This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
IN-DEPTH: THE REAL DRIVERS AND
REDUCES THE RISK OF YOUR TECHNOLOGY, TIME AND RESOURCES
ENABLING YOU TO COMPARE YOUR
UNDERSTANDING WITH THE OBJECTIVITY OF EXPERIENCED PROFESSIONALS
High-impact Emerging Technology - What You Need to Know: Deﬁnitions, Adoptions, Impact, Beneﬁts, Maturity, Vendors
Topic relevant selected content from the highest rated entries, typeset, printed and shipped. Combine the advantages of up-to-date and in-depth knowledge with the convenience of printed books. A portion of the proceeds of each book will be donated to the Wikimedia Foundation to support their mission: to empower and engage people around the world to collect and develop educational content under a free license or in the public domain, and to disseminate it effectively and globally. The content within this book was generated collaboratively by volunteers. Please be advised that nothing found here has necessarily been reviewed by people with the expertise required to provide you with complete, accurate or reliable information. Some information in this book maybe misleading or simply wrong. The publisher does not guarantee the validity of the information found here. If you need specific advice (for example, medical, legal, financial, or risk management) please seek a professional who is licensed or knowledgeable in that area. Sources, licenses and contributors of the articles and images are listed in the section entitled “References”. Parts of the books may be licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. A copy of this license is included in the section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License” All used third-party trademarks belong to their respective owners.
Biometrics Automated fingerprint identification Biometric Consortium Biometric Database Law (Israel) Biometric passport Biometrics Institute BioSlimDisk Budapest Declaration on Machine Readable Travel Documents CBEFF Combined DNA Index System DNA barcoding DNA profiling E-Channel Raymond Edmunds Electropherogram EURODAC Expected Progeny Difference Extended Access Control Face Recognition Grand Challenge Facial Recognition Vendor Test 2006 Lydia Fairchild FERET (facial recognition technology) Fingerprint Fingerprint Verification Competition FNAEG Gait analysis Generalized Procrustes analysis Graphology Hand geometry Handwriting movement analysis Henry Classification System INSPASS Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System International Automated Systems 1 9 11 12 14 29 31 32 32 33 36 42 55 57 58 59 59 61 62 65 67 68 72 91 95 96 100 101 112 112 118 120 122 123
Licenses and Contributors 182 186 Article Licenses License 187 .Iris Challenge Evaluation Iris recognition Iris Recognition Immigration System Keystroke dynamics MALINTENT Microsoft Fingerprint Reader Minutiae Multiple Biometric Grand Challenge Next Generation Identification Palm print Palmar aponeurosis Pawtograph Pay By Touch Physiological interaction Private biometrics Procrustes analysis Radial loop Retinal scan RFdump Biometrics in schools Second Generation Multiplex Second Generation Multiplex Plus Signature Smartgate Soft biometrics Speaker recognition Telebiometrics Transportation Worker Identification Credential Ulnar loop Vein matching Voice analysis 124 126 132 133 139 139 140 141 144 145 146 147 148 149 151 153 156 156 158 159 163 164 167 169 171 172 174 175 177 178 180 References Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources.
etc. Performance – accuracy. gait. username or ID number. The first block (sensor) is the interface between the real world and the system. In subsequent uses. This step is an important step as the correct . Palm print. to use some kind of normalization. but voice recognition is mainly based on the study of the way a person speaks. but are not limited to typing rhythm. The second block performs all the necessary pre-processing: it has to remove artifacts from the sensor. A biometric system can operate in the following two modes: • Verification – A one to one comparison of a captured biometric with a stored template to verify that the individual is who he claims to be. and odour/scent. Permanence – measures how well a biometric resists aging and other variance over time.g. Examples include. The first time an individual uses a biometric system is called an enrollment. in particular. Collectability – ease of acquisition for measurement. and voice. Can be done in conjunction with a smart card. It is possible to understand if a human characteristic can be used for biometrics in terms of the following  parameters: • • • • • • • Universality – each person should have the characteristic. it has to acquire all the necessary data. Biometric characteristics can be divided in two main classes: • Physiological are related to the shape of the body. DNA. face recognition. Acceptability – degree of approval of a technology. iris recognition. biometric information from an individual is stored. During the enrollment. At Walt Disney World biometric measurements are taken from the fingers of guests to ensure that the person's ticket is used by the same person from day to day • Behavioral are related to the behavior of a person. Strictly speaking. speed. It is also used to identify individuals in groups that are under surveillance. which has largely replaced retina. Uniqueness – is how well the biometric separates individuals from another. to enhance the input (e. removing background noise). The identification only succeeds in identifying the individual if the comparison of the biometric sample to a template in the database falls within a previously set threshold. In the third block necessary features are extracted.Biometrics 1 Biometrics Biometrics consists of methods for uniquely recognizing humans based upon one or more intrinsic physical or behavioral traits. Some researchers have coined the term behaviometrics for this class of biometrics. biometric information is detected and compared with the information stored at the time of enrollment. • Identification – A one to many comparison of the captured biometric against a biometric database in attempt to identify an unknown individual. Circumvention – ease of use of a substitute. Note that it is crucial that storage and retrieval of such systems themselves be secure if the biometric system is to be robust. commonly classified as behavioral. and robustness of technology used. Most of the times it is an image acquisition system. but it can change according to the characteristics desired. biometrics is used as a form of identity access management and access control. but are not limited to fingerprint. hand geometry. voice is also a physiological trait because every person has a different vocal tract. In computer science. Examples include.
a higher threshold will reduce the FAR but increase the FRR. if control of the computer has been subverted. a former Director of US National Intelligence. • equal error rate or crossover error rate (EER or CER) – the rate at which both accept and reject errors are equal. the template is simply stored somewhere (on a card or within a database or both).g. Hamming distance). The value of the EER can be easily obtained from the ROC curve. It measures the percent of valid inputs which are incorrectly rejected. which is obtained using normal deviate scales on both axes. a former vice admiral in the United States Navy. then knowledge of the identity of the user at the terminal does not materially improve network security or aid law enforcement activities. and Senior Vice President of Booz Allen Hamilton promoted the development of a future capability to require biometric authentication to access certain public networks in his Keynote Speech at the 2009 Biometric Consortium Conference . 2 Performance The following are used as performance metrics for biometric systems: • false accept rate or false match rate (FAR or FMR) – the probability that the system incorrectly matches the input pattern to a non-matching template in the database. However. . • failure to capture rate (FTC) – Within automatic systems. A template is a synthesis of the relevant characteristics extracted from the source. for example in which the computer is part of a botnet controlled by a hacker. In general.g. estimating the distance between them using any algorithm (e. Current. the device with the lowest EER is most accurate. the probability that the system fails to detect a biometric input when presented correctly. A vector of numbers or an image with particular properties is used to create a template. This more linear graph illuminates the differences for higher performances (rarer errors). The EER is a quick way to compare the accuracy of devices with different ROC curves. • false reject rate or false non-match rate (FRR or FNMR) – the probability that the system fails to detect a match between the input pattern and a matching template in the database. A basic premise in the above proposal is that the person that has uniquely authenticated themselves using biometrics with the computer is in fact also the agent performing potentially malicious actions from that computer. In general. • receiver operating characteristic or relative operating characteristic (ROC) – The ROC plot is a visual characterization of the trade-off between the FAR and the FRR.Biometrics features need to be extracted in the optimal way. This is most commonly caused by low quality inputs. Elements of the biometric measurement that are not used in the comparison algorithm are discarded in the template to reduce the filesize and to protect the identity of the enrollee. • template capacity – the maximum number of sets of data which can be stored in the system. A common variation is the Detection error trade-off (DET). the obtained template is passed to a matcher that compares it with other existing templates. the matching algorithm performs a decision based on a threshold which determines how close to a template the input needs to be for it to be considered a match. entrance in a restricted area). The matching program will analyze the template with the input. If the threshold is reduced. It measures the percent of invalid inputs which are incorrectly accepted. emerging and future applications of biometrics Proposal calls for biometric authentication to access certain public networks John Michael (Mike) McConnell. • failure to enroll rate (FTE or FER) – the rate at which attempts to create a template from an input is unsuccessful. If a matching phase is being performed. Correspondingly. If enrollment is being performed. there will be less false non-matches but more false accepts. This will then be output for any specified use or purpose (e.
height. the damage to the owner could be irreversible. there is a chance that the thieves will stalk and assault the property owner to gain access.g. Every time a foreign leader has visited Washington during the last few years. and potentially cost more than the secured property. To quote that article: “ Miller. Subcommittee on Homeland Security on “biometric identification” by Kathleen Kraninger and Robert A Mocny  According to article written by S. including the United States. Soft biometrics Soft biometrics because of their inner nature are privacy preserving. the State Department has made sure they sign such an agreement. It was first proposed by Ratha et al. whereas other methods. take the advantage of the advancement of the well-established biometric research for their recognition front-end to conduct recognition. Although this increases the restrictions on the protection system.. additionally they are fully available to everyone (e. The first fingerprint based cancelable biometric system was designed and developed by Tulyakov et al. Several methods for generating cancelable biometrics have been proposed. If someone’s face is compromised from a database. If a token or a password is lost or stolen. gender) which makes them privacy-safe.. ” . in 2005. thus not capable of identification performance. They allow to describe a subject starting from his/her physical attributes. such as Dabbah et al. it can be cancelled and replaced by a newer version. The variability in the distortion parameters provides the cancelable nature of the scheme. For example. Those attributes have a low discriminating power. they cannot cancel or reissue it. Danger to owners of secured items When thieves cannot get access to secure properties.Biometrics 3 Issues and concerns Privacy and discrimination It is possible that data obtained during biometric enrollment may be used in ways for which the enrolled individual has not consented. already trade biometric data. Malaysian car thieves cut off the finger of a Mercedes-Benz S-Class owner when attempting to steal the car. (a consultant to the Office of Homeland Defense and America’s security affairs) said the United States has bi-lateral agreements to share biometric data with about 25 countries. it makes the cancellable templates more accessible for available biometric technologies. cancelable biometrics perform a distortion of the biometric image or features before matching. the United States Defense Department is under pressure to share biometric data. Essentially. Cancelable biometrics One advantage of passwords over biometrics is that they can be re-issued. Magnuson in the National Defense Magazine. Cancelable biometrics is a way in which to incorporate protection and the replacement features into biometrics. and Savvides et al. weight. This is not naturally available in biometrics. such as Teoh et al. If the item is secured with a biometric device. International trading of biometric data Many countries. To quote a 2009 testimony made before the US House Appropriations Committee. Some of the proposed techniques operate using their own recognition engines.
 In addition to producing biometric passports for German citizens. and the risk of identity theft. full disclosure may not be forthcoming to the civilian community. and contains a chip that holds a digital photograph and one fingerprint from each hand. . Walt Disney World is the nation's largest single commercial application of biometrics. Germany The biometrics market in Germany will experience enormous growth until the year 2009. The United States (US) and European Union (EU) are proposing new methods for border crossing procedures utilizing biometrics. Currently. residential permits. iris scanning. “Only applicants for long-term visas. “A third biometric identifier – iris scans – could be added at a later stage”. According to Jim Wayman. such as kidnapping. privacy. A National Identification Number (NIN). there is some apprehension in the United States (and the European Union) that the information can be "skimmed" and identify people's citizenship remotely for criminal intent. and digital photos”. unique to each applicant applying for a card. Unfortunately. It also has laser-etched photographs and holograms to add security and reduce the risk of falsification. In May 2005 the German Upper House of Parliament approved the implementation of the ePass. Privacy activists in many countries have criticized the technology's use for the potential harm to civil liberties. though others may be used if these fingers are missing or have extremely distorted prints. “The federal government will be a major contributor to this development”. There have been over 10 million of these cards issued. a passport issued to all German citizens which contain biometric technology. “The market size will increase from approximately 120 million € (2004) to 377 million €” (2009). However. Countries applying biometrics United States Starting in 2005. US passports with facial (image-based) biometric data were scheduled to be produced. An individual’s data. The US Department of Defense (DoD) Common Access Card. the German government has put in place new requirements for visitors to apply for visas within the country. usually of the index fingers. non-Gambian ID cards and driver licenses. Employing biometrically enabled travel documents will increase security and expedite travel for legitimate travelers. The ePass has been in circulation since November 2005. An increase in the prevalence of biometric technology in Germany is an effort to not only keep citizens safe within German borders but also to comply with the current US deadline for visa-waiver countries to introduce biometric passports. The new work visas will also include fingerprinting. the biometric procedures of fingerprint and facial recognition can profit from the government project. This card contains biometric data and digitized photographs. the US-VISIT program will very soon surpass Walt Disney World for biometrics deployment. which allow more than three months' residence. Biometric documents issued for Gambia include national identity cards. including their biometric information (thumbprints) is captured in the database. Gambia The Gambia Biometric Identification System (GAMBIS) allowed for the issuance of Gambia’s first biometric identity documents in July 2009. director of the National Biometric Test Center at San Jose State University. will be affected by the planned biometric registration program. In particular. is issued to the applicant. is an ID card issued to all US Service personnel and contractors on US Military sites.Biometrics 4 Governments are unlikely to disclose full capabilities of biometric deployments Certain members of the civilian community are worried about how biometric data is used.
Each state in Brazil is allowed to print its own ID card.. Felix Pacheco at Rio de Janeiro. Accredited visitors will include athletes.. like Laser perforation. This technology was developed in 2000 in order to enhance the safety of the Brazilian ID cards. such as individual personal history. Biometric technology was first used at the Olympic Summer Games in Athens. and 10 rolled fingerprints collected during passport requests. two fingerprints. 5 Brazil Since the beginning of the 20th century. The magazine also included the fingerprint on a film that readers could use to fool fingerprint readers. team management and members of the media”. consisting the biometric information of the individual. security layer over variable data and etc. Even if an Iraqi has lost their ID card. who invented one of the most complete tenprint classification systems in existence. India's Home Minister. accredited visitors will receive an ID card containing their fingerprint biometrics data that will enable them to access the 'German House'. The decision by the Brazilian government to adopt fingerprint-based biometrics was spearheaded by Dr. Greece in 2004. since humankind came into existence".Biometrics Germany is also one of the first countries to implement biometric technology at the Olympic Games to protect German athletes. immune to forgery. Additional information can also be added to each account record. If implemented. The Identification number will be stored in a central databases. described the process as "the biggest exercise. in Brasilia. this would be the biggest implementation of the Biometrics in the world. UV hidden symbols. All of the data is planned to be stored in ICAO E-passport standard. The oldest and most traditional ID Institute in Brazil (Instituto de Identificação Félix Pacheco) was integrated at DETRAN (Brazilian equivalent to DMV) into the civil and criminal AFIS system in 1999. Iraq Biometrics are being used extensively in Iraq to catalogue as many Iraqis as possible providing Iraqis with a verifiable identification card.25 billion people. As a protest against the increasing use of biometric data. “On registering with the scheme. The new passport included several security features. the collected biometrics information is logged into a central database which then allows a user profile to be created. a signature. Dr. Brazilian citizens have had user ID cards. Pacheco was a friend of Dr. The ID cards printed in Rio de Janeiro are fully digitized using a 2D bar code with information which can be matched against its owner off-line. “The Olympic Games is always a diplomatically tense affair and previous events have been rocked by terrorist attacks . P Chidambaram. the influential hacker group Chaos Computer Club published a fingerprint of German Minister of the Interior Wolfgang Schäuble in the March 2008 edition of its magazine Datenschleuder. at that time capital of the Federative Republic. The new documents started to be released by the beginning of 2007. but also by most of the other South American countries. During account creation. but the layout and data are the same for all of them. The Vucetich system was adopted not only in Brazil. This allows for contactless electronic reading of the passport content and Citizens ID verification since fingerprint templates and token facial images will be available for automatic recognition. their identification can be found and verified by using their unique biometric information. By the end of 2005. India India is undertaking an ambitious mega project (the Multipurpose National Identity Card) to provide a unique identification number to each of its 1. the Brazilian government started the development of its new passport. The 2D bar code encodes a color photo. photo. Officials in India will spend one year classifying India's population according to demographics . The government will then use the information to issue identity cards. Brazilian citizens will have their signature. Juan Vucetich. and other citizen data. coaching staff.most notably when Germany last held the Games in Munich in 1972 and 11 Israeli athletes were killed”.
warned that the existence of such a database could damage both civil liberties and state security. is voluntary. the document number. Specialist and University Faculty *Enrico Manfredi d'Angrogna Luserna v. the expiry date. and your personal ID number (Dutch tax and social security (SoFi) number). and thus subscription to this Code. Biometric data are already collected from some visa applicants by Immigration. The Code includes privacy standards that are at least equivalent to the Australian National Privacy Principles (NPPs) in the Privacy Act and also incorporates higher standards of privacy protection in relation to certain acts and practices. United Kingdom Fingerprint scanners used in some schools to facilitate the subtraction of funds from an account financed by parents for the payment of school dinners.  Netherlands Starting 21 September 2009. The law is currently in its trial period. Australia Visitors intending to visit Australia may soon have to submit to biometric authentication as part of the Smartgate system.Siena University. Other concerns arise from the possibility of data leaking from the providers of school meals to interest groups that provide health services such as the NHS and insurance groups that may end up having a detrimental effect on the ability of individuals to enjoy equality of access to services. Staufen Rome University Tor Vergata . Canada Canada has begun research into the use of biometric technology in the area of border security and immigration (Center for Security Sciences . your nationality. the country of issue. 6 Italy Italy has standardized protocols in use to police forces. because any leaks could be used by criminals or hostile individuals against Israeli residents. which is established and administered by the Biometrics Institute. pending on successful trial. Citizenship and Immigration Canada and the Canada Border Services Agency will probably be the first government institutions to fully implement the technology in Canada. Biometrics Community of Practice). . By using such a system nutritional reports can be produced for parents to surveil a child's intake. Dutch passports have included an electronic chip containing the personal details of the holder and a digitised passport photograph. Opponents of the proposed law. Israel The Israeli government has passed a bill calling for the creation of a biometric database of all Israeli residents. Public Security Technical Program . The Biometrics Institute Privacy Code Biometrics Institute  forms part of Australian privacy legislation. The physical count will begin on February 2011. Australia is the first country to introduce a Biometrics Privacy Code. linking individuals to their visas and passports. Since 26 August 2006. a resident would be issued a new form of an identification card containing these biometrics. Biometrics Institute membership. This has raised questions from liberty groups as taking away the liberty of choice from the youth of society. date of birth and sex. including prominent Israeli scientists and security experts. Upon enrolling. all new Dutch passports and ID cards must include the holder's fingerprints. . the database will contain their fingerprints and facial contours. Only members of the Biometrics Institute are eligible to subscribe to this Code. during which enrollment is  optional. enrollment would be mandatory for all residents.Biometrics indicators. The chip holds following data: your name (first name(s) and surname).
uk/ 2/ hi/ asia-pacific/ 4396831." Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. “Symmetric Hash Functions for Fingerprint Minutiae.1109/TCSVT. 2001. M. and later accesses a security system using one of the removed eyes. "Enhancing security and privacy in biometrics-based authentication systems. and access to areas restricted to such persons is controlled by automated biometric scanners similar in appearance to fingerprint scanners. F. Dlay. A. V. • In Demolition Man the character Simon Phoenix cuts out a living victim's eye in order to open a locked door which is fitted with iris scanning. pdf  Jain. Tulyakov. J. V. org/ bc2009  Kent. .Biometrics Recent requirements for passport photographs Since 28 August 2006. Retrieved 20 February 2010  http:/ / www. Biometrics in popular culture • The 2002 film Minority Report features extensive use of casual Iris/Retina scanning techniques for both personal Identification and Point Of Sale transaction purposes. • The movie Gattaca portrays a society in which there are two classes of people: those genetically engineered to be superior (termed "Valid") and the inferior natural humans ("Invalid"). com/ consulting-services/ services_article/ 42861927). S.818349  "CHARACTERISTICS OF BIOMETRIC SYSTEMS" (http:/ / www. 1892-1901. A. Tampa. 2007.. and D. and P. "KeyNote Address. Mike (January 2009). H. Kumar. W. under EU regulation '2252/2004' all EU member states have been obliged to include a digital image of the holder’s passport photograph." (http:/ / www. .  M. 2005  A. 2007. Goh. C. pp. The main character changes his official Identity by having his eyes transplanted. it-sudparis. Farooq. Woo. Biometric Consortium Conference. "Malaysia car thieves steal finger" (http:/ / news." presented at Computational Intelligence in Image and Signal Processing. Ratha. B. It will begin operating in Wellington and Christchurch from next year. Khosla. J. "Secure Authentication for Face Recognition.  S. pp. html).  McConnell. IEEE Transactions on. "An introduction to biometric recognition". . Security. and S.2003. L. K. Jonathan (31 March 2005). K. Teoh. B. K. 2006. vol. People considered "Valid" have greater privileges. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology 14th (1): 4–20. ""Corefaces". Cernet.” Proc. doi:10. but which prick the finger and sample DNA from the resulting blood droplet • The television program MythBusters attempted to break into a commercial security door equipped with biometric authentication as well as a personal laptop so equipped. CIISP 2007." IBM systems Journal. Govindaraju. References  http:/ / biosecure. and R. 2004. biometrics. The kiosk and gate system will allow all New Zealand and Australian electronic passport holders over 18 to clear passport control without needing to have their identity checked by a Customs officer. edu. 614-634. and V. L. People will have a choice whether they want to use the system or go through normal passport control. Savvides. Arun. Salil (January 2004)." presented at IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR'04). Retrieved 11 December 2010. K.. IEEE Symposium on. BBC Online (Kuala Lumpur).  N. 30-38. A. the advanced commercial security door with "live" sensing was fooled with a printed scan of a fingerprint after it had been licked. Connell. Ngo. ccert. Prabhakar. stm). Ross. While the laptop's system proved more difficult to bypass. bbc. Deputy comptroller of customs John Secker said SmartGate represented probably the biggest single development in border processing in New Zealand in the past two decades. boozallen. Bolle.  M. Florida. . and Surveillance. pp. co. 40. Tampa Convention Center. Int’l Workshop Pattern Recognition for Crime Prevention. eu/ public_html/ biosecure1/ public_docs_deli/ BioSecure_Deliverable_D10-2-3_b3. Dabbah.Robust Shift Invariant PCA based Correlation Filter for Illumination Tolerant Face Recognition. cn/ education/ cissp/ hism/ 039-041.  7 New Zealand SmartGate was launched by the New Zealand government at Auckland International Airport on Thursday 3 December 2009. vol. 28. "Random Multispace Quantization as an Analytic Mechanism for BioHashing of Biometric and Random Identity Inputs.
co.  http:/ / www. A.00. (http://www. h-online. 1 April 2010. nationaldefensemagazine. css. before the House Appropriations Committee.L-3754468. "Defense department under pressure to share biometric data. the BTAM is a comprehensive reference manual on biometric technology applications.europa. paspoortinformatie. stm). and Director Robert A. . com/ newsticker/ news/ item/ CCC-publishes-fingerprints-of-German-Home-Secretary-734713. drdc-rddc. nzherald.A Danger to State Security (http:/ / www. • “Fingerprints Pay For School Lunch. A Survey of Biometric Recognition Methods (http://www. htm)  Kleinz. eu/ idabc/ en/ document/ 4338/ 194)  Migration Information Source . GWU. Retrieved 2006-06-11. "Biometric Identification"" (http:/ / www. Inc.. M.  http:/ / www. 20301-3140: Office of the Under Secretary of Defense For Acquisition. org/ story/ 2006/ 08/ 14/ walt_disney_world_the_governments)  The Biometrics Market in Germany 2004-2009: Anti-terrorism Laws Drive Growth . aspx). Subcommittee on Homeland Security.” (2001)..C. "Fotomatrix English" (http:/ / www. shtm).com/biometrics/ whitepapers. Grgic. . org/ Feature/ display. ca/ pstp/ about-sujet/ index-eng. • Biometric Technology Application Manual (http://www. co. asp  The Jerusalem Post: Knesset approves controversial Biometric Database Law (http:/ / www. asp?cod=1438  "India launches biometric census" (http:/ / news.pdf). E-Government News. mil/ dsb/ reports/ ADA465930. detran.org/ApprovedDocuments/ evaluation/ceeb3a01-801e-4d2c-b447-bc79d13d2d62. researchandmarkets.00.Biometrics  Kraniger. cfm?c_id=1501832& objectid=10613348  http:/ / gagspace. com/ Home/ Article. S (January 2009). Technology.. BBC News. com/ reports/ c4206/ )  IDABC .hr/papers_pdf/ A Survey of Biometric Recognition Methods. gc. biometricsinstitute.7340.39123078. gov/ ynews/ testimony/ testimony_1237563811984. com/ video/ how_to_hack_a_fingerprint_scanner Video of the Mythbusters episode on how to hack fingerprint scanners] 8 Further reading • White Paper .shtml) • “Germany to phase-in biometric passports from November 2005”. nz/ compute/ news/ article. html). Vivian Chu and Gayathri Rajendran.htm). (http://ec.vcl.Market Research Reports . . .fer. paspoortinformatie. nl/ dsresource?objectid=4653& type=pdf) (PDF). css. acq. silicon. aspx?id=162522)  Digital World: Getting to know all about you and me (http:/ / fr. com/ security/ 0.Software . asp  http:/ / www. Use of Biometrics (http://techcast.  Criteria for accepting passport photos in Dutch travel documents Ministry of Foreign Affairs. nl/ en/ Services/ Consular_Services/ Dutch_passport_ID_card/ Biometric_passports  http:/ / www. nl/ en/ Services/ Consular_Services/ Dutch_passport_ID_card/ Biometric_passports).DE: Germany to phase-in biometric passports from November 2005 (http:/ / ec. .aware. National Protection and Programs Directorate. minbuza. D.com/stories/2001/ 01/24/national/main266789. K.pdf). cfm?an=1& subarticlenbr=8%20  http:/ / www. drdc-rddc. Torsten (2008-03-31). "Testimony of Deputy Assistant Secretary for Policy Kathleen Kraninger. "CCC publishes fingerprints of German Home Secretary" (http:/ / www. gov." (http:/ / www. Published by the National Biometric Security Project (NBSP). dhs. migrationinformation. Retrieved 20 February 2010  Magnuson. uk/ 2/ hi/ south_asia/ 8598159. br/ _documento. Washington. Retrieved 2008-03-02. Retrieved 6 July 2010. "Biometric passports" (http:/ / www. Mocny. . Retrieved 20 February 2010  Article describing Disney's 2006 biometric initiative replacing hand geometric scanners with fingerprint readers (http:/ / newsinitiative.biometricscatalog. (March 2009). rj. europa. Retrieved 6 July 2010. and Logistics.. pdf). cfm?ID=141)  Biometrics used to keep German Olympians safe . bbc. Unclassified Report of the Defense Science Board Task Force. US Department of Homeland Security.Breaking Business and Technology News at silicon. NationalDefenseMagazine. jpost. • Delac. The H.cbsnews.com (http:/ / software. jpost. (2005). Retrieved 20 February 2010  Defense Science Board (DSB) (September 2006).Germany Weighs Biometric Registration Options for Visa Applicants (http:/ / www. (2004). ynet. gc.Research and Markets (http:/ / www.org/ Upload/PDFs/634122830612738824_Biometrics-VivianandGayathrilo-res. .org. org/ ARCHIVE/ 2009/ JANUARY/ Pages/ DefenseDepartmentUnderPressuretoShareBiometricData. • TechCast Article Series. K. R. html)  http:/ / www. Heise Media UK Ltd. ca/ index-eng. com/ servlet/ Satellite?pagename=JPost/ JPArticle/ ShowFull& cid=1246443865107)  YNET: Biometric Database . US-VISIT. osd.  http:/ / www. Mocny. Screening Coordination. Published by Aware.Identification Flats: A Revolution in Fingerprint Biometrics (http://www.pdf). minbuza. org/ displaycommon. March 2009. nl/ english/ Travel_documents/ Reading_the_chip  Ministry of Home Affairs and kingdom relations. Retrieved 2010-06-08. "On Defense Biometrics" (http:/ / www. il/ articles/ 0.eu/idabc/en/document/4338/194) . co.39024655.
Argentina. whereas identification systems determine identity based solely on fingerprints. automated fingerprint identification systems have been used in large scale civil identification projects. driver licensing. Italy. The first stage will generally make use of global fingerprint characteristics while the second stage is the minutia matcher. the International Criminal Police Organization. applicant background checks. They also vary in terms of features such as image rotation invariance and independence from a reference point (usually. and various states. welfare. and is managed by the FBI. electronic image storage. The act followed the Pruem treaty. receipt of benefits. Israel. including criminal identification. and receipt of credentials (such as passports). including Canada. On a technical level. Chile. The accuracy of the algorithm. The chief purpose of a civil fingerprint identifications system is to prevent multiple enrollments in an electoral. Germany. While technically not being an AFIS itself. Another benefit of a civil fingerprint identifications system is its use in background checks for job applicants for highly sensitive posts and educational personnel who have close contact with children. Automated fingerprint verification is a closely-related technique used in applications such as attendance and access control systems.S. Many other entities. and electronic exchange of fingerprints and responses. Some larger AFIS vendors deploy custom hardware while others use software to attain matching speed and throughput. the European Union. France. With greater frequency in recent years. 9 Automated fingerprint identification Automated fingerprint identification is the process of automatically matching one or many unknown fingerprints against a database of known and unknown prints. robustness to poor image quality. Humboldt University Berlin. an initiative between the countries Belgium. and local administrative regions have their own systems. Many states also have their own AFIS. Denmark. Luxembourg. Automated fingerprint identification systems are primarily used by law enforcement agencies for criminal identification initiatives. Fingerprint matching has an enormous computational burden. or center of the fingerprint pattern). the "core". Pakistan. (2003). “Germany Weighs Biometric Registration Options for Visa Applicants”.Biometrics • Oezcan. the most important of which include identifying a person suspected of committing a crime or linking a suspect to other unsolved crimes. AFISes have capabilities such as latent searching. provinces. . Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System holds all fingerprint sets collected in the country. Morocco. In general. Spain. a two stage search. the United Kingdom. Fingerprint matching algorithms Fingerprint matching algorithms vary greatly in terms of Type I (false positive) and Type II (false negative) error rates. Retrieved 2006-06-11. print matching speed. or similar system. the Netherlands and Austria. it is desirable to have. V. which are used for a variety of purposes. European police agencies are now required by a European council act to open their AFISes to each other to improve the war on terror and the investigation of cross-border crime. Venezuela. at the least. Deployed automated fingerprint identification systems The U. Australia. verification systems verify a claimed identity (a user might claim to be John by presenting his PIN or ID card and verify his identity using his fingerprint). Turkey. the Pruem treaty's decentral infrastructure allowes AFIS queries on all European criminal AFIS'es within a reasonable timeframe. and the characteristics noted above are critical elements of system performance.
the search systems return results with some numerical measure of the probability of a match (a "score").Automated fingerprint identification In any case. jpg  http:/ / www. Many systems use a broader search in order to reduce the number of missed identifications. 10 External links • Screen shot of AFIS system used in Peru .. Apr 2010 References  Acts adopted under the EO treaty (http:/ / eur-lex. com/ news/ img/ afis-display. Retrieved 2010-05-10. livinginperu. In tenprint searching. and is increasingly used in criminal identification systems as well. From the article Peru now uses AFIS fingerprint system . "lights-out" or "auto-confirm" algorithms produce "identified" or "non-identified" responses without a human operator looking at the prints. as of Jan 2007. In recent years. • Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) Dacto 2000 . using a "search threshold" parameter to increase accuracy. do?uri=OJ:L:2008:210:0001:0011:EN:PDF). Retrieved 2010-05-10. "Lights-out" or "auto-confirm" is often used in civil identification systems. The confirmation of system suggested candidates is usually performed by a technician in forensic systems. provided the matching score is high enough. com/ news/ 3053  http:/ / www. todes. though.. eu/ LexUriServ/ LexUriServ. livinginperu. html  http:/ / sourceforge. . Latent to tenprint searching will frequently return many (often fifty or more) candidates because of limited and poor quality input data. there should seldom be more than a single candidate unless there are multiple records from the same candidate in the database. net/ projects/ sourceafis/ . by/ en/ dacto2000. Belarus • SourceAFIS is an OpenSource fingerprint recognition/matching SDK (library) .  http:/ / filer. europa. and these searches can return from one to ten possible matches.
and Information Systems Security Committee. • to meet regularly to: • Promote the science and performance of biometrics. The Biometric Consortium's charter was formally approved on December 7. • to encourage the use and acceptance of biometric technology in areas of critical need and also concern itself with maximizing performance. procedures. Mission The Biometric Consortium's charter states that the mission of the Biometric Consortium is: • to serve as a Government focal point for research. Biometric Consortium logo The main event of this consortium is the Biometric Consortium Conference. In 1994. industry and academia. It serves as the US government focal point for the research. development. • Provide a forum for information exchange between the Government. Benincasa. The Security Policy Board reports to the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs. and academia. • Create standardized testing databases. legal. • to address the following: • Coordinate with the Information Systems Security Committee to foster awareness of biometrics. . private industry. • Facilitate symposia/workshops to include the participation of academia and private industry. performance. testing. The objective of the Biometric Consortium is to provide a forum for information exchange on biometric technology among the Government. Dr. development. agendas. • Provide copies of all meeting invitations. • Establish a feedback mechanism for issues that are exposed during the actual application of this technology. minimizing cost. evaluation and application of biometric-based personal authentication technology. 1995 by the Facilities Protection Committee. • Establish ad hoc bodies. Campbell and Ms. a committee that reports to the Security Policy Board through the Security Policy Forum. test. History The Biometric Consortium met for the first time on October 1992 under the chairmanship of Dr. and ethical issues surrounding this technology. • to coordinate technological concerns and issues of performance and efficiency within the Government in order to serve the best interests of the taxpayer. and meeting minutes to the Chairpersons of the Security Policy Board. • Address the safety. to address specific areas of need within the Government biometric community. as required. published proceedings. respectively. held every fall. evaluation. • Establish increased Government and commercial interaction. • Advise and assist member agencies concerning the selection and application of biometric devices. Alyea took over as chair and vice chair. Facilities Protection Committee. and protocols for the community and security policy organizations. and application of biometric-based personal identification/authentication technology. Both NSA and NIST co-chair the BC.Biometric Consortium 11 Biometric Consortium The Biometric Consortium is a US government sponsored consortia created by the National Security Agency (NSA) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). and avoiding duplication of effort within the Government community.
the facts which led to the passing of the law are also explained: The law is aimed for the dealing with the serious issues which the State of Israel is facing in the recent years in identifying documents which are produced by the Interior Ministry. When the law passed in December 2009 it was determined that he law be gradually applied and that at the first phase. (3) Determining the necessary arrangements to protect the privacy of the residents whom provided their biometric data. that the collected data would be integrated onto the Israeli digital identity cards and digital passports. allow the misuse of identification documents for illegal immigration. Nowadays identification documents are easily forged by criminals. whom often try to geth the assistance of state workers. biometrics. including prominent Israeli scientists and security experts. org/ Biometric Database Law (Israel) The Biometric Database Law (Hebrew: יוהיז יכמסמב םיירטמויב יוהיז ינותנו םיירטמויב יוהיז יעצמא תללכה קוח )9002-ט"סשתה . theft and destruction of the ID cards occurred several times for the same resident during these three years. The data of the Israeli Police indicates that about 52 percent of the individuals whom submitted requests for new identity . criminal and economic offenses. (2) Establishment of a biometric database which would include biometric identification means which would be integrated onto identification documents. and activities which harm Israel's national security. and defining the permitted uses of the database by the Israel Police forces and the Israeli security authorities.עדימ רגאמבוIs an Israeli Law which the Knesset passed in December 2009. Opponents of the highly controversial law. theft and destruction of about 150. warned that the existence of such a database could damage both civil liberties and state security.  Law's targets The laws's targets which are presented in its first section are: (1) Determining the arrangements which would allow the identification and verification of the identity of Israeli residents by including biometric identification means and biometric identification data in passports and identity cards. biometric identification data generated from them. These examples. for which submitted requests were handed in for new identity cards. determining the means of access to the biometric database and securing the information in it. determining that fingerprints and facial contours would be collected from all Israeli residents. to prevent forgery and the using of a false identity. In many cases. because any leaks could be used by criminals or hostile individuals against Israeli residents. identification of individuals and assist in locating individuals suspected of criminal activity by the law enforcement officials. including: Fake ID cards and passports. in question the loss. From 2005 to 2007 the Interior Ministry reported the loss. the inclusion of one's biometric data in the central database would be voluntary. and to determine the permitted uses of such data and measures. producing double records for the same person.000 ID cards per year.Biometric Consortium 12 External links • Biometric Consortium official website  References  http:/ / www. and identity theft which are caused when using the documentation of a person from whom the identity was stolen. and that a biometric government database of all Israeli citizens and residents would be created which would be used for biometric identification that would allow the management of access control. as described in paragraph (1). Furthermore.
Published in jpost. aspx?id=149360) .7340.Published in forward.aspx) .Published in ynetnews.com/articles/ 0.html) .com on 8/12/2009 • Following criticism. Netanyahu defers vote on biometric database law (http://www.forward. although selected government officials would be capable of linking between the to databases to retrive additional data.Published in haaretz. aspx?id=149360)  YNET: Biometric Database . References  Digital World: Getting to know all about you and me (http:/ / www.com/articles/112033/) .com on 7/21/2009 • Israel Poised To Pass National I.Published on 6/21/2010 .7340. between the yers 1995 to 2006 had a criminal record. The biometric database would be stored separatly from the government's older existing identity database.00. stolen and/or destructed.Biometric Database Law (Israel) cards after theirs was lost. html) External links • Biometric database bill passes first vote / Erez Ronen (http://www.D.00.idi.il/sites/english/BreakingTheNews/Pages/ IsraelAndTheBiometricDatabase. ynet. an employee of the Mossad.4055) .org. com/ Home/ Article.ynetnews. co.). Database Law / Nathan Jeffay (http://www.haaretz. jpost. and to transfer the data to a database which would be managed by the biometric database management authority ( .com/Home/Article.com on 11/16/2009 • The State of Israel and the Biometric Database Law: Political Centrism and the Post-Democratic State / Nitzan Lebovic and Avner Pinchuk (http://www. 13 Law's clauses The employees of the Interior Ministry would be authorized to collect biometric identification data from the Israeli population.L-3614965.)ירטמויבה רגאמה לוהינל תושרהThis data would be used to issue resident identification documents and for verification of an individual's identity. il/ articles/ 0. by the means of rechecking an individual's biometric identification data by authorized officials (police officer.com on 10/29/2008 • Digital World: Getting to know all about you and me / David Shamah (http://www. of which 10 percent have a criminal record of distribution of counterfeit documents.com/news/ following-criticism-netanyahu-defers-vote-on-biometric-database-law-1.jpost. an employee of the Shin Bet.A Danger to State Security (http:/ / www. etc.L-3754468.
such as the USA Passport card. it includes a minimum of 32 kilobytes of EEPROM storage memory. including a microprocessor chip (computer chip) and antenna (for both power to the chip and communication) embedded in the front or back cover. The comparison of biometric features is performed outside the passport chip by electronic border control systems (e-borders). usually printed on the cover of passports The currently standardized biometrics used for this type of identification system are facial recognition. is a combined paper and electronic passport (hence the e-. also known as an e-passport or ePassport. Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) is used to authenticate the data stored electronically in the passport chip making it expensive and difficult (as of 2010) to forge when all security mechanisms are fully and correctly implemented. or center page. Some national identity cards (e. are not. as in e-mail) that contains biometric information that can be used to authenticate the identity of travelers. . and runs on an interface in accordance with the ISO/IEC 14443 international standard. Countries with biometric passports: Biometric passports available to the general public Announced future availability of biometric passports Symbol for biometric passports. The ICAO defines the biometric file formats and communication protocols to be used in passports. in the Netherlands. It uses contactless smart card technology. Document and chip characteristics are documented in the International Civil Aviation Organisation's (ICAO) Doc 9303.g. fingerprint recognition. These standards intend interoperability between different countries and different manufacturers of passport books. and iris recognition. To store biometric data on the contactless chip. However others.   The passport's critical information is both printed on the data page of the passport and stored in the chip. Albania and Brazil) are fully ICAO9303 compliant biometric travel documents. amongst others. of the passport. Only the digital image (usually in JPEG or JPEG2000 format) of each biometric feature is actually stored in the chip.Biometric passport 14 Biometric passport A biometric passport. These were adopted after assessment of several different kinds of biometrics including retinal scan.
EAC adds functionality to check the authenticity of both the chip (chip authentication) and the reader (terminal authentication). In 2006 Adam Laurie wrote software that tries all known passport keys within a given range. Readers need access to all used public country keys to check whether the digital signature is generated by a trusted country. thus implementing one of Witteman's attacks. This prevents unauthorized reading. The chip contains a private key that cannot be read or copied.) and a digital signature of these hashes.Biometric passport 15 Data protection Biometric passports are equipped with protection mechanisms to avoid and / or detect attacks: • Non-traceable chip characteristics. allowing an attacker to guess / crack the key required for reading the chip. If a file in the chip (e. • Passive Authentication (PA). Random chip identifiers reply to each request with a different chip number. The use of shielding is optional. The team fingerprinted error messages of passport chips from different countries. finger print. The digital signature is made using a document signing key which itself is signed by a country signing key. using EAC is mandatory for all documents issued starting 28 June 2009. the date of expiry and the document number. The chip contains a file (SOD) that stores hash values of all files stored in the chip (picture. Using random identification numbers is optional. flight coupons and other public information it's possible to significantly reduce the number of possible keys. PA prevents modification of passport chip data. In 2008 Jeroen van Beek demonstrated that not all passport inspection systems check the cryptographic signature of a passport chips. Using EAC is optional. EAC is typically used to protect finger prints and iris scans. Note that in some early biometric passports BAC wasn't used at all. • Basic Access Control (BAC). allowing attacker to read the chip's content without providing a key. In 2005 Marc Witteman showed that the document numbers of Dutch passports were predictable. If BAC is used. Using BAC is optional. In 2008 a Radboud / Lausitz University team demonstrated that it's possible to determine which country a passport chip is from without knowing the key required for reading it. but its existence can easily be proven. Attacks Since the introduction of biometric passports several attacks are presented and demonstrated: • Non-traceable chip characteristics.  by sending specific BAC authentication requests. In 2006 Lukas Grunwald demonstrated that it is trivial to copy passport data from a passport chip into a standard ISO/IEC 14443 smartcard using a standard contactless card interface and a simple file transfer tool. Using PA is mandatory. • Shielding the chip. Laurie demonstrated the attack by reading the passport chip of a Daily Mail's reporter in its envelope without opening it.including at least the US . Grunwald used a passport that did not use Active Authentication (anti-cloning) and did not change the data held on the copied chip to keep its cryptographic signature valid. AA prevents cloning of passport chips. BAC protects the communication channel between the chip and the reader by encrypting transmitted information. This can only be detected by checking the country signing keys that are used to sign the . etc. • Basic Access Control (BAC). In the EU. • Active Authentication (AA). Furthermore it uses stronger encryption than BAC. The resulting lookup table allows an attacker to determine where a chip is from.g. For his demonstration Van Beek altered chip information and signed it using his own document signing key of a non-existing country. Using online flight booking sites. • Passive Authentication (PA).have integrated a very thin metal mesh into the passport's cover to act as a shield when the passport cover is closed. • Extended Access Control (EAC). Before data can be read from a chip. an attacker cannot (easily) eavesdrop transferred information without knowing the correct key. Using AA is optional. the reader needs to provide a key which is derived from the Machine Readable Zone [Mrz]: the date of birth. This prevents tracing of passport chips. In 2010 Tom Chothia and Vitaliy Smirnov documented an attack that allows an individual passport to be traced. this can be detected since the hash value is incorrect. the picture) is changed. Some countries .
. but the scientific security community recently also addressed the threats from untrustworthy verifiers. The attack is documented in supplement 7 of Doc 9303 (R1-p1_v2_sIV_0006) and can be solved by patching inspection system software." Most security measures are designed against untrusted citizens (the "provers").result in a vulnerable inspection process. [stating that] European governments have forced a document on its citizens that dramatically decreases security and increases the  risk of identity theft. the BBC published an article  on the British ePassport.amongst others . Grunwald states that if an EAC-key . To check country signing keys the ICAO PKD can be used. citing the above stories and adding that: "Nearly every country issuing this passport has a few security experts who are yelling at the top of their lungs and trying to shout out: 'This is not secure. Only 5 out of 60+ countries are using this central database. • Extended Access Control (EAC). or nations using poorly implemented. The main problem they point out is that data on the passports can be transferred with wireless RFID technology. an attacker can upload a false certificate with an issue date far in the future. such as corrupt governmental organizations. unsecure electronic systems. then verifying whether it is right. but not yet implemented in biometric passports. In 2005 Marc Witteman showed that the secret Active Authentication key can be retrieved using power analysis.is stolen or compromised. Note that supplement 7 features vulnerable examples in the same document that . This may allow an attacker to clone passport chips that use the optional Active Authentication anti-cloning mechanism on chips .anti-cloning mechanisms (Active Authentication). Also in 2008. It is in places done the wrong way round . There are lots of technical flaws in it and there are things that have just been forgotten." and adding that the Future of Identity in the Information Society (FIDIS) network's research team (a body of IT security experts funded by the European Union) has "also come out against the ePassport scheme. The affected chips block read access until the future date is reached. 16 Opposition Privacy activists in many countries question and protest the lack of information about exactly what the passports' chip will contain. The release included a video clip that demonstrated problems using a forged Elvis Presley passport that is recognized as a valid US passport. If the personal information and passport numbers on the chip are not encrypted. This is not a good idea to use this technology'".reading data first. In 2007 Luks Grunwald presented an attack that can make EAC-enabled passport chips unusable. Although this could allow ID-check computers to obtain a person's information without a physical connection. It is supposed to get a higher security level. These are under scientific study. so it is basically not doing what it is supposed to do.required for reading fingerprints and updating certificates .when implemented . it may also allow anyone with the necessary equipment to perform the same task.if the chip design is susceptible to this attack. citing a specialist who states "It is much too complicated. interpreting data. This allows an attacker to remove . It is not.Biometric passport document signing keys. New cryptographic solutions such as private biometrics are being proposed to mitigate threats of mass theft of identity.. On 15 December 2006. parsing data.  • Active Authentication (AA). . the information might wind up in the wrong hands. Van Beek did not update the original passport chip: instead an ePassport emulator was used. and whether they impact civil liberties. which can become a major vulnerability. The Hacker's Choice implemented all attacks and published code to verify the results. In 2008 Jeroen van Beek demonstrated that optional security mechanisms can be disabled by removing their presence from the passport index file.
 These countries are obliged to implement machine readable facial images in the passports by 28. Since June 2009. • Bulgaria (introduced in July 2009. i.2006.50. This combination of the biometrics aims to create an unrivaled level of security and protection against fraudulent identification papers. The German passports printed after 1 November 2007 contain two fingerprints. and fingerprints by 29. According to EU requirements.53 [prior to 25 June 2008]). The Netherlands also takes fingerprints and is the only EU member that decided to store these fingerprints centrally.29 per year (first is mandatory. 10000 HUF (€40) valid for 10 years.50. all newly issued passports contain fingerprints. As of 16 June 2009. valid for 10 years.08. however this is being considered by the United Kingdom Passport Service. only national that are signatories to the Schengen Acquis are required to add fingerprint biometrics. In these EU nations. 5 years). . all newly  issued passports contain fingerprints.76) (valid for 5 years). valid for 5 years. and three of the four European Free Trade Association countries .06. The European Data Protection Supervisor has stated that the current legal framework fails to "address all the possible and relevant issues triggered by the inherent imperfections of biometric systems". available since 29 March 2010): €20 for adults. As of January 2010 newly issued passports contain fingerprints. plus tax stamps of €40. while a chip-free child's version costs €26.  • Ireland (available since 16 October 2006): €80. Passports are valid for 5 years. Technical specifications for the new passports has been established by the European Commission. >24 years (valid 10 years) €59 Passports issued from 1 November 2007 on include fingerprints. Passports contain fingerprints.40 (valid for 5 years). The Romanian passports will also contain two fingerprints. in addition to a digital photograph. no obligation to fingerprint biometrics) • Italy (available since 26 October 2006): €42. an unexpired tax stamp is only required when passing through Italian passport control). Norway and Switzerland. valid for 10 years • Denmark (available since 1 August 2006): DKK 600 for adults (valid for 10 years). the EU countries. • Cyprus (available since 13 December 2010) : €70. As of 29 June 2009. The specifications are binding for the Schengen agreement parties.e. passports contain fingerprints. the British biometric passport only uses a digital image and not fingerprinting. 115 DKK for children (valid for 5 years) and 350 DKK for over 65 (valid for 10 years). all newly issued passports contain fingerprints. all newly issued passports contain fingerprints.2009. Passports are valid for 5 years.  • Greece (available since 26 August 2006) €76. the price of the passport will be: • Austria (available since 16 June 2006) An adult passport costs €69.90. As of 29 June 2009. Currently. • Czech Republic (available since 1 September 2006): 600 CZK for adults (valid 10 years). valid for 10 years. valid for 5 years. • Belgium (introduced in October 2004): €71 or €41 for children + local taxes. one from each hand. valid for 10 years. • Finland (available since 21 August 2006) €53 (valid for max. As of 29 June 2009. • Latvia (available since 20 November 2007): An adult passport costs Ls15 (€21. except Ireland and UK. (Not Signatory to Schengen Acquis. • Germany (available since November 2005): ≤23 year old applicants (valid for 6 years) €37. • France (available since April 2006): €86 or €89 (depending whether applicant provides photographs).Iceland. • Estonia (available since 22 May 2007): EEK 450 (€28. Free for people over 65. As of March 2009 all newly issued passports contain fingerprints. • Hungary (available since 29 August 2006): 6000 HUF (€24). one from each hand. 100 CZK for children (valid 5 years).Biometric passport 17 Types European Union European passports planned to have digital imaging and fingerprint scan biometrics placed on the contactless chip.
Armenia In September 2011 Armenia will introduce two new identity documents to replace ordinary passports of Armenian citizens. As of 29 June 2009. and the biometric passport with an electronic chip to be used for traveling abroad.27€ valid for 5 years and for children under 5 years 8. For children up to 16 years old.Biometric passport • Lithuania (available since 28 August 2006): LTL 100 (€29). • Slovakia (available since 15 January 2008) An adult passport(>13years costs 33. • UK (introduced March 2006): £77. Electronic chip of biometric passport will contain digital images of fingerprints and photo of passport holder. • Netherlands (available since 28 August 2006): Approximately €11 on top of regular passport (€38. The microchip contains ten fingerprints. otherwise they remain valid for 10 years).ordinary passport): €60 for adults (€50 for those who are over 65 years old).45 (price at the 7 November 2010). • Portugal (available since 31 July 2006 . all newly issued passports contain fingerprints. all newly issued passports contain fingerprints. costs 6000 Lekë.   . (Not Signatory to Schengen Acquis.33) cost €49. • Luxembourg (available since 28 August 2006): €30. valid for 2 years.29€. • Slovenia (available since 28 August 2006): €36 for adults. the photo and all the data written on the passport. • Romania (available since 31 December 2008): 276 RON (€67). As of 29 June 2009. Passports issued from 29 June 2009 include fingerprints of both index fingers.50 for adults and £49 for children under the age of 16.33. Dutch identity cards are lookalike versions of the holder's page of the passport and contain the same biometric information. • Sweden (available since October 2005): SEK 400 (valid for 5 years). For persons over 16 years old. • Malta (available since 8 October 2008): €70 for persons over 16 years old. (Aged 30 or less a Spanish passport is valid for 5 years. 28 August 2006 . no obligation to fingerprint biometrics. €40 for children under 12. valid for 3 years. none of the issued biometric passports mentioned above include fingerprints as of 5 May 2010. valid 10 years. valid for 5 years for those over the age of 6. valid for 10 years. 70PLN for students. and for 3 years for those under 6. €35 for children between 10–16 years (valid for 5 years) and €14 for children under 10 years (valid for 2 years). all newly issued passports contain fingerprints. while a chip-free child's(5–13 years) version costs 13. All passports have 32 pages.special passport. will be used locally within the country. valid for 10 years. €31 for children from 3 to 18 years of age. As of 29 June 2009. valid max 5 years. €28 for children up to 3 years of age. valid for 5 years. new passport includes both facial images and fingerprints.) 18 Unless otherwise noted. The passport will be valid for 5 years. Valid for 5 years. but valid only for 2 years. Albania The Albanian biometric passport is available since May 2009.19€ valid for 10 years. a 48-page version is available at a €2 surcharge. valid for 5 years. As of 19 Jan 2010. All passports have 32 pages. (€50) and is valid for 10 years. One of the documents – ID card with electronic signature. Passports issued from 21 September 2009 include fingerprints. valid for 10 years. • Poland (available since 28 August 2006): 140 PLN (€35) for adults. They include fingerprints of both index fingers as of October 2009. • Spain (available since 28 August 2006) at a price of €13.
Jim Flaherty. Brunei The Bruneian biometric passport was introduced on 17 February 2007.Biometric passport 19 Australia The Australian biometric passport was introduced in October 2005. Since 18 January 2010 only biometric passports can be obtained at issuing offices inside Croatia. and facial recognition technology has been installed at immigration gates. Ordinary biometric passports will be introduced by the Ministry of Public Security in the future. fingerprint and other biometric features of the passport holder will be   digitalized and stored in pre-installed contactless smart chip in the passport. However just in December 2010 it began to issue passports with microchips. Until the end of January 2011 this last will be issued all over Brazil. Bosnia and Herzegovina Available since 15 October 2009 and costing 40 KM (€ 20. The microchip contains the same personal information that is on the color photo page of the ePassport. China On January 30. Produced by Bundesdruckerei. This method aims at increasing efficiency and accuracy of identifying people at the border crossing. Diplomatic missions and consular offices must implement new issuing system until 28 June 2010. This technology is being used at border crossings that have electronic readers that are able to read the chip in the cards and verify the information present in the card and on the passport. first in the capital Brasília and Goiás state. . The Bruneian ePassport has the same functions as the other biometric passports. In the 2008 Federal Budget. developed by Canada Border Services Agency. the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China launched a trial issuance of e-passports for public affairs. is currently being used by some major airports that have kiosks set up to take digital pictures of a person’s eye as a means of identification. CANPASS. Minister of Finance announced the electronic passport will be introduced in 2011. Passport Canada began a pilot project in 2009 for special and diplomatic passport applicants. 2011. It was produced by German printer Giesecke & Devrient (G&D) following the Visa Waiver Program's requirements. On 1 June 2010 Bosnia and Herzegovina issued its first EAC passport. Canada Canada has recently introduced biometrics in the use of passports with the help of digitized photos. The face.  Croatia Available since 1 July 2009 and costing 390 HRK (€53). Airport security has been upgraded to allow Australian ePassport bearers to clear immigration controls more rapidly. including a digitized photograph. The chip contains two fingerprints and a digital photo of the holder. The future passports may contain a chip that holds a picture of the person and personal information such as name and date of birth. Brazil Brazil started issuing ICAO compliant passports in December 2006. Valid for 5 years.51).
and Rp350. India has also given out a contract to TCS for issuing e-passports through passport seva kendra. about 35-40 USD at that date. In Jan 2010.  . The passport contains a security chip with personal data and digital images. The new passports have been designed indigenously by the Central Passport Organization. biometric passports began to be issued in May 2004.00 (US$39) for the 24-page passport.000IRR ($50 USD) for adults and 250. the cost of the passport was 1. 2007. India India has recently initiated first phase deployment of Biometric e-Passport for Diplomatic Passport holders in India and abroad. the processing time is 19 working days. For children under 11 year of age not holding a Hong Kong Permanent Identity Card. Initially. The biometric passport has been tested with passport readers abroad and is noted to have a 4 second response time – less than that of a US Passport (10 seconds). the new passports will have a 64KB chip with a photograph of passport holder and subsequently include the holder's fingerprint(s). India plans to open 77 such centers across the country to issue these passports. The e-passport is under the first phase of deployment and will be initially restricted to diplomatic passport holders. Though the e-passport is not a mandatory until 2015. the India Security Press. Ordinary biometric passports began to be issued on February 20. introduced the electronic Passport (e-Passport) and electronic Document of Identity for Visa Purposes (e-Doc/I) which are compliant with the standard of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). Digital data including holder's personal data and facial image will be contained in the contactless chip embedded in the back cover of e-Passport and e-Doc/I. after which generates access keys to unlock the chip data for reader access. The Dominican Republic is the only country whose passport does not have the biometric symbol on its cover. The passport need not be carried in a metal jacket for security reasons as it first needs to be passed through a reader. Nashik and IIT Kanpur. Application fees & procedures remains unchanged. Existing HKSAR Passports and Documents of Identity for Visa Purposes will remain valid until their expiry.Biometric passport 20 Dominican Republic In the Dominican Republic.250 DOP. from 5 February 2007. Iceland Available since 23 May 2006 and costing ISK 5100 (ISK 1900 for under 18 and over 67). Hong Kong SAR The Hong Kong Immigration Department has. The Immigration Department pledges to complete the process of an application within 10 working days. Pratibha Patil. The passport will cost around Rp600. 2011. On 25 June 2008 Indian Passport Authority issued first e-passport to the President of India. It is expected to be made available to ordinary citizens from September 2010 onwards. Indonesia Indonesia will start using e-Passport at January 26. Iran Iran started issuing diplomatic and service biometric passports in July.000IRR ($25 USD) for minors. 2011. The cost of a new passport is 500.000(US$66) for the 48-page.
the general passports directorate revealed new electronic system to issue the new A-series passports in contract with the German SAFE ID Solutions. including the holder's signature. €22. the new series is a biometric passport available to the public which would cost 25.000 Iraqi dinars or about $20 USD. the Iraqi Ministry of Interior .U. Macedonia Available since 2 April 2007 and costing 1500 MKD or c. . Macao SAR Applications for electronic passports and electronic travel permits have been started and processed since 1 September 2009.Biometric passport 21 Iraq In April 2009. developed the technology. It was introduced as a request of European Union to safe the borders between the E. Malaysia Malaysia was the first country in the world to issue biometric passports in 1998. Sovereign Military Order of Malta Since 2005 the SMOM diplomatic and service passports include biometric features and are compliant with ICAO standards. It is valid for 7 years (for persons over 7) and 4 years (for persons less than 7) respectively. and R. The new Moldovan biometric passport costs approximately 760 MDL (€45) and is obligatory from 1 January 2011. the rest of the technologies are the same. The difference lies in the storage of fingerprint template instead of fingerprint image in the chip. as well as the traditional information. Malaysia started issuing ICAO compliant passports from February 2010. after a local company. the Ministry of Interior of the Republic of Kosovo[a] announced that biometric passports will be issued in the summer of 2011 after the winning firm is chosen and awarded the production of the passports. of Moldova. Moldova The Moldovan biometric passport is available from 1 January 2008. The passport of the Republic of Moldova with biometric data contains a chip which holds digital information. Malaysia is however not a member of the Visa Waiver Program (VWP) and its biometric passport does not conform to the same standards as the VWP biometric document because the Malaysian biometric passport was issued ahead of the VWP requirement. Kosovo In May 2011. Also the biometric passport was designed to be read only if the receiving country has the authorization from the Malaysian Immigration Department. IRIS Corporation.
e.0 (was 2. like Australia and the USA. The new e-passport has various security features. otherwise passport remain valid for 10 years. BAC-crypted. Philippines On August 11. Nigeria Nigeria is currently one of the few nations in Africa that issues biometric passports.the small symbol on the front cover indicating that an electronic chip has been embedded in the passport.€23. or c. NOK 270 for children.000 RSD or approx. USD 80). There are two identifying factors . including a hidden encoded image. 2009.). and a tamper-proof electronic microchip costing at around 950 pesos.200 RSD or approx. an ultra-thin. Pakistan In 2004 Pakistan became one of the first countries in the world to issue biometric passports compliant to ICAO standards.The harmonized ECOWAS Smart electronic passport issued by the Nigerian Immigrations Service is powered by biometric technology in tandem with the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) specifications for international travels. Travellers' data captured in the biometric passport can be accessed instantly and read by any security agent from any spot of the globe through an integrated network of systems configured and linked to a centrally-coordinated passport data bank managed by the Nigerian Immigrations Service.5) (Aged 3 or less a Serbian passport is valid for 3 years. use only printed data and photo (i. €20. €50. and has done it since 2008. and the polycarbonate leaf in the front (version 2009) of the book inside which the chip is located. Morocco The Moroccan biometric passport was introduced in 2008. the first biometric passport was released for President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. Serbia Available since 7 July 2008. aged 3 to 14 it is valid for 5 years.) . In December 2009. early limited trials have been extended.Biometric passport 22 Montenegro The Montenegrin biometric passport was introduced in 2008. and the biometric passport is available from 25 September 2009 to all Moroccan citizens holders of an electronic identity card.  Russia Russian biometric passport was introduced in 2006. and from 16 December 2010 costs 2. New Zealand is using the facial biometric identifier. It costs approximately €40. it costs 2. It costs 300DH (approximately €27). New Zealand Introduced in November 2005.500 rubles (approx. Biometric passport issued after 1 March 2010 is valid for 10 years. no optional fingerprint etc. As of 2010. Norway Available since 1 October 2005 and costing NOK 450 for adults. holographic laminate.
Since 1 March 2010. . South Korea The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade of South Korea started issuing biometric passports to its citizens on August 25. and 7 years for the commercial passport.Biometric passport 23 Singapore The Immigation & Checkpoints Authority (ICA)  of Singapore introduced the Singapore biometric passport (BioPass) on 15 August 2006. On 27 August 2009. and the validity of the citizen's passport will be 5 years. and the validity of ordinary passport is 10 years. and $150 USD for Somalis living abroad. Switzerland The Swiss biometric passport has been available since 4 September 2006. The citizen's passport (ordinary passport) will be issued to ordinary citizens and will contain 48 pages. The cost is fixed to CHF 140. The microprocessor chip will contain the holder's information in addition to fingerprints. Republic of China (Taiwan) Available since 29 December 2008 and costing NT$1. Somalia is now the first country on the African continent to have introduced the "e-passport".000 Won or 55 US Dollars.600. Business men/women who need to travel often will have a commercial passport that will contain 64 pages. Somalia The new "e-passport" of Somalia was introduced and approved by the nation's Transitional Federal Government on 10 October 2006. The cost is fixed to 55. With this. It costs $100 USD to apply for Somalis living inside of Somalia. all issued passports are biometric. Tajikistan Biometric passports will be issued in Tajikistan from 1 February 2010. 2008. Smaller passports that contain 32 pages only will be issued to children. 200 for students and 100 for kids. 100$ .00 adult CHF 60. containing a photograph and two fingerprints recorded electronically. The new electronic passport will be issued in three categories. Singapore has met requirements under the US Visa Waiver Program which calls for countries to roll out their biometric passports before 26 October 2006. Cost to obtain a new passport will be SDG 250 aprox. Tajik Ministry of Foreign Affairs and German Muhlbauer signed a contract on purchase of blank biometric passports and appropriate equipment for Tajikistan. Sudan The Republic of the Sudan started issuing electronic passports to citizens in May 2009.00 for children (-18 years old).
S. United States The U. Government Printing Office (GPO) issued awards to the top bidders of the program. the biometric passport will be issued to employees of ministries. they are now required to possess machine-readable passports that comply with international standards. Although a system able to perform a facial-recognition match between the bearer and his or her image stored on the contactless chip is desired. in mid-Asia region to issue an ICAO compliant biometric passport. biometric passports will be phased in. on 1 August 2005 a full operational service was installed and Thailand became the first country in Asia to issue an ICAO compliant biometric passport. beginning with January 1.S. visa-free under the VWP. From 1 June 2005.S. bottle green and diplomatic passports wrap black colours. the chip is large enough (64 kilobytes) for inclusion of biometric identifiers. 23 June 2009 Islam Karimov issued a Presidential Decree  "On measures to further improve the passport system in the Republic of Uzbekistan. Turkey Turkish passports which are compatible with European Union standards have been available since 1 June 2010. Non-biometric passports are valid until their expiration dates. Colours of the new biometric passports have also be changed. Additionally. version of the biometric passport (sometimes referred to as an electronic passport) has descriptive data and a digitized passport photo on its contactless chips.S. Department of State now issues biometric passports only.S.S.000 for startup. Most recently Turkish Minister of the State announced that the government is printing the new passports at government minting office since the private contractor failed to deliver. regular passports. The awards totaled to roughly $1. In the first phase. Accordingly. if they wish to enter U. High security required cracking down on counterfeit passports. Enhanced Border Security and Visa Entry Reform Act of 2002 (also known as the "Border Security Act"). 2011. departments and agencies of the republic. As for foreigners traveling to the U.. the production stages of this high-tech passport commenced as the U. it is unclear when such a system will be deployed by the U.S. Turkmenistan Turkmenistan became the first country in ex-USSR.Biometric passport 24 Thailand The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Thailand introduced the first biometric passport for Diplomats and Government officials on 26 May 2005. However. and testing. Uzbekistan In Uzbekistan. however. such a passport must be a biometric passport if used to enter the U. 2006. a limited quantity of 100 passports a day was issued for Thai citizens." On December 29. individuals .S.000. Passport is available since 10 July 2008. for travelers holding a valid passport issued on or after October 26. development. and does not have fingerprint information placed onto the contactless chip. which states that such smartcard Identity cards will be able to replace visas. In accordance with this decree. Department of Homeland Security at its ports of entry. The driving force of the initiative is the U. 2001. claret red. The U. A high level of security became a priority for the United States after the attacks of September 11. In October 2004. Another issue troubling Turks who wish to obtain a passport is the astronomical cost (for Turkish standards) of 360 TL (approximately €183) for a passport valid for 10 years. 2009 the President of Uzbekistan signed a decree to change the dates for a phased exchange of populations existing passport to the biometric passport. visa-free under the Visa Waiver Program (VWP). special passports.
com.Biometric passport who travel abroad or outside the country. aspx). co. . . ucl. pdf) (PDF). uk/ 2008/ 09/ 30/ epassport_hack_description/ ).int. RFID chip has photo and fingerprints. ece). opendemocracy. Tom Chothia and Vitaliy Smirnov. 18 March 2007. timesonline. dc414.ac.  Kim Zetter. 14th International Conference on Financial Cryptography and Data Security 2010" (http:/ / www. nl/ downloads. Budapest. "Defects in e-passports allow real-time tracking. Video.ucl.uk. Wired. blackhat. org/ download/ confs/ defcon15/ Speakers/ Grunwald/ Presentation/ dc-15-grunwald. ac. Part 3 (credit-card sized ID cards)" (http:/ / hasbrouck. Retrieved 9 February 20006. nl/ ~erikpoll/ papers/ nluug. The Sunday Times. theregister. uk/ 2010/ 01/ 26/ epassport_rfid_weakness/ ). . pdf) (PDF).  "Icao Pkd" (http:/ / www2. Theregister.thc. Dexlab.  "The Hacker's Choice ePassport tools" (http:/ / freeworld. Retrieved 8 September 2010.  Steve Boggan (August 6. "Elvis has left the border: ePassport faking guide unleashed" (http:/ / www.  "A Traceability Attack Against e-Passports. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ programmes/ click_online/ 6182207. Retrieved 8 September 2010.  "Attacks on Digital Passports" (http:/ / wiki. org/ images/ 2/ 28/ WTH-slides-Attacks-on-Digital-Passports-Marc-Witteman.com.com. .  Goodin.  Doc 9303 supplement 7 (http:/ / www2. cs.co. int/ en/ MRTD/ Downloads/ Supplements to Doc 9303/ Supplement to ICAO Doc 9303 Release 7. . pdf) (PDF). Freeworld. com/ category/ rfid/ ). html).uk. Dan Goodin. It declared independence on 17 February 2008. html). Retrieved 8 September 2010. Notes and references Notes: a. References:  "ICAO Document 9303. be/ crypto/ passport/ index. .be. Sys-security. . Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Serbia and the self-proclaimed Republic of Kosovo. org/ thc-epassport/ ).co. uk/ ~tpc/ Papers/ PassportTrace. . stm  Budapest Declaration on Machine Readable Travel Documents. Retrieved 8 September 2010. Retrieved 8 September 2010. as well as citizens who receive a passport in connection with the achievement of a certain age or for other grounds provided by law. com/ article/ dn8227-metal-shields-and-encryption-for-us-passports. pdf) (PDF). Retrieved 8 September 2010. google.  "ePassport emulator" (http:/ / dexlab. com/ videoplay?docid=-3185369830560352967). pdf) (PDF). Volume 2 (e-passports)" (http:/ / hasbrouck. John (30 September 2008).net.nl. Retrieved 8 September 2010. Volume 1 (OCR machine-readable passports)" (http:/ / hasbrouck. com/ presentations/ bh-europe-09/ VanBeek/ BlackHat-Europe-2009-VanBeek-ePassports-Mobile-slides. net/ media-edemocracy/ egovernment_3254. theregister. Retrieved 8 September 2010. .google. .  "Metal shields and encryption for US passports" (http:/ / www. icao. while Serbia claims it as part of its own sovereign territory. The Register. com/ science/ discoveries/ news/ 2006/ 08/ 71521). The second phase will be for the rest of the population who will be to able get new passports for the period from 2012 to 2015. . FIDIS NoE. wired. newscientist. Dice. "Hackers clone E-Passports" (http:/ / www. . int/ en/ MRTD/ Pages/ icaoPKD. pdf#page=35)  "PowerPoint Presentation" (http:/ / www. . . Retrieved 8 September 2010. Its independence is recognised by 75 UN member states. Retrieved 8 September 2010. Retrieved 8 September 2010. co. ac.  "ePassport reloaded goes mobile" (http:/ / www.  "ICAO Document 9303. 2008). Newscientist. whatthehack.  http:/ / news.  "ICAO Document 9303. jsp#/ thc-epassport/ ). Retrieved 8 September 2010. Part 1. bham. icao. . html/ ). pdf) (PDF). ru.  "Fingerprinting Passports" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 8 September 2010. cs. thc. . Retrieved 8 September 2010. Retrieved 8 September 2010. Retrieved 6 October 2010. Retrieved 8 September 2010. bbc. co. .  "Belgian Biometric Passport does not get a pass" (http:/ / www. uk/ tol/ news/ uk/ crime/ article4467106. .icao. dice. Dan (26 January 2010). 25 Venezuela Issued after July 2007.  Lettice. 26th Jan 2010" (http:/ / www. . September 2006  "E-government: who controls the controllers?" (http:/ / www. "Fakeproof e-passport is cloned in minutes" (http:/ / www. org/ documents/ ICAO9303-pt1-vol1.org. Theregister. org/ documents/ ICAO9303-pt1-vol2. Retrieved 8 September 2010. pdf) (PDF). . Opendemocracy. Retrieved 8 September 2010.  "The Hackers Choice (THC) ePassport RFID Vulnerability Demonstration" (http:/ / video.com. .  "RFID-based Passports – What a bad bad idea" (http:/ / sys-security. . Part 1. org/ documents/ ICAO9303-pt3. pdf) (PDF).
