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Biometrics Automated fingerprint identification Biometric Consortium Biometric Database Law (Israel) Biometric passport Biometrics Institute BioSlimDisk Budapest Declaration on Machine Readable Travel Documents CBEFF Combined DNA Index System DNA barcoding DNA profiling E-Channel Raymond Edmunds Electropherogram EURODAC Expected Progeny Difference Extended Access Control Face Recognition Grand Challenge Facial Recognition Vendor Test 2006 Lydia Fairchild FERET (facial recognition technology) Fingerprint Fingerprint Verification Competition FNAEG Gait analysis Generalized Procrustes analysis Graphology Hand geometry Handwriting movement analysis Henry Classification System INSPASS Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System International Automated Systems 1 9 11 12 14 29 31 32 32 33 36 42 55 57 58 59 59 61 62 65 67 68 72 91 95 96 100 101 112 112 118 120 122 123
Licenses and Contributors 182 186 Article Licenses License 187 .Iris Challenge Evaluation Iris recognition Iris Recognition Immigration System Keystroke dynamics MALINTENT Microsoft Fingerprint Reader Minutiae Multiple Biometric Grand Challenge Next Generation Identification Palm print Palmar aponeurosis Pawtograph Pay By Touch Physiological interaction Private biometrics Procrustes analysis Radial loop Retinal scan RFdump Biometrics in schools Second Generation Multiplex Second Generation Multiplex Plus Signature Smartgate Soft biometrics Speaker recognition Telebiometrics Transportation Worker Identification Credential Ulnar loop Vein matching Voice analysis 124 126 132 133 139 139 140 141 144 145 146 147 148 149 151 153 156 156 158 159 163 164 167 169 171 172 174 175 177 178 180 References Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources.
Uniqueness – is how well the biometric separates individuals from another. but it can change according to the characteristics desired. In the third block necessary features are extracted. During the enrollment. removing background noise). to enhance the input (e. etc. to use some kind of normalization. Can be done in conjunction with a smart card. In computer science. Permanence – measures how well a biometric resists aging and other variance over time. hand geometry.Biometrics 1 Biometrics Biometrics consists of methods for uniquely recognizing humans based upon one or more intrinsic physical or behavioral traits. and odour/scent. It is possible to understand if a human characteristic can be used for biometrics in terms of the following  parameters: • • • • • • • Universality – each person should have the characteristic. A biometric system can operate in the following two modes: • Verification – A one to one comparison of a captured biometric with a stored template to verify that the individual is who he claims to be. Circumvention – ease of use of a substitute. Examples include. biometrics is used as a form of identity access management and access control. username or ID number. Most of the times it is an image acquisition system. biometric information from an individual is stored. Biometric characteristics can be divided in two main classes: • Physiological are related to the shape of the body. speed. Strictly speaking. Collectability – ease of acquisition for measurement. Some researchers have coined the term behaviometrics for this class of biometrics. and robustness of technology used. in particular. Performance – accuracy. but voice recognition is mainly based on the study of the way a person speaks. biometric information is detected and compared with the information stored at the time of enrollment. In subsequent uses. Examples include. This step is an important step as the correct . At Walt Disney World biometric measurements are taken from the fingers of guests to ensure that the person's ticket is used by the same person from day to day • Behavioral are related to the behavior of a person. face recognition. and voice. but are not limited to typing rhythm. Note that it is crucial that storage and retrieval of such systems themselves be secure if the biometric system is to be robust. • Identification – A one to many comparison of the captured biometric against a biometric database in attempt to identify an unknown individual. Acceptability – degree of approval of a technology. The identification only succeeds in identifying the individual if the comparison of the biometric sample to a template in the database falls within a previously set threshold. It is also used to identify individuals in groups that are under surveillance.g. The second block performs all the necessary pre-processing: it has to remove artifacts from the sensor. it has to acquire all the necessary data. gait. voice is also a physiological trait because every person has a different vocal tract. The first time an individual uses a biometric system is called an enrollment. which has largely replaced retina. DNA. but are not limited to fingerprint. iris recognition. commonly classified as behavioral. Palm print. The first block (sensor) is the interface between the real world and the system.
It measures the percent of valid inputs which are incorrectly rejected. If the threshold is reduced. If a matching phase is being performed. . • failure to enroll rate (FTE or FER) – the rate at which attempts to create a template from an input is unsuccessful.g. A template is a synthesis of the relevant characteristics extracted from the source.g. for example in which the computer is part of a botnet controlled by a hacker. • receiver operating characteristic or relative operating characteristic (ROC) – The ROC plot is a visual characterization of the trade-off between the FAR and the FRR. emerging and future applications of biometrics Proposal calls for biometric authentication to access certain public networks John Michael (Mike) McConnell. the device with the lowest EER is most accurate. • false reject rate or false non-match rate (FRR or FNMR) – the probability that the system fails to detect a match between the input pattern and a matching template in the database. Current. a former Director of US National Intelligence. However. This more linear graph illuminates the differences for higher performances (rarer errors). A common variation is the Detection error trade-off (DET). A basic premise in the above proposal is that the person that has uniquely authenticated themselves using biometrics with the computer is in fact also the agent performing potentially malicious actions from that computer. Elements of the biometric measurement that are not used in the comparison algorithm are discarded in the template to reduce the filesize and to protect the identity of the enrollee. a higher threshold will reduce the FAR but increase the FRR. Correspondingly. • template capacity – the maximum number of sets of data which can be stored in the system. This is most commonly caused by low quality inputs. It measures the percent of invalid inputs which are incorrectly accepted. there will be less false non-matches but more false accepts.Biometrics features need to be extracted in the optimal way. which is obtained using normal deviate scales on both axes. a former vice admiral in the United States Navy. the probability that the system fails to detect a biometric input when presented correctly. In general. The matching program will analyze the template with the input. A vector of numbers or an image with particular properties is used to create a template. the obtained template is passed to a matcher that compares it with other existing templates. This will then be output for any specified use or purpose (e. The value of the EER can be easily obtained from the ROC curve. and Senior Vice President of Booz Allen Hamilton promoted the development of a future capability to require biometric authentication to access certain public networks in his Keynote Speech at the 2009 Biometric Consortium Conference . the template is simply stored somewhere (on a card or within a database or both). Hamming distance). 2 Performance The following are used as performance metrics for biometric systems: • false accept rate or false match rate (FAR or FMR) – the probability that the system incorrectly matches the input pattern to a non-matching template in the database. • equal error rate or crossover error rate (EER or CER) – the rate at which both accept and reject errors are equal. entrance in a restricted area). If enrollment is being performed. • failure to capture rate (FTC) – Within automatic systems. The EER is a quick way to compare the accuracy of devices with different ROC curves. estimating the distance between them using any algorithm (e. if control of the computer has been subverted. then knowledge of the identity of the user at the terminal does not materially improve network security or aid law enforcement activities. the matching algorithm performs a decision based on a threshold which determines how close to a template the input needs to be for it to be considered a match. In general.
This is not naturally available in biometrics.g. Cancelable biometrics One advantage of passwords over biometrics is that they can be re-issued. The variability in the distortion parameters provides the cancelable nature of the scheme. gender) which makes them privacy-safe. Those attributes have a low discriminating power. Danger to owners of secured items When thieves cannot get access to secure properties. and potentially cost more than the secured property. in 2005. It was first proposed by Ratha et al. They allow to describe a subject starting from his/her physical attributes. Essentially. such as Dabbah et al. (a consultant to the Office of Homeland Defense and America’s security affairs) said the United States has bi-lateral agreements to share biometric data with about 25 countries. Several methods for generating cancelable biometrics have been proposed. If someone’s face is compromised from a database. thus not capable of identification performance. If the item is secured with a biometric device. If a token or a password is lost or stolen. The first fingerprint based cancelable biometric system was designed and developed by Tulyakov et al. the damage to the owner could be irreversible.. already trade biometric data.. Magnuson in the National Defense Magazine. the United States Defense Department is under pressure to share biometric data. Although this increases the restrictions on the protection system. Cancelable biometrics is a way in which to incorporate protection and the replacement features into biometrics. cancelable biometrics perform a distortion of the biometric image or features before matching. they cannot cancel or reissue it. To quote a 2009 testimony made before the US House Appropriations Committee. it makes the cancellable templates more accessible for available biometric technologies. weight. Soft biometrics Soft biometrics because of their inner nature are privacy preserving. height. whereas other methods. such as Teoh et al. To quote that article: “ Miller. For example. ” . Malaysian car thieves cut off the finger of a Mercedes-Benz S-Class owner when attempting to steal the car. and Savvides et al. the State Department has made sure they sign such an agreement. take the advantage of the advancement of the well-established biometric research for their recognition front-end to conduct recognition. Some of the proposed techniques operate using their own recognition engines.Biometrics 3 Issues and concerns Privacy and discrimination It is possible that data obtained during biometric enrollment may be used in ways for which the enrolled individual has not consented. including the United States. Subcommittee on Homeland Security on “biometric identification” by Kathleen Kraninger and Robert A Mocny  According to article written by S. International trading of biometric data Many countries. Every time a foreign leader has visited Washington during the last few years. it can be cancelled and replaced by a newer version. there is a chance that the thieves will stalk and assault the property owner to gain access. additionally they are fully available to everyone (e.
According to Jim Wayman. Gambia The Gambia Biometric Identification System (GAMBIS) allowed for the issuance of Gambia’s first biometric identity documents in July 2009. “A third biometric identifier – iris scans – could be added at a later stage”. the US-VISIT program will very soon surpass Walt Disney World for biometrics deployment. In addition to producing biometric passports for German citizens. residential permits. and digital photos”. The US Department of Defense (DoD) Common Access Card. usually of the index fingers. Biometric documents issued for Gambia include national identity cards. a passport issued to all German citizens which contain biometric technology. full disclosure may not be forthcoming to the civilian community. unique to each applicant applying for a card. there is some apprehension in the United States (and the European Union) that the information can be "skimmed" and identify people's citizenship remotely for criminal intent. This card contains biometric data and digitized photographs. The ePass has been in circulation since November 2005. It also has laser-etched photographs and holograms to add security and reduce the risk of falsification. The United States (US) and European Union (EU) are proposing new methods for border crossing procedures utilizing biometrics. An individual’s data. In particular. and contains a chip that holds a digital photograph and one fingerprint from each hand. An increase in the prevalence of biometric technology in Germany is an effort to not only keep citizens safe within German borders but also to comply with the current US deadline for visa-waiver countries to introduce biometric passports. US passports with facial (image-based) biometric data were scheduled to be produced. Privacy activists in many countries have criticized the technology's use for the potential harm to civil liberties. including their biometric information (thumbprints) is captured in the database. However. which allow more than three months' residence. There have been over 10 million of these cards issued. “The market size will increase from approximately 120 million € (2004) to 377 million €” (2009).Biometrics 4 Governments are unlikely to disclose full capabilities of biometric deployments Certain members of the civilian community are worried about how biometric data is used. privacy. non-Gambian ID cards and driver licenses. The new work visas will also include fingerprinting. director of the National Biometric Test Center at San Jose State University. is an ID card issued to all US Service personnel and contractors on US Military sites. Currently. Employing biometrically enabled travel documents will increase security and expedite travel for legitimate travelers. Walt Disney World is the nation's largest single commercial application of biometrics. though others may be used if these fingers are missing or have extremely distorted prints. iris scanning. the German government has put in place new requirements for visitors to apply for visas within the country. the biometric procedures of fingerprint and facial recognition can profit from the government project. is issued to the applicant. . such as kidnapping. “The federal government will be a major contributor to this development”. Germany The biometrics market in Germany will experience enormous growth until the year 2009. and the risk of identity theft. Countries applying biometrics United States Starting in 2005. In May 2005 the German Upper House of Parliament approved the implementation of the ePass. “Only applicants for long-term visas. Unfortunately. A National Identification Number (NIN). will be affected by the planned biometric registration program.
The oldest and most traditional ID Institute in Brazil (Instituto de Identificação Félix Pacheco) was integrated at DETRAN (Brazilian equivalent to DMV) into the civil and criminal AFIS system in 1999. The Vucetich system was adopted not only in Brazil. immune to forgery. The magazine also included the fingerprint on a film that readers could use to fool fingerprint readers. The 2D bar code encodes a color photo. Brazilian citizens will have their signature. The decision by the Brazilian government to adopt fingerprint-based biometrics was spearheaded by Dr. Felix Pacheco at Rio de Janeiro.25 billion people. The new passport included several security features. Each state in Brazil is allowed to print its own ID card. their identification can be found and verified by using their unique biometric information. This allows for contactless electronic reading of the passport content and Citizens ID verification since fingerprint templates and token facial images will be available for automatic recognition. The government will then use the information to issue identity cards. like Laser perforation. 5 Brazil Since the beginning of the 20th century. Brazilian citizens have had user ID cards. since humankind came into existence". P Chidambaram. who invented one of the most complete tenprint classification systems in existence. two fingerprints. Iraq Biometrics are being used extensively in Iraq to catalogue as many Iraqis as possible providing Iraqis with a verifiable identification card. Accredited visitors will include athletes. a signature. in Brasilia. Dr.. “The Olympic Games is always a diplomatically tense affair and previous events have been rocked by terrorist attacks . The new documents started to be released by the beginning of 2007.most notably when Germany last held the Games in Munich in 1972 and 11 Israeli athletes were killed”. coaching staff. at that time capital of the Federative Republic. If implemented. “On registering with the scheme. security layer over variable data and etc. Biometric technology was first used at the Olympic Summer Games in Athens. This technology was developed in 2000 in order to enhance the safety of the Brazilian ID cards. All of the data is planned to be stored in ICAO E-passport standard. but also by most of the other South American countries.Biometrics Germany is also one of the first countries to implement biometric technology at the Olympic Games to protect German athletes. and other citizen data. The ID cards printed in Rio de Janeiro are fully digitized using a 2D bar code with information which can be matched against its owner off-line. Even if an Iraqi has lost their ID card. described the process as "the biggest exercise. photo. UV hidden symbols. the Brazilian government started the development of its new passport. but the layout and data are the same for all of them. accredited visitors will receive an ID card containing their fingerprint biometrics data that will enable them to access the 'German House'. Pacheco was a friend of Dr. Officials in India will spend one year classifying India's population according to demographics . the influential hacker group Chaos Computer Club published a fingerprint of German Minister of the Interior Wolfgang Schäuble in the March 2008 edition of its magazine Datenschleuder. As a protest against the increasing use of biometric data. Juan Vucetich. India's Home Minister. India India is undertaking an ambitious mega project (the Multipurpose National Identity Card) to provide a unique identification number to each of its 1. this would be the biggest implementation of the Biometrics in the world. Greece in 2004. During account creation. By the end of 2005. and 10 rolled fingerprints collected during passport requests. team management and members of the media”. the collected biometrics information is logged into a central database which then allows a user profile to be created. such as individual personal history. consisting the biometric information of the individual.. The Identification number will be stored in a central databases. Additional information can also be added to each account record.
Siena University. date of birth and sex. Only members of the Biometrics Institute are eligible to subscribe to this Code. This has raised questions from liberty groups as taking away the liberty of choice from the youth of society. Canada Canada has begun research into the use of biometric technology in the area of border security and immigration (Center for Security Sciences . The law is currently in its trial period. is voluntary.Biometrics indicators. Opponents of the proposed law. Australia is the first country to introduce a Biometrics Privacy Code. and your personal ID number (Dutch tax and social security (SoFi) number). Australia Visitors intending to visit Australia may soon have to submit to biometric authentication as part of the Smartgate system. all new Dutch passports and ID cards must include the holder's fingerprints. Biometrics Institute membership. and thus subscription to this Code. during which enrollment is  optional. Citizenship and Immigration Canada and the Canada Border Services Agency will probably be the first government institutions to fully implement the technology in Canada. Israel The Israeli government has passed a bill calling for the creation of a biometric database of all Israeli residents. Public Security Technical Program . the database will contain their fingerprints and facial contours. Staufen Rome University Tor Vergata . which is established and administered by the Biometrics Institute. Specialist and University Faculty *Enrico Manfredi d'Angrogna Luserna v. the document number. Other concerns arise from the possibility of data leaking from the providers of school meals to interest groups that provide health services such as the NHS and insurance groups that may end up having a detrimental effect on the ability of individuals to enjoy equality of access to services. your nationality. . Upon enrolling. 6 Italy Italy has standardized protocols in use to police forces. The chip holds following data: your name (first name(s) and surname). warned that the existence of such a database could damage both civil liberties and state security. Since 26 August 2006. By using such a system nutritional reports can be produced for parents to surveil a child's intake. because any leaks could be used by criminals or hostile individuals against Israeli residents. Biometric data are already collected from some visa applicants by Immigration. United Kingdom Fingerprint scanners used in some schools to facilitate the subtraction of funds from an account financed by parents for the payment of school dinners. the country of issue. The Code includes privacy standards that are at least equivalent to the Australian National Privacy Principles (NPPs) in the Privacy Act and also incorporates higher standards of privacy protection in relation to certain acts and practices. the expiry date.  Netherlands Starting 21 September 2009. linking individuals to their visas and passports. Biometrics Community of Practice). enrollment would be mandatory for all residents. Dutch passports have included an electronic chip containing the personal details of the holder and a digitised passport photograph. including prominent Israeli scientists and security experts. . pending on successful trial. The Biometrics Institute Privacy Code Biometrics Institute  forms part of Australian privacy legislation. a resident would be issued a new form of an identification card containing these biometrics. The physical count will begin on February 2011.
28. Goh. K.  7 New Zealand SmartGate was launched by the New Zealand government at Auckland International Airport on Thursday 3 December 2009. but which prick the finger and sample DNA from the resulting blood droplet • The television program MythBusters attempted to break into a commercial security door equipped with biometric authentication as well as a personal laptop so equipped. B. Ngo. Connell. Florida. Mike (January 2009). “Symmetric Hash Functions for Fingerprint Minutiae. V. "An introduction to biometric recognition". 2007. Teoh. "Secure Authentication for Face Recognition. W.  McConnell. Prabhakar. 30-38. • The movie Gattaca portrays a society in which there are two classes of people: those genetically engineered to be superior (termed "Valid") and the inferior natural humans ("Invalid"). pdf  Jain. and S. H.” Proc. A. Govindaraju. The main character changes his official Identity by having his eyes transplanted. 40.Robust Shift Invariant PCA based Correlation Filter for Illumination Tolerant Face Recognition. K." presented at IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR'04). html). L. Int’l Workshop Pattern Recognition for Crime Prevention. While the laptop's system proved more difficult to bypass. and P. vol. biometrics. Tulyakov. It will begin operating in Wellington and Christchurch from next year. Biometrics in popular culture • The 2002 film Minority Report features extensive use of casual Iris/Retina scanning techniques for both personal Identification and Point Of Sale transaction purposes. pp. org/ bc2009  Kent. Kumar. co.818349  "CHARACTERISTICS OF BIOMETRIC SYSTEMS" (http:/ / www. ""Corefaces".  N. Retrieved 20 February 2010  http:/ / www. The kiosk and gate system will allow all New Zealand and Australian electronic passport holders over 18 to clear passport control without needing to have their identity checked by a Customs officer. K. doi:10. Woo. Tampa Convention Center. Deputy comptroller of customs John Secker said SmartGate represented probably the biggest single development in border processing in New Zealand in the past two decades. the advanced commercial security door with "live" sensing was fooled with a printed scan of a fingerprint after it had been licked. J. cn/ education/ cissp/ hism/ 039-041. BBC Online (Kuala Lumpur).  S. bbc. 2006. ." (http:/ / www. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology 14th (1): 4–20." Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. Dabbah. CIISP 2007. .2003. Farooq. • In Demolition Man the character Simon Phoenix cuts out a living victim's eye in order to open a locked door which is fitted with iris scanning. V. it-sudparis. Tampa. Ratha. IEEE Symposium on. Retrieved 11 December 2010. Security. vol. J. S. Salil (January 2004)." IBM systems Journal. Ross. 2007. uk/ 2/ hi/ asia-pacific/ 4396831. M. Arun. . 2001. B. com/ consulting-services/ services_article/ 42861927). and V.. 614-634. and R. Dlay.Biometrics Recent requirements for passport photographs Since 28 August 2006. K.  M. Savvides. stm). "KeyNote Address. eu/ public_html/ biosecure1/ public_docs_deli/ BioSecure_Deliverable_D10-2-3_b3. 1892-1901. References  http:/ / biosecure. People considered "Valid" have greater privileges.1109/TCSVT. F. Cernet.  M. edu." presented at Computational Intelligence in Image and Signal Processing. Khosla. under EU regulation '2252/2004' all EU member states have been obliged to include a digital image of the holder’s passport photograph. "Enhancing security and privacy in biometrics-based authentication systems. ccert. 2004. A. Biometric Consortium Conference. Bolle. IEEE Transactions on. 2005  A. . boozallen. Jonathan (31 March 2005). and later accesses a security system using one of the removed eyes. "Random Multispace Quantization as an Analytic Mechanism for BioHashing of Biometric and Random Identity Inputs. pp. C. A. pp. and D. "Malaysia car thieves steal finger" (http:/ / news.. People will have a choice whether they want to use the system or go through normal passport control. and Surveillance. and access to areas restricted to such persons is controlled by automated biometric scanners similar in appearance to fingerprint scanners. L.
 Criteria for accepting passport photos in Dutch travel documents Ministry of Foreign Affairs." (http:/ / www. Mocny. com/ security/ 0. acq. h-online. BBC News. "On Defense Biometrics" (http:/ / www.com (http:/ / software. K. css. rj.. org/ Feature/ display. asp  http:/ / www.Research and Markets (http:/ / www.aware.Biometrics  Kraniger. A. before the House Appropriations Committee.7340. pdf).shtml) • “Germany to phase-in biometric passports from November 2005”. nationaldefensemagazine.htm). migrationinformation.cbsnews. "Defense department under pressure to share biometric data. com/ reports/ c4206/ )  IDABC . il/ articles/ 0. US Department of Homeland Security.Market Research Reports .com/stories/2001/ 01/24/national/main266789.fer. Subcommittee on Homeland Security. "Fotomatrix English" (http:/ / www.” (2001). Retrieved 6 July 2010. asp?cod=1438  "India launches biometric census" (http:/ / news. K. "Biometric passports" (http:/ / www. • “Fingerprints Pay For School Lunch. nl/ en/ Services/ Consular_Services/ Dutch_passport_ID_card/ Biometric_passports  http:/ / www. nz/ compute/ news/ article.europa. and Director Robert A.DE: Germany to phase-in biometric passports from November 2005 (http:/ / ec. aspx). bbc.. cfm?ID=141)  Biometrics used to keep German Olympians safe . com/ newsticker/ news/ item/ CCC-publishes-fingerprints-of-German-Home-Secretary-734713. paspoortinformatie. com/ Home/ Article. minbuza. co. "Biometric Identification"" (http:/ / www. Published by the National Biometric Security Project (NBSP). stm). Retrieved 20 February 2010  Magnuson. detran. nl/ en/ Services/ Consular_Services/ Dutch_passport_ID_card/ Biometric_passports). Retrieved 6 July 2010. br/ _documento. com/ servlet/ Satellite?pagename=JPost/ JPArticle/ ShowFull& cid=1246443865107)  YNET: Biometric Database .pdf).org/ Upload/PDFs/634122830612738824_Biometrics-VivianandGayathrilo-res. osd.eu/idabc/en/document/4338/194) . ca/ index-eng. europa. shtm). the BTAM is a comprehensive reference manual on biometric technology applications.00.org/ApprovedDocuments/ evaluation/ceeb3a01-801e-4d2c-b447-bc79d13d2d62.Software . ynet. Retrieved 20 February 2010  Article describing Disney's 2006 biometric initiative replacing hand geometric scanners with fingerprint readers (http:/ / newsinitiative.Breaking Business and Technology News at silicon. M. .00. ca/ pstp/ about-sujet/ index-eng. Heise Media UK Ltd. aspx?id=162522)  Digital World: Getting to know all about you and me (http:/ / fr. jpost. 20301-3140: Office of the Under Secretary of Defense For Acquisition. (http://ec. National Protection and Programs Directorate.C. html)  http:/ / www. jpost. researchandmarkets. Screening Coordination. . silicon. Use of Biometrics (http://techcast. nzherald. Grgic. gc. • TechCast Article Series.A Danger to State Security (http:/ / www. Mocny. co. (2004).biometricscatalog. Unclassified Report of the Defense Science Board Task Force. Retrieved 2010-06-08. gc. gov. minbuza. Technology. A Survey of Biometric Recognition Methods (http://www.vcl.hr/papers_pdf/ A Survey of Biometric Recognition Methods. co. US-VISIT. . htm)  Kleinz. org/ displaycommon.org. D. (2005). eu/ idabc/ en/ document/ 4338/ 194)  Migration Information Source . nl/ english/ Travel_documents/ Reading_the_chip  Ministry of Home Affairs and kingdom relations. org/ ARCHIVE/ 2009/ JANUARY/ Pages/ DefenseDepartmentUnderPressuretoShareBiometricData. nl/ dsresource?objectid=4653& type=pdf) (PDF).com/biometrics/ whitepapers. E-Government News. R. gov/ ynews/ testimony/ testimony_1237563811984. 1 April 2010. Vivian Chu and Gayathri Rajendran. Retrieved 2008-03-02. css. . mil/ dsb/ reports/ ADA465930. NationalDefenseMagazine. Retrieved 2006-06-11. and Logistics.. S (January 2009).pdf).Germany Weighs Biometric Registration Options for Visa Applicants (http:/ / www.  http:/ / www. dhs. • Biometric Technology Application Manual (http://www. drdc-rddc. • Delac.  http:/ / www. cfm?c_id=1501832& objectid=10613348  http:/ / gagspace. (http://www.39024655.  http:/ / www. Published by Aware. drdc-rddc. Torsten (2008-03-31). Retrieved 20 February 2010  Defense Science Board (DSB) (September 2006).L-3754468. paspoortinformatie. biometricsinstitute. org/ story/ 2006/ 08/ 14/ walt_disney_world_the_governments)  The Biometrics Market in Germany 2004-2009: Anti-terrorism Laws Drive Growth . com/ video/ how_to_hack_a_fingerprint_scanner Video of the Mythbusters episode on how to hack fingerprint scanners] 8 Further reading • White Paper .pdf)..Identification Flats: A Revolution in Fingerprint Biometrics (http://www. The H. March 2009. Washington. . .39123078. "CCC publishes fingerprints of German Home Secretary" (http:/ / www. (March 2009). GWU. Inc. asp  The Jerusalem Post: Knesset approves controversial Biometric Database Law (http:/ / www. html). cfm?an=1& subarticlenbr=8%20  http:/ / www. "Testimony of Deputy Assistant Secretary for Policy Kathleen Kraninger. uk/ 2/ hi/ south_asia/ 8598159. .
the Pruem treaty's decentral infrastructure allowes AFIS queries on all European criminal AFIS'es within a reasonable timeframe. Israel. European police agencies are now required by a European council act to open their AFISes to each other to improve the war on terror and the investigation of cross-border crime. provinces. the most important of which include identifying a person suspected of committing a crime or linking a suspect to other unsolved crimes. Australia. Chile. Many states also have their own AFIS. AFISes have capabilities such as latent searching. whereas identification systems determine identity based solely on fingerprints.S. the United Kingdom. and local administrative regions have their own systems. While technically not being an AFIS itself. 9 Automated fingerprint identification Automated fingerprint identification is the process of automatically matching one or many unknown fingerprints against a database of known and unknown prints. and various states. Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System holds all fingerprint sets collected in the country. Germany. including Canada. and is managed by the FBI. automated fingerprint identification systems have been used in large scale civil identification projects. driver licensing. Luxembourg. Italy. the Netherlands and Austria. and receipt of credentials (such as passports). a two stage search. Automated fingerprint identification systems are primarily used by law enforcement agencies for criminal identification initiatives. Venezuela. “Germany Weighs Biometric Registration Options for Visa Applicants”. The act followed the Pruem treaty. The chief purpose of a civil fingerprint identifications system is to prevent multiple enrollments in an electoral. Argentina. print matching speed. Deployed automated fingerprint identification systems The U. including criminal identification. France. the "core". electronic image storage. and the characteristics noted above are critical elements of system performance. or similar system. Morocco. . Fingerprint matching algorithms Fingerprint matching algorithms vary greatly in terms of Type I (false positive) and Type II (false negative) error rates. On a technical level. In general. Denmark. Pakistan. Many other entities. receipt of benefits.Biometrics • Oezcan. Another benefit of a civil fingerprint identifications system is its use in background checks for job applicants for highly sensitive posts and educational personnel who have close contact with children. or center of the fingerprint pattern). The first stage will generally make use of global fingerprint characteristics while the second stage is the minutia matcher. robustness to poor image quality. Some larger AFIS vendors deploy custom hardware while others use software to attain matching speed and throughput. at the least. it is desirable to have. the European Union. Automated fingerprint verification is a closely-related technique used in applications such as attendance and access control systems. applicant background checks. Retrieved 2006-06-11. welfare. The accuracy of the algorithm. (2003). Humboldt University Berlin. Fingerprint matching has an enormous computational burden. V. verification systems verify a claimed identity (a user might claim to be John by presenting his PIN or ID card and verify his identity using his fingerprint). the International Criminal Police Organization. and electronic exchange of fingerprints and responses. Turkey. They also vary in terms of features such as image rotation invariance and independence from a reference point (usually. which are used for a variety of purposes. Spain. With greater frequency in recent years. an initiative between the countries Belgium.
todes. provided the matching score is high enough. Latent to tenprint searching will frequently return many (often fifty or more) candidates because of limited and poor quality input data. • Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) Dacto 2000 . do?uri=OJ:L:2008:210:0001:0011:EN:PDF). The confirmation of system suggested candidates is usually performed by a technician in forensic systems. as of Jan 2007. In recent years. Retrieved 2010-05-10. by/ en/ dacto2000. there should seldom be more than a single candidate unless there are multiple records from the same candidate in the database. and these searches can return from one to ten possible matches. eu/ LexUriServ/ LexUriServ. livinginperu. From the article Peru now uses AFIS fingerprint system . com/ news/ 3053  http:/ / www. . com/ news/ img/ afis-display. using a "search threshold" parameter to increase accuracy. "Lights-out" or "auto-confirm" is often used in civil identification systems. jpg  http:/ / www.Automated fingerprint identification In any case. "lights-out" or "auto-confirm" algorithms produce "identified" or "non-identified" responses without a human operator looking at the prints. Apr 2010 References  Acts adopted under the EO treaty (http:/ / eur-lex.. Belarus • SourceAFIS is an OpenSource fingerprint recognition/matching SDK (library) . Many systems use a broader search in order to reduce the number of missed identifications. 10 External links • Screen shot of AFIS system used in Peru . net/ projects/ sourceafis/ . europa.. livinginperu. the search systems return results with some numerical measure of the probability of a match (a "score"). and is increasingly used in criminal identification systems as well. html  http:/ / sourceforge.  http:/ / filer. In tenprint searching. Retrieved 2010-05-10. though.
Biometric Consortium logo The main event of this consortium is the Biometric Consortium Conference. evaluation and application of biometric-based personal authentication technology. agendas. In 1994. private industry. held every fall.Biometric Consortium 11 Biometric Consortium The Biometric Consortium is a US government sponsored consortia created by the National Security Agency (NSA) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). It serves as the US government focal point for the research. Mission The Biometric Consortium's charter states that the mission of the Biometric Consortium is: • to serve as a Government focal point for research. development. and protocols for the community and security policy organizations. • Provide a forum for information exchange between the Government. and Information Systems Security Committee. • Create standardized testing databases. development. and meeting minutes to the Chairpersons of the Security Policy Board. The objective of the Biometric Consortium is to provide a forum for information exchange on biometric technology among the Government. • to encourage the use and acceptance of biometric technology in areas of critical need and also concern itself with maximizing performance. Alyea took over as chair and vice chair. published proceedings. Facilities Protection Committee. The Biometric Consortium's charter was formally approved on December 7. Campbell and Ms. and ethical issues surrounding this technology. performance. • Establish ad hoc bodies. and avoiding duplication of effort within the Government community. • Establish increased Government and commercial interaction. • Address the safety. minimizing cost. • to meet regularly to: • Promote the science and performance of biometrics. . • Advise and assist member agencies concerning the selection and application of biometric devices. a committee that reports to the Security Policy Board through the Security Policy Forum. procedures. Benincasa. • Establish a feedback mechanism for issues that are exposed during the actual application of this technology. test. Both NSA and NIST co-chair the BC. • to coordinate technological concerns and issues of performance and efficiency within the Government in order to serve the best interests of the taxpayer. evaluation. • to address the following: • Coordinate with the Information Systems Security Committee to foster awareness of biometrics. respectively. The Security Policy Board reports to the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs. • Provide copies of all meeting invitations. and academia. to address specific areas of need within the Government biometric community. 1995 by the Facilities Protection Committee. legal. • Facilitate symposia/workshops to include the participation of academia and private industry. History The Biometric Consortium met for the first time on October 1992 under the chairmanship of Dr. testing. and application of biometric-based personal identification/authentication technology. as required. Dr. industry and academia.
עדימ רגאמבוIs an Israeli Law which the Knesset passed in December 2009. and identity theft which are caused when using the documentation of a person from whom the identity was stolen. identification of individuals and assist in locating individuals suspected of criminal activity by the law enforcement officials. When the law passed in December 2009 it was determined that he law be gradually applied and that at the first phase. (2) Establishment of a biometric database which would include biometric identification means which would be integrated onto identification documents. for which submitted requests were handed in for new identity cards. theft and destruction of about 150. and activities which harm Israel's national security. Opponents of the highly controversial law. in question the loss. and that a biometric government database of all Israeli citizens and residents would be created which would be used for biometric identification that would allow the management of access control. the inclusion of one's biometric data in the central database would be voluntary. criminal and economic offenses. producing double records for the same person. whom often try to geth the assistance of state workers. allow the misuse of identification documents for illegal immigration. as described in paragraph (1). warned that the existence of such a database could damage both civil liberties and state security. and to determine the permitted uses of such data and measures.  Law's targets The laws's targets which are presented in its first section are: (1) Determining the arrangements which would allow the identification and verification of the identity of Israeli residents by including biometric identification means and biometric identification data in passports and identity cards. that the collected data would be integrated onto the Israeli digital identity cards and digital passports. In many cases.000 ID cards per year. including: Fake ID cards and passports. The data of the Israeli Police indicates that about 52 percent of the individuals whom submitted requests for new identity . Nowadays identification documents are easily forged by criminals. determining the means of access to the biometric database and securing the information in it. the facts which led to the passing of the law are also explained: The law is aimed for the dealing with the serious issues which the State of Israel is facing in the recent years in identifying documents which are produced by the Interior Ministry. org/ Biometric Database Law (Israel) The Biometric Database Law (Hebrew: יוהיז יכמסמב םיירטמויב יוהיז ינותנו םיירטמויב יוהיז יעצמא תללכה קוח )9002-ט"סשתה . theft and destruction of the ID cards occurred several times for the same resident during these three years. determining that fingerprints and facial contours would be collected from all Israeli residents. From 2005 to 2007 the Interior Ministry reported the loss. (3) Determining the necessary arrangements to protect the privacy of the residents whom provided their biometric data. including prominent Israeli scientists and security experts. These examples. biometrics. biometric identification data generated from them. because any leaks could be used by criminals or hostile individuals against Israeli residents. Furthermore.Biometric Consortium 12 External links • Biometric Consortium official website  References  http:/ / www. and defining the permitted uses of the database by the Israel Police forces and the Israeli security authorities. to prevent forgery and the using of a false identity.
References  Digital World: Getting to know all about you and me (http:/ / www. between the yers 1995 to 2006 had a criminal record.aspx) . 13 Law's clauses The employees of the Interior Ministry would be authorized to collect biometric identification data from the Israeli population.jpost.com on 11/16/2009 • The State of Israel and the Biometric Database Law: Political Centrism and the Post-Democratic State / Nitzan Lebovic and Avner Pinchuk (http://www.forward.4055) . html) External links • Biometric database bill passes first vote / Erez Ronen (http://www.com/articles/ 0. an employee of the Shin Bet. ynet. although selected government officials would be capable of linking between the to databases to retrive additional data. jpost.)ירטמויבה רגאמה לוהינל תושרהThis data would be used to issue resident identification documents and for verification of an individual's identity.com/news/ following-criticism-netanyahu-defers-vote-on-biometric-database-law-1. by the means of rechecking an individual's biometric identification data by authorized officials (police officer.com/Home/Article.00.com on 8/12/2009 • Following criticism. aspx?id=149360) . il/ articles/ 0. an employee of the Mossad.Biometric Database Law (Israel) cards after theirs was lost.7340.haaretz. and to transfer the data to a database which would be managed by the biometric database management authority ( . Database Law / Nathan Jeffay (http://www.Published in jpost.). The biometric database would be stored separatly from the government's older existing identity database.Published in ynetnews.7340. Netanyahu defers vote on biometric database law (http://www.Published in forward.00.Published in haaretz.com on 10/29/2008 • Digital World: Getting to know all about you and me / David Shamah (http://www. aspx?id=149360)  YNET: Biometric Database . com/ Home/ Article.L-3754468.html) .org.com/articles/112033/) .idi. stolen and/or destructed.A Danger to State Security (http:/ / www.il/sites/english/BreakingTheNews/Pages/ IsraelAndTheBiometricDatabase.ynetnews. etc. of which 10 percent have a criminal record of distribution of counterfeit documents.Published on 6/21/2010 .D.com on 7/21/2009 • Israel Poised To Pass National I.L-3614965. co.
Only the digital image (usually in JPEG or JPEG2000 format) of each biometric feature is actually stored in the chip. or center page. . it includes a minimum of 32 kilobytes of EEPROM storage memory. is a combined paper and electronic passport (hence the e-. as in e-mail) that contains biometric information that can be used to authenticate the identity of travelers. Albania and Brazil) are fully ICAO9303 compliant biometric travel documents. The comparison of biometric features is performed outside the passport chip by electronic border control systems (e-borders).Biometric passport 14 Biometric passport A biometric passport. including a microprocessor chip (computer chip) and antenna (for both power to the chip and communication) embedded in the front or back cover. However others. These were adopted after assessment of several different kinds of biometrics including retinal scan. also known as an e-passport or ePassport. Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) is used to authenticate the data stored electronically in the passport chip making it expensive and difficult (as of 2010) to forge when all security mechanisms are fully and correctly implemented. Document and chip characteristics are documented in the International Civil Aviation Organisation's (ICAO) Doc 9303. These standards intend interoperability between different countries and different manufacturers of passport books. The ICAO defines the biometric file formats and communication protocols to be used in passports. amongst others. usually printed on the cover of passports The currently standardized biometrics used for this type of identification system are facial recognition. It uses contactless smart card technology. and iris recognition.g. and runs on an interface in accordance with the ISO/IEC 14443 international standard. Some national identity cards (e. fingerprint recognition. of the passport. To store biometric data on the contactless chip. Countries with biometric passports: Biometric passports available to the general public Announced future availability of biometric passports Symbol for biometric passports. in the Netherlands.   The passport's critical information is both printed on the data page of the passport and stored in the chip. such as the USA Passport card. are not.
Laurie demonstrated the attack by reading the passport chip of a Daily Mail's reporter in its envelope without opening it. using EAC is mandatory for all documents issued starting 28 June 2009. • Shielding the chip. In 2006 Adam Laurie wrote software that tries all known passport keys within a given range. BAC protects the communication channel between the chip and the reader by encrypting transmitted information. In 2008 a Radboud / Lausitz University team demonstrated that it's possible to determine which country a passport chip is from without knowing the key required for reading it. etc. flight coupons and other public information it's possible to significantly reduce the number of possible keys. allowing attacker to read the chip's content without providing a key. Furthermore it uses stronger encryption than BAC. The digital signature is made using a document signing key which itself is signed by a country signing key. • Active Authentication (AA). AA prevents cloning of passport chips. • Extended Access Control (EAC). Using AA is optional. • Passive Authentication (PA).) and a digital signature of these hashes. Readers need access to all used public country keys to check whether the digital signature is generated by a trusted country.have integrated a very thin metal mesh into the passport's cover to act as a shield when the passport cover is closed. • Passive Authentication (PA). In 2005 Marc Witteman showed that the document numbers of Dutch passports were predictable. finger print.  by sending specific BAC authentication requests. allowing an attacker to guess / crack the key required for reading the chip. EAC adds functionality to check the authenticity of both the chip (chip authentication) and the reader (terminal authentication). EAC is typically used to protect finger prints and iris scans. In 2008 Jeroen van Beek demonstrated that not all passport inspection systems check the cryptographic signature of a passport chips. The team fingerprinted error messages of passport chips from different countries. thus implementing one of Witteman's attacks. The resulting lookup table allows an attacker to determine where a chip is from. an attacker cannot (easily) eavesdrop transferred information without knowing the correct key. Using random identification numbers is optional.Biometric passport 15 Data protection Biometric passports are equipped with protection mechanisms to avoid and / or detect attacks: • Non-traceable chip characteristics. PA prevents modification of passport chip data. Grunwald used a passport that did not use Active Authentication (anti-cloning) and did not change the data held on the copied chip to keep its cryptographic signature valid. The chip contains a private key that cannot be read or copied. the reader needs to provide a key which is derived from the Machine Readable Zone [Mrz]: the date of birth. Some countries . this can be detected since the hash value is incorrect. If a file in the chip (e. the date of expiry and the document number.g. In 2010 Tom Chothia and Vitaliy Smirnov documented an attack that allows an individual passport to be traced. Note that in some early biometric passports BAC wasn't used at all. This prevents tracing of passport chips. This prevents unauthorized reading. The chip contains a file (SOD) that stores hash values of all files stored in the chip (picture. • Basic Access Control (BAC). For his demonstration Van Beek altered chip information and signed it using his own document signing key of a non-existing country. Using BAC is optional. The use of shielding is optional. Random chip identifiers reply to each request with a different chip number. but its existence can easily be proven. Attacks Since the introduction of biometric passports several attacks are presented and demonstrated: • Non-traceable chip characteristics. If BAC is used. Using online flight booking sites. • Basic Access Control (BAC). Using EAC is optional.including at least the US . In the EU. This can only be detected by checking the country signing keys that are used to sign the . In 2006 Lukas Grunwald demonstrated that it is trivial to copy passport data from a passport chip into a standard ISO/IEC 14443 smartcard using a standard contactless card interface and a simple file transfer tool. the picture) is changed. Using PA is mandatory. Before data can be read from a chip.
interpreting data. The attack is documented in supplement 7 of Doc 9303 (R1-p1_v2_sIV_0006) and can be solved by patching inspection system software." and adding that the Future of Identity in the Information Society (FIDIS) network's research team (a body of IT security experts funded by the European Union) has "also come out against the ePassport scheme. but the scientific security community recently also addressed the threats from untrustworthy verifiers. which can become a major vulnerability. the BBC published an article  on the British ePassport. citing a specialist who states "It is much too complicated.  • Active Authentication (AA). and whether they impact civil liberties. . but not yet implemented in biometric passports. In 2008 Jeroen van Beek demonstrated that optional security mechanisms can be disabled by removing their presence from the passport index file. 16 Opposition Privacy activists in many countries question and protest the lack of information about exactly what the passports' chip will contain. The release included a video clip that demonstrated problems using a forged Elvis Presley passport that is recognized as a valid US passport. It is supposed to get a higher security level.. then verifying whether it is right. or nations using poorly implemented. unsecure electronic systems. Although this could allow ID-check computers to obtain a person's information without a physical connection. Also in 2008. the information might wind up in the wrong hands. an attacker can upload a false certificate with an issue date far in the future. New cryptographic solutions such as private biometrics are being proposed to mitigate threats of mass theft of identity.when implemented . such as corrupt governmental organizations. The Hacker's Choice implemented all attacks and published code to verify the results. • Extended Access Control (EAC). parsing data. [stating that] European governments have forced a document on its citizens that dramatically decreases security and increases the  risk of identity theft. so it is basically not doing what it is supposed to do. In 2005 Marc Witteman showed that the secret Active Authentication key can be retrieved using power analysis.amongst others . citing the above stories and adding that: "Nearly every country issuing this passport has a few security experts who are yelling at the top of their lungs and trying to shout out: 'This is not secure. This may allow an attacker to clone passport chips that use the optional Active Authentication anti-cloning mechanism on chips .Biometric passport document signing keys. Grunwald states that if an EAC-key . The affected chips block read access until the future date is reached. These are under scientific study.if the chip design is susceptible to this attack. This is not a good idea to use this technology'"." Most security measures are designed against untrusted citizens (the "provers"). Only 5 out of 60+ countries are using this central database. Note that supplement 7 features vulnerable examples in the same document that . On 15 December 2006.result in a vulnerable inspection process. In 2007 Luks Grunwald presented an attack that can make EAC-enabled passport chips unusable. The main problem they point out is that data on the passports can be transferred with wireless RFID technology. If the personal information and passport numbers on the chip are not encrypted. This allows an attacker to remove . It is in places done the wrong way round .required for reading fingerprints and updating certificates . it may also allow anyone with the necessary equipment to perform the same task.. Van Beek did not update the original passport chip: instead an ePassport emulator was used.reading data first. To check country signing keys the ICAO PKD can be used. It is not.anti-cloning mechanisms (Active Authentication).is stolen or compromised. There are lots of technical flaws in it and there are things that have just been forgotten.
valid for 5 years.50. one from each hand. • Bulgaria (introduced in July 2009. Since June 2009. In these EU nations. available since 29 March 2010): €20 for adults. The Netherlands also takes fingerprints and is the only EU member that decided to store these fingerprints centrally. According to EU requirements. (Not Signatory to Schengen Acquis.Iceland. The German passports printed after 1 November 2007 contain two fingerprints. .06. except Ireland and UK. and fingerprints by 29. As of 16 June 2009. • Latvia (available since 20 November 2007): An adult passport costs Ls15 (€21.08.e. Passports are valid for 5 years. As of 29 June 2009. Technical specifications for the new passports has been established by the European Commission. 10000 HUF (€40) valid for 10 years. • Belgium (introduced in October 2004): €71 or €41 for children + local taxes. As of 29 June 2009. Passports contain fingerprints. all newly  issued passports contain fingerprints. however this is being considered by the United Kingdom Passport Service. As of 29 June 2009. 115 DKK for children (valid for 5 years) and 350 DKK for over 65 (valid for 10 years). As of January 2010 newly issued passports contain fingerprints. the EU countries. • Finland (available since 21 August 2006) €53 (valid for max. valid for 10 years. in addition to a digital photograph. all newly issued passports contain fingerprints. 5 years). no obligation to fingerprint biometrics) • Italy (available since 26 October 2006): €42.  • Ireland (available since 16 October 2006): €80.29 per year (first is mandatory. plus tax stamps of €40. an unexpired tax stamp is only required when passing through Italian passport control). valid for 10 years. valid for 5 years. valid for 10 years • Denmark (available since 1 August 2006): DKK 600 for adults (valid for 10 years). • France (available since April 2006): €86 or €89 (depending whether applicant provides photographs). Norway and Switzerland. • Germany (available since November 2005): ≤23 year old applicants (valid for 6 years) €37. • Estonia (available since 22 May 2007): EEK 450 (€28.  • Greece (available since 26 August 2006) €76. • Cyprus (available since 13 December 2010) : €70. passports contain fingerprints. The specifications are binding for the Schengen agreement parties.2006. all newly issued passports contain fingerprints. i. one from each hand. Currently. while a chip-free child's version costs €26. 100 CZK for children (valid 5 years). valid for 10 years. The European Data Protection Supervisor has stated that the current legal framework fails to "address all the possible and relevant issues triggered by the inherent imperfections of biometric systems". The Romanian passports will also contain two fingerprints.Biometric passport 17 Types European Union European passports planned to have digital imaging and fingerprint scan biometrics placed on the contactless chip. As of March 2009 all newly issued passports contain fingerprints.53 [prior to 25 June 2008]). all newly issued passports contain fingerprints.50. only national that are signatories to the Schengen Acquis are required to add fingerprint biometrics. the price of the passport will be: • Austria (available since 16 June 2006) An adult passport costs €69. Passports are valid for 5 years. • Czech Republic (available since 1 September 2006): 600 CZK for adults (valid 10 years).2009. >24 years (valid 10 years) €59 Passports issued from 1 November 2007 on include fingerprints. the British biometric passport only uses a digital image and not fingerprinting. • Hungary (available since 29 August 2006): 6000 HUF (€24). and three of the four European Free Trade Association countries .76) (valid for 5 years). These countries are obliged to implement machine readable facial images in the passports by 28.90. This combination of the biometrics aims to create an unrivaled level of security and protection against fraudulent identification papers. Free for people over 65.40 (valid for 5 years).
valid for 3 years. valid for 5 years. all newly issued passports contain fingerprints. and for 3 years for those under 6.29€. As of 29 June 2009. (Not Signatory to Schengen Acquis. Dutch identity cards are lookalike versions of the holder's page of the passport and contain the same biometric information. They include fingerprints of both index fingers as of October 2009. (Aged 30 or less a Spanish passport is valid for 5 years.33) cost €49. • Malta (available since 8 October 2008): €70 for persons over 16 years old. Armenia In September 2011 Armenia will introduce two new identity documents to replace ordinary passports of Armenian citizens. Albania The Albanian biometric passport is available since May 2009. • Slovakia (available since 15 January 2008) An adult passport(>13years costs 33. • Romania (available since 31 December 2008): 276 RON (€67). valid for 10 years. otherwise they remain valid for 10 years). The microchip contains ten fingerprints.45 (price at the 7 November 2010). a 48-page version is available at a €2 surcharge. €40 for children under 12.   . • Slovenia (available since 28 August 2006): €36 for adults. All passports have 32 pages.19€ valid for 10 years.Biometric passport • Lithuania (available since 28 August 2006): LTL 100 (€29). valid for 10 years. new passport includes both facial images and fingerprints. but valid only for 2 years. €28 for children up to 3 years of age. valid for 10 years. €35 for children between 10–16 years (valid for 5 years) and €14 for children under 10 years (valid for 2 years). valid for 5 years. valid for 5 years for those over the age of 6. One of the documents – ID card with electronic signature. 28 August 2006 . €31 for children from 3 to 18 years of age. • Sweden (available since October 2005): SEK 400 (valid for 5 years). Valid for 5 years. will be used locally within the country. and the biometric passport with an electronic chip to be used for traveling abroad. All passports have 32 pages. all newly issued passports contain fingerprints. As of 29 June 2009. • Luxembourg (available since 28 August 2006): €30. (€50) and is valid for 10 years. • Poland (available since 28 August 2006): 140 PLN (€35) for adults. 70PLN for students. For children up to 16 years old. • Portugal (available since 31 July 2006 .ordinary passport): €60 for adults (€50 for those who are over 65 years old). all newly issued passports contain fingerprints. none of the issued biometric passports mentioned above include fingerprints as of 5 May 2010. • Netherlands (available since 28 August 2006): Approximately €11 on top of regular passport (€38.27€ valid for 5 years and for children under 5 years 8. the photo and all the data written on the passport. valid for 2 years. while a chip-free child's(5–13 years) version costs 13. As of 29 June 2009. Passports issued from 29 June 2009 include fingerprints of both index fingers. As of 19 Jan 2010. For persons over 16 years old.special passport. no obligation to fingerprint biometrics. • UK (introduced March 2006): £77.50 for adults and £49 for children under the age of 16.33. Passports issued from 21 September 2009 include fingerprints. valid max 5 years. • Spain (available since 28 August 2006) at a price of €13. The passport will be valid for 5 years.) 18 Unless otherwise noted. costs 6000 Lekë. valid 10 years. Electronic chip of biometric passport will contain digital images of fingerprints and photo of passport holder.
It was produced by German printer Giesecke & Devrient (G&D) following the Visa Waiver Program's requirements. On 1 June 2010 Bosnia and Herzegovina issued its first EAC passport. The microchip contains the same personal information that is on the color photo page of the ePassport. The Bruneian ePassport has the same functions as the other biometric passports. The face. Diplomatic missions and consular offices must implement new issuing system until 28 June 2010. This technology is being used at border crossings that have electronic readers that are able to read the chip in the cards and verify the information present in the card and on the passport. Since 18 January 2010 only biometric passports can be obtained at issuing offices inside Croatia. The chip contains two fingerprints and a digital photo of the holder. Jim Flaherty. including a digitized photograph. However just in December 2010 it began to issue passports with microchips. Valid for 5 years. . Brunei The Bruneian biometric passport was introduced on 17 February 2007. In the 2008 Federal Budget. Bosnia and Herzegovina Available since 15 October 2009 and costing 40 KM (€ 20.  Croatia Available since 1 July 2009 and costing 390 HRK (€53).Biometric passport 19 Australia The Australian biometric passport was introduced in October 2005. CANPASS. China On January 30. fingerprint and other biometric features of the passport holder will be   digitalized and stored in pre-installed contactless smart chip in the passport. Airport security has been upgraded to allow Australian ePassport bearers to clear immigration controls more rapidly. This method aims at increasing efficiency and accuracy of identifying people at the border crossing. The future passports may contain a chip that holds a picture of the person and personal information such as name and date of birth. Minister of Finance announced the electronic passport will be introduced in 2011.51). the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China launched a trial issuance of e-passports for public affairs. and facial recognition technology has been installed at immigration gates. first in the capital Brasília and Goiás state. Canada Canada has recently introduced biometrics in the use of passports with the help of digitized photos. Produced by Bundesdruckerei. developed by Canada Border Services Agency. Until the end of January 2011 this last will be issued all over Brazil. 2011. Brazil Brazil started issuing ICAO compliant passports in December 2006. is currently being used by some major airports that have kiosks set up to take digital pictures of a person’s eye as a means of identification. Ordinary biometric passports will be introduced by the Ministry of Public Security in the future. Passport Canada began a pilot project in 2009 for special and diplomatic passport applicants.
The Immigration Department pledges to complete the process of an application within 10 working days. Indonesia Indonesia will start using e-Passport at January 26. It is expected to be made available to ordinary citizens from September 2010 onwards. Existing HKSAR Passports and Documents of Identity for Visa Purposes will remain valid until their expiry. India has also given out a contract to TCS for issuing e-passports through passport seva kendra. biometric passports began to be issued in May 2004. the new passports will have a 64KB chip with a photograph of passport holder and subsequently include the holder's fingerprint(s). India plans to open 77 such centers across the country to issue these passports. Though the e-passport is not a mandatory until 2015. Pratibha Patil. after which generates access keys to unlock the chip data for reader access. The biometric passport has been tested with passport readers abroad and is noted to have a 4 second response time – less than that of a US Passport (10 seconds). In Jan 2010. from 5 February 2007. the cost of the passport was 1. Digital data including holder's personal data and facial image will be contained in the contactless chip embedded in the back cover of e-Passport and e-Doc/I. Initially.000IRR ($50 USD) for adults and 250. The new passports have been designed indigenously by the Central Passport Organization. The passport need not be carried in a metal jacket for security reasons as it first needs to be passed through a reader. the processing time is 19 working days. India India has recently initiated first phase deployment of Biometric e-Passport for Diplomatic Passport holders in India and abroad. 2007.  . For children under 11 year of age not holding a Hong Kong Permanent Identity Card. Iceland Available since 23 May 2006 and costing ISK 5100 (ISK 1900 for under 18 and over 67). 2011. Iran Iran started issuing diplomatic and service biometric passports in July. and Rp350. about 35-40 USD at that date. The cost of a new passport is 500. Application fees & procedures remains unchanged.250 DOP.00 (US$39) for the 24-page passport. Ordinary biometric passports began to be issued on February 20.000(US$66) for the 48-page. On 25 June 2008 Indian Passport Authority issued first e-passport to the President of India.Biometric passport 20 Dominican Republic In the Dominican Republic. the India Security Press. The Dominican Republic is the only country whose passport does not have the biometric symbol on its cover. The passport will cost around Rp600. 2011. The e-passport is under the first phase of deployment and will be initially restricted to diplomatic passport holders. The passport contains a security chip with personal data and digital images. introduced the electronic Passport (e-Passport) and electronic Document of Identity for Visa Purposes (e-Doc/I) which are compliant with the standard of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). Hong Kong SAR The Hong Kong Immigration Department has. Nashik and IIT Kanpur.000IRR ($25 USD) for minors.
. as well as the traditional information. Malaysia is however not a member of the Visa Waiver Program (VWP) and its biometric passport does not conform to the same standards as the VWP biometric document because the Malaysian biometric passport was issued ahead of the VWP requirement. IRIS Corporation. €22. the new series is a biometric passport available to the public which would cost 25. It is valid for 7 years (for persons over 7) and 4 years (for persons less than 7) respectively. the Iraqi Ministry of Interior . the Ministry of Interior of the Republic of Kosovo[a] announced that biometric passports will be issued in the summer of 2011 after the winning firm is chosen and awarded the production of the passports. Macao SAR Applications for electronic passports and electronic travel permits have been started and processed since 1 September 2009. Malaysia Malaysia was the first country in the world to issue biometric passports in 1998.U. Moldova The Moldovan biometric passport is available from 1 January 2008. Malaysia started issuing ICAO compliant passports from February 2010. and R.000 Iraqi dinars or about $20 USD. The new Moldovan biometric passport costs approximately 760 MDL (€45) and is obligatory from 1 January 2011. including the holder's signature. developed the technology. The passport of the Republic of Moldova with biometric data contains a chip which holds digital information. the rest of the technologies are the same. Sovereign Military Order of Malta Since 2005 the SMOM diplomatic and service passports include biometric features and are compliant with ICAO standards. The difference lies in the storage of fingerprint template instead of fingerprint image in the chip. Also the biometric passport was designed to be read only if the receiving country has the authorization from the Malaysian Immigration Department. after a local company.Biometric passport 21 Iraq In April 2009. Macedonia Available since 2 April 2007 and costing 1500 MKD or c.the general passports directorate revealed new electronic system to issue the new A-series passports in contract with the German SAFE ID Solutions. It was introduced as a request of European Union to safe the borders between the E. Kosovo In May 2011. of Moldova.
Travellers' data captured in the biometric passport can be accessed instantly and read by any security agent from any spot of the globe through an integrated network of systems configured and linked to a centrally-coordinated passport data bank managed by the Nigerian Immigrations Service. use only printed data and photo (i. As of 2010. an ultra-thin. aged 3 to 14 it is valid for 5 years. Philippines On August 11. €20.the small symbol on the front cover indicating that an electronic chip has been embedded in the passport.  Russia Russian biometric passport was introduced in 2006. USD 80).500 rubles (approx. It costs 300DH (approximately €27). €50. early limited trials have been extended. and the biometric passport is available from 25 September 2009 to all Moroccan citizens holders of an electronic identity card. it costs 2. holographic laminate. like Australia and the USA. and from 16 December 2010 costs 2.0 (was 2.€23. New Zealand Introduced in November 2005. or c. 2009. Biometric passport issued after 1 March 2010 is valid for 10 years.000 RSD or approx. Pakistan In 2004 Pakistan became one of the first countries in the world to issue biometric passports compliant to ICAO standards. otherwise passport remain valid for 10 years.e. BAC-crypted. Norway Available since 1 October 2005 and costing NOK 450 for adults. Serbia Available since 7 July 2008.The harmonized ECOWAS Smart electronic passport issued by the Nigerian Immigrations Service is powered by biometric technology in tandem with the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) specifications for international travels. It costs approximately €40. and the polycarbonate leaf in the front (version 2009) of the book inside which the chip is located. NOK 270 for children. Morocco The Moroccan biometric passport was introduced in 2008. In December 2009.).) . no optional fingerprint etc. the first biometric passport was released for President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. Nigeria Nigeria is currently one of the few nations in Africa that issues biometric passports. The new e-passport has various security features. including a hidden encoded image. and has done it since 2008.Biometric passport 22 Montenegro The Montenegrin biometric passport was introduced in 2008. There are two identifying factors . New Zealand is using the facial biometric identifier. and a tamper-proof electronic microchip costing at around 950 pesos.200 RSD or approx.5) (Aged 3 or less a Serbian passport is valid for 3 years.
