I unitIntroduction : Concept, Development, application and scope of Industrial Management. Productivity : Definition, measurement, productivity index, types of production system, Industrial Ownership.

Traditional Author says that management is an art of getting things done through people where as modern authors says that management is a process of accomplishing certain objectives through the utilization of human and other resource. MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS




IMPORTANCE OF MANAGEMENT y y y y y y y For the accomplishment of the goals. For effective utilization of the resources. Sound Organization. Providing vision &Foresight. For the harmony in work. To help employees in achieving personal objective. Development of the society and nation. INDUSTRIAL MANGEMENT y y Industrial management is now a branch of engineering which facilitates creation of management system and integrates same with people and their activities to utilize the resources. Industrial management is structured approach to mange the operational activities of the organization. SCOPE OF INDUSTRIAL MANGEMENT 1. Related to Designing of the production system.(see notes) 2. Relating to analysis & control of production operation.(see notes) APPLICATION OF THE INDUSTRIAL MANGEMNT 1. Planning Function y For Designing Conversion System y For Scheduling Conversion System Prepared by: Dr. Vandana Mittal,Dr.Ansar-Ul-Haque,Dr.Raj Kumari,Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal

2. Organizing Function y Organizing for conversion y Structuring of Operation Staffing y Job & Work Design. y For Production & Operation Standard. y For Payment system. 3. Controlling Function y Quality y Quantity y Time y Inventory y Cost y Maintenance

Production is transformation of inputs into the output of commodity in a specific period of time with the given technology. Production implies the creation of form, place and time utilities of different usable commodities and service. Productivity measures the efficiency of the production system. Or productivity may be defined as ratio between output and input. Output means the amount produced or the number of items produced. Input are the various sources employed like land. Building, equipment, machinery, material, labor, etc Output Productivity = Input

Performance Achieved (Effectiveness) PRODUCTIVITY INDEX= Input Resources Consumed (Efficiency) y y Efficiency is the ratio of actual output attained to the standard expected output. It measures of how well the resources are utilized to accomplish the target or result. Effectiveness is the degree of accomplishing the objectives

Prepared by: Dr. Vandana Mittal,Dr.Ansar-Ul-Haque,Dr.Raj Kumari,Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal

Production System
The production system can be viewed as a framework or skeleton of activities within which the creation of value can occur. The difference between the value of input and the value of output represent the value created through production activities. At the one end of the production system are the input and at the other end are output. Connecting the input and output are a series of operations or processes, storage and inspections represent the simplified production system.

Input Row material Operation - 1 Operation 2 Operation 3 Final inspection Finished goods storage Output Receiving Reports Inventory Reports Schedules

Production Manager
Route Sheets Production Reports Time and Cost Record Inspection Reports Inventory Reports Shipping Orders

INPUT OUTPUT MODEL (ANALYSIS OF PRODUCTION SYSTEM) y y y y y It is one of the basic models of the production system. Production system is the set of interconnected input output element. It is made up of three component parts namely Input, Output and Process. A wide variety of inputs are transformed so that they give out a set of output. The transforming process can be complicated and the design of an actual input and output system for manufacturing may be expensive and difficult.

Prepared by: Dr. Vandana Mittal,Dr.Ansar-Ul-Haque,Dr.Raj Kumari,Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal

To stand better in the market.MATERIAL MEN PLANT & FACILITIES GOODES & SERVICES ENERGY INPUT INPUT PRODUTION PROCESS PRODUTION PROCESS OUTPUT OUTPUT Purpose to Increase Productivity: FOR MANAGEMENT y y y y To produce good earning (profit). To sell more. Better Working Conditions. Higher standard of living.Ansar-Ul-Haque. Vandana Mittal. Prepared by: Dr.Raj Kumari.Dr. Job Security and Satisfaction FOR CUSTOMER y To reduced price of the article. To clear the debt or loans acquired from different sources. FOR WORKERS y y y y HIGHER WAGES.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .Dr.

Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .Dr. Vandana Mittal. Co operative Organization Sole Proprietorship Sole Proprietorship is that form of Industrial ownership in which Individual Exercise & enjoy all rights related to business in his own interest.Ansar-Ul-Haque. Merits y y y y Easy Formation Easy to Operate Secrecy Simplicity Demerits y y y y Partnership Partnership may be defined as the relation between person who has agreed to share the profits of a business carried on by all or any of them acting for all. Merits y y y y y Demerits y Unlimited Liability Legal Entity Risk Sharing More Funds Continuity Mutual Agency Limited Resources Lack of Continuity Unlimited Liability Limited Managerial Ability Prepared by: Dr.Dr.Raj Kumari.INDUSTRIAL OWNER SHIP Sole Proprietorship Partnership Joint Stock Company State & Central Govt .

Dr.Raj Kumari.y y y Limited Resources Possibility Of Conflict Lack of Public Interest Joint Stock Company A joint stock Company means an association of several people who contributed money or moneys worth to a joint or common stock & employ it in same business & share among themselves the profit or loss arising from it.Ansar-Ul-Haque. Merits y y y y y Demerits y y y y y Complexity in Formation Lack of Secrecy Impersonal Work Environment Numerous Regulation Delay In Decision Making Limited Liability Transfer of Interest Perpetual Existence Scope for Management Professional Management Co Operative Undertaking The Co Operative society is voluntary association of person. who join together with the motive of welfare of the members and society.Dr. Merits y y y y y Limited liability Economy in Operation Support From Government Stable Existence Ease of Formation Demerits y y y y y Limited Resources Inefficiency in Management Lack Of Secrecy Government Control Difference Of Opinion Prepared by: Dr.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . Vandana Mittal.

Prepared by: Dr. In the family business. Directing is influencing people's behavior through motivation. its mission. staffing: recruit. The focus is on division. Management Function: Management Management is generic. hire and train workers. leading and controlling. records and inspections. issue orders and directives. coordination.Ansar-Ul-Haque. Planning includes both the broadest view of the organization. Controlling is a four-step process of establishing performance standards based on the firm's objectives. coordinating: interrelate all sectors of the organisation. comparing the two. e. and taking corrective or preventive action as necessary. Management principles are general rather than specific to a type of firm or organization.II unitManagement Function : Principles of Management. hiring. communication. reporting: inform hierarchy through reports. Organizing is establishing the internal organizational structure of the organization.Dr. management is universal only if the manager has become familiar with the specific situation in which it is applied. group dynamics. Production technology. evaluating and compensating are the specific activities included in the function.Raj Kumari. The American Luther Gulick and Brit Lydnall Urwick expanded Fayol's list to seven executive management activities summarized by the acronym POSDCORB: y y y y y y y planning: determine objectives in advance and the methods to achieve them. and control of tasks and the flow of information within the organization.. directing: make decisions. maintain favourable working conditions. work simplificationprocess charts and flow diagrams. organizing. The purpose of directing is to channel the behavior of all personnel to accomplish the organization's mission and objectives while simultaneously helping them accomplish their own career objectives. organizing: establish a structure of authority for all work. accounting and control. However. a tactic for accomplishing a specific goal. measuring and reporting actual performance.g.Dr. Planning is the ongoing process of developing the business' mission and objectives and determining how they will be accomplished. Management is creative problem solving.g. The intended result is the use of an organization's resources in a way that accomplishes its mission and objectives. and the narrowest. Recruiting.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . customer characteristics and the culture of the industry are examples of specifics that managers need to learn to be effective in applying their generic management skills.. Production Planning. e. Specification of Production requirements. This creative problem solving is accomplished through four functions of management: planning. training. Staffing is filling and keeping filled with qualified people all positions in the business.Management Tools ± time and motion study. Vandana Mittal. budgeting: depend on fiscal planning. It is in this function that managers distribute authority to job holders. leadership and discipline. staffing includes all paid and unpaid positions held by family members including the owner/operators.

Dr. Therefore. he should also be made responsible.Dr. d. b.2 from Higgins. Prepared by: Dr. They serve as a guide to thought & actions. It extends from analysis of the environment within which the business is functioning to evaluation of the outcomes from the alternative implemented. By conducting experimental studies. d. In a same way. he should also have concerned authority.e. page 118) Creative problem solving is broader than problem finding. In his day.Raj Kumari. It establishes cause and effect relationship between two or more variables under given situation. These principles are derived: a. choice making or decision making.Each of these functions involves creative problem solving. c. It also helps the individual in acquiring speed. There should be a balance between the two i. practical experience of managers. e. if anyone is made responsible for any job. Party of Authority & Responsibility a. management principles are the statements of fundamental truth based on logic which provides guidelines for managerial decision making and actions. Authority & responsibility are co-existing.e. b. (Figure 4. 2.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . Subdivision of work makes it simpler and results in efficiency.Ansar-Ul-Haque. the father of the school of Systematic Management. they must go hand in hand. f. b. accuracy in his performance. There are 14 Principles of Management described by Henri Fayol. He recommended that work of all kinds must be divided & subdivided and allotted to various persons according to their expertise in a particular area. 1. Vandana Mittal. Henri Fayol. Authority without responsibility leads to irresponsible behavior whereas responsibility without authority makes the person ineffective. was motivated to create a theoretical foundation for a managerial educational program based on his experience as a successful managing director of a mining company. e. On the basis of observation and analysis i. c. If authority is given to a person. Authority refers to the right of superiors to get exactness from their sub-ordinates whereas responsibility means obligation for the performance of the job assigned. Specialization leads to efficiency & economy in spheres of business. Principles of Management A principle refers to a fundamental truth. managers had no formal training and he observed that the increasing complexity of organisations would require more professional management. Division of Labor a. Henry Fayol has stressed on the specialization of jobs.

Therefore. one plan for a group of activities having similar objectives. efforts of all the members of the organization should be directed towards common goal. In other words. of Necessity It is necessary for fixing responsibility of each subordinates. Unity of command provides the enterprise a disciplined.3. e. Without unity of direction. e. Vandana Mittal. A sub-ordinate should receive orders and be accountable to one and only one boss at a time. Advantage It avoids conflicts. unity of action cannot be achieved. confusion & chaos. or organization as a whole.Dr. It avoids duplication of efforts and wastage Prepared by: Dr. Fayol advocates one head one plan which means that there should be one plan for a group of activities having similar objectives. There should be one plan of action for them and they should be under the charge of a particular manager. It is necessary for sound organization. c. Unity of Direction a. unity of command is not possible without unity of direction.Raj Kumari. dual sub-ordination should be avoided unless and until it is absolutely essential.Dr. In fact. It means one head. a sub-ordinate should not receive instructions from more than one person because It undermines authority Weakens discipline Divides loyalty Creates confusion Delays and chaos Escaping responsibilities Duplication of work Overlapping of efforts c. It creates harmonious relationship between superiors and sub-ordinates. d.Ansar-Ul-Haque. Principle of One Boss a. b. d. According to this principle. b. stable & orderly existence.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . Nature It is related to the functioning of personnel¶s. It is related to the functioning departments. 4. Related activities should be grouped together. Basis Unity of command Unity of direction Meaning It implies that a sub-ordinate should receive orders & instructions from only one boss.

e. 5. According to Fayol. Prepared by: Dr. 8. This principle applies that subordinate should respect their superiors and obey their order. b. Vandana Mittal.Dr.Dr.There are good superiors at all levels. Material order. It implies that managers should be fair and impartial while dealing with the subordinates.Ansar-Ul-Haque. c.There are clear & fair agreements with workers. b. Fayol was of opinion that. f. 6. e. Discipline can be enforced if . Discipline a.There should be safe. Arrangement of things is called material order and placement of people is called social order. Discipline is not only required on path of subordinates but also on the part of management. Equity a. They should give similar treatment to people of similar position. Social order. Equity means combination of fairness. d. Order a.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . b. h. c. better superior sub-ordinate It leads to smooth running of the enterprise. But it does not automatically comes from the unity of direction. This principle is concerned with proper & systematic arrangement of things and people. . Workers should be encouraged to take initiative in the work assigned to them. They should not discriminate with respect to age. relation etc. kindness & justice. Initiative a.e. Equity is essential to create and maintain cordial relations between the managers and subordinate. respect of authority & observance of rules and regulations of the enterprise´. religion. caste. Therefore it is obvious that they are different from each other but they are dependent on each other i. obedience. It means eagerness to initiate actions without being asked to do so. ³Discipline means sincerity. c. d. unity of direction is a pre-requisite for unity of command. g.Sanctions (punishments) are judiciously applied. It is an important requisite for smooth running of the enterprise.Raj Kumari. sex. Result It leads to relationship. ³at times force and harshness might become necessary for the sake of equity´. The employees should be treated with kindness & equity if devotion is expected of them. But equity does not mean total absence of harshness. 7. appropriate and specific place for every article and every place to be effectively used for specific activity and commodity.of resources.Selection and appointment of most suitable person on the suitable job. . There should be a specific place for every one and everyone should have a specific place so that they can easily be contacted whenever need arises. b. d.

the time. effort and money spent on training the worker will go waste. According to Fayol. b. d. Stability of job creates team spirit and a sense of belongingness among workers which ultimately increase the quality as well as quantity of work. d. Wages should be determined on the basis of cost of living. Therefore employees should be appointed after keeping in view principles of recruitment & selection but once they are appointed their services should be served. e. As a result. Fayol advised that management should provide opportunity to its employees to suggest ideas.Dr. has to pass through Scalar chain. Fayol emphasized that employees should not be moved frequently from one job position to another i. wage rate prevailing etc. c. work assigned. b.c. 10. People then enjoy working in the organization because it adds to their zeal and energy. To suggest improvement in formulation & implementation of place. It helps in developing an atmosphere of trust and understanding. Fayol also recommended provision of other benefits such as free education. experiences& new method of work. 11. They can be encouraged with the help of monetary & non-monetary incentives. the period of service in a job should be fixed. reasonable. e. c. d. d.e. Fayol defines scalar chain as ¶The chain of superiors ranging from the ultimate authority to the lowest´. this path can be cut shirt and this short cut is known as Gang Plank. Logical & appropriate wage rates and methods of their payment reduce tension & differences between workers & management creates harmonious relationship and pleasing atmosphere of work. f. Fair Remuneration a. Every orders. Stability of Tenure a. messages. But. requests.Raj Kumari. medical & residential facilities to workers. 9. Scalar Chain a. instructions. g. A Gang Plank is a temporary arrangement between two different points to facilitate quick & easy communication as explained below: Prepared by: Dr. for the sake of convenience & urgency.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . satisfactory & rewarding of the efforts. explanation etc. b. ³Time is required for an employee to get used to a new work & succeed to doing it well but if he is removed before that he will not be able to render worthwhile services´.Ansar-Ul-Haque. e. financial position of the business. c. Vandana Mittal.Dr. The quantum and method of remuneration to be paid to the workers should be fair. As far as possible it should accord satisfaction to both employer and the employees.

Espirit De¶ Corps (can be achieved through unity of command) a. For example. b. dependability & ability of subordinates etc. d. d. As far as possible. The managers should infuse team spirit & belongingness.Reconciliation of mutual differences and clashes by mutual agreement. There should be no place for misunderstanding.Raj Kumari. c.  Efforts should be made to create enthusiasm and keenness among subordinates so that they can work to the maximum ability. People then enjoy working in the organization & offer their best towards the organization. b. experience of superiors. c. centralization is a situation in which top management retains most of the decision making authority. c. Sub-Ordination of Individual Interest to General Interest a.  Subordinates should be made conscious of that whatever they are doing is of great importance to the business & society.Dr. individual must sacrifice for bigger interests. Prepared by: Dr. . In other words. b. B to A and then downwards with the help of E and F to G which will take quite some time and by that time. Centralization means concentration of authority at the top level. of factors like size of business. it may not be worth therefore a gang plank has been developed between the two. An organization is much bigger than the individual it constitutes therefore interest of the undertaking should prevail in all circumstances. for change of profit sharing ratio. In order to achieve this attitude. ³Degree of centralization or decentralization depends on no. Anything which increases the role of subordinate is decentralization & anything which decreases it is centralization. etc.Proper & regular supervision of work. if D has to communicate with G he will first send the communication upwards with the help of C. e.e. harmony in the work groups and mutual understanding among the members. They can be moulded and modified as per the requirements of situations 12. It refers to team spirit i.Ansar-Ul-Haque. e. face to face communication should be developed. f. Gang Plank clarifies that management principles are not rigid rather they are very flexible. 13. it is essential that .Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . He also cautioned against the more use of Britain communication to the subordinates i. Fayol cautioned the managers against dividing the employees into competing groups because it might damage the moral of the workers and interest of the undertaking in the long run. for change of location of plant. Fayol suggested that absolute centralization or decentralization is not feasible. In other words.Dr.Employees should be honest & sincere. d. An organization should strike to achieve a lot between the two. e. But in case of conflict. 14. Centralization & De-Centralization a. .e. Vandana Mittal. To inculcate Espirit De¶ Corps following steps should be undertaken  There should be proper co-ordination of work at all levels  Subordinates should be encouraged to develop informal relations among themselves. Decentralization means disposal of decision making authority to all the levels of the organization. sharing authority downwards is decentralization. Spirit De¶ Corps inspires workers to work harder.In the figure given.  Efficient employees should be rewarded and those who are not up to the mark should be given a chance to improve their performance. According to Fayol. reconciliation should be achieved between individual and group interests.

The best tools are those which stand the test of time. while each slice represents a different class or group within the whole. and which give you a lot of leverage over common problems.Management tools Classic Tools There's an elusive balance between chasing after each new management tool or method. Quality Control Charts y y y y y y y y y y Other Quality Management Tools y y y y y y y y y Pie charts Bar charts Run Charts Radar Charts Scatter Plots Histograms Pareto Charts Normal Test Plots Process Capability Calculations Control Charts Relations Diagram Pathway Affinity Diagrams Brainstorms Building Consensus Cause and Effect Diagrams Flowcharts Force Field Diagrams Tree Diagrams Pie Charts Pie charts are used to show classes or groups of data in proportion to the whole data set. The entire pie represents all the data.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .Dr.Raj Kumari.Dr. Vandana Mittal.Ansar-Ul-Haque.000 years. and ignoring the fact that we have actually learned some things about management over the past 100. Prepared by: Dr.

cycles. events.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . Investigating this phenomenon could Prepared by: Dr. In a run chart. a class or group can have a single category of data.m.Ansar-Ul-Haque. and large aberrations may be spotted and investigated further. Upward and downward trends. like pie charts. or they can be broken down further into multiple categories for greater depth of analysis.Raj Kumari.Bar Charts Bar Charts. shown on the y axis. In bar charts. a run chart in a hospital might plot the number of patient transfer delays against the time of day or day of the week. For example. Vandana Mittal.Dr.Dr. The results might show that there are more delays at noon than at 3 p. are useful for comparing classes or groups of data. are graphed against a time period on the x axis. Run Charts Run charts (often known as line graphs outside the quality management field) display process performance over time.

Dr. another. Another axis would show his yards per completion.Raj Kumari. an average line can be added to a run chart to clarify movement of the data away from the average. For example. blocks made. you could plot the percentage of passes caught. Also. you could use a radar chart to compile data about a wide receiver on a professional football team. another. On one axis. his completions per 100 plays. Prepared by: Dr. checking to determine their success. Radar charts have multiple axes along which data can be plotted.Dr. Scatter Plots Scatter Plots (also called scatter diagrams) are used to investigate the possible relationship between two variables that both relate to the same "event.unearth potential for improvement. Radar Charts Radar charts are useful when you want to look at several different factors all related to one item. and a final axis might show his interceptions. Run charts can also be used to track improvements that have been put into place.Ansar-Ul-Haque.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal ." A straight line of best fit (using the least squares method) is often included. Vandana Mittal.

In the histogram show above. and low bars indicate less points. so that you can get an idea of how frequently data in each class occur in the data set. Vandana Mittal. High bars indicate more points in a class.Dr.Dr. the peak is in the 40-49 class. Prepared by: Dr. where there are four points.Raj Kumari. concluding that a fairly consistent minority ± about 20% ± of people controlled the large majority ± about 80% ± of a society's wealth. a turn-of-the-century Italian economist.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . This same distribution has been observed in other areas and has been termed the Pareto effect.Ansar-Ul-Haque. studied the distributions of wealth in different countries.Histograms A histogram is a specialized type of bar chart. Individual data points are grouped together in classes. Pareto Charts Vilfredo Pareto.