У граждан будет два типа удостоверений личности" (http:/ / biometrics. do?uri=CELEX:32004R2252:EN:NOT) of 13 December 2004. org/ Public/ default. Novinite. . ece).  "Project of Biometric Passports in Armenia" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 8 September 2010. Retrieved 6 October 2010. htm). Retrieved 5 June 2010. nyc. novinite. juris.it. Retrieved 5 June 2010. Polska Wytwórnia Papierów Wartościowych S. News (Ministry of the Interior).. oktober 2004" (http:/ / www. eu/ LexUriServ/ LexUriServ.hu. Ministry of the Interior. barev. "Decision-making under Pressure: The Negotiation of the Biometric Passports Regulation in the Council" (http:/ / www. mnz. . see preamble 10-14  Opinion of the European Data Protection Supervisor (http:/ / eur-lex. direct. eu/ LexUriServ/ site/ en/ oj/ 2004/ l_385/ l_38520041229en00010006. Retrieved 5 June 2010. eu/ LexUriServ/ LexUriServ.  "Paßgesetz § 5 Gültigkeitsdauer" (http:/ / bundesrecht. Arena. Aus (25 September 2006). pdf). rcg. Commission Decision C(2005)409 adopted on 28 February 2005 and Commission Decision C(2006)2909 adopted on 28 June 2006  Council Regulation (EC) No 2252/2004 (http:/ / eur-lex. arena. html) (in German). gr/ en-US).  "Fingerprints to be included in new passports as from 29 June" (http:/ / www. pl/ PressInfoEntry?id=152). do?uri=CELEX:52008XX0806(01):EN:NOT) on the proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Council Regulation (EC) No 2252/2004 on standards for security features and biometrics in passports and travel documents issued by Member States.  "The new Polish passport with fingerprint" (http:/ / www. Swedavia.  "Slovenia to begin issuing second-generation biometric passports" (http:/ / www. lt/ en/ pass. no/ publications/ working-papers2006/ papers/ wp06_11.Biometric passport  Jonathan P. html) (in German). . . Retrieved 8 September 2010. htm) (in Italian).  "New Lithuanian Passport" (http:/ / www. . nl/ international/ Features/ article2363938. 22 February 2010. Retrieved 5 June 2010. dokumentai. jsp). .cri. gov. eu/ en/ news/ 292210). gov.  "Június végétől ujjlenyomat is lesz az új útlevelekben" (http:/ / www. net/ society/ 16123-U-grazhdan-Armenii-mogut-byt-dva-vida-pasportov. si/ nc/ en/ splosno/ cns/ news/ article/ 12027/ 6380/ ). Retrieved 6 October 2010. cri. "HU: Fingerprint in Hungarian Passports" (http:/ / www. php). . swedavia. . it/ Ambasciata_LaValletta/ Archivio_News/ PASSAPORTOIMPRONTE. xml) (in (Norwegian)). Retrieved 5 June 2010. xhtml) (in French). Directgov. Retrieved 5 June 2010. 20 October 2009. . dk/ da/ borgerservice/ pas/ paspriser/ ) (in Danish). Nrc. Barev. .  "Bulgaria to Start Issuing Biometric IDs in March 2010" (http:/ / www. ru/ document. . Embassy of Finland. 7 July 2009. Retrieved 5 June 2010. mfa. 26 May 2009. .  EC News article (http:/ / ec.  "Priser på pas gældende fra 1. Retrieved 5 June 2010. . aspx?contentid=166960& nodeid=35831& culture=en-US). it/ pds/ file/ files/ nuovocosto_Passaporto_Elettronico. politi. php?id=108362). cn/ 6966/ 2009/ 03/ 30/ 2001s469447.fr. estemb. Retrieved 5 June 2010.  "Passeport biométrique" (http:/ / vosdroits. . Retrieved 5 June 2010.  "Austria Adopts Fingerprint Passports" (http:/ / english. poliziadistato. .com (Sofia News Agency). php). Retrieved 5 June 2010. RCG. lu/ en/ Visa-Consular/ Passports). service-public. kormanyszovivo. . mae. html) (in Russian).A. . Consulate General of Estonia in New York. 30 March 2009. Retrieved 5 June 2010. epractice.  "Passport prices rise" (http:/ / www. 29 December 2009. .nl.  "First biometric passport in Bucharest" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 5 June 2010. . europa. europa. Retrieved 5 June 2010. org/ daily/ page1_3156. tv/ html/ eng/ about/ newsroom/ industry_news/ biometrics/ 2010_details_18. Washington. pdf). 22 June 2009. europa. 29 June 2009. eng.  "Avvio emissione di passaporto elettronico con impronte digitali" (http:/ / www. com/ view_news. . 6 Aug 2008  "Dutch government to store fingerprints" (http:/ / www. europa. mfa. politi.  "Hellenic Ministry of Foreign Affairs" (http:/ / www. . 18 September 2009. eu/ justice_home/ news/ intro/ news_0606_en. esteri.cn (China Radio International). english.  "Passaporto Elettronico Fase II" (http:/ / poliziadistato. Retrieved 5 June 2010.NET. Bundesministerium der Justiz. Retrieved 5 June 2010. Bundesministerium des Innern. bmi. fr/ F14929. Personalisation of Identity Documents Centre. de/ pa_g_1986/ __5. Retrieved 5 June 2010. Ambasciata d'Italia a La Valletta.  "Passport and visa" (http:/ / www. hu/ news/ show/ news_1891) (in Hungarian). finland. Retrieved 5 June 2010. . uio.  Molnár. pwpw.dk. Retrieved 5 June 2010. ePractice. 29 December 2004. 64) (in Russian). Service-public. 29 June 2009. plusworld. Szilárd (6 July 2009). Embassy of Luxembourg in Washington. . 1 October 2009.  "Estonian Passport Application" (http:/ / www. 26 .  COUNCIL REGULATION (EC) No 2252/2004 of 13 December 2004 on standards for security features and biometrics in passports and travel documents issued by Member States (http:/ / eur-lex.  "Армения. Retrieved 5 June 2010. Retrieved 5 June 2010. org/ consular_information/ passport). htm) about the relevant regulations: Council Regulation (EC) 2252/2004.no.uio. se/ en/ Start-page/ Travellers/ Travel-planning/ Passport-and-Visa/ ). 11 January 2010. 21 October 2009. amblavalletta. Retrieved 5 June 2010. .  "Общество / Культура: У граждан Армении могут быть два вида паспортов" (http:/ / news.  "Passports" (http:/ / washington. .  "Elektronischer Reisepass" (http:/ / www. Kormányszóvivő. gr/ www. asp?group_id=65& nItemID=4793& sSID=3. bund. de/ cln_156/ DE/ Themen/ Sicherheit/ PaesseAusweise/ eReisepass/ eReisepass_node. uk/ en/ Nl1/ Newsroom/ DG_179060). Official Journal of the European Union. 25 December 2008. PLUS Journal. Danish National Police. . nrc.
Retrieved 5 June 2010. asiaplus. Retrieved 14 March 2011. 2010. nsf/ putne-isprave.  Mustaqim Adamrah (February 12. Canada Border Services Agency. 3 March 2009.  "?" (http:/ / www. . . com. gov.com. cn/ travel/ txt/ 2011-02/ 01/ content_21855650. . mup.  "The Minister of Foreign Affairs meets with senior executives of Italian private companies and chairs the meeting of Team Thailand and Honorary Consul Generals of Thailand in Italy" (http:/ / www.  "因 公 电 子 护 照 31日 试 点 签 发 可 使 持 照 人 快 速 通 关 " (http:/ / www. php?cid=1.  ITN Staff (January 24.  "中 国 试 点 签 发 因 公 电 子 护 照 " (http:/ / bjyouth. go. 2009. gmanews. com. h#). August 11. . sd/ newpas.What is an Australian ePassport?" (http:/ / www. au/ site/ page. html) (in German). . Retrieved 6 October. html)  "Brunei passport becomes Biometric passport" (http:/ / www. registru. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 6 October 2010. . go.  Centrul Resurselor InformaŢionale de Stat «Registru». hk/ ehtml/ eppt_edi. net/ index.  "( "صص ص ص صصص ص ص 01 صص ص ص ص ص ص ص ص ص صص ص ص ص صص صصص صصص صص ص ص صhttp:// www. admin. 2010). Retrieved 8 September 2010. . . sg/  "?" (http:/ / app. shabelle.  "Gjatë verës nis lëshimi i pasaportave biometrike" (http:/ / www. com/ article.Immigration Department (http:/ / www. 19 April 2009. . 22 February 2011. radiosawa. net/ news/ news-details. thejakartapost. 27 . "After US tests.2010. 北 青 网 . ndtv. gov. tw/ ct. "Electronic chip enabled passports soon in India!" (http:/ / www. sg/ pressrelease/ pressrelease_view.Putne isprave" (http:/ / www. . . 0404. Retrieved 5 June 2010. India to get first e-passport (16 May 2008). gov. 2011. . Ministry of Foreing Affrairs. 2010. . Retrieved 15 February 2011. . china.md. schweizerpass. fmprc. aspx?id=1876402& ص ص ص صصصص صص صص صص صص صص ص cid=24) (in Arabic). Retrieved June 5. . registru. Australian Customs Service. gov.  "MUP RS . ma/ ).  "Frequently asked questions regarding the 'e-passport'" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2 March 2011. Retrieved 8 September 2010. . Koha Ditore. Retrieved 2011-05-02. md/ pa/ ). Retrieved 8 September 2010. htm)  "CANPASS – Air" (http:/ / www. boca.  "公 安 部 外 交 部 筹 备 签 发 电 子 护 照 主 题 图 案 征 求 意 见 " (http:/ / politics. . html). "E-passport to premiere in January. . Retrieved June 5. . 25 January 2010.  "Passport Issuance Fees" (http:/ / www. thejakartapost. Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. . 2009. schweizerpass. jsp?oid=76498320). صص صصصص  "Pass 10" (http:/ / www. ca/ 2008/ pamphlet-depliant/ pamphlet-depliant1-eng. gov. htm). gov. html) (in Arabic). gc. 2010). cfm?u=5555). August 11. asp?newsid=7874). Kingdom of Morocco. net/ news/ ne1554. com/ news/ 2010/ 12/ 02/ epassport-premiere-january-government-says.com. I4donline. ynet. "Centrul Resurselor Informaţionale de Stat „Registru”" (http:/ / www. Avaz (27 October 2009). Mup. .  Budget 2008: Responsible Leadership for Uncertain Times (http:/ / www.00.  (http:/ / video. people. html) (in German).  The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . tj/ en/ news/ 198/ 58564.  "Passport portal of the Kingdom of Morocco" (http:/ / www. 6 May 2010. 人 民 网 .net. koha. ca/ prog/ canpass/ canpassair-eng. Retrieved 8 September 2010. globo. . Retrieved 5 June 2010. Retrieved 8 September 2010. ica. sun. "First consignment of blank biometric passports for Tajikistan delivered to Dushanbe" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 15 February 2011. cbsa.. asp?xItem=1239& ctNode=82& mp=1). Retrieved 15 February 2011. customs.  http:/ / www. cn/ GB/ 1027/ 11837333. budget. government says" (http:/ / www.  "( " ص ص صصصص ص ص صص صصصص ص صصص صhttp:/ / www.Biometric passport  "SmartGate Frequently Asked Questions .  "Arroyo first to receive e-passport from DFA" (http:/ / www. tv/ story/ 169543/ frequently-asked-questions-regarding-the-39e-passport39). 2011-05-02. passeport. ch/ pass/ de/ home/ ausweise/ pass_10. admin. jsp). html). ru/ content/ view/ 384/ 85/ ) (in Russian). com/ electronic-chip-enabled-passports-soon-in-india/ 187/ ). html). . Retrieved 5 June 2010. com/ Videos/ Player/ Noticias/ 0. Kingdom of Thailand. rs/ cms_cir/ dokumenta. Retrieved 15 February 2011. com/ arabic_news.  "Gebühr/Preis und Gültigkeit" (http:/ / www. . . Retrieved 5 June 2010.  "Читаем биометрический паспорт" (http:/ / developers.gov. tv/ story/ 169542/ arroyo-first-to-receive-e-passport-from-dfa). aspx?id=NEWEN20080050016& ch=5/ 16/ 2008 11:13:00 AM). htm). immd. asp?pr_id=582).  Yuldoshev. com/ convergence/ ndtv/ story. NDTV.57518).GIM1391229-7823-POLICIA+ FEDERAL+ APRESENTA+ NOVO+ MODELO+ DE+ PASSAPORTE. gov.rs. htm)  After US tests. ir/ fa/ news/ 149707/ ØµØ¯ÙØ±-Ú¯Ø°Ø±ÙØ§Ù Ù-Ø®Ø§ÙÙØ§Ø¯Ú¯Ù-Ù صص ص صص ÙØªÙÙ-Ø´Ø¯) (in Persian). gmanews. cn/ eng/ zxxx/ t791409. . ica.  "Foreign Minister Yang Jiechi Attends the Launch Ceremony for the Trial Issuance of E-Passports for Public Affairs" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 5 June 2010. Retrieved January 18. html). indian-tech-news. tabnak. Retrieved 6 October 2010. htm). mfa. kr/ passport/ Passport02_3. India to get first e-passport" (http:/ / www. gc. 中 国 网 . ch/ pass/ de/ home/ ausweise/ pass_10/ gebuehr_und_gueltigkeit.7. . th/ ). Retrieved 5 June 2010. gov.  "?" (http:/ / www. indian-tech-news.com. i4donline. .  "( " صصصص صصص ص ص صhttp:/ / passport.
gov/ passport/ passport_2498. Jöran. Electronic Passport" (http:/ / travel. php?act=ST& f=2& t=38137) (in Spanish). Part 2 (http://www2. html). 10 July 2008. archive.int/en/MRTD/Downloads/Doc 9303/Doc 9303 English/Doc 9303 Part 1 Vol 1.html) . Retrieved 5 June 2010.html) . Archived from the original (http:/ / www. Retrieved 5 June 2010. html).icao. .1 smartcards eCL0WN (http://dexlab. gob.Open Source EAC-PKI for development and testing EJBCA.icao.pdf) • ICAO Document 9303. 2010.html) . ut. (Turkish)  "Çağdaş pasaport yolda" (http:/ / www.S. . uz/ eng/ newsline/ uzbekistan_citizens_to_receive_a_biometric_passport. asp?gid=373).pdf) Free / open source utilities to read and copy passport chips: • • • • • • • • RFDUMP. pdf) (PDF). ru/ ?page_id=3& lang_id=en& elem_id=13207& type=event). hurriyet.int) • Public Key Directory (http://www2.wzpass. keesingfightfraud.Open Source Java Card implementation of the e-passport and Java API ePassport emulator (http://dexlab. Risks and its Security (http://www.rfdump.  http:/ / www.epassport-book. 28 Further reading • Gipp. The James A. org/ Pubs/ Electronic Passport. Includes separate java development library for EAC certificates.  Bronk.Open Source RFID python library with e-passport test tools JMRTD. ve/ noticias/ index. .Open Source e-Passport reader software and wzMRTD—Open Source library for accessing e-Passports OpenSCDP.nl/downloads. Retrieved 5 June 2010. asp) (in Turkish). org/ web/ 20070912190322/ http:/ / bakerinstitute. hurriyet.icao. com. tr/ hizmet. bakerinstitute. External links ICAO related information: • International Civil Aviation Organization (http://www.openscdp. pasaport.Biometric passport  (English) (Dutch) "Your partner in document verification" (http:/ / www. R.org (http://rfidiot. Volume 1 (http://www2. keesingfightfraud. Christopher (May 2007). . gov.pdf) • ICAO Document 9303.org (http://www. pdf) on September 12.icao.ejbca.509 and EAC PKI.org (http://www.org/scripts/icao/eacpki. com/ site/ en/ recently-launched/ thailand-leads-the-way-in-asia-the-introduction-of-the-thai-e-passport-by-natenapa-kon. mgr  "Nuevo pasaporte electrónico entrará en vigencia a finales de año" (http:/ / www. org/ Pubs/ Electronic+ Passport. 2007.org/) . Retrieved June 5.Complete Open Source X. Rössling. bedel.org/) .int/en/MRTD/Downloads/Doc 9303/Doc 9303 English/Doc 9303 Part 1 Vol 2.int/en/MRTD/Pages/icaoPKD.org/) . Beel. harc. tr/ ekonomi/ 14030770. ePassport: The World's New Electronic Passport: A Report about the ePassport's Benefits.org/) GPL tool for RFID ISO-Readers RFIDIOt. .nl/downloads. . state. 18 June 2009.pdf) • ICAO Document 9303. Volume 2 (http://www2. Scotts Valley.icao. . .  "Umuma Mahsus (Lacivert) Pasaport Harçları" (http:/ / www.free software for reading and cloning ePassport chip content using a Nokia NFC-enabled cell phone wzPASS (http://www.com/download. turkmenistan.org (http://www.com.aspx) • ICAO passport standards: • ICAO Document 9303. Baker III Institute for Public Policy. hurriyet. "Innovation by Policy: A Study of the Electronic Passport" (http:/ / web.tr.  "Turkmenistan introduces passports with biometric data of their holders" (http:/ / www.net/) . Retrieved June 5. Part 1.  "?" (http:/ / www.int/en/MRTD/Downloads/Doc 9303/Doc 9303 English/Doc 9303 Part 3 Vol 1. ISBN 978-1434823182. Volume 1 (http://www2.php). Part 1.int/en/MRTD/Downloads/Doc 9303/Doc 9303 English/ Doc 9303 Part 2. egm. Ivo (2007). CA: CreateSpace. . Retrieved 5 June 2010. 2010.  "The U.icao. 22 September 2006. de/ haberler/ gundem/ 363040/ cagdas-pasaport-yolda) (in Turkish).org (http://jmrtd. Bela.com. rnv.free software for cloning / making your own ePassport chip using JCOP v4. Part 3.
there is as yet no generally agreed method of assessing the degree of vulnerability in a principled fashion. Its Board of Directors also has to have a majority of those user organisations. The objective of the Biometrics Institute is to provide a forum for information and education on biometric technologies for users.Biometrics Institute 29 Biometrics Institute The Biometrics Institute is the independent Not for profit association providing information. a Biometrics Institute Privacy Code  and a Biometrics Vulnerability Assessment Methodology . This is a practical measure which is readily incorporated into system design. Testing of a voice biometric system will begin in the near future. The goal is to develop a general methodology for vulnerability assessment applicable to any biometric system. Since 2007. partly co-funded by the Australian Government through the Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet. research and testing of biometrics in Australia and New Zealand. education. the Biometrics Institute New Zealand Conference in March in Wellington and a Technology Exhibition in November in Canberra every year. Suggested countermeasures to identified risks are also provided. The Biometrics Vulnerability Assessment Methodology Although there has been significant recent research into the vulnerability of various biometric systems to spoofing attacks. financial services. The aim of the methodology is to provide. but suppliers also form part of the membership. transport etc. . This set up is very different from most other biometrics associations. The Biometrics Institute constitution was designed that way that it allows those user organisations (governments. academia and other key stakeholders. The organisation is based in Australia and has over 100 member organisations  from around the world. This Code was approved by the Australian Privacy Commission in September 2006 in order to protect consumer personal data beyond the current protections offered by the Australian Privacy Act. History The Biometric Institute was founded by Ted Dunstone in October 2001 with initial funding from the Australian government. It is predominately a user group representing government departments and private organisations who are using or looking at using biometrics.) double the voting rights than the suppliers. The Biometrics Institute Privacy Code A concern is how a person's biometric. the Biometrics Institute has been working on this problem. A methodology has been developed and applied to a number of face and fingerprint biometric systems. The association holds three Biometrics Institute conferences  every year: the Biometrics Institute Australia Conference in May in Sydney. and to apply it to a number of biometrics. For example the Biometrics Institute addresses the responsible use of Biometrics in schools by encouraging organisations to consider any issues that may impact on a person's privacy before implementing biometrics and recommends Privacy Impact Assessments . can be protected. The Biometrics Institute addressed this issue in 2004 with the development of a Privacy Code. once collected. a level of assurance about the maximum proportion of attacks likely to succeed. for a given system and method of attack. The Biometrics Institute has been working on two government co-funded projects. suppliers.
cio." (http:/ / www. au/ cgi-bin/ common/ popupPrintArticle. au/ insight/ security/ soa/ Biometrics-Still-searching-for-a-pulse/ 0. cfm?an=1& subarticlenbr=27 External links • Biometrics Institute official website (http://www. The Age (Melbourne). 23 December 2003. com/ coms2/ summary_0286-13513686_ITM). biometricsinstitute. benchmarks and test regimes for the industry and provides policy input to governments in partnership with members and key stakeholders biometrics. CIO.biometricsinstitute. html). biometricsinstitute. au/ news/ security/ soa/ Biometrics-The-body-and-soul-of-security/ 0. org/ displaycommon. References  "Institute pushes Australia's smart card plan" (http:/ / www.120263453. potential users and vendors. it is a forum for discussion about biometrics between members. business and the community about biometrics.  http:/ / www. 15 August 2007.  http:/ / www. com. htm). Retrieved 2008-10-28.00. Retrieved 2008-10-28. it educates and informs members. com. it promotes the development and awareness of standards.139187129-3. com.139023764. cfm?an=1& subarticlenbr=48  "Biometrics: Still searching for a pulse" (http:/ / www. The Dominion Post. org/ displaycommon. .org/) .00. org/ displaycommon. Retrieved 2008-10-28. Retrieved 2008-10-28. theage. de/ news/ cio_worldnews/ 841068/ ). ZDNet Australia. . org/ displaycommon. ZDNet Australia. biometricsinstitute. biometricsinstitute. htm). zdnet.130061744.  "Companies get into a biometrics groove" (http:/ / www. cfm?an=1& subarticlenbr=9  "Meeting eyes biometric security. .  http:/ / www. . 27 September 2004. . including due consideration to privacy concerns.Biometrics Institute 30 Mission & Objectives The Biometrics Institute promotes the responsible and ethical use of biometrics. 6 April 2005. Retrieved 2008-10-28. zdnet. cfm?an=1& subarticlenbr=16  http:/ / www. accessmylibrary.  "Biometrics: The body and soul of security" (http:/ / www. pl?path=/ articles/ 2003/ 12/ 22/ 1071941669236.
a self destruct feature will trigger it to reformat and destroy all data stored in the device. Retrieved 2010-02-08. Rohos.com/) • Rohos BioSlimDisk Signature Review (http://www. 2010-01-14.jhtml?articleID=222200174) World Leader . Tweakers. Comparison" (http:/ / www.com/insiderthreat/security/ encryption/showArticle. infosecurityadviser.com/2010/01/ bioslimdisk-biometric-security-token-review-comparison/) • Geek's BioSlimDisk Signature Review (http://www.  Peter de Boer (31 October 2007). Review.infosecurityadviser. jhtml?articleID=222200174).BioSlimDisk 31 BioSlimDisk BioSlimDisk Website http:/ / www. com/ 2010/ 01/ bioslimdisk-biometric-security-token-review-comparison/ ). Retrieved 2010-02-08. . Geek.  Kelly Jackson Higgins (January 4.     References  "Blog Archive » BioSlimDisk biometric security token.com/review/ bioslimdisk_portable_encrypted_solutions/53/) • The Limitations of Password Based Software Encryption (http://www. External links • BioSlimDisk official website (http://www. Retrieved 2010-02-08. Retrieved 2010-02-08. com/ review/ bioslimdisk_portable_encrypted_solutions/ 53/ ).darkreading. Retrieved 2010-02-08.rohos. . Signature The biometric USB hardware is encryption coupled with dual fingerprint authentication methodology to prevent crackers bypassing the encryption. . If it were cracked.com. net/ reviews/ 754/ de-bioslimdisk-signature-nader-bekeken.com/articles/gadgets/ review-bioslimdisk-signature-512mb-20081126/) • Tweaker's BioSlimDisk Signature Test Report (NL) (http://tweakers.  "Review: BioSlimDisk Signature 512MB – New Tech Gadgets & Electronic Devices" (http:/ / www. com/ BioSlimDisk is the world's first biometric USB storage device. darkreading. 2010). DarkReading. Signature is designed so that the encryption key is stored randomly in the flash memory. bioslimdisk.net.net/reviews/754/ de-bioslimdisk-signature-nader-bekeken. geek.geek. . Infosecurityadviser. com/ insiderthreat/ security/ encryption/ showArticle. "De BioSlimDisk Signature nader bekeken | Inleiding | Core" (http:/ / tweakers. Dual fingerprint authentication function increases the difficulty for crackers and prevents access from the outside into the secured non-volatile internal memory storage. .bioslimdisk. com/ articles/ gadgets/ review-bioslimdisk-signature-512mb-20081126/ ). rohos.com. 2009-04-28. "Secure USB Flaw Exposed" (http:/ / www.html) • Bioslimdisk Portable Encrypted Solutions. html) (in Dutch). InfoSecurity Review (http://www.  "Bioslimdisk Portable Encrypted Solutions | Product Review | Infosecurity Security Adviser" (http:/ / www.
a Network of Excellence.globalsecurity. Steve Boggan The Guardian.pdf) • Biometrics-CBEFF (http://www.ibia. In order to support biometric technologies in a common way the CBEFF structure describes a set of necessary data elements.gov/publications/nistir/NISTIR6529A. 2006  ePassports 'at risk' from cloning (http:/ / news. optional Sub-Headers. wi. References  http:/ / www. us/ les/ nist-itl/ example_cbeff.org/cbeff/organizations.   References  Budapest Declaration on Machine Readable Travel Documents (MRTDs) (http:/ / www. and an optional SB (Signature Block). theregister. CBEFF Basic Structure(s). co.php) . The declaration was proclaimed in Budapest in September 2006. uk/ 2006/ 11/ 10/ fidis_budapest_mrtd_declaration/ ). This standard provides the ability for different biometric devices and applications to exchange biometric information between system components efficiently. uk/ 1/ hi/ programmes/ click_online/ 6182207. and privacy. The Register. November 17. co. uk/ technology/ 2006/ nov/ 17/ news. state. says EU ID outfit (http:/ / www. The CBEFF Nested Structure consists of a Root Header. 15 December 2006 CBEFF CBEFF (Common Biometric Exchange Formats Framework) was developed from 1999 to 2000 by the CBEFF Development Team (NIST) and the BioAPI Consortium  .htm) • IBIA CBEFF Biometric Organizations (http://www. BBC News.Budapest Declaration on Machine Readable Travel Documents 32 Budapest Declaration on Machine Readable Travel Documents The Budapest Declaration on Machine Readable Travel Documents is a declaration issued by the Future of Identity in the Information Society (FIDIS). guardian.org/security/systems/biometrics-cbeff. bbc. and its current implementation in passports of the European Union that creates some threats related to identity theft. co. doj. The CBEFF Basic Structure consists of a single SBH (Standard Biometric Header) followed by a BSMB (Biometric Specific Memory Block) and an optional SB (Signature Block).nist. to raise the concern to the public to the risks associated by a security architecture related to the management of Machine Readable Travel Documents (MRTDs). fidis. homeaffairs). net/ press-events/ press-releases/ budapest-declaration/ )  Biometric ID cards an insecure menace. htm External links • CBEFF NISTIR 6529 (http://csrc. stm). 10th November 2006  Cracked it! (http:/ / www.
It is a computer system that stores DNA profiles created by federal.Combined DNA Index System 33 Combined DNA Index System The Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) is a DNA database funded by the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). CODIS FBI Logo Markers CODIS identifies 13 markers. Virginia. The DNA Identification Act of 1994 formally authorized the FBI to operate CODIS and set national standards for forensic DNA testing. to some. Origins CODIS was an outgrowth of the Technical Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods (TWGDAM. with the ability to search the database to assist in the identification of suspects in crimes. state. TWGDAM completed a white paper in October 1989 which provided conceptual and operational concepts for a Combined DNA Index System to share DNA profiles among crime laboratories similarly to automated fingerprint identification which had become commonplace in law enforcement during the 1980s. and local crime laboratories in the United States. to accelerate development of laboratory guidelines and peer-reviewed papers to support forensic DNA testing which was. an unproven forensic tool. Although the Act was passed in 1994. The TWGDAM guidelines served as interim standards until recommendations were provided by a DNA Advisory Board required under the Act. CODIS did not become fully operational until 1998. now SWGDAM) which developed guidelines for standards of practice in the United States and Canadian crime laboratories as they began DNA testing in the late 1980s. plus AMEL to determine sex: • • • • • • • • • • CSF1PO D3S1358 D5s818 D7s820 D8S1179 D13s317 D16s539 D18s51 D21s11 FGA CODIS 13 STR Profile • THO1 • TPOX • vWA . The FBI Laboratory began a pilot project with six state and local crime laboratories to develop software to support each laboratory's DNA testing and allow sharing of DNA profiles with other crime laboratories. TWGDAM was sponsored by the FBI Laboratory which hosted several scientific meetings a year at Quantico.
000 investigations. dates of birth.070.400 matches to requests. together with the sample's identifier and an identifier of the laboratory responsible for the profile.) CODIS databases exist at the local. A Forensic to Forensic match provides an investigative lead that connects two or more previously unlinked cases. approximately 180 laboratories in all 50 states participate in CODIS.685 forensic profiles and 6. which increased the scope of the DNA database. the National DNA Index System. surpassing the United Kingdom National DNA Database. (To become Qualified. making it the largest DNA database in the world. . As of the same date. the US National DNA Index (NDIS) has grown to over 241. like the National Crime Information Center (NCIC). A Forensic to Offender match actually provides a suspect for an otherwise unsolved case. and does not contain any personal identity information. a DNA Analyst must meet specific education and experience requirements and undergo semi-annual proficiency tests administered by a third party. known as a CODIS DNA profile. for example. CODIS searches the Forensic Index against itself and against the Offender Index. is operated by the FBI at an undisclosed location. and national levels. The Convicted Offender Index contains profiles of individuals convicted of crimes. As of 2006.785 forensic profiles and 5. State law governs which specific crimes are eligible for CODIS.) The Forensic Index contains profiles developed from biological material found at crime-scenes. CODIS has produced over 94. CODIS consisted of the Convicted Offender Index and the Forensic Index. As of July 2009. CODIS has produced over 49. In order to decrease the number of irrelevant matches at NDIS.Combined DNA Index System These markers do not overlap with the ones commonly used for genealogical DNA testing. Originally.976. For solving rapes and homicides. Relative size As of October 2007.090 profiles as of June 2007.384. A record in the CODIS database. CODIS held 194. the Arrestee Index. assisting in more than 50.000 hits assisting in more than 93. but in recent years. consists of an individual's DNA profile. At the national level. or NDIS. and social security numbers. CODIS has a matching algorithm that searches the various indexes against one another according to strict rules that protect personal privacy.343 investigations. the Convicted Offender Index requires all 13 CODIS STRs to be present for a profile upload. Forensic profiles only require 10 of the STRs to be present for an upload. Each candidate match is confirmed or refuted by a Qualified DNA Analyst.473 offender profiles. and the Missing Persons Reference Index have been added. 34 Indexes and database structure CODIS is an index of pointers to assist US public crime laboratories to compare and exchange DNA profiles. have already met with a significant increase in numbers of investigations aided. the Missing or Unidentified Persons Index. Some may be indicative of genetic diseases. state. Political measures such as California Proposition 69 (2004).379 offender profiles. It is important to note that the CODIS matching algorithm only produces a list of candidate matches. The growing public approval of DNA databases has seen the creation and expansion of many states' own DNA databases. which consisted of an estimated 3. California currently maintains the third largest DNA database in the world. By October 2008. such as names. (All 50 states have passed DNA legislation authorizing the collection of DNA profiles from convicted offenders for submission to CODIS. This tiered architecture allows crime laboratories to control their own data—each laboratory decides which profiles it will share with the rest of the country. CODIS is not a criminal history database.
nlm. all members of the US Armed Services who are convicted at a Special court martial and above are ordered to provide DNA samples.digitaljournal. as a result of Proposition 69 in 2004. In popular culture In forensics television series such as CSI. will have their DNA collected starting in 2009. fbi. March 1. 1999. and 47 states collect DNA from all convicted felons. uk/ cgi-bin/ newhtml_hl?DB=semukparl& STEMMER=en& WORDS=ndnad& ALL=& ANY=& PHRASE=& CATEGORIES=& SIMPLE=ndnad& SPEAKER=& COLOUR=red& STYLE=s& ANCHOR=70620w0037. fbi. html)  Association of the tyrosine hydroxylase gene polymorphism with schizophrenia in the population of central Poland (http:/ / www. 2008.org/ privacy/genetic/15062prs19990301. Law & Order: SVU. (http://www. Numb3rs.fbi. as well as some individuals convicted of misdemeanors.com/stories/2007/03/23/60minutes/main2600721. gov/ hq/ lab/ codis/ national.htm) • " ACLU Warns of Privacy Abuses in Government Plan to Expand DNA Databases (http://www. gov/ hq/ lab/ html/ codis1. the investigators often match DNA with the CODIS database. In California. Bones.aclu. htm#70620w0037. Currently all fifty states have mandatory DNA collection from certain felony offenses such as sexual assault and homicide. civil libertarians oppose the use of a DNA database for privacy concerns as well as possible institutionalized discrimination policies in collection. 2007 • " Anne Pressly: Detailed Cases and Informed Opinions On DNA (http://www. • A Not So Perfect Match (http://www. even if their crime has no civilian equivalent (for example adultery). gov/ pubmed/ 19189602)  CODIS . Currently. htm)  learn about dna : glossary : CODIS markers (http:/ / dnaconsultants.National DNA Index System (http:/ / www. Criminal Minds. htm)  CODIS—NDIS Statistics (http:/ / www. • " .cbsnews. fbi.com/news/17973779/ detail. December 4.gov/hq/lab/html/codis1. ncbi. Other states have gone further in collecting DNA samples from juveniles and all suspects arrested. ACLU. publications.wsmv. Juror Explains Verdict In Double Murder. fbi.com/article/ 263070)". NCIS. References  Mission (http:/ / www. . nih. parliament. Over time. htm) External links • CODIS homepage (http://www. htm)  House of Commons Hansard Written Answers for 20 Jun 2007 (pt 0037) (http:/ / www. gov/ hq/ lab/ codis/ aidedmap. Along with the ACLU. and Dexter. gov/ hq/ lab/ codis/ clickmap. November 13. htm_spnew5)  Investigations Aided (http:/ / www. this has expanded.Combined DNA Index System 35 Controversies Privacy concerns The CODIS database originally was primarily used to collect DNA of convicted sex offenders. com/ Detailed/ 335. all suspects arrested for a felony.html)". htm_spnew5& URL=/ pa/ cm200607/ cmhansrd/ cm070620/ text/ 70620w0037. the ACLU is concerned with the increased use of collecting DNA from arrested suspects rather than DNA testing for convicted felons. In addition to this.html)".DNA didn't prove anything. shtml?source=search_story). 2008. . as it only had five points out of 13. CBS.
Wolbachia ). for example. Choice of Locus A desirable locus for DNA barcoding should be standardized (so that large databases of sequences for that locus can be developed).000 species of animals.g. a collaboration of a large group of plant DNA barcode researchers proposed two chloroplast genes.000 specimens from over 58. larger than databases available for any other gene. short enough to be easily sequenced with current technology.  As of 2009. which results in significant variation in mtDNA sequences between species and. identifying insect larvae (which typically have fewer diagnostic characters than adults). and identifying products in commerce (for example. Although barcodes are sometimes used in an effort to identify unknown species or assess whether species should be combined or separated. rbcL and matK. identifying plant leaves even when flowers or fruit are not available. taken together. A series of experiments was then conducted to find a more suitable region of the genome for use in the DNA barcoding of flowering plants (or the larger group of land plants). other researchers advocated other regions such as matK. horizontal gene transfer (such as via cellular symbionts ).e. identifying the diet of an animal based on stomach contents or faeces. and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has a relatively fast mutation rate. and provide a large variation between species yet a relatively small amount of variation within a species. the concatenation of the rbcL and matK chloroplast genes Mitochondrial DNA DNA barcoding is based on a relatively simple concept. it is possible for two different species to share mtDNA. any occurrences of hybridization. Most eukaryote cells contain mitochondria. in principle. a DNA barcode researcher not involved in that . (2005 ) suggest that the use of the COI sequence “is not appropriate for most species of plants because of a much slower rate of cytochrome c oxidase I gene evolution in higher plants than in animals”. Identifying flowering plants Kress et al. Although several loci have been suggested. or other "reticulate" evolutionary phenomena in a lineage can lead to misleading results (i. the mitochondrial CO1 gene • For land plants. a comparatively small variance within species. because all mtDNA genes are maternally inherited (direct evidence for recombination in mtDNA is available in some bivalves such as Mytilus but it is suspected that it may be more widespread ). Applications include. A 648-bp region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene was proposed as a potential 'barcode'. cytoplasmic incompatibility-inducing symbionts (e. In 2009. However. Jesse Ausubel. herbal supplements or wood). or for one species to have more than one mtDNA sequence exhibited among different individuals). present in most of the taxa of interest and sequencable without species-specific PCR primers.. It differs from molecular phylogeny in that the main goal is not to determine classification but to identify an unknown sample in terms of a known classification..DNA barcoding 36 DNA barcoding DNA barcoding is a taxonomic method that uses a short genetic marker in an organism's DNA to identify it as belonging to a particular species. male-killing microoroganisms. databases of CO1 sequences included at least 620. a common set of choices are: • For animals and many other eukaryotes. as a barcode for plants. the utility of DNA barcoding for these purposes is subject to debate. One 2005 proposal was the nuclear internal transcribed spacer region and the plastid trnH-psbA intergenic spacer.
However. 130 species were represented by two or more specimens. and mtDNAvage ) have been successfully used in molecular systematics for decades.'s (2004a ) results reinforce these views and strengthen the case for DNA barcoding. These results. 37 Vouchered specimens DNA sequence databases like GenBank contain many sequences that are not tied to vouchered specimens (for example. as well as an unusually large variety of caterpillar food plants. in all of these species.93%.  Origin The use of nucleotide sequence variations to investigate evolutionary relationships is not a new concept. cultured cell lines. Hebert and co-workers sequenced DNA barcodes of 260 of the 667 bird species that breed in North America (Hebert et al. Hebert et al. several years would have been required for taxonomists to completely delimit species. the so-called "barcoding gap". Paul D. were subsequently challenged by Brower (2006 ). In 2003. This species was already known as a cryptic species complex. (2004b ) sequenced the COI gene of 484 specimens from the ACG. which in turn led to the redrawing of the evolutionary tree. In four cases there were deep intraspecific divergences.. and representatives” from the three major ecosystems where Astraptes fulgerator is found. Therefore. so the process of delimiting cryptic species using . Astraptes fulgerator at the Area Conservacion de Guanacaste (ACG) in north-western Costa Rica. This highlights that the results of DNA barcoding analyses can be dependent upon the choice of analytical methods used by the investigators. Canada. Hebert from the University of Guelph. This library would “provide a new master key for identifying species. COI variations between species averaged 7. was defined as 10 times the mean intraspecific variation for the group under study. 2004a ).DNA barcoding effort. Case studies Identification of birds In an effort to find a correspondence between traditional species boundaries established by taxonomy and those inferred by DNA barcoding.N. extremes and intermediates of adult and caterpillar color variation. also proposed a standard sequence threshold to define new species. and molecular markers (e. herbarium specimens. proposed the compilation of a public library of DNA barcodes that would be linked to named specimens. or sometimes images).g. who pointed out numerous serious flaws in the analysis. one whose power will rise with increased taxon coverage and with faster. DNA barcoding provides a standardised method for this process via the use of a short DNA sequence from a particular region of the genome to provide a 'barcode' for identifying species. and that time would tell whether this choice would be sufficiently good at distinguishing different plant species. Ontario. Hebert et al. allozymes. They found that every single one of the 260 species had a different COI sequence. rDNA. (2004b ) concluded that Astraptes fulgerator consists of 10 different species in north-western Costa Rica. This is problematic in the face of taxonomic issues such as whether several species should be split or combined. whereas variation within species averaged 0. best practice for DNA barcoding is to sequence vouchered specimens. This sample included “at least 20 individuals reared from each species of food plant. Hebert et al. however. Delimiting cryptic species The next major study into the efficacy of DNA barcoding was focused on the neotropical skipper butterfly. Hebert et al. and concluded that the original data could support no more than the possibility of three to seven cryptic taxa rather than ten cryptic species. or whether past identifications were sound. Carl Woese used sequence differences in ribosomal RNA (rRNA) to discover archaea. suggested that standardizing on a sequence was the best way to produce a large database of plant sequences. indicating possible new species. due to subtle morphological differences. this threshold. Three out of these four polytypic species are already split into two by some taxonomists. COI sequences were either identical or were most similar to sequences of the same species. cheaper sequencing”.43%.
 They investigated the performance of barcoding in the fly genus Protocalliphora. as these lineages are supported by collateral ecological information. we conclude that identification at the species level based on mitochondrial sequence might not be possible for many insects.24% was also used. (iii) a complex of specialist species plus a generalist. the moa. it would have underestimated the species number in the genus by 75%. the group detected six moa species. or (iv) a complex of specialists with no remaining generalist. Assignment of unknown individuals to species was impossible for 60% of the species. though cases of "shared barcodes" (e. This value resulted in 10 moa species which corresponded with the previously known species with one exception. but it also suggested that the species count could be as high as 32 by indicating that each of the three generalist species might actually be arrays of highly host-specific cryptic species. Barcoding not only discriminated among all 17 highly host-specific morphospecies of ACG Belvosia.7% COI sequence difference was set.g. This exception suggested a possible complex of species which was previously unidentified. To determine new species.24%. It is safe to say. the authors therefore viewed these lineages as provisional species. Using this value. a further standard sequence threshold of 1. In 2007 Smith et al. in one case. . This value is 10 times the average intraspecies difference of North American birds. also in 2007. Given that Wolbachia is known to infect between 15 and 75% of insect species. which is inconsistent with Hebert's recommendation that the threshold value be based on the group under study. were sequenced using 26 subfossil moa bones. non-unique) have been documented in cichlid fishes and cowries 38 Cataloguing ancient life Lambert et al. as in the previous study. The authors went on to state: The pattern of Wolbachia infection strongly suggests that the lack of within-species monophyly results from introgressive hybridization associated with Wolbachia infection. it is probable that the interspecies variation is rather low. each species sequenced had a unique barcode and intraspecific COI sequence variance ranged from 0 to 1. however. a standard sequence threshold of 2. (2005 ) examined the possibility of using DNA barcoding to assess the past diversity of the Earth's biota.. and if the technique had been applied. However. known to be infected with the endosymbiotic bacteria Wolbachia. individuals from four different species had identical barcodes.134 flies belonging to what appeared to be the 16 most generalist of the ACG tachinid morphospecies. As with Hebert's results. The COI gene of a group of extinct ratite birds. Each of the 16 initially apparent generalist species were categorized into one of four patterns: (i) a single generalist species. reported that flies in the related family Calliphoridae could not be discriminated by barcoding. In addition. Given the slow rate of growth and reproduction of moa. that the 2. In 2006 Smith et al. (ii) a pair of morphologically cryptic generalist species. In sum. by independent nuclear markers (28S and ITS1). On the other hand. expanded on these results by barcoding 2. Marine biologists have also considered the value of the technique in identifying cryptic and polymorphic species and have suggested that the technique may be helpful when associations with voucher specimens are maintained. there is no set value of molecular difference at which populations can be assumed to have irrevocably started to undergo speciation. examined whether a COI DNA barcode could function as a tool for identification and discovery for the 20 morphospecies of Belvosia  parasitoid flies (Tachinidae) that have been reared from caterpillars in ACG. where tested. and.DNA barcoding DNA barcodes can be as subjective as any other form of taxonomy. A more recent example used DNA barcoding for the identification of cryptic species included in the ongoing long-term database of tropical caterpillar life generated by Dan Janzen and Winnie Hallwachs in Costa Rica at the ACG. They encountered 73 mitochondrial lineages separated by an average of 4% sequence divergence and. to identify new species. there remained 9 generalist species classified among the 73 mitochondrial lineages analyzed. Whitworth et al.7% COI sequence difference initially used was far too high. They attributed the failure of barcoding to the non-monophyly of many of the species at the mitochondrial level.
Johnson and Cicero (2004 ) have also claimed to have detected bird species with identical DNA barcodes.  .g.g. many stress the fact that DNA barcoding does not provide reliable information above the species level. Barcoders also maintain that they are being dragged into long-standing debates over the definition of a species and that barcoding is less controversial when viewed primarily as a method of identification. only 8 actually use COI data to arrive at their conclusions. The outcome of the project is a library of genetic markers and physical identifiers for every species of plant. The DNA barcoding debate resembles the phenetics debate of decades gone by. these 'barcodes' refer to an unpublished 723-bp sequence of ND6 which has never been suggested as a likely candidate for DNA barcoding. however. Wiemers & Fiedler. The Biocode LIMS and Genbank Submission  plugins have been made freely available to the public and users of the free Geneious Basic software will be able to access and view the Biocode database upon completion of the project. not classification. Others resent what they see as a gross oversimplification of the science of taxonomy. while a commercial copy of Geneious Pro is required for researchers involved int data creation and analysis. the island of Moorea in Tahiti. UC Berkeley.DNA barcoding 39 The Moorea Biocode Project The Biocode Project  is a barcoding initiative to create the first comprehensive inventory of all non-microbial life in a complex tropical ecosystem. Funk & Omland (2003 ) found that some 23% of animal species are polyphyletic if their mtDNA data are accurate. And.'s interpretation. Studies with insects suggest an equal or even greater error rate. while others indicate that it is inapplicable at the species level. Moritz and Cicero (2004 ) have questioned the efficacy of DNA barcoding by suggesting that other avian data is inconsistent with Hebert et al.. more practically. 2007. and other partners. this suggests that while mtDNA barcoding may work for vertebrates.7% threshold suggested by Hebert et al. Hurst and Jiggins. Supported by a grant from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. but may still have merit for higher-level groups. due to the frequent lack of correlation between the mitochondrial genome and the nuclear genome or the lack of a barcoding gap (e. namely. of the 39 species comparisons reported by Johnson and Cicero. animal and fungi on the island that will be provided as a publicly available database resource for ecologists and evolutionary biologists around the world. Given that insects represent over 75% of all known organisms. ranging from enthusiastic endorsement to vociferous opposition. extravagant claims that it will supersede or radically transform traditional taxonomy. For example. Problems with mtDNA arising from male-killing microoroganisms and cytoplasmic incompatibility-inducing symbionts (e. the Moorea Biocode Project is a 3-year project that brings together researchers from the Smithsonian Institution. France’s National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS). it may not be effective for the majority of known organisms. but instead with other big science fields. It remains to be seen whether what is now touted as a revolution in taxonomy will eventually go the same way as phenetic approaches. but barcoders respond that they compete for funding not with fields like taxonomy. Due to various phenomena.. Wolbachia) are also particularly common among insects.. 2007 ). but which were all but rejected when they failed to live up to overblown  Controversy surrounding DNA barcoding stems not so much from the method itself. 2005. Other critics fear a "big science" initiative like barcoding will make funding even more scarce for already underfunded disciplines like taxonomy. Johnson and Cicero's (2004 ) finding that 74% of sister species comparisons fall below the 2. of which was claimed exactly the same decades ago. especially systematists. The software back-end to the Moore Biocode Project is Geneious Pro and two custom-developed plugins from the New Zealand-based company. Biomatters. indicating that using an mtDNA barcode to assign a species name to an animal will be ambiguous or erroneous some 23% of the time (see also Meyer & Paulay. some suggest that recently diverged species might not be distinguishable on the basis of their COI sequences. such as medicine and genomics. These criticisms are somewhat misleading considering that. but rather from expectations. 2005 ). Criticisms DNA barcoding has met with spirited reaction from scientists. Whitworth et al.
Biol. PMC 1559843. doi:10. the Biocode LIMS and Genbank Submission  plugins handle integration with the FIMS. PMID 18287050. Martin DP. PMID 19666622. Posada D. "Analysing diet of small herbivores: the efficiency of DNA barcoding coupled with high-throughput pyrosequencing for deciphering the composition of complex plant mixtures".0906757106. PMID 18258745. but not delimit or describe them (DeSalle. PMID 15928076. 2006  ).0004598.2007. PLoS One 4 (2): e4598. Non-cryptic species can generally be resolved by either traditional or molecular taxonomy without ambiguity.  Hurst GD. PMID 17472911. Boca Raton: CRC Press.1093/molbev/msi084. PMC 2722355. "Widespread recombination in published animal mtDNA sequences". Linnaean Soc.A. (2009). Evol. Biol.1073/pnas. "Invasion from the cold past: extensive introgression of mountain hare (Lepus timidus) mitochondrial DNA into three other hare species in northern Iberia". database submission tools and pipeline automation for scaling up to eco-system scale projects. The new taxonomy. Biol. And finally. Proc. tb1.  Whitworth TL. "A botanical macroscope". H. doi:10. Searle JB (2004).1098/rspb.x.  Eeva M Soininen et al. and the two plugins made freely available through the Moorea Biocode Project.1073/pnas.  Kress WJ. "A DNA barcode for land plants". pnas.02599. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105 (8): 2923–2928. J. doi:10. phylogeographic and phylogenetic studies: the effects of inherited symbionts". (http:/ / www. introgression and phylogeny of species in the Tegenaria atrica group (Araneae: Agelenidae)".1073/pnas.  Melo-Ferreira J.0800476105. Ecol. "Use of DNA barcodes to identify flowering plants". Combining morphology and DNA barcoding resolves the taxonomy of Western Malagasy Liotrigona Moure. org/ cgi/ content/ full/ 0503123102/ DC1)  Koch. as most of the global biodiversity remains unknown. the LIMS. 14 (8): 2459–64. more difficult cases will only yield to a combination of approaches. Sci. 22 (4): 925–33. molecular barcoding can only hint at the existence of new taxa. "Direct evidence for homologous recombination in mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) mitochondrial DNA" (http:/ / mbe. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106 (31): 12569. pdf)  Seberg O. (2009).x. org. sequence analysis tools. PMID 15647518. PMC 2722277.1098/rspb. .1365-294X. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 81: 79–89. Dawson RD. Zouros E (April 2005). Zimmer EA. PMC 1142120.1073/pnas. 7: DNA sequences in taxonomy: Opportunities and challenges".  Tsaousis AD. Weigt LA. Biol. Mol.pone. laboratory information management system (LIMS). PMID 16048766. 18 (7): 1168–75. "How many loci does it take to DNA barcode a crocus?". doi:10. Sci. Suchentrunk F.1111/j. In Wheeler.  CBOL Plant Working Group (August 4. Hurst GDD (1996). PNAS 106 (31): 12794–12797. Wurdack KJ. Zouros E (1 July 2001). oxfordjournals. doi:10. "DNA barcoding cannot reliably identify species of the blowfly genus Protocalliphora (Diptera: Calliphoridae)". 40 DNA Barcoding Software Software for DNA barcoding requires integration of a field information management system (FIMS). . "Mitochondrial differentiation.tb01446. genomics. za/ Koch_2010_51_2_474. 2009). Evol. Ladoukakis ED. Frontiers in Zoology 6: 16. Jiggins FM (August 2005).1073/pnas. PMID 19240801.2005. "DNA barcoding the floras of biodiversity hotspots".  Jesse H. PMC 2736939. Boursot P. doi:10. Janzen DH (June 2005).1996. PMC 2268532.  Renaud Lahaye et al. Proc. PMC 2493573. Rubinoff. doi:10. PNAS 105 (8): 2761–2762.1186/1742-9994-6-16.1095-8312.0062. Acad. 272 (1572): 1525–34. doi:10.2005. doi:10. References  Kress WJ. ch/ PublicationsEO/ PDFpapers/ Koch_AFRICAN_INVERTEBRATES_2010_51_413-421. Ausubel (August 4. Ferrand N. doi:10.  Ladoukakis ED. However. Mol.  Johnstone RA. Alves PC (July 2005). Quentin. 2009).0905845106. ethz.DNA barcoding The current trend appears to be that DNA barcoding needs to be used alongside traditional taxonomic tools and alternative forms of molecular systematics so that problem cases can be identified and errors detected.1111/j.  Meier R (2008). U. 1961. workflow tracking and database submission. Geneious Pro can be used for the sequence analysis components. Oxford GS. Baudry E (July 2007). 58: 453–70. ISBN 0-8493-9088-5.0709936105. 102 (23): 8369–74.2004. workflow tracking to connect field data and laboratory data. doi:10. org/ cgi/ pmidlookup?view=long& pmid=11420358). and bioinformatics". PMC 2268561. PMID 11420358. Natl. doi:10. (2008-02-26). Proc. "Maternally inherited male-killing microorganisms may confound interpretation of mitochondrial DNA variability".  Croucher PJP.0503123102. 2010. Magalon H. 274 (1619): 1731–9. africaninvertebrates.x.1371/journal. "DNA barcodes: Genes. "Ch. PMID 15969727. aspx) PDF fulltext (http:/ / www. PMC 2643479. Supporting Information (http:/ / www. Sci. doi:10. PMID 19666620. PMID 19695081. African Invertebrates 51 (2): 413-421.1111/j. ISSN 00278424. Petersen G. "Problems with mitochondrial DNA as a marker in population. 2006.1095-8312. Biol.3056. Mol.00280.S. Erickson DL (2008).
U.1038/4341067b.  Will KW.x.1371/journal.1523-1739.  Rubinoff D (October 2006). PMID 16243769. erin. . Hebert PD (2007). mooreabiocode. blackwell-synergy. doi:10. org/ pdf/ schander& willassen_2005. Natl. html  Rubinoff D. Hered.S.2006. C. 2 (10): 1529–31. 1371_journal. . Baker A.pbio. "Ten species in one: DNA barcoding reveals cryptic species in the neotropical skipper butterfly Astraptes fulgerator".  Wiemers M.1186/1742-9994-4-8.1523-1739. PMC 1829212. PMID 17360352. Hebert. "DNA barcoding: error rates based on comprehensive sampling". Hebert PD (2006). Biol. Paulay G (December 2005).A. 0020312. "Species-level paraphyly and polyphyly: frequency. Fiedler K (2007). PMID 16505365. Omland KE (2003). itis. Lee A. 54 (5): 844–51. PMID 15731217.0406166101. Evolution 58 (5): 1122–30.  Johnson NK. PMC 1287506. doi:10. PMC 519004. doi:10. Biol. doi:10. Janzen DH.  "Database homepage for ACG caterpillar (Lepidoptera) rearing databases" (http:/ / janzen. pdf)  Hebert PD. 104 (12): 4775–4776. Carla J.pbio.0020354. Biol. Natl.1093/jhered/esi035. org/ archive/ 1545-7885/ 2/ 10/ supinfo/ 10.x. pnas. PLoS Biol. "DNA barcoding does not compete with taxonomy" (http:/ / www. upenn. doi:10. and consequences. 20 (5): 1548–9. PMID 17002772. .1371/journal. Cicero C (2004). org/ pdf/ DNA_barcoding_does_not_compete_with_taxonomy. 103 (10): 3657–62.1111/j. . 41 . Dove. html#allspecies)  Moritz C. doi:10. PMID 17135463. plosjournals. Supporting Information (http:/ / biology. Francis CM (October 2004). PMID 15212392. 96 (3): 279–84. environment. PMC 1838910.S. PMID 17002773. frontiersinzoology.x. PLoS Biol. "A genomic perspective on the shortcomings of mitochondrial DNA for "barcoding" identification". . (OnlineEarly Articles). 3 (12): e422. org/ perlserv/ ?request=get-pdf& file=10. PMID 17363473. Sci.0700050104. Syst.011802. pdf) (PDF fulltext). edu/ caterpillars/ database.1371/journal. "What can Biological Barcoding do for Marine Biology?" (http:/ / www. Acad. sg001. doi:10. 01670. Marine Biology Research 1 (1): 79–83. PMC 1383497. 2006. Conserv. doi:10. doi:10. "DNA barcoding and the renaissance of taxonomy".  Smith MA. bolinfonet. Zool. N.132421.  Desalle R (October 2006). pdf) (PDF). com/ content/ 4/ 1/ 8). PMID 17343734.  Rubinoff D (August 2006). PMID 16336051. au/ biodiversity/ abrs/ publications/ other/ species-numbers/ 02-exec-summary. "DNA Barcoding: Promise and Pitfalls" (http:/ / biology.2006. Kerr. "Utility of mitochondrial DNA barcodes in species conservation". Tachinidae) are not all generalists". Wheeler QD (2005). Huynen L.  (http:/ / www. bio-itworld. pdf) (PDF). pbio. Hered. "Does the DNA barcoding gap exist? – a case study in blue butterflies (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae)" (http:/ / www. Supporting Information (http:/ / www. Mishler BD.pbio. Charles M.  http:/ / www. Biol. x)  Funk DJ. PMID 15858548. pdf) (PDF fulltext).  Lambert DM.0030422. pdf) (PDF). Conserv. org/ |Moorea  http:/ / software. PMID 15465915. doi:10. Cicero C (May 2004).1523-1739. . Hallwachs W. Hebert PD.  Hebert PD. PMC 518999.00542. Hallwachs W. org/ index. Wood DM. Hallwachs W (October 2004). Front. plosjournals. PMID 16922219. Conserv. Willassen E (2005). 1371_journal. 104 (12): 4967–72. "DNA barcodes reveal cryptic host-specificity within the presumed polyphagous members of a genus of parasitoid flies (Diptera: Tachinidae)". gov. Molecular Ecology Notes.1471-8286. doi:10. org/ cgi/ content/ full/ 0406166101/ DC1)  Brower AVZ (2006). Sci. "Problems with DNA barcodes for species delimitation: 'ten species' of Astraptes fulgerator reassessed (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae)". Penton EH.A.2006. doi:10. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 34: 397–423. sas. Sci. 1111/ j. Acad.  Gregory TR (April 2005).34. mooreabiocode. 4: 8.0020312. Janzen DH. causes.1146/annurev. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Weigt.1111/j.1073/pnas. Mark Y.1073/pnas. doi:10.01670. "New mitochondrial DNA data affirm the importance of Pleistocene speciation in North American birds". Zemlak TS. Haddrath O. Comprehensive DNA barcode coverage of North American birds.0700466104. Nature 434 (7037): 1067.1111/j. Woodley NE.1111/j. 2006.0511318103. doi:10.1017/S147720000500191X. U.1093/jhered/esl036.1080/17451000510018962. com/ doi/ full/ 10.1073/pnas. Miller (2007-03-20). PMC 1821123. Proc. doi:10.  Scott E. "Species discovery versus species identification in DNA barcoding efforts: response to Rubinoff". doi:10.  Kevin.1073/pnas. U.  http:/ / www. org/ cgi/ reprint/ 96/ 3/ 279. Burns JM. ca/ ~w3bio/ bio443/ seminar_papers/ perils_of_dna_barcoding. "Is a large-scale DNA-based inventory of ancient life possible?" (http:/ / jhered. doi:10. utoronto.2006. PMID 15455034.S.ecolsys.  Meyer CP. PMID 15486587. J. 20 (4): 1026–33. 97 (6): 581–94.00372. doi:10. oxfordjournals.R. Stoeckle. Janzen DH. Cameron S. Proc. gov/ servlet/ SingleRpt/ SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN& search_value=650659  Smith MA. Stoeckle MY.DNA barcoding  Schander C. lasso). 20 (5): 1545–7. Natl. "Identification of Birds through DNA Barcodes". 2 (10): e312.x Full text (http:/ / www. "The Perils of DNA Barcoding and the Need for Integrative Taxonomy" (http:/ / www. php?title=Main_Page|Geneious  http:/ / www. Acad. "DNA barcoding evolves into the familiar". Proc. Francis & Paul D. Systematics and Biodiversity 4 (2): 127–32. Retrieved 2007-08-12.A.00543.1080/10635150500354878. Will K (2006). PLoS Biol. 0020354-L. 1471-8286. bolinfonet. pbio. com/ 2010/ 11/ 30/ biomatters-moorea-LIMS. doi:10. with insights from animal mitochondrial DNA". J. 101 (41): 14812–7. "DNA barcodes affirm that 16 species of apparently generalist tropical parasitoid flies (Diptera. Millar CD (2005). PMC 522015. .
rockefeller. when a chemical company. DNA typing.barcoding. because a court order may be needed and not obtainable) other methods may need to be used to collect a sample of blood. started a blood-testing centre in England.pdf) • • • • • • DNA profiling DNA profiling (also called DNA testing.barcodeoflife. razor.org) (Latest outpost in the Canadian Arctic in the field) • The Barcode of Life Blog (http://phe.org/) International Barcode of Life (http://www.org) All Birds Barcoding Initiative (ABBI) (http://barcoding. discussed below. as this reduces the possibility of contamination.ibol. unless they are monozygotic twins.org/) Consortium for the Barcode of Life (http://www. The DNA profiling technique was first reported in 1984 by Sir Alec Jeffreys at the University of Leicester in England.si.si.g. Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI).net/) • Guidelines for non COI gene selection (http://www. which can also be used as the person's identifier. toothbrush. as could human remains which had been previously profiled. and is now the basis of several national DNA databases.htm) Polar Flora and Fauna Barcoding website (http://www.9% of human DNA sequences are the same in every person.g. Although 99.g. DNA profiling process The process begins with a sample of an individual's DNA (typically called a "reference sample"). DNA profiling uses repetitive ("repeat") sequences that are highly variable. Samples obtained from blood relatives (biological relative) can provide an indication of an individual's profile. parental testing and criminal investigation. Jeffreys's genetic fingerprinting was made commercially available in 1987. semen. DNA profiles are encrypted sets of numbers that reflect a person's DNA makeup. The most desirable method of collecting a reference sample is the use of a buccal swab. or other appropriate fluid or tissue from personal items (e. Dr. DNA profiling should not be confused with full genome sequencing.DNA barcoding 42 External links Barcode of Life Data Systems (http://www. saliva.edu/barcode/blog/) • DNA Barcoding Community Network (http://connect. .boldsystems. for example. enough of the DNA is different to distinguish one individual from another. banked sperm or biopsy tissue).polarbarcoding. etc.) or from stored samples (e. called variable number tandem repeats (VNTR).barcodeoflife. When this is not available (e. VNTRs loci are very similar between closely related humans. or genetic fingerprinting) is a technique employed by forensic scientists to assist in the identification of individuals by their respective DNA profiles. but so variable that unrelated individuals are extremely unlikely to have the same VNTRs.edu/AllBirds.fishbol.edu/PDF/Guidelines for non-CO1 selection 4 June. The DNA profile is then compared against another sample to determine whether there is a genetic match. A reference sample is then analyzed to create the individual's DNA profile using one of a number of techniques. particularly short tandem repeats (STR)s. It is used in.org) Fish Barcode of Life Initiative (FISH-BOL) (http://www.
capillary electrophoresis (CE) and gel electrophoresis. STRs can be used to discriminate between unrelated individuals. however. The more STR regions that are tested in an individual the more discriminating the test becomes. This method uses highly polymorphic regions that have short repeated sequences of DNA (the most common is 4 bases repeated. the number of alleles is very small. There are two common methods of separation and detection. These early techniques have been supplanted by PCR-based assays. more commonly the enzymes and DNA probes were used to analyze VNTR loci. whereby many STR regions will be tested at the same time. Also. The pattern of alleles can identify an individual quite accurately. It was also difficult to determine a DNA profile for mixed samples. DNA profiling took huge strides forward in both discriminating power and the ability to recover information from very small (or degraded) starting samples.20% of individuals. The power of STR analysis comes from looking at multiple STR loci simultaneously. These STR loci (locations on a chromosome) are targeted with sequence-specific primers and amplified using PCR. systems which amplify the CODIS 13 core loci are almost universal. Each STR is polymorphic. In North America. PCR analysis With the invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. such as a vaginal swab from a sexual assault victim. but making it hard to discern individual alleles (and thereby precluding parental testing). requires large amounts of undegraded sample DNA.DNA profiling 43 RFLP analysis The first methods for finding out genetics used for DNA profiling involved restriction enzyme digestion. the Southern blot technique is laborious. Thus STR analysis provides an excellent identification tool. The DNA fragments that result are then separated and detected using electrophoresis. Because unrelated people almost certainly have different numbers of repeat units. and the speed with which a result could be obtained. Fortunately. Whichever system is used. Early assays such as the HLA-DQ alpha reverse dot blot strips grew to be very popular due to their ease of use. Typically each STR allele will be shared by around 5 . is in use. and Variations of VNTR allele lengths in 6 individuals. STR analysis The method of DNA profiling used today is based on PCR and uses short tandem repeats (STR) a type of VNTR. different STR-based DNA-profiling systems are in use. However they were not as discriminating as RFLP. . but there are other lengths in use. Karl Brown's original technique looked at many minisatellite loci at the same time. while in the UK the SGM+ 10 loci system (which is compatible with The National DNA Database). using oligonucleotide primers and a thermostable DNA polymerase. including 3 and 5 bases). Although polymorphisms can exist in the restriction enzyme cleavage sites. increasing the observed variability. the PCR method was readily adaptable for analyzing VNTR. These DNA-profiling systems are based on multiplex reactions. However. PCR greatly amplifies the amounts of a specific region of DNA. From country to country. particularly STR loci. many of the STR regions used are the same. followed by Southern blot analysis.
In practice. In a routine DNA paternity test. This has resulted in the ability to generate match probabilities of 1 in a quintillion (1 with 18 zeros after it) or more. multiple control-samples are typically tested. However. These locations contain specific DNA markers that DNA scientists use to identify individuals. the father’s sperm cell and the mother’s egg cell. At each stage of development. called a zygote. AmpFLP remains popular in lower income countries. or from left-over cells transferred from a prior test. there is some called junk DNA. the theoretical probability is not accurate. when prepared during the same period as the actual test samples. a unique combination of DNA from both parents. the full DNA profiles should differ (except for twins). One popular locus for fingerprinting was the D1S80 locus. For that reason. DNA analysis is widely applied to determine genetic family relationships such as paternity. to prove that a person wasn't actually matched as being related to their own DNA in another sample. Unexpected matches (or variations) in several control-samples indicates a high probability of contamination for the actual test samples. While a lot of DNA contains information for a certain function. because the analysis is done on a gel. Because the 13 loci that are currently used for discrimination in CODIS are independently assorted (having a certain number of repeats at one locus doesn't change the likelihood of having any number of repeats at any other locus). which is currently used for human identification. DNA database searches showed much more frequent than expected false DNA profile matches including one perfect 13 locus match out of only 30. As with all PCR based methods. or in contact with. the product rule for probabilities can be applied. At some special locations (called loci) in the junk DNA. the risk of contaminated-matching is much greater than matching a distant relative. predictable inheritance patterns were found to be useful in determining biological relationships. Logically. each containing half the amount of DNA found in other body cells. It relied on variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphisms to distinguish various alleles. a victim is a major source of contamination for any other samples brought into a lab. all the cells forming the body contain the same DNA—half from the father and half from the mother. to ensure that they stayed clean. the markers used are Short . which were separated on a polyacrylamide gel using an allelic ladder (as opposed to a molecular weight ladder). This zygote divides and multiplies into an embryo and later. The zygote contains a complete set of DNA molecules. This fact allows the relationship testing to use all types of all samples including loose cells from the cheeks collected using buccal swabs. very high number repeats may bunch together at the top of the gel. AmpFLP analysis can be highly automated. Bands could be visualized by silver staining the gel. 44 AmpFLP Another technique. making it difficult to resolve. since there are about 12 million monozygotic twins on Earth. This technique was also faster than RFLP analysis and used PCR to amplify DNA samples. siblingship and other kinships. This means that if someone has the DNA type of ABC. where the three loci were independent. Due to its relatively low cost and ease of set-up and operation. or amplified fragment length polymorphism was also put into practice during the early 1990s. DNA family relationship analysis Using PCR technology. During conception. blood or other types of samples. a full human being. such as a sample being contaminated from nearby objects. and allows for easy creation of phylogenetic trees based on comparing individual samples of DNA. the risk is greater for matching the most common person in the samples: everything collected from. we can say that the probability of having that DNA type is the probability of having type A times the probability of having type B times the probability of having type C. highly degraded DNA or very small amounts of DNA may cause allelic dropout (causing a mistake in thinking a heterozygote is a homozygote) or other stochastic effects. maternity. Moreover.DNA profiling The true power of STR analysis is in its statistical power of discrimination.000 DNA samples in Maryland in January 2007. In addition. AmpFLP. meet and fuse to form a fertilized egg. In a relationship test.
which indicates the overall probability of an individual being the biological father of the tested child relative to any random man from the entire population of the same race. For example. so Y-STR analysis can help in the identification of paternally related males. is reported. a different value. Y-chromosome analysis Recent innovations have included the creation of primers targeting polymorphic regions on the Y-chromosome (Y-STR). the following sample report from this commercial DNA paternity testing laboratory Universal Genetics signifies how relatedness between parents and child is identified on those special markers: DNA Marker D21S11 D7S820 TH01 D13S317 D19S433 Mother 28. The complete test results show this correlation on 16 markers between the child and the tested man to draw a conclusion of whether or not the man is the biological father. Y-STR analysis was performed in the Sally Hemings controversy to determine if Thomas Jefferson had sired a son with one of his slaves. 8 14.DNA profiling Tandem Repeats (STRs). which is a statistical measure of how powerfully a match at a particular marker indicates paternity. each marker is assigned with a Paternity Index (PI). The PI of each marker is multiplied with each other to generate the Combined Paternity Index (CPI). 16 8. Scientifically. such as a Siblingship Index. 30 9. which allows resolution of a mixed DNA sample from a male and female and/or cases in which a differential extraction is not possible. the markers at each person’s DNA location could differ in length and sometimes sequence. 10 14. the probability of biological relationship is calculated to determine how likely the tested individuals share the same markers due to a blood relationship. Each person’s DNA contains two copies of these markers—one copy inherited from the father and one from the mother. Within a population. then sequence each region and compare single-nucleotide differences to a reference. Mitochondrial analysis For highly degraded samples. The combination of marker sizes found in each person makes up his/her unique genetic profile.2 Child 28. while there may only be 1-2 copies of the nuclear DNA. such as grandparentage and siblingship tests. The report shows the genetic profiles of each tested person. Y-chromosomes are paternally inherited. 17 45 The partial results indicate that the child and the alleged father’s DNA match among these five markers. Instead of the Combined Paternity Index. it is sometimes impossible to get a complete profile of the 13 CODIS STRs. When determining the relationship between two individuals. depending on the markers inherited from the parents. Because mtDNA is maternally inherited. The DNA test report in other family relationship tests. 11 14. 15 Alleged father 29. 15 7. If there are markers shared among the tested individuals. The CPI is then converted into a Probability of Paternity showing the degree of relatedness between the alleged father and child. their genetic profiles are compared to see if they share the same inheritance patterns at a statistically conclusive rate. In these situations. 9 14. 31 10. Forensic scientists amplify the HV1 and HV2 regions of the mtDNA. mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is sometimes typed due to there being many copies of mtDNA in a cell. 12 15. 31 11. short pieces of DNA that occur in highly differential repeat patterns among individuals. 16. is similar to a paternity test report. such as one's maternal . directly linked maternal relatives can be used as match references. 9 15. 16 7.
