Spanish I 1. Some Basic Phrases 2. Pronunciation 3. Alphabet 4. Articles and Demonstratives 5. Subject Pronouns 6. To Be and to Have 7.

Question Words 8. Numbers / Ordinals 9. Days of the Week 10. Months of the Year 11. Seasons 12. Directions 13. Color 14. Time 15. Weather 16. Prepositions 17. Family and Animals 18. To Know People and Facts 19. Formation of Plural Nouns 20. Possessive Adjectives 21. To Do or Make

22. Work and School 23. Countries and Nationalities 24. To / In and From places 25. To Come and to Go 26. Misc. Words 27. Conjugating Regular Verbs 28. Reflexive Verbs 29. Irregularities in Regular Verbs 30. Impersonal "a" 31. Preterite Tense 32. Irregular Preterite Tense 33. Imperfect Tense 34. Food and Meals 35. Gustar 36. Fruits, Vegetables, Meats 37. To Take or Drink 38. Commands 39. More Negatives 40. Holiday Phrases Mexican National Anthem

Spanish II 41. Useful Expressions 42. Present Progressive 43. Haber 44. Present Perfect 45. Places

Comparative and Superlative 51. Preceding Adjectives 56. Furniture 50.46. To Say and to Go Out 60. Object Pronouns 62. Nature 59. Past Perfect 70. Suffixes Spanish III (Not finished yet!) . Clothing 53. Por and Pero vs. Future Tenses 55. Relative Pronouns 66. House 49. Irregular Forms 52. Animals 69. Sports and Hobbies 58. To Wear 54. Disjunctive Pronouns 67. To Give and To Bring 65. to Be Able to. Sino 61. Parts of the Body 63. To Hear and to Smell 68. Para vs. More Adjectives 57. Asking Questions 64. Transportation 47. To Want. to Have to 48.

Subjunctive Mood 81. Passive Voice 73. Some Basic Phrases ¡Buenos días! buayn-ohs dee-ahs ¡Buenas tardes! buayn-ahs tard-ays Hello! / Good morning! ¡Buenas noches! buayn-ahs nohch-ays Good afternoon! ¡Hola! oh-lah Good evening / Good night ¿Cómo se llama usted? Hi! ¿Cómo te llamas? . Cosmetics / Toiletries 85.71. Adverbs 72. Shopping 75. Uses of the Infinitive 74. Uses of the Subjunctive 83. Travelling / Airport 84. Office / School Supplies 79. Other Perfect Tenses 1. Conditional Tenses 77. Post Office and Bank 76. Irregular Subjunctive Mood 82. Parts of a Car / Gas Station 80. Infinitives followed by Prepositions 78.

. ¿De dónde eres? day dohn-day air-ays Where are you from? (formal) Where are you from? (informal) Yo soy de. may yah-moh What is your name? (informal) Mi nombre es. ¿Cuántos años tiene usted? ¿Cuántos años tienes? quahnt-ohs ahn-yohs tee-ayn-ays How old are you? (formal) Yo tengo _____ años.. Hasta luego. moo-choh goo-stoh Mister / Mrs. quahnt-ohs ahn-yohs tee-ayn-ay oosted I'm from the United States. ain-cahn-tah-doh/dah Nice to meet you.. Igualmente. ¿De dónde es usted? day dohn-day ays oo-sted Me too.. Mucho gusto.. ah-dee-ohs Bad / Very bad / OK Chao.. Hasta mañana. Por favor. ¿Cómo estás? coh-moh ay-stahs How are you? (formal) ¿Qué tal? kay tahl How are you? (informal) Yo estoy. yoh soy day Yo soy de los Estados Unidos. ¿Y usted? ee oo-sted Please. mee nohm-bray ays I am called. ah-stah mahn-yahn-ah See you later. grah-see-ahs I am _____ years old. Señor / Señora / Señorita sayn-yor / sayn-yor-ah / sayn-yor-ee-tah See you tomorrow. yoh tayn-goh _____ ahn-yohs How old are you? (informal) Gracias. yoh tahm-bee-ain Same here. tay ah-moh And you? (informal) I love you. ee-guahl-main-tay Delighted to meet you.. ¿Cómo está usted? coh-moh ay-stah oo-sted My name is..coh-moh say yah-mah oo-sted coh-moh tay yah-mahs What is your name? (formal) Me llamo.. / Miss Encantado/a.. ah-stah lah vee-stah Bye. Yo también. ah-stah loo-ay-go Until we meet again.. yoh ay-stoy What's up? Bien / Muy bien bee-ayn / moy bee-ayn I am.... chow Good bye.. (when talking about your mood) Mal / Muy mal / Más o menos mahl / moy mahl / mahs oh may-nohs Good / Very good Adiós. por fah-bor Thank you. . ¿Y tú? ee too And you? (used when asking the same question) (formal) Te amo. Hasta la vista.. yoh soy day lohs ay-stah-dohs oo-nee-dohs I'm from.

