cb2-1633-4-e.Zhuhai and Shenzhen (respectively) have their set of E-channels for use of the Home Return Permit cards. plus on one of the following documents: • • • • A valid HKSAR Travel Pass or An APEC Business Travel Card with the economy code ‘HKG’ or Hong Kong International Airport Frequent Visitor Card or Frequent Flyer Programme Membership Card issued by an airline which has joined this arrangement (please enquire with your airline). indicating how versatile this system is. Macau have reciprocated and have their set of E-Channels and Hong Kong ID Card holders can register for those as well. this is known as Frequent Visitor Automated Passenger Clearance. allowing not only those of Right to Land or those with unconditional stay in Hong Kong but also to those non-residents with notification labels to use the E-Channels. and an asset for the Hong Kong Immigration Department. un. Border cities to Macau and Hong Kong on the Mainland China's side . legco. Thereby cutting down time compared with using traditional immigration counters. you would need a valid travel document with a multiple visit visa (if applicable). pdf) [2] (http:/ / www. pdf) . The program was expanded further again in 10 December 2009 to allow holders of Macau Resident Identity Card to register for and use of the Hong Kong E-channels to enter and exit the territory. pdf) [3] (http:/ / unpan1. he uses his Home Return Permit on China's E-Channel to enter Mainland China. gov. org/ intradoc/ groups/ public/ documents/ unpan/ unpan027893. he can use his Hong Kong Identity Card to clear through Macau's set of E-Channels. Frequent Visitor Automated Passenger Clearance Not only has Macau Resident Card holders been permitted to register for this program but frequent visitors to Hong Kong can register for this as well.E-Channel 56 Macau Since its first inception where only Right to Abode Hong Kong Permanent Identity Card holders were permitted to use the self-service kiosks. Example: A Hong Kong resident arrives at Lo Wu and passes through Hong Kong's E-Channel with his Hong Kong Identity Card allowing him to exit Hong Kong. upon approaching a border check point at Shenzhen.

au/ pfes/ corporate/ media/ publications/ pdf/ drum/ 199709_p1. [1] References • Victim Pleads To Mr Stinky . he has maintained his innocence.. This Is The Drum. dcdsca. html . Sergeant Andrew Wall. Admit Your Evil Deeds [1] (Geoff Wilkinson. Edmunds was also convicted of a series of rapes in the 1970s and early 80s that led the police to dub the then-unknown offender. a Victoria Police fingerprint expert. org. Melbourne. nsf/ 84c76a0f7bf3fb726925649e001c03bb/ 291ace2e07390e29692566a2000b1f69?OpenDocument& ExpandSection=4 [4] http:/ / www. Edmunds was fingerprinted and the prints were matched with those found at the Shepparton crime scene. nt. Northern Territory Police. Police are seeking to utilise new legislation that allows them to compel convicted prisoners to provide a blood sample for DNA testing. mako. New South Wales. Herald Sun. He was convicted and is now serving two life sentences with no minimum term for the murders and a total of 30 years for five rape convictions in Greensborough and Donvale. Australia. Edmunds had allegedly previously raped and beaten his first wife and sexually abused his three-year-old daughter. gov. Australia from the 1960s to the mid-1980s. These fingerprints connected the Shepparton murders with one fingerprint found at the "Donvale Rapist" crime scene. Mr. Fire and Ambulance Services) • DNA sampling act [3] (Northern Territory legislative assembly) • Australian (Public) Paedophile/Sex Offender Registry [4] Raymond Edmunds-(Mr STINKY) References [1] http:/ / www. Edmunds was dubbed "Mr Stinky" by a sub-editor from Melbourne's Sunday Press newspaper due to his offensive body odour which was believed to have been caused by a mixture of milk. aka Donvale Rapist. au/ dcm/ legislat/ Acts. au/ tempstinkyed. html [2] http:/ / www. "The Donvale Rapist". It has been alleged that Edmunds committed other murders and more than 32 rapes. On 16 March 1985. pdf [3] http:/ / www. Victoria. Heywood was shot through the head with a . matched two fingerprints found on the top of the FJ Holden motorcar owned by Heywood. 27 July 1998) • VicLAS [2] (PDF) (Annie Darcy. Stinky. gov. After his arrest. manure and chemicals from his work as a share-cropping farmer on dairy properties.Raymond Edmunds 57 Raymond Edmunds Raymond Edmunds. however.22 Mossberg self-loading rifle and Madill was raped and then bludgeoned to death. This occurred before computerised processing of fingerprints was developed and fingerprint matching had to be done manually. September 1997. Edmunds was arrested on unrelated charges of indecent exposure while parked in his station wagon in Albury. Edmunds was convicted of the 1966 double murder and rape of 18-year-old panel beater Garry Charles Heywood and 16-year-old Abina Margaret Madill on 10 February 1966 at Shepparton. born 12 March 1944 at Queen Victoria Hospital. is a convicted rapist and double murderer who was active in Victoria. nt. The fingerprint evidence was deliberately kept quiet so as not to panic the offender or help him become more adept at hiding his prints. mako.. org. au/ ausnews186.

References [1] DNA Glossary (http:/ / dna-glossary.org/jofs/PAGES/4390.com/464/) with images • electropherogram image (http://bscs.genoma. html) External links • PHPH (http://condor.htm) • DYS464 Electropherogram Interpretation Discrepancy (http://dna. Electropherograms may be used for deriving results from: • genealogical DNA testing • paternity testing • DNA sequencing • Genetic fingerprinting Screen shot of a chromatogram inside the program "Sequencher" [1] An electropherogram shows a sequence of data that is produced by an automated DNA sequencing machine.Electropherogram 58 Electropherogram An electropherogram is a plot of results from an analysis done by electrophoresis automatic sequencing. dnawiz.astm.br/phph/) — web-based tool for electropherogram quality analysis • Systematic differences in electropherogram peak heights reported by different versions of the GeneScan Software (http://journalsip.reinyday.gif) .org/pages/curriculumdevelopment/onco/images/sprotocol_normal.embrapa.cenargen. com/ Electropherogram.

2 . Calving ease predicts the level of difficulty first time heifers will have during birth.31 MWW 25. Each set of letters stands for a specific measurement with an accuracy reading and percent rank below it.3 . but instead gives a general prediction of how much extra or less weight an offspring will weigh compared to if it had been sired by another bull.68 3 MCE 4.11 CW 15.EURODAC 59 EURODAC EURODAC is a European Union automated fingerprint identification system for recording and comparing the fingerprints of asylum seekers and illegal immigrants.18 Milk 3.05 .29 API 104. They are based on animal models which combine all information known about an individual and its relatives to create a genetic profile of the animal’s merits. These profiles are then compared only to other individuals of the same breed.[2] .32 BW 1. Typically the weaning weight is measured at the 205 day mark and the yearling weight is taken at the 365 day mark. These are determined by the percentage of unassisted births for that particular animal.do?reference=MEMO/06/334 Expected Progeny Difference Expected progeny differences (EPD) are an evaluation of an animal’s genetic worth as a parent. Types of EPD’s An example of a set of EPDs looks like the following chart.02 . Each EPD is compared to the breed average of a given year.4 . and is used in all EU member states as well as Iceland and Norway which are also covered by the Dublin Regulation.eu/scadplus/leg/en/lvb/l33081.[2] Milk EPDs give an estimate for the maternal portion of the weaning weight that determined by milk production of the dam.4 .09 .32 15 Stay 18. Typically a larger number is favored for both of these traits.[1] Birth weight measures how much above or below the breed’s average an offspring will gain due to the parent. It is intended to enforce the Dublin Regulation.htm • http://europa.8 . High birth weight is the biggest cause of difficulty in calving. so having a bull with a low birth weight EPD is high beneficial.32 Fat .72 10 YW 84. The number given by the EPD is the amount above or below this given average.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.4 .33 Marb .43 20 REA -.[1] Weaning and yearling weight measure the amount of weight an offspring has gained by the time it is weaned and at the one year mark.5 .00 . It does not necessarily predict the exact weight of all offspring. External links • http://europa.6 . Header text EPD Acc %Rank CE 8 .75 WW 44. The fingerprints of asylum seekers over the age of 14 have been routinely recorded on EURODAC since 2003.52 4 YG .4 Growth EPDs Growth EPDs measure the amount of weight a given offspring will gain due to the parent’s genetics. It is measured in pounds of weaning weight of a bull’s daughter grandprogeny due to the milk production of the bull’s daughters.

The higher the EPD value the greater chance a cow will stay in a herd over six years and continue producing quality offspring. EPDs can be made more accurate. It does not however predict percent retail value. or the actual amount of sellable meat that can be produced from the carcass. but rather shows how close the EPD is to the true genetic potential of the [2] animal. the closer most of the progeny will be to the EPD values listed.[3] Use and Accuracy EPDs are used in both scientific research and in typical farm usage. In addition to the EPD and accuracy shown in a chart. These two factors contribute to the greatest waste in an animal and best way to reduce economic loss. Accuracy is not an indicator of beneficial EPDs. The better the EPDs for a given bull.[5] .Expected Progeny Difference 60 Reproductive EPDs Scrotal circumference is an indicator of a bull’s fertility. by using a combination of EPDs and DNA markers. by using animals with mid range EPDs. such as non genetic effects including feed. It also gives the cow a larger postpartum interval between pregnancies. This shows what percentile the animal ranks for the given EPD. Use of EPSs and DNA markers can help when choosing certain traits over others.[3] Fat thickness determined the expected external and seam fat the animal will contain. This EDP is different in that it is measured in units of marbling score. Higher values indicate the presence of genes that will produce more intramuscular fat. A larger circumference is preferred and is an indicator for his sons to have a larger scrotal circumference and his daughters to reach puberty sooner and therefore have calves sooner.[3] Marbling EPDs are also important in the beef industry for predicting palatability in a beef carcass. especially for highly heritable traits such as marbling. The EPDs can then be changed based on the values that are gathered. In addition. environment. When new DNA markers are used. as well as random Mendelian sampling.[4] To determine how accurate EPDs are for an individual. By using certain EPDs of an animal one can rapidly improve genetics of a herd. samples of all of a bull’s offspring are looked at and compared to what their expected outcome should have been.[2] Gestation length is an indicator of the probability of dystocia. A shorter gestation length is usually preferred because of this. they can help adjust the EPD according to the genotype and therefore produce a more accurate measurement. weather. the more accurate the EPDs can be thought to be. so as not to have too little or too much fat. and not in weight gained by an animal. the better the EPD is for that characteristic.[2] Stayability is an indicator EPD of longevity of a bull’s daughter in a cow herd.[2] Carcass EPDs Carcass weight predicts what an animal’s total retail product will be compared to other animals of that breed. They show the estimated USDA Quality grading System and marbling score an animal would receive if it were slaughtered. The closer an accuracy value is to 1. Other factors can affect the progeny as well. The longer a calf is in utero the larger it will be at birth and the greater the chance of it having dystocia. The higher the accuracy rate. The higher the percentile. the higher chance its progeny will have a given characteristic. Through mathematical equations and computing power EPDs can be generated for use in both situations. Fat thickness EPDs can help producers reduce this loss. Through EPDs certain phenotypes can be chosen for over others. often the percent rank is also given.

PhD. and on carcass classification and composition of their progeny. Web. cornell. The certificates are typically issued for medium amounts of time. edu/ Other_Areas/ publications/ PDF/ FSA-3068. The mechanism is based on digital certificates.http:/ / pubs. one for each country that allows it to read sensitive data. intramuscular fat deposition. 28 Mar. edu/ 400/ 400-804/ 400-804. Several other countries implement their own EAC. vt. such as data for Iris [2] recognition or Fingerprint recognition. The Document Verifier certificate is granted from the Country Verification Certificate Authority (CVCA). M. The CVC allows the Inspection System to request one or more items of sensitive data. An Inspection System may have several CVCs installed at any time. EAC is mentioned in ICAO Doc 9303 but the description there is not very clear. [3] Understanding and using Expected Progeny Differences (EPDs). pdf [4] C. The European Commission in its decision No 2909 from the 28 June 2006 described what technology will be used to protect fingerprints in the Member States e-passports. that must be implemented along with the Basic Access Control which is mandatory in the EU. Journal of Animal Science (84): 686-693. (2006).Chip Authentication Chip Authentication (CA) has two functionalities: • authenticate the chip and prove that the chip is genuine (not cloned). pdf). Extension Animal Scientist. ISSN:07916833. • establish strongly secured communication channel (stronger than the one established by BAC mechanism) EAC . There are several different implementation of the mechanism. Brett Barham. EBSCO. McGee. al. Greiner. "Effect of beef sire expected progeny difference for carcass conformation on live animal muscularity scores and ultrasonic muscle and fat depths.2 (2008): 161-170. These certificates can be for domestic or foreign Document Verifiers. Pfzer Animal Genetics. et. and M.[2] . The certificate format is not X.B. Extension Livestock Specialist at University of Arkansas. Academic Search Complete. The specification selected for the EU e-passports was prepared by the German Federal Office for Information Security (BSI) in their technical report TR 3110 [1] . html [2] Janice M. 2011. Scott P. and expected progeny differences in early weaned Simmental steers". or Inspection System. between 1/2 month and 3 months. PMID 16478961. Virgina Tech. . Each terminal. http:/ / www. is granted a Card Verifiable Certificate (CVC) from a Document Verifier (DV). The deadline for the member states to start fingerprint enabled e-passport issuing was set to be 28 June 2009. "Interpretation and Use of Expected Progeny Differences (EPD)" (http:/ / www. typically between 1 day to 1 month. "Relationship among GeneSTAR marbling marker. Extended Access Control as defined by EU EAC .Expected Progeny Difference 61 References [1] Understanding Expected Progeny Differences (EPDs). Rumph. ext. Rincker.. The Inspection System's certificate is valid only for a short time period." Irish Journal of Agricultural & Food Research 47. The CVCA is generated by each country and is typically valid for 6 months to 3 years. [5] Drennan.509 but card verifiable certificates. edu/ nbcec/ producers/ sire_selection/ chapter9. J.Terminal Authentication Terminal Authentication (TA) is used to determine whether the Inspection System (IS) is allowed to read the sensitive data from the e-passport. uaex. Extended Access Control Extended Access Control is a mechanism specified to allow only authorized Inspection system (system used to read e-passport) to read sensitive biometric data such as fingerprints from ePassports. ansci.

Current face recognition systems are designed to work on relatively small still facial images. There are three main contenders for improving face recognition algorithms: high resolution images.Open Source EAC-PKI for development and testing Face Recognition Grand Challenge The Face Recognition Grand Challenge (FRGC) was conducted in an effort to promote and advance face recognition technology.000 pixels on the face).html) . de/ pdf/ Kuegler_-_Extended_Access_Control. pdf) (PDF). interoptest-berlin. Overview The primary goal of the FRGC was to promote and advance face recognition technology designed to support existing face recognition efforts in the U. . The set of defined experiments assists researchers and developers in making progress on meeting the new performance goals. In the FRGC. . Retrieved 2010-03-25.openscdp. high resolution images consist of facial images with 250 pixels between the centers of the eyes on average. FRGC ran from May 2004 to March 2006. Dennis.S. Government.000 to 20. The FRGC is simultaneously pursuing and will assess the merit of all three techniques. The traditional method for measuring the size of a face is the number of pixels between the centers of the eyes. One of the impediments to developing improved face recognition is the lack of data. de/ cae/ servlet/ contentblob/ 532066/ publicationFile/ 44792/ TR-03110_v202_pdf) (PDF). Retrieved 2009-11-26.org (http://www. The FRGC will facilitate the development of new algorithms that take advantage of the . The FRGC challenge problems include sufficient data to overcome this impediment.Extended Access Control 62 External references [1] "Advanced Security Mechanisms for Machine Readable Travel Documents – Extended Access Control (EAC)" (https:/ / www. In current images there are 40 to 60 pixels between the centers of the eyes (10. academia. External links • OpenSCDP. The FRGC consisted of progressively difficult challenge problems. FRGC developed new face recognition techniques and prototype systems while increasing performance by an order of magnitude. three-dimensional (3D) face recognition. Each challenge problem consisted of a data set of facial images and a defined set of experiments.org/scripts/icao/eacpki. "Extended Access Control: Infrastructure and Protocol" (http:/ / www. bsi. The FRGC was open to face recognition researchers and developers in companies. and research institutions. [2] Kügler. bund. and new preprocessing techniques.

The development of the new algorithms and systems is facilitated by the FRGC challenge problems. The second part is the FRGC BEE.000 recordings divided into training and validation partitions. hallways. A subject session is the set of all images of a person taken each time a person's biometric data is collected and consists of four controlled still images. are full frontal facial images taken under two lighting conditions and with two facial expressions (smiling and neutral). The preprocessing portion of the FRGC will measure the impact of new preprocessing algorithms on recognition performance.000 recordings. The uncontrolled images were taken in varying illumination conditions. The infrastructure for FRGC will be provided by the Biometric Experimentation Environment (BEE). and documentation of the experiment format in a common format. Previous face recognition data sets have been restricted to still images. Three-dimensional (3D) face recognition algorithms identify faces from the 3D shape of a person's face. The first aspect is the size of the FRGC in terms of data. The controlled images were taken in a studio setting. The FRGC improved the capabilities of automatic face recognition systems through experimentation with clearly stated goals and challenge problems. The BEE distribution includes all the data sets for performing and scoring the six experiments.. it is possible to run experiments 1 through 4. With all three components. In the last couple years there have been advances in computer graphics and computer vision on modeling lighting and pose changes in facial imagery. In current face recognition systems. There are three aspects of the FRGC that will be new to the face recognition community. This is the first time that a computational-experimental environment has supported a challenge problem in face recognition or biometrics. recording of the raw results of an experiment in a common format. The third part is a set of baseline algorithms for experiments 1 through 4. 3D face recognition has the potential to improve performance under these conditions. The second aspect is the complexity of the FRGC. and one three-dimensional image.g. The FRGC Data Set The FRGC data distribution consists of three parts.Face Recognition Grand Challenge additional information inherent in high resolution images. changes in lighting (illumination) and pose of the face reduce performance.003 subject sessions. The validation partition consists of data from 4. The BEE will allow the description and distribution of experiments in a common format. 63 Structure of the Face Recognition Grand Challenge The FRGC is structured around challenge problems that are designed to challenge researchers to meet the FRGC performance goal. These new algorithms work by preprocessing a facial image to correct for lighting and pose prior to being processed through a face recognition system. The third new aspect is the infrastructure. These advances have led to the development of new computer algorithms that can automatically correct for lighting and pose changes in facial imagery. Researchers and developers can develop new algorithms and systems that meet the FRGC goals. The first is the FRGC data set. . two uncontrolled still images. The data for FRGC consists of 50. Because the shape of faces is not affected by changes in lighting or pose. an XML based framework for describing and documenting computational experiments. The training partition is designed for training algorithms and the validation partition is for assessing performance of an approach in a laboratory setting. The FRGC will consist of three modes: • high resolution still images • 3D images • multi-images of a person. The FRGC data set contains 50. from processing the raw images to producing Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROCs). e. analysis and presentation of the raw results in a common format.

Experiment 4 measures recognition performance from uncontrolled images. or outside. In experiment 6. the probe set consists of a single controlled still. the gallery consists of a single controlled still image of a person and each probe consists of a single controlled still image. the gallery consists of 3D images. Experiments 5 and 6 examine comparing 3D and 2D images. The 3D image was taken under controlled illumination conditions. Each set of uncontrolled images contains two expressions. and the probe set consists of a single uncontrolled still image. In both experiments. For example. each biometric sample consists of the four controlled images of a person taken in a subject session. In experiment 5. the gallery and probe set consist of 3D images of a person. The FRGC distribution consists of six experiments. Experiment 1 is the control experiment. smiling and neutral. In experiment 3. External links • • • • • • • • • • MBGC Website [2] MBGC Blog [3] FRGC Website [1] FRVT Website [4] ICE Website [5] National Institute of Standards and Technology [6] Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Agency [7] Department of Homeland Security [8] FBI Criminal Justice Information Services Division [9] Technical Support Working Group (TSWG) [10] .Face Recognition Grand Challenge atriums. Experiment 2 studies the effect of using multiple still images of a person on performance. In experiment 4. the probe set consists of a single uncontrolled still. the gallery consists of a single controlled still image. The 3D images consist of both a range and a texture image. a probe now consists of four images of a person. the gallery is composed of four images of each person where all the images are taken in the same subject session. Likewise. In experiment 1. The 3D images were acquired by a Minolta Vivid 900/910 series sensor1. 64 Sponsors • • • • • Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Agency (IARPA) Department of Homeland Security (DHS) FBI Criminal Justice Information Services Division Technical Support Working Group (TSWG) National Institute of Justice References  This article incorporates public domain material from the National Institute of Standards and Technology document "NIST Face Recognition Grand Challenge" [1]. In experiment 2. Experiment 3 measures the performance of 3D face recognition.

gov/ ice/ [6] http:/ / nist. nist. iarpa. bee-biometrics. shtm [9] http:/ / www. htm [10] http:/ / www. and the processing of results. FRVT 2006 evaluated performance on: • • • • High resolution still imagery (5 to 6 mega-pixels) 3D facial scans Multi-sample still facial imagery Pre-processing algorithms that compensate for pose and illumination To guarantee an accurate assessment. It allowed the experimenter to focus on the experiment by simplifying test data management. gov/ frvt/ frvt2006/ frvt2006.S. org/ [4] http:/ / face. gov/ hq/ cjisd/ cjis. To request a FRGC data set. gov/ index.Face Recognition Grand Challenge 65 References [1] http:/ / face. One of the goals of the FRVT 2006 was to independently determine if the objectives of the Face Recognition Grand Challenge (FRGC) were achieved. please follow directions found on the "FRGC Webpage. nist. A standard dataset and test methodology was employed so that all participants were evenly evaluated. nist." . To obtain FRGC data. The FRGC was a separate algorithm development project designed to promote and advance face recognition technology that supports existing face recognition efforts in the U.S. The BEE was the FRVT 2006 infrastructure. the FRVT 2006 measured performance with sequestered data (data not previously seen by the researchers or developers). Previous evaluations in the series were the FERET. Government agencies and was conducted and managed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). experiment configuration. The government provided both the test data and the test environment to participants. Overview The primary goal of the FRVT 2006 was to measure progress of prototype systems/algorithms and commercial face recognition systems since FRVT 2002. gov/ frgc/ [2] http:/ / face. The test environment was called the Biometric Experimentation Environment (BEE). tswg. dhs. fbi. nist. The FRVT 2006 was sponsored by multiple U. gov [7] http:/ / www. Government. FRVT 2000. gov/ Facial Recognition Vendor Test 2006 The Face Recognition Vendor Test (FRVT) 2006 was part of a series of large scale independent evaluations for face recognition systems. FRGC data is still available to face recognition researchers. One of the objectives of the FRGC was to develop face recognition algorithms capable of performance an order of magnitude better than FRVT 2002. htm [5] http:/ / iris. gov [8] http:/ / www. The FRGC was conducted from May 2004 through March 2006. gov/ mbgc/ [3] http:/ / mbgc. potential participants must sign the required licenses and follow FRGC data release rules. and FRVT 2002.

Carnegie Mellon University Cognitec Systems GmbH Diamond Information Systems (DIS) Geometrix. only those who successfully completed the large-scale tests are documented in this report. Inc. Rafael Armament Development Authority Ltd. However. Inc. Neven Vision New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT) Nivis.Facial Recognition Vendor Test 2006 66 FRVT 2006 Protocol FRVT 2006 Protocol FRVT 2006 Executable Calling Signatures FRVT 2006 Executable Naming Convention FRVT 2006 Results The FRVT 2006 large-scale results are available in the combined FRVT 2006 and ICE 2006 Large-Scale Results evaluation report. LLC Old Dominion University Panvista Limited Peking University. The following organizations submitted algorithms to be evaluated: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Animetrics. Inc. SAGEM SA Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology (SAIT) Tsinghua University Tili Technology Limited Toshiba Corporation University of Houston Viisage Sponsors • • • • • Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Agency (IARPA) Department of Homeland Security (DHS) FBI Criminal Justice Information Services Division Technical Support Working Group (TSWG) National Institute of Justice . Guardia Identix. We received algorithms from 22 organizations in 10 different countries. with many submitting multiple algorithms. Center for Information Science PeopleSpot Inc.

In 1998.[1] Lydia Fairchild was pregnant with her third child. 52-year old Boston teacher Karen Keegan was in need of a kidney transplant. This DNA presumably came from a different embryo from the one that gave rise to the rest of her tissues. when she and the father of her children. usdoj. she was requested to provide DNA evidence that Townsend was the father of her children. When her three adult sons were tested for suitability as donors. Two weeks later. the defining characteristic of a chimera. although the DNA in Fairchild's skin and hair did not match her children's. who arranged further testing. when a second set of DNA was found in other [3] tissues. and realised that Fairchild's case might also be caused by chimerism. the judge ordered a witness be present at the birth. Prosecutors called for her two children to be taken into care. DNA tests indicated that she was not the mother of that child either. This resulted in Fairchild being taken to court for fraud for claiming benefit for other people's children or taking part in a surrogacy scam. The DNA for Fairchild's children matched that of Fairchild's mother to the extent expected of a grandmother. When Fairchild applied for welfare support in 2002. A breakthrough came when a lawyer for the prosecution found an article[2] in the New England Journal of Medicine about a similar case that had happened in Boston. Hospital records of her prior births were disregarded. DNA samples were taken from members of the extended family. Jamie Townsend. While the results showed Townsend was certainly the father of the children. As in Keegan's case. separated. a combination of two separate sets of cell lines with two separate sets of chromosomes. the DNA from a cervical smear test did match. . This witness was to ensure that blood samples were immediately taken from both the child and Fairchild. it was discovered that two of them did not match her DNA to the extent that her biological children should. ojp. Later testing showed that Keegan was a chimera. Fairchild was carrying two different sets of DNA. gov/ nij/ Lydia Fairchild Lydia Fairchild and her children are the subjects of a documentary called The Twin Inside Me (also known as "I Am My Own Twin"). As time came for her to give birth to her third child. the DNA tests indicated that she was not their mother. They also found that.Facial Recognition Vendor Test 2006 67 External links • • • • • • • • • • • MBGC Wedsite [2] MBGC Blog [3] FRGC Website [1] FRVT Website [4] ICE Website [5] National Institute of Standards and Technology [6] Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Agency [7] Department of Homeland Security [8] FBI Criminal Justice Information Services Division [9] Technical Support Working Group (TSWG) [10] National Institute of Justice [1] References [1] http:/ / www. Fairchild's prosecutors suggested this possibility to her lawyers.

rcn. The goals of this effort were to port FERET evaluated algorithms to real-time experimental/demonstration systems.com/Primetime/story?id=2315693) Article on Lydia • Kids' DNA Tested. the FERET program consisted of three phases.npr. com/ jkimball. . London.nu/archives/118606. and law enforcement personnel in the performance of their duties. [2] Yu. html#TetragameticHuman) Discussion on Tetragametic Humans • DNA Tests Shed Light on 'Hybrid Humans' (http://www. • Mayne. [3] "Genetic Mosaics: A Tetragametic Human" (http:/ / users. each one year in length. (16 May 2002). pp. The program consisted of three major elements: • Sponsoring research • Collecting the FERET database • Performing the FERET evaluations The goal of the sponsored research was to develop face recognition algorithms. . doi:10. The FERET evaluations were performed to measure progress in algorithm development and identify future research directions. 18–19. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. ultranet/ BiologyPages/ M/ Mosaics. 2006).org/templates/story/story. serving as technical agent. TV5. The goal of the FERET program was to develop automatic face recognition capabilities that could be employed to assist security. FERET (facial recognition technology) The US Department of Defense (DoD) Counterdrug Technology Development Program Office sponsored the Face Recognition Technology (FERET) program.katewerk. After the successful conclusion of phase 2.rcn. Jonathon Phillips. Initially. tv/ programmes/ extraordinarypeople/ twininside/ ). PMID 12015394. The goals of the first phase were to establish the viability of automatic face recognition algorithms and to establish a performance baseline against which to measure future progress.go.and why her astonishing story will throw doubt on the 'foolproof' evidence in thousands of court cases". Maryland. org/ web/ 20060526105634/ http:/ / www.ma. php?storyId=1392149) NPR recording. Adelphi. intelligence. . Army Research Laboratory. 2006. "Disputed Maternity Leading to Identification of Tetragametic Chimerism" (http:/ / content.Lydia Fairchild 68 Notes [1] "The Twin Inside Me: Extraordinary People" (http:/ / web.1056/NEJMoa013452. History The FERET program started in September 1993. ma. The Mail on Sunday. New England Journal of Medicine 346 (20): 1545–1552. with Dr. five. org/ cgi/ content/ short/ 346/ 20/ 1545?query=TOC). Parent Informed The DNA Is Not A Match (http://ace. nejm.com/jkimball. "The mother with three children who don't share her DNA . the DoD Counterdrug Technology Development Program Office initiated the FERET demonstration effort. tv/ programmes/ extraordinarypeople/ twininside/ ) on May 26. Neng. Eleanor (March 5.ultranet/BiologyPages/M/Mosaics. . archive. html#TetragameticHuman) References • ABC News: She's Her Own Twin (http://abcnews.mu.html) Article on Karen Keegan's case • Genetic Mosaics (http://users. The goals of phases 2 and 3 were to further develop face recognition technology. The FERET database was collected to support the sponsored research and the FERET evaluations.php) Article on Lydia's case • The Stranger Within (http://www.com/chimera. five. P. et al.

The FERET database was collected in 15 sessions between August 1993 and July 1996. for the first . Most of the databases were small and consisted of images of less than 50 individuals. TASC.126 images that includes 1199 individuals and 365 duplicate sets of images. Phillips. and USC were selected to continue development of their algorithms. The database contains 1564 sets of images for a total of 14. over two years had elapsed between their first and last sittings. Twenty-four proposals were received and evaluated jointly by DoD and law enforcement personnel. Joseph Wilder The Analytic Science Company (TASC).FERET (facial recognition technology) 69 FERET-Sponsored Algorithm Development Research The FERET program was initiated with a broad agency announcement (BAA). C. Notable exceptions were databases collected by three primary researchers: • Alex Pentland of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) assembled a database of ~7500 images that had been collected in a highly controlled environment with controlled illumination. • Joseph Wilder of Rutgers University assembled a database of ~250 individuals collected under similarly controlled conditions. The TASC effort extended their approach to developing an algorithm for recognizing faces from video. and all images were full frontal face views. all images had the eyes in a registered location. P. pages 182-187. and S. MIT. The FERET Database A standard database of face imagery was essential to the success of the FERET program. A duplicate set is a second set of images of a person already in the database and was usually taken on a different day. This time lapse was important because it enabled researchers to study. The FERET program set out to establish a large database of facial images that was gathered independently from the algorithm developers. The emphasis of the TASC effort was to estimate the three-dimensional shape of a face from motion and then recognize a face based on its shape. Five algorithm development contracts were awarded. For some individuals. Wilder. Jiang. Various researchers collected their own databases for the problems they were investigating. Gale Gordon University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) and University of Illinois at Urbana-Champagne. Phillips. Dr. with some subjects being photographed multiple times. The results of this study were presented in the paper "Comparison of visible and infrared imagery for face recognition" by J. • Christoph von der Malsburg of the University of Southern California (USC) and colleagues used a database of ~100 images that were of controlled size and illumination but did include some head rotation. Harry Wechsler at George Mason University was selected to direct the collection of this database. J. Alex Pentland Rutgers University. The winning proposals were chosen based on their advanced ideas and differing approaches. Lewis Sadler and Thomas Huang • University of Southern California (USC). The MIT and USC teams continued work on developing face recognition algorithms from still images. To maintain a degree of consistency throughout the database. there was no way to accurately evaluate or compare facial recognition algorithms. 1996. both to supply standard imagery to the algorithm developers and to supply a sufficient number of images to allow testing of these algorithms. Rutgers' Phase 2 effort compared and assessed the relative merits of long-wave infrared (thermal) and visible imagery for face recognition and detection. The database collection was a collaborative effort between Dr. Before the start of the FERET program. Because the equipment had to be reassembled for each session. there was some minor variation in images collected on different dates. Christoph von der Malsburg For phase 2. The images were collected in a semi-controlled environment. Wiener in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition. Wechsler and Dr. The organizations and principal investigators selected were: • • • • Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). the same physical setup was used in each photography session.

The first subtest examined the ability of algorithms to recognize faces from a gallery of 316 individuals. .FERET (facial recognition technology) time. (2) the gallery and probe images of a person were taken on different days. the community learned in an unbiased and open manner of the important technical problems that needed to be addressed. each with a different gallery and probe set. there was no method to make informed comparisons among various algorithms. changes in a subject’s appearance that occur over a year. The test consisted of three subtests. Rockefeller University. The second FERET evaluation took place in March 1995. normalize. but in addition on the aggregate performance of all algorithms tested. and was designed to measure performance on algorithms that could automatically locate. which measured how well an algorithm rejects faces not in the gallery. Results reported in the literature did not provide a direct comparison among algorithms because each researcher reported results using different assumptions. let alone met the desirable goal of being evaluated on a standard testing protocol that included separate training and testing sets. the FERET database and evaluations clarified the state of the art in face recognition and pointed out general directions for future research. Results were reported for the following cases: (1) the gallery and probe images of a person were taken on the same day under the same lighting conditions. scoring methods. For the Sept96 evaluation. Thus. with the last two evaluations being administered multiple times. Other organizations were invited to participate in the FERET evaluations. See the table below for dates and groups evaluated. FERET evaluations took place in September 1996. algorithms had to perform approximately 12. but received no funding from the FERET program to do so. These organizations were Excalibur Corp. and to evaluate these algorithms on larger galleries (817 individuals). The goal was to measure progress since the initial FERET evaluation. the Mar95 evaluation. and University of Maryland. The independently administered FERET evaluations allowed for a direct quantitative assessment of the relative strengths and weaknesses of different approaches. The FERET database made it possible for researchers to develop algorithms on a common database and to report results in the literature using this database. and (4) the gallery and probe images of a person were taken on the same day. Only a few of these algorithms reported results on images utilizing a common database. The FERET evaluations allowed the computer vision community to assess overall strengths and weaknesses in the field. The second tested fully automatic algorithms by providing the images only. The second subtest was the false-alarm test. The third. a large number of papers reported outstanding recognition results (usually >95% correct recognition) on limited-size databases (usually <50 individuals). but with different lighting conditions. The first tested partially automatic algorithms by providing the images with the coordinates of the center of the eyes. Rutgers University (Sep96 evaluation only). An added emphasis of this evaluation was on probe sets that contained duplicate images. the Aug94 evaluation. not only on the basis of the performance of an individual algorithm. The first FERET evaluation took place in August 1994. Through this type of assessment. we designed a new evaluation protocol which required algorithms to match a set of 3323 images against a set of 3816 images. and images. referred to as the Sep96 FERET evaluation. More importantly. Algorithms developed under FERET-funding were required to participate in the FERET evaluations. The third subtest baselined the effects of pose changes on performance. Michigan State University. and final. There were two versions of the September 1996 evaluation. and identify faces from a database. As a consequence. where a duplicate image was defined as an image of a person whose corresponding gallery image was taken on a different date.6 million matches. The new protocol design allowed the determination of performance scores for multiple galleries and probe sets. (3) the gallery and probe images of a person were taken over a year apart. 70 The FERET Evaluations Before the FERET database was created. and perform a more detailed performance analysis. Three sets of evaluations were performed.

To provide a greater understanding of face recognition algorithms. Many of the algorithms that took part in FERET form the foundation of today's commercial systems. The test methods used in the FERET evaluations form the foundation of an overall biometric evaluation methodology described in “An Introduction to Evaluating Biometric Systems. Second was the collection and distribution of the FERET database. L. and even greater pride that the FERET ideals and evaluation methods are being used by current programs both inside the Program Office and by other Government agencies. As FERET nears the end of its transition from active program to a historical program. Wilson. a detailed study of PCA-based recognition algorithms was performed and the results are in “Computational and Performance Aspects of PCA-based Face Recognition Algorithms” by H. This evaluation methodology has been incorporated into the UK Biometrics Working Group in their "Best Practices in Testing Performance of Biometrics Devices" [Download here]. and most recognized. A. The DoD Counterdrug Technology Development Program Office still receives requests for access to the FERET database. J. and M. Phillips. Phillips. As clearly shown. Przybocki in IEEE Computer. which is currently maintained at the National Institute of Standards and Technology.” by P. Total funding for the program was in excess of $6.) [Download here]. 2000. (NISTIR) [Available soon]. 71 Summary The DoD Counterdrug Technology Development Program Office began the Face Recognition (FERET) program in 1993 and sponsored it through its completion in 1998. Martin.FERET (facial recognition technology) Additionally. The FERET program consisted of three major elements. Moon and P.126 facial images of 1199 individuals. J. 56–63. C. The final. (Special issue on biometrics. February. We are just now beginning to uncover how important the program was during the infancy of facial recognition technology. which contains 14. pp. to appear in Perception. First was sponsoring research that advanced facial recognition from theory to working laboratory algorithms. External links • • • • • • • • FERET Website [1] FERET NIST Website [2] MBGC Website [2] MBGC Blog [3] FRGC Website [1] FRVT Website [4] ICE Website [5] National Institute of Standards and Technology [3] . The development portion of the FERET database has been distributed to over 100 groups outside the original FERET program. The FERET program was a highly successful effort that provided direction and credibility to the facial recognition community. part of the FERET program was the FERET evaluations that compared the abilities of facial recognition algorithms using the FERET database. the FERET program continues to have a profound effect on the facial recognition community today. the DoD Counterdrug Technology Development Program takes great pride on the imprint it has left on the biometrics community. the designers of the evaluations implemented two face recognition algorithms (PCA and Correlation) to provide a baseline performance.5 million.

htm/ [3] http:/ / nist. Latent prints . although fingerprint cards also typically record portions of lower joint areas of the fingers.[3] Impressions of fingerprints may be left behind on a surface by the natural secretions of sweat from the eccrine glands that are present in friction ridge skin. known as dactyloscopy. An intentional recording of friction ridges is usually made with black printer's ink rolled across a contrasting white background. nist. Fingerprints used for identification Fingerprint identification. gov/ frvt/ feret/ feret. as well as smooth wet surfaces. when fingertips brush across an uneven surface. the palm of the hand or the sole of the foot. better transmitting the signals to sensory nerves involved in fine texture perception. from human fingers.[1] In a wider use of the term. A "latent print" is the chance recording of friction ridges deposited on the surface of an object or a wall. have come from the same individual. org/ FERET/ default. involves an expert. to determine whether these impressions could structure.[1] These are sometimes known as "epidermal ridges" which are caused by the underlying interface between the dermal papillae of the dermis and the interpapillary (rete) pegs of the epidermis. consisting of one or more connected ridge units of friction ridge skin. or they may be made by ink or other substances transferred from the peaks of friction ridges on the skin to a relatively smooth surface such as a fingerprint card.[5] or hand print identification. fingerprints are the traces of an impression from the friction ridges of any part of a human hand. is the process of comparing two instances of friction ridge skin impressions (see Minutiae). also referred to as individualization. typically a white card. as seen here. even two impressions recorded immediately after each other from the same hand. frvt. These epidermal ridges serve to amplify vibrations triggered.FERET (facial recognition technology) 72 References [1] http:/ / www. A friction ridge is a raised portion of the epidermis on the fingers and toes (digits). Fingerprint identification.[2] These ridges also assist in gripping rough surfaces. determining whether two friction ridge impressions are likely to have originated from the same finger or palm (or toe or sole). A print from the foot can also leave an impression of friction ridges. The flexibility of friction ridge skin means that no two finger or palm prints are ever exactly alike in every detail. for example. the palm of The fingerprints created by that friction ridge the hand or even toes. Closeup of the palm of the hand and the base of several fingers. htm/ [2] http:/ / face. Friction ridges can also be recorded digitally using a technique called Live Scan. gov/ Fingerprint A fingerprint in its narrow sense is an impression left by the friction ridges of a human finger. debris can gather between the ridges. or an expert computer system operating under threshold scoring rules.[4] Fingerprint records normally contain impressions from the pad on the last joint of fingers and thumbs.

loop and whorl. latent prints usually present an “inevitable source of error in making comparisons. ink or blood. the conditions surrounding every instance of friction ridge deposition are unique and never duplicated. Because they are already visible and have no need of enhancement they are generally photographed rather than being lifted in the way that latent prints are. Although very few criminals would be careless enough to leave their prints in a lump of wet clay. 73 Fingerprint types Exemplar prints Exemplar prints. Electronic. paint or some other form of dirt. is the name given to fingerprints deliberately collected from a subject. the roughness of the surface and the substance deposited are just some of the various factors which can cause a latent print to appear differently from any known recording of the same friction ridges. For this reason. distorted. powder. the material from which the surface is made. Some obvious examples would be impressions from flour and wet clay. putty removed from the perimeter of window panes and thick grease deposits on car parts. in modern usage for forensic science the term latent prints means any chance or accidental impression left by friction ridge skin on a surface. blood. this would make a perfect plastic [7] print. overlapped by other prints from the same or from different individuals. Pliability of the skin. An attempt to preserve the actual print is always made for later presentation in court. Indeed. Latent prints may exhibit only a small portion of the surface of a finger and this may be smudged. chemical and physical processing techniques permit visualization of invisible latent print residues whether they are from natural sweat on the skin or from a contaminant such as motor oil. When friction ridges come into contact with a surface that will take a print. For these reasons. Such prints are already visible and need no enhancement. and much. whereas "patent prints" or "plastic prints" are viewable with the un-aided eye.Fingerprint are invisible to the naked eye. and less undistorted information than a fingerprint taken under controlled conditions. plain (or slap) impressions of each of the four fingers of each hand. or alternative light sources in order to be made clear. Exemplar prints can be collected using Live Scan or by using ink on paper cards. whether for purposes of enrollment in a system or when under arrest for a suspected criminal offense. ink. and plain impressions of each thumb. Latent prints Although the word latent means hidden or invisible. deposition pressure. such as arch. During criminal arrests.” as they generally “contain less clarity. Plastic prints A plastic print is a friction ridge impression left in a material that retains the shape of the ridge detail. Latent prints are often fragmentary and require chemical methods. The different types of fingerprint patterns. dirt. Patent prints can be left on a surface by materials such as ink. and there are many techniques used to do this. slippage.”[6] Patent prints Patent prints are chance friction ridge impressions which are obvious to the human eye and which have been caused by the transfer of foreign material from a finger onto a surface. or blood. Sometimes an ordinary bright flashlight will make a latent print visible. fingerprint examiners are required to undergo extensive training. but investigators must not overlook the potential that invisible latent prints deposited by accomplices may also be on . regardless of whether it is visible or invisible at the time of deposition. or any or all of these in combination. less content. material that is on the friction ridges such as perspiration. grease. oil. a set of exemplar prints will normally include one print taken from each finger that has been rolled from one edge of the nail to the other. Factors which affect the quality of friction ridge impressions are numerous. Commonly encountered examples are melted candle wax. will be transferred to the surface. much less detail compared to the actual patterns of ridges and grooves of a finger. will be described below. or known prints.

and the calculation: (0 + 8 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 1)/(0 + 0 + 0 + 2 + 0 + 1) = 9/3 = 3. r for ring finger and p(pinky) for little finger. and those images included parts of his hands in enough detail for police to be able to identify fingerprint patterns. For example. After photographically recording such prints. and 0 to the last fraction. 74 Classifying fingerprints Before computerisation replaced manual filing systems in large fingerprint operations. A whorl in the first fraction is given a 16. 30–35% and 5% of all fingerprints respectively. the Juan Vucetich system. the numbers in the numerator and denominator are added up. although complex. the third a 4. the Vucetich system (developed by a Croatian-born Buenos Aires Police Officer) was developed in Argentina and implemented throughout South America.[12] Arch   . L for left.[9] and into loops that may be radial or ulnar. if the right ring finger and the left index finger have whorls.[10] which constitute 60–65%. m for middle finger. is similar to the Henry System of Classification. The numbers assigned to each print are based on whether or not they are whorls. the fourth a 2. depending on the side of the hand toward which the tail points.[9] In the Henry system of classification. Lastly. For example. the above set of prints would only need to be compared to other sets of fingerprints with a value of 3. double loop whorls. The fractions are as follows: Ri/Rt + Rr/Rm + Lt/Rp + Lm/Li + Lp/Lr. using the scheme: (Ri + Rr + Lt + Lm + Lp)/(Rt + Rm + Rp + Li + Lr) and a 1 is added to both top and bottom. It consists of five fractions. The most popular ten-print classification systems include the Roscher system. composite. and the Henry system was developed in India and implemented in most English-speaking countries. accidental whorls. Whorls may also have sub-group classifications including plain whorls. to exclude any possibility of division by zero. thus permitting filing and retrieval of paper records in large collections based on friction ridge patterns alone. and the Henry Classification System.[11] There are also more complex classification systems that break down patterns even further.Fingerprint such surfaces. Arches and loops are assingned values of 0. manual fingerprint classification systems were used to categorize fingerprints based on general ridge formations (such as the presence or absence of circular patterns on various fingers). i for index finger. t for thumb. and central pocket loop whorls. Using this system reduces the number of prints that the print in question needs to be compared to. the Roscher system was developed in Germany and implemented in both Germany and Japan. in which R stands for right. attempts should be made to develop other non-plastic impressions deposited from sweat or other contaminates. Whorl and Arch.[9] The system used by most experts. into plain arches or tented arches. the second an 8. peacock's eye. Electronic recording There has been a newspaper report[8] of a man selling stolen watches sending images of them on a mobile phone. there are three basic fingerprint patterns: Loop. Of these systems. the fractions would look like this: 0/0 + 8/0 + 0/0 + 0/2 + 0/0 + 1/1.

sole and toe impressions can be used in the same manner as finger and palm prints to effect identifications. are still commonly recorded in hospitals to assist in verifying the identity of infants. It is not uncommon for military records of flight personnel to include bare foot inked impressions.Fingerprint 75 Loop (Right Loop)   Whorl   Arch (Tented Arch)   Footprints Friction ridge skin present on the soles of the feet and toes (plantar surfaces) is as unique in its ridge detail as are the fingers and palms (palmar surfaces). Footprint (toe and sole friction ridge skin) evidence has been admitted in courts in the United States since 1934. along with the thumb or index finger prints of mothers.[13] The footprints of infants. Often. When recovered at crime scenes or on items of evidence. Friction ridge skin protected inside flight boots tends to survive the trauma of a plane crash (and accompanying fire) better than fingers. . the only identifiable ridge detail that can be seen on a baby's foot is from the large toe or adjacent to the large toe.