Ansar-Ul-Haque. you get an unusual variation due to what is called a "special cause". but no two signatures will be exactly alike. Vandana Mittal. with respect to both the mean and standard deviation. If. If you write your name ten times. all data must be from an in-control process. as you are signing your name. but it varies between predictable limits. If you are cutting diamonds.Normal Test Plot Normal Test Plots (also called Normal Probability Plots or Normal Quartile Plots) are used to investigate whether process data exhibit the standard normal "bell curve" or Gaussian distribution. someone bumps your elbow. the special cause can be expensive. Process Capability The capability of a process is some measure of the proportion of in-specification items the process produces when it is in a state of statistical control.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . Control Charts Every process varies. For many. Prepared by: Dr. many processes.Raj Kumari. your capability indices in the statistics dialog box are not valid. If they aren't. s or R charts are in control. There is an inherent variation. your signatures will all be similar. Make sure to check this data in a variables control chart to make sure that all points in the x bar.Dr. it is important to notice special causes of variation as soon as they occur.Dr. and someone bumps your elbow. For valid process capability calculations.

Dr. areas. each item is connected to many other pieces.Ansar-Ul-Haque. or processes. Project Pathways for Management One of the common features of modern management thinking is its focus on methodologies for problemsolving.Other Quality Management Tools Relations Diagram (or Interrelationship Digraph) Relations Diagrams are drawn to show all the different relationships between factors. Why are they worthwhile? Because they make it easy to pick out the factors in a situation which are the ones which are driving many of the other symptoms or factors. the connections are counted. showing that they have an impact on each one. Those with the most connections will usually be the most important factors to focus on. For example.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . Dr.Dr.Raj Kumari. Once all the relevant connections between items have been drawn. Deming used the Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle. Marshall-Qualtec espouses a seven-step problem Prepared by: Dr. Vandana Mittal. a relations diagram of urban poverty might start out something like this: Instead of one item following another in a logical sequence.

while different in the details. using the right side of the brain. 4. As you sort ideas: 1. 3. In 1939.Dr. Affinity Diagram The affinity diagram.Raj Kumari.Ansar-Ul-Haque. That said. you sort the brainstormed list.The pathway. a team led by advertising executive Alex Osborn coined the term "brainstorm. Nonetheless. all the approaches. wasn't originally intended for quality management. Should they belong in a larger group? Do large sets need to be broken down more precisely? When most of the ideas have been sorted. The affinity diagram was developed to discovering meaningful groups of ideas within a raw list. everyone will need a fair opportunity to be heard and latent issues must be explored to the Prepared by: Dr. or KJ method (after its author. each stormer audaciously attacking the same objective. you can start to enter titles for each affinity set." According to Osborn. Any and all ideas are considered legitimate and often the most far-fetched are the most fertile. 7. Done right. are very similar overall. Brainstorms help answer specific questions such as: y y y y What opportunities face us this year? What factors are constraining performances in Department X? What could be causing problem Y? What can we do to solve problem Z? Building Consensus The word consensus comes to us from Latin roots meaning "shared thought". 2. Copy an idea into in more than one affinity set if appropriate. It also provides an easy way for managers of many projects or departments to keep tabs on the status and progress of work. moving ideas from the brainstorm into affinity sets. Clarify any ideas in question. To create an affinity diagram. rather than according to preordained categories. The Juran Institute has a slightly different method. It isn't important to define why they belong together. 5.solving model. embodied in software." Creativity is encouraged by not allowing ideas to be evaluated or discussed until everyone has run dry. So does Executive Learning Inc. but does involve seeking a decision with which everyone is reasonably comfortable. Look for small sets. is a key means of keeping a team focused and on-track. " Brainstorm means using the brain to storm a creative problem and to do so "in commando fashion. In doing so. Brainstorming is simply listing all ideas put forth by a group in response to a given problem or question. and creating groups of related ideas.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . it is important to let the groupings emerge naturally.Dr. Vandana Mittal. Structured brainstorming produces numerous creative ideas about any given "central question". To accomplish this. Brainstorming Creative thinking requires tools such as the brainstorm and the affinity diagram. Kawakita Jiro). 6. it taps the human brain's capacity for lateral thinking and free association. it has become one of the most widely used of the Japanese management and planning tools. Rapidly group ideas that seem to belong together. Consensus does not imply complete agreement.

a well-run brainstorming session can get lots of ideas out onto the table and give everyone a chance for input. using them to map the logic of programs. most groups approach a point where they must choose between options.satisfaction of the group. In fact. Experience has shown that there are three main types that work for almost all situations: y High-level flowcharts map only the major steps in a process for a good overview. y Detailed flowcharts show a step-by-step mapping of all events and decisions in a process.Dr. all the tools used in quality management contribute to consensus.Raj Kumari. Flowcharting Flowcharts are maps or graphical representations of a process. or try to narrow a list from many items to just a few. Prepared by: Dr. with the main causal categories drawn as "bones" attached to the spine of the fish.Dr. The C&E diagram is also known as the fishbone diagram because it was drawn to resemble the skeleton of a fish. There are many varieties of flowcharts and scores of symbols that you can use. Many different tools can be used to build consensus. Cause & Effect Diagram The cause & effect diagram is the brainchild of Kaoru Ishikawa. Computer programmers popularized flowcharts in the 1960's. and the flow of the process is indicated with arrows connecting the symbols. For example. Steps in a process are shown with symbolic shapes. Vandana Mittal. effective tools specifically for building consensus are used.Ansar-Ul-Haque.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . For this. Still. as shown below. and in the process became one of the founding fathers of modern management. who pioneered quality management processes in the Kawasaki shipyards.

Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . Force Field Analysis Force Field Analysis is a simple but powerful technique for building an understanding of the forces that will drive and resist a proposed change. delay. Vandana Mittal.g.Dr. cloud).Dr.y Deployment flowcharts which organize the flowchart by columns. The trouble spots in a process usually begin to appear as a team constructs a detailed flowchart. accurate flowcharts can be created using very few (e. oval. It consists of a two column form.Ansar-Ul-Haque. with each column representing a person or department involved in a process. Prepared by: Dr. diamond.Raj Kumari. with driving forces listed in the first column. and restraining forces in the second. rectangle. Although there are many symbols that can be used in flowcharts to represent different kinds of steps.

Maynard and Stegemerten. This reduces the possibility of ³clock rating´ and ensures that all factors are considered in the composite rating. system used was the Westinghouse or LMS system ± so called after its originators Lowry. it will give you a better understanding of the true scope of a project. It is used to figure out all the various tasks that must be undertaken to achieve a given objective. and so on.The force field diagram is derived from the work of social psychologist Kurt Lewin. actions and consequences. or Levelling. as a byproduct of that analysis. Time studies are applied today to industrial as well as service organizations. Tree Diagram The tree diagram is one of the 7 Management and Planning Tools described by Shigeru Mizuno. schools and hospitals. which has a numeric value which is applied later. ³A´. This integrated approach to work system improvement is known as methods engineering.Ansar-Ul-Haque. ³B-³. It is particularly important that effort be applied in motion study to insure equitable results when time study is used. Methods-Time Measurement (MTM) is a predetermined motion time system that is used primarily in industrial settings to analyse the methods used to perform any manual operation or task and. The time study measures the time required to perform a given task in accordance with a specified method and is valid only so long as the method is continued. In fact. and will help your team focuses on specific tasks that are needed to get something done. These forces can be positive. urging us toward a behavior. e. best known through the biographical 1950 film and book Cheaper by the Dozen). This system considers four factors independently: y y y y Skill ± Proficiency in following the given method Effort ± The will to work Conditions ± The general work surroundings Consistency ± of performance Each factor is assigned an alpha rating. while motion study evolved into a technique for improving work methods. The two techniques became integrated and refined into a widely accepted method applicable to the improvement and upgrading of work systems.Raj Kumari. expectations. A force field diagram can be used to compare any kind of opposites. including banks. If you use it carefully and thoroughly. or negative. Once a new work method is developed. etc. Vandana Mittal. Prepared by: Dr. Appendix 1 shows the model for Causes of Difference in Output on which the LMS system is based. Time and motion study A time and motion study (or time-motion study) is a business efficiency technique combining the Time Study work of Frederick Winslow Taylor with the Motion Study work of Frank and Lillian Gilbreth (not to be confused with their son. human behavior is caused by forces ± beliefs. Time and motion study have to be used together in order to achieve rational and reasonable results. After its first introduction. A force field diagram portrays these driving forces and restraining forces that affect a central question or problem. and the like ± within the "life space" of an individual or society.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . Methodology The rating.Dr. time study developed in the direction of establishing standard times. much of the difficulty with time study is a result of applying it without a thorough study of the motion pattern of the job. cultural norms.Dr. According to Lewin¶s theories. propelling us away from a behavior. Motion study can be considered the foundation for time study. ³C+´.g. the time study must be changed to agree with the new method. set the standard time in which a worker should complete that task. different points of view.

Work simplification techniques range from low-tech (such as using no-scrub cleaners) to high-tech (such as using voice recognition software for typing). space.Raj Kumari. Sequence. the structure which the manual motions of MTM-1 have today. or to decrease the amount energy required to complete an activity.Dr.Dr. Prepared by: Dr. Move. Release. and then ³levelled´ to a common performance. time and energy in the process of producing a good or delivering a service. gave the table of Body Motions. etc. Work Simplification is a scientific approach to study work processes with a view to simplifying the process such that the work process becomes more efficient and effective and thereby raises productivity and reduces wastage of labor effort. Later work. Position. by means of a frame count. Analysis determined the best definitions of limits of motions and their major. more or less. Grasp. Plots of the levelled times for the various motions were drawn.000 TMU 1 TMU = 0. Place.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . and resulted in. Person and Means of the tasks to be evaluated. The films were then projected frame-by-frame and analysed and classified in to a predetermined format of Basic Motions. This allowed a time for each recorded motion to be calculated in seconds.Layout. Unit The unit in which movements are measured for MTM is TMU (time measurement unit): 1 TMU = 36 milliseconds . sizes of parts and tools and tolerances were accurately measured and recorded on the shop floor to complement the later analyses.036 second Work Simplification Work simplification describes the making of daily tasks easier in order to reduce strain. using Time Study. materials. Some examples include: y y y y y Using an automated can opener instead of the manual version Lengthening a short handle on a dustpan to avoid bending Using pre-pressed clothes that eliminate the need for ironing Sliding heavy objects or using a wheeled cart to avoid lifting Putting an automatic toilet cleaner in the bowl Work simplification can be useful for people who wish to remain independent for as long as possible. These Basic Motions were Reach. it does not replace them.Ansar-Ul-Haque. A motion was taken to begin on the frame in which the hand first started performing the motion and was taken to end on the frame in which the motion was completed. It should be used after broader techniques have established the Necessity and Purpose. time-determining variables. distances. Vandana Mittal. 1 hour = 100. even if they have a chronic health condition. MTM is complementary to other Industrial Engineering charting analytical techniques.

a number of the recommendations could apply to all the UN funds and programmes and specialized agencies at the country level.Operation. New methods for studying work are introduced on a regular basis. Usually they focus effectively on one or another aspect of improvement but they often fail because they do not deal rigorously with the work itself. ASME did something that was even then a long time in the making. Work Simplification has generated billions of dollars through effectiveness and efficiency for organizations that focused on their people and gave them tools for continuous improvement.Storage. The Work Simplification approach utilizes the corporate memory rather than discarding it. assembled or disassembled or intentionally changed. The first process charts appeared as a series of symbols strung down a page in sequential order. the glamour of electronics has seduced many organizations into treating their people as expenses rather than resources. Their work is undocumented and as changes are made the complexity mounts. Twenty-five years earlier Frank and Lillian Gilbreth had presented "Process Charts .Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . Europe and Australia as these companies seek to regain control of their operations. This is a good time to look back and discover again a simple tool that visually displays processes in a universal language that can be readily Prepared by: Dr. A delay occurs when an object waits for the next planned action. in South America. the corporate memory is discarded leaving the organization dependent on those from whom they purchased their processes. Vandana Mittal. . In 1946. and must factor in and mutually build on the various efforts at Simplification and Harmonization. Over the past two decades. It appears that many organizations are focusing their attention on purchasing solutions for their business rather than mastering their work themselves. The simple and effective approach of Work Simplification has more to offer than it ever had.Dr.Ansar-Ul-Haque.Raj Kumari. Where the purchased solutions lead to downsizing. An inspection occurs when an object is verified for quality or quantity in any of its characteristics. These days. By the time the symbols were standardized they had evolved into a solid set of five symbols that covered every aspect of work.First Steps in Finding the One Best Way" at the Annual Meeting of ASME in 1921.Inspection. They established a set of symbols as the ASME Standard for Operation and Flow Process Charts. Contribute to Capacity Building ± The Simplification and Harmonization must be an instrument towards increased national capacities.Transportation.Allow for Flexibility ±Simplification and Harmonization by its very definition allows for flexibility for the UN Country Team and national partners to apply those Simplification and Harmonization measures that are appropriate to their country situation and that take into account the financial management capacities available for implementation and that empower recipient countries. Include other agencies ± while the various Simplification and Harmonization measures pertain largely to the four ExCom agencies that have adopted a common Country Programme approach.and better than ever. A transportation occurs when an object is moved from one location to another. that can be used with very little confusion. Link with other Simplification and Harmonization Initiatives ± Simplification and Harmonization process envisages close collaboration with country offices and national partners.Dr. It is on the program at many universities and it is being applied in increasing numbers of organizations across the US and Canada. The gradual adoption of some of the elements of the programme approach by the various other agencies might enable them to align with the other measures. processes change so fast that many organizations have failed to keep up. An operation occurs when an object is arranged or prepared for another step.Delay. . It counters increasing complexity with continuous improvement and enables the work force to be the masters of their processes. For those organizations whose leaders truly believe that their people are their most valuable resource. . . the tools of Work Simplification are still available . in any work environment. It needs to be built around national systems and processes and must complement the directions on aid coordination that governments in programme countries are pursuing. notably of the OECD-DAC. However. This will ensure synergy and complementarities. its use is not widespread. the EU and others. A storage occurs when an object is kept and protected against unauthorized removal. . World Bank and Regional Banks. This was (and still is) a simple and effective way to track the flow of a person or a piece of material through a work process.

"save changes" or similar.understood by anyone who wants to understand. Work Simplification helps you get there«faster. developing a b2b strategy.Dr.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . "replace identified part". they are implied by the sequencing of operations. establishing an electronic commerce presence. Flowchart building blocks Symbols A typical flowchart from older basic computer science textbooks may have the following kinds of symbols: Start and end symbols Represented as circles. This diagrammatic representation can give a step-bystep solution to a given problem. if you are managing your supply chain. such as "submit enquiry" or "receive product". Example: PROCESS-FILES. Vandana Mittal.Dr. these are used to show complex processing steps which may be detailed in a separate flowchart.Ansar-Ul-Haque. and also because designing algorithms using flowcharts was more likely to result in spaghetti code because of the need for gotos to describe arbitrary jumps in control flow.Raj Kumari. Modern techniques such as UML activity diagrams can be considered to be extensions of the flowchart. Flowcharts are used in analyzing. Examples: "Add 1 to X". Generic processing steps Represented as rectangles. In the 1970s the popularity of flowcharts as an own method decreased when interactive computer terminals and thirdgeneration programming languages became the common tools of the trade. and their order by connecting these with arrows. since algorithms can be expressed much more concisely and readably as source code in such a language. in contrast with data flow diagrams. Data flows are not typically represented in a flowchart. rather. Subroutines Represented as rectangles with double-struck vertical edges. if you are pursuing six sigma or lean manufacturing. Arrows Showing what's called "flow of control" in computer science. Today. Often pseudo-code is used. Process operations are represented in these boxes. or another phrase signaling the start or end of a process. if you are using Kazan or value stream mapping. cheaper and better! Flowchart A flowchart is a type of diagram that represents an algorithm or process. One subroutine may have Prepared by: Dr. showing the steps as boxes of various kinds. managing day to day internal operations or documenting your processes for certification or audit. designing. An arrow coming from one symbol and ending at another symbol represents that control passes to the symbol the arrow points to. Flowcharts used to be a popular means for describing computer algorithms and are still used for this purpose. and arrows connecting them represent flow of control. understanding the fundamental steps in your work processes will help you get those things done. documenting or managing a process or program in various fields. usually containing the word "Start" or "End". ovals or rounded rectangles. which uses the common idioms of such languages without strictly adhering to the details of a particular one.

in which case it may need to be broken-down further or replaced with the "pre-defined process" symbol. but this is normally a clear indicator that a complex decision is being taken. for example. if so. but only one going out.Dr. Prepare conditional Represented as a hexagon. Shows operations which have no effect other than preparing a value for a subsequent conditional or decision step (see below). showing where multiple control flows converge in a single exit flow.) More than two arrows can be used. usually from the bottom point and right point.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . commonly a Yes/No question or True/False test. but there may be any number of "inflow" connectors. one may simply have an arrow point to another arrow instead.Ansar-Ul-Haque. and one going back to the connector. a junction in control flow is implied. For each label. In this case. For additional clarity. and one corresponding to No or False. A loop may. A concurrency symbol with a single entry flow is a fork. Concurrency symbol Represented by a double transversal line with any number of entry and exit arrows. These are useful to represent an iterative process (what in Computer Science is called a loop). these are shown as labeled 'wells' in the rectangle.Raj Kumari.multiple distinct entry points or exit flows (see coroutine). processing steps. one of them may be drawn with a small semicircle over the other. The conditional symbol is peculiar in that it has two arrows coming out of it. These symbols are used whenever two or more control flows must operate simultaneously. (The arrows should always be labeled. showing that no junction is intended. the "outflow" connector must always be unique. Prepared by: Dr. display X. Conditional or decision Represented as a diamond (rhombus) showing where a decision is necessary. Labeled connectors are used in complex or multisheet diagrams to substitute for arrows. and control arrows connect to these 'wells'. A junction symbol will have more than one arrow coming into it. Input/output Represented as a parallelogram. In simple cases.Dr. Junction symbol Generally represented with a black blob. a conditional with one arrow exiting the loop. one corresponding to Yes or True. Labeled connectors Represented by an identifying label inside a circle. consist of a connector where control first enters. Examples: Get X from the user. The exit flows are activated concurrently when all of the entry flows have reached the concurrency symbol. wherever two lines accidentally cross in the drawing. one with a single exit flow is a join. Vandana Mittal.

Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . Types of flowchart Example of a system flowchart. Software Any drawing program can be used to create flowchart diagrams.It is important to remember to keep these connections logical in order. to represent an operation or adjustment to process that can only be made manually. Sterneckert (2003) suggested that flowcharts can be modelled from the perspective of different user groups (such as managers. system analysts and clerks) and that there are four general types: y y y y Document flowcharts.Raj Kumari. with the top irregularly sloping up from left to right. showing controls over a data flows in a system System flowcharts showing controls at a physical or resource level Program flowchart. or from a flowchart description language. either directly from source code. many diagram techniques exist that are similar to flowcharts but carry a different name.Dr. but these will have no underlying data model to share data with databases or other programs such as project management systems or spreadsheets. to substitute for the parallelogram symbol). A Manual input represented by quadrilateral. Vandana Mittal. such as UML activity diagrams. rather than control flow. An example would be to signify data-entry from a form. Data-flow extensions A number of symbols have been standardized to represent data flow. Some tools offer special support for flowchart drawing.Dr. A Manual operation represented by a trapezoid with the longest parallel side at the top. Many software packages exist that can create flowcharts automatically. rather than on the particular flow itself. In addition. All processes should flow from top to bottom and left to right. but they generally have little currency: y y y y A Document represented as a rectangle with a wavy base. showing controls over a document-flow through a system Data flowcharts. A Data File represented by a cylinder.g. showing the controls in a program within a system Notice that every type of flowchart focuses on some kind of control. Functional flow block diagram Prepared by: Dr. On-line Web-based versions of such programs are available. These symbols may also be used in control flow charts (e.Ansar-Ul-Haque.

data flow diagrams. step-by-step flow diagram of a system¶s functional flow.Dr.The FFBD notation was developed in the 1950s. Each block in the first level diagram Prepared by: Dr. For example. and is widely used in classical systems engineering. sequential relationship. as shown in Figure 2.Dr. and functional flows. Vandana Mittal. FFBDs are one of the classic business process modeling methodologies.Raj Kumari. functional block diagrams. control flow diagrams.Ansar-Ul-Haque. along with flow charts. PERT diagrams. the entire flight mission of a spacecraft can be defined in a top level FFBD. and IDEF. FFBDs show the same tasks identified through functional decomposition and display them in their logical. FFBDs are also referred to as Functional Flow Diagrams. time-sequenced. Gantt charts. A Functional Flow Block Diagram (FFBD) is a multi-tier.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .Functional Flow Block Diagram Format. Development of functional flow block diagrams Figure 2: Development of Functional Flow Block Diagrams FFBDs can be developed in a series of levels.

Prepared by: Dr. In certain cases. thus initiating the interface identification and control process. The flow diagram provides an understanding of total operation of the system. finite. Arrows are often used to indicate functional flows." Note that the diagram shows both input (transfer to operational orbit) and output (transfer to space transportation system orbit). which improve the probability of mission success. Flow connection: Lines connecting functions should only indicate function flow and not a lapse in time or intermediate activity. Flow is from left to right. GO and NO-GO paths: ³G´ and ³bar G´ are used to denote ³go´ and ³no-go´ conditions. which permits selection among the alternatives. Each block in the second level diagram can be progressively developed into a series of functions. OR is used to indicate that alternative paths can be satisfied to proceed.can then be expanded to a series of functions. Each function needs to stand for definite. y y y y y y y Function block: Each function on an FFBD should be separate and be represented by single box (solid line). and pinpoints areas where changes in operational procedures could simplify the overall system operation. Function symbolism A function shall be represented by a rectangle containing the title of the function (an action verb followed by a noun phrase) and its unique decimal delimited number. A horizontal line shall separate this number and the title.Dr. Functional reference: Each diagram should contain a reference to other functional diagrams by using a functional reference (box in brackets). For example. or does it track TDRS continually to allow for the reception of emergency commands or transmission of emergency data? The FFBD also incorporates alternate and contingency operations.Ansar-Ul-Haque. does the spacecraft antenna acquire the tracking and data relay satellite (TDRS) only when the payload data are to be transmitted. These diagrams are used both to develop requirements and to identify profitable trade studies. alternate FFBDs may be used to represent various means of satisfying a particular function until data are acquired. These symbols are placed adjacent to lines leaving a particular function to indicate alternative paths. Summing gates: A circle is used to denote a summing gate and is used when AND/OR is present.[8] Building blocks An overview of the key FFBD attributes: Graphical explanation of a "function block" used in these diagrams. Function numbering: Each level should have a consistent number scheme and provide information concerning function origin.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .Raj Kumari. Vandana Mittal. These numbers establish identification and relationships that will carry through all Functional Analysis and Allocation activities and facilitate traceability from lower to top levels. as shown in the third level diagram on Figure 2. AND is used to indicate parallel functions and all conditions must be satisfied to proceed. Flow direction: Diagrams should be laid out so that the flow direction is generally from left to right. as shown in the second level diagram for "perform mission operations. serves as a basis for development of operational and contingency procedures. discrete action to be accomplished by system elements.Dr.

Prepared by: Dr. Read the figure as follows: F2 AND F3 may begin in parallel after completion of F1. F4 may begin after completion of F2 AND F3.Ansar-Ul-Haque.Dr. The symbol may contain a single input with multiple outputs or multiple inputs with a single output. See Figure 9 for an example regarding use of a reference function. Likewise.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . The figure also depicts how to represent a reference function.Raj Kumari.[9] y AND: A condition in which all preceding or succeeding paths are required.[9] Logic Symbols The following basic logic symbols shall be shown in see Figure 3 above. Function Symbol Figure 4. but not multiple inputs and outputs combined (Figure 5). see Figure 4. Directed Lines Directed lines A line with a single arrowhead shall depict functional flow from left to right. Vandana Mittal.Dr. which provides context within a specific FFBD. Figure 3.

"Exclusive OR" Symbol y Exclusive OR: A condition in which one of multiple preceding or succeeding paths is required. ³Inclusive OR´ Logic Contextual and Administrative Data Each FFBD shall contain the following contextual and administrative data: y y y y Date the diagram was created Name of the engineer. or all of the multiple preceding or succeeding paths are required. The symbol may contain a single input with multiple outputs or multiple inputs with single output. F4 may begin after completion of either F2 OR F3.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . Read the figure as follows: F2 OR F3 may begin after completion of F1. F4 may begin after completion of either F2 OR F3 (exclusively). but not multiple inputs and outputs combined (Figure 6). Figure 9 is a decomposition of the function F2 contained in Figure 8 and illustrates the context between functions at different levels of the model.Dr.Dr. Figure 7 depicts Inclusive OR logic using a combination of the AND symbol (Figure 5) and the Exclusive OR symbol (Figure 6). Figure 8 and Figure 9 present the data in an FFBD. OR (again exclusive) F2 AND F3 may begin after completion of F1. some. Likewise. Inclusive OR: A condition in which one. Likewise.Ansar-Ul-Haque. "AND" Symbol Figure 6. organization. or working group that created the diagram Unique decimal delimited number of the function being diagrammed Unique function name of the function being diagrammed.Figure 5. but not all. Prepared by: Dr. Read Figure 7 as follows: F2 OR F3 (exclusively) may begin after completion of F1. Vandana Mittal. OR (again exclusive) F4 may begin after completion of both F2 AND F3 y Figure 7.Raj Kumari.

Dr. layout etc. Production system is depicted under with help of chart Production management involves the managerial decisions regarding design of the product and design of the production system i. its location.Raj Kumari. determination of production processes and production planning and control. The main objective of production function is to produce the goods and services demanded by the customers in the most efficient and economical way. Production system is a system whose function is to convert a set of inputs into a set of desired outputs.Ansar-Ul-Haque. Therefore efficient management of the production function is of utmost importance in order to achieve this objective. the entrepreneur steps into the shoe of production manager and attempts to apply managerial principles to the production function in an enterprise. Prepared by: Dr.Figure 8.Dr. Vandana Mittal. Production is a process whereby raw material is converted into semi finished products and thereby adds to the value of utility of products. which can be measured as the difference between the value of inputs and value of outputs. FFBD Function 0 Illustration Figure 9. FFBD Function 2 Illustration PRODUCTION PLANNING AND SCHEDULING After taking decisions about the type of business.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . allocation and utilization of resources. Production function encompasses the activities of procurement.e.

PRODUCT DESIGN Product design is a strategic decision as the image and profit earning capacity of a small firm depends largely on product design. Once the product to be produced is decided by the entrepreneur the next step is to prepare its design. Product design consists of form and function. The form designing includes decisions regarding its shape, size, color and appearance of the product. The functional design involves the working conditions of the product. Once a product is designed, it prevails for a long time therefore various factors are to be considered before designing it. These factors are listed below: (a) Standardization (b) Reliability (c) Maintainability (d) Servicing (e) Reproducibility (f) Sustainability (g) Product simplification (h) Quality Commensuration with cost (i) Product value (j) Consumer quality (k) Needs and tastes of consumers. Above all, the product design should be dictated by the market demand. It is an important decision and therefore the entrepreneur should pay due effort, time, energy and attention in order to get the best results. Broadly one can think of three types of production systems which are mentioned here under: (a) (b) (c)

Continuous production Job or unit production Intermittent production
Continuous production: - It refers to the production of standardized products with a standard set

of process and operation sequence in anticipation of demand. It is also known as mass flow production or assembly line production. Prepared by: Dr. Vandana Mittal,Dr.Ansar-Ul-Haque,Dr.Raj Kumari,Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal

This system ensures less work in process inventory and high product quality but involves large investment in machinery and equipment. The system is suitable in plants involving large volume and small variety of

output e.g. oil efineries reform cement manufacturing etc. (b) Job or Unit production: - It involves production as per customer's specification each batch

or order consists of a small lot of identical products and is different from other batches. The system requires comparatively smaller investment in machines and equipment. It is flexible and can be adapted to changes in product design and order size without much inconvenience. This system is most suitable where heterogeneous products are produced against specific orders. (c) Intermittent Production: Under this system the goods are produced partly for inventory and partly

for customer's orders. E.g. components are made for inventory but they are combined differently for different customers. . Automobile plants, printing presses, electrical goods plant are examples of this type of

manufacturing. The nature of the process of production required by these three different types of production system are distinct and require different conditions for their working. Selection of manufacturing process is also a strategic decision as changes in the same are costly. Therefore the manufacturing process is selected at the stage of planning a business venture. It should meet the basic two objectives i.e. to meet the specification of the final product and to be cost effective. The manufacturing process is classified into four types. (i) Jobbing Production: - Herein one or few units of the products are produced as per the requirement and specification of the customer. Production is to meet the delivery schedule and costs are fixed prior to the contract. (ii) Batch Production: - In this, limited quantities of each of the different types of products are manufactured on same set of machines. Different products are produced separately one after the other. (iii) Mass or flow production: Under this, the production run is conducted on a set of machines arranged according to the sequence of operations. A huge quantity of same product is manufactured at a time and is
stocked for sale. Different product will require different manufacturing lines. Since one line can produce only one

type of product, this process is also called as line flow.
(iv) Process Production: Under this, the production run is conducted for an indefinite period. Following factors need to be considered before making a choice of manufacturing Process. a) Effect of volume/variety: This is one of the major considerations in selection of manufacturing process. When the volume is low and variety is high, intermittent process is most suitable and with increase in volume and reduction in variety continuous process become suitable. The following figure indicates the choice of process as a function of repetitiveness. Degree of repetitiveness is determined by dividing volume of goods by variety.

b) Capacity of the plant: Projected sales volume is the key factor to make a choice between batch and
line process. In case of line process, fixed costs are substantially higher than variable costs. The reverse is true for batch process thus at low volume it would be cheaper to install and maintain a batch process and Prepared by: Dr. Vandana Mittal,Dr.Ansar-Ul-Haque,Dr.Raj Kumari,Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal

line process becomes economical at higher volumes.
c) Lead time: - The continuous process normally yields faster deliveries as compared to batch process. Therefore lead-time and level of competition certainly influence the choice of production process. d) Flexibility and Efficiency: - The manufacturing process needs to be flexible enough to adapt contemplated changes and volume of production should be large enough to lower costs. Hence it is very important for entrepreneur to consider all above mentioned factors before taking a decision regarding the type of manufacturing process to be adopted as for as SSI are concerned they usually adopt batch processes due to low investment.

Production planning and control can facilitate the small entrepreneur in the following ways (1) Optimum Utilisation of Capacity: With the help of Production Planning and Control [PPC] the entrepreneur can schedule his tasks and production runs and thereby ensure that his productive capacity does not remain idle and there is no undue queuing up of tasks via proper allocation of tasks to the production facilities. No order goes unattended and no machine remains idle. (2) Inventory control: Proper PPC will help the entrepreneur to resort to just- in- time systems and thereby reduce the overall inventory. It will enable him to ensure that the right supplies are available at the right time. (3) Economy in production time: PPC will help the entrepreneur to reduce the cycle time and increase the turnover via proper scheduling. (4) Ensure quality: A good PPC will provide for adherence to the quality standards so that quality of output is ensured. To sum up we may say that PPC is of immense value to the entrepreneur in capacity utilization and inventory control. More importantly it improves his response time and quality. As such effective PPC contributes to time, quality and cost parameters of entrepreneurial success.

Once the entrepreneur has taken the decisions regarding the product design and production processes and system, his next task is to take steps for production planning and control, as this function is essentially required for efficient and economical production. One of the major problems of small scale enterprises is that of low productivity small scale industries can utilise natural resources, which are otherwise lying. Planned production is an important feature of the small industry. The small entrepreneur possessing the ability to look ahead, organize and coordinate and having plenty of driving force and capacity to lead and ability to supervise and coordinate work and simulates his associates by means of a programme of human relation and organization of employees, he would be able to get the best out of his small industrial unit. Gorden and Carson observe production; planning and control involve generally the organization and planning of manufacturing process. Especially it consists of the planning of routing, scheduling, dispatching Prepared by: Dr. Vandana Mittal,Dr.Ansar-Ul-Haque,Dr.Raj Kumari,Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal

planning as well as control. Production planning without production control is like a bank without a bank manager. Prepared by: Dr. planning initiates action while control is an adjusting process. the operations. viz.Ansar-Ul-Haque. tools and operating times. this job is usually done by entrepreneur in self in a rather adhoc manner. methods machines. Routing: Under this. functions on either side. in order to bring about the desired manufacturing results in terms of quality. control of materials.Dr. In small enterprises. quantity. The main aim of routing is to determine the best and cheapest sequence of operations and to ensure that this sequence is strictly followed. Vandana Mittal.Dr. The ultimate objective is the organization of the supply and movement of materials and labour. Production planning: Production planning may be defined as the technique of foreseeing every step in a long series of separate operations. (2) To determine the quality and type of material (3) Determining the manufacturing operations and their sequence. It helps entrepreneur to work out the quantity of material manpower.inspection. machines utilization and related activities. their path and sequence are established. time and place. machine and money requires for producing predetermined level of output in given period of time. each step to be taken at the right time and in the right place and each operation to be performed in maximum efficiency. (4) A determination of lot sizes (5) Determination of scrap factors (6) An analysis of cost of the article (7) Organization of production control forms. Routing procedure involves following different activities.Raj Kumari. and coordination. providing corrective measures for planned development. (1) An analysis of the article to determine what to make and what to buy. To perform these operations the proper class of machines and personnel required are also worked out. Production control regulates and stimulates the orderly how of materials in the manufacturing process from the beginning to the end.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . STEPS OF PRODUCTION PLANNING AND CONTROL Production Planning and Control (PPC) is a process that comprises the performance of some critical..

Ansar-Ul-Haque. making allowances for all factors concerned. Thus it would show the required quality of each product and sequence in which the same to be operated Scheduling of Job order manufacturing: Scheduling acquires greater importance in job order manufacturing. This forms a base for all subsequent scheduling acclivities. Its not independent decision as it takes into account following factors. (2) Personnel who possess the desired skills and experience to operate the equipment and perform the type of work involved. a Prepared by: Dr.Scheduling: It means working out of time that should be required to perform each operation and also the time necessary to perform the entire series as routed. (1) Physical plant facilities of the type required to process the material being scheduled. Manufacturing schedule: It is prepared on the basis of type of manufacturing process involved.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . Vandana Mittal.Dr. A master schedule is followed by operator schedule which fixes total time required to do a piece of work with a given machine or which shows the time required to do each detailed operation of a given job with a given machine or process. It mainly concerns with time element and priorities of a job. Master Schedule: Scheduling usually starts with preparation of master schedule which is weekly or monthly break-down of the production requirement for each product for a definite time period. It is very useful where single or few products are manufactured repeatedly at regular intervals.Dr. The small entrepreneur should maintain four types of schedules to have a close scrutiny of all stages namely an enquiry schedule. This will enable the speedy execution of job at each center point. The pattern of scheduling differs from one job to another which is explained as below: Production schedule: The main aim is to schedule that amount of work which can easily be handled by plant and equipment without interference. (3) Necessary materials and purchased parts. a production schedule. by having this as a running record of total production requirements the entrepreneur is in better position to shift the production from one product to another as per the changed production requirements.Raj Kumari. As far as small scale industry is concerned scheduling is of utmost importance as it brings out efficiency in the operations and s reduces cost price.

Dr. establishing the extract route of each individual item part or assembly. Movement of tools and fixtures necessary for each operation. Inspecting or supervision of work Dispatching is an important step as it translates production plans into production. Loading: The next step is the execution of the schedule plan as per the route chalked out it includes the assignment of the work to the operators at their machines or work places. the purchase manager. The total load on any section 2. the personnel manager and the financial controller assist in planning production activities. may have to be taken. Corrective measures: Corrective action may involve any of those activities of adjusting the route. Follow up: Every production programme involves determination of the progress of work. removing bottlenecks in the flow of work and ensuring that the productive operations are taking place in accordance with the plans. Necessary authority and conformation is given for: 1. 3. 6. 2. Recording of time and cost involved in each operation. a shop schedule is the most important most suited to the needs of small scale industry as it enables a foreman to see at a glance. all the three functions namely material control. The production control is of complicated nature in small industries. The operational sequence 3. Most of a small scale enterprise fail due to non-adherence to delivery schedules therefore they can be successful if they have ability to meet delivery order in time which no doubt depends upon production of quality goods in right time. 1.Ansar-Ul-Haque. 4. Alternate methods may be suggested to handle peak loads. Dispatching: Dispatching involves issue of production orders for starting the operations. Vandana Mittal. Prepared by: Dr. planning and control are often performed by the entrepreneur himself production control starts with dispatching and ends up with corrective actions. The usefulness of their technique lies in the fact that they compare what has been done and what ought to have been done. It makes all the more important for entrepreneur to judge ahead of time what should be done.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . rescheduling of work changing the workloads.Dr. which any job has reached. It can be required as effective agency of production control. Movement of work from one operation to another in accordance with the route sheet. control over inventories of the cause of deviation is the poor performance of the employees. All problems or deviations are investigated and remedial measurer are undertaken to ensure the completion of work by the planned date. transfer.Raj Kumari. Beginning of work on each operation. where and when thus to leave nothing to chance once the work has begun. Movement of materials to different workstations. The schedule and an arrears schedule out of above four. starting and finishing for each important item. The production controller directly reports to the works manager but in small scale unit. Production control: Production control is the process of planning production in advance of operations. So loading determines who will do the work as routing determines where and scheduling determines when it shall be done. misunderstanding of orders and instruction. under loading or overloading of work etc. The production planning and control department can function at its best in small scale unit only when the work manager. Inspection: This is mainly to ensure the quality of goods. Gantt Charts are most commonly used in small industries in order to determine the existing load and also to foresee how fast a job can be done. setting. It spots delays or deviations from the production plans. repairs and maintenance of machinery or equipment. It helps to reveal detects in routing and scheduling. demotion etc. 5. Certain personnel decisions like training. assembly or the finishing production and releasing the necessary orders as well as initiating the necessary follow-up to have the smooth function of the enterprise.

System modeling. the analyst will employ a combination of these methods to establish the exact requirements of the stakeholders. behavioral. testable.Raj Kumari. Requirements analysis and negotiation. so that a system that meets the business needs is produced. actionable. Analysts can employ several techniques to elicit the requirements from the customer.Dr. It is sometimes referred to loosely by names such as requirements gathering. Where necessary. and constraints of hardware and software systems. Requirements must be documented. take into account all their needs and ensure they understand the implications of the new systems. Requirements analysis is critical to the success of a development project. functional.Ansar-Ul-Haque. or holding focus groups (more aptly named in this context as requirements workshops) and creating requirements lists. so it is important to identify all the stakeholders. measurable. Requirement engineering according to Laplante (2007) is "a subdiscipline of systems engineering and software engineering that is concerned with determining the goals. and defined to a level of detail sufficient for system design. functions. Requirements can be architectural. If the feasibility study suggests that the product should be Prepared by: Dr. Requirements engineering Systematic requirements analysis is also known as requirements engineering. and non-functional. as opposed to elicitation or documentation of the requirements.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . Requirements management. requirements capture. which leads to a feasibility report. this has included such things as holding interviews. such as beneficiaries or users.Dr." In some life cycle models. Requirements analysis can be a long and arduous process during which many delicate psychological skills are involved. encompasses those tasks that go into determining the needs or conditions to meet for a new or altered product. Requirements validation. New systems change the environment and relationships between people. Vandana Mittal. More modern techniques include prototyping. structural. taking account of the possibly conflicting requirements of the various stakeholders. or requirements specification. The term requirements analysis can also be applied specifically to the analysis proper. the requirement engineering process begins with a feasibility study activity. Requirements Engineering can be divided into discrete chronological steps: y y y y y y Requirements elicitation. related to identified business needs or opportunities.Requirements analysis Requirements analysis in systems engineering and software engineering. Historically. and use cases. for instance. Requirements specification.