00 for children (-18 years old). With this. Somalia is now the first country on the African continent to have introduced the "e-passport". Since 1 March 2010. Tajik Ministry of Foreign Affairs and German Muhlbauer signed a contract on purchase of blank biometric passports and appropriate equipment for Tajikistan. and the validity of ordinary passport is 10 years. Tajikistan Biometric passports will be issued in Tajikistan from 1 February 2010. Republic of China (Taiwan) Available since 29 December 2008 and costing NT$1. It costs $100 USD to apply for Somalis living inside of Somalia. Singapore has met requirements under the US Visa Waiver Program which calls for countries to roll out their biometric passports before 26 October 2006. and 7 years for the commercial passport. Smaller passports that contain 32 pages only will be issued to children. The new electronic passport will be issued in three categories. The citizen's passport (ordinary passport) will be issued to ordinary citizens and will contain 48 pages. Cost to obtain a new passport will be SDG 250 aprox. and the validity of the citizen's passport will be 5 years. and $150 USD for Somalis living abroad. Switzerland The Swiss biometric passport has been available since 4 September 2006. South Korea The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade of South Korea started issuing biometric passports to its citizens on August 25. 100$ .000 Won or 55 US Dollars. 200 for students and 100 for kids. . Sudan The Republic of the Sudan started issuing electronic passports to citizens in May 2009. 2008. all issued passports are biometric. Business men/women who need to travel often will have a commercial passport that will contain 64 pages. Somalia The new "e-passport" of Somalia was introduced and approved by the nation's Transitional Federal Government on 10 October 2006. containing a photograph and two fingerprints recorded electronically. The microprocessor chip will contain the holder's information in addition to fingerprints.00 adult CHF 60. On 27 August 2009. The cost is fixed to CHF 140.Biometric passport 23 Singapore The Immigation & Checkpoints Authority (ICA)  of Singapore introduced the Singapore biometric passport (BioPass) on 15 August 2006. The cost is fixed to 55.600.
S. Colours of the new biometric passports have also be changed. In the first phase. In October 2004. departments and agencies of the republic. Non-biometric passports are valid until their expiration dates. Uzbekistan In Uzbekistan. beginning with January 1." On December 29.S. The awards totaled to roughly $1. 23 June 2009 Islam Karimov issued a Presidential Decree  "On measures to further improve the passport system in the Republic of Uzbekistan. the production stages of this high-tech passport commenced as the U. United States The U. Department of Homeland Security at its ports of entry.S. Department of State now issues biometric passports only.S. and testing.S. visa-free under the Visa Waiver Program (VWP). A high level of security became a priority for the United States after the attacks of September 11. Enhanced Border Security and Visa Entry Reform Act of 2002 (also known as the "Border Security Act"). which states that such smartcard Identity cards will be able to replace visas. a limited quantity of 100 passports a day was issued for Thai citizens. however. in mid-Asia region to issue an ICAO compliant biometric passport. such a passport must be a biometric passport if used to enter the U. special passports. Passport is available since 10 July 2008. Most recently Turkish Minister of the State announced that the government is printing the new passports at government minting office since the private contractor failed to deliver. individuals .Biometric passport 24 Thailand The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Thailand introduced the first biometric passport for Diplomats and Government officials on 26 May 2005. regular passports. biometric passports will be phased in. Another issue troubling Turks who wish to obtain a passport is the astronomical cost (for Turkish standards) of 360 TL (approximately €183) for a passport valid for 10 years.S.S. As for foreigners traveling to the U.000 for startup. for travelers holding a valid passport issued on or after October 26. claret red. High security required cracking down on counterfeit passports. bottle green and diplomatic passports wrap black colours.000. In accordance with this decree. the chip is large enough (64 kilobytes) for inclusion of biometric identifiers. Additionally. Government Printing Office (GPO) issued awards to the top bidders of the program. The driving force of the initiative is the U. if they wish to enter U.. development. However. Turkmenistan Turkmenistan became the first country in ex-USSR. version of the biometric passport (sometimes referred to as an electronic passport) has descriptive data and a digitized passport photo on its contactless chips. the biometric passport will be issued to employees of ministries. Turkey Turkish passports which are compatible with European Union standards have been available since 1 June 2010. From 1 June 2005.S. visa-free under the VWP. The U. Although a system able to perform a facial-recognition match between the bearer and his or her image stored on the contactless chip is desired. 2006. 2001. it is unclear when such a system will be deployed by the U. 2011. they are now required to possess machine-readable passports that comply with international standards. and does not have fingerprint information placed onto the contactless chip. on 1 August 2005 a full operational service was installed and Thailand became the first country in Asia to issue an ICAO compliant biometric passport. 2009 the President of Uzbekistan signed a decree to change the dates for a phased exchange of populations existing passport to the biometric passport. Accordingly.
 Notes and references Notes: a. org/ documents/ ICAO9303-pt1-vol1. . "Defects in e-passports allow real-time tracking. pdf#page=35)  "PowerPoint Presentation" (http:/ / www. . newscientist.  Doc 9303 supplement 7 (http:/ / www2. 14th International Conference on Financial Cryptography and Data Security 2010" (http:/ / www. "Elvis has left the border: ePassport faking guide unleashed" (http:/ / www. uk/ tol/ news/ uk/ crime/ article4467106.ucl. Video. Theregister. Retrieved 8 September 2010. . Retrieved 8 September 2010. pdf) (PDF). co. RFID chip has photo and fingerprints. The second phase will be for the rest of the population who will be to able get new passports for the period from 2012 to 2015. Retrieved 8 September 2010. Retrieved 8 September 2010. FIDIS NoE.be.  "The Hackers Choice (THC) ePassport RFID Vulnerability Demonstration" (http:/ / video. .com. bbc. Dice. uk/ 2010/ 01/ 26/ epassport_rfid_weakness/ ).  http:/ / news. aspx).  "ePassport reloaded goes mobile" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 8 September 2010. . Wired. Retrieved 8 September 2010. ac.net. theregister.  "Belgian Biometric Passport does not get a pass" (http:/ / www. Volume 2 (e-passports)" (http:/ / hasbrouck. Retrieved 8 September 2010.nl. Sys-security. Dan (26 January 2010). . Retrieved 8 September 2010. dc414. nl/ downloads. be/ crypto/ passport/ index. pdf) (PDF). as well as citizens who receive a passport in connection with the achievement of a certain age or for other grounds provided by law. Retrieved 8 September 2010. John (30 September 2008). nl/ ~erikpoll/ papers/ nluug. "Hackers clone E-Passports" (http:/ / www. 18 March 2007. thc. Part 3 (credit-card sized ID cards)" (http:/ / hasbrouck. com/ videoplay?docid=-3185369830560352967). . cs. while Serbia claims it as part of its own sovereign territory. pdf) (PDF). jsp#/ thc-epassport/ ).com.icao.uk. . timesonline. Budapest. Retrieved 8 September 2010.com. uk/ ~tpc/ Papers/ PassportTrace. .  Lettice. Retrieved 9 February 20006. blackhat.thc. com/ science/ discoveries/ news/ 2006/ 08/ 71521). pdf) (PDF). com/ article/ dn8227-metal-shields-and-encryption-for-us-passports.ac. Retrieved 8 September 2010. pdf) (PDF). Part 1. org/ documents/ ICAO9303-pt3. Retrieved 8 September 2010. pdf) (PDF). int/ en/ MRTD/ Downloads/ Supplements to Doc 9303/ Supplement to ICAO Doc 9303 Release 7.  "ePassport emulator" (http:/ / dexlab. Dexlab. Part 1. com/ presentations/ bh-europe-09/ VanBeek/ BlackHat-Europe-2009-VanBeek-ePassports-Mobile-slides. pdf) (PDF). . . .  "Icao Pkd" (http:/ / www2. icao. Retrieved 8 September 2010.  "The Hacker's Choice ePassport tools" (http:/ / freeworld. Retrieved 6 October 2010.  Steve Boggan (August 6. The Sunday Times. . dice. cs.google. Opendemocracy. Retrieved 8 September 2010.uk.  "Attacks on Digital Passports" (http:/ / wiki.int. html/ ).  Goodin.org. Retrieved 8 September 2010. 25 Venezuela Issued after July 2007.  "Fingerprinting Passports" (http:/ / www. org/ download/ confs/ defcon15/ Speakers/ Grunwald/ Presentation/ dc-15-grunwald. . . co.com. It declared independence on 17 February 2008. Newscientist. org/ documents/ ICAO9303-pt1-vol2. . html). ucl. . Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Serbia and the self-proclaimed Republic of Kosovo. stm  Budapest Declaration on Machine Readable Travel Documents. uk/ 1/ hi/ programmes/ click_online/ 6182207. org/ thc-epassport/ ).  "ICAO Document 9303.  "ICAO Document 9303. opendemocracy.co. uk/ 2008/ 09/ 30/ epassport_hack_description/ ). Retrieved 8 September 2010. Tom Chothia and Vitaliy Smirnov. The Register. ac. .  Kim Zetter. Theregister. Its independence is recognised by 75 UN member states. bham. icao. Retrieved 8 September 2010. net/ media-edemocracy/ egovernment_3254.  "RFID-based Passports – What a bad bad idea" (http:/ / sys-security. int/ en/ MRTD/ Pages/ icaoPKD. Volume 1 (OCR machine-readable passports)" (http:/ / hasbrouck.Biometric passport who travel abroad or outside the country. ru.co. References:  "ICAO Document 9303.  "Metal shields and encryption for US passports" (http:/ / www. pdf) (PDF). Dan Goodin. Freeworld. whatthehack. com/ category/ rfid/ ). September 2006  "E-government: who controls the controllers?" (http:/ / www. co. wired. . 26th Jan 2010" (http:/ / www. 2008). google. . .  "A Traceability Attack Against e-Passports. html). org/ images/ 2/ 28/ WTH-slides-Attacks-on-Digital-Passports-Marc-Witteman. co. . theregister. Retrieved 8 September 2010. "Fakeproof e-passport is cloned in minutes" (http:/ / www. ece).
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"Hellenic Ministry of Foreign Affairs" (http:/ / www. ru/ document. tv/ html/ eng/ about/ newsroom/ industry_news/ biometrics/ 2010_details_18. Retrieved 6 October 2010..  "Passaporto Elettronico Fase II" (http:/ / poliziadistato. Retrieved 5 June 2010. . oktober 2004" (http:/ / www. Personalisation of Identity Documents Centre. europa. service-public. Retrieved 5 June 2010. bmi. poliziadistato. Polska Wytwórnia Papierów Wartościowych S. . de/ cln_156/ DE/ Themen/ Sicherheit/ PaesseAusweise/ eReisepass/ eReisepass_node. pdf).cri. 29 December 2004. . ePractice.  "Passports" (http:/ / washington. 22 February 2010. fr/ F14929.  "Estonian Passport Application" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 8 September 2010. 30 March 2009. aspx?contentid=166960& nodeid=35831& culture=en-US). Retrieved 5 June 2010. . nyc. novinite. Retrieved 5 June 2010. Aus (25 September 2006).  "Slovenia to begin issuing second-generation biometric passports" (http:/ / www. eu/ en/ news/ 292210). pdf).com (Sofia News Agency). mnz.  "Армения. ece). juris. gr/ www. hu/ news/ show/ news_1891) (in Hungarian). asp?group_id=65& nItemID=4793& sSID=3. bund. Barev. . 29 December 2009. Retrieved 5 June 2010. Szilárd (6 July 2009). jsp). Retrieved 5 June 2010. htm) about the relevant regulations: Council Regulation (EC) 2252/2004. cri. mfa. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
Koha Ditore. Retrieved January 18. . gov. tv/ story/ 169543/ frequently-asked-questions-regarding-the-39e-passport39). "First consignment of blank biometric passports for Tajikistan delivered to Dushanbe" (http:/ / www. cn/ eng/ zxxx/ t791409. sun. ir/ fa/ news/ 149707/ ØµØ¯ÙØ±-Ú¯Ø°Ø±ÙØ§Ù Ù-Ø®Ø§ÙÙØ§Ø¯Ú¯Ù-Ù صص ص صص ÙØªÙÙ-Ø´Ø¯) (in Persian). htm). cbsa. . indian-tech-news. 2011-05-02. India to get first e-passport (16 May 2008). radiosawa. md/ pa/ ). sd/ newpas. . gov. com/ article. cn/ travel/ txt/ 2011-02/ 01/ content_21855650.  The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . . "Centrul Resurselor Informaţionale de Stat „Registru”" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 5 June 2010.com. صص صصصص  "Pass 10" (http:/ / www. 2010. . sg/ pressrelease/ pressrelease_view. registru. Canada Border Services Agency. html) (in German). . ica. people. 2010). net/ news/ news-details. 2009.  Mustaqim Adamrah (February 12. immd. html) (in German).  "?" (http:/ / www. Kingdom of Thailand. go. asp?newsid=7874). net/ index.  "The Minister of Foreign Affairs meets with senior executives of Italian private companies and chairs the meeting of Team Thailand and Honorary Consul Generals of Thailand in Italy" (http:/ / www. com/ news/ 2010/ 12/ 02/ epassport-premiere-january-government-says. 北 青 网 . ica.  Yuldoshev. 0404. Retrieved 5 June 2010. Retrieved 6 October. 6 May 2010. 19 April 2009. . ru/ content/ view/ 384/ 85/ ) (in Russian). ma/ ). com/ electronic-chip-enabled-passports-soon-in-india/ 187/ ). com/ arabic_news. . Retrieved 8 September 2010.What is an Australian ePassport?" (http:/ / www. . Mup. . Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. au/ site/ page. sg/  "?" (http:/ / app. hk/ ehtml/ eppt_edi. Retrieved 8 September 2010. Retrieved 15 February 2011.  "( " ص ص صصصص ص ص صص صصصص ص صصص صhttp:/ / www. go.  "Gjatë verës nis lëshimi i pasaportave biometrike" (http:/ / www. . com.  Budget 2008: Responsible Leadership for Uncertain Times (http:/ / www.com. Ministry of Foreing Affrairs. registru. ndtv. tabnak. 人 民 网 .net. thejakartapost. boca. Retrieved June 5.  "?" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 5 June 2010. html). admin. ch/ pass/ de/ home/ ausweise/ pass_10. Avaz (27 October 2009).  "中 国 试 点 签 发 因 公 电 子 护 照 " (http:/ / bjyouth.GIM1391229-7823-POLICIA+ FEDERAL+ APRESENTA+ NOVO+ MODELO+ DE+ PASSAPORTE. Retrieved 5 June 2010. gov.  "Gebühr/Preis und Gültigkeit" (http:/ / www.com. customs. . ch/ pass/ de/ home/ ausweise/ pass_10/ gebuehr_und_gueltigkeit. Retrieved 5 June 2010. aspx?id=1876402& ص ص ص صصصص صص صص صص صص صص ص cid=24) (in Arabic). I4donline. china.  "Arroyo first to receive e-passport from DFA" (http:/ / www. thejakartapost. . NDTV. html).md. nsf/ putne-isprave. Retrieved 6 October 2010. html)  "Brunei passport becomes Biometric passport" (http:/ / www. htm). 27 . 2011. gc. gmanews.  Centrul Resurselor InformaŢionale de Stat «Registru». . tj/ en/ news/ 198/ 58564. Kingdom of Morocco.  "Passport portal of the Kingdom of Morocco" (http:/ / www. ynet. gov. php?cid=1. . ca/ 2008/ pamphlet-depliant/ pamphlet-depliant1-eng. Retrieved 8 September 2010. Retrieved 8 September 2010. "E-passport to premiere in January. globo. 22 February 2011.. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. asp?pr_id=582). admin. Retrieved 6 October 2010. . Retrieved 2 March 2011. indian-tech-news. 中 国 网 . .00.  "Foreign Minister Yang Jiechi Attends the Launch Ceremony for the Trial Issuance of E-Passports for Public Affairs" (http:/ / www. India to get first e-passport" (http:/ / www. tw/ ct. 25 January 2010. i4donline.rs. jsp). . August 11. . . Retrieved 5 June 2010.Immigration Department (http:/ / www. cfm?u=5555). html) (in Arabic). gc. cn/ GB/ 1027/ 11837333. August 11. . 2009. . html). Retrieved June 5. gov.  "Frequently asked questions regarding the 'e-passport'" (http:/ / www. kr/ passport/ Passport02_3.  "Passport Issuance Fees" (http:/ / www. gov. Retrieved 2011-05-02. Retrieved 15 February 2011. gov. tv/ story/ 169542/ arroyo-first-to-receive-e-passport-from-dfa). asiaplus. h#).7. budget. gov. net/ news/ ne1554.  "Читаем биометрический паспорт" (http:/ / developers. . koha.  "( "صص ص ص صصص ص ص 01 صص ص ص ص ص ص ص ص ص صص ص ص ص صص صصص صصص صص ص ص صhttp:// www.Biometric passport  "SmartGate Frequently Asked Questions . htm)  "CANPASS – Air" (http:/ / www. mup. Retrieved 8 September 2010.  "因 公 电 子 护 照 31日 试 点 签 发 可 使 持 照 人 快 速 通 关 " (http:/ / www. "Electronic chip enabled passports soon in India!" (http:/ / www. . . government says" (http:/ / www.57518).  (http:/ / video. shabelle. "After US tests. Australian Customs Service. . Retrieved 5 June 2010. Retrieved 14 March 2011.  http:/ / www.  "公 安 部 外 交 部 筹 备 签 发 电 子 护 照 主 题 图 案 征 求 意 见 " (http:/ / politics. . fmprc. htm)  After US tests. com/ convergence/ ndtv/ story. schweizerpass. gmanews.  ITN Staff (January 24.gov. th/ ). asp?xItem=1239& ctNode=82& mp=1). schweizerpass. html).  "( " صصصص صصص ص ص صhttp:/ / passport. jsp?oid=76498320). rs/ cms_cir/ dokumenta. com. aspx?id=NEWEN20080050016& ch=5/ 16/ 2008 11:13:00 AM). com/ Videos/ Player/ Noticias/ 0. 3 March 2009. ca/ prog/ canpass/ canpassair-eng.  "MUP RS .2010.Putne isprave" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 15 February 2011. htm). . mfa. 2010. Retrieved 15 February 2011. 2010). passeport.
.html) . hurriyet. org/ Pubs/ Electronic Passport. com/ site/ en/ recently-launched/ thailand-leads-the-way-in-asia-the-introduction-of-the-thai-e-passport-by-natenapa-kon.int/en/MRTD/Downloads/Doc 9303/Doc 9303 English/ Doc 9303 Part 2.openscdp. "Innovation by Policy: A Study of the Electronic Passport" (http:/ / web. tr/ hizmet.int/en/MRTD/Pages/icaoPKD.rfdump.icao.org (http://www.com. mgr  "Nuevo pasaporte electrónico entrará en vigencia a finales de año" (http:/ / www.S.org/) . tr/ ekonomi/ 14030770.  "Turkmenistan introduces passports with biometric data of their holders" (http:/ / www. The James A. bakerinstitute.Biometric passport  (English) (Dutch) "Your partner in document verification" (http:/ / www. Baker III Institute for Public Policy. archive. pasaport.html) . Retrieved 5 June 2010. Ivo (2007). . Risks and its Security (http://www.pdf) Free / open source utilities to read and copy passport chips: • • • • • • • • RFDUMP.509 and EAC PKI.int/en/MRTD/Downloads/Doc 9303/Doc 9303 English/Doc 9303 Part 1 Vol 1. org/ web/ 20070912190322/ http:/ / bakerinstitute.int/en/MRTD/Downloads/Doc 9303/Doc 9303 English/Doc 9303 Part 1 Vol 2.org/) . Volume 1 (http://www2. . Part 1. (Turkish)  "Çağdaş pasaport yolda" (http:/ / www. R. state. Includes separate java development library for EAC certificates. html).html) . .icao. bedel.org/) .icao. Jöran. Christopher (May 2007). Retrieved June 5. ru/ ?page_id=3& lang_id=en& elem_id=13207& type=event). ePassport: The World's New Electronic Passport: A Report about the ePassport's Benefits. Part 1.Complete Open Source X. 28 Further reading • Gipp.int) • Public Key Directory (http://www2.org/scripts/icao/eacpki. egm.org (http://www. de/ haberler/ gundem/ 363040/ cagdas-pasaport-yolda) (in Turkish). ve/ noticias/ index. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. . Volume 2 (http://www2. 2010. asp?gid=373).net/) .org/) GPL tool for RFID ISO-Readers RFIDIOt. Beel.1 smartcards eCL0WN (http://dexlab. 2010. com. asp) (in Turkish).com/download. 10 July 2008. keesingfightfraud. pdf) on September 12. . Retrieved 5 June 2010.org (http://jmrtd. php?act=ST& f=2& t=38137) (in Spanish). hurriyet.aspx) • ICAO passport standards: • ICAO Document 9303. CA: CreateSpace. org/ Pubs/ Electronic+ Passport.Open Source EAC-PKI for development and testing EJBCA.wzpass.nl/downloads.  "?" (http:/ / www.tr. Retrieved 5 June 2010. 2007. keesingfightfraud. 22 September 2006.icao.  http:/ / www.free software for reading and cloning ePassport chip content using a Nokia NFC-enabled cell phone wzPASS (http://www.free software for cloning / making your own ePassport chip using JCOP v4.int/en/MRTD/Downloads/Doc 9303/Doc 9303 English/Doc 9303 Part 3 Vol 1. gov/ passport/ passport_2498. Retrieved 5 June 2010.pdf) • ICAO Document 9303. gob.  "The U.ejbca. ISBN 978-1434823182. External links ICAO related information: • International Civil Aviation Organization (http://www. 18 June 2009. Rössling. hurriyet. pdf) (PDF).org (http://rfidiot. Part 3. html).epassport-book. Scotts Valley. Volume 1 (http://www2.Open Source e-Passport reader software and wzMRTD—Open Source library for accessing e-Passports OpenSCDP. .  Bronk.org (http://www.pdf) • ICAO Document 9303. ut.  "Umuma Mahsus (Lacivert) Pasaport Harçları" (http:/ / www. .icao.php). rnv.com.Open Source Java Card implementation of the e-passport and Java API ePassport emulator (http://dexlab. Bela.pdf) • ICAO Document 9303. Electronic Passport" (http:/ / travel. gov. uz/ eng/ newsline/ uzbekistan_citizens_to_receive_a_biometric_passport.nl/downloads.icao. turkmenistan.Open Source RFID python library with e-passport test tools JMRTD. Retrieved June 5. harc. . Part 2 (http://www2.
The Biometrics Vulnerability Assessment Methodology Although there has been significant recent research into the vulnerability of various biometric systems to spoofing attacks.) double the voting rights than the suppliers. and to apply it to a number of biometrics. Suggested countermeasures to identified risks are also provided. It is predominately a user group representing government departments and private organisations who are using or looking at using biometrics.Biometrics Institute 29 Biometrics Institute The Biometrics Institute is the independent Not for profit association providing information. The aim of the methodology is to provide. financial services. This Code was approved by the Australian Privacy Commission in September 2006 in order to protect consumer personal data beyond the current protections offered by the Australian Privacy Act. education. a level of assurance about the maximum proportion of attacks likely to succeed. The goal is to develop a general methodology for vulnerability assessment applicable to any biometric system. the Biometrics Institute New Zealand Conference in March in Wellington and a Technology Exhibition in November in Canberra every year. once collected. This is a practical measure which is readily incorporated into system design. a Biometrics Institute Privacy Code  and a Biometrics Vulnerability Assessment Methodology . suppliers. but suppliers also form part of the membership. Its Board of Directors also has to have a majority of those user organisations. academia and other key stakeholders. A methodology has been developed and applied to a number of face and fingerprint biometric systems. the Biometrics Institute has been working on this problem. The objective of the Biometrics Institute is to provide a forum for information and education on biometric technologies for users. Testing of a voice biometric system will begin in the near future. there is as yet no generally agreed method of assessing the degree of vulnerability in a principled fashion. can be protected. . The Biometrics Institute constitution was designed that way that it allows those user organisations (governments. The Biometrics Institute Privacy Code A concern is how a person's biometric. For example the Biometrics Institute addresses the responsible use of Biometrics in schools by encouraging organisations to consider any issues that may impact on a person's privacy before implementing biometrics and recommends Privacy Impact Assessments . This set up is very different from most other biometrics associations. The Biometrics Institute has been working on two government co-funded projects. for a given system and method of attack. Since 2007. partly co-funded by the Australian Government through the Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet. transport etc. History The Biometric Institute was founded by Ted Dunstone in October 2001 with initial funding from the Australian government. The organisation is based in Australia and has over 100 member organisations  from around the world. research and testing of biometrics in Australia and New Zealand. The Biometrics Institute addressed this issue in 2004 with the development of a Privacy Code. The association holds three Biometrics Institute conferences  every year: the Biometrics Institute Australia Conference in May in Sydney.
cfm?an=1& subarticlenbr=27 External links • Biometrics Institute official website (http://www.org/) .00. org/ displaycommon. zdnet.139187129-3. potential users and vendors. biometricsinstitute. The Dominion Post. com.  http:/ / www. au/ cgi-bin/ common/ popupPrintArticle. biometricsinstitute. Retrieved 2008-10-28. Retrieved 2008-10-28. pl?path=/ articles/ 2003/ 12/ 22/ 1071941669236. 6 April 2005.120263453. cfm?an=1& subarticlenbr=48  "Biometrics: Still searching for a pulse" (http:/ / www. org/ displaycommon. com/ coms2/ summary_0286-13513686_ITM).biometricsinstitute. com. ZDNet Australia. References  "Institute pushes Australia's smart card plan" (http:/ / www. de/ news/ cio_worldnews/ 841068/ ). . . The Age (Melbourne). biometricsinstitute. html). business and the community about biometrics. Retrieved 2008-10-28.139023764. 23 December 2003. it educates and informs members. 27 September 2004. htm). . zdnet.Biometrics Institute 30 Mission & Objectives The Biometrics Institute promotes the responsible and ethical use of biometrics. theage. org/ displaycommon. com. .130061744. ZDNet Australia. au/ news/ security/ soa/ Biometrics-The-body-and-soul-of-security/ 0. 15 August 2007. it is a forum for discussion about biometrics between members. benchmarks and test regimes for the industry and provides policy input to governments in partnership with members and key stakeholders biometrics. cfm?an=1& subarticlenbr=16  http:/ / www. biometricsinstitute.  http:/ / www. org/ displaycommon. . au/ insight/ security/ soa/ Biometrics-Still-searching-for-a-pulse/ 0. accessmylibrary. CIO. including due consideration to privacy concerns. it promotes the development and awareness of standards. Retrieved 2008-10-28. cfm?an=1& subarticlenbr=9  "Meeting eyes biometric security. cio.  "Companies get into a biometrics groove" (http:/ / www. htm).  "Biometrics: The body and soul of security" (http:/ / www.00." (http:/ / www.  http:/ / www. Retrieved 2008-10-28.
Rohos. . darkreading. If it were cracked.com/2010/01/ bioslimdisk-biometric-security-token-review-comparison/) • Geek's BioSlimDisk Signature Review (http://www.html) • Bioslimdisk Portable Encrypted Solutions. Tweakers. . Review. .  "Bioslimdisk Portable Encrypted Solutions | Product Review | Infosecurity Security Adviser" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2010-02-08. Signature is designed so that the encryption key is stored randomly in the flash memory.  Peter de Boer (31 October 2007). com/ articles/ gadgets/ review-bioslimdisk-signature-512mb-20081126/ ). DarkReading.net. rohos. Dual fingerprint authentication function increases the difficulty for crackers and prevents access from the outside into the secured non-volatile internal memory storage. Signature The biometric USB hardware is encryption coupled with dual fingerprint authentication methodology to prevent crackers bypassing the encryption. 2009-04-28.geek. .bioslimdisk.com/review/ bioslimdisk_portable_encrypted_solutions/53/) • The Limitations of Password Based Software Encryption (http://www.com/) • Rohos BioSlimDisk Signature Review (http://www. "De BioSlimDisk Signature nader bekeken | Inleiding | Core" (http:/ / tweakers. Retrieved 2010-02-08. jhtml?articleID=222200174).jhtml?articleID=222200174) World Leader . html) (in Dutch). Retrieved 2010-02-08. bioslimdisk.infosecurityadviser. External links • BioSlimDisk official website (http://www. "Secure USB Flaw Exposed" (http:/ / www.darkreading. com/ review/ bioslimdisk_portable_encrypted_solutions/ 53/ ).com. com/ BioSlimDisk is the world's first biometric USB storage device. Retrieved 2010-02-08.  "Review: BioSlimDisk Signature 512MB – New Tech Gadgets & Electronic Devices" (http:/ / www. infosecurityadviser.     References  "Blog Archive » BioSlimDisk biometric security token. 2010).com. geek.com/articles/gadgets/ review-bioslimdisk-signature-512mb-20081126/) • Tweaker's BioSlimDisk Signature Test Report (NL) (http://tweakers. Geek. com/ 2010/ 01/ bioslimdisk-biometric-security-token-review-comparison/ ). com/ insiderthreat/ security/ encryption/ showArticle. Retrieved 2010-02-08.com/insiderthreat/security/ encryption/showArticle. Infosecurityadviser. net/ reviews/ 754/ de-bioslimdisk-signature-nader-bekeken. a self destruct feature will trigger it to reformat and destroy all data stored in the device.net/reviews/754/ de-bioslimdisk-signature-nader-bekeken.rohos.BioSlimDisk 31 BioSlimDisk BioSlimDisk Website http:/ / www. 2010-01-14. InfoSecurity Review (http://www. Comparison" (http:/ / www. .  Kelly Jackson Higgins (January 4.
htm) • IBIA CBEFF Biometric Organizations (http://www. wi. and privacy. and an optional SB (Signature Block). BBC News. In order to support biometric technologies in a common way the CBEFF structure describes a set of necessary data elements. The CBEFF Nested Structure consists of a Root Header.ibia. guardian. co. The declaration was proclaimed in Budapest in September 2006.   References  Budapest Declaration on Machine Readable Travel Documents (MRTDs) (http:/ / www. This standard provides the ability for different biometric devices and applications to exchange biometric information between system components efficiently. to raise the concern to the public to the risks associated by a security architecture related to the management of Machine Readable Travel Documents (MRTDs). fidis. The CBEFF Basic Structure consists of a single SBH (Standard Biometric Header) followed by a BSMB (Biometric Specific Memory Block) and an optional SB (Signature Block). a Network of Excellence. net/ press-events/ press-releases/ budapest-declaration/ )  Biometric ID cards an insecure menace. doj. us/ les/ nist-itl/ example_cbeff. 15 December 2006 CBEFF CBEFF (Common Biometric Exchange Formats Framework) was developed from 1999 to 2000 by the CBEFF Development Team (NIST) and the BioAPI Consortium  .Budapest Declaration on Machine Readable Travel Documents 32 Budapest Declaration on Machine Readable Travel Documents The Budapest Declaration on Machine Readable Travel Documents is a declaration issued by the Future of Identity in the Information Society (FIDIS). bbc.pdf) • Biometrics-CBEFF (http://www. Steve Boggan The Guardian. stm).gov/publications/nistir/NISTIR6529A. References  http:/ / www.org/security/systems/biometrics-cbeff. uk/ 1/ hi/ programmes/ click_online/ 6182207. homeaffairs). says EU ID outfit (http:/ / www. htm External links • CBEFF NISTIR 6529 (http://csrc.globalsecurity. and its current implementation in passports of the European Union that creates some threats related to identity theft. The Register. 2006  ePassports 'at risk' from cloning (http:/ / news. co. November 17. 10th November 2006  Cracked it! (http:/ / www.nist. uk/ 2006/ 11/ 10/ fidis_budapest_mrtd_declaration/ ). theregister. CBEFF Basic Structure(s). optional Sub-Headers. state.php) . uk/ technology/ 2006/ nov/ 17/ news. co.org/cbeff/organizations.
TWGDAM completed a white paper in October 1989 which provided conceptual and operational concepts for a Combined DNA Index System to share DNA profiles among crime laboratories similarly to automated fingerprint identification which had become commonplace in law enforcement during the 1980s. Virginia. to accelerate development of laboratory guidelines and peer-reviewed papers to support forensic DNA testing which was. The DNA Identification Act of 1994 formally authorized the FBI to operate CODIS and set national standards for forensic DNA testing. with the ability to search the database to assist in the identification of suspects in crimes. It is a computer system that stores DNA profiles created by federal. Although the Act was passed in 1994. CODIS FBI Logo Markers CODIS identifies 13 markers. plus AMEL to determine sex: • • • • • • • • • • CSF1PO D3S1358 D5s818 D7s820 D8S1179 D13s317 D16s539 D18s51 D21s11 FGA CODIS 13 STR Profile • THO1 • TPOX • vWA . CODIS did not become fully operational until 1998. state. an unproven forensic tool.Combined DNA Index System 33 Combined DNA Index System The Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) is a DNA database funded by the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). and local crime laboratories in the United States. now SWGDAM) which developed guidelines for standards of practice in the United States and Canadian crime laboratories as they began DNA testing in the late 1980s. to some. The TWGDAM guidelines served as interim standards until recommendations were provided by a DNA Advisory Board required under the Act. Origins CODIS was an outgrowth of the Technical Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods (TWGDAM. The FBI Laboratory began a pilot project with six state and local crime laboratories to develop software to support each laboratory's DNA testing and allow sharing of DNA profiles with other crime laboratories. TWGDAM was sponsored by the FBI Laboratory which hosted several scientific meetings a year at Quantico.
 As of the same date.) CODIS databases exist at the local. for example. State law governs which specific crimes are eligible for CODIS. CODIS searches the Forensic Index against itself and against the Offender Index.343 investigations. By October 2008. As of 2006. 34 Indexes and database structure CODIS is an index of pointers to assist US public crime laboratories to compare and exchange DNA profiles. CODIS held 194.384.090 profiles as of June 2007. Originally. which increased the scope of the DNA database.473 offender profiles. consists of an individual's DNA profile. At the national level. CODIS has produced over 49. CODIS consisted of the Convicted Offender Index and the Forensic Index. This tiered architecture allows crime laboratories to control their own data—each laboratory decides which profiles it will share with the rest of the country. have already met with a significant increase in numbers of investigations aided. A Forensic to Offender match actually provides a suspect for an otherwise unsolved case. and social security numbers. and national levels. making it the largest DNA database in the world. surpassing the United Kingdom National DNA Database. state. the Arrestee Index.379 offender profiles. together with the sample's identifier and an identifier of the laboratory responsible for the profile. The growing public approval of DNA databases has seen the creation and expansion of many states' own DNA databases. CODIS has a matching algorithm that searches the various indexes against one another according to strict rules that protect personal privacy. Some may be indicative of genetic diseases. and the Missing Persons Reference Index have been added. A record in the CODIS database. It is important to note that the CODIS matching algorithm only produces a list of candidate matches. dates of birth. For solving rapes and homicides.000 investigations. Relative size As of October 2007. CODIS has produced over 94. assisting in more than 50. which consisted of an estimated 3. . California currently maintains the third largest DNA database in the world. the Convicted Offender Index requires all 13 CODIS STRs to be present for a profile upload. (All 50 states have passed DNA legislation authorizing the collection of DNA profiles from convicted offenders for submission to CODIS. the Missing or Unidentified Persons Index. the National DNA Index System.070.685 forensic profiles and 6. Political measures such as California Proposition 69 (2004).) The Forensic Index contains profiles developed from biological material found at crime-scenes. but in recent years. like the National Crime Information Center (NCIC). approximately 180 laboratories in all 50 states participate in CODIS.400 matches to requests. such as names. In order to decrease the number of irrelevant matches at NDIS. the US National DNA Index (NDIS) has grown to over 241. As of July 2009. Each candidate match is confirmed or refuted by a Qualified DNA Analyst.785 forensic profiles and 5. A Forensic to Forensic match provides an investigative lead that connects two or more previously unlinked cases.Combined DNA Index System These markers do not overlap with the ones commonly used for genealogical DNA testing. Forensic profiles only require 10 of the STRs to be present for an upload. is operated by the FBI at an undisclosed location.000 hits assisting in more than 93. and does not contain any personal identity information. The Convicted Offender Index contains profiles of individuals convicted of crimes. (To become Qualified. or NDIS. known as a CODIS DNA profile. a DNA Analyst must meet specific education and experience requirements and undergo semi-annual proficiency tests administered by a third party. CODIS is not a criminal history database.976.
parliament.html)".com/stories/2007/03/23/60minutes/main2600721. Law & Order: SVU.org/ privacy/genetic/15062prs19990301. com/ Detailed/ 335.htm) • " ACLU Warns of Privacy Abuses in Government Plan to Expand DNA Databases (http://www. November 13. December 4. Along with the ACLU. In popular culture In forensics television series such as CSI.gov/hq/lab/html/codis1. fbi.National DNA Index System (http:/ / www. CBS. this has expanded. 2007 • " Anne Pressly: Detailed Cases and Informed Opinions On DNA (http://www. Numb3rs. • A Not So Perfect Match (http://www. .DNA didn't prove anything. htm)  CODIS—NDIS Statistics (http:/ / www. gov/ hq/ lab/ html/ codis1. NCIS. 2008. as a result of Proposition 69 in 2004.aclu. Other states have gone further in collecting DNA samples from juveniles and all suspects arrested. htm_spnew5& URL=/ pa/ cm200607/ cmhansrd/ cm070620/ text/ 70620w0037.wsmv. even if their crime has no civilian equivalent (for example adultery).cbsnews. 2008. 1999. html)  Association of the tyrosine hydroxylase gene polymorphism with schizophrenia in the population of central Poland (http:/ / www.Combined DNA Index System 35 Controversies Privacy concerns The CODIS database originally was primarily used to collect DNA of convicted sex offenders. all members of the US Armed Services who are convicted at a Special court martial and above are ordered to provide DNA samples. htm)  House of Commons Hansard Written Answers for 20 Jun 2007 (pt 0037) (http:/ / www.com/news/17973779/ detail. fbi. the investigators often match DNA with the CODIS database.com/article/ 263070)". civil libertarians oppose the use of a DNA database for privacy concerns as well as possible institutionalized discrimination policies in collection. ncbi. and Dexter.html)". and 47 states collect DNA from all convicted felons. as well as some individuals convicted of misdemeanors. gov/ hq/ lab/ codis/ clickmap. Juror Explains Verdict In Double Murder. Bones. Over time. gov/ hq/ lab/ codis/ national. as it only had five points out of 13. References  Mission (http:/ / www. htm#70620w0037. the ACLU is concerned with the increased use of collecting DNA from arrested suspects rather than DNA testing for convicted felons. • " . nlm. ACLU. htm) External links • CODIS homepage (http://www. fbi. In addition to this. htm_spnew5)  Investigations Aided (http:/ / www. all suspects arrested for a felony. publications. nih. (http://www. gov/ hq/ lab/ codis/ aidedmap. shtml?source=search_story). Currently all fifty states have mandatory DNA collection from certain felony offenses such as sexual assault and homicide. gov/ pubmed/ 19189602)  CODIS . htm)  learn about dna : glossary : CODIS markers (http:/ / dnaconsultants. . In California. will have their DNA collected starting in 2009. March 1.digitaljournal. uk/ cgi-bin/ newhtml_hl?DB=semukparl& STEMMER=en& WORDS=ndnad& ALL=& ANY=& PHRASE=& CATEGORIES=& SIMPLE=ndnad& SPEAKER=& COLOUR=red& STYLE=s& ANCHOR=70620w0037.fbi. Criminal Minds. fbi. Currently.
databases of CO1 sequences included at least 620. a common set of choices are: • For animals and many other eukaryotes. identifying insect larvae (which typically have fewer diagnostic characters than adults). a comparatively small variance within species. Identifying flowering plants Kress et al. Although barcodes are sometimes used in an effort to identify unknown species or assess whether species should be combined or separated. or other "reticulate" evolutionary phenomena in a lineage can lead to misleading results (i. short enough to be easily sequenced with current technology. male-killing microoroganisms. A 648-bp region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene was proposed as a potential 'barcode'. for example. the concatenation of the rbcL and matK chloroplast genes Mitochondrial DNA DNA barcoding is based on a relatively simple concept. identifying plant leaves even when flowers or fruit are not available. herbal supplements or wood). taken together. a DNA barcode researcher not involved in that .000 species of animals. which results in significant variation in mtDNA sequences between species and.DNA barcoding 36 DNA barcoding DNA barcoding is a taxonomic method that uses a short genetic marker in an organism's DNA to identify it as belonging to a particular species. Choice of Locus A desirable locus for DNA barcoding should be standardized (so that large databases of sequences for that locus can be developed). It differs from molecular phylogeny in that the main goal is not to determine classification but to identify an unknown sample in terms of a known classification. horizontal gene transfer (such as via cellular symbionts ). because all mtDNA genes are maternally inherited (direct evidence for recombination in mtDNA is available in some bivalves such as Mytilus but it is suspected that it may be more widespread ). In 2009. the utility of DNA barcoding for these purposes is subject to debate. other researchers advocated other regions such as matK. rbcL and matK. Applications include. cytoplasmic incompatibility-inducing symbionts (e.g. or for one species to have more than one mtDNA sequence exhibited among different individuals).. (2005 ) suggest that the use of the COI sequence “is not appropriate for most species of plants because of a much slower rate of cytochrome c oxidase I gene evolution in higher plants than in animals”. Most eukaryote cells contain mitochondria. identifying the diet of an animal based on stomach contents or faeces.000 specimens from over 58. any occurrences of hybridization. Although several loci have been suggested.e. and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has a relatively fast mutation rate. the mitochondrial CO1 gene • For land plants.. However. A series of experiments was then conducted to find a more suitable region of the genome for use in the DNA barcoding of flowering plants (or the larger group of land plants). and provide a large variation between species yet a relatively small amount of variation within a species. present in most of the taxa of interest and sequencable without species-specific PCR primers. larger than databases available for any other gene.  As of 2009. in principle. One 2005 proposal was the nuclear internal transcribed spacer region and the plastid trnH-psbA intergenic spacer. a collaboration of a large group of plant DNA barcode researchers proposed two chloroplast genes. as a barcode for plants. Jesse Ausubel. and identifying products in commerce (for example. Wolbachia ). it is possible for two different species to share mtDNA.
allozymes. or whether past identifications were sound. (2004b ) sequenced the COI gene of 484 specimens from the ACG. This highlights that the results of DNA barcoding analyses can be dependent upon the choice of analytical methods used by the investigators. rDNA.g. as well as an unusually large variety of caterpillar food plants. this threshold. Case studies Identification of birds In an effort to find a correspondence between traditional species boundaries established by taxonomy and those inferred by DNA barcoding. cultured cell lines. Hebert et al. however. Hebert et al. Therefore. (2004b ) concluded that Astraptes fulgerator consists of 10 different species in north-western Costa Rica. Delimiting cryptic species The next major study into the efficacy of DNA barcoding was focused on the neotropical skipper butterfly. In four cases there were deep intraspecific divergences. and mtDNAvage ) have been successfully used in molecular systematics for decades. COI variations between species averaged 7. were subsequently challenged by Brower (2006 ).N. Three out of these four polytypic species are already split into two by some taxonomists. suggested that standardizing on a sequence was the best way to produce a large database of plant sequences. Carl Woese used sequence differences in ribosomal RNA (rRNA) to discover archaea. in all of these species. Ontario. This is problematic in the face of taxonomic issues such as whether several species should be split or combined. and that time would tell whether this choice would be sufficiently good at distinguishing different plant species. proposed the compilation of a public library of DNA barcodes that would be linked to named specimens.93%. 2004a ). Hebert et al. or sometimes images). best practice for DNA barcoding is to sequence vouchered specimens. In 2003. several years would have been required for taxonomists to completely delimit species.'s (2004a ) results reinforce these views and strengthen the case for DNA barcoding. also proposed a standard sequence threshold to define new species. and representatives” from the three major ecosystems where Astraptes fulgerator is found. This species was already known as a cryptic species complex. so the process of delimiting cryptic species using . 130 species were represented by two or more specimens. 37 Vouchered specimens DNA sequence databases like GenBank contain many sequences that are not tied to vouchered specimens (for example. Paul D. who pointed out numerous serious flaws in the analysis. They found that every single one of the 260 species had a different COI sequence. This library would “provide a new master key for identifying species. COI sequences were either identical or were most similar to sequences of the same species..43%. and concluded that the original data could support no more than the possibility of three to seven cryptic taxa rather than ten cryptic species. DNA barcoding provides a standardised method for this process via the use of a short DNA sequence from a particular region of the genome to provide a 'barcode' for identifying species. Hebert et al. cheaper sequencing”. indicating possible new species. whereas variation within species averaged 0. which in turn led to the redrawing of the evolutionary tree. one whose power will rise with increased taxon coverage and with faster. Astraptes fulgerator at the Area Conservacion de Guanacaste (ACG) in north-western Costa Rica. the so-called "barcoding gap". This sample included “at least 20 individuals reared from each species of food plant. Canada.  Origin The use of nucleotide sequence variations to investigate evolutionary relationships is not a new concept.DNA barcoding effort. and molecular markers (e. herbarium specimens. However. These results. was defined as 10 times the mean intraspecific variation for the group under study. Hebert and co-workers sequenced DNA barcodes of 260 of the 667 bird species that breed in North America (Hebert et al. extremes and intermediates of adult and caterpillar color variation. Hebert from the University of Guelph. due to subtle morphological differences.
it is probable that the interspecies variation is rather low. in one case.7% COI sequence difference initially used was far too high. In addition. or (iv) a complex of specialists with no remaining generalist. the group detected six moa species. Each of the 16 initially apparent generalist species were categorized into one of four patterns: (i) a single generalist species. examined whether a COI DNA barcode could function as a tool for identification and discovery for the 20 morphospecies of Belvosia  parasitoid flies (Tachinidae) that have been reared from caterpillars in ACG. Assignment of unknown individuals to species was impossible for 60% of the species. reported that flies in the related family Calliphoridae could not be discriminated by barcoding. we conclude that identification at the species level based on mitochondrial sequence might not be possible for many insects. The COI gene of a group of extinct ratite birds. . non-unique) have been documented in cichlid fishes and cowries 38 Cataloguing ancient life Lambert et al. They investigated the performance of barcoding in the fly genus Protocalliphora.7% COI sequence difference was set. however. Marine biologists have also considered the value of the technique in identifying cryptic and polymorphic species and have suggested that the technique may be helpful when associations with voucher specimens are maintained. each species sequenced had a unique barcode and intraspecific COI sequence variance ranged from 0 to 1. A more recent example used DNA barcoding for the identification of cryptic species included in the ongoing long-term database of tropical caterpillar life generated by Dan Janzen and Winnie Hallwachs in Costa Rica at the ACG. and if the technique had been applied. were sequenced using 26 subfossil moa bones. (2005 ) examined the possibility of using DNA barcoding to assess the past diversity of the Earth's biota. known to be infected with the endosymbiotic bacteria Wolbachia.24% was also used. (ii) a pair of morphologically cryptic generalist species.134 flies belonging to what appeared to be the 16 most generalist of the ACG tachinid morphospecies. individuals from four different species had identical barcodes. also in 2007. The authors went on to state: The pattern of Wolbachia infection strongly suggests that the lack of within-species monophyly results from introgressive hybridization associated with Wolbachia infection. though cases of "shared barcodes" (e. Barcoding not only discriminated among all 17 highly host-specific morphospecies of ACG Belvosia. there is no set value of molecular difference at which populations can be assumed to have irrevocably started to undergo speciation. However. but it also suggested that the species count could be as high as 32 by indicating that each of the three generalist species might actually be arrays of highly host-specific cryptic species. They encountered 73 mitochondrial lineages separated by an average of 4% sequence divergence and. They attributed the failure of barcoding to the non-monophyly of many of the species at the mitochondrial level. Whitworth et al. This value resulted in 10 moa species which corresponded with the previously known species with one exception. Given the slow rate of growth and reproduction of moa. that the 2. expanded on these results by barcoding 2. a further standard sequence threshold of 1. the moa. In 2007 Smith et al. it would have underestimated the species number in the genus by 75%. which is inconsistent with Hebert's recommendation that the threshold value be based on the group under study. As with Hebert's results.24%. where tested. This exception suggested a possible complex of species which was previously unidentified. (iii) a complex of specialist species plus a generalist. and. In sum. as in the previous study. Given that Wolbachia is known to infect between 15 and 75% of insect species. the authors therefore viewed these lineages as provisional species.g. as these lineages are supported by collateral ecological information. To determine new species. by independent nuclear markers (28S and ITS1). there remained 9 generalist species classified among the 73 mitochondrial lineages analyzed. It is safe to say. In 2006 Smith et al.DNA barcoding DNA barcodes can be as subjective as any other form of taxonomy. On the other hand. to identify new species. This value is 10 times the average intraspecies difference of North American birds. Using this value.. a standard sequence threshold of 2.
only 8 actually use COI data to arrive at their conclusions. animal and fungi on the island that will be provided as a publicly available database resource for ecologists and evolutionary biologists around the world. of the 39 species comparisons reported by Johnson and Cicero. this suggests that while mtDNA barcoding may work for vertebrates. It remains to be seen whether what is now touted as a revolution in taxonomy will eventually go the same way as phenetic approaches. extravagant claims that it will supersede or radically transform traditional taxonomy. Criticisms DNA barcoding has met with spirited reaction from scientists.DNA barcoding 39 The Moorea Biocode Project The Biocode Project  is a barcoding initiative to create the first comprehensive inventory of all non-microbial life in a complex tropical ecosystem. and other partners. ranging from enthusiastic endorsement to vociferous opposition.7% threshold suggested by Hebert et al. And. namely. especially systematists. France’s National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS). The software back-end to the Moore Biocode Project is Geneious Pro and two custom-developed plugins from the New Zealand-based company. Biomatters. but may still have merit for higher-level groups. it may not be effective for the majority of known organisms. For example.. Others resent what they see as a gross oversimplification of the science of taxonomy. the island of Moorea in Tahiti. Given that insects represent over 75% of all known organisms. Barcoders also maintain that they are being dragged into long-standing debates over the definition of a species and that barcoding is less controversial when viewed primarily as a method of identification. Hurst and Jiggins. more practically. The outcome of the project is a library of genetic markers and physical identifiers for every species of plant. 2005. such as medicine and genomics. 2007. The Biocode LIMS and Genbank Submission  plugins have been made freely available to the public and users of the free Geneious Basic software will be able to access and view the Biocode database upon completion of the project. Wolbachia) are also particularly common among insects. UC Berkeley. Studies with insects suggest an equal or even greater error rate. Johnson and Cicero (2004 ) have also claimed to have detected bird species with identical DNA barcodes. Moritz and Cicero (2004 ) have questioned the efficacy of DNA barcoding by suggesting that other avian data is inconsistent with Hebert et al. but instead with other big science fields.  . These criticisms are somewhat misleading considering that. Whitworth et al. however. but which were all but rejected when they failed to live up to overblown  Controversy surrounding DNA barcoding stems not so much from the method itself. Supported by a grant from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. of which was claimed exactly the same decades ago.'s interpretation. the Moorea Biocode Project is a 3-year project that brings together researchers from the Smithsonian Institution. but barcoders respond that they compete for funding not with fields like taxonomy. Johnson and Cicero's (2004 ) finding that 74% of sister species comparisons fall below the 2.g. 2007 ). while a commercial copy of Geneious Pro is required for researchers involved int data creation and analysis. Problems with mtDNA arising from male-killing microoroganisms and cytoplasmic incompatibility-inducing symbionts (e. Funk & Omland (2003 ) found that some 23% of animal species are polyphyletic if their mtDNA data are accurate..g. but rather from expectations. indicating that using an mtDNA barcode to assign a species name to an animal will be ambiguous or erroneous some 23% of the time (see also Meyer & Paulay.. 2005 ). The DNA barcoding debate resembles the phenetics debate of decades gone by. these 'barcodes' refer to an unpublished 723-bp sequence of ND6 which has never been suggested as a likely candidate for DNA barcoding. some suggest that recently diverged species might not be distinguishable on the basis of their COI sequences. many stress the fact that DNA barcoding does not provide reliable information above the species level. Wiemers & Fiedler. not classification. while others indicate that it is inapplicable at the species level. due to the frequent lack of correlation between the mitochondrial genome and the nuclear genome or the lack of a barcoding gap (e. Other critics fear a "big science" initiative like barcoding will make funding even more scarce for already underfunded disciplines like taxonomy. Due to various phenomena.
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org/) Consortium for the Barcode of Life (http://www.edu/PDF/Guidelines for non-CO1 selection 4 June. or other appropriate fluid or tissue from personal items (e. The DNA profile is then compared against another sample to determine whether there is a genetic match.edu/AllBirds. Although 99. VNTRs loci are very similar between closely related humans. It is used in. started a blood-testing centre in England. Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI).net/) • Guidelines for non COI gene selection (http://www. but so variable that unrelated individuals are extremely unlikely to have the same VNTRs.pdf) • • • • • • DNA profiling DNA profiling (also called DNA testing. and is now the basis of several national DNA databases. discussed below. particularly short tandem repeats (STR)s. semen. for example. as this reduces the possibility of contamination.fishbol.edu/barcode/blog/) • DNA Barcoding Community Network (http://connect. Jeffreys's genetic fingerprinting was made commercially available in 1987.si.org) (Latest outpost in the Canadian Arctic in the field) • The Barcode of Life Blog (http://phe. called variable number tandem repeats (VNTR).htm) Polar Flora and Fauna Barcoding website (http://www. or genetic fingerprinting) is a technique employed by forensic scientists to assist in the identification of individuals by their respective DNA profiles. DNA profiles are encrypted sets of numbers that reflect a person's DNA makeup. razor. When this is not available (e. etc. DNA profiling uses repetitive ("repeat") sequences that are highly variable. because a court order may be needed and not obtainable) other methods may need to be used to collect a sample of blood.ibol. enough of the DNA is different to distinguish one individual from another.boldsystems.g. when a chemical company.rockefeller. parental testing and criminal investigation.g. toothbrush.org) All Birds Barcoding Initiative (ABBI) (http://barcoding.polarbarcoding. The most desirable method of collecting a reference sample is the use of a buccal swab. which can also be used as the person's identifier. banked sperm or biopsy tissue).barcoding.) or from stored samples (e. The DNA profiling technique was first reported in 1984 by Sir Alec Jeffreys at the University of Leicester in England. Samples obtained from blood relatives (biological relative) can provide an indication of an individual's profile.9% of human DNA sequences are the same in every person.barcodeoflife.DNA barcoding 42 External links Barcode of Life Data Systems (http://www. unless they are monozygotic twins. Dr. A reference sample is then analyzed to create the individual's DNA profile using one of a number of techniques. saliva.org/) International Barcode of Life (http://www. DNA typing.barcodeoflife. DNA profiling process The process begins with a sample of an individual's DNA (typically called a "reference sample").g. DNA profiling should not be confused with full genome sequencing.org) Fish Barcode of Life Initiative (FISH-BOL) (http://www. as could human remains which had been previously profiled. .si.
Karl Brown's original technique looked at many minisatellite loci at the same time. the Southern blot technique is laborious. different STR-based DNA-profiling systems are in use. increasing the observed variability. The pattern of alleles can identify an individual quite accurately. . Each STR is polymorphic. but there are other lengths in use. while in the UK the SGM+ 10 loci system (which is compatible with The National DNA Database). These early techniques have been supplanted by PCR-based assays. however. and Variations of VNTR allele lengths in 6 individuals. the number of alleles is very small. These DNA-profiling systems are based on multiplex reactions. followed by Southern blot analysis. PCR analysis With the invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. particularly STR loci. DNA profiling took huge strides forward in both discriminating power and the ability to recover information from very small (or degraded) starting samples.20% of individuals. However they were not as discriminating as RFLP. This method uses highly polymorphic regions that have short repeated sequences of DNA (the most common is 4 bases repeated. Also. Thus STR analysis provides an excellent identification tool. The DNA fragments that result are then separated and detected using electrophoresis. whereby many STR regions will be tested at the same time. Whichever system is used. Typically each STR allele will be shared by around 5 . is in use. capillary electrophoresis (CE) and gel electrophoresis. These STR loci (locations on a chromosome) are targeted with sequence-specific primers and amplified using PCR. STR analysis The method of DNA profiling used today is based on PCR and uses short tandem repeats (STR) a type of VNTR. There are two common methods of separation and detection. the PCR method was readily adaptable for analyzing VNTR. Although polymorphisms can exist in the restriction enzyme cleavage sites. From country to country. In North America. systems which amplify the CODIS 13 core loci are almost universal. and the speed with which a result could be obtained. Early assays such as the HLA-DQ alpha reverse dot blot strips grew to be very popular due to their ease of use.DNA profiling 43 RFLP analysis The first methods for finding out genetics used for DNA profiling involved restriction enzyme digestion. but making it hard to discern individual alleles (and thereby precluding parental testing). Fortunately. Because unrelated people almost certainly have different numbers of repeat units. The more STR regions that are tested in an individual the more discriminating the test becomes. PCR greatly amplifies the amounts of a specific region of DNA. requires large amounts of undegraded sample DNA. It was also difficult to determine a DNA profile for mixed samples. such as a vaginal swab from a sexual assault victim. using oligonucleotide primers and a thermostable DNA polymerase. The power of STR analysis comes from looking at multiple STR loci simultaneously. more commonly the enzymes and DNA probes were used to analyze VNTR loci. including 3 and 5 bases). many of the STR regions used are the same. STRs can be used to discriminate between unrelated individuals. However.
Logically. the risk of contaminated-matching is much greater than matching a distant relative. to ensure that they stayed clean. However. These locations contain specific DNA markers that DNA scientists use to identify individuals. called a zygote. In a relationship test. or in contact with. This zygote divides and multiplies into an embryo and later. each containing half the amount of DNA found in other body cells. In addition. where the three loci were independent. the full DNA profiles should differ (except for twins). At each stage of development. Because the 13 loci that are currently used for discrimination in CODIS are independently assorted (having a certain number of repeats at one locus doesn't change the likelihood of having any number of repeats at any other locus). For that reason. and allows for easy creation of phylogenetic trees based on comparing individual samples of DNA. a victim is a major source of contamination for any other samples brought into a lab. The zygote contains a complete set of DNA molecules. which is currently used for human identification. This has resulted in the ability to generate match probabilities of 1 in a quintillion (1 with 18 zeros after it) or more. DNA family relationship analysis Using PCR technology. because the analysis is done on a gel. This fact allows the relationship testing to use all types of all samples including loose cells from the cheeks collected using buccal swabs. such as a sample being contaminated from nearby objects. In a routine DNA paternity test. AmpFLP remains popular in lower income countries. DNA database searches showed much more frequent than expected false DNA profile matches including one perfect 13 locus match out of only 30. AmpFLP. when prepared during the same period as the actual test samples. a full human being. As with all PCR based methods. there is some called junk DNA. the theoretical probability is not accurate. highly degraded DNA or very small amounts of DNA may cause allelic dropout (causing a mistake in thinking a heterozygote is a homozygote) or other stochastic effects. During conception. very high number repeats may bunch together at the top of the gel. 44 AmpFLP Another technique. While a lot of DNA contains information for a certain function. the markers used are Short . multiple control-samples are typically tested. to prove that a person wasn't actually matched as being related to their own DNA in another sample.DNA profiling The true power of STR analysis is in its statistical power of discrimination. or from left-over cells transferred from a prior test. a unique combination of DNA from both parents. AmpFLP analysis can be highly automated. In practice. blood or other types of samples. or amplified fragment length polymorphism was also put into practice during the early 1990s. At some special locations (called loci) in the junk DNA. we can say that the probability of having that DNA type is the probability of having type A times the probability of having type B times the probability of having type C. One popular locus for fingerprinting was the D1S80 locus. Due to its relatively low cost and ease of set-up and operation. Moreover. siblingship and other kinships. This technique was also faster than RFLP analysis and used PCR to amplify DNA samples.000 DNA samples in Maryland in January 2007. the product rule for probabilities can be applied. Unexpected matches (or variations) in several control-samples indicates a high probability of contamination for the actual test samples. Bands could be visualized by silver staining the gel. since there are about 12 million monozygotic twins on Earth. which were separated on a polyacrylamide gel using an allelic ladder (as opposed to a molecular weight ladder). all the cells forming the body contain the same DNA—half from the father and half from the mother. It relied on variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphisms to distinguish various alleles. DNA analysis is widely applied to determine genetic family relationships such as paternity. This means that if someone has the DNA type of ABC. maternity. meet and fuse to form a fertilized egg. predictable inheritance patterns were found to be useful in determining biological relationships. the father’s sperm cell and the mother’s egg cell. making it difficult to resolve. the risk is greater for matching the most common person in the samples: everything collected from.