sometimes a h k eye s th (in most parts of Spain) Note: Any time I put a double r (rr) in the pronunciation of a word. 3. o. Most adjectives work this way. You CANNOT leave out the accents or it'll change the meaning of a word. Also. you would say Encantado. Pronunciation Spanish Letter a e i o u ll v ñ r rr d j g qu ai / all / ay z z. if you're a man. ci English Sound ah ay ee oh oo y b at beginning of word.Note: For Encantado/a. ce. you would use the masculine ending. real soft b between 2 vowels ny (as in canyon) almost like a d when in between 2 vowels r w/ a roll of the tongue almost like a th when in between 2 vowels hard h g. accents (´ ) are very important in the Spanish language. Alphabet a b c ch d e f g h i ah bay say chay day ay ay-fay hey ah-chay ee j k l ll m n ñ o p q hoh-tah kah ay-lay ay-yay ay-may ay-nay ayn-yay oh pay koo r rr s t u v w x y z air-ay airr-ay ay-say tay oo oo-bay doh-blay-bay ah-kees ee-gree-ay-gah say-tah . The syllable with the accent is the emphasized syllable in a word. You would use the feminine ending. if you're a man. you would say Encantada. So. you need to roll your tounge when you say the r's. 2. a. if you're a woman. and if you're a woman.

ll or rr to be separate letters of the alphabet. They can be used in general and abstract ways. 5. Nosotras and vosotras refer to a group of all females. Ustedes is almost always used for saying "you all" in all Spanish speaking countries. Please note that the subject pronouns are rarely used before verbs. Plural las (lahs) unas (oonahs) estas esas aquellas these estos those esos those aquellos Note: El is also used with feminine nouns beginning with a or ha when the accent is on the first syllable.to be estoy estamos estás estáis está están tener . Singular the a. as well as ellas. an this that that el (ail) un (oon) este ese aquel Fem. Singular la (lah) una (oonah) esta esa aquella the some Masc. 4. Esto and eso are the neuter forms of this and that. Subject Pronouns yo tú él / ella / usted yoh too ail / ay-yah / oo-sted I you (informal) he / she / you (formal) nosotros(as) vosotros(as) ellos / ellas / ustedes noh-soh-trohs boh-soh-trohs ay-yohs / ay-yahs / oo-sted-ays we you all they / they / you (plural) Note: Vosotros is used only in Spain when speaking to more than one person with whom you know well.Note: The Spanish language academy no longer considers the ch.to have tengo tenemos tienes tenéis tiene tienen . Definite and Indefinite Articles and Demonstratives Masc. To Be and to Have ser . Plural los (lohs) unos (oonohs) Fem. Usted can be abreviated to Ud. Use the aquel forms when what you are talking about is far from both you and the person you are addressing. 6. Ustedes can also be abreviated to Uds. Use the ese froms to mean that when what you are talking about is near the person you are addressing.to be soy somos eres sois es son estar .