Moreover. In a complex system such requirements lists can run to hundreds of pages. product management. as they have proved spectacularly unsuccessful at achieving their aims. and other regulators) people or organizations opposed to the system (negative stakeholders. An appropriate metaphor would be an extremely long shopping list. For a large system can provide a high level description. It is virtually impossible to read such documents as a whole and have a coherent understanding of the system. If requirement analysis precedes feasibility studies. and perceived needs. Other stakeholders will include: y y y y y y y anyone who operates the system (normal and maintenance operators) anyone who benefits from the system (functional. Though they are generally idiosyncratic in nature and focused upon the perspectives and perceived needs of the stakeholder. Contract-style requirement lists One traditional way of documenting requirements has been contract style requirement lists. safety. but they are still seen to this day. Stakeholders (SH) are persons or organizations (legal entities such as companies. In a mass-market product organization.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .Dr. then feasibility should be determined before requirements are finalized. very often without larger enterprise or system context. Such lists are very much out of favour in modern analysis. Provide a contract between the project sponsor(s) and developers.developed.Dr. where the stakeholder's attention is compelled to assume a more cross-functional context. Stakeholder identification See Stakeholder analysis for a discussion of business uses. A major new emphasis in the 1990s was a focus on the identification of stakeholders. political. They may be affected by it either directly or indirectly. Strengths y y y Provides a checklist of requirements. Consequently this technique can serve as a means of obtaining the highly focused knowledge that is often not elicited in Joint Requirements Development sessions. financial and social beneficiaries) anyone involved in purchasing or procuring the system. decision-relevant business rules. standards bodies) which have a valid interest in the system. Weaknesses y y Such lists can run to hundreds of pages.Ansar-Ul-Haque. Vandana Mittal. this perspective deficiency has the general advantage of obtaining a much richer understanding of the stakeholder's unique business processes. It is increasingly recognized that stakeholders are not limited to the organization employing the analyst. the in-person nature of the interviews provides a more relaxed environment where lines of thought may be explored at length. Prepared by: Dr. Such requirements lists abstract all the requirements and so there is little context y This abstraction makes it impossible to see how the requirements fit or work together.Raj Kumari. which may foster outside the box thinking. then requirement analysis can begin. marketing and sometimes sales act as surrogate consumers (mass-market customers) to guide development of the product organizations which regulate aspects of the system (financial. see also Misuse case) organizations responsible for systems which interface with the system under design those organizations who integrate horizontally with the organization for whom the analyst is designing the system Stakeholder interviews Stakeholder interviews are a common technique used in requirement analysis.

or design constraints). since they do not lend themselves to application. y y y These lists create a false sense of mutual understanding between the stakeholders and developers. while a list does make it easy to prioritize each individual item. Use cases are also known as functional requirements. These requirements lists are no help in system design. due to the nature of these lists.Ansar-Ul-Haque. The customers are those that perform the eight primary functions of systems engineering. is in the details. these documents speak in generality. This abstraction means that it's extremely difficult to be sure that you have the majority of the requirements. environment. Software requirements specification A software requirements specification (SRS) is a complete description of the behavior of the system to be developed. at a minimum. Developers can use these discovered requirements to renegotiate the terms and conditions in their favour. as they say. Structural Requirements Prepared by: Dr. It includes a set of use cases that describe all of the interactions that the users will have with the software. Recommended approaches for the specification of software requirements are described by IEEE 830-1998. and measures of effectiveness and suitability (MOE/MOS). desirable contents. In addition to use cases. Types of Requirements Requirements are categorized in several ways. This standard describes possible structures.y y y This abstraction makes it difficult to prioritize requirements properly.Dr. This abstraction increases the likelihood of misinterpreting the requirements. removing one item out of context can render an entire use case or business requirement useless. Vandana Mittal. with special emphasis on the operator as the key customer. the number of (different) interpretations of the envisioned system increase. Non-functional requirements are requirements which impose constraints on the design or implementation (such as performance requirements. quality standards.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . The following are common categorizations of requirements that relate to technical management:[1] Customer Requirements Statements of fact and assumptions that define the expectations of the system in terms of mission objectives. and qualities of a software requirements specification. as more people read them. However. These contract style lists give the stakeholders a false sense of security that the developers must achieve certain things. but the devil. Operational requirements will define the basic need and. constraints. answer the questions posed in the following listing:[1] y y y y y y y Operational distribution or deployment: Where will the system be used? Mission profile or scenario: How will the system accomplish its mission objective? Performance and related parameters: What are the critical system parameters to accomplish the mission? Utilization environments: How are the various system components to be used? Effectiveness requirements: How effective or efficient must the system be in performing its mission? Operational life cycle: How long will the system be in use by the user? Environment: What environments will the system be expected to operate in an effective manner? Architectural Requirements Architectural requirements explain what has to be done by identifying the necessary system architecture (structure + behavior) of a system. the SRS also contains nonfunctional (or supplementary) requirements.Raj Kumari. Necessarily.Dr. they inevitably miss out crucial requirements which are identified later in the process.

´ and ³buy to´ requirements for products and ³how to execute´ requirements for processes expressed in technical data packages and technical manuals.[1] Non-functional Requirements Non-functional requirements are requirements that specify criteria that can be used to judge the operation of a system.[1] Derived Requirements Requirements that are implied or transformed from higher-level requirement. Behavioral Requirements Behavioral requirements explain what has to be done by identifying the necessary behavior of a system. quality. For example. Requirements analysis issues Stakeholder issues Steve McConnell. and their relationship to other requirements. in his book Rapid Development. timeliness or readiness. Example: A 100-pound item that consists of two subsystems might result in weight requirements of 70 pounds and 30 pounds for the two lower-level items.[1] Allocated Requirements A requirement that is established by dividing or otherwise allocating a high-level requirement into multiple lowerlevel requirements.[1] Design Requirements The ³build to. rather than specific behaviors. generally measured in terms of quantity. Vandana Mittal. During requirements analysis.Raj Kumari.Structural requirements explain what has to be done by identifying the necessary structure of a system.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .Ansar-Ul-Haque. performance (how well does it have to be done) requirements will be interactively developed across all identified functions based on system life cycle factors.Dr. action or activity that must be accomplished. a requirement for long range or high speed may result in a design requirement for low weight. Functional Requirements Functional requirements explain what has to be done by identifying the necessary task.´ ³code to. Performance Requirements The extent to which a mission or function must be executed.Dr. details a number of ways users can inhibit requirements gathering: y y y y y y y Users do not understand what they want or users don't have a clear idea of their requirements Users will not commit to a set of written requirements Users insist on new requirements after the cost and schedule have been fixed Communication with users is slow Users often do not participate in reviews or are incapable of doing so Users are technically unsophisticated Users do not understand the development process Prepared by: Dr. the degree of criticality to system success. and characterized in terms of the degree of certainty in their estimate. coverage. Functional requirements analysis will be used as the toplevel functions for functional analysis.

rather than personnel with the people skills and the domain knowledge to understand a client's needs properly. and Agile software development are also intended as solutions to problems encountered with previous methods. Analysis may often be carried out by engineers or programmers. Attempted solutions One attempted solution to communications problems has been to employ specialists in business or system analysis. they may wrongly believe they are in perfect agreement until the finished product is supplied.y Users do not know about present technology This may lead to the situation where user requirements keep changing even when system or product development has been started.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . Also.Ansar-Ul-Haque. Engineers and developers may try to make the requirements fit an existing system or model. use cases.Dr. Consequently. rather than develop a system specific to the needs of the client.Dr. Vandana Mittal.Raj Kumari. Engineer/developer issues Possible problems caused by engineers and developers during requirements analysis are: y y y Technical personnel and end-users may have different vocabularies. a new class of application simulation or application definition tools have entered the market. Techniques introduced in the 1990s like prototyping. These tools are designed to bridge the communication gap between business users and the IT organization ² and also to allow applications to be 'test marketed' before any code is produced. Unified Modeling Language (UML). The best of these tools offer: y y y y y y electronic whiteboards to sketch application flows and test alternatives ability to capture business logic and data needs ability to generate high fidelity prototypes that closely imitate the final application interactivity capability to add contextual requirements and other comments ability for remote and distributed users to run and interact with the simulation Prepared by: Dr.

Material management is a scientific technique.Dr. (8) quality control. Prepared by: Dr.Ansar-Ul-Haque. (5) scheduling.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . Vandana Mittal.Unit-III Inventory control : Inventory. (4) need determination.Raj Kumari. (2) cataloging. In order to achieve this. and (13) disposal. (3) standardization. and the associated flow of information. (11) inventory control. (9) packaging. cost. Organizing &Control of flow of materials. Deterministic models. organizing and controlling the flow of materials from their initial purchase through internal operations to the service point through distribution. y y Materials Planning. (7) inspection. MATERIALS MANAGEMENT DEFINITION Planning and control of the functions supporting the complete cycle (flow) of materials. the control is exercised in the following fields.Dr. from their initial purchase to destination. (10) storage. Also called materials planning It is concerned with planning. These functions include (1) identification. (12) distribution. Introduction to supply chain management. AIM OF MATERIAL MANAGEMENT To get y y y y y The Right quality Right quantity of supplies At the Right time At the Right place For the Right cost SCOPE OF MATERIALS MANAGEMENT Materials Management strives to ensure that the material cost component of the total product cost be the least. (6) procurement. Purchasing. concerned with Planning.

Standardizat ion and Variety Reduction. Value Analysis.Dr. Receiving.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . At the time of material planning.y y y y y y Store Keeping.Ansar-Ul-Haque.Dr. Material Preservation. Value Analysis. Purchasing. Materials Handling & Traffic. Inventory Control. Disposal of Scrap and Surplus. Receiving. MATERIAL MGT. Store Keeping.Raj Kumari. Materials Planning. Inspection and Despatching The function of material planning department is to plan for the future procurement of all the required materials as per the production schedule. Inspection and Despatching. the budget allocated for the materials will also Prepared by: Dr. Inventory Control. Vandana Mittal. Standardization and Variety Reduction.

Factory managers need to know how many units of their products are available for customer orders. negotiating and issuing purchase orders Expediting delivery from suppliers Acting as liaison between suppliers and other company departments Looking for new products. Others take Prepared by: Dr. The word 'inventory' can refer to both the total amount of goods and the act of counting them. Restaurants need to order more food based on their current supplies and menu needs. Vandana Mittal. materials. There are four basic purchasing activities: Selecting suppliers.Ansar-Ul-Haque.Dr. for better control. Many companies take an inventory of their supplies on a regular basis in order to avoid running out of popular items. Store owners need to know the precise number of items on their shelves and storage areas in order to place orders or control losses. purchasing is to be done.Raj critically reviewed.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . Purchasing department buys material based on the purchase requisitions from user departments and stores departments and annual production plan.Dr. and suppliers that can contribute to company objectiveness WHAT IS INVENTORY? Inventory is the total amount of goods and/or materials contained in a store or factory at any given time. After material planning.

Ansar-Ul-Haque. Companies also take an inventory every quarter in order to generate numbers for financial reports and tax records.) that they do not intend to Prepared by: Dr.The time lags present in the supply chain. The preferred number of each item is listed on a 'par sheet'. Quite often a company will offer significant discounts if the inventory numbers are high and sales are low.. If the par sheet calls for 20 apples.Inventories are maintained as buffers to meet uncertainties in demand. 3 oranges and 2 bananas to reach the par number. organizations .Raj inventory to insure the number of items ordered matches the actual number of items counted physically. Ideally. most companies want to have just enough inventory to meet current orders. thus inventory. serviceproviders and not-for-profits . Having too many products languishing in a warehouse can make a company look less appealing to investors and potential customers.also have inventories (fixtures." y Uncertainty . for example.. Shortages or overages after an inventory can indicate a problem with theft (called 'shrinkage' in retail circles) or inaccurate accounting practices. a master list of all the items in the restaurant. furniture. Restaurants and other retail businesses which take frequent inventories may use a 'par' system based on the results.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . 12 oranges and 8 bananas on the produce shelf.Dr. This same principle holds true for any other retail business with a number of different product lines. movement and storing brings in economies of scale.Ideal condition of "one unit at a time at a place where a user needs it. INVENTORY TYPES While accountants often discuss inventory in terms of goods for sale. REASONS FOR KEEPING INVENTORY There are three basic reasons for keeping an inventory: y Time . supplies. . y Economies of scale . supply and movements of goods. requires that you maintain certain amounts of inventory to use in this "lead time. 15 oranges and 10 bananas. The inventory itself may reveal 10 apples. So bulk buying. Vandana Mittal. from supplier to user at every stage.manufacturers. when he needs it" principle tends to incur lots of costs in terms of logistics. then the manager knows to place an order for 10 apples. This is commonly seen in new car dealerships as the manufacturers release the next year's models before the current vehicles on the lot have been sold.Dr. Furniture companies may also offer 'inventory reduction sales' in order to clear out their showrooms for newer merchandise.

y y Finished Products: Complete finished products ready for sale. the items are restored when the inventory levels become low.Dr. work-in-process and partly finished products formed at various stages of production. machinery and plant spares. and anything else (solder. repair and tooling inventories: Maintenance.materials. empty cans and their lids (or coils of steel or aluminum for constructing those components). There are four types of inventory with which a manufacturing firm must concern itself ± y Raw materials and purchased components: These are raw . The firm's work in process includes those materials from the time of release to the work floor until they become complete and ready for sale to wholesale or retail customers. Maintenance. Stock ties up cash and. jibs and fixtures. Order point systems are often considered the appropriate procedure to control inventory type 3 & 4. it will be impossible to know the actual level of stocks and therefore impossible to control them.Ansar-Ul-Haque. two alternative control procedures can be used ± y Order Point Systems : This has been the traditional approach to inventory control. y Materials requirement planning ± MRP: It is important that the proper control procedure be applied to each of the four types of inventory.Dr. In these systems.g. Manufacturers'. Petroleum products like petrol.) that will form part of a finished can. . Vandana Mittal..) For example: A canned food manufacturer's materials inventory includes the ingredients to form the foods to be canned. kerosene. if uncontrolled. To manage these various kinds of inventories. In general.Raj Kumari. parts and components which enter into the product Direct during the production process and generally form part of the product. glue. various oils and lubricants. distributors'. Retailers' inventory may exist in a warehouse or in a shop or store accessible to customers. labels. tools. and wholesalers' inventory tends to cluster in warehouses.sell. y In process inventory: Semi-finished parts. repairs and operating supplies which are consumed during the production process and generally do not form part of the product itself (e. diesels.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . etc. MRP is the appropriate control procedure for inventory types 1 &2 SPECIAL TERMS USED IN DEALING WITH INVENTORY Prepared by: Dr.. Inventories not intended for sale to customers or to clients may be held in any premises an organization uses.

Dr. It can be raw material. y Lead Time: Lead time is the period between a customer's order and delivery of the final product. Ex: customer has inventory for 10 days for consumption. Therefore. finished goods inventory. "New old stock" (sometimes abbreviated NOS) is a term used in business to refer to merchandise being offered for sale that was manufactured long ago but that has never been used. WIP. Consumption per day is 20 units. A small order of a pre-existing item may only have a few hours lead time.Ansar-Ul-Haque. 5 days for transportation 20X5= 100 units are required for the period of transportation.Dr. it is the available inventory.g. from the time it takes to create the machinery to the speed of the delivery system. It all depends on a number of factors. and the new old stock may represent the only market source of a particular item at the present time. work in progress or finished goods inventory Ex: Assume supplier is far away. So. but a larger order of custommade parts may have a lead time of weeks. y y Stockout means running out of the inventory of an SKU. any change in the packaging or product is a new SKU.y Stock Keeping Unit (SKU) is a unique combination of all the components that are assembled into the purchasable item.Raj Kumari. y y Cycle stock (Used in batch processes. Vandana Mittal. Inventory ³decouples´ in different stages. It might be raw material.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . So if you keep 100 units in your stock it becomes your pipeline inventory. WHAT IS INVENTORY CONTROL? Prepared by: Dr.Buffer Stock is a stock held to reduce the negative effects (stock-out costs) of an unusually large usage of stock. excluding buffer stock) De-coupling (Buffer stock that is held by both the supplier and the user). Such merchandise may not be produced anymore. months or even longer. y Anticipation stock (Building up extra stock for periods of increased demand . TYPOLOGY IN INVENTORY MANAGEMENT y Buffer/safety stock.have left the factory but not arrived at the customer yet). This level of detailed specification assists in managing inventory. ice cream for summer) y Pipeline stock (Goods still in transit or in the process of distribution . For 10 days customer is decoupled from producer. decoupling inventory is the one which decouples customer and producer.e.

in inventory inventories and while control held smooth at the in may be is said to be a in planned such for of a method manner whereby that it investment ensures as 'well stock of maintained materials the proper sales. in inventories is kept at a minimum. flow same needed total costs production investment operations time. How much to order ? The simplest language.Dr. Inventory control is one of the greatest factors in a company¶s success or failure. a business must have a firm understanding of demand. storing. OBJECTIVES OF INVENTORY CONTROL y y To ensure adequate supply of products to customer and avoid shortages as far as possible. consumption and accounting for materials is an important objective.Ansar-Ul-Haque.Demand . Inventory System Constraint Inventory Policy . Proper inventory control will balance the customer¶s need to secure products quickly with the business need to control warehousing costs. to see that the working capital is blocked to the minimum possible extent).Lead time Objective Minimize Cost Decision 1.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .Dr. To make sure that the financial investment in inventories is minimum (i. and cost of inventory. To manage inventory effectively. Vandana Mittal.Raj Kumari.Inventory consists of the goods and materials that a retail business holds for sale or a manufacturer keeps in raw materials for production.Inventory Costs .. Inventory control is a means for maintaining the right level of supply and reducing loss to goods or materials before they become a finished product or are sold to the consumer. y Efficient purchasing. Prepared by: Dr.e.