When a match is made from a National DNA Databank to link a crime scene to an offender who has provided a DNA Sample to a databank that link is often referred to as a cold hit. A cold hit is of value in referring the police agency to a specific suspect but is of less evidential value than a DNA match made from outside the DNA Databank. When using RFLP. This was then translated to a 1 in 12 chance of the suspect being the guilty one. the lawyer would argue that this meant that in a country of say 60 million people there were 12 people who would also match the profile. The U. but a laboratory worker may conclude that similar—but not precisely identical—band patterns result from identical genetic samples with some imperfection in the agarose gel. where police have wide-ranging powers to take samples and retain them even in the event of acquittal. a jury should consider how likely it is that an individual matching the genetic profile would also have been a suspect in the case for other reasons. The United States maintains the largest DNA database. the necessary population data to rates which may be cause for concern. arbitrary low ceilings were controversially put on match probabilities used in RFLP analysis rather than the higher theoretically computed ones. For example.000. A difference of two or more nucleotides is generally considered to be an exclusion. in this case. Between 1992 and 1996. The size of this database.S. the coincidence probabilities may be calculated based on the probabilities that markers in two samples have bands in precisely the same location.000.S. Some are private.2% of the human population. the laboratory worker increases the coincidence risk by expanding the criteria for declaring a match. and its rate of growth. or head office of. government to get DNA samples from other countries if they are either a division of. such as those of missing people when a maternally linked relative can be found. and often actual laboratory procedures do not reflect the theory under which the coincidence probabilities were computed. but most of the largest databases are government controlled. 46 DNA databases There are now several DNA databases in existence around the world. so some expertise on the part of the analyst is required. mtDNA is useful in determining clear identities.S.000). RFLP has become widely disused due to the advent of more discriminating. This argument is not sound unless the suspect was drawn at random from the population of the country. Under the act. In fact. the rate of laboratory error is almost certainly higher than this. juries were often swayed by spurious statistical arguments by defense lawyers along these lines: given a match that had a 1 in 5 million probability of occurring by chance. which is of similar size. Heteroplasmy and poly-C differences may throw off straight sequence comparisons. Today. holding over 5 million records as of 2007. Considerations when evaluating DNA evidence In the early days of the use of genetic fingerprinting as criminal evidence. is giving concern to civil liberties groups in the UK. the American offices of the company can't divulge to their subsidiaries/offices in other countries the reasons that these DNA samples are sought or by whom. with the Combined DNA Index System. a company operating in the U. Recent studies have quoted relatively high error  In the early days of genetic fingerprinting. the theoretical risk of a coincidental match is 1 in 100 billion (100. The United Kingdom maintains the National DNA Database (NDNAD).DNA profiling grandmother's daughter's son. accurately compute a match probability was sometimes unavailable. mtDNA testing was used in determining that Anna Anderson was not the Russian princess she had claimed to be. although the practical risk is actually 1 in 1000 because monozygotic twins are 0. despite the UK's smaller population. Anastasia Romanov. Another spurious statistical argument is based on the false assumption that a 1 in 5 million probability of a match automatically translates into a 1 in 5 million probability of innocence and is known as the prosecutor's fallacy. sensitive and easier . Moreover. Patriot Act of the United States provides a means for the U. However. mtDNA can be obtained from such material as hair shafts and old bones/teeth.
a criminal even planted fake DNA evidence in his own body: Dr. In the case of the Phantom of Heilbronn. 47 Evidence of genetic relationship It's also possible to use DNA profiling as evidence of genetic relationship. To eliminate the majority of this list.among them murders. Since 1998 the DNA profiling system supported by The National DNA Database in the UK is the SGM+ DNA profiling system which includes 10 STR regions and a sex indicating test. Using .  After all other leads have been exhausted. investigators may use specially developed software to compare the forensic profile to all profiles taken from a state’s DNA database in order to generate a list of those offenders most likely to be a close relative of the forensic profile. The company's product specification said that the swabs were guaranteed to be sterile. Police drew what they believed to be Schneeberger's blood and compared its DNA against the crime scene semen DNA on three occasions. never showing a match. John Schneeberger raped one of his sedated patients in 1992 and left semen on her underwear. Contamination with other evidence (secondary transfer) is a key source of incorrect DNA profiles and raising doubts as to whether a sample has been adulterated is a favorite defense technique. known as "chimeras". However. There have been several cases of DNA profiling that falsely "proved" that a mother was unrelated to her children. It turned out that he had surgically inserted a Penrose drain into his arm and filled it with foreign blood and anticoagulants. but not DNA-free. DNA traces were already present on the cotton swabs used to collect the samples at the crime scene. Only after the DNA of the "woman" matched the DNA sampled from the burned body of a male asylum seeker in France. It should be noted that figures of this magnitude are not considered to be statistically supportable by scientists in the UK. Fake DNA evidence The value of DNA evidence has to be seen in light of recent cases where criminals planted fake DNA samples at crime scenes. STRs do not suffer from such subjectivity and provide similar power of discrimination (1 in 10^13 for unrelated individuals if using a full SGM+ profile). but testing that shows no relationship is absolutely certain. Germany and France . chimerism is one such instance where the lack of a genetic match may unfairly exclude a suspect. police detectives found DNA traces from the same woman on various crime scenes in Austria. While almost all individuals have a single and distinct set of genes. burglaries and robberies. and the swabs had all been produced at the same factory in Austria. have at least two different sets of genes. In a study conducted by the life science company Nucleix and published in the journal Forensic Science International. In that case. detectives began to have serious doubts about the DNA evidence. More rarely. rare individuals. the cautious juror should not convict on genetic fingerprint evidence alone if other factors raise doubt. for unrelated individuals with full matching DNA profiles a match probability of 1 in a billion is considered statistically supportable.DNA profiling technologies. with any DNA technique. crime lab technicians conduct Y-STR analysis that confirms the familial relationships suggested by the first list. scientists found that an In vitro synthesized sample of DNA matching any desired genetic profile can be constructed using standard molecular biology techniques without obtaining any actual tissue from that person. DNA evidence as evidence in criminal trials Familial DNA searching Familial DNA searching (sometimes referred to as “Familial DNA” or “Familial DNA Database Searching”) is the practice of creating new investigative leads in cases where DNA evidence found at the scene of a crime (forensic profile) strongly resembles that of an existing DNA profile (offender profile) in a state DNA database but there is not an exact match. In one case.
States determine their own policies and decision making processes for how and when to conduct familial searches. familial DNA database searching is not conducted on a national level in the United States. A judge then signed an order to dismiss the case with prejudice against Hunt. Once a suspect has been identified. 2004. This suspect DNA profile is then compared to the sample found at the crime scene. and has also been used as a tool to exonerate the falsely accused. one of whom is identified as the perpetrator. Partial matching does not involve the use of a special software such as those used in the UK and Denver. the suspect’s blood left at the scene of the crime strongly resembled that of a current Colorado Department of Corrections prisoner. Hunt was exonerated in 2004 when a DNA database search produced a remarkably close match between a convicted felon and the forensic profile from the case. They then eliminated all the family members who were incarcerated at the time of the offense. Darryl Hunt was wrongly convicted in connection with the rape and murder of a young woman in 1984 in North Carolina. such as witness or victim statements. Pool ruled that this practice is somewhat analogous to a witness looking at a photograph of one person and stating that it looked like the perpetrator. Using publicly available records. Willard E. Critics of familial DNA database searches argue that the technique may be an invasion of an individual’s 4th Amendment rights. For instance. Other states are expected to follow. authorities are then able to build a family tree. The technique was used to catch the Los Angeles serial killer known as the “Grim Sleeper” in 2010 and more recently led to the arrest of 21-year-old Elvis Garcia on charges of sexual assault and false imprisonment of a woman in Santa Cruz in 2008. the investigators created a family tree. Familial DNA database searching was first used to convict Craig Harman of manslaughter in the United Kingdom on April 19. to identify a suspect. Regardless of whether familial DNA searching was the method used to identify the suspect. Jerry Brown. The Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals in United States v. living out of state or being incarcerated when the crime was committed. The family tree is populated from information gathered from public records and criminal justice records. Investigators rule out family members’ involvement in the crime by finding excluding factors such as sex. now Governor. Some scholars have pointed out that the privacy concerns surrounding familial searching are no more threatening than other police search techniques. and therefore often misses sibling relationships. as well as all of the females (the crime scene DNA profile was that of a male). but are the result of moderate stringency CODIS searches that produce a potential match that shares at least one allele at every locus. They may also use other leads from the case. California was the first state to implement a policy for familial searching under then Attorney General. investigators with Denver District Attorney’s Office successfully identified a suspect in a property theft case using a familial DNA search. The partial match led investigators to the felon’s brother. in accordance with well established and constitutionally accepted practices. Familial DNA database searching is a more accurate tool to identify relatives than partial DNA profile matching. or additional Y-STR analysis. Partial matching has been used to identify suspects in several cases in the UK and US. but the suspect actually volunteered to come to a police station and give a 48 . In March of 2011 Virginia Governor Bob McDonnell announced that Virginia would begin using familial DNA searches. which leads law enforcement to show the witness photos of similar looking individuals. Colorado in 2008 using software developed under the leadership of Denver District Attorney Mitch Morrissey and Denver Police Department Crime Lab Director Gregg LaBerge. The first familial DNA search and subsequent conviction in the United States was conducted in Denver. In his role as consultant to the Familial Search Working Group of the California Department of Justice.DNA profiling standard investigative techniques. authorities always conduct a normal DNA test to match the suspect’s DNA with that of the DNA left at the crime scene. Brown. ending the long ordeal for this innocent man. Investigators obtained a court order to collect the suspect’s DNA. who confessed to the crime when confronted by police. to definitively identify the suspect as the source of the crime scene DNA. Currently. investigators seek to legally obtain a DNA sample from the suspect. former Alameda County Prosecutor Rock Harmon is widely considered to have been the catalyst in the adoption of familial search technology in California. Partial matches are not searches themselves. In this example.
The Defendant is one of them. Doheny Phillips LJ gave this example of a summing up. Juries should weigh up conflicting and corroborative evidence. misunderstanding and misjudgment". the suspect pled guilty to criminal trespass at the first court date and was sentenced to two years probation. but excluded medical and criminal investigations from the offence. In the United States. . is whether you are sure that it was the Defendant who left that stain or whether it is possible that it was one of that other small group of men who share the same DNA characteristics. If that is the position. this indicates that there are probably only four or five white males in the United Kingdom from whom that semen stain could have come. there is no way to avoid abandoning one’s DNA in public. Greenwood (1985).DNA profiling DNA sample. even if they do realize it. In many there is a possibility (at least in theory) that evidence exists which would assist the accused and perhaps even exculpate him altogether. the Human Tissue Act 2004 prohibited private individuals from covertly collecting biological samples (hair. The judge must also ensure that the jury does not confuse the 'match probability' (the probability that a person that is chosen at random has a matching DNA profile to the sample from the scene) with the 'likelihood ratio' (the probability that a person with matching DNA committed the crime)." In the UK. courts often claiming that there was no expectation of privacy. during which the Supreme Court held that the Fourth Amendment does not prohibit the warrantless search and seizure of garbage left for collection outside the curtilage of a home. so as to avoid "confusion. There may be cases where the match probability in relation to all the samples tested is so great that the judge would consider its probative value to be minimal and decide to exclude the evidence in the exercise of his discretion. which should be carefully tailored to the particular facts in each case: Members of the Jury. etc. After providing the sample. the fact that there exists in the case of all partial profile evidence the possibility that a "missing" allele might exculpate the accused altogether does not provide sufficient grounds for rejecting such evidence. The judge must ensure that the jury must understand the significance of DNA matches and mismatches in the profiles. Presentation and evaluation of evidence of partial or incomplete DNA profiles In R v Bates. but this gives rise to no new question of principle and can be left for decision on a case by case basis. such as Bayes' theorem. Moore-Bick LJ said: “We can see no reason why partial profile DNA evidence should not be admissible provided that the jury are made aware of its inherent limitations and are given a sufficient explanation to enable them to evaluate it. though it does make it important to ensure that the jury are given  sufficient information to enable them to evaluate that evidence properly”. the suspect walked free without further interrogation or detainment.) for DNA analysis. In 1996 R v. England and Wales Evidence from an expert who has compared DNA samples must be accompanied by evidence as to the sources of the samples and the procedures for obtaining the DNA profiles. using their own common sense and not by using mathematical formulae. However. but that does not provide grounds for excluding relevant evidence that is available and otherwise admissible. citing California v. on all the evidence. failing to destroy a used coffee cup. it has been accepted. for instance. 49 Surreptitious DNA collecting Police forces may collect DNA samples without the suspects' knowledge. Critics of this practice underline the fact that this analogy ignores that "most people have no idea that they risk surrendering their genetic identity to the police by. if you accept the scientific evidence called by the Crown. Legality of this mode of proceeding has been questioned in Australia. Later confronted with an exact match to the forensic profile. Moreover. and use it as evidence. the decision you have to reach. fingernails.
for raping a woman during a burglary. This was the first use of DNA finger printing in a criminal investigation.. Virginia hospital following a medical procedure were tested using DNA fingerprinting. The researchers also showed that. 1987. genuine. 1994. In the 1980s. Dr. He was dubbed "The South Side Strangler" because he killed victims on the south side of Richmond. even though any forensic laboratory doing DNA identification could adopt this test to authenticate its results as "real" DNA. and that this can be done without access to any actual DNA from the person whose DNA they are duplicating." Dr. . The synthetic DNA lacks this epigenetic modification. for several rape and murder charges. and sentenced to 22 years in prison. Daniel Frumkin. "You can just engineer a crime scene. despite having admitted to the rape and murder of a teenager near Leicester. if any. • In 1986. His test detects epigenetic modifications. lead author on the paper. scientists in Israel raised serious doubts concerning the use of DNA by law enforcement as the ultimate method of identification. was quoted in The New York Times saying. Frumkin perfected a test that can differentiate real DNA samples from fake ones. the Israeli researchers demonstrated that it is possible to manufacture DNA in a laboratory. which appears to be a serious issue. any biology undergraduate could perform this. It is unknown how many. The synthetic DNA oligos required for the procedure are common in molecular laboratories. which originally contained DNA from a person other than the supposed donor of the blood and saliva.. samples of her tissue that had been stored at a Charlottesville. He was later charged with rape and 1st degree murder and was sentenced to death. Richard Buckland was exonerated. • In 1987. Virginia. No police lab has publicly announced that it is using the new test to verify DNA results. initially convicted of one of Spencer's crimes. Methylation at the promoter region is associated with gene silencing. David Vasquez.  • In 1988. Development of artificial DNA In August 2009. Cases • In the 1950s. in particular. the city where DNA profiling was first discovered. In a paper published in the journal Forensic Science International: Genetics. meaning it contains methyl group modifications within a CpG dinucleotide context. in the same case as Buckland. Timothy Wilson Spencer was the first man in Virginia to be sentenced to death through DNA testing. Detailed information on database laws in each state can be found at the National Conference of State Legislatures website. he was convicted on November 6. DNA methylation. Florida rapist Tommy Lee Andrews was the first person in the United States to be convicted as a result of DNA evidence. and showed that she bore no relation to the Romanovs. DNA. after her death. The scientists fabricated saliva and blood samples. British baker Colin Pitchfork was the first criminal caught and convicted using DNA fingerprinting. it is possible to take information from a profile and manufacture DNA to match it. Anna Anderson claimed that she was Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna of Russia. police departments currently use the test. Seventy percent of the DNA in any human genome is methylated.DNA profiling 50 DNA testing in the US There are state laws on DNA profiling in all 50 states of the United States. became the first man in America exonerated based on DNA evidence. • In 1987. genetic fingerprinting was used in criminal court for the first time in the trial of a man accused of unlawful intercourse with a mentally handicapped 14-year-old female who gave birth to his baby. using a DNA database. • In 1987. which allows the test to distinguish manufactured DNA from original. thus falsifying DNA evidence. He was executed on April 27.
lead singer for the Seattle punk band The Gits was unsolved 9 years after the murder. • In 1999. This was the first time viral DNA fingerprinting had been used as evidence in a criminal trial. Richard J. England. Chicago man Gary Dotson was the first person whose conviction was overturned using DNA evidence. This may be the first known example of the DNA of an innocent yet related individual being used to identify the actual criminal. Graham was convicted of the murder when his DNA was found on a sports bag left in the house as part of an elaborate ploy to suggest the murder occurred after a burglary had gone wrong. and used the test to link a man to the murder of his wife. • In 1992. It was the first time Low Copy Number DNA was used in Northern Ireland. but the killer's DNA was collected when he was arrested in Florida for burglary and domestic abuse in 2002. was arrested and detained for 7 hours in connection with a burglary. His DNA had been retained on file after an unrelated domestic incident some time previously. • In May 2000 Gordon Graham murdered Paul Gault at his home in Lisburn. Simpson to a double murder. via "familial searching". The case also brought to light the laboratory difficulties and handling procedure mishaps which can cause such evidence to be significantly doubted. Allan Legere was the first Canadian to be convicted as a result of DNA evidence. He was released due to an inaccurrate DNA match. • In 1994. • In 2001. in March 2003 on an extradition warrant heard at Bow Street Magistrates' Court in London to establish whether he should be taken to Italy to face a murder charge. when crime scene evidence collected 12 years earlier was re-examined using STR techniques. Dr. • In 1998. The three men had already served eighteen years of their thirty-plus-year sentences. a man who was wrongfully convicted in a 1986 rape case. Echols was the 114th person to be exonerated through post-conviction DNA testing.J. Annalisa Vincenzi was shot dead in Tuscany. DNA testing was used to exonerate Douglas Echols.   • In 1993. his defense argued that the relatively shallow gene pool of the region could lead to false positives. a disabled man from Swindon. During his trial. Raymond Easton. Graham was having an affair with the victim's wife at the time of the murder. DNA from a palo verde tree was used to convict Mark Alan Bogan of murder. Northern Ireland. DNA evidence was used to prove that Nazi doctor Josef Mengele was buried in Brazil under the name Wolfgang Gerhard. Kirk Bloodsworth was the first person to have been convicted of murder and sentenced to death. 23. Wayne Butler was convicted for the murder of Celia Douty. but he was  cleared on other evidence. whose conviction was overturned using DNA evidence. resulting in a match with his nephew. was arrested. • In August 2002. Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) detectives successfully tested hairs from a cat known as Snowball.  • In 2002. It was the first murder in Australia to be solved using DNA profiling. thus marking for the first time in forensic history the use of non-human DNA to identify a criminal. for four murders he had committed while an escaped prisoner in 1989.DNA profiling • In 1989. • The science was made famous in the United States in 1994 when prosecutors heavily relied on DNA evidence allegedly linking O. • In 1991. Dennis Halstead. • In 2003. Welshman Jeffrey Gafoor was convicted of the 1988 murder of Lynette White. and in many cases to prove their existence. • In June 2003. DNA "proved" he shot her. This is the first instance of plant DNA admitted in a criminal case. DNA from seed pods of a tree at the crime scene was found to match that of seed pods found in Bogan's truck. in Merseyside. John Kogut and John Restivo won a re-trial on their murder conviction. • In 1992. 51 . • The trial of Robert Pickton is notable in that DNA evidence is being used primarily to identify the victims. because of new DNA evidence. A database search in 2001 failed. Schmidt was convicted of attempted second-degree murder when it was shown that there was a link between the viral DNA of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) he had been accused of injecting in his girlfriend and viral DNA from one of his patients with full-blown AIDS. Bartender Peter Hamkin. • The 1993 rape and murder of Mia Zapata.
html) 1996. com/ 2008/ jul/ 20/ local/ me-dna20).uk. a law student at the University of Michigan. Diane. Retrieved 2010-04-03. . co. Frederick et al. 312 Sci.  "Restrictions on use and destruction of fingerprints and samples" (http:/ / www. co. fbi. com/ nature/ journal/ v314/ n6006/ abs/ 314067a0. nature.  Diamond. . . He was allegedly found alive eight months later in the custody of William Cantwell Walters. .   • In December 2005. in her car in Southampton 30 years ago was released by senior judges.2763. Questionable DNA samples taken from Sutton were retested in the wake of the Houston Police Department's crime lab scandal of mishandling DNA evidence. htm). The courts disbelieved her claim and convicted Walters for the kidnapping. Bruce Anderson.gov. org/ content/ 312/ 5778/ 1315.W. doi:10. (1984). 1989). Leiterman's defense unsuccessfully argued that the unexplained match of the blood spot to Ruelas pointed to cross-contamination and raised doubts about the reliability of the lab's identification of Leiterman.J. Accessexcellence. New York: A Perigord Press Book. Fbi.00. 22. dnaforensics. uk/ crime/ article/ 0. 52 References  Kijk magazine. • In 2004. com/ article/ dn4908-killer-convicted-thanks-to-relatives-dna. org/ RC/ AB/ BA/ Use_of_DNA_Identification. Abcnews. DNA testing shed new light into the mysterious 1912 disappearance of Bobby Dunbar.go. Los Angeles Times: pp. who was only four years old in 1969 and was never successfully connected to the case in any other way. com/ FamilialSearches. latimes. Gary Leiterman was convicted of the 1969 murder of Jane Mixer.  "CODIS — National DNA Index System" (http:/ / www. "Hypervariable 'minisatellite' regions in human DNA" (http:/ / www. go. whose real fate remains unknown. DNA in a drop of blood on Mixer's hand was matched to John Ruelas. gov/ hq/ lab/ codis/ national.. "FBI resists scrutiny of 'matches'" (http:/ / articles.co. • In 2005. P8. DNA — A Practical Guide. 202. php?title=Identification_by_body_samples_and_impressions#Section_82:_Restrictions_on_use_and_destruction_of_fingerprints_and_samples). 01 January 2009  "Use of DNA in Identification" (http:/ / www. The boy was raised and known as Bobby Dunbar throughout the rest of his life. New York: A Perigord Press Book.  "Two Women Don't Match Their Kids' DNA" (http:/ / abcnews. php).  The Evaluation of Forensic DNA Evidence (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2010-04-03. 83. Howard. 2011. 1989). nap. Mr Clark is the 164th person in the United States and the fifth in Georgia to be freed using post-conviction DNA testing. whom she had entrusted in Walters' custody.  Joseph Wambaugh. Josiah Sutton was released from prison after serving four years of a twelve-year sentence for a sexual assault charge. html) New Scientist accessed April 17. Thein S.  Pankratz." (http:/ / www. . "Denver Uses ‘Familial DNA Evidence’ to Solve Car Break-Ins. accessexcellence. guardian.  Jeffreys A. Sunday 27 January 2002. Wikicrimeline. "Searching the Family DNA Tree to Solve Crime.640157. denverpost.  “Science of the Future: Identifying Criminals Through Their Family Members” (http:/ / www. newscientist. aspx#uk). However. 2011.  Rose & Goos. DNA tests on Dunbar's son and nephew revealed the two were not related..  Bieber. html). html) The Huffington Post accessed April 17. Tests prove DNA from the scene was not his.” (http:/ / www." (http:/ / www. convicted of killing Teresa De Simone. wikicrimeline. et al (July 20.com.. html) The Observer. 2006-08-15. a four-year-old boy who vanished during a fishing trip. sciencemag. after DNA found on Mixer's pantyhose was matched to Leiterman.(2006) “Finding Criminals Through DNA of Their Relatives” (http:/ / www.org.DNA profiling • In March 2003. Jason. edu/ openbook/ 0309053951/ html/ 35. uk/ index. thus establishing that the boy found in 1912 was not Bobby Dunbar.  Nick Paton Walsh False result fear over DNA tests (http:/ / www. British police have now reopened the case. 1315–16.1038/314067a0  Joseph Wambaugh. short)Science. Retrieved 2010-04-03. 2011. Shaoni “Killer Convicted Thanks to Relative's DNA. Sean Hodgson who spent 27 years in jail. Evan Simmons was proven innocent of a 1981 attack on an Atlanta woman after serving twenty-four years in prison. 2008). Nature 314: 67–73. com/ Primetime/ story?id=2315693). 2009-09-01. but another woman claimed that the boy was her son.  Felch. huffingtonpost.  Bhattacharya. . Wilson V. 1315. Retrieved 2010-04-03. • In March 2009. com/ denver/ ci_13801125) The Denver Post accessed April 17. com/ diane-dimond/ searching-the-family-dna-_b_845340. The Blooding (New York. Toronto: Carswell Publications. The Blooding (New York.
Adams  EWCA Crim 2474 (http:/ / www. bailii. innocenceproject. "State Laws on DNA Data Banks" (http:/ / www. Pbs.(http:/ / www. pdf). Ncsl. ncsl. Howard. 2010. Inc. The New York Times. “McDonnell Approves Familial DNA for VA Crime Fighting. ca9. “Familial DNA Search Used In Grim Sleeper Case Leads to Arrest of Santa Cruz Sex Offender. edu/ articles/ pdf/ v23. com/ blogs/ virginia-politics/ post/ mcdonnell-approves-familial-dna-for-va-crime-fighting/ 2011/ 03/ 21/ ABOK4f6_blog. Andrew (August 18. Central Research and Support Establishment. Colin Kimpton. Lawyers Fight DNA Samples Gained on Sly (http:/ / www. Sonia. Nicola Benson. Romelle Piercy. Downing Street. Kevin Sullivan.  “Denver District Attorney DNA Resources” (http:/ / www. Russian Academy of Sciences. available in pdf. html).  Suter. . . 2011. nytimes. Court of Appeal  R v. Scientists Show" (http:/ / www. org/ DNA_Documents/ bogan. Gillian Tully. co. html)  "DNA pioneer's 'eureka' moment" (http:/ / news. Retrieved 2011-04-21. com/ 2010/ 07/ 09/ us/ 09sleeper. latimes. UK. html) The Washington Post accessed April 17. . Court of Appeal  "WikiCrimeLine DNA profiling" (http:/ / www. fsigenetics. Ivanov.com. law. 2011.” (http:/ / latimesblogs. chromosomal-labs.  "Genelex: The DNA Paternity Testing Site" (http:/ / www. com/ article/ S1872-4973(09)00099-4/ abstract).  Helderman. Doheny  EWCA Crim 728 (http:/ / www. uk/ index. Retrieved 2010-04-03. accessed April 22. RG7 4PN. htm) accessed April 20. "'Grim Sleeper' Arrest Fans Debate on DNA Use.org. Retrieved April 1. nature. michiganlawreview. Retrieved 2010-04-03. The Blooding (New York. Birmingham B5 6QQ. Reading.org.  R v. txtwriter. Forensic Science Service. pdf) LA Times accessed April 17.  "Elsevier" (http:/ / www. gov. wikicrimeline. uk/ en/ Publichealth/ Scientificdevelopmentgeneticsandbioethics/ Tissue/ TissueGeneralInformation/ DH_4102169). . Denver DA: www. UK. pdf) Pool 621F . denverda. . com/ denver/ ci_13801125) The Denver Post accessed April 17. com/ files/ FindingCriminals.denverda. EWCA Crim 734 (2001). uscourts. UK. 117984. 2008. Retrieved 2010-04-03. html?_r=1). 2/ 23HarvJLTech309. org/ assets/ pdfs/ 109/ 3/ murphy.  Dolan. 1996-01-06.  Identification of the remains of the Romanov family by DNA analysis by Peter Gill. . com/ 2008/ 04/ 03/ science/ 03dna. University of Cambridge. Pool” (http:/ / www. "Denver Uses ‘Familial DNA Evidence’ to Solve Car Break-Ins. BBC News. 291-348.com." (http:/ / www. 2010. com/ lanow/ 2011/ 03/ familial-dna-search-used-in-grim-sleeper-case-leads-to-arrest-of-santa-cruz-sex-offender. Erin Elizabeth. aspx). Vol. com/ dna-learning/ book-dna-testing. 23. Berkshire. 369. Moscow. html) ().  Murphy.  Dolan. 2011. September 9. Retrieved 2011-04-21.  Human Tissue Act 2004 (http:/ / www. 53 . The Blooding (New York. html) (). stanford. org/ ew/ cases/ EWCA/ Crim/ 1997/ 2474. Aldermaston. edu/ display/ images/ dynamic/ events_media/ GrimSleeper. shtml). “Relative Doubt: Familial Searches of DNA Databases” (http:/ / www. html) The New York Times accessed April 17." (http:/ / www.3d 1213. com/ Backgrounders/ Genetech/ GEpage14. Retrieved 2010-04-03. 1987-11-06. html).  Donna Lyons — Posted by Glenda. The Innocence Project” (http:/ / www. php?check=true& tag=134). (2009). Ian Evett. Cambridge CB2 3DZ. pdf) Technical Bulletin. pdf) Michigan Law Review. Department of Biological Anthropology. washingtonpost. org/ news/ Blog-Search.  Pollack.org. Retrieved 2010-04-03. org/ ew/ cases/ EWCA/ Crim/ 2006/ 1395. 2011. Healthanddna. Maura. bailii. . gov/ sci/ techresources/ Human_Genome/ elsi/ forensics. com/ ng/ journal/ v6/ n2/ abs/ ng0294-130. pdf) (2010).  “Darryl Hunt. nytimes. com/ 2009/ 08/ 18/ science/ 18dna. Harvard Journal of Law and Technology.  "Finding Criminals Through DNA Testing of Their Relatives" (http:/ / www. Vol. "DNA Evidence Can Be Fabricated.co.  Amy Harmon. harvard. Maura. denverda. 2009.DNA profiling  Steinhaur. New York: A Perigord Press Book. bbc. . April 3. html). "A New Track in DNA Search. Forensic Science Service. Russia. html). New York: A Perigord Press Book.” (http:/ / www. 2009).  Pankratz.  "frontline: the case for innocence: the dna revolution: state and federal dna database laws examined" (http:/ / www.  Joseph Wambaugh. Loveridge. denverpost. html) LA Times accessed April 17. Rosalind. New York Times.  Joseph Wambaugh. UK . Court of Appeal  R v Bates  EWCA Crim 1395 (http:/ / www. Chromosomal Laboratories.com. 2011. 2011. Retrieved 2010-04-03. healthanddna. Fsigenetics. Retrieved April 1. bailii. 109. uk/ 1/ hi/ programmes/ newsnight/ 8245312.  "Court of Appeals of Arizona: Denial of Bogan's motion to reverse his conviction and sentence" (http:/ / www.328. org/ IssuesResearch/ CivilandCriminalJustice/ StateLawsonDNADataBanks/ tabid/ 12737/ Default. 2010. . php?title=DNA_profiling#Presentation_and_evaluation_of_evidence_of_partial_or_incomplete_DNA_profiles).  "Gene Technology — Page 14" (http:/ / www." (http:/ / www. stm). html). Txtwriter. org/ DNA/ Familial_DNA_Database_Searches. Gooch Street North. Jennifer. 1989). Human Genome Project.  “US v. 1989).  R v. 2010. co. gov/ datastore/ opinions/ 2010/ 09/ 14/ 09-10303. . pbs. Erika Hagelberg. 316. ornl. 2011. “ All in The Family: Privacy and DNA Familial Searching” (http:/ / jolt. Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology. law. org/ ew/ cases/ EWCA/ Crim/ 1996/ 728. Priory House. Wikicrimeline.  1 Cr App R 369 ().uk. dh. org/ wgbh/ pages/ frontline/ shows/ case/ revolution/ databases.  "DNA Forensics: Angiosperm Witness for the Prosecution" (http:/ / www. Pavel L. nytimes.
Peter (2004-09-08). .au/systems_projects/ KeyDatesintheHistoryofDNAProfiling. March 24. co.fingerprinting.  CBS News (http:/ / www.kuleuven.1933724. shtml) story on the Jane Mixer murder case. 2003. org) challenging Leiterman's conviction in the Mixer murder.  Gordon.ehu.uk.com/dna-fingerprinting. co. Associated Press.org • In silico simulation of Molecular Biology Techniques (http://insilico. abc. bbc. uk/ 1/ hi/ england/ 2766289. htm). 54 External links • DNA Fingerprinting (http://www.  An advocacy site (http:/ / www.00. shtml) story on the Mixer case. .pbs. cbsnews. Botanical Society of America.  "Mistaken identity claim over murder" (http:/ / news.php) DNA Fingerprinting Identification and Methods • DNAForensics. "DNA evidence may not be infallible: experts" (http:/ / www.  Jeffries. php). Retrieved 2011-04-21.  Another CBS News (http:/ / www. 2010.crimtrac. uk/ sunday-life/ news/ freedom-in-bag-for-killer-graham-13906320. London: The Telegraph. html). cbsnews. February 15. com/ I2Sekar. man is jailed for murder of Briton in 'paradise'" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2008-06-17. usatoday." USA Today. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 2007. Breed. Retrieved 2010-04-03.guardian. com/ stories/ 2005/ 11/ 22/ 48hours/ main1066064. July 17. stm). BBC News. Stuart (2006-10-08).be/cbmer/page. 2010. com/ tech/ news/ 2004-05-05-1914-dna_x.A place to learn typing techniques by simulating them • National DNA Databases in the EU (https://www. by Allen G.uk/science/2009/may/24/dna-fingerprinting-alec-jeffreys) Eureka Moment • Create a DNA Fingerprint (http://www. "Lynette White Case: How Forensics Caught the Cellophane Man" (http:/ / lifeloom. uk/ news/ worldnews/ australiaandthepacific/ 1322624/ 18-years-on.php?LAN=E&ID=399& FILE=subject&PAGE=1) • Key Dates in the History of DNA Profiling (http://www.com. Retrieved April 1.com (http://dnaforensics.com/) DNA Database and Profiling News and Trends .  Satish Sekar. Retrieved April 1. org/ PlantTalkingPoints/ crime. .co. uk/ comment/ story/ 0. Lifeloom. 2007. . 2004). "Freedom in bag for killer Graham?" (http:/ / www. botany. belfasttelegraph.com (http://www.co. "Suspect Nation" (http:/ / www. London: The Guardian.html) • Fingerprinting. co. Stephen (2008-02-17).org/wgbh/nova/sheppard/analyze. Retrieved 2010-06-19.  McCutcheon. net.es) . garyisinnocent.DNA profiling  "Crime Scene Botanicals" (http:/ / www. 30/ content/ 2004/ s1195029. "18 years on.  " DNA clears man of 1914 kidnapping conviction (http:/ / www. (May 5. au/ 7.  Dutter.gov. telegraph. html). com/ stories/ 2007/ 07/ 17/ earlyshow/ main3065082. Belfasttelegraph. html).-man-is-jailed-for-murder-of-Briton-in-'paradise'.. . . .html) PBS. htm). co. Barbie (2001-06-19). Retrieved 2008-06-17. guardian. htm).
next he would be requested to place his thumb or finger onto the fingerprint reader. Macau and frequent visitors to Hong Kong entering and exiting the territory whether it be by land. also known as The Automated Passenger Clearance System. Basic Requirements to use the E-Channels • A Hong Kong permanent resident aged 11 or above (using a smart identity card) • A Hong Kong resident aged 11 or above holding a Document of Identity for Visa Purposes (using a smart identity card and carrying a valid Document of Identity for Visa Purposes) • A person aged 11 or above who has the right to land or is on unconditional stay in Hong Kong (using a smart identity card) • A non-permanent resident issued with a notification label (using a smart identity card and carrying a valid travel document) • A registered cross-boundary primary school student under the age of 11 (using the enrolled valid travel document) • A registered frequent visitor aged 18 or above (using the enrolled valid travel document) Getting fingerprint verified • A registered Macau permanent resident aged 11 or above (using a Macau permanent identity card) The user upon entrance to the E-Channel inserts his Hong Kong Identity Card into the card reader (which reads the embedded chip) or place his registered travel document / Macau Identity Card onto the document reader. processing  time averages around 12 seconds making E-channels far more efficient than traditional immigration counters.E-Channel 55 E-Channel E-Channels. an immigration supervisor will be on hand to assist. is a border control system introduced by the Hong Kong Immigration Department back in 2004. . the user takes his resident card and steps in and the gate will close behind him. the channel gate will open. air or sea via the use of self-service kiosks employed at various border control points. another set of gates in front of him will open allowing him to pass. designed to speed up border immigration processes for residents of Hong Kong. once identity has been confirmed. Locations First made available on 16 December 2004 in Lo Wu Control Point. over the past several years the locations have expanded to include: • • • • • • • • • • • Hong Kong International Airport Lo Wu Control Point Hung Hom Lok Ma Chau Lok Ma Chau Spur Line Man Kam To Sha Tau Kok Hong Kong China Ferry Terminal Hong Kong-Macau Ferry Terminal Tuen Mun Ferry Terminal Shenzhen Bay By allowing registered users to utilise the self-service kiosks to pass through Hong Kong immigration. If an issue arises whether identity cannot be confirmed or a malfunction occurs.
One Stop Customs and Immigration Clearance A special E-Channel has been erected for Shenzhen Bay known as One Stop Customs and Immigration Clearance for goods vehicle passing through the Shenzhen Bay Control Point. un. The program was expanded further again in 10 December 2009 to allow holders of Macau Resident Identity Card to register for and use of the Hong Kong E-channels to enter and exit the territory. allowing not only those of Right to Land or those with unconditional stay in Hong Kong but also to those non-residents with notification labels to use the E-Channels. legco. pdf)  (http:/ / unpan1. gov. indicating how versatile this system is. hk/ yr09-10/ english/ panels/ se/ papers/ se0601cb2-1633-4-e. org/ intradoc/ groups/ public/ documents/ unpan/ unpan027893. he can use his Hong Kong Identity Card to clear through Macau's set of E-Channels. plus on one of the following documents: • • • • A valid HKSAR Travel Pass or An APEC Business Travel Card with the economy code ‘HKG’ or Hong Kong International Airport Frequent Visitor Card or Frequent Flyer Programme Membership Card issued by an airline which has joined this arrangement (please enquire with your airline). Macau have reciprocated and have their set of E-Channels and Hong Kong ID Card holders can register for those as well. Frequent Visitor Automated Passenger Clearance Not only has Macau Resident Card holders been permitted to register for this program but frequent visitors to Hong Kong can register for this as well. Border cities to Macau and Hong Kong on the Mainland China's side . this is known as Frequent Visitor Automated Passenger Clearance. un. Vice versa. Example: A Hong Kong resident arrives at Lo Wu and passes through Hong Kong's E-Channel with his Hong Kong Identity Card allowing him to exit Hong Kong. and an asset for the Hong Kong Immigration Department. org/ intradoc/ groups/ public/ documents/ unpan/ unpan027893. instead of queuing up at immigration counters.Zhuhai and Shenzhen (respectively) have their set of E-channels for use of the Home Return Permit cards. you would need a valid travel document with a multiple visit visa (if applicable). upon approaching a border check point at Shenzhen. the program expanded in 12 September 2006. he uses his Home Return Permit on China's E-Channel to enter Mainland China.E-Channel 56 Macau Since its first inception where only Right to Abode Hong Kong Permanent Identity Card holders were permitted to use the self-service kiosks. pdf)  (http:/ / www. upon arrival of Macau's Outer Harbour Ferry Terminal. References  (http:/ / unpan1. Thereby cutting down time compared with using traditional immigration counters. Or A Hong Kong resident departs from the Hong Kong-Macau Ferry Terminal clearing through Hong Kong immigration via E-channel. pdf) .
27 July 1998) • VicLAS  (PDF) (Annie Darcy. Edmunds was also convicted of a series of rapes in the 1970s and early 80s that led the police to dub the then-unknown offender. Edmunds was arrested on unrelated charges of indecent exposure while parked in his station wagon in Albury. aka Donvale Rapist. Edmunds was convicted of the 1966 double murder and rape of 18-year-old panel beater Garry Charles Heywood and 16-year-old Abina Margaret Madill on 10 February 1966 at Shepparton. Heywood was shot through the head with a . dcdsca. Admit Your Evil Deeds  (Geoff Wilkinson. matched two fingerprints found on the top of the FJ Holden motorcar owned by Heywood. mako. org. Edmunds had allegedly previously raped and beaten his first wife and sexually abused his three-year-old daughter. born 12 March 1944 at Queen Victoria Hospital.  References • Victim Pleads To Mr Stinky . The fingerprint evidence was deliberately kept quiet so as not to panic the offender or help him become more adept at hiding his prints. au/ ausnews186. New South Wales. Sergeant Andrew Wall. html  http:/ / www. nt. gov. org. Mr. Herald Sun. Police are seeking to utilise new legislation that allows them to compel convicted prisoners to provide a blood sample for DNA testing. he has maintained his innocence. "The Donvale Rapist". This occurred before computerised processing of fingerprints was developed and fingerprint matching had to be done manually. mako. Australia. Stinky. html . however. Fire and Ambulance Services) • DNA sampling act  (Northern Territory legislative assembly) • Australian (Public) Paedophile/Sex Offender Registry  Raymond Edmunds-(Mr STINKY) References  http:/ / www. manure and chemicals from his work as a share-cropping farmer on dairy properties. au/ pfes/ corporate/ media/ publications/ pdf/ drum/ 199709_p1. Edmunds was dubbed "Mr Stinky" by a sub-editor from Melbourne's Sunday Press newspaper due to his offensive body odour which was believed to have been caused by a mixture of milk. This Is The Drum. These fingerprints connected the Shepparton murders with one fingerprint found at the "Donvale Rapist" crime scene. On 16 March 1985. Edmunds was fingerprinted and the prints were matched with those found at the Shepparton crime scene. a Victoria Police fingerprint expert. Northern Territory Police. au/ dcm/ legislat/ Acts. gov. He was convicted and is now serving two life sentences with no minimum term for the murders and a total of 30 years for five rape convictions in Greensborough and Donvale. pdf  http:/ / www. nt. September 1997.. Victoria. Australia from the 1960s to the mid-1980s. Melbourne. is a convicted rapist and double murderer who was active in Victoria. au/ tempstinkyed. It has been alleged that Edmunds committed other murders and more than 32 rapes.22 Mossberg self-loading rifle and Madill was raped and then bludgeoned to death. nsf/ 84c76a0f7bf3fb726925649e001c03bb/ 291ace2e07390e29692566a2000b1f69?OpenDocument& ExpandSection=4  http:/ / www.Raymond Edmunds 57 Raymond Edmunds Raymond Edmunds. After his arrest..
embrapa. References  DNA Glossary (http:/ / dna-glossary.cenargen.org/pages/curriculumdevelopment/onco/images/sprotocol_normal. Electropherograms may be used for deriving results from: • genealogical DNA testing • paternity testing • DNA sequencing • Genetic fingerprinting Screen shot of a chromatogram inside the program "Sequencher"  An electropherogram shows a sequence of data that is produced by an automated DNA sequencing machine.htm) • DYS464 Electropherogram Interpretation Discrepancy (http://dna.gif) .com/464/) with images • electropherogram image (http://bscs.genoma.br/phph/) — web-based tool for electropherogram quality analysis • Systematic differences in electropherogram peak heights reported by different versions of the GeneScan Software (http://journalsip.astm.Electropherogram 58 Electropherogram An electropherogram is a plot of results from an analysis done by electrophoresis automatic sequencing. com/ Electropherogram. dnawiz.org/jofs/PAGES/4390. html) External links • PHPH (http://condor.reinyday.
These profiles are then compared only to other individuals of the same breed.32 Fat . so having a bull with a low birth weight EPD is high beneficial. Header text EPD Acc %Rank CE 8 .02 . Typically a larger number is favored for both of these traits. It does not necessarily predict the exact weight of all offspring.6 . External links • http://europa.43 20 REA -. It is measured in pounds of weaning weight of a bull’s daughter grandprogeny due to the milk production of the bull’s daughters.8 . It is intended to enforce the Dublin Regulation.EURODAC 59 EURODAC EURODAC is a European Union automated fingerprint identification system for recording and comparing the fingerprints of asylum seekers and illegal immigrants. but instead gives a general prediction of how much extra or less weight an offspring will weigh compared to if it had been sired by another bull. Types of EPD’s An example of a set of EPDs looks like the following chart.29 API 104.68 3 MCE 4.11 CW 15.72 10 YW 84.2 .00 .32 BW 1. Typically the weaning weight is measured at the 205 day mark and the yearling weight is taken at the 365 day mark. Calving ease predicts the level of difficulty first time heifers will have during birth.4 Growth EPDs Growth EPDs measure the amount of weight a given offspring will gain due to the parent’s genetics.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.18 Milk 3.5 . Each EPD is compared to the breed average of a given year. Weaning and yearling weight measure the amount of weight an offspring has gained by the time it is weaned and at the one year mark.52 4 YG .4 .05 .do?reference=MEMO/06/334 Expected Progeny Difference Expected progeny differences (EPD) are an evaluation of an animal’s genetic worth as a parent.33 Marb . The number given by the EPD is the amount above or below this given average.75 WW 44. Each set of letters stands for a specific measurement with an accuracy reading and percent rank below it.32 15 Stay 18.31 MWW 25. . and is used in all EU member states as well as Iceland and Norway which are also covered by the Dublin Regulation. Milk EPDs give an estimate for the maternal portion of the weaning weight that determined by milk production of the dam.4 .htm • http://europa. The fingerprints of asylum seekers over the age of 14 have been routinely recorded on EURODAC since 2003. Birth weight measures how much above or below the breed’s average an offspring will gain due to the parent. These are determined by the percentage of unassisted births for that particular animal.eu/scadplus/leg/en/lvb/l33081.3 .09 .4 . High birth weight is the biggest cause of difficulty in calving. They are based on animal models which combine all information known about an individual and its relatives to create a genetic profile of the animal’s merits.
 Fat thickness determined the expected external and seam fat the animal will contain. These two factors contribute to the greatest waste in an animal and best way to reduce economic loss. A shorter gestation length is usually preferred because of this. by using animals with mid range EPDs. By using certain EPDs of an animal one can rapidly improve genetics of a herd. The closer an accuracy value is to 1. Carcass EPDs Carcass weight predicts what an animal’s total retail product will be compared to other animals of that breed. Through mathematical equations and computing power EPDs can be generated for use in both situations. environment. Fat thickness EPDs can help producers reduce this loss. Use and Accuracy EPDs are used in both scientific research and in typical farm usage. . The higher the percentile. as well as random Mendelian sampling. It does not however predict percent retail value. so as not to have too little or too much fat. The longer a calf is in utero the larger it will be at birth and the greater the chance of it having dystocia. The better the EPDs for a given bull. the higher chance its progeny will have a given characteristic. such as non genetic effects including feed. Stayability is an indicator EPD of longevity of a bull’s daughter in a cow herd. The EPDs can then be changed based on the values that are gathered. the closer most of the progeny will be to the EPD values listed. To determine how accurate EPDs are for an individual. and not in weight gained by an animal. The higher the EPD value the greater chance a cow will stay in a herd over six years and continue producing quality offspring. by using a combination of EPDs and DNA markers. Marbling EPDs are also important in the beef industry for predicting palatability in a beef carcass. Through EPDs certain phenotypes can be chosen for over others. It also gives the cow a larger postpartum interval between pregnancies.Expected Progeny Difference 60 Reproductive EPDs Scrotal circumference is an indicator of a bull’s fertility. they can help adjust the EPD according to the genotype and therefore produce a more accurate measurement. the more accurate the EPDs can be thought to be. In addition to the EPD and accuracy shown in a chart. They show the estimated USDA Quality grading System and marbling score an animal would receive if it were slaughtered. This shows what percentile the animal ranks for the given EPD. When new DNA markers are used. often the percent rank is also given. Other factors can affect the progeny as well. samples of all of a bull’s offspring are looked at and compared to what their expected outcome should have been. the better the EPD is for that characteristic. Use of EPSs and DNA markers can help when choosing certain traits over others. or the actual amount of sellable meat that can be produced from the carcass. This EDP is different in that it is measured in units of marbling score. Higher values indicate the presence of genes that will produce more intramuscular fat. In addition. The higher the accuracy rate. Accuracy is not an indicator of beneficial EPDs. Gestation length is an indicator of the probability of dystocia. weather. but rather shows how close the EPD is to the true genetic potential of the  animal. A larger circumference is preferred and is an indicator for his sons to have a larger scrotal circumference and his daughters to reach puberty sooner and therefore have calves sooner. EPDs can be made more accurate. especially for highly heritable traits such as marbling.
Rumph. pdf). ISSN:07916833.. An Inspection System may have several CVCs installed at any time. Each terminal. Virgina Tech. Several other countries implement their own EAC. that must be implemented along with the Basic Access Control which is mandatory in the EU. The specification selected for the EU e-passports was prepared by the German Federal Office for Information Security (BSI) in their technical report TR 3110  .B. et. The CVC allows the Inspection System to request one or more items of sensitive data. html  Janice M." Irish Journal of Agricultural & Food Research 47. Web. 28 Mar. 2011. and expected progeny differences in early weaned Simmental steers". pdf  C. http:/ / www. EBSCO. vt. Rincker. ansci.509 but card verifiable certificates. cornell. "Relationship among GeneSTAR marbling marker.http:/ / pubs. The mechanism is based on digital certificates. Extended Access Control Extended Access Control is a mechanism specified to allow only authorized Inspection system (system used to read e-passport) to read sensitive biometric data such as fingerprints from ePassports. and M. edu/ Other_Areas/ publications/ PDF/ FSA-3068. Scott P. uaex.Expected Progeny Difference 61 References  Understanding Expected Progeny Differences (EPDs). PhD. The CVCA is generated by each country and is typically valid for 6 months to 3 years. Academic Search Complete. (2006). Extension Animal Scientist. Greiner. Brett Barham. M. "Effect of beef sire expected progeny difference for carcass conformation on live animal muscularity scores and ultrasonic muscle and fat depths. between 1/2 month and 3 months. The European Commission in its decision No 2909 from the 28 June 2006 described what technology will be used to protect fingerprints in the Member States e-passports. EAC is mentioned in ICAO Doc 9303 but the description there is not very clear. Journal of Animal Science (84): 686-693. Extension Livestock Specialist at University of Arkansas. al. There are several different implementation of the mechanism.  Understanding and using Expected Progeny Differences (EPDs). Extended Access Control as defined by EU EAC . The deadline for the member states to start fingerprint enabled e-passport issuing was set to be 28 June 2009. The certificates are typically issued for medium amounts of time. and on carcass classification and composition of their progeny. ext.  Drennan. Pfzer Animal Genetics. . McGee.Chip Authentication Chip Authentication (CA) has two functionalities: • authenticate the chip and prove that the chip is genuine (not cloned). • establish strongly secured communication channel (stronger than the one established by BAC mechanism) EAC . edu/ nbcec/ producers/ sire_selection/ chapter9. is granted a Card Verifiable Certificate (CVC) from a Document Verifier (DV). "Interpretation and Use of Expected Progeny Differences (EPD)" (http:/ / www. The Document Verifier certificate is granted from the Country Verification Certificate Authority (CVCA). typically between 1 day to 1 month. intramuscular fat deposition. The certificate format is not X.Terminal Authentication Terminal Authentication (TA) is used to determine whether the Inspection System (IS) is allowed to read the sensitive data from the e-passport. J. such as data for Iris  recognition or Fingerprint recognition. PMID 16478961. or Inspection System. one for each country that allows it to read sensitive data. edu/ 400/ 400-804/ 400-804.2 (2008): 161-170. . The Inspection System's certificate is valid only for a short time period. These certificates can be for domestic or foreign Document Verifiers.
One of the impediments to developing improved face recognition is the lack of data. Each challenge problem consisted of a data set of facial images and a defined set of experiments. Retrieved 2010-03-25. There are three main contenders for improving face recognition algorithms: high resolution images.openscdp. Current face recognition systems are designed to work on relatively small still facial images.org/scripts/icao/eacpki. The FRGC is simultaneously pursuing and will assess the merit of all three techniques. The FRGC challenge problems include sufficient data to overcome this impediment.html) .000 to 20. The set of defined experiments assists researchers and developers in making progress on meeting the new performance goals.000 pixels on the face). bsi.  Kügler. Dennis. . Retrieved 2009-11-26. The FRGC was open to face recognition researchers and developers in companies.Open Source EAC-PKI for development and testing Face Recognition Grand Challenge The Face Recognition Grand Challenge (FRGC) was conducted in an effort to promote and advance face recognition technology. Overview The primary goal of the FRGC was to promote and advance face recognition technology designed to support existing face recognition efforts in the U. The FRGC will facilitate the development of new algorithms that take advantage of the . In the FRGC.S. pdf) (PDF).Extended Access Control 62 External references  "Advanced Security Mechanisms for Machine Readable Travel Documents – Extended Access Control (EAC)" (https:/ / www. bund. interoptest-berlin. Government. high resolution images consist of facial images with 250 pixels between the centers of the eyes on average. FRGC ran from May 2004 to March 2006. FRGC developed new face recognition techniques and prototype systems while increasing performance by an order of magnitude. and new preprocessing techniques. . de/ cae/ servlet/ contentblob/ 532066/ publicationFile/ 44792/ TR-03110_v202_pdf) (PDF). "Extended Access Control: Infrastructure and Protocol" (http:/ / www. External links • OpenSCDP. In current images there are 40 to 60 pixels between the centers of the eyes (10. and research institutions. The FRGC consisted of progressively difficult challenge problems. three-dimensional (3D) face recognition.org (http://www. de/ pdf/ Kuegler_-_Extended_Access_Control. The traditional method for measuring the size of a face is the number of pixels between the centers of the eyes. academia.
e. and one three-dimensional image. The controlled images were taken in a studio setting. hallways.000 recordings divided into training and validation partitions. an XML based framework for describing and documenting computational experiments. and documentation of the experiment format in a common format. These advances have led to the development of new computer algorithms that can automatically correct for lighting and pose changes in facial imagery. Researchers and developers can develop new algorithms and systems that meet the FRGC goals. 3D face recognition has the potential to improve performance under these conditions. from processing the raw images to producing Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROCs). This is the first time that a computational-experimental environment has supported a challenge problem in face recognition or biometrics. The development of the new algorithms and systems is facilitated by the FRGC challenge problems. The FRGC data set contains 50. Because the shape of faces is not affected by changes in lighting or pose.000 recordings. In the last couple years there have been advances in computer graphics and computer vision on modeling lighting and pose changes in facial imagery. The third new aspect is the infrastructure. two uncontrolled still images. changes in lighting (illumination) and pose of the face reduce performance. The BEE will allow the description and distribution of experiments in a common format.Face Recognition Grand Challenge additional information inherent in high resolution images. it is possible to run experiments 1 through 4. In current face recognition systems. These new algorithms work by preprocessing a facial image to correct for lighting and pose prior to being processed through a face recognition system. The FRGC improved the capabilities of automatic face recognition systems through experimentation with clearly stated goals and challenge problems. The first is the FRGC data set. The second aspect is the complexity of the FRGC. are full frontal facial images taken under two lighting conditions and with two facial expressions (smiling and neutral). The validation partition consists of data from 4. A subject session is the set of all images of a person taken each time a person's biometric data is collected and consists of four controlled still images. The BEE distribution includes all the data sets for performing and scoring the six experiments. Previous face recognition data sets have been restricted to still images. analysis and presentation of the raw results in a common format. .. The second part is the FRGC BEE. 63 Structure of the Face Recognition Grand Challenge The FRGC is structured around challenge problems that are designed to challenge researchers to meet the FRGC performance goal.g. The FRGC Data Set The FRGC data distribution consists of three parts. The first aspect is the size of the FRGC in terms of data. With all three components. The third part is a set of baseline algorithms for experiments 1 through 4. The uncontrolled images were taken in varying illumination conditions.003 subject sessions. The training partition is designed for training algorithms and the validation partition is for assessing performance of an approach in a laboratory setting. The FRGC will consist of three modes: • high resolution still images • 3D images • multi-images of a person. Three-dimensional (3D) face recognition algorithms identify faces from the 3D shape of a person's face. The preprocessing portion of the FRGC will measure the impact of new preprocessing algorithms on recognition performance. The data for FRGC consists of 50. There are three aspects of the FRGC that will be new to the face recognition community. recording of the raw results of an experiment in a common format. The infrastructure for FRGC will be provided by the Biometric Experimentation Environment (BEE).
In experiment 1. the gallery consists of a single controlled still image. the gallery and probe set consist of 3D images of a person. The 3D images were acquired by a Minolta Vivid 900/910 series sensor1. The FRGC distribution consists of six experiments. 64 Sponsors • • • • • Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Agency (IARPA) Department of Homeland Security (DHS) FBI Criminal Justice Information Services Division Technical Support Working Group (TSWG) National Institute of Justice References This article incorporates public domain material from the National Institute of Standards and Technology document "NIST Face Recognition Grand Challenge" . Experiments 5 and 6 examine comparing 3D and 2D images. Experiment 3 measures the performance of 3D face recognition. The 3D image was taken under controlled illumination conditions. In experiment 6. In experiment 2. the gallery consists of 3D images. In experiment 4. a probe now consists of four images of a person. Experiment 1 is the control experiment. the probe set consists of a single controlled still. smiling and neutral. In experiment 3. For example. Experiment 4 measures recognition performance from uncontrolled images. the probe set consists of a single uncontrolled still. In experiment 5. The 3D images consist of both a range and a texture image. the gallery consists of a single controlled still image of a person and each probe consists of a single controlled still image. each biometric sample consists of the four controlled images of a person taken in a subject session. In both experiments. and the probe set consists of a single uncontrolled still image. External links • • • • • • • • • • MBGC Website  MBGC Blog  FRGC Website  FRVT Website  ICE Website  National Institute of Standards and Technology  Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Agency  Department of Homeland Security  FBI Criminal Justice Information Services Division  Technical Support Working Group (TSWG)  .Face Recognition Grand Challenge atriums. Experiment 2 studies the effect of using multiple still images of a person on performance. Likewise. Each set of uncontrolled images contains two expressions. or outside. the gallery is composed of four images of each person where all the images are taken in the same subject session.
gov/ Facial Recognition Vendor Test 2006 The Face Recognition Vendor Test (FRVT) 2006 was part of a series of large scale independent evaluations for face recognition systems. The FRGC was conducted from May 2004 through March 2006. gov  http:/ / www. Government. nist. A standard dataset and test methodology was employed so that all participants were evenly evaluated. and FRVT 2002. The test environment was called the Biometric Experimentation Environment (BEE). tswg. the FRVT 2006 measured performance with sequestered data (data not previously seen by the researchers or developers). gov/ frvt/ frvt2006/ frvt2006. gov/ hq/ cjisd/ cjis. FRGC data is still available to face recognition researchers. It allowed the experimenter to focus on the experiment by simplifying test data management. htm  http:/ / www. nist.S. org/  http:/ / face. and the processing of results. experiment configuration. iarpa. The government provided both the test data and the test environment to participants. The FRGC was a separate algorithm development project designed to promote and advance face recognition technology that supports existing face recognition efforts in the U. please follow directions found on the "FRGC Webpage. potential participants must sign the required licenses and follow FRGC data release rules. gov/ frgc/  http:/ / face. FRVT 2006 evaluated performance on: • • • • High resolution still imagery (5 to 6 mega-pixels) 3D facial scans Multi-sample still facial imagery Pre-processing algorithms that compensate for pose and illumination To guarantee an accurate assessment. The FRVT 2006 was sponsored by multiple U. FRVT 2000. One of the objectives of the FRGC was to develop face recognition algorithms capable of performance an order of magnitude better than FRVT 2002. shtm  http:/ / www. Overview The primary goal of the FRVT 2006 was to measure progress of prototype systems/algorithms and commercial face recognition systems since FRVT 2002. nist. gov/ mbgc/  http:/ / mbgc.Face Recognition Grand Challenge 65 References  http:/ / face. One of the goals of the FRVT 2006 was to independently determine if the objectives of the Face Recognition Grand Challenge (FRGC) were achieved. nist. Previous evaluations in the series were the FERET. gov/ ice/  http:/ / nist." .S. gov/ index. The BEE was the FRVT 2006 infrastructure. To request a FRGC data set. dhs. fbi. To obtain FRGC data. htm  http:/ / iris. bee-biometrics. gov  http:/ / www. Government agencies and was conducted and managed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).
Inc. with many submitting multiple algorithms. Carnegie Mellon University Cognitec Systems GmbH Diamond Information Systems (DIS) Geometrix. Inc. Guardia Identix. only those who successfully completed the large-scale tests are documented in this report. However. Neven Vision New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT) Nivis. Inc. Center for Information Science PeopleSpot Inc.Facial Recognition Vendor Test 2006 66 FRVT 2006 Protocol FRVT 2006 Protocol FRVT 2006 Executable Calling Signatures FRVT 2006 Executable Naming Convention FRVT 2006 Results The FRVT 2006 large-scale results are available in the combined FRVT 2006 and ICE 2006 Large-Scale Results evaluation report. Rafael Armament Development Authority Ltd. We received algorithms from 22 organizations in 10 different countries. The following organizations submitted algorithms to be evaluated: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Animetrics. SAGEM SA Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology (SAIT) Tsinghua University Tili Technology Limited Toshiba Corporation University of Houston Viisage Sponsors • • • • • Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Agency (IARPA) Department of Homeland Security (DHS) FBI Criminal Justice Information Services Division Technical Support Working Group (TSWG) National Institute of Justice . LLC Old Dominion University Panvista Limited Peking University.
DNA samples were taken from members of the extended family. she was requested to provide DNA evidence that Townsend was the father of her children. the defining characteristic of a chimera. As time came for her to give birth to her third child. 52-year old Boston teacher Karen Keegan was in need of a kidney transplant. who arranged further testing. They also found that. when a second set of DNA was found in other  tissues. This witness was to ensure that blood samples were immediately taken from both the child and Fairchild. a combination of two separate sets of cell lines with two separate sets of chromosomes. the DNA tests indicated that she was not their mother. In 1998. when she and the father of her children. it was discovered that two of them did not match her DNA to the extent that her biological children should. Jamie Townsend. Two weeks later. Later testing showed that Keegan was a chimera. Hospital records of her prior births were disregarded. and realised that Fairchild's case might also be caused by chimerism. A breakthrough came when a lawyer for the prosecution found an article in the New England Journal of Medicine about a similar case that had happened in Boston. The DNA for Fairchild's children matched that of Fairchild's mother to the extent expected of a grandmother. When her three adult sons were tested for suitability as donors. Prosecutors called for her two children to be taken into care. gov/ nij/ Lydia Fairchild Lydia Fairchild and her children are the subjects of a documentary called The Twin Inside Me (also known as "I Am My Own Twin"). While the results showed Townsend was certainly the father of the children. Fairchild was carrying two different sets of DNA. This DNA presumably came from a different embryo from the one that gave rise to the rest of her tissues. DNA tests indicated that she was not the mother of that child either. Lydia Fairchild was pregnant with her third child. This resulted in Fairchild being taken to court for fraud for claiming benefit for other people's children or taking part in a surrogacy scam. Fairchild's prosecutors suggested this possibility to her lawyers. ojp. although the DNA in Fairchild's skin and hair did not match her children's. . When Fairchild applied for welfare support in 2002.Facial Recognition Vendor Test 2006 67 External links • • • • • • • • • • • MBGC Wedsite  MBGC Blog  FRGC Website  FRVT Website  ICE Website  National Institute of Standards and Technology  Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Agency  Department of Homeland Security  FBI Criminal Justice Information Services Division  Technical Support Working Group (TSWG)  National Institute of Justice  References  http:/ / www. As in Keegan's case. the judge ordered a witness be present at the birth. the DNA from a cervical smear test did match. separated. usdoj.
"The mother with three children who don't share her DNA . rcn. ultranet/ BiologyPages/ M/ Mosaics. PMID 12015394.org/templates/story/story. with Dr.php) Article on Lydia's case • The Stranger Within (http://www.rcn. The goals of this effort were to port FERET evaluated algorithms to real-time experimental/demonstration systems. After the successful conclusion of phase 2. org/ cgi/ content/ short/ 346/ 20/ 1545?query=TOC).npr. html#TetragameticHuman) Discussion on Tetragametic Humans • DNA Tests Shed Light on 'Hybrid Humans' (http://www. The program consisted of three major elements: • Sponsoring research • Collecting the FERET database • Performing the FERET evaluations The goal of the sponsored research was to develop face recognition algorithms. London.and why her astonishing story will throw doubt on the 'foolproof' evidence in thousands of court cases". nejm.ma.com/Primetime/story?id=2315693) Article on Lydia • Kids' DNA Tested.  "Genetic Mosaics: A Tetragametic Human" (http:/ / users. doi:10. html#TetragameticHuman) References • ABC News: She's Her Own Twin (http://abcnews. (16 May 2002). Archived from the original (http:/ / www. 18–19. The goals of the first phase were to establish the viability of automatic face recognition algorithms and to establish a performance baseline against which to measure future progress. com/ jkimball. five. org/ web/ 20060526105634/ http:/ / www. php?storyId=1392149) NPR recording.html) Article on Karen Keegan's case • Genetic Mosaics (http://users. Parent Informed The DNA Is Not A Match (http://ace. Neng.katewerk. the DoD Counterdrug Technology Development Program Office initiated the FERET demonstration effort. P. 2006. Army Research Laboratory. Maryland. 2006). each one year in length.nu/archives/118606. "Disputed Maternity Leading to Identification of Tetragametic Chimerism" (http:/ / content. serving as technical agent. Initially.1056/NEJMoa013452. five. Adelphi.mu. and law enforcement personnel in the performance of their duties. tv/ programmes/ extraordinarypeople/ twininside/ ). FERET (facial recognition technology) The US Department of Defense (DoD) Counterdrug Technology Development Program Office sponsored the Face Recognition Technology (FERET) program. ma. archive.com/jkimball.ultranet/BiologyPages/M/Mosaics. Jonathon Phillips. intelligence.go. pp. Eleanor (March 5. History The FERET program started in September 1993. New England Journal of Medicine 346 (20): 1545–1552. The goals of phases 2 and 3 were to further develop face recognition technology. .com/chimera. The Mail on Sunday. The FERET database was collected to support the sponsored research and the FERET evaluations. The FERET evaluations were performed to measure progress in algorithm development and identify future research directions. • Mayne. et al. TV5. . the FERET program consisted of three phases. tv/ programmes/ extraordinarypeople/ twininside/ ) on May 26. The goal of the FERET program was to develop automatic face recognition capabilities that could be employed to assist security. .  Yu. .Lydia Fairchild 68 Notes  "The Twin Inside Me: Extraordinary People" (http:/ / web.
and all images were full frontal face views. Dr. The results of this study were presented in the paper "Comparison of visible and infrared imagery for face recognition" by J. The FERET database was collected in 15 sessions between August 1993 and July 1996. For some individuals. over two years had elapsed between their first and last sittings. Twenty-four proposals were received and evaluated jointly by DoD and law enforcement personnel. Alex Pentland Rutgers University. • Christoph von der Malsburg of the University of Southern California (USC) and colleagues used a database of ~100 images that were of controlled size and illumination but did include some head rotation. there was no way to accurately evaluate or compare facial recognition algorithms. Gale Gordon University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) and University of Illinois at Urbana-Champagne. This time lapse was important because it enabled researchers to study. • Joseph Wilder of Rutgers University assembled a database of ~250 individuals collected under similarly controlled conditions. The winning proposals were chosen based on their advanced ideas and differing approaches. Joseph Wilder The Analytic Science Company (TASC). Phillips. Five algorithm development contracts were awarded. To maintain a degree of consistency throughout the database.126 images that includes 1199 individuals and 365 duplicate sets of images. MIT.FERET (facial recognition technology) 69 FERET-Sponsored Algorithm Development Research The FERET program was initiated with a broad agency announcement (BAA). J. all images had the eyes in a registered location. for the first . Wechsler and Dr. The database collection was a collaborative effort between Dr. P. The organizations and principal investigators selected were: • • • • Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Most of the databases were small and consisted of images of less than 50 individuals. Wiener in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition. Phillips. Rutgers' Phase 2 effort compared and assessed the relative merits of long-wave infrared (thermal) and visible imagery for face recognition and detection. The emphasis of the TASC effort was to estimate the three-dimensional shape of a face from motion and then recognize a face based on its shape. The TASC effort extended their approach to developing an algorithm for recognizing faces from video. with some subjects being photographed multiple times. Wilder. Harry Wechsler at George Mason University was selected to direct the collection of this database. Notable exceptions were databases collected by three primary researchers: • Alex Pentland of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) assembled a database of ~7500 images that had been collected in a highly controlled environment with controlled illumination. The FERET program set out to establish a large database of facial images that was gathered independently from the algorithm developers. C. Christoph von der Malsburg For phase 2. A duplicate set is a second set of images of a person already in the database and was usually taken on a different day. Before the start of the FERET program. and S. Various researchers collected their own databases for the problems they were investigating. Lewis Sadler and Thomas Huang • University of Southern California (USC). The database contains 1564 sets of images for a total of 14. Jiang. the same physical setup was used in each photography session. The images were collected in a semi-controlled environment. there was some minor variation in images collected on different dates. 1996. pages 182-187. Because the equipment had to be reassembled for each session. The FERET Database A standard database of face imagery was essential to the success of the FERET program. both to supply standard imagery to the algorithm developers and to supply a sufficient number of images to allow testing of these algorithms. TASC. and USC were selected to continue development of their algorithms. The MIT and USC teams continued work on developing face recognition algorithms from still images.