Common Expressions with "to be" to be afraid . Estar is used to tell the location of something or how someone feels. It tells what something is. He is a carpenter.tener prisa.tener celos to be lucky .tener sed to be tired .estar en contra to be at fault . La ventana está abierta. The building is a temple. Question Words what who how when qué quién(es) cómo cuándo which cuál(es) how much cuánto (-a) how many cuántos (-as) whom whose a quién(es) de quién(es) where dónde why por qué . The house is large. Juan está enfermo. Uses of Estar Location/position Temporary condition/state State of health Form progressive tense El libro está en la mesa. La casa es grande. It is necessary.tener la culpa to be careful . Charles is poor. estar de prisa to be jealous . Carlos es pobre. Miguel está estudiando.tener frío to be curious .estar cansado (a) 7. or its origin.ser curioso (a) to be happy .tener cuidado to be cold .tener paciencia to be successful . Son las tres.tener éxito to be thirsty . Es carpintero.estar contento (a) to be hot . John is sick. Los libros son de Juan. Es necesario.tener miedo to be against . its basic characteristics. El telefono fue inventado por Bell.tener suerte to be patient . The books are John's.Note: Ser is used to indentify or describe.tener hambre to be in a hurry . Uses of Ser Identify person/object Inherent characteristics or qualities Nationality/Occupation Telling time Express ownership Impersonal expressions Passive voice El edificio es un templo. It's three o'clock. Michael is studying. The telephone was invented by Bell. The window is open.tener calor to be hungry . The book is on the table.

If it's over 100. you use just cien. dieciocho. and 19. 17. 18. Days of the Week lunes loo-nays Monday . So 101 is ciento uno. 9. diecisiete. They are pronounced the same but are combined into one word. And 156 would be ciento cincuenta y seis. Also you can also use dieciséis. and diecinueve for 16.8. you use ciento. respectively. Numbers / Ordinals 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 cero uno dos tres cuatro cinco seis siete ocho nueve diez once doce trece catorce quince diez y seis diez y siete cay-roh oo-noh dohs trays kuah-troh seen-koh says see-ay-tay oh-choh new-ay-vay dee-ays ohn-say doh-say tray-say kah-tor-say keen-say dee-ays ee says dee-ays ee see-ay-tay first second third fourth fifth sixth seventh eighth ninth tenth eleventh twelfth thirteenth fourteenth fifteenth sixteenth seventeenth eighteenth nineteenth twentieth twenty-first thirtieth fortieth fiftieth sixtieth seventieth eightieth ninetieth hundredth thousandth primero segundo tercero cuarto quinto sexto séptimo octavo noveno décimo undécimo duodécimo décimo tercero décimo cuarto décimo quinto décimo sexto décimo séptimo décimo octavo décimo noveno vigésimo vigésimo primero trigésimo cuadragésimo quincuagésimo sexagésimo septuagésimo octogésimo nonagésimo centésimo milésimo diez y ocho dee-ays ee oh-choh diez y nueve dee-ays ee new-ay-vay veinte bayn-tay veinte y uno bayn-tay ee oo-noh veinte y dos bayn-tay ee dohs treinta cuarenta cincuenta sesenta setenta ochenta noventa trayn-tah kuar-ain-tah seen-kuain-tah say-sain-tah say-tain-tah oh-chain-tah noh-bain-tah see-ain-(toh) meel twenty-second vigésimo segundo 100 cien(to) 1000 mil Note: If you are just saying 100.