For example. Because mtDNA is maternally inherited. depending on the markers inherited from the parents. 17 45 The partial results indicate that the child and the alleged father’s DNA match among these five markers. When determining the relationship between two individuals. 31 11. it is sometimes impossible to get a complete profile of the 13 CODIS STRs. 12 15. Y-chromosomes are paternally inherited. 8 14. 16.2 Child 28. their genetic profiles are compared to see if they share the same inheritance patterns at a statistically conclusive rate. short pieces of DNA that occur in highly differential repeat patterns among individuals. 9 14. each marker is assigned with a Paternity Index (PI). 11 14. Within a population. Y-STR analysis was performed in the Sally Hemings controversy to determine if Thomas Jefferson had sired a son with one of his slaves. Forensic scientists amplify the HV1 and HV2 regions of the mtDNA. The DNA test report in other family relationship tests. such as a Siblingship Index. The report shows the genetic profiles of each tested person. which indicates the overall probability of an individual being the biological father of the tested child relative to any random man from the entire population of the same race. a different value. such as grandparentage and siblingship tests. The combination of marker sizes found in each person makes up his/her unique genetic profile. then sequence each region and compare single-nucleotide differences to a reference. 16 8. is reported. such as one's maternal . the markers at each person’s DNA location could differ in length and sometimes sequence. If there are markers shared among the tested individuals. 16 7. 9 15. 30 9. 15 7. The PI of each marker is multiplied with each other to generate the Combined Paternity Index (CPI). Each person’s DNA contains two copies of these markers—one copy inherited from the father and one from the mother. Mitochondrial analysis For highly degraded samples. 31 10. while there may only be 1-2 copies of the nuclear DNA. Instead of the Combined Paternity Index.DNA profiling Tandem Repeats (STRs). mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is sometimes typed due to there being many copies of mtDNA in a cell. 15 Alleged father 29. the following sample report from this commercial DNA paternity testing laboratory Universal Genetics signifies how relatedness between parents and child is identified on those special markers: DNA Marker D21S11 D7S820 TH01 D13S317 D19S433 Mother 28. so Y-STR analysis can help in the identification of paternally related males. In these situations. which allows resolution of a mixed DNA sample from a male and female and/or cases in which a differential extraction is not possible. which is a statistical measure of how powerfully a match at a particular marker indicates paternity. Scientifically. the probability of biological relationship is calculated to determine how likely the tested individuals share the same markers due to a blood relationship. Y-chromosome analysis Recent innovations have included the creation of primers targeting polymorphic regions on the Y-chromosome (Y-STR). is similar to a paternity test report. The complete test results show this correlation on 16 markers between the child and the tested man to draw a conclusion of whether or not the man is the biological father. The CPI is then converted into a Probability of Paternity showing the degree of relatedness between the alleged father and child. directly linked maternal relatives can be used as match references. 10 14.
and its rate of growth.000. Today. a company operating in the U. A difference of two or more nucleotides is generally considered to be an exclusion. where police have wide-ranging powers to take samples and retain them even in the event of acquittal.000). However. the American offices of the company can't divulge to their subsidiaries/offices in other countries the reasons that these DNA samples are sought or by whom. The United Kingdom maintains the National DNA Database (NDNAD). sensitive and easier . arbitrary low ceilings were controversially put on match probabilities used in RFLP analysis rather than the higher theoretically computed ones. but most of the largest databases are government controlled. the theoretical risk of a coincidental match is 1 in 100 billion (100. Patriot Act of the United States provides a means for the U. accurately compute a match probability was sometimes unavailable. Anastasia Romanov. mtDNA is useful in determining clear identities.S. and often actual laboratory procedures do not reflect the theory under which the coincidence probabilities were computed. The United States maintains the largest DNA database. the rate of laboratory error is almost certainly higher than this. Some are private. When a match is made from a National DNA Databank to link a crime scene to an offender who has provided a DNA Sample to a databank that link is often referred to as a cold hit. Recent studies have quoted relatively high error  In the early days of genetic fingerprinting.S. government to get DNA samples from other countries if they are either a division of. but a laboratory worker may conclude that similar—but not precisely identical—band patterns result from identical genetic samples with some imperfection in the agarose gel. 46 DNA databases There are now several DNA databases in existence around the world. the lawyer would argue that this meant that in a country of say 60 million people there were 12 people who would also match the profile. despite the UK's smaller population. although the practical risk is actually 1 in 1000 because monozygotic twins are 0. Another spurious statistical argument is based on the false assumption that a 1 in 5 million probability of a match automatically translates into a 1 in 5 million probability of innocence and is known as the prosecutor's fallacy.DNA profiling grandmother's daughter's son. A cold hit is of value in referring the police agency to a specific suspect but is of less evidential value than a DNA match made from outside the DNA Databank.2% of the human population. Between 1992 and 1996. mtDNA testing was used in determining that Anna Anderson was not the Russian princess she had claimed to be.000. The U. the necessary population data to rates which may be cause for concern. in this case. RFLP has become widely disused due to the advent of more discriminating. the coincidence probabilities may be calculated based on the probabilities that markers in two samples have bands in precisely the same location. Heteroplasmy and poly-C differences may throw off straight sequence comparisons. or head office of. which is of similar size. is giving concern to civil liberties groups in the UK. Under the act.S. When using RFLP. holding over 5 million records as of 2007. This argument is not sound unless the suspect was drawn at random from the population of the country. Considerations when evaluating DNA evidence In the early days of the use of genetic fingerprinting as criminal evidence. This was then translated to a 1 in 12 chance of the suspect being the guilty one. a jury should consider how likely it is that an individual matching the genetic profile would also have been a suspect in the case for other reasons. the laboratory worker increases the coincidence risk by expanding the criteria for declaring a match. juries were often swayed by spurious statistical arguments by defense lawyers along these lines: given a match that had a 1 in 5 million probability of occurring by chance. For example. mtDNA can be obtained from such material as hair shafts and old bones/teeth. Moreover. so some expertise on the part of the analyst is required. such as those of missing people when a maternally linked relative can be found. with the Combined DNA Index System. In fact. The size of this database.
Police drew what they believed to be Schneeberger's blood and compared its DNA against the crime scene semen DNA on three occasions. More rarely. Germany and France . police detectives found DNA traces from the same woman on various crime scenes in Austria. Since 1998 the DNA profiling system supported by The National DNA Database in the UK is the SGM+ DNA profiling system which includes 10 STR regions and a sex indicating test. There have been several cases of DNA profiling that falsely "proved" that a mother was unrelated to her children. STRs do not suffer from such subjectivity and provide similar power of discrimination (1 in 10^13 for unrelated individuals if using a full SGM+ profile). In a study conducted by the life science company Nucleix and published in the journal Forensic Science International. To eliminate the majority of this list. a criminal even planted fake DNA evidence in his own body: Dr. In that case. detectives began to have serious doubts about the DNA evidence. chimerism is one such instance where the lack of a genetic match may unfairly exclude a suspect. have at least two different sets of genes. John Schneeberger raped one of his sedated patients in 1992 and left semen on her underwear. While almost all individuals have a single and distinct set of genes. DNA evidence as evidence in criminal trials Familial DNA searching Familial DNA searching (sometimes referred to as “Familial DNA” or “Familial DNA Database Searching”) is the practice of creating new investigative leads in cases where DNA evidence found at the scene of a crime (forensic profile) strongly resembles that of an existing DNA profile (offender profile) in a state DNA database but there is not an exact match. the cautious juror should not convict on genetic fingerprint evidence alone if other factors raise doubt. but not DNA-free. It should be noted that figures of this magnitude are not considered to be statistically supportable by scientists in the UK. known as "chimeras". 47 Evidence of genetic relationship It's also possible to use DNA profiling as evidence of genetic relationship. investigators may use specially developed software to compare the forensic profile to all profiles taken from a state’s DNA database in order to generate a list of those offenders most likely to be a close relative of the forensic profile.among them murders.DNA profiling technologies. scientists found that an In vitro synthesized sample of DNA matching any desired genetic profile can be constructed using standard molecular biology techniques without obtaining any actual tissue from that person. but testing that shows no relationship is absolutely certain. However. Contamination with other evidence (secondary transfer) is a key source of incorrect DNA profiles and raising doubts as to whether a sample has been adulterated is a favorite defense technique. DNA traces were already present on the cotton swabs used to collect the samples at the crime scene. The company's product specification said that the swabs were guaranteed to be sterile. In one case. It turned out that he had surgically inserted a Penrose drain into his arm and filled it with foreign blood and anticoagulants. with any DNA technique. for unrelated individuals with full matching DNA profiles a match probability of 1 in a billion is considered statistically supportable. rare individuals.  After all other leads have been exhausted. never showing a match. Using . In the case of the Phantom of Heilbronn. Fake DNA evidence The value of DNA evidence has to be seen in light of recent cases where criminals planted fake DNA samples at crime scenes. crime lab technicians conduct Y-STR analysis that confirms the familial relationships suggested by the first list. burglaries and robberies. and the swabs had all been produced at the same factory in Austria. Only after the DNA of the "woman" matched the DNA sampled from the burned body of a male asylum seeker in France.
Darryl Hunt was wrongly convicted in connection with the rape and murder of a young woman in 1984 in North Carolina. Colorado in 2008 using software developed under the leadership of Denver District Attorney Mitch Morrissey and Denver Police Department Crime Lab Director Gregg LaBerge. Hunt was exonerated in 2004 when a DNA database search produced a remarkably close match between a convicted felon and the forensic profile from the case. Critics of familial DNA database searches argue that the technique may be an invasion of an individual’s 4th Amendment rights. the investigators created a family tree. The first familial DNA search and subsequent conviction in the United States was conducted in Denver. former Alameda County Prosecutor Rock Harmon is widely considered to have been the catalyst in the adoption of familial search technology in California. Other states are expected to follow. In March of 2011 Virginia Governor Bob McDonnell announced that Virginia would begin using familial DNA searches. Pool ruled that this practice is somewhat analogous to a witness looking at a photograph of one person and stating that it looked like the perpetrator. one of whom is identified as the perpetrator. Some scholars have pointed out that the privacy concerns surrounding familial searching are no more threatening than other police search techniques. or additional Y-STR analysis. authorities are then able to build a family tree. to identify a suspect. but are the result of moderate stringency CODIS searches that produce a potential match that shares at least one allele at every locus. In this example. Brown. which leads law enforcement to show the witness photos of similar looking individuals. and has also been used as a tool to exonerate the falsely accused. to definitively identify the suspect as the source of the crime scene DNA. and therefore often misses sibling relationships. States determine their own policies and decision making processes for how and when to conduct familial searches. investigators with Denver District Attorney’s Office successfully identified a suspect in a property theft case using a familial DNA search. Familial DNA database searching is a more accurate tool to identify relatives than partial DNA profile matching. ending the long ordeal for this innocent man. but the suspect actually volunteered to come to a police station and give a 48 . Currently. Regardless of whether familial DNA searching was the method used to identify the suspect. as well as all of the females (the crime scene DNA profile was that of a male). Investigators obtained a court order to collect the suspect’s DNA. They may also use other leads from the case. California was the first state to implement a policy for familial searching under then Attorney General. investigators seek to legally obtain a DNA sample from the suspect. the suspect’s blood left at the scene of the crime strongly resembled that of a current Colorado Department of Corrections prisoner. such as witness or victim statements. authorities always conduct a normal DNA test to match the suspect’s DNA with that of the DNA left at the crime scene. The family tree is populated from information gathered from public records and criminal justice records. Once a suspect has been identified. Using publicly available records. Partial matching does not involve the use of a special software such as those used in the UK and Denver. Familial DNA database searching was first used to convict Craig Harman of manslaughter in the United Kingdom on April 19. familial DNA database searching is not conducted on a national level in the United States. The technique was used to catch the Los Angeles serial killer known as the “Grim Sleeper” in 2010 and more recently led to the arrest of 21-year-old Elvis Garcia on charges of sexual assault and false imprisonment of a woman in Santa Cruz in 2008. In his role as consultant to the Familial Search Working Group of the California Department of Justice. who confessed to the crime when confronted by police. Investigators rule out family members’ involvement in the crime by finding excluding factors such as sex. The partial match led investigators to the felon’s brother. now Governor. Willard E. They then eliminated all the family members who were incarcerated at the time of the offense. Partial matches are not searches themselves. A judge then signed an order to dismiss the case with prejudice against Hunt. Partial matching has been used to identify suspects in several cases in the UK and US. For instance. The Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals in United States v. living out of state or being incarcerated when the crime was committed. 2004.DNA profiling standard investigative techniques. in accordance with well established and constitutionally accepted practices. This suspect DNA profile is then compared to the sample found at the crime scene. Jerry Brown.
" In the UK. failing to destroy a used coffee cup. There may be cases where the match probability in relation to all the samples tested is so great that the judge would consider its probative value to be minimal and decide to exclude the evidence in the exercise of his discretion. . In 1996 R v. Moore-Bick LJ said: “We can see no reason why partial profile DNA evidence should not be admissible provided that the jury are made aware of its inherent limitations and are given a sufficient explanation to enable them to evaluate it. The judge must ensure that the jury must understand the significance of DNA matches and mismatches in the profiles. Critics of this practice underline the fact that this analogy ignores that "most people have no idea that they risk surrendering their genetic identity to the police by. The Defendant is one of them. but that does not provide grounds for excluding relevant evidence that is available and otherwise admissible. courts often claiming that there was no expectation of privacy. for instance. the decision you have to reach. fingernails. Later confronted with an exact match to the forensic profile. but this gives rise to no new question of principle and can be left for decision on a case by case basis. such as Bayes' theorem. the Human Tissue Act 2004 prohibited private individuals from covertly collecting biological samples (hair. though it does make it important to ensure that the jury are given  sufficient information to enable them to evaluate that evidence properly”. Legality of this mode of proceeding has been questioned in Australia. and use it as evidence.) for DNA analysis. In the United States. etc.DNA profiling DNA sample. England and Wales Evidence from an expert who has compared DNA samples must be accompanied by evidence as to the sources of the samples and the procedures for obtaining the DNA profiles. if you accept the scientific evidence called by the Crown. there is no way to avoid abandoning one’s DNA in public. during which the Supreme Court held that the Fourth Amendment does not prohibit the warrantless search and seizure of garbage left for collection outside the curtilage of a home. is whether you are sure that it was the Defendant who left that stain or whether it is possible that it was one of that other small group of men who share the same DNA characteristics. However. citing California v. Greenwood (1985). on all the evidence. Juries should weigh up conflicting and corroborative evidence. The judge must also ensure that the jury does not confuse the 'match probability' (the probability that a person that is chosen at random has a matching DNA profile to the sample from the scene) with the 'likelihood ratio' (the probability that a person with matching DNA committed the crime). In many there is a possibility (at least in theory) that evidence exists which would assist the accused and perhaps even exculpate him altogether. but excluded medical and criminal investigations from the offence. Doheny Phillips LJ gave this example of a summing up. the suspect walked free without further interrogation or detainment. Presentation and evaluation of evidence of partial or incomplete DNA profiles In R v Bates. even if they do realize it. which should be carefully tailored to the particular facts in each case: Members of the Jury. this indicates that there are probably only four or five white males in the United Kingdom from whom that semen stain could have come. Moreover. 49 Surreptitious DNA collecting Police forces may collect DNA samples without the suspects' knowledge. using their own common sense and not by using mathematical formulae. so as to avoid "confusion. If that is the position. After providing the sample. the suspect pled guilty to criminal trespass at the first court date and was sentenced to two years probation. it has been accepted. misunderstanding and misjudgment". the fact that there exists in the case of all partial profile evidence the possibility that a "missing" allele might exculpate the accused altogether does not provide sufficient grounds for rejecting such evidence.
The synthetic DNA oligos required for the procedure are common in molecular laboratories. any biology undergraduate could perform this. in particular.DNA profiling 50 DNA testing in the US There are state laws on DNA profiling in all 50 states of the United States. In a paper published in the journal Forensic Science International: Genetics. He was executed on April 27." Dr. Daniel Frumkin. David Vasquez. for several rape and murder charges. genetic fingerprinting was used in criminal court for the first time in the trial of a man accused of unlawful intercourse with a mentally handicapped 14-year-old female who gave birth to his baby. Virginia hospital following a medical procedure were tested using DNA fingerprinting. meaning it contains methyl group modifications within a CpG dinucleotide context. His test detects epigenetic modifications. Detailed information on database laws in each state can be found at the National Conference of State Legislatures website. he was convicted on November 6. "You can just engineer a crime scene. thus falsifying DNA evidence.. Seventy percent of the DNA in any human genome is methylated. • In 1986. if any. which originally contained DNA from a person other than the supposed donor of the blood and saliva. The scientists fabricated saliva and blood samples.  • In 1988. even though any forensic laboratory doing DNA identification could adopt this test to authenticate its results as "real" DNA. the city where DNA profiling was first discovered. DNA. Virginia. In the 1980s. became the first man in America exonerated based on DNA evidence. scientists in Israel raised serious doubts concerning the use of DNA by law enforcement as the ultimate method of identification. police departments currently use the test. which allows the test to distinguish manufactured DNA from original. 1987. was quoted in The New York Times saying. Dr. Timothy Wilson Spencer was the first man in Virginia to be sentenced to death through DNA testing. for raping a woman during a burglary. which appears to be a serious issue. using a DNA database. and that this can be done without access to any actual DNA from the person whose DNA they are duplicating. samples of her tissue that had been stored at a Charlottesville. Frumkin perfected a test that can differentiate real DNA samples from fake ones. Cases • In the 1950s. .. lead author on the paper. The researchers also showed that. it is possible to take information from a profile and manufacture DNA to match it. in the same case as Buckland. after her death. No police lab has publicly announced that it is using the new test to verify DNA results. 1994. Development of artificial DNA In August 2009. • In 1987. DNA methylation. genuine. Methylation at the promoter region is associated with gene silencing. It is unknown how many. • In 1987. the Israeli researchers demonstrated that it is possible to manufacture DNA in a laboratory. Richard Buckland was exonerated. He was dubbed "The South Side Strangler" because he killed victims on the south side of Richmond. This was the first use of DNA finger printing in a criminal investigation. and sentenced to 22 years in prison. Florida rapist Tommy Lee Andrews was the first person in the United States to be convicted as a result of DNA evidence. Anna Anderson claimed that she was Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna of Russia. and showed that she bore no relation to the Romanovs. • In 1987. despite having admitted to the rape and murder of a teenager near Leicester. The synthetic DNA lacks this epigenetic modification. initially convicted of one of Spencer's crimes. British baker Colin Pitchfork was the first criminal caught and convicted using DNA fingerprinting. He was later charged with rape and 1st degree murder and was sentenced to death.
for four murders he had committed while an escaped prisoner in 1989. Kirk Bloodsworth was the first person to have been convicted of murder and sentenced to death.DNA profiling • In 1989. in Merseyside. • The trial of Robert Pickton is notable in that DNA evidence is being used primarily to identify the victims. and in many cases to prove their existence. • In 2003. Raymond Easton. was arrested. 51 . Welshman Jeffrey Gafoor was convicted of the 1988 murder of Lynette White. John Kogut and John Restivo won a re-trial on their murder conviction. • In 1992. a disabled man from Swindon. This was the first time viral DNA fingerprinting had been used as evidence in a criminal trial. • In 1991. his defense argued that the relatively shallow gene pool of the region could lead to false positives. • In May 2000 Gordon Graham murdered Paul Gault at his home in Lisburn. lead singer for the Seattle punk band The Gits was unsolved 9 years after the murder. • In 1994. • In August 2002. • In 1998. • In 1999. It was the first time Low Copy Number DNA was used in Northern Ireland. • The 1993 rape and murder of Mia Zapata. The case also brought to light the laboratory difficulties and handling procedure mishaps which can cause such evidence to be significantly doubted.J. Dennis Halstead. Allan Legere was the first Canadian to be convicted as a result of DNA evidence. England. but the killer's DNA was collected when he was arrested in Florida for burglary and domestic abuse in 2002. • In 2001. • The science was made famous in the United States in 1994 when prosecutors heavily relied on DNA evidence allegedly linking O. Echols was the 114th person to be exonerated through post-conviction DNA testing. Graham was having an affair with the victim's wife at the time of the murder. Richard J. DNA evidence was used to prove that Nazi doctor Josef Mengele was buried in Brazil under the name Wolfgang Gerhard. Schmidt was convicted of attempted second-degree murder when it was shown that there was a link between the viral DNA of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) he had been accused of injecting in his girlfriend and viral DNA from one of his patients with full-blown AIDS. His DNA had been retained on file after an unrelated domestic incident some time previously. resulting in a match with his nephew. Annalisa Vincenzi was shot dead in Tuscany. a man who was wrongfully convicted in a 1986 rape case. This is the first instance of plant DNA admitted in a criminal case. Chicago man Gary Dotson was the first person whose conviction was overturned using DNA evidence. DNA from a palo verde tree was used to convict Mark Alan Bogan of murder. thus marking for the first time in forensic history the use of non-human DNA to identify a criminal. Dr. • In June 2003. Graham was convicted of the murder when his DNA was found on a sports bag left in the house as part of an elaborate ploy to suggest the murder occurred after a burglary had gone wrong. in March 2003 on an extradition warrant heard at Bow Street Magistrates' Court in London to establish whether he should be taken to Italy to face a murder charge. and used the test to link a man to the murder of his wife. Wayne Butler was convicted for the murder of Celia Douty. because of new DNA evidence. Simpson to a double murder. via "familial searching". but he was  cleared on other evidence. The three men had already served eighteen years of their thirty-plus-year sentences. During his trial. A database search in 2001 failed. whose conviction was overturned using DNA evidence. was arrested and detained for 7 hours in connection with a burglary. DNA "proved" he shot her. • In 1992.  • In 2002. 23. Northern Ireland. Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) detectives successfully tested hairs from a cat known as Snowball. This may be the first known example of the DNA of an innocent yet related individual being used to identify the actual criminal. when crime scene evidence collected 12 years earlier was re-examined using STR techniques. He was released due to an inaccurrate DNA match.   • In 1993. DNA testing was used to exonerate Douglas Echols. It was the first murder in Australia to be solved using DNA profiling. DNA from seed pods of a tree at the crime scene was found to match that of seed pods found in Bogan's truck. Bartender Peter Hamkin.
Howard.  Jeffreys A. 01 January 2009  "Use of DNA in Identification" (http:/ / www. The Blooding (New York. html) New Scientist accessed April 17. html) The Huffington Post accessed April 17. Jason.  Diamond. whose real fate remains unknown. com/ Primetime/ story?id=2315693). org/ content/ 312/ 5778/ 1315. New York: A Perigord Press Book. uk/ index. Josiah Sutton was released from prison after serving four years of a twelve-year sentence for a sexual assault charge. wikicrimeline. .org.DNA profiling • In March 2003. uk/ crime/ article/ 0. who was only four years old in 1969 and was never successfully connected to the case in any other way.J.00. short)Science.. in her car in Southampton 30 years ago was released by senior judges.com. fbi. Evan Simmons was proven innocent of a 1981 attack on an Atlanta woman after serving twenty-four years in prison.” (http:/ / www. aspx#uk). Los Angeles Times: pp. Diane. • In 2005.gov. htm). Bruce Anderson. 2011. 2006-08-15. html) The Observer. doi:10. 202. 2008). "Hypervariable 'minisatellite' regions in human DNA" (http:/ / www. html) 1996.  "Two Women Don't Match Their Kids' DNA" (http:/ / abcnews. The Blooding (New York. php). a four-year-old boy who vanished during a fishing trip. Nature 314: 67–73. org/ RC/ AB/ BA/ Use_of_DNA_Identification. denverpost. sciencemag. dnaforensics.  "CODIS — National DNA Index System" (http:/ / www.  Nick Paton Walsh False result fear over DNA tests (http:/ / www. com/ article/ dn4908-killer-convicted-thanks-to-relatives-dna. latimes. Abcnews. Retrieved 2010-04-03. New York: A Perigord Press Book. a law student at the University of Michigan. Tests prove DNA from the scene was not his. Retrieved 2010-04-03.  Felch. DNA tests on Dunbar's son and nephew revealed the two were not related. DNA testing shed new light into the mysterious 1912 disappearance of Bobby Dunbar. guardian. . nap. 2011.uk. Toronto: Carswell Publications. 1315–16. html). com/ FamilialSearches. gov/ hq/ lab/ codis/ national. Questionable DNA samples taken from Sutton were retested in the wake of the Houston Police Department's crime lab scandal of mishandling DNA evidence.   • In December 2005. He was allegedly found alive eight months later in the custody of William Cantwell Walters. 2011. Retrieved 2010-04-03. Wikicrimeline. • In March 2009. 52 References  Kijk magazine. "Searching the Family DNA Tree to Solve Crime.  The Evaluation of Forensic DNA Evidence (http:/ / www.2763. com/ denver/ ci_13801125) The Denver Post accessed April 17. "FBI resists scrutiny of 'matches'" (http:/ / articles. et al (July 20. Thein S. DNA — A Practical Guide. accessexcellence. convicted of killing Teresa De Simone. . P8. The courts disbelieved her claim and convicted Walters for the kidnapping.  Rose & Goos." (http:/ / www.1038/314067a0  Joseph Wambaugh. edu/ openbook/ 0309053951/ html/ 35. thus establishing that the boy found in 1912 was not Bobby Dunbar. 1989). after DNA found on Mixer's pantyhose was matched to Leiterman. com/ diane-dimond/ searching-the-family-dna-_b_845340. "Denver Uses ‘Familial DNA Evidence’ to Solve Car Break-Ins.(2006) “Finding Criminals Through DNA of Their Relatives” (http:/ / www. Shaoni “Killer Convicted Thanks to Relative's DNA. 312 Sci. 83. . but another woman claimed that the boy was her son. co.go. Mr Clark is the 164th person in the United States and the fifth in Georgia to be freed using post-conviction DNA testing.  Bieber. • In 2004. newscientist. co. Wilson V.  Bhattacharya. British police have now reopened the case. . 1315. nature. (1984). Sunday 27 January 2002. . Retrieved 2010-04-03.  "Restrictions on use and destruction of fingerprints and samples" (http:/ / www." (http:/ / www.  Joseph Wambaugh.. 22.  Pankratz. com/ 2008/ jul/ 20/ local/ me-dna20). The boy was raised and known as Bobby Dunbar throughout the rest of his life. whom she had entrusted in Walters' custody.W.  “Science of the Future: Identifying Criminals Through Their Family Members” (http:/ / www. 1989). go. Leiterman's defense unsuccessfully argued that the unexplained match of the blood spot to Ruelas pointed to cross-contamination and raised doubts about the reliability of the lab's identification of Leiterman. However. Frederick et al. Sean Hodgson who spent 27 years in jail. huffingtonpost.640157. DNA in a drop of blood on Mixer's hand was matched to John Ruelas.co.. Fbi. com/ nature/ journal/ v314/ n6006/ abs/ 314067a0. Accessexcellence. 2009-09-01. php?title=Identification_by_body_samples_and_impressions#Section_82:_Restrictions_on_use_and_destruction_of_fingerprints_and_samples). Gary Leiterman was convicted of the 1969 murder of Jane Mixer.
gov/ sci/ techresources/ Human_Genome/ elsi/ forensics. Jennifer. UK . Lawyers Fight DNA Samples Gained on Sly (http:/ / www. org/ DNA/ Familial_DNA_Database_Searches. denverda. org/ ew/ cases/ EWCA/ Crim/ 1997/ 2474. "'Grim Sleeper' Arrest Fans Debate on DNA Use.  Pankratz.  "frontline: the case for innocence: the dna revolution: state and federal dna database laws examined" (http:/ / www. pbs. washingtonpost. html) LA Times accessed April 17. New York: A Perigord Press Book. 2010. pdf) LA Times accessed April 17. com/ 2010/ 07/ 09/ us/ 09sleeper. . Ivanov. Retrieved 2010-04-03. com/ lanow/ 2011/ 03/ familial-dna-search-used-in-grim-sleeper-case-leads-to-arrest-of-santa-cruz-sex-offender. law.uk. 2008. htm) accessed April 20.com. shtml). Central Research and Support Establishment. 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"Elsevier" (http:/ / www. 2011. php?check=true& tag=134). 369. UK.  “Denver District Attorney DNA Resources” (http:/ / www. uk/ 1/ hi/ programmes/ newsnight/ 8245312. The Blooding (New York.  Donna Lyons — Posted by Glenda. . com/ denver/ ci_13801125) The Denver Post accessed April 17.org. nature. html) The Washington Post accessed April 17. org/ wgbh/ pages/ frontline/ shows/ case/ revolution/ databases. com/ 2008/ 04/ 03/ science/ 03dna.  Helderman. Adams  EWCA Crim 2474 (http:/ / www. nytimes. Maura.  Dolan. edu/ articles/ pdf/ v23. 2011. Court of Appeal  "WikiCrimeLine DNA profiling" (http:/ / www. Romelle Piercy." (http:/ / www. ornl. Court of Appeal  R v. 2011. The New York Times.” (http:/ / www. org/ ew/ cases/ EWCA/ Crim/ 2006/ 1395. “McDonnell Approves Familial DNA for VA Crime Fighting. Retrieved 2010-04-03. RG7 4PN. bailii. Department of Biological Anthropology. Downing Street. Vol. . Loveridge. html?_r=1). 53 .com.  “Darryl Hunt. 2011. fsigenetics. Moscow. . 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. co.1933724. Associated Press. uk/ comment/ story/ 0. March 24. Breed. shtml) story on the Jane Mixer murder case. htm). 2010.co.  McCutcheon.. stm). co. 2007.co. htm).  CBS News (http:/ / www.com.com (http://www. uk/ news/ worldnews/ australiaandthepacific/ 1322624/ 18-years-on.  Jeffries. Belfasttelegraph. uk/ sunday-life/ news/ freedom-in-bag-for-killer-graham-13906320. Retrieved April 1. belfasttelegraph. 2004).html) PBS.-man-is-jailed-for-murder-of-Briton-in-'paradise'. bbc. London: The Guardian.be/cbmer/page." USA Today.fingerprinting. net. shtml) story on the Mixer case.php?LAN=E&ID=399& FILE=subject&PAGE=1) • Key Dates in the History of DNA Profiling (http://www. com/ tech/ news/ 2004-05-05-1914-dna_x. Retrieved 2011-04-21. html). (May 5. uk/ 1/ hi/ england/ 2766289.uk/science/2009/may/24/dna-fingerprinting-alec-jeffreys) Eureka Moment • Create a DNA Fingerprint (http://www. "DNA evidence may not be infallible: experts" (http:/ / www. London: The Telegraph. 2007. html).  " DNA clears man of 1914 kidnapping conviction (http:/ / www. cbsnews. Retrieved 2010-04-03. guardian.  Gordon. BBC News. man is jailed for murder of Briton in 'paradise'" (http:/ / www.crimtrac. usatoday. . "18 years on. Retrieved 2010-06-19. co.  An advocacy site (http:/ / www.  "Mistaken identity claim over murder" (http:/ / news. Retrieved 2008-06-17.es) . 2003. botany. Lifeloom.com (http://dnaforensics.kuleuven. Peter (2004-09-08).DNA profiling  "Crime Scene Botanicals" (http:/ / www.guardian. 30/ content/ 2004/ s1195029. . com/ stories/ 2007/ 07/ 17/ earlyshow/ main3065082. 2010.A place to learn typing techniques by simulating them • National DNA Databases in the EU (https://www. 54 External links • DNA Fingerprinting (http://www. "Freedom in bag for killer Graham?" (http:/ / www.html) • Fingerprinting.00. July 17.gov.pbs. abc. February 15. "Suspect Nation" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2008-06-17. garyisinnocent. htm). Stephen (2008-02-17). Botanical Society of America. cbsnews. au/ 7.  Satish Sekar. .  Dutter. html). com/ I2Sekar. org/ PlantTalkingPoints/ crime. org) challenging Leiterman's conviction in the Mixer murder.uk. Retrieved April 1.php) DNA Fingerprinting Identification and Methods • DNAForensics. . com/ stories/ 2005/ 11/ 22/ 48hours/ main1066064. by Allen G. telegraph. php). co. . . "Lynette White Case: How Forensics Caught the Cellophane Man" (http:/ / lifeloom.org/wgbh/nova/sheppard/analyze. Barbie (2001-06-19).  Another CBS News (http:/ / www.com/dna-fingerprinting.com/) DNA Database and Profiling News and Trends .org • In silico simulation of Molecular Biology Techniques (http://insilico.au/systems_projects/ KeyDatesintheHistoryofDNAProfiling. Stuart (2006-10-08).ehu. Australian Broadcasting Corporation.
the channel gate will open. an immigration supervisor will be on hand to assist. Locations First made available on 16 December 2004 in Lo Wu Control Point. the user takes his resident card and steps in and the gate will close behind him. also known as The Automated Passenger Clearance System. Macau and frequent visitors to Hong Kong entering and exiting the territory whether it be by land. another set of gates in front of him will open allowing him to pass. over the past several years the locations have expanded to include: • • • • • • • • • • • Hong Kong International Airport Lo Wu Control Point Hung Hom Lok Ma Chau Lok Ma Chau Spur Line Man Kam To Sha Tau Kok Hong Kong China Ferry Terminal Hong Kong-Macau Ferry Terminal Tuen Mun Ferry Terminal Shenzhen Bay By allowing registered users to utilise the self-service kiosks to pass through Hong Kong immigration. next he would be requested to place his thumb or finger onto the fingerprint reader. . Basic Requirements to use the E-Channels • A Hong Kong permanent resident aged 11 or above (using a smart identity card) • A Hong Kong resident aged 11 or above holding a Document of Identity for Visa Purposes (using a smart identity card and carrying a valid Document of Identity for Visa Purposes) • A person aged 11 or above who has the right to land or is on unconditional stay in Hong Kong (using a smart identity card) • A non-permanent resident issued with a notification label (using a smart identity card and carrying a valid travel document) • A registered cross-boundary primary school student under the age of 11 (using the enrolled valid travel document) • A registered frequent visitor aged 18 or above (using the enrolled valid travel document) Getting fingerprint verified • A registered Macau permanent resident aged 11 or above (using a Macau permanent identity card) The user upon entrance to the E-Channel inserts his Hong Kong Identity Card into the card reader (which reads the embedded chip) or place his registered travel document / Macau Identity Card onto the document reader. once identity has been confirmed.E-Channel 55 E-Channel E-Channels. processing  time averages around 12 seconds making E-channels far more efficient than traditional immigration counters. air or sea via the use of self-service kiosks employed at various border control points. is a border control system introduced by the Hong Kong Immigration Department back in 2004. If an issue arises whether identity cannot be confirmed or a malfunction occurs. designed to speed up border immigration processes for residents of Hong Kong.
un. upon approaching a border check point at Shenzhen. the program expanded in 12 September 2006. Frequent Visitor Automated Passenger Clearance Not only has Macau Resident Card holders been permitted to register for this program but frequent visitors to Hong Kong can register for this as well. References  (http:/ / unpan1. un. pdf)  (http:/ / www. plus on one of the following documents: • • • • A valid HKSAR Travel Pass or An APEC Business Travel Card with the economy code ‘HKG’ or Hong Kong International Airport Frequent Visitor Card or Frequent Flyer Programme Membership Card issued by an airline which has joined this arrangement (please enquire with your airline). hk/ yr09-10/ english/ panels/ se/ papers/ se0601cb2-1633-4-e. One Stop Customs and Immigration Clearance A special E-Channel has been erected for Shenzhen Bay known as One Stop Customs and Immigration Clearance for goods vehicle passing through the Shenzhen Bay Control Point. Vice versa. you would need a valid travel document with a multiple visit visa (if applicable). instead of queuing up at immigration counters. this is known as Frequent Visitor Automated Passenger Clearance. Thereby cutting down time compared with using traditional immigration counters. legco. pdf) . pdf)  (http:/ / unpan1.Zhuhai and Shenzhen (respectively) have their set of E-channels for use of the Home Return Permit cards. allowing not only those of Right to Land or those with unconditional stay in Hong Kong but also to those non-residents with notification labels to use the E-Channels.E-Channel 56 Macau Since its first inception where only Right to Abode Hong Kong Permanent Identity Card holders were permitted to use the self-service kiosks. he can use his Hong Kong Identity Card to clear through Macau's set of E-Channels. indicating how versatile this system is. org/ intradoc/ groups/ public/ documents/ unpan/ unpan027893. and an asset for the Hong Kong Immigration Department. Or A Hong Kong resident departs from the Hong Kong-Macau Ferry Terminal clearing through Hong Kong immigration via E-channel. Example: A Hong Kong resident arrives at Lo Wu and passes through Hong Kong's E-Channel with his Hong Kong Identity Card allowing him to exit Hong Kong. he uses his Home Return Permit on China's E-Channel to enter Mainland China. The program was expanded further again in 10 December 2009 to allow holders of Macau Resident Identity Card to register for and use of the Hong Kong E-channels to enter and exit the territory. upon arrival of Macau's Outer Harbour Ferry Terminal. org/ intradoc/ groups/ public/ documents/ unpan/ unpan027893. Border cities to Macau and Hong Kong on the Mainland China's side . Macau have reciprocated and have their set of E-Channels and Hong Kong ID Card holders can register for those as well. gov.
Northern Territory Police. is a convicted rapist and double murderer who was active in Victoria. 27 July 1998) • VicLAS  (PDF) (Annie Darcy. Edmunds was fingerprinted and the prints were matched with those found at the Shepparton crime scene. It has been alleged that Edmunds committed other murders and more than 32 rapes. This occurred before computerised processing of fingerprints was developed and fingerprint matching had to be done manually. Police are seeking to utilise new legislation that allows them to compel convicted prisoners to provide a blood sample for DNA testing. Edmunds had allegedly previously raped and beaten his first wife and sexually abused his three-year-old daughter. manure and chemicals from his work as a share-cropping farmer on dairy properties. This Is The Drum. Admit Your Evil Deeds  (Geoff Wilkinson. He was convicted and is now serving two life sentences with no minimum term for the murders and a total of 30 years for five rape convictions in Greensborough and Donvale. Edmunds was also convicted of a series of rapes in the 1970s and early 80s that led the police to dub the then-unknown offender. Edmunds was arrested on unrelated charges of indecent exposure while parked in his station wagon in Albury. Melbourne. On 16 March 1985. Fire and Ambulance Services) • DNA sampling act  (Northern Territory legislative assembly) • Australian (Public) Paedophile/Sex Offender Registry  Raymond Edmunds-(Mr STINKY) References  http:/ / www. org. au/ dcm/ legislat/ Acts. Australia from the 1960s to the mid-1980s. org. Sergeant Andrew Wall.Raymond Edmunds 57 Raymond Edmunds Raymond Edmunds. a Victoria Police fingerprint expert. gov.22 Mossberg self-loading rifle and Madill was raped and then bludgeoned to death. au/ ausnews186. au/ tempstinkyed. however. he has maintained his innocence. Mr. Edmunds was convicted of the 1966 double murder and rape of 18-year-old panel beater Garry Charles Heywood and 16-year-old Abina Margaret Madill on 10 February 1966 at Shepparton. dcdsca. Heywood was shot through the head with a . nsf/ 84c76a0f7bf3fb726925649e001c03bb/ 291ace2e07390e29692566a2000b1f69?OpenDocument& ExpandSection=4  http:/ / www.. aka Donvale Rapist. Australia. Victoria. matched two fingerprints found on the top of the FJ Holden motorcar owned by Heywood. html  http:/ / www. mako. html . au/ pfes/ corporate/ media/ publications/ pdf/ drum/ 199709_p1. The fingerprint evidence was deliberately kept quiet so as not to panic the offender or help him become more adept at hiding his prints. "The Donvale Rapist". These fingerprints connected the Shepparton murders with one fingerprint found at the "Donvale Rapist" crime scene. mako. Stinky.  References • Victim Pleads To Mr Stinky . After his arrest. nt. New South Wales. born 12 March 1944 at Queen Victoria Hospital. Edmunds was dubbed "Mr Stinky" by a sub-editor from Melbourne's Sunday Press newspaper due to his offensive body odour which was believed to have been caused by a mixture of milk. gov.. nt. September 1997. pdf  http:/ / www. Herald Sun.
reinyday. References  DNA Glossary (http:/ / dna-glossary.astm.gif) .com/464/) with images • electropherogram image (http://bscs.cenargen.htm) • DYS464 Electropherogram Interpretation Discrepancy (http://dna.br/phph/) — web-based tool for electropherogram quality analysis • Systematic differences in electropherogram peak heights reported by different versions of the GeneScan Software (http://journalsip. com/ Electropherogram. Electropherograms may be used for deriving results from: • genealogical DNA testing • paternity testing • DNA sequencing • Genetic fingerprinting Screen shot of a chromatogram inside the program "Sequencher"  An electropherogram shows a sequence of data that is produced by an automated DNA sequencing machine.genoma.org/pages/curriculumdevelopment/onco/images/sprotocol_normal. html) External links • PHPH (http://condor.embrapa.Electropherogram 58 Electropherogram An electropherogram is a plot of results from an analysis done by electrophoresis automatic sequencing.org/jofs/PAGES/4390. dnawiz.
EURODAC 59 EURODAC EURODAC is a European Union automated fingerprint identification system for recording and comparing the fingerprints of asylum seekers and illegal immigrants. They are based on animal models which combine all information known about an individual and its relatives to create a genetic profile of the animal’s merits. These are determined by the percentage of unassisted births for that particular animal.00 .4 . Milk EPDs give an estimate for the maternal portion of the weaning weight that determined by milk production of the dam.72 10 YW 84. Typically the weaning weight is measured at the 205 day mark and the yearling weight is taken at the 365 day mark. The number given by the EPD is the amount above or below this given average. Calving ease predicts the level of difficulty first time heifers will have during birth. These profiles are then compared only to other individuals of the same breed.3 . Birth weight measures how much above or below the breed’s average an offspring will gain due to the parent.52 4 YG .4 .htm • http://europa.11 CW 15.32 BW 1. It is intended to enforce the Dublin Regulation.43 20 REA -.33 Marb . External links • http://europa.32 Fat . so having a bull with a low birth weight EPD is high beneficial.eu/scadplus/leg/en/lvb/l33081.18 Milk 3.68 3 MCE 4. Weaning and yearling weight measure the amount of weight an offspring has gained by the time it is weaned and at the one year mark. Each set of letters stands for a specific measurement with an accuracy reading and percent rank below it.5 . and is used in all EU member states as well as Iceland and Norway which are also covered by the Dublin Regulation. It does not necessarily predict the exact weight of all offspring. High birth weight is the biggest cause of difficulty in calving. It is measured in pounds of weaning weight of a bull’s daughter grandprogeny due to the milk production of the bull’s daughters.6 . but instead gives a general prediction of how much extra or less weight an offspring will weigh compared to if it had been sired by another bull. Each EPD is compared to the breed average of a given year.05 .75 WW 44.02 .4 .8 .4 Growth EPDs Growth EPDs measure the amount of weight a given offspring will gain due to the parent’s genetics. Typically a larger number is favored for both of these traits.29 API 104.do?reference=MEMO/06/334 Expected Progeny Difference Expected progeny differences (EPD) are an evaluation of an animal’s genetic worth as a parent. The fingerprints of asylum seekers over the age of 14 have been routinely recorded on EURODAC since 2003.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.2 .32 15 Stay 18.09 . .31 MWW 25. Types of EPD’s An example of a set of EPDs looks like the following chart. Header text EPD Acc %Rank CE 8 .
or the actual amount of sellable meat that can be produced from the carcass. A larger circumference is preferred and is an indicator for his sons to have a larger scrotal circumference and his daughters to reach puberty sooner and therefore have calves sooner. . Carcass EPDs Carcass weight predicts what an animal’s total retail product will be compared to other animals of that breed. so as not to have too little or too much fat. The higher the accuracy rate. especially for highly heritable traits such as marbling. They show the estimated USDA Quality grading System and marbling score an animal would receive if it were slaughtered. they can help adjust the EPD according to the genotype and therefore produce a more accurate measurement. In addition to the EPD and accuracy shown in a chart. Use of EPSs and DNA markers can help when choosing certain traits over others. The EPDs can then be changed based on the values that are gathered. It also gives the cow a larger postpartum interval between pregnancies. By using certain EPDs of an animal one can rapidly improve genetics of a herd. Accuracy is not an indicator of beneficial EPDs. and not in weight gained by an animal. by using animals with mid range EPDs. The longer a calf is in utero the larger it will be at birth and the greater the chance of it having dystocia. In addition. Through mathematical equations and computing power EPDs can be generated for use in both situations. This shows what percentile the animal ranks for the given EPD. The better the EPDs for a given bull. Fat thickness determined the expected external and seam fat the animal will contain. Marbling EPDs are also important in the beef industry for predicting palatability in a beef carcass. The higher the percentile. Gestation length is an indicator of the probability of dystocia. Use and Accuracy EPDs are used in both scientific research and in typical farm usage. Higher values indicate the presence of genes that will produce more intramuscular fat. The closer an accuracy value is to 1. as well as random Mendelian sampling. To determine how accurate EPDs are for an individual. Through EPDs certain phenotypes can be chosen for over others. the higher chance its progeny will have a given characteristic. the closer most of the progeny will be to the EPD values listed. The higher the EPD value the greater chance a cow will stay in a herd over six years and continue producing quality offspring. the more accurate the EPDs can be thought to be. This EDP is different in that it is measured in units of marbling score. A shorter gestation length is usually preferred because of this. samples of all of a bull’s offspring are looked at and compared to what their expected outcome should have been. EPDs can be made more accurate. Other factors can affect the progeny as well. It does not however predict percent retail value. often the percent rank is also given. the better the EPD is for that characteristic. weather.Expected Progeny Difference 60 Reproductive EPDs Scrotal circumference is an indicator of a bull’s fertility. These two factors contribute to the greatest waste in an animal and best way to reduce economic loss. by using a combination of EPDs and DNA markers. but rather shows how close the EPD is to the true genetic potential of the  animal. such as non genetic effects including feed. Fat thickness EPDs can help producers reduce this loss. environment. Stayability is an indicator EPD of longevity of a bull’s daughter in a cow herd. When new DNA markers are used.
Rumph. ansci. ISSN:07916833.Terminal Authentication Terminal Authentication (TA) is used to determine whether the Inspection System (IS) is allowed to read the sensitive data from the e-passport. pdf  C. EAC is mentioned in ICAO Doc 9303 but the description there is not very clear. between 1/2 month and 3 months. pdf). "Effect of beef sire expected progeny difference for carcass conformation on live animal muscularity scores and ultrasonic muscle and fat depths. intramuscular fat deposition. "Relationship among GeneSTAR marbling marker." Irish Journal of Agricultural & Food Research 47. The Document Verifier certificate is granted from the Country Verification Certificate Authority (CVCA). An Inspection System may have several CVCs installed at any time. 28 Mar. such as data for Iris  recognition or Fingerprint recognition. Virgina Tech. The certificates are typically issued for medium amounts of time. "Interpretation and Use of Expected Progeny Differences (EPD)" (http:/ / www.  Understanding and using Expected Progeny Differences (EPDs). edu/ 400/ 400-804/ 400-804. html  Janice M. EBSCO. and on carcass classification and composition of their progeny. The certificate format is not X. The specification selected for the EU e-passports was prepared by the German Federal Office for Information Security (BSI) in their technical report TR 3110  . Brett Barham. The Inspection System's certificate is valid only for a short time period. and M. al. http:/ / www. Extended Access Control as defined by EU EAC .  Drennan. cornell. The mechanism is based on digital certificates. Extension Animal Scientist. The deadline for the member states to start fingerprint enabled e-passport issuing was set to be 28 June 2009. The CVCA is generated by each country and is typically valid for 6 months to 3 years.509 but card verifiable certificates. vt. typically between 1 day to 1 month. ext. The European Commission in its decision No 2909 from the 28 June 2006 described what technology will be used to protect fingerprints in the Member States e-passports. . et. These certificates can be for domestic or foreign Document Verifiers. is granted a Card Verifiable Certificate (CVC) from a Document Verifier (DV). J. and expected progeny differences in early weaned Simmental steers". that must be implemented along with the Basic Access Control which is mandatory in the EU. Web. Each terminal.2 (2008): 161-170.http:/ / pubs. The CVC allows the Inspection System to request one or more items of sensitive data. . M.Expected Progeny Difference 61 References  Understanding Expected Progeny Differences (EPDs). Academic Search Complete.. Scott P. PhD. • establish strongly secured communication channel (stronger than the one established by BAC mechanism) EAC . Rincker.B. edu/ nbcec/ producers/ sire_selection/ chapter9. Several other countries implement their own EAC. McGee. Extended Access Control Extended Access Control is a mechanism specified to allow only authorized Inspection system (system used to read e-passport) to read sensitive biometric data such as fingerprints from ePassports. one for each country that allows it to read sensitive data. edu/ Other_Areas/ publications/ PDF/ FSA-3068. Greiner.Chip Authentication Chip Authentication (CA) has two functionalities: • authenticate the chip and prove that the chip is genuine (not cloned). (2006). PMID 16478961. Pfzer Animal Genetics. Extension Livestock Specialist at University of Arkansas. or Inspection System. uaex. Journal of Animal Science (84): 686-693. There are several different implementation of the mechanism. 2011.
interoptest-berlin. In the FRGC. high resolution images consist of facial images with 250 pixels between the centers of the eyes on average. and new preprocessing techniques.000 pixels on the face).org/scripts/icao/eacpki.html) . The FRGC challenge problems include sufficient data to overcome this impediment. Current face recognition systems are designed to work on relatively small still facial images.Open Source EAC-PKI for development and testing Face Recognition Grand Challenge The Face Recognition Grand Challenge (FRGC) was conducted in an effort to promote and advance face recognition technology. One of the impediments to developing improved face recognition is the lack of data. The FRGC will facilitate the development of new algorithms that take advantage of the .org (http://www.  Kügler.Extended Access Control 62 External references  "Advanced Security Mechanisms for Machine Readable Travel Documents – Extended Access Control (EAC)" (https:/ / www. bund. three-dimensional (3D) face recognition. FRGC developed new face recognition techniques and prototype systems while increasing performance by an order of magnitude. Government. bsi. pdf) (PDF). The set of defined experiments assists researchers and developers in making progress on meeting the new performance goals. Retrieved 2010-03-25. and research institutions. The FRGC was open to face recognition researchers and developers in companies. FRGC ran from May 2004 to March 2006. Retrieved 2009-11-26. . "Extended Access Control: Infrastructure and Protocol" (http:/ / www. Dennis.openscdp. The traditional method for measuring the size of a face is the number of pixels between the centers of the eyes.000 to 20. Each challenge problem consisted of a data set of facial images and a defined set of experiments. The FRGC is simultaneously pursuing and will assess the merit of all three techniques. academia.S. The FRGC consisted of progressively difficult challenge problems. . Overview The primary goal of the FRGC was to promote and advance face recognition technology designed to support existing face recognition efforts in the U. In current images there are 40 to 60 pixels between the centers of the eyes (10. de/ cae/ servlet/ contentblob/ 532066/ publicationFile/ 44792/ TR-03110_v202_pdf) (PDF). There are three main contenders for improving face recognition algorithms: high resolution images. External links • OpenSCDP. de/ pdf/ Kuegler_-_Extended_Access_Control.
analysis and presentation of the raw results in a common format. The preprocessing portion of the FRGC will measure the impact of new preprocessing algorithms on recognition performance. from processing the raw images to producing Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROCs). The FRGC improved the capabilities of automatic face recognition systems through experimentation with clearly stated goals and challenge problems. The second aspect is the complexity of the FRGC. an XML based framework for describing and documenting computational experiments. The second part is the FRGC BEE. The third new aspect is the infrastructure. The validation partition consists of data from 4. The data for FRGC consists of 50. changes in lighting (illumination) and pose of the face reduce performance. it is possible to run experiments 1 through 4. 3D face recognition has the potential to improve performance under these conditions. The training partition is designed for training algorithms and the validation partition is for assessing performance of an approach in a laboratory setting. Because the shape of faces is not affected by changes in lighting or pose. recording of the raw results of an experiment in a common format. . hallways. The FRGC data set contains 50. The third part is a set of baseline algorithms for experiments 1 through 4.000 recordings divided into training and validation partitions. The FRGC will consist of three modes: • high resolution still images • 3D images • multi-images of a person. The controlled images were taken in a studio setting.. This is the first time that a computational-experimental environment has supported a challenge problem in face recognition or biometrics. 63 Structure of the Face Recognition Grand Challenge The FRGC is structured around challenge problems that are designed to challenge researchers to meet the FRGC performance goal. Three-dimensional (3D) face recognition algorithms identify faces from the 3D shape of a person's face. A subject session is the set of all images of a person taken each time a person's biometric data is collected and consists of four controlled still images. These new algorithms work by preprocessing a facial image to correct for lighting and pose prior to being processed through a face recognition system. These advances have led to the development of new computer algorithms that can automatically correct for lighting and pose changes in facial imagery. With all three components. Previous face recognition data sets have been restricted to still images. The first aspect is the size of the FRGC in terms of data. The first is the FRGC data set. The BEE distribution includes all the data sets for performing and scoring the six experiments. The development of the new algorithms and systems is facilitated by the FRGC challenge problems. The uncontrolled images were taken in varying illumination conditions.003 subject sessions. In the last couple years there have been advances in computer graphics and computer vision on modeling lighting and pose changes in facial imagery.g. In current face recognition systems. e. are full frontal facial images taken under two lighting conditions and with two facial expressions (smiling and neutral).000 recordings. and one three-dimensional image. The BEE will allow the description and distribution of experiments in a common format.Face Recognition Grand Challenge additional information inherent in high resolution images. There are three aspects of the FRGC that will be new to the face recognition community. Researchers and developers can develop new algorithms and systems that meet the FRGC goals. The FRGC Data Set The FRGC data distribution consists of three parts. two uncontrolled still images. and documentation of the experiment format in a common format. The infrastructure for FRGC will be provided by the Biometric Experimentation Environment (BEE).
Each set of uncontrolled images contains two expressions. the gallery is composed of four images of each person where all the images are taken in the same subject session. In both experiments. Likewise. The 3D images were acquired by a Minolta Vivid 900/910 series sensor1. Experiments 5 and 6 examine comparing 3D and 2D images. the probe set consists of a single controlled still. 64 Sponsors • • • • • Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Agency (IARPA) Department of Homeland Security (DHS) FBI Criminal Justice Information Services Division Technical Support Working Group (TSWG) National Institute of Justice References This article incorporates public domain material from the National Institute of Standards and Technology document "NIST Face Recognition Grand Challenge" . the gallery consists of a single controlled still image of a person and each probe consists of a single controlled still image. In experiment 1. The 3D images consist of both a range and a texture image. the gallery and probe set consist of 3D images of a person.Face Recognition Grand Challenge atriums. Experiment 3 measures the performance of 3D face recognition. Experiment 2 studies the effect of using multiple still images of a person on performance. the probe set consists of a single uncontrolled still. The FRGC distribution consists of six experiments. each biometric sample consists of the four controlled images of a person taken in a subject session. the gallery consists of a single controlled still image. the gallery consists of 3D images. a probe now consists of four images of a person. and the probe set consists of a single uncontrolled still image. In experiment 6. Experiment 1 is the control experiment. In experiment 4. In experiment 5. For example. In experiment 2. The 3D image was taken under controlled illumination conditions. Experiment 4 measures recognition performance from uncontrolled images. In experiment 3. smiling and neutral. External links • • • • • • • • • • MBGC Website  MBGC Blog  FRGC Website  FRVT Website  ICE Website  National Institute of Standards and Technology  Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Agency  Department of Homeland Security  FBI Criminal Justice Information Services Division  Technical Support Working Group (TSWG)  . or outside.
The FRGC was a separate algorithm development project designed to promote and advance face recognition technology that supports existing face recognition efforts in the U. htm  http:/ / www. gov/ mbgc/  http:/ / mbgc. gov/ frvt/ frvt2006/ frvt2006. A standard dataset and test methodology was employed so that all participants were evenly evaluated. nist. The BEE was the FRVT 2006 infrastructure. It allowed the experimenter to focus on the experiment by simplifying test data management. gov  http:/ / www. Previous evaluations in the series were the FERET. The test environment was called the Biometric Experimentation Environment (BEE). One of the goals of the FRVT 2006 was to independently determine if the objectives of the Face Recognition Grand Challenge (FRGC) were achieved. tswg. iarpa. The government provided both the test data and the test environment to participants. bee-biometrics. To obtain FRGC data. nist.S. nist. gov/ hq/ cjisd/ cjis. fbi. gov/ index. the FRVT 2006 measured performance with sequestered data (data not previously seen by the researchers or developers). gov/ Facial Recognition Vendor Test 2006 The Face Recognition Vendor Test (FRVT) 2006 was part of a series of large scale independent evaluations for face recognition systems.S. One of the objectives of the FRGC was to develop face recognition algorithms capable of performance an order of magnitude better than FRVT 2002. gov/ ice/  http:/ / nist. The FRGC was conducted from May 2004 through March 2006. gov/ frgc/  http:/ / face. potential participants must sign the required licenses and follow FRGC data release rules. FRVT 2000. Government. The FRVT 2006 was sponsored by multiple U." . FRGC data is still available to face recognition researchers. dhs. please follow directions found on the "FRGC Webpage. Overview The primary goal of the FRVT 2006 was to measure progress of prototype systems/algorithms and commercial face recognition systems since FRVT 2002. experiment configuration. To request a FRGC data set. nist. gov  http:/ / www. Government agencies and was conducted and managed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).Face Recognition Grand Challenge 65 References  http:/ / face. and FRVT 2002. shtm  http:/ / www. org/  http:/ / face. and the processing of results. htm  http:/ / iris. FRVT 2006 evaluated performance on: • • • • High resolution still imagery (5 to 6 mega-pixels) 3D facial scans Multi-sample still facial imagery Pre-processing algorithms that compensate for pose and illumination To guarantee an accurate assessment.