Raj Kumari. telex and postal bills. it is assumed that an estimate Co can be obtained for a given range of items. y y y To ensure timely action for replenishment. Finally. typing and despatching an order. raw material like steel against production components like casting. hence. However. The ordering cost (Co) may vary. To provide a scientific base for both short-term and long-term planning of materials. no stock out. there are shortfall costs.y To maintain timely record of inventories of all the items and to maintain the stock within the desired limits. in customer¶s relationship because of the timely delivery of goods and INVENTORY COSTS There are four main types of cost in inventory. following are the benefits of inventory control: y Improvement service.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .Ansar-Ul-Haque. A good inventory control system will balance carrying costs against shortfall costs. obsolescence damage and pilferage. o Follow-up costs required to ensure timely supplies ± includes the travel cost for purchase followup. BENEFITS OF INVENTORY CONTROL It is an established fact that through the practice of scientific inventory control. and for most practical purposes. This cost of ordering. Efficient utilisation of working capital. y y Economy in purchasing. Helps in minimising loss due to deterioration.Dr.Dr. Ordering and setup costs come into play as well. y y Smooth and uninterrupted production and. To provide a reserve stock for variations in lead times of delivery of materials. Co includes: o Paper work costs. telephone. certain costs are involved. depending upon the type of items. Cost Of Ordering/ Replenishment cost : Every time an order is placed for stock replenishment. Prepared by: Dr. it can be assumed that the cost per order is constant. Vandana Mittal. Eliminates the possibility of duplicate ordering. There are the costs to carry standard inventories and safety stock.

then to production setup costs are considered instead. obsolescence or theft. To minimize carrying costs. Holding\Inventory Carrying cost\Safety stock: This cost is measured as a percentage of the unit cost of the item.o Costs involved in receiving the order.Dr.Ansar-Ul-Haque. Holding costs are commonly assessed as a percentage of unit value. Transportation and invoice processing are also included. Vandana Mittal. racks.Dr. This practice is a reflection of the difficulty inherent in deriving a specific per unit cost. checking and handling in the stores.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . This measure. If the business is in manufacturing. ordering expenses are generally expressed as a monetary value per order. the costs associated with back ordering the missing item. They include sales that are lost.  storage costs ± any labour. the costs of provisions of storage area and facilities like bins.  salaries of stores staff.Raj Kumari. each for a large quantity. Unlike carrying costs. etc. either directly indicated in quotations or assessed through quotations for various quantities. Logistics managers prefer to err on the side of caution to reduce warehousing costs. for example. inspection. How these costs are calculated can be a matter of contention between sales and logistics managers. These charges increase as inventory levels rise. This cost includes:  interest on capital. Ordering costs: Ordering costs have to do with placing orders. management makes frequent orders of small quantities. Lowering these costs would be accomplished by placing small number of orders. rather than attempting to derive monetary value for each of these costs individually. Stock-out costs: Stockout or shortfall costs(Ks) represent lost sales due to lack of supply for consumers.  allowance for deterioration or spoilage. Sales departments prefer these numbers be kept low so that an ample stock will always be kept. receiving and storage. o The salaries and wages to the purchase department.  insurance and tax charges. gives a basis for estimating what it actually costs a firm to carry stock. when a desired item is not available. both short and long term.  Obsolescence. Prepared by: Dr. o Any set up cost of machines if charged by the supplier.

criticality for production. ABC classification is the most important technique. B & C items less frequently.  VED Analysis .Dr.Ansar-Ul-Haque.  SDE Analysis .versa. It has been seen that a large number of items consume only a small percentage of resources and vice. Since A items are of the highest value and are required in large numbers they could be purchased more frequently and the others. and C.availability. A ± Items represent the high cost centre.  FSN Analysis . It will be seen that first 10% of items approximately account for 70%. The cost of each item is multiplied by the number used in a given period and then these items are tabulated in descending numerical value order.  GOLF analysis-based on suppliers  HML Analysis . and less attention for category C. These charges are probably the most difficult to compute. it will be possible to control the inventory quiet effectively both in the way of cost control and lessening the risk of µstock out¶.items. A very close control is exercised over A items while less stringent control is adequate for those in the category B.consumption rate.or expenses related to stopping the production line because a component part has not arrived. By concentrating on controlling A.Dr.items represent low cost centres. In so far as inventory control is concerned the following guidelines will Prepared by: Dr. the next 20% for 20% of value and the last 70% account for 10% of value.based on annual consumption.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . B items represent the immediate cost centres. and to a lesser degree on B items. but arguably the most important because they represent the costs incurred by customers when an inventory policy falters.  SOS Analysis-based on seasonality  XYZ Analysis-Left out stock value  Two-Bin System a) ABC ANALYSIS : ABC is said to connote ³Always Better Control´. INVENTORY CONTROL TECHNIQUES Some important analysis carried out are :  ABC Analysis . ABC analysis is the analysis of the store items cost criteria. Of the various techniques.Raj Kumari. Vandana Mittal.weight / cost permit.

4.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . Class A B C Number of items 10% of total items 20% of total items 70% of total items Rupee value in items 70% 20% 10% Steps in computing A-B-C analysis: procedure of A-B-C analysis y First we are trying to prepare a list of items and calculate their annual usage in rupees. Purchase based on usage estimates 3. Safety stocks high 5. Moderate control 2.Ansar-Ul-Haque. Vandana Mittal. Rigid estimates of requirements 3. B- Items 1. Prepared by: Dr. Healthy balance between financial constraints and purchase of required quantity of materials) AItems: on 1. Management be done at lower levels. Strict and close watch ( monitoring) 4. Safety stocks moderate 5.Raj Kumari. Safety stocks should be low 5. Management of items should be done at top management level. This can be obtained by multiplying the quantity ( number of units) of the item consumed in one year by its unit price. Reasonably strict watch and control 4. Management be done at middle level C- Items in keeping the system optimum (i. Purchase based on rigid requirements 3. Tight controls 2.e. Controls exercises by store keeper.Dr. Ordinary control measure 2.

Ansar-Ul-Haque. y Those items which together form about 70% of the total annual usage may be total annual usage may be categorized as A items. The rest which contributes 5 to 10% of the total percentage of annual usage are called C items. Table: 1 A-B-C analysis usage in rupees Items Annual Unit cost in Annual usage Ranking Rs: (2)×(3) 1 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 2 20.00 4 5000 6000 1000 150 10000 400 24000 700 4500 100 5 4 3 6 9 2 8 1 7 5 10 usage units rupees Prepared by: Dr. Vandana Mittal.000 500 50.30 0. y Placing of the orders on the basis of this classification.Dr.05 0. Items which contribute the next 20 to 25 % of the aggregate are listed as B items.40 1.10 0. After having done this the total of annual usage in rupees is put at the bottom of the list.20 0.Raj Kumari.000 10.000 700 9000 50 3 0. Similarly. Example: The company has 10 items mentioned in the table .20 .Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .50 2.00 0.000 8000 60.25 0.y Arranging all these items in the descending order of their individual dosage in rupees. That means the first item in the list will now show the maximum annual usage in rupees. the second item the second maximum.Dr.000 30. the third item the third maximum and so on.

14 99.850 Table :1 shows a representative ABC analysis where 10 items have been studied and annual usage extended by unit cost to get annual usage in rupees.39 98. 24000 34000 40000 45000 49500 50500 51200 51600 51750 51850 46. Vandana Mittal.Raj Kumari. Table: 2 A-B-C ranking Ranking Item Annual Cumulative Cumulative Category usage Rs.47 97.Ansar-Ul-Haque.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .Dr.00 A A B B C C C C C C percentage Table 2 shows the ranking and assignment of A.14 86.Total Rs: 51. Prepared by: Dr. B and C categories of items.57 77.81 100.51 99. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 107 105 102 101 109 103 108 106 104 110 24000 10000 6000 5000 4500 1000 700 400 150 100 annual usage Rs.28 65.78 95.Dr.

22 % of annual usage.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . Vandana Mittal. few weeks requirements) while C items are ordered just once or twice a year to obtain the entire year¶s requirement.103. 20 20 60 34000 11000 6850 65. A items are ordered more frequently and I small quantities ( i.57 21.104 106.Ansar-Ul-Haque.108.57 % of annual usage 20 percent of the item represent 21.Table 3: Summary of A-B-C analysis: Class Item % items of Rs: (per Cumulative percentage of Rs.e.110 Table 3 shows a summary ABC analysis showing that 20% of the items represent 65.Raj Kumari.22 group) The general picture of ABC Analysis will show the following position:- b) VED ANALYSIS : Prepared by: Dr.105 102.101 109.21% of annual usage and 60% of the items represent only 13.21 13.Dr.Dr. A B C 107.

It should be realized that vital.ABC analysis does not tell anything about the criticality of the items. and desirable items we stocked in small amounts. becomes uncertain because of number of reasons due to climate. bamboo is an important raw material. at times.Raj Kumari.V items and A items are not the same.Dr. there is a peculiar category of µU¶ items which can be grouped as unnecessary.Dr.  Desirable: items whose non availability can be tolerated for a long period. essential and desirable items varies from organisation to organisation.availability can not be tolerated.e. similarly microwave oven and air conditioning unit are expensive. Vandana Mittal. Although the proportion of vital. Prepared by: Dr. essential items are stocked in medium amounts. By stocking the items in order of priority. at times. All the vital items are not expensive and all the expensive items are not vital. we identify the criticality of production situation and accordingly plan for the inventory. a) b) c) d) e) Thoughtless continuation of previous purchase. in some public organizations which are static or inefficiently managed. Indifferent attitude towards hospital formulary Fear of change Poor supervision and control Unfair practice due to vested interest. Due to the absence of bearing. Materials are classified into the three types as under:  V-Vital: items without which production will completely stop. which costs to the industry an enormous revenue loss. i.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . natural calamities etc. VED analysis is done to control a critical inventory situation. These unnecessary items get purchased due to the following reasons. Airlines industry is bound to keep stand-by engines as its absence. but they are not essential. Availability of bamboo from the forests. they are not expensive. The vital items are stocked in abundance. because similar or alternative items are available. Eg.. vital and essential items are always in stock which means a minimum disruption in the services offered to the people. For example. non. Through this analysis. Domestic examples of salt and matchbox proves that though these items are vital. the industry may require flight cancellation. some paper mills.  E-Essential: items whose cost of non availability can be tolerated for 2-3 days. rolling machine cannot operate.Ansar-Ul-Haque. Although not included in scientific VED analysis.

it is important to keep in mind all these issues to function efficiently and smoothly.Raj Kumari.Dr.refers to Scarce Items.It is possible to conduct a two dimensional analysis taking into consideration cost on one hand . Prepared by: Dr. Suppliers or Vendors are classified as under: G-Government O-Ordinary or Non-government L-Local F-Foreign All these suppliers have their own payment terms. d) GOLF ANALYSIS: It is similar to SDE analysis. and critically VED on the other. therefore. mostly local items. and it is based on the nature of market and suppliers. It is normally advantageous to consider A. V & S items for selective controls. c) SDE ANALYSIS : This analysis is based spares availability of an item ± S-Scarce Items D-Difficult Items E-Easy Items S . E . Vandana Mittal. especially imported and those which are very much in short supply. For a materials Manager. For example. organizations may not require to hold these items in large volume in their stock.are Difficult items which are procurable in market but not easily available.Ansar-Ul-Haque. own administrative procedure and soon. A. items which have to come from far off cities or where there is not much competition in market or where good quality supplies are difficult to get or to be procured. Due to their nature. Due to their easy availability.B.C categories. e) HML ANALYSIS : The cost per item (per piece) is considered for this analysis.refers to Easy items ± Items are those which are easily available. i. D .Dr.e. these items are procured on yearly interval.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .

Scrutiny of non-moving items is to be made to determine whether they could be used or be disposed off. Non-seasonal items are available throughout the year without any major price variation. g) SOS ANALYSIS: SOS Analysis is done. h) XYZ ANALYSIS This analysis is made based on the value of left out stock in the stores. based on such analysis. keeping in view the seasonality or non-seasonality of the item.High cost items (H). Vandana Mittal. Materials managers.Ansar-Ul-Haque. Slow-moving (S) and Non-moving (N) items. Green tea leaves are available for a longer duration from February to October. are procured in bulk to manage the production process throughout the year. The fast and slowmoving classifications help in arrangement of stock in stores and their distribution and handling methods. which are available for a limited period. µX¶ items are those whose value of left out stock is very high. S.Dr.Dr.Raj Kumari. can plan not only for procurement but also for secured storage of items. Medium Cost items (M) and Low Cost item (L) help in bringing controls over consumption at the departmental level. The Non-moving items (usually not consumed over a period of two years) are of great importance. whose left-out stock value are neither high nor moderate. i) THE TWO-BIN SYSTEM Prepared by: Dr. f) FSN ANALYSIS : This analysis is to help control obsolescence and is based on the consumption pattern of the items.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . The items are analyzed to be classified as Fast-moving (F). µZ¶ items are the residual items. Since seasonal items. Example: in case of sugar mills whose procurement is seasonal. procurement actions vary.Seasonal Items OS ± non-seasonal Items Depends on seasonality and non-seasonality of the items. µY¶ items are those whose left-out stock value is moderate. these companies need to procure their requirement for a longer duration so as to adjust their production plans.

The following nuts. BIN NO. ordered.2 Use till Bin no 1 is empty Such to of a say. which is a simple method of control exercised by two simple rules. INVENTORY MODELS The inventory models are broadly classified as follows:  Deterministic models [Known Demand] Prepared by: Dr. issued. The bins contain. for deterministic are necessary Use Bin No 2 when Bin no 1 is empty when We a given consumption know from as rate our well is constant.One of the earliest systems of stock control is two-bin system.Ansar-Ul-Haque.Dr.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .Dr. and The The as diagram shows this simple method. is first just bolts more bin bin replenishment the nuts delivery the awaited. mild-steel bolts and bolts soon and as the arrives and nuts are issued bin when from is the the from empty. and nuts While When when are required.1 BIN NO. bolts method it and is a nuts is appropriate only system. say. what that is experience as we quantity their rate period know of consumption. then both the bins are again filled in. delivery arrives. second second the first bin bolts is are as and empty.Raj Kumari. and the other is what quantity should be covered. One is when the order should be placed. Vandana Mittal.

Since it conceives the system to be deterministic. Deterministic models are further classified as follows: A. Deterministic optimization models presume the state of affairs to be deterministic and consequently render the numerical model to optimize on system arguments. Vandana Mittal. things are sure to occur the same way. let us imagine deterministic and probabilistic conditions. This is also known as a situation of sureness since it is realized that whatever are ascertained. A deterministic circumstance is one in which the system parameters can be ascertained precisely. Probabilistic models [Unknown Demand] DETERMINISTIC AND PROBABILISTIC METHODS What is Deterministic and Probabilistic inventory control? To value it better. EOQ models with lead time Prepared by: Dr. the vagueness always makes us comfortless. Although this is present everywhere. But this kind of system rarely exists. Also the information about the system under thought should be whole so that the parameters can be determined with confidence. So people keep attempting to lessen uncertainty. Probabilistic situation is also known as a situation of uncertainty. it automatically means that one has full information about the system. Elementary Models: 1) Economic Order Quantity [EOQ] models without shortages a) Instantaneous production b) Finite production 2) Reorder level models [ROL] with shortages a) Instantaneous production b) Finite production B.Dr.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .Raj Kumari. such models also create larger trouble in analysis and often become uncontrollable. and it is for sure that some uncertainty is always associated with the system.Dr.Ansar-Ul-Haque. But. EOQ models with restrictions (multi items models) C. Probabilistic inventory prototypes consisting of probabilistic demand and supply are more suitable in many real circumstances.

this number can be determined from the other parameters Underlying assumptions of the EOQ model 1. a consultant who applied it extensively. ie. It is one of the oldest classical production scheduling models. the time between the placement of the order and the receipt of the order is known and constant. EOQ only applies where the demand for a product is constant over the year and that each new order is delivered in full when the inventory reaches zero. 2.Raj Kumari.Dr. H.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . The lead time. We want to determine the optimal number of units of the product to order so that we minimize the total cost associated with the purchase. regardless of the number of units ordered. Vandana Mittal. W. The model was developed by F. Wilson. Prepared by: Dr. There is also a holding or storage cost for each unit held in storage (sometimes expressed as a percentage of the purchase cost of the item).Ansar-Ul-Haque. The framework used to determine this order quantity is also known as Wilson EOQ Model or Wilson Formula. delivery and storage of the product The required parameters to the solution are the total demand for the year. but R.D. the fixed cost to place the order and the storage cost for each item per year. the purchase cost for each item. is given credit for his early in-depth analysis of it. EOQ models with price breaks (quantity discounts) In general Inventory Models are classified as: Fixed order-quantity models ± Economic order quantity ± Production order quantity ± Quantity discount Probabilistic models Fixed order-period models ECONOMIC ORDER QUANTITY (EOQ) Economic order quantity is the level of inventory that minimizes the total inventory holding costs and ordering costs. ie. Note that the number of times an order is placed will also affect the total cost. however. constant. Harris in 1913. Demand is known and is deterministic. There is a fixed cost charged for each order placed.Dr.

purchase with or without discounts. These assumptions are essential for evolving the best effective inventory management systems. The receipt of inventory is instantaneous. usually not related to the unit cost) Calculating EOQ through Different Models Economic order Quantity will be optimal for the basic assumptions made in the inventory management and these assumptions for each model are specified below. 4. uneven demand rates. the quantity of items will be realized instantly as soon as the consumption reaches a point. But in reality. (A common misunderstanding is that the formula tries to find when these are equal. Prepared by: Dr. etc. Five EOQ models. situation arises with deviations to the assumptions. Quantity discounts are not possible. Hence it may become imperative to consider different lot sizes. so that ordering cost + carrying cost finds its minimum. Vandana Mittal.Raj Kumari. in addition to unit cost) H = annual holding cost per unit (also known as carrying cost or storage cost) (warehouse space.3. while calculating the EOQ that serves the best possible solution. the price of the product will still be the same. In other words the inventory from an order arrives in one batch at one point in time. insurance.Ansar-Ul-Haque.e. are discussed in this unit.) Variables Q = order quantity Q * = optimal order quantity D = annual demand quantity of the product P = purchase cost per unit S = fixed cost per order (not per unit. in other words it does not make any difference how much we order. That the only costs pertinent to the inventory model are the cost of placing an order and the cost of holding or storing inventory over time EOQ is the quantity to order. Model ± 1: EOQ with Uniform Rate of Demand & Instantaneous Replenishment In this model the assumptions made are: a) Demand is known for the item and is consumed at uniform rate b) Stock replenishment is instantaneous (lead time is zero) i. thus resulting in conflicting issues while seeking the best possible solutions. (for the Basic EOQ-Model) 5.Dr.Dr.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . which cater to these requirements. refrigeration.

c) Price of materials is fixed (no quantity discount is assumed) d) Inventory carrying cost per unit is constant. Figure shown below is the graphical representation of the above said model with assumption When reach down to a level of inventory at R, you place your next order for Q sized order

R = Reorder Level. Q = Economic order Quantity AND L = Lead time How to Calculate EOQ The objective is to determine the quantity to order which minimizes the total annual inventory management cost.

Total Cost = purchase cost + ordering cost + holding cost
Purchase cost: This is the variable cost of goods, indicated by per unit purchase price × annual demand quantity. This is indicated as P×D Ordering cost: This is the cost of placing orders, each order has a fixed cost S, and we need to order D/Q times per year. Where Order Cost = The Number of Orders Placed in the period x Order Costs. This is indicated as S × D/Q

Prepared by: Dr. Vandana Mittal,Dr.Ansar-Ul-Haque,Dr.Raj Kumari,Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal

Holding cost: the average quantity in stock (between fully replenished and empty) is Q/2. and Holding cost/Carrying Cost = Average Inventory Level x the Carrying Costs of 1 unit of Stock for one period so this cost is H × Q/2

. To determine the minimum point of the total cost curve, set the ordering cost equal to the holding cost:

Solving for Q gives Q* (the optimal order quantity):



Note that interestingly, Q* is independent of P(purchase price); it is a function of only S, D, H. Graphical Solution If we minimize the sum of the ordering and carrying costs, we are also minimizing the total costs. To help visualize this we can graph the ordering cost and the holding cost as shown in the chart below: This chart shows costs on the vertical axis or Y axis and the order quantity on the horizontal or X axis. The straight line which commences at the origin is the carrying cost curve, the total cost of carrying units of inventory. As expected, as we order more on the X axis, the carrying cost line increases in a proportionate manner. The downward sloping curve which commences high on the Y axis and decreases as it approaches the X axis and moves to the right is the ordering cost curve. This curve represents the total ordering cost depending
Prepared by: Dr. Vandana Mittal,Dr.Ansar-Ul-Haque,Dr.Raj Kumari,Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal

on the size of the order quantity. Obviously the ordering cost will decrease as the order quantity is increased thereby causing there to be fewer orders which need to be made in any particular period of time.