Seasons spring la primavera winter el invierno summer el verano autumn el otoño Note: To say in the summer. Months of the Year enero febrero marzo abril mayo junio julio agosto septiembre octubre noviembre diciembre el mes ay-nair-oh fay-bray-roh mar-soh ah-breel mi-oh hoo-nee-oh hoo-lee-oh ah-gohs-toh sayp-tee-aim-bray ohk-too-bray noh-bee-aim-bray dee-see-aim-bray ail mais January February March April May June July August September October November December the month el primero de [month] ail pree-mair-oh day _____ the first of [a month] el año ail ahn-yoh the year 11. . spring.martes miércoles jueves viernes sábado domingo el día la semana mar-tays mee-air-coh-lays hway-bays bee-air-nays sah-bah-doh doh-ming-oh Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday the day the week ail dee-ah lah say-mahn-ah el fin de semana ail feen day say-mahn-ah the weekend hoy mañana mi cumpleaños oy mahn-yahn-ah today tomorrow mee coom-play-ahn-yohs my birthday 10. En verano means in the summer. etc. use en and the season.

What's the weather like? The weather's nice. Time Qué hora es? Es la una. . Directions north el norte south el sur east el este west el oeste 13. It's midnight. Hace mal tiempo. Son diez para las nueve Son las tres y media. Son las cinco y cinco. Es medianoche.. Hace frío. It's hot. It's 5:05 It's 8:15 It's 9:45 It's 9:45 (common in Mexico) It's 8:50 It's 8:50 (common in Mexico) It's 3:30 15.. It's cold.. Son las ocho y cuarto. It's noon. It's two/three/four. Son las dos/tres/cuatro. Hace calor. Son cuarto para las diez Son las nueve menos diez. Weather Qué tiempo hace? Hace buen tiempo. Son las diez menos cuarto.12. Colors red pink orange yellow green blue rojo rosado anaranjado amarillo verde azul violet brown violeta marrón dark brown café black gray white gold silver negro gris blanco dorado plateado light blue celeste purple morado 14.. Es mediodía. The weather's bad. What time is it? It's one.

until from. in order. It's raining. among towards. It's windy. Prepositions a con at with al lado de beside alrededor de around cerca de lejos de delante de debajo de near far from in front of below. Llueve. Nieva. Está nublado. on between. along.Hace sol. Family and Animals family parents wife father mother son la familia los padres la esposa el padre la madre el hijo grandfather grandmother grandson uncle aunt nephew niece cousin (m) cousin (f) relatives el abuelo la abuela el nieto el tío la tía el sobrino la sobrina el primo la prima los parientes dog cat bird fish goat pig cow turtle el perro el gato el pájaro el pez la cabra el cerdo la vaca la tortuga husband el esposo granddaughter la nieta horse el caballo daughter la hija children los hijos sister brother la hermana el hermano rabbit el conejo mouse el ratón 18. over sin without Note: There are two prepositional contractions with definite articles. via en frente de opposite detrás de encima de hasta desde behind above till. about for. It's sunny. 16. To Know People and Facts . 17. under contra against de en entre hacia para por of. through. Hace viento. from in. and de and el combine to form del. A and el combine to form al. It's cloudy. It's snowing. since sobre on. by for.

it'll be feminine. When used with the indefinite article. Possessive Adjectives Terminal Forms Singular my your your/his/her/its our your your/their mi tu su tus sus Plural mis Singular mío (a) tuyo (a) suyo (a) Plural míos (as) tuyos (as) suyos (as) nuestro (a) nuestros (as) nuestro (a) nuestros (as) vuestro (a) vuestros (as) su sus vuestro (a) vuestros (as) suyo (a) suyos (as) Because su and sus can have so many meanings. After making the word plural. Days of the week are also masculine.to do or make hago hacemos . There are very few exceptions to making words plural.conocer . 20. There are some exceptions to these rules and you just have to memorize them. it corresponds to the English "of mine." etc. If a word ends in a -z. And if you're talking about a male. Also. Formation of Plural Nouns If a word ends in an -ción. de ella. To make words ending in a vowel plural. el libro mío my book Qué haces. you must make the articles plural also. change the z to a c and add -es (cruz = cruces).to know people conozco conoces conoce conocemos conocéis conocen saber . -dad. use the masculine articles. To Do or Make hacer . except in direct address. and must be preceded by the definite article. Add an -es to make words ending in a constinant (papel = papeles).. los libros de ellos their books The terminal forms are placed after the noun. hijo mío? What are you doing. the definite article may be used with the definite article may be used instead of su with the following forms: de Ud. de ellos and de ellas.to know facts sé sabes sabe sabemos sabéis saben 19. add an -s (libro = libros). Words ending in an -o are masculine. de él. de Uds.. or -tud. if you are talking about a female. -tad. my son? un amigo mío a friend of mine 21. of yours. you will use the feminine articles (la señora).