Facial Recognition Vendor Test 2006 66 FRVT 2006 Protocol FRVT 2006 Protocol FRVT 2006 Executable Calling Signatures FRVT 2006 Executable Naming Convention FRVT 2006 Results The FRVT 2006 large-scale results are available in the combined FRVT 2006 and ICE 2006 Large-Scale Results evaluation report. Inc. We received algorithms from 22 organizations in 10 different countries. Guardia Identix. Carnegie Mellon University Cognitec Systems GmbH Diamond Information Systems (DIS) Geometrix. Neven Vision New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT) Nivis. only those who successfully completed the large-scale tests are documented in this report. The following organizations submitted algorithms to be evaluated: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Animetrics. Inc. with many submitting multiple algorithms. Rafael Armament Development Authority Ltd. LLC Old Dominion University Panvista Limited Peking University. Center for Information Science PeopleSpot Inc. Inc. However. SAGEM SA Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology (SAIT) Tsinghua University Tili Technology Limited Toshiba Corporation University of Houston Viisage Sponsors • • • • • Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Agency (IARPA) Department of Homeland Security (DHS) FBI Criminal Justice Information Services Division Technical Support Working Group (TSWG) National Institute of Justice .
and realised that Fairchild's case might also be caused by chimerism. 52-year old Boston teacher Karen Keegan was in need of a kidney transplant. . she was requested to provide DNA evidence that Townsend was the father of her children. when a second set of DNA was found in other  tissues. Fairchild's prosecutors suggested this possibility to her lawyers. Prosecutors called for her two children to be taken into care. As time came for her to give birth to her third child. a combination of two separate sets of cell lines with two separate sets of chromosomes. it was discovered that two of them did not match her DNA to the extent that her biological children should. when she and the father of her children. Lydia Fairchild was pregnant with her third child. the judge ordered a witness be present at the birth. the defining characteristic of a chimera. Fairchild was carrying two different sets of DNA. They also found that. gov/ nij/ Lydia Fairchild Lydia Fairchild and her children are the subjects of a documentary called The Twin Inside Me (also known as "I Am My Own Twin"). This DNA presumably came from a different embryo from the one that gave rise to the rest of her tissues. In 1998. who arranged further testing. While the results showed Townsend was certainly the father of the children. DNA tests indicated that she was not the mother of that child either. Two weeks later. When her three adult sons were tested for suitability as donors. the DNA tests indicated that she was not their mother. Later testing showed that Keegan was a chimera. A breakthrough came when a lawyer for the prosecution found an article in the New England Journal of Medicine about a similar case that had happened in Boston. DNA samples were taken from members of the extended family. although the DNA in Fairchild's skin and hair did not match her children's. usdoj. the DNA from a cervical smear test did match. When Fairchild applied for welfare support in 2002. separated. This witness was to ensure that blood samples were immediately taken from both the child and Fairchild. As in Keegan's case. This resulted in Fairchild being taken to court for fraud for claiming benefit for other people's children or taking part in a surrogacy scam. The DNA for Fairchild's children matched that of Fairchild's mother to the extent expected of a grandmother. Hospital records of her prior births were disregarded. Jamie Townsend.Facial Recognition Vendor Test 2006 67 External links • • • • • • • • • • • MBGC Wedsite  MBGC Blog  FRGC Website  FRVT Website  ICE Website  National Institute of Standards and Technology  Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Agency  Department of Homeland Security  FBI Criminal Justice Information Services Division  Technical Support Working Group (TSWG)  National Institute of Justice  References  http:/ / www. ojp.
The FERET evaluations were performed to measure progress in algorithm development and identify future research directions. five.php) Article on Lydia's case • The Stranger Within (http://www. org/ cgi/ content/ short/ 346/ 20/ 1545?query=TOC). org/ web/ 20060526105634/ http:/ / www.mu. rcn. FERET (facial recognition technology) The US Department of Defense (DoD) Counterdrug Technology Development Program Office sponsored the Face Recognition Technology (FERET) program. The program consisted of three major elements: • Sponsoring research • Collecting the FERET database • Performing the FERET evaluations The goal of the sponsored research was to develop face recognition algorithms.rcn. five. pp.com/Primetime/story?id=2315693) Article on Lydia • Kids' DNA Tested. com/ jkimball.  "Genetic Mosaics: A Tetragametic Human" (http:/ / users.  Yu. nejm. The FERET database was collected to support the sponsored research and the FERET evaluations.nu/archives/118606. TV5. The goals of phases 2 and 3 were to further develop face recognition technology. Jonathon Phillips. et al. with Dr. archive. 2006. . • Mayne.and why her astonishing story will throw doubt on the 'foolproof' evidence in thousands of court cases". the DoD Counterdrug Technology Development Program Office initiated the FERET demonstration effort. . Eleanor (March 5. PMID 12015394.Lydia Fairchild 68 Notes  "The Twin Inside Me: Extraordinary People" (http:/ / web. The goals of the first phase were to establish the viability of automatic face recognition algorithms and to establish a performance baseline against which to measure future progress. 18–19. "The mother with three children who don't share her DNA . and law enforcement personnel in the performance of their duties.ultranet/BiologyPages/M/Mosaics.org/templates/story/story. After the successful conclusion of phase 2. The Mail on Sunday. P. . each one year in length. Army Research Laboratory. the FERET program consisted of three phases. ma. Parent Informed The DNA Is Not A Match (http://ace. Adelphi. 2006). doi:10. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. serving as technical agent.go.katewerk. "Disputed Maternity Leading to Identification of Tetragametic Chimerism" (http:/ / content. London. Neng. html#TetragameticHuman) Discussion on Tetragametic Humans • DNA Tests Shed Light on 'Hybrid Humans' (http://www. Initially. ultranet/ BiologyPages/ M/ Mosaics. tv/ programmes/ extraordinarypeople/ twininside/ ). intelligence. tv/ programmes/ extraordinarypeople/ twininside/ ) on May 26. php?storyId=1392149) NPR recording. The goal of the FERET program was to develop automatic face recognition capabilities that could be employed to assist security.npr. History The FERET program started in September 1993. (16 May 2002). . New England Journal of Medicine 346 (20): 1545–1552. Maryland.com/chimera.1056/NEJMoa013452.html) Article on Karen Keegan's case • Genetic Mosaics (http://users.com/jkimball.ma. The goals of this effort were to port FERET evaluated algorithms to real-time experimental/demonstration systems. html#TetragameticHuman) References • ABC News: She's Her Own Twin (http://abcnews.
A duplicate set is a second set of images of a person already in the database and was usually taken on a different day. • Joseph Wilder of Rutgers University assembled a database of ~250 individuals collected under similarly controlled conditions. there was no way to accurately evaluate or compare facial recognition algorithms. To maintain a degree of consistency throughout the database. Wilder. The database contains 1564 sets of images for a total of 14. Alex Pentland Rutgers University. The MIT and USC teams continued work on developing face recognition algorithms from still images. Twenty-four proposals were received and evaluated jointly by DoD and law enforcement personnel. MIT. Lewis Sadler and Thomas Huang • University of Southern California (USC). P. there was some minor variation in images collected on different dates. Dr. Most of the databases were small and consisted of images of less than 50 individuals. all images had the eyes in a registered location. For some individuals. The organizations and principal investigators selected were: • • • • Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). both to supply standard imagery to the algorithm developers and to supply a sufficient number of images to allow testing of these algorithms. The FERET Database A standard database of face imagery was essential to the success of the FERET program. C. for the first . The TASC effort extended their approach to developing an algorithm for recognizing faces from video. with some subjects being photographed multiple times. Jiang. TASC. The results of this study were presented in the paper "Comparison of visible and infrared imagery for face recognition" by J. the same physical setup was used in each photography session. This time lapse was important because it enabled researchers to study. The FERET program set out to establish a large database of facial images that was gathered independently from the algorithm developers. Christoph von der Malsburg For phase 2. The FERET database was collected in 15 sessions between August 1993 and July 1996. Joseph Wilder The Analytic Science Company (TASC). Before the start of the FERET program. J. Wiener in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition.FERET (facial recognition technology) 69 FERET-Sponsored Algorithm Development Research The FERET program was initiated with a broad agency announcement (BAA). Because the equipment had to be reassembled for each session. 1996.126 images that includes 1199 individuals and 365 duplicate sets of images. and USC were selected to continue development of their algorithms. Five algorithm development contracts were awarded. Notable exceptions were databases collected by three primary researchers: • Alex Pentland of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) assembled a database of ~7500 images that had been collected in a highly controlled environment with controlled illumination. Phillips. The images were collected in a semi-controlled environment. Wechsler and Dr. Harry Wechsler at George Mason University was selected to direct the collection of this database. The database collection was a collaborative effort between Dr. • Christoph von der Malsburg of the University of Southern California (USC) and colleagues used a database of ~100 images that were of controlled size and illumination but did include some head rotation. pages 182-187. Gale Gordon University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) and University of Illinois at Urbana-Champagne. and S. and all images were full frontal face views. over two years had elapsed between their first and last sittings. The winning proposals were chosen based on their advanced ideas and differing approaches. The emphasis of the TASC effort was to estimate the three-dimensional shape of a face from motion and then recognize a face based on its shape. Rutgers' Phase 2 effort compared and assessed the relative merits of long-wave infrared (thermal) and visible imagery for face recognition and detection. Various researchers collected their own databases for the problems they were investigating. Phillips.
a large number of papers reported outstanding recognition results (usually >95% correct recognition) on limited-size databases (usually <50 individuals). we designed a new evaluation protocol which required algorithms to match a set of 3323 images against a set of 3816 images. There were two versions of the September 1996 evaluation. the community learned in an unbiased and open manner of the important technical problems that needed to be addressed. each with a different gallery and probe set. and identify faces from a database. and (4) the gallery and probe images of a person were taken on the same day. These organizations were Excalibur Corp. but with different lighting conditions. As a consequence. but in addition on the aggregate performance of all algorithms tested. Thus. The second tested fully automatic algorithms by providing the images only. More importantly. The third subtest baselined the effects of pose changes on performance.6 million matches. Through this type of assessment. For the Sept96 evaluation. the FERET database and evaluations clarified the state of the art in face recognition and pointed out general directions for future research. The new protocol design allowed the determination of performance scores for multiple galleries and probe sets. and University of Maryland. (2) the gallery and probe images of a person were taken on different days. the Aug94 evaluation. The first subtest examined the ability of algorithms to recognize faces from a gallery of 316 individuals. The second FERET evaluation took place in March 1995. The second subtest was the false-alarm test. (3) the gallery and probe images of a person were taken over a year apart. with the last two evaluations being administered multiple times. . The FERET database made it possible for researchers to develop algorithms on a common database and to report results in the literature using this database. The first tested partially automatic algorithms by providing the images with the coordinates of the center of the eyes. let alone met the desirable goal of being evaluated on a standard testing protocol that included separate training and testing sets. and was designed to measure performance on algorithms that could automatically locate. Rockefeller University. and final. The FERET evaluations allowed the computer vision community to assess overall strengths and weaknesses in the field. See the table below for dates and groups evaluated. Only a few of these algorithms reported results on images utilizing a common database. Rutgers University (Sep96 evaluation only). and perform a more detailed performance analysis. The third. The test consisted of three subtests.FERET (facial recognition technology) time. Michigan State University. but received no funding from the FERET program to do so. and to evaluate these algorithms on larger galleries (817 individuals). where a duplicate image was defined as an image of a person whose corresponding gallery image was taken on a different date. there was no method to make informed comparisons among various algorithms. Results reported in the literature did not provide a direct comparison among algorithms because each researcher reported results using different assumptions. scoring methods. not only on the basis of the performance of an individual algorithm. Other organizations were invited to participate in the FERET evaluations. 70 The FERET Evaluations Before the FERET database was created. changes in a subject’s appearance that occur over a year. normalize. and images. Results were reported for the following cases: (1) the gallery and probe images of a person were taken on the same day under the same lighting conditions. The independently administered FERET evaluations allowed for a direct quantitative assessment of the relative strengths and weaknesses of different approaches. The goal was to measure progress since the initial FERET evaluation. Three sets of evaluations were performed. the Mar95 evaluation. algorithms had to perform approximately 12. The first FERET evaluation took place in August 1994. FERET evaluations took place in September 1996. Algorithms developed under FERET-funding were required to participate in the FERET evaluations. An added emphasis of this evaluation was on probe sets that contained duplicate images. referred to as the Sep96 FERET evaluation. which measured how well an algorithm rejects faces not in the gallery.
Przybocki in IEEE Computer. Many of the algorithms that took part in FERET form the foundation of today's commercial systems. Total funding for the program was in excess of $6. Phillips. The DoD Counterdrug Technology Development Program Office still receives requests for access to the FERET database. and most recognized. A. which is currently maintained at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. the DoD Counterdrug Technology Development Program takes great pride on the imprint it has left on the biometrics community. C. External links • • • • • • • • FERET Website  FERET NIST Website  MBGC Website  MBGC Blog  FRGC Website  FRVT Website  ICE Website  National Institute of Standards and Technology  . Phillips. 2000. (NISTIR) [Available soon]. L. Second was the collection and distribution of the FERET database. to appear in Perception. 56–63. J. The test methods used in the FERET evaluations form the foundation of an overall biometric evaluation methodology described in “An Introduction to Evaluating Biometric Systems. The FERET program was a highly successful effort that provided direction and credibility to the facial recognition community. Wilson. As FERET nears the end of its transition from active program to a historical program. and even greater pride that the FERET ideals and evaluation methods are being used by current programs both inside the Program Office and by other Government agencies.126 facial images of 1199 individuals. First was sponsoring research that advanced facial recognition from theory to working laboratory algorithms. pp.” by P.FERET (facial recognition technology) Additionally. a detailed study of PCA-based recognition algorithms was performed and the results are in “Computational and Performance Aspects of PCA-based Face Recognition Algorithms” by H. part of the FERET program was the FERET evaluations that compared the abilities of facial recognition algorithms using the FERET database. February. Martin.5 million. The final. J.) [Download here]. the designers of the evaluations implemented two face recognition algorithms (PCA and Correlation) to provide a baseline performance. which contains 14. Moon and P. This evaluation methodology has been incorporated into the UK Biometrics Working Group in their "Best Practices in Testing Performance of Biometrics Devices" [Download here]. As clearly shown. The FERET program consisted of three major elements. 71 Summary The DoD Counterdrug Technology Development Program Office began the Face Recognition (FERET) program in 1993 and sponsored it through its completion in 1998. The development portion of the FERET database has been distributed to over 100 groups outside the original FERET program. We are just now beginning to uncover how important the program was during the infancy of facial recognition technology. To provide a greater understanding of face recognition algorithms. the FERET program continues to have a profound effect on the facial recognition community today. (Special issue on biometrics. and M.
gov/ Fingerprint A fingerprint in its narrow sense is an impression left by the friction ridges of a human finger. htm/  http:/ / nist. involves an expert. or an expert computer system operating under threshold scoring rules. A friction ridge is a raised portion of the epidermis on the fingers and toes (digits). These ridges also assist in gripping rough surfaces.FERET (facial recognition technology) 72 References  http:/ / www. gov/ frvt/ feret/ feret. Friction ridges can also be recorded digitally using a technique called Live Scan. Fingerprint identification. from human fingers. consisting of one or more connected ridge units of friction ridge skin. A print from the foot can also leave an impression of friction ridges. nist. frvt. debris can gather between the ridges. when fingertips brush across an uneven surface. Fingerprints used for identification Fingerprint identification. as seen here. known as dactyloscopy. Fingerprint records normally contain impressions from the pad on the last joint of fingers and thumbs. Closeup of the palm of the hand and the base of several fingers. fingerprints are the traces of an impression from the friction ridges of any part of a human hand. A "latent print" is the chance recording of friction ridges deposited on the surface of an object or a wall. the palm of The fingerprints created by that friction ridge the hand or even toes. htm/  http:/ / face. Latent prints . even two impressions recorded immediately after each other from the same hand. the palm of the hand or the sole of the foot. The flexibility of friction ridge skin means that no two finger or palm prints are ever exactly alike in every detail. also referred to as individualization. as well as smooth wet surfaces. These epidermal ridges serve to amplify vibrations triggered. Impressions of fingerprints may be left behind on a surface by the natural secretions of sweat from the eccrine glands that are present in friction ridge skin. or hand print identification. org/ FERET/ default. or they may be made by ink or other substances transferred from the peaks of friction ridges on the skin to a relatively smooth surface such as a fingerprint card. better transmitting the signals to sensory nerves involved in fine texture perception. An intentional recording of friction ridges is usually made with black printer's ink rolled across a contrasting white background. typically a white card. have come from the same individual. for example. is the process of comparing two instances of friction ridge skin impressions (see Minutiae). These are sometimes known as "epidermal ridges" which are caused by the underlying interface between the dermal papillae of the dermis and the interpapillary (rete) pegs of the epidermis. to determine whether these impressions could structure. determining whether two friction ridge impressions are likely to have originated from the same finger or palm (or toe or sole). In a wider use of the term. although fingerprint cards also typically record portions of lower joint areas of the fingers.
the roughness of the surface and the substance deposited are just some of the various factors which can cause a latent print to appear differently from any known recording of the same friction ridges. For this reason. less content. the material from which the surface is made. whereas "patent prints" or "plastic prints" are viewable with the un-aided eye. fingerprint examiners are required to undergo extensive training. Because they are already visible and have no need of enhancement they are generally photographed rather than being lifted in the way that latent prints are. regardless of whether it is visible or invisible at the time of deposition. a set of exemplar prints will normally include one print taken from each finger that has been rolled from one edge of the nail to the other. deposition pressure. and much. Exemplar prints can be collected using Live Scan or by using ink on paper cards. Latent prints Although the word latent means hidden or invisible. Indeed. latent prints usually present an “inevitable source of error in making comparisons. will be transferred to the surface. is the name given to fingerprints deliberately collected from a subject. The different types of fingerprint patterns. Patent prints can be left on a surface by materials such as ink. Commonly encountered examples are melted candle wax. material that is on the friction ridges such as perspiration. powder. will be described below. and plain impressions of each thumb. the conditions surrounding every instance of friction ridge deposition are unique and never duplicated. Latent prints are often fragmentary and require chemical methods. Plastic prints A plastic print is a friction ridge impression left in a material that retains the shape of the ridge detail. Factors which affect the quality of friction ridge impressions are numerous. Pliability of the skin. Although very few criminals would be careless enough to leave their prints in a lump of wet clay. overlapped by other prints from the same or from different individuals.Fingerprint are invisible to the naked eye. plain (or slap) impressions of each of the four fingers of each hand. Sometimes an ordinary bright flashlight will make a latent print visible. Such prints are already visible and need no enhancement. ink. grease. ink or blood. much less detail compared to the actual patterns of ridges and grooves of a finger. paint or some other form of dirt. During criminal arrests. or alternative light sources in order to be made clear. oil.” Patent prints Patent prints are chance friction ridge impressions which are obvious to the human eye and which have been caused by the transfer of foreign material from a finger onto a surface. blood. whether for purposes of enrollment in a system or when under arrest for a suspected criminal offense. An attempt to preserve the actual print is always made for later presentation in court. this would make a perfect plastic  print. dirt. or blood. putty removed from the perimeter of window panes and thick grease deposits on car parts. but investigators must not overlook the potential that invisible latent prints deposited by accomplices may also be on . Latent prints may exhibit only a small portion of the surface of a finger and this may be smudged. and there are many techniques used to do this. distorted. When friction ridges come into contact with a surface that will take a print. chemical and physical processing techniques permit visualization of invisible latent print residues whether they are from natural sweat on the skin or from a contaminant such as motor oil. such as arch. in modern usage for forensic science the term latent prints means any chance or accidental impression left by friction ridge skin on a surface. or known prints. or any or all of these in combination. Electronic. and less undistorted information than a fingerprint taken under controlled conditions. 73 Fingerprint types Exemplar prints Exemplar prints. For these reasons. loop and whorl. slippage. Some obvious examples would be impressions from flour and wet clay.” as they generally “contain less clarity.
and those images included parts of his hands in enough detail for police to be able to identify fingerprint patterns. manual fingerprint classification systems were used to categorize fingerprints based on general ridge formations (such as the presence or absence of circular patterns on various fingers). The numbers assigned to each print are based on whether or not they are whorls. and central pocket loop whorls. and the calculation: (0 + 8 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 1)/(0 + 0 + 0 + 2 + 0 + 1) = 9/3 = 3. After photographically recording such prints. Arch . the above set of prints would only need to be compared to other sets of fingerprints with a value of 3. the Vucetich system (developed by a Croatian-born Buenos Aires Police Officer) was developed in Argentina and implemented throughout South America. there are three basic fingerprint patterns: Loop. m for middle finger. There are also more complex classification systems that break down patterns even further. In the Henry system of classification. 74 Classifying fingerprints Before computerisation replaced manual filing systems in large fingerprint operations. in which R stands for right. and the Henry system was developed in India and implemented in most English-speaking countries. For example. The fractions are as follows: Ri/Rt + Rr/Rm + Lt/Rp + Lm/Li + Lp/Lr. depending on the side of the hand toward which the tail points. the second an 8. Of these systems.Fingerprint such surfaces. and the Henry Classification System. using the scheme: (Ri + Rr + Lt + Lm + Lp)/(Rt + Rm + Rp + Li + Lr) and a 1 is added to both top and bottom. thus permitting filing and retrieval of paper records in large collections based on friction ridge patterns alone. although complex. composite. is similar to the Henry System of Classification. It consists of five fractions. the Roscher system was developed in Germany and implemented in both Germany and Japan. Arches and loops are assingned values of 0. The system used by most experts. attempts should be made to develop other non-plastic impressions deposited from sweat or other contaminates. the fourth a 2. L for left. A whorl in the first fraction is given a 16. Whorls may also have sub-group classifications including plain whorls. and into loops that may be radial or ulnar. to exclude any possibility of division by zero. accidental whorls. and 0 to the last fraction. into plain arches or tented arches. if the right ring finger and the left index finger have whorls. Whorl and Arch. the fractions would look like this: 0/0 + 8/0 + 0/0 + 0/2 + 0/0 + 1/1. t for thumb. Electronic recording There has been a newspaper report of a man selling stolen watches sending images of them on a mobile phone. double loop whorls. peacock's eye. Lastly. i for index finger. The most popular ten-print classification systems include the Roscher system. the third a 4. the Juan Vucetich system. the numbers in the numerator and denominator are added up. 30–35% and 5% of all fingerprints respectively. Using this system reduces the number of prints that the print in question needs to be compared to. which constitute 60–65%. r for ring finger and p(pinky) for little finger. For example.
Often. are still commonly recorded in hospitals to assist in verifying the identity of infants. . It is not uncommon for military records of flight personnel to include bare foot inked impressions. along with the thumb or index finger prints of mothers. the only identifiable ridge detail that can be seen on a baby's foot is from the large toe or adjacent to the large toe. The footprints of infants.Fingerprint 75 Loop (Right Loop) Whorl Arch (Tented Arch) Footprints Friction ridge skin present on the soles of the feet and toes (plantar surfaces) is as unique in its ridge detail as are the fingers and palms (palmar surfaces). sole and toe impressions can be used in the same manner as finger and palm prints to effect identifications. Footprint (toe and sole friction ridge skin) evidence has been admitted in courts in the United States since 1934. Friction ridge skin protected inside flight boots tends to survive the trauma of a plane crash (and accompanying fire) better than fingers. When recovered at crime scenes or on items of evidence.
as it determines the final fingerprint image quality. There are different types of fingerprint readers on the market. which has a drastic effect on the overall system performance. almost all casualty identifications are effected using fingerprints from military ID card records (live scan fingerprints are recorded at the time such cards are issued). When friction ridge skin is not available from deceased military personnel. as of 2010. 76 Fingerprint capture and detection Livescan devices Fingerprint image acquisition is considered to be the most critical step in an automated fingerprint authentication system.Fingerprint Even though the US Armed Forces DNA Identification Laboratory (AFDIL). stored refrigerated DNA samples from all active duty and reserve personnel. but the basic idea behind each is to measure the physical difference between ridges and valleys. A fingerprint scanner Fingerprint being scanned . DNA and dental records are used to confirm identity.
 During each acquisition. usually a powder or chemical reagent. In order to overcome these problems. The resulting latent fingerprints consist usually of a substantial proportion of water with small traces of amino acids and chlorides . non-contact or touchless 3D fingerprint scanners have been developed . so that they can be photographed. on the type of surfaces on which they have been left. By modelling the distance between neighboring points. ultrasonic. 3D fingerprint scanners take a digital approach to the cumbersome analog process of pressing or rolling the finger. the skin conditions and the projection of an irregular 3D A fingerprint reader on a laptop object (the finger) onto a 2D flat plane introduce distortions. in patterns that are unique to each individual and which do not change over time. capacitive or thermal) captures the difference between valleys and ridges. so-called papillary ridges. noise and inconsistencies in the captured fingerprint image. for example.  Acquiring detailed 3D information. fingerprint identification methods have been used by police agencies around the world to identify suspected criminals as well as the victims of crime. When a finger touches or rolls onto a surface. The best way to render latent fingerprints visible. The procedure for capturing a fingerprint using a sensor consists of rolling or touching with the finger onto a sensing area. can be complex and may depend. therefore.Fingerprint All the proposed methods can be grouped into two major families: solid-state fingerprint readers and optical fingerprint readers. the results of the imaging are different and uncontrollable. The representation of the same fingerprint changes every time the finger is placed on the sensor plate. It is generally necessary to use a ‘developer’. Developing agents depend on the presence of organic materials or inorganic salts for their effectiveness. although the water deposited may also take a key role. Even identical twins (who share their DNA) do not have identical fingerprints. limiting the widespread use of this biometric technology. to produce a high degree of visual contrast between the ridge patterns and the surface on which a fingerprint has been deposited. impairing the system performance and consequently. as of 2010. The basis of the traditional fingerprinting technique is simple. The skin on the palmar surface of the hands and feet forms ridges. 3D fingerprint 77  Latent fingerprint detection Since the late nineteenth century. These problems result in inconsistent. irreproducible and non-uniform irregularities in the image. increasing the complexity of any attempt to match fingerprints. This latter contamination results from the common human behaviors of touching the face and hair. which according to the physical principle in use (optical. the elastic skin deforms. The quantity and direction of the pressure applied by the user. Fingerprints are typically formed from the aqueous-based secretions of the eccrine glands of the fingers and palms with additional material from sebaceous glands primarily from the forehead. the fingerprint can be imaged at a resolution high enough to record all the necessary detail.
work by adhesion to sebaceous deposits and possibly aqueous deposits in the case of fresh fingerprints. Detection of a small proportion of reactive organic substances such as urea and amino acids is far from easy. Research during 2010 at Swansea University has found that physically removing a fingerprint from a metal surface. As of 2010. consists of members of the leading fingerprint research groups from Europe. many of these are only of academic interest and there are only around 20 really effective methods which are currently in use in the more advanced fingerprint laboratories around the world. as of 2010. which measures the voltage. The aqueous component of a fingerprint. whilst initially sometimes making up over 90% of the weight of the fingerprint. With advances in these more sophisticated techniques. the non-volatile inorganic component of eccrine secretion has been shown to remain intact even when exposed to temperatures as high as 600°C. More complex techniques. for example by rubbing with a tissue. Laboratory techniques Although there are hundreds of reported techniques for fingerprint detection. Australia and Israel and leads the way in the development. Fingerprints at a crime scene may be detected by simple powders. Research The International Fingerprint Research Group (IFRG) which meets biennially. when the temperature may reach as high as 500°C. sebaceous component which contains a number of fatty acids and triglycerides. The reason for this is that the differences in potential that are the basis of the visualisation are caused by the interaction of inorganic salts in the fingerprint deposit and the metal surface and 78 . steel and aluminum. this technique had been shown to work effectively on a wide range of forensically important metal surfaces including iron. Others such as ethyl cyanoacrylate polymerisation. or electrical potential. some of the more advanced crime scene investigation services from around the world were. While initial experiments were performed on flat surfaces. can be applied in specialist laboratories to appropriate articles removed from a crime scene. diazafluorenone and vacuum metal deposition. such as the warped cylindrical surface of fired cartridge cases. These measurements can then be mapped to produce an image of the fingerprint. Some of these techniques. Canada. for example ninhydrin or diazafluorenone reacting with amino acids. Vacuum metal deposition using gold and zinc has been shown to be non-specific. can evaporate quite quickly and may have mostly gone after 24 hours. show great sensitivity and are used operationally. A sampling frequency of 20 points per mm is high enough to visualise a fingerprint in sufficient detail for identification purposes and produces a voltage map in 2–3 hours. the technique has been further developed to cope with irregular or curved surfaces. such as ninhydrin. The most comprehensive manual of the operational methods of fingerprint enhancement is published by the UK Home Office Scientific Development Branch and is used widely around the world. the US. Encouragingly. but can detect fat layers as thin as one molecule. does not necessarily result in the loss of all fingerprint information from that surface. such as the application of fine powders. Following work on the use of argon ion lasers for fingerprint detection. a wide range of fluorescence techniques have been introduced. reporting that 50% or more of the fingerprints recovered from a crime scene had been identified as a result of laboratory-based techniques. usually involving chemicals. primarily for the enhancement of chemically-developed fingerprints. but at the expense of the time taken for the process. assessment and implementation of new techniques for operational fingerprint detection. such as occurs when a gun is fired or a terrorist bomb is detonated. however. work apparently by water-based catalysis and polymer growth. A higher resolution image can be obtained by increasing the number of points sampled. although the inherent fluorescence of some latent fingerprints may also be detected. or by chemicals applied in situ.Fingerprint mixed with a fatty. One problem for the early twenty-first century is the fact that the organic component of any deposited material is readily destroyed by heat. at pre-set intervals over the surface of an object on which a fingerprint may have been deposited. A technique has been developed that enables fingerprints to be visualised on metallic and electrically conductive surfaces without the need to develop the prints first. This technique involves the use of an instrument called a scanning Kelvin probe (SKP). Some fingerprint reagents are specific. More mundane methods.
as its presence may be caused by mere contact of the finger with a tobacco product. however. as of 2010. skin oils and dead cells in a human fingerprint contain residues of various chemicals and their metabolites present in the body. Scanning Kelvin Probe scan of the same cartridge case with the fingerprint clearly detected. they also contain traces of nicotine itself. and swabbing is likely to make fingerprint identification impossible. a decision has to be made at an early stage whether to attempt to retrieve fingerprints through the use of developers or whether to swab surfaces in an attempt to salvage material for DNA profiling. discovered that children's fingerprints are considerably more short-lived than adult fingerprints. is being tested for use in identifying heavy coffee drinkers. researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. and then subsequently with a fluorescent agent attached to cotinine antibodies. has the potential to allow fingerprints to be recorded whilst still leaving intact material that could subsequently be subjected to DNA analysis. cocaine and methadone from their fingerprint residues. cannabis smokers. As of 2010. Another problem for the early twenty-first century is that during crime scene investigations. resulting in the formation of metal-ion complexes that cannot easily be removed. The secretions. The rapid disappearance of children's fingerprints was attributed to a lack of the more waxy oils that become present at the onset of puberty. in research that was generating significant interest from the British Home Office and a number of different police forces across the UK. as well as internationally.  In 2008. The same approach. a nicotine metabolite. which makes no physical contact with the fingerprint and does not require the use of developers.Fingerprint begin to occur as soon as the finger comes into contact with the metal. British researchers developed methods of identifying users of marijuana. The two processes are mutually incompatible. Caution should be used. The lighter fatty acids of children's fingerprints evaporate within a few hours. The application of the new scanning Kelvin probe (SKP) fingerprinting technique. For example. the fingerprint of a smoker becomes fluorescent. Fingerprints reveal drug use . and users of various other drugs. non-smokers' fingerprints stay dark. at the instigation of Detective Art Bohanan of the Knoxville Police Department. These can be detected and used for forensic purposes. as fingerprint developers destroy material that could potentially be used for DNA analysis. researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are investigating techniques to capture these lost fingerprints. The Kelvin probe can easily cope with the 3D curvature of the cartridge case increasing the versatility of the technique. The hope is that this instrument could eventually be manufactured in sufficiently large numbers to be widely used by forensic teams worldwide.  79 Cartridge case with an applied fingerprint The disappearance of children's latent prints In 1995. the fingerprints of tobacco smokers contain traces of cotinine. By treating the fingerprint with gold nanoparticles with attached cotinine antibodies. A forensically usable prototype was under development at Swansea University during 2010.
law enforcement (including the FBI) uses JPEG 2000 instead of WSQ. For fingerprints recorded at 1000 ppi spatial resolution. parties to a legal contract impressed their handprints on the document. the FBI manages a fingerprint identification system and database called the Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System. Some of these fingerprints were deposited unintentionally by the potters and masons as a natural consequence of their work. In order to protect against forgery. fingerprints have been impressed so deeply into the clay that they were possibly intended to serve as an identifying mark by the maker. Japan had adopted the Zayd Hasan." In Persia at this time. 1928 Fingerprints were used as signatures in ancient Babylon in the second millennium BCE. However. . In his Jami al-Tawarikh (Universal History). a wavelet-based system for efficient storage of compressed fingerprint images at 500 pixels per inch (ppi). foot prints as well as finger prints as evidence from a crime scene.  references Although ancient peoples probably did not realize that fingerprints could uniquely identify individuals. By 650.    They have also been found on the walls of Egyptian tombs and on Minoan. records have shown that officials took hand prints. and others were made in the process of adding decoration. and pottery. Los Angeles Police Department. Chinese officials were impressing their fingerprints into the clay seals used to seal documents. In 2008. Greek. government documents may have been authenticated with thumbprints. US Visit currently holds a repository of the fingerprints of over 50 million people. parties to a legal contract would impress their fingerprints into a clay tablet on which the contract had been written. as well as on bricks and tiles from ancient Babylon and Rome. 1247–1318) refers to the Chinese practice of identifying people via their fingerprints. the Chinese historian Kia Kung-Yen remarked that fingerprints could be used as a means of authentication. from the age of the Babylonian king Hammurabi (1792-1750 BCE) indicate that law officials would take the fingerprints of people who had been arrested. Abu  By 702. primarily in the form of two-finger records. By 246 BCE. Chinese practice of sealing contracts with fingerprints. Most American law enforcement agencies use Wavelet Scalar Quantization (WSQ). In China. With the advent of silk and paper in China. commenting: "Experience shows that no two individuals have fingers exactly alike. and Chinese pottery. witnessed Chinese merchants using fingerprints to authenticate loans. the Persian physician Rashid-al-Din Hamadani (also known as "Rashideddin".Fingerprint 80 United States databases and compression In the United States. seals. History Antiquity and the medieval period Fingerprints have been found on ancient Babylonian clay tablets. or IAFIS. US Visit hoped to have changed over to a system recording FBI-standard ten-print records. an Arab merchant in China. handprints were used as evidence in a trial for theft. During China's Qin Dynasty. Fingerprinting clerks. WSQ was developed by the FBI. the Los Alamos National Lab. around 300 CE. on some pottery. Sometime before 851 CE. which currently holds the fingerprints and criminal records of over 51 million criminal record subjects and over 1.5 million civil (non-criminal) fingerprint records. and the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST).
the Dutch physician Govard Bidloo (1649–1713) and the Italian physician Marcello Malpighi (1628–1694) published books on anatomy which also illustrated the ridge structure of the fingers. Vucetich set up the world's first fingerprint bureau. In the United States. In 1877 at Hooghly (near Calcutta) he instituted the use of fingerprints on contracts and deeds to prevent the then-rampant repudiation of signatures and he registered government pensioners' fingerprints to prevent the collection of money by relatives after a pensioner's death. He also established their first classification and was also the first to identify fingerprints left on a vial. associating these fingerprints to the anthropometric system of Alphonse Bertillon. before it became the Fingerprint Bureau. who was interested in anthropology. having been thus inspired to study fingerprints for ten years. Dr Henry P. and five years after this. A century later. DeForrest used fingerprinting in the New York Civil Service in 1902. a Czech physiologist and professor of anatomy at the University of Breslau. Some years later. in 1788. the English physician. when the first United Kingdom Fingerprint Bureau was founded in Scotland Yard. In that same year. Galton. discussing the usefulness of fingerprints for identification and proposing a method to record them with printing ink. the Metropolitan Police headquarters. who had created. after studying Galton's pattern types. by 1892 Sir Francis Galton. in 1858. She then confessed to the murder of her sons. Faurot. an expert in the Bertillon system and a finger print advocate at Police Headquarters. and by 1906. Darwin gave the information to his cousin. Francis Galton. a system to identify individuals by anthropometric photographs and associated quantitative descriptions. was accepted in England and Wales Henry. went to the scene and found a bloody thumb mark on a door. Sir William James Herschel initiated fingerprinting in India. and microscopist Nehemiah Grew (1641–1712) published the first scientific paper to describe the ridge structure of the skin covering the fingers and palms. in 1901. the German anatomist Georg von Meissner (1829–1905) studied friction ridges. Haque and Bose were Indian fingerprint experts who have been credited with the primary development of a fingerprint classification system eventually named after their supervisor. . A year later. an Argentine chief police officier. too old and ill to work on it. He had calculated that the chance of a "false positive" (two different individuals having the same fingerprints) was about 1 in 64 billion. Rojas accused a neighbour.  Modern era Jan Evangelista Purkyně or Purkinje (1787–1869). a colleague of Vucetich. he offered the concept to the Metropolitan Police in London but it was dismissed at that time. India. Francisca Rojas of Necochea. Returning to the UK in 1886. a surgeon in a Tokyo hospital. Herschel also fingerprinted prisoners upon sentencing to prevent various frauds that were attempted in order to avoid serving a prison sentence. A Fingerprint Bureau was established in Calcutta (Kolkata). Inspector Alvarez. Dr Henry Faulds. but he did not mention any possibility of using fingerprints to identify people. after the Council of the Governor General approved a committee report that fingerprints should be used for the classification of criminal records. When it was compared with Rojas' prints. this neighbour would not confess to the crimes. introduced the fingerprinting of criminals to the United States. was found in a house with neck injuries. but despite brutal interrogation. In 1880. published a thesis in 1823 discussing 9 fingerprint patterns. the German anatomist Johann Christoph Andreas Mayer (1747–1801) recognized that fingerprints are unique to each individual. In 1685. Sir Edward Richard Henry subsequently achieved improvements in dactyloscopy. published a detailed statistical model of fingerprint analysis and identification and encouraged its use in forensic science in his book Finger Prints.Fingerprint 81 Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries In 1684. Working in the Calcutta Anthropometric Bureau. co-devised by Haque and Bose. New York City Police Department Deputy Commissioner Joseph A. in 1892. created the first method of recording the fingerprints of individuals on file. whilst her two sons were found dead with their throats cut. Juan Vucetich. botanist. Faulds wrote to Charles Darwin with a description of his method but. in 1879. London. in 1897. Sir Edward Richard   The Henry Classification System. were Azizul Haque and Hem Chandra Bose. it was found to be identical with her right thumb. published his first paper on the subject in the scientific journal Nature.
and adequate statistical studies. in which a second examiner confirms the assessment of the original examiner. It was able to be proved in Court that the fingerprints had been made after the showcase was broken. For example." —Sandy L Zabell. and reviewed” by the International Association for Identification (IAI). but they can provide some insight into error rates. substituted presumed but false certainty for truth. such as context. Comparison. this represents a profile of practice that is unacceptable and thus demands positive action by the entire community.  Investigations have been conducted into whether experts can objectively focus on feature information in fingerprints without being misled by extraneous information. assembled. but from the editor of one of its premier publications. Evaluation. Of 156 people taking the test. arrest and conviction of a murderer based upon fingerprint evidence. Certain specific criticisms are now being accepted by some leaders of the forensic fingerprint community. judges and the media. By any measure. A year later. Fingerprints that have previously been . only 68 (44%) correctly classified all seven latents. "Despite the absence of objective standards.” and added: 'Errors of this magnitude within a discipline singularly admired and respected for its touted absolute certainty as an identification process have produced chilling and mind. the subjective nature of matching. for the first time. Reliability means that successive tests bring the same results. and Verification (ACE-V) paradigm for fingerprint identification. who had previously been arrested and his fingerprints filed some months before. this reliance does not always translate into superior predictive ability. it does not assure their validity. has made this forensic practice controversial. Four suspect cards with prints of all ten fingers were provided together with seven latents. from the fingerprints found on a fractured glass showcase. after a theft in a dentist's apartment where the dentist's employee was found dead. in the popular Analysis. describes the reaction of the forensic community to the results of the CTS test as ranging from “shock to disbelief. Proficiency tests do not validate a procedure per se. Overall.numbing realities. the Collaborative Testing Service (CTS) administered a proficiency test that. may increase the consistency of the assessments. Criticism The words "reliability" and "validity" have specific meanings to the scientific community. The few tests that have been made of the validity of forensic fingerprinting have not been supportive of the method. Alphonse Bertillon identified the thief and murderer Scheffer." —Sandy L Zabell. an incredible 22% of those involved. While fingerprint identification was an improvement on earlier anthropometric systems. a natural question to ask is how well fingerprint examiners actually perform. providing an incentive to improve training and procedures. 2005. In 1995.The results were disappointing. Alphonse Bertillon created a method of getting fingerprints off smooth surfaces and took a further step in the advance of dactyloscopy. the tests contained a total of 48 incorrect identifications. was “designed. Validity means that these results are judged to accurately reflect the external criteria being measured. the editor of the Journal of Forensic Identification. Thirty-four participants.Fingerprint The Scheffer case of 1902 is the first case of the identification. 2005. David Grieve. "Although experts are often more comfortable relying on their instincts. despite a very low error rate. 82 Validity of fingerprinting for identification The validity of forensic fingerprint evidence has been challenged by academics. But while the verification stage has implications for the reliability of latent print comparisons.' What is striking about these comments is that they do not come from a critic of the fingerprint community. scientific validation. the verification stage.
victims and other persons who touched a surface. Fingerprints are the fundamental tool for the identification of people with a criminal history in every police agency. 83 Defense Fingerprints collected at a crime scene. or on items of evidence from a crime. Instances of error Brandon Mayfield and the Madrid bombing Brandon Mayfield is an Oregon lawyer who was identified as a participant in the 2004 Madrid train bombings based on a fingerprint match by the FBI. The FBI initially called it an "absolutely incontrovertible match". It is claimed to outperform DNA and all other human identification systems. Subsequently.Fingerprint examined and assessed by latent print experts to make a positive identification of suspects have then been re-presented to those same experts in a new context which makes it likely that there will be no match. Fingerprints solve ten times more unknown suspect cases than DNA in most police departments. Professional standing and certification Fingerprinting was the basis upon which the first forensic professional organization was formed. identified another man whom they claimed the fingerprint did belong to. The science of fingerprint identification has been able to assert its standing amongst forensic sciences for many reasons. The first professional certification program for forensic scientists was established in 1977. The results of these experiments demonstrate that people can identify fingerprints quite well. Track record Fingerprinting has served all governments worldwide during the past 100 years or so to provide accurate identification of criminals. it continues to expand as the premier method for identifying persons. which issued certificates to those meeting stringent criteria and had the power to revoke certification where an individual's performance warranted it. most of the fingerprint experts made different judgments. thus contradicting their own previous identification decisions. Fingerprint identification emerged as an important system within police agencies in the late 19th century. the International Association for Identification (IAI). Other forensic disciplines have followed suit and established their own certification programs. Moreover. Justice Department report was released which criticized the FBI . when it replaced anthropometric measurements as a more reliable method for identifying persons having a prior record. The FBI acknowledged their error. with tens of thousands of people added to fingerprint repositories daily in America alone — far more than other forensic databases. have been used in forensic science to identify suspects. It remains the most commonly gathered forensic evidence worldwide and in most jurisdictions fingerprint examination outnumbers all other forensic examination casework combined. In January 2006. Complaints have been made that there have been no published. Within this new context. The FBI Latent Print Unit processed a fingerprint collected in Madrid and reported a "100 percent positive" match against one of the 20 fingerprint candidates returned in a search response from their IAFIS — Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System.S. in 1915. in a criminal record repository. however. Spanish National Police examiners suggested that the print did not match Mayfield and after two weeks. often under a false name. who had spent two weeks in police custody. and a judge released Mayfield. in May 2004. No two fingerprints have ever been found identical in many billions of human and automated computer comparisons. Experiments have been carried out using naïve undergraduates to match images of fingerprints. and that matching accuracy can vary as a function of both source finger type and image similarity. the IAI's Certified Latent Print Examiner program. peer-reviewed studies directly examining the extent to which people can correctly match fingerprints to one another. a U.
He was implicated in the crime by the testimony of two witnesses. Social Security number and other data for one Leo Rosario. Massachusetts." René Ramón Sánchez René Ramón Sánchez. The Scottish Criminal Record Office (SCRO) would not admit any error. the erroneously-cataloged fingerprints were considered to be more reliable. 2007. Two American experts testified on her behalf at her trial in May 1999 and she was found not guilty. Stephen Cowans died on October 25. On 29 November 2006. The DNA did not match his and he was released. The only evidence the prosecution had was this thumb print allegedly found at the murder scene. The formal apology stated that the FBI. or DUI). but these are not factors that should have affected fingerprint search technology. Leo Rosario had been arrested for selling cocaine to an undercover police officer. as of November 2009. Controversy continued to surround the McKie case and there was an ongoing public inquiry into the affair. had taken steps to "ensure that what happened to Mr Mayfield and the Mayfield family does not happen again. 2000. He was found guilty and sent to prison for 35 years.000 in compensation from the Scottish Executive and the Scottish Criminal Record Office. were placed on a card containing the name. On October 11. There was also a fingerprint on a glass mug from which the assailant had drunk some water and experts testified that the fingerprint belonged to Cowans. she was arrested in a dawn raid the following year and charged with perjury. a legal Dominican Republic immigrant to the US was arrested on July 15. 1995. Even though he did not match the physical description of Rosario. on a charge of driving while intoxicated (Driving Under the Influence. McKie was awarded £750. which erroneously linked him to the 2004 Madrid bombing through a fingerprinting mistake. Whilst in prison. On February 7. one of whom was the victim. however. Scotland where Marion Ross had been murdered. The report found that the misidentification had been due to a misapplication of methodology by the examiners involved: Mayfield is an American-born convert to Islam and his wife is an Egyptian immigrant. while returning from a visit to relatives in the Dominican Republic. René was mis-identified as Leo Rosario at John F. His fingerprints. although Scottish first minister Jack McConnell later said it had been an "honest mistake".Fingerprint for sloppy work but exonerated them of some more serious allegations.  84 . Stephan Cowans Stephan Cowans was convicted of attempted murder in 1997 after he was accused of the shooting of a police officer whilst fleeing a robbery in Roxbury. 2006. The judicial settlement allowed Mayfield to continue a suit regarding certain other government practices surrounding his arrest and detention. He had already served six years in prison. Kennedy International Airport in New York and arrested. Cowans earned money cleaning up biohazards until he could afford to have the evidence against him tested for DNA. Although McKie denied having been inside the house. however. the FBI agreed to pay Brandon Mayfield the sum of US$2 million in compensation. Shirley McKie Shirley McKie was a police detective in 1997 when she was accused of leaving her thumb print inside a house in Kilmarnock. who was being processed at the same time.
 That same year." In March 2007. decreased wait times in lunch lines and increased revenues. or to survey the private life of children. the British government was considering fingerprinting all children aged 11 to 15 as part of a new passport and ID card scheme and disallowing opposition for privacy concerns.Fingerprint 85 Privacy issues Fingerprinting of children Various schools have implemented fingerprint locks or made a record of children's fingerprints. the official organisation in charge of the protection of privacy in France. Carqueiranne College in the Var won the Big Brother Award for 2005 and the Commission nationale de l'informatique et des libertés (CNIL). the ID card scheme was scrapped. to replace library cards. They do not cite independent research to support this view. Under the United Kingdom Data Protection Act. schools in the UK do not have to ask parental consent to allow such practices to take place. Serious concerns about the security implications of using conventional biometric templates in schools have been raised by a number of leading IT security experts. the practice of taking fingerprints from children gave rise to a question in Parliament on February 6. Following the establishment in the United Kingdom of a Conservative and Liberal Democratic coalition government in May 2010. kidnapped to have their fingerprints taken. In response to a complaint which they are continuing to pursue.  in France and in Italy. By 2007. secured the support of 85 Members of Parliament (Early Day Motion 686). and children's fingerprints are stored on databases. An Early Day Motion which called on the UK Government to conduct a full and open consultation with stakeholders about the use of biometrics in schools. who replied that it was legal provided that the school did not use them for external purposes. Parents opposed to fingerprinting may only bring individual complaints against schools. . indicating that the practice may break the European Union data protection directive. it was estimated that 3.500 schools were using such systems.. at the école Marie-José in Liège.000 unsolved crimes. There is absolutely no evidence for such  The Ottawa Police in Canada have had to give advise to parents who fear that their children may be claims". Shadow Home secretary David Davis called the plan "sinister". in 2010 the European Commission expressed 'significant concerns' over the proportionality and necessity of the practice and the lack of judicial redress. estimated that 350 schools throughout Britain were using such systems. There have also been instances in Belgium. At Angers in France. declared the measures it had introduced "disproportionate. 2007 by Michel de La Motte (Humanist Democratic Centre) to the Education Minister Marie Arena.. In the United Kingdom there have been fingerprint locks in Holland Park School in London. In Belgium. The non-governmental organization (NGO) Privacy International in 2002 made the cautionary announcement that tens of thousands of UK school children were being fingerprinted by schools. All fingerprints taken would be cross-checked against prints from 900. The vendors of Biometric systems claim that their products bring benefits to schools such as improved reading skills. one of whom has voiced the opinion that "it is absolutely premature to begin using 'conventional biometrics' in schools". which uses a technology similar to that used in US prisons and the German military. One education specialist wrote in 2007: "I have not been able to find a single piece of published research which suggests that the use of biometrics in schools promotes healthy eating or improves reading skills amongst children. often without the knowledge or consent of their parents. the supplier Micro Librarian Systems.
who defends the accused whose fingerprint matches that on the paper. even with an electron microscope. . The British detective writer R. and others also double as motion detectors for document scrolling. was the first book to use fingerprints as a main plot element. published in 1893. includes a courtroom drama involving fingerprint identification. these include many primates. However. HP Pavilion laptops. after the diamonds are stolen. has a plot hole in the screenplay caused by Holmes's use of the Bertillonage criminal ID system. especially those whose lifestyle involves climbing or grasping wet objects. iris scans can be used to validate electronic registration.Fingerprint 86 Other uses Welfare claimants It has been alleged that taking the fingerprints of welfare recipients as identification serves as a social stigma that evokes cultural images associated with the processing of criminals. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle wrote a short story about his celebrated sleuth Sherlock Holmes which features a fingerprint: The Norwood Builder is a 1903 Sherlock Holmes short story set in 1894 and involves the discovery of a bloody fingerprint which helps Holmes to expose the real criminal and free his client. In 2006. it can be quite difficult to distinguish between the fingerprints of a koala and a human. and it was also starting to be adopted in some states in the US. like the scroll wheel. Fingerprints in fiction Mark Twain Mark Twain's novel Life on the Mississippi. A 1985 Granada TV adaptation of an 1893 Sherlock Holmes short story set in 1891. Electronic registration and library access Fingerprints and. of course. According to one study. kept pace with its use in real-life detection. These become the center of a medico-legal investigation led by Dr Thorndyke. such as gorillas and chimpanzees. The Adventure of the Final Problem. Built-in sensors in ThinkPads. published in 1883. cashless catering. The real Bertillon system did not use fingerprints. Austin Freeman's first Thorndyke novel The Red Thumb-Mark was published in 1907 and features a bloody fingerprint left on a piece of paper together with a parcel of diamonds inside a safe-box. this practice was particularly widespread in UK schools. to a lesser extent. and library access. Twain's later book Pudd'nhead Wilson. Australian koalas and aquatic mammal species such as the North American fisher. By 2007. but the identification cards were still based on anthropometric measurements. in which he uses fingerprints to trap Moriarty's agents and recover the Mona Lisa. Log-in authentication and other locks Since 2000. fingerprint sensors gained popularity in the notebook PC market. Bertillon had added four spaces for fingerprints on his identification cards by 1900 because of the growing popularity of fingerprinting. some less sophisticated devices have been discovered to be vulnerable to quite simple methods of deception. such as fake fingerprints cast in gels. Fingerprints in other species Some other animals have evolved their own unique prints. Crime fiction The use of fingerprints in crime fiction has. VAIO. electronic fingerprint readers have been introduced for security applications such as log-in authentication for the identification of computer users.
1038/news. Fatehpuria. swgfast. which John Dillinger tried (and failed. BBC. "Estimating fingerprint deformation".  Ross. technologyreview. com/ computing/ 23549/ ?a=f).68  "Fingerprint grip theory rejected" (http:/ / news. Thursday 17 June 2010. pdf)  "Fake finger reveals the secrets of touch" (http:/ / www. . .. G. a mule who is paid to smuggle souls across borders. pdf). Yongchang. edu/ ~realtime3d/ Doc/ 3D_Fingerprint_Quality. 29 January 2009. Online Digital Education Connection. D. and surgical alteration. Lau (July 2010). prints taken during a previous arrest and upon death still exhibited almost complete relation to one another). com/ news/ 2009/ 090129/ full/ news. and switching latex fingerprints from the privacy of a restroom. References  Peer Reviewed Glossary of the Scientific Working Group on Friction Ridge Analysis. pdf). A. . also known as genetic fingerprinting. Sandy. brooklaw. A. Lau and L. 267 Michigan 648. 0. L. Identity and Security. Applied Optics. uk/ 2/ hi/ health/ 8093134.. com/ fp/ ridgeology. wears latex fingerprints to frustrate airport security terminals. pp. Yongchang. Hassebrook and D. pdf). . and Dennis Shortelle.Fingerprint 87 Movies The movie Men In Black. Westport. "Touchless 3-D Fingerprinting: A new system offers better speed and accuracy" (http:/ / www. . 2002. edu/ students/ journals/ bjlp/ jlp13i_zabell. pdf). G. (1964). html). Encyclopedia of Forensic Science: a Compendium of Detective Fact and Fiction. 592–600. "International Corner".2009. P. Hassebrook (2010). Lau and L.  Kremen. uky.  Olsen. Edward R. Journal of Forensic Identification 41 (1)). Ltd.  Zabell. always storing extra fingerprints in a ziploc bag. Cold Souls. (2004). Les.  People v. an action deemed necessary by the MIB agency to remove the identity of its agents. June 2009. Fingerprint mutilation There are several documented cases of people deliberately mutilating their fingerprints in an effort to avoid being identified from marks left on the surfaces they touch. Retrieved March 2010. Hassebrook (2009). Other reliable identifiers Other forms of biometric identification utilizing a physical attribute that is unique to every human include Iris recognition. Rachel (September 2009). Hao. nature. the use of dental records in forensic dentistry. D. front page  Engert. org/ documents/ glossary/ 090508_Glossary_2. Barbara Gardner. "The Chemical Composition of Palmar Sweat". to remove his ten fingerprints by putting his hands on a metal ball. required Agent J. "Fit-sphere unwrapping and performance analysis of 3D Fingerprints" (http:/ / vis. Retrieved Aug 2010.  Wang. 68. .  Johnson. Conn. htm). Gerald J.: Oryx. . Robert D. "Ridgeology" (http:/ / onin.  "Fingerprint Patterns" (http:/ / odec. so she can always assume an alias that is suitable to her undertaking. played by Will Smith. the tongue and DNA profiling.  Ashbaugh. David R. Q. "Life of Latents". Technology Review. Methods used have included burning the fingertips with acid. 255 NW 407. Print. "Classification and Uses of Finger Prints" (http:/ / www.  Henry.  Conklin. Q. "Data Acquisition and Quality Analysis of 3-Dimensional Fingerprints" (http:/ / vis. Study and Technology (SWGFAST) (http:/ / www. Fingerprint and Identification Magazine 53 (10). Journal of Law and Policy. edu/ ~realtime3d/ Doc/ Manuscripts/ Fit-sphere unwrapping and performance analysis of 3D fingerprints. A. Nature. "Quality and Matching Performance Analysis of 3D Unraveled Fingerprints" (http:/ / vis. Retrieved March 2010. . stm). "Fingerprint Evidence" (http:/ / wwy. clpex. (1991). . Proceedings of the International Conference on Biometric Authentication (ICBA). pp. co. Optical Engineering. 077202 (1–10). ca/ projects/ 2004/ fren4j0/ public_html/ fingerprint_patterns. Robert Gardner. doi:10. Sir (1900). Identification News 14 (1). Lee (1973). L. a popular 1997 science fiction thriller. uky. com/ Information/ Pioneers/ henry-classification. Retrieved March 2010. . Hao. G.  Manchester Evening News. edu/ ~realtime3d/ Doc/ Manuscripts/ Quality and matching performance analysis of three-dimensional unraveled fingerprints. Retrieved March 2010. Florida: IEEE conference on Biometrics.  Wang. 2009. Fatehpuria. Jain. A. Yongchang. London: George Rutledge & Sons. L. Sr (1972). pdf). She can change her identity by changing her wig. Identification News 23 (1). L. uky. bbc. ISSN 0895-l 73X. And in a 2009 science fiction movie starring Paul Giamatti. pdf).  Wang.