When friction ridge skin is not available from deceased military personnel. 76 Fingerprint capture and detection Livescan devices Fingerprint image acquisition is considered to be the most critical step in an automated fingerprint authentication system. almost all casualty identifications are effected using fingerprints from military ID card records (live scan fingerprints are recorded at the time such cards are issued). stored refrigerated DNA samples from all active duty and reserve personnel. but the basic idea behind each is to measure the physical difference between ridges and valleys.Fingerprint Even though the US Armed Forces DNA Identification Laboratory (AFDIL). as it determines the final fingerprint image quality. as of 2010. There are different types of fingerprint readers on the market. DNA and dental records are used to confirm identity. which has a drastic effect on the overall system performance. A fingerprint scanner Fingerprint being scanned .

By modelling the distance between neighboring points. The representation of the same fingerprint changes every time the finger is placed on the sensor plate. in patterns that are unique to each individual and which do not change over time. usually a powder or chemical reagent. although the water deposited may also take a key role. These problems result in inconsistent.[18] 3D fingerprint 77 [15] Latent fingerprint detection Since the late nineteenth century. The best way to render latent fingerprints visible. 3D fingerprint scanners take a digital approach to the cumbersome analog process of pressing or rolling the finger. non-contact or touchless 3D fingerprint scanners have been developed . Even identical twins (who share their DNA) do not have identical fingerprints. This latter contamination results from the common human behaviors of touching the face and hair. The skin on the palmar surface of the hands and feet forms ridges. ultrasonic. fingerprint identification methods have been used by police agencies around the world to identify suspected criminals as well as the victims of crime.Fingerprint All the proposed methods can be grouped into two major families: solid-state fingerprint readers and optical fingerprint readers.[14] During each acquisition. which according to the physical principle in use (optical. the skin conditions and the projection of an irregular 3D A fingerprint reader on a laptop object (the finger) onto a 2D flat plane introduce distortions. Developing agents depend on the presence of organic materials or inorganic salts for their effectiveness. can be complex and may depend. the fingerprint can be imaged at a resolution high enough to record all the necessary detail.[16] [17] Acquiring detailed 3D information. In order to overcome these problems. to produce a high degree of visual contrast between the ridge patterns and the surface on which a fingerprint has been deposited. therefore. for example. The quantity and direction of the pressure applied by the user. increasing the complexity of any attempt to match fingerprints. When a finger touches or rolls onto a surface. The procedure for capturing a fingerprint using a sensor consists of rolling or touching with the finger onto a sensing area. limiting the widespread use of this biometric technology. capacitive or thermal) captures the difference between valleys and ridges. noise and inconsistencies in the captured fingerprint image. Fingerprints are typically formed from the aqueous-based secretions of the eccrine glands of the fingers and palms with additional material from sebaceous glands primarily from the forehead. the elastic skin deforms. impairing the system performance and consequently. irreproducible and non-uniform irregularities in the image. so-called papillary ridges. The resulting latent fingerprints consist usually of a substantial proportion of water with small traces of amino acids and chlorides . the results of the imaging are different and uncontrollable. as of 2010. on the type of surfaces on which they have been left. so that they can be photographed. The basis of the traditional fingerprinting technique is simple. It is generally necessary to use a ‘developer’.

Fingerprints at a crime scene may be detected by simple powders. With advances in these more sophisticated techniques. but at the expense of the time taken for the process. reporting that 50% or more of the fingerprints recovered from a crime scene had been identified as a result of laboratory-based techniques. does not necessarily result in the loss of all fingerprint information from that surface. Others such as ethyl cyanoacrylate polymerisation. steel and aluminum. Some fingerprint reagents are specific. the non-volatile inorganic component of eccrine secretion has been shown to remain intact even when exposed to temperatures as high as 600°C. as of 2010. primarily for the enhancement of chemically-developed fingerprints. such as the application of fine powders. A technique has been developed that enables fingerprints to be visualised on metallic and electrically conductive surfaces without the need to develop the prints first. One problem for the early twenty-first century is the fact that the organic component of any deposited material is readily destroyed by heat. Canada. Research during 2010 at Swansea University has found that physically removing a fingerprint from a metal surface. for example ninhydrin or diazafluorenone reacting with amino acids. Vacuum metal deposition using gold and zinc has been shown to be non-specific. Following work on the use of argon ion lasers for fingerprint detection. many of these are only of academic interest and there are only around 20 really effective methods which are currently in use in the more advanced fingerprint laboratories around the world. work by adhesion to sebaceous deposits and possibly aqueous deposits in the case of fresh fingerprints. or electrical potential. whilst initially sometimes making up over 90% of the weight of the fingerprint. such as the warped cylindrical surface of fired cartridge cases. work apparently by water-based catalysis and polymer growth. These measurements can then be mapped to produce an image of the fingerprint. assessment and implementation of new techniques for operational fingerprint detection. Laboratory techniques Although there are hundreds of reported techniques for fingerprint detection. although the inherent fluorescence of some latent fingerprints may also be detected. can evaporate quite quickly and may have mostly gone after 24 hours. Some of these techniques. More complex techniques. some of the more advanced crime scene investigation services from around the world were. Encouragingly. but can detect fat layers as thin as one molecule. such as occurs when a gun is fired or a terrorist bomb is detonated. for example by rubbing with a tissue. A higher resolution image can be obtained by increasing the number of points sampled. this technique had been shown to work effectively on a wide range of forensically important metal surfaces including iron. diazafluorenone and vacuum metal deposition. Australia and Israel and leads the way in the development. While initial experiments were performed on flat surfaces. or by chemicals applied in situ.[21] This technique involves the use of an instrument called a scanning Kelvin probe (SKP).Fingerprint mixed with a fatty. sebaceous component which contains a number of fatty acids and triglycerides.[20] Research The International Fingerprint Research Group (IFRG) which meets biennially. usually involving chemicals. The aqueous component of a fingerprint. which measures the voltage. More mundane methods. the technique has been further developed to cope with irregular or curved surfaces. at pre-set intervals over the surface of an object on which a fingerprint may have been deposited. A sampling frequency of 20 points per mm is high enough to visualise a fingerprint in sufficient detail for identification purposes and produces a voltage map in 2–3 hours. The reason for this is that the differences in potential that are the basis of the visualisation are caused by the interaction of inorganic salts in the fingerprint deposit and the metal surface and 78 . As of 2010. such as ninhydrin.[19] a wide range of fluorescence techniques have been introduced. can be applied in specialist laboratories to appropriate articles removed from a crime scene. the US. however. consists of members of the leading fingerprint research groups from Europe. when the temperature may reach as high as 500°C. Detection of a small proportion of reactive organic substances such as urea and amino acids is far from easy. show great sensitivity and are used operationally. The most comprehensive manual of the operational methods of fingerprint enhancement is published by the UK Home Office Scientific Development Branch and is used widely around the world.

researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are investigating techniques to capture these lost fingerprints. a decision has to be made at an early stage whether to attempt to retrieve fingerprints through the use of developers or whether to swab surfaces in an attempt to salvage material for DNA profiling. the fingerprints of tobacco smokers contain traces of cotinine.[22] [23] 79 Cartridge case with an applied fingerprint The disappearance of children's latent prints In 1995. in research that was generating significant interest from the British Home Office and a number of different police forces across the UK. Another problem for the early twenty-first century is that during crime scene investigations.[24] [25] In 2008. The two processes are mutually incompatible. By treating the fingerprint with gold nanoparticles with attached cotinine antibodies. and users of various other drugs. and then subsequently with a fluorescent agent attached to cotinine antibodies. These can be detected and used for forensic purposes. cannabis smokers. The application of the new scanning Kelvin probe (SKP) fingerprinting technique. as its presence may be caused by mere contact of the finger with a tobacco product. the fingerprint of a smoker becomes fluorescent. and swabbing is likely to make fingerprint identification impossible. at the instigation of Detective Art Bohanan of the Knoxville Police Department. they also contain traces of nicotine itself. The secretions. which makes no physical contact with the fingerprint and does not require the use of developers. cocaine and methadone from their fingerprint residues. as well as internationally. For example. The Kelvin probe can easily cope with the 3D curvature of the cartridge case increasing the versatility of the technique. however. as fingerprint developers destroy material that could potentially be used for DNA analysis. A forensically usable prototype was under development at Swansea University during 2010. British researchers developed methods of identifying users of marijuana.[26] Scanning Kelvin Probe scan of the same cartridge case with the fingerprint clearly detected. The lighter fatty acids of children's fingerprints evaporate within a few hours. The hope is that this instrument could eventually be manufactured in sufficiently large numbers to be widely used by forensic teams worldwide. researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. a nicotine metabolite. is being tested for use in identifying heavy coffee drinkers. Fingerprints reveal drug use . discovered that children's fingerprints are considerably more short-lived than adult fingerprints. Caution should be used. non-smokers' fingerprints stay dark. as of 2010. resulting in the formation of metal-ion complexes that cannot easily be removed. The same approach.[5] The rapid disappearance of children's fingerprints was attributed to a lack of the more waxy oils that become present at the onset of puberty.Fingerprint begin to occur as soon as the finger comes into contact with the metal. As of 2010. has the potential to allow fingerprints to be recorded whilst still leaving intact material that could subsequently be subjected to DNA analysis. skin oils and dead cells in a human fingerprint contain residues of various chemicals and their metabolites present in the body.

around 300 CE. History Antiquity and the medieval period Fingerprints have been found on ancient Babylonian clay tablets. government documents may have been authenticated with thumbprints. By 246 BCE. Greek. In 2008. and pottery. records have shown that officials took hand prints. By 650. Japan had adopted the Zayd Hasan.[35] In China. and the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST).[34] During China's Qin Dynasty. Fingerprinting clerks. from the age of the Babylonian king Hammurabi (1792-1750 BCE) indicate that law officials would take the fingerprints of people who had been arrested. which currently holds the fingerprints and criminal records of over 51 million criminal record subjects and over 1. For fingerprints recorded at 1000 ppi spatial resolution. Los Angeles Police Department.[36] In his Jami al-Tawarikh (Universal History). Chinese officials were impressing their fingerprints into the clay seals used to seal documents. commenting: "Experience shows that no two individuals have fingers exactly alike.Fingerprint 80 United States databases and compression In the United States. and others were made in the process of adding decoration. a wavelet-based system for efficient storage of compressed fingerprint images at 500 pixels per inch (ppi). Sometime before 851 CE."[37] In Persia at this time. [33] references Although ancient peoples probably did not realize that fingerprints could uniquely identify individuals. parties to a legal contract impressed their handprints on the document.[38] . In order to protect against forgery.[27] [28] [29] [30] They have also been found on the walls of Egyptian tombs and on Minoan. handprints were used as evidence in a trial for theft. law enforcement (including the FBI) uses JPEG 2000 instead of WSQ. witnessed Chinese merchants using fingerprints to authenticate loans. With the advent of silk and paper in China. WSQ was developed by the FBI. primarily in the form of two-finger records. on some pottery. the Chinese historian Kia Kung-Yen remarked that fingerprints could be used as a means of authentication. However. Some of these fingerprints were deposited unintentionally by the potters and masons as a natural consequence of their work. as well as on bricks and tiles from ancient Babylon and Rome. fingerprints have been impressed so deeply into the clay that they were possibly intended to serve as an identifying mark by the maker. seals. foot prints as well as finger prints as evidence from a crime scene. an Arab merchant in China. the FBI manages a fingerprint identification system and database called the Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System. or IAFIS. the Persian physician Rashid-al-Din Hamadani (also known as "Rashideddin". US Visit hoped to have changed over to a system recording FBI-standard ten-print records. Chinese practice of sealing contracts with fingerprints. the Los Alamos National Lab. US Visit currently holds a repository of the fingerprints of over 50 million people. and Chinese[31] pottery. 1928 Fingerprints were used as signatures in ancient Babylon in the second millennium BCE. Abu [32] By 702. parties to a legal contract would impress their fingerprints into a clay tablet on which the contract had been written. Most American law enforcement agencies use Wavelet Scalar Quantization (WSQ).5 million civil (non-criminal) fingerprint records. 1247–1318) refers to the Chinese practice of identifying people via their fingerprints.

by 1892 Sir Francis Galton. a system to identify individuals by anthropometric photographs and associated quantitative descriptions. when the first United Kingdom Fingerprint Bureau was founded in Scotland Yard. associating these fingerprints to the anthropometric system of Alphonse Bertillon. He also established their first classification and was also the first to identify fingerprints left on a vial. he offered the concept to the Metropolitan Police in London but it was dismissed at that time. botanist. London. published a thesis in 1823 discussing 9 fingerprint patterns. the German anatomist Johann Christoph Andreas Mayer (1747–1801) recognized that fingerprints are unique to each individual. who was interested in anthropology. in 1788. A century later. this neighbour would not confess to the crimes. discussing the usefulness of fingerprints for identification and proposing a method to record them with printing ink.[47] Herschel also fingerprinted prisoners upon sentencing to prevent various frauds that were attempted in order to avoid serving a prison sentence.[49] Faulds wrote to Charles Darwin with a description of his method but. went to the scene and found a bloody thumb mark on a door.[50] Juan Vucetich. an Argentine chief police officier. in 1879. published his first paper on the subject in the scientific journal Nature. an expert in the Bertillon system and a finger print advocate at Police Headquarters. created the first method of recording the fingerprints of individuals on file. but he did not mention any possibility of using fingerprints to identify people. He had calculated that the chance of a "false positive" (two different individuals having the same fingerprints) was about 1 in 64 billion. In the United States. the English physician. the German anatomist Georg von Meissner (1829–1905) studied friction ridges. introduced the fingerprinting of criminals to the United States.[48] Returning to the UK in 1886. New York City Police Department Deputy Commissioner Joseph A. Sir Edward Richard [51] [52] The Henry Classification System. in 1901. were Azizul Haque and Hem Chandra Bose. She then confessed to the murder of her sons.[39] In 1685. the Dutch physician Govard Bidloo[40] (1649–1713) and the Italian physician Marcello Malpighi[41] (1628–1694) published books on anatomy which also illustrated the ridge structure of the fingers. . DeForrest used fingerprinting in the New York Civil Service in 1902. India. in 1858. after the Council of the Governor General approved a committee report that fingerprints should be used for the classification of criminal records. Darwin gave the information to his cousin. Sir William James Herschel initiated fingerprinting in India. Francisca Rojas of Necochea. who had created. and by 1906. In that same year.Fingerprint 81 Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries In 1684. When it was compared with Rojas' prints. co-devised by Haque and Bose. too old and ill to work on it. in 1892. Sir Edward Richard Henry subsequently achieved improvements in dactyloscopy. Faurot. published a detailed statistical model of fingerprint analysis and identification and encouraged its use in forensic science in his book Finger Prints. whilst her two sons were found dead with their throats cut. Haque and Bose were Indian fingerprint experts who have been credited with the primary development of a fingerprint classification system eventually named after their supervisor. Galton. before it became the Fingerprint Bureau.[44] Some years later. after studying Galton's pattern types.[45] and five years after this. Dr Henry Faulds. the Metropolitan Police headquarters. Vucetich set up the world's first fingerprint bureau. having been thus inspired to study fingerprints for ten years. Working in the Calcutta Anthropometric Bureau. in 1897. Dr Henry P. Francis Galton. Rojas accused a neighbour. and microscopist Nehemiah Grew (1641–1712) published the first scientific paper to describe the ridge structure of the skin covering the fingers and palms. a Czech physiologist and professor of anatomy at the University of Breslau. a colleague of Vucetich. was accepted in England and Wales Henry. In 1877 at Hooghly (near Calcutta) he instituted the use of fingerprints on contracts and deeds to prevent the then-rampant repudiation of signatures[46] and he registered government pensioners' fingerprints to prevent the collection of money by relatives after a pensioner's death. A Fingerprint Bureau was established in Calcutta (Kolkata). A year later. but despite brutal interrogation. it was found to be identical with her right thumb.[42] [43] Modern era Jan Evangelista Purkyně or Purkinje (1787–1869). In 1880. a surgeon in a Tokyo hospital. Inspector Alvarez. was found in a house with neck injuries.

who had previously been arrested and his fingerprints filed some months before. an incredible 22% of those involved. But while the verification stage has implications for the reliability of latent print comparisons.The results were disappointing. [6] Investigations have been conducted into whether experts can objectively focus on feature information in fingerprints without being misled by extraneous information. and reviewed” by the International Association for Identification (IAI). 2005. for the first time. Alphonse Bertillon identified the thief and murderer Scheffer. despite a very low error rate.' What is striking about these comments is that they do not come from a critic of the fingerprint community. and Verification (ACE-V) paradigm for fingerprint identification. has made this forensic practice controversial. Reliability means that successive tests bring the same results. substituted presumed but false certainty for truth.[53] A year later. it does not assure their validity. scientific validation. providing an incentive to improve training and procedures. While fingerprint identification was an improvement on earlier anthropometric systems. only 68 (44%) correctly classified all seven latents. Alphonse Bertillon created a method of getting fingerprints off smooth surfaces and took a further step in the advance of dactyloscopy. For example. this reliance does not always translate into superior predictive ability. the tests contained a total of 48 incorrect identifications. the verification stage. describes the reaction of the forensic community to the results of the CTS test as ranging from “shock to disbelief.” and added: 'Errors of this magnitude within a discipline singularly admired and respected for its touted absolute certainty as an identification process have produced chilling and mind. 82 Validity of fingerprinting for identification The validity of forensic fingerprint evidence has been challenged by academics. this represents a profile of practice that is unacceptable and thus demands positive action by the entire community. but they can provide some insight into error rates.numbing realities. in which a second examiner confirms the assessment of the original examiner.[55] Fingerprints that have previously been . Four suspect cards with prints of all ten fingers were provided together with seven latents. Comparison.[54] Certain specific criticisms are now being accepted by some leaders of the forensic fingerprint community. In 1995. Validity means that these results are judged to accurately reflect the external criteria being measured. the Collaborative Testing Service (CTS) administered a proficiency test that. Evaluation. assembled. the subjective nature of matching. such as context. after a theft in a dentist's apartment where the dentist's employee was found dead. "Despite the absence of objective standards. Criticism The words "reliability" and "validity" have specific meanings to the scientific community. judges and the media.[6] The few tests that have been made of the validity of forensic fingerprinting have not been supportive of the method. David Grieve. By any measure. and adequate statistical studies." —Sandy L Zabell. may increase the consistency of the assessments." —Sandy L Zabell.Fingerprint The Scheffer case of 1902 is the first case of the identification. It was able to be proved in Court that the fingerprints had been made after the showcase was broken. from the fingerprints found on a fractured glass showcase. Of 156 people taking the test. Proficiency tests do not validate a procedure per se. a natural question to ask is how well fingerprint examiners actually perform. Overall. "Although experts are often more comfortable relying on their instincts. 2005. was “designed. the editor of the Journal of Forensic Identification. Thirty-four participants. arrest and conviction of a murderer based upon fingerprint evidence. but from the editor of one of its premier publications. in the popular Analysis.

Professional standing and certification Fingerprinting was the basis upon which the first forensic professional organization was formed. in a criminal record repository. Subsequently. who had spent two weeks in police custody.[5] The science of fingerprint identification has been able to assert its standing amongst forensic sciences for many reasons. Moreover. Spanish National Police examiners suggested that the print did not match Mayfield and after two weeks.[55] Complaints have been made that there have been no published. in May 2004. or on items of evidence from a crime.S. The FBI initially called it an "absolutely incontrovertible match".[56] Experiments have been carried out using naïve undergraduates to match images of fingerprints.[60] In January 2006. Justice Department report was released which criticized the FBI .Fingerprint examined and assessed by latent print experts to make a positive identification of suspects have then been re-presented to those same experts in a new context which makes it likely that there will be no match. peer-reviewed studies directly examining the extent to which people can correctly match fingerprints to one another.[60] The FBI Latent Print Unit processed a fingerprint collected in Madrid and reported a "100 percent positive" match against one of the 20 fingerprint candidates returned in a search response from their IAFIS — Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System. victims and other persons who touched a surface. the IAI's Certified Latent Print Examiner program. Within this new context. it continues to expand as the premier method for identifying persons. a U. the International Association for Identification (IAI). with tens of thousands of people added to fingerprint repositories daily in America alone — far more than other forensic databases. and a judge released Mayfield. Fingerprint identification emerged as an important system within police agencies in the late 19th century. when it replaced anthropometric measurements as a more reliable method for identifying persons having a prior record. The results of these experiments demonstrate that people can identify fingerprints quite well.[57] Fingerprints are the fundamental tool for the identification of people with a criminal history in every police agency. thus contradicting their own previous identification decisions. It is claimed to outperform DNA and all other human identification systems. often under a false name.[5] It remains the most commonly gathered forensic evidence worldwide and in most jurisdictions fingerprint examination outnumbers all other forensic examination casework combined. The FBI acknowledged their error. identified another man whom they claimed the fingerprint did belong to. however.[59] Instances of error Brandon Mayfield and the Madrid bombing Brandon Mayfield is an Oregon lawyer who was identified as a participant in the 2004 Madrid train bombings based on a fingerprint match by the FBI. and that matching accuracy can vary as a function of both source finger type and image similarity. have been used in forensic science to identify suspects. No two fingerprints have ever been found identical in many billions of human and automated computer comparisons.[58] The first professional certification program for forensic scientists was established in 1977. Track record Fingerprinting has served all governments worldwide during the past 100 years or so to provide accurate identification of criminals. Fingerprints solve ten times more unknown suspect cases than DNA in most police departments.[59] Other forensic disciplines have followed suit and established their own certification programs. most of the fingerprint experts made different judgments. which issued certificates to those meeting stringent criteria and had the power to revoke certification where an individual's performance warranted it.[56] 83 Defense Fingerprints collected at a crime scene. in 1915.

were placed on a card containing the name.[63] Stephan Cowans Stephan Cowans was convicted of attempted murder in 1997 after he was accused of the shooting of a police officer whilst fleeing a robbery in Roxbury. or DUI). however. Leo Rosario had been arrested for selling cocaine to an undercover police officer. the erroneously-cataloged fingerprints were considered to be more reliable.[61] Shirley McKie Shirley McKie was a police detective in 1997 when she was accused of leaving her thumb print inside a house in Kilmarnock. she was arrested in a dawn raid the following year and charged with perjury. On February 7.Fingerprint for sloppy work but exonerated them of some more serious allegations."[60] René Ramón Sánchez René Ramón Sánchez. The only evidence the prosecution had was this thumb print allegedly found at the murder scene. as of November 2009. who was being processed at the same time. Cowans earned money cleaning up biohazards until he could afford to have the evidence against him tested for DNA. The Scottish Criminal Record Office (SCRO) would not admit any error. Although McKie denied having been inside the house. which erroneously linked him to the 2004 Madrid bombing through a fingerprinting mistake. Kennedy International Airport in New York and arrested. 1995. Even though he did not match the physical description of Rosario. The DNA did not match his and he was released.[62] Controversy continued to surround the McKie case and there was an ongoing public inquiry into the affair. The report found that the misidentification had been due to a misapplication of methodology by the examiners involved: Mayfield is an American-born convert[60] to Islam and his wife is an Egyptian immigrant. There was also a fingerprint on a glass mug from which the assailant had drunk some water and experts testified that the fingerprint belonged to Cowans. René was mis-identified as Leo Rosario at John F. [64] 84 . although Scottish first minister Jack McConnell later said it had been an "honest mistake". He had already served six years in prison.000 in compensation from the Scottish Executive and the Scottish Criminal Record Office. His fingerprints. Massachusetts. a legal Dominican Republic immigrant to the US was arrested on July 15.[60] but these are not factors that should have affected fingerprint search technology. On 29 November 2006.[60] The judicial settlement allowed Mayfield to continue a suit regarding certain other government practices surrounding his arrest and detention. He was found guilty and sent to prison for 35 years. The formal apology stated that the FBI. 2000. He was implicated in the crime by the testimony of two witnesses. Social Security number and other data for one Leo Rosario. one of whom was the victim. Whilst in prison. on a charge of driving while intoxicated (Driving Under the Influence. 2007. Scotland where Marion Ross had been murdered. while returning from a visit to relatives in the Dominican Republic. however. McKie was awarded £750. Two American experts testified on her behalf at her trial in May 1999 and she was found not guilty. 2006. had taken steps to "ensure that what happened to Mr Mayfield and the Mayfield family does not happen again. On October 11. the FBI agreed to pay Brandon Mayfield the sum of US$2 million in compensation. Stephen Cowans died on October 25.

often without the knowledge or consent of their parents. Parents opposed to fingerprinting may only bring individual complaints against schools.[69] By 2007. it was estimated that 3.[70] Under the United Kingdom Data Protection Act.[70] An Early Day Motion which called on the UK Government to conduct a full and open consultation with stakeholders about the use of biometrics in schools.500 schools were using such systems. decreased wait times in lunch lines and increased revenues. or to survey the private life of children. the British government was considering fingerprinting all children aged 11 to 15 as part of a new passport and ID card scheme and disallowing opposition for privacy concerns. estimated that 350 schools throughout Britain were using such systems. kidnapped to have their fingerprints taken. the supplier Micro Librarian Systems.[79] They do not cite independent research to support this view.[67] [68] in France and in Italy. the official organisation in charge of the protection of privacy in France.Fingerprint 85 Privacy issues Fingerprinting of children Various schools have implemented fingerprint locks or made a record of children's fingerprints.[78] The vendors of Biometric systems claim that their products bring benefits to schools such as improved reading skills. secured the support of 85 Members of Parliament (Early Day Motion 686). One education specialist wrote in 2007: "I have not been able to find a single piece of published research which suggests that the use of biometrics in schools promotes healthy eating or improves reading skills amongst children.[81] . the ID card scheme was scrapped.[71] In response to a complaint which they are continuing to pursue. 2007 by Michel de La Motte (Humanist Democratic Centre) to the Education Minister Marie Arena. Shadow Home secretary David Davis called the plan "sinister". the practice of taking fingerprints from children gave rise to a question in Parliament on February 6. declared the measures it had introduced "disproportionate.[66] There have also been instances in Belgium.[72] In Belgium.[69] That same year.[65] and children's fingerprints are stored on databases."[74] In March 2007.[77] one of whom has voiced the opinion that "it is absolutely premature to begin using 'conventional biometrics' in schools".[73] At Angers in France.000 unsolved crimes. which uses a technology similar to that used in US prisons and the German military. Carqueiranne College in the Var won the Big Brother Award for 2005 and the Commission nationale de l'informatique et des libertés (CNIL).[75] Following the establishment in the United Kingdom of a Conservative and Liberal Democratic coalition government in May 2010. In the United Kingdom there have been fingerprint locks in Holland Park School in London.. There is absolutely no evidence for such [80] The Ottawa Police in Canada have had to give advise to parents who fear that their children may be claims". to replace library cards. The non-governmental organization (NGO) Privacy International in 2002 made the cautionary announcement that tens of thousands of UK school children were being fingerprinted by schools. All fingerprints taken would be cross-checked against prints from 900.[76] Serious concerns about the security implications of using conventional biometric templates in schools have been raised by a number of leading IT security experts. indicating that the practice may break the European Union data protection directive. at the école Marie-José in Liège. schools in the UK do not have to ask parental consent to allow such practices to take place. who replied that it was legal provided that the school did not use them for external purposes.. in 2010 the European Commission expressed 'significant concerns' over the proportionality and necessity of the practice and the lack of judicial redress.

Austin Freeman's first Thorndyke novel The Red Thumb-Mark was published in 1907 and features a bloody fingerprint left on a piece of paper together with a parcel of diamonds inside a safe-box. published in 1883. who defends the accused whose fingerprint matches that on the paper. electronic fingerprint readers have been introduced for security applications such as log-in authentication for the identification of computer users. fingerprint sensors gained popularity in the notebook PC market. like the scroll wheel. after the diamonds are stolen. Crime fiction The use of fingerprints in crime fiction has. such as gorillas and chimpanzees. it can be quite difficult to distinguish between the fingerprints of a koala and a human. was the first book to use fingerprints as a main plot element. but the identification cards were still based on anthropometric measurements.[85] Fingerprints in fiction Mark Twain Mark Twain's novel Life on the Mississippi. . has a plot hole in the screenplay caused by Holmes's use of the Bertillonage criminal ID system. However. to a lesser extent. iris scans can be used to validate electronic registration. Built-in sensors in ThinkPads. in which he uses fingerprints to trap Moriarty's agents and recover the Mona Lisa.[82] Log-in authentication and other locks Since 2000. By 2007.[83] and it was also starting to be adopted in some states in the US. kept pace with its use in real-life detection. some less sophisticated devices have been discovered to be vulnerable to quite simple methods of deception.[86] Twain's later book Pudd'nhead Wilson. In 2006. Electronic registration and library access Fingerprints and. cashless catering. A 1985 Granada TV adaptation of an 1893 Sherlock Holmes short story set in 1891. Fingerprints in other species Some other animals have evolved their own unique prints.Fingerprint 86 Other uses Welfare claimants It has been alleged that taking the fingerprints of welfare recipients as identification serves as a social stigma that evokes cultural images associated with the processing of criminals. Bertillon had added four spaces for fingerprints on his identification cards by 1900 because of the growing popularity of fingerprinting. The British detective writer R. especially those whose lifestyle involves climbing or grasping wet objects. HP Pavilion laptops. and library access. of course. published in 1893. The Adventure of the Final Problem. this practice was particularly widespread in UK schools. VAIO.[84] According to one study. these include many primates. Australian koalas and aquatic mammal species such as the North American fisher. These become the center of a medico-legal investigation led by Dr Thorndyke. and others also double as motion detectors for document scrolling. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle wrote a short story about his celebrated sleuth Sherlock Holmes which features a fingerprint: The Norwood Builder is a 1903 Sherlock Holmes short story set in 1894 and involves the discovery of a bloody fingerprint which helps Holmes to expose the real criminal and free his client. even with an electron microscope. The real Bertillon system did not use fingerprints. includes a courtroom drama involving fingerprint identification. such as fake fingerprints cast in gels.

an action deemed necessary by the MIB agency to remove the identity of its agents. Fingerprint mutilation There are several documented cases of people deliberately mutilating their fingerprints in an effort to avoid being identified from marks left on the surfaces they touch. Retrieved March 2010. com/ news/ 2009/ 090129/ full/ news. 2002. Edward R. pp. "Life of Latents". And in a 2009 science fiction movie starring Paul Giamatti. Fatehpuria. Gerald J. Retrieved Aug 2010.[87] References [1] Peer Reviewed Glossary of the Scientific Working Group on Friction Ridge Analysis. [13] People v. [14] Ross. uk/ 2/ hi/ health/ 8093134. . Optical Engineering.. brooklaw. org/ documents/ glossary/ 090508_Glossary_2. always storing extra fingerprints in a ziploc bag. nature. Sir (1900). Retrieved March 2010. Q. D. Ltd.: Oryx. pp. required Agent J. . com/ fp/ ridgeology. Yongchang. . . June 2009. A. . (1964). . Nature. pdf). . Journal of Law and Policy. "Estimating fingerprint deformation". [12] Conklin. Cold Souls. [5] Ashbaugh. Thursday 17 June 2010. Lau and L. ISSN 0895-l 73X. the tongue and DNA profiling. [15] Kremen. a popular 1997 science fiction thriller. played by Will Smith. A. "Quality and Matching Performance Analysis of 3D Unraveled Fingerprints" (http:/ / vis. a mule who is paid to smuggle souls across borders. (2004). G. Fingerprint and Identification Magazine 53 (10). the use of dental records in forensic dentistry. pdf). Jain. 0. and Dennis Shortelle. edu/ ~realtime3d/ Doc/ Manuscripts/ Quality and matching performance analysis of three-dimensional unraveled fingerprints. D. Retrieved March 2010. Robert D. L. [18] Wang. technologyreview. Sr (1972). Robert Gardner. P. [10] Henry. "International Corner". com/ computing/ 23549/ ?a=f).Fingerprint 87 Movies The movie Men In Black. Conn. Hao. A. "Ridgeology" (http:/ / onin. Westport. Technology Review. [6] Zabell. London: George Rutledge & Sons. 077202 (1–10). Hassebrook (2009). . Identity and Security. "Fingerprint Evidence" (http:/ / wwy. and surgical alteration. Hassebrook and D. uky. doi:10.. . Rachel (September 2009). and switching latex fingerprints from the privacy of a restroom. Encyclopedia of Forensic Science: a Compendium of Detective Fact and Fiction. edu/ students/ journals/ bjlp/ jlp13i_zabell. Lau (July 2010). bbc. . "Data Acquisition and Quality Analysis of 3-Dimensional Fingerprints" (http:/ / vis. Applied Optics. html). uky. swgfast. "Fit-sphere unwrapping and performance analysis of 3D Fingerprints" (http:/ / vis. "The Chemical Composition of Palmar Sweat". "Touchless 3-D Fingerprinting: A new system offers better speed and accuracy" (http:/ / www. 68. Barbara Gardner. 592–600. clpex. wears latex fingerprints to frustrate airport security terminals. Q. [17] Wang. so she can always assume an alias that is suitable to her undertaking. pdf). which John Dillinger tried (and failed.68 [3] "Fingerprint grip theory rejected" (http:/ / news. Fatehpuria. Lau and L. She can change her identity by changing her wig. com/ Information/ Pioneers/ henry-classification. [11] "Fingerprint Patterns" (http:/ / odec. "Classification and Uses of Finger Prints" (http:/ / www. also known as genetic fingerprinting. Les. L. Sandy.1038/news. (1991). Identification News 23 (1). A. pdf) [2] "Fake finger reveals the secrets of touch" (http:/ / www.2009. Hao. stm). htm). ca/ projects/ 2004/ fren4j0/ public_html/ fingerprint_patterns. Online Digital Education Connection. [7] Johnson. L. Other reliable identifiers Other forms of biometric identification utilizing a physical attribute that is unique to every human include Iris recognition. edu/ ~realtime3d/ Doc/ 3D_Fingerprint_Quality. 267 Michigan 648. [8] Manchester Evening News. 2009. David R. G. Florida: IEEE conference on Biometrics. Retrieved March 2010. pdf). Lee (1973). L. Methods used have included burning the fingertips with acid. Study and Technology (SWGFAST) (http:/ / www. [16] Wang. 29 January 2009. Proceedings of the International Conference on Biometric Authentication (ICBA). to remove his ten fingerprints by putting his hands on a metal ball. co. Journal of Forensic Identification 41 (1)). Yongchang. [4] Olsen. Print. Yongchang. BBC. prints taken during a previous arrest and upon death still exhibited almost complete relation to one another). pdf). front page [9] Engert. edu/ ~realtime3d/ Doc/ Manuscripts/ Fit-sphere unwrapping and performance analysis of 3D fingerprints. Identification News 14 (1). pdf). 255 NW 407. Hassebrook (2010). uky. G.