haces hace hacéis hacen 22. Work and School doctor dentist lawyer professor teacher engineer architect writer journalist musician painter pharmacist banker carpenter barber mechanic salesman electrician postman policeman soldier pilot secretary typist nurse el médico el dentista el abogado el profesor el maestro el ingeniero el arquitecto el escritor el periodista el músico el pintor el farmacéutico el banquero el carpintero el barbero el mecánico el vendedor el electricista el cartero el agente de policia el soldado el piloto la secretaria la mecanógrafo la enfermera history math algebra geometry science physics chemistry zoology botany geography music art drawing painting linguistics languages la historia las matemáticas el álgebra la geometría la ciencia la fisica la química la zoología la botánica la geografía la música el arte el dibujo la pintura la lingüística las lenguas / idiomas 23. Countries and Nationalities Country Germany Argentina Australia Bolivia Canada Columbia Costa Rica Cuba Chile China Ecuador Egypt Spain Alemania Argentina Australia Bolivia Canadá Colombia Costa Rica Cuba Chile China Ecuador Egipto España Masc. (Fem) Nationality alemán (alemana) argentino(a) australiano(a) boliviano(a) canadiense colombiano(a) costarricense cubano(a) chileno(a) chino(a) ecuatoriano(a) egipcio(a) español(a) .

India England Italy Japan Mexico Russia South Africa India Inglaterra Italia Japón México Rusia Suráfrica indio(a) inglés (inglesa) italiano(a) japonés (japonesa) mexicano(a) ruso(a) surafricano(a) United States los Estados Unidos (norte)americano(a) France Portugal Poland Francia Portugal Polonia francés (francesa) portugués (portuguesa) polaco(a) 24. Words a lot mucho always everyday now usually there siempre todos los días ahora usualmente ahí very much muchísimo a little very little poco muy poco sometimes a veces well after poorly bien después mal over there allí too bad qué malo . To Come and to Go venir .to come vengo venimos vienes venís viene vienen ir .to go voy vamos vas vais va van 26. Misc. To / In and From to a from de in en Remember to use the prepositional contractions when a noun with an article follows the preposition. 25.

it is called the infinitive. Before a verb is conjugated. Here are some more regular verbs: -ar verbs bailar desear to dance to want -er verbs aprender comer correr leer vender beber to learn to eat to run to read to sell to drink vivir escribir -ir verbs to live to write escuchar to listen estudiar hablar to study to speak compartir to share recibir to receive practicar to practice tomar viajar to take to travel comprender to understand To make sentences negative.the subject acts upon itself.27. cant. Reciprocal verbs are the same as reflexive except the action passes from one person to another.is the stem. 28. except the reflexive pronoun agrees with case and gender and precedes the verb when not used in the infinitive form. so just canto means I sing. simply put no in front of the verb. A reflexive verb in Spanish will be marked with se attached to the end of the infinitive. Reflexive Verbs The subject and the object are the same with reflexive verbs . These verbs are conjugated like regular verbs. while the reciprocal verbs use "each other. Removing the last two letters gives you the stem of the verb (cantar is to sing. It can only be used in the first and third person plural forms. Conjugating Regular Verbs Verbs in Spanish end in -ar. add these endings to the stems: -ar o amos o -er emos o -ir imos as áis a an es éis e en es ís e en Remember that verbs do not require the subject pronouns. Reflexive verbs sometimes use the "-self" forms in English." Reflexive Pronouns me te se Some common reflexive verbs: nos os se .) To conjugate regular verbs in the present tense. -er or -ir.