The point at which these two curves intersect is the same point which is the minimum of the curve which represents the total cost for the inventory system. Thus the sum of the carrying cost curve and the ordering cost curve is represented by the total cost curve and the minimum point of the total cost curve corresponds to the same point where the carrying cost curve and the ordering cost curve intersect. To determine Economic order quantity EOQ that minimizes the total annual inventory costs, we have to differentiate total annual cost with respect to variable Q and set the derivative to zero and by using calculus, the formula for calculating the EOQ works out to:

Prepared by: Dr. Vandana Mittal,Dr.Ansar-Ul-Haque,Dr.Raj Kumari,Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal

Dr.Dr.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . Cost of ordering Rs.Raj Kumari. Vandana Mittal.100 per unit. a) How many PCB¶s should be ordered at a time to maximize economy? b) How many orders be placed per year c) What is the duration between each order? d) What are the total annual costs associated with inventory? e) What are the total annual costs involved including that of materials? Solution: Prepared by: Dr.250 per unit and the inventory cost is Rs.1000 per unit.Ansar-Ul-Haque.Worked Example on Modle ± 1: An electronic product uses 32000 PCB¶s per year costing Rs.

this model can be considered as the production model. when the order is placed. Since this type of production is very much in practice.Dr. Finite rate of replenishment means. This cycle repeats at an interval.Raj Kumari. Prepared by: Dr. Uniform demand means that the stocked material goes on decreasing at a uniform rate as shown by the sloping line downwards.Dr. the rate of replenishment should be greater than or equal to the rate of decrease in inventory. the inventory builds up gradually at a certain rate as by the sloping line upwards. Since the stock out is not permitted.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . Figure shown below indicates the uniform demand and finite rate of replenishment. Vandana Mittal.Model ± 2: Economic Lot Size with Uniform Rate of Demand and Finite Rate of Replenishment In this model the assumptions made are as follows: a) Demand is known and is consumed at uniform rate b) Stock replenishment is not instantaneous but it is gradual at uniform rate c) Setup cost is fixed and it does not change with lot size. d) Inventory carrying cost per unit is constant e) Shortages (stock outs) are not permitted.Ansar-Ul-Haque. This model is suitable for the manufacturing organization where there is a simultaneous production and consumption.

the economic batch size in production.Dr.e. the EOQ mentioned in the previous model is referred here as µEconomic Production Quantity¶-EPQ or µEconomic Batch Quantity¶. Vandana Mittal. i. Hence the set up cost is fixed per run and no change with the lot size of production. and annual inventory cost from the following derivations: Total annual inventory = [Annual ordering costs + annual Inventory carrying costs] ²²²²² (1) Annual ordering costs = Annual set up costs = No. there is cost associated with the setup of machinery and tooling.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .Ansar-Ul-Haque.It may please be noted that there is no ordering cost here as there are no outside vendors or suppliers considered. of set ups x Cost/setup ²²²²²²²²²²²(2) Annual set up costs = [(D/Q) x Co] ²²²²²²²²²²²²²²± (3) Annual Inventory carrying cost = [Average inventory x Inventory Carrying Cost] ²²²²²² (4) Prepared by: Dr.EBQ. EBQ. Instead of ordering cost Co. In view of all these changes.Raj Kumari. We can calculate the total annual inventory.Dr.

Vandana Mittal.Dr. 20/month.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . 3000. Its production capacity is 40 transmissions per day and works for 300 days in a year.Problem Solving: Example A transmission manufacturer supplying to a car manufacturer at the rate of 25 per day has a holding cost of the complete unit at Rs. produces in batches with a set up cost of Rs.Raj Kumari.Dr. 10000 each time when set up is changed.Ansar-Ul-Haque. Calculate: Prepared by: Dr. Cost of material inputs per transmission is Rs.

Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .Dr.Raj Kumari. Vandana Mittal. Prepared by: Dr.Ansar-Ul-Haque.a) Most economical numbers that can be produced in one batch b) How frequently should the batches be started in a day c) What will be the minimum average inventory cost and production time d) What is the production time Answer for Model ± III: Finite Rate of Replenishment with Shortages The assumptions made in this model are as follows: 1) Demand is known and is consumed at uniform rate 2) Stock replenishment is not instantaneous but it is at a finite rate 3) Setup cost is as per production runs 4) No quantity discount is given for the supplies 5) Shortages are allowed 6) No loss of sales due to the above said shortages Figure given below represents the model which shows the finite replenishment with shortages.Dr.

then the consumption is shown as the drooping line BC.Dr.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . Formula¶s to be used in Model-III are given below: Prepared by: Dr. which build back to E. In the figure above. Vandana Mittal. Here the shortages are allowed which means that demand is more than supply for certain duration. There is no consumption during this shortage until fresh stocks arrive for production and the immediate supply is given first to production before building up the inventory. the inventory builds first as shown by the sloping line AB.Dr. the point at which the demand of earlier period is satisfied and the backlog becomes zero.Finite replenishment is a gradual and uniform increase in inventory due to continuous production just as in model II. At the point B is the maximum inventory level at any point of time.Raj Kumari. Line CD represents the shortages and the stocks are replenished at point D.Ansar-Ul-Haque.

Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .Raj Kumari. The cost of one set up is Rs. A decision Prepared by: Dr.Dr. Also determine the manufacturing time and the time between each set ups? Model ± IV: Quantity Discount Model In this model the quantity discount in price of the supplies is considered while calculating the EOQ and then orders are placed depending on the economics of placing orders with or without discount and the quantity being ordered. However the fact that the materials if brought to the huge quantities may result in heavy build up of inventory and hence the inventory carrying cost. Vandana Mittal. The shortage cost is Rs. 500 and the holding cost of one unit per month is 25 Paise. which has to be borne by the inventory managers. Determine the optimum quantity to be produced and the number of shortages that the company faces.Solved problem on the above model The demand for a company¶s product is 24000 units per year and can produce at the rate of 3000 per month.Ansar-Ul-Haque.20 per unit per year.Dr.

The requirement is known and the demand is mostly fixed. Vandana Mittal.Raj Kumari. The supplier offers quantity discount as detailed below: Prepared by: Dr.Dr. The following procedure is adopted in this decision making process: Step ± 1: calculate EOQ at different price levels Step ± 2: Determine the Economic quantity to be purchased at each price level Step ± 3: Calculate the annual total cost including those of materials for each of the quantities determined by step ± 2 Step ± 4: Select an optimal quantity to be purchased which involves the least annual total cost Formula¶s to be used in this model: Solved Problem for Model-Iv A Transmission manufacturer is purchasing 4800 forgings per year.Ansar-Ul-Haque.Dr.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .has to be taken by the purchaser on whether to stick to the EOQ or raise the order quantity to take advantage of price discount.

Ansar-Ul-Haque. 748099 Similarly TAQ ± 2 = [(140x4800) + (4800/500) x750 + {140x (500x0.140 or c) 750 forgings at Rs.150 for purchase of 500 forgings has resulted in an EOQ of 447.Dr.150. Next come EOQ at price of 140/unit with a quantity of 462 units and the next being 480 numbers when the unit cost is Rs. it can be concluded that the choice in the descending order for the manager to order are a) best EOQ of 447 units at Rs.130 and this decision depends on the actual demand requirements over the particular period of time. or b) the quantity of 500 forgings ordered at Rs. Step ± 3: To calculate the annual total cost including materials for all selected quantities in step-2. Vandana Mittal.02x12)/2)}] = Rs.Raj Kumari.Dr. the least units of purchase. 687600 Prepared by: Dr.130 Step ± 2: from the above figures in step-1. it is observed that the price of Rs.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .From the above three price values and the EOQ¶s.02x12)/2}] = Rs. we use the formula TAQ ± 1: Cu D + Co (D/Q) + Cu x (i) (Q/2) = [{(150x4800)} + {(4800/447) x 750} + {150 x (447x0.

Supply Chain Management Decision Prepared by: Dr. control. synchronizing supply with demand and measuring performance globally. Another definition is provided by the APICS Dictionary when it defines SCM as the "design. execution. and finished goods from point of origin to point of consumption .Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . planning. work-in-process inventory.Raj Kumari.Dr. Supply chain management spans all movement and storage of raw materials. building a competitive infrastructure. and monitoring of supply chain activities with the objective of creating net value. leveraging worldwide logistics." More common and accepted definitions of supply chain management are: Supply chain management is the systemic. PROBABLISTIC MODEL ASSUMPTIONS  Demand is NOT deterministic but probability distribution is known  Lead time MIGHT NOT BE deterministic  Shortages MAY OCCUR  All ordered units arrive at once  Purchasing cost is independent of the order quantity SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENTN AND INVENTORY CONTROL Supply chain management (SCM) is the management of a network of interconnected businesses involved in the ultimate provision of product and service packages required by end customers. strategic coordination of the traditional business functions and the tactics across these business functions within a particular company and across businesses within the supply chain. Therefore the price discount could be used for the economy when the buying quantity is warranted up to 750 numbers at any point of time in the production cycle.Ansar-Ul-Haque.TAQ ± 3 = [{(130x4800)} + {(4800/750) x750} + {130 x (750x0. consisting of materials and the annual ordering cost plus the inventory carrying cost. is least when the order is placed for 750 numbers in one go. for the purposes of improving the long-term performance of the individual companies and the supply chain as a whole. out of the above three quantities considered.02x12)/2}] = Rs. Vandana Mittal.Dr. the total cost. 640500 While we observed that the EOQ is best at purchase of 447 numbers.

Today's technology is the key that allows the supply chain to become integrated and therefore reduces the inventory requirement. This is the key to optimizing resources as well as the timing of activities associated with procuring raw materials and producing and distributing products. and procurement/materials.. And finally. coordination.e. It is important that companies develop a supply chain management strategy that is consistent with their overall business strategy. which involves the configuration.Dr. Vandana Mittal. information exchange. product quality. total supply chain cost. customer satisfaction. procurement. which provides flexibility that can be used to react to rapidly changing internal and external needs such as changes in production schedule or changes in customer product delivery requirements. There are three links in the supply chain--distribution.Dr. freight tracking systems now are being used in the management of the movement of goods. and cash-to-cash cycle time. regardless of industry or company size. customers and carriers in a network system that allows for effective planning. manufacturers. Some examples are the electronic transmission of advance ship notices (ASN) to advise customers of the contents of a shipment and its expected delivery date. The transmission of purchase orders via electronic data interchange (EDI) can provide more timely and accurate data to suppliers. production.Raj Kumari. inventory days supply. production and distribution be functionally integrated for optimum result. then the performance measures for the various functional departments should be changed to support the overall supply chain management goals.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . allowing for more efficient information in management and production planning . Prepared by: Dr. Integrated Supply Chain and Inventory Management Integrated supply chain require that each segment of the supply chain i. Some examples of the measurements would include perfect order fulfillment. transaction execution. Its premise is simple: operational strategies should be designed and managed around customer needs. and distribution and links together suppliers.Supply chain management has emerged over the past few years as the key to success in the global economy. A coordinated SC integrates procurement. A key tool to achieving this is to develop a supply chain "diagnostic method" that can be used to improve operations and reduce inventories . integrates technology and human resource capacity for optimal management of operations to reduce inventory requirements and provide support to enterprises in pursuance of a competitive advantage in the marketplace. Also. Supply Chain (SC). The first consideration here is for the company to examine and understand their supply and demand planning. distributors. as companies reorganize to be process driven. production. and improvement of sequentially related set of operations in establishments.Ansar-Ul-Haque. and performance reporting. The next step is to begin the process of transitioning from a functional organization to a process organization.

Another application of a just in time inventory focuses not on raw materials but on finished goods. Prepared by: Dr. or just in time.JUST-IN-TIME INVENTORY JIT. To a great degree. By knowing these two pieces of information. inventory is an inventory management strategy that is aimed at monitoring the inventory process in such a manner as to minimize the costs associated with inventory control and maintenance. Again. shipping finished goods shortly after producing them leads to minimizing storage costs and any taxes that may be applicable.Ansar-Ul-Haque. it is necessary to know how long it will take for the item to be shipped from the supplier and arrive at the manufacturing facility.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . First.Dr. a just-in-time inventory process relies on the efficient monitoring of the usage of materials in the production of goods and ordering replacement goods that arrive shortly before they are needed. A just in time inventory management process involves understanding how much of a given item is needed to maintain production while more of the same item is ordered. This dual application of a just in time inventory strategy can significantly cut the operational expenses of a business in regards to the amount of inventory that must be stored at any one time and the amount of taxes that must be paid on larger inventories. the anticipated life or usage of the item must be determined. Vandana Mittal. This involves two key factors. without having the replacement set in storage for an extended period of time.Raj Kumari. the idea is to develop a solid understanding of what is needed to produce goods and schedule them for shipment to customers within the shortest time frame possible. it is possible to establish procedures that allow the item to be reordered just in time to arrive and replace a worn item. As with raw materials. Second. This simple strategy helps to prevent incurring the costs associated with carrying large inventories of raw materials at any given point in time.Dr. Many purchasing departments employ a just in time inventory for such key items as raw materials and machine parts.

In addition.Unit-IV Quality control:Meaning. tools.Dr. As per A. It can be determined by some characteristics namely. The various factors include material. ³Quality´ means degree of perfection. Vandana Mittal. type of labour. SQC control charts.  The component is said to possess good quality. etc. it incorporates a feedback mechanism which explores the causes of poor quality and takes corrective action. Quality Control can be defined as the entire collection of activities which ensures that the operation will produce the optimum Quality products at minimum cost. Quality Control: Definition of Quality: y The meaning of ³Quality´ is closely allied to cost and customer needs. ³Quality´ may simply be defined as fitness for purpose at lowest cost. Quality is not absolute but it can only be judged or realized by comparing with standards. size. It suggests when to inspect.Raj Kumari. Quality is the µtotality of features and characteristics¶ both for the products and services that can satisfy both the explicit and implicit needs of the customers. so as to enable production and services at the most economical levels which allow full customer satisfaction´ Prepared by: Dr.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . Introduction to TQM. does not involve any mechanism to take corrective action. finish and other properties. Meaning of Quality Control: Quality Control is a systematic control of various factors that affect the quality of the product. how often to inspect and how much to inspect.Ansar-Ul-Haque. compares the same with prescribed quality standards and separates defective items from non-defective ones. chemical composition. machines. Control differs from µinspection¶. process control.Dr. design. material. Quality maintenance and Quality improvement efforts of the various groups in an organization. y y y Meaning of Control: Control is a system for measuring and checking (inspecting) a phenomenon. mechanical functioning. working conditions.Feigorbaum Total Quality Control is: ³An effective system for integrating the quality development. however. single. workmanship. as it ascertains quality characteristics of an item. double and sequential sampling.Y. Inspection. ³Quality´ of any product is regarded as the degree to which it fulfills the requirements of the customer. Quality is thus defined as fitness for purpose. if it works well in the equipment for which it is meant. measuring instruments.

Inspection cost reduces to a great extent. Management i. Improvement in manufacturer and consumer relations. Money i. if it is possible. Advantages of Quality Control: y y y y y y Quality of product is improved which in turn increases sales. In short. Scrap rejection and rework are minimized thus reducing wastage. These are: y y y y Market Research i.Dr. Prepared by: Dr. demand of purchaser. Factors Affecting Quality: In addition to men. So the cost of manufacturing reduces. materials. To take different measures to improve the standard of quality of product.´ Quality Control is concerned with making things right rather than discovering and rejecting those made wrong. Functions of Quality Control Department: y y y y y Only the products of uniform and standard quality are allowed to be sold. Management policies for quality level. Vandana Mittal.Raj Kumari. To correct the rejected goods. To find out the points where the control is breaking down and investigate the causes of it.Ansar-Ul-Haque. Good quality product improves reputation.e. capability to invest.e.Dr. To take various steps to solve any kind of deviations in the quality of the product during manufacturing. machines and manufacturing conditions there are some other factors which affect the product quality.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . who remains satisfied. To suggest method and ways to prevent the manufacturing difficulties.In the words of Alford and Beatly. ³Quality Control´ may be broadly defined as that ³Industrial management technique means of which products of uniform accepted quality are manufactured.e. This procedure is known as rehabilitation of defective goods. Modern quality control begins with an evaluation of the customer¶s requirements and has a part to play at every stage from goods manufactured right through sales to a customer. Production methods and product design. To reject the defective goods so that the products of poor quality may not reach to the customers. we can say that quality control is a technique of management for achieving required standards of products. Uniformity in quality can be achieved. Objectives of Quality Control: y y y To decide about the standard of quality of a product that is easily acceptableto the customer and at the same time this standard should be economical to maintain.

2. collects and analyses data in assessing and controlling product quality.Q.C plan is established. was though developed in 1924 by Dr. is the theory of probability.C. Using statistical techniques. S. Easy to apply: Once the S. The technique permits a more fundamental control.Q. Reduction in cost: Since only a fractional output is inspected.C): Statistics: Statistics means data. Vandana Mittal. the dimensions of the components made on the same machine and in one batch (if measured accurately) vary from component to component. uses three scientific techniques.Q. hence cost of inspection is greatly reduced.Q. production or inspection. and Control charting Advantages of S.Q.WalterA. GRANT The fundamental basis of S.Shewartan American scientist. Prepared by: Dr.C: This is a quality control system employing the statistical techniques to control quality by performing inspection. y y y Sampling inspection Analysis of the data. According to the theories of probability. and has following main advantages over 100 percent inspection: 1.C. This may be due to inherent machine characteristics or the environmental conditions. 3.C. it got recognition in industry only second world war.Q.C. a good amount of data to obtain reliable results. The technique of S. .Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . ³Statistical quality control can be simply defined as an economic & effective system of maintaining & improving the quality of outputs throughout the whole operating process of specification. S. The chance or condition that a sample will represent the entire batch or population is developed from the theory of probability. Relying itself on the probability theory. S. it is easy to apply even by man who does not have extensive specialized training.Raj Kumari. production & inspection based on continuous testing with random samples.C: S.Ansar-Ul-Haque.Dr.Q.Q. The science of statistics handles this data in order to draw certain conclusions.Statistical Quality Control (S.EUGENE L. S.Q. evaluates batch quality and controls the quality of processes and products.C.Dr. namely. Greater efficiency: It requires lesser time and boredom as compared to the 100 percent inspection and hence the efficiency increases.C is one of the tool for scientific management.Q. testing and analysis to conclude whether the quality of the product is as per the laid quality standards.´ -YA LUN CHOU ³Statistical quality control should be viewed as a kit of tools which may influence decisions to the functions of specification.