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Menzel ER. com/ article/ dn11887-new-fingerprint-analysis-identifies-smokers. "The study of ancient fingerprints" (http:/ / www. html). Mark (April 2006).  Herschel." (http:/ / www. .. Anatomia Humani Corporis [Anatomy of the Human Body]. "On the skin-furrows of the hand" (http:/ / www. Johann Christoph Andreas (1783-1788). pp. Duff JM. ISBN 0849370078. pdf). Retrieved March 2010. . 1–13. org/ fingerprints/ herschel-1880-nature-furrows. xinhuanet. Paris: Imprimerie royale. Govard (1685). html). p. Sven A. .  comprehensive manual (http:/ / scienceandresearch. Italy: Aegidius Longus. . scafo. PDF)"]. (1980).  "Bombers Tracked By New Technique" (http:/ / news. Published by the UK Home Office Scientific Development Branch.31100-1218342. pp. "Purkinje's observations (1823) on finger prints and other skin features".  Ward. "Fingerprints Reveal Drug Use". org/ The_Print/ THE_PRINT_VOL_16_ISSUE_02." (http:/ / www. html) New Scientist (on-line version). November/December 1941. newscientist. Anatomische Kupfertafeln nebst dazu gehörigen Erklärungen [Anatomical Illustrations (etchings) with Accompanying Explanations]. "Skin furrows of the hand" (http:/ / galton. Retrieved March 2010.  Tom Simonite (3 April 2006) "Fingerprints reveal clues to suspects' habits. April 2006. See especially the 1788 volume. galton.  Mayer. iranian.  "The History of Fingerprints" (http:/ / www. Onin. htm). ancientfingerprints. William James (25 November 1880). Paul. Netherlands.  Åström. "Ancient finger prints in clay". . org/ nr1_lo. uk/ engineering/ Research/ MaterialsResearchCentre/ ResearchAreas/ CorrosionandCoatings/ ).  Åström. Saxony: Leopold Voss. com/ fp/ fphistory.  Grew. html) New Scientist (on-line version). Commentatio de examine physiologico organi visus et systematis cutanei [Commentary on the physiological examination of the visual organ and the skin system]. Nature 23 (578): 76.Fingerprint  Dalrymple BE. pdf). Suspect Identities: A history of fingerprinting and criminal identification. xinhuanet. 60–61.00. Smithsonian Institution Annual Report. ISBN 978-1104662257. org/ fingerprints/ faulds-1880-nature-furrows.  Cole. ISBN 0674004558. Georg (1853). ws/ iran_news/ publish/ printer_29065. Berlin. Marcello (1685). Reprinted in Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 34 (4): 468–481. The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 31 (3): 343–356. homeoffice. html). Relation des voyages faits par les Arabes et les Persans dans l'Inde et a la Chine dans le IX Siecle. Oxford University Press. Prussia: Georg Jacob Decker. Harold.  Ashbaugh (1999). BBC. .  Everts.  von Meissner. . .  "Finger prints found on pottery" (http:/ / big5. Reprinted in "The Print [newsletter of South California Association of Fingerprint Officers (http:/ / www. Leipzig. Nature 22 (574): 605.  "千 余 學 者 摸 清 我 國 民 族 膚 紋 “家 底 ” 南 北 是 一 家 " (http:/ / big5. Professor Neil McMurray and Dr Geraint Williams.  Malpighi. 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2007 (English)  Schools can fingerprint children without parental consent (http:/ / www. A. The Boston Globe. 2006. theregister. Retrieved 2009-11-28.  Cavoukian. uk/ inquiry/ CCC_FirstPage. uk/ EDMi/ EDMDetails. J.39122509. J. 2007. I. July 22. In front of the immigration judge. D. David (2007-10-26). co. he was not Leo Rosario. culture. boston. co.  Kim Cameron.  Specter. uk/ 1/ hi/ 8707355. muscular man began to weep. com/ news/ globe/ city_region/ breaking_news/ 2007/ 10/ man_wrongly_con. Zdnet. Michael "Do Fingerprints Lie" The New Yorker (http:/ / www. George J. fr/ culture/ actualites/ celebrations2002/ empreintes. he had patiently tried to explain. He was telling the truth. February 5. by Eric Lichtbau. A. Charlton. gouv. Donald L.  Penn and Teller Bullshit. htm#herschel1880). BBC.New York Times" (article). stm). 2007 (French)  Fingerprinting of UK school kids causes outcry (http:/ / www.  Vokey. co. telegraph. uk/ 1/ hi/ uk/ 6417565. theregister. pp 74-78. " On the preliminary psychophysics of fingerprint identification (http:/ / www. bbc. The Register.Beith Commemorative Society".E. published 2010-12-14. The Register.  Galton. co. London: MacMillan and Co. stm). galton. Criminal Justice  International Association for Identification History. identityblog. ipc. (2009).. michaelspecter. fr/ actualites/ informatique/ 0.. Henry Faulds . BBC News. September 9. Dr Sandra Leaton Gray of Homerton College.E. ias.  Tewari. (1978) "Report on the Latent Print Certification Program" Identification News Vol28(3)  "U. uk/ 2006/ 09/ 07/ kiddyprinting_allowed/ ). Postgrad Med (46): 303–308. bbc. com/ actu/ news/ 31010-Empreintes-digitales-pour-les-enfants-dune-e. Jean-Marc (October 16. 2006 (English)  Europe tells Britain to justify itself over fingerprinting children in schools (http:/ / www. No.39040745.M.  Empreintes digitales pour les enfants d'une école de Londres (http:/ / www. be/ actualites/ pedagogique/ index. co. Vol 156. com/ ) (English)  Empreintes digitales pour sécuriser l'école ? (http:/ / www. . pdf). pcinpact.  Abel. nytimes. org/ fingerprints/ faulds.. co. htm) (French) 89  Child fingerprint plan considered (http:/ / news. Gavan (December 2003).  BBC News Channel (http:/ / news. See also this on-line article on Henry Faulds: Tredoux. .  Sodhi. html?wt. J. Security AND Privacy (http:/ / www.  "The Fingerprint Inquiry Scotland" (http:/ / www. htm#fact_00). February 7. blog (http:/ / www. March 4. 2007-01-19. on. . Cambridge: professional opinion (http:/ / www. leavethemkidsalone. 2002 (English) . and Péron. Kaur. be/ docparlement/ pa4896. 8x07. stm). . Ravikumar. RK. php/ 2007/ 02/ 06/ 181-empreintes-digitales-pour-securiser-l-ecole) (French)  Le lecteur d'empreintes dans les écoles crée la polémique (http:/ / www. pdf). Current Science 88 (1): 185–191. "History and development of forensic science in India". (2003). com/ 2006/ 11/ 30/ us/ 30settle. Biometric Encrypton: A Positive-Sum Technology that Achieves Strong Authentication. jsp). an auto-body worker and merengue singer . com/ expert. (2006) " Contextual information renders experts vulnerable to making erroneous identifications (http:/ / www. 1080/ 17470210802372987)". html?em& ex=1165122000& en=0ca1f656ca46883a& ei=5087 ): on Brandon Mayfield mistaken arrest. "The forgotten Indian pioneers of finger print science" (http:/ / www. bbc. bron=homeArt6). Tangen. J. leavethemkidsalone. . UK Parliament. ca/ images/ Resources/ up-1bio_encryp. the tall. "Man wrongly convicted in Boston police shooting found dead" (http:/ / www. ac. findbiometrics. Man Finds To His Dismay.  "'Relief' over fingerprint verdict" (http:/ / news.Biometric Data Collection In Schools" (http:/ / edmi. htm). uk/ news/ worldnews/ europe/ eu/ 8202076/ Europe-tells-Britain-to-justify-itself-over-fingerprinting-children-in-schools.  Berlière. retrieved August 2006 (http:/ / www. 2006-11-30. informaworld. aspx?EDMID=32367). thefingerprintinquiryscotland. pp 1023-1040. S. 2004. Célébrations Nationales.  Leave Them Kids Alone (http:/ / www.S. 7 Sur 7. htm). webpage: NYT-061130-settle (http:/ / www. clpex. Will Pay $2 Million to Lawyer Wrongly Jailed . uk/ 2002/ 07/ 22/ fingerprinting_of_uk_school_kids/ ). "Dr. "Finger Prints" (http:/ / www. com/ 2002/ 05/ do-fingerprints-lie/ )  Dror.. Vol 62. architect of identity and access in the Connected Systems Division at Microsoft. 7sur7. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. org/ article/ S0379-0738(05)00587-6/ abstract)". pdf). and Cole. com/ press-release/ 4143)  2007. KV (2000). May 31. Iss 1. "Arrestation du premier assassin confondu par ses empreintes digitales" (http:/ / www. a drug dealer and a prime candidate for deportation. com/ Information/ Pioneers/ galton-1892-fingerprints-lowres. Iss 5. asjeed (2005). Journal of Forensic Identification 53 (2).00. zdnet. uk/ 1/ hi/ scotland/ 4689218. Can Prints Lie? Yes. Forensic Science International. 2003 (French)  "EDM 686 . htm). "Henry Faulds: the Invention of a Fingerprinter" (http:/ / www. . html). Francis (1892). html) Telegraph. org. . galton. A and Stoianov. in/ currsci/ jan102005/ 185. parliament. Question d'actualité à la Ministre-Présidente en charge de l'Enseignement obligatoire et de Promotion sociale (French)  Quand la biométrie s'installe dans les cantines au nez et à la barbe de la Cnil (http:/ / www.R. He was René Ramón Sánchez..A.Fingerprint  Reid. .  New York Times. September 7. New York Times. fsijournal. com/ smpp/ content~db=all?content=10. org/ history/ )  Bonebrake. 1902).org. enseignons. com/ ?p=733)  Fingerprint Software Eliminates Privacy Concerns and Establishes Success (FindBiometrics) (http:/ / www.S. accessed 2011-01-13  Prises d'empreintes digitales dans un établissement scolaire (http:/ / www. theiai. lecdh. 27 May 2010. be/ hlns/ cache/ fr/ det/ art_370100.
fingerprintamerica. uk/ 1/ hi/ uk_politics/ 6468643. more are mutilating fingerprints" (http:/ / www. ottawapolice. Nicolas.scafo. boston. Retrieved September 2. com/ news/ local/ massachusetts/ articles/ 2010/ 07/ 21/ to_avoid_id_more_are_mutilating_fingerprints/ ). Sociological Forum 15 (1): 39–63.uk/) . . 129–134. com/ ns/ articles/ 01-04/ ns_hll. • Quinche. "To avoid ID.1023/A:1007594003722. Quantitative-Qualitative Friction Ridge Analysis: An Introduction to Basic and Advanced Ridgeology.scafo. New York: Hyperion. March–April 2010. • Scheibert. .com/galton/books/finger-prints/index.mugu.com/index.  "Fingerprint history" (http:/ / www. James C. External links General • FBI Fingerprint Guide (http://www. html).org.. pp. Harry (March. David. David R. org/ 2004/ fren4j0/ public_html/ animal_fingerprints.com) • Fingerprints and Human Identification (http://www. 19 March 2007. Boston Globe. Errors and concerns • Will West as fable (http://www. Pierre. Leurent.html) • Fingerprint Processing Guide (http://www.org/Online_Information/bibliography. co. 90 Further reading • Ashbaugh. and Margot. 2000). Boca Raton. Fingerprints: The Origins of Crime Detection and the Murder Case that Launched Forensic Science. G. . "Fingerprint homoplasy: koalas and humans" (http:/ / naturalscience.cbdiai. Paul-Jean (1824–1890) : A precursor in the history of fingermark detection and their potential use for identifying their source (1863). Lambert. 1999. In Journal of Forensic Identification (California). 2010.html) • Do Fingerprints Lie? [[The New Yorker (http://www.com/galton/fingerprints/books/ index.html) • FBI Fingerprinting Video Lesson (http://www. ISSN 0884-8971  "Peers slam school fingerprinting" (http:/ / news. .com 1.fbi.mugu. S.michaelspecter. • Cowger.org/Reagents/main. Coulier. Boca Raton.com/articles/ fingerprints_and_human_identification. doi:10. cfm) (Ottawa Police Service) (English)/(French)  Murray. "Deniable Degradation: The Finger-Imaging of Welfare Recipients". asp). Faulds.com/2002/05/do-fingerprints-lie/)] (2002)] . Florida: CRC Press. virtualsciencefair. 1992.fpsociety. Kosette M. htm).fbi. 2009. The role of fingerprints in the coding of tactile information probed with a biomimetic sensor. Chris M. J. 2010. Assn.htm) So. Maciej.crimeandclues. Science 323: 1503–1506. Provost.htm) • Henry.html) • Fingerprint Articles at Crime & Clues (http://www. of Fingerprint Officers.gov/hq/cjisd/fproll.php/physical-evidence/ fingerprint-evidence) • Galton's Finger Prints (http://www. 60 (2).com (http://www.org/library/110105.  Henneberg. Retrieved 2 September 2010.html) (4-sec Quicktime video of rolling a single inked finger) • The Fingerprint Society (http://www. Colin. and Herschel's works on fingerprints (http://www. bbc. NaturalSCIENCE.gov/hq/cjisd/takingfps. Florida: CRC Press.Society for Fingerprint Examiners • Fingerprinting.bleaching-dental. ca/ en/ crime_prevention/ child_print/ index. . • Beavan. (1997). BBC News. stm). 2001. Calif.htm) • Extensive bibliography (http://www. Leigh.fingerprinting.  Abel. A and Debregeas.  "Animal fingerprints" (http:/ / www. com/ fingerprinthistory. Friction Ridge Skin: Comparison and Identification of Fingerprints.Fingerprint  Child Print (http:/ / www.
gutenberg. to allow them to adjust the parameters of their algorithms.soton.html) . and 13 independent developers) 70 algorithms submitted (44 in the Open Category and 26 in the Light Category) • Biometric System Laboratory (University of Bologna)  . 2002 and 2004.pdf).org/etext/19022) at Project Gutenberg 91 Fingerprint Verification Competition Fingerprint Verification Competition (FVC) is an international competition focused on fingerprint verification software assessment. Journal of Forensic Identification • Surgeon jailed for removing fingerprints (http://www. respectively. • Fingerprint pattern distribution statistics (http://www.ATVS (Universidad Autonoma de Madrid)  Each participant can submit up to one algorithm to the open and light categories.smh. 13 academic.Sydney Morning Herald (news article) Science and statistics • Fingerprint research and evaluation (http://fingerprint. David Charlton. Based on the response of the biometrics community.Fingerprint • Why Experts Make Errors (http://users.dse. allowing developers to unambiguously compare their algorithms. acquired with the same sensors as the training set.ecs. The interest shown in previous editions by the biometrics research community has prompted the organizers to schedule a new competition for the year 2006. FVC2002 and FVC2004 were undoubtedly successful initiatives. Dror. They established a common benchmark. FVC2002 and FVC2004) were organized in 2000.ac. A subset of fingerprint impressions acquired with various sensors was provided to registered participants. second and third international competitions on fingerprint verification (FVC2000.htm) • The Science of Fingerprints (http://www.uk/~id/JFI expert error. Participants were requested to provide enroll and match executable files of their algorithms.com. Itiel E. In 2006 we had: • • • • Four new databases (three real and one synthetic) Two categories (Open Category and Light Category) 53 participants (27 industrial.gov/) at the U. the evaluation was conducted at the organizers’ facilities using the submitted executable files on a sequestered database.nist. FVC2000. The Organizers of FVC are: • Pattern Recognition and Image Processing Laboratory (Michigan State University)  • Biometric Test Center (San Jose State University)  • Biometric Recognition Group . These events received great attention both from academic and industrial biometric communities.au/news/world/ surgeon-jailed-for-removing-fingerprints/2008/02/14/1202760429686. The first. and provided an overview of the state-of-the-art in fingerprint recognition. National Institute of Standards and Technology.nl/~frvc/handresearch/derm.S.
20 GHz . on interoperability and quality related issues. in fingerprint-based systems (both in matching techniques and sensing devices) require that performance evaluation of biometric systems be carried out at regular intervals. DB3 and DB4.1.1. The maximum time for enrollment is 0. DB2-A..Fingerprint Verification Competition 92 Aim • Continuous advances in the field of biometric systems and. DB2-B. the maximum response time of the algorithms is limited as follows: the maximum time for each enrollment is 5 seconds. uncompressed. containing four disjoint fingerprint databases. Databases One of the most important and time-consuming tasks of any biometric system evaluation is the data collection. on PC INTEL PENTIUM 4 . • The Light category is intended for algorithms conceived for light architectures and therefore characterized by low computing needs. wet/dry impressions. The test will be executed under Windows XP Professional O. provided by the organizers. 256 gray-levels. • This competition should not be viewed as an "official" performance certification of biometric systems. since only parts of the system software will be evaluated by using images from sensors not native to each system. The maximum memory that can be allocated by the processes is 4 MB.3. Each database is 150 fingers wide and 12 samples per finger in depth (i. A utility will be made available to the participants to test if their executables comply with the memory requirement.e. fingerprints belonging to the same database will be matched against each other. Categories • Two different sub-competitions (Open category and Light category) will be organized using the same databases. containing the last 10 fingers (120 images) of DB1. Nonetheless. will be performed in a second stage.S. DB2. • Each participant is allowed to submit only one algorithm to each category.20 GHz .3. DB2. The test will be executed under Windows XP Professional O. will be made available to the participants as a development set to allow parameter tuning before the submission. it consists of 1800 fingerprint images). respectively. the maximum time for each matching is 3 seconds. • The Open category has no limits on memory requirements and template size. DB2. in particular. We have created a multi-database. • subsets DB1-B. etc. each collected with a different sensor/technology. • The image format is BMP. DB3 and DB4. DB3-B and DB4-B. • During performance evaluation. for both academia and industry. after the competition is completed. • The image size and resolution vary depending on the database (detailed information will be available to the participants). the results of this competition will give a useful overview of the state-of-the-art in this field and will provide guidance to the participants for improving their algorithms. • Four distinct databases. DB3-A and DB4-A. • The aim of FVC2006 is to track recent advances in fingerprint verification. on PC INTEL PENTIUM 4 . (as it was done in the previous .1 seconds.00 GB RAM.S.3 seconds and the maximum time for matching is 0. will be used for the algorithm performance evaluation. limited memory usage and small template size. For practical testing reasons. and to benchmark the state-of-the-art in fingerprint technology. • Data collection in FVC2006 was performed without deliberately introducing difficulties such as exaggerated distortion. DB3 and DB4. large amounts of rotation and displacement.00 GB RAM. The maximum template size is 2 kB. • Further testing. Each database will be partitioned in two disjoint subsets A and B: • subsets DB1-A. will constitute the benchmark: DB1. respectively. which contain the first 140 fingers (1680 images) of DB1.
FAR). this is strongly discouraged. If image g is matched to h.FRR).e. The volunteers were simply asked to put their fingers naturally on the acquisition device.1%) ZeroFMR (the lowest FNMR for FMR=0%) ZeroFNMR (the lowest FMR for FNMR=0%) Average enrollment time Average matching time Average and maximum template size Maximum amount of memory allocated The following average performance indicators are reported over the four databases: • Average EER • Average FMR100 • Average FMR1000 . The total number of impostor tests (in case no enrollment rejections occur) is: ((140*139) /2) = 9. each rejection in enrollment will produce a "ghost" template which will not match (matching score 0) with all the remaining fingerprints. 93 Performance Evaluation For each database and for each algorithm: • Each sample in the subset A is matched against the remaining samples of the same finger to compute the False Non Match Rate FNMR (also referred as False Rejection Rate .e.240 • The first sample of each finger in the subset A is matched against the first sample of the remaining fingers in A to compute the False Match Rate FMR (also referred as False Acceptance Rate . In fact. in FVC2006. but no constraints were enforced to guarantee a minimum quality in the acquired images. the following performance indicators are reported: • REJENROLL (Number of rejected fingerprints during enrollment) • REJNGRA (Number of rejected fingerprints during genuine matches) • • • • • • • • • • • • • • REJNIRA (Number of rejected fingerprints during impostor matches) Impostor and Genuine score distributions FMR(t)/FNMR(t) curves.. h against g) is not executed to avoid correlation in the scores. where t is the acceptance threshold ROC(t) curve EER (equal-error-rate) EER* (the value that EER would take if the matching failures were excluded from the computation of FMR and FNMR) FMR100 (the lowest FNMR for FMR<=1%) FMR1000 (the lowest FNMR for FMR<=0. rejection in enrollment is fused with other error rates for the final ranking. The final datasets were selected from a larger database by choosing the most difficult fingers according to a quality index. the symmetric match (i. to make the benchmark sufficiently difficult for a technology evaluation. The total number of genuine tests (in case no enrollment rejections occur) is: ((12*11) /2) * 140 = 9. but the population is more heterogeneous and also includes manual workers and elderly people. in particular. as in FVC2004 and FVC2002. If image g is matched to h .730 Although it is possible to reject images in enrollment. h against g) is not executed to avoid correlation in the scores. For each algorithm and for each database. the symmetric match (i.Fingerprint Verification Competition editions)..
• Organizers of FVC2006 will not participate in the contest. the label "Anonymous organization" will be used.K. it/ FVCOnGoing/ http:/ / bias. D. D. Participants will be confidentially informed about the performance of their algorithm before they are required to make this decision. Whilst this required information will not disclose industrial secrets. ii. high-level information about their algorithms (similar to those reported in FVC2004. unibo. and the real identity will not be revealed. edu/ biometrics http:/ / atvs. Maio. it/ fvc2004/ http:/ / bias.L. In case a participant decides to remain anonymous. unibo. see [R. Cappelli. Jain. January 2006]). unibo. or independent developers. Maltoni. it/ http:/ / biometrics. unibo. csr. it/ fvc2006/ http:/ / bias. • Anonymous participation will be accepted: participants will be allowed to decide whether or not they want to publish their names together with their algorithm’s performance.Fingerprint Verification Competition • • • • • • • Average ZeroFMR Average REJENROLL (Average number of rejected fingerprints during enrollment) Average REJMATCH (Average number of rejected fingerprints during genuine and impostor matches) Average enrollment time Average matching time Average template size (Calculated on the average template size for each database) Average memory allocated (Calculated on the maximum amount of memory allocated for each database) 94 Participants • Participants can be from academia. it/ fvc2000/ . engr. “Performance Evaluation of Fingerprint Verification Systems”. Wayman and A. edu/ http:/ / www. External links • • • • • FVC ongoing  FVC 2006  FVC 2004  FVC 2002  FVC 2000  References          http:/ / biolab. since it is a very high level description of the approaches. es/ https:/ / biolab. J. • Together with their submissions. unibo. unibo. csr. csr. csr. sjsu. uam. csr. csr. it could be of interest to the entire fingerprint community. from the industry. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis Machine Intelligence. it/ fvc2002/ http:/ / bias. cse. participants will be required to provide some general. msu.
At the end of 2006. • In 2006. The law doesn't expect minimal age. Although this was only around 200 cases. FNAEG was understood to contain the DNA records of approximately 8.500 and 30. A further 'law for interior safety' introduced by Nicolas Sarkozy on March 18. simple thefts. In June 1998. The implementation.  Relative size • As at October 1. with punishment ranging from a prison sentence of between six months and two years. The following year.FNAEG 95 FNAEG The Fichier National Automatisé des Empreintes Génétiques (English: Automated National File of Genetic Prints) is the French national DNA database. ». Tackings is done for convicted person and simple suspect. managed by a subdirectorate of the technical and scientific departments of the French police force. with the database itself located at Écully in the Rhône. and finely almost all small offenses.27 million entries. was finally completed in 2001. it also became an offense for suspects to fail to provide a DNA sample. 2003 expanded the scope still further to cover almost all violent crimes to people or property. 2003. Matthieu Bonduelle. a bill was filed relating to the implementation of a national database for identification of child sex offenders. in fact. Privacy concerns With the expansion of the database in 2003. the French government increased the scope of the database to include DNA related to other serious criminal offences. passed by the Plural Left Lionel Jospin government. In the aftermath of the September 11 attacks on the USA in 2001.000 entries . Many of them were civil disobedience activists opposed to Genetically modified organism (GMO) (See fr:Faucheurs volontaires). but.000 entries. criminal violence and terrorism. used by both the national police force and local gendarmerie. originally planned for 1999. the former chief of the French central antiterrorist service. tags and dégradations.000 convicted criminals and another 3. this number was believed to now be in excess of 330. this number was believed to now be in excess of nearly 500.200 suspects. Origins and evolution In 1996 Alain Marsaud. there is 1. it is being doing. In septembre 2009. proposed the creation of a central DNA database. the general secretary of the Syndicat de la magistrature (the first syndicat of juges) has declare that « nobody has pronouced himself in aid of a global filing.000 euros. they denounced what they regarded as the threat to personal freedom. created a national DNA database. the Guigou law on the prevention of sexually-related crimes. but not traffic offenses or crimes committed abroad. such as voluntary manslaughter. . • In May 2007. and a fine of between 7. • In december 2009. serious crimes such as drug trafficking. the media raised the case of individuals refusing to provide DNA samples.
article of Dominique Simonnot. it became possible to capture image sequences which reveal details of human and animal locomotion that are not noticeable by watching the movement with the naked eye. 4. ils sont menacés de fichage génétique pour vol de jouets (http:/ / www.1-0@2-823448. fr/ societe/ article/ 2009/ 09/ 18/ adn-ouvrez-la-bouche-vous-etes-fiche_1242095_3224. cgi?offre=ARCHIVES& type_item=ART_ARCH_30J& objet_id=987971''A) dans Le Monde daté du 05 mai 2007  Le Canard enchaîné. as well as interpretation. (French) "L'ADN fiche la trouille". plan.gouv. and the activity of the muscles. body mechanics. Many leading orthopaedic hospitals worldwide now have gait labs which are routinely used in large numbers of cases. html#ens_id=1241893). lemonde. size. fr/ web/ article/ 0. In the 1890s. based on gait analysis results. With the development of photography. the widespread application of gait analysis to humans with pathological conditions such as cerebral palsy. html) • On the official Website of the french ministère de l’intérieur : Fichier national automatisé des empreintes génétiques (http://www.  (French) A 8 et 11 ans. augmented by instrumentation for measuring body movements. fr/ france/ 20070516. i. mercredi 16 septembre 2009.e. weight. The study encompasses quantification.36-906026. Giovanni Alfonso Borelli also called De Motu Animalium (I et II). p. FIG000000042_record_d_enquetes_elucidees_grace_a_l_adn. History The pioneers of scientific gait analysis were Aristotle in De Motu Animalium (On the Gait of Animals) and much later in 1680. article of Mathieu Delahousse  (French) official declaration (http:/ / questions.e.(French) Record d'enquêtes élucidées grâce à l'ADN (http:/ / www.  Ouvrez la bouche.fr/sections/a_votre_service/aide_aux_victimes/fiche-fnaeg) Gait analysis Gait analysis is the systematic study of animal locomotion. and neuromuscular disorders. age. It was photography which first revealed the detailed sequence of the horse "gallop" gait. 2007  (French)le Figaro du 16.) from its gait. advanced significantly in the 1980s. began in the 1970s with the availability of video camerasystems which could produce detailed studies of individual patients within realistic cost and time constraints.  . for example. Gait analysis is used to assess. article in Le Monde. both to design treatment plans. drawing various conclusions about the animal (health. html). i. assemblee-nationale. lemonde. speed.0. The development of treatment regimes. lefigaro.fr/accueil/police_fnaeg. fr/ cgi-bin/ ACHATS/ acheter. Although much early research was done using film cameras. which is usually mis-represented in paintings made prior to this discovery. Eadweard Muybridge and Étienne-Jules Marey were pioneers of this in the early 1900s. ils sont menacés de fichage génétique pour vol de jouets (http:/ / www. more specific as a study of human motion. lemonde. Parkinson's disease. often involving orthopaedic surgery. introduction and analysis of measurable parameters of gaits.interieur. and treat individuals with conditions affecting their ability to walk. fr/ q13/ 13-68468QE.service-public. using the eye and the brain of observers. html). of the 18th september 2009.FNAEG 96 References  (French) 8 et 11 ans. vous êtes fiché (http:/ / www. and for follow-up monitoring. etc. htm) 2010/01/12 External links • Fichier national automatisé des empreintes génétiques (http://www. Le Monde May 7. the German anatomist Christian Wilhelm Braune and Otto Fischer published a series of papers on the biomechanics of human gait under loaded and unloaded conditions. It is also commonly used in sports biomechanics to help athletes run more efficiently and to identify posture-related or movement-related problems in people with injuries.
most laboratories have floor-mounted load transducers. some through collaborations with the aerospace industry. This gives a full breakdown of the motion at each joint. This signal is then used to triangulate the location of the marker. to calculate movement kinetics. The cameras utilize high-powered strobes (typically red. Passive marker systems. This method has been aided by the development of analysis software that greatly simplifies the analysis process and allows for analysis in three dimensions rather than two dimensions only. using reflective markers (typically reflective balls). The patient walks down the walkway or the treadmill and the computer calculates the trajectory of each marker in three dimensions. have their own "identity". A model is applied to compute the underlying motion of the bones.. which measure the ground reaction forces. simultaneously. 97 Equipment and techniques Gait analysis commonly involves the measurement of the movement of the body in space (kinematics) and the forces involved in producing these movements (kinetics). near infrared or infrared) with matching filters to record the reflection from the markers placed on the body. the malleoli of the ankle. marketing gait analysis hardware systems in the mid 1980's. such as palpable bony landmarks (e. 4. also known as force platforms. This means that no post-processing of marker locations is required. Based on the angle and time delay between the original and reflected signal. the iliac spines of the pelvis. triangulation of the marker in space is possible. however. and the condyles of the knee). and location (called centre of pressure). 3. A computer model is then used to compute joint angles from the relative marker positions of the labeled trajectories. 5.  2. or clusters of markers applied to the middle of body segments. Kinematics can be recorded using a variety of systems and methodologies: 1. These markers are triggered by the incoming infra red signal and respond by sending out a corresponding signal of their own. Cine film or video recordings using footage from single or multiple cameras can be used to measure joint angles and velocities. The spatial distribution of forces can also be measured . The advantage of this system over the passive one is that individual markers work at predefined frequencies and therefore. Strobe lighting at known frequency has been used in the past to aid in the analysis of gait on single photographic images. Commercial development soon followed with the emergence of Vicon Motion Systems and BTS. Chronophotography is the most basic method for the recording of movement. Gait laboratory with passive infrared cameras and embedded force platforms In addition. Inertial (cameraless) systems based on MEMS inertial sensors.Gait analysis Development of modern computer based systems occurred independently during the late 1970s and early 1980s in several hospital based research labs.g. Markers are located at palpable anatomical landmarks. the systems tend to be less forgiving for out-of-view markers than the passive systems. direction. biomechanical models and sensor fusion algorithms. including magnitude. Active marker systems are similar to the passive marker system but use "active" markers. The patient has single markers applied to anatomical landmarks. Software is used to create three dimensional trajectories from these markers which are subsequently given identification labels. allows for very accurate measurement of movements using multiple cameras (typically five to twelve cameras). A typical modern gait lab has several to many cameras (video and/or infrared) placed around a walkway or treadmill. These are also used for motion capture in the motion picture industry. which are linked to a computer. These full-body or partly systems can be used indoors and outdoors regardless of lighting conditions.
Gait analysis using pedobarographic equipment. Adding this to the known dynamics of each body segment, enables the solution of equations based on the Newton–Euler equations of motion permitting computations of the net forces and the net moments of force about each joint at every stage of the gait cycle. The computational method for this is known as inverse dynamics. This use of kinetics, however, does not result in information for individual muscles but muscle groups, such as the extensor or flexors of the limb. To detect the activity and contribution of individual muscles to movement, it is necessary to investigate the electrical activity of muscles. Many labs also use surface electrodes attached to the skin to detect the electrical activity or electromyogram (EMG) of, for example, a muscles of the leg. In this way it is possible to investigate the activation times of muscles and, to some degree, the magnitude of their activation—thereby assessing their contribution to gait. Deviations from normal kinematic, kinetic, or EMG patterns are used to diagnose specific conditions, predict the outcome of treatments, or determine the effectiveness of training programs.
Pathological gait may reflect compensations for underlying pathologies, or be responsible for causation of symptoms in itself. The study of gait allows these diagnoses to be made, as well as permitting future developments in rehabilitation engineering. Aside from clinical applications, gait analysis is widely used in professional sports training to optimise and improve athletic performance. Gait analysis techniques allow for the assessment of gait disorders and the effects of corrective Orthopedic surgery. Options for treatment of cerebral palsy include the paralysis of spastic muscles using Botox or the lengthening, re-attachment or detachment of particular tendons. Corrections of distorted bony anatomy are also undertaken. It is heavily used in the assessment of sports and investigations into the movement of a large variety of other animals.
Biometric identification and forensics
Minor variations in gait style can be used as a biometric identifier to identify individual people. The parameters are grouped to spatial-temporal (step length, step width, walking speed, cycle time) and kinematic (joint rotation of the hip, knee and ankle, mean joint angles of the hip/knee/ankle, and thigh/trunk/foot angles) classes. There is a high correlation between step length and height of a person.  Gait analysis was proposed as authentication for portable electronic devices. For slip and fall investigations, the incident walking surface slip resistance can be measured. The surface can be tested to identify if it is above or below accepted levels or slip thresholds. The English XL slip meter, also known as a VIT (Variable Incidence Tribometer) is a leading edge portable "slip tester", which is designed to test the coefficient of friction or "slip index" on various walking surfaces, level or incline (even steps), under dry and wet (or otherwise contaminated) conditions by mimicking certain pedestrian biomechanical parameters. The objective measurements that can be analyzed and compared with "normal" walking forces and industry standards regarding flooring slip resistance. 
• G. K. Chesterton premised one of his Father Brown mysteries, "The Queer Feet", on gait recognition. • Cory Doctorow makes much of gait recognition as a security technique used in a high school in his book Little Brother.
 Whittle E. Michael, Gait Analysis, An Introduction, preference page, Butterworth Heinnemann, 2007.  Aristotle (2004). On the Gait of Animals (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=lZGxiHM2ldIC). Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 1419138677. .  Fischer, Otto; Braune, Wilhelm (1895) (in German). Der Gang des Menschen: Versuche am unbelasteten und belasteten Menschen, Band 1.. Hirzel Verlag.  DH Sutherland: "The evolution of clinical gait analysis: Part II Kinematics" Gait & Posture. 2002; 16: 159-179.  Étienne-Jules Marey  Eadweard Muybridge  RB Davis, S Õunpuu, D Tyburski, JR Gage "A gait analysis data collection and reduction technique". Human Movement Science 1991;10:575-587.  Robertson DGE, et al., Research Methods in Biomechanics, Champaign IL:Human Kinetics Pubs., 2004.  Best, Russell; Begg, Rezaul (2006). "Overview of Movement Analysis and Gait Features" (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=0yis6idPgy8C& pg=PA11). In Begg, Rezaul; Palaniswami, Marimuthu. Computational Intelligence for Movement Sciences: Neural Networks and Other Emerging Techniques. Idea Group. 2006-03-30. pp. 11–18. ISBN 978-1-59140-836-9. .  Ambulatory inertial gait analysis (http:/ / www. xsens. com/ en/ mvn-biomech)  journalsip.astm.org/JOURNALS/FORENSIC/PAGES/4706.htm (http:/ / journalsip. astm. org/ JOURNALS/ FORENSIC/ PAGES/ 4706. htm)  geradts.com/html/Documents/gait.htm (http:/ / geradts. com/ html/ Documents/ gait. htm)  www.vtt.fi/vtt/new/2005/new11.htm (http:/ / www. vtt. fi/ vtt/ new/ 2005/ new11. htm)  www.kodsiengineering.com/personal.cfm (http:/ / www. kodsiengineering. com/ personal. cfm)  englishxl.com/xl.html (http:/ / englishxl. com/ xl. html)
• Clinical Gait Analysis (http://www.clinicalgaitanalysis.com/)
Generalized Procrustes analysis
Generalized Procrustes analysis
Generalized Procrustes analysis (GPA) is a method of statistical analysis that can be used to compare the shapes of objects, or the results of surveys, interviews, panels. It was developed for analyising the results of free-choice profiling, a survey technique which allows respondents (such as sensory panelists) to describe a range of products in their own words or language. GPA is the only way to make sense of free-choice profiling data (Meullenet et al., 2007). Generalized Procrustes analysis estimates the scaling factor applied to respondent scale usage, thus it generates a weighting factor that is used to compensate for individual scale usage differences. Unlike measures such as a principal component analysis, since GPA uses individual level data, a measure of variance is utilized in the analysis. The Procrustes distance provides a metric to minimize in order to superimpose a pair of shape instances annotated by landmark points. GPA applies the Procrustes analysis method to superimpose a population of shapes instead of only two shape instances. The algorithm outline is the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. arbitrarily choose a reference shape (typically by selecting it among the available instances) superimpose all instances to current reference shape compute the mean shape of the current set of superimposed shapes if the Procrustes distance between the mean shape and the reference is above a threshold, set reference to mean shape and continue to step 2.
• J.F. Meullenet, R. Xiong, and C.J. Findlay (2007). Multivariate and Probabilistic Analyses of Sensory Science Problems. IFT Press & Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0813801780. • I.L. Dryden and K.V. Mardia (1998). Statistical Shape Analysis. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0471958166.
Although supporters point to the anecdotal evidence of thousands of positive testimonials as a reason to use it for personality evaluation. the writer uses those forms of letters which are simpler or more familiar. Graphotechnology. The term is sometimes incorrectly used to refer to forensic document examination. Given these considerations. and shoulder. Graphoanalysis. In the medical field. The specific writing organ (mouth. . reflect both transitory and long term changes in the central nervous system such as Parkinson's disease.  Etymology From grapho. cf. foot. Psychographology. most empirical studies fail to show the validity claimed by its supporters. • When the action of writing is comparatively difficult. There also exist many other words formed from the same root: Graphopathology. Graphometry. • The neurophysiological mechanisms which contribute to the written movement are related to conditions within the central nervous system and vary in accordance with them. Emotion. The form of the resultant writing movement is modified further by the flexibly assembled coordinative structures in the hand. • The movements and corresponding levels of muscular tension in writing are mostly outside of conscious control and subject to the ideomotor effect. the ego is active but it is not always active to the same degree. Such interpretations vary according to the graphological theory applied by the analyst. Graphistic. or alcohol usage. • One must examine the handwriting or drawing movements by considering them as movements organized by the central nervous system and produced under biomechanical and dynamical constraints. being at its highest level when an effort has to be made by the writer and at its lowest level when the motion of the writing organ has gained momentum and is driven by it. Graphomaniac. rhythm. it can be used to refer to the study of handwriting as an aid in diagnosis and tracking of diseases of the brain and nervous system. "speech"). Geology. which follow the principles of dynamical systems. Graphometric. and consistency of the graphic stroke in terms of psychological interpretations.(from the Greek γραφή. "writing") and logos (from the Greek λόγος.: Anthropology.Graphology 101 Graphology Graphology is the pseudoscientific      study and analysis of handwriting especially in relation to human psychology. graphologists proceed to evaluate the pattern. Graphopsychology. The significance of the cluster can be assessed accurately by tracing each component of the cluster back to their origins and adapting the meaning of the latter to the conditions of the milieu in which the form appears. hand. Psychology. Graphology has been controversial more than a century. • The muscular movements involved in writing are controlled by the central nervous system. arm. mental state. quality. Basic tenets Graphology is based upon the following basic assertions: • When we write. Biology. Its activity waxes and wanes. form. The written strokes. movement. crook of elbow) is irrelevant if it functions normally and is sufficiently adapted to its function. and biomechanical factors such as muscle stiffness and elasticity are reflected in a person's handwriting. with each cluster having a different psychological interpretation. • Most schools of thought in graphology concur that a single graphological element can be a component of many different clusters. therefore.
It has been described as starting from the inside. but incorrectly referred to as Gestalt Graphology.Enskat Protokol  • Leopold Szondi • Girolamo Moretti   • Augusto Vels         . individual traits. For example. • The Personal Worth Chart was developed by Handwriting Consultants of San Diego during the early eighties. to score a specific personality trait. In this approach (Holistic Graphology) a profile is constructed on the basis of form. movement and space. but can take on different meanings depending on the overall context.Minor symbolism ascribes a meaning to the stroke. trait stroke. Holistic graphology This is commonly. Max Pulver    is the best known exponent of this system. such as legibility. Symbolic analysisMajor symbolism is the meaning ascribed to the stroke. and Integrative Graphology. Gestalt graphology was a system of handwriting analysis developed circa 1915 in Germany and was related theoretically to Gestalt psychology. as it related to the page. and working to the inside.   • Holistic Graphology • The psychogram   is the only system to have been taught as part of an academic degree.Graphology 102 Approaches to graphology There are three approaches to graphology: the integrative approach. Systems that fall under this umbrella are: fixed signs. • Integrative Graphology • Graphoanalysis was the most influential system in the United States. one looks for symbols seen in the handwriting. between 1929 and 2000. at an accredited institution in the United States. This can be either Major symbolism. or Minor Symbolism. John Wayne's signature shows a blackened out portion. It has been described as starting from the outside. the holistic approach. that represents his lung cancer. In this approach.  • Muller . • The psychograph • Wittlich Character Diagram. and working to the outside. Systems of handwriting analysis Each approach to handwriting analysis has spawned several different systems. and the symbolic Integrative graphology This approach holds that specific stroke structures relate to personality traits. This approach provides the theory that underlies both Holistic Graphology. French System and Graphoanalysis. In this approach. are not assigned specific meanings. • Sistema de Xandró. depending upon the picture that the stroke draws.  was developed by Leslie King during the seventies. Most systems within this approach use a cluster of stroke formations.
New School for Social Research. The most prominent of his disciples was J. Buenos Aires. Barcelona: Spain: MA (Graphology) Training in the United States Between 1940 and 1995. and are no longer recognized when one resigns from the organization. means to feel or   exhibit annoyance. offered a diploma in Graphology. Writing systems The majority of material in the field is oriented towards the Latin Writing system. for example. the diploma course took 8 semesters. Courses offered in the subject reflect that bias. . Even though two or more systems may share the same words. History Three books have been claimed to be the first book on graphology: 1. Certification There is no certification that is generally recognized. and the common meaning is not congruent. NJ. the meanings of those words may be different. and also included Forensic Document Analysis. Training in the United States is currently available through correspondence courses. Italy: MA (Graphology) • Emerson University College. From 1970 to 2000. This diploma did not have academic accreditation. Camilo Baldi's Trattado come de una lettera Missiva si conoscano la nature e qualita dello scriviente which was unofficially published in 1622. In Graphoanalysis. despite graphologists' rejecting the results of his research. The 1625 edition was probably the first authorized edition of Baldi's book. in New York City. 2. Prospero Aldorisio's 1611 Idengraphicus nuncius 3. This was the only academic institution in the United States to have offered graphology for an accredited academic degree. Certifications are invariably linked to the organization one belongs to. Around 1830 Abbé Michon became interested in handwriting analysis. At its peak. Argentina: BA (Graphology) • Autonomous University of Barcelona. In American graphology. in common usage. Crépieux-Jamin ended up with a holistic approach to graphology.  Starting from Michon's integrative approach. the term indicates a fear of imposition. this is considered to be the first book. The technical meaning of a word used by a handwriting analyst. He published his findings  shortly after founding Société Graphologique in 1871. Vocabulary Every system of handwriting analysis has its own vocabulary. in Lodi. Juan Huarte de San Juan's 1575 Examen de ingenios para las ciencias  This was first proposed by Jean-Charles Gille in 1991. He ended up calling it "The science of the future". one could obtain a Graphology track Associate Arts Degree from Felician College.Graphology 103 Training The only academic institutions in the world that currently offer an accredited degree in handwriting analysis are: • The University of Urbino. Resentment. The quality of instructions varies considerably. Alfred Binet was convinced to do research into graphology from 1893 to 1907. Crépieux-Jamin who rapidly published a series of books  that were soon published in other languages. either within or outside the field.
  In a 1987 study. communication between graphologists representing different approaches has increased. Whilst hard data is lacking. slope. and IGAS on American graphology. summarized his view of the appeal of graphology: "It's very seductive because at a very crude level someone who is neat and well behaved tends to have neat handwriting". Klara G. Rowan Bayne. A broad literature screen done by King and Koehler confirmed dozens of studies showing the mechanical aspects of graphology (slant.. Also. She taught at the New School for Social Research in New York. adding that the practice is "useless.  Thea Stein Lewinson and J.) are essentially worthless predictors of job performance. Zubin modified Klage's ideas. Government. absolutely hopeless".. Since the rise of the Internet in the early 1990s.S. graphologists were unable to predict scores on the Eysenck personality questionnaire using writing samples from the same people.giving them both "zero validity". 104 Validity Although graphology had some support in the scientific community before the mid-twentieth century. etc. Many studies have been conducted to assess its effectiveness to predict personality and job performance. Ludwig Klages founded and published his finding in Zeitschrift für Menschenkunde (Journal for the Study of Mankind). By the time Peter Ferrera died in 1991. Measures of job performance appear similarly unrelated to the handwriting metrics of graphologists. a British psychologist who has written several studies on graphology. . Her books are still considered to be foundations for contemporary American Holistic graphology. Later mass expulsions of IGAS members led to the formation of other societies. Handwriting Workshops Unlimited was organized by Charlie Cole as a series of lectures for advanced students of Graphoanalysis. In 1929 Milton Bunker founded The American Grapho Analysis Society teaching Graphoanalysis. the results of  most recent surveys on the ability for graphology to assess personality and job performance have been negative. A 1982 meta-analysis drawn from over 200 studies concludes that graphologists were generally unable to predict any kind of personality trait on any personality test. graphologists were unable to predict scores on the Myers-Briggs test using writing samples from the same people. with the aim to form a single organization. These lectures featured holistic graphologists such as Thea Lewinson and Klara Roman. the graphology organizations have suffered major declines in membership. and was succeeded there by Daniel S.    Graphology is primarily used as a recruiting tool to screen candidates during the evaluation process. such as the American Association of Handwriting Analysts that were orientated towards Holistic graphology. the British Psychological Society ranks graphology alongside astrology . However. anecdotal evidence indicates that 10% of the members of International Graphoanalysis Society(IGAS) were expelled between 1970 and 1980. due to email lists. based upon their experience working for the U. His major contribution to the field can be found in Handschrift und Charakter. interest in graphology continued to spread in Europe as well as the United States. This organization and its system split the American graphology world in two. publishing their method in 1942.Graphology After World War I. Recent studies testing the validity of using handwriting for predicting personality traits and job performance have been consistently negative. Anthony and Florence Anthony. the decimation of IGAS members had resulted in a decline of the influence of Graphoanalysis. In a 1988 study. By 1960 all of the participants had been expelled by IGAS. In Germany during the 1920s. Roman was the most prominent of the German refugee scholars. These individuals went on to form the American Handwriting Analysis Foundation. Professional graphologists using handwriting analysis were just as ineffective as lay people at predicting performance in a 1989 study. Those talks resulted in the creation of the Council of Graphological Societies in 1976. In 1972 talks between the American Handwriting Analysis Foundation and the American Association of Handwriting Analysis started. Students had to choose between Graphoanalysis or Holistic Graphology.
 However. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) Many graphologists claim that handwriting analysis is non-discriminatory. Lawyers Edition. interprets a sign positively if the individual is high status.   race. such as Crumbaugh & Stockholm. • Effect Size: Dean's(1992)  primary argument against the use of graphology is that the effect size is too small. Bar-Hillel. citing one or more of the following cases: • • • • • Gilbert v California :388 US 263-267 (1967) US v Dionisio :410 US 1 (1973) 1973." Formniveau. 221-223 (1967) All of these cases are about Fifth Amendment rights in a criminal investigation. Neither do they address third party issues. These cases do not address issues relating to psychological analysis of an individual.   age. Blum. since it cannot determine Gender. These phenomena make it difficult to validate methods of personality testing. and their relationship to handwriting have had mixed results. for example. or other EEOC Protected Classes. but are in fact vague and general enough to apply to a wide range of people. The published studies on ethnicity. Uniformly the research indicates that gender can be determined at a significant level. there have been no studies demonstrating that the Ethnicity. with a tendency to indicate that they can be determined from handwriting. 93 SC 774 US v Mara aka Marasovich :410 US 19 (1973) US v Rosinsky :547 F 2nd 249 (CA 4th 1977 ) United States v Wade :388 US 218. Non-individualized graphological reports give credence to this criticism. Ben-Abba. • Vagueness: One of the key points of attack for critics is the ease with which a graphologist can alter the "rules. for example. Age. & Flug and many others indicate evidence against its predictive validity. See. the research results imply that it is not applicable for any specific individual. weight. Tallent(1958). 67. gender orientation. Second Series 35. Legal considerations In Hungary A Hungarian Parliamentary Commissioner for Data Protection and Freedom of Information report states that handwriting analysis without informed consent is a privacy violation. the large majority of studies such as Ben-Shakar. Regardless of the validity of handwriting analysis. but may be applicable to a group. despite a few studies that support handwriting analysis.Graphology Overall. use of handwriting analysis in employment does not have a disparate impact upon EEOC protected classes. . These describe the observation that individuals will give high accuracy ratings to descriptions of their personality that supposedly are tailored specifically for them. In the United States Privacy Graphologists often claim that handwriting analysis in the workplace is legal. There have been a number of studies on gender    and handwriting. thus far.   nationality. 105 Additional specific objections • The Barnum effect and the Dr Fox effect. and negatively if the individual has low status .
S.2d 917 (Sup. Handwriting clearly falls into the group of tests that cannot be adapted to be administered to individuals who fall within one or more ADA-defined disabilities. 137 Misc. The most substantial reason for not using handwriting analysis in the employment process is the absence of evidence of a direct link between handwriting analysis and various measures of job performance The use of graphology in the hiring process has been criticized on ethical grounds and on legal grounds. Graphology supporters state that it can complement but not replace traditional hiring tools.Y. Research in employment suitability has ranged from complete failure to guarded success. In doing so. Held to standards within the field. matching the congruency of the applicant with the ideal psychological profile of employees in the position. such as comprehensive background checks. case law for the rejection of graphology as psychological testimony. and testable. Blind people. refutable. Be valid and reliable. 634 SW 2d 99. then nobody can. Subject to published peer review. The opposing Handwriting Analysts displayed a distinct lack of professional courtesy to each other. N. and proceeds to do a personality profile. • • • • • Be verifiable. they undermined the scientific validity of both Integrative Graphology and Holistic Graphology.S.S. As a result. 2d 373. practical demonstration or record of work skills. Be generally accepted in the scientific community. Daubert standard for expert witnesses The U. Supreme Court case Daubert v. 101-102 (1982)] will be remembered for its implications on the propriety of allowing graphologists to testify. tests that cannot be adapted for use by those individuals will not be used by a company. do not develop the required fluency in handwriting. Ct. . Co. 1987) (handwriting expert may testify as to the authenticity of a writing but not as to an individual's physical or mental condition based on a handwriting sample) is an example of current U. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals defined several criteria that expert testimony must meet to be admissible as evidence. for example.Graphology Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 One of the rules of thumb in human resources is that if an individual who has an ADA-defined disability cannot take a test. Applications of graphology Employment profiling A company takes a writing sample provided by an applicant. Carroll v State [276 Ark 160.Y. it fails between two and five criteria. for the writing to be correctly analyzed. Graphology in court testimony Cameron v Knapp. 106 Depending upon the specific system of graphology that is used. Questions that handwriting analysts ask before doing an analysis can be illegal under this act. A graphological report is meant to be used in conjunction with other tools. 520 N.
Composite reports This explores the difference in personal style between every employee in a group. but also each individual as a part of a group of three. The basic theory is that after knowing and understanding how each other is different. The end result is on how each can maximize productivity and minimize personal friction. or another personality theory. mode. and median scores of every scored data point. and how they can more harmoniously work together. The focus of these reports can be one. but also those of their co-workers. Typically done for couples. with a focus on how good a fit the individual is. or more of the following: Company-wide This is a report the describes how compatible the individual is. the mean. it is not unknown for a polyamorous group to obtain a report prior to the commitment ceremony of a new individual. Marital compatibility In its simplest form only sexual expression and sexual response are examined. four. the mean. The average division employee For this report. The individual is then compared to these three employees. etc. Division wide This is a report that describes how compatible the individual is. Those are then compared to the applicant. for the entire unit are used. with each employee in the company. and median scores of every scored data point. At its most complex. The idea is for each member of the group to learn not only their own strengths and weakness.Graphology 107 Business compatibility This is an additional service offered by some handwriting analysts. The individual is then compared to these three employees. The resulting reports not only deal with the individual on a one-to-one level within the group. people within the group. with each employee in the division. for the entire division are used. any commitment that is made will be more enduring. with each employee in the unit. The average company employee For this report. The average unit employee For this report. The unit manager / Co-worker This explores the differences in personal style between a manager/co-worker and potential employee. for the entire company are used. . Unit wide This is a report the describes how compatible the individual is. every aspect of an individual is examined for how it affects the other individual(s). to create three hypothetical employees. mode. with the focus being how good a fit the individual is. five. with focus being how well the individual will fit into the existing company psychodynamic profile. The content of these reports can range from a simple perspectrograph. and median scores of every scored data point. Transactional Analysis. the mean. mode. to a four wheel Wittlich Diagram and accompanying twenty five thousand word analysis. to create three hypothetical employees. Psychological analysis These reports can range from a ten item check off list to a 25 page report on the makeup of an individual from the perspective of Freudian Psychoanalysis. to create three hypothetical employees.
form. Research studies have been conducted in which a detailed examination of handwriting factors. The study of these phenomena is a by-product of researchers investigating motor control processes and the interaction of nervous. and consistency of size. Strictly speaking. to the application of Aristotelian logic to any of the numerous (and mutually incompatible) theories of handwriting analysis. 108 Medical diagnosis Medical graphology is probably the most controversial aspect of handwriting analysis. It was pioneered in France during the nineteen-thirties. These beliefs are claimed to be false for reasons ranging from the complete lack of either scientific or anecdotal evidence. particularly timing. and Association Déontologique Européenne de Graphologie prohibits the practice of anything related to the occult. the discipline tries to address the question of whether or not a document was written by the person who is thought to have written it. Jury screening A graphologist is given handwriting samples of a prospective jury and determines who should be struck. prohibits medical diagnosis unless one is also licensed to do diagnosis in the state in which they practice. the graphologist advises counsel on how to slant their case. . based upon their alleged personality profile. and pressure are considered in the process of evaluating patients and their response to pharmacological therapeutic agents. speed. Forensic document examination The discipline of forensic document examination is also known as questioned document examination within the judicial system. With respect to handwriting examinations. amongst others. graphology can be used as an additional checkpoint on the compatibility of the couple prior to the elders giving their consent for the marriage to take place. fluidity. The code of ethics for the International Graphoanalysis Society. Goodtitle Drevett v Braham 100 Eng Rep 1139 (1792) is reportedly the first case at which the testimony of a questioned document examiner was accepted. anatomical. sometimes in conjunction with music or positive self-talk. The Vanguard Code of Ethical Practice. British Association of Graphology. spreading to the United states in the late fifties. After the trial has begun. Graphotherapy This is the practice of changing a person's handwriting with the goal of changing features of his or her personality. for the most favorable response from the jury. There have been anecdotal reports of these exercises curing everything from drug addiction to anorexia nervosa. As such. pressure. such research is not graphology as described throughout this article but an examination of factors pertaining to motor control. and back to borderline personality disorder.  The therapy consists of a series of exercises which are similar to those taught in basic calligraphy courses. this is not an aspect of graphology. Most graphologists reject supernatural insights from their assessment of handwriting. and biomechanical systems of the body. Divination Some individuals believe that one can tell the future from handwriting analysis. Others believe that a handwriting analyst can provide spiritual guidance on situations that they face.Graphology In cultures where arranged marriages are common.
Chicago. Ed. Barcelona. Retrieved 2008-02-22. Lehrbuch der Graphologischen Deutungstechnik zum Selbstunterricht (1st ed. ISanti dalla scrittura: esami grafologici. Der Intelligenzausdruck in der Handschrift (1st ed.). it's a kind of magical divination or fortune telling where 'like begets like. Bern.).).1998. Augusto: Tratado de Grafología. Max Albert Eugen (1931). Munich: Kindler.  :Vels.. . 2000. where the handwriting samples contain no content that could provide non-graphological information upon which to base a prediction (e. Symbolic Interpretation of its Graphic Indicators (Revised ed. pp. Augusto:Escritura y Personalidad. Barcelona. Max Albert Eugen (1949).P.  :Vels. Barcelona.1996. North Texas Skeptics. com/ 1993/ 08/ 03/ news/ 03iht-grapho.8ª ed.x. Mensch und Handschrift.). Graphology Handbook for Tyros or Pros . Intelligenza – Sentimento. Whiting. org/ safarchive/ 3_ask/ archive/ qna/ 3282_bbeyerstein. CA: Handwriting Consultants of San Diego  King. Antonio. . Stuttgart. 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Retrieved 2008-02-22. "Graphology and Personality: Another Failure to Validate Graphological Analysis. Girolamo Maria (1942). "they simply interpret the way we form these various features on the page in much the same way ancient oracles interpreted the entrails of oxen or smoke in the air. Personality and Individual Differences 8 (3): 433–435. Barcelona.  :Vels. Wilhelm H. . Munich: Johann Ambrosius Barth  Wittlich. 532 pág. 1983).". nytimes. Person. 1957. Ed.). Handwriting Analysis Workshop Unlimited: Professional Graphology Course. Onate: Aránzazu  Xandró.). "Graphology Fact Sheet" (http:/ / www. Editorial Miracle. Retrieved 2008-02-22. Ed.). Fort Lauderdale. Enskat. British Columbia Civil Liberties Association. Augusto:La Selección de Personal y el problema humano en las empresas. Abecedario Grafológico. bccla.6.g. doi:10. blind studies. Bountiful. Psicologia y Grafologia. Leslie W. Graphologische Charakterdiagramme (1st ed. Mauricio (1949). 468 pág. 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See the "Annotated Bibliography in Pen Computing and Handwriting Recognition" by Jean Renard Ward (http:/ / users. making hand geometry the first biometric to find widespread computerized use. Handwriting movement analysis Handwriting movement analysis is the study and analysis of the movements involved in handwriting and drawing. Scripture (1895) developed a writing apparatus that enabled storage of pen positions on paper at 100 Hz. com/ rwservices/ biblio. This apparatus permitted measurement of durations of individual handwriting strokes (McAllister. . html). erols. However. Keuss.Hand geometry 112 Hand geometry Hand geometry is a biometric that identifies users by the shape of their hands. Viable hand geometry devices have been manufactured since the early 1980s. which became established after the "International Workshop on Handwriting Movement Analysis" in 1982 in Nijmegen. It would become the first of a continuing series of International Graphonomics Conferences. It takes years of practice and maturing before a person has mastered the adult handwriting skill. eye–hand coordination. The Netherlands. Grootveld (1983). Earliest devices to capture handwriting movements Elisha Gray's "Telautograph". It forms an important part of graphonomics. or any other situation where the researcher wishes to record movements using a pen. US Patent 386. Van Galen. Handwriting is not considered only as a movement that leaves a visible trace of ink on paper (product) but it can also be considered as a movement (process). Hand geometry readers measure a user's hand along many dimensions and compare those measurements to measurements stored in a file. handwriting movement has been researched since measurement techniques became available. Handwriting could only be transmitted by wire and reproduced elsewhere in real-time. It is also one of the first. In large populations. It remains popular. The first graphonomics milestone was Thomassen. and often the only motor skill that children will learn at elementary school. hand geometry is not suitable for so-called one-to-many applications. Understanding of the handwriting product will not be complete until the handwriting process is understood. fingerprinting and iris recognition remain the preferred technology for high-security applications. and computer software which enables the researcher to do this under specific experimental paradigms without the need to program untested custom software. such as identification cards or personal identification numbers. in which a user is identified from his biometric without any other identification. common applications include access control and time-and-attendance operations. three components were required: Devices to capture handwriting movements. Hand geometry is very reliable when combined with other forms of identification. 1900). laboratory computers to store and process the movement data. Handwriting movement analysis software is also used for studying drawing. followed by four more similar patents (1891–93). Handwriting is historically considered the widest taught motor skill. before recording and processing handwriting movements were within reach for those interested in studying handwriting movements. Since hand geometry is not thought to be as unique as fingerprints or irises.815 (1888). Therefore.
x-y-tablet. VisTablet. Electronic analog computers were used until digital computers came within reach for research: Wang Laboratories. and grip forces (e. and include times stamps per coordinate to correct non-isochronous sampling. Pen-based handwriting capturing devices  have been developed but never achieved the accuracy of tablets. Pen movement recording devices The first devices to accurately record handwriting that could be connected to computers were graphics tablet. While sampling rates of 20 Hz would theoretically suffice. and visualize massive amounts of samples. digitizers can deliver the orientation of the pen barrel relative to the tablet: • Altitude = How steep the pen is held. as pressure data are often non-linearly related to actual pressure. Hanvon. such as those by Anoto.1 cm. The advantage is a 15%–40% reduction of device noise and quantization noise.Handwriting movement analysis 113 Earliest laboratory computers Handwriting movements are fast. A laboratory computer will be needed to store.. Sampling rates used to be 100 Hz until it was decided that the minimum rate for Human Input Devices HID should be at least 133 Hz. Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC). handwriting tablets are the gold standard to record handwriting. The digitizer technology belongs to the most accurate and cost-effective pointing devices. • z = Axial pen pressure. Tablets can have a display built in (e. Additional features that can be measured by the digitizers (mostly in past models) include pen height. Dynamic accuracy of 0. IBM PC (Personal Computer). each set of coordinates should be sampled simultaneously and at a fixed frequency. pen orientation will be needed to estimate normal pressure. Typical tablets sense the position of the pen electromagnetically. Currently many novel systems appear on the market that "record" handwriting. graphics pad. pen barrel rotation.01 cm at constant frequency is achievable. or digitizer. but also axial pen pressure. process. • Azimuth = Direction of the pen barrel projected on the x-y plane. Apple Inc.g. Handwriting movement measurement systems can capture: • x = Horizontal coordinates. Still today. The Vector General products reported the position of the stylus at 100 Hz and claimed an accuracy of 0. Adesso. Among the earliest tablets are the Styalator electronic tablet with pen for computer input and handwriting recognition in 1957  and the commercial products by Vector General. Optionally. Sadly. Genius. Touch-sensitive tablets cannot be used when the hand is resting on the tablet unless they implement some form of hand rejection.. bumping the sampling rates up to 133 – 200 Hz. up-sampling will be needed to properly visualize the Lissajous-like handwriting and drawing strokes. Osborne Computer Corporation. Higher-than-necessary sampling rates such as 100 Hz are preferred as this would also allow low-pass filtering or smoothed data with reduced equipment and quantization noise by factor √(100/20) = √5. It took more than 50 years for computers to be available in laboratories. and Data General. . with electronic pens as we know them today. Atari. Norsk Data. Many pen movement recording systems capture. Ideally. Opaque tablets are produced by Wacom who also produces display digitizers. an x an y tilt or altitude and azimuth of the pen barrel. not only the x and y coordinates of the pen top. and also EMG-based systems. at the 3 finger grip areas). non-repetitive with a primary frequency around 5 Hz and a bandwidth of about 10 Hz. perpendicular to the horizontal base line and in the writing surface. parallel to the baseline in Western script • y = Vertical coordinates. this angle can be used to estimate pen pressure perpendicular to the paper from the axial pen pressure. as in a tablet PC).g. most of these innovative mini and microcomputer companies have discontinued their operation.
computer science. It was used for treating 500 writer’s cramp patients. experimental psychology. home schooling. Germany. movement disorders.454. which was established in 1995 by Peter De Jong. Seth Pullman developed Pullman Spiral Acquisition and Analysis. It is used to test tremor in Parkinson patients. tightness of the spiral. handwriting image analysis. and Smits-Engelsman (1996). The Netherlands. handedness. The next wave consisted of packaged software that could be made available to record handwriting at many locations. Patients with motor disorders such as Parkinson's disease draw spirals. forensic document examination or questioned document examination. drawing. Their system enables objectively assessing motor function by physicians who are not skilled or experienced in evaluating motor disorders. extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) or movement side effects due to medication. forensic document examination. signature verification and identification. An early publication about his spiral analysis is by Pullman (1998). psychiatry. handwriting recognition. In 2002. CSWin was marketed in Germany and is being used in many German hospitals. software packages have appeared on the market that can be used by many other researchers interested in the field of handwriting movement analysis. elementary education. communication. Their oldest publication is by Marquardt and Mai (1994). re-education. Pullman received US Patent 6. visuomotor control. stuttering. etc. human movement science. Most initial software systems were developed by university researchers who. Prof. language. Oasis can be customized by its flexible macro language. document analysis. biomechanics of the hand. child development. and derives from these score a degree of severity score. it is a major accomplishment to make software available as a package that can be installed on an unknown computer and can be used after a brief familiarization time by other users who have not been involved. this system was used to develop an automated test-battery for psychopharmacological research: Orgabat. The present company focuses on golf training and was established in 2003 and is run by the owner. Kosterman. The software calculates first-order smoothness. .Handwriting movement analysis 114 Handwriting movement analysis software Handwriting movements are being studied from many disciplines including kinesiology. goal-directed movements. occupational therapy. dystonia. Over the last several years. were the only ones capable of using it. zero-crossing rate. second-order smoothness. linguistics. visual feedback. human-computer interaction. second-order zero-crossing rate. One of the oldest references to Oasis is De Jong. In 1998. CSWin The first handwriting movement analysis offered for sale (around 1980) was CSWin by Science And Motion and developed by Christian Marquardt and Norbert May in Munich. Even today. fine motor control. Parkinson's disease. writer's cramp. for example general practitioners or pediatricians who are not certified in the practice of neurology. remedial handwriting instruction. Dr. developmental disorders. education. neurology. Pullman spiral acquisition and analysis At Columbia university. artificial intelligence. physiotherapy. Oasis Another early system was Oasis by KikoSoft. Hulstijn. often. Christian Marquardt.706: "System and method for clinically assessing motor function".