to want.to dare quejarse . It is used to describe events that are finished or complete.to cost dormir .to prefer sentar . Describe Chile. 31.to complain 29. Describe a Chile.to regret.to think querer . Irregularities in Regular Verbs Some verbs have vowel changes in the present tense for all forms except first and second person plural. The pronouns alguien (somebody). nadie (nobody).to rise sentarse .to return contar e to i pedir . Preterite Tense The preterite tense expresses an action in the past.to dress pedir pienso pensamos cuento contamos pido pedimos piensas pensáis cuentas contáis pides pédis piensa piensan cuenta cuentan pide piden 30.acostarse . I see somebody. Veo a Juan.to repeat seguir .to close comenzar . feel pensar o to ue contar .to play morir . alguno (someone).to serve vestir .to lose preferir .to sit down vestirse .to get married despertarse .to understand perder .to seat sentir . After dropping the endings (-ar. the e of the last syllable changes to ie.to count poder . e to ie pensar . It is also used before geographical names that are not already preceded by an article. like. it is preceded by a.to go to bed bañarse .to sleep encontrar . Veo a alguien. and ninguno (no one) require a as well.to ask (for) repetir . . Impersonal "a" When the object of a verb (except tener) is a definite person. I see John.to begin entender .to bathe oneself casarse .to dress oneself atreverse . It is formed by adding these endings to the infinitive stem.to find. love cerrar . Some -ir verbs change the e to i. It isn't used if a number precedes the object though.to awaken empezar .to follow servir . or -ir).to die mostrar .to be able costar . meet jugar .to show volar . -er.to go away levantarse .to begin despertar .to fly volver . when used as the direct object.to wake up irse . and o in the last syllable changes to ue.

The preterite tense is used much more often than the imperfect tense though. except with these verbs: querer. The following are the most common: dar . Louise was sad.to be ir . creer.to have traer .to say.to go ver . It is also used with mental and physical conditions and for descriptions. and saber. Ellos hablaron con los niños.to give di diste dió hice hiciste hizo tuve tuviste tuvo dimos disteis dieron hicimos hicisteis hicieron tuvimos tuvisteis tuvieron decir . I used to live in Spain. They spoke with the children.to see era éramos iba íbamos veía veíamos . Imperfect Tense The imperfect is another past tense that is used to express an action as going on in the past.to bring venir . make ir . pueder.to put. Only a few verbs are irregular in the imperfect tense: ser .to do. It is formed by adding these endings to the infinitive stem. He was selling radios. tell dije dijiste dijo fui fuiste fue traje trajiste trajo dijimos dijisteis dijeron fuimos fuisteis fueron trajimos trajisteis trajeron estar . Quién comió la fruta? Who ate the fruit? 32. -ar verbs -er and -ir verbs -íamos -íais -ían -aba -ábamos -ía -abas -abais -ías -aba -aban -ía Yo vivía en España. place tener .to be estuve estuvimos estuviste estuvisteis estuvo estuvieron puse pusiste puso vine viniste vino pusimos pusisteis pusieron vinimos vinisteis vinieron hacer .to go / ser. as repeated or habitual. Irregular Preterite Tense A few verbs are irregular in the preterite tense. tener. Luisa estaba triste.to come 33. esperar.-ar verbs -er and -ir verbs -imos -iste -eron -é -amos -í -aste -asteis -iste -ó -aron -ió Viví en España dos años. El vendía radios.to be poner . I lived in Spain for two years.