(2) the gallery and probe images of a person were taken on different days. The new protocol design allowed the determination of performance scores for multiple galleries and probe sets. Other organizations were invited to participate in the FERET evaluations. but received no funding from the FERET program to do so. not only on the basis of the performance of an individual algorithm. See the table below for dates and groups evaluated. each with a different gallery and probe set. we designed a new evaluation protocol which required algorithms to match a set of 3323 images against a set of 3816 images. scoring methods. the Mar95 evaluation. and to evaluate these algorithms on larger galleries (817 individuals). Rutgers University (Sep96 evaluation only). These organizations were Excalibur Corp. Only a few of these algorithms reported results on images utilizing a common database. The test consisted of three subtests. changes in a subject’s appearance that occur over a year. An added emphasis of this evaluation was on probe sets that contained duplicate images. Three sets of evaluations were performed. Results reported in the literature did not provide a direct comparison among algorithms because each researcher reported results using different assumptions. The FERET evaluations allowed the computer vision community to assess overall strengths and weaknesses in the field. Results were reported for the following cases: (1) the gallery and probe images of a person were taken on the same day under the same lighting conditions. The first subtest examined the ability of algorithms to recognize faces from a gallery of 316 individuals. but with different lighting conditions.6 million matches. there was no method to make informed comparisons among various algorithms.FERET (facial recognition technology) time. The independently administered FERET evaluations allowed for a direct quantitative assessment of the relative strengths and weaknesses of different approaches. . but in addition on the aggregate performance of all algorithms tested. where a duplicate image was defined as an image of a person whose corresponding gallery image was taken on a different date. with the last two evaluations being administered multiple times. 70 The FERET Evaluations Before the FERET database was created. The second FERET evaluation took place in March 1995. As a consequence. and images. Thus. Algorithms developed under FERET-funding were required to participate in the FERET evaluations. The third. which measured how well an algorithm rejects faces not in the gallery. The third subtest baselined the effects of pose changes on performance. Rockefeller University. the Aug94 evaluation. a large number of papers reported outstanding recognition results (usually >95% correct recognition) on limited-size databases (usually <50 individuals). referred to as the Sep96 FERET evaluation. and final. Through this type of assessment. algorithms had to perform approximately 12. The goal was to measure progress since the initial FERET evaluation. For the Sept96 evaluation. The first FERET evaluation took place in August 1994. The second subtest was the false-alarm test. and University of Maryland. There were two versions of the September 1996 evaluation. and identify faces from a database. the community learned in an unbiased and open manner of the important technical problems that needed to be addressed. The FERET database made it possible for researchers to develop algorithms on a common database and to report results in the literature using this database. and perform a more detailed performance analysis. normalize. and (4) the gallery and probe images of a person were taken on the same day. Michigan State University. The first tested partially automatic algorithms by providing the images with the coordinates of the center of the eyes. (3) the gallery and probe images of a person were taken over a year apart. let alone met the desirable goal of being evaluated on a standard testing protocol that included separate training and testing sets. More importantly. the FERET database and evaluations clarified the state of the art in face recognition and pointed out general directions for future research. and was designed to measure performance on algorithms that could automatically locate. The second tested fully automatic algorithms by providing the images only. FERET evaluations took place in September 1996.
This evaluation methodology has been incorporated into the UK Biometrics Working Group in their "Best Practices in Testing Performance of Biometrics Devices" [Download here]. J.5 million. L. The development portion of the FERET database has been distributed to over 100 groups outside the original FERET program. Martin. to appear in Perception. and most recognized. February. As clearly shown. The DoD Counterdrug Technology Development Program Office still receives requests for access to the FERET database. which contains 14. Phillips. 2000. 56–63.FERET (facial recognition technology) Additionally. Moon and P. 71 Summary The DoD Counterdrug Technology Development Program Office began the Face Recognition (FERET) program in 1993 and sponsored it through its completion in 1998. part of the FERET program was the FERET evaluations that compared the abilities of facial recognition algorithms using the FERET database.” by P. First was sponsoring research that advanced facial recognition from theory to working laboratory algorithms. The FERET program consisted of three major elements. (NISTIR) [Available soon]. which is currently maintained at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Total funding for the program was in excess of $6. pp. J.) [Download here]. Przybocki in IEEE Computer. Phillips. Wilson. Second was the collection and distribution of the FERET database. the DoD Counterdrug Technology Development Program takes great pride on the imprint it has left on the biometrics community. the FERET program continues to have a profound effect on the facial recognition community today. The test methods used in the FERET evaluations form the foundation of an overall biometric evaluation methodology described in “An Introduction to Evaluating Biometric Systems. The FERET program was a highly successful effort that provided direction and credibility to the facial recognition community. We are just now beginning to uncover how important the program was during the infancy of facial recognition technology. The final.126 facial images of 1199 individuals. the designers of the evaluations implemented two face recognition algorithms (PCA and Correlation) to provide a baseline performance. (Special issue on biometrics. A. C. External links • • • • • • • • FERET Website  FERET NIST Website  MBGC Website  MBGC Blog  FRGC Website  FRVT Website  ICE Website  National Institute of Standards and Technology  . a detailed study of PCA-based recognition algorithms was performed and the results are in “Computational and Performance Aspects of PCA-based Face Recognition Algorithms” by H. Many of the algorithms that took part in FERET form the foundation of today's commercial systems. and even greater pride that the FERET ideals and evaluation methods are being used by current programs both inside the Program Office and by other Government agencies. As FERET nears the end of its transition from active program to a historical program. and M. To provide a greater understanding of face recognition algorithms.
These epidermal ridges serve to amplify vibrations triggered. In a wider use of the term. gov/ frvt/ feret/ feret. determining whether two friction ridge impressions are likely to have originated from the same finger or palm (or toe or sole). htm/  http:/ / face. A print from the foot can also leave an impression of friction ridges. gov/ Fingerprint A fingerprint in its narrow sense is an impression left by the friction ridges of a human finger. involves an expert. The flexibility of friction ridge skin means that no two finger or palm prints are ever exactly alike in every detail. Fingerprint identification. Latent prints . also referred to as individualization. or an expert computer system operating under threshold scoring rules. from human fingers. as seen here. typically a white card. frvt. Fingerprint records normally contain impressions from the pad on the last joint of fingers and thumbs. A "latent print" is the chance recording of friction ridges deposited on the surface of an object or a wall. Closeup of the palm of the hand and the base of several fingers. org/ FERET/ default. better transmitting the signals to sensory nerves involved in fine texture perception. Fingerprints used for identification Fingerprint identification. An intentional recording of friction ridges is usually made with black printer's ink rolled across a contrasting white background. debris can gather between the ridges. or hand print identification. These ridges also assist in gripping rough surfaces. A friction ridge is a raised portion of the epidermis on the fingers and toes (digits). fingerprints are the traces of an impression from the friction ridges of any part of a human hand. to determine whether these impressions could structure. for example. consisting of one or more connected ridge units of friction ridge skin. although fingerprint cards also typically record portions of lower joint areas of the fingers. when fingertips brush across an uneven surface. is the process of comparing two instances of friction ridge skin impressions (see Minutiae). even two impressions recorded immediately after each other from the same hand. Impressions of fingerprints may be left behind on a surface by the natural secretions of sweat from the eccrine glands that are present in friction ridge skin. htm/  http:/ / nist. Friction ridges can also be recorded digitally using a technique called Live Scan. or they may be made by ink or other substances transferred from the peaks of friction ridges on the skin to a relatively smooth surface such as a fingerprint card. have come from the same individual. nist. the palm of the hand or the sole of the foot. These are sometimes known as "epidermal ridges" which are caused by the underlying interface between the dermal papillae of the dermis and the interpapillary (rete) pegs of the epidermis.FERET (facial recognition technology) 72 References  http:/ / www. the palm of The fingerprints created by that friction ridge the hand or even toes. as well as smooth wet surfaces. known as dactyloscopy.
the roughness of the surface and the substance deposited are just some of the various factors which can cause a latent print to appear differently from any known recording of the same friction ridges. paint or some other form of dirt. blood. or any or all of these in combination. Latent prints are often fragmentary and require chemical methods. For these reasons. oil. or alternative light sources in order to be made clear. An attempt to preserve the actual print is always made for later presentation in court. grease. whereas "patent prints" or "plastic prints" are viewable with the un-aided eye. material that is on the friction ridges such as perspiration. will be described below. putty removed from the perimeter of window panes and thick grease deposits on car parts. in modern usage for forensic science the term latent prints means any chance or accidental impression left by friction ridge skin on a surface.Fingerprint are invisible to the naked eye. the conditions surrounding every instance of friction ridge deposition are unique and never duplicated. regardless of whether it is visible or invisible at the time of deposition. 73 Fingerprint types Exemplar prints Exemplar prints. and much. Latent prints Although the word latent means hidden or invisible. will be transferred to the surface. During criminal arrests. the material from which the surface is made. chemical and physical processing techniques permit visualization of invisible latent print residues whether they are from natural sweat on the skin or from a contaminant such as motor oil. Such prints are already visible and need no enhancement. Patent prints can be left on a surface by materials such as ink. a set of exemplar prints will normally include one print taken from each finger that has been rolled from one edge of the nail to the other. Pliability of the skin.” Patent prints Patent prints are chance friction ridge impressions which are obvious to the human eye and which have been caused by the transfer of foreign material from a finger onto a surface. Exemplar prints can be collected using Live Scan or by using ink on paper cards. Factors which affect the quality of friction ridge impressions are numerous. distorted. whether for purposes of enrollment in a system or when under arrest for a suspected criminal offense. Sometimes an ordinary bright flashlight will make a latent print visible. Commonly encountered examples are melted candle wax. overlapped by other prints from the same or from different individuals. or blood. Latent prints may exhibit only a small portion of the surface of a finger and this may be smudged. powder. latent prints usually present an “inevitable source of error in making comparisons. is the name given to fingerprints deliberately collected from a subject. less content. Although very few criminals would be careless enough to leave their prints in a lump of wet clay. deposition pressure. this would make a perfect plastic  print. dirt. Because they are already visible and have no need of enhancement they are generally photographed rather than being lifted in the way that latent prints are. such as arch. ink. Plastic prints A plastic print is a friction ridge impression left in a material that retains the shape of the ridge detail. and plain impressions of each thumb. and there are many techniques used to do this. Electronic. For this reason. Some obvious examples would be impressions from flour and wet clay. When friction ridges come into contact with a surface that will take a print.” as they generally “contain less clarity. plain (or slap) impressions of each of the four fingers of each hand. Indeed. and less undistorted information than a fingerprint taken under controlled conditions. slippage. much less detail compared to the actual patterns of ridges and grooves of a finger. but investigators must not overlook the potential that invisible latent prints deposited by accomplices may also be on . or known prints. loop and whorl. ink or blood. fingerprint examiners are required to undergo extensive training. The different types of fingerprint patterns.
Fingerprint such surfaces. In the Henry system of classification. Using this system reduces the number of prints that the print in question needs to be compared to. Whorls may also have sub-group classifications including plain whorls. r for ring finger and p(pinky) for little finger. accidental whorls. to exclude any possibility of division by zero. and into loops that may be radial or ulnar. in which R stands for right. m for middle finger. peacock's eye. the third a 4. The fractions are as follows: Ri/Rt + Rr/Rm + Lt/Rp + Lm/Li + Lp/Lr. if the right ring finger and the left index finger have whorls. the second an 8. The numbers assigned to each print are based on whether or not they are whorls. After photographically recording such prints. 74 Classifying fingerprints Before computerisation replaced manual filing systems in large fingerprint operations. Lastly. composite. The system used by most experts. and the calculation: (0 + 8 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 1)/(0 + 0 + 0 + 2 + 0 + 1) = 9/3 = 3. the above set of prints would only need to be compared to other sets of fingerprints with a value of 3. and the Henry Classification System. and those images included parts of his hands in enough detail for police to be able to identify fingerprint patterns. thus permitting filing and retrieval of paper records in large collections based on friction ridge patterns alone. the fourth a 2. i for index finger. is similar to the Henry System of Classification. and the Henry system was developed in India and implemented in most English-speaking countries. attempts should be made to develop other non-plastic impressions deposited from sweat or other contaminates. using the scheme: (Ri + Rr + Lt + Lm + Lp)/(Rt + Rm + Rp + Li + Lr) and a 1 is added to both top and bottom. It consists of five fractions. A whorl in the first fraction is given a 16. and 0 to the last fraction. which constitute 60–65%. the numbers in the numerator and denominator are added up. Arch . the Vucetich system (developed by a Croatian-born Buenos Aires Police Officer) was developed in Argentina and implemented throughout South America. Of these systems. into plain arches or tented arches. For example. manual fingerprint classification systems were used to categorize fingerprints based on general ridge formations (such as the presence or absence of circular patterns on various fingers). Whorl and Arch. there are three basic fingerprint patterns: Loop. There are also more complex classification systems that break down patterns even further. the fractions would look like this: 0/0 + 8/0 + 0/0 + 0/2 + 0/0 + 1/1. depending on the side of the hand toward which the tail points. although complex. the Juan Vucetich system. For example. Electronic recording There has been a newspaper report of a man selling stolen watches sending images of them on a mobile phone. The most popular ten-print classification systems include the Roscher system. Arches and loops are assingned values of 0. 30–35% and 5% of all fingerprints respectively. the Roscher system was developed in Germany and implemented in both Germany and Japan. t for thumb. and central pocket loop whorls. double loop whorls. L for left.
Friction ridge skin protected inside flight boots tends to survive the trauma of a plane crash (and accompanying fire) better than fingers. the only identifiable ridge detail that can be seen on a baby's foot is from the large toe or adjacent to the large toe. Often. are still commonly recorded in hospitals to assist in verifying the identity of infants.Fingerprint 75 Loop (Right Loop) Whorl Arch (Tented Arch) Footprints Friction ridge skin present on the soles of the feet and toes (plantar surfaces) is as unique in its ridge detail as are the fingers and palms (palmar surfaces). When recovered at crime scenes or on items of evidence. The footprints of infants. It is not uncommon for military records of flight personnel to include bare foot inked impressions. along with the thumb or index finger prints of mothers. Footprint (toe and sole friction ridge skin) evidence has been admitted in courts in the United States since 1934. . sole and toe impressions can be used in the same manner as finger and palm prints to effect identifications.
76 Fingerprint capture and detection Livescan devices Fingerprint image acquisition is considered to be the most critical step in an automated fingerprint authentication system. as it determines the final fingerprint image quality.Fingerprint Even though the US Armed Forces DNA Identification Laboratory (AFDIL). When friction ridge skin is not available from deceased military personnel. There are different types of fingerprint readers on the market. stored refrigerated DNA samples from all active duty and reserve personnel. DNA and dental records are used to confirm identity. A fingerprint scanner Fingerprint being scanned . as of 2010. almost all casualty identifications are effected using fingerprints from military ID card records (live scan fingerprints are recorded at the time such cards are issued). which has a drastic effect on the overall system performance. but the basic idea behind each is to measure the physical difference between ridges and valleys.
usually a powder or chemical reagent. ultrasonic. so-called papillary ridges. The skin on the palmar surface of the hands and feet forms ridges. the fingerprint can be imaged at a resolution high enough to record all the necessary detail. The representation of the same fingerprint changes every time the finger is placed on the sensor plate. for example. increasing the complexity of any attempt to match fingerprints. Developing agents depend on the presence of organic materials or inorganic salts for their effectiveness. can be complex and may depend. It is generally necessary to use a ‘developer’. therefore. Fingerprints are typically formed from the aqueous-based secretions of the eccrine glands of the fingers and palms with additional material from sebaceous glands primarily from the forehead. The procedure for capturing a fingerprint using a sensor consists of rolling or touching with the finger onto a sensing area. noise and inconsistencies in the captured fingerprint image. the results of the imaging are different and uncontrollable. By modelling the distance between neighboring points. The quantity and direction of the pressure applied by the user. although the water deposited may also take a key role. the elastic skin deforms. which according to the physical principle in use (optical. so that they can be photographed. the skin conditions and the projection of an irregular 3D A fingerprint reader on a laptop object (the finger) onto a 2D flat plane introduce distortions. The basis of the traditional fingerprinting technique is simple. The best way to render latent fingerprints visible. 3D fingerprint 77  Latent fingerprint detection Since the late nineteenth century. impairing the system performance and consequently. on the type of surfaces on which they have been left. irreproducible and non-uniform irregularities in the image. In order to overcome these problems. fingerprint identification methods have been used by police agencies around the world to identify suspected criminals as well as the victims of crime. capacitive or thermal) captures the difference between valleys and ridges. The resulting latent fingerprints consist usually of a substantial proportion of water with small traces of amino acids and chlorides . 3D fingerprint scanners take a digital approach to the cumbersome analog process of pressing or rolling the finger. in patterns that are unique to each individual and which do not change over time. non-contact or touchless 3D fingerprint scanners have been developed . to produce a high degree of visual contrast between the ridge patterns and the surface on which a fingerprint has been deposited.Fingerprint All the proposed methods can be grouped into two major families: solid-state fingerprint readers and optical fingerprint readers. as of 2010. These problems result in inconsistent. Even identical twins (who share their DNA) do not have identical fingerprints. When a finger touches or rolls onto a surface.  Acquiring detailed 3D information. This latter contamination results from the common human behaviors of touching the face and hair. During each acquisition. limiting the widespread use of this biometric technology.
such as the warped cylindrical surface of fired cartridge cases. These measurements can then be mapped to produce an image of the fingerprint. which measures the voltage. usually involving chemicals. This technique involves the use of an instrument called a scanning Kelvin probe (SKP). show great sensitivity and are used operationally. can evaporate quite quickly and may have mostly gone after 24 hours. when the temperature may reach as high as 500°C. As of 2010. at pre-set intervals over the surface of an object on which a fingerprint may have been deposited. work apparently by water-based catalysis and polymer growth. Australia and Israel and leads the way in the development. for example by rubbing with a tissue. for example ninhydrin or diazafluorenone reacting with amino acids. The most comprehensive manual of the operational methods of fingerprint enhancement is published by the UK Home Office Scientific Development Branch and is used widely around the world. as of 2010. Following work on the use of argon ion lasers for fingerprint detection. Some of these techniques. such as occurs when a gun is fired or a terrorist bomb is detonated. some of the more advanced crime scene investigation services from around the world were. sebaceous component which contains a number of fatty acids and triglycerides. such as ninhydrin. primarily for the enhancement of chemically-developed fingerprints. One problem for the early twenty-first century is the fact that the organic component of any deposited material is readily destroyed by heat. With advances in these more sophisticated techniques. many of these are only of academic interest and there are only around 20 really effective methods which are currently in use in the more advanced fingerprint laboratories around the world. Some fingerprint reagents are specific. or electrical potential. Laboratory techniques Although there are hundreds of reported techniques for fingerprint detection. Detection of a small proportion of reactive organic substances such as urea and amino acids is far from easy. A technique has been developed that enables fingerprints to be visualised on metallic and electrically conductive surfaces without the need to develop the prints first. steel and aluminum. whilst initially sometimes making up over 90% of the weight of the fingerprint. Vacuum metal deposition using gold and zinc has been shown to be non-specific. the US. but can detect fat layers as thin as one molecule. The reason for this is that the differences in potential that are the basis of the visualisation are caused by the interaction of inorganic salts in the fingerprint deposit and the metal surface and 78 . A higher resolution image can be obtained by increasing the number of points sampled. Others such as ethyl cyanoacrylate polymerisation. does not necessarily result in the loss of all fingerprint information from that surface. reporting that 50% or more of the fingerprints recovered from a crime scene had been identified as a result of laboratory-based techniques. Fingerprints at a crime scene may be detected by simple powders. Encouragingly. assessment and implementation of new techniques for operational fingerprint detection. such as the application of fine powders. a wide range of fluorescence techniques have been introduced.Fingerprint mixed with a fatty. More complex techniques. work by adhesion to sebaceous deposits and possibly aqueous deposits in the case of fresh fingerprints. however. consists of members of the leading fingerprint research groups from Europe. this technique had been shown to work effectively on a wide range of forensically important metal surfaces including iron. although the inherent fluorescence of some latent fingerprints may also be detected. can be applied in specialist laboratories to appropriate articles removed from a crime scene. the non-volatile inorganic component of eccrine secretion has been shown to remain intact even when exposed to temperatures as high as 600°C. or by chemicals applied in situ. More mundane methods. The aqueous component of a fingerprint. Canada. diazafluorenone and vacuum metal deposition. While initial experiments were performed on flat surfaces. Research The International Fingerprint Research Group (IFRG) which meets biennially. the technique has been further developed to cope with irregular or curved surfaces. but at the expense of the time taken for the process. Research during 2010 at Swansea University has found that physically removing a fingerprint from a metal surface. A sampling frequency of 20 points per mm is high enough to visualise a fingerprint in sufficient detail for identification purposes and produces a voltage map in 2–3 hours.
is being tested for use in identifying heavy coffee drinkers. a decision has to be made at an early stage whether to attempt to retrieve fingerprints through the use of developers or whether to swab surfaces in an attempt to salvage material for DNA profiling. cannabis smokers.Fingerprint begin to occur as soon as the finger comes into contact with the metal. The secretions. and users of various other drugs. By treating the fingerprint with gold nanoparticles with attached cotinine antibodies.  79 Cartridge case with an applied fingerprint The disappearance of children's latent prints In 1995. in research that was generating significant interest from the British Home Office and a number of different police forces across the UK. which makes no physical contact with the fingerprint and does not require the use of developers. The same approach. a nicotine metabolite. Scanning Kelvin Probe scan of the same cartridge case with the fingerprint clearly detected. The rapid disappearance of children's fingerprints was attributed to a lack of the more waxy oils that become present at the onset of puberty. resulting in the formation of metal-ion complexes that cannot easily be removed. A forensically usable prototype was under development at Swansea University during 2010. The application of the new scanning Kelvin probe (SKP) fingerprinting technique. Caution should be used. they also contain traces of nicotine itself. cocaine and methadone from their fingerprint residues.  In 2008. As of 2010. The two processes are mutually incompatible. Fingerprints reveal drug use . The hope is that this instrument could eventually be manufactured in sufficiently large numbers to be widely used by forensic teams worldwide. British researchers developed methods of identifying users of marijuana. as of 2010. the fingerprint of a smoker becomes fluorescent. at the instigation of Detective Art Bohanan of the Knoxville Police Department. and then subsequently with a fluorescent agent attached to cotinine antibodies. The Kelvin probe can easily cope with the 3D curvature of the cartridge case increasing the versatility of the technique. discovered that children's fingerprints are considerably more short-lived than adult fingerprints. as its presence may be caused by mere contact of the finger with a tobacco product. The lighter fatty acids of children's fingerprints evaporate within a few hours. researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. skin oils and dead cells in a human fingerprint contain residues of various chemicals and their metabolites present in the body. Another problem for the early twenty-first century is that during crime scene investigations. however. researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are investigating techniques to capture these lost fingerprints. as fingerprint developers destroy material that could potentially be used for DNA analysis. For example. and swabbing is likely to make fingerprint identification impossible. has the potential to allow fingerprints to be recorded whilst still leaving intact material that could subsequently be subjected to DNA analysis. as well as internationally. the fingerprints of tobacco smokers contain traces of cotinine. non-smokers' fingerprints stay dark. These can be detected and used for forensic purposes.
on some pottery. Most American law enforcement agencies use Wavelet Scalar Quantization (WSQ). In his Jami al-Tawarikh (Universal History). and pottery. witnessed Chinese merchants using fingerprints to authenticate loans. Chinese practice of sealing contracts with fingerprints. handprints were used as evidence in a trial for theft. Sometime before 851 CE. . and Chinese pottery. records have shown that officials took hand prints. and the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST). US Visit currently holds a repository of the fingerprints of over 50 million people. an Arab merchant in China. For fingerprints recorded at 1000 ppi spatial resolution. Japan had adopted the Zayd Hasan. seals. Fingerprinting clerks. Greek. Some of these fingerprints were deposited unintentionally by the potters and masons as a natural consequence of their work. foot prints as well as finger prints as evidence from a crime scene.  references Although ancient peoples probably did not realize that fingerprints could uniquely identify individuals. By 246 BCE. the Los Alamos National Lab.Fingerprint 80 United States databases and compression In the United States. and others were made in the process of adding decoration. commenting: "Experience shows that no two individuals have fingers exactly alike. around 300 CE. WSQ was developed by the FBI. the Chinese historian Kia Kung-Yen remarked that fingerprints could be used as a means of authentication. In order to protect against forgery. a wavelet-based system for efficient storage of compressed fingerprint images at 500 pixels per inch (ppi). the Persian physician Rashid-al-Din Hamadani (also known as "Rashideddin". primarily in the form of two-finger records. However." In Persia at this time. or IAFIS. US Visit hoped to have changed over to a system recording FBI-standard ten-print records. government documents may have been authenticated with thumbprints.5 million civil (non-criminal) fingerprint records. In 2008. fingerprints have been impressed so deeply into the clay that they were possibly intended to serve as an identifying mark by the maker. 1247–1318) refers to the Chinese practice of identifying people via their fingerprints. Abu  By 702. law enforcement (including the FBI) uses JPEG 2000 instead of WSQ. parties to a legal contract would impress their fingerprints into a clay tablet on which the contract had been written. which currently holds the fingerprints and criminal records of over 51 million criminal record subjects and over 1. Chinese officials were impressing their fingerprints into the clay seals used to seal documents. 1928 Fingerprints were used as signatures in ancient Babylon in the second millennium BCE.    They have also been found on the walls of Egyptian tombs and on Minoan. By 650. In China. from the age of the Babylonian king Hammurabi (1792-1750 BCE) indicate that law officials would take the fingerprints of people who had been arrested. Los Angeles Police Department. the FBI manages a fingerprint identification system and database called the Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System. With the advent of silk and paper in China. parties to a legal contract impressed their handprints on the document. as well as on bricks and tiles from ancient Babylon and Rome. History Antiquity and the medieval period Fingerprints have been found on ancient Babylonian clay tablets. During China's Qin Dynasty.
Francis Galton. in 1879. the German anatomist Johann Christoph Andreas Mayer (1747–1801) recognized that fingerprints are unique to each individual. India. in 1858. in 1788. published a detailed statistical model of fingerprint analysis and identification and encouraged its use in forensic science in his book Finger Prints. too old and ill to work on it. In 1685. and by 1906. published his first paper on the subject in the scientific journal Nature. When it was compared with Rojas' prints. A century later. Sir Edward Richard   The Henry Classification System. by 1892 Sir Francis Galton. a colleague of Vucetich. in 1897. Dr Henry Faulds. Returning to the UK in 1886. Dr Henry P. A year later. before it became the Fingerprint Bureau. discussing the usefulness of fingerprints for identification and proposing a method to record them with printing ink. was accepted in England and Wales Henry. Sir Edward Richard Henry subsequently achieved improvements in dactyloscopy. Francisca Rojas of Necochea. the Metropolitan Police headquarters. Juan Vucetich. . a Czech physiologist and professor of anatomy at the University of Breslau. in 1892. the English physician. Sir William James Herschel initiated fingerprinting in India. In 1877 at Hooghly (near Calcutta) he instituted the use of fingerprints on contracts and deeds to prevent the then-rampant repudiation of signatures and he registered government pensioners' fingerprints to prevent the collection of money by relatives after a pensioner's death. He had calculated that the chance of a "false positive" (two different individuals having the same fingerprints) was about 1 in 64 billion. Rojas accused a neighbour. it was found to be identical with her right thumb. In 1880. Galton. a surgeon in a Tokyo hospital. created the first method of recording the fingerprints of individuals on file. who had created. published a thesis in 1823 discussing 9 fingerprint patterns. whilst her two sons were found dead with their throats cut. and microscopist Nehemiah Grew (1641–1712) published the first scientific paper to describe the ridge structure of the skin covering the fingers and palms. Herschel also fingerprinted prisoners upon sentencing to prevent various frauds that were attempted in order to avoid serving a prison sentence. Darwin gave the information to his cousin. introduced the fingerprinting of criminals to the United States. Some years later. he offered the concept to the Metropolitan Police in London but it was dismissed at that time. were Azizul Haque and Hem Chandra Bose. He also established their first classification and was also the first to identify fingerprints left on a vial. in 1901. this neighbour would not confess to the crimes. having been thus inspired to study fingerprints for ten years. Vucetich set up the world's first fingerprint bureau. the German anatomist Georg von Meissner (1829–1905) studied friction ridges. a system to identify individuals by anthropometric photographs and associated quantitative descriptions. She then confessed to the murder of her sons. Faulds wrote to Charles Darwin with a description of his method but. an expert in the Bertillon system and a finger print advocate at Police Headquarters. Working in the Calcutta Anthropometric Bureau. London. Inspector Alvarez. New York City Police Department Deputy Commissioner Joseph A. Faurot. but despite brutal interrogation. In the United States.  Modern era Jan Evangelista Purkyně or Purkinje (1787–1869). the Dutch physician Govard Bidloo (1649–1713) and the Italian physician Marcello Malpighi (1628–1694) published books on anatomy which also illustrated the ridge structure of the fingers. botanist. A Fingerprint Bureau was established in Calcutta (Kolkata). who was interested in anthropology. when the first United Kingdom Fingerprint Bureau was founded in Scotland Yard. Haque and Bose were Indian fingerprint experts who have been credited with the primary development of a fingerprint classification system eventually named after their supervisor. and five years after this. In that same year. an Argentine chief police officier. was found in a house with neck injuries. but he did not mention any possibility of using fingerprints to identify people. co-devised by Haque and Bose. DeForrest used fingerprinting in the New York Civil Service in 1902. after the Council of the Governor General approved a committee report that fingerprints should be used for the classification of criminal records. after studying Galton's pattern types. associating these fingerprints to the anthropometric system of Alphonse Bertillon. went to the scene and found a bloody thumb mark on a door.Fingerprint 81 Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries In 1684.
 Fingerprints that have previously been .Fingerprint The Scheffer case of 1902 is the first case of the identification. 2005. Alphonse Bertillon created a method of getting fingerprints off smooth surfaces and took a further step in the advance of dactyloscopy. 2005. By any measure. but they can provide some insight into error rates. the tests contained a total of 48 incorrect identifications. In 1995. David Grieve. the subjective nature of matching. a natural question to ask is how well fingerprint examiners actually perform. who had previously been arrested and his fingerprints filed some months before. despite a very low error rate. for the first time.” and added: 'Errors of this magnitude within a discipline singularly admired and respected for its touted absolute certainty as an identification process have produced chilling and mind. Overall. this represents a profile of practice that is unacceptable and thus demands positive action by the entire community. it does not assure their validity. But while the verification stage has implications for the reliability of latent print comparisons. describes the reaction of the forensic community to the results of the CTS test as ranging from “shock to disbelief. such as context. Evaluation." —Sandy L Zabell.numbing realities. Proficiency tests do not validate a procedure per se. and adequate statistical studies. assembled. It was able to be proved in Court that the fingerprints had been made after the showcase was broken. While fingerprint identification was an improvement on earlier anthropometric systems. after a theft in a dentist's apartment where the dentist's employee was found dead. Certain specific criticisms are now being accepted by some leaders of the forensic fingerprint community.  Investigations have been conducted into whether experts can objectively focus on feature information in fingerprints without being misled by extraneous information. arrest and conviction of a murderer based upon fingerprint evidence. has made this forensic practice controversial. A year later.The results were disappointing. in which a second examiner confirms the assessment of the original examiner." —Sandy L Zabell. the Collaborative Testing Service (CTS) administered a proficiency test that. Four suspect cards with prints of all ten fingers were provided together with seven latents. Validity means that these results are judged to accurately reflect the external criteria being measured. Criticism The words "reliability" and "validity" have specific meanings to the scientific community. Of 156 people taking the test. Alphonse Bertillon identified the thief and murderer Scheffer. providing an incentive to improve training and procedures. "Despite the absence of objective standards. scientific validation. but from the editor of one of its premier publications. the editor of the Journal of Forensic Identification. For example. The few tests that have been made of the validity of forensic fingerprinting have not been supportive of the method. in the popular Analysis.' What is striking about these comments is that they do not come from a critic of the fingerprint community. Comparison. this reliance does not always translate into superior predictive ability. 82 Validity of fingerprinting for identification The validity of forensic fingerprint evidence has been challenged by academics. from the fingerprints found on a fractured glass showcase. only 68 (44%) correctly classified all seven latents. was “designed. the verification stage. Thirty-four participants. and Verification (ACE-V) paradigm for fingerprint identification. and reviewed” by the International Association for Identification (IAI). Reliability means that successive tests bring the same results. may increase the consistency of the assessments. substituted presumed but false certainty for truth. "Although experts are often more comfortable relying on their instincts. an incredible 22% of those involved. judges and the media.
 Other forensic disciplines have followed suit and established their own certification programs. Track record Fingerprinting has served all governments worldwide during the past 100 years or so to provide accurate identification of criminals. victims and other persons who touched a surface. Justice Department report was released which criticized the FBI . however. Fingerprints solve ten times more unknown suspect cases than DNA in most police departments. The results of these experiments demonstrate that people can identify fingerprints quite well.S. have been used in forensic science to identify suspects. Fingerprints are the fundamental tool for the identification of people with a criminal history in every police agency. most of the fingerprint experts made different judgments. Instances of error Brandon Mayfield and the Madrid bombing Brandon Mayfield is an Oregon lawyer who was identified as a participant in the 2004 Madrid train bombings based on a fingerprint match by the FBI. in a criminal record repository. The FBI initially called it an "absolutely incontrovertible match". It remains the most commonly gathered forensic evidence worldwide and in most jurisdictions fingerprint examination outnumbers all other forensic examination casework combined. or on items of evidence from a crime.Fingerprint examined and assessed by latent print experts to make a positive identification of suspects have then been re-presented to those same experts in a new context which makes it likely that there will be no match. who had spent two weeks in police custody. Within this new context. The FBI Latent Print Unit processed a fingerprint collected in Madrid and reported a "100 percent positive" match against one of the 20 fingerprint candidates returned in a search response from their IAFIS — Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System. Complaints have been made that there have been no published. identified another man whom they claimed the fingerprint did belong to. when it replaced anthropometric measurements as a more reliable method for identifying persons having a prior record. Fingerprint identification emerged as an important system within police agencies in the late 19th century. with tens of thousands of people added to fingerprint repositories daily in America alone — far more than other forensic databases. The FBI acknowledged their error. No two fingerprints have ever been found identical in many billions of human and automated computer comparisons. Spanish National Police examiners suggested that the print did not match Mayfield and after two weeks. 83 Defense Fingerprints collected at a crime scene. and that matching accuracy can vary as a function of both source finger type and image similarity. the IAI's Certified Latent Print Examiner program. thus contradicting their own previous identification decisions. The science of fingerprint identification has been able to assert its standing amongst forensic sciences for many reasons. peer-reviewed studies directly examining the extent to which people can correctly match fingerprints to one another. it continues to expand as the premier method for identifying persons. a U. often under a false name. Professional standing and certification Fingerprinting was the basis upon which the first forensic professional organization was formed. Subsequently. It is claimed to outperform DNA and all other human identification systems. Moreover. Experiments have been carried out using naïve undergraduates to match images of fingerprints. the International Association for Identification (IAI). in 1915. In January 2006. The first professional certification program for forensic scientists was established in 1977. which issued certificates to those meeting stringent criteria and had the power to revoke certification where an individual's performance warranted it. in May 2004. and a judge released Mayfield.
McKie was awarded £750. On February 7. on a charge of driving while intoxicated (Driving Under the Influence. had taken steps to "ensure that what happened to Mr Mayfield and the Mayfield family does not happen again. 1995. were placed on a card containing the name. He was found guilty and sent to prison for 35 years. The report found that the misidentification had been due to a misapplication of methodology by the examiners involved: Mayfield is an American-born convert to Islam and his wife is an Egyptian immigrant. Massachusetts. Shirley McKie Shirley McKie was a police detective in 1997 when she was accused of leaving her thumb print inside a house in Kilmarnock. The DNA did not match his and he was released. while returning from a visit to relatives in the Dominican Republic.Fingerprint for sloppy work but exonerated them of some more serious allegations. The formal apology stated that the FBI. Social Security number and other data for one Leo Rosario. His fingerprints. one of whom was the victim. or DUI). as of November 2009. 2006. The judicial settlement allowed Mayfield to continue a suit regarding certain other government practices surrounding his arrest and detention. 2007. Although McKie denied having been inside the house. a legal Dominican Republic immigrant to the US was arrested on July 15. which erroneously linked him to the 2004 Madrid bombing through a fingerprinting mistake. Kennedy International Airport in New York and arrested. There was also a fingerprint on a glass mug from which the assailant had drunk some water and experts testified that the fingerprint belonged to Cowans. the erroneously-cataloged fingerprints were considered to be more reliable. Scotland where Marion Ross had been murdered. who was being processed at the same time. although Scottish first minister Jack McConnell later said it had been an "honest mistake". Whilst in prison. Controversy continued to surround the McKie case and there was an ongoing public inquiry into the affair. the FBI agreed to pay Brandon Mayfield the sum of US$2 million in compensation. however. however.  84 . The only evidence the prosecution had was this thumb print allegedly found at the murder scene. Two American experts testified on her behalf at her trial in May 1999 and she was found not guilty. Stephen Cowans died on October 25. René was mis-identified as Leo Rosario at John F. Stephan Cowans Stephan Cowans was convicted of attempted murder in 1997 after he was accused of the shooting of a police officer whilst fleeing a robbery in Roxbury. He was implicated in the crime by the testimony of two witnesses. On 29 November 2006. Even though he did not match the physical description of Rosario." René Ramón Sánchez René Ramón Sánchez. 2000.000 in compensation from the Scottish Executive and the Scottish Criminal Record Office. On October 11. Leo Rosario had been arrested for selling cocaine to an undercover police officer. Cowans earned money cleaning up biohazards until he could afford to have the evidence against him tested for DNA. The Scottish Criminal Record Office (SCRO) would not admit any error. but these are not factors that should have affected fingerprint search technology. He had already served six years in prison. she was arrested in a dawn raid the following year and charged with perjury.
declared the measures it had introduced "disproportionate. who replied that it was legal provided that the school did not use them for external purposes. it was estimated that 3.000 unsolved crimes. the practice of taking fingerprints from children gave rise to a question in Parliament on February 6. secured the support of 85 Members of Parliament (Early Day Motion 686). There have also been instances in Belgium. to replace library cards. At Angers in France. One education specialist wrote in 2007: "I have not been able to find a single piece of published research which suggests that the use of biometrics in schools promotes healthy eating or improves reading skills amongst children. schools in the UK do not have to ask parental consent to allow such practices to take place. Following the establishment in the United Kingdom of a Conservative and Liberal Democratic coalition government in May 2010. the ID card scheme was scrapped.Fingerprint 85 Privacy issues Fingerprinting of children Various schools have implemented fingerprint locks or made a record of children's fingerprints. Under the United Kingdom Data Protection Act. . at the école Marie-José in Liège. and children's fingerprints are stored on databases.. the supplier Micro Librarian Systems. Carqueiranne College in the Var won the Big Brother Award for 2005 and the Commission nationale de l'informatique et des libertés (CNIL). often without the knowledge or consent of their parents. Serious concerns about the security implications of using conventional biometric templates in schools have been raised by a number of leading IT security experts. the official organisation in charge of the protection of privacy in France. Shadow Home secretary David Davis called the plan "sinister". All fingerprints taken would be cross-checked against prints from 900." In March 2007. indicating that the practice may break the European Union data protection directive.. The non-governmental organization (NGO) Privacy International in 2002 made the cautionary announcement that tens of thousands of UK school children were being fingerprinted by schools. or to survey the private life of children. one of whom has voiced the opinion that "it is absolutely premature to begin using 'conventional biometrics' in schools". There is absolutely no evidence for such  The Ottawa Police in Canada have had to give advise to parents who fear that their children may be claims". In Belgium. in 2010 the European Commission expressed 'significant concerns' over the proportionality and necessity of the practice and the lack of judicial redress. decreased wait times in lunch lines and increased revenues.500 schools were using such systems. They do not cite independent research to support this view. 2007 by Michel de La Motte (Humanist Democratic Centre) to the Education Minister Marie Arena. which uses a technology similar to that used in US prisons and the German military. By 2007. In the United Kingdom there have been fingerprint locks in Holland Park School in London. Parents opposed to fingerprinting may only bring individual complaints against schools. The vendors of Biometric systems claim that their products bring benefits to schools such as improved reading skills. In response to a complaint which they are continuing to pursue. the British government was considering fingerprinting all children aged 11 to 15 as part of a new passport and ID card scheme and disallowing opposition for privacy concerns. An Early Day Motion which called on the UK Government to conduct a full and open consultation with stakeholders about the use of biometrics in schools. kidnapped to have their fingerprints taken. estimated that 350 schools throughout Britain were using such systems. That same year.  in France and in Italy.
By 2007. some less sophisticated devices have been discovered to be vulnerable to quite simple methods of deception. in which he uses fingerprints to trap Moriarty's agents and recover the Mona Lisa. These become the center of a medico-legal investigation led by Dr Thorndyke. to a lesser extent. after the diamonds are stolen. According to one study. Fingerprints in fiction Mark Twain Mark Twain's novel Life on the Mississippi.Fingerprint 86 Other uses Welfare claimants It has been alleged that taking the fingerprints of welfare recipients as identification serves as a social stigma that evokes cultural images associated with the processing of criminals. of course. The British detective writer R. and it was also starting to be adopted in some states in the US. these include many primates. Electronic registration and library access Fingerprints and. such as gorillas and chimpanzees. The Adventure of the Final Problem. electronic fingerprint readers have been introduced for security applications such as log-in authentication for the identification of computer users. fingerprint sensors gained popularity in the notebook PC market. like the scroll wheel. has a plot hole in the screenplay caused by Holmes's use of the Bertillonage criminal ID system. such as fake fingerprints cast in gels. In 2006. and others also double as motion detectors for document scrolling. this practice was particularly widespread in UK schools. published in 1883. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle wrote a short story about his celebrated sleuth Sherlock Holmes which features a fingerprint: The Norwood Builder is a 1903 Sherlock Holmes short story set in 1894 and involves the discovery of a bloody fingerprint which helps Holmes to expose the real criminal and free his client. The real Bertillon system did not use fingerprints. . includes a courtroom drama involving fingerprint identification. Austin Freeman's first Thorndyke novel The Red Thumb-Mark was published in 1907 and features a bloody fingerprint left on a piece of paper together with a parcel of diamonds inside a safe-box. especially those whose lifestyle involves climbing or grasping wet objects. Built-in sensors in ThinkPads. kept pace with its use in real-life detection. and library access. HP Pavilion laptops. Bertillon had added four spaces for fingerprints on his identification cards by 1900 because of the growing popularity of fingerprinting. it can be quite difficult to distinguish between the fingerprints of a koala and a human. but the identification cards were still based on anthropometric measurements. However. Australian koalas and aquatic mammal species such as the North American fisher. Twain's later book Pudd'nhead Wilson. was the first book to use fingerprints as a main plot element. A 1985 Granada TV adaptation of an 1893 Sherlock Holmes short story set in 1891. who defends the accused whose fingerprint matches that on the paper. Crime fiction The use of fingerprints in crime fiction has. published in 1893. Log-in authentication and other locks Since 2000. Fingerprints in other species Some other animals have evolved their own unique prints. iris scans can be used to validate electronic registration. cashless catering. even with an electron microscope. VAIO.
Print. com/ Information/ Pioneers/ henry-classification. (1991). 2009. the use of dental records in forensic dentistry. Other reliable identifiers Other forms of biometric identification utilizing a physical attribute that is unique to every human include Iris recognition. Fatehpuria. Online Digital Education Connection. Yongchang. clpex. Florida: IEEE conference on Biometrics. A. required Agent J. . Optical Engineering. Westport.1038/news. "Life of Latents". always storing extra fingerprints in a ziploc bag. 2002. Fatehpuria. Journal of Law and Policy. P. "The Chemical Composition of Palmar Sweat". 29 January 2009. Identification News 14 (1). Jain. Retrieved Aug 2010. Sandy. edu/ students/ journals/ bjlp/ jlp13i_zabell. Retrieved March 2010. Les. ca/ projects/ 2004/ fren4j0/ public_html/ fingerprint_patterns. played by Will Smith. She can change her identity by changing her wig. 255 NW 407. D. uky. technologyreview. Rachel (September 2009). Gerald J.  Wang. Retrieved March 2010.  Manchester Evening News. "International Corner". Identity and Security.  Kremen. Yongchang.  Olsen.Fingerprint 87 Movies The movie Men In Black. BBC. . . Q.68  "Fingerprint grip theory rejected" (http:/ / news. A. Thursday 17 June 2010. "Classification and Uses of Finger Prints" (http:/ / www. Lau and L. And in a 2009 science fiction movie starring Paul Giamatti.  "Fingerprint Patterns" (http:/ / odec. a mule who is paid to smuggle souls across borders. Yongchang. bbc. edu/ ~realtime3d/ Doc/ Manuscripts/ Fit-sphere unwrapping and performance analysis of 3D fingerprints. . Identification News 23 (1). G. London: George Rutledge & Sons. (2004). G.  Zabell. pdf). (1964). edu/ ~realtime3d/ Doc/ 3D_Fingerprint_Quality. Q. Sir (1900).. .  Ross. and Dennis Shortelle. "Estimating fingerprint deformation". html). Hao.  Johnson. . pdf)  "Fake finger reveals the secrets of touch" (http:/ / www. pdf).  Wang. L. "Ridgeology" (http:/ / onin. co. A. doi:10. G.  People v. Retrieved March 2010.  Conklin. 077202 (1–10). Journal of Forensic Identification 41 (1)).  Ashbaugh.2009. Proceedings of the International Conference on Biometric Authentication (ICBA). "Quality and Matching Performance Analysis of 3D Unraveled Fingerprints" (http:/ / vis. References  Peer Reviewed Glossary of the Scientific Working Group on Friction Ridge Analysis. Fingerprint and Identification Magazine 53 (10). Conn. uk/ 2/ hi/ health/ 8093134. ISSN 0895-l 73X. Lee (1973). Ltd. Sr (1972). com/ news/ 2009/ 090129/ full/ news.  Wang. com/ computing/ 23549/ ?a=f). Hassebrook (2010). David R. com/ fp/ ridgeology. stm). "Touchless 3-D Fingerprinting: A new system offers better speed and accuracy" (http:/ / www. Encyclopedia of Forensic Science: a Compendium of Detective Fact and Fiction. Applied Optics. D. 0. which John Dillinger tried (and failed. "Data Acquisition and Quality Analysis of 3-Dimensional Fingerprints" (http:/ / vis. brooklaw. nature. pdf). pdf). Robert D. Nature. a popular 1997 science fiction thriller.  Henry. Robert Gardner. htm). an action deemed necessary by the MIB agency to remove the identity of its agents. Cold Souls. 592–600. Hao. the tongue and DNA profiling. uky. .. Lau and L. 267 Michigan 648. Study and Technology (SWGFAST) (http:/ / www. . 68. L. front page  Engert. Retrieved March 2010. also known as genetic fingerprinting. uky. wears latex fingerprints to frustrate airport security terminals. swgfast. so she can always assume an alias that is suitable to her undertaking. and switching latex fingerprints from the privacy of a restroom. "Fit-sphere unwrapping and performance analysis of 3D Fingerprints" (http:/ / vis. Lau (July 2010). Methods used have included burning the fingertips with acid. Edward R. Hassebrook and D. . . L. Hassebrook (2009). Fingerprint mutilation There are several documented cases of people deliberately mutilating their fingerprints in an effort to avoid being identified from marks left on the surfaces they touch. edu/ ~realtime3d/ Doc/ Manuscripts/ Quality and matching performance analysis of three-dimensional unraveled fingerprints. pdf). June 2009. pdf). pp. prints taken during a previous arrest and upon death still exhibited almost complete relation to one another). A. "Fingerprint Evidence" (http:/ / wwy.: Oryx. org/ documents/ glossary/ 090508_Glossary_2. pp. and surgical alteration. L. Technology Review. Barbara Gardner. to remove his ten fingerprints by putting his hands on a metal ball.
"The study of ancient fingerprints" (http:/ / www. org/ fingerprints/ herschel-1880-nature-furrows. page 17. pdf). html). . Quantitative-Qualitative Friction Ridge Analysis: An Introduction to Basic and Advanced Ridgeology.  Åström.  Paul Marks (18 May 2007) "New fingerprint analysis identifies smokers. Berlin.  Tom Simonite (3 April 2006) "Fingerprints reveal clues to suspects' habits. Inherent fingerprint luminescence – detection by laser. sky. xinhuanet.31100-1218342. uk/ hosdb/ fingerprints-footwear-marks/ ) of the operational methods of fingerprint development. pp. Chemical & Engineering News 86 (51): 34. org/ The_Print/ THE_PRINT_VOL_16_ISSUE_02. htm) (in Chinese). David (1999).  Swansea University (http:/ / www. William J (1916). . Sven A. Anatomische Kupfertafeln nebst dazu gehörigen Erklärungen [Anatomical Illustrations (etchings) with Accompanying Explanations]. Menzel ER. 1977. pp. Jan Evangelista (1823). (1980).  Ward. ISBN 0674004558. "Skin furrows of the hand" (http:/ / galton. Simon (2001). Wright Kennedy.  Grew. ISBN 978-1104662257. com/ fp/ fphistory. .  Malpighi. Johann Christoph Andreas (1783-1788). SkyNews. uk/ engineering/ Research/ MaterialsResearchCentre/ ResearchAreas/ CorrosionandCoatings/ ). BBC.  Reinaud. iranian. Harold. Cambridge. org/ fingerprints/ faulds-1880-nature-furrows." (http:/ / www. William James (25 November 1880). .  Faulds. ancientfingerprints. See Dalrymple. See especially the 1788 volume. page 15. . html). PDF)"]. Smithsonian Institution Annual Report. Retrieved March 2010. xinhuanet. Saxony: Leopold Voss. org/ fingerprints/ books/ herschel/ herschel-1916-origins-1up.  "Bombers Tracked By New Technique" (http:/ / news. 42. I. De Externo Tactus Organo Anatomica Observatio [Anatomical Observations of the External Organs of Touch]. Netherlands." (http:/ / www. scafo. org/ nr1_lo. Retrieved March 2010..Fingerprint  Dalrymple BE. org/ library/ 160201. 88 shtml). "The description and use of the pores in the skin of the hands and feet". see also Laufer (1912). Nehemiah (1684). Henry (28 October 1880). "Purkinje's observations (1823) on finger prints and other skin features". The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 31 (3): 343–356. pp. Prussia: University of Breslau Press. stm). Paris: Imprimerie royale. November/December 1941. "History of the finger-print system" (http:/ / www. newscientist.  Cole. . 22(1). onin. Nature 22 (574): 605. Commentatio de examine physiologico organi visus et systematis cutanei [Commentary on the physiological examination of the visual organ and the skin system]. Oxford University Press. 60–61.  Saadat. Relation des voyages faits par les Arabes et les Persans dans l'Inde et a la Chine dans le IX Siecle. gov. Rebecca (September/October 1940). Eriksson. ws/ iran_news/ publish/ printer_29065. . com/ article/ dn11887-new-fingerprint-analysis-identifies-smokers.  Åström. Journal of Ancient Fingerprints (1): 2–3.  von Meissner.00.  Bidloo.. Noury M (2009-05-04). html) New Scientist (on-line version).  Herschel.. ac. Berthold (1912). Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.  "千 余 學 者 摸 清 我 國 民 族 膚 紋 “家 底 ” 南 北 是 一 家 " (http:/ / big5.  comprehensive manual (http:/ / scienceandresearch. Sarah (December 2008). "Fingerprints Reveal Drug Use". Reprinted in "The Print [newsletter of South California Association of Fingerprint Officers (http:/ / www. Beiträge zur Anatomie und Physiologie der Haut [Contributions to the Anatomy and Physiology of the Skin]. Published by the UK Home Office Scientific Development Branch. April 2006. swan. March/April 2000. Naples. com/ gate/ big5/ news. Govard (1685). "First Iranian Record on Fingerprinting" (http:/ / www. Joseph Toussaint (1845). Amsterdam. . Nature 23 (578): 76. pdf). "Fingerprints and Archaeology". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 14: 566–567. . February 2010. .  "Finger prints found on pottery" (http:/ / big5. See also: Cummins. . pdf).  Purkyně. Journal of Forensic Sciences. html) New Scientist (on-line version). 11–19. "On the skin-furrows of the hand" (http:/ / www. Persian Journal.  Herschel. . 1–13. Sweden: Paul Åströms Förlag) 28. Harold (1941). com/ article/ dn8938-fingerprints-reveal-clues-to-suspects-habits. newscientist. Prussia: Georg Jacob Decker. galton. Retrieved March 2010. Mark (April 2006). com/ health/ 2010-02/ 09/ content_12956719. The Scientific Monthly 52: 389–402. xinhuanet. Georg (1853). Materials Research Centre. Boca Raton. "Ancient finger prints in clay". quoted in: Laufer (1912)  Cummins.  Ashbaugh (1999). Breslau. scafo.  "The History of Fingerprints" (http:/ / www. html).  Laufer. homeoffice. The Origin of Finger-Printing (http:/ / galton.  Ashbaugh. Reprinted in Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 34 (4): 468–481. Italy: Aegidius Longus. pdf). p. uk/ 1/ hi/ technology/ 4857114. com/ skynews/ article/ 0. Florida: CRC Press. co. Professor Neil McMurray and Dr Geraint Williams. com/ gate/ big5/ news. Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology series (Göteborg. Paul (2007). xinhuanet.  Ashbaugh (1999). com/ health/ 2010-02/ 09/ content_12956719_1. ISBN 0849370078. "Fingerprints hide lifestyle clues" (http:/ / news.. .  Everts. 106-115. Suspect Identities: A history of fingerprinting and criminal identification. bbc. Duff JM. Onin. Marcello (1685). Paul. Leipzig. Anatomia Humani Corporis [Anatomy of the Human Body].  Mayer. htm).
39040745.. stm). uk/ 1/ hi/ 8707355. html). Will Pay $2 Million to Lawyer Wrongly Jailed . D. architect of identity and access in the Connected Systems Division at Microsoft.  BBC News Channel (http:/ / news. The Register. A. com/ ?p=733)  Fingerprint Software Eliminates Privacy Concerns and Establishes Success (FindBiometrics) (http:/ / www. He was René Ramón Sánchez. org/ fingerprints/ faulds.  Cavoukian. and Cole. com/ 2002/ 05/ do-fingerprints-lie/ )  Dror. 2007-01-19. bbc.E. org/ history/ )  Bonebrake. by Eric Lichtbau.  Specter. February 5. (2006) " Contextual information renders experts vulnerable to making erroneous identifications (http:/ / www. org. boston.  Kim Cameron. he had patiently tried to explain. bron=homeArt6). and Péron. galton. 2007. michaelspecter. Current Science 88 (1): 185–191. 2002 (English) . uk/ news/ worldnews/ europe/ eu/ 8202076/ Europe-tells-Britain-to-justify-itself-over-fingerprinting-children-in-schools. he was not Leo Rosario.Beith Commemorative Society".  Sodhi. html) Telegraph. retrieved August 2006 (http:/ / www. 2004. 1080/ 17470210802372987)". published 2010-12-14. co. accessed 2011-01-13  Prises d'empreintes digitales dans un établissement scolaire (http:/ / www. BBC News.org. fr/ culture/ actualites/ celebrations2002/ empreintes. Can Prints Lie? Yes. Charlton.. 2006-11-30. A. on. parliament. See also this on-line article on Henry Faulds: Tredoux. "Dr. George J. David (2007-10-26). "The forgotten Indian pioneers of finger print science" (http:/ / www.39122509. culture. J. zdnet.  Tewari. com/ press-release/ 4143)  2007.E. htm).  "'Relief' over fingerprint verdict" (http:/ / news. bbc. July 22. com/ actu/ news/ 31010-Empreintes-digitales-pour-les-enfants-dune-e.  Vokey. pdf). html?em& ex=1165122000& en=0ca1f656ca46883a& ei=5087 ): on Brandon Mayfield mistaken arrest. . Iss 1. pp 1023-1040. co. May 31.  Penn and Teller Bullshit. pcinpact. "Arrestation du premier assassin confondu par ses empreintes digitales" (http:/ / www. Donald L. uk/ 1/ hi/ scotland/ 4689218. 27 May 2010. ac. Francis (1892). September 9. ca/ images/ Resources/ up-1bio_encryp. informaworld.  "The Fingerprint Inquiry Scotland" (http:/ / www. jsp). co. KV (2000). leavethemkidsalone. J. Célébrations Nationales. galton. co. leavethemkidsalone. He was telling the truth. be/ actualites/ pedagogique/ index. Tangen. uk/ 2002/ 07/ 22/ fingerprinting_of_uk_school_kids/ ). The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. Henry Faulds . 2003 (French)  "EDM 686 . Forensic Science International. New York Times. BBC. 2007 (French)  Fingerprinting of UK school kids causes outcry (http:/ / www. 2007 (English)  Schools can fingerprint children without parental consent (http:/ / www. uk/ EDMi/ EDMDetails. be/ hlns/ cache/ fr/ det/ art_370100. . London: MacMillan and Co. be/ docparlement/ pa4896. theregister. stm). htm) (French) 89  Child fingerprint plan considered (http:/ / news. "Man wrongly convicted in Boston police shooting found dead" (http:/ / www. pdf). "Finger Prints" (http:/ / www. theregister. pp 74-78.  New York Times.. com/ smpp/ content~db=all?content=10. The Register. Postgrad Med (46): 303–308. pdf). Journal of Forensic Identification 53 (2).R. 7 Sur 7. 2006.S. " On the preliminary psychophysics of fingerprint identification (http:/ / www. nytimes. the tall. fsijournal.M. clpex. . org/ article/ S0379-0738(05)00587-6/ abstract)". co. Dr Sandra Leaton Gray of Homerton College.A. in/ currsci/ jan102005/ 185. php/ 2007/ 02/ 06/ 181-empreintes-digitales-pour-securiser-l-ecole) (French)  Le lecteur d'empreintes dans les écoles crée la polémique (http:/ / www. stm). In front of the immigration judge.Biometric Data Collection In Schools" (http:/ / edmi. uk/ inquiry/ CCC_FirstPage.  Berlière. htm). muscular man began to weep.  Galton. The Boston Globe. . blog (http:/ / www. 8x07. RK. (2009). bbc. . Ravikumar. Iss 5.New York Times" (article). findbiometrics. Zdnet. uk/ 2006/ 09/ 07/ kiddyprinting_allowed/ ). Kaur. J. fr/ actualites/ informatique/ 0. Question d'actualité à la Ministre-Présidente en charge de l'Enseignement obligatoire et de Promotion sociale (French)  Quand la biométrie s'installe dans les cantines au nez et à la barbe de la Cnil (http:/ / www. March 4. I. . identityblog. an auto-body worker and merengue singer . Gavan (December 2003). Michael "Do Fingerprints Lie" The New Yorker (http:/ / www.. htm). 2006 (English)  Europe tells Britain to justify itself over fingerprinting children in schools (http:/ / www. 7sur7.  Empreintes digitales pour les enfants d'une école de Londres (http:/ / www. htm#herschel1880). Retrieved 2009-11-28. A and Stoianov. Vol 156. asjeed (2005). No. ias. September 7. ipc. aspx?EDMID=32367).Fingerprint  Reid. (1978) "Report on the Latent Print Certification Program" Identification News Vol28(3)  "U. telegraph. htm#fact_00). com/ expert. 1902). "Henry Faulds: the Invention of a Fingerprinter" (http:/ / www. Security AND Privacy (http:/ / www. Cambridge: professional opinion (http:/ / www. com/ ) (English)  Empreintes digitales pour sécuriser l'école ? (http:/ / www. gouv.00. webpage: NYT-061130-settle (http:/ / www. . Criminal Justice  International Association for Identification History.. (2003). com/ 2006/ 11/ 30/ us/ 30settle. com/ news/ globe/ city_region/ breaking_news/ 2007/ 10/ man_wrongly_con.S. enseignons. Biometric Encrypton: A Positive-Sum Technology that Achieves Strong Authentication. uk/ 1/ hi/ uk/ 6417565.  Abel. thefingerprintinquiryscotland.  Leave Them Kids Alone (http:/ / www. lecdh. co. . February 7. UK Parliament. html?wt. Vol 62. theiai. J. Jean-Marc (October 16. com/ Information/ Pioneers/ galton-1892-fingerprints-lowres. Man Finds To His Dismay. S. "History and development of forensic science in India". a drug dealer and a prime candidate for deportation.
com/galton/fingerprints/books/ index. Science 323: 1503–1506. James C. . 2001. "Deniable Degradation: The Finger-Imaging of Welfare Recipients".com) • Fingerprints and Human Identification (http://www. Maciej. Calif. ISSN 0884-8971  "Peers slam school fingerprinting" (http:/ / news. 2000). New York: Hyperion. David. Provost. 19 March 2007. 2010.html) • Do Fingerprints Lie? [[The New Yorker (http://www.htm) So. Sociological Forum 15 (1): 39–63.com/2002/05/do-fingerprints-lie/)] (2002)] . 90 Further reading • Ashbaugh. and Herschel's works on fingerprints (http://www. com/ fingerprinthistory.uk/) . virtualsciencefair.com (http://www.php/physical-evidence/ fingerprint-evidence) • Galton's Finger Prints (http://www. Florida: CRC Press. Fingerprints: The Origins of Crime Detection and the Murder Case that Launched Forensic Science. • Scheibert. March–April 2010. Boca Raton. Boca Raton.org/Online_Information/bibliography.fingerprinting. Harry (March. Kosette M. "To avoid ID. Quantitative-Qualitative Friction Ridge Analysis: An Introduction to Basic and Advanced Ridgeology.Fingerprint  Child Print (http:/ / www. htm). .gov/hq/cjisd/fproll.Society for Fingerprint Examiners • Fingerprinting. and Margot..htm) • Henry. Lambert. org/ 2004/ fren4j0/ public_html/ animal_fingerprints. fingerprintamerica. Faulds.  "Fingerprint history" (http:/ / www. • Cowger. Nicolas. J.mugu.cbdiai. Boston Globe. asp).scafo. BBC News.  Abel. doi:10. Assn. The role of fingerprints in the coding of tactile information probed with a biomimetic sensor. ca/ en/ crime_prevention/ child_print/ index. • Beavan. stm). uk/ 1/ hi/ uk_politics/ 6468643. com/ news/ local/ massachusetts/ articles/ 2010/ 07/ 21/ to_avoid_id_more_are_mutilating_fingerprints/ ). Paul-Jean (1824–1890) : A precursor in the history of fingermark detection and their potential use for identifying their source (1863). 129–134. (1997). of Fingerprint Officers. Errors and concerns • Will West as fable (http://www. Coulier. "Fingerprint homoplasy: koalas and humans" (http:/ / naturalscience.org/library/110105. Retrieved 2 September 2010.html) • FBI Fingerprinting Video Lesson (http://www. Leigh.gov/hq/cjisd/takingfps. Friction Ridge Skin: Comparison and Identification of Fingerprints. Pierre.com/index.fbi. G. 60 (2). ottawapolice.html) • Fingerprint Processing Guide (http://www. S. Chris M.bleaching-dental.mugu.scafo. pp.1023/A:1007594003722.  Henneberg. 1992.html) (4-sec Quicktime video of rolling a single inked finger) • The Fingerprint Society (http://www.fbi.htm) • Extensive bibliography (http://www. bbc.michaelspecter. . boston. . External links General • FBI Fingerprint Guide (http://www.com/galton/books/finger-prints/index. In Journal of Forensic Identification (California). more are mutilating fingerprints" (http:/ / www. A and Debregeas. co. 2009.com 1.org.  "Animal fingerprints" (http:/ / www. Florida: CRC Press.org/Reagents/main. Leurent. 2010. Retrieved September 2. html). 1999. • Quinche.crimeandclues.html) • Fingerprint Articles at Crime & Clues (http://www. David R. cfm) (Ottawa Police Service) (English)/(French)  Murray. Colin. .fpsociety. NaturalSCIENCE. com/ ns/ articles/ 01-04/ ns_hll.com/articles/ fingerprints_and_human_identification.
acquired with the same sensors as the training set. Journal of Forensic Identification • Surgeon jailed for removing fingerprints (http://www. 13 academic. FVC2000. second and third international competitions on fingerprint verification (FVC2000. National Institute of Standards and Technology. to allow them to adjust the parameters of their algorithms. 2002 and 2004. The interest shown in previous editions by the biometrics research community has prompted the organizers to schedule a new competition for the year 2006.nist.htm) • The Science of Fingerprints (http://www.ecs. A subset of fingerprint impressions acquired with various sensors was provided to registered participants. The Organizers of FVC are: • Pattern Recognition and Image Processing Laboratory (Michigan State University)  • Biometric Test Center (San Jose State University)  • Biometric Recognition Group . and provided an overview of the state-of-the-art in fingerprint recognition.nl/~frvc/handresearch/derm. Itiel E.au/news/world/ surgeon-jailed-for-removing-fingerprints/2008/02/14/1202760429686. Participants were requested to provide enroll and match executable files of their algorithms.ATVS (Universidad Autonoma de Madrid)  Each participant can submit up to one algorithm to the open and light categories. They established a common benchmark. FVC2002 and FVC2004 were undoubtedly successful initiatives. Based on the response of the biometrics community.gov/) at the U.Sydney Morning Herald (news article) Science and statistics • Fingerprint research and evaluation (http://fingerprint.org/etext/19022) at Project Gutenberg 91 Fingerprint Verification Competition Fingerprint Verification Competition (FVC) is an international competition focused on fingerprint verification software assessment.uk/~id/JFI expert error. These events received great attention both from academic and industrial biometric communities.dse. In 2006 we had: • • • • Four new databases (three real and one synthetic) Two categories (Open Category and Light Category) 53 participants (27 industrial. allowing developers to unambiguously compare their algorithms.html) . FVC2002 and FVC2004) were organized in 2000. and 13 independent developers) 70 algorithms submitted (44 in the Open Category and 26 in the Light Category) • Biometric System Laboratory (University of Bologna)  . David Charlton. the evaluation was conducted at the organizers’ facilities using the submitted executable files on a sequestered database.smh.ac. Dror.pdf). respectively. The first.com.soton.S. • Fingerprint pattern distribution statistics (http://www.gutenberg.Fingerprint • Why Experts Make Errors (http://users.