(2003). Shrairman. the iNeuroskill web portal was established under a new business entity: iNeuroskill. George Stelmach. smoothness and synchronization of the writer's motion as quantifying measures of the neurological function using their Correlation Function Analysis (CFA) of behavioral signals. and accurate signature identification for security/privacy protection and forgery detection. Hans-Leo Teulings. security purposes. they applied their technology to biometric measurements as a clinical monitoring tool for physicians investigating neuromuscular diseases. and Parkinson medication effects and has many applications in movement disorders. computer science (handwriting recognition. ComPET At the University of Haifa.134: "System for assessment of fine motor control in humans". and Landau (1998).. Baker joined as MovAlyzeR’s designer and implementer. occupational health centers and the security industry. Target markets could include neuromuscular disease centers. USA. AZ. This last application raised the possibility of using a space-qualified Impairoscope variant to evaluate astronaut performance with respect to the impacts of stress. 2009a. education. Their method estimates stability. It is used in fields ranging from research in human movement sciences. who has since retired. neurology. Teulings and Van Gemmert. forensic document examination. The oldest references to MovAlyzeR are Teulings and Romero (2003).546. b). Dr. Epstain. etc. signature verification). occupational therapy. Verifax began operations with the aim of developing a biometric tool for the verification of signatures from a distance (VeriFax Autograph Technology). Ruth Shrairman and Alex Landau. kinesiology. build-up of toxic chemicals within the space habitat. excessive workload. Boulder. In 2003. fatigue. Parush. aging research. Tempe. The oldest mention of POET is in Rosenblum. This handwriting movement analysis software is the first to demonstrate that it can discern movement side-effects due to schizophrenia medication better than with any conventional evaluation method used in psychiatry today (international patent pending) (Caligiuri et al. monitoring for toxic inhalants and environmental distress. The website enables Parkinson patients to upload their signatures that were recorded using a digitizing tablet. and alcohol and drug abuse using their proprietary VeriFax Impairoscope writing instrument. In 1999 Gregory M. CFA returns numerical scores and charts expressing stability of the handwriting strokes and the characteristics of the phase distortions in reproducing cursive samples. psychiatry. which was founded in 1990 by Dr. drug and alcohol abuse clinics. Romero and Teulings (2003). airline pilots. USA. psychology. Verifax developed two more applications using application-specific modifications of their customized Neuroskill software: Applications for substance abuse screening and detection. to educational demonstrations or student projects in these fields. bus drivers) for physical and mental performance impairments caused by stress. Neuroskill was designed for biometric measurement. NeuroScript was founded in 1997 by Prof.Handwriting movement analysis 115 Neuroskill Another handwriting analysis system is Neuroskill by Verifax. Their oldest article is by Morgenthaler. It was used to administer visual stimuli and to record and analyze handwriting movements. physiological disorders. NeuroSkill received a US patent 6.g. In 2009. . In the process. and Weiss (2003).. They receive immediate feedback regarding their fine motor function in the form of a chart analysis. Dr. It can be integrated with MATLAB and perform image processing on scanned handwriting exemplars. Sara Rosenblum and Patricia L (Tamar) Weiss and colleagues developed a computerized handwriting evaluation system called POET: Penmanship Objective Evaluation Tool using MATLAB. Colorado. MovAlyzeR MovAlyzeR was developed by NeuroScript. MovAlyzeR is currently the only handwriting movement analysis software that is certified for Microsoft Windows XP and Vista. and Dr. They researched the Air Phenomenon: Pen movements above the paper (air strokes). Another application was to evaluate persons with critical skills (e.
Their focus is to detect spatial neglect in the visual field and organization of movement disorder. pdf  http:/ / www. In M. M..B. M.. France.E. To compare performance between gross arm movements and fine finger control. coordinated by Dr. Human Movement Sciences (in press). The latter movements do not include finger movements.B.P. • Caligiuri. Lohr. It is used to study children with dysgraphia.M. com  http:/ / www.. com  Crane. B. com  http:/ / www. & A. org  http:/ / sites.M. Handwriting and drawing research: Basic and applied issues (pp. Special Pend and System for Handwriting Recognition. (2009a).444. Amsterdam: IOS Press. the subjects draw lines holding either the tablet's pen (held by the fingers) or a mouse (held by the whole hand).L. References  Diamond. Psychiatry Research (in press).. de  http:/ / www. Leedham.M. Devices for reading handwritten characters (http:/ / rwservices. J. C. Norms have been established for 3–70 year old healthy persons. with both the left and right hands. Developmental Coordination Disorders (DCD) Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorders (ADHD) and adults with several pathologies as Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Depression. • De Jong. Hewitt David. C.. They will remain focused on drawing-based diagnosis of these disorders. hemiplegic stroke patients. php  http:/ / www. and Eng (2009). Dean. com  http:/ / www. net  http:/ / research.W. 116 MedDraw MedDraw  is a computer-based drawing-task diagnosis and rehabilitation system project between the University of Kent. A. B. Handwriting Movement Analyses for Monitoring Drug-Induced Motor Side Effects in Schizophrenia Patients Treated with Risperidone.. pp. H. asp?ItemID=1219  http:/ / www... . and Mellier (2005). Simner. Niculescu. The project aims to develop a robust. kikosoft. Dean. google.B. e. hanvon  http:/ / www. com/ product_detail.L. W. The first research publications that mention MedDraw are by Kaplani. It is also used with verbal-based lie detection technology such as the polygraph. OASIS software and its application in experimental handwriting research. vistablet. POET was developed further and renamed to ComPET: Computerized Penmanship Evaluation Tool. Holper.G. Hulstijn. Guest.905. com/ site/ rehabini/ projects/ edt • Caligiuri. & Smits-Engelsman. Proceedings of Eastern Joint Computer Conference. haifa.L. C. 232–237. adesso. Deviations from the healthy norms will reflect different pathologies for different patient groups. Kiper. Handwriting Movement Kinematics for Quantifying EPS in Patients Treated with Atypical Antipsychotics.P.J. Lohr. Teulings. A. html#Dimond57). . 1975  http:/ / www.B. net  http:/ / www. yet easy to use clinical system producing objective diagnostic recommendations across a range of clinical conditions. ineuroskill. (1996).. il/ ~rosens/ ResearchDescriptionBlurb. info:81/ pens/ biblio70.. geniusnet. state-of-the art. Teulings. Richard Guest and started in 2003.. medicalcomputing. Extended Drawing Test (EDT) The Extended Drawing Test  is a computerized graphonomic assessment for arm and hand function.). lafayettelifesciences. and by Glenat. Niculescu.P. com/ products/ orgabat.C. ac. The first paper mentioning EDT is Vuillermot.. meddraw. no-ip. kikosoft. Paquet. W. Parkinson as well as aging effects. Heutte. United States Patent 3. neuroscript. and Fairhurst (2005). Pescatore.E.J. (2009b). Alzheimer. September 16. 429–440). Thomassen (Eds. The EDT measures the ability of the subject to draw vertical lines. Tom (1957-12-01). retrieved 2008-08-23  http:/ / www. Kosterman.Handwriting movement analysis Soon afterward. H. J. UK and the University of Rouen.g.
C. Teulings. P.. (p.). (2009). 2–3 November 2003. L.L. (1984). K. W.W.). June 2005. Studies from the Yale Psychological Laboratory.L.W. H. Teulings & A. S. An Extended Drawing Test for the Assessment of Arm and Hand Function with a Performance Invariant for Healthy Subjects. • Morgenthaler. Van Gemmert.) (1983). D and Eng. Mov Disord. (p. Journal of Neuroscience Methods 177(2): 452–460. Pescatore.W. 99–102). • Teulings.J. Mai. & Teulings. S. 2–3 November 2003. (2003). A. H. ISBN 0-9746365-0-9. • Rosenblum. Van Galen. USA. S. • Marquardt. AIP Conference Proceedings.. Van Gemmert (Eds.A. USA. 107–110).L.. H. D. ISBN 0-9746365-0-9. 13 Suppl 3:85–9. Computer-Based Diagnosis of Dyspraxia: the MEDDRAW project.W. W. • Thomassen. Italy. Goal-directed movements in menu selection in computer-user-interfaces. Teulings. • Romero. Grootveld. (2005). • Kaplani. 2–3 November 2003.M. D. (Eds.Handwriting movement analysis • Glenat. • McAllister. Arizona.M. Kiper.). • Pullman.L. (2003). H. (2003). A. 106. 8.J.A. 117 . Scottsdale... USA. G. In H. Paquet. Submovement analysis in goal-directed movements. III. C. June 2005.L. Arizona. Human Movement Science. • Teulings. D. IGS 2005. Submovement analysis in learning cursive handwriting or block print. Acta Psychologica. Space technology and applications international forum – 1998. Research: A movement used in handwriting. 54.L. Feature-based Assessment of Visuospatial Neglect Severity in a Computer-based Line Cancellation Task. 12th Conference of the International Graphonomics Society. Shrairman. In H.. ISBN 0-9746365-0-9. H. Digital recording and processing of handwriting movements. E.Heutte. Epstain. Van Gemmert. IGS 2005. • Teulings. Parush. (1994). 169–173. pp.P. & Romero.L.C. Holper. N. R. S. Guest.J. Van Gemmert. Salerno. Vol.. L. (p... Keuss. Proceedings of the 11th Conference of the International Graphonomics Society (IGS2003). C. Fairhurst.A. A. • Vuillermot.H. Weiss. (1998).L.. p.A. Proceedings of the 11th Conference of the International Graphonomics Society. Teulings. (2005).H. E. (1998). Salerno. Landau.N. R. 21–63.52(1):39–45. G. 193–217. (Eds. (2003). to appear in 12th Conference of the International Graphonomics Society. A. USA. M.W.. Italy. 736–742 (1998). In H. Apr. & Maarse. L.. Proceedings of the 11th Conference of the International Graphonomics Society (IGS2003). 103–106)..G. Process Versus Product Evaluation of Poor Handwriting among Children with Developmental Dysgraphia and ADHD. F. (Eds. T. & Van Gemmert.Mellier. • Scripture. A... SL. A computational procedure for movement analysis in handwriting. Yale Psychological Laboratory. 3. P.L. Scottsdale. J Neurosci Methods. (1900). Spiral analysis: a new technique for measuring tremor with a digitizing tablet. Arizona. (1895).W. A.A. Motor Aspects of Handwriting. Volume 420. Scottsdale Arizona. New apparatus.. Scottsdale. Proceedings of the 11th Conference of the International Graphonomics Society (IGS2003).
Finger Prints in which he described his classification system that include three main fingerprint patterns . whorls and arches. In 1897 a commission was established to compare Anthropometry to the Henry Classification System. At the time. the Henry Classification System has generally been replaced by ridge flow classification approaches. the alternative to fingerprints was Bertillonage. Faulds. He was primarily assisted by Azizul Haque who developed a mathematical formula to supplement Henry's idea of sorting in 1024 pigeon holes based on fingerprint patterns. In 1880. another Henry's assistant also helped refine the system. it was the basis of modern day AFIS classification methods up until the 1990s. In roughly 1859. As the results were overwhelmingly in favor of fingerprints. History and development Although fingerprint characteristics were studied as far back as the mid-1600s. Sir Henry developed the Henry Classification System between the years 1896 and 1925. Sir Francis Galton published his highly influential book. It is unclear whom to credit for the classification system. and in 1901 Sir Henry returned to Britain and was appointed Assistant Commissioner of Scotland Yard. they devised very similar fingerprint classification systems.loops. South Africa to assist in the reorganization of the local police force and establish a fingerprint bureau. Sir John Herschel discovered that fingerprints remain stable over time and are unique across individuals. In 1892. Darwin was unable to assist Dr. Sir Francis Galton. replaced Anthropometry. and both. The fingerprint records collected at this time were used for one-to-one verification only. and authenticating transactions. Also in 1900. Bertillonage consists of a meticulous method of measuring body parts for the use of identifying criminals.Henry Classification System 118 Henry Classification System The Henry Classification System is a long-standing method by which fingerprints are sorted by physiological characteristics for one-to-many searching. However. explaining a system for classifying fingerprints. Developed by Alphonse Bertillon in 1879. the British Indian police force adopted Anthropometry. Henry Faulds and Sir Francis Galton did not engage in much correspondence. Henry Faulds wrote to Sir Charles Darwin. also known as Anthropometry. In recent years. the use of fingerprints as a means of identification did not occur until the mid-19th century. was to find worldwide acceptance in 1899. Expanding on Galton's classification system. on the recommendation of Henry received    The Henry Classification System recognition years later by the British Government for their contribution. Dr. but in the following decade. and Hem Chandra Bose. signing legal documents. as a means in which records would be logically filed and searched had not yet been invented. India. fingerprinting was introduced to British India by the Governor General. His efforts in South Africa were highly successful. as Chief Magistrate of the Hooghly district in Jungipoor. In the same year. the first UK fingerprint bureau was established at Scotland Yard. Inspector General of the Bengal Police in India became interested in the use of fingerprints for the use of criminal identification. Influenced by Galton's Finger Prints. Henry was sent to Natal. in 1877 he was the first to institute the use of fingerprints and handprints as a means of identification. (Harling 1996) (Met) (Early) . but agreed to forward the letter to his cousin. Developed by Sir Edward Henry in the late 19th century for criminal investigations in British India. Dr. In 1892. Sir Edward Henry. and in 1900. head of the Criminal Investigation Department. we do know that Dr. Sir Henry ordered the Bengali Police to collect prisoners’ fingerprints in addition to their anthropometric measurements. Henry Faulds was the first European to publish the notion of scientific use of fingerprints in the identification of criminals. and in January 1896. the men corresponded regularly in 1894. asking for his assistance in their development. Two years later.
was composed of the following elements : • • • • • • • • • ATM-like stand 80486 personal computer MS-Windows running Visual Basic 10 inch monitor/touch-screen 16-key keypad OCR-B card reader Electronic gate lock trigger 5 inch Telpar receipt printer Recognition Systems. Although modeled on the Dutch "SchipholPass" program. the United Kingdom. (CDSI ). Germany. Frequent travelers who were citizens of the U. Inc. Delta Terminal. Inc (RSI) 'Handkey' hand geometry scanner INSPASS kiosk at JFK International Airport.S. Australia.S. approved INSPASS members would register their hand geometry as a biometric identifier and were presented with an associated membership card. The initial kiosk implementation.S. as defined by the U. Pilots of land border versions were conducted in Buffalo. Volpe   National Transportation Systems Center and INS contractor Computer Data Systems. The development of the project was initially piloted and then later deployed with support from the John A. Department of Justice. was a program of the United States Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) during the 1990s and early 2000s the purpose of which was to facilitate the entry of pre-screened low-risk travellers through immigration and customs at certain airports. One Card" to promote harmonization of the system with other traveler biometric programs and regular meetings were held with the immigration authorities of Canada. 1998 The program initially was established at JFK International Airport and Newark International Airport in May 1993. New York during the World University Games (summer 1993) and later in Hidalgo. or INS Passenger Accelerated Service System. After a thorough background check. and the Netherlands to achieve that goal. Eventually. Department of Justice. Texas. INSPASS was the first large scale biometric identity verification program undertaken by the United States Government and quickly became the largest biometric program in the world in terms of enrollments. it expanded to the US Immigration and Customs Pre-Clearance Inspection Stations in Toronto and Vancouver. Upon entering the United States after arriving from abroad. Later. a total of 15 permanent INSPASS kiosks were deployed at the following locations: • New York (JFK) (6 terminals) • Newark • Toronto (2 terminals) . Support for the program was later taken over by Electronic Data Systems (EDS) in 1995 when they were awarded a general support services contract with the U. users would subject themselves to hand geometry scans and would pass through Federal Inspection without undergoing a formal interview by immigration inspectors.INSPASS 120 INSPASS INSPASS. or a handful of other trusted countries could apply for INSPASS privileges. Canada. Program officials advocated the concept of "One Traveler.
INSPASS • • • • Miami (2 terminals) Vancouver San Francisco Los Angeles (LAX) (2 terminals)
Although the program was discontinued in 2002, it has since been replaced by Global Entry, a program of the U.S. Customs and Border Protection that uses fingerprint biometrics to enable frequent travelers to bypass lines at traditional immigration inspection lanes at international airports.
 DOJ Draft Statement of Standards and Guidelines for Developing INSPASS, February 1995 (http:/ / www. uscis. gov/ propub/ DocView/ frid/ 1/ 120/ 121/ 127)  Commerce Business Daily, August 27, 1998 (http:/ / www. fbodaily. com/ cbd/ archive/ 1998/ 08(August)/ 27-Aug-1998/ 70sol005. htm)  New security devices in the pipeline, October 2002 (http:/ / www. taipeitimes. com/ News/ worldbiz/ archives/ 2001/ 10/ 10/ 106590)  http:/ / www. answers. com/ topic/ computer-data-systems-inc  INSPASS Pilot Program Report, March 1995 (http:/ / www. usdoj. gov/ oig/ reports/ INS/ a9508/ index. htm)  Computer Data Loses Another Contract, Kathleen Day, Washington Post September 1, 1994
• Biometric Consortium: INS Passenger Accelerated Service System (INSPASS) (http://www.biometrics.org/ REPORTS/INSPASS.html) 4 January 1996 • Biometric Consortium: INSPASS Update (http://www.biometrics.org/REPORTS/INSPASS2.html) • Government Technology News: Consideration of INSPASS in Israel, August 2002 (http://www.govtech.com/ gt/20951) • GlobalSecurity.org | USPASS (formerly INSPASS) (http://www.globalsecurity.org/security/systems/inspass. htm) • Global Entry (http://www.globalentry.gov)
Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System
Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System
The Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System (IAFIS) is a national automated fingerprint identification and criminal history system maintained by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). IAFIS provides automated fingerprint search capabilities, latent searching capability, electronic image storage, and electronic exchange of fingerprints and responses. IAFIS maintains one of the largest biometric databases in the world, second only to Mexico with 70 million records, containing the fingerprints and potential corresponding criminal history information for more than 66 million subjects. IAFIS has 66 million subjects in the criminal master file, and more than 25 million civil prints. Employment background checks and legitimate firearms purchases cause citizens to be permanently recorded in the system. For instance, the State of Washington  mandates that all applicants seeking employment in an inpatient setting that houses vulnerable minors (such as children who are mentally challenged, physically or emotionally ill) are fingerprinted and entered into IAFIS as part of their background check in order to determine if the applicant has any record of criminal behavior. Fingerprints are voluntarily submitted to the FBI by local, state, and federal law enforcement agencies. These agencies acquire the fingerprints through criminal arrests or from non-criminal sources, such as employment background checks and the US-VISIT program. The FBI then catalogs the fingerprints along with any criminal history linked with the subject. Law enforcement agencies can then request a search in IAFIS to identify crime scene (latent) fingerprints obtained during criminal investigations. Civil searches are also performed, but the FBI charges a small fee and the response time is slower. The FBI has announced plans to replace IAFIS with a "Next Generation Identification" system, to be developed by Lockheed Martin.
The device used for scanning live fingerprints into AFIS is called LiveScan. The process of obtaining the prints by way of LiveScan employs rolling prints or placing flat impressions onto a glass platen above a camera unit. The process of obtaining prints by placing a tenprint card (prints taken using ink) onto a flatbed or high-speed scanner is called CardScan (or occasionally DeadScan). In addition to these devices, there are other devices to capture prints from crime scenes (latent prints), as well as devices (both wired and wireless) to capture one or two live finger impressions. The most common method of acquiring fingerprint images remains the inexpensive ink pad and paper form. Scanning forms ("fingerprint cards") with a forensic AFIS complies with standards established by the FBI and National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). To match a print, a fingerprint technician scans in the print in question, and computer algorithms are utilized to mark all minutia points, cores, and deltas detected on the print. In some systems, the technician is allowed to perform a review of the points that the software has detected, and submits the feature set to a one-to-many (1:N) search. The better commercial systems provide fully automated processing and searching ("lights-out") of print features. The fingerprint image processor will generally assign a "quality measure" that indicates if the print is acceptable for searching.
Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System
In popular culture
In forensics television series such as CSI: Crime Scene Investigation and its spin offs, the investigators often match fingerprints with the AFIS database. • In the TV show NCIS, Abby Sciuto uses the AFIS database for the NCIS team.
 http:/ / www. doh. wa. gov/ hsqa/ BackgroundInfo. htm  Dizard III, Wilson P. "FBI plans major database upgrade" (http:/ / www. gcn. com/ print/ 25_26/ 41792-1. html). Government Computer News, 28 August 2006. Retrieved on 2 February 2007.
• Federal Bureau of Investigation - CJIS Division - Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System (http:// www.fbi.gov/hq/cjisd/iafis.htm)
International Automated Systems
International Automated Systems, Inc. (IAS or IAUS) is a company with research and development in various industries, that has been involved in many ventures to design, produce, market, and sell high-technology products. It has been publicly traded since 1988, as a bulletin board stock (stock symbol IAUS.PK). The founder and major shareholder is Neldon Johnson. It is currently based in Salem in Utah where it was founded in 1987.
Since 2004, International Automated Systems has put most of its efforts into developing a solar powered electricity generating system, based on solar heat collected by patented lenses and focused on a heat receiving system. This heat is then used to generate steam, which turns patented 'blade-less' turbines, and generates electricity. Prototypes of this system have been demonstrated at several locations. A fully functional electricity generation system has been under construction since 2005 in Delta, Utah.
Some of the products or potential products of International Automated Systems include an automated retail self-service checkout system and management software for retail establishments. A demonstration project for this was a grocery store called U-Check that was built and run in Salem, Utah. Portions of International Automated Systems' technology have been licensed to Optimal Robotics for an undisclosed amount of money. However, Optimal Robotics Corporation previously had designed and implemented their own self-check out system, which they reported to have developed completely independently of International Automated Systems. A press release by Optimal Robotics on January 24, 2004 states: "Optimal Robotics Corp. (NASDAQ: OPMR), today announced that it has entered into a settlement agreement with International Automated Systems, Inc. (IAS), which brings to a close the patent lawsuit between the parties. In accordance with the agreement, IAS will receive a sum that is not  considered to be material to Optimal."
Government. then use that information to create a specific. industry and research institutes. 'bladeless' turbines for electrical power generation.S. automated restaurant systems. which could be stored in a small amount of digital space. ICE 2005 The ICE 2005 was a technology development project for iris recognition.International Automated Systems 124 Biometrics and Fingerprint Identification International Automated Systems developed a biometric device consisting of an automated fingerprint reader (AFIM = Automated Fingerprint Identification Machine) that was able to read a person's fingerprint. People could then use other AFIM fingerprint scanners to identify themselves and purchase items or obtain access to controlled locations and devices in a secured way. com/ doc/ 1G1-112640449. The ICE 2006 was the first large-scale. Other Products The company currently is developing or has developed or partially developed products for airport security systems. The primary goals of the ICE projects were to promote the development and advancement of iris recognition technology and assess its state-of-the-art capability. com/ ?nid=148& sid=2893505 Iris Challenge Evaluation The Iris Challenge Evaluation (ICE) were a series of events conducted and managed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology for projects on technology development and evaluation for iris recognition. personalized code number. It consisted of an iris recognition challenge problem that was distributed to potential participants. encyclopedia. ksl.PK  http:/ / www. The event took place between August 2005 and March 2006. Researchers interested in iris recognition may still obtain copies of the ICE 2005 dataset. ICE 2005 logo . The primary goal in ICE 2005. and solar technology systems for production of electricity and gasoline. External links • Company Web Site  • Story on NBC Affiliate KSL. open. was to promote and advance iris recognition technology that supports existing iris recognition efforts in the U. iaus. independent technology evaluation for iris recognition. com  http:/ / www. such as on the magnetic strip of a credit card. html  http:/ / www. the recognition technology development project. The ICE projects were open to academia.com  Stock symbol IAUS.
the ICE measured performance with sequestered data (data not previously seen by the researchers or developers).Iris Challenge Evaluation 125 ICE 2006 ICE 2006 consisted of a large-scale. nist. open. Sponsors • • • • • Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Agency (IARPA) Department of Homeland Security (DHS) FBI Criminal Justice Information Services Division Technical Support Working Group (TSWG) National Institute of Justice ICE 2006 logo External links • • • • • • • • • • • gov/mbgc/ MBGC Wedsite  MBGC Blog  FRGC Website  FRVT Website  ICE Website  National Institute of Standards and Technology  Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Agency  Department of Homeland Security  FBI Criminal Justice Information Services Division  Technical Support Working Group (TSWG)  National Institute of Justice  References  http:/ / face. The ICE 2006 large-scale evaluation report is available on the ICE 2006 webpage. . Results of this effort may provide design input for future evaluations. The ICE 2006 started on 15 June 2006 and results were published in March 2007. A standard dataset and test methodology was employed so that all participants were evenly evaluated. independent technology evaluation of iris recognition technology. The primary goal of ICE 2006 was to determine the state-of-the-art capability of automatic iris recognition technology and to establish a performance baseline against which to measure future progress. To guarantee an accurate assessment.
An alternative feature extraction method to encode VW iris images was also introduced. Daugman. Daugman's algorithms are the basis of almost all currently (as of 2006) commercially deployed iris-recognition systems.D. compared to NIR. A key advantage of iris recognition is its stability. the IrisCode false-reject rates are comparable to the most accurate single-finger fingerprint matchers . ocular-based technology. The melanin. these images provide mathematical representations of the iris that yield unambiguous positive identification of an individual. Breakthrough work to create the iris-recognition algorithms required for image acquisition and one-to-many matching was pioneered by John G. These were utilized to effectively debut commercialization of the technology in conjunction with an early version of the IrisAccess system designed and manufactured by Korea's LG Electronics. which is highly robust to reflectivity terms in iris. Such images are challenging for feature extraction procedures and consequently hard to recognize at the identification step.  provide a comparison between these two imaging modalities and fused the results to boost the recognition rate. provides rich sources of information mainly coded as shape patterns in iris. Ph. . Hosseini et al. NIR imaging is not sensitive to these chromophores. Although. Iris recognition system based on pattern matching Iris recognition efficacy is rarely impeded by glasses or contact lenses. (In tests where the matching thresholds are—for better comparability—changed from their default settings to allow a false-accept rate in the −3 −4 region of 10 to 10 . also known as chromophore. Such fusion results are seemed to be alternative approach for multi-modal biometric systems which intend to reach high accuracies of recognition in large databanks.Iris recognition 126 Iris recognition Iris recognition is a method of biometric authentication that uses pattern-recognition techniques based on high-resolution images of the irides of an individual's eyes. Converted into digital templates. as. intricate structures of the iris. with subtle infrared illumination reducing specular reflection from the convex cornea. which is a rich source of information for iris recognition. to create images of the detail-rich. Visible Wavelength Iris Image Near Infrared (NIR) version . mainly consists of two distinct heterogeneous macromolecules. This is done to avoid light reflections from cornea in iris which makes the captured images very noisy. Iris technology has the smallest outlier (those who cannot use/enroll) group of all biometric technologies. called eumelanin (brown–black) and pheomelanin (yellow–reddish) . and as a result they do not appear in the captured images. NIR imaging provides good quality images. OBE (University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory). retina scanning. it loses pigment melanin information. Because of its speed of comparison. barring trauma. iris recognition uses camera technology. visible wavelength (VW) imaging keeps the related chromophore information and. a single enrollment can last a lifetime. In contrast. iris recognition is the only biometric technology well-suited for one-to-many identification. less prevalent. Not to be confused with another.) Visible Wavelength (VW) vs Near Infrared (NIR) Imaging The majority of iris recognition benchmarks are implemented in Near Infrared (NIR) imaging by emitting 750 nm wavelength light source. or template longevity.
additional algorithms are needed to identify the locations of eyelids and eyelashes and to exclude the bits in the resulting code from the comparison operation. In the case of Daugman's algorithms. . a template created by imaging the iris is compared to a stored value template in a database. In Daugman's algorithms. In order to reduce the false-reject risk in such cases. If the Hamming distance is below the decision threshold. Discarding the An IriScan model 2100 iris scanner amplitude information ensures that the template remains largely unaffected by changes in illumination and virtually negligibly by iris color.Iris recognition 127 Operating principle An iris-recognition algorithm first has to identify the approximately concentric circular outer boundaries of the iris and the pupil in a photo of an eye. all amplitude information is discarded. The mathematical methods used resemble those of modern lossy compression algorithms for photographic images. The result is a set of complex numbers that carry local amplitude and phase information for the iris image. and the resulting 2048 bits that represent an iris consist only of the complex sign bits of the Gabor-domain representation of the iris image. The set of pixels covering only the iris is then transformed into a bit pattern that preserves the information that is essential for a statistically meaningful comparison between two iris images. A practical problem of iris recognition is that the iris is usually partially covered by eyelids and eyelashes. which contributes significantly to the long-term stability of the biometric template. a positive identification has effectively been made. To authenticate via identification (one-to-many template matching) or verification (one-to-one template matching). a Gabor wavelet transform is used in order to extract the spatial frequency range that contains a good best signal-to-noise ratio considering the focus quality of available cameras.
Iris recognition 128 Advantages The iris of the eye has been described as the ideal part of the human body for biometric identification for several reasons: • It is an internal organ that is well protected against damage and wear by a highly transparent and sensitive membrane (the cornea). thereby eliminating an objection that has been raised in some cultures against fingerprint scanners. etc. • As with other photographic biometric technologies. where a finger has to touch a surface. John Daugman's IrisCode. which can be difficult to recognize after years of certain types of manual labor. a still not satisfactorily solved problem with iris recognition is the problem of live-tissue verification. Some iris identifications have succeeded over a period of about 30 years. where the eye can be brought very close to a lens (like looking into a microscope lens). • While there are some medical and surgical procedures that can affect the colour and overall shape of the iris. the fine texture remains remarkably stable over many decades. civil rights activists have voiced concerns that iris-recognition technology might help governments to track individuals beyond their will. Security considerations As with most other biometric identification technology. for instance. This distinguishes it from fingerprints. Many commercially available iris-recognition systems are easily fooled by presenting a high-quality photograph of a face instead of a real face. • The iris is mostly flat. • An iris scan is similar to taking a photograph and can be performed from about 10 cm to a few meters away. • The iris has a fine texture that—like fingerprints—is determined randomly during embryonic gestation. There is no need for the person to be identified to touch any equipment that has recently been touched by a stranger. has an unprecedented false match rate (better than 10−11). The reliability of any biometric identification depends on ensuring that the signal acquired and compared has actually been recorded from a live body part of the person to be identified and is not a manufactured template. with associated failure to enroll rates. iris recognition is susceptible to poor image quality. and its geometric configuration is only controlled by two complementary muscles (the sphincter pupillae and dilator pupillae) that control the diameter of the pupil. The problem of live-tissue verification is less of a concern in . which makes such devices unsuitable for unsupervised applications. Disadvantages • Iris scanning is a relatively new technology and is incompatible with the very substantial investment that the law enforcement and immigration authorities of some countries have already made into fingerprint recognition. However. several academic institutions and biometric vendors are developing products that claim to be able to identify subjects at distances of up to 10 meters ("standoff iris" or "iris at a distance"). • Some argue that a focused digital photograph with an iris diameter of about 200 pixels contains much more long-term stable information than a fingerprint. that of the face. ID cards. This makes the iris shape far more predictable than. • The originally commercially deployed iris-recognition algorithm. or retinal scanning.  • As with other identification infrastructure (national residents databases. such as door access-control systems. Even genetically identical individuals have completely independent iris textures. whereas DNA (genetic "fingerprinting") is not unique for the about 0.2% of the human population who have a genetically identical twin. • Iris recognition is very difficult to perform at a distance larger than a few meters and if the person to be identified is not cooperating by holding the head still and looking into the camera.).
All foreign nationals who possess a visa to enter the UAE are processed through iris cameras installed at all primary and auxiliary immigration inspection points. • One of three biometric identification technologies internationally standardized by ICAO for use in future passports (the other two are fingerprint and face recognition) • Iris recognition technology has been implemented by BioID Technologies SA in Pakistan for UNHCR repatriation project to control aid distribution for Afghan refugees.5 seconds against 1. Netherlands.000 persons re-entering the UAE with fraudulent travel documents. live-tissue verifiers will have their own false-reject probability and will therefore further reduce the overall probability that a legitimate user is accepted by the sensor. IrisGuard Inc.g. The database has more than 1. . their irises are scanned. • At Schiphol Airport.. UAE Enrollment Station • Aadhar.) • Testing for retinal retroreflection (red-eye effect) • Testing for reflections from the eye's four optical surfaces (front and back of both cornea and lens) to verify their presence. the system has apprehended over 330. where a human operator supervises the process of taking the picture. etc. such that the pupillary reflex can be verified and the iris image be recorded at several different pupil diameters • Analysing the 2D spatial frequency spectrum of the iris image for the peaks caused by the printer dither patterns found on commercially available fake-iris contact lenses • Analysing the temporal frequency spectrum of the image for the peaks caused by computer displays • Using spectral analysis instead of merely monochromatic cameras to distinguish iris tissue from other material • Observing the characteristic natural movement of an eyeball (measuring nystagmus. all of the UAE's land.Iris recognition supervised applications (e. Like any pattern-recognition technology. Refugees are repatriated by UNHCR in cooperation with Government of Pakistan. immigration control). Methods that have been suggested to provide some defence against the use of fake eyes and irises include: • Changing ambient lighting during the identification (switching on a bright lamp). and the system will detect the refugees on next attempt. 129 Deployed applications • United Arab Emirates IrisGuard's Homeland Security Border Control has been operating an expellee tracking system in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) since 2001. air and sea ports of entry are equipped with systems.3 million iris code templates and around 4000 registrations per day.g. Today. To date.3 million iris codes. when the UAE launched a national border-crossing security initiative. India's UID project uses Iris scan along with fingerprints to uniquely identify people and allocate a Unique Identification Number. To make sure people do not get paid more than once. position and shape • Using 3D imaging (e. stereo cameras) to verify the position and shape of the iris relative to other eye features A 2004 report by the German Federal Office for Information Security noted that none of the iris-recognition systems commercially available at the time implemented any live-tissue verification technology. iris recognition has permitted passport-free immigration since 2001. tracking eye while text is read. and they are paid for their travel. The one-to-many iris comparison takes place within 1..
Iris recognition • UK's IRIS — Iris Recognition Immigration System  130 • Used to verify the recognition of the "Afghan Girl" (Sharbat Gula) by National Geographic photographer Steve McCurry. • In Dan Brown's 2000 novel Angels and Demons. community leaders and U. • In The Island (2005). • NCIS uses an iris scanner in the garage. The principal character undergoes an eye transplant in order to change his identity but continues to use his original eyes to gain access to restricted locations. • Numb3rs features a scene where a robber gets into the CalSci facility by cracking the code assigned to a specific iris. as part of the  CANPASS Air program that facilitates entry into Canada for pre-approved. • The Simpsons Movie (2007) features a scene that illustrates the difficulty of image acquisition in iris recognition. Marine Corps Sergeant uses an iris scanner to positively identify a member of the Baghdadi city council prior to a meeting with local tribal leaders.uk/~jgd1000/afghan.cl. service members.ac. a character played by Wesley Snipes uses the Warden's gouged eye to gain access through a security door. See http://www. • Steven Spielberg's 2002 science fiction film Minority Report depicts a society in which what appears to be a form of iris recognition has become daily practice. • In several Canadian airports.html • In a number of US and Canadian airports. .  Iris recognition in fiction • In Demolition Man (1993). low-risk travelers. like Facebook or eBay. A U. a human clone character played by Ewan McGregor uses his eye to gain access through a security door of the original's house. There is another scanner at the entrance to MTAC. an assassin gains access to a top secret CERN laboratory using a scientist's eye. • Google use iris scanners to control access to their  datacentres . low-risk air travelers. cam. as part of the NEXUS program that facilitates entry into the US and Canada for pre-approved. Hoyos Group demonstrated a device called EyeLock using iris-recognition as an alternative to passwords to log people in to password-protected Web sites and applications. 2011. where forensic vehicle investigations are carried out and evidence is stored. The sequence of Leroy Jethro Gibbs being verified is shown in the title sequence. • On May 10. sheiks.S.S.
IEEE Transactions on . Zhaofeng He.ieeecomputersociety. pp. no. In: Proc. nlm.” PIGMENT CELL RESEARCH. Zhaofeng He. “Metal-ion interactions and the structural organization of Sepia eume. M. uk/ managingborders/ technology/ iris/  http:/ / www. Aran Safir: Iris recognition system. CNET. uk/ ~jgd1000/ simpsons. Araabi. B. Egypt.com/textdoc?DB=EPODOC&IDX=WO8605018) Leonard Flom. html?part=rss& subj=news& tag=2547-1_3-0-20). Zhenan Sun and Xianchao Qiu. Bhattacharya. “The physical and chemical properties of eumelanin.ac. html • WO 8605018 (http://v3. University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory. com/ 8301-1009_3-20062254-83.cl. Hosseini. • ac. Iris Recognition: A Machine Learning Approach.cl. IEEE Computer Society Digital Library. nist. pp. April 2010. ncbi. . also: US 4641349 (http://v3. " Boosting Ordinal Features for Accurate and Fast Iris Recognition (http://www. com/ reports/ public/ reports/ ITIRT_report.S. Roy and P. Nov. John Daugman: " Results from 200 billion iris cross-comparisons (http://www.Iris recognition 131 References  http:/ / iris. 15 July 2008. 2009.N. • John Daugman: " The importance of being random: statistical principles of iris recognition (http://www.. • US 5291560 (http://v3.cam. vol. 19. January 2004.ISBN 978-3639082593.jsp?arnumber=5427304&tag=1).uk/~jgd1000/patrec. E-ISBN : 978-1-4244-5655-0. Alaska.ia." Instrumentation and Measurement. Prabir Bhattacharya. pp.4. 1–8.2008. 42–48. 1 March 1994 • John Daugman: " How iris recognition works (http://www. DEC 2006." 16th IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP'09). gc. no. nih. html  http:/ / www.cl." May 12. pp. "Variational level set method and game theory applied for nonideal iris recognition.uk/users/jgd1000/irisrecog. ncbi. IEEE Computer Society. cbsa-asfc. Technical Report UCAM-CL-TR-635. Soltanian-Zadeh. Kaushik Roy. 1. pp. Anchorage. 2011. homeoffice. Tieniu Tan. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology 14(1).uk/TechReports/ UCAM-CL-TR-635. nlm. FEB 2005.183>.ac.cbsr. ukba.espacenet.1109/TPAMI. Retrieved May 12. • • • • • • • .espacenet.org/xpls/abs_all. cam. June 2005.cbsr. Tieniu Tan. youtube.com/ textdoc?DB=EPODOC&IDX=US4641349) issued 2/3/1987. nist. 18. ieee. pdf  http:/ / fpvte. 2003. htm  http:/ / www.org/10.cn/users/zfhe/publications.ac. " Iris recognition gadget eliminates passwords (http:/ / news. Print ISBN 978-1-4244-5653-6.” PIGMENT CELL RESEARCH. 2721 – 2724. gov.pdf)".html)". H. K.ia..ISBN 3639082591. Müller (November 21. cl.html)". Pattern Recognition 36. gov/ ICE/ ICE_2005_Results_30March2006. 792–804. ca/ prog/ canpass/ canpassair-eng. 2 September 2008 <http://doi. " Pigment Melanin: Pattern for Iris Recognition (http:// ieeexplore. 28 August 1986.pdf)". June 2008. no. 572–594. Zhenan Sun and Xianchao Qiu.espacenet. biometricgroup. cnet. Publisher: VDM Verlag Dr. gov/ pubmed/ 17083485  http:/ / ieeexplore.cam. org/ xpls/ abs_all. 279–291. vol. 21–30. In: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence (TPAMI).ieee. 6.ac.lanin. " Towards Accurate and Fast Iris Segmentation for Iris Biometrics (http://www. Paul Meredith and Tadeusz Sarna.  http:/ / www. com/ watch?v=1SCZzgfdTBo  Lance Whitney. gov/ pubmed/ 15649151  http:/ / www.59. gov  http:/ / www.. of the 26th IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR'08).cam. pp.cn/users/zfhe/publications. pp.com/textdoc?DB=EPODOC&IDX=US5291560) John Daugman: Biometric personal identification system based on iris analysis. 2008). ac. nih.html)". vol. 7-11. jsp?arnumber=5427304& tag=1  http:/ / www. Cairo. 2011. Y Liu and JD Simon.
As of June 2010.com/reports/public/ITIRT.org/iso/catalogue_detail.html) • Project Iris (http://projectiris. 4 and 5. 3.nist. including comparison of 19 state-of-the-art iris recognition algorithms from 10 providers • Iris recognition test results.html) • Iris recognition algorithm reidentifies Sharbat Gula – Afghan National Geographic cover girl in 1985 – two decades later (http://magma.cam.uk/) an Open Source iris recognition system Iris Recognition Immigration System Iris Recognition Immigration System (IRIS) is an initiative to provide automated clearance through UK immigration for certain frequent travellers. Daugman's original patent application (http://google.com) • John G. Availability Enrolment for the scheme is currently free and voluntary.uk/~jgd1000/deployments. These barriers are located in certain Immigration Arrival Halls and form part of Immigration and Passport Control.cl.cl.com/patents?id=KRkpAAAAEBAJ) at Google Patents • World largest current deployment (http://www.co.a program for various NIST activities supporting interoperable iris biometrics.Iris recognition 132 External links • Home page of IrisCode designer John Daugman (http://www.nist.biometricgroup.com/ngm/afghangirl/) • Bath University Iris Image Database (http://www.htm?csnumber=38750) International standard for iris images • NIST Iris Challenge Evaluation (http://iris. This data is then stored securely alongside their personal details.gov/irex/) .iso. analysis (http://www. Those who qualify to participate in the scheme have both their eyes photographed in order to capture their iris patterns.gov/ice/) – a contest for competing iris-recognition algorithms • NIST IREX (http://iris.cam. Enrolment takes place in the airport departure lounge where an Immigration Officer assesses eligibility and enrols qualifying persons.ac. IRIS is available at • • • • Birmingham Terminal 1 Gatwick Terminals North and South Manchester Terminals 1 and 2 Heathrow Terminals 1. 2. .irisbase.uk/users/jgd1000) • ISO/IEC 19794-6 (http://www.nationalgeographic. Procedure Enrolled passengers can enter the UK through a special automated immigration control barrier incorporating an iris recognition camera.ac. IRIS relies on biometric technology to authenticate identity and is part of the e-borders initiative of the UK Government.
Science of Keystroke Dynamics The behavioral biometric of Keystroke Dynamics uses the manner and rhythm in which an individual types characters on a keyboard or keypad. Data needed to analyze keystroke dynamics is obtained by keystroke logging. vibration information may be used to create a pattern for future use in both identification and authentication tasks. uk Keystroke dynamics Keystroke dynamics. gov. or if there was a long pause before the letter "z" or the numeral "3" while you were looking for that letter • the sender typed any letters wrong initially and then went back and corrected them.Iris Recognition Immigration System 133 Eligibility Currently the following travellers are eligible to enroll: • • • • • Persons over 18 years of age British citizen or people with a right of abode in the UK. or a Swiss national Permanent residents of the United Kingdom (e. Indefinite Leave to Remain) Valid entry clearance holders (Visa holders) with at least 2 months of validity left on the entry clearance Short term visitor entering the United Kingdom (not needing visas) who were granted entry as a visitor on at least two occasions in the last six months. or the caps-lock key to make the "i" turn into a capitalized letter "I" • the letters were all typed at the same pace. Normally. The recorded keystroke timing data is then processed through a unique neural algorithm. or if he got them right the first time . Raw measurements available from most every keyboard can be recorded to determine Dwell time (the time a key pressed) and Flight time (the time between “key up” and the next “key down”). the receiver cannot tell from reading the phrase "I saw 3 zebras!" whether: • that was typed rapidly or slowly • the sender used the left shift key. Similarly. or four occasions in the last 12 months • Exempt from UK Immigration controls or permitted to enter or remain in the UK for more than six months and have more than two months left of that permission • Family of EEA state or Swiss Nationals based in the UK or exempt from immigration controls and based in the UK Further Information • Official IRIS website at the UK Government  References  http:/ / www.g. is the detailed timing information that describes exactly when each key was pressed and when it was released as a person is typing at a computer keyboard. or typing dynamics. When reading email. The keystroke rhythms of a user are measured to develop a unique biometric template of the users typing pattern for future authentication. or a national of an EEA State. iris. the right shift key. which determines a primary pattern for future comparison. all that is retained when logging a typing session is the sequence of characters corresponding to the order in which keys were pressed and timing information is discarded.
such as this person's most common "substitutions". these errors might be detected. The time to get to and depress a key (seek-time). the patterns of errors might be sufficiently different to distinguish two people. Even without knowing what language a person is working in. By the 1860’s the telegraph revolution was in full swing and telegraph operators were a valuable resource. "reversals". It's only a one-way test. With experience. That would be a test based simply on raw speed uncorrected for errors. Or. "drop-outs". just as revealing as an accent might in spoken English. "adjacent letter hits". and there is an entire taxonomy of errors. Use as Biometric Data Researchers are interested in using this keystroke dynamic information. then. it may be that the mystery user at the keyboard and John both type at 50 words per minute. which is normally discarded. and range from statistical techniques to neural-nets to artificial intelligence. and always has to slow down an extra half-second whenever a number has to be entered. such as "ing". The techniques used to do this vary widely in power and sophistication. by looking at the rest of the text and what letters the person goes back and replaces. but which letters those are may vary dramatically but consistently for different people." creating a rhythm that could help distinguish ally from enemy. Right-handed people may be statistically faster in getting to keys they hit with their right hand fingers than they are with their left hand fingers. it's a pretty safe bet that it's not John. and the person at the keyboard is going at 70 words per minute. again. Using a methodology called "The Fist of the Sender. In addition. Index fingers may be characteristically faster than other fingers to a degree that is consistent for a person day-to-day regardless of their overall speed that day. and those three letters may be known as a rapid-fire sequence and not as just three meaningless letters hit in that order. as it's always possible for people to go slower than normal. Most people have specific letters that take them longer to find or get to than their average seek-time over all letters. This is often possible because some characteristics of keystroke production are as individual as handwriting or a signature. but John never really learned the numbers. the word "the" is very common. Common "errors" may also be quite characteristic of a person. if we know that John types at 20 words per minute." Military Intelligence identified that an individual had a unique way of keying in a message's "dots" and "dashes. say. a new era in long-distance communications had begun. Common endings. In the simplest case. and the time the key is held-down (hold-time) may be very characteristic for a person. "double-strikes". Maryland. very simple rules can be used to rule out a possible user. Capitol in Washington. As late as World War II the military transmitted messages through Morse Code. the same letters in reverse order ("gni") to a degree that varies consistently by person. For example. sequences of letters may have characteristic properties for a person. Again. If the mystery user doesn't slow down for numbers. "homonyms".Keystroke dynamics 134 Origin of Keystroke Dynamics On May 24. to verify or even try to determine the identity of the person who is producing those keystrokes. the message "What hath God wrought" was sent by telegraph from the U. D. may be entered far faster than. . but it's unusual or impossible for them to go twice their normal speed. In English. 1844. This consistency may hold and may reveal the person's native language's common sequences even when they are writing entirely in a different language. each operator developed their unique “signature” and was able to be identified simply by their tapping rhythm.C. hold-length-errors (for a shift key held down too short or too long a time).S. it's a safe bet this isn't John. regardless of how fast he is going overall. to the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad "outer depot" in Baltimore.
there will be error rates to almost any system. or from a voice-to-text converter. because even a 20% true-positive rate would send the word out that this type of behavior is being watched and caught. And some mornings. or use a virtual keyboard. Researchers are still a long way from being able to read a keylogger session from a public computer in a library or cafe somewhere and identify the person from the keystroke dynamics. or switch computers. a person. their patterns are statistical in nature. People may get tired. who we are confident is "a left-handed person with small hands who doesn't write in English as their primary language. or angry. may be on the phone or pausing to talk. perhaps after a long night with little sleep and a lot of drinking. Even while typing. or be pasting in information from another source (cut-and-paste). both false-positives and false-negatives. or by logging onto a medical system but then leaving the computer logged-in while someone else he knows about or doesn't know about uses the system. Note: Some of the commercial products (the successful ones) have strategies to counter these issues and have proven effective in large-scale use (thousands of users) in real-world settings and applications. There are hundreds of confounding circumstances. or have a beer. or move their keyboard tray to a new location. Keystroke dynamics is one way to detect such problems sufficiently reliably to be worth investigating. a person's typing may bear little resemblance to the way he types when he is well-rested." Temporal variation One of the major problems that keystroke dynamics runs into is that a person's typing varies substantially during a day and between different days. for example. but then that person could be replaced by someone else at the keyboard who was taking over for some bad purpose. The reality here is that behavioral biometrics use a confidence measurement instead of the traditional pass/fail measurements. a person at gun-point might be forced to get start-up access by entering a password or having a particular fingerprint. but we may be in a position to confidently rule out certain people from being the author. A valid solution that uses keystroke dynamics must take these elements into account. It is a commonly held belief that behavioral biometrics are not as reliable as physical biometrics used for authentication such as fingerprints or retinal scans or DNA. As such. In other less dramatic cases. The benefit to keystroke dynamics (as well as other behavioral biometrics) is that FRR/FAR can be adjusted by changing the acceptance threshold at the individual level. Because of these variations. a doctor might violate business rules by sharing his password with his secretary.Keystroke dynamics 135 Authentication versus identification Keystroke dynamics is part of a larger class of biometrics known as behavioral biometrics. Extra doses of medication or missed doses could change his rhythm. . Another benefit of keystroke dynamics: they can be captured continuously—not just at the start-up time—and may be adequately accurate to trigger an alarm to another system or person to come double-check the situation. the traditional benchmarks of False Acceptance Rate (FAR) and False Rejection Rates (FRR) no longer have linear relationships. In some cases. This allows for explicitly defined individual risk mitigation–something physical biometric technologies could never achieve.
Linux) and major enterprise infrastructure. Therefore the user is authenticated by the way he types on a conventional keyboard and depending on the result of the analysis he gets access to certain data. probayes. biometricgroup. Psylock was a finalist in the renowed Global Security Challenge award 2007 and third in the German IT-Security Award 2008 . Trustable Passwords is being used by websites to authenticate customers and in enterprises including multi-hospital health systems for user authentication and interfaces with other authentication technologies including Knowledge-Based. dibisoft. Argentina. thus making it the first method able to analyze any text input in the background. Founded in 2006 and is headquartered in Miami. AuthenWare Corp.in addition to other transparent authentication factors . com) makes Trustable Passwords. Florida (USA). iMagic Software (http:/ / www. keytrac.formerly BioPassword (http:/ / www. Delfigo's solution easily integrates out-of-band capability to in-band authentication methods. is a global company with more than 14 technical & Commercial Offices around the world and a Research & Development Laboratory in Mendoza.com) has a patented implementation which uses keystroke dynamics for ubiquitous web-based login as well as workstation authentication. Device forensic. de) . FFIEC. and achieve better result than other similar products. The solution leverages one of Probayes's patents on probabalistic computing. authenware. Mac. Psylock claims to be the technological leader for keystroke dynamics. . and HIPAA compliance. com) provides the highest security levels to enterprise applications.to associate a user to their digital identity and detect online fraud — see the References section below for a link to a review from PC Magazine as well as a research report from Coalfire Systems on how the product enables PCI. Deepnet Security (http:/ / www. a patented commercial system which is designed for both web authentication and large-scale enterprise authentication in conjunction with eSSO and supports all platforms (Windows. AdmitOneSecurity . The solution from Delfigo Security uses keystroke biometrics and other behavioral characteristics in an AI based algorithm to create unique digital identity of an individual.Keystroke dynamics 136 Commercial products There are several home software and commercial software products which claim to use keystroke dynamics to authenticate a user. It is claimed that their product employs advanced new algorithms such as auto-correlative training and adaptive learning. admitonesecurity. Psylock (http:/ / www. com) provides multi-factor risk-based authentication to prevent identity theft and fraud. com) is a patented commercial system which uses keystroke dynamics . com) has also developed a keystroke biometric authentication system. It is the recipient of the "BiometricTech Best of Show 2003" award as well as receiving "SC Magazine Global Awards 2005 Finalist". com) is a method for biometric authentication based on a user's typing behavior. (http:/ / www.unlike traditional methods. imagicsoftware. psylock. Authenware Corp. offer a number of attractive options for implementing the system in e-commerce applications — something that would not be possible using traditional keyboard biometrics. TypeSense. DiBiSoft (http:/ / www. KeyTrac (http:/ / www. com) has developed a unique keystroke dynamics solution for web applications. delfigosecurity. KeyTrac works with any text the user enters (not only passwords or always-the-same-text methods). com) has an implementation which uses keystroke dynamics for Windows authentication in hidden mode. bioChec (http://www. The concealed background keystroke recording. and any form of transaction that engages a software artifact. ID Control (http:/ / www.bioChec. com) in 2009. idcontrol. the web. deepnetsecurity. Certified by International Biometric Group (http:/ / www. Concerning the error rates (FAR/FRR). Probayes (http:/ / www. net) delivers keystroke dynamics with KeystrokeID which offers an impressively low FRR and FAR for verification and identification. Delfigo Security (http:/ / www. without disrupting the work flow of the end user. and out-of-band authentication. KeystrokeID is easy to enroll and manage through their fully integrated and centralized identity and access management solution called ID Control Server. combined with the high level of security.
mouse.R. they are not well correlated with external processes. Garcia. Use of such software may be in direct and explicit violation of local laws. (USA 4621334). On top of that. User authentication through Keystroke Dynamics. Patent and Trademark Office. Patent and Trademark Office. Patent No. • Bergadano. • J. F. This could have severe penalties including jail time. S and Postley. 367-397. Key sequence rhythm recognition system and method. 4 805 222. 5(4). • iMagic Software. Gunetti.S. ACM Transactions on Information and System Security (TISSEC). Postley. with even Microsoft issuing new spyware defense products. Personal identification apparatus. Method and apparatus for verifying an individual’s identity. There are some patents in this area. (Inventors) (2007). Patent and Trademark Office.S. (vendor web-site home [Web Page]. D. . References • Checco. under which such use may constitute wire-tapping. and tougher laws in the near future being very likely. 7 206 938. and are frequently used as a source of hardware-generated random numbers for computer systems. com) provide behaviometric solutions encompassing keystroke.formerly BioPassword. behaviosec. • AdmitOne Security . Personal identification apparatus. Young and R. 1986. Notes: US Patent Office . (Inventor). read. Other uses Because keystroke timings are generated by human beings. even though the actual residual "content" of the message—the resultant text—is never analyzed.S. & environment dynamics for both windows continuous authentication and client-less web based to aid fraud prevention. Patent No. 137 Legal and regulatory issues Surreptitious use of key-logging software is on the rise. Examples: • S. (vendor web-site  May 2006). Notes: Vendor specializing in keystroke dynamics • Garcia. Notes: Vendor specializing in keystroke authentication for large enterprises. (2002). .. asking for re-entry of a password or other verification question. J. C. H. if the desired result for a web-based product is to use keystroke dynamics to decide whether to cause a pop-up window to appear. Hammon. Key sequence rhythm recognition system and method. Spyware and its use for illegal operations such as bank-fraud and identity theft are very much in the news. Patriot Act. BeahvioSec are headquartered in Sweden. In this case. Blender and H.S. See spyware for a better description of user-consent issues and various fraud statutes. or retained. Keystroke Dynamics & Corporate Security. U. Anyone considering building a new product using keystroke dynamics should understand the legal issues (see below). Notes: US Patent Office . 2007. • Bender. (2003). • J. U. new pop-up blockers may prevent that feature from functioning. (1986). as of this writing. 4 621 334. and figure out as well how to have an authorized program's use of keystroke interception survive the removal efforts of multiple anti-spyware programs. Patent No. (USA 7206938). the security enhancing programs may be fighting with each other.. & Picardi. WSTA Ticker Magazine.W. The status of the "dynamic context" of the text is probably in legal limbo.Keystroke dynamics BehavioSec (http:/ / www. Competent legal advice should be obtained before attempting to use or even experiment with such software and keystroke dynamic analysis. 1989. URL . such as the U. if consent is not clearly obtained from the people at the keyboard. U. J.
and Cybernetics Part A. Best results used both with a learning classifier. 4805222).pdf 138 References       http:/ / www. & Rubin Ariel D. html http:/ / www. com http:/ / www. ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security. uvt. L. J. 16. Notes: Review 1990–1999  • Monrose. R.com/ admitone_library/AOS_Compliance_Functional_Assessment_by_Coalfire. R. & Peetz.. 75-80. Keystroke Dynamics as a Biometric for Authentication. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies.Keystroke dynamics • Joyce. pdf?arnumber=661150  http:/ / www. html . (1997). verticalcompany. & Gupta. R. horst-goertz. W. V.. D. html http:/ / patft. 43(4).. F. • Vertical Company LTD. & Wetzel. Wagner M. htm& r=1& f=G& l=50& s1=7206938. A. • Monrose... (1998).admitonesecurity. com http:/ / www. & Hammon. Proceedings of the 6th ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security. D. gov/ patft/ index.H. K. Identity authorization based on keystroke latencies. Optimizing digraph-latency based biometric typist verification systems: inter and intra typist differences in digraph latency distributions. uspto. acm. M. Henderson.. IEEE Transactions on Systems. (1995).. (1990). 168-176.. columbia. Notes: US Patent Office . Future Generation Computer Systems. Proceedings of the 18th Annual Belgian-Dutch Conference on Machine Learning. & OS=PN/ 7206938& RS=PN/ 7206938  http:/ / portal. 33(2). 73-82. R. J. • Young. R. Napier R. Chambers.. much cited • Monrose. 351-359. D. M. (2009). F. cs.. (1999). (vendor web-site  October 2006). & Hiron. gov/ netacgi/ nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1& Sect2=HITOFF& d=PALL& p=1& u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum. Computer user Verification using Login String Keystroke Dynamics. Hold times were more effective than interkey times for discrimination. ieee. Notes: Kent Ridge Digital Labs. A. (Inventors). Notes: Vendor specializing in keystroke authentication solutions for government and commercial agencies. imagicsoftware. M. S. admitonesecurity.. nl/ Home. There were a high rate of confounding errors and backspaces in the password samples. Notes:  Highlights: 10 users were distinguished from 10 "forgers" using 3 classification systems. M.. Communications of the ACM. G. • Lopatka. Vibration Sensitive Keystroke Analysis. org/ iel3/ 3468/ 14367/ 00661150. M. 579-592. A. (1989). pdf  http:/ / ieeexplore. & MacKenzie. uspto. Singapore • Robinson. Liang. 28(2). Password hardening based on keystroke dynamics. PN. Laverty W. wsta. C. & Rubin. Notes: available to subscribers at  . Method and apparatus for verifying an individual's identity. • Coalfire Systems Compliance Validation Assessment (2007) http://www. (2000). org  http:/ / www1. F. html http:/ / old. com  http:/ / benelearn09. de/ it_auszeichnung_2008. edu/ 4180/ hw/ keystroke. Notes: Review up through 1990 • Mahar. Authentication via Keystroke Dynamics. Man. J. org/ publications/ articles/ 1003_article06. M..