[34] Ashbaugh (1999). uk/ engineering/ Research/ MaterialsResearchCentre/ ResearchAreas/ CorrosionandCoatings/ ). 1977. ISBN 0674004558. . "Ancient finger prints in clay". Georg (1853). Sarah (December 2008). galton. .31100-1218342. Reprinted in Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 34 (4): 468–481. Breslau. newscientist. see also Laufer (1912). htm) (in Chinese). [25] Tom Simonite (3 April 2006) "Fingerprints reveal clues to suspects' habits. bbc. Sweden: Paul Åströms Förlag) 28. ac. pp. [40] Bidloo. Rebecca (September/October 1940). com/ gate/ big5/ news. Duff JM. swan. [22] Ward. "Fingerprints hide lifestyle clues" (http:/ / news. Retrieved March 2010. ancientfingerprints. xinhuanet. "The study of ancient fingerprints" (http:/ / www. pdf). "On the skin-furrows of the hand" (http:/ / www. Florida: CRC Press. org/ fingerprints/ books/ herschel/ herschel-1916-origins-1up. PDF)"]. xinhuanet. I. 106-115. Eriksson. com/ article/ dn11887-new-fingerprint-analysis-identifies-smokers. 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1902). "Man wrongly convicted in Boston police shooting found dead" (http:/ / www. bbc. Célébrations Nationales. [54] Specter. be/ actualites/ pedagogique/ index. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. zdnet. J. (2009). Vol 62. ca/ images/ Resources/ up-1bio_encryp. " On the preliminary psychophysics of fingerprint identification (http:/ / www. [50] Galton. bron=homeArt6). htm). Vol 156. culture. The Boston Globe.M. com/ ) (English) [67] Empreintes digitales pour sécuriser l'école ? (http:/ / www. [62] "'Relief' over fingerprint verdict" (http:/ / news. telegraph. 2007 (French) [69] Fingerprinting of UK school kids causes outcry (http:/ / www. theregister. Henry Faulds ...E. Can Prints Lie? Yes. Will Pay $2 Million to Lawyer Wrongly Jailed . Gavan (December 2003). "History and development of forensic science in India". [51] Tewari. fsijournal. New York Times. The Register. [56] Vokey. org/ article/ S0379-0738(05)00587-6/ abstract)". and Cole. Man Finds To His Dismay. org/ fingerprints/ faulds.00. 2004. informaworld. [65] Empreintes digitales pour les enfants d'une école de Londres (http:/ / www. Tangen. findbiometrics. 2006 (English) [72] Europe tells Britain to justify itself over fingerprinting children in schools (http:/ / www. pp 74-78. "Dr. 27 May 2010. (2003). Question d'actualité à la Ministre-Présidente en charge de l'Enseignement obligatoire et de Promotion sociale (French) [74] Quand la biométrie s'installe dans les cantines au nez et à la barbe de la Cnil (http:/ / www. Postgrad Med (46): 303–308. on. an auto-body worker and merengue singer . See also this on-line article on Henry Faulds: Tredoux. Retrieved 2009-11-28. org. [57] Penn and Teller Bullshit. enseignons. ipc.Beith Commemorative Society". clpex. No. D. . [63] "The Fingerprint Inquiry Scotland" (http:/ / www.39040745. co. com/ news/ globe/ city_region/ breaking_news/ 2007/ 10/ man_wrongly_con. co. 1080/ 17470210802372987)". blog (http:/ / www. July 22. September 9. aspx?EDMID=32367). boston.. BBC News. [61] New York Times. co. stm). leavethemkidsalone. J.39122509. theregister. uk/ inquiry/ CCC_FirstPage. htm). UK Parliament. February 5. 2006-11-30. stm). and Péron. Jean-Marc (October 16. A. RK. html). .R. [53] Berlière. html?wt. parliament. htm) (French) 89 [70] Child fingerprint plan considered (http:/ / news. htm#fact_00). David (2007-10-26). uk/ 2002/ 07/ 22/ fingerprinting_of_uk_school_kids/ ). co. George J.E. "Henry Faulds: the Invention of a Fingerprinter" (http:/ / www. Donald L. uk/ news/ worldnews/ europe/ eu/ 8202076/ Europe-tells-Britain-to-justify-itself-over-fingerprinting-children-in-schools. php/ 2007/ 02/ 06/ 181-empreintes-digitales-pour-securiser-l-ecole) (French) [68] Le lecteur d'empreintes dans les écoles crée la polémique (http:/ / www. uk/ 1/ hi/ 8707355. bbc. htm). he had patiently tried to explain. I. lecdh. com/ 2006/ 11/ 30/ us/ 30settle. asjeed (2005). Dr Sandra Leaton Gray of Homerton College.Fingerprint [49] Reid. fr/ actualites/ informatique/ 0. [64] Abel. "The forgotten Indian pioneers of finger print science" (http:/ / www. A.. uk/ 1/ hi/ uk/ 6417565. 7sur7. J. [78] Kim Cameron. . March 4. a drug dealer and a prime candidate for deportation. in/ currsci/ jan102005/ 185. Iss 1. pdf). co. pdf). ac. com/ expert. fr/ culture/ actualites/ celebrations2002/ empreintes. 7 Sur 7. be/ docparlement/ pa4896. com/ 2002/ 05/ do-fingerprints-lie/ ) [55] Dror. Criminal Justice [58] International Association for Identification History. com/ ?p=733) [79] Fingerprint Software Eliminates Privacy Concerns and Establishes Success (FindBiometrics) (http:/ / www. be/ hlns/ cache/ fr/ det/ art_370100. Iss 5. Zdnet. 2007-01-19. 2002 (English) . BBC. 2006. html) Telegraph. Ravikumar. uk/ 1/ hi/ scotland/ 4689218. michaelspecter. KV (2000). Cambridge: professional opinion (http:/ / www. galton. "Finger Prints" (http:/ / www. 2007 (English) [71] Schools can fingerprint children without parental consent (http:/ / www. [52] Sodhi. pdf). . muscular man began to weep. [76] BBC News Channel (http:/ / news. com/ press-release/ 4143) [80] 2007. 2003 (French) [75] "EDM 686 . com/ Information/ Pioneers/ galton-1892-fingerprints-lowres. uk/ 2006/ 09/ 07/ kiddyprinting_allowed/ ). he was not Leo Rosario. webpage: NYT-061130-settle (http:/ / www. html?em& ex=1165122000& en=0ca1f656ca46883a& ei=5087 ): on Brandon Mayfield mistaken arrest. A and Stoianov. 8x07. identityblog. Kaur. In front of the immigration judge. J. leavethemkidsalone. He was telling the truth. "Arrestation du premier assassin confondu par ses empreintes digitales" (http:/ / www. published 2010-12-14. (1978) "Report on the Latent Print Certification Program" Identification News Vol28(3) [60] "U. Security AND Privacy (http:/ / www. May 31. Current Science 88 (1): 185–191. htm#herschel1880). retrieved August 2006 (http:/ / www. London: MacMillan and Co.New York Times" (article). February 7.S. stm). 2007. the tall.Biometric Data Collection In Schools" (http:/ / edmi. theiai. accessed 2011-01-13 [73] Prises d'empreintes digitales dans un établissement scolaire (http:/ / www. galton. gouv. S. co. The Register. (2006) " Contextual information renders experts vulnerable to making erroneous identifications (http:/ / www.A. pp 1023-1040.. He was René Ramón Sánchez.org. Forensic Science International. September 7. [77] Cavoukian. [66] Leave Them Kids Alone (http:/ / www. ias. . Biometric Encrypton: A Positive-Sum Technology that Achieves Strong Authentication. nytimes. Journal of Forensic Identification 53 (2). architect of identity and access in the Connected Systems Division at Microsoft.S. Charlton. by Eric Lichtbau. com/ smpp/ content~db=all?content=10. Francis (1892). uk/ EDMi/ EDMDetails. 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S. The role of fingerprints in the coding of tactile information probed with a biomimetic sensor. G. 2001. Florida: CRC Press.mugu. fingerprintamerica.Society for Fingerprint Examiners • Fingerprinting.michaelspecter. com/ fingerprinthistory. [87] Abel. boston. 2010. htm). A and Debregeas.crimeandclues. bbc.org.com) • Fingerprints and Human Identification (http://www.html) (4-sec Quicktime video of rolling a single inked finger) • The Fingerprint Society (http://www. Chris M. 90 Further reading • Ashbaugh. pp.htm) • Henry. March–April 2010. Provost. html).fbi. Leigh.1023/A:1007594003722.fingerprinting.html) • FBI Fingerprinting Video Lesson (http://www. James C. • Cowger. Assn.scafo. com/ news/ local/ massachusetts/ articles/ 2010/ 07/ 21/ to_avoid_id_more_are_mutilating_fingerprints/ ).com/galton/fingerprints/books/ index. ISSN 0884-8971 [83] "Peers slam school fingerprinting" (http:/ / news. • Scheibert. [84] "Animal fingerprints" (http:/ / www. In Journal of Forensic Identification (California). org/ 2004/ fren4j0/ public_html/ animal_fingerprints. Colin. (1997). ca/ en/ crime_prevention/ child_print/ index. co. Science 323: 1503–1506.htm) So.com (http://www. NaturalSCIENCE. Maciej.html) • Fingerprint Articles at Crime & Clues (http://www. "Deniable Degradation: The Finger-Imaging of Welfare Recipients". Leurent. . 1999. 1992. • Quinche.fbi. . Retrieved 2 September 2010. [85] Henneberg.scafo. "To avoid ID. . stm).php/physical-evidence/ fingerprint-evidence) • Galton's Finger Prints (http://www.org/Online_Information/bibliography.Fingerprint [81] Child Print (http:/ / www. 19 March 2007. asp). Coulier.com 1. Harry (March. virtualsciencefair. New York: Hyperion. External links General • FBI Fingerprint Guide (http://www. Nicolas. Friction Ridge Skin: Comparison and Identification of Fingerprints. [86] "Fingerprint history" (http:/ / www. uk/ 1/ hi/ uk_politics/ 6468643. Faulds.cbdiai.com/index.htm) • Extensive bibliography (http://www.com/2002/05/do-fingerprints-lie/)] (2002)] . David R.bleaching-dental. Boca Raton. 129–134.com/galton/books/finger-prints/index. Fingerprints: The Origins of Crime Detection and the Murder Case that Launched Forensic Science. David. cfm) (Ottawa Police Service) (English)/(French) [82] Murray. Retrieved September 2. and Herschel's works on fingerprints (http://www. of Fingerprint Officers. Errors and concerns • Will West as fable (http://www. "Fingerprint homoplasy: koalas and humans" (http:/ / naturalscience. . 2000).uk/) . Calif. Lambert. BBC News.html) • Do Fingerprints Lie? [[The New Yorker (http://www. Kosette M.org/library/110105.gov/hq/cjisd/fproll. Florida: CRC Press. • Beavan. .html) • Fingerprint Processing Guide (http://www.gov/hq/cjisd/takingfps. Boca Raton.fpsociety. 2010.mugu. more are mutilating fingerprints" (http:/ / www.org/Reagents/main. com/ ns/ articles/ 01-04/ ns_hll. doi:10. Paul-Jean (1824–1890) : A precursor in the history of fingermark detection and their potential use for identifying their source (1863).. Pierre.com/articles/ fingerprints_and_human_identification. Boston Globe. and Margot. 2009. Quantitative-Qualitative Friction Ridge Analysis: An Introduction to Basic and Advanced Ridgeology. J. Sociological Forum 15 (1): 39–63. 60 (2). ottawapolice.

Itiel E. acquired with the same sensors as the training set.smh. respectively. The first. National Institute of Standards and Technology.gutenberg. Participants were requested to provide enroll and match executable files of their algorithms.Sydney Morning Herald (news article) Science and statistics • Fingerprint research and evaluation (http://fingerprint.com.ATVS (Universidad Autonoma de Madrid) [4] Each participant can submit up to one algorithm to the open and light categories. Journal of Forensic Identification • Surgeon jailed for removing fingerprints (http://www.au/news/world/ surgeon-jailed-for-removing-fingerprints/2008/02/14/1202760429686. The Organizers of FVC are: • Pattern Recognition and Image Processing Laboratory (Michigan State University) [2] • Biometric Test Center (San Jose State University) [3] • Biometric Recognition Group . They established a common benchmark.uk/~id/JFI expert error.gov/) at the U.soton.pdf). second and third international competitions on fingerprint verification (FVC2000.htm) • The Science of Fingerprints (http://www.S. In 2006 we had: • • • • Four new databases (three real and one synthetic) Two categories (Open Category and Light Category) 53 participants (27 industrial. A subset of fingerprint impressions acquired with various sensors was provided to registered participants.Fingerprint • Why Experts Make Errors (http://users. the evaluation was conducted at the organizers’ facilities using the submitted executable files on a sequestered database. allowing developers to unambiguously compare their algorithms.dse. Dror. FVC2002 and FVC2004) were organized in 2000. 2002 and 2004.ac.nl/~frvc/handresearch/derm.html) . to allow them to adjust the parameters of their algorithms. and provided an overview of the state-of-the-art in fingerprint recognition. Based on the response of the biometrics community.org/etext/19022) at Project Gutenberg 91 Fingerprint Verification Competition Fingerprint Verification Competition (FVC) is an international competition focused on fingerprint verification software assessment. These events received great attention both from academic and industrial biometric communities. • Fingerprint pattern distribution statistics (http://www. 13 academic. FVC2000. FVC2002 and FVC2004 were undoubtedly successful initiatives. The interest shown in previous editions by the biometrics research community has prompted the organizers to schedule a new competition for the year 2006. and 13 independent developers) 70 algorithms submitted (44 in the Open Category and 26 in the Light Category) • Biometric System Laboratory (University of Bologna) [1] .nist.ecs. David Charlton.

• The Light category is intended for algorithms conceived for light architectures and therefore characterized by low computing needs. (as it was done in the previous . • The aim of FVC2006 is to track recent advances in fingerprint verification. Each database is 150 fingers wide and 12 samples per finger in depth (i. which contain the first 140 fingers (1680 images) of DB1. in particular. provided by the organizers.Fingerprint Verification Competition 92 Aim • Continuous advances in the field of biometric systems and. The test will be executed under Windows XP Professional O. DB3 and DB4.1. The maximum memory that can be allocated by the processes is 4 MB. the results of this competition will give a useful overview of the state-of-the-art in this field and will provide guidance to the participants for improving their algorithms. the maximum time for each matching is 3 seconds. Each database will be partitioned in two disjoint subsets A and B: • subsets DB1-A. wet/dry impressions. on interoperability and quality related issues.00 GB RAM. A utility will be made available to the participants to test if their executables comply with the memory requirement. DB3-B and DB4-B. each collected with a different sensor/technology. in fingerprint-based systems (both in matching techniques and sensing devices) require that performance evaluation of biometric systems be carried out at regular intervals. For practical testing reasons. since only parts of the system software will be evaluated by using images from sensors not native to each system.00 GB RAM. will be made available to the participants as a development set to allow parameter tuning before the submission. Nonetheless. DB2. containing four disjoint fingerprint databases. We have created a multi-database. DB2.3. • The Open category has no limits on memory requirements and template size. DB2. DB2-B. • Further testing. • Each participant is allowed to submit only one algorithm to each category. respectively. 256 gray-levels.20 GHz . • Data collection in FVC2006 was performed without deliberately introducing difficulties such as exaggerated distortion. DB2-A. DB3 and DB4. • Four distinct databases. DB3 and DB4. will be used for the algorithm performance evaluation. after the competition is completed. Categories • Two different sub-competitions (Open category and Light category) will be organized using the same databases.S. for both academia and industry. • The image format is BMP.1. on PC INTEL PENTIUM 4 . uncompressed. • During performance evaluation. • This competition should not be viewed as an "official" performance certification of biometric systems. respectively. • The image size and resolution vary depending on the database (detailed information will be available to the participants). will constitute the benchmark: DB1. the maximum response time of the algorithms is limited as follows: the maximum time for each enrollment is 5 seconds. limited memory usage and small template size. The maximum template size is 2 kB.1 seconds.3 seconds and the maximum time for matching is 0. fingerprints belonging to the same database will be matched against each other.e. large amounts of rotation and displacement. will be performed in a second stage.. The test will be executed under Windows XP Professional O. Databases One of the most important and time-consuming tasks of any biometric system evaluation is the data collection.20 GHz . The maximum time for enrollment is 0.3. and to benchmark the state-of-the-art in fingerprint technology. on PC INTEL PENTIUM 4 . it consists of 1800 fingerprint images). DB3-A and DB4-A. etc. containing the last 10 fingers (120 images) of DB1.S. • subsets DB1-B.

the symmetric match (i. but the population is more heterogeneous and also includes manual workers and elderly people. The final datasets were selected from a larger database by choosing the most difficult fingers according to a quality index. 93 Performance Evaluation For each database and for each algorithm: • Each sample in the subset A is matched against the remaining samples of the same finger to compute the False Non Match Rate FNMR (also referred as False Rejection Rate .e.FAR). where t is the acceptance threshold ROC(t) curve EER (equal-error-rate) EER* (the value that EER would take if the matching failures were excluded from the computation of FMR and FNMR) FMR100 (the lowest FNMR for FMR<=1%) FMR1000 (the lowest FNMR for FMR<=0. the following performance indicators are reported: • REJENROLL (Number of rejected fingerprints during enrollment) • REJNGRA (Number of rejected fingerprints during genuine matches) • • • • • • • • • • • • • • REJNIRA (Number of rejected fingerprints during impostor matches) Impostor and Genuine score distributions FMR(t)/FNMR(t) curves. rejection in enrollment is fused with other error rates for the final ranking. For each algorithm and for each database. this is strongly discouraged. In fact. The total number of impostor tests (in case no enrollment rejections occur) is: ((140*139) /2) = 9. the symmetric match (i.Fingerprint Verification Competition editions). The total number of genuine tests (in case no enrollment rejections occur) is: ((12*11) /2) * 140 = 9. in FVC2006.FRR). in particular.730 Although it is possible to reject images in enrollment. but no constraints were enforced to guarantee a minimum quality in the acquired images. h against g) is not executed to avoid correlation in the scores.1%) ZeroFMR (the lowest FNMR for FMR=0%) ZeroFNMR (the lowest FMR for FNMR=0%) Average enrollment time Average matching time Average and maximum template size Maximum amount of memory allocated The following average performance indicators are reported over the four databases: • Average EER • Average FMR100 • Average FMR1000 .. as in FVC2004 and FVC2002. If image g is matched to h. The volunteers were simply asked to put their fingers naturally on the acquisition device.. each rejection in enrollment will produce a "ghost" template which will not match (matching score 0) with all the remaining fingerprints. If image g is matched to h .240 • The first sample of each finger in the subset A is matched against the first sample of the remaining fingers in A to compute the False Match Rate FMR (also referred as False Acceptance Rate . h against g) is not executed to avoid correlation in the scores.e. to make the benchmark sufficiently difficult for a technology evaluation.

D. • Together with their submissions. csr. External links • • • • • FVC ongoing [5] FVC 2006 [6] FVC 2004 [7] FVC 2002 [8] FVC 2000 [9] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] http:/ / biolab. Wayman and A. J. since it is a very high level description of the approaches. • Anonymous participation will be accepted: participants will be allowed to decide whether or not they want to publish their names together with their algorithm’s performance. unibo.L. and the real identity will not be revealed.Fingerprint Verification Competition • • • • • • • Average ZeroFMR Average REJENROLL (Average number of rejected fingerprints during enrollment) Average REJMATCH (Average number of rejected fingerprints during genuine and impostor matches) Average enrollment time Average matching time Average template size (Calculated on the average template size for each database) Average memory allocated (Calculated on the maximum amount of memory allocated for each database) 94 Participants • Participants can be from academia. it/ fvc2002/ http:/ / bias. es/ https:/ / biolab. it/ fvc2006/ http:/ / bias. high-level information about their algorithms (similar to those reported in FVC2004.K. csr. csr. D. cse. January 2006]). see [R. it/ http:/ / biometrics. Maltoni. unibo. Whilst this required information will not disclose industrial secrets. Participants will be confidentially informed about the performance of their algorithm before they are required to make this decision. In case a participant decides to remain anonymous. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis Machine Intelligence. unibo. Cappelli. Maio. it/ fvc2004/ http:/ / bias. msu. sjsu. it/ fvc2000/ . Jain. unibo. uam. • Organizers of FVC2006 will not participate in the contest. unibo. csr. edu/ http:/ / www. engr. it/ FVCOnGoing/ http:/ / bias. from the industry. the label "Anonymous organization" will be used. participants will be required to provide some general. csr. “Performance Evaluation of Fingerprint Verification Systems”. or independent developers. unibo. ii. it could be of interest to the entire fingerprint community. edu/ biometrics http:/ / atvs. csr.

The implementation. criminal violence and terrorism. but. tags and dégradations. it also became an offense for suspects to fail to provide a DNA sample. Tackings is done for convicted person and simple suspect. The following year.[5] • In december 2009. simple thefts. with punishment ranging from a prison sentence of between six months and two years. In June 1998. A further 'law for interior safety' introduced by Nicolas Sarkozy on March 18. Although this was only around 200 cases. the media raised the case of individuals refusing to provide DNA samples.[2] [3] Relative size • As at October 1. in fact. with the database itself located at Écully in the Rhône. the former chief of the French central antiterrorist service. ». they denounced what they regarded as the threat to personal freedom. this number was believed to now be in excess of nearly 500.27 million entries. Many of them were civil disobedience activists opposed to Genetically modified organism (GMO) (See fr:Faucheurs volontaires). was finally completed in 2001.500 and 30. proposed the creation of a central DNA database. . Origins and evolution In 1996 Alain Marsaud. there is 1. and a fine of between 7. a bill was filed relating to the implementation of a national database for identification of child sex offenders.[6] Privacy concerns With the expansion of the database in 2003.000 entries . • In 2006. and finely almost all small offenses.[4] • In May 2007. managed by a subdirectorate of the technical and scientific departments of the French police force. this number was believed to now be in excess of 330. the French government increased the scope of the database to include DNA related to other serious criminal offences. At the end of 2006.000 entries. created a national DNA database.[1] In septembre 2009.000 convicted criminals and another 3. originally planned for 1999.FNAEG 95 FNAEG The Fichier National Automatisé des Empreintes Génétiques (English: Automated National File of Genetic Prints) is the French national DNA database. the Guigou law on the prevention of sexually-related crimes.000 euros. In the aftermath of the September 11 attacks on the USA in 2001. serious crimes such as drug trafficking.200 suspects. used by both the national police force and local gendarmerie. passed by the Plural Left Lionel Jospin government. such as voluntary manslaughter. 2003 expanded the scope still further to cover almost all violent crimes to people or property. FNAEG was understood to contain the DNA records of approximately 8. 2003. Matthieu Bonduelle. it is being doing. The law doesn't expect minimal age. but not traffic offenses or crimes committed abroad. the general secretary of the Syndicat de la magistrature (the first syndicat of juges) has declare that « nobody has pronouced himself in aid of a global filing.

It was photography which first revealed the detailed sequence of the horse "gallop" gait. lemonde.e. p. ils sont menacés de fichage génétique pour vol de jouets (http:/ / www. etc.service-public. of the 18th september 2009. Although much early research was done using film cameras. fr/ france/ 20070516.1-0@2-823448. advanced significantly in the 1980s. which is usually mis-represented in paintings made prior to this discovery. size. both to design treatment plans. htm) 2010/01/12 External links • Fichier national automatisé des empreintes génétiques (http://www. began in the 1970s with the availability of video camerasystems which could produce detailed studies of individual patients within realistic cost and time constraints. vous êtes fiché (http:/ / www. html). plan.0. fr/ societe/ article/ 2009/ 09/ 18/ adn-ouvrez-la-bouche-vous-etes-fiche_1242095_3224. assemblee-nationale. [4] (French) A 8 et 11 ans. the German anatomist Christian Wilhelm Braune and Otto Fischer published a series of papers on the biomechanics of human gait under loaded and unloaded conditions. 2007 [5] (French)le Figaro du 16. Eadweard Muybridge and Étienne-Jules Marey were pioneers of this in the early 1900s.(French) Record d'enquêtes élucidées grâce à l'ADN (http:/ / www. Many leading orthopaedic hospitals worldwide now have gait labs which are routinely used in large numbers of cases. age. Le Monde May 7. ils sont menacés de fichage génétique pour vol de jouets (http:/ / www. using the eye and the brain of observers. lefigaro. and the activity of the muscles. The development of treatment regimes.[3] With the development of photography. the widespread application of gait analysis to humans with pathological conditions such as cerebral palsy.[1] Gait analysis is used to assess. augmented by instrumentation for measuring body movements. more specific as a study of human motion. and for follow-up monitoring. weight. article of Mathieu Delahousse [6] (French) official declaration (http:/ / questions. Parkinson's disease. for example. cgi?offre=ARCHIVES& type_item=ART_ARCH_30J& objet_id=987971''A) dans Le Monde daté du 05 mai 2007 [2] Le Canard enchaîné. and neuromuscular disorders. introduction and analysis of measurable parameters of gaits. fr/ web/ article/ 0. [2] . It is also commonly used in sports biomechanics to help athletes run more efficiently and to identify posture-related or movement-related problems in people with injuries. drawing various conclusions about the animal (health. 4.36-906026. [3] Ouvrez la bouche. mercredi 16 septembre 2009. fr/ cgi-bin/ ACHATS/ acheter.fr/accueil/police_fnaeg. and treat individuals with conditions affecting their ability to walk. The study encompasses quantification.) from its gait. i. History The pioneers of scientific gait analysis were Aristotle in De Motu Animalium (On the Gait of Animals) and much later in 1680. FIG000000042_record_d_enquetes_elucidees_grace_a_l_adn. article in Le Monde. html#ens_id=1241893). body mechanics. it became possible to capture image sequences which reveal details of human and animal locomotion that are not noticeable by watching the movement with the naked eye.interieur. often involving orthopaedic surgery. i. article of Dominique Simonnot. speed. as well as interpretation.gouv. based on gait analysis results.fr/sections/a_votre_service/aide_aux_victimes/fiche-fnaeg) Gait analysis Gait analysis is the systematic study of animal locomotion. Giovanni Alfonso Borelli also called De Motu Animalium (I et II). In the 1890s. fr/ q13/ 13-68468QE. html) • On the official Website of the french ministère de l’intérieur : Fichier national automatisé des empreintes génétiques (http://www. lemonde.FNAEG 96 References [1] (French) 8 et 11 ans.e. lemonde. html). (French) "L'ADN fiche la trouille".

have their own "identity". near infrared or infrared) with matching filters to record the reflection from the markers placed on the body.[10] A typical modern gait lab has several to many cameras (video and/or infrared) placed around a walkway or treadmill. Cine film or video recordings using footage from single or multiple cameras can be used to measure joint angles and velocities. A model is applied to compute the underlying motion of the bones. Software is used to create three dimensional trajectories from these markers which are subsequently given identification labels. Kinematics can be recorded using a variety of systems and methodologies: 1. the iliac spines of the pelvis. including magnitude.g. This method has been aided by the development of analysis software that greatly simplifies the analysis process and allows for analysis in three dimensions rather than two dimensions only. direction. Inertial (cameraless) systems based on MEMS inertial sensors. however. simultaneously. marketing gait analysis hardware systems in the mid 1980's. The patient has single markers applied to anatomical landmarks.[7] These are also used for motion capture in the motion picture industry. or clusters of markers applied to the middle of body segments. the systems tend to be less forgiving for out-of-view markers than the passive systems.[5] [6] 2. to calculate movement kinetics. This gives a full breakdown of the motion at each joint. which are linked to a computer. Chronophotography is the most basic method for the recording of movement.. The cameras utilize high-powered strobes (typically red. 3. and the condyles of the knee). allows for very accurate measurement of movements using multiple cameras (typically five to twelve cameras). some through collaborations with the aerospace industry. This signal is then used to triangulate the location of the marker. Passive marker systems. Strobe lighting at known frequency has been used in the past to aid in the analysis of gait on single photographic images. also known as force platforms. Markers are located at palpable anatomical landmarks. The patient walks down the walkway or the treadmill and the computer calculates the trajectory of each marker in three dimensions. such as palpable bony landmarks (e. The spatial distribution of forces can also be measured . using reflective markers (typically reflective balls).[4] Commercial development soon followed with the emergence of Vicon Motion Systems and BTS. A computer model is then used to compute joint angles from the relative marker positions of the labeled trajectories. 97 Equipment and techniques Gait analysis commonly involves the measurement of the movement of the body in space (kinematics) and the forces involved in producing these movements (kinetics). which measure the ground reaction forces. the malleoli of the ankle. triangulation of the marker in space is possible. and location (called centre of pressure). These markers are triggered by the incoming infra red signal and respond by sending out a corresponding signal of their own.[9] 5.[8] 4. Active marker systems are similar to the passive marker system but use "active" markers.Gait analysis Development of modern computer based systems occurred independently during the late 1970s and early 1980s in several hospital based research labs. The advantage of this system over the passive one is that individual markers work at predefined frequencies and therefore. This means that no post-processing of marker locations is required. most laboratories have floor-mounted load transducers. Based on the angle and time delay between the original and reflected signal. Gait laboratory with passive infrared cameras and embedded force platforms In addition. These full-body or partly systems can be used indoors and outdoors regardless of lighting conditions. biomechanical models and sensor fusion algorithms.

Gait analysis using pedobarographic equipment. Adding this to the known dynamics of each body segment, enables the solution of equations based on the Newton–Euler equations of motion permitting computations of the net forces and the net moments of force about each joint at every stage of the gait cycle. The computational method for this is known as inverse dynamics. This use of kinetics, however, does not result in information for individual muscles but muscle groups, such as the extensor or flexors of the limb. To detect the activity and contribution of individual muscles to movement, it is necessary to investigate the electrical activity of muscles. Many labs also use surface electrodes attached to the skin to detect the electrical activity or electromyogram (EMG) of, for example, a muscles of the leg. In this way it is possible to investigate the activation times of muscles and, to some degree, the magnitude of their activation—thereby assessing their contribution to gait. Deviations from normal kinematic, kinetic, or EMG patterns are used to diagnose specific conditions, predict the outcome of treatments, or determine the effectiveness of training programs.

98

Applications
Medical diagnostics
Pathological gait may reflect compensations for underlying pathologies, or be responsible for causation of symptoms in itself. The study of gait allows these diagnoses to be made, as well as permitting future developments in rehabilitation engineering. Aside from clinical applications, gait analysis is widely used in professional sports training to optimise and improve athletic performance. Gait analysis techniques allow for the assessment of gait disorders and the effects of corrective Orthopedic surgery. Options for treatment of cerebral palsy include the paralysis of spastic muscles using Botox or the lengthening, re-attachment or detachment of particular tendons. Corrections of distorted bony anatomy are also undertaken. It is heavily used in the assessment of sports and investigations into the movement of a large variety of other animals.

Biometric identification and forensics
Minor variations in gait style can be used as a biometric identifier to identify individual people. The parameters are grouped to spatial-temporal (step length, step width, walking speed, cycle time) and kinematic (joint rotation of the hip, knee and ankle, mean joint angles of the hip/knee/ankle, and thigh/trunk/foot angles) classes. There is a high correlation between step length and height of a person.[11] [12] Gait analysis was proposed as authentication for portable electronic devices.[13] For slip and fall investigations, the incident walking surface slip resistance can be measured. The surface can be tested to identify if it is above or below accepted levels or slip thresholds.[14] The English XL slip meter, also known as a VIT (Variable Incidence Tribometer) is a leading edge portable "slip tester", which is designed to test the coefficient of friction or "slip index" on various walking surfaces, level or incline (even steps), under dry and wet (or otherwise contaminated) conditions by mimicking certain pedestrian biomechanical parameters. The objective measurements that can be analyzed and compared with "normal" walking forces and industry standards regarding flooring slip resistance.[14] [15]

Gait analysis

99

Popular media
• G. K. Chesterton premised one of his Father Brown mysteries, "The Queer Feet", on gait recognition. • Cory Doctorow makes much of gait recognition as a security technique used in a high school in his book Little Brother.

References
[1] Whittle E. Michael, Gait Analysis, An Introduction, preference page, Butterworth Heinnemann, 2007. [2] Aristotle (2004). On the Gait of Animals (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=lZGxiHM2ldIC). Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 1419138677. . [3] Fischer, Otto; Braune, Wilhelm (1895) (in German). Der Gang des Menschen: Versuche am unbelasteten und belasteten Menschen, Band 1.. Hirzel Verlag. [4] DH Sutherland: "The evolution of clinical gait analysis: Part II Kinematics" Gait & Posture. 2002; 16: 159-179. [5] Étienne-Jules Marey [6] Eadweard Muybridge [7] RB Davis, S Õunpuu, D Tyburski, JR Gage "A gait analysis data collection and reduction technique". Human Movement Science 1991;10:575-587. [8] Robertson DGE, et al., Research Methods in Biomechanics, Champaign IL:Human Kinetics Pubs., 2004. [9] Best, Russell; Begg, Rezaul (2006). "Overview of Movement Analysis and Gait Features" (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=0yis6idPgy8C& pg=PA11). In Begg, Rezaul; Palaniswami, Marimuthu. Computational Intelligence for Movement Sciences: Neural Networks and Other Emerging Techniques. Idea Group. 2006-03-30. pp. 11–18. ISBN 978-1-59140-836-9. . [10] Ambulatory inertial gait analysis (http:/ / www. xsens. com/ en/ mvn-biomech) [11] journalsip.astm.org/JOURNALS/FORENSIC/PAGES/4706.htm (http:/ / journalsip. astm. org/ JOURNALS/ FORENSIC/ PAGES/ 4706. htm) [12] geradts.com/html/Documents/gait.htm (http:/ / geradts. com/ html/ Documents/ gait. htm) [13] www.vtt.fi/vtt/new/2005/new11.htm (http:/ / www. vtt. fi/ vtt/ new/ 2005/ new11. htm) [14] www.kodsiengineering.com/personal.cfm (http:/ / www. kodsiengineering. com/ personal. cfm) [15] englishxl.com/xl.html (http:/ / englishxl. com/ xl. html)

External links
• Clinical Gait Analysis (http://www.clinicalgaitanalysis.com/)

Generalized Procrustes analysis

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Generalized Procrustes analysis
Generalized Procrustes analysis (GPA) is a method of statistical analysis that can be used to compare the shapes of objects, or the results of surveys, interviews, panels. It was developed for analyising the results of free-choice profiling, a survey technique which allows respondents (such as sensory panelists) to describe a range of products in their own words or language. GPA is the only way to make sense of free-choice profiling data (Meullenet et al., 2007). Generalized Procrustes analysis estimates the scaling factor applied to respondent scale usage, thus it generates a weighting factor that is used to compensate for individual scale usage differences. Unlike measures such as a principal component analysis, since GPA uses individual level data, a measure of variance is utilized in the analysis. The Procrustes distance provides a metric to minimize in order to superimpose a pair of shape instances annotated by landmark points. GPA applies the Procrustes analysis method to superimpose a population of shapes instead of only two shape instances. The algorithm outline is the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. arbitrarily choose a reference shape (typically by selecting it among the available instances) superimpose all instances to current reference shape compute the mean shape of the current set of superimposed shapes if the Procrustes distance between the mean shape and the reference is above a threshold, set reference to mean shape and continue to step 2.

References
• J.F. Meullenet, R. Xiong, and C.J. Findlay (2007). Multivariate and Probabilistic Analyses of Sensory Science Problems. IFT Press & Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0813801780. • I.L. Dryden and K.V. Mardia (1998). Statistical Shape Analysis. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0471958166.

Geology. Graphology has been controversial more than a century. • Most schools of thought in graphology concur that a single graphological element can be a component of many different clusters. The written strokes.: Anthropology. cf. most empirical studies fail to show the validity claimed by its supporters. Graphomaniac. Given these considerations. Emotion. • The neurophysiological mechanisms which contribute to the written movement are related to conditions within the central nervous system and vary in accordance with them. Psychographology. The specific writing organ (mouth. crook of elbow) is irrelevant if it functions normally and is sufficiently adapted to its function. "writing") and logos (from the Greek λόγος. and shoulder. quality. reflect both transitory and long term changes in the central nervous system such as Parkinson's disease. Graphotechnology. the ego is active but it is not always active to the same degree. which follow the principles of dynamical systems. • When the action of writing is comparatively difficult. foot. Although supporters point to the anecdotal evidence of thousands of positive testimonials as a reason to use it for personality evaluation. graphologists proceed to evaluate the pattern. and consistency of the graphic stroke in terms of psychological interpretations. mental state. being at its highest level when an effort has to be made by the writer and at its lowest level when the motion of the writing organ has gained momentum and is driven by it. . form. it can be used to refer to the study of handwriting as an aid in diagnosis and tracking of diseases of the brain and nervous system.[7] [8] Etymology From grapho. Graphometry. or alcohol usage.(from the Greek γραφή. • The movements and corresponding levels of muscular tension in writing are mostly outside of conscious control and subject to the ideomotor effect. rhythm. hand. Graphopsychology. Psychology. arm. Graphometric. movement. therefore. The significance of the cluster can be assessed accurately by tracing each component of the cluster back to their origins and adapting the meaning of the latter to the conditions of the milieu in which the form appears. Graphoanalysis. Biology. "speech"). and biomechanical factors such as muscle stiffness and elasticity are reflected in a person's handwriting. Such interpretations vary according to the graphological theory applied by the analyst. In the medical field. The form of the resultant writing movement is modified further by the flexibly assembled coordinative structures in the hand. Basic tenets Graphology is based upon the following basic assertions: • When we write. • One must examine the handwriting or drawing movements by considering them as movements organized by the central nervous system and produced under biomechanical and dynamical constraints. There also exist many other words formed from the same root: Graphopathology.Graphology 101 Graphology Graphology is the pseudoscientific[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] study and analysis of handwriting especially in relation to human psychology. the writer uses those forms of letters which are simpler or more familiar. The term is sometimes incorrectly used to refer to forensic document examination. Graphistic. with each cluster having a different psychological interpretation. • The muscular movements involved in writing are controlled by the central nervous system. Its activity waxes and wanes.

In this approach. John Wayne's signature shows a blackened out portion. Max Pulver[9] [10] [11] [12] is the best known exponent of this system. It has been described as starting from the inside. that represents his lung cancer. Holistic graphology This is commonly. the holistic approach.[21] [22] • Muller . Gestalt graphology was a system of handwriting analysis developed circa 1915 in Germany and was related theoretically to Gestalt psychology. but can take on different meanings depending on the overall context. movement and space. This can be either Major symbolism. trait stroke. and Integrative Graphology. and working to the inside. such as legibility. • Integrative Graphology • Graphoanalysis was the most influential system in the United States.Enskat Protokol[23] [24] • Leopold Szondi • Girolamo Moretti[25] [26] [27] • Augusto Vels[28] [29] [30] [31] [32] [33] [34] [35] [36] . or Minor Symbolism. Most systems within this approach use a cluster of stroke formations. French System and Graphoanalysis. depending upon the picture that the stroke draws. at an accredited institution in the United States. but incorrectly referred to as Gestalt Graphology. Systems that fall under this umbrella are: fixed signs. Symbolic analysisMajor symbolism is the meaning ascribed to the stroke. as it related to the page. Systems of handwriting analysis Each approach to handwriting analysis has spawned several different systems. For example.Minor symbolism ascribes a meaning to the stroke. • Sistema de Xandró. In this approach (Holistic Graphology) a profile is constructed on the basis of form. [20] was developed by Leslie King during the seventies. are not assigned specific meanings. one looks for symbols seen in the handwriting.Graphology 102 Approaches to graphology There are three approaches to graphology: the integrative approach. individual traits. In this approach. and working to the outside. to score a specific personality trait. • The Personal Worth Chart was developed by Handwriting Consultants of San Diego[19] during the early eighties.[13] [14] [15] • Holistic Graphology • The psychogram[16] [17] [18] is the only system to have been taught as part of an academic degree. and the symbolic Integrative graphology This approach holds that specific stroke structures relate to personality traits. It has been described as starting from the outside. • The psychograph • Wittlich Character Diagram. This approach provides the theory that underlies both Holistic Graphology. between 1929 and 2000.

[16] Around 1830 Abbé Michon became interested in handwriting analysis.[40] 2. Certifications are invariably linked to the organization one belongs to. one could obtain a Graphology track Associate Arts Degree from Felician College. offered a diploma in Graphology. the meanings of those words may be different. Buenos Aires. the diploma course took 8 semesters. In American graphology. Alfred Binet was convinced to do research into graphology from 1893 to 1907. despite graphologists' rejecting the results of his research. Barcelona: Spain: MA (Graphology) Training in the United States Between 1940 and 1995. In Graphoanalysis. This was the only academic institution in the United States to have offered graphology for an accredited academic degree. and are no longer recognized when one resigns from the organization. The technical meaning of a word used by a handwriting analyst.Graphology 103 Training The only academic institutions in the world that currently offer an accredited degree in handwriting analysis are: • The University of Urbino. this is considered to be the first book. in New York City.[47] [48] Starting from Michon's integrative approach. The quality of instructions varies considerably. NJ. Argentina: BA (Graphology) • Autonomous University of Barcelona. History Three books have been claimed to be the first book on graphology: 1. for example. means to feel or [37] [38] exhibit annoyance. From 1970 to 2000. This diploma did not have academic accreditation. Training in the United States is currently available through correspondence courses. . Crépieux-Jamin ended up with a holistic approach to graphology. Crépieux-Jamin who rapidly published a series of books[45] [46] that were soon published in other languages. Courses offered in the subject reflect that bias. Resentment. Camilo Baldi's Trattado come de una lettera Missiva si conoscano la nature e qualita dello scriviente[42] which was unofficially published in 1622. Vocabulary Every system of handwriting analysis has its own vocabulary. Certification There is no certification that is generally recognized. Even though two or more systems may share the same words. Juan Huarte de San Juan's 1575 Examen de ingenios para las ciencias [39] This was first proposed by Jean-Charles Gille in 1991. and also included Forensic Document Analysis. either within or outside the field. He published his findings[43] [44] shortly after founding Société Graphologique in 1871. At its peak. in common usage. in Lodi. Prospero Aldorisio's 1611 Idengraphicus nuncius[41] 3. Italy: MA (Graphology) • Emerson University College. Writing systems The majority of material in the field is oriented towards the Latin Writing system. The most prominent of his disciples was J. He ended up calling it "The science of the future". and the common meaning is not congruent. New School for Social Research. the term indicates a fear of imposition. The 1625 edition was probably the first authorized edition of Baldi's book.

His major contribution to the field can be found in Handschrift und Charakter. She taught at the New School for Social Research in New York. [54] [55] [56] Graphology is primarily used as a recruiting tool to screen candidates during the evaluation process. graphologists were unable to predict scores on the Myers-Briggs test using writing samples from the same people. adding that the practice is "useless.. Zubin modified Klage's ideas. Klara G.[49] [50] Thea Stein Lewinson and J. Many studies have been conducted to assess its effectiveness to predict personality and job performance. anecdotal evidence indicates that 10% of the members of International Graphoanalysis Society(IGAS) were expelled between 1970 and 1980. Government. Ludwig Klages founded and published his finding in Zeitschrift für Menschenkunde (Journal for the Study of Mankind). Professional graphologists using handwriting analysis were just as ineffective as lay people at predicting performance in a 1989 study. Anthony and Florence Anthony. Recent studies testing the validity of using handwriting for predicting personality traits and job performance have been consistently negative. interest in graphology continued to spread in Europe as well as the United States. Students had to choose between Graphoanalysis or Holistic Graphology.. the results of [53] most recent surveys on the ability for graphology to assess personality and job performance have been negative. 104 Validity Although graphology had some support in the scientific community before the mid-twentieth century. due to email lists. the British Psychological Society ranks graphology alongside astrology . absolutely hopeless".S. Roman was the most prominent of the German refugee scholars. Later mass expulsions of IGAS members led to the formation of other societies. Since the rise of the Internet in the early 1990s.[51] In 1929 Milton Bunker founded The American Grapho Analysis Society teaching Graphoanalysis. In 1972 talks between the American Handwriting Analysis Foundation and the American Association of Handwriting Analysis started. Her books are still considered to be foundations for contemporary American Holistic graphology. etc.) are essentially worthless predictors of job performance. Whilst hard data is lacking. However.[60] . based upon their experience working for the U.[8] In a 1988 study.[53] Rowan Bayne. By 1960 all of the participants had been expelled by IGAS. Handwriting Workshops Unlimited was organized by Charlie Cole as a series of lectures for advanced students of Graphoanalysis.[58] Measures of job performance appear similarly unrelated to the handwriting metrics of graphologists. communication between graphologists representing different approaches has increased. such as the American Association of Handwriting Analysts that were orientated towards Holistic graphology. In Germany during the 1920s. and IGAS on American graphology.[60] Also. summarized his view of the appeal of graphology: "It's very seductive because at a very crude level someone who is neat and well behaved tends to have neat handwriting". the graphology organizations have suffered major declines in membership. graphologists were unable to predict scores on the Eysenck personality questionnaire using writing samples from the same people.[57] A 1982 meta-analysis drawn from over 200 studies concludes that graphologists were generally unable to predict any kind of personality trait on any personality test.giving them both "zero validity". the decimation of IGAS members had resulted in a decline of the influence of Graphoanalysis. with the aim to form a single organization. and was succeeded there by Daniel S. This organization and its system split the American graphology world in two. These individuals went on to form the American Handwriting Analysis Foundation. publishing their method in 1942.[52] By the time Peter Ferrera died in 1991. Those talks resulted in the creation of the Council of Graphological Societies in 1976. slope.Graphology After World War I. These lectures featured holistic graphologists such as Thea Lewinson and Klara Roman.[53] [56] In a 1987 study. a British psychologist who has written several studies on graphology.[59] A broad literature screen done by King and Koehler confirmed dozens of studies showing the mechanical aspects of graphology (slant.