. a ella. a Uds. We like the house. a él. Gustar Gustar plus a noun means to like something. Literally. so the construction of the sentence will be different than that of English. you can add a Ud. while gustan is used with plural nouns. I like the flowers. dish glass cup salt saltshaker pepper pepper shaker sugar sugar bowl vinegar coffeepot teapot tray el mantel la servilleta el tenedor el cuchillo la cuchara el plato el vaso la taza la sal el salero la pimienta el pimientero el azúcar el azucarero el vinagre la cafetera la tetera la bandeja 35. Food and Meals breakfast lunch supper dinner meal food bread roll butter meat fish vegetables fruit cheese crackers candy sandwich ice cream el desayuno el almuerzo la cena la comida la comida el alimento el pan el panecillo la mantequilla la carne el pescado las legumbres la fruta el queso la galleta los dulces el sándwich el helado tablecloth napkin fork knife spoon plate. Me gustan las flores. a ellos and a ellas to make the meaning clear. I don't like it.? Do you like it? Le gustan a ella.. (Literally: To me are pleasing the flowers or the flowers are pleasing to me. Fruits. Le gusta a Ud. Me gusta(n) I like Te gusta(n) you like Le gusta(n) you/he/she likes Nos gusta(n) we like Os gusta(n) you like Les gusta(n) you/they like Gusta is used with singular nouns. it means to please and takes an indirect object. 36. No me gusta.eras erais era eran ibas ibais iba iban veías veíais veía veían 34. Vegetables and Meats apple orange banana la manzana la naranja la banana la lechuga lettuce la col cabbage cauliflower la coliflor broccoli corn on the cob el brócoli el elote / la mazorca el rábano .) Nos gusta la casa. She likes them. With le and les.

Commands To form familiar commands. tomar is always transitive. tomar can be intransitive.to take or drink tomo tomas toma tomamos tomáis toman When tomar means to drink.grapefruit lemon lime peach apricot fig grapes pear plum cherry pineapple melon watermelon strawberry raspberry blackberry la toronja el limón la lima el melocotón el albaricoque el higo unas uvas la pera la ciruela la cereza la piña el melón la sandía la fresa la frambuesa la zarzamora green peas asparagus green been spinach tomato carrot turnip beet celery onion cucumber parsley squash artichoke eggplant rhubarb los guisantes los espárragos la habichuela la espinaca el tomate la zanahoria el nabo la remolacha el apio la cebolla el pepino el perejil la calabaza la alcachofa la berenjena el ruibarbo radish pepper garlic potato sweet potato beans beef lamb pork sausage ham bacon goose duck chicken turkey lobster el pimiento el ajo la patata la batata los frijoles / las judías la carne de vaca el cordero el cerdo la salchicha el jamón el tocino el ganso el pato el pollo el pavo la langosta 37. regular -ar verbs end in -a.to have a drink and tomar un café .to have a coffee. Change the final -r to -d for the vosotros form. In Mexico. Negative familiar commands use the subjunctive forms. and -er and -ir verbs end in -e for the tú form. while -er and -ir verbs end in -as and -áis for the tú and vosotros forms. such as tomar una copa. it usually refers to alcohol. 38. so -ar verbs end in -es and -éis. In Spain. To Take or Drink tomar . as beber is almost never used. Affirmative -ar -er or -ir tú -a -e Negative -ar -er or -ir -es -as -éis -áis vosotros -ad -ed Habla! = Speak! (tú form) Comed! = Eat! (vosotros form) No comáis! = Don't eat! (negative vosotros form) Irregular Familiar Commands tú vosotros .