2933. the device requires Windows XP or Windows Vista x86 to run . html). Department of Homeland Security to be implemented for detection of potential terrorist suspects. . Functionality Users could register any finger up to ten since the software has the capability to store all ten fingers for a single user. it can recognize seven primary emotions and emotional clues and will eventually have equipment which can analyze full body movement. dailymail. UK Daily Mail. and non-verbal cues. 2008). which can be used to perform the login operation automatically.  "New airport screening 'could read minds'" (http:/ / www. analysts can decide whether to subject a person to questioning. Liz (September 24. indianexpress. Retrieved 2008-09-24. First released on September 4. Login names and passwords associated with the registered finger prints are stored in a database located in the user's computer. According to the scientists. uk/ sciencetech/ article-1060972/ The-airport-security-scanner-read-mind.00.com. the software interactively sends the login names and passwords to compatible applications and websites. The system does various test scanning for elevated blood pressure.426485. IndianaExpress. Fox News. html). rapid heart and breath rate. co. . "Homeland Security Detects Terrorist Threats by Reading Your Mind" (http:/ / www. The underlying software providing the biometrics was developed by Digital Persona. 2008.  Hazelton. . References  Barrie. When needed. 2004 .S. In its current development. 2008). Microsoft Fingerprint Reader Microsoft Fingerprint Reader was a device that was sold by Microsoft primarily targeted at home and small business users which is currently discontinued. Retrieved 2008-09-24.MALINTENT 139 MALINTENT MALINTENT is technological system that was developed by the U. Allison (September 23. Retrieved 2008-09-24. "The airport security scanner that can read your mind" (http:/ / www. If the sensors pick up anything considered alarming. September 24. com/ story/ 0. foxnews. the MALINTENT system uses a barrage of non-invasive sensors and imagers to detect and evaluate a person's facial expressions to gauge whether he or she could be planning to commit an attack or crime. an eye scanner and a pheromone-reader. com/ news/ new-airport-screening-could-read-minds/ 365378/ ). .
Retrieved 2006-05-04. "Researcher Hacks Microsoft Fingerprint Reader" (http:/ / www. com/ resource/ article/ 0. asp). com/ hardware/ support/ fingerprintreader. . minor or incidental. mspx). are.RSS. free. Minutiae include: • • • • • • • • • Ridge ending – the abrupt end of a ridge. where it may prevent others from seeing passwords from being keyed in.ə/. sing.124978. minutiae are major features of a fingerprint. both also English In biometrics and forensic science.00. Retrieved 2009-06-05. Driver Support Currently only x86 (32-bit) support for Windows XP and Vista exist. Looks like this(-) Ridge bifurcation – a single ridge that divides into two ridges Short ridge.  http:/ / redoneill. References  Robert McMillan (2006-03-06). Firefox Browser Support The reader works with Firefox using the FingerFox Add-on . in everyday English. English pronunciation: /mɨˈnjuːʃɪ.1.Microsoft Fingerprint Reader 140 Application Such a device could be useful in a public environment. pcworld. or independent ridge – a ridge that commences.iː/.com/hardware/support/fingerprintreader.aid. However it is more of a convenience than a being a true access control system. minutia. using which comparisons of one print with another can be made.mspx) Minutiae Minutiae pronunciation: /mɨˈnjuːʃə/) (pronounced /mɨˈnjuːʃɪ.pg.RSS. fr/ fingerfox/ External links • MS Fingerprint home page (http://www.  "Microsoft Fingerprint system requirements" (http:/ / www. microsoft.microsoft. Microsoft support site states there is no support for Windows 7. . travels a short distance and then ends Island – a single small ridge inside a short ridge or ridge ending that is not connected to all other ridges Ridge enclosure – a single ridge that bifurcates and reunites shortly afterward to continue as a single ridge Spur – a bifurcation with a short ridge branching off a longer ridge Crossover or bridge – a short ridge that runs between two parallel ridges Delta – a Y-shaped ridge meeting Core – a U-turn in the ridge pattern . IDG News Service.
Multiple Biometric Grand Challenge 141 Multiple Biometric Grand Challenge Multiple Biometric Grand Challenge (MBGC) is a biometric project. for example: • • • • Low quality still images High and low quality video imagery Face and iris images taken under varying illumination conditions Off-angle or occluded images Building on the challenge problem and evaluation paradigm of FRGC. The MBGC seeks to reach this goal through several technology development areas: • • • • • • Face recognition on still frontal. FRVT 2006. The sequences will be acquired as people walk through a portal. • Iris and Face Recognition from Controlled Images: the goal is to improve performance on iris and face imagery. ICE 2006 provided an independent assessment of multiple iris recognition algorithms on the same data set. ICE 2005 and ICE 2006. further advances in these technologies are needed to meet the full range of operational requirements. For the first time. Iris images will consist of still . the Multiple Biometric Grand Challenge (MBGC) will address these problem areas. Government organizations recently sponsored the Face Recognition Grand Challenge (FRGC). Background Over the last decade. numerous government and industry organizations have or are moving toward deploying automated biometric technologies to provide increased security for their systems and facilities. controlled conditions over the last 14 years. Overview The primary goal of the MBGC is to investigate. However. Challenge problems will focus on three major areas: • Iris and Face Recognition from Portal Video: the goal is to develop algorithms that recognize people from near infrared image sequences and high definition video sequences. real-world-like high and low resolution imagery Iris recognition from video sequences and off-angle images Fusion of face and iris (at score and image levels) Unconstrained face recognition from still & video Recognition from Near Infrared (NIR) & High Definition (HD) video streams taken through portals Unconstrained face recognition from still & video The MBGC will consist of a set of challenge problems designed to advance the current state of technology and conclude with a planned independent evaluation. Six U.S. test and improve performance of face and iris recognition technology on both still and video imagery through a series of challenge problems and evaluation. Face data will be real-world-like high and low resolution images of frontal faces. Results from the FRGC and FRVT 2006 documented two orders of magnitude improvement in the performance of face recognition under full-frontal. Face Recognition Vendor Test (FRVT) 2006 and the Iris Challenge Evaluation (ICE) 2006. Many of these requirements focus on biometric samples taken under less than ideal conditions.
At this stage the Participants are requested to submit not their self reported results. This phase ultimately determines the performance levels of the participant’s algorithms. Grow the research community that works on these problems. Jonathon Phillips. The programmatic process of a Challenge Problem is as follows. .Multiple Biometric Grand Challenge and video iris sequences. • Portal Challenge • Still Iris versus Near Infrared (NIR) • Video Iris versus Near Infrared (NIR) • Still Face versus High Definition (HD) Video • Multiple Biometrics (Fusion) • Still Face / Still Iris versus Near Infrared (NIR) / High Definition (HD) Video • Still Face / Video Iris versus Near Infrared (NIR) / High Definition (HD) Video Version 1 results were submitted in November 2008. • • • • Familiarize community with problem and data. The Challenge Team then runs these algorithms through a battery of tests on large sequestered datasets. Organizations then sign licenses to receive the data and begin to develop technology (mostly computer algorithms) in an attempt to solve the various challenges laid out by the Challenge Team. Specifically the Facial Recognition Grand Challenge (FRGC) and the Iris Challenge Evaluation (ICE 2005). The Version 1 series was separated into three distinct areas with various experiments under those areas. To advance and inform the various participants and interested parties the Team hosts workshops. The cycle is repeated. MBGC Challenge Version 1 The Multiple Biometric Challenge Version 1 was released in April 2008. • Still and Video Face: the goal is to advance recognition from unconstrained outdoor video sequences and still images. P. These challenge problems will allow for fusion of face and iris at both the score level and the image level. A final report is issued by the Team which is used by Industries and Governments to determine the actual state of the art in a given field and to provide participating organizations a basis for showing their performance within that field. finishing with a final workshop. prepares challenge infrastructure. The first workshop gives an overview of the challenge and introduces the first set of challenge problems (typically referred to as Version 1). The Challenge Team designs the protocols. 1st Characterization of the state of the art. and composes the necessary data sets. challenge problems. At the 2nd Workshop the Challenge Team reports the results from Challenge Version 1 and releases the Challenge Version 2. 142 Challenge Problem Structure Overview The Multiple Biometric Grand Challenge is based on previous challenges directed by Dr. and reported at the MBGC 2nd Workshop in December 2008. Introduce participants to challenge protocol and experiment environment. The Team analyzes these results and then hosts another workshop. This initial set of challenge problems had the following goals. The data sets are then released to participating organizations who develop their algorithms and submit self reported results back to the Challenge Team in the form of similarity matrices. but the actual executables (or SDKs) to their algorithms.
The purpose of the MBE is to conduct an independent evaluation of the MBGC submissions on large sequestered data sets. Sponsors • • • • • Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Agency (IARPA) DOD Biometrics Task Force (BTF)  Department of Homeland Security (DHS) FBI Criminal Justice Information Services Division Technical Support Working Group (TSWG) References This article incorporates public domain material from the National Institute of Standards and Technology document "NIST Multiple Biometric Grand Challenge" . External links • • • • • • • • • • MBGC Website  MBGC Blog  FRGC Website  FRVT Website  ICE Website  National Institute of Standards and Technology  Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Agency  Department of Homeland Security  FBI Criminal Justice Information Services Division  Technical Support Working Group (TSWG)  References  http:/ / www. Multiple Biometric Evaluation (MBE) The Multiple Biometric Evaluation (MBE) will begin in Summer 2009.Multiple Biometric Grand Challenge 143 MBGC Challenge Version 2 Will be released in January 2009. Submitted results will be reported at the MBGC 3rd Workshop in Spring 2009. dod. biometrics. mil .
gov/ jmd/ 2008justification/ exhibit300/ fbi_ngi. fbi. The project's goal is to expand the capabilities of the Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System (IAFIS).Next Generation Identification 144 Next Generation Identification Next Generation Identification (NGI) is a project of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). August 6. technologynewsdaily. 2008)  TechnologyNewsDaily. justifying the project (PDF file. htm . iris. The NGI system will be a more modular system (allowing easy expandability). Organizations Involved in the Project • • • • • • • • Lockheed Martin IBM Accenture BAE Systems Global Science & Technology (GST) Innovative Management & Technology Services (IMTS) Platinum Solutions National Center for State Courts (NCSC) External links • • • • FBI Press Release (February 12. gov/ hq/ cjisd/ ngi.com article (May 5. com/ node/ 9733 http:/ / www. usdoj. gov/ pressrel/ pressrel08/ ngicontract021208. and facial identification. incorporating palm print. pdf http:/ / www. It will also have more advanced lookup capabilities. fbi. which is currently used by law enforcement to identify subjects by their fingerprints and look up their criminal history. 2008)  FBI Report to the Department of Justice. 2006)  FBI NGI  References     http:/ / www. htm http:/ / www. The development of the project is being led by Lockheed Martin who are teamed up with a number of technology companies.
The palm itself consists of principal lines. Zhang. or CCD) or offline image where the image is taken with ink and paper Zhang. indents and marks which can be used when comparing one palm to another.Palm print 145 Palm print A palm print refers to an image acquired of the palm region of the hand. . It differs to a fingerprint in that it also contains other information such as texture. taken by a scanner. ‘’Palmprint Authentication’’. Kluwer Academic Publishers. It can be either an online image (i. D. (2004). forensic or commercial applications. References 1. wrinkles (secondary lines) and ridges.e. Palm prints can be used for criminal.
Its apex is continuous with the lower margin of the transverse carpal ligament. and medial portions. Central portion The central portion occupies the middle of the palm. and the tendons of the Lumbricales. The intervals between the four slips transmit the digital vessels and nerves. which is continuous with the interosseous aponeurosis. which are inserted into the fibrous sheaths of the Flexor tendons. those to the palm joining the skin at the furrow corresponding to the metacarpophalangeal articulations. and of great strength and thickness. The deeper part of each slip subdivides into two processes. one for each finger. through these the Flexor tendons pass. and on either side it gives off a septum. By this arrangement short channels are formed on the front of the heads of the metacarpal bones. From the sides of these processes offsets are attached to the transverse metacarpal ligament. lateral. At the points of division into the slips mentioned. and separates the intermediate from the collateral groups of muscles. Latin Gray's aponeurosis palmaris subject #126 460  The palmar aponeurosis (palmar fascia) invests the muscles of the palm. . Its base divides below into four slips. and those to the fingers passing into the skin at the transverse fold at the bases of the fingers. Each slip gives off superficial fibers to the skin of the palm and finger. It covers the superficial volar arch. numerous strong.Palmar aponeurosis 146 Palmar aponeurosis Palmar aponeurosis The palmar aponeurosis. The central part of the palmar aponeurosis is intimately bound to the integument by dense fibroareolar tissue forming the superficial palmar fascia. transverse fasciculi bind the separate processes together. and consists of central. is triangular in shape. and gives origin by its medial margin to the Palmaris brevis. the tendons of the Flexor muscles. and receives the expanded tendon of the Palmaris longus. and the branches of the median and ulnar nerves.
Popular Press. directly stamping a paw on a stamp pad.  Goldberg. regarded in some contexts as equivalent to a human signature. Retrieved 29 June 2009. San Francisco Weekly. Silke (26 November 2003). story). Carlton (1984). on the ulnar side. htm Pawtograph A pawtograph is a print of an animal's paw. References  Jackson. net/ ~wnor/ homepage. References     http:/ / education. creating a rubber stamp from the paw impression and stamping the item using the stamp. htm http:/ / mywebpages. then stamping the item to be autographed. some of the information contained within it may be outdated. courant. 2. Hounds of the road: a history of the [[Greyhound Bus Company (http:/ / books. "A Pug at the Heartstrings" (http:/ / www. com/ 2003-11-26/ news/ a-pug-at-the-heartstrings& page=34). on the radial side. com/ features/ style/ am-dog0919. and. . ISBN 0879722711.  The hobby of collecting pawtographs is known as pawtography. they are continuous with the central portion and with the fascia on the dorsum of the hand. com/ reference/ gray/ subjects/ subject?id=126#p460 http:/ / mywebpages. sfweekly. comcast. co. uk/ books?id=23Pwrh-GEOMC& pg=PA94& dq=pawtograph)]]. google. the muscles of the little finger. Daniel (19 September 2007). .4381668. "Jumping dogs stop NYers in their tracks" (http:/ / www. A pawtograph is made by one of two methods: 1.Palmar aponeurosis 147 Lateral and medial portions The lateral and medial portions of the palmar aponeurosis are thin. comcast. As such. fibrous layers. which cover. p. . net/ wnor/ lesson5flexretinac& palmapon. yahoo. Retrieved 29 June 2009.  Tudor.0. the muscles of the ball of the thumb. . This term is used in particular for the practice of collecting pawtographs of celebrity animals. External links • lesson5mus&tendonsofhand  at The Anatomy Lesson  by Wesley Norman (Georgetown University) • lesson5flexretinac&palmapon  at The Anatomy Lesson  by Wesley Norman (Georgetown University) This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. 94. Hartford Courant. net/ wnor/ lesson5mus& tendonsofhand. htm http:/ / home. comcast.
biometric age verification.amrresearch.blogspot. com/ vault/ article/ magazine/ MAG1153364/ 3/ index.midcounties. External links • Pay By Touch  company website. htm). com/ vault/ article/ magazine/ MAG1153364/ 3/ index.Pay By Touch Goes Live in the UK at The Midcounties Co-operative Finger-touch payment system available at three Oxford locations (http://www. DTL). com/ 2007/ 11/ 12/ pay-by-touch-in-trouble-founder-filing-for-bankruptcy/ ).  "Pay By Touch Auctions off ATM Direct.biometricpayments.com/news/ news_article. In 2009. thereby creating a highly secure anti-identity theft platform. Torre (2009-03-23).wkyc. Thursday. and other personal information. loyalty. 2006 .  Lance Williams (2008-12-07). through the unique characteristics of an individual's biometric features. 2008.  Pablo S. At the time of the acquisition BioPay had more than two million enrolled consumers and offered both biometric payments and biometric-based payroll check cashing. investors in Pay By Touch included former National Football League players Drew Bledsoe and Rick Mirer.com/Content/View.coop/live/ . By 2007.a fortune" (http:/ / www. . sportsillustrated.Pay by Touch To Acquire BioPay: Pointing at Retail Biometrics (http://www. In 2006.  http:/ / www. loyalty and personalized marketing. healthcare. California with 10 offices worldwide. and payment processing. paybytouch. PR Newswire. alleging that they had encouraged clients to invest in Pay By Touch without revealing  information about the criminal history of the company's founder. On March 19. "How (and Why) Athletes Go Broke" (http:/ / vault. October 20. Inc.  Pablo S.com . com • http://www. . San Francisco Chronicle. cnn. Phoenix Check Cashing changed its dba name from BioPay Paycheck Secure to AllTrust Networks. "How (and Why) Athletes Go Broke" (http:/ / vault. Venture Beat. .'Pay by Touch' lets your fingers pay for groceries (http://www. All check cashing assets were acquired in 2008 by Phoenix Check Cashing. without notifying its customers.Pay By Touch Blog • WKYC. BioPay LLC.  "Pay By Touch Completes Acquisition of BioPay" (http:/ / www. A group of investors later sued financial services firm UBS. 2005 . December 08. "John-P-Rogers" (http:/ / venturebeat.Pay By Touch 148 Pay By Touch Pay By Touch was a company founded by John P Rogers. Sports Illustrated.asp?pmillid=19008) • The Midcounties Co-operative . "How 'visionary' raised . no longer operable References  Matt Marshall (2007-11-12). . . It allowed secure access to checking. 2006-01-16. Torre (2009-03-23). Digital Transactions. com/ cgi-bin/ article. htm). credit card. prnewswire. html). Much of the assets of Pay By Touch are now owned by YOU Technology. . sfgate.and lost . Over time it raised more than $340 million in venture finance investments. cgi?f=/ c/ a/ 2008/ 12/ 06/ MNIK147QU3. sportsillustrated. 2008-03-07. Sports Illustrated.aspx?storyid=58208) • AMR Research. cnn. BioPay Paycheck Secure" (http:/ / digitaltransactions. It was a privately held company which enabled consumers to pay for goods and services with a swipe of their finger on a biometric sensor. Pay By Touch shut down and is no longer in operation. com/ news-releases/ pay-by-touch-completes-acquisition-of-biopay-53546437. Pay By Touch had over 800 employees and provided retailers with products in biometric financial transactions. The company was based in San Francisco. Pay By Touch acquired competitor. net/ news/ story/ 1703).
virtual reality. 2006 . which is a “three-dimensional computer simulation in which [a person] actively and physically participates. 2006. (NETAC. Physiological interfaces actually secure and use real body characteristics.cooperatives-uk.coop/live/cme913. cave automatic virtual environments (CAVE). 364) Virtual reality has been used to train astronauts at NASA. Glove 2. 365) A walker “records the movement of your feet as you walk or turn in different directions. This is called pattern classification. Next. while taking out any background noises.htm) 149 Physiological interaction Physiological interaction goes beyond the physical interfaces that a computer has. 1998) This technology is becoming more popular in computing environments as well. p. 2006) In order for an ASR system to function. p. 2006. 365) Virtual reality is applied everywhere and can be seen in the entertainment industry. ASR is computer-driven and transcribes spoken language into text that can be read by using real time. 2006. 2006. Special applications for this system may be used to help deaf and hard of hearing people understand what is being said.” (Haag. 2006) . This is referred to as feature analysis. (Haag. 2006) Automatic speech recognition The automatic speech recognition (ASR) system will capture spoken words and then classify word groupings to form a sentence.” (Haag.” (Haag. p. and then converting the digital signals of the speech into syllables (phonemes). Virtual reality includes three devices.” (Haag. The CAVE was first thought of by Thomas DeFanti and Dan Sandin and was later developed at the Electronic Visualization Laboratory (EVL) at the University of Illinois in Chicago by Carolina Cruz-Neira . which would include the input and output devices. (Haag.htm) • Cooperatives UK.Walker A glove will capture and record “the shape and movement of your hand and fingers and the strength of the movements. the system will match the spoken syllables to a phoneme sequence that is kept in an acoustic model database. Call centres are taking on automatic speech recognition in order to decrease the amount of clients who hang up because they are not talking to a live operator. for example. Automatic virtual environments Another part of emo Physiological Interaction innovations are CAVEs which stands for automatic virtual environments. and height and weight. 365) A headset records your head’s movement and “contains a screen that covers your entire field of vision and displays various views of an environment on the basis of your movements. Some of the top innovations include automatic speech recognition (ASR). p. including virtual reality games. This type of interaction uses special input and output devices in order to take physiological movements and send responses back to the person. this time with a language model database. 2006) Virtual reality The second physiological innovation is virtual reality. (Haag. (Haag. and biometrics.Headset 3.Shoppers and members at The Midcounties Co-operative now have the option of quickly and securely paying for their groceries using a finger scan linked to their bank account. (http://www.Pay By Touch Goes Live in the UK . The system will capture words that are spoken into a microphone. talking. it must follow three steps. 1. (The CAVE at NCSA 2004) It is similar to virtual reality except you do not need any gear on your body in order to see the images.Pay By Touch cme2149. The system will then try to make sense of what is being said by comparing the word phonemes from the previous step. including breathing.
so if you were ever in trouble the chip can be scanned and all the important information about you will be right there. Special Applications of Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) with Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing People.edu/about. 2006) There are several different technologies that have evolved because of biometrics. The purpose is to make people feel at if they were in the same location as the people or things they are interacting with. 2006) The next step for businesses gathering information about their customers is going to include the tracking of biometrics. There will be problems with customer protection and privacy. With our bodies and habits as the ultimate authentication of our identity. Examples of biometric modalities include fingerprints. Maeve Cummings.Physiological interaction In these virtual environments you are able to see 3d images of other people or things that are also using a CAVE in another location anywhere in the world.edu/publication/asr. (1998). Canada: McGraw-Hill Ryerson • Northeast Technical Assistance Center (NETAC). Biochips are designed to perform physiological functions that help your body when they are inserted for example reduce pain for those that suffer from injuries.rit. companies will really be able to target the market. The first being Computers that are needed to coordinated all of the other equipment. In order to make the CAVE seem real sound need to be taken into consideration sounds system. and the last system that is needed for the CAVE to work is a tracking system. customer information. Retrieved June 25. There are four different systems that must be implement into the CAVE in order for it to work properly.html • The CAVE at NCSA. (2004). 2006 from the World Wide Web: http://www. (2006). McCubbrey. Alain Pinsonneault and Richard Donovan. A properly designed and encrypted telebiometric system could include much more robust fraud and identity theft protection than current practices. (The CAVE at NCSA 2004) 150 Biometrics Biometrics is the use of data gathered through physiological interactions with sensors to authenticate human beings. which is used to track the position and orientation of objects in the CAVE. Stephen.html . (Haag. http://cave. facial recognition systems.uiuc. Management Information Systems for the Information Age. Donald J. iris scans. This produces very high resolution. the full array of biometrics would be difficult to steal or replicate because everyone has unique biometrics. medical record management. Another technology that has come out of biometrics is implant chips. (Haag. The CAVE. When they are inserted into your body they store information about you or your body. Networking multiple biometric modalities over several geographical locations ( as in the emerging technologies of telebiometrics ) greatly increases the reliability and security of biometric data by providing redundancy and provenance for biometric data. and DNA analysis. with even more information about customers. 2006). In order for the CAVE to work it must present many of the same que’s your brain uses to interact and understand the world around you. (Haag. and global security. Many customers already feel business know too much about them and would feel uncomfortable with the idea of businesses having access to extremely personal information. BPS or biometric processing systems are going to record and process physiological characteristics. Retrieved June 25th 2006 from the World Wide Web. Another component are graphic systems. which are very important. Every second there are ninety-six different images are displayed each of the CAVE's four walls. (Haag. Future uses of biometrics based on physiological interactions could include transaction authentication. 2006) References • Haag. netac. To name a few there are Bio chips and implant chips. ncsa.
Meanwhile. who. Minor changes at the input of a cryptographic function are amplified and the outcome will bear no resemblance to the expected outcome. org/ w/ index. .Physiological interaction 151 References  http:/ / en. Noisy measurement data are quantized into discrete values before these can be processed by any cryptographic function. Comparison with handling computer passwords The main difference between password checking and biometric private verification is that during biometric measurements it is unavoidable that noise or other aberrations occur. This prevents attacks from the inside by stealing unencrypted or decryptable secrets. the comparison of measured data with reference data can not be executed in the encrypted domain without prior precautions to contain the effect of noise. it is important to realize that protection of the reference data stored in a database is not a complete solution to the above-mentioned threats. In private verification. and no stored data allows calculation of y. php?title=Telebiometrics Private biometrics A form of biometrics. even if the prover has never exposed herself to a biometric measurement after the enrollment. In particular if one of the biometric parameters has a value close to a quantization threshold. Information stolen from a data base can be misused to construct artificial biometrics to impersonate people. This corresponds to grabbing all keystrokes including the plain passwords typed by a user. Biometric identification requires that a verifier searches for matches in a data base that contains data about the entire population. access to the reference template allows a malicious verifier to artificially construct measurement data that will pass the verification test. makes it less trivial to use biometric data as input to a cryptographic function. Creation of artificial biometrics is possible even if only part of the template is available. Such protection is common practice for storage of computer passwords. in which the prover is protected against the misuse of template data by a dishonest verifier. also called Biometric Encryption or BioCryptics. The notion of near matches or distance between enrollment and operational measurements vanishes after encryption or any other cryptographically strong operation. the reference data base has to be made available to many different verifiers. commonly referred to as ‘confusion’ and ‘diffusion’. So y is only temporarily available on the system hardware. Hence. it does not compare the password typed by the user with a stored reference copy. This property. a dishonest verifier uses these measurement data. When a computer verifies a password. one can distinguish between verification and private verification. Instead. In a typical verification situation. the password is processed by a cryptographic one-way function F and the outcome is compared against a locally stored reference string F(y ). This can happen without anyone noticing it: Victor grabs the fingerprint image left behind on a sensor. After having had an opportunity to measure operational biometric data. cannot be trusted. wikipedia. When a private verification system is used on a large scale. the reference data should not leak relevant information to allow the verifier to (effectively) construct valid measurement data. This introduces the security and privacy threat that the verifier who steals biometric templates from some (or even all) persons in the data base can perform impersonation attacks. To develop an insight in the security aspects of biometrics. the outcome of the quantization may differ from experiment to experiment. minor amounts of noise can change the outcome. in general. Due to external noise.
4th International Conference on Audio and Video Based Biometric Person Authentication. Ileana Buhan. Methods. 2007. Justine Grave. Tom Kevenaar (Editors).ca/images/Resources/bio-encryp. International Conference on Intelligent Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing (IIH-MSP 2010). 2007. http:/ / www. http://www. Boulgouris. 2010. Alex Stoianov: Biometric Encryption: The New Breed of Untraceable Biometrics. In ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security. pages 28–36.priv-id. . cosic. Guildford. Secure Key Storage and Anti-Counterfeiting (Hardcover). Ann Cavoukian. esat.com/images/Technology-primer. Ann Cavoukian. Ari Juels and Martin Wattenberg. com/papers/biosig/biosig2008. Security and Privacy. New Shielding functions to enhance privacy and prevent misuse of biometric templates. Springer. 9-11 June 2003.pdf. A fuzzy commitment scheme. Detlef Hühnlein (Eds. Christoph Busch. White paper Private Identity Matching. Discussion paper of the Office of the Information and Privacy Commissioner of Ontario. Pim Tuyls. United Kingdom.): Biometrics: Theory.pdf. pages 655-710.pdf. John Wiley & Sons. be/ publications/article-1462. Evangelia Micheli-Tzanakou (Eds. 1999.pdf. Koen Simoens: A Survey of the Security and Privacy Measures for Anonymous Biometric Authentication Systems. kuleuven. Emile Kelkboom. jeroenbreebaart.Private biometrics 152 References Jeroen Breebaart. and Applications. pages 25-37. Boris Skoric.): BIOSIG 2008. USA. Konstantinos N. Jean-Paul Linnartz and Pim Tuyls. Gesellschaft für Informatik. 2009. IEEE Computer Society. ISBN 978-1846289835.ipc. Security with Noisy Data: Private Biometrics. Inc.on. Hoboken. 2008. NJ. Plataniotis. http:/ / www. Lecture Notes in Informatics 137. In Arslan Brömme. Alex Stoianov: Biometric Encryption: A Positive-Sum Technology that Achieves Strong Authentication. Christoph Busch. http://www. In: Nikolaos V. ISBN 978-0470247822.. Els Kindt: A Reference Architecture for Biometric Template Protection based on Pseudo Identities.
in which scaling is not performed (i. and in this case they are called landmark points. by minimizing a measure of shape difference called the Procrustes distance between the objects.e. rotation and reflection. This is sometimes called full. The name Procrustes refers to a bandit from Greek mythology who made his victims fit his bed either by stretching their limbs or cutting them off. Procrustes superimposition (PS) is performed by optimally translating. as opposed to Generalized Procrustes analysis (GPA). Procrustes analysis is a form of statistical shape analysis used to analyse the distribution of a set of shapes. In some cases. a successful (possibly perfect) superimposition of a right hand to a left hand. while full PS with reflection enabled allows translation. The mean of these points is where Now translate these points so that their mean is translated to the origin point . its centroid) lies at the origin.Procrustes analysis 153 Procrustes analysis In statistics. rotational and uniform scaling components. The aim is to obtain a similar placement and size. In other words.e. When a shape is compared to another. or a set of shapes is compared to an arbitrarily selected reference shape. say . The shape of an object can be considered as a member of an equivalence class formed by removing the translational. the size of the objects is preserved). Notice that. Mathematically: take points in two dimensions. when reflection is not enabled. Translation For example. is a method which can be used to determine the optimal rotation for the PS of an object with respect to another. when reflection is enabled. the objects must be first optimally "superimposed". which compares three or more shapes to an optimally determined "mean shape". after PS. Reflection allows. Optimal translation and scaling are determined with much simpler operations (see below). scaling and reflection. Procrustes analysis is sometimes further qualified as classical or ordinary. Often. such as a human bone. Thus. rotation. giving the . subject to det(R) = 1 (where R is a rotation matrix). In mathematics: • an orthogonal Procrustes problem is a method which can be used to find out the optimal rotation and reflection for the PS of an object with respect to another. these points are selected on the continuous surface of complex objects. for instance. translational components can be removed from an object by translating the object so that the mean of all the object's points (i. rotating and uniformly scaling the objects. The method to compute the optimal rotation for a partial PS is in some contexts called the Kabsch algorithm. partial PS with reflection enabled preserves size but allows translation. as opposed to partial PS. Ordinary Procrustes analysis Here we just consider objects made up from a finite number k of points in n dimensions. . To compare the shape of two or more objects. the objects will exactly coincide if their shape is identical. • a constrained orthogonal Procrustes problem. both full and partial PS may also include reflection. both the placement in space and the size of the objects are freely adjusted.
. Notice that other more complex definitions of Procrustes distance. One of these objects can be used to provide a reference orientation. rather than a simple angle. Shape comparison The difference between the shape of two objects can be evaluated only after "superimposing" the two objects by translating.v) are the coordinates of a rotated point. the scale component can be removed by scaling the object so that the root mean square distance (RMSD) from the points to the translated origin is 1. until you find an optimum angle of rotation such that the sum of the squared distances (SSD) between the corresponding points is minimised (an example of least squares technique. Let the points of these be . . Notice that other methods for defining and removing the scale are sometimes used in the literature. the optimum rotation is represented by a 3-by-3 rotation matrix R.Procrustes analysis 154 Uniform scaling Likewise. scaling and optimally rotating them as explained above. The square root of the above mentioned SSD between corresponding points can be used as a statistical measure of this difference in shape: This measure is often called Procrustes distance. A rotation by angle gives . Fix the reference object and rotate the other around the origin. subject to det(R) = 1). and other measures of "shape difference" are sometimes used in the literature. This RMSD is a statistical measure of the object's scale or size: The scale becomes 1 when the point coordinates are divided by the object's initial scale: . Taking the derivative of respect to and solving for when the derivative is zero gives with When the object is three-dimensional. Rotation Removing the rotational component is more complex. and in this case singular value decomposition can be used to find the optimum value for R (see the solution for the constrained Orthogonal Procrustes problem. Consider two objects composed of the same number of points with scale and translation removed. as a standard reference orientation is not always available. where (u.
0) the remaining points form the Bookstein coordinates. When only two shapes are compared. One point will be fixed at the origin and the other at (1. A particular representation of shape is found by choosing a particular representation of the equivalence class. . rotations and scalings. The same method can be applied to superimpose a set of three or more shapes. instead of superimposing them to an arbitrarily selected shape. However. as far as the above mentioned reference orientation is used for all of them. The shape of a triangle can be represented as a point on the sphere. and in the latter one is arbitrarily selected. The algorithm outline is the following: 1. This will give a manifold of dimension kn-4. set reference to mean shape and continue to step 2. One study by David George Kendall examined the triangles formed by standing stones to deduce if these were often arranged in straight lines. arbitrarily choose a reference shape (typically by selecting it among the available instances) superimpose all instances to current reference shape compute the mean shape of the current set of superimposed shapes if the Procrustes distance between the mean shape and the reference is above a threshold. Examples Shape analysis is used in biological data to identify the variations of anatomical features characterised by landmark data. for example in considering the shape of jaw bones. The sample distribution from the standing stones was compared with the theoretical distribution to show that the occurrence of straight lines was no more than average. 2. 4. Generalized and ordinary Procrustes analysis differ only in their determination of a reference orientation for the objects. Variations There are many ways of representing the shape of an object. It is also common to consider shape and scale that is with translational and rotational components removed. Bookstein obtains a representation of shape by fixing the position of two points called the bases line. 3. and the distribution of all shapes can be thought of a distribution over the sphere. which in the former technique is optimally determined. Procrustes is one method of doing this with particular statistical justification. The shape of object can be considered as a member of an equivalence class formed by taking the set of all sets of k points in n dimensions. that is Rkn and factoring out the set of all translations. Scaling and translation are performed the same way by both techniques. Generalized Procrustes analysis (GPA) GPA applies the Procrustes analysis method to optimally superimpose a set of objects.Procrustes analysis 155 Superimposing a set of shapes We showed how to superimpose two shapes. GPA is equivalent to ordinary Procrustes analysis. Generalized Procrustes analysis provides a better method to achieve this goal.
fr/ itoweb. the accidental whorl. References  "Exploring Space Shape" (http:/ / www. edu/ mar94/ goodall. No. Similarity and Docking. each person's retina is unique. pp. which include the ulnar loop. . Introduction The human retina is a thin tissue composed of neural cells that is located in the posterior portion of the eye.C. Statistical Shape Analysis. the amount of reflection varies during the scan. Statistical Science. free. G.B.L. Gower.V. the tented arch. CO. March 1994  "A Survey of the Statistical Theory of Shape" (http:/ / links. A biometric identifier known as a retinal scan is used to map the unique patterns of a person's retina. iris recognition. html • F. The pattern of variations is converted to computer code and stored in a database. Procrustes Problems. the plain whorl. (1998). the side closer to the radius (bone).Dryden. the plain arch. the central pocket loop. Radial loops start on the thumb-side of the finger. • K. It is not to be confused with another ocular-based technology. by Michel Petitjean. 1989). 15. Oxford University Press (2004). Because of the complex structure of the capillaries that supply the retina with blood. The radial loop is one of the 8 most common fingerprint patterns. the retina appears to be the most precise and reliable biometric. psu. 2 (May. Advocates of retinal scanning have concluded that it is so accurate that its error rate is estimated to be only one in a million.2-P). This beam of light traces a standardized path on the retina. Radial loop Radial loop is a term used in classifying fingerprints. Mardia. by David G. Vol. (1991). • J. petitjean.Procrustes analysis 156 External links • Extensions to continuum of points and distributions  Procrustes Methods. 87-99  http:/ / petitjeanmichel. Due to its unique and unchanging nature. rps. 4. html) by Nancy Marie Brown. and the double loop whorl. The network of blood vessels in the retina is so complex that even identical twins do not share a similar pattern. Research/Penn State. glaucoma or retinal degenerative disorders. The blood vessels within the retina absorb light more readily than the surrounding tissue and are easily identified with appropriate lighting. Wiley. Morphometric tools for landmark data. Vol. Because retinal blood vessels are more absorbent of this light than the rest of the eye. Kendall. org/ sici?sici=0883-4237(198905)4:2<87:ASOTST>2. Cambridge University Press. shape. Although retinal patterns may be altered in cases of diabetes. Chichester. no. Retinal scan A retinal scan is a biometric technique that uses the unique patterns on a person's retina to identify them. 1. Shape Recognition.L. 0. the retina typically remains unchanged from birth until death. Dijksterhuis. Bookstein. A retinal scan is performed by casting an unperceived beam of low-energy infrared light into a person’s eye as they look through the scanner's eyepiece. I. jstor.
In the 1966 movie Batman. in recent years. followed by a commercial model in 1981. Pregnancy also affects the eyes. Communicable illnesses such as AIDS. Batman describes to Robin how the tiny vessels in the retina are unique to the individual and utilizing the portable retina scan device in the Batmobile they could confirm the identity of the Penguin. They are also used by the police in the movie to locate individuals throughout Washington. Characters in the 1996 film Mission: Impossible. Retinal scanning has been utilized by several government agencies including the FBI. atherosclerosis. but once technology caught up. chicken pox and Lyme disease as well as hereditary diseases like leukemia. Likewise.C. The idea was a little before its time. In 1976. Isadore Goldstein and was published in the New York State Journal of Medicine in 1935. specific means for a retinal scanner was patented. However. Retinal scanning also has medical application.Retinal scan 157 History The idea for retinal identification was first conceived by Dr. and NASA. lymphoma. Robert "Buzz" Hill formed a corporation named EyeDentify. the film Paycheck. Uses Retinal scanners are typically used for authentication and identification purposes. In popular culture In the movie 'The Minority Report'. In 1978. for ATM identity verification and the prevention of welfare fraud. Inc. and sickle cell anemia impact the eyes. the concept for a retinal scanning device emerged in 1975. Carleton Simon and Dr. and made a full-time effort to research and develop such a device. CIA.. and the 1999 film Entrapment utilize or try to deceive retinal scanners. Retinal scanning has been used in prisons. retinal scanning has become more commercially popular. retinal scanning is used everywhere to identify people. syphilis. D. the 1995 film GoldenEye. malaria. indications of chronic health conditions such as congestive heart failure. Pros and cons Advantages • • • • • • • • • • Low occurrence of false positives Extremely low (almost 0%) false negative rates Highly reliable because no two people have the same retinal pattern Speedy results: Identity of the subject is verified very quickly Measurement accuracy can be affected by a disease such as cataracts Measurement accuracy can also be affected by severe astigmatism Scanning procedure is perceived by some as invasive Not very user friendly Subject being scanned must be close to the camera optics High equipment costs Disadvantages . and cholesterol issues first appear in the eyes.
cse.  “Eye Prints. com/ blog/ 2009/ 10/ 6/ why-retina-scanning-works-better-for-james-bond-than-it-ever-would-for-us/ 24. html) Retrieved on 2007-04-02. Retrieved on 2007-04-02  "Why retina scanning works better for James Bond than it ever would for us" (http:/ / www. Courtney. Mifare UltraLight(1. pdf) Msu. nz/ newsroom/ information-notes/ 2005/ biometrics. edu/ ~cse891/ Sect601/ textbook/ 6.2). pdf) Retrieved on 2009-06-11. com/ news6134. It is periodically updated to emerging RFID standards such as e-passport and Mifare encryption currently found on many pay as you go systems. html) Wcu.00.  Iris/Retinal Identification. Dec. Retrieved on 2008-04-10." (http:/ / www. tag type.2) • ISO/IEC 14443 type B: SR176(1. RFdump RFDump is a software created by Lukas Grunwald and Christian Bottger for the purpose of security auditing of RFID tags. html) Retrieved on 2007-04-02. Intelligence.2) .Edu. and Security. infosecurity-magazine. tag ID and manufacturer Displays tag memory in hex and ASCII encoding Allows to write memory using hex or ASCII editor Full ISO/IEC 14443 type A/B support Support for Mifare sector keys Cookie feature using arbitrary cookie ID and automatically incrementing counter Brute-force cracking of access control cards (sector keys) Audit of encrypted RFID tags check for default shipping keys Save and restore of Mifare cards including sector keys Multi baudrate reader support. com/ Ra-Thy/ Retinography. ccip. “Retinal Scans Do More Than Let You In The Door. RFDump is a back-end GPL tool to directly inter-operate with any RFID reader to make the contents stored on RFID tags accessible. com/ time/ printout/ 0. Inc. wcu. "Biometrics" (http:/ / www.  Roberts. . This makes the following types of audits possible: • • • • Test robustness of data-structures on the reader and the backend-application Proof-of-concept manipulations of RFID tag contents Clone / copy & paste user-data stored on RFID tags Audit tag-security features The tools reads an RFID tag's meta information: tag ID. RFDump works with the ACG Multi-Tag Reader or similar card reader hardware. I-Code SLI. Windows Supports ACGs PCMCIA/CF Multi-Tag Readers Decodes the tag type.  Hill. Encyclopedia of Espionage.Retinal scan 158 References  Retina and Iris Scans. (http:/ / www. govt. (http:/ / et.  Retinography: How Retinal Scanning Works. Chris. In addition. RFDump can set baud rate Scan option Configuration menus Supported Tag Types: • ISO/IEC 15693: Tag-it ISO. (http:/ / www. The user data of a tag can be displayed and modified using either a hex or an ASCII editor. the integrated cookie feature demonstrates how simple it is for a company to abuse RFID technology. Robert. edu/ aidc/ BioWebPages/ Biometrics_Eye.  Ostaff. physorg. 16. aspx). My-d. discoveriesinmedicine. Copyright © 2004 by The Gale Group. msu. 1935 (http:/ / www. RFDump features (Gtk Application): • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Runs on Linux. Retrieved on 2007-04-02. “Retina Identification”. LRI512. TempSense • ISO/IEC 14443 type A: Mifare Standard(1. time. and how it can be used to spy on unwitting consumers.Edu.” TIME Magazine.8816.755453. html). manufacturer etc.
2006  References  http:/ / www. which use a technology similar to US prisons and German military. Fingerprint locking systems happened in the United Kingdom (fingerprint lock in the Holland Park School in London. Official site of RFDUMP. stm Biometrics in schools Biometrics in schools have been used worldwide since the early first decade of the 21st century to address truancy. bbc. Under the Data Protection Act (DPA). In 2007 Early Day Motion 686.RFdump • • • • • • • • • Tag-it I-Code EM4002 EM4005 EM4050 HITAG1 HITAG2 Q5 TIRIS 159 References • MudSplatter. secured the support of 85 Members of Parliament  .. By 2009 the number of children fingerprinted was estimated to be two million  . schools in the UK do not have to ask parental consent for such practices. org  http:/ / news. in Italy. to be debited by a child's biometric fingerscan at the point of sale. which called on the UK Government to conduct a full and open consultation with stakeholders about the use of biometrics in schools. estimated that 350 schools through-out Britain were using such systems. uk/ 2/ hi/ programmes/ click_online/ 6182207. 2009  • David Reid. to replace library cards. co. in France. as mentioned above. enabling parents to deposit money into students catering accounts. School biometrics. in Belgium (école Marie-José in Liège   ). In the USA biometrics systems are used primarily for catering. Fingerprinting Many schools have implemented fingerprint locks or registered children's fingerprints. with library and registration biometrics in use also. it was estimated that 3. the supplier Micro Librarian Systems. ePassports 'at risk' from cloning. rfdump. Concerns have been raised about the civil liberties implications of fingerprinting children in schools  . In the UK biometrics in schools have been largely used for library book issue. Mar 29. Parents opposed to such practices may only bring individual complaints against schools  . but are increasingly being used for cashless catering systems. In 2002.500 schools (ten times more) are using such systems  . Biometric technology for registration is also used in the UK. . or to charge for meals. typically electronic fingerprinting systems. etc. Dec 15. often without the knowledge or consent of their parents  . BBC Online. ) databases. have raised privacy concerns because of the creation of databases that would progressively include the entire population. United Kingdom In 2002 the NGO Privacy International has alerted that tens of thousands of UK school children were being fingerprinted by schools. to replace library cards  . etc. In 2007.
etc. Use of this technology in schools is now widespread. a local software development company. However these systems actually work by running key features of the fingerprint through a complicated encryption algorithm. this practice gave rise to a question in Parliament on February 6. though there are currently no official figures for how many schools employ the technology. 160 Belgium The alleged use of taking children's fingerprints is to struggle against school truancy and/or to replace library cards or money for meals by fingerprint locks. the information would be effectively useless to police and 3rd parties. Penn Cambria School District in Cresson. which calls into question legal and data protection concerns. vending machines. In 2000. indicating that the practice may break the European Union data protection directive. who replied that they were legal insofar as the school did not use them for external purposes nor to survey the private life of children  . PA was another earlier user of biometric technology. official organism in charge of protection of privacy. Applications Biometric technologies in schools are used to borrow library books. 2007 by Michel de La Motte (Humanist Democratic Centre) to the Education Minister Marie Arena.S. Carqueiranne college in the Var — the latter won the Big Brother Award of 2005 for its hand geometry system. Biometric technologies for home/school bus journeys are also under development. for cashless canteen systems. declared in 2002 hand geometry systems to be acceptable. This produces a result which cannot be "Reverse Engineered" to produce any biometric or image information.) although the CNIL. Food Service Solutions. Early applications The first reported use of biometric systems in U. Misconceptions The most common misconception about fingerprint systems is that they are thought to store a fingerprint image or other biometric information. . Such practices have also been used in France (Angers. allowed willing students to use fingerprint readers to speed up the borrowing of library books.Biometrics in schools In response to a complaint which they are continuing to pursue. however. in 2010 the European Commission expressed 'significant concerns' over the proportionality and necessity of the practice and the lack of judicial redress. In Belgium. schools was at Minnesota's Eagan High School in September 1999. designed and implemented a system where students bought lunch with just a fingerprint. The CNIL. Eagan High School. The American Civil Liberties Union stated that this"could hasten the end of privacy rights" Biometric systems were first used in schools in the UK in 2001. class attendance and payments into schools."  . has declared them "disproportionate. This means the data kept on file can only be used to verify an identity against another scan through the same system. a testing ground for education technology since it opened.
Educationalist Dr. accessed 2011-01-13  Prises d'empreintes digitales dans un établissement scolaire (http:/ / www. htm). telegraph. guardian. be/ docparlement/ pa4896. who cites research by Cavoukian and Stoianov to back up his assertion that "it is absolutely premature to begin using 'conventional biometrics' in schools". Y. 2006 (English)  Porter. published 2010-12-14. uk/ commentisfree/ henryporter/ 2009/ nov/ 18/ fingerprinting-children-school)". 2007 (French)  Fingerprinting of UK school kids causes outcry (http:/ / www. enseignons.. com/ actu/ news/ 31010-Empreintes-digitales-pour-les-enfants-dune-e. bron=homeArt6). aspx?EDMID=32367). Sandra Leaton Gray of Homerton College. The Guardian. including Kim Cameron. March 7. 2009  "EDM 686 . 7sur7.  Advantages Biometric vendors claim benefits to schools such as improved reading skills. theregister. co. " Why are we fingerprinting children? (http:/ / www. decreased wait times in lunch lines and increased revenues. uk/ 2006/ 09/ 07/ kiddyprinting_allowed/ ).  Ages Biometric systems can be used by children as young as three years old. co. . July 22. November 18. uk/ commentisfree/ libertycentral/ 2009/ mar/ 06/ fingerprinting-children-civil-liberties)". Retrieved 2009-11-28. bbc. 2002 (English)  Child fingerprint plan considered (http:/ / news.Biometrics in schools 161 Types Primarily the type of biometric employed is a fingerprint scan or thumbprint scan but vein and iris scanning systems are also in use. Question d'actualité à la Ministre-Présidente en charge de l'Enseignement obligatoire et de Promotion sociale (French) . 7 Sur 7. Current usage The two countries at the forefront employing biometric technology in schools are the UK and the USA. be/ hlns/ cache/ fr/ det/ art_370100. lecdh. It was reported in August 2007 that Dubai are soon due to issue guidance to schools. Security concerns Concerns about the security implications of using conventional biometric templates in schools have been raised by a number of leading IT security experts. The Guardian. co. 2009  Schools can fingerprint children without parental consent (http:/ / www. be/ actualites/ pedagogique/ index. Cambridge stated in early 2007 that "I have not been able to find a single piece of published research which suggests that the use of biometrics in schools promotes healthy eating or improves reading skills amongst children. UK Parliament. uk/ 1/ hi/ uk/ 6417565. " Blindly fingerprinting children (http:/ / www. 2007 (English)  Singh. co. guardian. February 5. The Register.Biometric Data Collection In Schools" (http:/ / edmi. html?wt.. stm). architect of identity and access in the connected systems division at Microsoft. H. parliament. php/ 2007/ 02/ 06/ 181-empreintes-digitales-pour-securiser-l-ecole) (French)  Le lecteur d'empreintes dans les écoles crée la polémique (http:/ / www. September 7. March 4. The Register. uk/ EDMi/ EDMDetails. Biometric systems are also used in some schools in Belgium and Sweden but were withdrawn from China and Hong Kong schools due to privacy concerns. References  Empreintes digitales pour les enfants d'une école de Londres (http:/ / www. htm) (French)  Empreintes digitales pour sécuriser l'école ? (http:/ / www. html) Telegraph. theregister. 2007-01-19. co. uk/ 2002/ 07/ 22/ fingerprinting_of_uk_school_kids/ ). They do not cite independent research to support this. uk/ news/ worldnews/ europe/ eu/ 8202076/ Europe-tells-Britain-to-justify-itself-over-fingerprinting-children-in-schools. pcinpact. BBC. There is absolutely no evidence for such claims". co.  Europe tells Britain to justify itself over fingerprinting children in schools (http:/ / www.
 Fingerprint recognition in high schools (http:/ / www. • Biometrics in K-12: Ban or Buy? (Part 1) (http://www.Biometrics in schools  Quand la biométrie s'installe dans les cantines au nez et à la barbe de la Cnil (http:/ / www. pdf) Cavoukian. expatica. eyenetwatch. 2001. asp?DocID=409& m=f).H. org/ membersadmin/ casestudy/ pdf/ 17/ Stockholms_School_System.Experts warn of serious child fingerprinting risks (against schools fingerprinting our children) (http:/ / www. Eyenetwatch Biometrics.thejournal.htm#oppose_01). com/ news/ showStory. • Biometrics in K-12: Issues and Standardization (Part 2) (http://www.  Grossman. publications. 2003 (French)  "This Minnesota high school gives fingerprint scanning a whorl" (http:/ / web.jsessionid=MYWJOJM0RTD2RQFIQMGCFGGAVCBQUIV0?xml=/ news/ 2006/ 09/ 23/ nkids323. asp?subchannel_id=48& story_id=36175) used for registration. archive. shtml)  "Fingerprints Pay For School Lunch" (http:/ / www.H. uk/ pa/ cm200607/ cmhansrd/ cm070129/ text/ 70129w0013. • School Biometrics: The Legal Conundrum (http://www.A March 2007  Fingerprint Software Eliminates Privacy Concerns and Establishes Success (FindBiometrics) (http:/ / www. eschoolnews. uk/ news/ main. uk/ 2006/ 11/ 09/ hongkong_kiddyprinting/ )". 2 May 2007. com/ expert. parliament. 2003. co.com/articles/20494_1) . Retrieved 2006-11-20. gulfnews. November 9. " Halt to school fingerprinting (http:/ / www. telegraph. ipc. com/ stories/ 2001/ 01/ 24/ national/ main266789.  Fingerprinting of pupils fails to score (http:/ / archive. W. 2006.E. com/ actual/ article. htm#fact_00) 162 External links • Biometrics in Schools (http://pippaking. in Scotland (http:/ / news. ibia. 10 April 2007.00.Latest news on the use and deployment of biometric systems in schools. Ph. . com/ stories/ 2001/ 01/ 24/ national/ main266789. M. The Daily Telegraph. Ph. com/ news/ showStory.D. January 24. / T. leavethemkidsalone. Data Protection Commissioner.39122509. com/ press-release/ 4143)  LTKA . co. . Security AND Privacy (http:/ / www. shtml).  Biometrics in Schools. 25 April 2007. 2000-09-01.1742091. Journal.. htm). J. March 30.com/articles/ 20570) . cbsnews.Patricia Deubel.39040745. dataprotection. on. zdnet. K. pdf) used to login to school computers. 2007  Vein scanning in a primary school for food. January 29.com/articles/20517) .Patricia Deubel.D.E. com/ index. Ph.  Kvarnby School in Stockholm (http:/ / www. The Register.  China: Ballard. " Is school fingerprinting out of bounds? (http:/ / technology. cbsnews.H. eSchool News (http:/ / www.com/articles/20541) . / T. The Guardian.E. cfm?id=1588142006). 2007. Parliamentary Written Answer 110750 (http:/ / www. architect of identity and access in the connected systems division at Microsoft.thejournal. findbiometrics.D.A and Stoianov. Journal.Patricia Deubel. com/ articles/ 07/ 08/ 11/ 10145646.  Knight. October 2006  Devlin. CBS News. September 9.thejournal. 2006. 2010.00. particular emphasis on UK and US.leavethemkidsalone.blogspot. Scotsman. html)  Will biometrics grow up? (http:/ / www. " Nursery children to be fingerprinted (http:/ / www. uk/ weekly/ story/ 0. should I worry? (http:/ / blog. Journal.H. org/ web/ 20031111140347/ http:/ / www. 18 April 2007. jhtml.  " Biometrics & fingerprints in schools. com/ ?p=733)  Biometric Encrypton: A Positive-Sum Technology that Achieves Strong Authentication. identityblog. html)".com. eschoolnews. Ph. ca/ images/ Resources/ up-1bio_encryp. theregister. com/ biometrics-fingerprints-in-schools-â-should-i-worry/ )". eschoolnews. Colleges and other Educational Institutions (http:/ / www. / T. cfm?ArticleID=1277).E. September 23. Journal. Archived from the original (http:/ / www.Patricia Deubel. co. Zdnet.com/) . / T. • Index of relevant articles by Kim Cameron (http://www. com).  Fingerprints Pay For School Lunch (http:/ / www. cfm?ArticleID=1277) on November 11. ie/ viewprint. 2006. July. fr/ actualites/ informatique/ 0.thejournal. Hansard.com/oppose-2. guardian. xml)".D. scotsman. htm). • Biometrics in K-12: Vendor Claims and Your Business Plan (Part 3) (http://www. .
gov.June 2007. It contains primers for the following STR (Short Tandem Repeat) loci.ico.portsmouth.uk/).ico.gov/legislation/fulltext. 2007 (http://www. FGA (HUMFIBRA) Also contains primers for the Amelogenin sex indicating test. To date the practise of using biometrics in schools is only legally regulated in the USA: • Legislation in Illinois. went to schools only in the Portsmouth area. State of Michigan (http://www. or guidance are in place to regulate children's use of biometric technology. • The use of biometrics in schools (http://www.dataprotection. SB1702.pdf) . Advice from the UK Information Commissioner's Office (http://www.67.us/opinion/ datafiles/2000s/op10144. Granholm.ag. D21 (D21S11).gov. It is manufactured by ABI (Applied Biosystems). asp?DocID=409&m=f) 2007 . • 5-FAM • JOE • NED Its use in the United kingdom as the DNA profiling system used by The UK National DNA Database was superseded by the Second Generation Multiplex Plus SGM+ DNA profiling system in 1998 .asp?DocName=& SessionId=51&GA=95&DocTypeId=SB&DocNum=1702&GAID=9&LegID=29842&SpecSess=&Session=) • Legislation Illinois. pdf) . D8 (D8S1179).uk/upload/documents/library/data_protection/ detailed_specialist_guides/fingerprinting_final_view. The primers are tagged with the following fluorescent dyes for detection under electrophoresis.2/legislation/fulltext. legal opinions.asp?DocName=& SessionId=50&GA=94&DocTypeId=SB&DocNum=2549&GAID=8&LegID=23423&SpecSess=&Session=) Non statutory advice USA • Opinion of Jennifer M. 2005-2006 (http://12.uk/media/educ20070604r11.state. D18 (D18S51). THO (HUMTHO1).ie) UK • Portsmouth Finger Scanning Technology Guidance (http://www. VWA (HUMVWF31/A). Second Generation Multiplex Second Generation Multiplex is a DNA profiling system used in the United Kingdom to set up the UK National DNA Database in 1995. This.Data Protection Commissioner (http://www. the first guidance issued in the UK.23 July 2007.ilga.gov. Attorney General.43.htm) Ireland • Biometrics in Schools.Biometrics in schools 163 Legislation The following laws. Colleges and other Educational Institutions (http://www.ie/viewprint. SB2549.dataprotection.mi.