.[74] [75] [76] race. weight. Second Series 35.[68] citing one or more of the following cases: • • • • • Gilbert v California :388 US 263-267 (1967) US v Dionisio :410 US 1 (1973) 1973. and their relationship to handwriting have had mixed results. In the United States Privacy Graphologists often claim that handwriting analysis in the workplace is legal. 67. • Vagueness: One of the key points of attack for critics is the ease with which a graphologist can alter the "rules. since it cannot determine Gender.[80] [81] [82] nationality. Lawyers Edition. use of handwriting analysis in employment does not have a disparate impact upon EEOC protected classes. The published studies on ethnicity. despite a few studies that support handwriting analysis. for example.[61] the large majority of studies such as Ben-Shakar. with a tendency to indicate that they can be determined from handwriting. Neither do they address third party issues. thus far. the research results imply that it is not applicable for any specific individual. such as Crumbaugh & Stockholm. Uniformly the research indicates that gender can be determined at a significant level. • Effect Size: Dean's(1992)[65] [66] primary argument against the use of graphology is that the effect size is too small. and negatively if the individual has low status .[64] Non-individualized graphological reports give credence to this criticism. 93 SC 774 US v Mara aka Marasovich :410 US 19 (1973) US v Rosinsky :547 F 2nd 249 (CA 4th 1977 ) United States v Wade :388 US 218. but may be applicable to a group. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) Many graphologists claim that handwriting analysis is non-discriminatory. These cases do not address issues relating to psychological analysis of an individual. 221-223 (1967) All of these cases are about Fifth Amendment rights in a criminal investigation. [69] However. Legal considerations In Hungary A Hungarian Parliamentary Commissioner for Data Protection and Freedom of Information report[67] states that handwriting analysis without informed consent is a privacy violation. See. there have been no studies demonstrating that the Ethnicity.Graphology Overall. 105 Additional specific objections • The Barnum effect and the Dr Fox effect. but are in fact vague and general enough to apply to a wide range of people. Regardless of the validity of handwriting analysis. These describe the observation that individuals will give high accuracy ratings to descriptions of their personality that supposedly are tailored specifically for them. or other EEOC Protected Classes. Blum. & Flug[62] and many others indicate evidence against its predictive validity.[83] gender orientation. Ben-Abba.[77] [78] [79] age. Age. Tallent(1958). interprets a sign positively if the individual is high status. Bar-Hillel. for example. There have been a number of studies on gender[70] [71] [72] [73] and handwriting." Formniveau.[63] These phenomena make it difficult to validate methods of personality testing.

• • • • • Be verifiable. Held to standards within the field. 1987) (handwriting expert may testify as to the authenticity of a writing but not as to an individual's physical or mental condition based on a handwriting sample) is an example of current U. they undermined the scientific validity of both Integrative Graphology and Holistic Graphology.2d 917 (Sup.[85] A graphological report is meant to be used in conjunction with other tools. Subject to published peer review.S. Be generally accepted in the scientific community. for example. and proceeds to do a personality profile.[66] Daubert standard for expert witnesses The U. 520 N. The opposing Handwriting Analysts displayed a distinct lack of professional courtesy to each other. Handwriting clearly falls into the group of tests that cannot be adapted to be administered to individuals who fall within one or more ADA-defined disabilities.Y. and testable. Graphology supporters state that it can complement but not replace traditional hiring tools. Questions that handwriting analysts ask before doing an analysis can be illegal under this act.S. refutable. Ct. 634 SW 2d 99. then nobody can. case law for the rejection of graphology as psychological testimony. for the writing to be correctly analyzed. Co. Be valid and reliable.S. In doing so. Blind people. matching the congruency of the applicant with the ideal psychological profile of employees in the position. Applications of graphology Employment profiling A company takes a writing sample provided by an applicant.[87] The most substantial reason for not using handwriting analysis in the employment process is the absence of evidence of a direct link between handwriting analysis and various measures of job performance[88] The use of graphology in the hiring process has been criticized on ethical grounds[89] and on legal grounds. N. Research in employment suitability has ranged from complete failure[86] to guarded success. do not develop the required fluency in handwriting. 101-102 (1982)] will be remembered for its implications on the propriety of allowing graphologists to testify. such as comprehensive background checks. 106 Depending upon the specific system of graphology that is used. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals defined several criteria that expert testimony must meet to be admissible as evidence. tests that cannot be adapted for use by those individuals will not be used by a company.[84] Graphology in court testimony Cameron v Knapp.Graphology Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 One of the rules of thumb in human resources is that if an individual who has an ADA-defined disability cannot take a test. practical demonstration or record of work skills. As a result. it fails between two and five criteria. Supreme Court case Daubert v.Y.[90] . 137 Misc. 2d 373. Carroll v State [276 Ark 160.

with the focus being how good a fit the individual is. it is not unknown for a polyamorous group to obtain a report prior to the commitment ceremony of a new individual. for the entire unit are used. The average unit employee For this report. with a focus on how good a fit the individual is. The basic theory is that after knowing and understanding how each other is different. five. The individual is then compared to these three employees.[91] or another personality theory. with each employee in the company. to create three hypothetical employees. for the entire company are used. Division wide This is a report that describes how compatible the individual is. mode. The end result is on how each can maximize productivity and minimize personal friction. Those are then compared to the applicant. Marital compatibility In its simplest form only sexual expression and sexual response are examined. The average division employee For this report. but also each individual as a part of a group of three. the mean. or more of the following: Company-wide This is a report the describes how compatible the individual is. The content of these reports can range from a simple perspectrograph. but also those of their co-workers. The individual is then compared to these three employees. the mean.Graphology 107 Business compatibility This is an additional service offered by some handwriting analysts. to create three hypothetical employees. with each employee in the division. and how they can more harmoniously work together. Unit wide This is a report the describes how compatible the individual is. Transactional Analysis. The unit manager / Co-worker This explores the differences in personal style between a manager/co-worker and potential employee. etc. At its most complex. to a four wheel Wittlich Diagram and accompanying twenty five thousand word analysis. four. Typically done for couples. to create three hypothetical employees. with each employee in the unit. Composite reports This explores the difference in personal style between every employee in a group. The focus of these reports can be one. and median scores of every scored data point. mode. mode. The resulting reports not only deal with the individual on a one-to-one level within the group. any commitment that is made will be more enduring. The average company employee For this report. people within the group. the mean. every aspect of an individual is examined for how it affects the other individual(s). and median scores of every scored data point. and median scores of every scored data point. Psychological analysis These reports can range from a ten item check off list to a 25 page report on the makeup of an individual from the perspective of Freudian Psychoanalysis. for the entire division are used. The idea is for each member of the group to learn not only their own strengths and weakness. with focus being how well the individual will fit into the existing company psychodynamic profile. .

108 Medical diagnosis Medical graphology[92] is probably the most controversial aspect of handwriting analysis. and biomechanical systems of the body.[95] Forensic document examination The discipline of forensic document examination is also known as questioned document examination within the judicial system. the discipline tries to address the question of whether or not a document was written by the person who is thought to have written it. The code of ethics for the International Graphoanalysis Society. With respect to handwriting examinations. amongst others. this is not an aspect of graphology. sometimes in conjunction with music or positive self-talk. the graphologist advises counsel on how to slant their case. British Association of Graphology. form. It was pioneered in France during the nineteen-thirties. and pressure are considered in the process of evaluating patients and their response to pharmacological therapeutic agents. particularly timing. As such. speed.[94] Graphotherapy This is the practice of changing a person's handwriting with the goal of changing features of his or her personality. pressure. Research studies have been conducted in which a detailed examination of handwriting factors.[97] and back to borderline personality disorder. spreading to the United states in the late fifties. prohibits medical diagnosis unless one is also licensed to do diagnosis in the state in which they practice. for the most favorable response from the jury. Strictly speaking. to the application of Aristotelian logic to any of the numerous (and mutually incompatible) theories of handwriting analysis. Most graphologists reject supernatural insights from their assessment of handwriting. based upon their alleged personality profile. These beliefs are claimed to be false for reasons ranging from the complete lack of either scientific or anecdotal evidence.Graphology In cultures where arranged marriages are common.[95] [96] The therapy consists of a series of exercises which are similar to those taught in basic calligraphy courses. anatomical.[93] The study of these phenomena is a by-product of researchers investigating motor control processes and the interaction of nervous. Jury screening A graphologist is given handwriting samples of a prospective jury and determines who should be struck. Goodtitle Drevett v Braham 100 Eng Rep 1139 (1792) is reportedly the first case at which the testimony of a questioned document examiner was accepted. Divination Some individuals believe that one can tell the future from handwriting analysis. After the trial has begun. fluidity. such research is not graphology as described throughout this article but an examination of factors pertaining to motor control. There have been anecdotal reports of these exercises curing everything from drug addiction[95] to anorexia nervosa. The Vanguard Code of Ethical Practice. Others believe that a handwriting analyst can provide spiritual guidance on situations that they face. graphology can be used as an additional checkpoint on the compatibility of the couple prior to the elders giving their consent for the marriage to take place. and consistency of size. and Association Déontologique Européenne de Graphologie prohibits the practice of anything related to the occult. .

csicop. 1988. Der Intelligenzausdruck in der Handschrift (1st ed. Augusto:Grafología Estructural y Dinámica.tb00062. Augusto: Diccionario de Grafología y términos psicológicos afines. a piece copied from a magazine). Graphologische Charakterdiagramme (1st ed. [34] :Vels. bccla. Barrie Gunter (1987). Max Albert Eugen (1949). Barcelona. . Kendrick (November/December 1998). html). html). Personality and Individual Differences 8 (3): 433–435. pbs.x. Wilhelm H. (1st ed. M. . Bern. nytimes. Mauricio (1955). "In summary. .1996.A. (1978). Schicksal (1st ed.E. (1943). Psicologia y Grafologia.6.1016/0191-8869(87)90045-6. Girolamo Maria (1963). Herder.). org/ safarchive/ 3_ask/ archive/ qna/ 3282_bbeyerstein. Messagero di S. Retrieved 2008-02-22. Klara G. 5ª ed.g. [8] Furnham. Bountiful. Lehrbuch der Graphologischen Deutungstechnik zum Selbstunterricht (1st ed. Ask the Scientists. Paula. Onate: Aránzazu [15] Xandró.). British Columbia Civil Liberties Association. Fort Lauderdale.. Barry (3 August 1993). Whiting. it's a kind of magical divination or fortune telling where 'like begets like. Zurich: Orell Füssli [12] Pulver. org/ si/ show/ science_and_reason_foibles_and_fallacies_and_doomsdays/ ).). 532 pág. Charakter. [28] : Vels. Skeptical Enquirer. FL. Retrieved 2008-02-22. I. [37] IGAS Department of Instruction (1964). Augusto:Grafología de la A a la Z. Symbolik der Handschrift (1st ed.1998. Retrieved 18 September 2010. Ed. CA: Handwriting Consultants of San Diego [20] King. "Should We Write Off Graphology?". Bernhard (1956). Max Albert Eugen (1931).432 pág. Symbolik der Handschrift (New ed. Barcelona. Angewandte Graphologi (2nd ed.). Munich: Johann Ambrosius Barth [22] Wittlich. Barcelona. Karey Starmer (1961 – 1968).'" [2] "The use of graphology as a tool for employee hiring and evaluation" (http:/ / www. Herder. Augusto: Tratado de Grafología. in properly controlled. 640 pág. 404 pág. Ed. and the graphologists do not seem about to come up with any. Abecedario Grafológico. Scientific American Frontiers. "Science and Reason. P. "Graphology Fact Sheet" (http:/ / www. 1945 [29] :Vels. "On the other hand.. (1952). Augusto:Cómo ser importante. Ronald Buckley and Dwight D. Editorial Miracle. graphologists do no better than chance at predicting the personality traits" [3] entry in The Skeptic Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience.P.e.1111/j. [7] Driver. Grafología Tratado de Iniciación. Havana: Ed de Conf y Ensayos [14] Xandró. Personal Worth Intermediate Course in Handwriting Analysis (1st ed.). Volume 22. ISBN 3-456-30514-1 [24] Müller. New York Times. Augusto:Escritura y Personalidad. Antonio.8ª ed. org/ positions/ privacy/ 88graphology. Wilhelm H. 2000. Verona: L'Alberto [26] Moretti. 2ª ed. . Ed. Ed. Jean Hartman. . ISBN 3463180871 [11] Pulver. blind studies. Russel H. revisada.). Stuttgart. Munich: Kindler. 12ª Ed. International Journal of Selection and Assessment 4 (2): 78–86.). Barcelona. 1957. Wien: Verlag Hans Huber. Symbolic Interpretation of its Graphic Indicators (Revised ed. The Graphological Psychogram: Psychological meanings of its Sectors. Herder. html?pagewanted=1). "Graphology Is Serious Business in France : You Are What You Write?" (http:/ / www. and Doomsdays" (http:/ / www. Graphology Handbook for Tyros or Pros .. com/ 1993/ 08/ 03/ news/ 03iht-grapho. ISanti dalla scrittura: esami grafologici. "Graphology and Personality: Another Failure to Validate Graphological Analysis. "they simply interpret the way we form these various features on the page in much the same way ancient oracles interpreted the entrails of oxen or smoke in the air. org/ factsheets/ graphol. Barcelona.1997 [36] :Vels. Barcelona. then.. Herder. E C F Cole / HAWU [18] Anthony. Girolamo (1980) : Trattato di Grafologia. Retrieved 2008-02-22. Foibles and Fallacies. Padova: Messaggero di S Antonio [27] :Moretti. Handwriting: A Key to Personality (1st ed. UT: Handwriting Consultants of Utah [21] Wittlich. IL: International Graphoanalysis Society .1468-2389. [33] :Vels. Berlin: Walter de Griyter & Co [23] Müller. Intelligenza – Sentimento. Editorial Vives.).. San Diego. Mensch und Handschrift. Max Albert Eugen (1944). [9] Pulver. 468 pág. Augusto: El lenguaje de la Escritura. 1983).). Committee for Skeptical Enquiry. 1949. Bern: Munz [25] Moretti. Trattato Scientifico di Perizie Grafiche su base Grafologica. Herder. Barcelona. [30] :Vels. Ed. Retrieved 18 September 2010. . [6] Frazier.). [4] Thomas. Zurich & Leipzig: Orell Füssli [10] Pulver. The Encyclopedic Dictionary for Graphoanalysts (1st ed. [31] : Vels. 264 pág. Augusto:La Selección de Personal y el problema humano en las empresas. Alice (1973). (2002).. doi:10. Daniel S. Barcelona. John A. Adrian. . Chicago. New York NY [19] Sassi. Editorial Herder. Charlie. Enskat. Barcelona: Stadium [16] Roman. Padova. Zurich: Orell Füssli [13] Xandró. Leslie W.). [35] :Vels. Eldene (1983). doi:10. Max Albert Eugen (1972). Ed. htm).Graphology 109 References [1] "Barry Beyerstein Q&A" (http:/ / www. ntskeptics. Person.. it seems that graphology as currently practiced is a typical pseudoscience and has no place in character assessment or employment practice. [32] :Vels.). New York: Pantheon Books [17] Cole. Bernhard (1951). Mauricio (1949). There is no good scientific evidence to justify its use. -5ª ed.". Augusto:Manual de Grafoanálisis. Mauricio (1954)." [5] James. pp. Graphologische Diagnostik (20th ed. North Texas Skeptics. Frink (April 1996). where the handwriting samples contain no content that could provide non-graphological information upon which to base a prediction (e. Handwriting Analysis Workshop Unlimited: Professional Graphology Course. (1964.). Barcelona. Girolamo Maria (1942)..

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fingerprinting and iris recognition remain the preferred technology for high-security applications. However. Grootveld (1983).Hand geometry 112 Hand geometry Hand geometry is a biometric that identifies users by the shape of their hands. It is also one of the first. Earliest devices to capture handwriting movements Elisha Gray's "Telautograph". Hand geometry is very reliable when combined with other forms of identification. US Patent 386. laboratory computers to store and process the movement data. Handwriting movement analysis Handwriting movement analysis is the study and analysis of the movements involved in handwriting and drawing.815 (1888). Handwriting could only be transmitted by wire and reproduced elsewhere in real-time. Since hand geometry is not thought to be as unique as fingerprints or irises. In large populations. erols. Scripture (1895) developed a writing apparatus that enabled storage of pen positions on paper at 100 Hz. followed by four more similar patents (1891–93). Understanding of the handwriting product will not be complete until the handwriting process is understood. It forms an important part of graphonomics. . and computer software which enables the researcher to do this under specific experimental paradigms without the need to program untested custom software. such as identification cards or personal identification numbers. It takes years of practice and maturing before a person has mastered the adult handwriting skill. Handwriting is not considered only as a movement that leaves a visible trace of ink on paper (product) but it can also be considered as a movement (process). 1900). html). It would become the first of a continuing series of International Graphonomics Conferences. Handwriting movement analysis software is also used for studying drawing. Viable hand geometry devices have been manufactured since the early 1980s. hand geometry is not suitable for so-called one-to-many applications. making hand geometry the first biometric to find widespread computerized use. handwriting movement has been researched since measurement techniques became available. Keuss. or any other situation where the researcher wishes to record movements using a pen. before recording and processing handwriting movements were within reach for those interested in studying handwriting movements. common applications include access control and time-and-attendance operations. See the "Annotated Bibliography in Pen Computing and Handwriting Recognition" by Jean Renard Ward (http:/ / users. Hand geometry readers measure a user's hand along many dimensions and compare those measurements to measurements stored in a file. eye–hand coordination. com/ rwservices/ biblio. and often the only motor skill that children will learn at elementary school. which became established after the "International Workshop on Handwriting Movement Analysis" in 1982 in Nijmegen. three components were required: Devices to capture handwriting movements. It remains popular. The Netherlands. Van Galen. Handwriting is historically considered the widest taught motor skill. This apparatus permitted measurement of durations of individual handwriting strokes (McAllister. Therefore. The first graphonomics milestone was Thomassen. in which a user is identified from his biometric without any other identification.

[5] Pen-based handwriting capturing devices [6] have been developed but never achieved the accuracy of tablets. digitizers can deliver the orientation of the pen barrel relative to the tablet: • Altitude = How steep the pen is held.1 cm. and include times stamps per coordinate to correct non-isochronous sampling. Norsk Data. The digitizer technology belongs to the most accurate and cost-effective pointing devices.01 cm at constant frequency is achievable. such as those by Anoto. Optionally. • z = Axial pen pressure. an x an y tilt or altitude and azimuth of the pen barrel. perpendicular to the horizontal base line and in the writing surface.[2] VisTablet. Many pen movement recording systems capture. and also EMG-based systems. at the 3 finger grip areas). . Dynamic accuracy of 0. It took more than 50 years for computers to be available in laboratories.[3] Adesso. Touch-sensitive tablets cannot be used when the hand is resting on the tablet unless they implement some form of hand rejection. Among the earliest tablets are the Styalator electronic tablet with pen for computer input and handwriting recognition in 1957 [1] and the commercial products by Vector General. While sampling rates of 20 Hz would theoretically suffice. or digitizer. non-repetitive with a primary frequency around 5 Hz and a bandwidth of about 10 Hz. pen barrel rotation. Sadly. as in a tablet PC). up-sampling will be needed to properly visualize the Lissajous-like handwriting and drawing strokes. • Azimuth = Direction of the pen barrel projected on the x-y plane. and grip forces (e.Handwriting movement analysis 113 Earliest laboratory computers Handwriting movements are fast. not only the x and y coordinates of the pen top. IBM PC (Personal Computer). Atari. this angle can be used to estimate pen pressure perpendicular to the paper from the axial pen pressure. Apple Inc. handwriting tablets are the gold standard to record handwriting. The advantage is a 15%–40% reduction of device noise and quantization noise. A laboratory computer will be needed to store. Still today. Osborne Computer Corporation. Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC). with electronic pens as we know them today. Additional features that can be measured by the digitizers (mostly in past models) include pen height. graphics pad. process. Hanvon. Typical tablets sense the position of the pen electromagnetically. as pressure data are often non-linearly related to actual pressure. Electronic analog computers were used until digital computers came within reach for research: Wang Laboratories. parallel to the baseline in Western script • y = Vertical coordinates. Handwriting movement measurement systems can capture: • x = Horizontal coordinates. The Vector General products reported the position of the stylus at 100 Hz and claimed an accuracy of 0.g. Higher-than-necessary sampling rates such as 100 Hz are preferred as this would also allow low-pass filtering or smoothed data with reduced equipment and quantization noise by factor √(100/20) = √5. bumping the sampling rates up to 133 – 200 Hz. Tablets can have a display built in (e. most of these innovative mini and microcomputer companies have discontinued their operation. pen orientation will be needed to estimate normal pressure. x-y-tablet. Pen movement recording devices The first devices to accurately record handwriting that could be connected to computers were graphics tablet..g. Ideally. Opaque tablets are produced by Wacom who also produces display digitizers. but also axial pen pressure.[4] Genius.. and Data General. and visualize massive amounts of samples. each set of coordinates should be sampled simultaneously and at a fixed frequency. Currently many novel systems appear on the market that "record" handwriting. Sampling rates used to be 100 Hz until it was decided that the minimum rate for Human Input Devices HID should be at least 133 Hz.

visuomotor control. home schooling. stuttering. and Smits-Engelsman (1996). which was established in 1995 by Peter De Jong. movement disorders. Even today. The next wave consisted of packaged software that could be made available to record handwriting at many locations.Handwriting movement analysis 114 Handwriting movement analysis software Handwriting movements are being studied from many disciplines including kinesiology. experimental psychology. zero-crossing rate. artificial intelligence. psychiatry. second-order smoothness. for example general practitioners or pediatricians who are not certified in the practice of neurology. The software calculates first-order smoothness. human movement science. dystonia. Hulstijn. It was used for treating 500 writer’s cramp patients. were the only ones capable of using it. In 2002. Oasis can be customized by its flexible macro language. it is a major accomplishment to make software available as a package that can be installed on an unknown computer and can be used after a brief familiarization time by other users who have not been involved.454. neurology. The present company focuses on golf training and was established in 2003 and is run by the owner.706: "System and method for clinically assessing motor function". An early publication about his spiral analysis is by Pullman (1998). document analysis. handedness. this system was used to develop an automated test-battery for psychopharmacological research: Orgabat. education. handwriting recognition. In 1998.[9] One of the oldest references to Oasis is De Jong. developmental disorders. remedial handwriting instruction. often. goal-directed movements. Their oldest publication is by Marquardt and Mai (1994). Germany. second-order zero-crossing rate. Over the last several years. extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) or movement side effects due to medication. Parkinson's disease. computer science. communication. language. tightness of the spiral. software packages have appeared on the market that can be used by many other researchers interested in the field of handwriting movement analysis. Patients with motor disorders such as Parkinson's disease draw spirals. Pullman spiral acquisition and analysis At Columbia university. .[10] It is used to test tremor in Parkinson patients. and derives from these score a degree of severity score. physiotherapy. CSWin was marketed in Germany and is being used in many German hospitals. linguistics. etc. Dr. Prof. Oasis Another early system was Oasis by KikoSoft. CSWin The first handwriting movement analysis offered for sale (around 1980) was CSWin by Science And Motion[7] and developed by Christian Marquardt and Norbert May in Munich. re-education. Seth Pullman developed Pullman Spiral Acquisition and Analysis. occupational therapy. forensic document examination or questioned document examination. Most initial software systems were developed by university researchers who. Kosterman. Their system enables objectively assessing motor function by physicians who are not skilled or experienced in evaluating motor disorders. writer's cramp. handwriting image analysis. visual feedback. Christian Marquardt.[8] The Netherlands. human-computer interaction. forensic document examination. fine motor control. drawing. elementary education. biomechanics of the hand. signature verification and identification. Pullman received US Patent 6. child development.

Target markets could include neuromuscular disease centers. Verifax developed two more applications using application-specific modifications of their customized Neuroskill software: Applications for substance abuse screening and detection. who has since retired. and accurate signature identification for security/privacy protection and forgery detection. computer science (handwriting recognition. psychology. which was founded in 1990 by Dr. signature verification). Shrairman. Epstain. monitoring for toxic inhalants and environmental distress. drug and alcohol abuse clinics. This last application raised the possibility of using a space-qualified Impairoscope variant to evaluate astronaut performance with respect to the impacts of stress. security purposes. and Landau (1998). and alcohol and drug abuse using their proprietary VeriFax Impairoscope writing instrument. fatigue. to educational demonstrations or student projects in these fields. Romero and Teulings (2003). the iNeuroskill web portal was established under a new business entity: iNeuroskill. They researched the Air Phenomenon: Pen movements above the paper (air strokes). Neuroskill was designed for biometric measurement. occupational therapy. Sara Rosenblum and Patricia L (Tamar) Weiss and colleagues developed a computerized handwriting evaluation system called POET: Penmanship Objective Evaluation Tool using MATLAB. USA. This handwriting movement analysis software is the first to demonstrate that it can discern movement side-effects due to schizophrenia medication better than with any conventional evaluation method used in psychiatry today (international patent pending) (Caligiuri et al. they applied their technology to biometric measurements as a clinical monitoring tool for physicians investigating neuromuscular diseases. NeuroScript was founded in 1997 by Prof. forensic document examination. airline pilots. Dr. ComPET At the University of Haifa. Dr. build-up of toxic chemicals within the space habitat. Baker joined as MovAlyzeR’s designer and implementer.g. and Parkinson medication effects and has many applications in movement disorders. In 2003. Their method estimates stability. neurology.[12] Tempe.Handwriting movement analysis 115 Neuroskill Another handwriting analysis system is Neuroskill by Verifax. and Weiss (2003).134: "System for assessment of fine motor control in humans". Ruth Shrairman and Alex Landau. 2009a. The oldest references to MovAlyzeR are Teulings and Romero (2003). etc. . excessive workload. kinesiology.546. Boulder.[11] Their oldest article is by Morgenthaler. Verifax began operations with the aim of developing a biometric tool for the verification of signatures from a distance (VeriFax Autograph Technology). Another application was to evaluate persons with critical skills (e. smoothness and synchronization of the writer's motion as quantifying measures of the neurological function using their Correlation Function Analysis (CFA) of behavioral signals. It is used in fields ranging from research in human movement sciences. The website enables Parkinson patients to upload their signatures that were recorded using a digitizing tablet. It can be integrated with MATLAB and perform image processing on scanned handwriting exemplars. education. and Dr. AZ. They receive immediate feedback regarding their fine motor function in the form of a chart analysis. Teulings and Van Gemmert. b). In 2009. NeuroSkill received a US patent 6. physiological disorders. George Stelmach. bus drivers) for physical and mental performance impairments caused by stress. USA. MovAlyzeR MovAlyzeR was developed by NeuroScript. MovAlyzeR is currently the only handwriting movement analysis software that is certified for Microsoft Windows XP and Vista. Colorado. psychiatry. aging research. occupational health centers and the security industry. The oldest mention of POET is in Rosenblum. In the process.. In 1999 Gregory M. Hans-Leo Teulings. (2003).. Parush. It was used to administer visual stimuli and to record and analyze handwriting movements. CFA returns numerical scores and charts expressing stability of the handwriting strokes and the characteristics of the phase distortions in reproducing cursive samples.

Richard Guest and started in 2003. (2009a). Devices for reading handwritten characters (http:/ / rwservices.g. com [9] http:/ / www. ac. ineuroskill.M. References [1] Diamond. 116 MedDraw MedDraw [14] is a computer-based drawing-task diagnosis and rehabilitation system project between the University of Kent. Leedham. Psychiatry Research (in press). Lohr.905.M. no-ip.G.P.J. Handwriting Movement Analyses for Monitoring Drug-Induced Motor Side Effects in Schizophrenia Patients Treated with Risperidone. Teulings. meddraw. pdf [14] http:/ / www.L.444. Niculescu. B... Handwriting and drawing research: Basic and applied issues (pp. html#Dimond57). 429–440). Dean. • De Jong. Hewitt David. The first research publications that mention MedDraw are by Kaplani. com [5] http:/ / www.. A. Handwriting Movement Kinematics for Quantifying EPS in Patients Treated with Atypical Antipsychotics. geniusnet. . Thomassen (Eds. W. kikosoft. kikosoft. medicalcomputing. and Mellier (2005). Pescatore. September 16. Kosterman. In M.L. M. The EDT measures the ability of the subject to draw vertical lines. and Fairhurst (2005). To compare performance between gross arm movements and fine finger control. Alzheimer. info:81/ pens/ biblio70. Their focus is to detect spatial neglect in the visual field and organization of movement disorder. com/ site/ rehabini/ projects/ edt • Caligiuri. net [4] http:/ / www.). Holper. Heutte.C. 1975 [7] http:/ / www.. neuroscript. pp. The first paper mentioning EDT is Vuillermot. Amsterdam: IOS Press. & A. OASIS software and its application in experimental handwriting research. hemiplegic stroke patients. & Smits-Engelsman. com/ product_detail. United States Patent 3. Tom (1957-12-01). . J.B. Lohr.. the subjects draw lines holding either the tablet's pen (held by the fingers) or a mouse (held by the whole hand). Teulings. POET was developed further and renamed to ComPET: Computerized Penmanship Evaluation Tool. net [13] http:/ / research. and by Glenat. de [8] http:/ / www. Parkinson as well as aging effects. com/ products/ orgabat.. coordinated by Dr. il/ ~rosens/ ResearchDescriptionBlurb. Deviations from the healthy norms will reflect different pathologies for different patient groups. Dean. haifa.B. France. Guest.B. Niculescu. C.. M. retrieved 2008-08-23 [2] http:/ / www.L.Handwriting movement analysis Soon afterward.B. state-of-the art. org [15] http:/ / sites. J. with both the left and right hands. C. lafayettelifesciences.E... com [6] Crane.. Human Movement Sciences (in press). e. A. They will remain focused on drawing-based diagnosis of these disorders. The project aims to develop a robust. (1996). google. com [12] http:/ / www.P.J.P. asp?ItemID=1219 [11] http:/ / www. and Eng (2009).. Kiper. C. Proceedings of Eastern Joint Computer Conference. The latter movements do not include finger movements. hanvon [3] http:/ / www. 232–237. • Caligiuri. vistablet. Special Pend and System for Handwriting Recognition.[13] It is also used with verbal-based lie detection technology such as the polygraph. Extended Drawing Test (EDT) The Extended Drawing Test [15] is a computerized graphonomic assessment for arm and hand function. It is used to study children with dysgraphia. php [10] http:/ / www. H. Hulstijn. Norms have been established for 3–70 year old healthy persons. Developmental Coordination Disorders (DCD) Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorders (ADHD) and adults with several pathologies as Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Depression. W. adesso.W.. H. UK and the University of Rouen. (2009b). Paquet. Simner.E. B. yet easy to use clinical system producing objective diagnostic recommendations across a range of clinical conditions.M.

Space technology and applications international forum – 1998. New apparatus.L.. (Eds..W. T. (1984). Proceedings of the 11th Conference of the International Graphonomics Society. Fairhurst. June 2005. Guest.H.G. & Van Gemmert... Acta Psychologica. D.M. H. Salerno. Landau. Computer-Based Diagnosis of Dyspraxia: the MEDDRAW project. In H. Scottsdale. 8.J. Scottsdale Arizona. • McAllister. USA. J Neurosci Methods. p. 117 .A.L.Mellier. Italy. • Rosenblum. W. S.52(1):39–45. (2003).C. E. • Morgenthaler. (Eds. D.. H. AIP Conference Proceedings.W. P.L.L. A. L.).. Van Gemmert. to appear in 12th Conference of the International Graphonomics Society. (2003). 2–3 November 2003. 169–173. 2–3 November 2003. W. (p. (2003). C. ISBN 0-9746365-0-9. An Extended Drawing Test for the Assessment of Arm and Hand Function with a Performance Invariant for Healthy Subjects. L. & Romero. H. Submovement analysis in learning cursive handwriting or block print. (2005). In H. Yale Psychological Laboratory. • Thomassen. A. P. In H. • Pullman. Grootveld. L. (p. (1998). (2003).A... A. ISBN 0-9746365-0-9.). D. Epstain. 2–3 November 2003. A computational procedure for movement analysis in handwriting. 736–742 (1998). Shrairman. & Maarse. 107–110). (2005). Paquet.W. Mai. Studies from the Yale Psychological Laboratory. Spiral analysis: a new technique for measuring tremor with a digitizing tablet.A. Teulings & A. Motor Aspects of Handwriting. Van Gemmert (Eds.L. D and Eng. IGS 2005.. (1895).L. S.P. • Romero. (Eds. R. (2009). 3. USA. Parush. Holper. (1994). Van Gemmert. IGS 2005.). Salerno. A. H.J.. Volume 420.L...W. Apr. Weiss. • Marquardt. Digital recording and processing of handwriting movements. • Teulings. S. K. Human Movement Science.A. • Vuillermot. pp. June 2005. USA. (p. USA. Proceedings of the 11th Conference of the International Graphonomics Society (IGS2003). 106. Arizona. Arizona. Arizona. Teulings. S. Journal of Neuroscience Methods 177(2): 452–460. Proceedings of the 11th Conference of the International Graphonomics Society (IGS2003). 99–102). H. Van Galen. & Teulings. III. Proceedings of the 11th Conference of the International Graphonomics Society (IGS2003). A. Italy.. 54.. Goal-directed movements in menu selection in computer-user-interfaces. M.N.A. G. A. 12th Conference of the International Graphonomics Society.Handwriting movement analysis • Glenat. (1998). G. Scottsdale. Research: A movement used in handwriting. C.L.. 103–106).W. Submovement analysis in goal-directed movements. Vol. Kiper. R. SL. • Kaplani. Mov Disord.Heutte. 13 Suppl 3:85–9.J. ISBN 0-9746365-0-9. • Scripture. Feature-based Assessment of Visuospatial Neglect Severity in a Computer-based Line Cancellation Task. Teulings.) (1983). Scottsdale. Process Versus Product Evaluation of Poor Handwriting among Children with Developmental Dysgraphia and ADHD.M.H. Keuss. Teulings. • Teulings. 21–63. Van Gemmert..W. E. N. • Teulings. F. C. Pescatore.L. 193–217. (1900).

Inspector General of the Bengal Police in India became interested in the use of fingerprints for the use of criminal identification. explaining a system for classifying fingerprints. Sir Henry developed the Henry Classification System between the years 1896 and 1925. and Hem Chandra Bose. replaced Anthropometry. as a means in which records would be logically filed and searched had not yet been invented. we do know that Dr. Developed by Sir Edward Henry in the late 19th century for criminal investigations in British India. Henry was sent to Natal. However. signing legal documents. and both. in 1877 he was the first to institute the use of fingerprints and handprints as a means of identification. Influenced by Galton's Finger Prints. the Henry Classification System has generally been replaced by ridge flow classification approaches. Dr. they devised very similar fingerprint classification systems. In 1892. India. Henry Faulds wrote to Sir Charles Darwin. and in 1900. South Africa to assist in the reorganization of the local police force and establish a fingerprint bureau. Sir Henry ordered the Bengali Police to collect prisoners’ fingerprints in addition to their anthropometric measurements. History and development Although fingerprint characteristics were studied as far back as the mid-1600s. (Harling 1996) (Met) (Early) . and authenticating transactions. the British Indian police force adopted Anthropometry. In 1892. As the results were overwhelmingly in favor of fingerprints. Faulds. the use of fingerprints as a means of identification did not occur until the mid-19th century. Sir Francis Galton published his highly influential book. the first UK fingerprint bureau was established at Scotland Yard. Bertillonage consists of a meticulous method of measuring body parts for the use of identifying criminals. Two years later. another Henry's assistant also helped refine the system. Sir Francis Galton. the alternative to fingerprints was Bertillonage. In roughly 1859. it was the basis of modern day AFIS classification methods up until the 1990s. the men corresponded regularly in 1894. whorls and arches. His efforts in South Africa were highly successful. The fingerprint records collected at this time were used for one-to-one verification only. as Chief Magistrate of the Hooghly district in Jungipoor. Finger Prints in which he described his classification system that include three main fingerprint patterns . In 1897 a commission was established to compare Anthropometry to the Henry Classification System. but in the following decade. and in 1901 Sir Henry returned to Britain and was appointed Assistant Commissioner of Scotland Yard. fingerprinting was introduced to British India by the Governor General. was to find worldwide acceptance in 1899. Expanding on Galton's classification system. Sir John Herschel discovered that fingerprints remain stable over time and are unique across individuals. Also in 1900. head of the Criminal Investigation Department. Sir Edward Henry. In the same year. Henry Faulds was the first European to publish the notion of scientific use of fingerprints in the identification of criminals. Developed by Alphonse Bertillon in 1879. but agreed to forward the letter to his cousin. In recent years. Henry Faulds and Sir Francis Galton did not engage in much correspondence. on the recommendation of Henry received [1] [2] [3] The Henry Classification System recognition years later by the British Government for their contribution. It is unclear whom to credit for the classification system. also known as Anthropometry.Henry Classification System 118 Henry Classification System The Henry Classification System is a long-standing method by which fingerprints are sorted by physiological characteristics for one-to-many searching. In 1880. He was primarily assisted by Azizul Haque who developed a mathematical formula to supplement Henry's idea of sorting in 1024 pigeon holes based on fingerprint patterns. At the time. Darwin was unable to assist Dr.loops. and in January 1896. asking for his assistance in their development. Dr.

Fingers with a non-whorl pattern.spage=303. it was primarily envisioned to be used as a tool to expedite the manual searching of fingerprint records. Hyperion. and system reliability increased. it was no longer necessary for automated fingerprint matching to mirror what had been the manual processes. jpgmonline.volume=46. NY. minutiae locations. such as an arch or loop pattern. This system should NEVER be used for individualization. with the final two fingers having a value of 1.sethoscope. When AFIS technology was first introduced.46:303-308. the later being based on the Henry Classification System. [3] (http:/ / www. [2] (http:/ / www. However.S. The system also assigns a numerical value to fingers that contain a whorl pattern. Presently.epage=8. Thus. The Henry Classification System assigns each finger a number according to the order in which is it located in the hand. fingers 1 and 2 each have a value of 16.issue=4. amazon. 88(1):185-191.org/html/chronicl/dcjs/html/nyidbur2. state and local) that still employ a Henry Classification System based manual fingerprint filing. it was not unusual for a state or city to continue to maintain its physical file of Henry-sorted fingerprint cards just in case a disaster occurred in the AFIS. As processing speeds.ibgweb. org/html/chronicl/dcjs/html/nyidbur2. Ravikumar KV.com http://www.com/Henry Fingerprint Classification. History and development of forensic science in India.html) . the primary classification is a fraction between 1/1 to 32/32 where 1/1 would indicate no whorl patterns and 32/32 would mean that all fingers had whorl patterns. USA.year=2000. The forgotten Indian pioneers of fingerprint science. (Harling 1996).pdf) Javascript implementation of Henry Classification (http://www. have a value of zero.html (http://www. (Roberts 2008) Impact on current biometric systems The Henry Classification System has been a highly influential force in the formation of current AFIS technology (Automated Fingerprint Identification System). fingers 3 and 4 have a value of 8. The Henry Classification System is a method to classify fingerprints and exclude potential candidates. Postgrad Med 2000. Subsequent searches (manual or automated) utilizing granular characteristics such as minutiae are greatly simplified. Current Science 2005. The value of 1 is added to each sum of the whorls with the maxium obtainable being 32. com/ dp/ 0786885289) Colin Beavan: Fingerprints: The Origins of Crime Detection and Murder Case that Launched Forensic Science. External links • • • • The Henry Classification System (http://static. Up until the mid 1990s. asp?issn=0022-3859. and pattern type. there are some forensic AFIS solutions (e. 2001.correctionhistory. AFIS began to classify fingerprints according to the distance between the core and delta. and so on.Henry Classification System 119 Explanation The Henry Classification System allows for logical categorization of ten-print fingerprint records into primary groupings based on fingerprint pattern types. network throughput capacities. eventually reducing matching time requirements from months to hours.homestead. most forensic hardcopy fingerprint files were sorted according to the Henry Classification System and the first AFIS solutions attempted to emulate the Henry process.correctionhistory. J. com/ article. ac.aulast=Tewari) Tewari RK. pdf) J. This system reduces the effort necessary to search large numbers of fingerprint records by classifying fingerprint records according to gross physiological characteristics. other than for legacy systems. (Carlton) References [1] (http:/ / www. ias. in/ currsci/ jan102005/ 185. beginning with the right thumb as number 1 and ending with the left pinky as number 10.g. Sodhi & Jasjeed Kaur.net/henryfp/) http://ridgesandfurrows. the Henry Classification System is not essential for automated systems. At that time.

or INS Passenger Accelerated Service System. Pilots of land border versions were conducted in Buffalo.[6] Program officials advocated the concept of "One Traveler. approved INSPASS members would register their hand geometry as a biometric identifier and were presented with an associated membership card. After a thorough background check.S. Although modeled on the Dutch "SchipholPass" program.S. Upon entering the United States after arriving from abroad. was composed of the following elements[1] : • • • • • • • • • ATM-like stand 80486 personal computer MS-Windows running Visual Basic 10 inch monitor/touch-screen 16-key keypad OCR-B card reader Electronic gate lock trigger 5 inch Telpar receipt printer[2] Recognition Systems. Delta Terminal. Texas.S. Inc.INSPASS 120 INSPASS INSPASS. users would subject themselves to hand geometry scans and would pass through Federal Inspection without undergoing a formal interview by immigration inspectors. Frequent travelers who were citizens of the U. Inc (RSI) 'Handkey' hand geometry scanner[3] INSPASS kiosk at JFK International Airport. Volpe [4] [5] National Transportation Systems Center and INS contractor Computer Data Systems. it expanded to the US Immigration and Customs Pre-Clearance Inspection Stations in Toronto and Vancouver. One Card" to promote harmonization of the system with other traveler biometric programs and regular meetings were held with the immigration authorities of Canada. Australia. Canada. 1998 The program initially was established at JFK International Airport and Newark International Airport in May 1993. Eventually. Later. or a handful of other trusted countries could apply for INSPASS privileges. (CDSI ). INSPASS was the first large scale biometric identity verification program undertaken by the United States Government and quickly became the largest biometric program in the world in terms of enrollments. Germany. Department of Justice. was a program of the United States Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) during the 1990s and early 2000s the purpose of which was to facilitate the entry of pre-screened low-risk travellers through immigration and customs at certain airports. and the Netherlands to achieve that goal. a total of 15 permanent INSPASS kiosks were deployed at the following locations: • New York (JFK) (6 terminals) • Newark • Toronto (2 terminals) . The initial kiosk implementation. New York during the World University Games (summer 1993) and later in Hidalgo. as defined by the U. Support for the program was later taken over by Electronic Data Systems (EDS) in 1995 when they were awarded a general support services contract with the U. The development of the project was initially piloted and then later deployed with support from the John A. Department of Justice. the United Kingdom.

INSPASS • • • • Miami (2 terminals) Vancouver San Francisco Los Angeles (LAX) (2 terminals)

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Although the program was discontinued in 2002, it has since been replaced by Global Entry, a program of the U.S. Customs and Border Protection that uses fingerprint biometrics to enable frequent travelers to bypass lines at traditional immigration inspection lanes at international airports.