The maximum memory that can be allocated by the processes is 4 MB. • Each participant is allowed to submit only one algorithm to each category. DB3-B and DB4-B. DB3-A and DB4-A. the results of this competition will give a useful overview of the state-of-the-art in this field and will provide guidance to the participants for improving their algorithms.20 GHz . the maximum response time of the algorithms is limited as follows: the maximum time for each enrollment is 5 seconds. • Further testing. Nonetheless. Databases One of the most important and time-consuming tasks of any biometric system evaluation is the data collection. for both academia and industry. DB3 and DB4.Fingerprint Verification Competition 92 Aim • Continuous advances in the field of biometric systems and.3 seconds and the maximum time for matching is 0. • The image format is BMP.20 GHz . and to benchmark the state-of-the-art in fingerprint technology. DB2.3. DB2-B. For practical testing reasons.1. DB3 and DB4. each collected with a different sensor/technology. Each database is 150 fingers wide and 12 samples per finger in depth (i.S. The test will be executed under Windows XP Professional O. it consists of 1800 fingerprint images). containing four disjoint fingerprint databases. • The aim of FVC2006 is to track recent advances in fingerprint verification. respectively. will be made available to the participants as a development set to allow parameter tuning before the submission. etc.1 seconds. DB2-A. uncompressed. Each database will be partitioned in two disjoint subsets A and B: • subsets DB1-A.00 GB RAM. DB2. The maximum time for enrollment is 0. large amounts of rotation and displacement. • During performance evaluation. will be used for the algorithm performance evaluation. after the competition is completed. will constitute the benchmark: DB1. • The image size and resolution vary depending on the database (detailed information will be available to the participants).. the maximum time for each matching is 3 seconds. provided by the organizers. which contain the first 140 fingers (1680 images) of DB1. DB3 and DB4.00 GB RAM. • This competition should not be viewed as an "official" performance certification of biometric systems. respectively. Categories • Two different sub-competitions (Open category and Light category) will be organized using the same databases. We have created a multi-database. The test will be executed under Windows XP Professional O. limited memory usage and small template size.e. 256 gray-levels. wet/dry impressions. The maximum template size is 2 kB. fingerprints belonging to the same database will be matched against each other. will be performed in a second stage. on PC INTEL PENTIUM 4 . A utility will be made available to the participants to test if their executables comply with the memory requirement. • The Open category has no limits on memory requirements and template size. in particular.S. • The Light category is intended for algorithms conceived for light architectures and therefore characterized by low computing needs. since only parts of the system software will be evaluated by using images from sensors not native to each system. in fingerprint-based systems (both in matching techniques and sensing devices) require that performance evaluation of biometric systems be carried out at regular intervals.1. • subsets DB1-B. DB2.3. containing the last 10 fingers (120 images) of DB1. • Four distinct databases. on PC INTEL PENTIUM 4 . • Data collection in FVC2006 was performed without deliberately introducing difficulties such as exaggerated distortion. on interoperability and quality related issues. (as it was done in the previous .
the symmetric match (i. as in FVC2004 and FVC2002.FRR). The total number of genuine tests (in case no enrollment rejections occur) is: ((12*11) /2) * 140 = 9. rejection in enrollment is fused with other error rates for the final ranking..1%) ZeroFMR (the lowest FNMR for FMR=0%) ZeroFNMR (the lowest FMR for FNMR=0%) Average enrollment time Average matching time Average and maximum template size Maximum amount of memory allocated The following average performance indicators are reported over the four databases: • Average EER • Average FMR100 • Average FMR1000 . h against g) is not executed to avoid correlation in the scores. The volunteers were simply asked to put their fingers naturally on the acquisition device. where t is the acceptance threshold ROC(t) curve EER (equal-error-rate) EER* (the value that EER would take if the matching failures were excluded from the computation of FMR and FNMR) FMR100 (the lowest FNMR for FMR<=1%) FMR1000 (the lowest FNMR for FMR<=0.730 Although it is possible to reject images in enrollment.240 • The first sample of each finger in the subset A is matched against the first sample of the remaining fingers in A to compute the False Match Rate FMR (also referred as False Acceptance Rate . If image g is matched to h . The total number of impostor tests (in case no enrollment rejections occur) is: ((140*139) /2) = 9. the following performance indicators are reported: • REJENROLL (Number of rejected fingerprints during enrollment) • REJNGRA (Number of rejected fingerprints during genuine matches) • • • • • • • • • • • • • • REJNIRA (Number of rejected fingerprints during impostor matches) Impostor and Genuine score distributions FMR(t)/FNMR(t) curves.. this is strongly discouraged.FAR). to make the benchmark sufficiently difficult for a technology evaluation. in FVC2006. but the population is more heterogeneous and also includes manual workers and elderly people. If image g is matched to h. the symmetric match (i. in particular. h against g) is not executed to avoid correlation in the scores. each rejection in enrollment will produce a "ghost" template which will not match (matching score 0) with all the remaining fingerprints.e.e. 93 Performance Evaluation For each database and for each algorithm: • Each sample in the subset A is matched against the remaining samples of the same finger to compute the False Non Match Rate FNMR (also referred as False Rejection Rate . In fact. For each algorithm and for each database.Fingerprint Verification Competition editions). The final datasets were selected from a larger database by choosing the most difficult fingers according to a quality index. but no constraints were enforced to guarantee a minimum quality in the acquired images.
edu/ http:/ / www. J. cse. Jain. • Anonymous participation will be accepted: participants will be allowed to decide whether or not they want to publish their names together with their algorithm’s performance. unibo. it/ fvc2002/ http:/ / bias. Participants will be confidentially informed about the performance of their algorithm before they are required to make this decision. see [R. Wayman and A. it could be of interest to the entire fingerprint community. since it is a very high level description of the approaches. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis Machine Intelligence. it/ fvc2006/ http:/ / bias. from the industry. csr. the label "Anonymous organization" will be used. unibo.K. • Together with their submissions. it/ fvc2004/ http:/ / bias. engr. it/ http:/ / biometrics. csr. sjsu. January 2006]). unibo. it/ fvc2000/ . and the real identity will not be revealed. In case a participant decides to remain anonymous. D. “Performance Evaluation of Fingerprint Verification Systems”. unibo. unibo.Fingerprint Verification Competition • • • • • • • Average ZeroFMR Average REJENROLL (Average number of rejected fingerprints during enrollment) Average REJMATCH (Average number of rejected fingerprints during genuine and impostor matches) Average enrollment time Average matching time Average template size (Calculated on the average template size for each database) Average memory allocated (Calculated on the maximum amount of memory allocated for each database) 94 Participants • Participants can be from academia. Maltoni. • Organizers of FVC2006 will not participate in the contest. csr. Whilst this required information will not disclose industrial secrets. edu/ biometrics http:/ / atvs. Cappelli. csr.L. or independent developers. D. high-level information about their algorithms (similar to those reported in FVC2004. msu. it/ FVCOnGoing/ http:/ / bias. Maio. ii. uam. External links • • • • • FVC ongoing  FVC 2006  FVC 2004  FVC 2002  FVC 2000  References          http:/ / biolab. es/ https:/ / biolab. unibo. csr. csr. participants will be required to provide some general.
was finally completed in 2001. the former chief of the French central antiterrorist service.000 entries. the general secretary of the Syndicat de la magistrature (the first syndicat of juges) has declare that « nobody has pronouced himself in aid of a global filing. simple thefts. • In May 2007. and finely almost all small offenses. In septembre 2009. proposed the creation of a central DNA database. such as voluntary manslaughter. with punishment ranging from a prison sentence of between six months and two years.000 entries .FNAEG 95 FNAEG The Fichier National Automatisé des Empreintes Génétiques (English: Automated National File of Genetic Prints) is the French national DNA database. created a national DNA database. this number was believed to now be in excess of nearly 500. Many of them were civil disobedience activists opposed to Genetically modified organism (GMO) (See fr:Faucheurs volontaires). criminal violence and terrorism. Privacy concerns With the expansion of the database in 2003.  Relative size • As at October 1. in fact. A further 'law for interior safety' introduced by Nicolas Sarkozy on March 18. • In 2006.000 convicted criminals and another 3.27 million entries. there is 1. tags and dégradations. In the aftermath of the September 11 attacks on the USA in 2001. the Guigou law on the prevention of sexually-related crimes. this number was believed to now be in excess of 330. with the database itself located at Écully in the Rhône. but. it is being doing. 2003. 2003 expanded the scope still further to cover almost all violent crimes to people or property. Tackings is done for convicted person and simple suspect. In June 1998. a bill was filed relating to the implementation of a national database for identification of child sex offenders. and a fine of between 7. • In december 2009. At the end of 2006. Origins and evolution In 1996 Alain Marsaud. ». The law doesn't expect minimal age. originally planned for 1999. Matthieu Bonduelle. passed by the Plural Left Lionel Jospin government. they denounced what they regarded as the threat to personal freedom. the media raised the case of individuals refusing to provide DNA samples.000 euros. managed by a subdirectorate of the technical and scientific departments of the French police force.200 suspects. used by both the national police force and local gendarmerie. serious crimes such as drug trafficking. The following year. it also became an offense for suspects to fail to provide a DNA sample.500 and 30. but not traffic offenses or crimes committed abroad. FNAEG was understood to contain the DNA records of approximately 8. Although this was only around 200 cases. . the French government increased the scope of the database to include DNA related to other serious criminal offences. The implementation.
the German anatomist Christian Wilhelm Braune and Otto Fischer published a series of papers on the biomechanics of human gait under loaded and unloaded conditions. html#ens_id=1241893). age.  . html) • On the official Website of the french ministère de l’intérieur : Fichier national automatisé des empreintes génétiques (http://www.1-0@2-823448. which is usually mis-represented in paintings made prior to this discovery. and for follow-up monitoring. i.gouv. assemblee-nationale. fr/ web/ article/ 0. html). lemonde. introduction and analysis of measurable parameters of gaits. article of Mathieu Delahousse  (French) official declaration (http:/ / questions. The study encompasses quantification. fr/ societe/ article/ 2009/ 09/ 18/ adn-ouvrez-la-bouche-vous-etes-fiche_1242095_3224. ils sont menacés de fichage génétique pour vol de jouets (http:/ / www. more specific as a study of human motion. Gait analysis is used to assess. speed. advanced significantly in the 1980s.  (French) A 8 et 11 ans. it became possible to capture image sequences which reveal details of human and animal locomotion that are not noticeable by watching the movement with the naked eye.0. size.interieur. article in Le Monde. mercredi 16 septembre 2009.FNAEG 96 References  (French) 8 et 11 ans. Parkinson's disease.36-906026. for example. ils sont menacés de fichage génétique pour vol de jouets (http:/ / www. article of Dominique Simonnot. both to design treatment plans. body mechanics.) from its gait. In the 1890s. Many leading orthopaedic hospitals worldwide now have gait labs which are routinely used in large numbers of cases. 2007  (French)le Figaro du 16.fr/sections/a_votre_service/aide_aux_victimes/fiche-fnaeg) Gait analysis Gait analysis is the systematic study of animal locomotion. drawing various conclusions about the animal (health. FIG000000042_record_d_enquetes_elucidees_grace_a_l_adn. fr/ q13/ 13-68468QE.service-public. With the development of photography. Giovanni Alfonso Borelli also called De Motu Animalium (I et II).(French) Record d'enquêtes élucidées grâce à l'ADN (http:/ / www.e. cgi?offre=ARCHIVES& type_item=ART_ARCH_30J& objet_id=987971''A) dans Le Monde daté du 05 mai 2007  Le Canard enchaîné. the widespread application of gait analysis to humans with pathological conditions such as cerebral palsy. etc. based on gait analysis results. and the activity of the muscles. using the eye and the brain of observers. began in the 1970s with the availability of video camerasystems which could produce detailed studies of individual patients within realistic cost and time constraints. i. fr/ france/ 20070516. (French) "L'ADN fiche la trouille". lemonde. of the 18th september 2009. and treat individuals with conditions affecting their ability to walk. fr/ cgi-bin/ ACHATS/ acheter. html). 4. weight. It was photography which first revealed the detailed sequence of the horse "gallop" gait. lemonde. History The pioneers of scientific gait analysis were Aristotle in De Motu Animalium (On the Gait of Animals) and much later in 1680. The development of treatment regimes. Eadweard Muybridge and Étienne-Jules Marey were pioneers of this in the early 1900s. lefigaro. Le Monde May 7.  Ouvrez la bouche. as well as interpretation. p. It is also commonly used in sports biomechanics to help athletes run more efficiently and to identify posture-related or movement-related problems in people with injuries. htm) 2010/01/12 External links • Fichier national automatisé des empreintes génétiques (http://www. augmented by instrumentation for measuring body movements.fr/accueil/police_fnaeg. plan. Although much early research was done using film cameras.e. vous êtes fiché (http:/ / www. and neuromuscular disorders. often involving orthopaedic surgery.
This gives a full breakdown of the motion at each joint. the systems tend to be less forgiving for out-of-view markers than the passive systems. using reflective markers (typically reflective balls). allows for very accurate measurement of movements using multiple cameras (typically five to twelve cameras). which are linked to a computer. near infrared or infrared) with matching filters to record the reflection from the markers placed on the body. such as palpable bony landmarks (e. most laboratories have floor-mounted load transducers. 3. the iliac spines of the pelvis. biomechanical models and sensor fusion algorithms. These full-body or partly systems can be used indoors and outdoors regardless of lighting conditions. which measure the ground reaction forces. The cameras utilize high-powered strobes (typically red. and location (called centre of pressure). including magnitude. Markers are located at palpable anatomical landmarks. A model is applied to compute the underlying motion of the bones.  2. 97 Equipment and techniques Gait analysis commonly involves the measurement of the movement of the body in space (kinematics) and the forces involved in producing these movements (kinetics). 5. A computer model is then used to compute joint angles from the relative marker positions of the labeled trajectories. These are also used for motion capture in the motion picture industry. however. This signal is then used to triangulate the location of the marker. simultaneously. These markers are triggered by the incoming infra red signal and respond by sending out a corresponding signal of their own. Based on the angle and time delay between the original and reflected signal. Passive marker systems. Inertial (cameraless) systems based on MEMS inertial sensors. This method has been aided by the development of analysis software that greatly simplifies the analysis process and allows for analysis in three dimensions rather than two dimensions only. Kinematics can be recorded using a variety of systems and methodologies: 1. Software is used to create three dimensional trajectories from these markers which are subsequently given identification labels. have their own "identity".g. some through collaborations with the aerospace industry. A typical modern gait lab has several to many cameras (video and/or infrared) placed around a walkway or treadmill. 4. The patient walks down the walkway or the treadmill and the computer calculates the trajectory of each marker in three dimensions.Gait analysis Development of modern computer based systems occurred independently during the late 1970s and early 1980s in several hospital based research labs. the malleoli of the ankle. Active marker systems are similar to the passive marker system but use "active" markers. Gait laboratory with passive infrared cameras and embedded force platforms In addition. or clusters of markers applied to the middle of body segments. direction. Cine film or video recordings using footage from single or multiple cameras can be used to measure joint angles and velocities. Chronophotography is the most basic method for the recording of movement. This means that no post-processing of marker locations is required. also known as force platforms. and the condyles of the knee). to calculate movement kinetics. Commercial development soon followed with the emergence of Vicon Motion Systems and BTS. The patient has single markers applied to anatomical landmarks. marketing gait analysis hardware systems in the mid 1980's. The spatial distribution of forces can also be measured .. The advantage of this system over the passive one is that individual markers work at predefined frequencies and therefore. Strobe lighting at known frequency has been used in the past to aid in the analysis of gait on single photographic images. triangulation of the marker in space is possible.
Gait analysis using pedobarographic equipment. Adding this to the known dynamics of each body segment, enables the solution of equations based on the Newton–Euler equations of motion permitting computations of the net forces and the net moments of force about each joint at every stage of the gait cycle. The computational method for this is known as inverse dynamics. This use of kinetics, however, does not result in information for individual muscles but muscle groups, such as the extensor or flexors of the limb. To detect the activity and contribution of individual muscles to movement, it is necessary to investigate the electrical activity of muscles. Many labs also use surface electrodes attached to the skin to detect the electrical activity or electromyogram (EMG) of, for example, a muscles of the leg. In this way it is possible to investigate the activation times of muscles and, to some degree, the magnitude of their activation—thereby assessing their contribution to gait. Deviations from normal kinematic, kinetic, or EMG patterns are used to diagnose specific conditions, predict the outcome of treatments, or determine the effectiveness of training programs.
Pathological gait may reflect compensations for underlying pathologies, or be responsible for causation of symptoms in itself. The study of gait allows these diagnoses to be made, as well as permitting future developments in rehabilitation engineering. Aside from clinical applications, gait analysis is widely used in professional sports training to optimise and improve athletic performance. Gait analysis techniques allow for the assessment of gait disorders and the effects of corrective Orthopedic surgery. Options for treatment of cerebral palsy include the paralysis of spastic muscles using Botox or the lengthening, re-attachment or detachment of particular tendons. Corrections of distorted bony anatomy are also undertaken. It is heavily used in the assessment of sports and investigations into the movement of a large variety of other animals.
Biometric identification and forensics
Minor variations in gait style can be used as a biometric identifier to identify individual people. The parameters are grouped to spatial-temporal (step length, step width, walking speed, cycle time) and kinematic (joint rotation of the hip, knee and ankle, mean joint angles of the hip/knee/ankle, and thigh/trunk/foot angles) classes. There is a high correlation between step length and height of a person.  Gait analysis was proposed as authentication for portable electronic devices. For slip and fall investigations, the incident walking surface slip resistance can be measured. The surface can be tested to identify if it is above or below accepted levels or slip thresholds. The English XL slip meter, also known as a VIT (Variable Incidence Tribometer) is a leading edge portable "slip tester", which is designed to test the coefficient of friction or "slip index" on various walking surfaces, level or incline (even steps), under dry and wet (or otherwise contaminated) conditions by mimicking certain pedestrian biomechanical parameters. The objective measurements that can be analyzed and compared with "normal" walking forces and industry standards regarding flooring slip resistance. 
• G. K. Chesterton premised one of his Father Brown mysteries, "The Queer Feet", on gait recognition. • Cory Doctorow makes much of gait recognition as a security technique used in a high school in his book Little Brother.
 Whittle E. Michael, Gait Analysis, An Introduction, preference page, Butterworth Heinnemann, 2007.  Aristotle (2004). On the Gait of Animals (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=lZGxiHM2ldIC). Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 1419138677. .  Fischer, Otto; Braune, Wilhelm (1895) (in German). Der Gang des Menschen: Versuche am unbelasteten und belasteten Menschen, Band 1.. Hirzel Verlag.  DH Sutherland: "The evolution of clinical gait analysis: Part II Kinematics" Gait & Posture. 2002; 16: 159-179.  Étienne-Jules Marey  Eadweard Muybridge  RB Davis, S Õunpuu, D Tyburski, JR Gage "A gait analysis data collection and reduction technique". Human Movement Science 1991;10:575-587.  Robertson DGE, et al., Research Methods in Biomechanics, Champaign IL:Human Kinetics Pubs., 2004.  Best, Russell; Begg, Rezaul (2006). "Overview of Movement Analysis and Gait Features" (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=0yis6idPgy8C& pg=PA11). In Begg, Rezaul; Palaniswami, Marimuthu. Computational Intelligence for Movement Sciences: Neural Networks and Other Emerging Techniques. Idea Group. 2006-03-30. pp. 11–18. ISBN 978-1-59140-836-9. .  Ambulatory inertial gait analysis (http:/ / www. xsens. com/ en/ mvn-biomech)  journalsip.astm.org/JOURNALS/FORENSIC/PAGES/4706.htm (http:/ / journalsip. astm. org/ JOURNALS/ FORENSIC/ PAGES/ 4706. htm)  geradts.com/html/Documents/gait.htm (http:/ / geradts. com/ html/ Documents/ gait. htm)  www.vtt.fi/vtt/new/2005/new11.htm (http:/ / www. vtt. fi/ vtt/ new/ 2005/ new11. htm)  www.kodsiengineering.com/personal.cfm (http:/ / www. kodsiengineering. com/ personal. cfm)  englishxl.com/xl.html (http:/ / englishxl. com/ xl. html)
• Clinical Gait Analysis (http://www.clinicalgaitanalysis.com/)
Generalized Procrustes analysis
Generalized Procrustes analysis
Generalized Procrustes analysis (GPA) is a method of statistical analysis that can be used to compare the shapes of objects, or the results of surveys, interviews, panels. It was developed for analyising the results of free-choice profiling, a survey technique which allows respondents (such as sensory panelists) to describe a range of products in their own words or language. GPA is the only way to make sense of free-choice profiling data (Meullenet et al., 2007). Generalized Procrustes analysis estimates the scaling factor applied to respondent scale usage, thus it generates a weighting factor that is used to compensate for individual scale usage differences. Unlike measures such as a principal component analysis, since GPA uses individual level data, a measure of variance is utilized in the analysis. The Procrustes distance provides a metric to minimize in order to superimpose a pair of shape instances annotated by landmark points. GPA applies the Procrustes analysis method to superimpose a population of shapes instead of only two shape instances. The algorithm outline is the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. arbitrarily choose a reference shape (typically by selecting it among the available instances) superimpose all instances to current reference shape compute the mean shape of the current set of superimposed shapes if the Procrustes distance between the mean shape and the reference is above a threshold, set reference to mean shape and continue to step 2.
• J.F. Meullenet, R. Xiong, and C.J. Findlay (2007). Multivariate and Probabilistic Analyses of Sensory Science Problems. IFT Press & Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0813801780. • I.L. Dryden and K.V. Mardia (1998). Statistical Shape Analysis. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0471958166.
rhythm. In the medical field. and consistency of the graphic stroke in terms of psychological interpretations. The form of the resultant writing movement is modified further by the flexibly assembled coordinative structures in the hand. • The muscular movements involved in writing are controlled by the central nervous system. . Psychographology. Graphometry. hand. Emotion. Given these considerations. being at its highest level when an effort has to be made by the writer and at its lowest level when the motion of the writing organ has gained momentum and is driven by it. which follow the principles of dynamical systems. the ego is active but it is not always active to the same degree. mental state. Such interpretations vary according to the graphological theory applied by the analyst. most empirical studies fail to show the validity claimed by its supporters. The written strokes. and shoulder.  Etymology From grapho. the writer uses those forms of letters which are simpler or more familiar. • When the action of writing is comparatively difficult. movement. Graphomaniac. or alcohol usage. Biology. Psychology. form. arm.Graphology 101 Graphology Graphology is the pseudoscientific      study and analysis of handwriting especially in relation to human psychology. foot. The significance of the cluster can be assessed accurately by tracing each component of the cluster back to their origins and adapting the meaning of the latter to the conditions of the milieu in which the form appears. with each cluster having a different psychological interpretation. The term is sometimes incorrectly used to refer to forensic document examination. it can be used to refer to the study of handwriting as an aid in diagnosis and tracking of diseases of the brain and nervous system.(from the Greek γραφή. There also exist many other words formed from the same root: Graphopathology.: Anthropology. • The neurophysiological mechanisms which contribute to the written movement are related to conditions within the central nervous system and vary in accordance with them. graphologists proceed to evaluate the pattern. Graphopsychology. Graphoanalysis. • One must examine the handwriting or drawing movements by considering them as movements organized by the central nervous system and produced under biomechanical and dynamical constraints. Graphotechnology. Graphistic. "writing") and logos (from the Greek λόγος. Its activity waxes and wanes. • Most schools of thought in graphology concur that a single graphological element can be a component of many different clusters. Basic tenets Graphology is based upon the following basic assertions: • When we write. quality. and biomechanical factors such as muscle stiffness and elasticity are reflected in a person's handwriting. "speech"). • The movements and corresponding levels of muscular tension in writing are mostly outside of conscious control and subject to the ideomotor effect. The specific writing organ (mouth. Graphometric. crook of elbow) is irrelevant if it functions normally and is sufficiently adapted to its function. reflect both transitory and long term changes in the central nervous system such as Parkinson's disease. therefore. Geology. Graphology has been controversial more than a century. Although supporters point to the anecdotal evidence of thousands of positive testimonials as a reason to use it for personality evaluation. cf.
Minor symbolism ascribes a meaning to the stroke. • The Personal Worth Chart was developed by Handwriting Consultants of San Diego during the early eighties. but incorrectly referred to as Gestalt Graphology. as it related to the page.  was developed by Leslie King during the seventies. This approach provides the theory that underlies both Holistic Graphology. Symbolic analysisMajor symbolism is the meaning ascribed to the stroke.Enskat Protokol  • Leopold Szondi • Girolamo Moretti   • Augusto Vels         . Systems of handwriting analysis Each approach to handwriting analysis has spawned several different systems. the holistic approach. to score a specific personality trait. Most systems within this approach use a cluster of stroke formations. Systems that fall under this umbrella are: fixed signs. and working to the inside. one looks for symbols seen in the handwriting. • Integrative Graphology • Graphoanalysis was the most influential system in the United States. In this approach (Holistic Graphology) a profile is constructed on the basis of form. In this approach. such as legibility. individual traits. between 1929 and 2000. • The psychograph • Wittlich Character Diagram. depending upon the picture that the stroke draws. movement and space. It has been described as starting from the inside. at an accredited institution in the United States. or Minor Symbolism.   • Holistic Graphology • The psychogram   is the only system to have been taught as part of an academic degree. and working to the outside. and Integrative Graphology. Max Pulver    is the best known exponent of this system.  • Muller . but can take on different meanings depending on the overall context. French System and Graphoanalysis. Holistic graphology This is commonly. John Wayne's signature shows a blackened out portion. Gestalt graphology was a system of handwriting analysis developed circa 1915 in Germany and was related theoretically to Gestalt psychology. • Sistema de Xandró.Graphology 102 Approaches to graphology There are three approaches to graphology: the integrative approach. In this approach. that represents his lung cancer. This can be either Major symbolism. and the symbolic Integrative graphology This approach holds that specific stroke structures relate to personality traits. It has been described as starting from the outside. trait stroke. are not assigned specific meanings. For example.
in New York City. Certifications are invariably linked to the organization one belongs to. The technical meaning of a word used by a handwriting analyst. Training in the United States is currently available through correspondence courses. This was the only academic institution in the United States to have offered graphology for an accredited academic degree. Around 1830 Abbé Michon became interested in handwriting analysis. He ended up calling it "The science of the future". The most prominent of his disciples was J. . Even though two or more systems may share the same words. History Three books have been claimed to be the first book on graphology: 1. and the common meaning is not congruent. Alfred Binet was convinced to do research into graphology from 1893 to 1907. At its peak. offered a diploma in Graphology. Argentina: BA (Graphology) • Autonomous University of Barcelona. the diploma course took 8 semesters. New School for Social Research. Barcelona: Spain: MA (Graphology) Training in the United States Between 1940 and 1995. this is considered to be the first book. means to feel or   exhibit annoyance. the meanings of those words may be different. for example. Vocabulary Every system of handwriting analysis has its own vocabulary. He published his findings  shortly after founding Société Graphologique in 1871. Juan Huarte de San Juan's 1575 Examen de ingenios para las ciencias  This was first proposed by Jean-Charles Gille in 1991. despite graphologists' rejecting the results of his research. The 1625 edition was probably the first authorized edition of Baldi's book. From 1970 to 2000. 2. Crépieux-Jamin ended up with a holistic approach to graphology. Prospero Aldorisio's 1611 Idengraphicus nuncius 3. In American graphology.  Starting from Michon's integrative approach. Camilo Baldi's Trattado come de una lettera Missiva si conoscano la nature e qualita dello scriviente which was unofficially published in 1622. in Lodi. Certification There is no certification that is generally recognized. The quality of instructions varies considerably. Italy: MA (Graphology) • Emerson University College. one could obtain a Graphology track Associate Arts Degree from Felician College.Graphology 103 Training The only academic institutions in the world that currently offer an accredited degree in handwriting analysis are: • The University of Urbino. in common usage. Crépieux-Jamin who rapidly published a series of books  that were soon published in other languages. and also included Forensic Document Analysis. Resentment. and are no longer recognized when one resigns from the organization. either within or outside the field. the term indicates a fear of imposition. Buenos Aires. In Graphoanalysis. Courses offered in the subject reflect that bias. Writing systems The majority of material in the field is oriented towards the Latin Writing system. NJ. This diploma did not have academic accreditation.
Government. 104 Validity Although graphology had some support in the scientific community before the mid-twentieth century. Anthony and Florence Anthony. Klara G. based upon their experience working for the U. Her books are still considered to be foundations for contemporary American Holistic graphology. anecdotal evidence indicates that 10% of the members of International Graphoanalysis Society(IGAS) were expelled between 1970 and 1980. such as the American Association of Handwriting Analysts that were orientated towards Holistic graphology. publishing their method in 1942. the British Psychological Society ranks graphology alongside astrology . Those talks resulted in the creation of the Council of Graphological Societies in 1976. Handwriting Workshops Unlimited was organized by Charlie Cole as a series of lectures for advanced students of Graphoanalysis. absolutely hopeless". A broad literature screen done by King and Koehler confirmed dozens of studies showing the mechanical aspects of graphology (slant. Later mass expulsions of IGAS members led to the formation of other societies. etc. She taught at the New School for Social Research in New York. the graphology organizations have suffered major declines in membership.  In a 1987 study. Also. A 1982 meta-analysis drawn from over 200 studies concludes that graphologists were generally unable to predict any kind of personality trait on any personality test. In 1972 talks between the American Handwriting Analysis Foundation and the American Association of Handwriting Analysis started. Ludwig Klages founded and published his finding in Zeitschrift für Menschenkunde (Journal for the Study of Mankind). the results of  most recent surveys on the ability for graphology to assess personality and job performance have been negative. graphologists were unable to predict scores on the Eysenck personality questionnaire using writing samples from the same people. By 1960 all of the participants had been expelled by IGAS. Recent studies testing the validity of using handwriting for predicting personality traits and job performance have been consistently negative. Measures of job performance appear similarly unrelated to the handwriting metrics of graphologists.) are essentially worthless predictors of job performance. and was succeeded there by Daniel S. Many studies have been conducted to assess its effectiveness to predict personality and job performance.giving them both "zero validity". . Roman was the most prominent of the German refugee scholars. and IGAS on American graphology. In a 1988 study.Graphology After World War I. In 1929 Milton Bunker founded The American Grapho Analysis Society teaching Graphoanalysis. Students had to choose between Graphoanalysis or Holistic Graphology. summarized his view of the appeal of graphology: "It's very seductive because at a very crude level someone who is neat and well behaved tends to have neat handwriting". These individuals went on to form the American Handwriting Analysis Foundation. with the aim to form a single organization. His major contribution to the field can be found in Handschrift und Charakter.. a British psychologist who has written several studies on graphology. Professional graphologists using handwriting analysis were just as ineffective as lay people at predicting performance in a 1989 study. slope. Rowan Bayne. In Germany during the 1920s.    Graphology is primarily used as a recruiting tool to screen candidates during the evaluation process. graphologists were unable to predict scores on the Myers-Briggs test using writing samples from the same people. interest in graphology continued to spread in Europe as well as the United States. the decimation of IGAS members had resulted in a decline of the influence of Graphoanalysis. Since the rise of the Internet in the early 1990s. Whilst hard data is lacking. adding that the practice is "useless.S..  Thea Stein Lewinson and J. This organization and its system split the American graphology world in two. due to email lists. Zubin modified Klage's ideas. These lectures featured holistic graphologists such as Thea Lewinson and Klara Roman. communication between graphologists representing different approaches has increased. By the time Peter Ferrera died in 1991. However.
The published studies on ethnicity.   nationality. Bar-Hillel. These phenomena make it difficult to validate methods of personality testing. Non-individualized graphological reports give credence to this criticism. Uniformly the research indicates that gender can be determined at a significant level. Ben-Abba. for example. Second Series 35.   race. or other EEOC Protected Classes. Blum. the large majority of studies such as Ben-Shakar. but are in fact vague and general enough to apply to a wide range of people. . There have been a number of studies on gender    and handwriting. These describe the observation that individuals will give high accuracy ratings to descriptions of their personality that supposedly are tailored specifically for them. Regardless of the validity of handwriting analysis. despite a few studies that support handwriting analysis." Formniveau. Lawyers Edition. • Vagueness: One of the key points of attack for critics is the ease with which a graphologist can alter the "rules. thus far. 105 Additional specific objections • The Barnum effect and the Dr Fox effect. there have been no studies demonstrating that the Ethnicity. gender orientation. 221-223 (1967) All of these cases are about Fifth Amendment rights in a criminal investigation. Legal considerations In Hungary A Hungarian Parliamentary Commissioner for Data Protection and Freedom of Information report states that handwriting analysis without informed consent is a privacy violation. Tallent(1958). interprets a sign positively if the individual is high status.  However. the research results imply that it is not applicable for any specific individual. • Effect Size: Dean's(1992)  primary argument against the use of graphology is that the effect size is too small. In the United States Privacy Graphologists often claim that handwriting analysis in the workplace is legal. since it cannot determine Gender. with a tendency to indicate that they can be determined from handwriting. and negatively if the individual has low status . Age. but may be applicable to a group.   age. and their relationship to handwriting have had mixed results. 67.Graphology Overall. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) Many graphologists claim that handwriting analysis is non-discriminatory. weight. These cases do not address issues relating to psychological analysis of an individual. for example. such as Crumbaugh & Stockholm. 93 SC 774 US v Mara aka Marasovich :410 US 19 (1973) US v Rosinsky :547 F 2nd 249 (CA 4th 1977 ) United States v Wade :388 US 218. Neither do they address third party issues. citing one or more of the following cases: • • • • • Gilbert v California :388 US 263-267 (1967) US v Dionisio :410 US 1 (1973) 1973. See. & Flug and many others indicate evidence against its predictive validity. use of handwriting analysis in employment does not have a disparate impact upon EEOC protected classes.
137 Misc. Handwriting clearly falls into the group of tests that cannot be adapted to be administered to individuals who fall within one or more ADA-defined disabilities. 634 SW 2d 99. Ct. refutable. Daubert standard for expert witnesses The U. N.2d 917 (Sup. such as comprehensive background checks. do not develop the required fluency in handwriting.Y. then nobody can. Supreme Court case Daubert v. . tests that cannot be adapted for use by those individuals will not be used by a company. Be generally accepted in the scientific community. 106 Depending upon the specific system of graphology that is used. matching the congruency of the applicant with the ideal psychological profile of employees in the position. it fails between two and five criteria. As a result. Graphology supporters state that it can complement but not replace traditional hiring tools.Graphology Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 One of the rules of thumb in human resources is that if an individual who has an ADA-defined disability cannot take a test. Held to standards within the field. and testable. The most substantial reason for not using handwriting analysis in the employment process is the absence of evidence of a direct link between handwriting analysis and various measures of job performance The use of graphology in the hiring process has been criticized on ethical grounds and on legal grounds. Co. 101-102 (1982)] will be remembered for its implications on the propriety of allowing graphologists to testify. 1987) (handwriting expert may testify as to the authenticity of a writing but not as to an individual's physical or mental condition based on a handwriting sample) is an example of current U. and proceeds to do a personality profile. practical demonstration or record of work skills. Questions that handwriting analysts ask before doing an analysis can be illegal under this act. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals defined several criteria that expert testimony must meet to be admissible as evidence. Applications of graphology Employment profiling A company takes a writing sample provided by an applicant.S. for example. Carroll v State [276 Ark 160. In doing so. they undermined the scientific validity of both Integrative Graphology and Holistic Graphology.S. • • • • • Be verifiable. Subject to published peer review. Blind people. Graphology in court testimony Cameron v Knapp. Be valid and reliable.S. 520 N. A graphological report is meant to be used in conjunction with other tools. for the writing to be correctly analyzed. The opposing Handwriting Analysts displayed a distinct lack of professional courtesy to each other. case law for the rejection of graphology as psychological testimony. Research in employment suitability has ranged from complete failure to guarded success. 2d 373.Y.
. to create three hypothetical employees. Those are then compared to the applicant. The average division employee For this report. and median scores of every scored data point. and median scores of every scored data point.Graphology 107 Business compatibility This is an additional service offered by some handwriting analysts. mode. five. every aspect of an individual is examined for how it affects the other individual(s). for the entire unit are used. mode. the mean. The unit manager / Co-worker This explores the differences in personal style between a manager/co-worker and potential employee. but also each individual as a part of a group of three. people within the group. The average company employee For this report. for the entire company are used. Unit wide This is a report the describes how compatible the individual is. Psychological analysis These reports can range from a ten item check off list to a 25 page report on the makeup of an individual from the perspective of Freudian Psychoanalysis. mode. The idea is for each member of the group to learn not only their own strengths and weakness. At its most complex. with each employee in the division. to create three hypothetical employees. with focus being how well the individual will fit into the existing company psychodynamic profile. for the entire division are used. etc. The basic theory is that after knowing and understanding how each other is different. The individual is then compared to these three employees. The focus of these reports can be one. and median scores of every scored data point. or more of the following: Company-wide This is a report the describes how compatible the individual is. it is not unknown for a polyamorous group to obtain a report prior to the commitment ceremony of a new individual. Division wide This is a report that describes how compatible the individual is. or another personality theory. four. to create three hypothetical employees. with a focus on how good a fit the individual is. the mean. Composite reports This explores the difference in personal style between every employee in a group. with the focus being how good a fit the individual is. The content of these reports can range from a simple perspectrograph. The average unit employee For this report. Marital compatibility In its simplest form only sexual expression and sexual response are examined. The end result is on how each can maximize productivity and minimize personal friction. the mean. but also those of their co-workers. with each employee in the unit. to a four wheel Wittlich Diagram and accompanying twenty five thousand word analysis. The resulting reports not only deal with the individual on a one-to-one level within the group. The individual is then compared to these three employees. with each employee in the company. Transactional Analysis. any commitment that is made will be more enduring. Typically done for couples. and how they can more harmoniously work together.
 Graphotherapy This is the practice of changing a person's handwriting with the goal of changing features of his or her personality. pressure. The Vanguard Code of Ethical Practice. such research is not graphology as described throughout this article but an examination of factors pertaining to motor control. It was pioneered in France during the nineteen-thirties. Forensic document examination The discipline of forensic document examination is also known as questioned document examination within the judicial system. particularly timing. After the trial has begun. and consistency of size. prohibits medical diagnosis unless one is also licensed to do diagnosis in the state in which they practice. anatomical. These beliefs are claimed to be false for reasons ranging from the complete lack of either scientific or anecdotal evidence. As such. Research studies have been conducted in which a detailed examination of handwriting factors. sometimes in conjunction with music or positive self-talk. Divination Some individuals believe that one can tell the future from handwriting analysis. Others believe that a handwriting analyst can provide spiritual guidance on situations that they face. The study of these phenomena is a by-product of researchers investigating motor control processes and the interaction of nervous. and pressure are considered in the process of evaluating patients and their response to pharmacological therapeutic agents. and back to borderline personality disorder. The code of ethics for the International Graphoanalysis Society. British Association of Graphology. fluidity.Graphology In cultures where arranged marriages are common. the discipline tries to address the question of whether or not a document was written by the person who is thought to have written it. and Association Déontologique Européenne de Graphologie prohibits the practice of anything related to the occult. form. this is not an aspect of graphology. spreading to the United states in the late fifties. based upon their alleged personality profile. Strictly speaking. and biomechanical systems of the body. the graphologist advises counsel on how to slant their case. Goodtitle Drevett v Braham 100 Eng Rep 1139 (1792) is reportedly the first case at which the testimony of a questioned document examiner was accepted.  The therapy consists of a series of exercises which are similar to those taught in basic calligraphy courses. 108 Medical diagnosis Medical graphology is probably the most controversial aspect of handwriting analysis. There have been anecdotal reports of these exercises curing everything from drug addiction to anorexia nervosa. for the most favorable response from the jury. graphology can be used as an additional checkpoint on the compatibility of the couple prior to the elders giving their consent for the marriage to take place. to the application of Aristotelian logic to any of the numerous (and mutually incompatible) theories of handwriting analysis. Most graphologists reject supernatural insights from their assessment of handwriting. . Jury screening A graphologist is given handwriting samples of a prospective jury and determines who should be struck. With respect to handwriting examinations. speed. amongst others.
Frink (April 1996). Mauricio (1954). I. where the handwriting samples contain no content that could provide non-graphological information upon which to base a prediction (e. The Encyclopedic Dictionary for Graphoanalysts (1st ed. CA: Handwriting Consultants of San Diego  King.). British Columbia Civil Liberties Association. Barrie Gunter (1987). 532 pág.1111/j. "Graphology Is Serious Business in France : You Are What You Write?" (http:/ / www.'"  "The use of graphology as a tool for employee hiring and evaluation" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2008-02-22. Padova. Barcelona. pbs. Intelligenza – Sentimento. Graphologische Charakterdiagramme (1st ed. "On the other hand. Editorial Herder. Chicago. Kendrick (November/December 1998). FL.1468-2389. html?pagewanted=1). revisada. Ed.g. (1st ed. Barcelona. Wien: Verlag Hans Huber.. html). North Texas Skeptics. 1983). Max Albert Eugen (1972). Herder. 468 pág.). Wilhelm H. Schicksal (1st ed. Mauricio (1955). a piece copied from a magazine). Grafología Tratado de Iniciación. Augusto: Tratado de Grafología. Retrieved 2008-02-22. (1964. IL: International Graphoanalysis Society . Abecedario Grafológico.1997  :Vels.  Pulver. Girolamo Maria (1942). . Ronald Buckley and Dwight D. Barcelona.Graphology 109 References  "Barry Beyerstein Q&A" (http:/ / www. Bern: Munz  Moretti. then. Charakter. Barcelona.  Thomas.P. and Doomsdays" (http:/ / www. Barcelona. Graphologische Diagnostik (20th ed. M.). Augusto: Diccionario de Grafología y términos psicológicos afines.e. 5ª ed. Handwriting: A Key to Personality (1st ed.).. com/ 1993/ 08/ 03/ news/ 03iht-grapho. Daniel S.  Furnham.tb00062. Alice (1973). Barcelona: Stadium  Roman. 12ª Ed. Bernhard (1956). Barry (3 August 1993). Jean Hartman.  Frazier. Herder. Personal Worth Intermediate Course in Handwriting Analysis (1st ed.  :Vels. org/ factsheets/ graphol. New York NY  Sassi. (1943). Charlie. ntskeptics. Barcelona.  : Vels. 2000. Verona: L'Alberto  Moretti. Handwriting Analysis Workshop Unlimited: Professional Graphology Course. "In summary. Herder. "Should We Write Off Graphology?". There is no good scientific evidence to justify its use. (2002).  Driver. Ed.". doi:10. The Graphological Psychogram: Psychological meanings of its Sectors. Augusto:Escritura y Personalidad. bccla. Ed.. Paula.A. Berlin: Walter de Griyter & Co  Müller. Scientific American Frontiers. Max Albert Eugen (1944). Mauricio (1949). Symbolik der Handschrift (New ed. P. Volume 22. Ed. Retrieved 18 September 2010. Augusto:Manual de Grafoanálisis. Karey Starmer (1961 – 1968). org/ safarchive/ 3_ask/ archive/ qna/ 3282_bbeyerstein.. Fort Lauderdale. . Herder. Messagero di S. Onate: Aránzazu  Xandró. 640 pág. Russel H. 1949. ISBN 3-456-30514-1  Müller..). "Graphology Fact Sheet" (http:/ / www. New York Times. -5ª ed. Symbolic Interpretation of its Graphic Indicators (Revised ed.. 264 pág. Retrieved 2008-02-22."  James.x.  : Vels. Personality and Individual Differences 8 (3): 433–435.  IGAS Department of Instruction (1964). "Science and Reason. UT: Handwriting Consultants of Utah  Wittlich.E. 1988. Stuttgart. blind studies.432 pág. Ed. in properly controlled. . Klara G. 1945  :Vels. pp. . Bern. Symbolik der Handschrift (1st ed. Havana: Ed de Conf y Ensayos  Xandró. 1957. New York: Pantheon Books  Cole. Psicologia y Grafologia. Ask the Scientists. doi:10. Zurich: Orell Füssli  Pulver. Editorial Miracle. ISBN 3463180871  Pulver.  :Vels. International Journal of Selection and Assessment 4 (2): 78–86. . graphologists do no better than chance at predicting the personality traits"  entry in The Skeptic Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience. Antonio.8ª ed. "Graphology and Personality: Another Failure to Validate Graphological Analysis.6. Foibles and Fallacies. Barcelona. Leslie W.). Max Albert Eugen (1931). Trattato Scientifico di Perizie Grafiche su base Grafologica. Whiting. Lehrbuch der Graphologischen Deutungstechnik zum Selbstunterricht (1st ed. Max Albert Eugen (1949). Augusto:Cómo ser importante. org/ positions/ privacy/ 88graphology. Herder. Augusto:Grafología de la A a la Z. nytimes. Editorial Vives. Adrian. Eldene (1983). it seems that graphology as currently practiced is a typical pseudoscience and has no place in character assessment or employment practice. Committee for Skeptical Enquiry. it's a kind of magical divination or fortune telling where 'like begets like. Mensch und Handschrift. Wilhelm H. Barcelona. Angewandte Graphologi (2nd ed. html). Zurich: Orell Füssli  Xandró. (1952). Bernhard (1951). Bountiful.1016/0191-8869(87)90045-6. Zurich & Leipzig: Orell Füssli  Pulver. Barcelona. San Diego.). "they simply interpret the way we form these various features on the page in much the same way ancient oracles interpreted the entrails of oxen or smoke in the air. Girolamo Maria (1963). csicop. Retrieved 18 September 2010. Enskat. Ed.).). Girolamo (1980) : Trattato di Grafologia. 404 pág.).).  :Vels. Skeptical Enquirer. Person. Augusto:Grafología Estructural y Dinámica.. org/ si/ show/ science_and_reason_foibles_and_fallacies_and_doomsdays/ ). Munich: Johann Ambrosius Barth  Wittlich. Graphology Handbook for Tyros or Pros .1998. E C F Cole / HAWU  Anthony. John A. Padova: Messaggero di S Antonio  :Moretti.  :Vels.). htm). Augusto:La Selección de Personal y el problema humano en las empresas. and the graphologists do not seem about to come up with any. . Augusto: El lenguaje de la Escritura.  :Vels.).. ISanti dalla scrittura: esami grafologici. (1978). Der Intelligenzausdruck in der Handschrift (1st ed. 2ª ed. Munich: Kindler.1996. .
Camilo (1622).1960".CO. handwritinganswers. George H (1961). J E. Oskar Present status of the investigation of handwriting psychology as a diagnostic method". Handwriting Answers (http:/ / www. . E. P.  Fluckiger.  Binet. Scott.1016/0191-8869(89)90120-7. Meister.  Roy N. Handschrift und Charakter.  Crumbaugh. J. com/ servlet/ SirveObras/ 01371741544583735212257/ index. New York: King's Crown Press. "Handwriting and personality: A test of some expert graphologists' judgments". étude du caractère de l'homme d'après son écriture. Zubin. Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases. Mary Ann. NY: Prometheus Books. Kraftschwerpunkte (Naturelle) sowie Volksschichten als Urasache jeder unrhythmischen schwankungsbreite sämtl. Buffalo. "The predictive validity of graphological influences: A meta-analytic approach". N (1958). Paris  Crépieux-Jamin.1037/1076-898X. Derinnere Widerstreit der Bewusstseinsformen(Rassen).0.1903. Chicago. l'âge et l'intelligence". G. Paris  Michon. J. R H (1984).12. L (1929). Scrhiftelemente: Eine Lösung. Journal of Handwriting Psychology 1 (1): 15–17. Prefaced by Augusto Vels  Aldorisio. Retrieved 2008-06-24. In Beyerstein & Beyerstein (1992): 269–341  Beyerstein. 147 + xiii  Chimera. Herder. Bologna  Michon. retrieved 2008-06-21  Barrow.6. R. B Scientific Aspects Of Graphology: A Handbook Springfield. & A. Idengraphicus nuncius  Baldi. Année Psychologique 9: 17–34  Young. London: 1892  Crépieux-Jamin. Blum. co. & Flug.3406/psy. Alfred L (1902/1903). Oskar (1976). Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 6 (4): 336–348. Fritz A. Guidance and Assessment Review (4): 1–3. Beitäge zur Graphologischen Technik.). N K. . Impact Magazine (5). & Ben-Shakhar. stm).3547  Binet. uk/ 2/ hi/ uk_news/ magazine/ 4223445. "La graphologie et ses révélations sur le sexe. pp. IL: Thomas: 1986  Bayne. Meister. The Write Stuff: Evaluation of Graphology . ISBN 0-87975-612-8  Péterfalvi. Clarence A & Weinberg.).). (1988). PMID 1120118  Tallent. Paris: 1888  Crépieux-Jamin.1037/h0072627  Wittlich. G. Bernhard (1927). Zeitschrift fűr Menschenkenntnis 3: 42–45  Geyer. Beyerstein.). Williams. Kahneman. cervantesvirtual. Traité pratique de graphologie.  Dean. Journal of Applied Psychology 71: 645–653.  Gille-Maisani. R G (February 1975). A. Angela.4. Alfred L (1904). Retrieved 2008-06-21. Barcelona. Barry L. Barth. Koehler (2000).1. Journal of Clinical Psychology 14 (3): 243–244. Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology (6): 4–5.  Informal covariation assessment: Data-based versus theory-based judgments. Ludwig. php?menu=reports/ 2004/ III/ 4& dok=reports/ 2004/ 222& nyomtat=1). The Encyclopedic Dictionary for Graphoanalysts (3rd ed. . (1986). doi:10. "Lockowandte.  Ware. Y.  Ben-Shakar. & O'Neill. Jonathan. Slovic. Praktisches Lehrbuch der Graphologie (Fifth German ed. Trattado come de una lettera Missiva si conoscano la nature e qualita dello scriviente. Handwriting and Expression (First English Translation ed. Prospero (1611). 1916  Klages. Handschrift und Charakter: gemeinverständlicher Abriss der graphologischen Technik (17th ed.Graphology  IGAS Department of Instruction (1984). 1982. Giles Wilson (2005-02-01). England: Cambridge University Press. "Illusory Correlations in Graphological Inference". Attila (2004-03-16). doi:10.). Tripp. L'Année Psychologique 10: 179–210. Bob.). Journal of Applied Psychology 15 (5): 486–498. Ludwig (1940). "missingtitle". Scott. Geoffrey A. a series of scales for evaluating the dynamic aspects of handwriting (1st ed. In D. doi:10. OVERVIEW of the Data Protection Commissioner’s investigation into the tender for the notary position of the cityof Nagymaros (http:/ / abiweb.67-90.  Duffy. pp. Ben-Abba.. Leipzig: List  Klages. M.  Meister. Systéme de graphologie. Fox effect: a study of lecturer effectiveness and ratings of instruction". "A Review of Experimental Research in Graphology: 1933 . 256  Lewinson. "The Bottom Line: Effect Size". Jean-Hippolyte (1872). (1989).).. Tversky (Eds.  Nevo.1002/1097-4679(195807)14:3<243::AID-JCLP2270140307>3. Bar-Hillel. Cambridge. hu/ dpc/ index. pp. "Writing wrongs" (http:/ / news. Perceptual and Motor Skills 12: 67–90. J (1942). obh. Jean Charles(1991): Psicología de la Escritura (Psychology of the Handwriting).. Le mystéres de l'écriture. "Ein Betrag zur Grage der Geschlechtsbestimmung nach der Handschrift". Emilie (April 1977). Journal Medical Education 50 (2): 149–156. BBC News Magazine. E. Heidelberg: Selbstverlag 110 . Personality and Individual Differences 10 (10): 737–745. doi:10. James C & Stockholm. Dale F (1992).2-A. IL: International Graphoanalysis Society  Examen de ingenios para las ciencias (http:/ / www. "The Dr. "Sex differences in Handwriting". "On Individualizing the Psychologists's Clinical Evaluation". "Validation of Graphoanalysis by "Global" or "Holistic" Method". F. Handwriting analysis. Perceptual and Motor Skills 44 (2): 403–410. doi:10. J. L'écriture et le caractère. "Validation of a Personnel Selection System to meet EEOC Guidelines".. J (1906). 211–238  Neter. Jean-Hippolyte (1875). Thea Stein.  Lockowandte.336. Hungarian Parliamentary Commissioner for Data Protection and Freedom of Information.The Study of handwriting Analysis (1st ed. bbc. King and Derek J.2466/PMS. com). doi:10. Paris  Crépieux-Jamin. "Le sexe de l'écriture". htm). P T (1931)...
Mary Ann The Conflict Traits and TA Script Issues: Sensitiveness Impact Magazine July 1980. F.326–341  Binet.3406/psy.org/01QuackeryRelatedTopics/Tests/grapho. T R (1931). "The Legal Implications of Graphology". htm). J J. S. CA: Laurida Books  de Sainte Columbe. html) on April 16. "Rhythmus and Schreibinnervation bei Jugendlichen und Erwachsenen".  Chimera. Hollywood.M. doi:10. "Űber Sprach. E S. AHAF Convention. Ron (1991). Vaught. Hollywood.A. The Online Journal of Ethics 1 (1).Graphology  Krieger. uk/ scholar?hl=en& lr=& q=author:BPI+ Labs+ intitle:Evaluated+ Characteristics& as_publication=& as_ylo=& as_yhi=& btnG=Search)). T S. "Handwriting Analysis In Pre-Employment Screening". New York Journal of Dentistry 43: 281–283. (2001). TITLE VII: Disparate Impact. Thesis in the Faculty of Arts (S. co. Grapho Therapeutics: Pen and Pencil Therapy (2nd ed. Mitchell. Handwriting Analysis (http:/ / web. J (1933). Journal of Educational Psychology 23 (9): 703–707. "A Diagnostic Study of Indian handwriting". Dianna B (28 February 2001). 2008. 4. "La Graphologie et Ses Révélations sur le sexe. "The Handwriting of Indians". Schweizerischen Zeitschrift für Psychologie undihre Anwendungen 31: 3–116  Johnston. Grapho Therapeutics: Pen and Pencil Therapy (1st ed. . org/ web/ 20070303044917/ http:/ / www.  Daryl Koehn. com/ content/ t4n44431x0g77267/ ).1037/h0063156  Weisser. Jury Consultant (http:/ / web. Lewinson. archive. Das Verhaltnis zwischen innerer Sprache und Schreibfehler" (http:/ / www. Smeltzer. C N (1939). "Profiles and Limits of Medical Graphology". retrieved 2007-06-05  Lighton. R E (1934). T R. G. 31. .S. 2007.  Thomas. doi:10. html).1903. Tucson.1037/h0071730  Garth. Allen. doi:10. springerlink. "Artmerkmale an ausländischen Handschriftenproben unter rassenseelenkundlichen Gesichtspunkt". Koss. google. org/ web/ 20060927232159/ http:/ / www. La Revue des Revues 484 (4): 182–195. com/ id4u/ services/ legal. trialrun. pg. org/ web/ 20080416010810/ http:/ / www. uk/ scholar?hl=en& lr=& q=author:Iannetta+ intitle:Jury+ Consultant& as_publication=& as_ylo=2005& as_yhi=2005& btnG=Search)). Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.co. "The Handwriting of Negroes". htm) on March 3. bpilab. com/ id4u/ services/ legal. (1973).1037/h0075632  Kollarits. trialrun.1007/BF01814310. L'Année Psychologique 10: 179–210. "L'âge et l'écriture".com/graphol. Iss. Lewinson.L. Brown. Beihefte zur". 2006.html) • BBC article about graphology (http://news. "Major Aptitudes and Personality Chracteristics of 42 Dental Students as Evaluated Through their Handwriting". archive. retrieved 2007-05-24  BPI Labs (– Scholar search (http:/ / scholar. archived from the original (http:/ / www. archived from the original (http:/ / www.. AZ 111 External links • Graphology (http://www.it) . Advanced Management Journal Vol.  Julie Spohn (Fall 1997). eeoc. Zeitschrift für pädaagogische Psychologie und Jugendkunde 38: 15–31  Garth. PMID 1285461. Washington University Law Quarterly 73 (3). Paul (1966).quackwatch.org/analyses/ MichonAndScientificGraphology. co. 39. E A (1932).  Iannetta. S. Paulson. Journal of Educational Psychology 30: 69–73. archive. Zentralblatt für Graphology 6: 95–105  Krieger. "Schulschriften der Verschiedenen Länder. Evaluated Characteristics (http:/ / web.dmoz. "A Graphological Examination of the Handwriting of Air Pilots".org/Science/Social_Sciences/Psychology/Alternative/Handwriting_Analysis/ /) at the Open Directory Project • Skeptic's Dictionary entry on graphology (http://skepdic.und Schreibstörungen in allgemeinen und als "kleine Zeichen der Geistesschwächung" bei Tuberkulose und im Alter.  Binet.. TS (1992). The U. archived from the original (http:/ / www. google. Anthony. retrieved 2008-06-22  de Sainte Columbe. Alfred L (1904). Z Gesamte Inn Med 47 (12): 549–557.  Kopp. .).uk/2/hi/uk_news/magazine/4223445.). J. W (1970). Journal of Educational Psychology 22 (9): 705–719. P L (1935). com/ Characteristics Evaluated. F.graphology. com/ Characteristics+ Evaluated. bpilab.  Luca. P L (1937).3  Ludewig. html) on September 27. "Parkinson's Disease: L-dopa Treatment and Handwriting Areas". 1 . Paul (1972).3547  Blumenthal.britishgraphology. W. "The write stuff: What the evidence says about using handwriting analysis in hiring". Zeitschrift für die gesamte Neurologie und Psychiatrie 99 (1): 109–196. html). CA: Paul de St Columbe Center  Laufer. Current Therapeutic Research 12 (3): 115–124. Kimon (2005) (– Scholar search (http:/ / scholar. R. gov/ foia/ letters/ 2001/ titlevii_disparate_handwriting.htm) from Vanguard graphological journal January–March 2007 • Graphological analysis based on Moretti's method (http://www. Alfred L. eeoc.stm) • How Graphology Fools People (http://www.bbc. Thesis in the Faculty of Arts (University of Pretoria). 5 pgs).html) • "Michon and the Birth of Scientific Graphology" (http://www. gov/ foia/ letters/ 2001/ titlevii_disparate_handwriting. doi:10. 66. l'âge et l'intelligence". E (1959). doi:10.
common applications include access control and time-and-attendance operations. handwriting movement has been researched since measurement techniques became available. . before recording and processing handwriting movements were within reach for those interested in studying handwriting movements. It is also one of the first.815 (1888). followed by four more similar patents (1891–93). The Netherlands. Earliest devices to capture handwriting movements Elisha Gray's "Telautograph". or any other situation where the researcher wishes to record movements using a pen. which became established after the "International Workshop on Handwriting Movement Analysis" in 1982 in Nijmegen.Hand geometry 112 Hand geometry Hand geometry is a biometric that identifies users by the shape of their hands. The first graphonomics milestone was Thomassen. 1900). laboratory computers to store and process the movement data. However. such as identification cards or personal identification numbers. It would become the first of a continuing series of International Graphonomics Conferences. Grootveld (1983). erols. in which a user is identified from his biometric without any other identification. US Patent 386. It remains popular. html). Handwriting movement analysis software is also used for studying drawing. making hand geometry the first biometric to find widespread computerized use. Handwriting movement analysis Handwriting movement analysis is the study and analysis of the movements involved in handwriting and drawing. In large populations. Understanding of the handwriting product will not be complete until the handwriting process is understood. Van Galen. Scripture (1895) developed a writing apparatus that enabled storage of pen positions on paper at 100 Hz. and computer software which enables the researcher to do this under specific experimental paradigms without the need to program untested custom software. This apparatus permitted measurement of durations of individual handwriting strokes (McAllister. Since hand geometry is not thought to be as unique as fingerprints or irises. Hand geometry is very reliable when combined with other forms of identification. three components were required: Devices to capture handwriting movements. Handwriting could only be transmitted by wire and reproduced elsewhere in real-time. It forms an important part of graphonomics. Therefore. Handwriting is not considered only as a movement that leaves a visible trace of ink on paper (product) but it can also be considered as a movement (process). and often the only motor skill that children will learn at elementary school. hand geometry is not suitable for so-called one-to-many applications. Handwriting is historically considered the widest taught motor skill. eye–hand coordination. Viable hand geometry devices have been manufactured since the early 1980s. fingerprinting and iris recognition remain the preferred technology for high-security applications. It takes years of practice and maturing before a person has mastered the adult handwriting skill. Keuss. See the "Annotated Bibliography in Pen Computing and Handwriting Recognition" by Jean Renard Ward (http:/ / users. Hand geometry readers measure a user's hand along many dimensions and compare those measurements to measurements stored in a file. com/ rwservices/ biblio.
handwriting tablets are the gold standard to record handwriting. and visualize massive amounts of samples. x-y-tablet. up-sampling will be needed to properly visualize the Lissajous-like handwriting and drawing strokes. Optionally. Typical tablets sense the position of the pen electromagnetically.01 cm at constant frequency is achievable. parallel to the baseline in Western script • y = Vertical coordinates. Tablets can have a display built in (e. Currently many novel systems appear on the market that "record" handwriting. Dynamic accuracy of 0. as pressure data are often non-linearly related to actual pressure. Sampling rates used to be 100 Hz until it was decided that the minimum rate for Human Input Devices HID should be at least 133 Hz. • Azimuth = Direction of the pen barrel projected on the x-y plane. Ideally. Opaque tablets are produced by Wacom who also produces display digitizers. as in a tablet PC).. such as those by Anoto. Atari. Adesso. Apple Inc.. pen barrel rotation. with electronic pens as we know them today. at the 3 finger grip areas). Sadly. pen orientation will be needed to estimate normal pressure. • z = Axial pen pressure. It took more than 50 years for computers to be available in laboratories. Hanvon. process. digitizers can deliver the orientation of the pen barrel relative to the tablet: • Altitude = How steep the pen is held. VisTablet. Higher-than-necessary sampling rates such as 100 Hz are preferred as this would also allow low-pass filtering or smoothed data with reduced equipment and quantization noise by factor √(100/20) = √5. Pen-based handwriting capturing devices  have been developed but never achieved the accuracy of tablets.g. non-repetitive with a primary frequency around 5 Hz and a bandwidth of about 10 Hz. IBM PC (Personal Computer).1 cm. Norsk Data. Electronic analog computers were used until digital computers came within reach for research: Wang Laboratories. most of these innovative mini and microcomputer companies have discontinued their operation. perpendicular to the horizontal base line and in the writing surface. and include times stamps per coordinate to correct non-isochronous sampling. Still today. Among the earliest tablets are the Styalator electronic tablet with pen for computer input and handwriting recognition in 1957  and the commercial products by Vector General. and grip forces (e. and Data General. Many pen movement recording systems capture. an x an y tilt or altitude and azimuth of the pen barrel. Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC). Osborne Computer Corporation. but also axial pen pressure. While sampling rates of 20 Hz would theoretically suffice. and also EMG-based systems. Handwriting movement measurement systems can capture: • x = Horizontal coordinates. Additional features that can be measured by the digitizers (mostly in past models) include pen height. graphics pad. A laboratory computer will be needed to store. The digitizer technology belongs to the most accurate and cost-effective pointing devices. Pen movement recording devices The first devices to accurately record handwriting that could be connected to computers were graphics tablet. Touch-sensitive tablets cannot be used when the hand is resting on the tablet unless they implement some form of hand rejection. . The Vector General products reported the position of the stylus at 100 Hz and claimed an accuracy of 0. each set of coordinates should be sampled simultaneously and at a fixed frequency.g.Handwriting movement analysis 113 Earliest laboratory computers Handwriting movements are fast. Genius. bumping the sampling rates up to 133 – 200 Hz. this angle can be used to estimate pen pressure perpendicular to the paper from the axial pen pressure. The advantage is a 15%–40% reduction of device noise and quantization noise. or digitizer. not only the x and y coordinates of the pen top.
In 1998. tightness of the spiral. An early publication about his spiral analysis is by Pullman (1998). goal-directed movements. It was used for treating 500 writer’s cramp patients. remedial handwriting instruction. etc. Most initial software systems were developed by university researchers who. dystonia. this system was used to develop an automated test-battery for psychopharmacological research: Orgabat. Oasis can be customized by its flexible macro language. visuomotor control. language. drawing. handedness. biomechanics of the hand. were the only ones capable of using it. education. Pullman received US Patent 6. Patients with motor disorders such as Parkinson's disease draw spirals. it is a major accomplishment to make software available as a package that can be installed on an unknown computer and can be used after a brief familiarization time by other users who have not been involved. Prof. Kosterman. document analysis. physiotherapy.454. The software calculates first-order smoothness. writer's cramp. child development. CSWin The first handwriting movement analysis offered for sale (around 1980) was CSWin by Science And Motion and developed by Christian Marquardt and Norbert May in Munich. The next wave consisted of packaged software that could be made available to record handwriting at many locations. Germany. re-education. Parkinson's disease. The present company focuses on golf training and was established in 2003 and is run by the owner. human-computer interaction. home schooling. linguistics. Their oldest publication is by Marquardt and Mai (1994). handwriting recognition. handwriting image analysis. Christian Marquardt. neurology. second-order zero-crossing rate. Their system enables objectively assessing motor function by physicians who are not skilled or experienced in evaluating motor disorders. software packages have appeared on the market that can be used by many other researchers interested in the field of handwriting movement analysis. occupational therapy. CSWin was marketed in Germany and is being used in many German hospitals. zero-crossing rate. for example general practitioners or pediatricians who are not certified in the practice of neurology. second-order smoothness. Even today. often. In 2002.Handwriting movement analysis 114 Handwriting movement analysis software Handwriting movements are being studied from many disciplines including kinesiology. Seth Pullman developed Pullman Spiral Acquisition and Analysis. It is used to test tremor in Parkinson patients. artificial intelligence. psychiatry. which was established in 1995 by Peter De Jong. visual feedback. Pullman spiral acquisition and analysis At Columbia university. The Netherlands. experimental psychology. computer science. Over the last several years. human movement science. Hulstijn. fine motor control. . Dr. and Smits-Engelsman (1996).706: "System and method for clinically assessing motor function". Oasis Another early system was Oasis by KikoSoft. One of the oldest references to Oasis is De Jong. forensic document examination or questioned document examination. and derives from these score a degree of severity score. elementary education. stuttering. communication. forensic document examination. signature verification and identification. developmental disorders. extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) or movement side effects due to medication. movement disorders.
Their method estimates stability. George Stelmach. In 2003. monitoring for toxic inhalants and environmental distress. Romero and Teulings (2003). the iNeuroskill web portal was established under a new business entity: iNeuroskill. In the process. Baker joined as MovAlyzeR’s designer and implementer. they applied their technology to biometric measurements as a clinical monitoring tool for physicians investigating neuromuscular diseases. Colorado. ComPET At the University of Haifa. Boulder. USA. Verifax began operations with the aim of developing a biometric tool for the verification of signatures from a distance (VeriFax Autograph Technology). b). It can be integrated with MATLAB and perform image processing on scanned handwriting exemplars. and Weiss (2003). Target markets could include neuromuscular disease centers. computer science (handwriting recognition.. The website enables Parkinson patients to upload their signatures that were recorded using a digitizing tablet. Sara Rosenblum and Patricia L (Tamar) Weiss and colleagues developed a computerized handwriting evaluation system called POET: Penmanship Objective Evaluation Tool using MATLAB. kinesiology. psychology. to educational demonstrations or student projects in these fields.546. MovAlyzeR MovAlyzeR was developed by NeuroScript. psychiatry. security purposes. CFA returns numerical scores and charts expressing stability of the handwriting strokes and the characteristics of the phase distortions in reproducing cursive samples. excessive workload. AZ. It was used to administer visual stimuli and to record and analyze handwriting movements. Parush. occupational therapy. . signature verification). This handwriting movement analysis software is the first to demonstrate that it can discern movement side-effects due to schizophrenia medication better than with any conventional evaluation method used in psychiatry today (international patent pending) (Caligiuri et al. Dr.. Tempe. 2009a. In 1999 Gregory M. Another application was to evaluate persons with critical skills (e.134: "System for assessment of fine motor control in humans". MovAlyzeR is currently the only handwriting movement analysis software that is certified for Microsoft Windows XP and Vista.Handwriting movement analysis 115 Neuroskill Another handwriting analysis system is Neuroskill by Verifax. which was founded in 1990 by Dr. They researched the Air Phenomenon: Pen movements above the paper (air strokes). forensic document examination. Neuroskill was designed for biometric measurement. etc. The oldest references to MovAlyzeR are Teulings and Romero (2003). The oldest mention of POET is in Rosenblum. and Dr. Dr. and Parkinson medication effects and has many applications in movement disorders. Teulings and Van Gemmert. and alcohol and drug abuse using their proprietary VeriFax Impairoscope writing instrument. This last application raised the possibility of using a space-qualified Impairoscope variant to evaluate astronaut performance with respect to the impacts of stress. In 2009. who has since retired. and accurate signature identification for security/privacy protection and forgery detection. drug and alcohol abuse clinics. Ruth Shrairman and Alex Landau. Their oldest article is by Morgenthaler. airline pilots. and Landau (1998). Hans-Leo Teulings. occupational health centers and the security industry. Epstain. smoothness and synchronization of the writer's motion as quantifying measures of the neurological function using their Correlation Function Analysis (CFA) of behavioral signals. bus drivers) for physical and mental performance impairments caused by stress. It is used in fields ranging from research in human movement sciences. Verifax developed two more applications using application-specific modifications of their customized Neuroskill software: Applications for substance abuse screening and detection. NeuroSkill received a US patent 6. NeuroScript was founded in 1997 by Prof. Shrairman. aging research. physiological disorders. build-up of toxic chemicals within the space habitat. neurology. They receive immediate feedback regarding their fine motor function in the form of a chart analysis.g. fatigue. USA. (2003). education.
Paquet. Dean. vistablet. kikosoft. . It is used to study children with dysgraphia. The first paper mentioning EDT is Vuillermot. The latter movements do not include finger movements. ac. ineuroskill. kikosoft. H.L. medicalcomputing. Deviations from the healthy norms will reflect different pathologies for different patient groups. Teulings. C. . com/ products/ orgabat. OASIS software and its application in experimental handwriting research. and Eng (2009).J. It is also used with verbal-based lie detection technology such as the polygraph. with both the left and right hands.. hanvon  http:/ / www. M. Heutte.. UK and the University of Rouen. Leedham. Holper. Pescatore. Parkinson as well as aging effects. com  http:/ / www. Developmental Coordination Disorders (DCD) Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorders (ADHD) and adults with several pathologies as Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Depression. Amsterdam: IOS Press. com  Crane.). Niculescu. H. References  Diamond. B.M. • De Jong. Proceedings of Eastern Joint Computer Conference. C. coordinated by Dr. asp?ItemID=1219  http:/ / www. & A. Special Pend and System for Handwriting Recognition. W. net  http:/ / research. de  http:/ / www. Thomassen (Eds. Devices for reading handwritten characters (http:/ / rwservices.M.L. haifa. C. lafayettelifesciences.W.P. Lohr. France. Hewitt David. POET was developed further and renamed to ComPET: Computerized Penmanship Evaluation Tool. Handwriting Movement Kinematics for Quantifying EPS in Patients Treated with Atypical Antipsychotics. no-ip. The project aims to develop a robust. 232–237. Tom (1957-12-01). org  http:/ / sites. Teulings. the subjects draw lines holding either the tablet's pen (held by the fingers) or a mouse (held by the whole hand). e. geniusnet. com/ product_detail. J.C.. Lohr. Handwriting Movement Analyses for Monitoring Drug-Induced Motor Side Effects in Schizophrenia Patients Treated with Risperidone. com  http:/ / www.444. Kiper.B. Human Movement Sciences (in press). (2009a). W. They will remain focused on drawing-based diagnosis of these disorders.L. pdf  http:/ / www.. 1975  http:/ / www.. Richard Guest and started in 2003.M. google. php  http:/ / www. Psychiatry Research (in press). net  http:/ / www. com  http:/ / www. Dean.E.B. Simner. Their focus is to detect spatial neglect in the visual field and organization of movement disorder. & Smits-Engelsman. 429–440). United States Patent 3. Extended Drawing Test (EDT) The Extended Drawing Test  is a computerized graphonomic assessment for arm and hand function. and by Glenat. Handwriting and drawing research: Basic and applied issues (pp. The first research publications that mention MedDraw are by Kaplani. M. and Mellier (2005). adesso.. com/ site/ rehabini/ projects/ edt • Caligiuri.P.. yet easy to use clinical system producing objective diagnostic recommendations across a range of clinical conditions. (1996). il/ ~rosens/ ResearchDescriptionBlurb. To compare performance between gross arm movements and fine finger control.. info:81/ pens/ biblio70. J..P.. meddraw.g.B. A. Norms have been established for 3–70 year old healthy persons. pp. html#Dimond57). B. Alzheimer. and Fairhurst (2005).B. hemiplegic stroke patients. • Caligiuri. neuroscript. Hulstijn. Kosterman. 116 MedDraw MedDraw  is a computer-based drawing-task diagnosis and rehabilitation system project between the University of Kent. September 16. retrieved 2008-08-23  http:/ / www..905. In M. (2009b). state-of-the art.Handwriting movement analysis Soon afterward. Guest.E. The EDT measures the ability of the subject to draw vertical lines. A.J. Niculescu.G..
L. D. Teulings & A.W.L. Spiral analysis: a new technique for measuring tremor with a digitizing tablet.C. Acta Psychologica. (Eds. H..A. In H.J. Space technology and applications international forum – 1998. Teulings. (1984). (2003).J. Arizona. Van Gemmert. & Teulings. • Teulings..W. Van Gemmert.N. & Van Gemmert. Studies from the Yale Psychological Laboratory. F. Landau. (2003). K. N.. (Eds. Proceedings of the 11th Conference of the International Graphonomics Society... 2–3 November 2003. (Eds. Guest. • Rosenblum. G. ISBN 0-9746365-0-9. (p. Motor Aspects of Handwriting. H.. (2003).P. Apr. (2005). Paquet.L. Weiss. USA.. S. H. Italy. Yale Psychological Laboratory. Kiper. Volume 420. M.G. L.. A. Salerno. H. June 2005. A.A.52(1):39–45. Holper. P. ISBN 0-9746365-0-9. • Marquardt.J. Human Movement Science. IGS 2005..W.L. An Extended Drawing Test for the Assessment of Arm and Hand Function with a Performance Invariant for Healthy Subjects.M.. Pescatore.A. pp. A. Proceedings of the 11th Conference of the International Graphonomics Society (IGS2003). Digital recording and processing of handwriting movements. Parush.L. 169–173. J Neurosci Methods.L. Scottsdale Arizona. ISBN 0-9746365-0-9.). to appear in 12th Conference of the International Graphonomics Society. E. P. 8. IGS 2005. 99–102).Heutte. Journal of Neuroscience Methods 177(2): 452–460. • McAllister. In H.A. • Teulings. A. W. (p. L. D and Eng. A computational procedure for movement analysis in handwriting. (2005). W. L. Keuss. Process Versus Product Evaluation of Poor Handwriting among Children with Developmental Dysgraphia and ADHD. Teulings.. (1895). Grootveld. 117 . Teulings. • Scripture. 12th Conference of the International Graphonomics Society.W.Mellier. D.L. 2–3 November 2003. • Vuillermot. Arizona. Submovement analysis in goal-directed movements. Shrairman.) (1983). 21–63. 193–217.L. H.W.. 106.W. 103–106). Epstain. (1994).. Mai. T. (2003). S. (p. Computer-Based Diagnosis of Dyspraxia: the MEDDRAW project. 13 Suppl 3:85–9. USA. S. 3. USA. G.H. Research: A movement used in handwriting. & Romero. A. A. 2–3 November 2003. Salerno. In H. C. Vol. Scottsdale. (1998). III. 736–742 (1998). Scottsdale.A. C. AIP Conference Proceedings. Feature-based Assessment of Visuospatial Neglect Severity in a Computer-based Line Cancellation Task. Submovement analysis in learning cursive handwriting or block print. p. & Maarse.. Fairhurst.M.). D. SL. Proceedings of the 11th Conference of the International Graphonomics Society (IGS2003). 54. (2009).). • Romero. (1998). Goal-directed movements in menu selection in computer-user-interfaces. • Thomassen. New apparatus.L. June 2005.H.. 107–110). • Kaplani. Scottsdale. (1900).Handwriting movement analysis • Glenat. • Pullman. USA.. Arizona. E. Van Gemmert. R. R. S. Proceedings of the 11th Conference of the International Graphonomics Society (IGS2003). C. Van Galen. Italy. Mov Disord. • Teulings. Van Gemmert (Eds. • Morgenthaler.