Process Control is an essential element of managing risk to ensure the safety and reliability of the Space Shuttle Program. a physical system is represented through variables that are smooth and uninterrupted in time. One example is the production of adhesives and glues. Process Control: Under this the quality of the products is controlled while the products are in the process of production. and maintained so that the completed product conforms to established requirements. mishaps. Robotic assembly. Most discrete manufacturing involves the production of discrete pieces of product. Process Control consists of the systems and tools used to ensure that processes are well defined. Some important continuous processes are the production of y y Prepared by: Dr. incidents and nonconformances. Continuous ± Often. unwanted variations in quality may be detected after large number of defective items have already been produced. motion and packaging applications. Accurate prediction: Specifications can easily be predicted for the future. Can be used where inspection is needs destruction of items: In cases where destruction of product is necessary for inspecting it. Other important examples are the production of food. we can know from graphic picture that how the production is proceeding and where corrective action is required and where it is not required.Ansar-Ul-Haque. Whereas in 100 percent inspection. 100 percent inspection is not possible (which will spoil all the products).Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . sampling inspection is resorted to. 6. Early detection of faults:The moment a sample point falls outside the control limits. can be characterized as discrete process control. They ensure that whether the products confirm to the specified quality standard or not. It is recognized that strict process control practices will aid in the prevention of process escapes that may result in or contribute to in-flight anomalies. Batch processes are generally used to produce a relatively low to intermediate quantity of product per year (a few pounds to millions of pounds). The five elements of a process are: y y y y y People ± skilled individuals who understand the importance of process and change control Methods/Instructions ± documented techniques used to define and perform a process Equipment ± tools. Batch ± Some applications require that specific quantities of raw materials be combined in specific ways for particular durations to produce an intermediate or end result. Thus by using the control charts. packing etc.Dr. Vandana Mittal. 5. such as metal stamping.Dr. process control systems can be characterized as one or more of the following forms: y Discrete ± Found in many manufacturing. which is not possible even with 100 percent inspection. beverages and medicine. facilities required to make products that meet requirements Material ± both product and process materials used to manufacture and test products Environment ± environmental conditions required to properly manufacture and test products In practice. which normally require the mixing of raw materials in a heated vessel for a period of time to form a quantity of end product. The process control is secured with the technique of control charts. is an example of continuous process control. Control charts are also used in the field of advertising. performed correctly. fixtures.4. it is taken as a danger signal and necessary corrective measures are taken. The control of the water temperature in a heating jacket. such as that found in automotive production.Raj Kumari. for example.

chemicals and plastics. Standard 6: Identify and evaluate changes to equipment and environment. can result in degradation of the end product and an associated increase in program risk. Statistical Process Control (SPC) is an effective method of monitoring a process through the use of control charts. It has an emphasis on early detection and prevention of problems. Process Control Standards & Practices A program as sophisticated as the Space Shuttle requires the integration of thousands of parts that must endure extreme operating environments. The following are process control standards: Standard 1: Detect and eliminate process variability and uncoordinated changes.Raj Kumari.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .fuels. Much of its power lies in the ability to monitor both process center and its variation about that center. Control charts are graphical representation and are based on Prepared by: Dr. Standard 4: Identify key design and manufacturing characteristics and share lessons learned relating to processes. Standard 7: Capture and maintain process knowledge and skills. Standard 3: Understand and reduce process risks. Continuous processes in manufacturing are used to produce very large quantities of product per year (millions to billions of pounds). the control chart tells when to leave a process alone and thus prevent unnecessary frequent adjustments. The Space Shuttle Process Control Management Plan defines the minimum requirements for process control related to flight hardware and critical ground support equipment for the Space Shuttle Program prime contractors. Standard 5: Be personally accountable. By collecting data from samples at various points within the process. Perform to written procedures. Each manufacturer and supplier has unique systems for process control that guarantee the integrity of the hardware. Control Charts Since variations in manufacturing process are unavoidable. Space hardware is produced by a broad supplier base using a wide variety of processes. Vandana Mittal. Those processes.Ansar-Ul-Haque. if not controlled. thus reducing waste as well as the likelihood that problems will be passed on to the customer.Dr.Dr. Standard 2: Eliminate creep through process controls and audits. variations in the process that may affect the quality of the end product or service can be detected and corrected.

If the chart indicates that the process being monitored is not in control. where both upper and lower values are specified for a quality characteristic.. including whether or not to change process control parameters. including: Prepared by: Dr.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . Control charts build up the reputation of the organization through customer¶s satisfaction. with variation only coming from sources common to the process) then data from the process can be used to predict the future performance of the process.statistical sampling theory. a mean.Raj Kumari. mean of the ranges. In other words.Dr. is stable.. y A device to judge whether statistical control has been attained or not. These control charts immediately tell the undesired variations and help in detecting the cause and its removal. and if the process is rectified at that time. a review of situation is taken and corrective step is immediately taken.g. It warns in time. It ensures product quality level. analysis of the chart can help determine the sources of variation. proportion) of measurements of a quality characteristic in samples taken from the process at different times [the data] The mean of this statistic using all the samples is calculated (e. 3. 6.g. 2. Purpose and Advantages: 1. It determines process variability and detects unusual variations taking place in a process. 5.Dr.e. A control chart is a specific kind of run chart that allows significant change to be differentiated from the natural variability of the process.. the mean of the means. 4. The control chart can be seen as part of an objective and disciplined approach that enables correct decisions regarding control of the process. If analysis of the control chart indicates that the process is currently under control (i.g. A control charts indicates whether the process is in control or out of control. Process parameters should never be adjusted for a process that is in control. It provides information about the selection of process and setting of tolerance limits. scrap or percentage rejection can be reduced. as this will result in degraded process performance. according to which an adequate sized random sample is drawn from each lot. mean of the proportions) A center line is drawn at the value of the mean of the statistic The standard error (e.Ansar-Ul-Haque. control chart is: y A device which specifies the state of statistical control. y A device for attaining statistical control. Vandana Mittal. standard deviation/sqrt(n) for the mean) of the statistic is also calculated using all the samples Upper and lower control limits (sometimes called "natural process limits") that indicate the threshold at which the process output is considered statistically 'unlikely' are drawn typically at 3 standard errors from the center line The chart may have other optional features. range. Control charts detect variations in the processing and warn if there is any departure from the specified tolerance limits. In control charts. as soon as some products show variation outside the tolerances. which can then be eliminated to bring the process back into control. A control chart consists of: y y y y y Points representing a statistic (e.

y y y Upper and lower warning limits.Dr.Ansar-Ul-Haque. with the addition of rules governing frequencies of observations in each zone Annotation with events of interest.Dr. drawn as separate lines. as determined by the Quality Engineer in charge of the process's quality Types of Control Charts Variables or Measurement Charts Control charts X(bar) Chart R Chart Chart p chart Attribute Charts np Chart C chart U chart Prepared by: Dr. Vandana Mittal.Raj Kumari. typically two standard errors above and below the center line Division into zones.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .

9 ounces of liquid). A soft drink bottling operation is an example of a variable measure. Also. the number of broken cookies in the box. y A control chart for attributes. variable control charts may alert us to quality problems before any actual "unacceptables" (as detected by the attribute chart) will occur. such as yes or no.g. 3. the meat is good or stale. good or bad. the lightbulb works or it does not work) or counting the number of defects (e.. acceptable or unacceptable (e. the number of chocolates in a box. Prepared by: Dr. Variables charts involve the measurement of the job dimensions and an item is accepted or rejected if its dimensions are within or beyond the fixed tolerance limits. on the other hand. or volume. that is.Ansar-Ul-Haque. Attribute control charts have the advantage of allowing for quick summaries of various aspects of the quality of a product. this type of chart tends to be more easily understood by managers unfamiliar with quality control procedures. Control Charts for Variables vs..Dr. Montgomery (1985) calls the variable control charts leading indicators of trouble that will sound an alarm before the number of rejects (scrap) increases in the production process. or the diameter of plastic tubing. weight. Advantages of variable control charts. Often they can be evaluated with a simple yes or no decision. or the volume of bottled water. y A control chart for variablesis used to monitor characteristics that can be measured and have a continuum of values. Attribute charts. or smell.Raj Kumari. 5. 2. precise devices and time-consuming measurement procedures. or determining whether a casting contains cracks or not. In such cases the answer is either yes or no. Therefore. Other examples are the weight of a bag of sugar. The different characteristics that can be measured by control charts can be divided into two groups: variables and attributes. Variables charts are relatively expensive because of the greater cost of collecting measured data. Variables charts are more detailed and contain more information as compared to attribute charts. the bottle of soft drink contains 15. Examples include color. the apple is good or rotten. attribute charts sometimes bypass the need for expensive. such as height. The monitoring of attributes usually takes less time than that of variables because a variable needs to be measured (e. since the amount of liquid in the bottles is measured and can take on a number of different values. the shoes have a defect or do not have a defect. the temperature of a baking oven. Variable control charts are more sensitive than attribute control charts. An attribute requires only a single decision. Vandana Mittal. the engineer may simply classify products as acceptable or unacceptable. Attribute charts are the only way to control quality in those cases where measurement of quality characteristics is either not possible or it is very complicated and costly to do so²as in the case of checking colour or finish of a product. whereas as attribute chart only differentiates between a defective item and a non-defective item without going into the measurement of its dimensions. such as the weight of a cereal box. it may provide more persuasive (to management) evidence of quality problems.. therefore.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .Control charts can be used to measure any characteristic of a product.Dr. Thus. taste. Charts for Attributes A comparison of variable control charts and attribute control charts are given below: 1. 4. the number of barnacles on the bottom of a boat).g. Advantages of attribute control charts. based on various quality criteria. the number of dents in the car.g. is used to monitor characteristics that have discrete values and can be counted. being based upon go and no go data (which is less effective as compared to measured values) require comparatively bigger sample size.

where _ is the number of samples: 1. It shows erratic or cyclic shifts in the process.Dr. 2. The R chart is used to monitor process variability when sample sizes are small (n<10). or to simplify the calculations made by process operators. It is generally used along with X-bar chart. 5. When used along with R chart: a. It is the most commonly used variables chart. It controls the quality of incoming material. It detects steady progress changes. for analysis of fraction defectives 3. Prepared by: Dr. C chart. X-Bar and R charts when used together form a powerful instrument for diagnosing quality problems. For each sample. It controls general variability of the process and is affected by changes in process variability. It shows changes in process average and is affected by changes in process variability. Mean (x-Bar) ( ) Charts A mean control chart is often referred to as an x-bar chart. The center line of the control chart is the average range. It is a chart for measure of spread. The center line of the chart is then computed as the mean of all sample means. 1. Range (R) charts Theseare another type of control chart for variables. 7.Dr. 4. It is a chart for the measure of central tendency. 2. for control of number of defects per unit. 3. Each sample must be taken at random and the size of sample is generally kept as 5 but 10 to15 units can be taken for sensitive control charts.Ansar-Ul-Haque.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . To construct a mean chart we first need to construct the center line of the chart.Raj Kumari. Plotting of and R charts: A number of samples of component coming out of the process are taken over a period of time. (X-Bar) and R charts. Vandana Mittal. 3. c. To do this we take multiple samples and compute their means. P chart. Therefore. It secures information in establishing or modifying processes. Each sample has its own mean. Whereas x-bar charts measure shift in the central tendency of the process. specifications or inspection procedures. Usually these samples are small. 2. the average value of all the measurements and the range R are calculated. with about four or five observations. This chart is called the R chart because the statistic being plotted is the sample range. for process control. The method for developing and using R-charts are the same as that for x-bar charts. The grand average (equal to the average value of all the average ) and ( is equal to the average of all the ranges R) are found and from these we can calculate the control limits for the and R charts. like 1. It is used to monitor changes in the mean of a process. and the upper and lower control limits are computed. b. It tells when to leave the process alone and when to chase and go for the causes leading to variation.Commonly used charts. 6. range charts monitor the dispersion or variability of the process. like tool wear.

Larger the number.Ansar-Ul-Haque.C tables.Raj Kumari. and these are given below in tabular form: Prepared by: Dr. The value of the factors . the close the can be obtained from S.Here the factors . and depend on the number of units per sample. However for ready reference limits.Q.Dr.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . Vandana Mittal.Dr.

Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .Notation: n or m= sample size Example Piston for automotive engine are produced by a forging process.Raj Kumari.Ansar-Ul-Haque. have been taken when we think the process is in control.Dr. Vandana Mittal.Dr. Prepared by: Dr. each of size five. The inside diameter measurement data from these samples are shown in table. We wish to establish statistical control of inside diameter of the ring manufactured by this process using x and R charts. Twenty-five samples.

023) = 73.Dr.58(0.58. =74.023 = 0. UCL = =2.C tables (Fig.023) = 74.001.98766 UCL (R chart) = = 2.Dr.11 and + =0 = 74.Ansar-Ul-Haque.3) for sample size 5 =0.04853 LCL (R chart) = Prepared by: Dr.001+ 0. Vandana Mittal.58(0.Raj Kumari.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .Q.So.01434 LCL = -- = 74.001 = 0.023 From S.0.11*0.

Dr.Ansar-Ul-Haque. Vandana Mittal.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .2 Fig.= 0*0.2: R Chart Inference: Prepared by: Dr.023 =0 Now and R charts are plotted on the plot as shown in Fig.1: Chart Fig.1 and Fig.Raj Kumari.Dr.

In the chart.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . The various reasons for the process being out of control may be: 1. 3.Raj Kumari. Vandana Mittal. Process in control: If the process is found to be in statistical control.Dr. This cause must be traced or removed so that the process may return to operate under stable statistical conditions. it means there is an external cause that throws the process out of control. If not. Prepared by: Dr.3 Process out of control: After computing the control limits.Ansar-Ul-Haque. a comparison between the required specifications and the process capability may be carried out to determine whether the two are compatible. Faulty tools Sudden significant change in properties of new materials in a new consignment Breakout of lubrication system Faults in timing of speed mechanisms. 2. all of the time the plotted points representing average are well within the control limits but if some samples fall outside the control limits then it means something has probably gone wrong or is about to go wrong with the process and a check is needed to prevent the appearance of defective products. 4.Dr. Fig. the next step is to determine whether the process is in statistical control or not.

certain errors may develop and that constitute the assignable causes but no statistical action can be taken. first.Dr.Ansar-Ul-Haque. No statistical test can be applied.Conclusions: When the process is not in control then then the point fall outside the control limits on either or R charts. 1. P-charts are used to measure the proportion of items in a sample that are defective. The process is said to be in control if fraction defective values fall within the control limits. Each item is classified as good (non-defective) or bad (defective). This chart is used to control the general quality of the component parts and it checks if the fluctuations in product quality (level) are due to chance alone. Attributes are discrete in nature and entail simple yes-or-no decisions. the number of scratches on a tile.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . In case the process is out of control an investigation to hunt for the cause becomes necessary. the number of rotten apples. When all the points are inside the control limits even then we cannot definitely say that no assignable cause is present but it is not economical to trace the cause.Dr. P-charts are appropriate when both the number of defectives measured and the size of the total sample can be counted. Control Charts for Attributes: Control charts for attributes are used to measure quality characteristics that are counted rather than measured. 3. It can be a fraction defective chart. Plotting of P-charts: By calculating. It means assignable causes (human controlled causes) are present in the process. or the number of complaints issued. A proportion can then be computed and used as the statistic of measurement. Prepared by: Dr. Vandana Mittal. 2. this could be the number of nonfunctioning lightbulbs. For example.Raj Kumari. Even in the best manufacturing process. the proportion of broken eggs in a carton. Two of the most common types of control charts for attributes are p-charts and c-charts. Examples are the proportion of broken cookies in a batch and the proportion of cars produced with a misaligned fender. the fraction defective and then the control limits.

C-charts count the actual number of defects. The wafer is referred to as an "item of a product". However.Raj Kumari. (e. When a particular wafer (e. Defective ‡ µDefect¶ ± a single nonconforming quality characteristic. C charts can be plotted by using the following formulas: UCL ! c  3 c CL ! c  3 c The primary difference between using a p-chart and a c-chart is as follows..Ansar-Ul-Haque. The chip may be referred to as "a specific point".Dr. Furthermore.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . Vandana Mittal. the number of bacteria on a petri dish. an investigation of the production of these wafers is warranted. which is the same as differentiating between nonconformity and nonconforming units. it is classified as a nonconforming item. each chip. a nonconforming or defective item contains at least one defect or nonconformity. and on managerial judgment. A P-chart is used when both the total sample size and the number of defects can be computed.. If. the item of the product) does not meet at least one of the specifications. we can count the number of complaints from customers in a month. So.Dr. or the proportion of barnacles on the bottom of a boat.g. For example. we cannot compute the proportion of complaints from customers. or the number of barnacles on the bottom of a boat. since the variations within three standard deviations are considered as natural variations. but in the interest of clarity let's try to unravel this man-made mystery. the choice of the value of Z depends on the environment in which the chart is being used. Defect vs. the specific point) at which a specification is not met becomes a defect or nonconformity. However. Prepared by: Dr. There exist certain specifications for the wafers.Usually the Z value is equal to 3 (as was used in the X and R charts). or for the average number of defects per inspection unit. Consider a wafer with a number of chips on it. ‡ µDefective¶ ± items having one or more defects. Control charts involving counts can be either for the total number of nonconformities (defects) for the sample of inspected units. the number of the so-called "unimportant" defects becomes alarmingly large. Defective items vs individual defects The literature differentiates between defect and defective. For example. It should be pointed out that a wafer can contain several defects but still be classified as conforming.g. the proportion of bacteria on a petri dish. the defects may be located at noncritical positions on the wafer. This may sound like splitting hairs. on the other hand.

´ . and if the number of defective items is more than the stated number known as acceptance number. The purpose of Acceptance Sampling is.SIMPSON AND KAFKA For the purpose of acceptance. Inspection for acceptance is generally carried out on a sampling basis.Raj Kumari.Dr. The use of sampling inspection to decide whether or not to accept the lot is known as Acceptance Sampling. the whole lot is rejected. Vandana Mittal. Incoming Quality Inspection Station Accepted Lot Outgoing Quality Rejected lot Subjected to cent Percent inspection Replacement of substandard items by Prepared by: Dr.A C-chart is used when we can compute only the number of defects but cannot compute the proportion that is defective.Ansar-Ul-Haque. therefore a method used to make a decision as to whether to accept or to reject lots based on inspection of sample(s). The decision is reached through sampling. These stages may be: inspection of incoming materials and parts. process inspection at various points in the manufacturing operations. inspection is carried out at many stages in the process of manufacturing. Acceptance Sampling: ³Acceptance Sampling is concerned with the decision to accept a mass of manufactured items as conforming to standards of quality or to reject the mass as non-conforming to quality.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal good ones from assemblies and rejection of individual defective item . final inspection by a manufacturer of his own product and finally inspection of the finished product by the purchaser. A sample from the inspection lot is inspected.Dr.

inspection can also be done on finished goods before deciding whether to make the shipment to the customer or not. The objective is not to control or estimate the quality of lots. it is possible to carry out sample inspection at various stages. and the number of samples that will be taken. Very good 100 percent inspection may remove at the most 99 percent of the defectives. The cookies may be inspected to make sure they are not broken or burned. performing 100% inspection is generally not economical or practical.Double Sampling (Inference made on the basis of one or two samples) . Because of its economy. sampling is used instead. .Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . The variables to be specified include the size of the lot (N). For example.Ansar-Ul-Haque. but still cannot reach the level of 100 percent. a lot size of 50 cookies is evaluated for acceptance by randomly inspecting 10 cookies from the lot.Raj Kumari. Risks in Acceptance sampling 1. such type of risk is known as producer¶s risk. inspection may be performed on incoming raw material. Vandana Mittal. Producer¶s risk-: Sometimes inspite of good quality. Consumer¶s Risk-: Sometimes the quality of the lot is not good but the sample results show good quality units as such the consumer has to accept a defective lot. only to pass a judgment on lots. which are called the consumer's and the producer's risks. to decide whether to keep it or return it to the vendor if the quality level is not what was agreed on. the number of defects above which a lot is rejected (c). Acceptance Sampling is much less expensive than 100 percent inspection. such a risk is known as consumer¶s risk. We encounter making decisions on sampling in our daily affairs. Acceptance Sampling is therefore a method used to make a decision as to whether to accept or to reject lots based on inspection of sample(s). If 4 or more of the 10 Prepared by: Dr. therefore. Role of Acceptance Sampling: Acceptance Sampling is very widely used in practice due to the following merits: 1. For example. Similarly.Dr.Dr. respectively. Acceptance Sampling Plans: A sampling plan is a plan for acceptance sampling that precisely specifies the parameters of the sampling process and the acceptance/rejection criteria.a random sample is drawn from every lot. the entire lot is either accepted or rejected. There are different types of sampling plans. the sample taken may show defective units as such the lot will be rejected. Due to the effect of inspection fatigue involved in 100 percent inspection. Single Sampling Plans In this.Single Sampling (Inference made on the basis of only one sample) .Sequential Sampling (Additional samples are drawn until an inference can be made) etc. Inspection provides a means for monitoring quality. Using sampling rather than 100% inspection of the lots brings some risks both to the consumer and to the producer. 3. 2.´ Depending on the number of defects or ³bad´ items found. 2. the size of the sample inspected from the lot (n). Acceptance sampling determines whether a batch of goods should be accepted or rejected.Acceptance sampling is the process of randomly inspecting a sample of goods and deciding whether to accept the entire lot based on the results. Each item in the sample is examined and is labeled as either ³good´ or ³bad. It is general experience that 100 percent inspection removes only 82 to 95 percent of defective material. a good sampling plan may actually give better results than that achieved by 100 percent inspection. However.

if the results fall in the middle range. Multiple Sampling Plan: Multiple sampling plans are similar to double sampling plans except that criteria are set for more than two samples. Criteria may be set for acceptable or unacceptable water quality. These parameters define the acceptance sampling plan.Dr. In double sampling we first sample a lot of goods according to preset criteria for definite acceptance or rejection. a sample of water containing between . Because the actual cost of getting the sample is high.1 percent chlorine is inconclusive and calls for a second sample of water. we want to get a large sample and sample only once. if the cost of collecting a sample is relatively high.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .Dr. In this example. Double Sampling Plan: This provides an opportunity to sample the lot a second time if the results of the first sample are inconclusive. An extreme example is collecting a biopsy from a hospital patient. single sampling is preferred. Vandana Mittal.Ansar-Ul-Haque.cookies inspected are bad. the sample size n_ 10. a water treatment plant may sample the quality of the water ten times in random intervals throughout the day. the time consumed by sampling. and the cost of passing on a defective item.Raj Kumari.05 percent chlorine and .they are considered inconclusive and a second sample is taken. The decision as to which sampling plan to select has a great deal to do with the cost involved in sampling. However. However. This may be the case with a water treatment plant. In general. For example.05 percent and . such as . the lot size N _ 50. the entire lot is rejected. where collecting the water is inexpensive but the chemical analysis is costly. and the maximum number of defects at which a lot is accepted is c _ 4.1 percent chlorine. The opposite is true when the cost of collecting the sample is low but the actual cost of testing is high. In this section we focus primarily on single sampling plans. Prepared by: Dr.

a set of management practices to help companies increase their quality and productivity: 1. measured and responded to consistently.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . TQM looks at the overall quality measures used by a company including managing quality design and development. and quality assurance. Prepared by: Dr. This can be achieved by integrating all quality-related functions and processes throughout the company.Dr. Vandana Mittal. services and the culture in which they work. Principles of TQM A number of key principles can be identified in defining TQM. 3. TQM takes into account all quality measures taken at all levels and involving all company employees. Training ± Employees should receive regular training on the methods and concepts of quality. 2. Decision Making ± Quality decisions should be made based on measurements. In a TQM effort. Total Quality Management (TQM) is a management approach to long-term success through customer satisfaction.Ansar-Ul-Haque. including: y y y y y y y y Executive Management ± Top management should act as the main driver for TQM and create an environment that ensures its success. Cease dependence on inspection to achieve quality. Adopt the new philosophy. all members of an organization participate in improving processes.An Introduction to Total Quality Management (TQM) At its core. quality control and maintenance. products. Employee Involvement ± Employees should be encouraged to be pro-active in identifying and addressing quality related problems. Company Culture ± The culture of the company should aim at developing employees ability to work together to improve quality. Methodology and Tools ± Use of appropriate methodology and tools ensures that non-conformances are identified. A core concept in implementing TQM is Deming¶s 14 points. Create constancy of purpose for improving products and services.Dr. Continuous Improvement ± Companies should continuously work towards improving manufacturing and quality procedures. quality improvement.Raj Kumari. Total Quality Management (TQM) is an approach that seeks to improve quality and performance which will meet or exceed customer expectations. TQM can be defined as the management of initiatives and procedures that are aimed at achieving the delivery of quality products and services. Customer Focus ± Improvements in quality should improve customer satisfaction.