References
[1] DOJ Draft Statement of Standards and Guidelines for Developing INSPASS, February 1995 (http:/ / www. uscis. gov/ propub/ DocView/ frid/ 1/ 120/ 121/ 127) [2] Commerce Business Daily, August 27, 1998 (http:/ / www. fbodaily. com/ cbd/ archive/ 1998/ 08(August)/ 27-Aug-1998/ 70sol005. htm) [3] New security devices in the pipeline, October 2002 (http:/ / www. taipeitimes. com/ News/ worldbiz/ archives/ 2001/ 10/ 10/ 106590) [4] http:/ / www. answers. com/ topic/ computer-data-systems-inc [5] INSPASS Pilot Program Report, March 1995 (http:/ / www. usdoj. gov/ oig/ reports/ INS/ a9508/ index. htm) [6] Computer Data Loses Another Contract, Kathleen Day, Washington Post September 1, 1994

External links
• Biometric Consortium: INS Passenger Accelerated Service System (INSPASS) (http://www.biometrics.org/ REPORTS/INSPASS.html) 4 January 1996 • Biometric Consortium: INSPASS Update (http://www.biometrics.org/REPORTS/INSPASS2.html) • Government Technology News: Consideration of INSPASS in Israel, August 2002 (http://www.govtech.com/ gt/20951) • GlobalSecurity.org | USPASS (formerly INSPASS) (http://www.globalsecurity.org/security/systems/inspass. htm) • Global Entry (http://www.globalentry.gov)

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Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System
The Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System (IAFIS) is a national automated fingerprint identification and criminal history system maintained by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). IAFIS provides automated fingerprint search capabilities, latent searching capability, electronic image storage, and electronic exchange of fingerprints and responses. IAFIS maintains one of the largest biometric databases in the world, second only to Mexico with 70 million records, containing the fingerprints and potential corresponding criminal history information for more than 66 million subjects. IAFIS has 66 million subjects in the criminal master file, and more than 25 million civil prints. Employment background checks and legitimate firearms purchases cause citizens to be permanently recorded in the system. For instance, the State of Washington [1] mandates that all applicants seeking employment in an inpatient setting that houses vulnerable minors (such as children who are mentally challenged, physically or emotionally ill) are fingerprinted and entered into IAFIS as part of their background check in order to determine if the applicant has any record of criminal behavior. Fingerprints are voluntarily submitted to the FBI by local, state, and federal law enforcement agencies. These agencies acquire the fingerprints through criminal arrests or from non-criminal sources, such as employment background checks and the US-VISIT program. The FBI then catalogs the fingerprints along with any criminal history linked with the subject. Law enforcement agencies can then request a search in IAFIS to identify crime scene (latent) fingerprints obtained during criminal investigations. Civil searches are also performed, but the FBI charges a small fee and the response time is slower. The FBI has announced plans to replace IAFIS with a "Next Generation Identification" system,[2] to be developed by Lockheed Martin.

Technology
The device used for scanning live fingerprints into AFIS is called LiveScan. The process of obtaining the prints by way of LiveScan employs rolling prints or placing flat impressions onto a glass platen above a camera unit. The process of obtaining prints by placing a tenprint card (prints taken using ink) onto a flatbed or high-speed scanner is called CardScan (or occasionally DeadScan). In addition to these devices, there are other devices to capture prints from crime scenes (latent prints), as well as devices (both wired and wireless) to capture one or two live finger impressions. The most common method of acquiring fingerprint images remains the inexpensive ink pad and paper form. Scanning forms ("fingerprint cards") with a forensic AFIS complies with standards established by the FBI and National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). To match a print, a fingerprint technician scans in the print in question, and computer algorithms are utilized to mark all minutia points, cores, and deltas detected on the print. In some systems, the technician is allowed to perform a review of the points that the software has detected, and submits the feature set to a one-to-many (1:N) search. The better commercial systems provide fully automated processing and searching ("lights-out") of print features. The fingerprint image processor will generally assign a "quality measure" that indicates if the print is acceptable for searching.

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In popular culture
In forensics television series such as CSI: Crime Scene Investigation and its spin offs, the investigators often match fingerprints with the AFIS database. • In the TV show NCIS, Abby Sciuto uses the AFIS database for the NCIS team.

References
[1] http:/ / www. doh. wa. gov/ hsqa/ BackgroundInfo. htm [2] Dizard III, Wilson P. "FBI plans major database upgrade" (http:/ / www. gcn. com/ print/ 25_26/ 41792-1. html). Government Computer News, 28 August 2006. Retrieved on 2 February 2007.

External links
• Federal Bureau of Investigation - CJIS Division - Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System (http:// www.fbi.gov/hq/cjisd/iafis.htm)

International Automated Systems
International Automated Systems, Inc. (IAS or IAUS) is a company with research and development in various industries, that has been involved in many ventures to design, produce, market, and sell high-technology products. It has been publicly traded since 1988, as a bulletin board stock (stock symbol IAUS.PK). The founder and major shareholder is Neldon Johnson. It is currently based in Salem in Utah where it was founded in 1987.

Products
Solar Power
Since 2004, International Automated Systems has put most of its efforts into developing a solar powered electricity generating system, based on solar heat collected by patented lenses and focused on a heat receiving system. This heat is then used to generate steam, which turns patented 'blade-less' turbines, and generates electricity. Prototypes of this system have been demonstrated at several locations. A fully functional electricity generation system has been under construction since 2005 in Delta, Utah.

Automated Retail
Some of the products or potential products of International Automated Systems include an automated retail self-service checkout system and management software for retail establishments. A demonstration project for this was a grocery store called U-Check that was built and run in Salem, Utah. Portions of International Automated Systems' technology have been licensed to Optimal Robotics for an undisclosed amount of money. However, Optimal Robotics Corporation previously had designed and implemented their own self-check out system, which they reported to have developed completely independently of International Automated Systems. A press release by Optimal Robotics on January 24, 2004 states: "Optimal Robotics Corp. (NASDAQ: OPMR), today announced that it has entered into a settlement agreement with International Automated Systems, Inc. (IAS), which brings to a close the patent lawsuit between the parties. In accordance with the agreement, IAS will receive a sum that is not [1] considered to be material to Optimal."

The event took place between August 2005 and March 2006.PK [1] http:/ / www. ICE 2005 logo . The primary goal in ICE 2005. then use that information to create a specific. automated restaurant systems. industry and research institutes. External links • Company Web Site [2] • Story on NBC Affiliate KSL. and solar technology systems for production of electricity and gasoline. html [2] http:/ / www. The primary goals of the ICE projects were to promote the development and advancement of iris recognition technology and assess its state-of-the-art capability. open. It consisted of an iris recognition challenge problem that was distributed to potential participants. com/ ?nid=148& sid=2893505 Iris Challenge Evaluation The Iris Challenge Evaluation (ICE) were a series of events conducted and managed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology for projects on technology development and evaluation for iris recognition. ICE 2005 The ICE 2005 was a technology development project for iris recognition. Other Products The company currently is developing or has developed or partially developed products for airport security systems. com/ doc/ 1G1-112640449. iaus. com [3] http:/ / www. Government. personalized code number.International Automated Systems 124 Biometrics and Fingerprint Identification International Automated Systems developed a biometric device consisting of an automated fingerprint reader (AFIM = Automated Fingerprint Identification Machine) that was able to read a person's fingerprint. People could then use other AFIM fingerprint scanners to identify themselves and purchase items or obtain access to controlled locations and devices in a secured way. was to promote and advance iris recognition technology that supports existing iris recognition efforts in the U. ksl. the recognition technology development project. The ICE 2006 was the first large-scale.com [3] Stock symbol IAUS. which could be stored in a small amount of digital space.S. such as on the magnetic strip of a credit card. Researchers interested in iris recognition may still obtain copies of the ICE 2005 dataset. encyclopedia. The ICE projects were open to academia. 'bladeless' turbines for electrical power generation. independent technology evaluation for iris recognition.

A standard dataset and test methodology was employed so that all participants were evenly evaluated. Sponsors • • • • • Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Agency (IARPA) Department of Homeland Security (DHS) FBI Criminal Justice Information Services Division Technical Support Working Group (TSWG) National Institute of Justice ICE 2006 logo External links • • • • • • • • • • • gov/mbgc/ MBGC Wedsite [1] MBGC Blog [3] FRGC Website [1] FRVT Website [4] ICE Website [5] National Institute of Standards and Technology [6] Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Agency [7] Department of Homeland Security [8] FBI Criminal Justice Information Services Division [9] Technical Support Working Group (TSWG) [10] National Institute of Justice [1] References [1] http:/ / face. open.Iris Challenge Evaluation 125 ICE 2006 ICE 2006 consisted of a large-scale. independent technology evaluation of iris recognition technology. . The ICE 2006 started on 15 June 2006 and results were published in March 2007. To guarantee an accurate assessment. the ICE measured performance with sequestered data (data not previously seen by the researchers or developers). The primary goal of ICE 2006 was to determine the state-of-the-art capability of automatic iris recognition technology and to establish a performance baseline against which to measure future progress. nist. Results of this effort may provide design input for future evaluations. The ICE 2006 large-scale evaluation report is available on the ICE 2006 webpage.

called eumelanin (brown–black) and pheomelanin (yellow–reddish) [3]. Such fusion results are seemed to be alternative approach for multi-modal biometric systems which intend to reach high accuracies of recognition in large databanks. or template longevity. This is done to avoid light reflections from cornea in iris which makes the captured images very noisy. [4]. A key advantage of iris recognition is its stability. Daugman. Not to be confused with another. intricate structures of the iris. these images provide mathematical representations of the iris that yield unambiguous positive identification of an individual. Iris technology has the smallest outlier (those who cannot use/enroll) group of all biometric technologies. the IrisCode false-reject rates are comparable to the most accurate single-finger fingerprint matchers [2]. with subtle infrared illumination reducing specular reflection from the convex cornea. Converted into digital templates. [5] provide a comparison between these two imaging modalities and fused the results to boost the recognition rate.D. ocular-based technology. NIR imaging is not sensitive to these chromophores. Daugman's algorithms are the basis of almost all currently (as of 2006) commercially deployed iris-recognition systems. to create images of the detail-rich. Visible Wavelength Iris Image Near Infrared (NIR) version . OBE (University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory).) Visible Wavelength (VW) vs Near Infrared (NIR) Imaging The majority of iris recognition benchmarks are implemented in Near Infrared (NIR) imaging by emitting 750 nm wavelength light source. iris recognition uses camera technology. visible wavelength (VW) imaging keeps the related chromophore information and. it loses pigment melanin information. An alternative feature extraction method to encode VW iris images was also introduced. Iris recognition system based on pattern matching Iris recognition efficacy is rarely impeded by glasses or contact lenses. barring trauma. iris recognition is the only biometric technology well-suited for one-to-many identification. Breakthrough work to create the iris-recognition algorithms required for image acquisition and one-to-many matching was pioneered by John G. a single enrollment can last a lifetime. Although. (In tests where the matching thresholds are—for better comparability—changed from their default settings to allow a false-accept rate in the −3 −4 region of 10 to 10 [1]. less prevalent. and as a result they do not appear in the captured images. Because of its speed of comparison. as. The melanin. retina scanning. which is highly robust to reflectivity terms in iris. NIR imaging provides good quality images. which is a rich source of information for iris recognition. Ph. In contrast.Iris recognition 126 Iris recognition Iris recognition is a method of biometric authentication that uses pattern-recognition techniques based on high-resolution images of the irides of an individual's eyes. also known as chromophore. These were utilized to effectively debut commercialization of the technology in conjunction with an early version of the IrisAccess system designed and manufactured by Korea's LG Electronics. Hosseini et al. compared to NIR. mainly consists of two distinct heterogeneous macromolecules. provides rich sources of information mainly coded as shape patterns in iris. Such images are challenging for feature extraction procedures and consequently hard to recognize at the identification step.

and the resulting 2048 bits that represent an iris consist only of the complex sign bits of the Gabor-domain representation of the iris image. To authenticate via identification (one-to-many template matching) or verification (one-to-one template matching). a template created by imaging the iris is compared to a stored value template in a database. A practical problem of iris recognition is that the iris is usually partially covered by eyelids and eyelashes. all amplitude information is discarded. The result is a set of complex numbers that carry local amplitude and phase information for the iris image. In order to reduce the false-reject risk in such cases. additional algorithms are needed to identify the locations of eyelids and eyelashes and to exclude the bits in the resulting code from the comparison operation. In Daugman's algorithms. Discarding the An IriScan model 2100 iris scanner amplitude information ensures that the template remains largely unaffected by changes in illumination and virtually negligibly by iris color. The mathematical methods used resemble those of modern lossy compression algorithms for photographic images. If the Hamming distance is below the decision threshold. . a positive identification has effectively been made. a Gabor wavelet transform is used in order to extract the spatial frequency range that contains a good best signal-to-noise ratio considering the focus quality of available cameras.Iris recognition 127 Operating principle An iris-recognition algorithm first has to identify the approximately concentric circular outer boundaries of the iris and the pupil in a photo of an eye. which contributes significantly to the long-term stability of the biometric template. In the case of Daugman's algorithms. The set of pixels covering only the iris is then transformed into a bit pattern that preserves the information that is essential for a statistically meaningful comparison between two iris images.

This makes the iris shape far more predictable than. • While there are some medical and surgical procedures that can affect the colour and overall shape of the iris. iris recognition is susceptible to poor image quality. Disadvantages • Iris scanning is a relatively new technology and is incompatible with the very substantial investment that the law enforcement and immigration authorities of some countries have already made into fingerprint recognition.2% of the human population who have a genetically identical twin. where the eye can be brought very close to a lens (like looking into a microscope lens). or retinal scanning. The reliability of any biometric identification depends on ensuring that the signal acquired and compared has actually been recorded from a live body part of the person to be identified and is not a manufactured template. Security considerations As with most other biometric identification technology. which can be difficult to recognize after years of certain types of manual labor. the fine texture remains remarkably stable over many decades. • As with other photographic biometric technologies. thereby eliminating an objection that has been raised in some cultures against fingerprint scanners. several academic institutions and biometric vendors are developing products that claim to be able to identify subjects at distances of up to 10 meters ("standoff iris" or "iris at a distance"). whereas DNA (genetic "fingerprinting") is not unique for the about 0. • The iris has a fine texture that—like fingerprints—is determined randomly during embryonic gestation. This distinguishes it from fingerprints.). where a finger has to touch a surface. John Daugman's IrisCode. However. The problem of live-tissue verification is less of a concern in . ID cards. Even genetically identical individuals have completely independent iris textures. • An iris scan is similar to taking a photograph and can be performed from about 10 cm to a few meters away. with associated failure to enroll rates. There is no need for the person to be identified to touch any equipment that has recently been touched by a stranger. • Iris recognition is very difficult to perform at a distance larger than a few meters and if the person to be identified is not cooperating by holding the head still and looking into the camera. and its geometric configuration is only controlled by two complementary muscles (the sphincter pupillae and dilator pupillae) that control the diameter of the pupil. [6] • As with other identification infrastructure (national residents databases. which makes such devices unsuitable for unsupervised applications. such as door access-control systems. a still not satisfactorily solved problem with iris recognition is the problem of live-tissue verification. Some iris identifications have succeeded over a period of about 30 years. Many commercially available iris-recognition systems are easily fooled by presenting a high-quality photograph of a face instead of a real face. civil rights activists have voiced concerns that iris-recognition technology might help governments to track individuals beyond their will. • The originally commercially deployed iris-recognition algorithm. etc. that of the face. • The iris is mostly flat.Iris recognition 128 Advantages The iris of the eye has been described as the ideal part of the human body for biometric identification for several reasons: • It is an internal organ that is well protected against damage and wear by a highly transparent and sensitive membrane (the cornea). • Some argue that a focused digital photograph with an iris diameter of about 200 pixels contains much more long-term stable information than a fingerprint. for instance. has an unprecedented false match rate (better than 10−11).

. live-tissue verifiers will have their own false-reject probability and will therefore further reduce the overall probability that a legitimate user is accepted by the sensor. • At Schiphol Airport.3 million iris code templates and around 4000 registrations per day.3 million iris codes. and the system will detect the refugees on next attempt. air and sea ports of entry are equipped with systems. such that the pupillary reflex can be verified and the iris image be recorded at several different pupil diameters • Analysing the 2D spatial frequency spectrum of the iris image for the peaks caused by the printer dither patterns found on commercially available fake-iris contact lenses • Analysing the temporal frequency spectrum of the image for the peaks caused by computer displays • Using spectral analysis instead of merely monochromatic cameras to distinguish iris tissue from other material • Observing the characteristic natural movement of an eyeball (measuring nystagmus. To make sure people do not get paid more than once. • One of three biometric identification technologies internationally standardized by ICAO for use in future passports (the other two are fingerprint and face recognition) • Iris recognition technology has been implemented by BioID Technologies SA in Pakistan for UNHCR repatriation project to control aid distribution for Afghan refugees. The database has more than 1.g. Like any pattern-recognition technology. etc. and they are paid for their travel. All foreign nationals who possess a visa to enter the UAE are processed through iris cameras installed at all primary and auxiliary immigration inspection points. Netherlands.Iris recognition supervised applications (e. their irises are scanned. when the UAE launched a national border-crossing security initiative. where a human operator supervises the process of taking the picture. Refugees are repatriated by UNHCR in cooperation with Government of Pakistan. the system has apprehended over 330. The one-to-many iris comparison takes place within 1.g. immigration control).. India's UID project uses Iris scan along with fingerprints to uniquely identify people and allocate a Unique Identification Number. all of the UAE's land.5 seconds against 1.000 persons re-entering the UAE with fraudulent travel documents.) • Testing for retinal retroreflection (red-eye effect) • Testing for reflections from the eye's four optical surfaces (front and back of both cornea and lens) to verify their presence. tracking eye while text is read. Methods that have been suggested to provide some defence against the use of fake eyes and irises include: • Changing ambient lighting during the identification (switching on a bright lamp). position and shape • Using 3D imaging (e.. stereo cameras) to verify the position and shape of the iris relative to other eye features A 2004 report by the German Federal Office for Information Security noted that none of the iris-recognition systems commercially available at the time implemented any live-tissue verification technology. 129 Deployed applications • United Arab Emirates IrisGuard's Homeland Security Border Control has been operating an expellee tracking system in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) since 2001. iris recognition has permitted passport-free immigration since 2001. IrisGuard Inc. To date. UAE Enrollment Station • Aadhar. Today.

• NCIS uses an iris scanner in the garage. • In The Island (2005). See http://www. an assassin gains access to a top secret CERN laboratory using a scientist's eye.S.S. cam.ac. a character played by Wesley Snipes uses the Warden's gouged eye to gain access through a security door. • In Dan Brown's 2000 novel Angels and Demons. • Steven Spielberg's 2002 science fiction film Minority Report depicts a society in which what appears to be a form of iris recognition has become daily practice. There is another scanner at the entrance to MTAC. a human clone character played by Ewan McGregor uses his eye to gain access through a security door of the original's house.[11] • Numb3rs features a scene where a robber gets into the CalSci facility by cracking the code assigned to a specific iris. [10] Iris recognition in fiction • In Demolition Man (1993). • The Simpsons Movie (2007) features a scene that illustrates the difficulty of image acquisition in iris recognition. • Google use iris scanners to control access to their [9] datacentres . like Facebook or eBay. • On May 10. where forensic vehicle investigations are carried out and evidence is stored. Marine Corps Sergeant uses an iris scanner to positively identify a member of the Baghdadi city council prior to a meeting with local tribal leaders. . • In several Canadian airports. Hoyos Group demonstrated a device called EyeLock using iris-recognition as an alternative to passwords to log people in to password-protected Web sites and applications. The sequence of Leroy Jethro Gibbs being verified is shown in the title sequence. 2011.cl. community leaders and U. as part of the [8] CANPASS Air program that facilitates entry into Canada for pre-approved.uk/~jgd1000/afghan. The principal character undergoes an eye transplant in order to change his identity but continues to use his original eyes to gain access to restricted locations. low-risk air travelers. A U. low-risk travelers.Iris recognition • UK's IRIS — Iris Recognition Immigration System [7] 130 • Used to verify the recognition of the "Afghan Girl" (Sharbat Gula) by National Geographic photographer Steve McCurry. service members. sheiks.html • In a number of US and Canadian airports. as part of the NEXUS program that facilitates entry into the US and Canada for pre-approved.

biometricgroup. " Towards Accurate and Fast Iris Segmentation for Iris Biometrics (http://www. 792–804. K. uk/ ~jgd1000/ simpsons. 1–8. homeoffice. 21–30.cam. April 2010. 6. youtube. of the 26th IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR'08). E-ISBN : 978-1-4244-5655-0. 2008).ISBN 978-3639082593. M. cnet. Anchorage. In: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence (TPAMI). 28 August 1986. ncbi. “Metal-ion interactions and the structural organization of Sepia eume. Pattern Recognition 36. 2009.ac. cbsa-asfc. .Iris recognition 131 References [1] http:/ / iris. Tieniu Tan. Prabir Bhattacharya. pp.ac.com/textdoc?DB=EPODOC&IDX=WO8605018) Leonard Flom. Araabi.uk/~jgd1000/patrec.org/10.espacenet. nist. nlm. nih.jsp?arnumber=5427304&tag=1). " Boosting Ordinal Features for Accurate and Fast Iris Recognition (http://www. Nov. pp.ac. 1. nih. Paul Meredith and Tadeusz Sarna. 19. • John Daugman: " The importance of being random: statistical principles of iris recognition (http://www. DEC 2006. no.ieeecomputersociety. nlm. Cairo.. Kaushik Roy.183>. cam.N.html)"." May 12. June 2008.uk/users/jgd1000/irisrecog.ieee.S.html)". ac. pp. jsp?arnumber=5427304& tag=1 [6] http:/ / www. vol.ia. 2721 – 2724." Instrumentation and Measurement.cl. html [9] http:/ / www. vol. 15 July 2008. 2003.lanin. B.com/textdoc?DB=EPODOC&IDX=US5291560) John Daugman: Biometric personal identification system based on iris analysis. Y Liu and JD Simon.pdf)".cl.ISBN 3639082591. org/ xpls/ abs_all. Hosseini. com/ reports/ public/ reports/ ITIRT_report. ieee. IEEE Transactions on . also: US 4641349 (http://v3.ac. Print ISBN 978-1-4244-5653-6. Tieniu Tan. com/ watch?v=1SCZzgfdTBo [10] Lance Whitney. Zhenan Sun and Xianchao Qiu. gov/ pubmed/ 15649151 [4] http:/ / www.cbsr. Zhaofeng He. Bhattacharya. John Daugman: " Results from 200 billion iris cross-comparisons (http://www.1109/TPAMI..cam.cn/users/zfhe/publications. 1 March 1994 • John Daugman: " How iris recognition works (http://www. H.2008. 42–48. Zhaofeng He. June 2005. nist. " Pigment Melanin: Pattern for Iris Recognition (http:// ieeexplore.cl. 18.59. January 2004. htm [7] http:/ / www. 2011. html?part=rss& subj=news& tag=2547-1_3-0-20). Soltanian-Zadeh. html • WO 8605018 (http://v3. "Variational level set method and game theory applied for nonideal iris recognition.org/xpls/abs_all.espacenet. gov/ pubmed/ 17083485 [5] http:/ / ieeexplore.” PIGMENT CELL RESEARCH. 2 September 2008 <http://doi.pdf)". Technical Report UCAM-CL-TR-635. ca/ prog/ canpass/ canpassair-eng.com/ textdoc?DB=EPODOC&IDX=US4641349) issued 2/3/1987. FEB 2005. • ac. Roy and P. gov. gc. Aran Safir: Iris recognition system. CNET. 279–291. " Iris recognition gadget eliminates passwords (http:/ / news. “The physical and chemical properties of eumelanin. ncbi. pp. IEEE Computer Society. [11] http:/ / www. University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory. Zhenan Sun and Xianchao Qiu." 16th IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP'09).cam. Iris Recognition: A Machine Learning Approach.html)". Alaska.espacenet. IEEE Computer Society Digital Library. In: Proc.” PIGMENT CELL RESEARCH. ukba. gov/ ICE/ ICE_2005_Results_30March2006. gov [3] http:/ / www. pp. Müller (November 21. cl.uk/TechReports/ UCAM-CL-TR-635. • • • • • • • . Publisher: VDM Verlag Dr. 2011.ia..cbsr. no. Egypt. Retrieved May 12. uk/ managingborders/ technology/ iris/ [8] http:/ / www. pdf [2] http:/ / fpvte. 572–594. pp. vol. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology 14(1).cn/users/zfhe/publications. • US 5291560 (http://v3. no. pp. com/ 8301-1009_3-20062254-83.4. 7-11.

cam.ac.cl.biometricgroup.uk/) an Open Source iris recognition system Iris Recognition Immigration System Iris Recognition Immigration System (IRIS) is an initiative to provide automated clearance through UK immigration for certain frequent travellers.gov/ice/) – a contest for competing iris-recognition algorithms • NIST IREX (http://iris.uk/users/jgd1000) • ISO/IEC 19794-6 (http://www.iso.Iris recognition 132 External links • Home page of IrisCode designer John Daugman (http://www.com/ngm/afghangirl/) • Bath University Iris Image Database (http://www.cam.nationalgeographic.gov/irex/) . Daugman's original patent application (http://google.com/reports/public/ITIRT.com/patents?id=KRkpAAAAEBAJ) at Google Patents • World largest current deployment (http://www.html) • Project Iris (http://projectiris. 3. analysis (http://www. IRIS relies on biometric technology to authenticate identity and is part of the e-borders initiative of the UK Government. .irisbase.cl.ac.html) • Iris recognition algorithm reidentifies Sharbat Gula – Afghan National Geographic cover girl in 1985 – two decades later (http://magma.nist. Procedure Enrolled passengers can enter the UK through a special automated immigration control barrier incorporating an iris recognition camera. IRIS is available at • • • • Birmingham Terminal 1 Gatwick Terminals North and South Manchester Terminals 1 and 2 Heathrow Terminals 1. Availability Enrolment for the scheme is currently free and voluntary.org/iso/catalogue_detail. These barriers are located in certain Immigration Arrival Halls and form part of Immigration and Passport Control. This data is then stored securely alongside their personal details. 2.co. As of June 2010. Enrolment takes place in the airport departure lounge where an Immigration Officer assesses eligibility and enrols qualifying persons. Those who qualify to participate in the scheme have both their eyes photographed in order to capture their iris patterns.nist.uk/~jgd1000/deployments.a program for various NIST activities supporting interoperable iris biometrics.htm?csnumber=38750) International standard for iris images • NIST Iris Challenge Evaluation (http://iris. 4 and 5. including comparison of 19 state-of-the-art iris recognition algorithms from 10 providers • Iris recognition test results.com) • John G.

g. Normally. the receiver cannot tell from reading the phrase "I saw 3 zebras!" whether: • that was typed rapidly or slowly • the sender used the left shift key. Data needed to analyze keystroke dynamics is obtained by keystroke logging. vibration information may be used to create a pattern for future use in both identification and authentication tasks. or typing dynamics. Similarly. Science of Keystroke Dynamics The behavioral biometric of Keystroke Dynamics uses the manner and rhythm in which an individual types characters on a keyboard or keypad. or a Swiss national Permanent residents of the United Kingdom (e. or a national of an EEA State. the right shift key.Iris Recognition Immigration System 133 Eligibility Currently the following travellers are eligible to enroll: • • • • • Persons over 18 years of age British citizen or people with a right of abode in the UK. uk Keystroke dynamics Keystroke dynamics. The keystroke rhythms of a user are measured to develop a unique biometric template of the users typing pattern for future authentication. iris. The recorded keystroke timing data is then processed through a unique neural algorithm. or four occasions in the last 12 months • Exempt from UK Immigration controls or permitted to enter or remain in the UK for more than six months and have more than two months left of that permission • Family of EEA state or Swiss Nationals based in the UK or exempt from immigration controls and based in the UK Further Information • Official IRIS website at the UK Government [1] References [1] http:/ / www. Indefinite Leave to Remain) Valid entry clearance holders (Visa holders) with at least 2 months of validity left on the entry clearance Short term visitor entering the United Kingdom (not needing visas) who were granted entry as a visitor on at least two occasions in the last six months. or if there was a long pause before the letter "z" or the numeral "3" while you were looking for that letter • the sender typed any letters wrong initially and then went back and corrected them. Raw measurements available from most every keyboard can be recorded to determine Dwell time (the time a key pressed) and Flight time (the time between “key up” and the next “key down”). all that is retained when logging a typing session is the sequence of characters corresponding to the order in which keys were pressed and timing information is discarded. When reading email. gov. or if he got them right the first time . which determines a primary pattern for future comparison. is the detailed timing information that describes exactly when each key was pressed and when it was released as a person is typing at a computer keyboard. or the caps-lock key to make the "i" turn into a capitalized letter "I" • the letters were all typed at the same pace.

In English. Capitol in Washington. and there is an entire taxonomy of errors. hold-length-errors (for a shift key held down too short or too long a time). That would be a test based simply on raw speed uncorrected for errors. as it's always possible for people to go slower than normal. again. . The techniques used to do this vary widely in power and sophistication. then. "homonyms". By the 1860’s the telegraph revolution was in full swing and telegraph operators were a valuable resource. "double-strikes". if we know that John types at 20 words per minute. Common endings. As late as World War II the military transmitted messages through Morse Code. such as this person's most common "substitutions". the patterns of errors might be sufficiently different to distinguish two people.S. Index fingers may be characteristically faster than other fingers to a degree that is consistent for a person day-to-day regardless of their overall speed that day. and the time the key is held-down (hold-time) may be very characteristic for a person.Keystroke dynamics 134 Origin of Keystroke Dynamics On May 24. may be entered far faster than. and always has to slow down an extra half-second whenever a number has to be entered. and the person at the keyboard is going at 70 words per minute. say. Or. D. which is normally discarded. For example. the same letters in reverse order ("gni") to a degree that varies consistently by person. it's a safe bet this isn't John. "reversals". but John never really learned the numbers. This is often possible because some characteristics of keystroke production are as individual as handwriting or a signature. This consistency may hold and may reveal the person's native language's common sequences even when they are writing entirely in a different language. Maryland. a new era in long-distance communications had begun. In the simplest case. Most people have specific letters that take them longer to find or get to than their average seek-time over all letters. Even without knowing what language a person is working in. "adjacent letter hits". If the mystery user doesn't slow down for numbers. Using a methodology called "The Fist of the Sender. Common "errors" may also be quite characteristic of a person. it's a pretty safe bet that it's not John. to verify or even try to determine the identity of the person who is producing those keystrokes. sequences of letters may have characteristic properties for a person. "drop-outs". With experience. by looking at the rest of the text and what letters the person goes back and replaces. each operator developed their unique “signature” and was able to be identified simply by their tapping rhythm. but it's unusual or impossible for them to go twice their normal speed. It's only a one-way test. Use as Biometric Data Researchers are interested in using this keystroke dynamic information. and range from statistical techniques to neural-nets to artificial intelligence. The time to get to and depress a key (seek-time). to the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad "outer depot" in Baltimore. these errors might be detected." creating a rhythm that could help distinguish ally from enemy. regardless of how fast he is going overall.C. Again. Right-handed people may be statistically faster in getting to keys they hit with their right hand fingers than they are with their left hand fingers. such as "ing". but which letters those are may vary dramatically but consistently for different people. very simple rules can be used to rule out a possible user. In addition. the message "What hath God wrought" was sent by telegraph from the U. 1844. it may be that the mystery user at the keyboard and John both type at 50 words per minute." Military Intelligence identified that an individual had a unique way of keying in a message's "dots" and "dashes. just as revealing as an accent might in spoken English. and those three letters may be known as a rapid-fire sequence and not as just three meaningless letters hit in that order. the word "the" is very common.

there will be error rates to almost any system. or move their keyboard tray to a new location. or from a voice-to-text converter. who we are confident is "a left-handed person with small hands who doesn't write in English as their primary language. There are hundreds of confounding circumstances. or angry. As such. both false-positives and false-negatives. Because of these variations. or have a beer. Another benefit of keystroke dynamics: they can be captured continuously—not just at the start-up time—and may be adequately accurate to trigger an alarm to another system or person to come double-check the situation. a person. may be on the phone or pausing to talk. In other less dramatic cases. their patterns are statistical in nature. a person's typing may bear little resemblance to the way he types when he is well-rested. Extra doses of medication or missed doses could change his rhythm. This allows for explicitly defined individual risk mitigation–something physical biometric technologies could never achieve. because even a 20% true-positive rate would send the word out that this type of behavior is being watched and caught.Keystroke dynamics 135 Authentication versus identification Keystroke dynamics is part of a larger class of biometrics known as behavioral biometrics. The reality here is that behavioral biometrics use a confidence measurement instead of the traditional pass/fail measurements. or be pasting in information from another source (cut-and-paste). A valid solution that uses keystroke dynamics must take these elements into account. a doctor might violate business rules by sharing his password with his secretary. or by logging onto a medical system but then leaving the computer logged-in while someone else he knows about or doesn't know about uses the system. And some mornings. Note: Some of the commercial products (the successful ones) have strategies to counter these issues and have proven effective in large-scale use (thousands of users) in real-world settings and applications. the traditional benchmarks of False Acceptance Rate (FAR) and False Rejection Rates (FRR) no longer have linear relationships." Temporal variation One of the major problems that keystroke dynamics runs into is that a person's typing varies substantially during a day and between different days. perhaps after a long night with little sleep and a lot of drinking. In some cases. Researchers are still a long way from being able to read a keylogger session from a public computer in a library or cafe somewhere and identify the person from the keystroke dynamics. Keystroke dynamics is one way to detect such problems sufficiently reliably to be worth investigating. for example. Even while typing. or switch computers. but we may be in a position to confidently rule out certain people from being the author. The benefit to keystroke dynamics (as well as other behavioral biometrics) is that FRR/FAR can be adjusted by changing the acceptance threshold at the individual level. People may get tired. a person at gun-point might be forced to get start-up access by entering a password or having a particular fingerprint. or use a virtual keyboard. . but then that person could be replaced by someone else at the keyboard who was taking over for some bad purpose. It is a commonly held belief that behavioral biometrics are not as reliable as physical biometrics used for authentication such as fingerprints or retinal scans or DNA.

iMagic Software (http:/ / www. probayes. ID Control (http:/ / www. KeyTrac (http:/ / www. a patented commercial system which is designed for both web authentication and large-scale enterprise authentication in conjunction with eSSO and supports all platforms (Windows.unlike traditional methods. and achieve better result than other similar products. com) makes Trustable Passwords. thus making it the first method able to analyze any text input in the background. and HIPAA compliance. Certified by International Biometric Group (http:/ / www.to associate a user to their digital identity and detect online fraud — see the References section below for a link to a review from PC Magazine as well as a research report from Coalfire Systems on how the product enables PCI.Keystroke dynamics 136 Commercial products There are several home software and commercial software products which claim to use keystroke dynamics to authenticate a user. It is the recipient of the "BiometricTech Best of Show 2003" award as well as receiving "SC Magazine Global Awards 2005 Finalist". Mac.bioChec. Delfigo Security (http:/ / www. deepnetsecurity. Delfigo's solution easily integrates out-of-band capability to in-band authentication methods. com) has also developed a keystroke biometric authentication system. admitonesecurity. de) . com) is a patented commercial system which uses keystroke dynamics . combined with the high level of security. DiBiSoft (http:/ / www. offer a number of attractive options for implementing the system in e-commerce applications — something that would not be possible using traditional keyboard biometrics. com) in 2009. The solution from Delfigo Security uses keystroke biometrics and other behavioral characteristics in an AI based algorithm to create unique digital identity of an individual. It is claimed that their product employs advanced new algorithms such as auto-correlative training and adaptive learning.in addition to other transparent authentication factors . Argentina. without disrupting the work flow of the end user. (http:/ / www. Probayes (http:/ / www.formerly BioPassword (http:/ / www. imagicsoftware. delfigosecurity. com) provides multi-factor risk-based authentication to prevent identity theft and fraud. bioChec™ (http://www. Psylock was a finalist in the renowed Global Security Challenge award 2007 and third in the German IT-Security Award 2008 [1]. keytrac. the web. com) provides the highest security levels to enterprise applications. TypeSense. Trustable Passwords is being used by websites to authenticate customers and in enterprises including multi-hospital health systems for user authentication and interfaces with other authentication technologies including Knowledge-Based. Device forensic. FFIEC. Deepnet Security (http:/ / www. AdmitOneSecurity . idcontrol. Authenware Corp. com) has an implementation which uses keystroke dynamics for Windows authentication in hidden mode. biometricgroup. Psylock (http:/ / www. com) is a method for biometric authentication based on a user's typing behavior. authenware. The solution leverages one of Probayes's patents on probabalistic computing. com) has developed a unique keystroke dynamics solution for web applications. Therefore the user is authenticated by the way he types on a conventional keyboard and depending on the result of the analysis he gets access to certain data. Florida (USA). Concerning the error rates (FAR/FRR). is a global company with more than 14 technical & Commercial Offices around the world and a Research & Development Laboratory in Mendoza. . Linux) and major enterprise infrastructure. AuthenWare Corp. net) delivers keystroke dynamics with KeystrokeID which offers an impressively low FRR and FAR for verification and identification. The concealed background keystroke recording. KeystrokeID is easy to enroll and manage through their fully integrated and centralized identity and access management solution called ID Control Server.com) has a patented implementation which uses keystroke dynamics for ubiquitous web-based login as well as workstation authentication. and any form of transaction that engages a software artifact. psylock. Psylock claims to be the technological leader for keystroke dynamics. and out-of-band authentication. KeyTrac works with any text the user enters (not only passwords or always-the-same-text methods). Founded in 2006 and is headquartered in Miami. dibisoft.

Gunetti. read. Patent and Trademark Office. There are some patents in this area. This could have severe penalties including jail time. D.S. J. S and Postley. if the desired result for a web-based product is to use keystroke dynamics to decide whether to cause a pop-up window to appear. F. U. J. 367-397.[6] . 5(4). asking for re-entry of a password or other verification question. U. and tougher laws in the near future being very likely.formerly BioPassword. ACM Transactions on Information and System Security (TISSEC). (Inventors) (2007). On top of that. Anyone considering building a new product using keystroke dynamics should understand the legal issues (see below). Key sequence rhythm recognition system and method. Patent and Trademark Office. (1986). mouse. and figure out as well how to have an authorized program's use of keystroke interception survive the removal efforts of multiple anti-spyware programs. Patriot Act.W. Spyware and its use for illegal operations such as bank-fraud and identity theft are very much in the news. (vendor web-site [3] May 2006). Personal identification apparatus. even though the actual residual "content" of the message—the resultant text—is never analyzed. 4 805 222. H. under which such use may constitute wire-tapping. • AdmitOne Security . [2]. com) provide behaviometric solutions encompassing keystroke. (Inventor). behaviosec. Patent and Trademark Office. & environment dynamics for both windows continuous authentication and client-less web based to aid fraud prevention. if consent is not clearly obtained from the people at the keyboard. Key sequence rhythm recognition system and method.S. Notes: US Patent Office . Hammon. Use of such software may be in direct and explicit violation of local laws. Keystroke Dynamics & Corporate Security. Patent No. • iMagic Software. the security enhancing programs may be fighting with each other. U. such as the U. User authentication through Keystroke Dynamics.S. Method and apparatus for verifying an individual’s identity. WSTA Ticker Magazine. 1986. (2002). 4 621 334. References • Checco. Notes: Vendor specializing in keystroke authentication for large enterprises. • J. Patent No. Other uses Because keystroke timings are generated by human beings. or retained. Patent No. • Bergadano. Young and R.. Notes: Vendor specializing in keystroke dynamics • Garcia. 2007. Blender and H. Postley. (2003). with even Microsoft issuing new spyware defense products. as of this writing. & Picardi. 7 206 938. Garcia. 1989.. Notes: US Patent Office .Keystroke dynamics BehavioSec (http:/ / www.[5] • Bender. The status of the "dynamic context" of the text is probably in legal limbo. they are not well correlated with external processes. BeahvioSec are headquartered in Sweden. (USA 4621334). • J. In this case. Competent legal advice should be obtained before attempting to use or even experiment with such software and keystroke dynamic analysis. new pop-up blockers may prevent that feature from functioning. Personal identification apparatus. URL [4]. and are frequently used as a source of hardware-generated random numbers for computer systems. 137 Legal and regulatory issues Surreptitious use of key-logging software is on the rise. (USA 7206938). See spyware for a better description of user-consent issues and various fraud statutes. C.R. Examples: • S. (vendor web-site home [Web Page].S.

pdf?arnumber=661150 [10] http:/ / www. html http:/ / www. Notes: US Patent Office . Communications of the ACM.. uspto. Authentication via Keystroke Dynamics.H... Notes: available to subscribers at [7] . Computer user Verification using Login String Keystroke Dynamics. J. Hold times were more effective than interkey times for discrimination. gov/ patft/ index. D. Keystroke Dynamics as a Biometric for Authentication. R. much cited • Monrose. R. (1989). de/ it_auszeichnung_2008. edu/ 4180/ hw/ keystroke. wsta. R. Singapore • Robinson.. pdf [9] http:/ / ieeexplore.admitonesecurity. Notes: Vendor specializing in keystroke authentication solutions for government and commercial agencies. & Hammon. 579-592. html . 75-80. Optimizing digraph-latency based biometric typist verification systems: inter and intra typist differences in digraph latency distributions. html http:/ / old. com http:/ / www. & MacKenzie. F. M. (2009). Notes: [9] Highlights: 10 users were distinguished from 10 "forgers" using 3 classification systems. (1995). J. Notes: Review up through 1990 • Mahar. • Lopatka. M. Identity authorization based on keystroke latencies. Best results used both with a learning classifier.Keystroke dynamics • Joyce. K. cs. C. A. J. Napier R. gov/ netacgi/ nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1& Sect2=HITOFF& d=PALL& p=1& u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.[11] • Coalfire Systems Compliance Validation Assessment (2007) http://www. M.. Wagner M.pdf 138 References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] http:/ / www. Chambers. horst-goertz. (1998). 73-82. (1999). & Rubin Ariel D. Notes: Kent Ridge Digital Labs. Liang. D. Future Generation Computer Systems. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies. ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security. imagicsoftware.. nl/ Home. admitonesecurity. columbia. htm& r=1& f=G& l=50& s1=7206938. & Rubin. There were a high rate of confounding errors and backspaces in the password samples. com [11] http:/ / benelearn09. M. F. (Inventors). (1997). verticalcompany. Vibration Sensitive Keystroke Analysis.. & OS=PN/ 7206938& RS=PN/ 7206938 [7] http:/ / portal. Laverty W. ieee.. 43(4). V. 4805222). Man. 16.. Notes: Review 1990–1999 [8] • Monrose. acm. uspto. 168-176.com/ admitone_library/AOS_Compliance_Functional_Assessment_by_Coalfire. W. • Monrose. • Young. R. IEEE Transactions on Systems. org/ publications/ articles/ 1003_article06. & Hiron. com http:/ / www. R. D.. html http:/ / patft. A. M. Proceedings of the 18th Annual Belgian-Dutch Conference on Machine Learning. org/ iel3/ 3468/ 14367/ 00661150.. Method and apparatus for verifying an individual's identity. A. & Peetz. M. 33(2). G. L. Password hardening based on keystroke dynamics.. 28(2). org [8] http:/ / www1.[5] • Vertical Company LTD. (1990). 351-359.. Henderson. F. and Cybernetics Part A. & Wetzel. Proceedings of the 6th ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security. (2000). S. (vendor web-site [10] October 2006). & Gupta. PN. uvt.

the software interactively sends the login names and passwords to compatible applications and websites. . dailymail. Fox News.com. "Homeland Security Detects Terrorist Threats by Reading Your Mind" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2008-09-24. First released on September 4. Login names and passwords associated with the registered finger prints are stored in a database located in the user's computer. In its current development. html). com/ news/ new-airport-screening-could-read-minds/ 365378/ ). co. According to the scientists. Retrieved 2008-09-24.[3] References [1] Barrie. Allison (September 23. Department of Homeland Security to be implemented for detection of potential terrorist suspects. foxnews.[1] The system does various test scanning for elevated blood pressure. which can be used to perform the login operation automatically. 2008. Microsoft Fingerprint Reader Microsoft Fingerprint Reader was a device that was sold by Microsoft primarily targeted at home and small business users which is currently discontinued. html). it can recognize seven primary emotions and emotional clues and will eventually have equipment which can analyze full body movement. 2004[1] .[2] If the sensors pick up anything considered alarming. . . The underlying software providing the biometrics was developed by Digital Persona.426485. uk/ sciencetech/ article-1060972/ The-airport-security-scanner-read-mind.MALINTENT 139 MALINTENT MALINTENT is technological system that was developed by the U. "The airport security scanner that can read your mind" (http:/ / www. UK Daily Mail. analysts can decide whether to subject a person to questioning. Functionality Users could register any finger up to ten since the software has the capability to store all ten fingers for a single user. indianexpress. Retrieved 2008-09-24. rapid heart and breath rate. an eye scanner and a pheromone-reader. [2] Hazelton. [3] "New airport screening 'could read minds'" (http:/ / www. September 24.00. com/ story/ 0.S.2933. When needed. 2008). 2008). . the MALINTENT system uses a barrage of non-invasive sensors and imagers to detect and evaluate a person's facial expressions to gauge whether he or she could be planning to commit an attack or crime. IndianaExpress. Liz (September 24. the device requires Windows XP or Windows Vista x86 to run[2] . and non-verbal cues.