Developed by Alphonse Bertillon in 1879. Henry Faulds was the first European to publish the notion of scientific use of fingerprints in the identification of criminals. Sir Henry ordered the Bengali Police to collect prisoners’ fingerprints in addition to their anthropometric measurements. and Hem Chandra Bose. fingerprinting was introduced to British India by the Governor General. in 1877 he was the first to institute the use of fingerprints and handprints as a means of identification. Sir Henry developed the Henry Classification System between the years 1896 and 1925. it was the basis of modern day AFIS classification methods up until the 1990s. Finger Prints in which he described his classification system that include three main fingerprint patterns . In 1892. In the same year. and in 1901 Sir Henry returned to Britain and was appointed Assistant Commissioner of Scotland Yard. the alternative to fingerprints was Bertillonage. The fingerprint records collected at this time were used for one-to-one verification only. whorls and arches. signing legal documents. In recent years. Faulds. Influenced by Galton's Finger Prints. (Harling 1996) (Met) (Early) . and both. Henry Faulds wrote to Sir Charles Darwin. on the recommendation of Henry received    The Henry Classification System recognition years later by the British Government for their contribution. It is unclear whom to credit for the classification system. As the results were overwhelmingly in favor of fingerprints.loops. History and development Although fingerprint characteristics were studied as far back as the mid-1600s. Henry Faulds and Sir Francis Galton did not engage in much correspondence. the British Indian police force adopted Anthropometry. He was primarily assisted by Azizul Haque who developed a mathematical formula to supplement Henry's idea of sorting in 1024 pigeon holes based on fingerprint patterns. we do know that Dr. Developed by Sir Edward Henry in the late 19th century for criminal investigations in British India. At the time. Dr. they devised very similar fingerprint classification systems. as Chief Magistrate of the Hooghly district in Jungipoor. Sir John Herschel discovered that fingerprints remain stable over time and are unique across individuals. the Henry Classification System has generally been replaced by ridge flow classification approaches. Darwin was unable to assist Dr. India. but agreed to forward the letter to his cousin. as a means in which records would be logically filed and searched had not yet been invented. Sir Francis Galton. was to find worldwide acceptance in 1899. replaced Anthropometry. another Henry's assistant also helped refine the system. asking for his assistance in their development. explaining a system for classifying fingerprints. the men corresponded regularly in 1894. and in January 1896. head of the Criminal Investigation Department. Bertillonage consists of a meticulous method of measuring body parts for the use of identifying criminals. His efforts in South Africa were highly successful. Two years later. However. and in 1900. Sir Edward Henry. Inspector General of the Bengal Police in India became interested in the use of fingerprints for the use of criminal identification. In roughly 1859. Expanding on Galton's classification system. In 1880.Henry Classification System 118 Henry Classification System The Henry Classification System is a long-standing method by which fingerprints are sorted by physiological characteristics for one-to-many searching. Henry was sent to Natal. Sir Francis Galton published his highly influential book. In 1892. the use of fingerprints as a means of identification did not occur until the mid-19th century. the first UK fingerprint bureau was established at Scotland Yard. and authenticating transactions. also known as Anthropometry. Dr. South Africa to assist in the reorganization of the local police force and establish a fingerprint bureau. Also in 1900. In 1897 a commission was established to compare Anthropometry to the Henry Classification System. but in the following decade.
Germany.S.INSPASS 120 INSPASS INSPASS. Canada. Department of Justice. was a program of the United States Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) during the 1990s and early 2000s the purpose of which was to facilitate the entry of pre-screened low-risk travellers through immigration and customs at certain airports. was composed of the following elements : • • • • • • • • • ATM-like stand 80486 personal computer MS-Windows running Visual Basic 10 inch monitor/touch-screen 16-key keypad OCR-B card reader Electronic gate lock trigger 5 inch Telpar receipt printer Recognition Systems. as defined by the U. Texas. The initial kiosk implementation. Program officials advocated the concept of "One Traveler. The development of the project was initially piloted and then later deployed with support from the John A. Although modeled on the Dutch "SchipholPass" program. Upon entering the United States after arriving from abroad. or INS Passenger Accelerated Service System. Pilots of land border versions were conducted in Buffalo. Department of Justice. approved INSPASS members would register their hand geometry as a biometric identifier and were presented with an associated membership card. it expanded to the US Immigration and Customs Pre-Clearance Inspection Stations in Toronto and Vancouver. New York during the World University Games (summer 1993) and later in Hidalgo. INSPASS was the first large scale biometric identity verification program undertaken by the United States Government and quickly became the largest biometric program in the world in terms of enrollments. or a handful of other trusted countries could apply for INSPASS privileges. One Card" to promote harmonization of the system with other traveler biometric programs and regular meetings were held with the immigration authorities of Canada. Inc. and the Netherlands to achieve that goal. a total of 15 permanent INSPASS kiosks were deployed at the following locations: • New York (JFK) (6 terminals) • Newark • Toronto (2 terminals) . users would subject themselves to hand geometry scans and would pass through Federal Inspection without undergoing a formal interview by immigration inspectors. After a thorough background check. Later. (CDSI ). 1998 The program initially was established at JFK International Airport and Newark International Airport in May 1993. Delta Terminal. Eventually. Frequent travelers who were citizens of the U.S. the United Kingdom.S. Australia. Inc (RSI) 'Handkey' hand geometry scanner INSPASS kiosk at JFK International Airport. Volpe   National Transportation Systems Center and INS contractor Computer Data Systems. Support for the program was later taken over by Electronic Data Systems (EDS) in 1995 when they were awarded a general support services contract with the U.
INSPASS • • • • Miami (2 terminals) Vancouver San Francisco Los Angeles (LAX) (2 terminals)
Although the program was discontinued in 2002, it has since been replaced by Global Entry, a program of the U.S. Customs and Border Protection that uses fingerprint biometrics to enable frequent travelers to bypass lines at traditional immigration inspection lanes at international airports.
 DOJ Draft Statement of Standards and Guidelines for Developing INSPASS, February 1995 (http:/ / www. uscis. gov/ propub/ DocView/ frid/ 1/ 120/ 121/ 127)  Commerce Business Daily, August 27, 1998 (http:/ / www. fbodaily. com/ cbd/ archive/ 1998/ 08(August)/ 27-Aug-1998/ 70sol005. htm)  New security devices in the pipeline, October 2002 (http:/ / www. taipeitimes. com/ News/ worldbiz/ archives/ 2001/ 10/ 10/ 106590)  http:/ / www. answers. com/ topic/ computer-data-systems-inc  INSPASS Pilot Program Report, March 1995 (http:/ / www. usdoj. gov/ oig/ reports/ INS/ a9508/ index. htm)  Computer Data Loses Another Contract, Kathleen Day, Washington Post September 1, 1994
• Biometric Consortium: INS Passenger Accelerated Service System (INSPASS) (http://www.biometrics.org/ REPORTS/INSPASS.html) 4 January 1996 • Biometric Consortium: INSPASS Update (http://www.biometrics.org/REPORTS/INSPASS2.html) • Government Technology News: Consideration of INSPASS in Israel, August 2002 (http://www.govtech.com/ gt/20951) • GlobalSecurity.org | USPASS (formerly INSPASS) (http://www.globalsecurity.org/security/systems/inspass. htm) • Global Entry (http://www.globalentry.gov)
Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System
Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System
The Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System (IAFIS) is a national automated fingerprint identification and criminal history system maintained by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). IAFIS provides automated fingerprint search capabilities, latent searching capability, electronic image storage, and electronic exchange of fingerprints and responses. IAFIS maintains one of the largest biometric databases in the world, second only to Mexico with 70 million records, containing the fingerprints and potential corresponding criminal history information for more than 66 million subjects. IAFIS has 66 million subjects in the criminal master file, and more than 25 million civil prints. Employment background checks and legitimate firearms purchases cause citizens to be permanently recorded in the system. For instance, the State of Washington  mandates that all applicants seeking employment in an inpatient setting that houses vulnerable minors (such as children who are mentally challenged, physically or emotionally ill) are fingerprinted and entered into IAFIS as part of their background check in order to determine if the applicant has any record of criminal behavior. Fingerprints are voluntarily submitted to the FBI by local, state, and federal law enforcement agencies. These agencies acquire the fingerprints through criminal arrests or from non-criminal sources, such as employment background checks and the US-VISIT program. The FBI then catalogs the fingerprints along with any criminal history linked with the subject. Law enforcement agencies can then request a search in IAFIS to identify crime scene (latent) fingerprints obtained during criminal investigations. Civil searches are also performed, but the FBI charges a small fee and the response time is slower. The FBI has announced plans to replace IAFIS with a "Next Generation Identification" system, to be developed by Lockheed Martin.
The device used for scanning live fingerprints into AFIS is called LiveScan. The process of obtaining the prints by way of LiveScan employs rolling prints or placing flat impressions onto a glass platen above a camera unit. The process of obtaining prints by placing a tenprint card (prints taken using ink) onto a flatbed or high-speed scanner is called CardScan (or occasionally DeadScan). In addition to these devices, there are other devices to capture prints from crime scenes (latent prints), as well as devices (both wired and wireless) to capture one or two live finger impressions. The most common method of acquiring fingerprint images remains the inexpensive ink pad and paper form. Scanning forms ("fingerprint cards") with a forensic AFIS complies with standards established by the FBI and National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). To match a print, a fingerprint technician scans in the print in question, and computer algorithms are utilized to mark all minutia points, cores, and deltas detected on the print. In some systems, the technician is allowed to perform a review of the points that the software has detected, and submits the feature set to a one-to-many (1:N) search. The better commercial systems provide fully automated processing and searching ("lights-out") of print features. The fingerprint image processor will generally assign a "quality measure" that indicates if the print is acceptable for searching.
Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System
In popular culture
In forensics television series such as CSI: Crime Scene Investigation and its spin offs, the investigators often match fingerprints with the AFIS database. • In the TV show NCIS, Abby Sciuto uses the AFIS database for the NCIS team.
 http:/ / www. doh. wa. gov/ hsqa/ BackgroundInfo. htm  Dizard III, Wilson P. "FBI plans major database upgrade" (http:/ / www. gcn. com/ print/ 25_26/ 41792-1. html). Government Computer News, 28 August 2006. Retrieved on 2 February 2007.
• Federal Bureau of Investigation - CJIS Division - Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System (http:// www.fbi.gov/hq/cjisd/iafis.htm)
International Automated Systems
International Automated Systems, Inc. (IAS or IAUS) is a company with research and development in various industries, that has been involved in many ventures to design, produce, market, and sell high-technology products. It has been publicly traded since 1988, as a bulletin board stock (stock symbol IAUS.PK). The founder and major shareholder is Neldon Johnson. It is currently based in Salem in Utah where it was founded in 1987.
Since 2004, International Automated Systems has put most of its efforts into developing a solar powered electricity generating system, based on solar heat collected by patented lenses and focused on a heat receiving system. This heat is then used to generate steam, which turns patented 'blade-less' turbines, and generates electricity. Prototypes of this system have been demonstrated at several locations. A fully functional electricity generation system has been under construction since 2005 in Delta, Utah.
Some of the products or potential products of International Automated Systems include an automated retail self-service checkout system and management software for retail establishments. A demonstration project for this was a grocery store called U-Check that was built and run in Salem, Utah. Portions of International Automated Systems' technology have been licensed to Optimal Robotics for an undisclosed amount of money. However, Optimal Robotics Corporation previously had designed and implemented their own self-check out system, which they reported to have developed completely independently of International Automated Systems. A press release by Optimal Robotics on January 24, 2004 states: "Optimal Robotics Corp. (NASDAQ: OPMR), today announced that it has entered into a settlement agreement with International Automated Systems, Inc. (IAS), which brings to a close the patent lawsuit between the parties. In accordance with the agreement, IAS will receive a sum that is not  considered to be material to Optimal."
such as on the magnetic strip of a credit card. ksl. The event took place between August 2005 and March 2006. Government. automated restaurant systems.com  Stock symbol IAUS. The primary goals of the ICE projects were to promote the development and advancement of iris recognition technology and assess its state-of-the-art capability. Other Products The company currently is developing or has developed or partially developed products for airport security systems. industry and research institutes. html  http:/ / www. iaus. open. Researchers interested in iris recognition may still obtain copies of the ICE 2005 dataset. and solar technology systems for production of electricity and gasoline. ICE 2005 The ICE 2005 was a technology development project for iris recognition. com/ doc/ 1G1-112640449. The primary goal in ICE 2005. then use that information to create a specific. personalized code number. The ICE projects were open to academia. com/ ?nid=148& sid=2893505 Iris Challenge Evaluation The Iris Challenge Evaluation (ICE) were a series of events conducted and managed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology for projects on technology development and evaluation for iris recognition. 'bladeless' turbines for electrical power generation. which could be stored in a small amount of digital space. the recognition technology development project. ICE 2005 logo . independent technology evaluation for iris recognition. encyclopedia. The ICE 2006 was the first large-scale.S. It consisted of an iris recognition challenge problem that was distributed to potential participants.PK  http:/ / www. People could then use other AFIM fingerprint scanners to identify themselves and purchase items or obtain access to controlled locations and devices in a secured way. was to promote and advance iris recognition technology that supports existing iris recognition efforts in the U. com  http:/ / www. External links • Company Web Site  • Story on NBC Affiliate KSL.International Automated Systems 124 Biometrics and Fingerprint Identification International Automated Systems developed a biometric device consisting of an automated fingerprint reader (AFIM = Automated Fingerprint Identification Machine) that was able to read a person's fingerprint.
The primary goal of ICE 2006 was to determine the state-of-the-art capability of automatic iris recognition technology and to establish a performance baseline against which to measure future progress. Sponsors • • • • • Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Agency (IARPA) Department of Homeland Security (DHS) FBI Criminal Justice Information Services Division Technical Support Working Group (TSWG) National Institute of Justice ICE 2006 logo External links • • • • • • • • • • • gov/mbgc/ MBGC Wedsite  MBGC Blog  FRGC Website  FRVT Website  ICE Website  National Institute of Standards and Technology  Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Agency  Department of Homeland Security  FBI Criminal Justice Information Services Division  Technical Support Working Group (TSWG)  National Institute of Justice  References  http:/ / face. The ICE 2006 large-scale evaluation report is available on the ICE 2006 webpage. open. nist. . A standard dataset and test methodology was employed so that all participants were evenly evaluated. the ICE measured performance with sequestered data (data not previously seen by the researchers or developers). independent technology evaluation of iris recognition technology.Iris Challenge Evaluation 125 ICE 2006 ICE 2006 consisted of a large-scale. The ICE 2006 started on 15 June 2006 and results were published in March 2007. Results of this effort may provide design input for future evaluations. To guarantee an accurate assessment.
NIR imaging is not sensitive to these chromophores. (In tests where the matching thresholds are—for better comparability—changed from their default settings to allow a false-accept rate in the −3 −4 region of 10 to 10 .Iris recognition 126 Iris recognition Iris recognition is a method of biometric authentication that uses pattern-recognition techniques based on high-resolution images of the irides of an individual's eyes. to create images of the detail-rich. also known as chromophore. Such images are challenging for feature extraction procedures and consequently hard to recognize at the identification step. retina scanning. intricate structures of the iris. Hosseini et al. iris recognition uses camera technology. In contrast. iris recognition is the only biometric technology well-suited for one-to-many identification. Daugman's algorithms are the basis of almost all currently (as of 2006) commercially deployed iris-recognition systems. Ph. or template longevity. with subtle infrared illumination reducing specular reflection from the convex cornea. The melanin. OBE (University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory). Converted into digital templates. NIR imaging provides good quality images. Because of its speed of comparison.  provide a comparison between these two imaging modalities and fused the results to boost the recognition rate. compared to NIR. Iris recognition system based on pattern matching Iris recognition efficacy is rarely impeded by glasses or contact lenses. as.D. Visible Wavelength Iris Image Near Infrared (NIR) version . An alternative feature extraction method to encode VW iris images was also introduced. Daugman. Not to be confused with another. Iris technology has the smallest outlier (those who cannot use/enroll) group of all biometric technologies. called eumelanin (brown–black) and pheomelanin (yellow–reddish) . it loses pigment melanin information. visible wavelength (VW) imaging keeps the related chromophore information and. the IrisCode false-reject rates are comparable to the most accurate single-finger fingerprint matchers . Breakthrough work to create the iris-recognition algorithms required for image acquisition and one-to-many matching was pioneered by John G. which is highly robust to reflectivity terms in iris. these images provide mathematical representations of the iris that yield unambiguous positive identification of an individual. less prevalent. These were utilized to effectively debut commercialization of the technology in conjunction with an early version of the IrisAccess system designed and manufactured by Korea's LG Electronics. barring trauma. mainly consists of two distinct heterogeneous macromolecules. and as a result they do not appear in the captured images. A key advantage of iris recognition is its stability. This is done to avoid light reflections from cornea in iris which makes the captured images very noisy. ocular-based technology. . Such fusion results are seemed to be alternative approach for multi-modal biometric systems which intend to reach high accuracies of recognition in large databanks. which is a rich source of information for iris recognition. a single enrollment can last a lifetime. Although.) Visible Wavelength (VW) vs Near Infrared (NIR) Imaging The majority of iris recognition benchmarks are implemented in Near Infrared (NIR) imaging by emitting 750 nm wavelength light source. provides rich sources of information mainly coded as shape patterns in iris.
A practical problem of iris recognition is that the iris is usually partially covered by eyelids and eyelashes. In Daugman's algorithms. a template created by imaging the iris is compared to a stored value template in a database. a Gabor wavelet transform is used in order to extract the spatial frequency range that contains a good best signal-to-noise ratio considering the focus quality of available cameras. If the Hamming distance is below the decision threshold. .Iris recognition 127 Operating principle An iris-recognition algorithm first has to identify the approximately concentric circular outer boundaries of the iris and the pupil in a photo of an eye. which contributes significantly to the long-term stability of the biometric template. a positive identification has effectively been made. In order to reduce the false-reject risk in such cases. additional algorithms are needed to identify the locations of eyelids and eyelashes and to exclude the bits in the resulting code from the comparison operation. The result is a set of complex numbers that carry local amplitude and phase information for the iris image. In the case of Daugman's algorithms. The mathematical methods used resemble those of modern lossy compression algorithms for photographic images. The set of pixels covering only the iris is then transformed into a bit pattern that preserves the information that is essential for a statistically meaningful comparison between two iris images. To authenticate via identification (one-to-many template matching) or verification (one-to-one template matching). all amplitude information is discarded. and the resulting 2048 bits that represent an iris consist only of the complex sign bits of the Gabor-domain representation of the iris image. Discarding the An IriScan model 2100 iris scanner amplitude information ensures that the template remains largely unaffected by changes in illumination and virtually negligibly by iris color.
and its geometric configuration is only controlled by two complementary muscles (the sphincter pupillae and dilator pupillae) that control the diameter of the pupil. ID cards.Iris recognition 128 Advantages The iris of the eye has been described as the ideal part of the human body for biometric identification for several reasons: • It is an internal organ that is well protected against damage and wear by a highly transparent and sensitive membrane (the cornea). This makes the iris shape far more predictable than. iris recognition is susceptible to poor image quality. • As with other photographic biometric technologies. etc. • The originally commercially deployed iris-recognition algorithm. • The iris is mostly flat. such as door access-control systems. a still not satisfactorily solved problem with iris recognition is the problem of live-tissue verification. civil rights activists have voiced concerns that iris-recognition technology might help governments to track individuals beyond their will.). has an unprecedented false match rate (better than 10−11). Some iris identifications have succeeded over a period of about 30 years. • An iris scan is similar to taking a photograph and can be performed from about 10 cm to a few meters away.  • As with other identification infrastructure (national residents databases. The reliability of any biometric identification depends on ensuring that the signal acquired and compared has actually been recorded from a live body part of the person to be identified and is not a manufactured template. • The iris has a fine texture that—like fingerprints—is determined randomly during embryonic gestation. However. Disadvantages • Iris scanning is a relatively new technology and is incompatible with the very substantial investment that the law enforcement and immigration authorities of some countries have already made into fingerprint recognition. with associated failure to enroll rates. which can be difficult to recognize after years of certain types of manual labor. Many commercially available iris-recognition systems are easily fooled by presenting a high-quality photograph of a face instead of a real face.2% of the human population who have a genetically identical twin. There is no need for the person to be identified to touch any equipment that has recently been touched by a stranger. The problem of live-tissue verification is less of a concern in . • While there are some medical and surgical procedures that can affect the colour and overall shape of the iris. the fine texture remains remarkably stable over many decades. or retinal scanning. where the eye can be brought very close to a lens (like looking into a microscope lens). which makes such devices unsuitable for unsupervised applications. This distinguishes it from fingerprints. that of the face. John Daugman's IrisCode. for instance. Even genetically identical individuals have completely independent iris textures. thereby eliminating an objection that has been raised in some cultures against fingerprint scanners. where a finger has to touch a surface. Security considerations As with most other biometric identification technology. whereas DNA (genetic "fingerprinting") is not unique for the about 0. • Some argue that a focused digital photograph with an iris diameter of about 200 pixels contains much more long-term stable information than a fingerprint. • Iris recognition is very difficult to perform at a distance larger than a few meters and if the person to be identified is not cooperating by holding the head still and looking into the camera. several academic institutions and biometric vendors are developing products that claim to be able to identify subjects at distances of up to 10 meters ("standoff iris" or "iris at a distance").
To make sure people do not get paid more than once. the system has apprehended over 330.5 seconds against 1. • One of three biometric identification technologies internationally standardized by ICAO for use in future passports (the other two are fingerprint and face recognition) • Iris recognition technology has been implemented by BioID Technologies SA in Pakistan for UNHCR repatriation project to control aid distribution for Afghan refugees. India's UID project uses Iris scan along with fingerprints to uniquely identify people and allocate a Unique Identification Number. when the UAE launched a national border-crossing security initiative. etc.000 persons re-entering the UAE with fraudulent travel documents.3 million iris codes. Like any pattern-recognition technology. 129 Deployed applications • United Arab Emirates IrisGuard's Homeland Security Border Control has been operating an expellee tracking system in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) since 2001. stereo cameras) to verify the position and shape of the iris relative to other eye features A 2004 report by the German Federal Office for Information Security noted that none of the iris-recognition systems commercially available at the time implemented any live-tissue verification technology. where a human operator supervises the process of taking the picture. Refugees are repatriated by UNHCR in cooperation with Government of Pakistan.g. and the system will detect the refugees on next attempt. All foreign nationals who possess a visa to enter the UAE are processed through iris cameras installed at all primary and auxiliary immigration inspection points. • At Schiphol Airport.. their irises are scanned.3 million iris code templates and around 4000 registrations per day. Today. air and sea ports of entry are equipped with systems.. The database has more than 1. IrisGuard Inc. The one-to-many iris comparison takes place within 1. . UAE Enrollment Station • Aadhar. Netherlands. all of the UAE's land. and they are paid for their travel. immigration control). live-tissue verifiers will have their own false-reject probability and will therefore further reduce the overall probability that a legitimate user is accepted by the sensor. To date. tracking eye while text is read. iris recognition has permitted passport-free immigration since 2001. such that the pupillary reflex can be verified and the iris image be recorded at several different pupil diameters • Analysing the 2D spatial frequency spectrum of the iris image for the peaks caused by the printer dither patterns found on commercially available fake-iris contact lenses • Analysing the temporal frequency spectrum of the image for the peaks caused by computer displays • Using spectral analysis instead of merely monochromatic cameras to distinguish iris tissue from other material • Observing the characteristic natural movement of an eyeball (measuring nystagmus.g. Methods that have been suggested to provide some defence against the use of fake eyes and irises include: • Changing ambient lighting during the identification (switching on a bright lamp). position and shape • Using 3D imaging (e.) • Testing for retinal retroreflection (red-eye effect) • Testing for reflections from the eye's four optical surfaces (front and back of both cornea and lens) to verify their presence.Iris recognition supervised applications (e.
a human clone character played by Ewan McGregor uses his eye to gain access through a security door of the original's house. . a character played by Wesley Snipes uses the Warden's gouged eye to gain access through a security door.S.S. • On May 10. low-risk air travelers.cl. community leaders and U. • Google use iris scanners to control access to their  datacentres . • Numb3rs features a scene where a robber gets into the CalSci facility by cracking the code assigned to a specific iris.ac. • In several Canadian airports. an assassin gains access to a top secret CERN laboratory using a scientist's eye. sheiks.Iris recognition • UK's IRIS — Iris Recognition Immigration System  130 • Used to verify the recognition of the "Afghan Girl" (Sharbat Gula) by National Geographic photographer Steve McCurry. where forensic vehicle investigations are carried out and evidence is stored.  Iris recognition in fiction • In Demolition Man (1993). There is another scanner at the entrance to MTAC. as part of the  CANPASS Air program that facilitates entry into Canada for pre-approved. cam. • The Simpsons Movie (2007) features a scene that illustrates the difficulty of image acquisition in iris recognition.html • In a number of US and Canadian airports. • In The Island (2005).uk/~jgd1000/afghan. • In Dan Brown's 2000 novel Angels and Demons. The principal character undergoes an eye transplant in order to change his identity but continues to use his original eyes to gain access to restricted locations. service members. low-risk travelers. like Facebook or eBay. See http://www. • Steven Spielberg's 2002 science fiction film Minority Report depicts a society in which what appears to be a form of iris recognition has become daily practice. Hoyos Group demonstrated a device called EyeLock using iris-recognition as an alternative to passwords to log people in to password-protected Web sites and applications. 2011. The sequence of Leroy Jethro Gibbs being verified is shown in the title sequence. as part of the NEXUS program that facilitates entry into the US and Canada for pre-approved. Marine Corps Sergeant uses an iris scanner to positively identify a member of the Baghdadi city council prior to a meeting with local tribal leaders. A U. • NCIS uses an iris scanner in the garage.
pdf)".  http:/ / www. ncbi.” PIGMENT CELL RESEARCH.espacenet.ieeecomputersociety. gov/ pubmed/ 17083485  http:/ / ieeexplore. K. “Metal-ion interactions and the structural organization of Sepia eume. B. Tieniu Tan.2008. pp.183>.ISBN 3639082591. vol. 2011. Tieniu Tan. homeoffice. htm  http:/ / www. gov  http:/ / www. also: US 4641349 (http://v3. Zhenan Sun and Xianchao Qiu. • ac. pp. Bhattacharya." Instrumentation and Measurement.ac.espacenet. " Iris recognition gadget eliminates passwords (http:/ / news. 6. Retrieved May 12.uk/users/jgd1000/irisrecog. Alaska. ncbi. Print ISBN 978-1-4244-5653-6. cbsa-asfc. no. John Daugman: " Results from 200 billion iris cross-comparisons (http://www.cam.cam. 2011. 2009.. pdf  http:/ / fpvte. 21–30. "Variational level set method and game theory applied for nonideal iris recognition. Kaushik Roy. pp. 792–804.Iris recognition 131 References  http:/ / iris. ukba. “The physical and chemical properties of eumelanin.. 1–8.ac." 16th IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP'09). gc. uk/ managingborders/ technology/ iris/  http:/ / www. 15 July 2008.html)". In: Proc.html)". " Boosting Ordinal Features for Accurate and Fast Iris Recognition (http://www.espacenet.ia. " Pigment Melanin: Pattern for Iris Recognition (http:// ieeexplore.com/textdoc?DB=EPODOC&IDX=US5291560) John Daugman: Biometric personal identification system based on iris analysis. Y Liu and JD Simon.cn/users/zfhe/publications.cl. Paul Meredith and Tadeusz Sarna. • • • • • • • .cbsr. html • WO 8605018 (http://v3." May 12. 28 August 1986.cam. html  http:/ / www. com/ watch?v=1SCZzgfdTBo  Lance Whitney. 2008).ac. June 2008. vol. 7-11. pp. E-ISBN : 978-1-4244-5655-0.N. nlm. pp.cl. nist.S. cl. Nov. pp. pp. nlm. 2721 – 2724.cbsr.ac.jsp?arnumber=5427304&tag=1). Roy and P. 2003. IEEE Transactions on . June 2005. " Towards Accurate and Fast Iris Segmentation for Iris Biometrics (http://www. H. Araabi.1109/TPAMI. Zhenan Sun and Xianchao Qiu.59. Iris Recognition: A Machine Learning Approach. 18.html)". jsp?arnumber=5427304& tag=1  http:/ / www. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology 14(1). 1 March 1994 • John Daugman: " How iris recognition works (http://www. April 2010. M. January 2004. vol. nih. Technical Report UCAM-CL-TR-635. Cairo. Zhaofeng He. 1.” PIGMENT CELL RESEARCH. 42–48. youtube. Publisher: VDM Verlag Dr. gov/ pubmed/ 15649151  http:/ / www. Zhaofeng He. cam. ac.pdf)".lanin. no. com/ 8301-1009_3-20062254-83. In: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence (TPAMI).cn/users/zfhe/publications. Anchorage. Hosseini. Aran Safir: Iris recognition system. • John Daugman: " The importance of being random: statistical principles of iris recognition (http://www. gov/ ICE/ ICE_2005_Results_30March2006.4. biometricgroup.ISBN 978-3639082593.uk/~jgd1000/patrec. gov.org/10. nist.org/xpls/abs_all. cnet.cl. . 19. uk/ ~jgd1000/ simpsons. 279–291.. CNET. html?part=rss& subj=news& tag=2547-1_3-0-20). FEB 2005. 2 September 2008 <http://doi.com/textdoc?DB=EPODOC&IDX=WO8605018) Leonard Flom. IEEE Computer Society. DEC 2006.uk/TechReports/ UCAM-CL-TR-635. Egypt. org/ xpls/ abs_all. Soltanian-Zadeh. IEEE Computer Society Digital Library. • US 5291560 (http://v3. nih. ieee.com/ textdoc?DB=EPODOC&IDX=US4641349) issued 2/3/1987. no. University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory.ia. Müller (November 21. Pattern Recognition 36. of the 26th IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR'08). com/ reports/ public/ reports/ ITIRT_report. Prabir Bhattacharya. ca/ prog/ canpass/ canpassair-eng.ieee. 572–594.
nationalgeographic.gov/ice/) – a contest for competing iris-recognition algorithms • NIST IREX (http://iris. Those who qualify to participate in the scheme have both their eyes photographed in order to capture their iris patterns.cam. .org/iso/catalogue_detail. Enrolment takes place in the airport departure lounge where an Immigration Officer assesses eligibility and enrols qualifying persons. As of June 2010. Availability Enrolment for the scheme is currently free and voluntary.ac. 2.html) • Iris recognition algorithm reidentifies Sharbat Gula – Afghan National Geographic cover girl in 1985 – two decades later (http://magma. This data is then stored securely alongside their personal details. including comparison of 19 state-of-the-art iris recognition algorithms from 10 providers • Iris recognition test results.Iris recognition 132 External links • Home page of IrisCode designer John Daugman (http://www.cl.uk/~jgd1000/deployments.nist.gov/irex/) . analysis (http://www.cam. Daugman's original patent application (http://google.biometricgroup.com/reports/public/ITIRT.com) • John G.com/patents?id=KRkpAAAAEBAJ) at Google Patents • World largest current deployment (http://www.html) • Project Iris (http://projectiris.htm?csnumber=38750) International standard for iris images • NIST Iris Challenge Evaluation (http://iris.ac. IRIS relies on biometric technology to authenticate identity and is part of the e-borders initiative of the UK Government. 4 and 5. These barriers are located in certain Immigration Arrival Halls and form part of Immigration and Passport Control. Procedure Enrolled passengers can enter the UK through a special automated immigration control barrier incorporating an iris recognition camera. IRIS is available at • • • • Birmingham Terminal 1 Gatwick Terminals North and South Manchester Terminals 1 and 2 Heathrow Terminals 1.iso.co.com/ngm/afghangirl/) • Bath University Iris Image Database (http://www.nist.uk/) an Open Source iris recognition system Iris Recognition Immigration System Iris Recognition Immigration System (IRIS) is an initiative to provide automated clearance through UK immigration for certain frequent travellers.a program for various NIST activities supporting interoperable iris biometrics. 3.irisbase.uk/users/jgd1000) • ISO/IEC 19794-6 (http://www.cl.
the receiver cannot tell from reading the phrase "I saw 3 zebras!" whether: • that was typed rapidly or slowly • the sender used the left shift key. or a Swiss national Permanent residents of the United Kingdom (e. vibration information may be used to create a pattern for future use in both identification and authentication tasks. Indefinite Leave to Remain) Valid entry clearance holders (Visa holders) with at least 2 months of validity left on the entry clearance Short term visitor entering the United Kingdom (not needing visas) who were granted entry as a visitor on at least two occasions in the last six months. Science of Keystroke Dynamics The behavioral biometric of Keystroke Dynamics uses the manner and rhythm in which an individual types characters on a keyboard or keypad. iris. or the caps-lock key to make the "i" turn into a capitalized letter "I" • the letters were all typed at the same pace.Iris Recognition Immigration System 133 Eligibility Currently the following travellers are eligible to enroll: • • • • • Persons over 18 years of age British citizen or people with a right of abode in the UK. or if there was a long pause before the letter "z" or the numeral "3" while you were looking for that letter • the sender typed any letters wrong initially and then went back and corrected them. gov. The keystroke rhythms of a user are measured to develop a unique biometric template of the users typing pattern for future authentication. uk Keystroke dynamics Keystroke dynamics. Similarly. which determines a primary pattern for future comparison. all that is retained when logging a typing session is the sequence of characters corresponding to the order in which keys were pressed and timing information is discarded.g. Data needed to analyze keystroke dynamics is obtained by keystroke logging. or typing dynamics. is the detailed timing information that describes exactly when each key was pressed and when it was released as a person is typing at a computer keyboard. The recorded keystroke timing data is then processed through a unique neural algorithm. or four occasions in the last 12 months • Exempt from UK Immigration controls or permitted to enter or remain in the UK for more than six months and have more than two months left of that permission • Family of EEA state or Swiss Nationals based in the UK or exempt from immigration controls and based in the UK Further Information • Official IRIS website at the UK Government  References  http:/ / www. When reading email. or a national of an EEA State. or if he got them right the first time . the right shift key. Raw measurements available from most every keyboard can be recorded to determine Dwell time (the time a key pressed) and Flight time (the time between “key up” and the next “key down”). Normally.
again. and range from statistical techniques to neural-nets to artificial intelligence. which is normally discarded. very simple rules can be used to rule out a possible user. and always has to slow down an extra half-second whenever a number has to be entered." creating a rhythm that could help distinguish ally from enemy. "reversals". 1844. sequences of letters may have characteristic properties for a person. Capitol in Washington. the same letters in reverse order ("gni") to a degree that varies consistently by person. may be entered far faster than. "adjacent letter hits". By the 1860’s the telegraph revolution was in full swing and telegraph operators were a valuable resource. as it's always possible for people to go slower than normal. a new era in long-distance communications had begun. "homonyms". but it's unusual or impossible for them to go twice their normal speed." Military Intelligence identified that an individual had a unique way of keying in a message's "dots" and "dashes. For example. It's only a one-way test. just as revealing as an accent might in spoken English. it may be that the mystery user at the keyboard and John both type at 50 words per minute. Again. D. but John never really learned the numbers. it's a pretty safe bet that it's not John. Use as Biometric Data Researchers are interested in using this keystroke dynamic information. . but which letters those are may vary dramatically but consistently for different people. With experience. if we know that John types at 20 words per minute. Or. it's a safe bet this isn't John. and there is an entire taxonomy of errors. and the person at the keyboard is going at 70 words per minute. The time to get to and depress a key (seek-time). each operator developed their unique “signature” and was able to be identified simply by their tapping rhythm. these errors might be detected. Most people have specific letters that take them longer to find or get to than their average seek-time over all letters. and the time the key is held-down (hold-time) may be very characteristic for a person. Using a methodology called "The Fist of the Sender. regardless of how fast he is going overall. Right-handed people may be statistically faster in getting to keys they hit with their right hand fingers than they are with their left hand fingers.C.Keystroke dynamics 134 Origin of Keystroke Dynamics On May 24. to verify or even try to determine the identity of the person who is producing those keystrokes. As late as World War II the military transmitted messages through Morse Code. Even without knowing what language a person is working in. In English. the patterns of errors might be sufficiently different to distinguish two people. and those three letters may be known as a rapid-fire sequence and not as just three meaningless letters hit in that order. The techniques used to do this vary widely in power and sophistication. "double-strikes". say. In the simplest case. If the mystery user doesn't slow down for numbers. Maryland. Index fingers may be characteristically faster than other fingers to a degree that is consistent for a person day-to-day regardless of their overall speed that day. This consistency may hold and may reveal the person's native language's common sequences even when they are writing entirely in a different language. In addition. such as "ing". by looking at the rest of the text and what letters the person goes back and replaces.S. "drop-outs". hold-length-errors (for a shift key held down too short or too long a time). to the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad "outer depot" in Baltimore. the message "What hath God wrought" was sent by telegraph from the U. then. That would be a test based simply on raw speed uncorrected for errors. the word "the" is very common. such as this person's most common "substitutions". Common endings. Common "errors" may also be quite characteristic of a person. This is often possible because some characteristics of keystroke production are as individual as handwriting or a signature.
It is a commonly held belief that behavioral biometrics are not as reliable as physical biometrics used for authentication such as fingerprints or retinal scans or DNA. there will be error rates to almost any system. The benefit to keystroke dynamics (as well as other behavioral biometrics) is that FRR/FAR can be adjusted by changing the acceptance threshold at the individual level." Temporal variation One of the major problems that keystroke dynamics runs into is that a person's typing varies substantially during a day and between different days. Because of these variations. Researchers are still a long way from being able to read a keylogger session from a public computer in a library or cafe somewhere and identify the person from the keystroke dynamics. the traditional benchmarks of False Acceptance Rate (FAR) and False Rejection Rates (FRR) no longer have linear relationships. but then that person could be replaced by someone else at the keyboard who was taking over for some bad purpose. their patterns are statistical in nature. . This allows for explicitly defined individual risk mitigation–something physical biometric technologies could never achieve. or be pasting in information from another source (cut-and-paste). Another benefit of keystroke dynamics: they can be captured continuously—not just at the start-up time—and may be adequately accurate to trigger an alarm to another system or person to come double-check the situation. because even a 20% true-positive rate would send the word out that this type of behavior is being watched and caught. Extra doses of medication or missed doses could change his rhythm.Keystroke dynamics 135 Authentication versus identification Keystroke dynamics is part of a larger class of biometrics known as behavioral biometrics. or by logging onto a medical system but then leaving the computer logged-in while someone else he knows about or doesn't know about uses the system. In some cases. or move their keyboard tray to a new location. a doctor might violate business rules by sharing his password with his secretary. As such. a person at gun-point might be forced to get start-up access by entering a password or having a particular fingerprint. a person. a person's typing may bear little resemblance to the way he types when he is well-rested. for example. who we are confident is "a left-handed person with small hands who doesn't write in English as their primary language. In other less dramatic cases. but we may be in a position to confidently rule out certain people from being the author. or switch computers. There are hundreds of confounding circumstances. The reality here is that behavioral biometrics use a confidence measurement instead of the traditional pass/fail measurements. or angry. or use a virtual keyboard. Even while typing. or have a beer. both false-positives and false-negatives. And some mornings. Keystroke dynamics is one way to detect such problems sufficiently reliably to be worth investigating. People may get tired. A valid solution that uses keystroke dynamics must take these elements into account. perhaps after a long night with little sleep and a lot of drinking. or from a voice-to-text converter. Note: Some of the commercial products (the successful ones) have strategies to counter these issues and have proven effective in large-scale use (thousands of users) in real-world settings and applications. may be on the phone or pausing to talk.
unlike traditional methods. is a global company with more than 14 technical & Commercial Offices around the world and a Research & Development Laboratory in Mendoza. Concerning the error rates (FAR/FRR). Founded in 2006 and is headquartered in Miami.Keystroke dynamics 136 Commercial products There are several home software and commercial software products which claim to use keystroke dynamics to authenticate a user. com) in 2009. Delfigo Security (http:/ / www. probayes. Mac. TypeSense. com) has an implementation which uses keystroke dynamics for Windows authentication in hidden mode. com) is a method for biometric authentication based on a user's typing behavior. KeyTrac (http:/ / www. delfigosecurity. bioChec (http://www. a patented commercial system which is designed for both web authentication and large-scale enterprise authentication in conjunction with eSSO and supports all platforms (Windows. Certified by International Biometric Group (http:/ / www. com) provides multi-factor risk-based authentication to prevent identity theft and fraud. The concealed background keystroke recording. admitonesecurity. Device forensic. Linux) and major enterprise infrastructure. The solution leverages one of Probayes's patents on probabalistic computing. keytrac. It is the recipient of the "BiometricTech Best of Show 2003" award as well as receiving "SC Magazine Global Awards 2005 Finalist". and any form of transaction that engages a software artifact. AdmitOneSecurity .formerly BioPassword (http:/ / www. ID Control (http:/ / www. Psylock was a finalist in the renowed Global Security Challenge award 2007 and third in the German IT-Security Award 2008 . com) makes Trustable Passwords. KeystrokeID is easy to enroll and manage through their fully integrated and centralized identity and access management solution called ID Control Server. (http:/ / www. and achieve better result than other similar products. FFIEC. com) has developed a unique keystroke dynamics solution for web applications. net) delivers keystroke dynamics with KeystrokeID which offers an impressively low FRR and FAR for verification and identification. authenware. AuthenWare Corp. Psylock (http:/ / www. combined with the high level of security. com) is a patented commercial system which uses keystroke dynamics . Deepnet Security (http:/ / www. Authenware Corp. Probayes (http:/ / www. deepnetsecurity. . com) provides the highest security levels to enterprise applications. idcontrol. biometricgroup. the web. de) . thus making it the first method able to analyze any text input in the background. Delfigo's solution easily integrates out-of-band capability to in-band authentication methods.in addition to other transparent authentication factors . The solution from Delfigo Security uses keystroke biometrics and other behavioral characteristics in an AI based algorithm to create unique digital identity of an individual. com) has also developed a keystroke biometric authentication system.to associate a user to their digital identity and detect online fraud — see the References section below for a link to a review from PC Magazine as well as a research report from Coalfire Systems on how the product enables PCI. without disrupting the work flow of the end user. Psylock claims to be the technological leader for keystroke dynamics. imagicsoftware. iMagic Software (http:/ / www. Trustable Passwords is being used by websites to authenticate customers and in enterprises including multi-hospital health systems for user authentication and interfaces with other authentication technologies including Knowledge-Based. Argentina. and HIPAA compliance.com) has a patented implementation which uses keystroke dynamics for ubiquitous web-based login as well as workstation authentication. and out-of-band authentication. offer a number of attractive options for implementing the system in e-commerce applications — something that would not be possible using traditional keyboard biometrics. Florida (USA). KeyTrac works with any text the user enters (not only passwords or always-the-same-text methods). It is claimed that their product employs advanced new algorithms such as auto-correlative training and adaptive learning. psylock. Therefore the user is authenticated by the way he types on a conventional keyboard and depending on the result of the analysis he gets access to certain data. DiBiSoft (http:/ / www.bioChec. dibisoft.
with even Microsoft issuing new spyware defense products.S. under which such use may constitute wire-tapping. • Bergadano. D. Patent and Trademark Office. and figure out as well how to have an authorized program's use of keystroke interception survive the removal efforts of multiple anti-spyware programs. C. On top of that. . mouse. Competent legal advice should be obtained before attempting to use or even experiment with such software and keystroke dynamic analysis. and are frequently used as a source of hardware-generated random numbers for computer systems.Keystroke dynamics BehavioSec (http:/ / www.R. U. BeahvioSec are headquartered in Sweden.formerly BioPassword. Anyone considering building a new product using keystroke dynamics should understand the legal issues (see below). In this case. 2007. (USA 7206938). (vendor web-site home [Web Page]. Other uses Because keystroke timings are generated by human beings. (Inventor). & environment dynamics for both windows continuous authentication and client-less web based to aid fraud prevention. (Inventors) (2007). Spyware and its use for illegal operations such as bank-fraud and identity theft are very much in the news. Keystroke Dynamics & Corporate Security. behaviosec. • AdmitOne Security . The status of the "dynamic context" of the text is probably in legal limbo. Use of such software may be in direct and explicit violation of local laws. U. 4 621 334. 4 805 222. Method and apparatus for verifying an individual’s identity. (1986). or retained. Blender and H.S. • iMagic Software. WSTA Ticker Magazine. com) provide behaviometric solutions encompassing keystroke. 367-397. Key sequence rhythm recognition system and method. User authentication through Keystroke Dynamics. Personal identification apparatus. S and Postley. and tougher laws in the near future being very likely. Patent and Trademark Office. This could have severe penalties including jail time. (2002). Garcia.. asking for re-entry of a password or other verification question. Examples: • S. such as the U. • J. ACM Transactions on Information and System Security (TISSEC). Patent No. if consent is not clearly obtained from the people at the keyboard. Patriot Act. Key sequence rhythm recognition system and method.S. See spyware for a better description of user-consent issues and various fraud statutes. F.S. Patent No. There are some patents in this area. Notes: Vendor specializing in keystroke dynamics • Garcia. (2003). 7 206 938. the security enhancing programs may be fighting with each other. 137 Legal and regulatory issues Surreptitious use of key-logging software is on the rise. J. if the desired result for a web-based product is to use keystroke dynamics to decide whether to cause a pop-up window to appear. • J. Notes: US Patent Office . 5(4). read. URL . Patent No.W. (USA 4621334). Notes: Vendor specializing in keystroke authentication for large enterprises. Patent and Trademark Office. Notes: US Patent Office . U. Gunetti. Young and R. new pop-up blockers may prevent that feature from functioning. as of this writing. • Bender. Postley. 1989. H. even though the actual residual "content" of the message—the resultant text—is never analyzed.. References • Checco. Personal identification apparatus. Hammon. J. they are not well correlated with external processes. 1986. . (vendor web-site  May 2006). & Picardi.
html . D. S. ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security. There were a high rate of confounding errors and backspaces in the password samples. Computer user Verification using Login String Keystroke Dynamics. org/ iel3/ 3468/ 14367/ 00661150. Wagner M.. G. (Inventors). pdf  http:/ / ieeexplore. (vendor web-site  October 2006). Notes: Kent Ridge Digital Labs. F. • Coalfire Systems Compliance Validation Assessment (2007) http://www.H. F. 351-359. (1998).. Method and apparatus for verifying an individual's identity. M. A. 4805222). F. 28(2). imagicsoftware. Identity authorization based on keystroke latencies. Best results used both with a learning classifier. com http:/ / www. & Gupta.com/ admitone_library/AOS_Compliance_Functional_Assessment_by_Coalfire... 43(4). • Monrose. M. Liang.. much cited • Monrose. cs. & Wetzel. IEEE Transactions on Systems. (1997). R. pdf?arnumber=661150  http:/ / www. 75-80. htm& r=1& f=G& l=50& s1=7206938. & Peetz.. Future Generation Computer Systems. admitonesecurity. Chambers. 16. html http:/ / old. de/ it_auszeichnung_2008. (1990)... M. & OS=PN/ 7206938& RS=PN/ 7206938  http:/ / portal. M. & Rubin. acm. Man. horst-goertz. R. 33(2). • Young. (2009). Authentication via Keystroke Dynamics. uspto. gov/ patft/ index. Hold times were more effective than interkey times for discrimination. • Vertical Company LTD. Notes: Review 1990–1999  • Monrose. A. ieee. Password hardening based on keystroke dynamics.Keystroke dynamics • Joyce.. K. (2000). Proceedings of the 18th Annual Belgian-Dutch Conference on Machine Learning. Vibration Sensitive Keystroke Analysis. verticalcompany. J. com  http:/ / benelearn09. html http:/ / www. gov/ netacgi/ nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1& Sect2=HITOFF& d=PALL& p=1& u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum. Proceedings of the 6th ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security. W. Laverty W. R. and Cybernetics Part A. Keystroke Dynamics as a Biometric for Authentication. com http:/ / www. J. org/ publications/ articles/ 1003_article06. & Hammon.pdf 138 References       http:/ / www. nl/ Home. edu/ 4180/ hw/ keystroke. uvt. D.admitonesecurity. Optimizing digraph-latency based biometric typist verification systems: inter and intra typist differences in digraph latency distributions. columbia. & MacKenzie. Henderson. 73-82. & Hiron. Singapore • Robinson. Notes: Vendor specializing in keystroke authentication solutions for government and commercial agencies. PN.. Notes: Review up through 1990 • Mahar. Communications of the ACM. J.. (1999). 168-176. uspto. Notes: US Patent Office . V.. R. wsta. • Lopatka. C. 579-592. html http:/ / patft. Napier R. & Rubin Ariel D. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies. org  http:/ / www1. D. A. M. L. R. M. Notes:  Highlights: 10 users were distinguished from 10 "forgers" using 3 classification systems. (1989).. (1995). Notes: available to subscribers at  .
com/ news/ new-airport-screening-could-read-minds/ 365378/ ). Allison (September 23. Retrieved 2008-09-24. Retrieved 2008-09-24. com/ story/ 0.com. . and non-verbal cues.S. When needed. . According to the scientists. .2933. 2008. 2004 . In its current development. the software interactively sends the login names and passwords to compatible applications and websites. uk/ sciencetech/ article-1060972/ The-airport-security-scanner-read-mind. dailymail. html). 2008). Department of Homeland Security to be implemented for detection of potential terrorist suspects. analysts can decide whether to subject a person to questioning. rapid heart and breath rate. the device requires Windows XP or Windows Vista x86 to run . If the sensors pick up anything considered alarming.00.  Hazelton. "The airport security scanner that can read your mind" (http:/ / www. Functionality Users could register any finger up to ten since the software has the capability to store all ten fingers for a single user. html). Liz (September 24. it can recognize seven primary emotions and emotional clues and will eventually have equipment which can analyze full body movement. The system does various test scanning for elevated blood pressure. The underlying software providing the biometrics was developed by Digital Persona. an eye scanner and a pheromone-reader. 2008). September 24.426485. References  Barrie. co.  "New airport screening 'could read minds'" (http:/ / www. "Homeland Security Detects Terrorist Threats by Reading Your Mind" (http:/ / www. Login names and passwords associated with the registered finger prints are stored in a database located in the user's computer. Microsoft Fingerprint Reader Microsoft Fingerprint Reader was a device that was sold by Microsoft primarily targeted at home and small business users which is currently discontinued.MALINTENT 139 MALINTENT MALINTENT is technological system that was developed by the U. UK Daily Mail. . which can be used to perform the login operation automatically. foxnews. indianexpress. Retrieved 2008-09-24. First released on September 4. Fox News. the MALINTENT system uses a barrage of non-invasive sensors and imagers to detect and evaluate a person's facial expressions to gauge whether he or she could be planning to commit an attack or crime. IndianaExpress.
Retrieved 2009-06-05. microsoft. Driver Support Currently only x86 (32-bit) support for Windows XP and Vista exist. mspx). minutia.microsoft. in everyday English. minutiae are major features of a fingerprint. where it may prevent others from seeing passwords from being keyed in. or independent ridge – a ridge that commences. minor or incidental. Minutiae include: • • • • • • • • • Ridge ending – the abrupt end of a ridge.00. Firefox Browser Support The reader works with Firefox using the FingerFox Add-on . fr/ fingerfox/ External links • MS Fingerprint home page (http://www. Microsoft support site states there is no support for Windows 7.pg.ə/.iː/.RSS. both also English In biometrics and forensic science. "Researcher Hacks Microsoft Fingerprint Reader" (http:/ / www.  http:/ / redoneill. free. using which comparisons of one print with another can be made. .RSS. English pronunciation: /mɨˈnjuːʃɪ.mspx) Minutiae Minutiae pronunciation: /mɨˈnjuːʃə/) (pronounced /mɨˈnjuːʃɪ. are. . com/ hardware/ support/ fingerprintreader. travels a short distance and then ends Island – a single small ridge inside a short ridge or ridge ending that is not connected to all other ridges Ridge enclosure – a single ridge that bifurcates and reunites shortly afterward to continue as a single ridge Spur – a bifurcation with a short ridge branching off a longer ridge Crossover or bridge – a short ridge that runs between two parallel ridges Delta – a Y-shaped ridge meeting Core – a U-turn in the ridge pattern .124978. com/ resource/ article/ 0. IDG News Service.Microsoft Fingerprint Reader 140 Application Such a device could be useful in a public environment.1. Looks like this(-) Ridge bifurcation – a single ridge that divides into two ridges Short ridge.aid. pcworld. However it is more of a convenience than a being a true access control system. asp). sing.com/hardware/support/fingerprintreader.  "Microsoft Fingerprint system requirements" (http:/ / www. References  Robert McMillan (2006-03-06). Retrieved 2006-05-04.
Multiple Biometric Grand Challenge 141 Multiple Biometric Grand Challenge Multiple Biometric Grand Challenge (MBGC) is a biometric project. Iris images will consist of still . the Multiple Biometric Grand Challenge (MBGC) will address these problem areas. Government organizations recently sponsored the Face Recognition Grand Challenge (FRGC). Many of these requirements focus on biometric samples taken under less than ideal conditions. Background Over the last decade. ICE 2006 provided an independent assessment of multiple iris recognition algorithms on the same data set. Challenge problems will focus on three major areas: • Iris and Face Recognition from Portal Video: the goal is to develop algorithms that recognize people from near infrared image sequences and high definition video sequences. Face data will be real-world-like high and low resolution images of frontal faces. FRVT 2006. Results from the FRGC and FRVT 2006 documented two orders of magnitude improvement in the performance of face recognition under full-frontal. further advances in these technologies are needed to meet the full range of operational requirements. real-world-like high and low resolution imagery Iris recognition from video sequences and off-angle images Fusion of face and iris (at score and image levels) Unconstrained face recognition from still & video Recognition from Near Infrared (NIR) & High Definition (HD) video streams taken through portals Unconstrained face recognition from still & video The MBGC will consist of a set of challenge problems designed to advance the current state of technology and conclude with a planned independent evaluation. controlled conditions over the last 14 years. test and improve performance of face and iris recognition technology on both still and video imagery through a series of challenge problems and evaluation. numerous government and industry organizations have or are moving toward deploying automated biometric technologies to provide increased security for their systems and facilities. The sequences will be acquired as people walk through a portal. • Iris and Face Recognition from Controlled Images: the goal is to improve performance on iris and face imagery. ICE 2005 and ICE 2006. Overview The primary goal of the MBGC is to investigate. However.S. Six U. The MBGC seeks to reach this goal through several technology development areas: • • • • • • Face recognition on still frontal. for example: • • • • Low quality still images High and low quality video imagery Face and iris images taken under varying illumination conditions Off-angle or occluded images Building on the challenge problem and evaluation paradigm of FRGC. For the first time. Face Recognition Vendor Test (FRVT) 2006 and the Iris Challenge Evaluation (ICE) 2006.
and reported at the MBGC 2nd Workshop in December 2008. 142 Challenge Problem Structure Overview The Multiple Biometric Grand Challenge is based on previous challenges directed by Dr. The Version 1 series was separated into three distinct areas with various experiments under those areas. Organizations then sign licenses to receive the data and begin to develop technology (mostly computer algorithms) in an attempt to solve the various challenges laid out by the Challenge Team. 1st Characterization of the state of the art. This initial set of challenge problems had the following goals. The Challenge Team designs the protocols. • Portal Challenge • Still Iris versus Near Infrared (NIR) • Video Iris versus Near Infrared (NIR) • Still Face versus High Definition (HD) Video • Multiple Biometrics (Fusion) • Still Face / Still Iris versus Near Infrared (NIR) / High Definition (HD) Video • Still Face / Video Iris versus Near Infrared (NIR) / High Definition (HD) Video Version 1 results were submitted in November 2008. P. Jonathon Phillips. This phase ultimately determines the performance levels of the participant’s algorithms. The data sets are then released to participating organizations who develop their algorithms and submit self reported results back to the Challenge Team in the form of similarity matrices. Introduce participants to challenge protocol and experiment environment. challenge problems. At the 2nd Workshop the Challenge Team reports the results from Challenge Version 1 and releases the Challenge Version 2. The first workshop gives an overview of the challenge and introduces the first set of challenge problems (typically referred to as Version 1). The cycle is repeated. but the actual executables (or SDKs) to their algorithms. MBGC Challenge Version 1 The Multiple Biometric Challenge Version 1 was released in April 2008. Specifically the Facial Recognition Grand Challenge (FRGC) and the Iris Challenge Evaluation (ICE 2005). • Still and Video Face: the goal is to advance recognition from unconstrained outdoor video sequences and still images. These challenge problems will allow for fusion of face and iris at both the score level and the image level. Grow the research community that works on these problems. The Challenge Team then runs these algorithms through a battery of tests on large sequestered datasets. A final report is issued by the Team which is used by Industries and Governments to determine the actual state of the art in a given field and to provide participating organizations a basis for showing their performance within that field. finishing with a final workshop. The programmatic process of a Challenge Problem is as follows. To advance and inform the various participants and interested parties the Team hosts workshops. and composes the necessary data sets. • • • • Familiarize community with problem and data. prepares challenge infrastructure. . The Team analyzes these results and then hosts another workshop. At this stage the Participants are requested to submit not their self reported results.Multiple Biometric Grand Challenge and video iris sequences.
The purpose of the MBE is to conduct an independent evaluation of the MBGC submissions on large sequestered data sets. biometrics. mil . External links • • • • • • • • • • MBGC Website  MBGC Blog  FRGC Website  FRVT Website  ICE Website  National Institute of Standards and Technology  Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Agency  Department of Homeland Security  FBI Criminal Justice Information Services Division  Technical Support Working Group (TSWG)  References  http:/ / www. dod. Submitted results will be reported at the MBGC 3rd Workshop in Spring 2009.Multiple Biometric Grand Challenge 143 MBGC Challenge Version 2 Will be released in January 2009. Multiple Biometric Evaluation (MBE) The Multiple Biometric Evaluation (MBE) will begin in Summer 2009. Sponsors • • • • • Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Agency (IARPA) DOD Biometrics Task Force (BTF)  Department of Homeland Security (DHS) FBI Criminal Justice Information Services Division Technical Support Working Group (TSWG) References This article incorporates public domain material from the National Institute of Standards and Technology document "NIST Multiple Biometric Grand Challenge" .
gov/ hq/ cjisd/ ngi.Next Generation Identification 144 Next Generation Identification Next Generation Identification (NGI) is a project of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). iris. incorporating palm print. gov/ pressrel/ pressrel08/ ngicontract021208. htm http:/ / www. Organizations Involved in the Project • • • • • • • • Lockheed Martin IBM Accenture BAE Systems Global Science & Technology (GST) Innovative Management & Technology Services (IMTS) Platinum Solutions National Center for State Courts (NCSC) External links • • • • FBI Press Release (February 12. August 6. which is currently used by law enforcement to identify subjects by their fingerprints and look up their criminal history. usdoj. and facial identification. The NGI system will be a more modular system (allowing easy expandability). pdf http:/ / www. 2006)  FBI NGI  References     http:/ / www. 2008)  TechnologyNewsDaily. 2008)  FBI Report to the Department of Justice. It will also have more advanced lookup capabilities. gov/ jmd/ 2008justification/ exhibit300/ fbi_ngi. technologynewsdaily. The project's goal is to expand the capabilities of the Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System (IAFIS).com article (May 5. com/ node/ 9733 http:/ / www. The development of the project is being led by Lockheed Martin who are teamed up with a number of technology companies. justifying the project (PDF file. fbi. htm . fbi.
References 1. or CCD) or offline image where the image is taken with ink and paper Zhang. Kluwer Academic Publishers. (2004). wrinkles (secondary lines) and ridges. indents and marks which can be used when comparing one palm to another. It can be either an online image (i.Palm print 145 Palm print A palm print refers to an image acquired of the palm region of the hand. It differs to a fingerprint in that it also contains other information such as texture. .e. ‘’Palmprint Authentication’’. Zhang. Palm prints can be used for criminal. D. forensic or commercial applications. taken by a scanner. The palm itself consists of principal lines.
Palmar aponeurosis 146 Palmar aponeurosis Palmar aponeurosis The palmar aponeurosis. Central portion The central portion occupies the middle of the palm. The intervals between the four slips transmit the digital vessels and nerves. which are inserted into the fibrous sheaths of the Flexor tendons. numerous strong. one for each finger. and receives the expanded tendon of the Palmaris longus. From the sides of these processes offsets are attached to the transverse metacarpal ligament. the tendons of the Flexor muscles. and those to the fingers passing into the skin at the transverse fold at the bases of the fingers. Latin Gray's aponeurosis palmaris subject #126 460  The palmar aponeurosis (palmar fascia) invests the muscles of the palm. which is continuous with the interosseous aponeurosis. and separates the intermediate from the collateral groups of muscles. transverse fasciculi bind the separate processes together. The central part of the palmar aponeurosis is intimately bound to the integument by dense fibroareolar tissue forming the superficial palmar fascia. is triangular in shape. Its base divides below into four slips. . Its apex is continuous with the lower margin of the transverse carpal ligament. and the tendons of the Lumbricales. and gives origin by its medial margin to the Palmaris brevis. Each slip gives off superficial fibers to the skin of the palm and finger. At the points of division into the slips mentioned. lateral. those to the palm joining the skin at the furrow corresponding to the metacarpophalangeal articulations. By this arrangement short channels are formed on the front of the heads of the metacarpal bones. The deeper part of each slip subdivides into two processes. through these the Flexor tendons pass. and of great strength and thickness. It covers the superficial volar arch. and the branches of the median and ulnar nerves. and on either side it gives off a septum. and medial portions. and consists of central.
on the radial side. Hounds of the road: a history of the [[Greyhound Bus Company (http:/ / books. com/ reference/ gray/ subjects/ subject?id=126#p460 http:/ / mywebpages. Daniel (19 September 2007). Popular Press. net/ wnor/ lesson5mus& tendonsofhand. co. Retrieved 29 June 2009. This term is used in particular for the practice of collecting pawtographs of celebrity animals. External links • lesson5mus&tendonsofhand  at The Anatomy Lesson  by Wesley Norman (Georgetown University) • lesson5flexretinac&palmapon  at The Anatomy Lesson  by Wesley Norman (Georgetown University) This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. Carlton (1984). then stamping the item to be autographed. htm http:/ / home. they are continuous with the central portion and with the fascia on the dorsum of the hand. on the ulnar side. References     http:/ / education. Hartford Courant. the muscles of the ball of the thumb. net/ wnor/ lesson5flexretinac& palmapon. yahoo. p. As such. "Jumping dogs stop NYers in their tracks" (http:/ / www. . sfweekly. directly stamping a paw on a stamp pad. story). ISBN 0879722711.0. uk/ books?id=23Pwrh-GEOMC& pg=PA94& dq=pawtograph)]]. fibrous layers. comcast. htm Pawtograph A pawtograph is a print of an animal's paw. creating a rubber stamp from the paw impression and stamping the item using the stamp. and. comcast.4381668. regarded in some contexts as equivalent to a human signature. the muscles of the little finger. 94. some of the information contained within it may be outdated. google. "A Pug at the Heartstrings" (http:/ / www. 2.  The hobby of collecting pawtographs is known as pawtography. San Francisco Weekly.Palmar aponeurosis 147 Lateral and medial portions The lateral and medial portions of the palmar aponeurosis are thin. Silke (26 November 2003).  Goldberg. net/ ~wnor/ homepage. which cover. References  Jackson.  Tudor. . courant. . Retrieved 29 June 2009. com/ features/ style/ am-dog0919. htm http:/ / mywebpages. A pawtograph is made by one of two methods: 1. . com/ 2003-11-26/ news/ a-pug-at-the-heartstrings& page=34). comcast.
loyalty and personalized marketing. BioPay LLC. Pay By Touch had over 800 employees and provided retailers with products in biometric financial transactions. Sports Illustrated. Thursday. "John-P-Rogers" (http:/ / venturebeat. . A group of investors later sued financial services firm UBS.  "Pay By Touch Completes Acquisition of BioPay" (http:/ / www. sportsillustrated.com/news/ news_article.coop/live/ .amrresearch. html). Digital Transactions. Inc. . Much of the assets of Pay By Touch are now owned by YOU Technology. All check cashing assets were acquired in 2008 by Phoenix Check Cashing. . San Francisco Chronicle. By 2007. PR Newswire.  Lance Williams (2008-12-07). . thereby creating a highly secure anti-identity theft platform. October 20.and lost . At the time of the acquisition BioPay had more than two million enrolled consumers and offered both biometric payments and biometric-based payroll check cashing. "How 'visionary' raised .Pay by Touch To Acquire BioPay: Pointing at Retail Biometrics (http://www. In 2006. . "How (and Why) Athletes Go Broke" (http:/ / vault. cnn.biometricpayments. com/ 2007/ 11/ 12/ pay-by-touch-in-trouble-founder-filing-for-bankruptcy/ ). sfgate. It was a privately held company which enabled consumers to pay for goods and services with a swipe of their finger on a biometric sensor. com/ vault/ article/ magazine/ MAG1153364/ 3/ index.  "Pay By Touch Auctions off ATM Direct. Venture Beat. no longer operable References  Matt Marshall (2007-11-12). and payment processing. htm). External links • Pay By Touch  company website.a fortune" (http:/ / www. prnewswire. investors in Pay By Touch included former National Football League players Drew Bledsoe and Rick Mirer. 2006 . 2005 . 2006-01-16. alleging that they had encouraged clients to invest in Pay By Touch without revealing  information about the criminal history of the company's founder.aspx?storyid=58208) • AMR Research. . Torre (2009-03-23). biometric age verification. Pay By Touch shut down and is no longer in operation.  Pablo S. "How (and Why) Athletes Go Broke" (http:/ / vault. DTL). On March 19. com/ news-releases/ pay-by-touch-completes-acquisition-of-biopay-53546437. sportsillustrated. 2008-03-07. credit card.asp?pmillid=19008) • The Midcounties Co-operative . BioPay Paycheck Secure" (http:/ / digitaltransactions. Pay By Touch acquired competitor. California with 10 offices worldwide. cnn. htm).'Pay by Touch' lets your fingers pay for groceries (http://www.midcounties.  Pablo S. and other personal information. paybytouch. Over time it raised more than $340 million in venture finance investments. December 08.Pay By Touch 148 Pay By Touch Pay By Touch was a company founded by John P Rogers. Sports Illustrated. com/ vault/ article/ magazine/ MAG1153364/ 3/ index.Pay By Touch Blog • WKYC. without notifying its customers.com/Content/View. Phoenix Check Cashing changed its dba name from BioPay Paycheck Secure to AllTrust Networks. Torre (2009-03-23). The company was based in San Francisco. healthcare. cgi?f=/ c/ a/ 2008/ 12/ 06/ MNIK147QU3. through the unique characteristics of an individual's biometric features.com .blogspot. net/ news/ story/ 1703).  http:/ / www.Pay By Touch Goes Live in the UK at The Midcounties Co-operative Finger-touch payment system available at three Oxford locations (http://www. It allowed secure access to checking. com/ cgi-bin/ article. loyalty. com • http://www. 2008.wkyc. In 2009.