D5S818. along with two letters (XX or XY) which show the result of the gender test. It differs from CODIS in that it uses the additional markers D2S1338 and D19S433 and does not use the five markers CSF1PO. SGM Plus has eight markers in common with CODIS FGA. one number pair for each of 10 genetic markers.2 215–353 3-14 10-25 15-28 8-21 7-20 5-16 7-39.Second Generation Multiplex Plus 164 Second Generation Multiplex Plus Second Generation Multiplex Plus (SGM Plus). SGM Plus differs from SGM in that SGM does not use the markers D3S1358. SGM Plus has been used by the UK National DNA Database since 1998. D18S51. D21S11.1 21q11. Locus Chromosome Designation Location Common Sequence Motif Allele range Size Range (bp) Dye Label FGA TH01 VWA D2S1338 D3S1358 D8S117 D16S539 D18S51 D19S433 D21S11 4q28 11p15.5 12p12-pter 2q35–37. D3S1358. D7S820. TH01. D2S1338 and D19S433. is a DNA profiling system developed by Applied Biosystems.2 165–204 157–209 289–341 114–142 128–172 234–274 26–345 106–140 187–243 107 113 NED NED 5-FAM 5-FAM 5-FAM JOE 5-FAM JOE NED JOE JOE (TCTA)n(TCTG)n[(TCTA)3TA(TCTA)3TCA (TCTA)2TCCA TA] (TCTA)n 12-41. TH01. D8S1179. FGA. Each number pair denotes the two allele values for the marker .2 — — Amelogenin X: p22. D3S1358. D16S539. is recorded. An SGM Plus profile consists of a list of 10 number pairs. For example. The markers used are: VWA.1–22. D13S317. D16S539. D2S1338 and D19S433.3 Y: p11.1 3p 8 16q24-qter 18q21. and D21S11. D8S1179. the digits immediately following the D indicate the chromosome that contains the marker.3 19q12–13.2 . rather than a pair. If both alleles are the same.2-51. D21S11 is on chromosome 21. Genetic Markers The genetic markers (or loci) used by SGM Plus are all Short tandem repeats (STRs).one value is inherited from each of the subject's parents. Where a marker's designation begins with D. It is an updated version of Second Generation Multiplex.2–q21 (TTTC)3TTTT TTCT (CTTT)n CTCC (TTCC)2 (AATG)n TCTA(TCTG)3-4(TCTA)n (TGCC)n(TTCC)n TCTA (TCTG)1-3 (TCTA)n (TCTR)n (AGAT)n (AGAA)n (AAGG)(AAAG)(AAGG)(TAGG)(AAGG)n 12. D16S539. TPOX. then only a single number. D18S51.2 9-17. VWA. SGM Plus also uses the Amelogenin (Amelo) sex-indicating test.
D2 • JOE: Amelo.7 14.30 Amelogenin XX An SGM Plus profile retrieved from a DNA database would just list the allele values : 15.16.16. D21. FGA The dyes to which each primer is attached differ from those of the original SGM DNA profiling system. from low molecular weight to large molecular weight: • 5-FAM: D3. D18 • NED: D19.20. Example SGM Plus profile The SGM Plus profile of subject GT36865 from a National Institute of Standards and Technology paper is given below : Locus FGA TH01 VWA D2S1338 D3S1358 D8S117 D16S539 D18S51 D19S433 D21S11 Allele values 22.16 14.13 13. 13. 14.18.24 17. 6.9. THO. XY Each value is the number of tandem repeats within the allele. VWA. A non-standard repeat is designated by the number of complete repeat units and the number of base pairs of the partial repeat. 15.3.32. D16.22.16 19. 22.17 13.2. D8. 31.12. 11.17. separated by a decimal point.Second Generation Multiplex Plus 165 Dye tags The primers are tagged with the following fluorescent dyes for detection under electrophoresis: • 5-FAM • JOE • NED The primers for each locus are arranged on the dyes in the following order. 17. 11.14 9.15 30.22 6.13. .
However. . and in practice a more conservative chance match figure of 1 in 1. 14–12.htm?xDoD=4309589) .  Human Genetics Commission Nothing to hide. uk/ en/ 13340. pdf). nist. http:/ / www. so as to avoid overstating the value of the DNA evidence to take into account that match probabilities are only estimates. cps. appliedbiosystems. uk/ legal/ s_to_u/ scientific_evidence/ adventitious_dna_matches/ ).online version." References     http:/ / www.cstl. ie a US trillion].nist. The Human Genetics Commission has reported that the random match probability is in the region of 1 in a trillion. there was agreement within the scientific community that identifications with match probabilities lower than one in a billion would not be quoted in the courts of law. . hgc."  The UK Crown Prosecution Service states "SGM Plus DNA profiling is very discriminating between individuals.3 trillion Caucasian Americans. The probability of obtaining a match between the profiles of two unrelated individuals by chance is very low. (Report).appliedbiosystems. p. gov.gov/biotech/strbase/) • AmpFlSTR SGM Plus PCR Amplification Kit User's Manual (http://www3. com/ cms/ groups/ applied_markets_support/ documents/ generaldocuments/ cms_041049. police. pdf For the Record (http:/ / www. pdf). However it stated "When the SGM Plus profiling system was first introduced.49 (http:/ / www. nist. cstl. pdf). and to make sure that the figure used was one that was meaningful to non-specialists. of the order of 1 in a billion [note this is a UK billion. . nothing to fear? p. gov/ biotech/ strbase/ pub_pres/ Butler2003a. it has not yet been possible to carry out the required statistical testing to be able to quote this match probability. npia. uk/ UploadDocs/ DocPub/ Document/ Nothing to hide.  The Crown Prosecution Service.Second Generation Multiplex Plus 166 Probability of Identity The probability of identify (also known as the random match probability) is the probability that two individuals selected at random will have an identical genetic profile. External links • Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet DataBase (http://www. Applied Biosystems estimates the probability of identity for SGM Plus to be approximately 1 in 13 trillion for African-Americans and 1 in 3.000 million is used. htm AmpFlSTR® SGM Plus® PCR Amplification Kit User’s Manual (http:/ / www3. "B4. gov.com/sup/ URLRedirect/index. gov/ strbase/ pub_pres/ Butler2006JFS_coreSTRreview. nothing to fear . cstl. Adventitious (chance) DNA Matches" (http:/ / www.
much as one would find in calligraphic writing. The intention (will) of an individual with regard to that document For example. In the United States. illiterate people place a thumbprint on legal documents in lieu of a written signature. nickname. John Hancock's signature is the most prominent on the United States Declaration of Similar to a handwritten signature. signatures may be witnessed and recorded in the presence of a Notary Public to carry additional legal force. On legal documents. and is then typically written on its own or with a brief note to the recipient. named after the first of the signatories of the United States Declaration of Independence. Alternativly someone else duly authorized by the signer acting in the signer's presence and at the signer's direction may make the signature. In some countries. This is why the signature often appears at the bottom or end of a document. "to sign") is a handwritten (and sometimes stylized) depiction of someone's name. The signature of a famous person is sometimes known as an autograph. Rather than providing authentication for a document. one is John Hancock. There are many other terms which are synonymous with 'signature'. or even a simple "X" that a person writes on documents as a proof of identity and intent. the autograph is given as a souvenir which acknowledges the recipient's access to the autographer. These include by a mechanical or rubber stamp facsimile. signatures encompass marks and actions Signature of Mahatma Gandhi of all sorts that are indicative of identity and intent. the final . a Independence and the Articles of Confederation. Many individuals have much more fanciful signatures than their normal cursive writing. In the United States. but rather to additionally provide evidence of deliberation and informed consent. including elaborate ascenders.Signature 167 Signature A signature (from Latin: signare. The provenance of the document (identity) 2. The legal rule is that unless a statute specifically prescribes a particular method of making a signature it may be made in any number of ways. signature work describes the work as readily identifying its creator. descenders and exotic flourishes. an illiterate signatory can make a "mark" (often an "X" but occasionally a personalized symbol). A signature may be confused with an autograph. so long as the document is countersigned by a literate witness. The writer of a signature is a signatory. As an example. Signature of Benjamin Franklin In many countries. Function and types of signatures The traditional function of a signature is evidential: it is to give evidence of: 1. the role of a signature in many consumer contracts is not solely to provide evidence of the identity of the contracting party. A signature may be made by the purported signer. which is chiefly an artistic signature.
A notorious case was the signature of Johannes Vermeer on the fake "Supper at Emmaus" made by the art-forger Han van Meegeren. . In e-mail and newsgroup usage. and sometimes quotations and ASCII art. that this type of signature is not related to electronic signatures or digital signatures. and official documents. for example celebrities. often with some distinguishing prefix. For these languages. Users can set one or more lines of East Asian name seal custom text known as a signature block to be automatically appended to their messages. Vermeer's signature By analogy. Some web sites also allow graphics to be used. This kind of flourish is also known as a paraph. legislation. called autopens. people typically use name-seals with the name written in tensho script (seal script) in lieu of a handwritten signature. For example. however. or are added to a fake painting to support its authenticity. This text usually includes a name. Note. Members of Congress in the United States have begun having their signature made into a TrueType font file. the shape of a Coca-Cola bottle. or a piece of information. The term "signature" is also used to mean the characteristics that give an object. Fake signatures are sometimes added to enhance the value of a painting. In the East Asia languages of Chinese. contact information. the climate phenomenon known as ENSO or El Niño has characteristic modes in different ocean basins which are often referred to as the "signature" of ENSO. which are more technical in nature and not directly readable by human eyes. Other uses The signature on a painting or other work of art has always been an important item in the assessment of art. another type of signature exists which is independent of one's language. are capable of automatically reproducing an individual's signature. A shortened form of a signature block. only including one's name.Signature "k" in John Hancock's famous signature on the US Declaration of Independence loops back to underline his name. and Korean. its identity—for example. More recently. the word "signature" may be used to refer to the characteristic expression of a process or thing. heads of state or CEOs. can be used to simply indicate the end of a post or response. Several cultures whose languages use writing systems other than alphabets do not share the Western notion of signatures per se: the "signing" of one's name results in a written product no different from the result of "writing" one's name in the standard way.  168 Mechanically produced signatures Special signature machines. Also see Calligraphy. This allows staff members in the Congressman's office to easily reproduce it on correspondence. to write or to sign involves the same written characters. These are typically used by people required to sign many documents. Japanese.
. also spelled parafe. it is the appearance of the signature which is protected. ISBN 0062755080). References  Oxford English Dictionary. reverso. google. lettering."  " Copyright Basics (http:/ / www.  The paraph is used in graphology analyses. the appearance of signatures (not the names themselves) may be protected under copyright law. Cavendish Publishing. initial or signature in French ( Paraphe entry (http:/ / dictionary. Critics. ISBN 185941530X.  Spilsbury. mere variations of typographic ornamentation. the appearance of signatures (not the names themselves) may be protected under copyright law. reverso translation software (http:/ / dictionary. the traveller will be cleared through the Customs control point. August 1990. If so.Signature 169 Copyright Under British law. however.000 Qantas platinum frequent flyers." Smartgate SmartGate is an automated border processing system being introduced by the Australian Customs and Border Protection Service and New Zealand Customs Service. reverso. sections 2 through 7  Paraphe. is a term meaning flourish. length of your nose. It has been deemed illegal to publish signatures in Canada. (http:/ / www. "An individual's signature may be protected under law as an artistic work. Cavendish Publishing. p. Harpercollins. the unauthorised reproduction of the signature will infringe copyright. Media Law. copyright. Signatures. according to an e-mail sent to prospective users. pdf)". Media Law. noting such things as your bone structure.  Spilsbury. and the distance between your eyes. Sallie (2000). Under United States Copyright Law. It is a secure and simple system that performs the customs and immigration checks normally made by a Customs Officer when a traveller arrives in either Australia or New Zealand. the unauthorised reproduction of the signature will infringe copyright. p. According to a report on the Seven Network. 439 (http:/ / books. gov/ circs/ circ1. net/ ). 2011. to include over 1.. "Problems in introducing biometric identifiers to . If so. net/ french-english/ paraphe). Sallie (2000). com/ books?id=X2qyT3Y7IpEC& pg=PA439& sig=zJC_raZTlbdzKOsJw5fp9OiLqcs).]."  Eligible Australian ePassport holders and holders of eligible International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) compliant ePassports from other countries will be able to use Smartgate once it is rolled out in Australian international airports. they will be referred to a Customs officer. and using facial recognition technology. p. com/ view/ Entry/ 101505?redirectedFrom=john hancock#eid40416795). United States Copyright Office. ISBN 185941530X. accessed May 3. names [. or coloring" are not eligible for copyright. The name itself will not be protected by copyright. Passengers are to be photographed and their details added to the SmartGate database within 24 hours. it is the appearance of the signature which is protected. "The system compares your passport photo with digital images taken by three cameras. If there is a successful match. Smartgate will also undertake immigration and customs checks. Trials of the SmartGate system in conjunction with the biometric passport technology were expanded in late 2004 from use with Qantas air-crew (which began in 2002). "titles. based on the Collins French-English Dictionary. Retrieved 15 March 2011. "An individual's signature may be protected under law as an artistic work. According to an article by ZDNet Australia. 439. however. The name itself will not be protected by copyright. Flexible edition. oed. will match this image with the digitised image stored in their ePassport. If there is not a successful match. Australia Smartgate takes a live image of a travellers face.  80 Corpis Juris Secondum. Passengers require an ePassport to use the technology. are claiming that the facial-recognition technology is not accurate enough for the use of national security tasks.
customs. beyondtomorrow. au/ site/ page5552. html). . gov. It is now available at other international airports nationally. au  http:/ / www. au/ stories/ ep8/ smart.00. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. customs. Beyond Tomorrow. au/ news/ security/ soa/ Biometric_doubts_see_travellers_photographed_fingerprinted/ 0. co. com. html) on 2007-04-07. Retrieved 2007-04-28. "Biometric doubts see travelers photographed.2000061744. archive. This announcement. 170 New Zealand On 20 August 2009. org/ web/ 20070407011839/ http:/ / www. com. beyondtomorrow. fingerprinted" (http:/ / www. The roll-out of the system is expected to be completed within two years. Caroline. nz/ politics-news/ eight-minutes-clear-customs-2933728  http:/ / www. gov. com.  Pearce. . James (2004-04-05). asp . announcements were made to expand the Smartgate system to New Zealand. External links • Australian Customs Service  • Smartgate  References  West.39143937. zdnet. ZDNet Australia.  http:/ / tvnz. Retrieved 2007-04-28.Smartgate Australian passports means Australian citizens visiting the United States will be fingerprinted and photographed under that country's anti-terrorism measures. was part of an agreement struck between himself and Australian Prime Minister Kevin Rudd in an effort to allow Trans-Tasman travellers to "transit through the entire [customs] process within eight minutes" to further free up the already liberal travel arrangements between the two nations. made by New Zealand Prime Minister John Key on an official visit to Australia. "Smartgate" (http:/ / web. au/ stories/ ep8/ smart."  Brisbane was the first Australian international airport to deploy Customs Smartgate system on an operational basis in September 2007. htm).
doi:10. A majority of these descriptors presently fall into the category of Soft Biometrics. htm?page=copyright&id=3189) .. Published in SPIE 2004. International Conference on Biometric Authentication. C.fr/util/popuppubli. H. Velardo. Published in ICIP 2009. OL18720791M. hair colour.1007/s11042-010-0635-7. presence of beard. presence of moustache. Jain lately redefined Soft Biometrics as a set of traits providing information about an individual. Published in BTAS 2010. • "Ross et al.". Handbook of multibiometrics. used by humans to distinguish their peers. Springer 2006. the computational and time efficiency and human compliance.Tubaro/ ICIP_USB_Proceedings_v2/pdfs/0000037. (1956). Dass. "Soft biometric traits for personal recognition systems. tattoos... In other words the soft biometric traits instances are created in a natural way. "Bag of Soft Biometrics for Person Identification: new trends and challenges. Dugelay.  Jain.C.en.eurecom.fr/util/popuppubli.cse. References  Dantcheva. weight..F. 6. • Weight estimation from visual body appearance (http://www.en.eurecom.it/users/Stefano. behavioural or adhered human characteristics. eye colour.msu.fr/util/popuppubli. A.pdf).eurecom. • Behavioural: gait. (2004). A. A. body characteristics like height or weight as well as indelible marks such as birth marks. Published in MMSP 2010. • Soft biometrics systems : Reliability and asymptotic bounds (http://www.". shape and size of the head.T.Soft biometrics 171 Soft biometrics Soft Biometrics traits are physical. morphological and anthropometric determinations  . doi:10. though these are not able to individually authenticate the subject because they lack distinctiveness and permanence  Soft Biometric traits Traits which accept the above definition include.-L. K. htm?page=copyright&id=3231). Alphonse Bertillon: Father of Scientific Detection. Soft Biometrics inherit a main part of the advantages of Biometrics and furthermore endorses by its own assets. . Multimedia Tools and Applications. D'Angelo.elet.. beard and skin. International Series on Biometrics.edu/biometrics/Publications/ SoftBiometrics/JainDassNandakumar_SoftBiometrics_SPIE04. Introduction The beginnings of Soft Biometrics can be identified as laid by Alphonse Bertillon in the 19th century. keystroke. accessories. height. J. htm?page=copyright&id=3232).". scars or tattoos.  Rhodes.pdf).en. established and time–proven by humans with the aim of differentiating individuals. Nandakumar. unlike in the classical biometric case. hair. The most common traits he introduced were colour of eye. Further reading • Person recognition using a bag of facial soft biometrics (BoFSB) (http://www. but are not limited to: • Physical: skin colour.1007/978-3-540-25948-0_99. • Adhered human characteristics: clothes colour. He first proposed a personal identification system based on biometric. Furthermore they do not require enrolment. S. nor the consent or the cooperation of the observed subject. classifiable in pre–defined human compliant categories. These categories are.polimi. (October 2010). • Can soft biometric traits assist user recognition? (http://www. Vol. Published in BTAS 2010.K. • Facial marks: Soft biometric for face recognition (ftp://ftp. Some of the advantages include non obtrusiveness.
For software that converts speech to text. it is common to first perform a speaker identification process to create a list of "best matches" and then perform a series of verification processes to determine a conclusive match..en. There is a difference between speaker recognition (recognizing who is speaking) and speech recognition (recognizing what is being said). If the speaker claims to be of a certain identity and the voice is used to verify this claim. Speaker verification has earned speaker recognition its classification as a "behavioral biometric. a speech sample or "utterance" is compared against a previously created voice print.eurecom.. Finally. or model. identification is the task of determining an unknown speaker's identity. Variants of speaker recognition Each speaker recognition system has two phases: Enrollment and verification. speaking style). Conversely. These two terms are frequently confused. size and shape of the throat and mouth) and learned behavioral patterns (e. as is voice recognition. presenting your passport at border control is a verification process . Speaker identification systems can also be implemented covertly without the user's knowledge to identify talkers in a discussion. In a sense speaker verification is a 1:1 match where one speaker's voice is matched to one template (also called a "voice print" or "voice model") whereas speaker identification is a 1:N match where the voice is compared against N templates.the agent compares your face to the picture in the document. the utterance is compared against multiple voice prints in order to determine the best match(es) while verification systems compare an utterance against a single voice print. Speaker verification is usually employed as a "gatekeeper" in order to provide access to a secure system (e. In forensic applications. check if a user is already enrolled in a system. These systems operate with the user's knowledge and typically requires their cooperation." Verification versus identification There are two major applications of speaker recognition technologies and methodologies. there is a difference between speaker recognition (recognizing who is speaking) and speaker diarisation (recognizing when the same speaker is speaking). etc. Published in ISCAS 2010. a police officer comparing a sketch of an assailant against a database of previously documented criminals to find the closest match(es) is an identification process. there is a difference between the act of authentication (commonly referred to as speaker verification or speaker authentication) and identification.g.: telephone banking). see Speech recognition. identification is different from verification. From a security perspective. htm?page=copyright&id=3028).such a system cannot recognise speech from random speakers very accurately.Soft biometrics • Color based soft biometry for hooligans detection (http://www. voice pitch.fr/util/popuppubli. These acoustic patterns reflect both anatomy (e. this is called verification or authentication. Speaker recognition has a history dating back some four decades and uses the acoustic features of speech that have been found to differ between individuals. On the other hand. template. During enrollment. In addition. For example. Because of the process . In the verification phase.g. Speaker recognition is the computing task of validating a user's claimed identity using characteristics extracted from their voices. but it can reach high accuracy for individual voices with which it has been trained. 172 Speaker recognition Voice recognition redirects here. alert automated systems of speaker changes. For identification systems.g. Voice recognition is combination of the two where it uses learned aspects of a speakers voice to determine what is being said . the speaker's voice is recorded and typically a number of features are extracted to form a voice print.
itl. .Vector Quantization and decision trees. (2003) Bibliography • Beigi. Voice changes due to ageing may impact system performance over time. verification is faster than identification. Speaker recognition systems fall into two categories: text-dependent and text-independent. matrix representation. In a text-dependent system. The technology traditionally uses existing microphones and voice transmission technology allowing recognition over long distances via ordinary telephones (wired or wireless). but incorrect application can have the opposite effect. as in the case for many forensic applications.g. Some systems adapt the speaker models after each successful verification to capture such long-term changes in the voice. the enrollment may happen without the user's knowledge. though there is debate regarding the overall security impact imposed by automated adaptation.: passwords and PINs) or knowledge-based information can be employed in order to create a multi-factor authentication scenario. Homayoon (2011). In this case the text during enrollment and test is different. Lund University. As text-independent technologies do not compare what was said at enrollment and verification. Text-independent systems are most often used for speaker identification as they require very little if any cooperation by the speaker. Phd thesis. pattern matching algorithms. hidden Markov models. New York: Springer. ISBN 978-0-387-77591-3. Noise reduction algorithms can be employed to improve accuracy.nist.gov/div893/biometrics/ Biometricsfromthemovies. such as cohort models.pdf) • Elisabeth Zetterholm. A Phonetic Study of Perceptual Illusions and Acoustic Success. neural networks. the use of shared-secrets (e.Speaker recognition involved. In addition. Voice Imitation. Some systems also use "anti-speaker" techniques. 173 Technology The various technologies used to process and store voice prints include frequency estimation. Capture of the biometric is seen as non-invasive. Performance degradation can result from changes in behavioural attributes of the voice and from enrolment using one telephone and verification on another telephone ("cross channel"). Digitally recorded audio voice identification and analogue recorded voice identification uses electronic measurements as well as critical listening skills that must be applied by a forensic expert in order for the identification to be accurate. Fundamentals of Speaker Recognition. prompts can either be common across all speakers (e. In fact. verification applications tend to also employ speech recognition to determine what the user is saying at the point of authentication. Ambient noise levels can impede both collection of the initial and subsequent voice samples. If the text must be the same for enrollment and verification this is called text-dependent recognition.: a common pass phrase) or unique. Integration with two-factor authentication products is expected to increase. Notes References • National Institute of Standards and Technology (http://www. Gaussian mixture models. and world models.g.
it/people/falavi/IdVe. IEC 80000-14" specification is one of a set of International Standards produced jointly by the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) under their Joint Technical Committee.php?search=beigi) Telebiometrics Telebiometrics applies biometrics to telecommunications and telecommunications to remote biometric sensing. IEEE eLearning Library (formerly IEEE Expert Now eLearning) Tutuorial.Scholarpedia (http://www. References  http:/ / www. Dogs are frequently used as model organisms in the study of human disease.scholarpedia.Voice: Technologies and Algorithms for Biometrics Applications. Working with BioAPI (Biometric Application Programming Interface) and BIP (Biometric Interworking Protocol). has drafted a standard for Quantities and Units defining such physiological interactions for biometrics. International Standards that support systems performing biometric enrollment and verification or identification have begun to focus on human physiological thresholds as constraints and frameworks for "plug and play" telebiometric networks. With the emergence of multimodal biometrics systems gathering data from different sensors and contexts. "Telebiometrics related to human physiology.phonelosers. • Speaker recognition . IEC TC25/WG 5.html) • Circumventing Voice Authentication (http://www. 2010 (http://ieee-elearning.org/course/search.itc. in conjunction with ITU and ISO.org/article/Speaker_recognition) • .org/pla-radio-episode-17-voice-authentication/ ) The PLA Radio podcast recently featured a simple way to fool rudimentary voice authentication systems. Sep. org/ cgi/ content/ full/ 43/ 4/ 545 .Speaker recognition 174 External links • Speaker Identification and Verification (http://ditelo. Attending to these wetware protocols has become particularly urgent in the context of a recent study  suggesting possible pathological effects from RFID transponders implanted in dogs. vetpathology.
an individual must provide biographic and biometric information such as fingerprints. the TWIC Final Rule. outer continental shelf facilities. The new measures were fully implemented on April 15. and all U. sit for a digital photograph and successfully pass a security threat assessment conducted by TSA. Maritime sector While TWIC may be implemented across other transportation modes in the future. Coast Guard credentialed merchant mariners. sets forth regulatory requirements to implement this program in the maritime mode first. • Determine the eligibility of an individual to be authorized unescorted access to secure areas of the maritime transportation system. published in the Federal Register on January 25. Workers required to obtain a TWIC include credentialed merchant mariners. port facility employees. Those seeking unescorted access to secure areas aboard affected vessels.Transportation Worker Identification Credential 175 Transportation Worker Identification Credential The Transportation Worker Identification Credential (or TWIC) program is a Transportation Security Administration and U. To obtain a TWIC. and vessels regulated under the Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002.000 individuals will require TWICs. Coast Guard initiative in the United States. long shore workers. must obtain a TWIC. • Identify individuals who fail to maintain their eligibility qualifications after being permitted unescorted access to secure areas of the nation's maritime transportation system and revoke the individual's permissions.S. • Enhance security by ensuring that unauthorized individuals are denied unescorted access to secure areas of the nation's maritime transportation system. 2007. An estimated 750. A sample Transportation Worker Identification Credential. . 2009. or MTSA. and all Coast Guard credentialed merchant mariners.S. The TWIC program provides a tamper-resistant biometric credential to maritime workers requiring unescorted access to secure areas of port facilities. truck drivers. and. The program's goals are: • Positively identify authorized individuals who require unescorted access to secure areas of the nation's maritime transportation system. and others requiring unescorted access to secure areas of security-regulated maritime facilities and vessels.
 Permanent disqualifying criminal offenses An applicant is permanently disqualified if convicted of the following felonies: Espionage. fraud (does not include welfare fraud and passing bad checks). a crime involving a transportation security incident . sedition. such as airports. and may search to see if other extensive foreign or domestic criminal convictions exist. and refineries. or attempts/conspiracy to commit these acts. One chemical manufacturing industry representative says it's only a matter of time before the entire manufacturing industry requires workers to have TWIC cards. other databases. Delays to applicants According to a report by the National Employment Law Project. smuggling. the TWIC may be required in the future for other security-sensitive transportation sectors.5 million port workers could not work for an average of 69 days because they had not obtained a TWIC by the implementation date. Over 10. National Crime Information Center (NCIC). rape. terrorism . Rollout issues The Government Accountability Office has said the TWIC program has suffered from lack of oversight and poor coordination. bribery. some TWIC applicants have experienced significant delays. extortion. terrorist watchlists. and indictments for certain offenses and other background information. Other transportation sectors In addition to the maritime sector. chemical plants. serious racketeering offenses. kidnapping. In the case of arrests that do not indicate the disposition. fraudulent entry into a seaport. The assessment considers convictions. unlawful acts involving explosives. Specifically. bomb threats. TSA will determine immigration status and look for records indicating mental incapacity. murder. many applicants that receive initial denials based on background check returns face waits of six to eight months to complete the process to obtain a TWIC. a number of organizations have complained at the financial impact the program will have on already highly regulated industries. arson. and lesser racketeering offenses. treason. the applicant will be notified by TSA.Transportation Worker Identification Credential 176 Security threat assessment Each TWIC applicant undergoes a security threat assessment. robbery. or attempts/conspiracy to commit these acts. drug distribution/importation. improper transportation of hazardous material. including searching international databases. Delays regarding developing and implementing card reader technology have meant that for the initial period TWIC cards will not be used in card readers.  . immigration violations. assault with intent to kill. and the applicant must provide TSA with written proof that the arrest did not result in conviction for the offense. TSA may conduct other analyses. railroads. for: Unlawful acts involving firearms.000 applicants out of the 1. Interim disqualifiying criminal offenses An applicant is disqualified for a period of time for other convictions. Other parts of the security threat assessment In addition to criminal offenses.   Additionally. arrest warrants. if the applicant was convicted in the past seven years and/or released from incarceration resulting from conviction within the past five years.
References • TWIC Program description by TSA (http://www. law. gcn.regulations.gov/what_we_do/layers/twic/index.shtm) • Pre-enrollment page (https://twicprogram. html  http:/ / www.tsa. . "Guidance for the implementation of the TWIC Program in the maritime sector" (http://www. environmental damage. 70101. Subpart B (http:/ / ecfr.uscg. 2009. § 2332b(g) (http:/ / www. the accidental whorl. Part 1572. gov/ xnews/ releases/ pr_1209745179774. the lower arm bone.S.tsa.gov/what_we_do/layers/twic/index. 3. com/ online/ vol1_no1/ 43463-1. the plain arch. The ulnar loop is just one of 8 most common fingerprint patterns. 6.S. and the double loop whorl.pdf) External links • TWIC Program website by TSA (http://www. 3cdn. shtm  Title 49. 2007 (http://www. html  Press Release (http:/ / nelp. which include the radial loop. the tented arch. The term “economic disruption” does not include a work stoppage or other employee-related action not related to terrorism and resulting from an employer-employee dispute.gov/TWICWebApp/) Ulnar loop Ulnar loop is a term used in classifying fingerprints. cornell. 1. the side closer to the ulna.shtm) • TWIC Implementation in the Maritime Sector Final Rule.S. or economic disruption in a particular area. html#g)  A transportation security incident is a security incident resulting in a significant loss of life.dhs. 2& idno=49)  As defined in 18 U. edu/ uscode/ 18/ 2332b. wafb. Code of Federal Regulations.  http:/ / www.tsa. com/ print/ 22_04/ 30243-1. Coast Guard's NVIC 03-07. pdf) from the National Employment Law Project.C. washingtontechnology. the central pocket loop. asp?s=9786040  http:/ / www. 19. as defined in 46 U. January 25. net/ 547b3ef519c097ad9d_tkm6bnuqf. 2010.gov/ fdmspublic/ContentViewer?objectId=09000064802c4d66&disposition=attachment&contentType=pdf) • U. gov/ cgi/ t/ text/ text-idx?c=ecfr& rgn=div6& view=text& node=49:9. gpoaccess. Ulnar loops start on the pinky-side of the finger. Retrieved Feb 11. transportation system disruption. dhs. the plain whorl.Transportation Worker Identification Credential 177 Notes  http:/ / www.mil/hq/g-m/nvic/0-07/FINAL TWIC NVIC 07-02-07. dated July 8. com/ global/ story.C.
which had been obtained though waterboarding. Retrieved January 20. Bradley (January 20. com/ emea/ products/ biometrics/ ). "Report Says Justice Not Served in Murder of Daniel Pearl. pearl. Though used by the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Central Intelligence Agency. CNN. hitachi-america. 2011). html). U. 1–2. would not hold up in court and used vein matching evidence to bolster their case. execution/ ). fujitsu. . Ltd. Retrieved January 21.  "PV2000" (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. Retrieved January 21. go. mantratec. Finger scanning devices have been deployed for use in Japanese financial institutions. Hitachi America. daniel. Spencer (January 20. . html). Retrieved January 21.  Ackerman. in which light reflected by hemoglobin in a subject's blood vessels is recorded by a CCD camera behind a transparent surface. PalmSecure (Fujitsu). Carol (January 20. . also called vascular technology.  "Your hand is the key: The world's first contactless palm vein authentication technology" (http:/ / www. is a technique of biometric identification through the analysis of the patterns of blood vessels visible from the surface of the skin. com/ biometrics/ palm-vein-recognition/ palm-vein-authentication-2000. compressed. USA Today. com/ US/ report-justice-served-murder-daniel-pearl/ story?id=12721909). 2011.  Schneier. Schneier on Security. The Washington Post. as is possible with fingerprints. com/ blog/ archives/ 2007/ 08/ another_biometr. com/ dangerroom/ 2011/ 01/ qaeda-killers-veins-implicate-him-in-journos-murder/ ). . . and turnstiles. cnn. 2011). schneier. .  Cratty. Retrieved January 21. com/ communities/ ondeadline/ post/ 2011/ 01/ report-forensic-evidence-shows-911-plotter-killed-journal-reporter/ 1). ABC News.  "Finger Vein Authentication Technology" (http:/ / www. "Report: Forensic evidence ties 9/11 plotter to Pearl's killing" (http:/ / content. 2011. Douglas (January 20. html). The data patterns are processed. this method of identification is still in development and has not yet been universally adopted by crime labs as it is not considered as reliable as more established techniques. 2011. 2011).Vein matching 178 Vein matching Vein matching. . . Wall Street Journal Reporter" (http:/ / abcnews. However.000-word investigative report published in January 2011 by Georgetown University faculty and students. Mantra Softech marketed a device in South Asia that scans vein patterns in palms for attendance recording. it can be used in conjunction with existing forensic data in support of a conclusion. Wired.  Commercial applications Vascular/vein pattern recognition (VPR) technology has been developed commercially by Hitachi since 1997.S. "Photos of hands backed up Pearl slaying confession. us/ products/ business/ smart_solutions/ finger_vein/ ). Peter (January 20. 2011. . "Report: Top al-Qaeda figure killed Pearl" (http:/ / www.  Stanglin. 2011. 2011. Computer security expert Bruce Schneier stated that a key advantage of vein patterns for biometric identification is the lack of a known method of forging a usable "dummy". 2011. Ltd. "Qaeda Killer’s Veins Implicate Him In Journo’s Murder" (http:/ / www. Retrieved January 21. wired. such as fingerprinting. Retrieved January 21. 2011). 2011. References  Finn. "Another Biometric: Vein Patterns" (http:/ / www. com/ 2011/ WORLD/ asiapcf/ 01/ 20/ pakistan. kiosks. 2011). pp. 2007). report finds" (http:/ / www. The FBI and the CIA used the matching technique on Mohammed in 2004 and again in 2007. Retrieved January 21. . notably a "bulging vein" running across his hand. federal investigators used photos from the video recording of the beheading of American journalist Daniel Pearl to match the veins on the visible areas of the perpetrator to that of captured al-Qaeda operative Khalid Sheikh Mohammed. and digitized for future biometric authentication of the subject. Bruce (August 8. 2011. India: Mantra Softech Pvt. Fujitsu developed a version that does not require direct physical contact with the vein scanner for improved hygiene in the use of electronic point of sale devices. Retrieved January 21. Officials were concerned that his confession. com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/ 2011/ 01/ 19/ AR2011011907114. Forensic identification According to a 31.  Blackburn. usatoday.
Shiohara. Prathyusha. doi:10. Bhattacharyya. "Finger Vein Image Recognition Based on Tri-value Template Fuzzy Matching" (http://www.. Shigeru (September 2005).thefreelibrary. Sasaki. International Journal of Control and Automation 3 (1).1007/978-3-540-76414-4_16. Wang.acm. Ishani. Li. Lu. Zheng. Proceedings of the 9th WSEAS International Conference on Multimedia Systems & Signal Processing (Wuhan University): 206–211. Kim.sersc.2009.. IEEE Transactions on Image Processing (IEEE Signal Processing Society) 18 (9): 2127–2136.org/iel5/83/ 4358840/04926208. "Palm Vein Authentication System: A Review" (http://www. -a0210517119) at The Free Library • The Truth Left Behind: Inside the Kidnapping and Murder of Daniel Pearl (http://treesaver.1109/TIP. Prabir (2007). Jane. Tai-hoon. Proceedings of The Biometric Consortium Conference (Fujitsu Laboratories).V.. • Chen. Bhattacharya.pdf). Qin. Rui (December 2009). "Palm Vein Extraction and Matching for Personal Authentication" (http://www. You. Hong (May 2009). Yi-Bo.1145/1655925.ieee.publicintegrity.pdf).com/Finger-vein+image+recognition+combining+modified+hausdorff+distance. • Kumar.us/e-library/conferences/2009/hangzhou/MUSP/MUSP34. (September 2009).org/Xplore/login.2023153. doi:10. "A new palm vein matching method based on ICP algorithm" (http://portal. ISSN 1790-5117.springerlink. A.org/ daniel_pearl) at the Center for Public Integrity . Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Concordia University) 4781.ieee.jsp?url=http://ieeexplore. • Zhang.cfm?id=1656145).org/citation. ISBN 978-960-474-077-2. External links • Finger-vein image recognition combining modified hausdorff distance with minutiae feature matching (http:// www.1656145.Vein matching 179 Further reading • Watanabe.pdf?arnumber=4926208&authDecision=-203).wseas.com/content/84625090872p1287/). ISSN 1057-7149. Haifen.com/downloads/GLOBAL/labs/papers/palmvein.pdf). Morito. ISBN 978-1-60558-710-3. K. Guangming. doi:10. International Conference on Information Systems (Harbin Institute of Technology). Liukui. Alisherov. Masaki. • Sarkar. "Personal Authentication Using Hand Vein Triangulation and Knuckle Shape" (http://ieeexplore. • Chen. Farkhod.org/journals/IJCA/vol3_no1/3.fujitsu. Debnath (March 2010). "Palm vein authentication technology and its applications" (https://www-s.
thus preventing usage of ordinary video. An experienced voice therapist can quite reliably evaluate the voice. The vocal cords of a person speaking for an extended period of time will suffer from tiring. fundamental frequencies are usually between 80 and 300 Hz. but can provide useful indirect evidence of that movement. Less invasive imaging methods such as x-rays or ultrasounds do not work because the vocal cords are surrounded by cartilage which distort image quality. some believe that the truthfulness or emotional state of speakers can be determined using Voice Stress Analysis or Layered Voice Analysis. stroboscopic imaging is only useful when the vocal fold vibratory pattern is closely periodic. that is. which makes speaking difficult. and high-speed videos  provide an option but in order to see the vocal folds. Analysis methods Voice problems that require voice analysis most commonly originate from the vocal folds or the laryngeal musculature that controls them. . dynamic analysis of the vocal folds and their movement is physically difficult. sales people) this tiring can cause voice failures and sick leaves. However. Stroboscopic. since the folds are subject to collision forces with each vibratory cycle and to drying from the air being forced through the small gap between them. Among professional voice users (i. and the laryngeal musclature is intensely active during speech or singing and is subject to tiring.e. as obtained from a microphone) or the oral airflow waveform from a circumferentially vented (CV)  mask is recorded outside the mouth and then filtered by a mathematical method to remove the effects of the vocal tract. Typical voice problems A medical study of the voice can be. invasive measurement of movement. In inverse filtering. To evaluate these problems vocal loading needs to be objectively measured. The location of the vocal folds effectively prohibits direct. Such studies include mostly medical analysis of the voice i. phoniatrics. More controversially. placing objects in the pharynx usually triggers a gag reflex that stops voicing and closes the larynx. a fiberoptic probe leading to the camera has to be positioned in the throat. In addition. In order to objectively evaluate the improvement in voice quality there has to be some measure of voice quality. teachers. The most important indirect methods are currently inverse filtering of either microphone or oral airflow recordings and electroglottography (EGG). in which electrodes placed on either side of the subject's throat at the level of the vocal folds record the changes in the conductivity of the throat according to how large a portion of the vocal folds are touching each other. It thus yields one-dimensional information of the contact area. The other kind of noninvasive indirect indication of vocal fold motion is the electroglottography. Movements in the vocal cords are rapid. such as in speech recognition. Neither inverse filtering nor EGG are sufficient to completely describe the complex 3-dimensional pattern of vocal fold movement. the process of speaking exerts a load on the vocal cords where the tissue will suffer from tiring.Voice analysis 180 Voice analysis Voice analysis is the study of speech sounds for purposes other than linguistic content. but also speaker identification. This method produces an estimate of the waveform of the glottal airflow pulses. the speech sound (the radiated acoustic pressure waveform. for instance. In addition. analysis of the voice of patients who have had a polyp removed from his or her vocal cords through an operation.e. but this requires extensive training and is still always subjective. Another active research topic in medical voice analysis is vocal loading evaluation. which in turn reflect the movements of the vocal folds.
pdf  http:/ / www.Voice analysis 181 External links • Voice Problems and Vocal Disorder Online Community (VoiceMatters. kayelemetrics. com/ Product%20Info/ 9710/ CHSV%20Product%20Announcement. glottal. htm  http:/ / www. com/ Products/ airflowmasks. voicematters.net)  References  http:/ / www. net .
Ewawer. Christopherlin. Eagleal. Gwernol. Saftorangen. Jlittlet. Piano non troppo. Helmandsare. Ironholds.php?oldid=429146135 Contributors: Abduallah mohammed. Elgaard. Daivesh. BenFrantzDale. SCΛRECROW. HalfShadow. Iner22. LouScheffer. Michael Hardy. Gaius Cornelius. Bfigura's puppy. Billinghurst. Pingveno. Gabbe. Ilyushka88. Guagd. Waldir. Fordmadoxfraud. Courcelles. Rubin16. Evanoff. Everything counts. Szenti. Metsfan86. Alejo2083. John Quincy Adding Machine. Barend. 76 anonymous edits DNA barcoding Source: http://en. BenjaminGittins. Gaius Cornelius. Adequate. Mayatiita. Avoided. Jrtayloriv. Ultramandk. Cohesion. Toytoy. Jamesflint. BW95. Acolin f. Stefan. Ceoil.. Vegaswikian. Foreone. GraemeL. Swarm. Bwefler. Nirvana2013. Nerd. GRBerry. BuffaloChip97. Miguel. Crabbi. Theda. Mormegil. Stonor. Dnalabsindia. JGF Wilks.wikipedia. Douglas the Comeback Kid. CHallam. Loren. AndrewSamuel. Guiness06. Stifle.wikipedia. Canley. Blackisblack. Qlinz.org/w/index. Falcon8765. 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Ejshear. Manway.Article Sources and Contributors 182 Article Sources and Contributors Biometrics Source: http://en. BenFrantzDale. Movementarian. Wildhartlivie. ZooFari. Bungle. S3bst3r. ANDROBETA. Awareinc. Garethhamilton. Calvados. MelissaRichard. Isilanes. Flowanda. LoopZilla.wikipedia. Gabbe. Neilc. Sekiyu.org/w/index. Recurring dreams. Auridia. Cimon Avaro. Knownot. EJVargas. Nabeth. Jonathan O'Donnell. Earthsky. HamburgerRadio. Towsonu2003. Aradic-es. Lord of the Left Hand. Omarteacher. Ntsimp. Finlay McWalter. GreaterWikiholic. Epbr123.g. Coolcole. Captain Obvious and his crime-fighting dog. Gj7. Amsaim. Utcursch. Visudoc. J.dalton. Meneth. Jonathan Haas. David Gale. GIR. Steggall. Mateo SA. Joseph Solis in Australia. Unique85. Aude.org/w/index. Pigman. Sicarii3. Luk. Du3357. Pakaran. UU. Ardagul87. Rcawsey. EoGuy.delanoy. 2 anonymous edits Combined DNA Index System Source: http://en. Djechelon. Torinfo. Akendall. Shyamal. Avrilko. Excavator. 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WaterBreak55. Septegram. UnitedStatesian. Caltas. Ankan85.lima. Michaelkrewson.wikipedia. J. Kewlceo. Loungeapple.org/w/index. Pak21. Steinsky. Topbanana. Joolz. Rich Farmbrough. Pegship. Giftlite. Grika. Phaedrus86. Ahoerstemeier. Ronz. Chaparyan. Seabhcan. Drogers. Paul Barlow. Lee1-LCRC. Jwilliams259.php?oldid=418326445 Contributors: Fallschirmjäger. Blanchardb. MeUser42.php?oldid=336080927 Contributors: Andreas Kaufmann.delanoy.wikipedia. David Underdown. Scott Burley. Kerowyn. Red7jon. Gaius Cornelius. Mudsplatter. Loyolaguy. Cybercobra. Pengo. Kalisti. World. Kori1701. Prietoquilmes. Michael Hardy. Caradhye. Iridescent. EdBever. JohnEBredehoft. Yintan. The Anome.1495. Caerwine. Rjwilmsi. Chris the speller.php?oldid=404430441 Contributors: Borgltd. Bc42. Gardar Rurak. Meni Rosenfeld. Interiot. 25 anonymous edits INSPASS Source: http://en.php?oldid=420588900 Contributors: AED. Philip200291. PoxTheGreat. 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Slkove. PhDOnPoint. Dysprosia. Linnartz. Geek2006. Rl. Poster778. David Johnson.php?oldid=403896454 Contributors: 386-DX. RedWordSmith.). Foxfan083. TechGeek70. Squids and Chips. HereToHelp. Objectivesea. Geni. Bobo192. Grafen. Miguel. Piskorski. Roregan. Jcarroll26. Drbreznjev.msc. Ellywa. Paolo. Torinfo. Smith609. Katharineamy. Portillo. Back ache. McSly. Morinpierre. DRosenbach. Phils. Phaedrus86. Fabrictramp. Dt.lima. Mitch Ames. Outlook. HollyAm.wikipedia. R. Fdewaele. Quuxplusone.wikipedia. Mikewarbz. OrangeDog. Fateflyer22. Mendicott. Waramat. DRosenbach. Alexdimarco. DreamGuy. Richard Arthur Norton (1958. Zephglad. clown will eat me. Cy21. Blueboy96. Hugedummy. Eastmain. Bhadani. NoHitHair. Impherring13. 4 anonymous edits Procrustes analysis Source: http://en. 456hjk. FloNight. Bilalis. Shuklamukesh. CambridgeBayWeather.php?oldid=419140731 Contributors: AvicAWB. Miguel.wikipedia. Uhai. StoatBringer. Necrothesp. Zenazn. Feedmecereal. Kaepora. Nono64. Rich Farmbrough. Pegship. Unsuspected. Samij86. Sabbut. Sfrench-cmtheria. Alexf. Luckyeye13. Prari. Evil Merlin. OlEnglish. Jorptin.684fafa. Robchurch. GainLine. Art LaPella. Eldraco. 16 anonymous edits Radial loop Source: http://en. Ealdent.wikipedia. Tprentice. Anshumangaur. Shaddack. TiagoTiago. JLogan. Drclark.wikipedia. Michaeljthieme. SunCountryGuy01. Robertbuzzhill. Martarius. JBellis.org/w/index. SentinelAlpha. Yavoh.org/w/index. Jeffchilders112. Hoziron. Chowbok. Bhekare. Lockley. Ltka. Tjwood. DokumentAMarble. Rakeshsurampali. BenFrantzDale. HiltonLange. 5 anonymous edits Retinal scan Source: http://en. Graphe. Whispering. Ductapedaredevil. Old Moonraker.wikipedia. Bmearns. RJFJR. Jpbowen. Dcandeto. Spider1. Frap. Teles.canedo. Mokailleet. Fsiler. Soumyadiprakshit.wikipedia. QDE-can. CapitalR. Markus Kuhn. Ghewgill. Bontenbal. Sadads. MattPackwood. Thebt. Rogerioth. Heron. ShelfSkewed. Ronz. Inamorata1. 5 anonymous edits Handwriting movement analysis Source: http://en. Jeepday. 5 anonymous edits Iris Challenge Evaluation Source: http://en.org/w/index. Ecn5093. Ronz. Ianthegecko. Dithridge. Willking1979. U-Mos. AleistersCrow. UkPaolo.org/w/index. 150 anonymous edits Iris Recognition Immigration System Source: http://en. Kiranwashindkar. 2 anonymous edits Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System Source: http://en. Wikidemon. Humanisticmystic. Snigbrook. Ebyabe. Aocom teh spritar. Raul654. GJo.org/w/index. PHenry. Starthewonderpup. Lordspiritforged.wikipedia. Omnipaedista. Rich Farmbrough. X!. Raven in Orbit Pawtograph Source: http://en. Conti. J. Joanjoc. Tide rolls. Jayjaywa. Tslocum. Gohst. Kryptoknite. Reinyday. Meandean. 439 anonymous edits Hand geometry Source: http://en. Smhossei.wikipedia. Pigman. 5 anonymous edits Private biometrics Source: http://en. Canens. Etaoin. Firsfron. Sintaku. Fettzort. Maurice Carbonaro. Kelisi. L0rents. Chavneet. Woohookitty. Salix alba. Res2216firestar. Zhurovai. El C.php?oldid=373597184 Contributors: Beagel. Iridescent. Jeepday.Article Sources and Contributors Graphology Source: http://en.org/w/index. Wanausha Khafaf. JonHarder. Graham Jones. CaAl. Phaedrus86. Pseudo daoist. Voyagerfan5761. Jasrocks. Zheric. 22 anonymous edits Physiological interaction Source: http://en. Joedeshon.org/w/index. Shii.444. Ryan Norton. Indon.wikipedia. Arthena. Josteinn. Anchoress. CommonsDelinker. Nono64. Bwpach. Jtyler111. Dmitri Lytov. Infinitysnake. Majorly. Adolphus79. Hangfromthefloor. JBBrask. DocWatson42.wikipedia. Jamott. Chiefanoni. Emperorbma.dL. Fabrictramp.php?oldid=419253854 Contributors: AxelBoldt. Bobrayner. Doom777. NickelShoe.php?oldid=420941106 Contributors: EoGuy. Connelly90. Ryryrules100. Mikael Häggström.org/w/index.php?oldid=428833995 Contributors: 4wajzkd02.org/w/index. Sardanaphalus. Buckyboy314. Rosiestep. Berean Hunter. Blueviper99. Makwy2. Stephenchou0722.org/w/index. Authalic. Grutness. Dewet. Sterlingjones. Frap. JubalHarshaw. 1mujin22. Wiwaxia. ONEder Boy. Lottiotta. 2 anonymous edits Palm print Source: http://en. Pearle. Ninetyone.wikipedia. Anielka. Ikiroid. Kerowyn. Maurice Carbonaro. Graph8. MatthewVanitas Pay By Touch Source: http://en. Wetwarexpert. Billtownsend. Edman007. Shaddack.wikipedia. JonHarder.wikipedia. Choster. Jac16888. Kikos. Khaledelmansoury. JohnInDC. Mendicott. Pixeld. 7 anonymous edits Keystroke dynamics Source: http://en. Meelar. Gonzonoir. Cpuwhiz11. Kingfish. Kelp. Towsonu2003 Biometrics in schools Source: http://en. Furious Stormrage. DeniseDiTrani. RHaworth. Mboverload. T.wikipedia. Chowbok. Brighterorange. Graham87. Tnorth. Riesenfeld.php?oldid=419485409 Contributors: -Majestic-. ASmartKid. Voldemore.
Crystallina. Valimo wikipedia. Osarius. Skater.Budden. DropDeadGorgias. Kristof vt. Piotrus. 9 anonymous edits Soft biometrics Source: http://en. Jamessugrono. Lukeluke2394. Wnt. Ataraxis1492. Marandbon.71828. Bob f it. Bkell. Noommos. Sashmiller. Bensin. Hmains. Rror. JetLover. Pesco. Lommer. Polishwonder74. Nabbia. Speechgrl. Fredvanner. Fropuff. 16 anonymous edits Ulnar loop Source: http://en. OlEnglish. Fw-us-hou-8.org/w/index.org/w/index.php?oldid=419481258 Contributors: Btball. MalcolmWood76.wikipedia. Josh1414. Stifle. Wimt. Goulouc. Voidvector. Ævar Arnfjörð Bjarmason. Sandstein. Janejellyroll. Anonymous Dissident. KyraVixen. Mac. BigFatBuddha. Zestos.com. The Anome. Nakon. Slleong. Connolley. Acather96. Xaa. Oxymoron83. Paulwakfer. Kasaalan. Shaddack. Tbsmith. CecilWard.org/w/index. Maartenvdbent.bmc.org/w/index. Malcolm. Chick Bowen. Atlantima. Gogo Dodo. H3llfire741. Finn-Zoltan. Larry_Sanger.org/w/index. Gerry Ashton. Ed g2s. Marandbon.php?oldid=428283111 Contributors: 2D. Icairns. Infrahuman. Dicklyon. Chriswaterguy. Galoubet.php?oldid=412528209 Contributors: Apoc2400. Rjanag. LilHelpa. AFBorchert. JuddFS. Apoc2400. Odin 85th gen. Qqzzccdd. Carmelo83. Neptune5000. Poufnoname219. Peskydan. ChrisHodgesUK. Tbackstr. Amitch. Primasz. Pwqn. ERcheck. Conversion script. Stemonitis. Jackzhp. Smjg. Starkiller88. Willpower. 5 anonymous edits 185 .wikipedia. Epolk. Dialectric. Anakata.php?oldid=419269219 Contributors: CN3777. Przepla. 19 . Cybercobra. Elpasi. McGeddon.php?oldid=409560825 Contributors: KimChee Voice analysis Source: http://en. Jamelan. Zotel. Tubby.php?oldid=422517861 Contributors: Ductapedaredevil. Pak21. Lolcatz90890809809809. McSly. Jengod. Altenmann. Pinethicket. Furrykef. Bultro. Karmafist. Jebus989. Martinevans123. MightyWarrior. 7 anonymous edits Signature Source: http://en. Deville. Adambiswanger1. Qlzd45. SusanLesch.org/w/index. ChrisTomkinson. 1 anonymous edits Speaker recognition Source: http://en.Article Sources and Contributors Second Generation Multiplex Source: http://en. Radagast83.org/w/index. 191 anonymous edits Smartgate Source: http://en. FelisLeo. Jc3s5h. GateKeeper. Polyparadigm.wikipedia.org/w/index. Opelio. Mboverload. Kupirijo. Darkspartan4121. Xous. Tariq Abdulla.php?oldid=414882933 Contributors: Arsenikk. Caltas. Woohookitty. Ganymead. Irishguy. Autograph17. CrowzRSA. Afabbro. Geoffr. Dancter. Lihaas. ArnoldReinhold. Steven Walling. WilliamH. Giuliopaci. Betterworld. Bolivian Unicyclist. PhDOnPoint.org/w/index. Kribbeh. Kupirijo. Djmckee1. Filll. Smoth 007. Whpq. Klingon83. Martin. 3 anonymous edits Vein matching Source: http://en. Philbert2.cm. Waramat. Headbomb.wikipedia. Motley Crue Rocks. Scriberius. Yworo. BenFrantzDale. 1 anonymous edits Transportation Worker Identification Credential Source: http://en. Pseudo daoist. Gp2it. Joseph Solis in Australia. Merlion444. Nicksname. Paulelvins. MicahDail. Shoroar hossen. Nbarth. Mukake.wikipedia. Wetman. Quintote. Gemuetlich. Euryalus. Chowbok. JoshG.rego. Qaz. Nastajus. Den fjättrade ankan. Brian Kendig. DrRisk13.wikipedia. Duncharris. GregorB. SilverStar. Three-quarter-ten. Mangojuice.bmc. Grutness. Hydriotaphia. Bdelisle. Scohoust.msc. Shadowlynk. Dtapia.ک ککک ک ک کanonymous edits ک Telebiometrics Source: http://en. Bendono. Mendicott. Orderinchaos. Beetstra. J. Fabrictramp. Elatanatari. Dfrg. Wireless friend. Klael. VolatileChemical. Haus. Voiceverified. Pharos.wikipedia. Jheald. Simesa. KrakatoaKatie. Maurice Carbonaro. Wangi. NawlinWiki. Naughtonk. Ckamaeleon. Silver Edge.t2.php?oldid=421057886 Contributors: Alejo2083. Jleedev. SZEdit. Ekimd. Caue. WRK. Josh Grosse.org/w/index. Neutrality. Meelar. Pgilmon. EVula.php?oldid=332273198 Contributors: Chris the speller. Natalya. Hjweth. Blue-Haired Lawyer. Palfrey. Ruhrfisch. Pnkrockr. Bollinger. SimonP. Ddxc. Dawnseeker2000. Dpr. KF.php?oldid=416799905 Contributors: Bovineone. Kjkolb. Quagmire. Gilgamesh he. Wereon. Strabismus. Foobaz. Ksy92003. Leotohill. Graham87. Shaddack. Mangostar. TransControl. AndrewHowse. Mseyers.com. Rich Farmbrough. Qxz. Otr500. DeweyQ. Saebjorn.wikipedia. Saint-Paddy. Nohat. Atif. CCFreak2K. AndrewHZ. History2007. Tm8992. Hawkflame. Tdreid. Waggers. Closeapple. Korg. Malinaccier. Galvanist. Chemica.wikipedia. Tregoweth. Diego Grez. Oxymoron83. Collard. Thingg. C8men. Conversion script. Sandstein. C0pernicus.php?oldid=297534531 Contributors: Jrtayloriv. Wetwarexpert. Bubba hotep. DianaGaleM. Bongwarrior. Xact. fw-us-hou-8.org/w/index.wikipedia. User27091. Stifle. DeadEyeArrow. Ida Shaw. Oleg Alexandrov. TSP. McGeddon Second Generation Multiplex Plus Source: http://en.delanoy. Z10x. Martin451. Kafziel. Tommy2010. Bevo. Norm. I'll bring the food. William M.wikipedia. Msikma. Crystallina.
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Radial loop. BioSlimDisk. Combined DNA Index System. Vein matching. biometrics is used as a form of identity access management and access control. background and everything you need to know. Face Recognition Grand Challenge. Biometric passport. Generalized Procrustes analysis. Voice analysis This book explains in-depth the real drivers and workings of Biometrics. Iris Challenge Evaluation. Retinal scan. Ulnar loop. Speaker recognition. Extended Access Control. Procrustes analysis. Here you will ﬁnd the most up-todate information. Facial Recognition Vendor Test 2006. Electropherogram. Physiological interaction. . Pay By Touch. Pawtograph. Telebiometrics. Private biometrics. covering: Biometrics. International Automated Systems. analysis. In computer science. It reduces the risk of your technology. FNAEG. Multiple Biometric Grand Challenge. Henry Classiﬁcation System. Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identiﬁcation System. This book is your ultimate resource for Biometrics. Fingerprint Veriﬁcation Competition. Biometric Consortium. Biometrics in schools. Keystroke dynamics. with extensive references and links to get you to know all there is to know about Biometrics right away. Smartgate. Palmar aponeurosis. Transportation Worker Identiﬁcation Credential. Microsoft Fingerprint Reader. It is also used to identify individuals in groups that are under surveillance. FERET (facial recognition technology). E-Channel. In easy to read chapters. CBEFF. RFdump. Handwriting movement analysis. Palm print. Iris recognition. Budapest Declaration on Machine Readable Travel Documents. Graphology. DNA proﬁling. Next Generation Identiﬁcation. Second Generation Multiplex. in particular. Biometrics Institute. Lydia Fairchild. Fingerprint. Iris Recognition Immigration System. Signature. Soft biometrics. Automated ﬁngerprint identiﬁcation. Expected Progeny Difference. Second Generation Multiplex Plus. DNA barcoding. MALINTENT. Biometric Database Law (Israel). time and resources investment decisions by enabling you to compare your understanding of Biometrics with the objectivity of experienced professionals. Raymond Edmunds. Hand geometry. INSPASS. Minutiae.Biometrics consists of methods for uniquely recognizing humans based upon one or more intrinsic physical or behavioral traits. Gait analysis. EURODAC.
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