Retrieved 2006-05-04. [2] "Microsoft Fingerprint system requirements" (http:/ / www. English pronunciation: /mɨˈnjuːʃɪ. microsoft. mspx). minor or incidental.microsoft.com/hardware/support/fingerprintreader. travels a short distance and then ends Island – a single small ridge inside a short ridge or ridge ending that is not connected to all other ridges Ridge enclosure – a single ridge that bifurcates and reunites shortly afterward to continue as a single ridge Spur – a bifurcation with a short ridge branching off a longer ridge Crossover or bridge – a short ridge that runs between two parallel ridges Delta – a Y-shaped ridge meeting Core – a U-turn in the ridge pattern .1. in everyday English. However it is more of a convenience than a being a true access control system. Retrieved 2009-06-05. com/ hardware/ support/ fingerprintreader. [3] http:/ / redoneill. are. Microsoft support site states there is no support for Windows 7.iː/. com/ resource/ article/ 0. "Researcher Hacks Microsoft Fingerprint Reader" (http:/ / www.ə/. Firefox Browser Support The reader works with Firefox using the FingerFox Add-on [3]. minutiae are major features of a fingerprint. fr/ fingerfox/ External links • MS Fingerprint home page (http://www. Driver Support Currently only x86 (32-bit) support for Windows XP and Vista exist. . both also English In biometrics and forensic science.RSS.aid. sing. or independent ridge – a ridge that commences. pcworld. using which comparisons of one print with another can be made. minutia.RSS. asp). References [1] Robert McMillan (2006-03-06).124978.00. IDG News Service. Minutiae include: • • • • • • • • • Ridge ending – the abrupt end of a ridge. Looks like this(-) Ridge bifurcation – a single ridge that divides into two ridges Short ridge.Microsoft Fingerprint Reader 140 Application Such a device could be useful in a public environment.mspx) Minutiae Minutiae pronunciation: /mɨˈnjuːʃə/) (pronounced /mɨˈnjuːʃɪ. where it may prevent others from seeing passwords from being keyed in. . free.pg.

numerous government and industry organizations have or are moving toward deploying automated biometric technologies to provide increased security for their systems and facilities. The MBGC seeks to reach this goal through several technology development areas: • • • • • • Face recognition on still frontal. FRVT 2006. Background Over the last decade.Multiple Biometric Grand Challenge 141 Multiple Biometric Grand Challenge Multiple Biometric Grand Challenge (MBGC) is a biometric project. Government organizations recently sponsored the Face Recognition Grand Challenge (FRGC). The sequences will be acquired as people walk through a portal. Challenge problems will focus on three major areas: • Iris and Face Recognition from Portal Video: the goal is to develop algorithms that recognize people from near infrared image sequences and high definition video sequences. for example: • • • • Low quality still images High and low quality video imagery Face and iris images taken under varying illumination conditions Off-angle or occluded images Building on the challenge problem and evaluation paradigm of FRGC. • Iris and Face Recognition from Controlled Images: the goal is to improve performance on iris and face imagery. ICE 2006 provided an independent assessment of multiple iris recognition algorithms on the same data set. ICE 2005 and ICE 2006. real-world-like high and low resolution imagery Iris recognition from video sequences and off-angle images Fusion of face and iris (at score and image levels) Unconstrained face recognition from still & video Recognition from Near Infrared (NIR) & High Definition (HD) video streams taken through portals Unconstrained face recognition from still & video The MBGC will consist of a set of challenge problems designed to advance the current state of technology and conclude with a planned independent evaluation. Face Recognition Vendor Test (FRVT) 2006 and the Iris Challenge Evaluation (ICE) 2006.S. Face data will be real-world-like high and low resolution images of frontal faces. Many of these requirements focus on biometric samples taken under less than ideal conditions. However. test and improve performance of face and iris recognition technology on both still and video imagery through a series of challenge problems and evaluation. Iris images will consist of still . the Multiple Biometric Grand Challenge (MBGC) will address these problem areas. Overview The primary goal of the MBGC is to investigate. further advances in these technologies are needed to meet the full range of operational requirements. Results from the FRGC and FRVT 2006 documented two orders of magnitude improvement in the performance of face recognition under full-frontal. controlled conditions over the last 14 years. Six U. For the first time.

. The Team analyzes these results and then hosts another workshop. This phase ultimately determines the performance levels of the participant’s algorithms. The data sets are then released to participating organizations who develop their algorithms and submit self reported results back to the Challenge Team in the form of similarity matrices. 142 Challenge Problem Structure Overview The Multiple Biometric Grand Challenge is based on previous challenges directed by Dr. P. and composes the necessary data sets. challenge problems. 1st Characterization of the state of the art. At this stage the Participants are requested to submit not their self reported results. MBGC Challenge Version 1 The Multiple Biometric Challenge Version 1 was released in April 2008. Jonathon Phillips. • Portal Challenge • Still Iris versus Near Infrared (NIR) • Video Iris versus Near Infrared (NIR) • Still Face versus High Definition (HD) Video • Multiple Biometrics (Fusion) • Still Face / Still Iris versus Near Infrared (NIR) / High Definition (HD) Video • Still Face / Video Iris versus Near Infrared (NIR) / High Definition (HD) Video Version 1 results were submitted in November 2008. The programmatic process of a Challenge Problem is as follows. • • • • Familiarize community with problem and data. At the 2nd Workshop the Challenge Team reports the results from Challenge Version 1 and releases the Challenge Version 2. and reported at the MBGC 2nd Workshop in December 2008. Organizations then sign licenses to receive the data and begin to develop technology (mostly computer algorithms) in an attempt to solve the various challenges laid out by the Challenge Team. To advance and inform the various participants and interested parties the Team hosts workshops. Grow the research community that works on these problems. finishing with a final workshop. The Challenge Team then runs these algorithms through a battery of tests on large sequestered datasets. The Version 1 series was separated into three distinct areas with various experiments under those areas. prepares challenge infrastructure. The cycle is repeated. This initial set of challenge problems had the following goals. A final report is issued by the Team which is used by Industries and Governments to determine the actual state of the art in a given field and to provide participating organizations a basis for showing their performance within that field. but the actual executables (or SDKs) to their algorithms. These challenge problems will allow for fusion of face and iris at both the score level and the image level. The first workshop gives an overview of the challenge and introduces the first set of challenge problems (typically referred to as Version 1).Multiple Biometric Grand Challenge and video iris sequences. The Challenge Team designs the protocols. Specifically the Facial Recognition Grand Challenge (FRGC) and the Iris Challenge Evaluation (ICE 2005). • Still and Video Face: the goal is to advance recognition from unconstrained outdoor video sequences and still images. Introduce participants to challenge protocol and experiment environment.

biometrics. dod. mil . Multiple Biometric Evaluation (MBE) The Multiple Biometric Evaluation (MBE) will begin in Summer 2009. The purpose of the MBE is to conduct an independent evaluation of the MBGC submissions on large sequestered data sets.Multiple Biometric Grand Challenge 143 MBGC Challenge Version 2 Will be released in January 2009. Submitted results will be reported at the MBGC 3rd Workshop in Spring 2009. External links • • • • • • • • • • MBGC Website [2] MBGC Blog [3] FRGC Website [1] FRVT Website [4] ICE Website [5] National Institute of Standards and Technology [6] Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Agency [7] Department of Homeland Security [8] FBI Criminal Justice Information Services Division [9] Technical Support Working Group (TSWG) [10] References [1] http:/ / www. Sponsors • • • • • Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Agency (IARPA) DOD Biometrics Task Force (BTF) [1] Department of Homeland Security (DHS) FBI Criminal Justice Information Services Division Technical Support Working Group (TSWG) References  This article incorporates public domain material from the National Institute of Standards and Technology document "NIST Multiple Biometric Grand Challenge" [2].

Organizations Involved in the Project • • • • • • • • Lockheed Martin IBM Accenture BAE Systems Global Science & Technology (GST) Innovative Management & Technology Services (IMTS) Platinum Solutions National Center for State Courts (NCSC) External links • • • • FBI Press Release (February 12. and facial identification. usdoj. August 6. pdf http:/ / www. htm . fbi. gov/ hq/ cjisd/ ngi. iris.com article (May 5. technologynewsdaily. gov/ jmd/ 2008justification/ exhibit300/ fbi_ngi. com/ node/ 9733 http:/ / www. The development of the project is being led by Lockheed Martin who are teamed up with a number of technology companies. 2006) [3] FBI NGI [4] References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www. incorporating palm print.Next Generation Identification 144 Next Generation Identification Next Generation Identification (NGI) is a project of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). fbi. It will also have more advanced lookup capabilities. gov/ pressrel/ pressrel08/ ngicontract021208. 2008) [1] TechnologyNewsDaily. justifying the project (PDF file. which is currently used by law enforcement to identify subjects by their fingerprints and look up their criminal history. The NGI system will be a more modular system (allowing easy expandability). The project's goal is to expand the capabilities of the Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System (IAFIS). htm http:/ / www. 2008) [2] FBI Report to the Department of Justice.

.Palm print 145 Palm print A palm print refers to an image acquired of the palm region of the hand. References 1. It differs to a fingerprint in that it also contains other information such as texture. It can be either an online image (i. taken by a scanner. Kluwer Academic Publishers. ‘’Palmprint Authentication’’. (2004). indents and marks which can be used when comparing one palm to another. The palm itself consists of principal lines.e. wrinkles (secondary lines) and ridges. Palm prints can be used for criminal. D. Zhang. forensic or commercial applications. or CCD) or offline image where the image is taken with ink and paper Zhang.

which are inserted into the fibrous sheaths of the Flexor tendons. It covers the superficial volar arch. and on either side it gives off a septum. which is continuous with the interosseous aponeurosis. and the branches of the median and ulnar nerves. one for each finger. Each slip gives off superficial fibers to the skin of the palm and finger. is triangular in shape. The deeper part of each slip subdivides into two processes. transverse fasciculi bind the separate processes together. the tendons of the Flexor muscles. numerous strong. Central portion The central portion occupies the middle of the palm. . those to the palm joining the skin at the furrow corresponding to the metacarpophalangeal articulations.Palmar aponeurosis 146 Palmar aponeurosis Palmar aponeurosis The palmar aponeurosis. At the points of division into the slips mentioned. From the sides of these processes offsets are attached to the transverse metacarpal ligament. and the tendons of the Lumbricales. and receives the expanded tendon of the Palmaris longus. and consists of central. Its base divides below into four slips. By this arrangement short channels are formed on the front of the heads of the metacarpal bones. and separates the intermediate from the collateral groups of muscles. Its apex is continuous with the lower margin of the transverse carpal ligament. and those to the fingers passing into the skin at the transverse fold at the bases of the fingers. and medial portions. The central part of the palmar aponeurosis is intimately bound to the integument by dense fibroareolar tissue forming the superficial palmar fascia. The intervals between the four slips transmit the digital vessels and nerves. and of great strength and thickness. and gives origin by its medial margin to the Palmaris brevis. Latin Gray's aponeurosis palmaris subject #126 460 [1] The palmar aponeurosis (palmar fascia) invests the muscles of the palm. lateral. through these the Flexor tendons pass.

the muscles of the ball of the thumb.[3] References [1] Jackson. some of the information contained within it may be outdated. story). net/ wnor/ lesson5mus& tendonsofhand. "A Pug at the Heartstrings" (http:/ / www. ISBN 0879722711. [2] Goldberg. which cover. References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / education. courant. comcast. uk/ books?id=23Pwrh-GEOMC& pg=PA94& dq=pawtograph)]]. 2. htm http:/ / home. San Francisco Weekly. A pawtograph is made by one of two methods: 1.4381668. com/ 2003-11-26/ news/ a-pug-at-the-heartstrings& page=34). sfweekly. Daniel (19 September 2007). . comcast. comcast. com/ features/ style/ am-dog0919.Palmar aponeurosis 147 Lateral and medial portions The lateral and medial portions of the palmar aponeurosis are thin. fibrous layers. 94.0. Retrieved 29 June 2009. and. This term is used in particular for the practice of collecting pawtographs of celebrity animals. Hounds of the road: a history of the [[Greyhound Bus Company (http:/ / books. . Popular Press. Hartford Courant. directly stamping a paw on a stamp pad. net/ ~wnor/ homepage. . co. on the ulnar side. on the radial side. regarded in some contexts as equivalent to a human signature. p. Carlton (1984). "Jumping dogs stop NYers in their tracks" (http:/ / www. then stamping the item to be autographed. they are continuous with the central portion and with the fascia on the dorsum of the hand. . htm http:/ / mywebpages. com/ reference/ gray/ subjects/ subject?id=126#p460 http:/ / mywebpages. External links • lesson5mus&tendonsofhand [2] at The Anatomy Lesson [3] by Wesley Norman (Georgetown University) • lesson5flexretinac&palmapon [4] at The Anatomy Lesson [3] by Wesley Norman (Georgetown University) This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. [3] Tudor. yahoo.[1] [2] The hobby of collecting pawtographs is known as pawtography. As such. Retrieved 29 June 2009. net/ wnor/ lesson5flexretinac& palmapon. Silke (26 November 2003). htm Pawtograph A pawtograph is a print of an animal's paw. google. creating a rubber stamp from the paw impression and stamping the item using the stamp. the muscles of the little finger.

htm). and other personal information.com/Content/View. loyalty. Torre (2009-03-23). BioPay LLC.[1] It was a privately held company which enabled consumers to pay for goods and services with a swipe of their finger on a biometric sensor. and payment processing. It allowed secure access to checking.com/news/ news_article.[3] In 2006. [6] "Pay By Touch Auctions off ATM Direct.[4] At the time of the acquisition BioPay had more than two million enrolled consumers and offered both biometric payments and biometric-based payroll check cashing.a fortune" (http:/ / www. through the unique characteristics of an individual's biometric features. prnewswire. Much of the assets of Pay By Touch are now owned by YOU Technology. [7] http:/ / www. com/ 2007/ 11/ 12/ pay-by-touch-in-trouble-founder-filing-for-bankruptcy/ ). thereby creating a highly secure anti-identity theft platform. Pay By Touch had over 800 employees and provided retailers with products in biometric financial transactions.Pay By Touch 148 Pay By Touch Pay By Touch was a company founded by John P Rogers. BioPay Paycheck Secure" (http:/ / digitaltransactions. com/ news-releases/ pay-by-touch-completes-acquisition-of-biopay-53546437. healthcare. "How (and Why) Athletes Go Broke" (http:/ / vault. Digital Transactions. without notifying its customers.com .[6] In 2009. Torre (2009-03-23). Over time it raised more than $340 million in venture finance investments.wkyc. . December 08. Thursday. San Francisco Chronicle. 2008. October 20. [4] "Pay By Touch Completes Acquisition of BioPay" (http:/ / www. com/ vault/ article/ magazine/ MAG1153364/ 3/ index. PR Newswire. biometric age verification. California with 10 offices worldwide. Pay By Touch acquired competitor. [2] Lance Williams (2008-12-07). sportsillustrated.midcounties. com/ cgi-bin/ article. Phoenix Check Cashing changed its dba name from BioPay Paycheck Secure to AllTrust Networks. investors in Pay By Touch included former National Football League players Drew Bledsoe and Rick Mirer. .Pay By Touch Goes Live in the UK at The Midcounties Co-operative Finger-touch payment system available at three Oxford locations (http://www. . 2006 . sportsillustrated. DTL). On March 19.Pay By Touch Blog • WKYC. .asp?pmillid=19008) • The Midcounties Co-operative .[2] By 2007. External links • Pay By Touch [7] company website.and lost .amrresearch. Sports Illustrated. paybytouch. Sports Illustrated.'Pay by Touch' lets your fingers pay for groceries (http://www. The company was based in San Francisco. credit card. All check cashing assets were acquired in 2008 by Phoenix Check Cashing. html).biometricpayments. cnn. com • http://www. "John-P-Rogers" (http:/ / venturebeat. Inc. cnn. .Pay by Touch To Acquire BioPay: Pointing at Retail Biometrics (http://www. Pay By Touch shut down and is no longer in operation. 2006-01-16. Venture Beat. htm).coop/live/ . 2005 . [5] Pablo S.aspx?storyid=58208) • AMR Research. "How (and Why) Athletes Go Broke" (http:/ / vault. no longer operable References [1] Matt Marshall (2007-11-12). cgi?f=/ c/ a/ 2008/ 12/ 06/ MNIK147QU3. loyalty and personalized marketing. [3] Pablo S. "How 'visionary' raised .blogspot. alleging that they had encouraged clients to invest in Pay By Touch without revealing [5] information about the criminal history of the company's founder. . A group of investors later sued financial services firm UBS. 2008-03-07. sfgate. net/ news/ story/ 1703). com/ vault/ article/ magazine/ MAG1153364/ 3/ index.

(The CAVE at NCSA 2004) It is similar to virtual reality except you do not need any gear on your body in order to see the images. This is referred to as feature analysis. 365) Virtual reality is applied everywhere and can be seen in the entertainment industry. ASR is computer-driven and transcribes spoken language into text that can be read by using real time.cooperatives-uk. 1998) This technology is becoming more popular in computing environments as well. 2006. 2006) . including breathing. p. 364) Virtual reality has been used to train astronauts at NASA.” (Haag. Call centres are taking on automatic speech recognition in order to decrease the amount of clients who hang up because they are not talking to a live operator. The CAVE was first thought of by Thomas DeFanti and Dan Sandin and was later developed at the Electronic Visualization Laboratory (EVL) at the University of Illinois in Chicago by Carolina Cruz-Neira . 2006) Automatic speech recognition The automatic speech recognition (ASR) system will capture spoken words and then classify word groupings to form a sentence.Pay By Touch Goes Live in the UK . 2006) Virtual reality The second physiological innovation is virtual reality. (NETAC. cave automatic virtual environments (CAVE). talking.htm) • Cooperatives UK. This is called pattern classification. this time with a language model database. and height and weight. which is a “three-dimensional computer simulation in which [a person] actively and physically participates. virtual reality.Pay By Touch cme2149. Next. (Haag.” (Haag. (Haag. p. 365) A walker “records the movement of your feet as you walk or turn in different directions. The system will capture words that are spoken into a microphone.coop/live/cme913.Walker A glove will capture and record “the shape and movement of your hand and fingers and the strength of the movements. The system will then try to make sense of what is being said by comparing the word phonemes from the previous step. 2006 . Special applications for this system may be used to help deaf and hard of hearing people understand what is being said. This type of interaction uses special input and output devices in order to take physiological movements and send responses back to the person. including virtual reality games. 2006. Automatic virtual environments Another part of emo Physiological Interaction innovations are CAVEs which stands for automatic virtual environments. Glove 2. Virtual reality includes three devices. p.” (Haag. 1. and biometrics. 365) A headset records your head’s movement and “contains a screen that covers your entire field of vision and displays various views of an environment on the basis of your movements.htm) 149 Physiological interaction Physiological interaction goes beyond the physical interfaces that a computer has. the system will match the spoken syllables to a phoneme sequence that is kept in an acoustic model database. Physiological interfaces actually secure and use real body characteristics.” (Haag. which would include the input and output devices.Headset 3. it must follow three steps. 2006. for example. 2006. Some of the top innovations include automatic speech recognition (ASR). (Haag. (http://www. while taking out any background noises. and then converting the digital signals of the speech into syllables (phonemes). (Haag. p.Shoppers and members at The Midcounties Co-operative now have the option of quickly and securely paying for their groceries using a finger scan linked to their bank account. 2006) In order for an ASR system to function.

There will be problems with customer protection and privacy. with even more information about customers. McCubbrey. (Haag. (Haag. facial recognition systems. netac. This produces very high resolution. Future uses of biometrics based on physiological interactions could include transaction authentication. which is used to track the position and orientation of objects in the CAVE. Retrieved June 25th 2006 from the World Wide Web. The purpose is to make people feel at if they were in the same location as the people or things they are interacting with.edu/about. Many customers already feel business know too much about them and would feel uncomfortable with the idea of businesses having access to extremely personal information. There are four different systems that must be implement into the CAVE in order for it to work properly. 2006 from the World Wide Web: http://www. http://cave. (2006). Alain Pinsonneault and Richard Donovan.html • The CAVE at NCSA.Physiological interaction In these virtual environments you are able to see 3d images of other people or things that are also using a CAVE in another location anywhere in the world. (1998). iris scans. 2006) References • Haag. and global security. medical record management. companies will really be able to target the market. Management Information Systems for the Information Age. and DNA analysis. Canada: McGraw-Hill Ryerson • Northeast Technical Assistance Center (NETAC). Another technology that has come out of biometrics is implant chips. The first being Computers that are needed to coordinated all of the other equipment. When they are inserted into your body they store information about you or your body. In order for the CAVE to work it must present many of the same que’s your brain uses to interact and understand the world around you. Examples of biometric modalities include fingerprints.rit. Retrieved June 25. A properly designed and encrypted telebiometric system could include much more robust fraud and identity theft protection than current practices. 2006). Special Applications of Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) with Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing People. Another component are graphic systems. (Haag.html . Stephen. BPS or biometric processing systems are going to record and process physiological characteristics.edu/publication/asr. so if you were ever in trouble the chip can be scanned and all the important information about you will be right there. which are very important. (2004). 2006) There are several different technologies that have evolved because of biometrics. The CAVE. ncsa. 2006) The next step for businesses gathering information about their customers is going to include the tracking of biometrics. To name a few there are Bio chips and implant chips. Every second there are ninety-six different images are displayed each of the CAVE's four walls. Networking multiple biometric modalities over several geographical locations ( as in the emerging technologies of telebiometrics [1]) greatly increases the reliability and security of biometric data by providing redundancy and provenance for biometric data. Donald J.uiuc. the full array of biometrics would be difficult to steal or replicate because everyone has unique biometrics. Maeve Cummings. With our bodies and habits as the ultimate authentication of our identity. (Haag. and the last system that is needed for the CAVE to work is a tracking system. In order to make the CAVE seem real sound need to be taken into consideration sounds system. customer information. Biochips are designed to perform physiological functions that help your body when they are inserted for example reduce pain for those that suffer from injuries. (The CAVE at NCSA 2004) 150 Biometrics Biometrics is the use of data gathered through physiological interactions with sensors to authenticate human beings.

The notion of near matches or distance between enrollment and operational measurements vanishes after encryption or any other cryptographically strong operation. Instead. Due to external noise. Biometric identification requires that a verifier searches for matches in a data base that contains data about the entire population. who. php?title=Telebiometrics Private biometrics A form of biometrics. Information stolen from a data base can be misused to construct artificial biometrics to impersonate people. Comparison with handling computer passwords The main difference between password checking and biometric private verification is that during biometric measurements it is unavoidable that noise or other aberrations occur. and no stored data allows calculation of y. When a private verification system is used on a large scale. the comparison of measured data with reference data can not be executed in the encrypted domain without prior precautions to contain the effect of noise. This corresponds to grabbing all keystrokes including the plain passwords typed by a user. the reference data base has to be made available to many different verifiers. This prevents attacks from the inside by stealing unencrypted or decryptable secrets. even if the prover has never exposed herself to a biometric measurement after the enrollment. access to the reference template allows a malicious verifier to artificially construct measurement data that will pass the verification test. also called Biometric Encryption or BioCryptics. In particular if one of the biometric parameters has a value close to a quantization threshold. the reference data should not leak relevant information to allow the verifier to (effectively) construct valid measurement data. Minor changes at the input of a cryptographic function are amplified and the outcome will bear no resemblance to the expected outcome. minor amounts of noise can change the outcome. cannot be trusted. in general. In private verification. So y is only temporarily available on the system hardware. in which the prover is protected against the misuse of template data by a dishonest verifier. Such protection is common practice for storage of computer passwords. This introduces the security and privacy threat that the verifier who steals biometric templates from some (or even all) persons in the data base can perform impersonation attacks. it does not compare the password typed by the user with a stored reference copy. wikipedia. In a typical verification situation. Creation of artificial biometrics is possible even if only part of the template is available. makes it less trivial to use biometric data as input to a cryptographic function. the outcome of the quantization may differ from experiment to experiment. To develop an insight in the security aspects of biometrics. . Hence. a dishonest verifier uses these measurement data. commonly referred to as ‘confusion’ and ‘diffusion’. This can happen without anyone noticing it: Victor grabs the fingerprint image left behind on a sensor. When a computer verifies a password. Meanwhile. it is important to realize that protection of the reference data stored in a database is not a complete solution to the above-mentioned threats. This property. the password is processed by a cryptographic one-way function F and the outcome is compared against a locally stored reference string F(y ). one can distinguish between verification and private verification. org/ w/ index. Noisy measurement data are quantized into discrete values before these can be processed by any cryptographic function.Physiological interaction 151 References [1] http:/ / en. After having had an opportunity to measure operational biometric data.

Koen Simoens: A Survey of the Security and Privacy Measures for Anonymous Biometric Authentication Systems.com/images/Technology-primer. Els Kindt: A Reference Architecture for Biometric Template Protection based on Pseudo Identities.priv-id.): BIOSIG 2008.pdf. White paper Private Identity Matching. 4th International Conference on Audio and Video Based Biometric Person Authentication. and Applications. Emile Kelkboom. 2008.): Biometrics: Theory. pages 655-710. Methods. pages 28–36. 1999. 2007. Christoph Busch. In ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security. be/ publications/article-1462. Justine Grave.ca/images/Resources/bio-encryp.on. International Conference on Intelligent Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing (IIH-MSP 2010). Guildford. http://www.. pages 25-37. esat. Konstantinos N. ISBN 978-0470247822. 2010. cosic. http:/ / www. Ari Juels and Martin Wattenberg. Ann Cavoukian. Discussion paper of the Office of the Information and Privacy Commissioner of Ontario. IEEE Computer Society. ISBN 978-1846289835. Hoboken. Evangelia Micheli-Tzanakou (Eds. 2007. 9-11 June 2003. http:/ / www. 2009. Alex Stoianov: Biometric Encryption: A Positive-Sum Technology that Achieves Strong Authentication. In Arslan Brömme.Private biometrics 152 References Jeroen Breebaart. Inc. In: Nikolaos V. Alex Stoianov: Biometric Encryption: The New Breed of Untraceable Biometrics. Springer. Jean-Paul Linnartz and Pim Tuyls. Security and Privacy. . NJ. Christoph Busch. jeroenbreebaart. Tom Kevenaar (Editors). Boulgouris.pdf. Detlef Hühnlein (Eds.pdf. Lecture Notes in Informatics 137.ipc. Gesellschaft für Informatik. Pim Tuyls. kuleuven.pdf. USA. Security with Noisy Data: Private Biometrics. John Wiley & Sons. http://www. Plataniotis. com/papers/biosig/biosig2008. Boris Skoric. United Kingdom. Ileana Buhan. Ann Cavoukian. A fuzzy commitment scheme. Secure Key Storage and Anti-Counterfeiting (Hardcover). New Shielding functions to enhance privacy and prevent misuse of biometric templates.

e. The name Procrustes refers to a bandit from Greek mythology who made his victims fit his bed either by stretching their limbs or cutting them off. rotation and reflection. The mean of these points is where Now translate these points so that their mean is translated to the origin point . Translation For example. Ordinary Procrustes analysis Here we just consider objects made up from a finite number k of points in n dimensions. Optimal translation and scaling are determined with much simpler operations (see below). Procrustes analysis is a form of statistical shape analysis used to analyse the distribution of a set of shapes. Often. as opposed to Generalized Procrustes analysis (GPA). in which scaling is not performed (i.Procrustes analysis 153 Procrustes analysis In statistics. This is sometimes called full. as opposed to partial PS. and in this case they are called landmark points. scaling and reflection. its centroid) lies at the origin. say . for instance. The shape of an object can be considered as a member of an equivalence class formed by removing the translational. Procrustes analysis is sometimes further qualified as classical or ordinary. • a constrained orthogonal Procrustes problem. after PS. In mathematics: • an orthogonal Procrustes problem is a method which can be used to find out the optimal rotation and reflection for the PS of an object with respect to another. In other words. the objects must be first optimally "superimposed". Reflection allows. Procrustes superimposition (PS) is performed by optimally translating. translational components can be removed from an object by translating the object so that the mean of all the object's points (i. The method to compute the optimal rotation for a partial PS is in some contexts called the Kabsch algorithm. Notice that. When a shape is compared to another. or a set of shapes is compared to an arbitrarily selected reference shape. In some cases. rotating and uniformly scaling the objects. Thus. Mathematically: take points in two dimensions. while full PS with reflection enabled allows translation. both the placement in space and the size of the objects are freely adjusted.e. both full and partial PS may also include reflection. . To compare the shape of two or more objects. partial PS with reflection enabled preserves size but allows translation. a successful (possibly perfect) superimposition of a right hand to a left hand. when reflection is not enabled. rotation. giving the . by minimizing a measure of shape difference called the Procrustes distance between the objects. rotational and uniform scaling components. subject to det(R) = 1 (where R is a rotation matrix). the size of the objects is preserved). when reflection is enabled. The aim is to obtain a similar placement and size. is a method which can be used to determine the optimal rotation for the PS of an object with respect to another. which compares three or more shapes to an optimally determined "mean shape". such as a human bone. the objects will exactly coincide if their shape is identical. these points are selected on the continuous surface of complex objects.

The square root of the above mentioned SSD between corresponding points can be used as a statistical measure of this difference in shape: This measure is often called Procrustes distance. A rotation by angle gives . Fix the reference object and rotate the other around the origin. and in this case singular value decomposition can be used to find the optimum value for R (see the solution for the constrained Orthogonal Procrustes problem.v) are the coordinates of a rotated point. Rotation Removing the rotational component is more complex. . This RMSD is a statistical measure of the object's scale or size: The scale becomes 1 when the point coordinates are divided by the object's initial scale: . subject to det(R) = 1).Procrustes analysis 154 Uniform scaling Likewise. the optimum rotation is represented by a 3-by-3 rotation matrix R. the scale component can be removed by scaling the object so that the root mean square distance (RMSD) from the points to the translated origin is 1. Taking the derivative of respect to and solving for when the derivative is zero gives with When the object is three-dimensional. Notice that other more complex definitions of Procrustes distance. . and other measures of "shape difference" are sometimes used in the literature. Shape comparison The difference between the shape of two objects can be evaluated only after "superimposing" the two objects by translating. scaling and optimally rotating them as explained above. where (u. as a standard reference orientation is not always available. until you find an optimum angle of rotation such that the sum of the squared distances (SSD) between the corresponding points is minimised (an example of least squares technique. rather than a simple angle. Let the points of these be . Notice that other methods for defining and removing the scale are sometimes used in the literature. Consider two objects composed of the same number of points with scale and translation removed. One of these objects can be used to provide a reference orientation.

Generalized and ordinary Procrustes analysis differ only in their determination of a reference orientation for the objects. Procrustes is one method of doing this with particular statistical justification.[1] One study by David George Kendall examined the triangles formed by standing stones to deduce if these were often arranged in straight lines. The shape of a triangle can be represented as a point on the sphere.Procrustes analysis 155 Superimposing a set of shapes We showed how to superimpose two shapes. It is also common to consider shape and scale that is with translational and rotational components removed. which in the former technique is optimally determined. and in the latter one is arbitrarily selected. instead of superimposing them to an arbitrarily selected shape. This will give a manifold of dimension kn-4. and the distribution of all shapes can be thought of a distribution over the sphere. Variations There are many ways of representing the shape of an object. The algorithm outline is the following: 1. GPA is equivalent to ordinary Procrustes analysis. The shape of object can be considered as a member of an equivalence class formed by taking the set of all sets of k points in n dimensions. When only two shapes are compared. The same method can be applied to superimpose a set of three or more shapes.0) the remaining points form the Bookstein coordinates.[2] . 4. The sample distribution from the standing stones was compared with the theoretical distribution to show that the occurrence of straight lines was no more than average. Scaling and translation are performed the same way by both techniques. Bookstein obtains a representation of shape by fixing the position of two points called the bases line. A particular representation of shape is found by choosing a particular representation of the equivalence class. Generalized Procrustes analysis (GPA) GPA applies the Procrustes analysis method to optimally superimpose a set of objects. However. as far as the above mentioned reference orientation is used for all of them. Generalized Procrustes analysis provides a better method to achieve this goal. that is Rkn and factoring out the set of all translations. for example in considering the shape of jaw bones. set reference to mean shape and continue to step 2. 3. rotations and scalings. arbitrarily choose a reference shape (typically by selecting it among the available instances) superimpose all instances to current reference shape compute the mean shape of the current set of superimposed shapes if the Procrustes distance between the mean shape and the reference is above a threshold. One point will be fixed at the origin and the other at (1. Examples Shape analysis is used in biological data to identify the variations of anatomical features characterised by landmark data. 2.

glaucoma or retinal degenerative disorders. • J. G. Although retinal patterns may be altered in cases of diabetes. References [1] "Exploring Space Shape" (http:/ / www. CO. Bookstein. It is not to be confused with another ocular-based technology. (1998). Statistical Shape Analysis. (1991). edu/ mar94/ goodall. Statistical Science. Radial loop Radial loop is a term used in classifying fingerprints.Procrustes analysis 156 External links • Extensions to continuum of points and distributions [3] Procrustes Methods. the tented arch. org/ sici?sici=0883-4237(198905)4:2<87:ASOTST>2. by David G. each person's retina is unique. Introduction The human retina is a thin tissue composed of neural cells that is located in the posterior portion of the eye. 4. which include the ulnar loop. Dijksterhuis. html) by Nancy Marie Brown. psu.2-P). 1989). Gower. • K. 0. Vol. the retina typically remains unchanged from birth until death. The network of blood vessels in the retina is so complex that even identical twins do not share a similar pattern. the accidental whorl. Oxford University Press (2004). Vol. Mardia. the central pocket loop. Radial loops start on the thumb-side of the finger. 87-99 [3] http:/ / petitjeanmichel. Because of the complex structure of the capillaries that supply the retina with blood. Cambridge University Press. Because retinal blood vessels are more absorbent of this light than the rest of the eye. fr/ itoweb.B. petitjean.L. no. and the double loop whorl. the side closer to the radius (bone). The pattern of variations is converted to computer code and stored in a database. 2 (May. I. The blood vessels within the retina absorb light more readily than the surrounding tissue and are easily identified with appropriate lighting. A biometric identifier known as a retinal scan is used to map the unique patterns of a person's retina. Morphometric tools for landmark data. the plain whorl. html • F.C.[2] . jstor. This beam of light traces a standardized path on the retina. Kendall. Shape Recognition. the amount of reflection varies during the scan. iris recognition. Retinal scan A retinal scan is a biometric technique that uses the unique patterns on a person's retina to identify them. shape. the retina appears to be the most precise and reliable biometric.Dryden.[1] Advocates of retinal scanning have concluded that it is so accurate that its error rate is estimated to be only one in a million.L. A retinal scan is performed by casting an unperceived beam of low-energy infrared light into a person’s eye as they look through the scanner's eyepiece. pp. Due to its unique and unchanging nature. free. the plain arch. Wiley. March 1994 [2] "A Survey of the Statistical Theory of Shape" (http:/ / links.V. The radial loop is one of the 8 most common fingerprint patterns. Research/Penn State. by Michel Petitjean. No. 1. rps. Procrustes Problems. Chichester. 15. Similarity and Docking.

followed by a commercial model in 1981. Characters in the 1996 film Mission: Impossible.[3] The idea was a little before its time.C. Communicable illnesses such as AIDS. lymphoma. malaria. CIA. In the 1966 movie Batman. Pregnancy also affects the eyes. Carleton Simon and Dr.[4] In popular culture In the movie 'The Minority Report'. the concept for a retinal scanning device emerged in 1975. in recent years. In 1978. and cholesterol issues first appear in the eyes. However.[7] Pros and cons Advantages[4] • • • • • • • • • • Low occurrence of false positives Extremely low (almost 0%) false negative rates Highly reliable because no two people have the same retinal pattern Speedy results: Identity of the subject is verified very quickly Measurement accuracy can be affected by a disease such as cataracts Measurement accuracy can also be affected by severe astigmatism Scanning procedure is perceived by some as invasive Not very user friendly Subject being scanned must be close to the camera optics High equipment costs Disadvantages[4][8] . syphilis.. and NASA. Inc. Batman describes to Robin how the tiny vessels in the retina are unique to the individual and utilizing the portable retina scan device in the Batmobile they could confirm the identity of the Penguin.[6] Retinal scanning also has medical application. indications of chronic health conditions such as congestive heart failure. atherosclerosis. In 1976. the 1995 film GoldenEye. Isadore Goldstein and was published in the New York State Journal of Medicine in 1935. specific means for a retinal scanner was patented. but once technology caught up.[5] Uses Retinal scanners are typically used for authentication and identification purposes. chicken pox and Lyme disease as well as hereditary diseases like leukemia. D. Robert "Buzz" Hill formed a corporation named EyeDentify. and made a full-time effort to research and develop such a device.Retinal scan 157 History The idea for retinal identification was first conceived by Dr. the film Paycheck. and the 1999 film Entrapment utilize or try to deceive retinal scanners. and sickle cell anemia impact the eyes. Retinal scanning has been utilized by several government agencies including the FBI. retinal scanning has become more commercially popular. retinal scanning is used everywhere to identify people. They are also used by the police in the movie to locate individuals throughout Washington. Likewise. for ATM identity verification and the prevention of welfare fraud. Retinal scanning has been used in prisons.

8816. (http:/ / et. edu/ aidc/ BioWebPages/ Biometrics_Eye. Retrieved on 2007-04-02. The user data of a tag can be displayed and modified using either a hex or an ASCII editor. My-d. This makes the following types of audits possible: • • • • Test robustness of data-structures on the reader and the backend-application Proof-of-concept manipulations of RFID tag contents Clone / copy & paste user-data stored on RFID tags Audit tag-security features The tools reads an RFID tag's meta information: tag ID. discoveriesinmedicine. Retrieved on 2007-04-02 [5] "Why retina scanning works better for James Bond than it ever would for us" (http:/ / www. and Security. nz/ newsroom/ information-notes/ 2005/ biometrics. infosecurity-magazine. Copyright © 2004 by The Gale Group. RFDump works with the ACG Multi-Tag Reader or similar card reader hardware. ccip. manufacturer etc. html) Retrieved on 2007-04-02.755453.2) • ISO/IEC 14443 type B: SR176(1. [8] Roberts. com/ blog/ 2009/ 10/ 6/ why-retina-scanning-works-better-for-james-bond-than-it-ever-would-for-us/ 24. physorg. tag type. html) Retrieved on 2007-04-02. Encyclopedia of Espionage. It is periodically updated to emerging RFID standards such as e-passport and Mifare encryption currently found on many pay as you go systems. Retrieved on 2008-04-10. Robert. com/ Ra-Thy/ Retinography. RFDump is a back-end GPL tool to directly inter-operate with any RFID reader to make the contents stored on RFID tags accessible. edu/ ~cse891/ Sect601/ textbook/ 6. html) Wcu. Inc.” TIME Magazine. the integrated cookie feature demonstrates how simple it is for a company to abuse RFID technology. [6] Iris/Retinal Identification. LRI512. . cse. Intelligence. Windows Supports ACGs PCMCIA/CF Multi-Tag Readers Decodes the tag type. com/ time/ printout/ 0.Edu.Edu. [7] Ostaff. Mifare UltraLight(1. 1935 (http:/ / www. [4] Hill. and how it can be used to spy on unwitting consumers. “Retinal Scans Do More Than Let You In The Door. com/ news6134. Courtney. msu. time. (http:/ / www. wcu. aspx). I-Code SLI. 16. TempSense • ISO/IEC 14443 type A: Mifare Standard(1. RFdump RFDump is a software created by Lukas Grunwald and Christian Bottger for the purpose of security auditing of RFID tags. RFDump features (Gtk Application): • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Runs on Linux. (http:/ / www. "Biometrics" (http:/ / www.Retinal scan 158 References [1] Retina and Iris Scans. Dec. html). pdf) Retrieved on 2009-06-11.2) . “Retina Identification”.2). pdf) Msu. tag ID and manufacturer Displays tag memory in hex and ASCII encoding Allows to write memory using hex or ASCII editor Full ISO/IEC 14443 type A/B support Support for Mifare sector keys Cookie feature using arbitrary cookie ID and automatically incrementing counter Brute-force cracking of access control cards (sector keys) Audit of encrypted RFID tags check for default shipping keys Save and restore of Mifare cards including sector keys Multi baudrate reader support. [3] “Eye Prints. govt." (http:/ / www. Chris. [2] Retinography: How Retinal Scanning Works. RFDump can set baud rate Scan option Configuration menus Supported Tag Types: • ISO/IEC 15693: Tag-it ISO. In addition.00.

estimated that 350 schools through-out Britain were using such systems. or to charge for meals. United Kingdom In 2002 the NGO Privacy International has alerted that tens of thousands of UK school children were being fingerprinted by schools. bbc.. to be debited by a child's biometric fingerscan at the point of sale. Dec 15. Mar 29. to replace library cards. often without the knowledge or consent of their parents [4] . which called on the UK Government to conduct a full and open consultation with stakeholders about the use of biometrics in schools. In 2007. with library and registration biometrics in use also. org [2] http:/ / news. in Belgium (école Marie-José in Liège [2] [3] ).[1] ) databases. etc. stm Biometrics in schools Biometrics in schools have been used worldwide since the early first decade of the 21st century to address truancy. uk/ 2/ hi/ programmes/ click_online/ 6182207. enabling parents to deposit money into students catering accounts. which use a technology similar to US prisons and German military.500 schools (ten times more) are using such systems [5] . in Italy. In the UK biometrics in schools have been largely used for library book issue. rfdump. In 2002. the supplier Micro Librarian Systems. Official site of RFDUMP. but are increasingly being used for cashless catering systems. schools in the UK do not have to ask parental consent for such practices. By 2009 the number of children fingerprinted was estimated to be two million [6] . Under the Data Protection Act (DPA). secured the support of 85 Members of Parliament [9] . Concerns have been raised about the civil liberties implications of fingerprinting children in schools [8] . as mentioned above. it was estimated that 3. typically electronic fingerprinting systems. Parents opposed to such practices may only bring individual complaints against schools [7] . etc.RFdump • • • • • • • • • Tag-it I-Code EM4002 EM4005 EM4050 HITAG1 HITAG2 Q5 TIRIS 159 References • MudSplatter. BBC Online. in France. to replace library cards [4] . 2006 [2] References [1] http:/ / www. In 2007 Early Day Motion 686. School biometrics. have raised privacy concerns because of the creation of databases that would progressively include the entire population. In the USA biometrics systems are used primarily for catering. . 2009 [1] • David Reid. ePassports 'at risk' from cloning. Fingerprinting Many schools have implemented fingerprint locks or registered children's fingerprints. Biometric technology for registration is also used in the UK. co. Fingerprint locking systems happened in the United Kingdom (fingerprint lock in the Holland Park School in London.