365) A headset records your head’s movement and “contains a screen that covers your entire field of vision and displays various views of an environment on the basis of your movements.Pay By Touch cme2149. the system will match the spoken syllables to a phoneme sequence that is kept in an acoustic model database. This is referred to as feature analysis. 1998) This technology is becoming more popular in computing environments as well. which is a “three-dimensional computer simulation in which [a person] actively and physically participates. (Haag.cooperatives-uk.Headset 3.htm) • Cooperatives UK. and height and weight. The CAVE was first thought of by Thomas DeFanti and Dan Sandin and was later developed at the Electronic Visualization Laboratory (EVL) at the University of Illinois in Chicago by Carolina Cruz-Neira . This is called pattern classification. talking. Some of the top innovations include automatic speech recognition (ASR). p. virtual reality.Shoppers and members at The Midcounties Co-operative now have the option of quickly and securely paying for their groceries using a finger scan linked to their bank account. 2006. for example. 2006. while taking out any background noises.” (Haag.Walker A glove will capture and record “the shape and movement of your hand and fingers and the strength of the movements. Special applications for this system may be used to help deaf and hard of hearing people understand what is being said. 1. 2006) . p. 2006) In order for an ASR system to function. 2006) Virtual reality The second physiological innovation is virtual reality.coop/live/cme913. ASR is computer-driven and transcribes spoken language into text that can be read by using real time. cave automatic virtual environments (CAVE). (The CAVE at NCSA 2004) It is similar to virtual reality except you do not need any gear on your body in order to see the images.” (Haag. Physiological interfaces actually secure and use real body characteristics. 364) Virtual reality has been used to train astronauts at NASA.Pay By Touch Goes Live in the UK . including breathing. Call centres are taking on automatic speech recognition in order to decrease the amount of clients who hang up because they are not talking to a live operator. 2006. Next. 2006 . 365) Virtual reality is applied everywhere and can be seen in the entertainment industry. which would include the input and output devices. (Haag. and biometrics. 365) A walker “records the movement of your feet as you walk or turn in different directions. including virtual reality games. (http://www. This type of interaction uses special input and output devices in order to take physiological movements and send responses back to the person.htm) 149 Physiological interaction Physiological interaction goes beyond the physical interfaces that a computer has. it must follow three steps. Glove 2. The system will capture words that are spoken into a microphone. this time with a language model database. (Haag.” (Haag. The system will then try to make sense of what is being said by comparing the word phonemes from the previous step.” (Haag. Virtual reality includes three devices. 2006. 2006) Automatic speech recognition The automatic speech recognition (ASR) system will capture spoken words and then classify word groupings to form a sentence. (Haag. Automatic virtual environments Another part of emo Physiological Interaction innovations are CAVEs which stands for automatic virtual environments. p. and then converting the digital signals of the speech into syllables (phonemes). (NETAC. p.
and DNA analysis. Management Information Systems for the Information Age. (The CAVE at NCSA 2004) 150 Biometrics Biometrics is the use of data gathered through physiological interactions with sensors to authenticate human beings. In order to make the CAVE seem real sound need to be taken into consideration sounds system. iris scans. (Haag. Another component are graphic systems. Examples of biometric modalities include fingerprints. (Haag. 2006) References • Haag. In order for the CAVE to work it must present many of the same que’s your brain uses to interact and understand the world around you. Alain Pinsonneault and Richard Donovan. (1998).html . Retrieved June 25th 2006 from the World Wide Web. The first being Computers that are needed to coordinated all of the other equipment. The CAVE.edu/about. This produces very high resolution. McCubbrey. which is used to track the position and orientation of objects in the CAVE. Retrieved June 25. Stephen. Biochips are designed to perform physiological functions that help your body when they are inserted for example reduce pain for those that suffer from injuries. Every second there are ninety-six different images are displayed each of the CAVE's four walls. Future uses of biometrics based on physiological interactions could include transaction authentication. netac. which are very important. so if you were ever in trouble the chip can be scanned and all the important information about you will be right there. with even more information about customers. Donald J.rit. customer information. 2006) The next step for businesses gathering information about their customers is going to include the tracking of biometrics. There will be problems with customer protection and privacy. A properly designed and encrypted telebiometric system could include much more robust fraud and identity theft protection than current practices. (2004). To name a few there are Bio chips and implant chips. 2006). and the last system that is needed for the CAVE to work is a tracking system. Many customers already feel business know too much about them and would feel uncomfortable with the idea of businesses having access to extremely personal information. BPS or biometric processing systems are going to record and process physiological characteristics. The purpose is to make people feel at if they were in the same location as the people or things they are interacting with. There are four different systems that must be implement into the CAVE in order for it to work properly. ncsa. the full array of biometrics would be difficult to steal or replicate because everyone has unique biometrics. companies will really be able to target the market. and global security. Maeve Cummings.html • The CAVE at NCSA. (Haag.Physiological interaction In these virtual environments you are able to see 3d images of other people or things that are also using a CAVE in another location anywhere in the world. facial recognition systems. medical record management. Networking multiple biometric modalities over several geographical locations ( as in the emerging technologies of telebiometrics ) greatly increases the reliability and security of biometric data by providing redundancy and provenance for biometric data.uiuc. (Haag. (2006). With our bodies and habits as the ultimate authentication of our identity. Another technology that has come out of biometrics is implant chips. http://cave.edu/publication/asr. When they are inserted into your body they store information about you or your body. 2006) There are several different technologies that have evolved because of biometrics. Canada: McGraw-Hill Ryerson • Northeast Technical Assistance Center (NETAC). Special Applications of Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) with Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing People. 2006 from the World Wide Web: http://www.
cannot be trusted. Instead. So y is only temporarily available on the system hardware. In particular if one of the biometric parameters has a value close to a quantization threshold. the comparison of measured data with reference data can not be executed in the encrypted domain without prior precautions to contain the effect of noise. Minor changes at the input of a cryptographic function are amplified and the outcome will bear no resemblance to the expected outcome. the reference data should not leak relevant information to allow the verifier to (effectively) construct valid measurement data. This property. wikipedia. who. This introduces the security and privacy threat that the verifier who steals biometric templates from some (or even all) persons in the data base can perform impersonation attacks. the password is processed by a cryptographic one-way function F and the outcome is compared against a locally stored reference string F(y ). This corresponds to grabbing all keystrokes including the plain passwords typed by a user. one can distinguish between verification and private verification. Biometric identification requires that a verifier searches for matches in a data base that contains data about the entire population. After having had an opportunity to measure operational biometric data. even if the prover has never exposed herself to a biometric measurement after the enrollment. in which the prover is protected against the misuse of template data by a dishonest verifier. Meanwhile. Such protection is common practice for storage of computer passwords. Hence. php?title=Telebiometrics Private biometrics A form of biometrics. Comparison with handling computer passwords The main difference between password checking and biometric private verification is that during biometric measurements it is unavoidable that noise or other aberrations occur. org/ w/ index. . In a typical verification situation. This prevents attacks from the inside by stealing unencrypted or decryptable secrets. To develop an insight in the security aspects of biometrics. Noisy measurement data are quantized into discrete values before these can be processed by any cryptographic function. access to the reference template allows a malicious verifier to artificially construct measurement data that will pass the verification test. This can happen without anyone noticing it: Victor grabs the fingerprint image left behind on a sensor. In private verification. it is important to realize that protection of the reference data stored in a database is not a complete solution to the above-mentioned threats. Due to external noise. makes it less trivial to use biometric data as input to a cryptographic function. it does not compare the password typed by the user with a stored reference copy. When a computer verifies a password. the reference data base has to be made available to many different verifiers. minor amounts of noise can change the outcome. the outcome of the quantization may differ from experiment to experiment. Creation of artificial biometrics is possible even if only part of the template is available. in general. Information stolen from a data base can be misused to construct artificial biometrics to impersonate people. The notion of near matches or distance between enrollment and operational measurements vanishes after encryption or any other cryptographically strong operation. When a private verification system is used on a large scale. a dishonest verifier uses these measurement data. and no stored data allows calculation of y. also called Biometric Encryption or BioCryptics.Physiological interaction 151 References  http:/ / en. commonly referred to as ‘confusion’ and ‘diffusion’.
be/ publications/article-1462. Ann Cavoukian. 2007. Alex Stoianov: Biometric Encryption: The New Breed of Untraceable Biometrics. ISBN 978-1846289835. Lecture Notes in Informatics 137. USA. Alex Stoianov: Biometric Encryption: A Positive-Sum Technology that Achieves Strong Authentication. cosic.com/images/Technology-primer. NJ. Methods. Konstantinos N. 2009. Tom Kevenaar (Editors). 2010.pdf. jeroenbreebaart. Boris Skoric. and Applications.ca/images/Resources/bio-encryp. Detlef Hühnlein (Eds. 9-11 June 2003. 4th International Conference on Audio and Video Based Biometric Person Authentication.ipc. Koen Simoens: A Survey of the Security and Privacy Measures for Anonymous Biometric Authentication Systems. pages 25-37. Christoph Busch. Emile Kelkboom.pdf. Justine Grave.): BIOSIG 2008. In: Nikolaos V. Plataniotis. pages 655-710. 1999. Inc. 2007. http://www. Christoph Busch. kuleuven.. United Kingdom.priv-id. Evangelia Micheli-Tzanakou (Eds. com/papers/biosig/biosig2008.pdf. http://www. Secure Key Storage and Anti-Counterfeiting (Hardcover). Pim Tuyls. Ari Juels and Martin Wattenberg. Security and Privacy. Boulgouris.pdf. esat. Guildford. John Wiley & Sons. 2008. International Conference on Intelligent Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing (IIH-MSP 2010). Gesellschaft für Informatik. . Springer. http:/ / www. Security with Noisy Data: Private Biometrics. In Arslan Brömme. Ileana Buhan.): Biometrics: Theory. IEEE Computer Society. Hoboken. White paper Private Identity Matching. A fuzzy commitment scheme. New Shielding functions to enhance privacy and prevent misuse of biometric templates. Discussion paper of the Office of the Information and Privacy Commissioner of Ontario. Ann Cavoukian.on. In ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security. pages 28–36. http:/ / www. Jean-Paul Linnartz and Pim Tuyls.Private biometrics 152 References Jeroen Breebaart. Els Kindt: A Reference Architecture for Biometric Template Protection based on Pseudo Identities. ISBN 978-0470247822.
which compares three or more shapes to an optimally determined "mean shape". Often. such as a human bone. rotation. is a method which can be used to determine the optimal rotation for the PS of an object with respect to another. the size of the objects is preserved). when reflection is enabled. rotation and reflection. This is sometimes called full. after PS.e. rotational and uniform scaling components. Reflection allows. when reflection is not enabled. and in this case they are called landmark points. In mathematics: • an orthogonal Procrustes problem is a method which can be used to find out the optimal rotation and reflection for the PS of an object with respect to another. • a constrained orthogonal Procrustes problem. as opposed to partial PS. Ordinary Procrustes analysis Here we just consider objects made up from a finite number k of points in n dimensions. The aim is to obtain a similar placement and size. Mathematically: take points in two dimensions. giving the . The method to compute the optimal rotation for a partial PS is in some contexts called the Kabsch algorithm.e. its centroid) lies at the origin. in which scaling is not performed (i. as opposed to Generalized Procrustes analysis (GPA). The shape of an object can be considered as a member of an equivalence class formed by removing the translational. The mean of these points is where Now translate these points so that their mean is translated to the origin point . Optimal translation and scaling are determined with much simpler operations (see below). Translation For example. When a shape is compared to another. scaling and reflection. both full and partial PS may also include reflection. these points are selected on the continuous surface of complex objects. for instance. while full PS with reflection enabled allows translation. To compare the shape of two or more objects. the objects will exactly coincide if their shape is identical. . or a set of shapes is compared to an arbitrarily selected reference shape. translational components can be removed from an object by translating the object so that the mean of all the object's points (i. In other words. say . by minimizing a measure of shape difference called the Procrustes distance between the objects. Procrustes superimposition (PS) is performed by optimally translating. a successful (possibly perfect) superimposition of a right hand to a left hand. Procrustes analysis is a form of statistical shape analysis used to analyse the distribution of a set of shapes. subject to det(R) = 1 (where R is a rotation matrix).Procrustes analysis 153 Procrustes analysis In statistics. The name Procrustes refers to a bandit from Greek mythology who made his victims fit his bed either by stretching their limbs or cutting them off. Notice that. rotating and uniformly scaling the objects. both the placement in space and the size of the objects are freely adjusted. Procrustes analysis is sometimes further qualified as classical or ordinary. Thus. partial PS with reflection enabled preserves size but allows translation. In some cases. the objects must be first optimally "superimposed".
Shape comparison The difference between the shape of two objects can be evaluated only after "superimposing" the two objects by translating. Taking the derivative of respect to and solving for when the derivative is zero gives with When the object is three-dimensional. until you find an optimum angle of rotation such that the sum of the squared distances (SSD) between the corresponding points is minimised (an example of least squares technique. Let the points of these be . and in this case singular value decomposition can be used to find the optimum value for R (see the solution for the constrained Orthogonal Procrustes problem. . This RMSD is a statistical measure of the object's scale or size: The scale becomes 1 when the point coordinates are divided by the object's initial scale: . the optimum rotation is represented by a 3-by-3 rotation matrix R. Consider two objects composed of the same number of points with scale and translation removed. One of these objects can be used to provide a reference orientation. The square root of the above mentioned SSD between corresponding points can be used as a statistical measure of this difference in shape: This measure is often called Procrustes distance. subject to det(R) = 1). scaling and optimally rotating them as explained above. Notice that other more complex definitions of Procrustes distance. .v) are the coordinates of a rotated point. and other measures of "shape difference" are sometimes used in the literature. the scale component can be removed by scaling the object so that the root mean square distance (RMSD) from the points to the translated origin is 1. Rotation Removing the rotational component is more complex. A rotation by angle gives . Notice that other methods for defining and removing the scale are sometimes used in the literature.Procrustes analysis 154 Uniform scaling Likewise. where (u. as a standard reference orientation is not always available. Fix the reference object and rotate the other around the origin. rather than a simple angle.
The shape of a triangle can be represented as a point on the sphere. However. Generalized Procrustes analysis provides a better method to achieve this goal. Bookstein obtains a representation of shape by fixing the position of two points called the bases line. The same method can be applied to superimpose a set of three or more shapes. Examples Shape analysis is used in biological data to identify the variations of anatomical features characterised by landmark data. This will give a manifold of dimension kn-4. Generalized Procrustes analysis (GPA) GPA applies the Procrustes analysis method to optimally superimpose a set of objects. The sample distribution from the standing stones was compared with the theoretical distribution to show that the occurrence of straight lines was no more than average. The algorithm outline is the following: 1. set reference to mean shape and continue to step 2. 2. and the distribution of all shapes can be thought of a distribution over the sphere. The shape of object can be considered as a member of an equivalence class formed by taking the set of all sets of k points in n dimensions. . Generalized and ordinary Procrustes analysis differ only in their determination of a reference orientation for the objects. 4. Variations There are many ways of representing the shape of an object. One study by David George Kendall examined the triangles formed by standing stones to deduce if these were often arranged in straight lines. rotations and scalings.0) the remaining points form the Bookstein coordinates. Procrustes is one method of doing this with particular statistical justification. When only two shapes are compared. instead of superimposing them to an arbitrarily selected shape. Scaling and translation are performed the same way by both techniques. and in the latter one is arbitrarily selected. One point will be fixed at the origin and the other at (1. 3. as far as the above mentioned reference orientation is used for all of them. GPA is equivalent to ordinary Procrustes analysis. It is also common to consider shape and scale that is with translational and rotational components removed. arbitrarily choose a reference shape (typically by selecting it among the available instances) superimpose all instances to current reference shape compute the mean shape of the current set of superimposed shapes if the Procrustes distance between the mean shape and the reference is above a threshold. for example in considering the shape of jaw bones.Procrustes analysis 155 Superimposing a set of shapes We showed how to superimpose two shapes. that is Rkn and factoring out the set of all translations. A particular representation of shape is found by choosing a particular representation of the equivalence class. which in the former technique is optimally determined.
no. 1989). 4. Retinal scan A retinal scan is a biometric technique that uses the unique patterns on a person's retina to identify them. Radial loops start on the thumb-side of the finger. iris recognition. by Michel Petitjean. Statistical Shape Analysis. Wiley. Procrustes Problems. Introduction The human retina is a thin tissue composed of neural cells that is located in the posterior portion of the eye. which include the ulnar loop. psu. by David G. the retina appears to be the most precise and reliable biometric. References  "Exploring Space Shape" (http:/ / www. the plain arch. edu/ mar94/ goodall. March 1994  "A Survey of the Statistical Theory of Shape" (http:/ / links. glaucoma or retinal degenerative disorders. The radial loop is one of the 8 most common fingerprint patterns. Cambridge University Press.L. Oxford University Press (2004). The network of blood vessels in the retina is so complex that even identical twins do not share a similar pattern. Vol. (1998). Radial loop Radial loop is a term used in classifying fingerprints. 2 (May. the amount of reflection varies during the scan. This beam of light traces a standardized path on the retina. The pattern of variations is converted to computer code and stored in a database. Bookstein. Morphometric tools for landmark data. (1991). CO.Dryden. Vol. rps. Advocates of retinal scanning have concluded that it is so accurate that its error rate is estimated to be only one in a million. Statistical Science.V. free. and the double loop whorl.L. It is not to be confused with another ocular-based technology. G.C. 87-99  http:/ / petitjeanmichel. html) by Nancy Marie Brown. 15. Shape Recognition.B. Dijksterhuis. Mardia. petitjean. . A biometric identifier known as a retinal scan is used to map the unique patterns of a person's retina. html • F. the plain whorl. • K. the side closer to the radius (bone). fr/ itoweb. The blood vessels within the retina absorb light more readily than the surrounding tissue and are easily identified with appropriate lighting.Procrustes analysis 156 External links • Extensions to continuum of points and distributions  Procrustes Methods. the central pocket loop.2-P). A retinal scan is performed by casting an unperceived beam of low-energy infrared light into a person’s eye as they look through the scanner's eyepiece. jstor. • J. Gower. Research/Penn State. shape. each person's retina is unique. the retina typically remains unchanged from birth until death. org/ sici?sici=0883-4237(198905)4:2<87:ASOTST>2. Because retinal blood vessels are more absorbent of this light than the rest of the eye. No. the accidental whorl. pp. Chichester. Because of the complex structure of the capillaries that supply the retina with blood. 0. Similarity and Docking. the tented arch. Although retinal patterns may be altered in cases of diabetes. Kendall. 1. Due to its unique and unchanging nature. I.
chicken pox and Lyme disease as well as hereditary diseases like leukemia. Carleton Simon and Dr. Retinal scanning has been utilized by several government agencies including the FBI. atherosclerosis. In 1976. Retinal scanning also has medical application. and NASA. and the 1999 film Entrapment utilize or try to deceive retinal scanners. Pros and cons Advantages • • • • • • • • • • Low occurrence of false positives Extremely low (almost 0%) false negative rates Highly reliable because no two people have the same retinal pattern Speedy results: Identity of the subject is verified very quickly Measurement accuracy can be affected by a disease such as cataracts Measurement accuracy can also be affected by severe astigmatism Scanning procedure is perceived by some as invasive Not very user friendly Subject being scanned must be close to the camera optics High equipment costs Disadvantages . indications of chronic health conditions such as congestive heart failure. They are also used by the police in the movie to locate individuals throughout Washington. The idea was a little before its time. the film Paycheck. and cholesterol issues first appear in the eyes. malaria. D. Pregnancy also affects the eyes. Uses Retinal scanners are typically used for authentication and identification purposes. in recent years. Communicable illnesses such as AIDS. In popular culture In the movie 'The Minority Report'. and sickle cell anemia impact the eyes. for ATM identity verification and the prevention of welfare fraud. Characters in the 1996 film Mission: Impossible. the 1995 film GoldenEye. CIA.C. retinal scanning has become more commercially popular. syphilis. However. Inc. retinal scanning is used everywhere to identify people. the concept for a retinal scanning device emerged in 1975. Isadore Goldstein and was published in the New York State Journal of Medicine in 1935. Robert "Buzz" Hill formed a corporation named EyeDentify. and made a full-time effort to research and develop such a device. In the 1966 movie Batman. Batman describes to Robin how the tiny vessels in the retina are unique to the individual and utilizing the portable retina scan device in the Batmobile they could confirm the identity of the Penguin. In 1978.Retinal scan 157 History The idea for retinal identification was first conceived by Dr. Retinal scanning has been used in prisons. followed by a commercial model in 1981. Likewise.. lymphoma. but once technology caught up. specific means for a retinal scanner was patented.
govt. pdf) Msu. (http:/ / www. RFDump is a back-end GPL tool to directly inter-operate with any RFID reader to make the contents stored on RFID tags accessible. 1935 (http:/ / www.Retinal scan 158 References  Retina and Iris Scans. RFDump features (Gtk Application): • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Runs on Linux.  Iris/Retinal Identification. nz/ newsroom/ information-notes/ 2005/ biometrics. pdf) Retrieved on 2009-06-11.755453. html). RFDump can set baud rate Scan option Configuration menus Supported Tag Types: • ISO/IEC 15693: Tag-it ISO. com/ Ra-Thy/ Retinography. edu/ aidc/ BioWebPages/ Biometrics_Eye. (http:/ / et. This makes the following types of audits possible: • • • • Test robustness of data-structures on the reader and the backend-application Proof-of-concept manipulations of RFID tag contents Clone / copy & paste user-data stored on RFID tags Audit tag-security features The tools reads an RFID tag's meta information: tag ID. Windows Supports ACGs PCMCIA/CF Multi-Tag Readers Decodes the tag type. ccip. physorg.  Ostaff. Chris. . com/ time/ printout/ 0. 16. “Retinal Scans Do More Than Let You In The Door. html) Wcu.Edu. manufacturer etc. Courtney. Encyclopedia of Espionage. The user data of a tag can be displayed and modified using either a hex or an ASCII editor. aspx). com/ blog/ 2009/ 10/ 6/ why-retina-scanning-works-better-for-james-bond-than-it-ever-would-for-us/ 24. LRI512.2). com/ news6134.” TIME Magazine. tag ID and manufacturer Displays tag memory in hex and ASCII encoding Allows to write memory using hex or ASCII editor Full ISO/IEC 14443 type A/B support Support for Mifare sector keys Cookie feature using arbitrary cookie ID and automatically incrementing counter Brute-force cracking of access control cards (sector keys) Audit of encrypted RFID tags check for default shipping keys Save and restore of Mifare cards including sector keys Multi baudrate reader support. cse." (http:/ / www. html) Retrieved on 2007-04-02. Robert. infosecurity-magazine. TempSense • ISO/IEC 14443 type A: Mifare Standard(1. Retrieved on 2008-04-10. RFDump works with the ACG Multi-Tag Reader or similar card reader hardware. edu/ ~cse891/ Sect601/ textbook/ 6. the integrated cookie feature demonstrates how simple it is for a company to abuse RFID technology. Intelligence.8816. msu. Inc.  Hill. and Security. Mifare UltraLight(1. I-Code SLI. Dec. (http:/ / www.2) .  Retinography: How Retinal Scanning Works. Retrieved on 2007-04-02.  “Eye Prints. html) Retrieved on 2007-04-02. and how it can be used to spy on unwitting consumers.Edu. My-d. "Biometrics" (http:/ / www. Retrieved on 2007-04-02  "Why retina scanning works better for James Bond than it ever would for us" (http:/ / www. time.2) • ISO/IEC 14443 type B: SR176(1. “Retina Identification”. RFdump RFDump is a software created by Lukas Grunwald and Christian Bottger for the purpose of security auditing of RFID tags. wcu. It is periodically updated to emerging RFID standards such as e-passport and Mifare encryption currently found on many pay as you go systems. Copyright © 2004 by The Gale Group. In addition. discoveriesinmedicine. tag type.00.  Roberts.
Official site of RFDUMP. enabling parents to deposit money into students catering accounts. it was estimated that 3. Dec 15. Fingerprinting Many schools have implemented fingerprint locks or registered children's fingerprints. estimated that 350 schools through-out Britain were using such systems. School biometrics. ePassports 'at risk' from cloning. 2006  References  http:/ / www. Under the Data Protection Act (DPA). to be debited by a child's biometric fingerscan at the point of sale. the supplier Micro Librarian Systems. which called on the UK Government to conduct a full and open consultation with stakeholders about the use of biometrics in schools. uk/ 2/ hi/ programmes/ click_online/ 6182207. in Italy. org  http:/ / news. or to charge for meals. which use a technology similar to US prisons and German military. Fingerprint locking systems happened in the United Kingdom (fingerprint lock in the Holland Park School in London. schools in the UK do not have to ask parental consent for such practices. Mar 29. BBC Online. but are increasingly being used for cashless catering systems. stm Biometrics in schools Biometrics in schools have been used worldwide since the early first decade of the 21st century to address truancy. have raised privacy concerns because of the creation of databases that would progressively include the entire population. In 2002.RFdump • • • • • • • • • Tag-it I-Code EM4002 EM4005 EM4050 HITAG1 HITAG2 Q5 TIRIS 159 References • MudSplatter. United Kingdom In 2002 the NGO Privacy International has alerted that tens of thousands of UK school children were being fingerprinted by schools. ) databases.. as mentioned above. In the UK biometrics in schools have been largely used for library book issue. secured the support of 85 Members of Parliament  . Parents opposed to such practices may only bring individual complaints against schools  . typically electronic fingerprinting systems. rfdump. In 2007 Early Day Motion 686. Biometric technology for registration is also used in the UK. . often without the knowledge or consent of their parents  . In 2007. co. with library and registration biometrics in use also. In the USA biometrics systems are used primarily for catering. 2009  • David Reid. bbc. etc. By 2009 the number of children fingerprinted was estimated to be two million  . etc. Concerns have been raised about the civil liberties implications of fingerprinting children in schools  .500 schools (ten times more) are using such systems  . to replace library cards. in Belgium (école Marie-José in Liège   ). to replace library cards  . in France.
vending machines. The CNIL. PA was another earlier user of biometric technology. In Belgium.Biometrics in schools In response to a complaint which they are continuing to pursue."  . declared in 2002 hand geometry systems to be acceptable. Biometric technologies for home/school bus journeys are also under development. this practice gave rise to a question in Parliament on February 6. However these systems actually work by running key features of the fingerprint through a complicated encryption algorithm. Eagan High School. schools was at Minnesota's Eagan High School in September 1999. which calls into question legal and data protection concerns.S. 160 Belgium The alleged use of taking children's fingerprints is to struggle against school truancy and/or to replace library cards or money for meals by fingerprint locks. Penn Cambria School District in Cresson. This produces a result which cannot be "Reverse Engineered" to produce any biometric or image information. The American Civil Liberties Union stated that this"could hasten the end of privacy rights" Biometric systems were first used in schools in the UK in 2001. Applications Biometric technologies in schools are used to borrow library books. Such practices have also been used in France (Angers. In 2000. the information would be effectively useless to police and 3rd parties. in 2010 the European Commission expressed 'significant concerns' over the proportionality and necessity of the practice and the lack of judicial redress. Use of this technology in schools is now widespread. etc. class attendance and payments into schools. a testing ground for education technology since it opened. indicating that the practice may break the European Union data protection directive.) although the CNIL. designed and implemented a system where students bought lunch with just a fingerprint. official organism in charge of protection of privacy. Early applications The first reported use of biometric systems in U. This means the data kept on file can only be used to verify an identity against another scan through the same system. has declared them "disproportionate. Carqueiranne college in the Var — the latter won the Big Brother Award of 2005 for its hand geometry system. however. who replied that they were legal insofar as the school did not use them for external purposes nor to survey the private life of children  . allowed willing students to use fingerprint readers to speed up the borrowing of library books. a local software development company. Food Service Solutions. . 2007 by Michel de La Motte (Humanist Democratic Centre) to the Education Minister Marie Arena. Misconceptions The most common misconception about fingerprint systems is that they are thought to store a fingerprint image or other biometric information. though there are currently no official figures for how many schools employ the technology. for cashless canteen systems.
November 18. be/ actualites/ pedagogique/ index. 2002 (English)  Child fingerprint plan considered (http:/ / news. lecdh. 7sur7. aspx?EDMID=32367). " Blindly fingerprinting children (http:/ / www. accessed 2011-01-13  Prises d'empreintes digitales dans un établissement scolaire (http:/ / www. be/ docparlement/ pa4896. Sandra Leaton Gray of Homerton College. March 7. bron=homeArt6). parliament. Retrieved 2009-11-28. Question d'actualité à la Ministre-Présidente en charge de l'Enseignement obligatoire et de Promotion sociale (French) . theregister. co. Educationalist Dr.  Europe tells Britain to justify itself over fingerprinting children in schools (http:/ / www. guardian. who cites research by Cavoukian and Stoianov to back up his assertion that "it is absolutely premature to begin using 'conventional biometrics' in schools". The Guardian. bbc.Biometrics in schools 161 Types Primarily the type of biometric employed is a fingerprint scan or thumbprint scan but vein and iris scanning systems are also in use.. 2007 (English)  Singh. html?wt. Cambridge stated in early 2007 that "I have not been able to find a single piece of published research which suggests that the use of biometrics in schools promotes healthy eating or improves reading skills amongst children. The Register. architect of identity and access in the connected systems division at Microsoft. co. co. The Guardian. com/ actu/ news/ 31010-Empreintes-digitales-pour-les-enfants-dune-e. decreased wait times in lunch lines and increased revenues. uk/ 2006/ 09/ 07/ kiddyprinting_allowed/ ). 2006 (English)  Porter. BBC. July 22. 2007 (French)  Fingerprinting of UK school kids causes outcry (http:/ / www. 2009  "EDM 686 . Biometric systems are also used in some schools in Belgium and Sweden but were withdrawn from China and Hong Kong schools due to privacy concerns. 7 Sur 7. uk/ EDMi/ EDMDetails. uk/ news/ worldnews/ europe/ eu/ 8202076/ Europe-tells-Britain-to-justify-itself-over-fingerprinting-children-in-schools. UK Parliament. The Register. February 5. uk/ 1/ hi/ uk/ 6417565. telegraph. They do not cite independent research to support this. co. be/ hlns/ cache/ fr/ det/ art_370100. 2009  Schools can fingerprint children without parental consent (http:/ / www. co. html) Telegraph.. htm).Biometric Data Collection In Schools" (http:/ / edmi. uk/ commentisfree/ henryporter/ 2009/ nov/ 18/ fingerprinting-children-school)". March 4.  Advantages Biometric vendors claim benefits to schools such as improved reading skills. php/ 2007/ 02/ 06/ 181-empreintes-digitales-pour-securiser-l-ecole) (French)  Le lecteur d'empreintes dans les écoles crée la polémique (http:/ / www. Y. Current usage The two countries at the forefront employing biometric technology in schools are the UK and the USA. 2007-01-19. There is absolutely no evidence for such claims". enseignons. Security concerns Concerns about the security implications of using conventional biometric templates in schools have been raised by a number of leading IT security experts. September 7. including Kim Cameron. It was reported in August 2007 that Dubai are soon due to issue guidance to schools. theregister. pcinpact. published 2010-12-14. stm). " Why are we fingerprinting children? (http:/ / www.  Ages Biometric systems can be used by children as young as three years old. . guardian. References  Empreintes digitales pour les enfants d'une école de Londres (http:/ / www. uk/ 2002/ 07/ 22/ fingerprinting_of_uk_school_kids/ ). co. htm) (French)  Empreintes digitales pour sécuriser l'école ? (http:/ / www. H. uk/ commentisfree/ libertycentral/ 2009/ mar/ 06/ fingerprinting-children-civil-liberties)".
Patricia Deubel. ipc. M. March 30. zdnet. asp?DocID=409& m=f). Archived from the original (http:/ / www.00. expatica. identityblog. com/ index. " Nursery children to be fingerprinted (http:/ / www.leavethemkidsalone. cfm?ArticleID=1277) on November 11. The Daily Telegraph.com/articles/20541) . xml)". • Biometrics in K-12: Ban or Buy? (Part 1) (http://www.  Fingerprints Pay For School Lunch (http:/ / www. uk/ news/ main.  Knight. 18 April 2007. 2001. telegraph. uk/ weekly/ story/ 0. should I worry? (http:/ / blog. January 29. " Is school fingerprinting out of bounds? (http:/ / technology. 2003.Experts warn of serious child fingerprinting risks (against schools fingerprinting our children) (http:/ / www. html)". J.  Kvarnby School in Stockholm (http:/ / www. htm). September 23. com/ stories/ 2001/ 01/ 24/ national/ main266789. Ph. publications. findbiometrics. co. cbsnews. com/ news/ showStory. " Halt to school fingerprinting (http:/ / www. com/ press-release/ 4143)  LTKA . 10 April 2007. pdf) Cavoukian. fr/ actualites/ informatique/ 0. Journal. parliament. uk/ 2006/ 11/ 09/ hongkong_kiddyprinting/ )". October 2006  Devlin.D. Ph.D. eyenetwatch.Latest news on the use and deployment of biometric systems in schools. 2006. ca/ images/ Resources/ up-1bio_encryp. guardian.thejournal. com/ ?p=733)  Biometric Encrypton: A Positive-Sum Technology that Achieves Strong Authentication.E. The Guardian. com/ stories/ 2001/ 01/ 24/ national/ main266789. asp?subchannel_id=48& story_id=36175) used for registration. htm). ie/ viewprint. . org/ membersadmin/ casestudy/ pdf/ 17/ Stockholms_School_System.39040745. . scotsman. architect of identity and access in the connected systems division at Microsoft. Ph. Ph.  Fingerprinting of pupils fails to score (http:/ / archive. com/ news/ showStory. / T.  Fingerprint recognition in high schools (http:/ / www.A and Stoianov. eSchool News (http:/ / www.Patricia Deubel. in Scotland (http:/ / news.thejournal.1742091. W. Security AND Privacy (http:/ / www. Journal.D. 2007.  Biometrics in Schools.. co.com/articles/ 20570) . pdf) used to login to school computers. eschoolnews. November 9.H.39122509.  China: Ballard. / T. cfm?ArticleID=1277). Hansard. Scotsman. archive. 2006.com/articles/20494_1) . 2010. September 9. on.00.com/articles/20517) . com/ biometrics-fingerprints-in-schools-â-should-i-worry/ )". Parliamentary Written Answer 110750 (http:/ / www. particular emphasis on UK and US.com.  " Biometrics & fingerprints in schools. CBS News. • Biometrics in K-12: Vendor Claims and Your Business Plan (Part 3) (http://www. / T.  Grossman.Patricia Deubel.E. jhtml.H. Data Protection Commissioner.com/oppose-2.thejournal. co. shtml). • School Biometrics: The Legal Conundrum (http://www.blogspot. • Biometrics in K-12: Issues and Standardization (Part 2) (http://www. K. Retrieved 2006-11-20. The Register. cbsnews.E.A March 2007  Fingerprint Software Eliminates Privacy Concerns and Establishes Success (FindBiometrics) (http:/ / www.H. cfm?id=1588142006). uk/ pa/ cm200607/ cmhansrd/ cm070129/ text/ 70129w0013.Patricia Deubel. com). Colleges and other Educational Institutions (http:/ / www.com/) . htm#fact_00) 162 External links • Biometrics in Schools (http://pippaking.H. gulfnews. com/ expert. • Index of relevant articles by Kim Cameron (http://www. shtml)  "Fingerprints Pay For School Lunch" (http:/ / www. com/ actual/ article. 2 May 2007.E. eschoolnews. html)  Will biometrics grow up? (http:/ / www. Journal. eschoolnews.thejournal. theregister. org/ web/ 20031111140347/ http:/ / www. / T. Zdnet. dataprotection.jsessionid=MYWJOJM0RTD2RQFIQMGCFGGAVCBQUIV0?xml=/ news/ 2006/ 09/ 23/ nkids323.htm#oppose_01). ibia.D. January 24. 2006. leavethemkidsalone. July. 2007  Vein scanning in a primary school for food. .Biometrics in schools  Quand la biométrie s'installe dans les cantines au nez et à la barbe de la Cnil (http:/ / www. Journal. com/ articles/ 07/ 08/ 11/ 10145646. 2003 (French)  "This Minnesota high school gives fingerprint scanning a whorl" (http:/ / web. 2000-09-01. Eyenetwatch Biometrics. 25 April 2007.
SB2549.ico.67. It is manufactured by ABI (Applied Biosystems).ilga.Data Protection Commissioner (http://www. asp?DocID=409&m=f) 2007 .portsmouth. It contains primers for the following STR (Short Tandem Repeat) loci.gov. • The use of biometrics in schools (http://www.23 July 2007.state.us/opinion/ datafiles/2000s/op10144.Biometrics in schools 163 Legislation The following laws.ico. SB1702.gov/legislation/fulltext. FGA (HUMFIBRA) Also contains primers for the Amelogenin sex indicating test. The primers are tagged with the following fluorescent dyes for detection under electrophoresis. D8 (D8S1179).ie/viewprint.ag. This.June 2007.gov. Granholm.uk/media/educ20070604r11.uk/). 2007 (http://www. • 5-FAM • JOE • NED Its use in the United kingdom as the DNA profiling system used by The UK National DNA Database was superseded by the Second Generation Multiplex Plus SGM+ DNA profiling system in 1998 . 2005-2006 (http://12.2/legislation/fulltext.gov.asp?DocName=& SessionId=51&GA=95&DocTypeId=SB&DocNum=1702&GAID=9&LegID=29842&SpecSess=&Session=) • Legislation Illinois.asp?DocName=& SessionId=50&GA=94&DocTypeId=SB&DocNum=2549&GAID=8&LegID=23423&SpecSess=&Session=) Non statutory advice USA • Opinion of Jennifer M.ie) UK • Portsmouth Finger Scanning Technology Guidance (http://www. Advice from the UK Information Commissioner's Office (http://www. Second Generation Multiplex Second Generation Multiplex is a DNA profiling system used in the United Kingdom to set up the UK National DNA Database in 1995.mi. or guidance are in place to regulate children's use of biometric technology. To date the practise of using biometrics in schools is only legally regulated in the USA: • Legislation in Illinois. pdf) .pdf) . D21 (D21S11).dataprotection. the first guidance issued in the UK. went to schools only in the Portsmouth area. VWA (HUMVWF31/A). THO (HUMTHO1). D18 (D18S51).htm) Ireland • Biometrics in Schools. State of Michigan (http://www.uk/upload/documents/library/data_protection/ detailed_specialist_guides/fingerprinting_final_view. Attorney General.dataprotection.43. legal opinions. Colleges and other Educational Institutions (http://www.
It differs from CODIS in that it uses the additional markers D2S1338 and D19S433 and does not use the five markers CSF1PO. TPOX. D3S1358.3 Y: p11. D2S1338 and D19S433.Second Generation Multiplex Plus 164 Second Generation Multiplex Plus Second Generation Multiplex Plus (SGM Plus). An SGM Plus profile consists of a list of 10 number pairs.1 21q11. FGA.2 9-17. SGM Plus has been used by the UK National DNA Database since 1998. D5S818.1–22. The markers used are: VWA. rather than a pair.2 .one value is inherited from each of the subject's parents. If both alleles are the same. Each number pair denotes the two allele values for the marker . TH01. D16S539. the digits immediately following the D indicate the chromosome that contains the marker. D13S317. is a DNA profiling system developed by Applied Biosystems. It is an updated version of Second Generation Multiplex. is recorded. Where a marker's designation begins with D. D21S11. D7S820. along with two letters (XX or XY) which show the result of the gender test. VWA.3 19q12–13. SGM Plus differs from SGM in that SGM does not use the markers D3S1358. TH01. D21S11 is on chromosome 21. D18S51. Locus Chromosome Designation Location Common Sequence Motif Allele range Size Range (bp) Dye Label FGA TH01 VWA D2S1338 D3S1358 D8S117 D16S539 D18S51 D19S433 D21S11 4q28 11p15. For example.2 165–204 157–209 289–341 114–142 128–172 234–274 26–345 106–140 187–243 107 113 NED NED 5-FAM 5-FAM 5-FAM JOE 5-FAM JOE NED JOE JOE (TCTA)n(TCTG)n[(TCTA)3TA(TCTA)3TCA (TCTA)2TCCA TA] (TCTA)n 12-41. and D21S11. then only a single number. one number pair for each of 10 genetic markers.2 215–353 3-14 10-25 15-28 8-21 7-20 5-16 7-39. D8S1179. D18S51. Genetic Markers The genetic markers (or loci) used by SGM Plus are all Short tandem repeats (STRs). D16S539. D2S1338 and D19S433.2-51. D3S1358. D16S539.1 3p 8 16q24-qter 18q21. SGM Plus also uses the Amelogenin (Amelo) sex-indicating test. D8S1179. SGM Plus has eight markers in common with CODIS FGA.2 — — Amelogenin X: p22.2–q21 (TTTC)3TTTT TTCT (CTTT)n CTCC (TTCC)2 (AATG)n TCTA(TCTG)3-4(TCTA)n (TGCC)n(TTCC)n TCTA (TCTG)1-3 (TCTA)n (TCTR)n (AGAT)n (AGAA)n (AAGG)(AAAG)(AAGG)(TAGG)(AAGG)n 12.5 12p12-pter 2q35–37.
.17 13. D2 • JOE: Amelo.16 19. D16.14 9. D21.15 30. XY Each value is the number of tandem repeats within the allele. 11. 14.24 17.9.2. 6. Example SGM Plus profile The SGM Plus profile of subject GT36865 from a National Institute of Standards and Technology paper is given below : Locus FGA TH01 VWA D2S1338 D3S1358 D8S117 D16S539 D18S51 D19S433 D21S11 Allele values 22.13 13.7 22.214.171.124.16.17. 17. D18 • NED: D19. VWA.30 Amelogenin XX An SGM Plus profile retrieved from a DNA database would just list the allele values : 15. from low molecular weight to large molecular weight: • 5-FAM: D3. 13.16 14. 22.13. 31. 15.Second Generation Multiplex Plus 165 Dye tags The primers are tagged with the following fluorescent dyes for detection under electrophoresis: • 5-FAM • JOE • NED The primers for each locus are arranged on the dyes in the following order. 11.22 6.32. D8. A non-standard repeat is designated by the number of complete repeat units and the number of base pairs of the partial repeat.3. THO.18. FGA The dyes to which each primer is attached differ from those of the original SGM DNA profiling system. separated by a decimal point.12.
cstl.appliedbiosystems. gov. ."  The UK Crown Prosecution Service states "SGM Plus DNA profiling is very discriminating between individuals. cstl. it has not yet been possible to carry out the required statistical testing to be able to quote this match probability. nothing to fear? p. The probability of obtaining a match between the profiles of two unrelated individuals by chance is very low. (Report). of the order of 1 in a billion [note this is a UK billion. The Human Genetics Commission has reported that the random match probability is in the region of 1 in a trillion. 14–12.  Human Genetics Commission Nothing to hide. http:/ / www.nist. hgc. uk/ en/ 13340. p. Adventitious (chance) DNA Matches" (http:/ / www.online version.com/sup/ URLRedirect/index. and in practice a more conservative chance match figure of 1 in 1. com/ cms/ groups/ applied_markets_support/ documents/ generaldocuments/ cms_041049. there was agreement within the scientific community that identifications with match probabilities lower than one in a billion would not be quoted in the courts of law. . police. gov/ biotech/ strbase/ pub_pres/ Butler2003a.  The Crown Prosecution Service. . nist. htm AmpFlSTR® SGM Plus® PCR Amplification Kit User’s Manual (http:/ / www3. and to make sure that the figure used was one that was meaningful to non-specialists. gov. uk/ legal/ s_to_u/ scientific_evidence/ adventitious_dna_matches/ ). However it stated "When the SGM Plus profiling system was first introduced.htm?xDoD=4309589) . pdf). ie a US trillion]. gov/ strbase/ pub_pres/ Butler2006JFS_coreSTRreview." References     http:/ / www. pdf). Applied Biosystems estimates the probability of identity for SGM Plus to be approximately 1 in 13 trillion for African-Americans and 1 in 3. nist.49 (http:/ / www. However.3 trillion Caucasian Americans. uk/ UploadDocs/ DocPub/ Document/ Nothing to hide.Second Generation Multiplex Plus 166 Probability of Identity The probability of identify (also known as the random match probability) is the probability that two individuals selected at random will have an identical genetic profile.000 million is used. pdf). so as to avoid overstating the value of the DNA evidence to take into account that match probabilities are only estimates. cstl. External links • Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet DataBase (http://www. "B4. nothing to fear .gov/biotech/strbase/) • AmpFlSTR SGM Plus PCR Amplification Kit User's Manual (http://www3. pdf For the Record (http:/ / www. appliedbiosystems. npia. cps.
The provenance of the document (identity) 2. In the United States. including elaborate ascenders. On legal documents. Function and types of signatures The traditional function of a signature is evidential: it is to give evidence of: 1. signatures encompass marks and actions Signature of Mahatma Gandhi of all sorts that are indicative of identity and intent. much as one would find in calligraphic writing. The legal rule is that unless a statute specifically prescribes a particular method of making a signature it may be made in any number of ways. and is then typically written on its own or with a brief note to the recipient. John Hancock's signature is the most prominent on the United States Declaration of Similar to a handwritten signature. Rather than providing authentication for a document. These include by a mechanical or rubber stamp facsimile. which is chiefly an artistic signature. In the United States. The intention (will) of an individual with regard to that document For example. but rather to additionally provide evidence of deliberation and informed consent. one is John Hancock. signature work describes the work as readily identifying its creator. "to sign") is a handwritten (and sometimes stylized) depiction of someone's name. Signature of Benjamin Franklin In many countries. so long as the document is countersigned by a literate witness. There are many other terms which are synonymous with 'signature'. descenders and exotic flourishes. signatures may be witnessed and recorded in the presence of a Notary Public to carry additional legal force. As an example. In some countries. This is why the signature often appears at the bottom or end of a document. The writer of a signature is a signatory. Alternativly someone else duly authorized by the signer acting in the signer's presence and at the signer's direction may make the signature. or even a simple "X" that a person writes on documents as a proof of identity and intent. the autograph is given as a souvenir which acknowledges the recipient's access to the autographer. nickname. The signature of a famous person is sometimes known as an autograph.Signature 167 Signature A signature (from Latin: signare. A signature may be made by the purported signer. Many individuals have much more fanciful signatures than their normal cursive writing. an illiterate signatory can make a "mark" (often an "X" but occasionally a personalized symbol). the role of a signature in many consumer contracts is not solely to provide evidence of the identity of the contracting party. the final . A signature may be confused with an autograph. a Independence and the Articles of Confederation. illiterate people place a thumbprint on legal documents in lieu of a written signature. named after the first of the signatories of the United States Declaration of Independence.
A notorious case was the signature of Johannes Vermeer on the fake "Supper at Emmaus" made by the art-forger Han van Meegeren. the word "signature" may be used to refer to the characteristic expression of a process or thing. Vermeer's signature By analogy. Some web sites also allow graphics to be used. to write or to sign involves the same written characters. Members of Congress in the United States have begun having their signature made into a TrueType font file. A shortened form of a signature block. . heads of state or CEOs. called autopens. In e-mail and newsgroup usage. however. This allows staff members in the Congressman's office to easily reproduce it on correspondence. and sometimes quotations and ASCII art. Several cultures whose languages use writing systems other than alphabets do not share the Western notion of signatures per se: the "signing" of one's name results in a written product no different from the result of "writing" one's name in the standard way. This text usually includes a name. More recently. only including one's name. legislation. another type of signature exists which is independent of one's language. people typically use name-seals with the name written in tensho script (seal script) in lieu of a handwritten signature. For these languages. can be used to simply indicate the end of a post or response. that this type of signature is not related to electronic signatures or digital signatures. The term "signature" is also used to mean the characteristics that give an object.  168 Mechanically produced signatures Special signature machines. its identity—for example. For example.Signature "k" in John Hancock's famous signature on the US Declaration of Independence loops back to underline his name. the climate phenomenon known as ENSO or El Niño has characteristic modes in different ocean basins which are often referred to as the "signature" of ENSO. These are typically used by people required to sign many documents. In the East Asia languages of Chinese. or a piece of information. the shape of a Coca-Cola bottle. contact information. and official documents. often with some distinguishing prefix. and Korean. This kind of flourish is also known as a paraph. are capable of automatically reproducing an individual's signature. Japanese. for example celebrities. Users can set one or more lines of East Asian name seal custom text known as a signature block to be automatically appended to their messages. Other uses The signature on a painting or other work of art has always been an important item in the assessment of art. which are more technical in nature and not directly readable by human eyes. Also see Calligraphy. or are added to a fake painting to support its authenticity. Fake signatures are sometimes added to enhance the value of a painting. Note.
or coloring" are not eligible for copyright. Smartgate will also undertake immigration and customs checks. Passengers require an ePassport to use the technology. According to an article by ZDNet Australia. Cavendish Publishing. sections 2 through 7  Paraphe. mere variations of typographic ornamentation. Media Law. Trials of the SmartGate system in conjunction with the biometric passport technology were expanded in late 2004 from use with Qantas air-crew (which began in 2002). reverso.  80 Corpis Juris Secondum. References  Oxford English Dictionary. p. 439. it is the appearance of the signature which is protected. lettering. Flexible edition. net/ ). also spelled parafe. the unauthorised reproduction of the signature will infringe copyright.Signature 169 Copyright Under British law. ISBN 185941530X.. "An individual's signature may be protected under law as an artistic work.]. the unauthorised reproduction of the signature will infringe copyright. United States Copyright Office. Passengers are to be photographed and their details added to the SmartGate database within 24 hours. Harpercollins. (http:/ / www. will match this image with the digitised image stored in their ePassport.  Spilsbury. p. 2011. names [. the appearance of signatures (not the names themselves) may be protected under copyright law. p. pdf)". If so. length of your nose. however." Smartgate SmartGate is an automated border processing system being introduced by the Australian Customs and Border Protection Service and New Zealand Customs Service. Cavendish Publishing. to include over 1. Media Law. Australia Smartgate takes a live image of a travellers face. If there is a successful match.  The paraph is used in graphology analyses. Retrieved 15 March 2011. the appearance of signatures (not the names themselves) may be protected under copyright law. accessed May 3. reverso. google. Sallie (2000). is a term meaning flourish. based on the Collins French-English Dictionary. Under United States Copyright Law. oed. The name itself will not be protected by copyright. copyright. Signatures. The name itself will not be protected by copyright. reverso translation software (http:/ / dictionary. Critics. and using facial recognition technology. 439 (http:/ / books. however. com/ view/ Entry/ 101505?redirectedFrom=john hancock#eid40416795). "Problems in introducing biometric identifiers to . If there is not a successful match. It is a secure and simple system that performs the customs and immigration checks normally made by a Customs Officer when a traveller arrives in either Australia or New Zealand. If so. ISBN 0062755080). "An individual's signature may be protected under law as an artistic work. "titles.000 Qantas platinum frequent flyers. according to an e-mail sent to prospective users. net/ french-english/ paraphe). it is the appearance of the signature which is protected."  " Copyright Basics (http:/ / www. gov/ circs/ circ1."  Eligible Australian ePassport holders and holders of eligible International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) compliant ePassports from other countries will be able to use Smartgate once it is rolled out in Australian international airports. Sallie (2000). "The system compares your passport photo with digital images taken by three cameras. ISBN 185941530X. and the distance between your eyes. the traveller will be cleared through the Customs control point. August 1990. noting such things as your bone structure. According to a report on the Seven Network.  Spilsbury. com/ books?id=X2qyT3Y7IpEC& pg=PA439& sig=zJC_raZTlbdzKOsJw5fp9OiLqcs). initial or signature in French ( Paraphe entry (http:/ / dictionary. they will be referred to a Customs officer.. are claiming that the facial-recognition technology is not accurate enough for the use of national security tasks. It has been deemed illegal to publish signatures in Canada.
The roll-out of the system is expected to be completed within two years. au/ news/ security/ soa/ Biometric_doubts_see_travellers_photographed_fingerprinted/ 0. . beyondtomorrow. . au/ site/ page5552. 170 New Zealand On 20 August 2009.00. archive.Smartgate Australian passports means Australian citizens visiting the United States will be fingerprinted and photographed under that country's anti-terrorism measures. customs. announcements were made to expand the Smartgate system to New Zealand. Retrieved 2007-04-28."  Brisbane was the first Australian international airport to deploy Customs Smartgate system on an operational basis in September 2007. zdnet. Beyond Tomorrow. nz/ politics-news/ eight-minutes-clear-customs-2933728  http:/ / www. James (2004-04-05). It is now available at other international airports nationally. gov.  Pearce. com. customs. "Biometric doubts see travelers photographed. htm). au  http:/ / www. fingerprinted" (http:/ / www. beyondtomorrow. External links • Australian Customs Service  • Smartgate  References  West. org/ web/ 20070407011839/ http:/ / www. made by New Zealand Prime Minister John Key on an official visit to Australia. co. Caroline. au/ stories/ ep8/ smart. Retrieved 2007-04-28. ZDNet Australia.2000061744. com. au/ stories/ ep8/ smart. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. was part of an agreement struck between himself and Australian Prime Minister Kevin Rudd in an effort to allow Trans-Tasman travellers to "transit through the entire [customs] process within eight minutes" to further free up the already liberal travel arrangements between the two nations.39143937. asp . "Smartgate" (http:/ / web.  http:/ / tvnz. html). html) on 2007-04-07. This announcement. gov. com.
htm?page=copyright&id=3232). Dass.  Rhodes.K. accessories. A. • Facial marks: Soft biometric for face recognition (ftp://ftp.C. Published in BTAS 2010.".en.T. but are not limited to: • Physical: skin colour. Furthermore they do not require enrolment.-L. Velardo. OL18720791M.". weight. Handbook of multibiometrics.1007/s11042-010-0635-7. (October 2010). morphological and anthropometric determinations  . . doi:10. tattoos. though these are not able to individually authenticate the subject because they lack distinctiveness and permanence  Soft Biometric traits Traits which accept the above definition include. scars or tattoos. The most common traits he introduced were colour of eye.F. classifiable in pre–defined human compliant categories. Springer 2006. beard and skin. "Bag of Soft Biometrics for Person Identification: new trends and challenges. presence of moustache. Soft Biometrics inherit a main part of the advantages of Biometrics and furthermore endorses by its own assets.en. eye colour. shape and size of the head. presence of beard. Published in ICIP 2009. Some of the advantages include non obtrusiveness. These categories are.elet. S.edu/biometrics/Publications/ SoftBiometrics/JainDassNandakumar_SoftBiometrics_SPIE04. Alphonse Bertillon: Father of Scientific Detection. • Weight estimation from visual body appearance (http://www. height. (1956).msu.. doi:10. • Can soft biometric traits assist user recognition? (http://www. nor the consent or the cooperation of the observed subject.pdf).en. C. He first proposed a personal identification system based on biometric. 6. International Conference on Biometric Authentication.eurecom. used by humans to distinguish their peers.eurecom.it/users/Stefano.  Jain. • Behavioural: gait.cse. Published in SPIE 2004. Multimedia Tools and Applications... • Adhered human characteristics: clothes colour. hair colour. References  Dantcheva. the computational and time efficiency and human compliance.Tubaro/ ICIP_USB_Proceedings_v2/pdfs/0000037.1007/978-3-540-25948-0_99. behavioural or adhered human characteristics. Published in MMSP 2010. Vol.. H.fr/util/popuppubli.eurecom.fr/util/popuppubli. Introduction The beginnings of Soft Biometrics can be identified as laid by Alphonse Bertillon in the 19th century. htm?page=copyright&id=3189) . Jain lately redefined Soft Biometrics as a set of traits providing information about an individual.".pdf). Nandakumar. International Series on Biometrics. established and time–proven by humans with the aim of differentiating individuals. • "Ross et al. A majority of these descriptors presently fall into the category of Soft Biometrics. • Soft biometrics systems : Reliability and asymptotic bounds (http://www. (2004). Published in BTAS 2010.fr/util/popuppubli. Dugelay. htm?page=copyright&id=3231). A. body characteristics like height or weight as well as indelible marks such as birth marks. hair.polimi. In other words the soft biometric traits instances are created in a natural way. D'Angelo. K. unlike in the classical biometric case. "Soft biometric traits for personal recognition systems.. A. J.Soft biometrics 171 Soft biometrics Soft Biometrics traits are physical. Further reading • Person recognition using a bag of facial soft biometrics (BoFSB) (http://www. keystroke.
In addition. These systems operate with the user's knowledge and typically requires their cooperation. Finally.: telephone banking)." Verification versus identification There are two major applications of speaker recognition technologies and methodologies. a police officer comparing a sketch of an assailant against a database of previously documented criminals to find the closest match(es) is an identification process. There is a difference between speaker recognition (recognizing who is speaking) and speech recognition (recognizing what is being said). this is called verification or authentication. These acoustic patterns reflect both anatomy (e. presenting your passport at border control is a verification process . Speaker verification is usually employed as a "gatekeeper" in order to provide access to a secure system (e. For software that converts speech to text. but it can reach high accuracy for individual voices with which it has been trained. there is a difference between speaker recognition (recognizing who is speaking) and speaker diarisation (recognizing when the same speaker is speaking)..g. or model. there is a difference between the act of authentication (commonly referred to as speaker verification or speaker authentication) and identification. For identification systems. Speaker recognition has a history dating back some four decades and uses the acoustic features of speech that have been found to differ between individuals. etc. These two terms are frequently confused. voice pitch. Conversely. htm?page=copyright&id=3028). If the speaker claims to be of a certain identity and the voice is used to verify this claim. In a sense speaker verification is a 1:1 match where one speaker's voice is matched to one template (also called a "voice print" or "voice model") whereas speaker identification is a 1:N match where the voice is compared against N templates. Voice recognition is combination of the two where it uses learned aspects of a speakers voice to determine what is being said . Speaker verification has earned speaker recognition its classification as a "behavioral biometric. see Speech recognition. In forensic applications.g. Speaker recognition is the computing task of validating a user's claimed identity using characteristics extracted from their voices. speaking style). as is voice recognition. alert automated systems of speaker changes. Because of the process .fr/util/popuppubli.the agent compares your face to the picture in the document.en.such a system cannot recognise speech from random speakers very accurately. size and shape of the throat and mouth) and learned behavioral patterns (e.. In the verification phase.Soft biometrics • Color based soft biometry for hooligans detection (http://www. it is common to first perform a speaker identification process to create a list of "best matches" and then perform a series of verification processes to determine a conclusive match. identification is the task of determining an unknown speaker's identity. 172 Speaker recognition Voice recognition redirects here. the utterance is compared against multiple voice prints in order to determine the best match(es) while verification systems compare an utterance against a single voice print. identification is different from verification. Variants of speaker recognition Each speaker recognition system has two phases: Enrollment and verification. During enrollment. Speaker identification systems can also be implemented covertly without the user's knowledge to identify talkers in a discussion. On the other hand. template. From a security perspective. the speaker's voice is recorded and typically a number of features are extracted to form a voice print. For example. a speech sample or "utterance" is compared against a previously created voice print. Published in ISCAS 2010.eurecom. check if a user is already enrolled in a system.g.
Speaker recognition systems fall into two categories: text-dependent and text-independent. as in the case for many forensic applications.: passwords and PINs) or knowledge-based information can be employed in order to create a multi-factor authentication scenario. verification applications tend to also employ speech recognition to determine what the user is saying at the point of authentication. Some systems adapt the speaker models after each successful verification to capture such long-term changes in the voice. Ambient noise levels can impede both collection of the initial and subsequent voice samples. but incorrect application can have the opposite effect. and world models. Some systems also use "anti-speaker" techniques. Capture of the biometric is seen as non-invasive. such as cohort models. Noise reduction algorithms can be employed to improve accuracy.g. the use of shared-secrets (e. In fact.itl. Homayoon (2011). Gaussian mixture models. Digitally recorded audio voice identification and analogue recorded voice identification uses electronic measurements as well as critical listening skills that must be applied by a forensic expert in order for the identification to be accurate. As text-independent technologies do not compare what was said at enrollment and verification. Text-independent systems are most often used for speaker identification as they require very little if any cooperation by the speaker. In a text-dependent system. the enrollment may happen without the user's knowledge. Fundamentals of Speaker Recognition. In addition. Phd thesis.nist. neural networks. Voice Imitation. matrix representation. Performance degradation can result from changes in behavioural attributes of the voice and from enrolment using one telephone and verification on another telephone ("cross channel"). though there is debate regarding the overall security impact imposed by automated adaptation.Speaker recognition involved. pattern matching algorithms. (2003) Bibliography • Beigi. ISBN 978-0-387-77591-3.gov/div893/biometrics/ Biometricsfromthemovies. Notes References • National Institute of Standards and Technology (http://www.Vector Quantization and decision trees. A Phonetic Study of Perceptual Illusions and Acoustic Success. Voice changes due to ageing may impact system performance over time. In this case the text during enrollment and test is different. If the text must be the same for enrollment and verification this is called text-dependent recognition. prompts can either be common across all speakers (e. The technology traditionally uses existing microphones and voice transmission technology allowing recognition over long distances via ordinary telephones (wired or wireless). hidden Markov models.g. New York: Springer. Integration with two-factor authentication products is expected to increase. .: a common pass phrase) or unique. 173 Technology The various technologies used to process and store voice prints include frequency estimation.pdf) • Elisabeth Zetterholm. Lund University. verification is faster than identification.
IEC 80000-14" specification is one of a set of International Standards produced jointly by the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) under their Joint Technical Committee. 2010 (http://ieee-elearning.php?search=beigi) Telebiometrics Telebiometrics applies biometrics to telecommunications and telecommunications to remote biometric sensing. References  http:/ / www. Attending to these wetware protocols has become particularly urgent in the context of a recent study  suggesting possible pathological effects from RFID transponders implanted in dogs.scholarpedia. IEC TC25/WG 5.Speaker recognition 174 External links • Speaker Identification and Verification (http://ditelo.org/article/Speaker_recognition) • .org/course/search. Dogs are frequently used as model organisms in the study of human disease. IEEE eLearning Library (formerly IEEE Expert Now eLearning) Tutuorial. With the emergence of multimodal biometrics systems gathering data from different sensors and contexts.html) • Circumventing Voice Authentication (http://www. org/ cgi/ content/ full/ 43/ 4/ 545 . International Standards that support systems performing biometric enrollment and verification or identification have begun to focus on human physiological thresholds as constraints and frameworks for "plug and play" telebiometric networks. • Speaker recognition .org/pla-radio-episode-17-voice-authentication/ ) The PLA Radio podcast recently featured a simple way to fool rudimentary voice authentication systems. has drafted a standard for Quantities and Units defining such physiological interactions for biometrics. "Telebiometrics related to human physiology. vetpathology. Sep. in conjunction with ITU and ISO.it/people/falavi/IdVe.Voice: Technologies and Algorithms for Biometrics Applications.Scholarpedia (http://www. Working with BioAPI (Biometric Application Programming Interface) and BIP (Biometric Interworking Protocol).phonelosers.itc.
The new measures were fully implemented on April 15. Those seeking unescorted access to secure areas aboard affected vessels. An estimated 750. long shore workers. an individual must provide biographic and biometric information such as fingerprints. outer continental shelf facilities. or MTSA. The TWIC program provides a tamper-resistant biometric credential to maritime workers requiring unescorted access to secure areas of port facilities. and vessels regulated under the Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002.Transportation Worker Identification Credential 175 Transportation Worker Identification Credential The Transportation Worker Identification Credential (or TWIC) program is a Transportation Security Administration and U.S. Coast Guard credentialed merchant mariners.S. must obtain a TWIC. 2007. • Identify individuals who fail to maintain their eligibility qualifications after being permitted unescorted access to secure areas of the nation's maritime transportation system and revoke the individual's permissions. To obtain a TWIC. Coast Guard initiative in the United States. published in the Federal Register on January 25. port facility employees. 2009. • Determine the eligibility of an individual to be authorized unescorted access to secure areas of the maritime transportation system.000 individuals will require TWICs. and. sit for a digital photograph and successfully pass a security threat assessment conducted by TSA. sets forth regulatory requirements to implement this program in the maritime mode first. Workers required to obtain a TWIC include credentialed merchant mariners. and all U. • Enhance security by ensuring that unauthorized individuals are denied unescorted access to secure areas of the nation's maritime transportation system. . The program's goals are: • Positively identify authorized individuals who require unescorted access to secure areas of the nation's maritime transportation system. and all Coast Guard credentialed merchant mariners. the TWIC Final Rule. A sample Transportation Worker Identification Credential. Maritime sector While TWIC may be implemented across other transportation modes in the future. truck drivers. and others requiring unescorted access to secure areas of security-regulated maritime facilities and vessels.
TSA may conduct other analyses. many applicants that receive initial denials based on background check returns face waits of six to eight months to complete the process to obtain a TWIC. Rollout issues The Government Accountability Office has said the TWIC program has suffered from lack of oversight and poor coordination. terrorist watchlists. Specifically. robbery. Interim disqualifiying criminal offenses An applicant is disqualified for a period of time for other convictions.   Additionally. or attempts/conspiracy to commit these acts. for: Unlawful acts involving firearms. rape. sedition. a number of organizations have complained at the financial impact the program will have on already highly regulated industries. drug distribution/importation. extortion. such as airports. and indictments for certain offenses and other background information. and may search to see if other extensive foreign or domestic criminal convictions exist. unlawful acts involving explosives. bribery. treason. assault with intent to kill. National Crime Information Center (NCIC). Other parts of the security threat assessment In addition to criminal offenses. serious racketeering offenses. Other transportation sectors In addition to the maritime sector.  . chemical plants. kidnapping. the TWIC may be required in the future for other security-sensitive transportation sectors. including searching international databases. if the applicant was convicted in the past seven years and/or released from incarceration resulting from conviction within the past five years. Delays to applicants According to a report by the National Employment Law Project. murder. and the applicant must provide TSA with written proof that the arrest did not result in conviction for the offense. Permanent disqualifying criminal offenses An applicant is permanently disqualified if convicted of the following felonies: Espionage. immigration violations. railroads. bomb threats.000 applicants out of the 1. In the case of arrests that do not indicate the disposition. One chemical manufacturing industry representative says it's only a matter of time before the entire manufacturing industry requires workers to have TWIC cards. Over 10. fraudulent entry into a seaport. TSA will determine immigration status and look for records indicating mental incapacity. a crime involving a transportation security incident . and refineries. and lesser racketeering offenses. smuggling. improper transportation of hazardous material. other databases. or attempts/conspiracy to commit these acts. arrest warrants. Delays regarding developing and implementing card reader technology have meant that for the initial period TWIC cards will not be used in card readers. terrorism . the applicant will be notified by TSA. The assessment considers convictions. some TWIC applicants have experienced significant delays.5 million port workers could not work for an average of 69 days because they had not obtained a TWIC by the implementation date. fraud (does not include welfare fraud and passing bad checks).Transportation Worker Identification Credential 176 Security threat assessment Each TWIC applicant undergoes a security threat assessment. arson.
regulations. gov/ xnews/ releases/ pr_1209745179774. References • TWIC Program description by TSA (http://www. Retrieved Feb 11.gov/what_we_do/layers/twic/index. . Ulnar loops start on the pinky-side of the finger. com/ print/ 22_04/ 30243-1.uscg. dhs. Coast Guard's NVIC 03-07. the plain arch.S. Subpart B (http:/ / ecfr. the lower arm bone. html#g)  A transportation security incident is a security incident resulting in a significant loss of life. pdf) from the National Employment Law Project.dhs. com/ online/ vol1_no1/ 43463-1. or economic disruption in a particular area. gov/ cgi/ t/ text/ text-idx?c=ecfr& rgn=div6& view=text& node=49:9.  http:/ / www.C. 70101. net/ 547b3ef519c097ad9d_tkm6bnuqf.tsa. Code of Federal Regulations.mil/hq/g-m/nvic/0-07/FINAL TWIC NVIC 07-02-07. 2009.Transportation Worker Identification Credential 177 Notes  http:/ / www. dated July 8. 1. the tented arch. Part 1572.S. law. 3cdn. shtm  Title 49. The ulnar loop is just one of 8 most common fingerprint patterns. 6. html  http:/ / www.shtm) • TWIC Implementation in the Maritime Sector Final Rule. the accidental whorl. as defined in 46 U. which include the radial loop.gov/what_we_do/layers/twic/index. 2007 (http://www.S.C.tsa. transportation system disruption. January 25. asp?s=9786040  http:/ / www. 2& idno=49)  As defined in 18 U.gov/TWICWebApp/) Ulnar loop Ulnar loop is a term used in classifying fingerprints. gcn. environmental damage.gov/ fdmspublic/ContentViewer?objectId=09000064802c4d66&disposition=attachment&contentType=pdf) • U. 3. edu/ uscode/ 18/ 2332b. cornell. com/ global/ story. the central pocket loop. html  Press Release (http:/ / nelp. 2010. The term “economic disruption” does not include a work stoppage or other employee-related action not related to terrorism and resulting from an employer-employee dispute. and the double loop whorl.pdf) External links • TWIC Program website by TSA (http://www. washingtontechnology.tsa. gpoaccess. "Guidance for the implementation of the TWIC Program in the maritime sector" (http://www. 19. the side closer to the ulna.shtm) • Pre-enrollment page (https://twicprogram. wafb. the plain whorl. § 2332b(g) (http:/ / www.
Vein matching 178 Vein matching Vein matching. pearl. . also called vascular technology.S.  Blackburn. Hitachi America. Schneier on Security. . html). Peter (January 20. com/ dangerroom/ 2011/ 01/ qaeda-killers-veins-implicate-him-in-journos-murder/ ). washingtonpost. would not hold up in court and used vein matching evidence to bolster their case. Mantra Softech marketed a device in South Asia that scans vein patterns in palms for attendance recording. us/ products/ business/ smart_solutions/ finger_vein/ ). Finger scanning devices have been deployed for use in Japanese financial institutions. and turnstiles. Ltd. The Washington Post. . in which light reflected by hemoglobin in a subject's blood vessels is recorded by a CCD camera behind a transparent surface. html). Douglas (January 20. and digitized for future biometric authentication of the subject. CNN. Retrieved January 21. pp. Retrieved January 21. . Bradley (January 20. USA Today. PalmSecure (Fujitsu). Ltd. Retrieved January 21. Computer security expert Bruce Schneier stated that a key advantage of vein patterns for biometric identification is the lack of a known method of forging a usable "dummy". "Photos of hands backed up Pearl slaying confession. Retrieved January 21. such as fingerprinting. . . as is possible with fingerprints. mantratec. However. Wall Street Journal Reporter" (http:/ / abcnews. wired. com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/ 2011/ 01/ 19/ AR2011011907114. Retrieved January 20.  Commercial applications Vascular/vein pattern recognition (VPR) technology has been developed commercially by Hitachi since 1997. Retrieved January 21. Officials were concerned that his confession.  Cratty. 2011. 2011. compressed. "Another Biometric: Vein Patterns" (http:/ / www. schneier. fujitsu. daniel. it can be used in conjunction with existing forensic data in support of a conclusion. ABC News. this method of identification is still in development and has not yet been universally adopted by crime labs as it is not considered as reliable as more established techniques. Wired. . References  Finn. Forensic identification According to a 31. India: Mantra Softech Pvt. . 2011. com/ blog/ archives/ 2007/ 08/ another_biometr. 2011. 2011).  "PV2000" (http:/ / www. go. Though used by the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Central Intelligence Agency. 2011. "Report: Forensic evidence ties 9/11 plotter to Pearl's killing" (http:/ / content. 1–2.  "Your hand is the key: The world's first contactless palm vein authentication technology" (http:/ / www.  Schneier. execution/ ). 2007). 2011). com/ communities/ ondeadline/ post/ 2011/ 01/ report-forensic-evidence-shows-911-plotter-killed-journal-reporter/ 1).  Ackerman. com/ biometrics/ palm-vein-recognition/ palm-vein-authentication-2000. usatoday. 2011. "Report: Top al-Qaeda figure killed Pearl" (http:/ / www. html).  Stanglin. kiosks. The FBI and the CIA used the matching technique on Mohammed in 2004 and again in 2007. 2011. 2011. 2011). federal investigators used photos from the video recording of the beheading of American journalist Daniel Pearl to match the veins on the visible areas of the perpetrator to that of captured al-Qaeda operative Khalid Sheikh Mohammed. com/ US/ report-justice-served-murder-daniel-pearl/ story?id=12721909). Retrieved January 21. U. 2011. which had been obtained though waterboarding. Bruce (August 8. Carol (January 20. Fujitsu developed a version that does not require direct physical contact with the vein scanner for improved hygiene in the use of electronic point of sale devices. . 2011). hitachi-america. Retrieved January 21. cnn. Retrieved January 21. 2011). "Report Says Justice Not Served in Murder of Daniel Pearl.000-word investigative report published in January 2011 by Georgetown University faculty and students. Spencer (January 20. com/ emea/ products/ biometrics/ ). "Qaeda Killer’s Veins Implicate Him In Journo’s Murder" (http:/ / www.  "Finger Vein Authentication Technology" (http:/ / www. report finds" (http:/ / www. com/ 2011/ WORLD/ asiapcf/ 01/ 20/ pakistan. The data patterns are processed. is a technique of biometric identification through the analysis of the patterns of blood vessels visible from the surface of the skin. . notably a "bulging vein" running across his hand.
ieee. Ishani. Sasaki.publicintegrity.1145/1655925.fujitsu. Jane. Shiohara.. Haifen.Vein matching 179 Further reading • Watanabe. Rui (December 2009). doi:10. Li.springerlink.org/ daniel_pearl) at the Center for Public Integrity . (September 2009).com/downloads/GLOBAL/labs/papers/palmvein. Bhattacharyya.org/citation. IEEE Transactions on Image Processing (IEEE Signal Processing Society) 18 (9): 2127–2136.org/iel5/83/ 4358840/04926208. Proceedings of the 9th WSEAS International Conference on Multimedia Systems & Signal Processing (Wuhan University): 206–211. Prathyusha.thefreelibrary.pdf). "Palm Vein Authentication System: A Review" (http://www. "Finger Vein Image Recognition Based on Tri-value Template Fuzzy Matching" (http://www. Farkhod. doi:10.org/journals/IJCA/vol3_no1/3. "Personal Authentication Using Hand Vein Triangulation and Knuckle Shape" (http://ieeexplore.us/e-library/conferences/2009/hangzhou/MUSP/MUSP34. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Concordia University) 4781.com/Finger-vein+image+recognition+combining+modified+hausdorff+distance.1007/978-3-540-76414-4_16. Alisherov. External links • Finger-vein image recognition combining modified hausdorff distance with minutiae feature matching (http:// www.1656145. Guangming.sersc. Debnath (March 2010). Prabir (2007). ISSN 1057-7149. ISSN 1790-5117. K. "Palm vein authentication technology and its applications" (https://www-s. • Chen. "A new palm vein matching method based on ICP algorithm" (http://portal. Hong (May 2009). Bhattacharya. Masaki.pdf).wseas. Morito. Tai-hoon. You. • Sarkar. Wang. Proceedings of The Biometric Consortium Conference (Fujitsu Laboratories). • Chen.com/content/84625090872p1287/). Lu. ISBN 978-1-60558-710-3.1109/TIP.. • Zhang. -a0210517119) at The Free Library • The Truth Left Behind: Inside the Kidnapping and Murder of Daniel Pearl (http://treesaver.2009. • Kumar. Liukui.V. Kim.pdf). A. International Journal of Control and Automation 3 (1). Yi-Bo. ISBN 978-960-474-077-2.. doi:10.pdf?arnumber=4926208&authDecision=-203). "Palm Vein Extraction and Matching for Personal Authentication" (http://www. International Conference on Information Systems (Harbin Institute of Technology). Zheng. Qin.ieee.2023153.acm.org/Xplore/login.cfm?id=1656145).jsp?url=http://ieeexplore. Shigeru (September 2005).