jamás means ever when it follows an affirmative verb. g becomes gu. 39. -ar -er or -ir Usted -e -a Ustedes -en -an Beba! = Drink! (Usted form) Coman! = Eat (Ustedes form) No beban! = Don't drink! (negative Ustedes form) Ir and ser have irregular forms as formal commands: vaya and vayan for ir and sea and sean for ser. either nor neither. The word order is no + verb + negative. and z becomes c. jamás nothing. This means -ar verbs will add -e for the Usted form and -en for the Ustedes form.ni ni siquiera nunca. (not) anything nobody. To make a command negative. they must follow a negative verb (a double negative). More Negatives To make sentences negative. 40. nada nadie ninguno (a) tampoco ni ni. Other negatives may precede or follow the verb.decir hacer ir irse poner salir ser tener venir di haz ve vete pon sal sé ten ven decid haced id idos poned salid sed tened venid To form formal commands of verbs. none neither.. but if they follow. and add the opposite vowel ending. nor not even never. you place no before the verb. Verbs that end in -car... ever Nunca means ever when it follows a comparative. Holiday Phrases . just add no before it. (not) anybody no.. while -er and -ir verbs will add -a for Usted and -an for Ustedes. drop the -o ending of the yo form. -gar and -zar have the following changes in commands as well: c becomes qu.

¡Guerra. que inermes tus hijos Bajo el yugo su cuello dobleguen. in the vale The terrifying cannon thunder and the echoes nobly resound to the cries of union! liberty! Fatherland. Piensa ¡oh patria querida! que el cielo Un soldado en cada hijo te dio. Mexicans. For in heaven your eternal destiny has been written by the hand of God. Think. For you the olive garlands! For them a memory of glory! For you a laurel of victory! For them a tomb of honor! Mexicans. guerra! Los patrios pendones En las olas de sangre empapad. guerra sin tregua al que intente De la patria manchar los blasones! ¡Guerra. Mas si osare un extraño enemigo Profanar con su planta tu suelo. en el valle Los cañones horrísonos truenen Y los ecos sonoros resuenen Con las voces de ¡Unión! ¡Libertad! Antes. Y tus templos. If the bugle in its belligerent tone should call upon them to struggle with bravery. Sobre sangre se estampe su pie. Tus campiñas con sangre se rieguen. your children swear to exhale their breath in your cause. fatherland. On blood their feet trample. and their ruins exist saying: The fatherland was made of one thousand heroes here. War. beloved fatherland. palacios y torres Se derrumben con hórrido estruendo. May your countryside be watered with blood. ¡Guerra. at the cry of battle lend your swords and bridle. Si el clarín con su bélico acento Los convoca a lidiar con valor. Fatherland. that heaven gave you a soldier in each son. Que en el cielo tu eterno destino Por el dedo de Dios se escribió. and let the earth tremble at its center upon the roar of the cannon. war without truce against who would attempt to blemish the honor of the fatherland! War. with olive garlands by the divine archangel of peace. And may your temples. at the cry of battle lend your swords and bridle. Y sus ruinas existan diciendo: De mil héroes la patria aquí fue. But should a foreign enemy Profane your land with his sole. war! On the mount. and let the earth tremble at its center . ¡Patria! ¡patria! Tus hijos te juran Exhalar en tus aras su aliento. ¡Para ti las guirnaldas de oliva! ¡Un recuerdo para ellos de gloria! ¡Un laurel para ti de victoria! ¡Un sepulcro para ellos de honor! Mexicanos. guerra! En el monte. al grito de guerra El acero aprestad y el bridón. before your children become unarmed Beneath the yoke their necks in sway. War. Your forehead shall be girded. oh fatherland.Feliz Navidad Feliz Año Nuevo Merry Christmas Happy New Year Feliz Cumpleaños Happy Birthday Mexican National Anthem: Mexicanos. al Grito de Guerra by Francisco González Bocanegra Mexicanos. palaces and towers crumble in horrid crash. Ciña ¡oh patria! tus sienes de oliva De la Paz el arcángel divino. y retiemble en sus centros la tierra Al sonoro rugir del cañón. war! The patriotic banners saturate in waves of blood. al grito de guerra El acero aprestad y el bridón. patria.

y retiemble en sus centros la tierra Al sonoro rugir del cañón. . upon the roar of the cannon. If you're wondering why I didn't include the Spanish national anthem. it's because the anthem has no words. it's all instrumental.

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