Penn Cambria School District in Cresson. The CNIL.Biometrics in schools In response to a complaint which they are continuing to pursue. indicating that the practice may break the European Union data protection directive. vending machines. This produces a result which cannot be "Reverse Engineered" to produce any biometric or image information. a local software development company. etc. Biometric technologies for home/school bus journeys are also under development. PA was another earlier user of biometric technology. Carqueiranne college in the Var — the latter won the Big Brother Award of 2005 for its hand geometry system. has declared them "disproportionate. schools was at Minnesota's Eagan High School in September 1999.[16] Applications Biometric technologies in schools are used to borrow library books.[14] In 2000. Food Service Solutions. Such practices have also been used in France (Angers. designed and implemented a system where students bought lunch with just a fingerprint.[17] Misconceptions The most common misconception about fingerprint systems is that they are thought to store a fingerprint image or other biometric information. class attendance and payments into schools. however. in 2010 the European Commission expressed 'significant concerns' over the proportionality and necessity of the practice and the lack of judicial redress. Early applications The first reported use of biometric systems in U. a testing ground for education technology since it opened. Use of this technology in schools is now widespread.[10] 160 Belgium The alleged use of taking children's fingerprints is to struggle against school truancy and/or to replace library cards or money for meals by fingerprint locks. which calls into question legal and data protection concerns.S. who replied that they were legal insofar as the school did not use them for external purposes nor to survey the private life of children [11] ." [12] . the information would be effectively useless to police and 3rd parties. 2007 by Michel de La Motte (Humanist Democratic Centre) to the Education Minister Marie Arena. official organism in charge of protection of privacy. This means the data kept on file can only be used to verify an identity against another scan through the same system. allowed willing students to use fingerprint readers to speed up the borrowing of library books. for cashless canteen systems.[13] Eagan High School.[18] . However these systems actually work by running key features of the fingerprint through a complicated encryption algorithm. In Belgium. though there are currently no official figures for how many schools employ the technology. this practice gave rise to a question in Parliament on February 6. declared in 2002 hand geometry systems to be acceptable.) although the CNIL. The American Civil Liberties Union stated that this"could hasten the end of privacy rights"[15] Biometric systems were first used in schools in the UK in 2001.

[26] [27] Advantages Biometric vendors claim benefits to schools such as improved reading skills. co. March 7. including Kim Cameron. Y. February 5. " Why are we fingerprinting children? (http:/ / www. The Register. 2007 (French) [4] Fingerprinting of UK school kids causes outcry (http:/ / www. 2007-01-19. accessed 2011-01-13 [11] Prises d'empreintes digitales dans un établissement scolaire (http:/ / www. co. July 22. com/ actu/ news/ 31010-Empreintes-digitales-pour-les-enfants-dune-e. . be/ docparlement/ pa4896.[29] References [1] Empreintes digitales pour les enfants d'une école de Londres (http:/ / www. uk/ commentisfree/ henryporter/ 2009/ nov/ 18/ fingerprinting-children-school)". uk/ 2006/ 09/ 07/ kiddyprinting_allowed/ ). 7 Sur 7. guardian. uk/ EDMi/ EDMDetails. co. Sandra Leaton Gray of Homerton College. parliament. Educationalist Dr.Biometrics in schools 161 Types Primarily the type of biometric employed is a fingerprint scan or thumbprint scan but vein and iris scanning systems are also in use. " Blindly fingerprinting children (http:/ / www.Biometric Data Collection In Schools" (http:/ / edmi. The Register. uk/ 1/ hi/ uk/ 6417565. 2006 (English) [8] Porter. stm).. be/ hlns/ cache/ fr/ det/ art_370100. guardian. php/ 2007/ 02/ 06/ 181-empreintes-digitales-pour-securiser-l-ecole) (French) [3] Le lecteur d'empreintes dans les écoles crée la polémique (http:/ / www. bbc. H. uk/ 2002/ 07/ 22/ fingerprinting_of_uk_school_kids/ ). telegraph.[19] [20] Ages Biometric systems can be used by children as young as three years old. co. 7sur7. htm). theregister. lecdh. html) Telegraph. Cambridge stated in early 2007 that "I have not been able to find a single piece of published research which suggests that the use of biometrics in schools promotes healthy eating or improves reading skills amongst children.[25] Security concerns Concerns about the security implications of using conventional biometric templates in schools have been raised by a number of leading IT security experts. 2002 (English) [5] Child fingerprint plan considered (http:/ / news. September 7. decreased wait times in lunch lines and increased revenues. The Guardian. There is absolutely no evidence for such claims". aspx?EDMID=32367).[21] Current usage The two countries at the forefront employing biometric technology in schools are the UK and the USA. Question d'actualité à la Ministre-Présidente en charge de l'Enseignement obligatoire et de Promotion sociale (French) . BBC. who cites research by Cavoukian and Stoianov to back up his assertion that "it is absolutely premature to begin using 'conventional biometrics' in schools". 2009 [7] Schools can fingerprint children without parental consent (http:/ / www.[28] They do not cite independent research to support this.. 2007 (English) [6] Singh. Biometric systems are also used in some schools in Belgium[22] and Sweden[23] but were withdrawn from China and Hong Kong schools due to privacy concerns. uk/ news/ worldnews/ europe/ eu/ 8202076/ Europe-tells-Britain-to-justify-itself-over-fingerprinting-children-in-schools. The Guardian. enseignons. 2009 [9] "EDM 686 . March 4. bron=homeArt6). architect of identity and access in the connected systems division at Microsoft. published 2010-12-14. [10] Europe tells Britain to justify itself over fingerprinting children in schools (http:/ / www. co. theregister. November 18. htm) (French) [2] Empreintes digitales pour sécuriser l'école ? (http:/ / www. UK Parliament. co. html?wt. be/ actualites/ pedagogique/ index. uk/ commentisfree/ libertycentral/ 2009/ mar/ 06/ fingerprinting-children-civil-liberties)".[24] It was reported in August 2007 that Dubai are soon due to issue guidance to schools. pcinpact. Retrieved 2009-11-28.

co. 10 April 2007. com/ actual/ article.thejournal. asp?subchannel_id=48& story_id=36175) used for registration.com.Patricia Deubel.A March 2007 [28] Fingerprint Software Eliminates Privacy Concerns and Establishes Success (FindBiometrics) (http:/ / www. in Scotland (http:/ / news. publications.com/articles/20541) . [17] Grossman. Zdnet. 2000-09-01. cbsnews. Ph. com/ articles/ 07/ 08/ 11/ 10145646. 2007. jhtml. should I worry? (http:/ / blog. . 2006.Patricia Deubel.jsessionid=MYWJOJM0RTD2RQFIQMGCFGGAVCBQUIV0?xml=/ news/ 2006/ 09/ 23/ nkids323. / T. ipc. W.com/articles/20494_1) .D.E. zdnet. " Is school fingerprinting out of bounds? (http:/ / technology.Latest news on the use and deployment of biometric systems in schools. CBS News. fr/ actualites/ informatique/ 0.00. leavethemkidsalone. [23] Kvarnby School in Stockholm (http:/ / www. 18 April 2007. com/ stories/ 2001/ 01/ 24/ national/ main266789. [25] Fingerprinting of pupils fails to score (http:/ / archive. K. uk/ weekly/ story/ 0. eyenetwatch.. on.00. • School Biometrics: The Legal Conundrum (http://www.htm#oppose_01). 2001. html)". findbiometrics.H. ca/ images/ Resources/ up-1bio_encryp.D. org/ membersadmin/ casestudy/ pdf/ 17/ Stockholms_School_System. pdf) Cavoukian.com/oppose-2. uk/ 2006/ 11/ 09/ hongkong_kiddyprinting/ )". Ph.H. • Biometrics in K-12: Ban or Buy? (Part 1) (http://www. telegraph. The Register.leavethemkidsalone. Colleges and other Educational Institutions (http:/ / www.39122509.Biometrics in schools [12] Quand la biométrie s'installe dans les cantines au nez et à la barbe de la Cnil (http:/ / www. org/ web/ 20031111140347/ http:/ / www. com/ index. " Halt to school fingerprinting (http:/ / www. Journal.thejournal.thejournal. . Parliamentary Written Answer 110750 (http:/ / www. uk/ pa/ cm200607/ cmhansrd/ cm070129/ text/ 70129w0013. / T. 2010. gulfnews. expatica. htm). ie/ viewprint.com/articles/ 20570) . eschoolnews. cfm?ArticleID=1277). theregister. Data Protection Commissioner. [18] " Biometrics & fingerprints in schools.1742091. November 9. archive. uk/ news/ main. scotsman. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. com). 25 April 2007. com/ expert. October 2006 [21] Devlin. html) [26] Will biometrics grow up? (http:/ / www. cfm?id=1588142006). July. cbsnews.H. co. Journal. com/ press-release/ 4143) [29] LTKA . Journal. com/ news/ showStory. 2006.Patricia Deubel. [19] Biometrics in Schools. 2003 (French) [13] "This Minnesota high school gives fingerprint scanning a whorl" (http:/ / web. xml)". com/ news/ showStory. 2007 [20] Vein scanning in a primary school for food. March 30. 2006.com/articles/20517) . January 29. pdf) used to login to school computers. J. parliament. The Guardian. eschoolnews. eSchool News (http:/ / www.E. 2 May 2007.E.Patricia Deubel.E. com/ ?p=733) [27] Biometric Encrypton: A Positive-Sum Technology that Achieves Strong Authentication. The Daily Telegraph. September 9. guardian. [22] Fingerprint recognition in high schools (http:/ / www. shtml). .Experts warn of serious child fingerprinting risks (against schools fingerprinting our children) (http:/ / www. Ph. September 23. particular emphasis on UK and US. • Biometrics in K-12: Issues and Standardization (Part 2) (http://www. ibia. eschoolnews. Ph. " Nursery children to be fingerprinted (http:/ / www.D. htm). dataprotection.A and Stoianov. • Index of relevant articles by Kim Cameron (http://www. shtml) [15] "Fingerprints Pay For School Lunch" (http:/ / www. Hansard. • Biometrics in K-12: Vendor Claims and Your Business Plan (Part 3) (http://www.blogspot. com/ biometrics-fingerprints-in-schools- -should-i-worry/ )".thejournal. Security AND Privacy (http:/ / www. Scotsman.39040745. M.D.H. [24] China: Ballard. asp?DocID=409& m=f). Eyenetwatch Biometrics. [14] Fingerprints Pay For School Lunch (http:/ / www. Journal. identityblog. cfm?ArticleID=1277) on November 11.com/) . / T. com/ stories/ 2001/ 01/ 24/ national/ main266789. / T. Retrieved 2006-11-20. January 24. co. htm#fact_00) 162 External links • Biometrics in Schools (http://pippaking. 2003. [16] Knight. architect of identity and access in the connected systems division at Microsoft.

uk/media/educ20070604r11.uk/).Data Protection Commissioner (http://www. the first guidance issued in the UK.state. It contains primers for the following STR (Short Tandem Repeat) loci.gov.ie/viewprint. • The use of biometrics in schools (http://www. Second Generation Multiplex Second Generation Multiplex is a DNA profiling system used in the United Kingdom to set up the UK National DNA Database in 1995.June 2007.ie) UK • Portsmouth Finger Scanning Technology Guidance (http://www.portsmouth.ilga. Attorney General. legal opinions. 2007 (http://www. 2005-2006 (http://12. pdf) . THO (HUMTHO1).gov/legislation/fulltext.uk/upload/documents/library/data_protection/ detailed_specialist_guides/fingerprinting_final_view. FGA (HUMFIBRA) Also contains primers for the Amelogenin sex indicating test.ag. • 5-FAM • JOE • NED Its use in the United kingdom as the DNA profiling system used by The UK National DNA Database was superseded by the Second Generation Multiplex Plus SGM+ DNA profiling system in 1998 .Biometrics in schools 163 Legislation The following laws. asp?DocID=409&m=f) 2007 .pdf) . It is manufactured by ABI (Applied Biosystems).43.ico. Advice from the UK Information Commissioner's Office (http://www.dataprotection.gov. VWA (HUMVWF31/A). SB1702. D8 (D8S1179). State of Michigan (http://www. SB2549.htm) Ireland • Biometrics in Schools. Colleges and other Educational Institutions (http://www.2/legislation/fulltext.ico. or guidance are in place to regulate children's use of biometric technology. The primers are tagged with the following fluorescent dyes for detection under electrophoresis.67. went to schools only in the Portsmouth area.gov. To date the practise of using biometrics in schools is only legally regulated in the USA: • Legislation in Illinois. D21 (D21S11).us/opinion/ datafiles/2000s/op10144.mi. Granholm. This.dataprotection.asp?DocName=& SessionId=50&GA=94&DocTypeId=SB&DocNum=2549&GAID=8&LegID=23423&SpecSess=&Session=) Non statutory advice USA • Opinion of Jennifer M.asp?DocName=& SessionId=51&GA=95&DocTypeId=SB&DocNum=1702&GAID=9&LegID=29842&SpecSess=&Session=) • Legislation Illinois. D18 (D18S51).23 July 2007.

the digits immediately following the D indicate the chromosome that contains the marker. then only a single number. Where a marker's designation begins with D.Second Generation Multiplex Plus 164 Second Generation Multiplex Plus Second Generation Multiplex Plus (SGM Plus).2-51. For example. D16S539.3 19q12–13. D3S1358. Genetic Markers The genetic markers (or loci) used by SGM Plus are all Short tandem repeats (STRs). SGM Plus has eight markers in common with CODIS FGA. SGM Plus also uses the Amelogenin (Amelo) sex-indicating test.5 12p12-pter 2q35–37.1 21q11. D18S51. D16S539. SGM Plus has been used by the UK National DNA Database since 1998. is a DNA profiling system developed by Applied Biosystems. along with two letters (XX or XY) which show the result of the gender test. D2S1338 and D19S433. and D21S11. one number pair for each of 10 genetic markers. FGA.one value is inherited from each of the subject's parents. SGM Plus differs from SGM in that SGM does not use the markers D3S1358. VWA.2 .3 Y: p11. An SGM Plus profile consists of a list of 10 number pairs. D18S51. D2S1338 and D19S433. D7S820.2 215–353 3-14 10-25 15-28 8-21 7-20 5-16 7-39. It is an updated version of Second Generation Multiplex.2 9-17. TH01. TH01.2 165–204 157–209 289–341 114–142 128–172 234–274 26–345 106–140 187–243 107 113 NED NED 5-FAM 5-FAM 5-FAM JOE 5-FAM JOE NED JOE JOE (TCTA)n(TCTG)n[(TCTA)3TA(TCTA)3TCA (TCTA)2TCCA TA] (TCTA)n 12-41. D8S1179.1 3p 8 16q24-qter 18q21.1–22.[1] Locus Chromosome Designation Location Common Sequence Motif Allele range Size Range (bp) Dye Label FGA TH01 VWA D2S1338 D3S1358 D8S117 D16S539 D18S51 D19S433 D21S11 4q28 11p15. rather than a pair. D8S1179. TPOX. D21S11.2 — — Amelogenin X: p22. D3S1358. D21S11 is on chromosome 21. It differs from CODIS in that it uses the additional markers D2S1338 and D19S433 and does not use the five markers CSF1PO. D13S317. The markers used are: VWA. D5S818. Each number pair denotes the two allele values for the marker . If both alleles are the same.2–q21 (TTTC)3TTTT TTCT (CTTT)n CTCC (TTCC)2 (AATG)n TCTA(TCTG)3-4(TCTA)n (TGCC)n(TTCC)n TCTA (TCTG)1-3 (TCTA)n (TCTR)n (AGAT)n (AGAA)n (AAGG)(AAAG)(AAGG)(TAGG)(AAGG)n 12. D16S539. is recorded.

D18 • NED: D19. 6. VWA. XY Each value is the number of tandem repeats within the allele.14 9. A non-standard repeat is designated by the number of complete repeat units and the number of base pairs of the partial repeat. D16.2. .7 14. 13. Example SGM Plus profile The SGM Plus profile of subject GT36865 from a National Institute of Standards and Technology paper is given below[2] : Locus FGA TH01 VWA D2S1338 D3S1358 D8S117 D16S539 D18S51 D19S433 D21S11 Allele values 22.13.15 30. THO. D21.3. separated by a decimal point. D2 • JOE: Amelo. 14.22.24 17. 15.17. 11.16.Second Generation Multiplex Plus 165 Dye tags The primers are tagged with the following fluorescent dyes for detection under electrophoresis: • 5-FAM • JOE • NED The primers for each locus are arranged on the dyes in the following order. D8.16 14. 31. 17.9.18.20. 22. from low molecular weight to large molecular weight: • 5-FAM: D3.30 Amelogenin XX An SGM Plus profile retrieved from a DNA database would just list the allele values[3] : 15.16.12.22 6.32.16 19. FGA The dyes to which each primer is attached differ from those of the original SGM DNA profiling system.17 13. 11.13 13.

pdf). and in practice a more conservative chance match figure of 1 in 1.cstl. ie a US trillion]. External links • Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet DataBase (http://www. and to make sure that the figure used was one that was meaningful to non-specialists. so as to avoid overstating the value of the DNA evidence to take into account that match probabilities are only estimates. nothing to fear .000 million is used. there was agreement within the scientific community that identifications with match probabilities lower than one in a billion would not be quoted in the courts of law. pdf). (Report). com/ cms/ groups/ applied_markets_support/ documents/ generaldocuments/ cms_041049. nist. .gov/biotech/strbase/) • AmpFlSTR SGM Plus PCR Amplification Kit User's Manual (http://www3. gov/ strbase/ pub_pres/ Butler2006JFS_coreSTRreview. . Adventitious (chance) DNA Matches" (http:/ / www. pdf). uk/ UploadDocs/ DocPub/ Document/ Nothing to hide.Second Generation Multiplex Plus 166 Probability of Identity The probability of identify (also known as the random match probability) is the probability that two individuals selected at random will have an identical genetic profile. http:/ / www.appliedbiosystems.nist. nothing to fear? p.49 (http:/ / www. cps. nist. it has not yet been possible to carry out the required statistical testing to be able to quote this match probability. [5] Human Genetics Commission Nothing to hide. However it stated "When the SGM Plus profiling system was first introduced." [5] The UK Crown Prosecution Service states "SGM Plus DNA profiling is very discriminating between individuals. However. [6] The Crown Prosecution Service. hgc. police. of the order of 1 in a billion [note this is a UK billion. pdf For the Record (http:/ / www."[6] References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www. gov/ biotech/ strbase/ pub_pres/ Butler2003a.online version. gov. appliedbiosystems.htm?xDoD=4309589) . Applied Biosystems estimates the probability of identity for SGM Plus to be approximately 1 in 13 trillion for African-Americans and 1 in 3. htm AmpFlSTR® SGM Plus® PCR Amplification Kit User’s Manual (http:/ / www3. . gov.com/sup/ URLRedirect/index.[4] The Human Genetics Commission has reported that the random match probability is in the region of 1 in a trillion. npia. "B4. The probability of obtaining a match between the profiles of two unrelated individuals by chance is very low.3 trillion Caucasian Americans. uk/ legal/ s_to_u/ scientific_evidence/ adventitious_dna_matches/ ). cstl. p. 14–12. uk/ en/ 13340. cstl.

the role of a signature in many consumer contracts is not solely to provide evidence of the identity of the contracting party. On legal documents. or even a simple "X" that a person writes on documents as a proof of identity and intent. a Independence and the Articles of Confederation. As an example. illiterate people place a thumbprint on legal documents in lieu of a written signature. In the United States. descenders and exotic flourishes. The provenance of the document (identity) 2. Alternativly someone else duly authorized by the signer acting in the signer's presence and at the signer's direction may make the signature. nickname. named after the first of the signatories of the United States Declaration of Independence. signatures may be witnessed and recorded in the presence of a Notary Public to carry additional legal force. one is John Hancock. Function and types of signatures The traditional function of a signature is evidential: it is to give evidence of: 1. Signature of Benjamin Franklin In many countries. which is chiefly an artistic signature. signatures encompass marks and actions Signature of Mahatma Gandhi of all sorts that are indicative of identity and intent.[2] Many individuals have much more fanciful signatures than their normal cursive writing. Rather than providing authentication for a document. In some countries. so long as the document is countersigned by a literate witness. "to sign") is a handwritten (and sometimes stylized) depiction of someone's name. much as one would find in calligraphic writing. John Hancock's signature is the most prominent on the United States Declaration of Similar to a handwritten signature. but rather to additionally provide evidence of deliberation and informed consent. including elaborate ascenders. These include by a mechanical or rubber stamp facsimile. A signature may be made by the purported signer. signature work describes the work as readily identifying its creator.Signature 167 Signature A signature (from Latin: signare. the final . The legal rule is that unless a statute specifically prescribes a particular method of making a signature it may be made in any number of ways. an illiterate signatory can make a "mark" (often an "X" but occasionally a personalized symbol). In the United States. There are many other terms which are synonymous with 'signature'. the autograph is given as a souvenir which acknowledges the recipient's access to the autographer.[1] The signature of a famous person is sometimes known as an autograph. The writer of a signature is a signatory. A signature may be confused with an autograph. This is why the signature often appears at the bottom or end of a document. and is then typically written on its own or with a brief note to the recipient. The intention (will) of an individual with regard to that document For example.

the climate phenomenon known as ENSO or El Niño has characteristic modes in different ocean basins which are often referred to as the "signature" of ENSO. Japanese. This allows staff members in the Congressman's office to easily reproduce it on correspondence. or are added to a fake painting to support its authenticity. or a piece of information. called autopens. Members of Congress in the United States have begun having their signature made into a TrueType font file. Some web sites also allow graphics to be used. A shortened form of a signature block. are capable of automatically reproducing an individual's signature. Fake signatures are sometimes added to enhance the value of a painting. Note. contact information. More recently. Users can set one or more lines of East Asian name seal custom text known as a signature block to be automatically appended to their messages. often with some distinguishing prefix. Also see Calligraphy. and Korean. Several cultures whose languages use writing systems other than alphabets do not share the Western notion of signatures per se: the "signing" of one's name results in a written product no different from the result of "writing" one's name in the standard way. only including one's name. another type of signature exists which is independent of one's language. to write or to sign involves the same written characters. the shape of a Coca-Cola bottle. A notorious case was the signature of Johannes Vermeer on the fake "Supper at Emmaus" made by the art-forger Han van Meegeren. This text usually includes a name. however. These are typically used by people required to sign many documents. In the East Asia languages of Chinese. for example celebrities. which are more technical in nature and not directly readable by human eyes. This kind of flourish is also known as a paraph. the word "signature" may be used to refer to the characteristic expression of a process or thing.[3] [4] 168 Mechanically produced signatures Special signature machines. For example.Signature "k" in John Hancock's famous signature on the US Declaration of Independence loops back to underline his name. Other uses The signature on a painting or other work of art has always been an important item in the assessment of art. and official documents. can be used to simply indicate the end of a post or response. The term "signature" is also used to mean the characteristics that give an object. that this type of signature is not related to electronic signatures or digital signatures. people typically use name-seals with the name written in tensho script (seal script) in lieu of a handwritten signature. heads of state or CEOs. and sometimes quotations and ASCII art. For these languages. Vermeer's signature By analogy. its identity—for example. . In e-mail and newsgroup usage. legislation.

  p. ISBN 0062755080). the unauthorised reproduction of the signature will infringe copyright. Sallie (2000)." [1] Eligible Australian ePassport holders and holders of eligible International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) compliant ePassports from other countries will be able to use Smartgate once it is rolled out in Australian international airports. ISBN 185941530X. Cavendish Publishing. sections 2 through 7 [3] Paraphe. If there is a successful match.Signature 169 Copyright Under British law. names [. initial or signature in French ( Paraphe entry (http:/ / dictionary. Flexible edition. "An individual's signature may be protected under law as an artistic work. it is the appearance of the signature which is protected.[5] Under United States Copyright Law. the traveller will be cleared through the Customs control point. also spelled parafe. 439. Retrieved 15 March 2011. Media Law. lettering. net/ french-english/ paraphe). net/ ). is a term meaning flourish. 2011. mere variations of typographic ornamentation. Passengers are to be photographed and their details added to the SmartGate database within 24 hours. "An individual's signature may be protected under law as an artistic work. accessed May 3. they will be referred to a Customs officer. References [1] Oxford English Dictionary. p. Australia Smartgate takes a live image of a travellers face. If so. If so. will match this image with the digitised image stored in their ePassport.000 Qantas platinum frequent flyers. Critics. Trials of the SmartGate system in conjunction with the biometric passport technology were expanded in late 2004 from use with Qantas air-crew (which began in 2002). the appearance of signatures (not the names themselves) may be protected under copyright law. copyright. or coloring" are not eligible for copyright. reverso translation software (http:/ / dictionary.]. Signatures. com/ books?id=X2qyT3Y7IpEC& pg=PA439& sig=zJC_raZTlbdzKOsJw5fp9OiLqcs). The name itself will not be protected by copyright. reverso. and using facial recognition technology. United States Copyright Office. and the distance between your eyes. [7] Spilsbury. [5] Spilsbury. noting such things as your bone structure. Passengers require an ePassport to use the technology. "The system compares your passport photo with digital images taken by three cameras." [6] " Copyright Basics (http:/ / www. length of your nose.[6] however. [4] The paraph is used in graphology analyses. oed. the unauthorised reproduction of the signature will infringe copyright. however. Harpercollins. the appearance of signatures (not the names themselves) may be protected under copyright law. The name itself will not be protected by copyright. it is the appearance of the signature which is protected. reverso.. (http:/ / www. 439 (http:/ / books. gov/ circs/ circ1. according to an e-mail sent to prospective users. "Problems in introducing biometric identifiers to . [2] 80 Corpis Juris Secondum. According to an article by ZDNet Australia. Smartgate will also undertake immigration and customs checks. Cavendish Publishing.. to include over 1. com/ view/ Entry/ 101505?redirectedFrom=john hancock#eid40416795). "titles. Sallie (2000)." Smartgate SmartGate is an automated border processing system being introduced by the Australian Customs and Border Protection Service and New Zealand Customs Service. According to a report on the Seven Network. p. It is a secure and simple system that performs the customs and immigration checks normally made by a Customs Officer when a traveller arrives in either Australia or New Zealand. ISBN 185941530X. based on the Collins French-English Dictionary. are claiming that the facial-recognition technology is not accurate enough for the use of national security tasks.[7] It has been deemed illegal to publish signatures in Canada. pdf)". If there is not a successful match. google. August 1990. Media Law.

"Biometric doubts see travelers photographed. was part of an agreement struck between himself and Australian Prime Minister Kevin Rudd in an effort to allow Trans-Tasman travellers to "transit through the entire [customs] process within eight minutes"[3] to further free up the already liberal travel arrangements between the two nations. beyondtomorrow. made by New Zealand Prime Minister John Key on an official visit to Australia. asp .2000061744. au [5] http:/ / www. Retrieved 2007-04-28. com. com. . gov. [2] Pearce. External links • Australian Customs Service [4] • Smartgate [5] References [1] West. "Smartgate" (http:/ / web. Caroline. org/ web/ 20070407011839/ http:/ / www. [3] http:/ / tvnz.39143937. html). au/ site/ page5552. This announcement. au/ stories/ ep8/ smart. announcements were made to expand the Smartgate system to New Zealand. ZDNet Australia." [2] Brisbane was the first Australian international airport to deploy Customs Smartgate system on an operational basis in September 2007. zdnet.Smartgate Australian passports means Australian citizens visiting the United States will be fingerprinted and photographed under that country's anti-terrorism measures. com. . beyondtomorrow.00. customs. archive. au/ stories/ ep8/ smart. The roll-out of the system is expected to be completed within two years. customs. htm). au/ news/ security/ soa/ Biometric_doubts_see_travellers_photographed_fingerprinted/ 0. Beyond Tomorrow. gov. 170 New Zealand On 20 August 2009. fingerprinted" (http:/ / www. James (2004-04-05). co. html) on 2007-04-07. It is now available at other international airports nationally. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. nz/ politics-news/ eight-minutes-clear-customs-2933728 [4] http:/ / www. Retrieved 2007-04-28.

[3] Jain.fr/util/popuppubli. though these are not able to individually authenticate the subject because they lack distinctiveness and permanence [3] Soft Biometric traits Traits which accept the above definition include. classifiable in pre–defined human compliant categories. (2004). The most common traits he introduced were colour of eye.cse.". A. Alphonse Bertillon: Father of Scientific Detection. Published in BTAS 2010.eurecom. These categories are.pdf). height.eurecom.Tubaro/ ICIP_USB_Proceedings_v2/pdfs/0000037. tattoos.fr/util/popuppubli.. A. hair colour. A. He first proposed a personal identification system based on biometric. unlike in the classical biometric case. beard and skin.[1] Introduction The beginnings of Soft Biometrics can be identified as laid by Alphonse Bertillon in the 19th century. htm?page=copyright&id=3189) . Jain lately redefined Soft Biometrics as a set of traits providing information about an individual.en. scars or tattoos. Velardo. D'Angelo.. • Adhered human characteristics: clothes colour. Furthermore they do not require enrolment. Some of the advantages include non obtrusiveness. eye colour.C. Dugelay. . (1956). Further reading • Person recognition using a bag of facial soft biometrics (BoFSB) (http://www. Springer 2006. K. International Conference on Biometric Authentication.polimi. hair. Multimedia Tools and Applications.en.eurecom. C. International Series on Biometrics. morphological and anthropometric determinations [2] . body characteristics like height or weight as well as indelible marks such as birth marks. • Behavioural: gait. [2] Rhodes. Dass. doi:10. established and time–proven by humans with the aim of differentiating individuals. OL18720791M. S. • Can soft biometric traits assist user recognition? (http://www. • Facial marks: Soft biometric for face recognition (ftp://ftp. Nandakumar.Soft biometrics 171 Soft biometrics Soft Biometrics traits are physical. keystroke. Soft Biometrics inherit a main part of the advantages of Biometrics and furthermore endorses by its own assets. Published in MMSP 2010. • Soft biometrics systems : Reliability and asymptotic bounds (http://www. In other words the soft biometric traits instances are created in a natural way. weight. nor the consent or the cooperation of the observed subject. accessories. (October 2010).1007/s11042-010-0635-7. References [1] Dantcheva. "Bag of Soft Biometrics for Person Identification: new trends and challenges. presence of beard. the computational and time efficiency and human compliance. • Weight estimation from visual body appearance (http://www.1007/978-3-540-25948-0_99. • "Ross et al.K.pdf).fr/util/popuppubli. Published in SPIE 2004. shape and size of the head.-L.it/users/Stefano. behavioural or adhered human characteristics.edu/biometrics/Publications/ SoftBiometrics/JainDassNandakumar_SoftBiometrics_SPIE04.T. Handbook of multibiometrics... presence of moustache. doi:10. Published in ICIP 2009. htm?page=copyright&id=3231).". Vol. J. htm?page=copyright&id=3232). 6. "Soft biometric traits for personal recognition systems. used by humans to distinguish their peers. H.F.en. but are not limited to: • Physical: skin colour. Published in BTAS 2010.". A majority of these descriptors presently fall into the category of Soft Biometrics.msu..elet.

it is common to first perform a speaker identification process to create a list of "best matches" and then perform a series of verification processes to determine a conclusive match. In a sense speaker verification is a 1:1 match where one speaker's voice is matched to one template (also called a "voice print" or "voice model") whereas speaker identification is a 1:N match where the voice is compared against N templates.fr/util/popuppubli.g. check if a user is already enrolled in a system. Variants of speaker recognition Each speaker recognition system has two phases: Enrollment and verification. Speaker verification is usually employed as a "gatekeeper" in order to provide access to a secure system (e. but it can reach high accuracy for individual voices with which it has been trained. For software that converts speech to text. this is called verification or authentication.. In addition. etc. speaking style). These systems operate with the user's knowledge and typically requires their cooperation. the speaker's voice is recorded and typically a number of features are extracted to form a voice print. Published in ISCAS 2010. presenting your passport at border control is a verification process .. From a security perspective. These two terms are frequently confused. htm?page=copyright&id=3028)." Verification versus identification There are two major applications of speaker recognition technologies and methodologies. On the other hand. as is voice recognition. alert automated systems of speaker changes. These acoustic patterns reflect both anatomy (e. Speaker recognition is the computing task of validating a user's claimed identity using characteristics extracted from their voices. For example. see Speech recognition. Speaker recognition has a history dating back some four decades and uses the acoustic features of speech that have been found to differ between individuals.eurecom. voice pitch. Conversely. For identification systems. Speaker identification systems can also be implemented covertly without the user's knowledge to identify talkers in a discussion. Finally. If the speaker claims to be of a certain identity and the voice is used to verify this claim. a speech sample or "utterance" is compared against a previously created voice print. size and shape of the throat and mouth) and learned behavioral patterns (e. In the verification phase.Soft biometrics • Color based soft biometry for hooligans detection (http://www. a police officer comparing a sketch of an assailant against a database of previously documented criminals to find the closest match(es) is an identification process. template. the utterance is compared against multiple voice prints in order to determine the best match(es) while verification systems compare an utterance against a single voice print. there is a difference between the act of authentication (commonly referred to as speaker verification or speaker authentication) and identification.g. or model. In forensic applications. 172 Speaker recognition Voice recognition redirects here.such a system cannot recognise speech from random speakers very accurately.en. During enrollment. identification is different from verification. there is a difference between speaker recognition (recognizing who is speaking) and speaker diarisation (recognizing when the same speaker is speaking). Because of the process .: telephone banking). identification is the task of determining an unknown speaker's identity.the agent compares your face to the picture in the document. There is a difference between speaker recognition (recognizing who is speaking) and speech recognition (recognizing what is being said). Speaker verification has earned speaker recognition its classification as a "behavioral biometric. Voice recognition is combination of the two where it uses learned aspects of a speakers voice to determine what is being said .g.

g. such as cohort models. Some systems adapt the speaker models after each successful verification to capture such long-term changes in the voice. though there is debate regarding the overall security impact imposed by automated adaptation. Performance degradation can result from changes in behavioural attributes of the voice and from enrolment using one telephone and verification on another telephone ("cross channel").nist. As text-independent technologies do not compare what was said at enrollment and verification. Voice Imitation. Capture of the biometric is seen as non-invasive. Phd thesis. (2003) Bibliography • Beigi. Some systems also use "anti-speaker" techniques. In fact. Gaussian mixture models.Vector Quantization and decision trees.: a common pass phrase) or unique. verification applications tend to also employ speech recognition to determine what the user is saying at the point of authentication. The technology traditionally uses existing microphones and voice transmission technology allowing recognition over long distances via ordinary telephones (wired or wireless). Notes References • National Institute of Standards and Technology (http://www.Speaker recognition involved. Ambient noise levels can impede both collection of the initial and subsequent voice samples. Fundamentals of Speaker Recognition.g. neural networks. Integration with two-factor authentication products is expected to increase. Speaker recognition systems fall into two categories: text-dependent and text-independent.itl. ISBN 978-0-387-77591-3. 173 Technology The various technologies used to process and store voice prints include frequency estimation. verification is faster than identification. . hidden Markov models.: passwords and PINs) or knowledge-based information can be employed in order to create a multi-factor authentication scenario. Digitally recorded audio voice identification and analogue recorded voice identification uses electronic measurements as well as critical listening skills that must be applied by a forensic expert in order for the identification to be accurate. matrix representation. In addition. and world models. as in the case for many forensic applications. Lund University.pdf) • Elisabeth Zetterholm. but incorrect application can have the opposite effect. Text-independent systems are most often used for speaker identification as they require very little if any cooperation by the speaker. In a text-dependent system. A Phonetic Study of Perceptual Illusions and Acoustic Success. Noise reduction algorithms can be employed to improve accuracy. the use of shared-secrets (e. pattern matching algorithms. the enrollment may happen without the user's knowledge. prompts can either be common across all speakers (e. New York: Springer. In this case the text during enrollment and test is different. If the text must be the same for enrollment and verification this is called text-dependent recognition. Voice changes due to ageing may impact system performance over time.gov/div893/biometrics/ Biometricsfromthemovies. Homayoon (2011).