In order to objectively evaluate the improvement in voice quality there has to be some measure of voice quality. Such studies include mostly medical analysis of the voice i. and high-speed videos  provide an option but in order to see the vocal folds. . The other kind of noninvasive indirect indication of vocal fold motion is the electroglottography. teachers. In addition. invasive measurement of movement. fundamental frequencies are usually between 80 and 300 Hz. Typical voice problems A medical study of the voice can be. but this requires extensive training and is still always subjective. In inverse filtering. which makes speaking difficult. Stroboscopic. Among professional voice users (i. in which electrodes placed on either side of the subject's throat at the level of the vocal folds record the changes in the conductivity of the throat according to how large a portion of the vocal folds are touching each other. In addition. Neither inverse filtering nor EGG are sufficient to completely describe the complex 3-dimensional pattern of vocal fold movement. To evaluate these problems vocal loading needs to be objectively measured. Movements in the vocal cords are rapid. the process of speaking exerts a load on the vocal cords where the tissue will suffer from tiring. sales people) this tiring can cause voice failures and sick leaves. analysis of the voice of patients who have had a polyp removed from his or her vocal cords through an operation. Analysis methods Voice problems that require voice analysis most commonly originate from the vocal folds or the laryngeal musculature that controls them. thus preventing usage of ordinary video. that is. Another active research topic in medical voice analysis is vocal loading evaluation. such as in speech recognition. The vocal cords of a person speaking for an extended period of time will suffer from tiring. the speech sound (the radiated acoustic pressure waveform. and the laryngeal musclature is intensely active during speech or singing and is subject to tiring. The most important indirect methods are currently inverse filtering of either microphone or oral airflow recordings and electroglottography (EGG). An experienced voice therapist can quite reliably evaluate the voice. as obtained from a microphone) or the oral airflow waveform from a circumferentially vented (CV)  mask is recorded outside the mouth and then filtered by a mathematical method to remove the effects of the vocal tract. for instance. but also speaker identification. dynamic analysis of the vocal folds and their movement is physically difficult. some believe that the truthfulness or emotional state of speakers can be determined using Voice Stress Analysis or Layered Voice Analysis.Voice analysis 180 Voice analysis Voice analysis is the study of speech sounds for purposes other than linguistic content. It thus yields one-dimensional information of the contact area. However.e. The location of the vocal folds effectively prohibits direct. which in turn reflect the movements of the vocal folds. a fiberoptic probe leading to the camera has to be positioned in the throat. stroboscopic imaging is only useful when the vocal fold vibratory pattern is closely periodic. since the folds are subject to collision forces with each vibratory cycle and to drying from the air being forced through the small gap between them.e. This method produces an estimate of the waveform of the glottal airflow pulses. but can provide useful indirect evidence of that movement. placing objects in the pharynx usually triggers a gag reflex that stops voicing and closes the larynx. phoniatrics. More controversially. Less invasive imaging methods such as x-rays or ultrasounds do not work because the vocal cords are surrounded by cartilage which distort image quality.
Voice analysis 181 External links • Voice Problems and Vocal Disorder Online Community (VoiceMatters. voicematters.net)  References  http:/ / www. pdf  http:/ / www. glottal. kayelemetrics. net . htm  http:/ / www. com/ Product%20Info/ 9710/ CHSV%20Product%20Announcement. com/ Products/ airflowmasks.
RadioFan. MelissaRichard. Caligvla. Teehee123. Ozguroot. CNicol. YUL89YYZ. Andriusval. Reswobslc. CNicol. Mandarax. Samw. Dithridge. Ewawer. Ap aravind. Pengusven. Kadoo. JP Godfrey. Elgaard. 1 anonymous edits Budapest Declaration on Machine Readable Travel Documents Source: http://en. Josh Parris. AxelBoldt. Captain. TastyPoutine. Btyner. Shadowlynk. Appraiser. ArsLongaVitaBrevisEst. MEGAC1pher. Nineko. Canley. Notinasnaid. Dubitante. GraemeL. Princesspeople123. Antandrus. Bobo192. Omarabid. WereSpielChequers. Hjlee84. Nhgaudreau. Pjvpjv.php?oldid=425712617 Contributors: -Lt. Horatio. Iapain wiki. Pingveno. Роман Валитов. Everything counts. Jrtayloriv. Mike Rosoft. Equendil. Metsfan86. James Callahan. Bidgee. HarringtonSmith. NiteSensor23. RorschachJSL. Meneth. Paulguckian. Physicistjedi. Joseph Solis in Australia.wikipedia. DrRisk13. Ivangricenko. SiobhanHansa. Charles Matthews.wikipedia. Clumsyone. Billinghurst.org/w/index. Noblesham. John of Reading. Carlsmith. Linnartz. Ltmaneveld. Wiikipedian. Shaddack. Graavis. Sohaibhassan. BalkanFever. Unique85. GoneAwayNowAndRetired. CRobey. Afinebalance. Fama Clamosa. Malonide.canedo. Neelix. Auridia. DragonflySixtyseven. James Kidd. Mayatiita. Inkling. AWoodside-LElliott. Pgilmon. Slant. Daniel Quinlan. Andre Engels.R. BloodGrapefruit2. Sciprecision. Necrothesp. X2X00. Anikin3. Vegaswikian. Xezbeth. Gaius Cornelius. Bluerasberry. Courcelles. Sander123. Valley2city. Swanny123.php?oldid=422434957 Contributors: Andyhartman. Derek Ross. Twoflower. Flowanda. Shikuesi3.org/w/index. Zscout370. Saeco. ShelfSkewed. Zeuscho. Jose. Barenholtz. Kubigula. OhioTrivium. SDC. Rich Farmbrough. PrincessCaitlai. Kweeket. Omarteacher. Stone.wilton. Bwefler.wikipedia. Kembangraps. Ida Shaw. Bundawda. Homer Landskirty. E Wing. Loren36. Jrsage. Antandrus. Kumioko. Dinomite. EJVargas. SHAH7424. Ewawer. Seb az86556. 1 anonymous edits CBEFF Source: http://en. Neilc. Theda. Jk3000. Mitch Ames. T@nn. Serongadamwiki. Krich. Arga Warga.K. Ph89. Squids and Chips. Lra. Abrahami. Leonard^Bloom. MarkHavel. Samsara. Flewis.wikipedia.org/w/index. Merkwuerdiglichlieber. Pnm. Martinp23. Isilanes. Jake Wartenberg. David Gale.K. Ohconfucius. Magioladitis. Crabbi. Woodysee.php?oldid=407154645 Contributors: Daniel J. Donreed. Matticus78. Jenwen28. Raul654. Philshinn. Jengod. Jasonclarkmanager. VillemVillemVillem. Vetalius. Rettetast. Tide rolls. Mdhowe. Foreone. Apers0n. Maurice Carbonaro. Husond. Chris the speller. Tregoweth. Dr. Cyhawk. Dougweller. Digitize. SJJhang. Mike1024. Eccso. Majalinno. 168. Spartaz. clown will eat me. Auric. Jack1993jack. Gogo Dodo. John wesley. Gilliam. Orangemike. Dancter. JMS Old Al. Akendall. Freechild. Jose. Capricorn42.delanoy.wikipedia. DéRahier. Algaema. Old Moonraker. Jebus989. Kktor. Waldir. Jjhcap99. JamesBWatson. Styath. BrownRock. Dyslexik.org/w/index.org/w/index. Mateo SA. Everyguy. Stonor. 7434be. Blackisblack. PJM. Max Naylor. Barend. Iridescent. Black Gold. The Almighty Cornholio. IronGargoyle. FF2010. Szenti. Jeltz. Guy M. Instinct. Jjmorabrenes. Cmdrjameson. Wavelength.org/w/index.canedo. HalJor. Don. Pigman.wikipedia. Cahk. Muzi. Locutus. Liastnir. Ceoil. Shaile. Kingdon. Lepetitvagabond. Scforth. Ironholds. Gaius Cornelius. Tocksin. Kinu. Visudoc. McAusten. Alansohn. Chealer. Movementarian. Torinfo. Stifle. CardinalDan. Hoffmeier. Akhristov. Chrislk02. JDspeeder1. Nakakapagpabagabag. Linnartz. Intgr.Budden. Funya445. Ground Zero. Jenolds. Guy Harris. Gill110951. Demiurg. Longhair. PDH. Passportistca.g. WiseWoman. DeadEyeArrow. . P.). Shyamal. Jefffire. Skittleys. Gurch. Rich Farmbrough. Joshua. Ronhjones. JWinTX.doe. 864 anonymous edits Automated fingerprint identification Source: http://en.amitsingh. Gurch. Guerrilla1200. Xeltran. M. Alexis85. Everything counts. Open2universe. Torenko. Zshortman. Pschearer. Inter. SusanLesch. Cmcnicoll. Plantsurfer. Δ BioSlimDisk Source: http://en. Stefan. Pon44695. EquusAustralus. Evolver. Loren. Rjwilmsi. Kjhebert. Mkt3000 dot com. Viper10003. Aerternum8. Cyrillic. Precious Roy. Kingturtle. Alphachimp. DougsTech. IddoGenuth. Jamesontai. Edward. JGF Wilks. Reconsider the static. Tri7megi7tu7. A8UDI. Piano non troppo. GRBerry. Bc42. Fredrik. Lightpinkflower. Eastmain. Martin. Ap. Sadfnjet. Elenthalion. JoJan. Laser2k. FJPB. The Anome.S2. YassineWiki. CraigB. S3bst3r. Banej. J. Bruno Unna. GrooveDog. Chidicon.org/w/index. Trounce. StephenWeber. Michael Cerkowski. Snoyes. Southern Forester. Addihockey10. Little Grabbi. Pnm. Jeff3000. Lexor. Fastfission. Jusjih. Int21h. Melissa123.lima. Shreth. N5iln.. Oberiko. Waldir. 551 anonymous edits Biometrics Institute Source: http://en. Fred the Oyster. Ivario. Pnm. Hardware Hank. Hellimli. PigFlu Oink. Cimon Avaro. Silal. Free Software Knight. Fordmadoxfraud. Javawizard. IgorMagic. Qwfp. Tide rolls. Dysmorodrepanis.Frag-. SecurityBlackBelt. KimChee. SCΛRECROW. Hotrodizfilthy. Epbr123. Aljpeters. Hephaestos. Blaaake. BW95. Mike hayes. Baconchopface. Boing! said Zebedee. Fæ. M. Mendicott.php?oldid=429146135 Contributors: Abduallah mohammed. Dcoetzee. Saponniah. Den fjättrade ankan. Joe3600. Jgeorge60. One more night. Jonathan Haas. Mineralè.org/w/index. Desmond Tsui. Peterl. Carlosp420. Heshwa. Dkropf. Starx. TheCuriousGnome. Pseudomyrmex. UFu. Knownot. Toddgee. CharlesBrenner. Epingchris. DavidWBrooks. DVD R W. AbsolutDan. Mintleaf. Michael. Sandstein. Gwernol. Seglea. BananaFiend. The Thing That Should Not Be. Sanmartin. Zaasaa. Alexbrewer. Frankthetank.org/w/index. Sky Harbor. JohnEBredehoft. Josh Grosse. Cadsuane Melaidhrin. Lucy-marie. Open2universe. LoopZilla. Acolin f. Ant. Beetstra. Beetstra. Christopherlin. EagleFan. JLaTondre. Manway. Sopoforic.wikipedia. Jetjaxon5. Xeex. Rownon. Thingg. L. Dzordzm. LMB. SentinelAlpha. Luk. Amsaim. Open2universe. Swarm. Pimlottc. Angelo De La Paz. Stargzer. Simesa. AgainErick. Bvlax2005. Mattsacks.php?oldid=428835789 Contributors: -1g. Icarus3. Hypersubtext. TheDJ. Welsh. Sanmartin. Balazshubai. Overandaway. Eu national. Chaos. Roo72. Ceyockey. Vegaswikian. FloydRTurbo. MD. ConceptExp. Onco p53. Vanished user 03. Zr40. 57 anonymous edits DNA profiling Source: http://en. Unyoyega. Repat. Ronz. Evanoff. Ultramandk. Bukowski. SummonerMarc. Photojack50.Crusoe. Phil Bridger. HJ Mitchell. Saftorangen. Rsrikanth05. Hadal.ינמיתה למגהआशीष भटनागर. Asyndeton. Towsonu2003. Dannyjnesh. ToastieIL. Funkboy3. Adequate. EoGuy. Gioto. Frozenevolution. FunkyFly. Gujamin. BBCWatcher. Jsc83. FaceOffic. Calvados. Apers0n. . 138 anonymous edits Biometric Consortium Source: http://en. Tafounast. Moyzes. Vickatespence. Denytrendy. TerraHikaru. Figma. Bosonic dressing. Apancu. Michaeljthieme. Feedmecereal. Hanseichbaum. Shoeofdeath. Ductapedaredevil. Xiaojeng. Burlefot. HolyCross4ever. Springbok26. AegeanGoddess. Dan100. Sekiyu. Awostrack. Kizor.delanoy. Closedmouth.org/w/index. Tandras. Excavator. Izzy67. Akashiii. Ithinkhelikesit. CharlesBrenner. Leivick. Fandraltastic. G716. Risingjsun. Coderanger. Gabbe. W. Everyking. Winchelsea. Jyril. Malcolm Farmer.tak. Ocaasi. Infestor. Stoichkov8. Natarajuab. CliffC. DirectEdge. Herbythyme. Emelpy. Mattisse. Vernonheng. Harryzilber. BorisTM. Intgr. Abb615. Nagy.Article Sources and Contributors 182 Article Sources and Contributors Biometrics Source: http://en. Tmazhindu. Dharmabum420. Kamran the Great. Nixenzo. Nordic Legend. ArnoldReinhold. Neutrality. Coolcole. DocWatson42. Quebec99. Philly boy92. 3122WIKI. Tnxman307. Bataplai. Dyanega. Nirvana2013. Chazmoney3. Reinyday. Lgallindo. Nyttend. Elonka. Nikomis. J. Vodnokon4e. Sebastian scha. Frank. Recurring dreams. Jagun. F. Sicarii3. GreaterWikiholic. Micahbales. Miguel. Arminius. Cahk. Woohookitty. Heron. Pastore Italy. Dougofborg. Felix Stember. Yumegusa. Charm. Sravee294. Toshtrent. SuperFlanker. Michael Hardy.. Stephenb. IvanLanin. Alansohn. JForget. ANDROBETA. NewEnglandYankee. HamburgerRadio. Enviroboy. ZooFari. Dratman. Predator47. Hariva. Phatom87. Youssefsan. Andre775. Rafiqmahmood. Estesce. JBarno. Kevin23. Gabbe. Outback the koala. Can't sleep. Intgr. Haiderzainy. Tmaher. Octahedron80. clown will eat me. Micga. Econrad. Cmcginni. Pingveno. Chendy. Abdull. Ori. Ping60637. Johnuniq. ABF. Djechelon. Bastiche. Whosasking. BenjaminGittins. Luisitokj. Gregmcpherson. Feedmecereal. Sherdim. DMacks.. Darkwind. GoodSirJava.wikipedia. Subverted. BarretBonden. Neonumbers. Synetech. Danorton. Iain. Hanheng. Mcado2dm. Gundark. Gaius Cornelius. Robertscriva. Michael. West. Tabsys. Hontogaichiban. Lotte Monz. Liko81. Falcon8765. Vid2vid. Mr. 76 anonymous edits DNA barcoding Source: http://en. Rubin16. Banus. John Quincy Adding Machine. Peripatetic. Awareinc. Maartenvdbent. SchmuckyTheCat. 42croad. Anon lynx. Dvacet. Chaser. Finlay McWalter. Exsybaser. Click23. Iner22. Nabeth. J. Hede2000.org/w/index. Aitias. ElectricLemon. Abihana. Pudeo. Themfromspace. Ct2288. Gabriel1907. Littledaniel 93. AzaToth. Pengo. Hugo999. Ilyushka88. Rcawsey. Jpbowen. GraemeL. Discospinster. Michal Nebyla. RashersTierney. Chasingsol. Larry laptop. Dmmaus.php?oldid=414748670 Contributors: KevinCuddeback. Bonus bon. Triwbe. Emperorbma. Dnalabsindia. AlistairMcMillan. Duncharris. Kilo-Lima. HalfShadow. Nealmcb. Toddgee.wikipedia. Martijno.php?oldid=428650845 Contributors: 123imran. Markus Kuhn.. Stathread. Golbez. Captain Obvious and his crime-fighting dog. Aranae. BuffaloChip97. Ingjaimehdz. Brighterorange. CommonsDelinker. Ryulong. Cohesion. Asdfgaheashse. Chris 73. Douglas the Comeback Kid. Anthillharry. RDBrown. Shaddack. Garrythefish. Brankow. Ardagul87. Repo stef. Wildhartlivie. CHallam. Ltka. Phaedrus86. Alex1111. Pegasus1138.micha. Nick4gwen. Sweetness46. Blumonster. Ary29. PrestonH. Abberley2. Wikibob777. Fieldday-sunday. LOL. Branddobbe. Kotra. David Moss. LouScheffer. Garethhamilton. Debresser. Ewawer. Carmichael95. Pakaran.Xp. GoingBatty..andrew. Abune. PigFlu Oink. Jlittlet. TheCuriousGnome Biometric passport Source: http://en. Svartkledd. Dungodung. Caltas. Anyo Niminus. Dolovis. BuffaloChip97. Adi4094. Izzy67. SBaker43. Nbocs. Ds02006. Moscatanix. Brumski. Sjschen. Hangfromthefloor. Roscoe x. Xxxriainxxx. ViXx. Mormegil. Imzadi1979. Ixymapoe. Little Grabbi. Kamalswami. Marek69. Michael Hardy. Everyking. DARTH SIDIOUS 2. Gj7. RVJ. NawlinWiki. THEN WHO WAS PHONE?. WikHead. Ejshear. Silpol. Bergsten. Jacob Poon. G Colyer. Schengen sk. Makedonia. 2 anonymous edits Combined DNA Index System Source: http://en.A. BenFrantzDale. John Quincy Adding Machine. GIR. Albanaco. Vaerner. Catgut. Caltas. Gompa. Acegikmo1. Tommy2010. Kiranwashindkar. Khalid hassani. FieldMarine. Apers0n. Nikopoley. NeilN. DeadEyeArrow. TFOWR. Andypdavis. Lifeisatest99. Ncmvocalist. Fredrik. Ldyandrea. Rizalninoynapoleon. Shanes. Helmandsare. Gwernol. Bobstopper. BenFrantzDale. RBBrittain. Abeg92. Cacycle. Janecraft. ArchonMagnus. Gabrielsouza15. Capricorn42. Cohesion. Avrilko. Eragon22125. Saftorangen. Earthsky. Goran. Haza-w. Funandtrvl. Verbal. Sudanese322. Florentino floro. Infinitysnake. Kubarp. Hikui87. Eperotao. Bugg42. Ajraddatz. Wasted Sapience. Westmanm. F-451. PFHLai. Hyper84. Martial75 Biometric Database Law (Israel) Source: http://en. Pinethicket. RenamedUser2. Anirvan. Hipocrite. Aradic-es. Bungle. Biospecialist. Tazmaniacs. Daivesh. Eugene Cuprin. Jonathan O'Donnell. EoGuy. Haggis. UU. Haya shiloh.org/w/index.delanoy. Utcursch. IngerAlHaosului. Lord of the Left Hand. Doom7987. AndrewSamuel. Domikins. Can't sleep. Kelly Martin. InShaneee. Rifleman 82. Jamesbrownontheroad. OlEnglish. Reedy. Igoldste. Auntof6. Joy. Nerd. Jamesflint. DanielPharos. Uceboyx. Guagd. Baksando. Du3357. Phaedrus86. Jimokay. Bfigura's puppy. 808OG33. J-Wiki. WETaylor. Allstarecho. Nabeth. Normadic. Ahoerstemeier. J04n. FT2. Bmk. RickK. Swid. SomeAssemblyRequired. AFISSPECIALIST.wikipedia. Galoubet. Alinor. Minna Sora no Shita. NicM. DaughterofSun. Simetrical. Admrboltz.php?oldid=404380730 Contributors: EJVargas. Trappist the monk. UkPaolo. DJ Clayworth.dalton. Salvar. Aude. Ntsimp. Avala. InspectorSands. JNW. Eagleal. Pnm. Gaius Cornelius. Joseph Solis in Australia. Standarshy. Anonymous editor. CIreland. Liorma. Curps. Clausekwis. 5 albert square. Tedernst.php?oldid=390716326 Contributors: Dramatic. Primetomas. Rakela.wikipedia. Anneman. Vegaswikian. Igor alexandrov. Wikiliki. Iapetus. Hoomanator. Alejo2083. Inarius. Pcheesman. Francolee01.php?oldid=425186372 Contributors: 84user. Avoided. Fleung. Suvablee0506. Ginsengbomb. Dantadd. Amandallene3. Richard Arthur Norton (1958. CapitalR. Rjwilmsi. Edolen1. Mightymagicland. CapitalR. Neale Monks.Dabbah. Nboavida. Arcturus. MichaelBillington. Gioto. Briaboru. Greyrobe. Od Mishehu. ABF. Zaher1988. Drunken Pirate. Toytoy.php?oldid=414710070 Contributors: Beagel. Donreed. Download. JaeRae. Marcusaffleck. Steggall. Alblefter. Qlinz. Monty845. Tomi566. Faisal moon1. Desert pinguin. Samlikeswiki. Debresser. HamburgerRadio.shafir. Iraqiedit. Nothlit.php?oldid=427507818 Contributors: LilHelpa. SchuminWeb. Nabeth. Kingturtle. SpikeJones. Takowl. VarunRajendran. Keeper B. Ngilchr. Khattaksd. Guiness06. MER-C. Saharasf1986.wikipedia. Islaammaged126. Rich Farmbrough. Gibmetal77. Double Dickel. Benbread. JayMangat.
wikipedia. Jarich. BrownHairedGirl. Lonesomefighter. Quintote. Fuzheado. P0todd0p. Dalgspleh. Spiritia. Mercury. Scientizzle. Mysid. 1 anonymous edits Fingerprint Source: http://en. Cassandra B. Doczilla. Tamoxidiva. Syvanen. NawlinWiki. Good Olfactory. Riana. CoenLauwerijssen. Sunidesus. DocWatson42. Fences and windows. MoraSique. Remindmelater. Sarah. Jose. Rhsimard.wikipedia. Shannon1. Reinyday. Counsell. Unquenchablefire. Ucanlookitup. Think outside the box. Robartin. Gustavocarra. Tisane. Deli nk. MacsBug. Rodrigue. Wknight94. JHMM13. Gogo Dodo.org/w/index. Decltype. Peterlewis. JasonAQuest. Heyitspeter. Personman. John. Paulbrock. Koffieyahoo. Versus22. Discospinster. Conantwo. 1207 anonymous edits Fingerprint Verification Competition Source: http://en. LachlanA. Steel. Motioncapture. Peruvianllama. Old Moonraker. Lupo. Cappelle. 5 anonymous edits Raymond Edmunds Source: http://en. Tom David. Microchip08. Necrothesp. Samuel Pepys. Glen. Calmypal. Joel7687. Lee Flailmarch. TedE. Aleron235. Balln1. 1 anonymous edits Facial Recognition Vendor Test 2006 Source: http://en. Ctrl build. Remote2. Michael Hardy. Kgrad. Universalgenetics. Daniel Olsen. Arrataz. RoyBoy. Esowteric.wikipedia. Lldancer91. Mattyl34. Momoricks. Rudolf. SlowJog. HarryHenryGebel. Amniarix. Solipsist. Richard asr. Rick MILLER. JForget. Yashgaroth. Pinethicket. Heron. Dnjuls. Shadowjams. Phil Holmes. Richard Arthur Norton (1958. Jovianeye. Severa. Kingpin13. Noahsachs. Phil Boswell. Ronhjones. NYKevin. Azazell0. OwenBlacker. Krótki. Philbarker. GLaDOS. Drmaryannbell. Thatguyflint. Master of Puppets. Jdlh. Sortior. Jumping cheese. Brookie. DGG. Ronz. Euchiasmus. Vervin. Reikat705. PleaseStand. Fathomharvill. BeckyAnne. Motor. Pednm. Ewlloyd.php?oldid=413306244 Contributors: GoingBatty. Phase4. Teksus. CWii. Will. Rjwilmsi. Addshore. Maverick Leonhart. Dger. FrozenUmbrella. Cliff. Fastily. Naive cynic.org/w/index. Lateg. ShakingSpirit. Cwkmail.hellmuth. Doyley. BinaryTed. Tizio. Samuel Blanning. Paternity Test. Danzach2. CobraWiki. Mikael Häggström. Pgk. Irishguy. SoLando. Jivee Blau. Winchelsea. MisfitToys. Philip Trueman. Omer88f.org/w/index. Shumdw. Malekhanif. look at you!. Oneiros.dL. Nicolas1981. SnowsCode. The wub. Richardcavell. Jack Merridew. Sonja3930.php?oldid=406572113 Contributors: CommonsDelinker. Mervyn. Alphachimp. Zophra. AzaToth.php?oldid=427537509 Contributors: A Nobody. ISC PB. Qqzzccdd. Auric. Nydas. Gioto. Swerdnaneb. Nhekman.). Dancter. Lra.org/w/index. 6 anonymous edits FNAEG Source: http://en. Rich Farmbrough. Wilsonchas. Ipsissimus. Rossumcapek. Ww. Jiggajigga52. Mandsford. Zashaw. Bry9000. Michael Devore.andrew. Hefiz. SimonD. Ground Zero. Wtmitchell. Mel Etitis. WLRoss. Tom239. Shaddack. Shshme. Kuru. I. TBadger. Academic Challenger. Quuxplusone. AubreyEllenShomo. The Rambling Man. Romanm. Empath. II MusLiM HyBRiD II. Varunbhalerao. PabloP. RJaguar3. Mr Sheep Measham. Fingersx12. Omicronpersei8. Borgx. Emperorbma. The Baroness of Morden. Tazmaniacs.Budden. Tokek. Melcombe. Mobit. David Shankbone. NHRHS2010. Mrh30. Waramat. Stubblyhead. Ozzmosis. Skidude9950. RashersTierney. SpaceFlight89. I dream of horses. Ank329. Jimlaw512. Pearle. Wavelength. The Anome Expected Progeny Difference Source: http://en. NicolasImmelman.php?oldid=420666362 Contributors: BenjaminGittins. Doovinator. Cybercobra. Hbachus. Kevinhksouth. Mboverload. Werdan7. Robth. Antaeus Feldspar. Pv86. R'n'B. RHaworth. MasterSlowPoke. Ksyrie. AdjustShift. Christopher Connor. TBadger. LedgendGamer.org/w/index. M-hwang. Acebulf.php?oldid=391761250 Contributors: Apokrif. Cryptic. Koavf. Ike9898. Rl. NSD Student. Nightscream. Red Director.. Tide rolls. Olly150. White Shadows. JPX7. Werdan7. Sardanaphalus. DustFormsWords. Sangeethsajilal97. Rugbyboroughman. Crystallina. Fama Clamosa. TestPilot. Redf0x. Qwerty671.on. Metodicar. Mindmatrix. YanWong. Marandbon. SunCreator. Mike Rosoft. Nuggetboy. Serein (renamed because of SUL). Old Moonraker. Stephenb. Tristanb. Belfunk. Finn-Zoltan. Rsreston. KentWA. Karunyans.). BD2412. Jessakka. Bobo192. Jack008. Ron Barker. Etaoin. Mckaysalisbury. Kupirijo. ESkog. SuaveArt. Liftarn. Mais oui!. Randall00. Thingg. Wikid77. Quadell. Kafziel. Keimzelle. Pakaran. Munro.wikipedia. Uirauna. Switchercat. Bucketsofg. Mandarax. Javier Jelovcan. OrangeDog. Flamma. Strawfair. RadioFan2 (usurped). CryptoDerk. Apers0n. GregorB. Rrburke. John Barrett. Ruzulo. Kevin Maloney. Tom08. Deutschgirl. Overstreets. VanGoldfish. Edward. Misza13. Petiatil. Oore. Georgy90. Versus22. Markbenecke. Arvindn. Rod57. PaleWhaleGail. Jwoodger. Lcamtuf. Xobster. Mythsearcher. Bornhj. MarcoTolo. TheGrimReaper NS. CardinalDan. Delldot. Hasek is the best. Bmacwilliams. Tiddly Tom. VernoWhitney. Fvasconcellos. Shimeru. Gustafson. Mgummess. Linmhall. Lightmouse. Alynna Kasmira. MelchiorZ. 33 anonymous edits Extended Access Control Source: http://en. Materialscientist.org/w/index. Nihonjoe. Zumbo. Macy.canedo. Stimpy. Callidior.wikipedia. Gilliam. Ajdonnison. Manuel Yayo. Gioto. DGZxYo. Spu2011. Mindmatrix. Graham87.wikipedia. La goutte de pluie. LeaveSleaves. Meelar.org/w/index. Geni. Olegwiki. J-Star. Smalljim. Movingboxes. Hut 8. Ida Shaw. Ekedolphin. Michal Nebyla. Monedula. TransControl. Kubigula. Paul W. Neilc. Phantomsteve. Dodger. Woohookitty. Think outside the box. Ken Saladin.org/w/index. LedgendGamer. TenOfAllTrades. Laudak. Mohiuddinahmed. TimVickers. Muslim Editor. Eloquence. Master Jay.wikipedia. Vianello. ErrantX. IronChris. FreplySpang. Celendin. MP 12. David Santos.I. SMasters. Anthony Appleyard. Purplepong. Michaplot. Ixfd64. आशीष भटनागर. Runningonbrains.php?oldid=403767581 Contributors: Chowbok. Alexf. Prodego. Skyk98. SidP. Salaribio. Sixxgrand. Qxz. SunCreator. Thincat. Tholly. Ucucha. SchuminWeb. Spudtater. Ellywa. Undyne. Longhair. J Di. Junger01. Narom. FreelanceWizard. Sens08. Bosun. Inter. Woohookitty. Raymondwinn. Rhobite. Seb az86556. Mr0t1633. J-Wiki. Powerload. Masem. A2Kafir. Kjkrum. Doug757. L Kensington. Mav. KC Panchal. Lexor. Guthrie. User2004. Smor4860.canedo. Spitfire. Jojhutton. Josephcn. Nitroshockwave. Xavier Giró. Mattisse. Maulsull. Rjwilmsi.org/w/index. Canis Lupus. Halfvind. Josh3736. Anaxial. Leszek Jańczuk. Antandrus. Cometstyles.php?oldid=414808371 Contributors: Cheakamus. Thebiggnome. Cool Blue. Tim1988. PJHaseldine. Rich Farmbrough. Brentdax. WhatamIdoing. Grafen. Jeffrey O.wikipedia. Steven Zhang.delanoy. Robertwest100. Tombomp. MBGC liason. Jpgordon. Pi Guy 31415.. Difu Wu. Tstrobaugh. PL290. Uncke Herb. Methegreat. Fastfission.5. RL0919. COMPFUNK2. Icarus3. Hooperbloob. Dreadatticus. 5 anonymous edits Electropherogram Source: http://en. Andrew777. Mokailleet. Tazmaniacs. 4insix. Kajerm. Serpens. Ant. Chairman S. Bulbtree. GainLine. OlEnglish. Le sacre. Mgalle. Twirligig. Sertorius. Maurice Carbonaro. Matt Gies. Red Director. Ruuddekeijzer. Cyrus XIII. 3 anonymous edits Lydia Fairchild Source: http://en. Frap. Jkelly. Ubardak.org/w/index. Schutz. MBGC liason. EmielMols. Ronny corral. Euchiasmus. Spettro9. Honeycake. Phil Boswell. McPavement. Epbr123. Donarreiskoffer. LovesMacs. Fusionmix. CplDwayneHicks. Virtualphtn. Hugo999. Paul Richter. Underleger. Ravichandar84. Debresser. Justinfr. The Thing That Should Not Be. Tabletop. 6 anonymous edits Face Recognition Grand Challenge Source: http://en. Excirial. THINMAN. Pnm. Thunderbird2. Jusdafax. Geneb1955. Skritek. Brankow. TheFreeloader. Nono64. Roux. Jeffrey Mall. Syrthiss. WiseWoman. Blufflimbo. Soarhead77. Smartse. Brandonm0720. Richwales. DerHexer. Jeeny. Alkarex. Jpbowen. Michael Hardy. Karada. J04n. MBGC liason. Marssociety. L Kensington. Diderot. Ductapedaredevil.org/w/index. Earthlyreason. 5 anonymous edits EURODAC Source: http://en. Deor. girl. Pearle. Wavelength. Lukobe. TaintedMustard. Snookumz. Kembangraps. Egghead Jr. Nilfanion. 51 anonymous edits Generalized Procrustes analysis Source: http://en. Flewis. Capricorn42. Salix alba. Toytown Mafia. Arodb. AnonUser. Glst2. Iridescent. Titoxd. Lithis7. Russ47025. KnightRider. Severa. Corvus cornix. Favonian. MC10. Leffanie. RJFJR.php?oldid=403392977 Contributors: Bensin. ImperatorExercitus. Vectraproject. ClairSamoht. Wwc93. THEN WHO WAS PHONE?. AnnaJGrant. Psiphiorg. Jtlongwi. Wiki alf. Liucougar. Yerpo. Gaius Cornelius. 6 anonymous edits Gait analysis Source: http://en. Nothingofwater. LokiClock. Tcncv. 36 anonymous edits FERET (facial recognition technology) Source: http://en. Magioladitis. Steinsky. J. Asyndeton. Quebec99. Everyking. Reedy. Wjcollier07. Qwell the pell. 14 anonymous edits 183 . Kerowyn. Tegrenath. Thunderboltz.php?oldid=423035827 Contributors: 2D. Þjóðólfr. Damian Yerrick. Sandstein. Sandstein. Evil Monkey. Peter johnson4.php?oldid=428233356 Contributors: Alpha plus (a+). Rachmaninoff. Wayne Slam. Treisijs. Sandstein. Mad Max. DAJF. Tom. Alpha plus (a+). OwenX. Nunziapr. Aervanath. Septegram. Bongwarrior. TurkishHorde. Martijn van Mensvoort. Wildhartlivie. Sphinxx. AlphOmegGuy. Skarebo. MacGyverMagic. Sciurinæ. Tazmaniacs. Anil1956. Chzz. Rettetast. Jfdwolff. Richard Arthur Norton (1958. HamburgerRadio. Rama. Noonaj. DragonflySixtyseven. The Anome. Fjianjiang. Xgllo. Geppyp. Edcolins. Marek69. Keegan brown. MrDude23. Pewwer42. Andreworkney. Spencer BOOTH. DARTH SIDIOUS 2. Alansohn. CLPEandFFS. Altenmann.org/w/index. Zé da Silva. Zsero. Baa.org/w/index. Courcelles. DVD R W. BananaFiend. Rbarreira.wikipedia. Yahel Guhan. Koba-chan. Redmac54. Sarah00001. Justarandomgeek.org/w/index. Jose. Chillum. Stepa. Lisatwo. WPjcm. Uberfluffy. Isnow. S-MorrisVP. West. Milominderbinder2. Keepmytubes. CultureDrone. Eritain. EMT1871. CommonsDelinker. Ed g2s. Patrick. Rsanaie. Vsmith. Puchiko. Tsob. Cuddy Wifter. Skipper500. Falcon8765. TutterMouse. Justin. Xavierschmit. Piccadilly. Nohomers48. Fngosa. Diddy88888. The undertow. Glane23. Special Cases. MER-C.wikipedia. Jepmatt. Adrian. OllieFury. Jonkerz. Sonett72. Well. Preslethe. Goodtimber. StuartMcIntyre. Wilfredor. David Gerard. VernoWhitney. Kvdveer. Ulric1313. Canterbury Tail. Bcooper1210. Zocky. Tom harrison. Deconstructhis. Tanthalas39. Patstuart. Graham87. Hobartimus.php?oldid=359915377 Contributors: Gioto. Martinevans123.php?oldid=422891853 Contributors: Camptown. Nick Sbr. Katharineamy. SanitySolipsism. Ltka. Duffman. North Shoreman. Katharineamy. Edgar181. Kuru. Marysunshine. Woohookitty. Paolo. Yashkochar. Jshadias. Gimboid13. Reinyday. Casper2k3. Viriditas. Mandaglione. Orlady. Tameeria. Pengo. Brianga. HYC. Jmlk17. Nicolas1981. Vrenator. Lusitana. Drpickem. Cavrdg. RattusMaximus. Jh51681. Ridgididgi.wikipedia. Bitf05a015.wikipedia. Rgrg. Martin. Vir905. Daniel5127. Intgr. Rorro. Kartano. Rich Farmbrough. E23. Persian Poet Gal. Etxrge. Dcoetzee. Vianello. Ohnoitsjamie. Dinomite. The Anome.php?oldid=425991935 Contributors: AbbaIkea2010. MONGO. Freethron.k. 952 anonymous edits E-Channel Source: http://en. Kittybrewster. Someguy1221. Delirium. Nono64. JoeSmack. Spongeboblover124. PseudoOne. Pingveno. Justpassin. RexNL. Madeleine Price Ball. Patrick. Possum. Makesmanydays2. Alouden. Theda. Poindexter Propellerhead. Aunt Entropy. Shaddack. GangstaEB. Herdie.org/w/index. Reinyday. EditorInTheRye. Someguy1221.wikipedia.php?oldid=429280863 Contributors: Antandrus.Thompson. Wikid77. Kmangold. Rangek. Uncle Dick. Hooperbloob. InvictaHOG. PDH. Seabhcan. Res2216firestar. Sekiyu. Rostowicz. Nimur. Marketing250. Wireless friend. John Fader. Tresiden. Vishnava. Obli.php?oldid=428424874 Contributors: Hcaldwell. Thebigone45. Kbdank71. Snicklefritzdee. Loonymonkey. JohnWittle. Colombiano21.Article Sources and Contributors Jovianeye.wikipedia. Smerus. Rjwilmsi. LizardJr8. Secfan. Scubafish. Almodabber.g. Fama Clamosa. Sendura.ZKH. Dylan Lake. Pax:Vobiscum. Shaddack. Violetriga. Qwyrxian. Comrade009. Twang. LyricV. Twilsonb. CyrilThePig4. Wamelculi. Propaniac. Chowbok. Vicenarian. JMPerez. AK Auto.wikipedia. Mohsens. Mokele. Daniel olcorn. Vifsm. Dmol. RJHall. DragonflySixtyseven. JamesAM. Cmcnicoll. Banandar123. Larry V. Tillman. Maximus Rex. Chaosdruid. Aitias. Nicolharper. HundredManSlayer. Hooperbloob. Hyung5kim. Nappymonster.M. TexasAndroid. Arcadian. Andonic. Whiner01. Nick Number. SyntaxError55. Auric. Someone else. Frank. Madhero88. Gustronico. Dchall1. NiTenIchiRyu. JMS Old Al. QuizzicalBee.
MBGC liason.wikipedia.wikipedia. 5 anonymous edits Private biometrics Source: http://en. Gregbard. Shaddack. SunCountryGuy01. Neutrality.lima.wikipedia. Maurice Carbonaro. Feedmecereal. BenFrantzDale. Chiefanoni. Cholmes75. Vrenator. Bhadani. PoxTheGreat. Graph8. Ikiroid. Furious Stormrage. Spider1. Itsmesomesh.org/w/index. Tide rolls. GainLine. Kuru. StoatBringer.wikipedia. Slysplace. Arcadian.org/w/index. Meni Rosenfeld. HereToHelp. Joedeshon. Yintan. Results of thought. Felix Folio Secundus. 39 anonymous edits 184 .delanoy. JoeSmack. Edcolins. Red7jon. Starthewonderpup. Malcolma. Alexdimarco. Jtyler111. Anshumangaur. Garion96. Shyam. NicholasJones. Oleg Alexandrov. Tjwood. Versus22. TimothyPilgrim. Fullerenedream. Ductapedaredevil. 16 anonymous edits Radial loop Source: http://en. CambridgeBayWeather. Mspraveen. 59 anonymous edits MALINTENT Source: http://en. Rjwilmsi. Paulwiki. Torinfo. Briaboru. Graham87. Philip200291. Tycho7286. Rjwilmsi. Smith609. Of. Maartsen. Conti. Morinpierre. Sciyoshi. Rjwilmsi. JonHarder. Roswell Crash Survivor. Sophiecentaur. Rob 301. Derek Ross. IlyaHaykinson. Spartanfox86. Phaedrus86. Aeconley. Jayjaywa.wikipedia. Rosiestep. ONEder Boy. Shalom Yechiel. Jwilliams259. Jeffchilders112.php?oldid=422518300 Contributors: Bloodshedder. Jcarroll26. Tatterfly. Blueboy96. Pigman. KimChee. Fettzort. Wanausha Khafaf. Zhurovai.php?oldid=310920238 Contributors: Capecard. Rajesh Jauhari. DwayneP. Bilalis. Humanisticmystic. Rich Farmbrough. Tony1. Mattisse. Miguel. MER-C.org/w/index. Nick Number. Chavneet. Geni. Wbaron.org/w/index. Steven Weston. Gaius Cornelius. Mboverload. Wetwarexpert.).php?oldid=427497549 Contributors: Apokrif. QDE-can. Jpbowen. Lincoln carr. Kumioko. Arthena. Authalic. Dimadick. Kiranwashindkar. MBGC liason.php?oldid=428833995 Contributors: 4wajzkd02. Joolz. Ryryrules100. JHunterJ. Reinyday. Tnorth.php?oldid=428754701 Contributors: Bibliophylax. HollyAm. Are2dee2.wikipedia. Dendodge.php?oldid=420488360 Contributors: Gunner11 05. BevvyB. H2g2bob. 2 anonymous edits Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System Source: http://en. Woohookitty. Gardar Rurak. KYN. Mikewarbz. Theextract.php?oldid=419405346 Contributors: Allisonwarmstrong.444. Graphe. Huwmanbeing. Seabhcan. Giftlite. JamesMLane. Raven in Orbit Pawtograph Source: http://en. Art LaPella.org/w/index. Lconnelly1. Dysprosia. Jamott. JBBrask. Nono64. Geek2006. Off!.php?oldid=336080927 Contributors: Andreas Kaufmann. Outlook. Bmearns. NaGromOne. Mweiss53. Smhossei. Melcombe. Ronz. Bovineone. Kerowyn. Schmloof. Pearle. Neilc. Netweb. Necrothesp. Phantomsteve. Nono64. Nono64. Kelisi.wikipedia. Hmains. U-Mos.org/w/index. Hoziron. Dbfirs. Ori. Chris the speller. Phaedrus86. Liqdfire. Lauracs. MattPackwood. Radagast83. Jmanigold.php?oldid=420941106 Contributors: EoGuy. Fmph. Maurice Carbonaro. The owner of all. Kingfish. Iridescent. Cybercobra. Philipkoo2.org/w/index. Roketjack. Vicky30110.org/w/index. Ealdent. Ecn5093. Mitch Ames. Topbanana. Dbjohnston. Neuroscript. 5 anonymous edits Retinal scan Source: http://en. 53 anonymous edits Minutiae Source: http://en. Ductapedaredevil. Septegram. Martarius. Qertis. Zephglad. Richardstang65. Portillo. Techman224. Dfrg. Mietchen. 456hjk. Kalisti. Sfrench-cmtheria. UnitedStatesian. Hadal. DreamGuy. LilHelpa. Jasrocks. Mandarax. Ryan Norton. Evil Merlin. Blueviper99. Fabrictramp. Infinitysnake. X!. Biometricguy. Thincat. NickelShoe. Miguel. Chase me ladies. ScottPetullo.php?oldid=418326445 Contributors: Fallschirmjäger. Coredesat.lima. RedWordSmith. Ronz. CapitalR. Berean Hunter. Heron. Scientizzle. Shuklamukesh. CommonsDelinker. Berean Hunter. Bontenbal. NerdyNSK. Feedmecereal. Frencheigh. 7 anonymous edits Keystroke dynamics Source: http://en. 4 anonymous edits Procrustes analysis Source: http://en. T. Brighterorange. Jose. Silverlotion. Edman007. EldKatt. Jonkerz. Squids and Chips. Voldemore. Joe 4641349. Bobo192. Jchecco. Caltas.org/w/index. Gtstricky. PhDOnPoint. Ant. Apokrif. Towsonu2003 Biometrics in schools Source: http://en. Res2216firestar. 41 anonymous edits International Automated Systems Source: http://en. Prari. Kori1701. Mikael Häggström. Heron. Zollerriia. Amber luxor. Dewet.php?oldid=419140731 Contributors: AvicAWB. Fishal. RandyPng. Voyagerfan5761. Hangfromthefloor. Roregan. Bigredsox. PhDOnPoint. Waramat. Justicepie. Shuffulo. Richard Arthur Norton (1958. Drogers. 5 anonymous edits Handwriting movement analysis Source: http://en. SmilesALot. Interiot. Ebyabe. Alai. OlEnglish. Omnipaedista. Tslocum.org/w/index. Stepshep.php?oldid=380368896 Contributors: Alynna Kasmira. OrangeDog. 60 anonymous edits RFdump Source: http://en. Ahoerstemeier. Cy21.wikipedia. Jusdafax. Awgneo. JLogan. Srr1053. Playmobilonhishorse.wikipedia. Deepfury. Can't sleep. Michaeljthieme. Mendicott. Jeepday. Pen of bushido. Firsfron. Back ache. Sterlingjones. Ankan85. Willking1979. Smichae.php?oldid=385279920 Contributors: Auntof6.php?oldid=403896454 Contributors: 386-DX. World. WadeSchuette.Article Sources and Contributors Graphology Source: http://en. Mokailleet. Irismeister. Chrishmt0423. Loyolaguy. Dewet. Quuxplusone. Chowbok.lima. Loungeapple. Indon. Kbacon101. Bhekare. Buckyboy314. ShelfSkewed.uk. JohnEBredehoft. Oxymoron83. Sandstein. Moink.org/w/index. Drclark. Tazmaniacs. Saqib. 140. Strawfair. Slkove. MikeLynch. GJo. Ronz. Kingturtle. Symbology101.php?oldid=404430441 Contributors: Borgltd. Eldraco.org/w/index. Kiranwashindkar. Icairns. Makwy2. Graham Jones. 3 anonymous edits Palmar aponeurosis Source: http://en. Dysprosia. Firebat08. MattPackwood. Nono64. Cpuwhiz11. Choster. Laburinthos. Graham87. Rjwilmsi. 150 anonymous edits Iris Recognition Immigration System Source: http://en. Bearcat. Bradlen. Kerowyn.dL. Ianthegecko.canedo. 1mujin22. Coplas. DavidWBrooks. LilHelpa. AED.php?oldid=368694667 Contributors: Andriusval.wikipedia. Salix alba. Frap. Caradhye. Steven J. Ninetyone. Self-ref. Jjmorabrenes. Ltka. Chowbok. Fabricationary.wikipedia. Whispering. Tregoweth. Infotrope. FloNight. RJL Hartmans. Joanjoc. Anchoress. Pseudo daoist. Michi zh.org/w/index. R. NoHitHair.org/w/index.684fafa. Old Moonraker. Pengo. Ligulem. Dt. Robchurch. Anonymous Dissident. Wailer. Ufwuct. Andriusval. J. Eaglizard. Soumyadiprakshit. JonHarder. Aafuss. Rl. Anderson. QTCaptain. Raul654. Piskorski. 2 anonymous edits Palm print Source: http://en. Kelp. Sadads. Bc42. Boreas231. Objectivesea. Mendicott. Deanlaw. Ghewgill. Darkman007e. Drbreznjev. Jrtayloriv. The Anome.wikipedia. Khaledelmansoury. Astrojyotishi. JubalHarshaw. Wikizeta. UkPaolo. TechGeek70. Prietoquilmes. Gohst. Kaepora. 5 anonymous edits Iris Challenge Evaluation Source: http://en. Dcandeto. Sardanaphalus. Bruxism. DokumentAMarble. Niayre. MBisanz. JonHarder.wikipedia. FCivish. Gil Gamesh. Markus Kuhn. Jorptin. DRosenbach.wikipedia. ASmartKid. Jac16888. Rjwilmsi. Pnm. Kku. DerHexer. Rich Farmbrough. Gonzonoir. Shaddack. Grafen. Rjwilmsi. 439 anonymous edits Hand geometry Source: http://en. Emperorbma.1495. Mentifisto. Katharineamy. Katharineamy. Papajohnin.delanoy. FordPrefect42. The Thing That Should Not Be. Jeepday. Phils.wikipedia. Grutness.wikipedia. Vrenator. Poster778. Altenmann. David Underdown. Pegship. Lordspiritforged. Impherring13. Hurryswung. Wikidemon. PHenry. Canistabbats.php?oldid=415262947 Contributors: A Train. RJFJR.php?oldid=373597184 Contributors: Beagel. Zandperl. Sintaku. Pegship. Zheric. Josteinn. Thebt. Malcolma. Woohookitty. DavidWBrooks. VernoWhitney Next Generation Identification Source: http://en. ReluctantPhilosopher. EdBever.wikipedia. Ashematian. Foxfan083. Kiore. Shaddack. Setokaiba. Unsuspected. Chowbok.org/w/index.org/w/index. Wiwaxia.php?oldid=413830444 Contributors: Boreas231.php?oldid=359363333 Contributors: AaronY. WaterBreak55. Bellhalla. Hmains. Shaddack. The Anome. Linnartz. CaAl. Majorly.php?oldid=405736895 Contributors: Edward. Hugedummy. Chaparyan. The Anome.wikipedia. Inamorata1. Everything counts. Riesenfeld.msc. Epitron. J. Ali-09. Lottiotta.org/w/index. Necrothesp. Chrishmt0423.wikipedia. Samij86.php?oldid=419485409 Contributors: -Majestic-.org/w/index. Pegship. Tregoweth. Rogerioth. MeUser42. Ellywa. Luckyeye13.php?oldid=420588900 Contributors: AED. Scriberius. L0rents. Choster. Kwamikagami. Uncle G. Alexf. David Johnson. Pdcook. Dmitri Lytov. Boitel. Kikos. Bwpach. Michael Hardy. Miguel. Riccardo Riccioni. Rfl. DeniseDiTrani. Synergy. Warren.wikipedia. 22 anonymous edits Multiple Biometric Grand Challenge Source: http://en.wikipedia. McSly. Wikipedian231.org/w/index. Meandean. Mild Bill Hiccup. Woggly. GGByte. Chris the speller. Sadads. Canens. Caerwine. TiagoTiago. Pegship. Omicronpersei8. Scriberius Iris recognition Source: http://en. Rakeshsurampali. Frap. Etaoin. Aocom teh spritar. Kryptoknite. Blanchardb.php?oldid=247201250 Contributors: Arcadian. Adeelzafarbioid. Pixeld. Tuspm. Michael Hardy. Joerite. Gaius Cornelius. Erebus555. Iridescent. MatthewVanitas Pay By Touch Source: http://en. Anielka.php?oldid=397432407 Contributors: GoingBatty. Mudsplatter.wikipedia. Acalamari. Palica. Paolo.org/w/index. Doshi Mansi. Jomsome. I'm the Cavalry. Kacela. DragonflySixtyseven. A purple wikiuser. Shii. Bkil. Fabrictramp. Adolphus79. AleistersCrow. RG2.wikipedia.wikipedia. Pak21. Tprentice. Iridescent. Nicowalker.org/w/index. Rocketgoat. Chowbok. SentinelAlpha.org/w/index. 2over0. Pegship. BenKovitz. clown will eat me. Stephenchou0722. Ollj. Kalirish. Uhai. Tazmaniacs. 6 anonymous edits Henry Classification System Source: http://en. 25 anonymous edits INSPASS Source: http://en. Snigbrook. JBellis. 22 anonymous edits Physiological interaction Source: http://en. Dithridge.wikipedia. Lockley. PenComputingPerson. Teles. Fdewaele. Zenazn. Billtownsend. El C. Rich Farmbrough. DRosenbach. Filip em.org/w/index. Lilpinoy 82. Doom777. Paul Barlow. Fsiler. Pekaje. Bkdelong. Akuyume. Phatom87. JForget. Meelar. Prodego. UkPaolo. Mr Stephen. Lee1-LCRC. Grika. Mohiuddinahmed. Aintsemic. Zoicon5. Steinsky. Surv1v4l1st. Scott Burley.php?oldid=419253854 Contributors: AxelBoldt. Eastmain. Fateflyer22. JohnInDC. Cyber3d. Spidey104.org/w/index.php?oldid=428532092 Contributors: 03webberg. Patrick Bernier. HiltonLange. RHaworth.org/w/index. Sabbut.wikipedia.wikipedia. Rjwilmsi. Michaelkrewson. Connelly90. Kewlceo. Iridescent.org/w/index. Bobrayner.org/w/index. Robertbuzzhill. DocWatson42. L2L2. Ladyscribe. TauraBird. Lake54. SHARU(ja). 14 anonymous edits Microsoft Fingerprint Reader Source: http://en. Phaedrus86. Yavoh.
Dtapia. Fredvanner. Graham87. Speechgrl. Wimt. McGeddon.wikipedia. DrRisk13. Rjanag. Chriswaterguy. Jackzhp. Thingg. Saebjorn. Qqzzccdd. Conversion script. Nastajus. Crystallina. Pnkrockr.org/w/index. Malinaccier. Larry_Sanger. Ed g2s. Bevo. 1 anonymous edits Speaker recognition Source: http://en. 3 anonymous edits Vein matching Source: http://en. Whpq. FelisLeo.org/w/index. Adambiswanger1.wikipedia.php?oldid=421057886 Contributors: Alejo2083. Dawnseeker2000. Motley Crue Rocks.php?oldid=428283111 Contributors: 2D. Natalya.org/w/index. Wireless friend.org/w/index. Beetstra. Piotrus. Josh Grosse. Otr500. CCFreak2K. Tbsmith. Shaddack. VolatileChemical. Philbert2. Tariq Abdulla. Martinevans123. Jamelan. Poufnoname219. Neutrality. Lommer. Opelio.cm. SusanLesch. 5 anonymous edits 185 . DianaGaleM. Smjg. Ekimd. Gemuetlich.org/w/index. MicahDail. Stifle. GregorB. Dicklyon. Diego Grez. Wereon.bmc. Jamessugrono. The Anome. Mendicott. Xaa. Noommos. Galoubet. Marandbon. Tregoweth.com. Rich Farmbrough. Apoc2400. Ataraxis1492. Bdelisle. Mboverload. Crystallina. Nohat. Waramat. Afabbro. Ida Shaw. Xous.wikipedia.org/w/index. Skater. Atif.php?oldid=297534531 Contributors: Jrtayloriv. Paulelvins. Epolk. Tubby. Shoroar hossen. Starkiller88. Hmains. Bolivian Unicyclist.Article Sources and Contributors Second Generation Multiplex Source: http://en. Elatanatari. Irishguy. Caue. Quintote. Amitch. Joseph Solis in Australia. JoshG. Radagast83. Willpower. Ddxc. Ganymead. ERcheck. Steven Walling. Bultro. Shaddack. WRK. AndrewHZ. Connolley. Mukake. Shadowlynk. Bendono. Hjweth.php?oldid=332273198 Contributors: Chris the speller. Przepla. Bubba hotep. Dialectric. Icairns. Fw-us-hou-8. Pseudo daoist. Ruhrfisch. Dancter. Paulwakfer. Qlzd45. Naughtonk.php?oldid=416799905 Contributors: Bovineone. Sashmiller. Mseyers. CrowzRSA. 16 anonymous edits Ulnar loop Source: http://en. Conversion script.org/w/index. H3llfire741. MalcolmWood76. Gilgamesh he. Rror. Qaz. DeadEyeArrow. Wetman. Bob f it. Jengod. Xact.msc. Maurice Carbonaro. Cybercobra. Kafziel. Lihaas. 9 anonymous edits Soft biometrics Source: http://en. Bongwarrior. Gerry Ashton. Ævar Arnfjörð Bjarmason. AFBorchert. Oleg Alexandrov. Z10x. Kupirijo. C8men. TransControl. 7 anonymous edits Signature Source: http://en. Josh1414. Furrykef. Filll. KyraVixen. Meelar. Oxymoron83. Autograph17. Zotel. Atlantima. Pinethicket.wikipedia. SZEdit. Acather96. Kasaalan.org/w/index. Nabbia. Neptune5000. OlEnglish. Wetwarexpert. Karmafist. DeweyQ. Closeapple. 191 anonymous edits Smartgate Source: http://en. Ckamaeleon. JetLover. AndrewHowse.org/w/index. BigFatBuddha.php?oldid=422517861 Contributors: Ductapedaredevil. Klael. Bollinger. Hydriotaphia. JuddFS. ChrisTomkinson. I'll bring the food. Kristof vt. Darkspartan4121. Haus. Waggers. Qxz. Infrahuman.php?oldid=419481258 Contributors: Btball. Duncharris. Stemonitis. Pak21. Brian Kendig. Pesco. Primasz.com. Slleong. Nicksname. Hawkflame.71828. History2007. Chowbok. Tdreid. Jc3s5h. Fabrictramp. Caltas.delanoy. Tbackstr. KrakatoaKatie.org/w/index. Yworo. Blue-Haired Lawyer. Polishwonder74. Saint-Paddy. Gp2it. Headbomb. Djmckee1. Elpasi. KF. Palfrey. Oxymoron83. Anakata.php?oldid=412528209 Contributors: Apoc2400. SilverStar.wikipedia. Scriberius. Gogo Dodo. Dpr.php?oldid=414882933 Contributors: Arsenikk. Finn-Zoltan. Osarius. Bensin. EVula.wikipedia. McGeddon Second Generation Multiplex Plus Source: http://en. Scohoust. LilHelpa. Chemica. 1 anonymous edits Transportation Worker Identification Credential Source: http://en. PhDOnPoint.rego. Strabismus.Budden. CecilWard. Msikma. Martin451. Bkell. Janejellyroll. Wangi. Odin 85th gen. Tm8992. ChrisHodgesUK. Fropuff. DropDeadGorgias. Norm. Giuliopaci.wikipedia. C0pernicus. Klingon83. SimonP. Den fjättrade ankan. 19 . Ksy92003.wikipedia. Kjkolb. Silver Edge. Jebus989. Pgilmon. Foobaz. Collard. Betterworld. Peskydan. Three-quarter-ten. Jheald. Nakon. Marandbon. Smoth 007. Maartenvdbent. User27091. Altenmann.wikipedia.org/w/index. Wnt. Chick Bowen. Euryalus.wikipedia. Lukeluke2394. Voidvector. Orderinchaos. Sandstein. Kribbeh. GateKeeper. Galvanist. NawlinWiki. Anonymous Dissident.php?oldid=409560825 Contributors: KimChee Voice analysis Source: http://en. Goulouc. Polyparadigm. TSP. Mangojuice. William M. Tommy2010. Zestos.php?oldid=419269219 Contributors: CN3777. Mangostar. WilliamH. Korg. Mac. Simesa. Pharos. fw-us-hou-8. Deville. Grutness. Stifle. Jleedev.bmc. Sandstein.wikipedia. ArnoldReinhold. Quagmire. Geoffr. Merlion444. Pwqn. Woohookitty. Nbarth. MightyWarrior. Martin. Malcolm. Lolcatz90890809809809. J.t2. McSly. Carmelo83. Dfrg. Valimo wikipedia. BenFrantzDale. Leotohill. Kupirijo.ک ککک ک ک کanonymous edits ک Telebiometrics Source: http://en. Voiceverified.
Liftarn.5 Contributors: Choster.org/w/index.org/w/index. Mineralè on en.wikipedia. 5 anonymous edits Image:Gandhi signature.wikipedia.wikipedia.php?title=File:Fingerprint_Loop. JMPerez File:Biometric Consortium logo.svg Source: http://en.JPG License: Public Domain Contributors: Jcarroll26 Image:USMC_Sergeant_identifies_Baghdaddi_city_council_member_with_iris_scanner.org/w/index. User:auawise Image:Autograph of Benjamin Franklin.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.org/w/index.org/w/index.org/w/index.org/w/index. Later version(s) were uploaded by Smurrayinchester.5 Contributors: Pi Guy 31415 Image:Fingerprint picture.png Source: http://en. Lupo.wikipedia.org/w/index.jpg Source: http://en. Hamiltonham.wikipedia.wikipedia. Maulsull File:Fingerprinting 1928.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Dougweller.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Users Platonides.wikipedia.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Original uploader was Secfan at en. File:Fingerprint Loop.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.org/w/index.org/w/index.php?title=File:Fingerprint_Whorl.org/w/index.php?title=File:Namechop.JPG License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.wikipedia.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Gunnery Sergeant Michael Q. uploaded to Wikimedia by Charvosi Image:P7m.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: me (Tom David) image:Final Large logo.wikipedia.php?title=File:Fingerprint_surfer.org/w/index.org/w/index.wikipedia.0 Contributors: User:Rachmaninoff File:FingerPrintReader.wikipedia Image:Codis profile. Marine Corps image:MBGC Logo Aug2007.wikipedia.png License: unknown Contributors: User:Huwmanbeing Image:JohnHancocksSignature.org/w/index.php?title=File:Gandhi_signature.png Source: http://en.php?title=File:IriScan_model_2100_iris_scanner_1.svg Source: http://en.php?title=File:Sm_ICE2006_Complete.org/w/index.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: HK Immigration Department File:Chromatogram.svg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.org/w/index. Department of Homeland Security .jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.jpg Source: http://en. User:Rfl image:FRVTlogo2006square.png Source: http://en. 1 anonymous edits File:Fingerprint scanner in Tel Aviv.php?title=File:Tented_arch. U.php?title=File:P7m.JPG Source: http://en. Later version(s) were uploaded by Lupo at en.wikipedia. Mattes Image:Sm ICE2006 Complete.jpg License: unknown Contributors: User:Miborovsky File:Vermeer autograph.jpg Source: http://en.jpg License: unknown Contributors: unknown Los Angeles Daily News staff photographer File:Gait laboratory.jpg Source: http://en.jpg Source: http://en.jpg Source: http://en. U.org/w/index.org/w/index.org/w/index. Lupo at en.wikipedia.jpg Source: http://en.php?title=File:Codis.ogv License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.org/w/index. Stratforder File:RitechBSDLogo.wikipedia.wikipedia.jpg Source: http://en.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.php?title=File:TWIC_card.wikipedia.jpg Source: http://en.jpg Source: http://en.JPG License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.svg Source: http://en.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Immanuel Giel.wikipedia.wikipedia.png Source: http://en.jpg Source: http://en.0 Contributors: User:Smhossei Image:IriScan model 2100 iris scanner 1.wikipedia.5 Contributors: Choster.wikipedia.jpg License: Attribution Contributors: Mark Pellegrini Image:IrisGuard-UAE.wikipedia.gif Source: http://en.S.JPG Source: http://en.png Source: http://en.php?title=File:FingerPrintReader.org/w/index.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: FieldMarine File:Biometric passports.ogv Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.org/w/index.gif License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.org/w/index.0 Contributors: William Baron Image:ICE2005v5.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Chemical Science & Technology Laboratory.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.S.php?title=File:Biometrics.0 Contributors: David Shankbone File:Fingerprint scanner identification.org/w/index.org/w/index.org/w/index.php?title=File:ICE2005v5.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Badzil.0 Contributors: User:Dger File:JFK-DELTA INSPASS KIOSK BILL. Maulsull Image:fingerprint surfer.php?title=File:3DFingerprint. Candyman92486.png Source: http://en.jpg Source: http://en.org/w/index.php?title=File:JFK-DELTA_INSPASS_KIOSK_BILL.php?title=File:PD-icon.wikipedia.org/w/index.png License: Public Domain Contributors: Arcadian.php?title=File:Vermeer_autograph.php?title=File:Fingerprint_cartridge.org/w/index.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.png Source: http://en.org/w/index.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User: auawise. Guy0307.wikipedia.php?title=File:Fingerprinting_1928. Eastmain.php?title=File:Fingerprint.wikipedia.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Transportation Security Administration.wikipedia.wikipedia. National Institute of Standards and Technology Image:D1S80Demo.png License: Public Domain Contributors: MBGC liason Image:Gray425.wikipedia.org/w/index. GuildNavigator84.png License: Public Domain Contributors: Deadstar.wikipedia.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.png License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.png Source: http://en.0 Contributors: User:Wilfredor File:Fingerprint Arch.wikipedia.wikipedia. Licenses and Contributors 186 Image Sources.JPG Source: http://en. MBGC liason Image:Fingerprint.php?title=File:RitechBSDLogo.png Source: http://en.php?title=File:Fingerprint_Arch. Toomers57.org/w/index.org/w/index.org/w/index.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: NIST database Image:Tented arch.php?title=File:Fingerprint_scanner_identification.jpg Source: http://en.svg Source: http://en.org/w/index. User:The New Mikemoral File:TWIC card.wikipedia.php?title=File:IrisGuard-UAE.org/w/index.php?title=File:USMC_Sergeant_identifies_Baghdaddi_city_council_member_with_iris_scanner.svg Source: http://en.png License: Public Domain Contributors: MBGC liason.php?title=File:D1S80Demo.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was Secfan at en. Santosga Image:Pay By Touch logo.Image Sources.php?title=File:Biometric_passports.jpg Source: http://en.php?title=File:Biometric_Consortium_logo.php?title=File:Gait_laboratory.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Chris 73. Common Good.php?title=File:Iris_Recognition.wikipedia.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: 386-DX.php?title=File:Fingerprint_picture.php?title=File:Chromatogram.php?title=File:FRVTlogo2006square. Origamiemensch.0 Contributors: User:Ashematian File:NIRIris.wikipedia.php?title=File:JohnHancocksSignature.php?title=File:MBGC_Logo_Aug2007.wikipedia.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia. File:Fingerprint Whorl.wikipedia.jpg Source: http://en.org/w/index.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3. Licenses and Contributors Image:Biometrics.svg Source: http://en.php?title=File:Gray425.wikipedia.jpg Source: http://en.org/w/index. Retana.org/w/index.png License: Public Domain Contributors: MBGC liason File:Iris Recognition. Salavat.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.wikipedia.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:MissMJ File:Namechop. 1 anonymous edits Image:PD-icon.0 Contributors: User:Georgy90 File:3DFingerprint. Monkeybait.wikipedia.0 Contributors: PaleWhaleGail.php?title=File:Final_Large_logo. Vernonheng Image:Codis.php?title=File:Pay_By_Touch_logo.php?title=File:Fingerprint_scanner_in_Tel_Aviv.php?title=File:Codis_profile.org/w/index.wikipedia.0 Contributors: User:Alinor Image:ePassport logo. LilHelpa.php?title=File:EPassport_logo.svg Source: http://en.org/w/index.wikipedia.png License: Public Domain Contributors: MBGC liason.org/w/index.org/w/index.php?title=File:Autograph_of_Benjamin_Franklin. Sreejithk2000. Sa-se. Fastily.jpg Source: http://en.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.php?title=File:NIRIris.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Duesentrieb.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Choster.wikipedia.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Wamelculi Image:fingerprint cartridge.
org/ licenses/ by-sa/ 3.0 Unported http:/ / creativecommons.License 187 License Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3. 0/ .
Lydia Fairchild. Hand geometry. E-Channel. This book is your ultimate resource for Biometrics. Iris recognition. International Automated Systems. Biometrics in schools. Next Generation Identiﬁcation. Facial Recognition Vendor Test 2006. Automated ﬁngerprint identiﬁcation. analysis. Second Generation Multiplex Plus. Smartgate. RFdump. Second Generation Multiplex. covering: Biometrics. Henry Classiﬁcation System. Microsoft Fingerprint Reader. Biometric Consortium. Physiological interaction. Procrustes analysis. DNA barcoding. Ulnar loop. Budapest Declaration on Machine Readable Travel Documents. background and everything you need to know. Private biometrics.Biometrics consists of methods for uniquely recognizing humans based upon one or more intrinsic physical or behavioral traits. Generalized Procrustes analysis. Here you will ﬁnd the most up-todate information. FNAEG. biometrics is used as a form of identity access management and access control. In easy to read chapters. Extended Access Control. Retinal scan. INSPASS. Radial loop. BioSlimDisk. with extensive references and links to get you to know all there is to know about Biometrics right away. In computer science. Gait analysis. time and resources investment decisions by enabling you to compare your understanding of Biometrics with the objectivity of experienced professionals. Palm print. It is also used to identify individuals in groups that are under surveillance. CBEFF. Palmar aponeurosis. MALINTENT. Transportation Worker Identiﬁcation Credential. Fingerprint Veriﬁcation Competition. Iris Recognition Immigration System. Fingerprint. Expected Progeny Difference. Keystroke dynamics. Iris Challenge Evaluation. FERET (facial recognition technology). DNA proﬁling. Raymond Edmunds. Soft biometrics. Telebiometrics. It reduces the risk of your technology. Vein matching. Biometrics Institute. Biometric passport. Handwriting movement analysis. Face Recognition Grand Challenge. Speaker recognition. Graphology. Pawtograph. Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identiﬁcation System. Combined DNA Index System. Multiple Biometric Grand Challenge. Voice analysis This book explains in-depth the real drivers and workings of Biometrics. Signature. . Electropherogram. Biometric Database Law (Israel). EURODAC. Minutiae. in particular. Pay By Touch.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?