Dogs are frequently used as model organisms in the study of human disease. Attending to these wetware protocols has become particularly urgent in the context of a recent study [1] suggesting possible pathological effects from RFID transponders implanted in dogs. IEC TC25/WG 5.Speaker recognition 174 External links • Speaker Identification and Verification (http://ditelo. has drafted a standard for Quantities and Units defining such physiological interactions for biometrics.org/pla-radio-episode-17-voice-authentication/ ) The PLA Radio podcast recently featured a simple way to fool rudimentary voice authentication systems. IEC 80000-14" specification is one of a set of International Standards produced jointly by the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) under their Joint Technical Committee.Scholarpedia (http://www. in conjunction with ITU and ISO.org/article/Speaker_recognition) • . With the emergence of multimodal biometrics systems gathering data from different sensors and contexts.scholarpedia.php?search=beigi) Telebiometrics Telebiometrics applies biometrics to telecommunications and telecommunications to remote biometric sensing.Voice: Technologies and Algorithms for Biometrics Applications. org/ cgi/ content/ full/ 43/ 4/ 545 . "Telebiometrics related to human physiology. Sep. International Standards that support systems performing biometric enrollment and verification or identification have begun to focus on human physiological thresholds as constraints and frameworks for "plug and play" telebiometric networks. 2010 (http://ieee-elearning. Working with BioAPI (Biometric Application Programming Interface) and BIP (Biometric Interworking Protocol).phonelosers. IEEE eLearning Library (formerly IEEE Expert Now eLearning) Tutuorial. vetpathology.org/course/search.html) • Circumventing Voice Authentication (http://www.itc.it/people/falavi/IdVe. References [1] http:/ / www. • Speaker recognition .

or MTSA. and vessels regulated under the Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002. An estimated 750. an individual must provide biographic and biometric information such as fingerprints. A sample Transportation Worker Identification Credential.[1] To obtain a TWIC. must obtain a TWIC. Coast Guard initiative in the United States. The program's goals are: • Positively identify authorized individuals who require unescorted access to secure areas of the nation's maritime transportation system. long shore workers. the TWIC Final Rule. 2007. • Identify individuals who fail to maintain their eligibility qualifications after being permitted unescorted access to secure areas of the nation's maritime transportation system and revoke the individual's permissions. Coast Guard credentialed merchant mariners. Workers required to obtain a TWIC include credentialed merchant mariners.000 individuals will require TWICs. and. truck drivers. and all U. Those seeking unescorted access to secure areas aboard affected vessels. published in the Federal Register on January 25. sit for a digital photograph and successfully pass a security threat assessment conducted by TSA. The TWIC program provides a tamper-resistant biometric credential to maritime workers requiring unescorted access to secure areas of port facilities.Transportation Worker Identification Credential 175 Transportation Worker Identification Credential The Transportation Worker Identification Credential (or TWIC) program is a Transportation Security Administration and U. port facility employees. Maritime sector While TWIC may be implemented across other transportation modes in the future. • Enhance security by ensuring that unauthorized individuals are denied unescorted access to secure areas of the nation's maritime transportation system. The new measures were fully implemented on April 15.S. sets forth regulatory requirements to implement this program in the maritime mode first.S. . and others requiring unescorted access to secure areas of security-regulated maritime facilities and vessels. 2009. and all Coast Guard credentialed merchant mariners. • Determine the eligibility of an individual to be authorized unescorted access to secure areas of the maritime transportation system. outer continental shelf facilities.

such as airports.[2] Other parts of the security threat assessment In addition to criminal offenses. Specifically. terrorism[3] . for: Unlawful acts involving firearms. improper transportation of hazardous material. smuggling. bomb threats. arson. if the applicant was convicted in the past seven years and/or released from incarceration resulting from conviction within the past five years. and indictments for certain offenses and other background information. chemical plants. [8] . immigration violations. TSA may conduct other analyses. and the applicant must provide TSA with written proof that the arrest did not result in conviction for the offense. including searching international databases. a crime involving a transportation security incident[4] . other databases. fraud (does not include welfare fraud and passing bad checks). robbery. many applicants that receive initial denials based on background check returns face waits of six to eight months to complete the process to obtain a TWIC. the applicant will be notified by TSA. kidnapping. National Crime Information Center (NCIC). arrest warrants. treason. One chemical manufacturing industry representative says it's only a matter of time before the entire manufacturing industry requires workers to have TWIC cards. and lesser racketeering offenses. In the case of arrests that do not indicate the disposition. TSA will determine immigration status and look for records indicating mental incapacity. terrorist watchlists.[2] Permanent disqualifying criminal offenses An applicant is permanently disqualified if convicted of the following felonies: Espionage.[2] Other transportation sectors In addition to the maritime sector.[5] Rollout issues The Government Accountability Office has said the TWIC program has suffered from lack of oversight and poor coordination. Delays regarding developing and implementing card reader technology have meant that for the initial period TWIC cards will not be used in card readers. some TWIC applicants have experienced significant delays. assault with intent to kill. Delays to applicants According to a report by the National Employment Law Project.[2] Interim disqualifiying criminal offenses An applicant is disqualified for a period of time for other convictions. serious racketeering offenses. The assessment considers convictions. a number of organizations have complained at the financial impact the program will have on already highly regulated industries. railroads. fraudulent entry into a seaport.5 million port workers could not work for an average of 69 days because they had not obtained a TWIC by the implementation date. rape. extortion.000 applicants out of the 1. sedition. drug distribution/importation. or attempts/conspiracy to commit these acts. unlawful acts involving explosives. Over 10. and refineries. and may search to see if other extensive foreign or domestic criminal convictions exist. or attempts/conspiracy to commit these acts. murder. [6] [7] Additionally. the TWIC may be required in the future for other security-sensitive transportation sectors. bribery.Transportation Worker Identification Credential 176 Security threat assessment Each TWIC applicant undergoes a security threat assessment.

washingtontechnology. gcn.gov/ fdmspublic/ContentViewer?objectId=09000064802c4d66&disposition=attachment&contentType=pdf) • U. the plain arch. 3.S.gov/what_we_do/layers/twic/index. which include the radial loop. and the double loop whorl. the tented arch. or economic disruption in a particular area. pdf) from the National Employment Law Project. .gov/what_we_do/layers/twic/index. as defined in 46 U.mil/hq/g-m/nvic/0-07/FINAL TWIC NVIC 07-02-07. dhs. 6. Part 1572. law. The ulnar loop is just one of 8 most common fingerprint patterns.uscg.regulations. cornell. 3cdn.C. net/ 547b3ef519c097ad9d_tkm6bnuqf. Subpart B (http:/ / ecfr. asp?s=9786040 [6] http:/ / www. transportation system disruption. the central pocket loop. Code of Federal Regulations. 2& idno=49) [3] As defined in 18 U. References • TWIC Program description by TSA (http://www. Coast Guard's NVIC 03-07. 1. html [8] Press Release (http:/ / nelp. "Guidance for the implementation of the TWIC Program in the maritime sector" (http://www.C. January 25. gov/ xnews/ releases/ pr_1209745179774. wafb.  § 2332b(g) (http:/ / www. Ulnar loops start on the pinky-side of the finger. shtm [2] Title 49. 70101.tsa. 19.shtm) • TWIC Implementation in the Maritime Sector Final Rule. [5] http:/ / www. the plain whorl. 2007 (http://www. the lower arm bone.pdf) External links • TWIC Program website by TSA (http://www. com/ print/ 22_04/ 30243-1.S. html [7] http:/ / www. environmental damage. com/ online/ vol1_no1/ 43463-1. gov/ cgi/ t/ text/ text-idx?c=ecfr& rgn=div6& view=text& node=49:9.tsa. dated July 8. html#g) [4] A transportation security incident is a security incident resulting in a significant loss of life.dhs.gov/TWICWebApp/) Ulnar loop Ulnar loop is a term used in classifying fingerprints. 2009.S. 2010.Transportation Worker Identification Credential 177 Notes [1] http:/ / www. The term “economic disruption” does not include a work stoppage or other employee-related action not related to terrorism and resulting from an employer-employee dispute. the accidental whorl.tsa. Retrieved Feb 11. com/ global/ story. gpoaccess.shtm) • Pre-enrollment page (https://twicprogram. the side closer to the ulna. edu/ uscode/ 18/ 2332b.

wired. .[9] U. washingtonpost.[7] Computer security expert Bruce Schneier stated that a key advantage of vein patterns for biometric identification is the lack of a known method of forging a usable "dummy". [9] Stanglin. html). Retrieved January 21. 2011. Spencer (January 20. India: Mantra Softech Pvt.[4] The FBI and the CIA used the matching technique on Mohammed in 2004 and again in 2007.S. Retrieved January 21. also called vascular technology. Douglas (January 20. 2011). [8] Schneier. "Photos of hands backed up Pearl slaying confession.[5] Mantra Softech marketed a device in South Asia that scans vein patterns in palms for attendance recording.[2] References [1] Finn. Retrieved January 21. go. Carol (January 20. such as fingerprinting. com/ communities/ ondeadline/ post/ 2011/ 01/ report-forensic-evidence-shows-911-plotter-killed-journal-reporter/ 1). "Another Biometric: Vein Patterns" (http:/ / www. notably a "bulging vein" running across his hand. 2011.[2] [4] Commercial applications Vascular/vein pattern recognition (VPR) technology has been developed commercially by Hitachi since 1997. would not hold up in court and used vein matching evidence to bolster their case. com/ 2011/ WORLD/ asiapcf/ 01/ 20/ pakistan. as is possible with fingerprints. Wall Street Journal Reporter" (http:/ / abcnews. 2011). report finds" (http:/ / www. The Washington Post. [4] Ackerman. Retrieved January 21. which had been obtained though waterboarding. cnn. 2011. . compressed. 2011). Peter (January 20. 2011). schneier. fujitsu. . . Retrieved January 21. Wired. Retrieved January 21. 2011). Bruce (August 8.000-word investigative report published in January 2011 by Georgetown University faculty and students. Retrieved January 20. and digitized for future biometric authentication of the subject.Vein matching 178 Vein matching Vein matching. "Qaeda Killer’s Veins Implicate Him In Journo’s Murder" (http:/ / www. . Retrieved January 21. 2011.[1] is a technique of biometric identification through the analysis of the patterns of blood vessels visible from the surface of the skin.[8] Forensic identification According to a 31. it can be used in conjunction with existing forensic data in support of a conclusion. Bradley (January 20. usatoday. and turnstiles.[3] this method of identification is still in development and has not yet been universally adopted by crime labs as it is not considered as reliable as more established techniques. in which light reflected by hemoglobin in a subject's blood vessels is recorded by a CCD camera behind a transparent surface. . USA Today. 2011. html). pearl. 2011. com/ blog/ archives/ 2007/ 08/ another_biometr. [5] "Finger Vein Authentication Technology" (http:/ / www.[3] Officials were concerned that his confession. Ltd. 2011. . CNN. Ltd. "Report Says Justice Not Served in Murder of Daniel Pearl.[6] Fujitsu developed a version that does not require direct physical contact with the vein scanner for improved hygiene in the use of electronic point of sale devices. However. "Report: Top al-Qaeda figure killed Pearl" (http:/ / www. Finger scanning devices have been deployed for use in Japanese financial institutions. com/ US/ report-justice-served-murder-daniel-pearl/ story?id=12721909). us/ products/ business/ smart_solutions/ finger_vein/ ). pp. kiosks. [2] Blackburn. 2007). com/ biometrics/ palm-vein-recognition/ palm-vein-authentication-2000. [6] "PV2000" (http:/ / www. daniel. Schneier on Security. [7] "Your hand is the key: The world's first contactless palm vein authentication technology" (http:/ / www. 1–2. mantratec. ABC News. The data patterns are processed. . execution/ ). com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/ 2011/ 01/ 19/ AR2011011907114. federal investigators used photos from the video recording of the beheading of American journalist Daniel Pearl to match the veins on the visible areas of the perpetrator to that of captured al-Qaeda operative Khalid Sheikh Mohammed. Retrieved January 21. html). hitachi-america. .[2] Though used by the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Central Intelligence Agency. "Report: Forensic evidence ties 9/11 plotter to Pearl's killing" (http:/ / content. 2011. Hitachi America. com/ emea/ products/ biometrics/ ). [3] Cratty. . PalmSecure (Fujitsu). com/ dangerroom/ 2011/ 01/ qaeda-killers-veins-implicate-him-in-journos-murder/ ). 2011.

Qin. Yi-Bo. "Palm vein authentication technology and its applications" (https://www-s. "Palm Vein Authentication System: A Review" (http://www.V. Morito.1656145.wseas. doi:10.1145/1655925. K.1007/978-3-540-76414-4_16. • Zhang. International Conference on Information Systems (Harbin Institute of Technology). Sasaki. You. "A new palm vein matching method based on ICP algorithm" (http://portal.pdf). "Finger Vein Image Recognition Based on Tri-value Template Fuzzy Matching" (http://www. Farkhod. • Sarkar.ieee. Kim. doi:10. Prabir (2007). Bhattacharyya..ieee. Shigeru (September 2005).1109/TIP.com/Finger-vein+image+recognition+combining+modified+hausdorff+distance. ISSN 1057-7149.acm..fujitsu.com/content/84625090872p1287/). ISSN 1790-5117. • Chen. Rui (December 2009). Guangming.jsp?url=http://ieeexplore. Masaki.org/ daniel_pearl) at the Center for Public Integrity . Wang. "Personal Authentication Using Hand Vein Triangulation and Knuckle Shape" (http://ieeexplore. ISBN 978-960-474-077-2. Shiohara. Debnath (March 2010).cfm?id=1656145). Hong (May 2009).org/iel5/83/ 4358840/04926208. Bhattacharya.Vein matching 179 Further reading • Watanabe.pdf). ISBN 978-1-60558-710-3.pdf?arnumber=4926208&authDecision=-203).pdf). Ishani.springerlink.sersc. IEEE Transactions on Image Processing (IEEE Signal Processing Society) 18 (9): 2127–2136.org/journals/IJCA/vol3_no1/3. Liukui. Haifen. • Kumar.org/Xplore/login. Prathyusha. Tai-hoon. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Concordia University) 4781.org/citation.thefreelibrary. Li. doi:10.2023153. Proceedings of The Biometric Consortium Conference (Fujitsu Laboratories). (September 2009). -a0210517119) at The Free Library • The Truth Left Behind: Inside the Kidnapping and Murder of Daniel Pearl (http://treesaver.publicintegrity.us/e-library/conferences/2009/hangzhou/MUSP/MUSP34. International Journal of Control and Automation 3 (1). External links • Finger-vein image recognition combining modified hausdorff distance with minutiae feature matching (http:// www. • Chen. Lu. A.2009. Proceedings of the 9th WSEAS International Conference on Multimedia Systems & Signal Processing (Wuhan University): 206–211.. Zheng. "Palm Vein Extraction and Matching for Personal Authentication" (http://www.com/downloads/GLOBAL/labs/papers/palmvein. Jane. Alisherov.

Neither inverse filtering nor EGG are sufficient to completely describe the complex 3-dimensional pattern of vocal fold movement. Typical voice problems A medical study of the voice can be. the process of speaking exerts a load on the vocal cords where the tissue will suffer from tiring. that is. teachers. The most important indirect methods are currently inverse filtering of either microphone or oral airflow recordings and electroglottography (EGG). Analysis methods Voice problems that require voice analysis most commonly originate from the vocal folds or the laryngeal musculature that controls them. Stroboscopic. fundamental frequencies are usually between 80 and 300 Hz. An experienced voice therapist can quite reliably evaluate the voice. The vocal cords of a person speaking for an extended period of time will suffer from tiring. Less invasive imaging methods such as x-rays or ultrasounds do not work because the vocal cords are surrounded by cartilage which distort image quality. stroboscopic imaging is only useful when the vocal fold vibratory pattern is closely periodic. In order to objectively evaluate the improvement in voice quality there has to be some measure of voice quality. dynamic analysis of the vocal folds and their movement is physically difficult. In inverse filtering. and the laryngeal musclature is intensely active during speech or singing and is subject to tiring. but this requires extensive training and is still always subjective. It thus yields one-dimensional information of the contact area. for instance. In addition.e. but also speaker identification. phoniatrics. which makes speaking difficult.Voice analysis 180 Voice analysis Voice analysis is the study of speech sounds for purposes other than linguistic content. Movements in the vocal cords are rapid. a fiberoptic probe leading to the camera has to be positioned in the throat. To evaluate these problems vocal loading needs to be objectively measured. The location of the vocal folds effectively prohibits direct. Another active research topic in medical voice analysis is vocal loading evaluation. More controversially.e. thus preventing usage of ordinary video. This method produces an estimate of the waveform of the glottal airflow pulses. and high-speed videos [1] provide an option but in order to see the vocal folds. Among professional voice users (i. invasive measurement of movement. Such studies include mostly medical analysis of the voice i. In addition. some believe that the truthfulness or emotional state of speakers can be determined using Voice Stress Analysis or Layered Voice Analysis. since the folds are subject to collision forces with each vibratory cycle and to drying from the air being forced through the small gap between them. analysis of the voice of patients who have had a polyp removed from his or her vocal cords through an operation. which in turn reflect the movements of the vocal folds. However. as obtained from a microphone) or the oral airflow waveform from a circumferentially vented (CV) [2] mask is recorded outside the mouth and then filtered by a mathematical method to remove the effects of the vocal tract. sales people) this tiring can cause voice failures and sick leaves. placing objects in the pharynx usually triggers a gag reflex that stops voicing and closes the larynx. but can provide useful indirect evidence of that movement. such as in speech recognition. . in which electrodes placed on either side of the subject's throat at the level of the vocal folds record the changes in the conductivity of the throat according to how large a portion of the vocal folds are touching each other. The other kind of noninvasive indirect indication of vocal fold motion is the electroglottography. the speech sound (the radiated acoustic pressure waveform.

com/ Product%20Info/ 9710/ CHSV%20Product%20Announcement. pdf [2] http:/ / www. kayelemetrics. htm [3] http:/ / www.Voice analysis 181 External links • Voice Problems and Vocal Disorder Online Community (VoiceMatters.net) [3] References [1] http:/ / www. glottal. com/ Products/ airflowmasks. voicematters. net .

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Daivesh. Phaedrus86. Kingturtle. DocWatson42. Minna Sora no Shita. GoneAwayNowAndRetired. Toshtrent. Anirvan.wilton. Fæ. Jjmorabrenes. Aranae. Icarus3. LOL. Nhgaudreau. Sciprecision. VarunRajendran. Nothlit. WikHead. Epingchris. CardinalDan. Burlefot. Abdull. Digitize. Hikui87. Haiderzainy. NiteSensor23. Torinfo. Sicarii3. Anyo Niminus. Angelo De La Paz. Ilyushka88. G Colyer.. Nirvana2013. Janecraft. Mdhowe. Bobstopper. Mineralè. PrestonH. Kweeket.dalton. Michael. Phil Bridger. Sekiyu. Starx. LoopZilla. Shoeofdeath. WETaylor. MichaelBillington. RBBrittain. Clumsyone. Iain. Billinghurst. Sanmartin. Garrythefish. Bobo192. Rettetast. J. DMacks. CNicol. Saftorangen.Xp. Apancu. Baksando. Melissa123. Bruno Unna. Jefffire. Akhristov. Passportistca. Appraiser. Biospecialist. Capricorn42. Heshwa.wikipedia.php?oldid=404380730  Contributors: EJVargas. Reedy. Rich Farmbrough. Douglas the Comeback Kid. Martin. 2 anonymous edits Combined DNA Index System  Source: http://en. Hellimli. BloodGrapefruit2. Jonathan O'Donnell. Jamesontai. Quebec99. Fredrik. Pingveno. AndrewSamuel. Woohookitty. Precious Roy. Jrsage. Mattisse. John Quincy Adding Machine.org/w/index. Kamran the Great. Shanes. Δ BioSlimDisk  Source: http://en. Abeg92. Jsc83. Akendall. Neutrality. Snoyes. Mcado2dm. Evanoff. Ultramandk. Dolovis. Fastfission. DanielPharos. Donreed. IgorMagic. Desert pinguin. Cyrillic. EagleFan. Bergsten. Rafiqmahmood. Dkropf. IngerAlHaosului.php?oldid=390716326  Contributors: Dramatic. Wildhartlivie. Zaasaa. Saponniah. Open2universe. Jgeorge60. DrRisk13. Anon lynx. Wikiliki. BBCWatcher. Mormegil. Viper10003. Click23. West. DougsTech. Goran. PJM. GraemeL. Serongadamwiki. J-Wiki. BuffaloChip97. Gwernol. RDBrown. Faisal moon1. OhioTrivium. Closedmouth. Pcheesman. Jenolds. Denytrendy. Lifeisatest99. Rakela. Johnuniq. Double Dickel. Liorma. Ohconfucius. Trounce. Ida Shaw. Hoomanator. Winchelsea. Andypdavis. Fred the Oyster. Knownot. Garethhamilton. MarkHavel. Rubin16. Algaema. 57 anonymous edits DNA profiling  Source: http://en. Mitch Ames. Brighterorange. Shadowlynk. Tide rolls.. Salvar. Whosasking. Cmdrjameson. Eragon22125.php?oldid=428835789  Contributors: -1g. Overandaway. Auntof6. clown will eat me.canedo. Joy. Pengo.delanoy. Tazmaniacs. Gioto. Pudeo. Qlinz.

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Ken Saladin. Res2216firestar. Zophra.org/w/index. RJHall. Nicolas1981. Nihonjoe. Tom. Lightmouse. Hooperbloob. Old Moonraker. EMT1871. Sendura. Violetriga. Auric. 4insix. Kjkrum. Nothingofwater. WPjcm. Sekiyu. Whiner01. Anthony Appleyard. Tisane. Rodrigue. Monedula. MasterSlowPoke. Fama Clamosa. Sciurinæ. Sertorius. Septegram. Azazell0. AubreyEllenShomo. Crystallina. Courcelles. Mckaysalisbury. Randall00. David Santos. Manuel Yayo. NHRHS2010. Nick Number.php?oldid=423035827  Contributors: 2D. Tanthalas39. Severa. Zocky.canedo. Rangek. Dodger. QuizzicalBee. Anaxial. Tide rolls. Evil Monkey. Shumdw. HamburgerRadio. Motioncapture. Pednm. Martin. Hooperbloob. Lusitana. SoLando. Liucougar. Epbr123. Strawfair. Meelar.wikipedia. Jivee Blau.php?oldid=414808371  Contributors: Cheakamus. Keepmytubes. Momoricks. Phil Boswell. Skyk98. Amniarix. Marketing250. Hooperbloob. Spongeboblover124. Fathomharvill. Switchercat. 5 anonymous edits Electropherogram  Source: http://en. Nightscream. Glen. 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Richard Arthur Norton (1958. Robertwest100. Bongwarrior. Mokele. Wayne Slam. Ctrl build. Kajerm. Fingersx12. MacsBug. Philip Trueman. Ida Shaw. Skritek. Ww. Justpassin. Pv86. Theda. Ucucha. Keimzelle. Matt Gies.php?oldid=406572113  Contributors: CommonsDelinker. Graham87. Ewlloyd. Pi Guy 31415. Ronhjones. Geni. InvictaHOG. CultureDrone. Freethron. Marysunshine. TurkishHorde. Tazmaniacs. Zé da Silva. Martijn van Mensvoort. Duffman. ImperatorExercitus. Lldancer91. Diderot. Pearle. Belfunk. Sonja3930. Danzach2. Remindmelater. Movingboxes. Nimur. Marssociety. Jtlongwi. Mervyn.wikipedia. Acebulf.wikipedia.php?oldid=403767581  Contributors: Chowbok. Sphinxx. Tokek. Paul W. Methegreat. Rod57. Wavelength. TBadger. Thatguyflint. LizardJr8. WLRoss. Earthlyreason. Mike Rosoft.org/w/index. Reinyday. Finn-Zoltan. Vir905. LovesMacs. John Fader. S-MorrisVP. CoenLauwerijssen. Spudtater. GregorB. Puchiko. Kerowyn. Nhekman. Powerload.). Skipper500.org/w/index. Xavierschmit. Ant. Tsob. User2004. Ed g2s. 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Nitroshockwave. Dcoetzee.php?oldid=359915377  Contributors: Gioto. Jshadias. Richard asr. Ajdonnison. Euchiasmus. Fama Clamosa. Toytown Mafia. Liftarn. Jose. Stimpy. Uirauna. North Shoreman. Masem. Nydas. Ulric1313. Jepmatt. Ohnoitsjamie. Narom. AnonUser. Wamelculi. Versus22. Yerpo. Wtmitchell. MC10. Noahsachs. Ozzmosis. Overstreets. Uncke Herb. Egghead Jr. Tcncv. Brianga. Someguy1221. The Anome.

Cybercobra. Unsuspected.php?oldid=427497549  Contributors: Apokrif. Robchurch. Sterlingjones. OlEnglish. Poster778. Fdewaele. Jwilliams259. Bradlen. SentinelAlpha. Anderson. Bovineone. Snigbrook. Feedmecereal. Silverlotion.lima. CaAl. Doom777. Roregan. Shalom Yechiel. NicholasJones.org/w/index. Paolo. Katharineamy. Necrothesp. Neilc. Nono64. Ianthegecko. Surv1v4l1st.org/w/index.php?oldid=385279920  Contributors: Auntof6. Dewet. Oleg Alexandrov. WaterBreak55.wikipedia. Septegram. Rosiestep. Yintan. Rjwilmsi. Dysprosia.org/w/index.org/w/index. Pigman. Mandarax. CapitalR. Mitch Ames.php?oldid=413830444  Contributors: Boreas231. Jusdafax. JohnEBredehoft. Neutrality. MeUser42. Kori1701. Bkil. Grika. Old Moonraker. Mokailleet. Ryryrules100. McSly. Coplas. Hoziron.lima. Makwy2. Adeelzafarbioid. CambridgeBayWeather. Tazmaniacs.org/w/index. Hangfromthefloor. JLogan. Richardstang65. Phaedrus86. Phaedrus86.php?oldid=403896454  Contributors: 386-DX. Fsiler. Adolphus79.php?oldid=419140731  Contributors: AvicAWB. Firsfron. Blueboy96. Chaparyan. Miguel. Frap. Bigredsox. Eastmain. Warren. Topbanana. Wanausha Khafaf. Dbjohnston. Linnartz. Derek Ross. Anonymous Dissident.). Deepfury.php?oldid=419405346  Contributors: Allisonwarmstrong. Michael Hardy.684fafa. Rajesh Jauhari. Rjwilmsi. Are2dee2. Zoicon5. VernoWhitney Next Generation Identification  Source: http://en. Philip200291.wikipedia. Altenmann. Thincat.org/w/index. Caerwine. Malcolma. Kiore. Kbacon101.wikipedia. Martarius. 41 anonymous edits International Automated Systems  Source: http://en. Ligulem. 150 anonymous edits Iris Recognition Immigration System  Source: http://en. Slysplace.wikipedia.org/w/index. Mattisse. 4 anonymous edits Procrustes analysis  Source: http://en. Phantomsteve.msc. Ladyscribe. UnitedStatesian. Gregbard. Dysprosia. Res2216firestar.wikipedia. Teles. Heron. ReluctantPhilosopher. JoeSmack. 5 anonymous edits Retinal scan  Source: http://en. Graph8. Pixeld. NerdyNSK. 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Chris the speller. Spartanfox86. Sandstein. Graham Jones. Malcolma. Lconnelly1. Rich Farmbrough.lima. Riccardo Riccioni.wikipedia.Article Sources and Contributors Graphology  Source: http://en. DRosenbach. The owner of all. Frencheigh. 60 anonymous edits RFdump  Source: http://en. Scott Burley. Pegship. MER-C. Dmitri Lytov. Techman224. Fateflyer22. Quuxplusone. Zhurovai. Berean Hunter.org/w/index. Salix alba. Ductapedaredevil.org/w/index. UkPaolo. Emperorbma.1495. Fabrictramp. Caradhye.delanoy. RHaworth. Bobo192. WadeSchuette. Blueviper99. Iridescent. FloNight. Amber luxor. Choster.php?oldid=380368896  Contributors: Alynna Kasmira. Chowbok. Towsonu2003 Biometrics in schools  Source: http://en. JonHarder. Kacela. Michaelkrewson.org/w/index. Lincoln carr. Uhai. Omnipaedista. Humanisticmystic. Bellhalla. Scriberius Iris recognition  Source: http://en. Off!. Slkove. Akuyume. Biometricguy. Roswell Crash Survivor. TechGeek70. SunCountryGuy01. Tregoweth. Hugedummy. Pnm.php?oldid=428532092  Contributors: 03webberg.wikipedia. Aintsemic. Ashematian.org/w/index. Papajohnin. Mietchen. Mendicott. Joerite. 5 anonymous edits Private biometrics  Source: http://en. U-Mos. Chowbok. Justicepie. Foxfan083.wikipedia. Rl. L0rents. Dbfirs.org/w/index. Rjwilmsi.wikipedia. Synergy. Prodego. Boreas231.dL. Pengo. DreamGuy. Rocketgoat. Kikos. Conti. World. Ninetyone. Tazmaniacs. DerHexer. Prari. Jchecco. HollyAm. Ltka. Kerowyn.org/w/index.php?oldid=420588900  Contributors: AED. PhDOnPoint. Rjwilmsi. Vrenator. Edcolins. JBBrask.org/w/index. Nick Number. Voyagerfan5761. IlyaHaykinson. Sintaku. Wbaron. Darkman007e. Phils. Ufwuct. Eldraco. Fettzort. Can't sleep. Rjwilmsi. PHenry. Jeffchilders112. Ahoerstemeier. Setokaiba. Stephenchou0722. Self-ref. Doshi Mansi. Felix Folio Secundus. Art LaPella. MattPackwood. 1mujin22. Bhadani. Richard Arthur Norton (1958. L2L2. Khaledelmansoury. Fishal. Uncle G. DokumentAMarble. Lockley. 3 anonymous edits Palmar aponeurosis  Source: http://en. Joanjoc. TimothyPilgrim. Canens. 439 anonymous edits Hand geometry  Source: http://en. Jac16888. Loyolaguy. Rakeshsurampali.php?oldid=397432407  Contributors: GoingBatty. Canistabbats. 5 anonymous edits Handwriting movement analysis  Source: http://en. Markus Kuhn. ShelfSkewed. Mikewarbz. Squids and Chips. Ronz. BenKovitz. RG2. Kiranwashindkar. Scientizzle. MatthewVanitas Pay By Touch  Source: http://en. Jorptin. Robertbuzzhill. Back ache. The Thing That Should Not Be. GainLine.org/w/index. RandyPng. Theextract. Raven in Orbit Pawtograph  Source: http://en. Gardar Rurak. Sophiecentaur. Sadads. Feedmecereal. Kuru. Kerowyn. Frap. Chowbok. Kingturtle.wikipedia. Erebus555. The Anome. Pseudo daoist. Jjmorabrenes. Zephglad. Spider1.org/w/index. Alexf. Piskorski. NoHitHair. Yavoh. Dendodge. 7 anonymous edits Keystroke dynamics  Source: http://en. Kewlceo. Tprentice. Mentifisto. Berean Hunter. DwayneP. Gil Gamesh. Bearcat. Objectivesea.wikipedia. Michael Hardy. Smith609. Dt. Kalirish. Iridescent. Radagast83. Fullerenedream.php?oldid=420941106  Contributors: EoGuy.wikipedia.php?oldid=422518300  Contributors: Bloodshedder. Steinsky. Hmains. Alai. FCivish. Cholmes75. Graphe. EldKatt. Tycho7286. PhDOnPoint.wikipedia. Maurice Carbonaro. Cpuwhiz11. Stepshep. GGByte. Interiot. HiltonLange. Edman007. Kalisti. Phaedrus86. Chowbok. Paul Barlow. Rjwilmsi. Jrtayloriv. Tony1. RedWordSmith. Mendicott. OrangeDog. Kryptoknite. Tnorth. QDE-can. Rich Farmbrough. Acalamari.org/w/index. MattPackwood. Lottiotta. Patrick Bernier. TauraBird. Wailer. Morinpierre. Pen of bushido.php?oldid=310920238  Contributors: Capecard. Chrishmt0423. Shuklamukesh. Arthena. Jamott. David Underdown.org/w/index. Meelar. T. Smhossei. Pegship. Joe 4641349. Mikael Häggström. Billtownsend. 2 anonymous edits Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System  Source: http://en. MikeLynch. Josteinn. Cyber3d. Authalic. Samij86. Whispering. JonHarder. Michi zh. 22 anonymous edits Physiological interaction  Source: http://en. Giftlite. Caltas. Tjwood. Zollerriia.wikipedia. Anchoress. 140. Jomsome. Luckyeye13. NaGromOne. SmilesALot. Shyam. Outlook. Tuspm. RJFJR. Woohookitty. Bruxism. Voldemore. Tslocum. Zheric. Majorly. Wikidemon. AED. 2over0. clown will eat me. Ebyabe. Heron. Meni Rosenfeld. JohnInDC. Neuroscript. Inamorata1. Sabbut. Loungeapple. Vrenator. Geek2006. Prietoquilmes. Ollj. 5 anonymous edits Iris Challenge Evaluation  Source: http://en. Kelisi. FordPrefect42. HereToHelp.wikipedia. Jeepday. R. EdBever.wikipedia. Thebt. Riesenfeld. Zandperl. Pegship. Ecn5093. Gaius Cornelius. 25 anonymous edits INSPASS  Source: http://en. Wetwarexpert. SHARU(ja). Iridescent. Kumioko. Steven J. Drbreznjev. Melcombe. J. Jeepday.wikipedia. Sadads.org/w/index. Ant. Infotrope. Itsmesomesh. Oxymoron83. PenComputingPerson. StoatBringer. Gonzonoir. Bwpach.php?oldid=428833995  Contributors: 4wajzkd02. Gtstricky. Of. Jose. Geni. 456hjk. Grutness. Connelly90. Kelp. JBellis. Symbology101. Maurice Carbonaro. Bmearns. Ealdent. Wikipedian231. Jpbowen. Lilpinoy 82. Jayjaywa. Pegship. Omicronpersei8. Boitel. AleistersCrow.php?oldid=418326445  Contributors: Fallschirmjäger. Nicowalker.wikipedia.org/w/index. Hmains. Bkdelong. MBGC liason. Bobrayner. MBisanz. Pdcook. Waramat. Nono64. MBGC liason. Maartsen. Lee1-LCRC. Rob 301. NickelShoe. Shaddack. Anshumangaur. Pekaje. Indon. Ryan Norton. Shii. Ronz. 59 anonymous edits MALINTENT  Source: http://en. Red7jon. Portillo.444. RJL Hartmans. Mudsplatter. J. Netweb.php?oldid=359363333  Contributors: AaronY. El C. Aocom teh spritar. Playmobilonhishorse. Versus22.wikipedia.uk.delanoy. Icairns. Dfrg. Hurryswung. Ghewgill. Etaoin. 14 anonymous edits Microsoft Fingerprint Reader  Source: http://en. Chase me ladies. Roketjack. Saqib. Coredesat. Apokrif. Sfrench-cmtheria. Rich Farmbrough. Fabrictramp. Joolz. Niayre. Miguel. Miguel. Rjwilmsi. 2 anonymous edits Palm print  Source: http://en. Paulwiki.php?oldid=419485409  Contributors: -Majestic-. Arcadian.wikipedia. Gohst. Dimadick. Chris the speller. Graham87.org/w/index. PoxTheGreat. Briaboru. Lordspiritforged. Mspraveen. Bontenbal. Nono64. Woggly.php?oldid=420488360  Contributors: Gunner11 05. Liqdfire. Mboverload. JonHarder.php?oldid=405736895  Contributors: Edward. Impherring13. Scriberius. Starthewonderpup. Steven Weston. Fabricationary. Joedeshon. CommonsDelinker. Jonkerz. X!. Philipkoo2. Ronz. Mohiuddinahmed. Dewet. Willking1979. Results of thought. Phatom87. Graham87. Ellywa. Woohookitty. Sardanaphalus. Drogers. Pearle. LilHelpa. Necrothesp. Palica. David Johnson. ASmartKid. Seabhcan. Srr1053.wikipedia. Irismeister. Tregoweth. Michaeljthieme. Jmanigold. Schmloof. Pegship. LilHelpa. BevvyB. QTCaptain. Ankan85. Smichae. TiagoTiago.wikipedia. KYN. Moink.wikipedia. Wikizeta. Garion96. Jcarroll26. Filip em.wikipedia. BenFrantzDale. Shaddack. Shuffulo. Soumyadiprakshit. Eaglizard. Cy21. Aafuss. Grafen. Bilalis. Epitron. Infinitysnake. Mild Bill Hiccup.php?oldid=373597184  Contributors: Beagel. Reinyday. Deanlaw. Brighterorange.php?oldid=428754701  Contributors: Bibliophylax.canedo. Furious Stormrage.php?oldid=368694667  Contributors: Andriusval. Torinfo. Chrishmt0423. Spidey104. JHunterJ. DocWatson42. Kaepora. DavidWBrooks.php?oldid=415262947  Contributors: A Train.org/w/index. Dcandeto. Lauracs. Iridescent. JubalHarshaw. Evil Merlin. Vicky30110. Bhekare. Dithridge.php?oldid=419253854  Contributors: AxelBoldt. Andriusval. Jasrocks. DragonflySixtyseven.wikipedia. JamesMLane. DeniseDiTrani. 16 anonymous edits Radial loop  Source: http://en. 39 anonymous edits 184 . Rfl. Tatterfly. H2g2bob. Mweiss53. Wiwaxia. Anielka.

org/w/index. Paulelvins.wikipedia. Hmains. Otr500. Quagmire. Przepla. Bdelisle. Klael. Mseyers. McSly. History2007. Tbsmith. Merlion444.org/w/index.wikipedia. JetLover.php?oldid=297534531  Contributors: Jrtayloriv.php?oldid=414882933  Contributors: Arsenikk. Maartenvdbent. Wnt. Ed g2s. Oxymoron83. Nicksname. TSP. Simesa. Wangi. 1 anonymous edits Transportation Worker Identification Credential  Source: http://en. Malinaccier. Shadowlynk. Jc3s5h. Jengod. McGeddon Second Generation Multiplex Plus  Source: http://en. Crystallina. Djmckee1. Beetstra. Mukake. Quintote. Mac. ArnoldReinhold. Martin. C0pernicus. Crystallina. Poufnoname219. Sandstein. Kafziel. McGeddon. Joseph Solis in Australia. Closeapple.cm. Karmafist. Jackzhp. Three-quarter-ten. Caltas. Icairns. Naughtonk. Voidvector. Pak21. Neptune5000. Oxymoron83. DianaGaleM. Janejellyroll. Peskydan. Gogo Dodo. Lihaas. Bubba hotep. Pgilmon. Pharos. Piotrus. Lommer. Kribbeh. Fropuff. Conversion script.php?oldid=428283111  Contributors: 2D. Jamelan.rego. Tbackstr. AndrewHZ. Diego Grez. WilliamH. ChrisHodgesUK. Nabbia.org/w/index.com.wikipedia. Qlzd45. Altenmann. Stifle. Den fjättrade ankan.php?oldid=412528209  Contributors: Apoc2400. Willpower.org/w/index. KyraVixen. Chick Bowen. Bob f it. fw-us-hou-8. J. Hawkflame. Xact. Infrahuman. NawlinWiki. Fw-us-hou-8. Ekimd. Betterworld. Pseudo daoist. Josh1414. Chriswaterguy. Lukeluke2394. Jebus989. Afabbro. Xous. Natalya. Collard. Martin451. Apoc2400. Polishwonder74. BenFrantzDale. Anonymous Dissident. Tariq Abdulla. Kupirijo. JoshG.com. Darkspartan4121. Meelar. Waramat. Wireless friend. 1 anonymous edits Speaker recognition  Source: http://en. Headbomb. Gerry Ashton. Larry_Sanger. Klingon83. Scriberius.org/w/index. Atif. Saebjorn. Tm8992. Gilgamesh he. Radagast83. Sandstein.php?oldid=419269219  Contributors: CN3777. Rich Farmbrough. Bolivian Unicyclist. Leotohill. Ida Shaw.bmc. Foobaz. TransControl. Maurice Carbonaro. Ksy92003. WRK. Kupirijo. 5 anonymous edits 185 . Elpasi. Dicklyon. 191 anonymous edits Smartgate  Source: http://en. Atlantima. Rror. Noommos. 3 anonymous edits Vein matching  Source: http://en. 7 anonymous edits Signature  Source: http://en. Mangostar.71828. Speechgrl. KrakatoaKatie. Nastajus. Bendono. Philbert2. SimonP.wikipedia. MalcolmWood76. Conversion script.org/w/index. Smjg. Blue-Haired Lawyer. Oleg Alexandrov.wikipedia. I'll bring the food.php?oldid=422517861  Contributors: Ductapedaredevil. Grutness. C8men. Kjkolb.delanoy. VolatileChemical. Marandbon. PhDOnPoint. DeadEyeArrow. User27091. Norm. EVula. Tommy2010. Stifle. Epolk. Galoubet. Martinevans123. Mangojuice. Mendicott. Sashmiller. 16 anonymous edits Ulnar loop  Source: http://en. Amitch. Starkiller88. Marandbon.wikipedia. Elatanatari.php?oldid=419481258  Contributors: Btball. DropDeadGorgias. Tdreid. Dialectric. Brian Kendig. SilverStar. Malcolm. Xaa. Saint-Paddy. Bevo. Irishguy. Korg.wikipedia. Shaddack. Thingg. Dpr. Tregoweth. Jleedev. Deville. Filll. Dfrg. Galvanist. Voiceverified. Finn-Zoltan. Haus. Geoffr. SZEdit. Mboverload. CCFreak2K. Goulouc. Chemica. GregorB. Nohat. MightyWarrior. Gp2it. Adambiswanger1. Paulwakfer.Budden. William M.php?oldid=421057886  Contributors: Alejo2083. Pinethicket. Autograph17. Ganymead. Strabismus. Cybercobra. Wetwarexpert. Neutrality. Zestos. Hjweth. Josh Grosse.msc.ک ککک ک ک ک‬anonymous edits ‫ک‬ Telebiometrics  Source: http://en. Polyparadigm. Giuliopaci. CrowzRSA. Smoth 007. Slleong. Skater. Graham87. Carmelo83.org/w/index. Osarius. Ddxc.t2. Duncharris. Palfrey. DeweyQ. Bkell. GateKeeper. KF. Orderinchaos. Dawnseeker2000. Anakata. LilHelpa. Silver Edge. Fabrictramp. Msikma.wikipedia. Steven Walling. Nakon. FelisLeo.php?oldid=332273198  Contributors: Chris the speller.wikipedia. Motley Crue Rocks. Valimo wikipedia. Bongwarrior.bmc. Qaz. Gemuetlich. Qxz. Bensin. Ataraxis1492. Wetman. Acather96. Opelio. JuddFS. Caue. Hydriotaphia. Whpq. Lolcatz90890809809809. AndrewHowse. OlEnglish. Chowbok.org/w/index. SusanLesch. Connolley. MicahDail. Bultro. Bollinger.org/w/index. Ruhrfisch.Article Sources and Contributors Second Generation Multiplex  Source: http://en. Dtapia. CecilWard. Nbarth. ‫ 19 . Tubby.wikipedia. ERcheck. Pesco. Dancter.wikipedia. Primasz. Wereon. DrRisk13. 9 anonymous edits Soft biometrics  Source: http://en. Shaddack. Euryalus. Kasaalan. Furrykef. Rjanag. Kristof vt. Shoroar hossen. The Anome. Wimt. Waggers. Qqzzccdd. Stemonitis. H3llfire741. ChrisTomkinson. Ævar Arnfjörð Bjarmason.php?oldid=409560825  Contributors: KimChee Voice analysis  Source: http://en.php?oldid=416799905  Contributors: Bovineone. Jheald. Z10x. Ckamaeleon.org/w/index.org/w/index. Scohoust. Fredvanner. Pwqn. Pnkrockr. Odin 85th gen. AFBorchert. Yworo. Woohookitty. BigFatBuddha. Jamessugrono. Zotel.

org/w/index.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: MBGC liason. Fastily.org/w/index. File:Fingerprint Whorl.wikipedia.org/w/index.org/w/index.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Deadstar.png  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.jpg  Source: http://en.0  Contributors: User:Ashematian File:NIRIris.jpg  Source: http://en.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Badzil.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Choster.wikipedia. User:The New Mikemoral File:TWIC card.org/w/index.JPG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Jcarroll26 Image:USMC_Sergeant_identifies_Baghdaddi_city_council_member_with_iris_scanner. 1 anonymous edits Image:PD-icon.wikipedia.0  Contributors: PaleWhaleGail.wikipedia. 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Second Generation Multiplex Plus. Facial Recognition Vendor Test 2006. . time and resources investment decisions by enabling you to compare your understanding of Biometrics with the objectivity of experienced professionals. Fingerprint Verification Competition. biometrics is used as a form of identity access management and access control. EURODAC. Speaker recognition. Raymond Edmunds. Here you will find the most up-todate information. RFdump. Generalized Procrustes analysis.Biometrics consists of methods for uniquely recognizing humans based upon one or more intrinsic physical or behavioral traits. Biometrics Institute. Private biometrics. Minutiae. It is also used to identify individuals in groups that are under surveillance. Retinal scan. DNA profiling. Physiological interaction. background and everything you need to know. Multiple Biometric Grand Challenge. In easy to read chapters. with extensive references and links to get you to know all there is to know about Biometrics right away. International Automated Systems. Gait analysis. It reduces the risk of your technology. Biometric Database Law (Israel). analysis. Hand geometry. Telebiometrics. in particular. Palmar aponeurosis. DNA barcoding. Combined DNA Index System. Pay By Touch. Next Generation Identification. covering: Biometrics. Palm print. Biometric passport. Expected Progeny Difference. Biometric Consortium. Extended Access Control. MALINTENT. In computer science. Iris Challenge Evaluation. Automated fingerprint identification. FERET (facial recognition technology). Signature. CBEFF. Handwriting movement analysis. Electropherogram. Microsoft Fingerprint Reader. Pawtograph. Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System. Transportation Worker Identification Credential. Lydia Fairchild. Henry Classification System. Iris Recognition Immigration System. INSPASS. Iris recognition. BioSlimDisk. Voice analysis This book explains in-depth the real drivers and workings of Biometrics. Smartgate. This book is your ultimate resource for Biometrics. Vein matching. Second Generation Multiplex. Face Recognition Grand Challenge. Budapest Declaration on Machine Readable Travel Documents. FNAEG. Ulnar loop. Fingerprint. Procrustes analysis. E-Channel. Biometrics in schools. Radial loop. Graphology. Soft biometrics. Keystroke dynamics.

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