Quality circles are not mere ³gab sessions. These causes could be related to the machines. Adopt and institute leadership. and decisions are made through group consensus. Eliminate slogans. The contributions of teams are considered vital to the success of the company. measurement. Cause-and-Effect Diagrams Cause-and-effect diagrams are charts that identify potential causes for particular quality problems. production and service. The seven tools of Quality Control: 1. it places great emphasis on teamwork.Dr. The circle is usually composed of eight to ten members. The diagram is drawn so that the ³spine´ of the fish connects the ³head´ to the possible cause of the problem. To facilitate the solving of quality problems. 6. such as damaged zippers on a garment or broken valves on a tire.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . 8. Eliminate numerical quotas for the workforce and numerical goals for management. End the practice of awarding business on price alone.Raj Kumari. Scatter diagram Pareto analysis which means identification of vital few from many at a glance. teams work regularly to correct problems. 3. it is serious business. Although the functioning of quality circles is friendly and casual. Vandana Mittal. companies set aside time in the workday for team meetings. and criticism is not allowed. suppliers. This is used for fixing the priorities in tackling a problem. 2. 14. exhortations and targets for the workforce. 4. Teams vary in their degree of structure and formality. and different types of teams solve different types of problems. A general cause-and-effect diagram is shown in Figure 5-8. 13.´Using techniques such as brainstorming. workers. 11. and eliminate the annual rating or merit system. Drive out fear. 7. 5. 9.´ Rather. 5. a team of volunteer production employees and their supervisors whose purpose is to solve quality problems. Histograms. instead. they do important work for the company and have been very successful in many firms. Improve constantly and forever every process for planning. Cause and effect analysis Flowcharts Checklists Control techniques including Statistical quality control and control charts.4. minimize total cost by working with a single supplier. The teams usually meet weekly during work hours in a place designated for this purpose. Put everybody in the company to work accomplishing the transformation. For this reason. Break down barriers between staff areas. One of the most common types of teams is the quality circle. and quality control tools. The use of teams is based on the old adage that ³two heads are better than one. They follow a preset process for analyzing and solving quality problems. Team Approach TQM stresses that quality is an organizational effort. Remove barriers that rob people of pride of workmanship. discussion. The ³head´ of the fish is the quality problem. Prepared by: Dr.Dr. 7.Ansar-Ul-Haque. Institute training on the job. They are often called fishbone diagrams because they look like the bones of a fish. 10. 12. 6. Institute a vigorous program of education and self-improvement for everyone. Open discussion is promoted.

the width of a tire. such as location or time. Similarly. For example.materials. Above and below the center line are two lines.When the production process is operating within expectations.Dr.Raj Kumari. Control Charts Control charts are a very important quality control tool. or fatigue. so does the number of defects. so that an increase in one of the variables is associated with a decrease in the other. the process is in control and there is no problem with quality. the more linear are the observations in the scatter diagram. Specific causes of problems can be explored through brainstorming. For example. The greater the degree of correlation. These charts are used to evaluate whether a process is operating within expectations relative to some measured value such as weight. For example. On the other hand. between two variables. In this fashion we can isolate the location of the particular defect and then focus on correcting the problem. Scatter Diagrams Scatter diagrams are graphs that show how two variables arerelated to one another. increased production speed and number of defects could be correlated positively. or per operator. the less correlation exists between the variables. increased worker training might be associated with a decrease in the number of defects observed. Two variables could also be correlated negatively. or the degree of linear relationship. This may be Prepared by: Dr. Vandana Mittal. per machine. or volume. poor supervision. we say that it is ³in control. other types of relationships can also be observed on a scatter diagram. Cause-and-effect diagrams are problem-solving tools commonly used by quality control teams. or the volume of a bottle of soft drink.Ansar-Ul-Haque. The development of a cause-and-effect diagram requires the team to think through all the possible causes of poor quality.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . We will study the use of control charts at great length in the next chapter. and many other aspects of the production process. Flowcharts A flowchart is a schematic diagram of the sequence of steps involved in an operation or process. The chart has a line down the center representing the average value of the variable we are measuring. As long as the observed values fall within the upper and lower control limits. as production speed increases. It is a simple yet effective fact-finding tool that allows the worker to collect specific information regarding the defects observed. the more scattered the observations in the diagram. Checklists A checklist is a list of common defects and the number of observed occurrences of these defects. called the upper control limit (UCL) and the lower control limit (LCL). everyone develops a clear picture of how the operation works and where problems could arise.´ To evaluate whether or not a process is in control. For example. we could measure the weight of a sack of flour. old equipment. a problem with workers could be related to lack of training. we regularly measure the variable of interest and plot it on a control chart. It provides a visual tool that is easy to use and understand. if a defect is being observed frequently. Of course. For example. It is clear that the biggest problem is ripped material. This means that the plant needs to focus on this specific problem²for example. a problem with machines could be due to a need for adjustment. When a measured observation falls outside of these limits. By seeing the steps involved in an operation or process.Dr. there is a problem. Each of these possible causes can then have smaller ³bones´ that address specific issues that relate to each cause. They are particularly useful in detecting the amount of correlation. by going to the source of supply or seeing whether the material rips during a particular production process. a checklist can be developed that measures the number of occurrences per shift. The checklist in Figure 5-7 shows four defects and the number of times they have been observed. or tooling problems. width. such as an inverted. A checklist can also be used to focus on other dimensions.

the case when one is observing the relationship between two variables such as oven temperature and number of defects, since temperatures below and above the ideal could lead to defects. Pareto Analysis Pareto analysis is a technique used to identify quality problems based on their degree of importance. The logic behind Pareto analysis is that only a few quality problems are important, whereas many others are not critical. The technique was named after Vilfredo Pareto, a nineteenth-century Italian economist who determined that only a small percentage of people controlled most of the wealth. This concept has often been called the 80±20 rule and has been extended too many areas. In quality management the logic behind Pareto¶s principle is that most quality problems are a result of only a few causes. The trick is to identify these causes. One way to use Pareto analysis is to develop a chart that ranks the causes of poor quality in decreasing order based on the percentage of defects each has caused. For example, a tally can be made of the number of defects that result from different causes, such as operator error, defective parts, or inaccurate machine calibrations. Percentages of defects can be computed from the tally and placed in a chart like those shown in Figure 5-7.We generally tends to find that a few causes account for most of the defects. Histograms A histogram is a chart that shows the frequency distribution of observed values of a variable. We can see from the plot what type of distribution a particular variable displays, such as whether it has a normal distribution and whether the distribution is symmetrical. In the food service industry the use of quality control tools is important in identifying quality problems. Grocery store chains, such as Kroger and Meijer, must record and monitor the quality of incoming produce, such as tomatoes and lettuce. Quality tools can be used to evaluate the acceptability of product quality and to monitor product quality from individual suppliers. They can also be used to evaluate causes of quality problems, such as long transit time or poor refrigeration. Similarly, restaurants use quality control tools to evaluate and monitor the quality of delivered goods, such as meats, produce, or baked goods.

Prepared by: Dr. Vandana Mittal,Dr.Ansar-Ul-Haque,Dr.Raj Kumari,Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal

ISO 9000 Standards Increases in international trade during the 1980s created a need for the development of universal standards of quality. Universal standards were seen as necessary in order for companies to be able to objectively document
Prepared by: Dr. Vandana Mittal,Dr.Ansar-Ul-Haque,Dr.Raj Kumari,Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal

their quality practices around the world. Then in 1987 the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) published its first set of standards for quality management called ISO 9000. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international organization whose purpose is to establish agreement on international quality standards. It currently has members from 91 countries, including the United States. To develop and promote international quality standards, ISO 9000 has been created. ISO 9000 consists of a set of standards and a certification process for companies. By receiving ISO 9000 certification, companies demonstrate that they have met the standards specified by the ISO. The standards are applicable to all types of companies and have gained global acceptance. In many industries ISO certification has become a requirement for doing business. Also, ISO 9000 standards have been adopted by the European Community as a standard for companies doing business in Europe. In December 2000 the first major changes to ISO 9000 were made, introducing the following three new standards: ‡ ISO 9000:2000±Quality Management Systems±Fundamentals and Standards: Provides the terminology and definitions used in the standards. It is the starting point for understanding the system of standards. ‡ ISO 9001:2000±Quality Management Systems±Requirements: This is the standard used for the certification of a firm¶s quality management system. It is used to demonstrate the conformity of quality management systems to meet customer requirements. ‡ ISO 9004:2000±Quality Management Systems±Guidelines for Performance: Provides guidelines for establishing a quality management system. It focuses not only on meeting customer requirements but also on improving performance. These three standards are the most widely used and apply to the majority of companies. However, ten more published standards and guidelines exist as part of the ISO 9000 family of standards. To receive ISO certification, a company must provide extensive documentation of its quality processes. This includes methods used to monitor quality, methods and frequency of worker training, job descriptions, inspection programs, and statistical process-control tools used. High-quality documentation of all processes is critical. The company is then audited by an ISO 9000 registrar who visits the facility to make sure the company has a well-documented quality management system and that the process meets the standards. If the registrar finds that all is in order, certification is received. Once a company is certified, it is registered in an ISO directory that lists certified companies. The entire process can take 18 to 24 months and can cost anywhere from $10,000 to $30,000. Companies have to be recertified by ISO every three years. One of the shortcomings of ISO certification is that it focuses only on the process used and conformance to specifications. In contrast to the Baldrige criteria, ISO certification does not address questions about the product itself and whether it meets customer and market requirements. Today there are over 40,000 companies that are ISO certified. In fact, certification has become a requirement for conducting business in many industries. ISO 14000 Standards The need for standardization of quality created an impetus for the development of other standards. In 1996 the International Standards Organization introduced standards for evaluating a company¶s environmental responsibility. These standards, termed ISO 14000, focus on three major areas: ‡ Management systems standards measure systems development and integration of environmental responsibility into the overall business. ‡ Operations standards include the measurement of consumption of natural resources and energy. ‡ Environmental systems standards measure emissions, effluents, and other waste systems.
Prepared by: Dr. Vandana Mittal,Dr.Ansar-Ul-Haque,Dr.Raj Kumari,Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal

Dr. ISO 14000 may become an important set of standards for promoting environmental responsibility.With greater interest in green manufacturing and more awareness of environmental concerns.Raj Kumari. Vandana Mittal.Ansar-Ul-Haque.Dr. Prepared by: Dr.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .

water. Introduction Environmental pollution had been a fact of life for many centuries but it became a real problem since the start of the industrial revolution. Ecology In general ecology pertains to the study of relationship between various organisms and their environment. Environment refers to the ecological.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . Definitions: Environmental Pollution is ³the contamination of the physical and biological components of the earth/atmosphere system to such an extent that normal environmental processes are adversely affected´. Vandana Mittal.Dr. Human ecology. with all the waste from this exploitation going straight in to the environment (air. land) and seriously damaging its natural processes. living habits. Water. reproductive habits and ultimate death. which studies the relationship between human biological factors and the natural environment. Social ecology. economic. it had seen the growth of truly global proportions only since the onset of the industrial revolution during the 19th century. But since the start of the industrial revolution vast amounts of these resources had been exploited within a period of just a couple of hundred of years at unimaginable rates. population. Environmental pollution is a problem both in developed and developing countries.Ansar-Ul-Haque. 2. food habits. which in turn place more stringent constraints on future technology. Environmental Pollution Although pollution had been known to exist for a very long time (at least since people started using fire thousands of years ago). It¶s interesting to note that natural resources had been stored virtually untouched in the Earth for millions of years. which studies the relationship among natural environment. (1) Prepared by: Dr. The ecology study of man may be divided in to two fields: 1. Solid waste and Noise pollution.Raj Kumari.V unitEnvironmental Issues: Environmental Pollution ± various management techniques to control Environmental pollution ± Various control acts for Air. animal and human populations in terms of rate of population growth. Factors such as population growth and urbanization invariably place greater demands on the planet and stretch the use of natural resources to the maximum. This includes consideration of plant. and social and technology considerations that impact on engineering and in turn are impacted by the results of engineering.Dr. Detrimental effects of increased waste and water and air pollution are controlled through the implementation of environmental specifications and standards. political. technology and society.

In one word. asphalt.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . Sources of Environmental Pollution Fossil Fuel Sources of Environmental Pollution In modern industrialized societies. Not only do we use fossil fuels for our obvious everyday needs (such as filling a car). ³Pollutants can be naturally occurring substances or energies.´ Pollution is habitat contamination´.Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the environment that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms. because the natural environment does not know how to decompose the unnaturally generated elements (i.e. Why does pollution matter? It matters first and foremost because it has negative impacts on crucial environmental services such as provision of clean air and clean water (and many others) without which life on Earth as we know it would not exist. fossil fuels (oil. lubricating oils. water. there is a lack of knowledge on the part of humans on how to decompose these pollutants artificially.Raj Kumari.Dr.Ansar-Ul-Haque. or energy such as noise. solvents. Prepared by: Dr. gas. etc. but are considered contaminants when in excess of natural levels. on the one hand.. detergents. Vandana Mittal. or that damage the environment´ which can come ³in the form of chemical substances. poisonous gas emissions) in due course without any structural or functional damage to its system. and. on the other. coal) transcended virtually all imaginable barriers and firmly established themselves in our everyday lives. heat or light´.Dr. anthropogenic pollutants).´ ³Any use of natural resources at a rate higher than nature's capacity to restore itself can result in pollution of air. they (specifically oil) are also present in such products as all sorts of plastics. and land. Pollution occurs. a wide range of chemicals for industrial use. environmental pollution takes place when the environment cannot process and neutralize harmful by-products of human activities (for example. as well as in the powergenerating industry.

Power-generating plants and transport are probably the biggest sources of fossil fuel pollution.Combustion of fossil fuels produces extremely high levels of air pollution and is widely recognized as one of the most important ³target´ areas for reduction and control of environmental pollution. Trading activities may be another source of pollution. Learn more about the causes and effects of global warming here.Dr. Technology. which may lead water pollution and soil contamination as well. Standard of living. Common sources of fossil fuel pollution are: Industry: y y y y y Power-generating plants Petroleum refineries Petrochemical plants Production and distribution of fossil fuels Other manufacturing facilities Transport: y y y Road transport (motor vehicles) Shipping industry Aircraft Fossil fuel combustion is also a major source of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and perhaps the most important cause of global warming.Dr. Amount of waste treatment Prepared by: Dr.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . Residential sector is another significant source of pollution generating solid municipal waste that may end up in landfills or incinerators leading to soil contamination and air pollution. Vandana Mittal.Raj Kumari. it¶s been recently noted that packaging of products sold in supermarkets and other retail outlets is far too excessive and generates large quantities of solid waste that ends up either in landfills or municipal incinerators leading to soil contamination and air pollution. Degree of recycling. Factors Causing/affecting Environment Pollution y y y y y Population Density. Chemicals such as pesticides and fertilizers are also widely used in agriculture. agriculture (livestock farming) is worth mentioning as the largest generator of ammonia emissions resulting in air pollution. For example.Ansar-Ul-Haque. Fossil fuels also contribute to soil contamination and water pollution. Other (Non-Fossil Fuel) Sources of Environmental Pollution Among other pollution sources.

We are discussing the effects of air pollution and specific air pollutants in more detail in the Air Pollutants article. Other Animals & Plants There is no doubt that excessive levels of pollution are causing a lot of damage to human & animal health.Raj Kumari. The effects in living organisms may range from mild discomfort to serious diseases such as cancer to physical deformities (for example. Skin Diseases. plants & trees (including tropical rainforests) as well as the wider environment.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . Poisoning. Environmental Pollution Effects on Humans We know that pollution causes not only physical disabilities but also psychological and behavioral disorders in people. Mantel Disorders. Types of Environmental Pollution There are four major types of environmental pollution: y Air pollution Prepared by: Dr. Vandana Mittal.Ansar-Ul-Haque. Physical Disability. Experts admit that environmental pollution effects are quite often underestimated and that more research is needed to understand the connections between pollution and its effects on all life forms. water and soil pollution ± have an impact on the living environment. We need to find alternative renewable sources of energy which can replace fossil fuels in the future. Disorders due to Repeated Trauma.Dr. Green investment provides a great platform to explore and develop new and clean sources of energy such as solar electricity. Diseases of Lungs. How can we control environmental pollution? It's clear that fossil fuels are among the biggest sources of pollution. All types of environmental pollution ± air.Environmental Pollution Effects on Humans. This can really make a positive difference to the environment and reduce current pollution levels. Building your own solar panels and using diy solar energy systems to meet at least part of your home electricity needs is another emerging opportunity for diy enthusiasts. extra or missing limbs in frogs).Dr. The following effects of environmental pollution on humans have been reported: Effects of Pollution on Human Health y y y y y y y Respiratory Diseases.

In other words. chemical and coal burning power plants etc. The combustion of fossil fuels and the harmful effects of deforestation have all contributed towards the same.y y y Water pollution Soil pollution (contamination) Noise Pollution Air pollution: Air pollution may be defind as any gaseous. y Nitrogen dioxide is one more gas that is emitted into the atmosphere as a result of various human activities.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal y .Ansar-Ul-Haque. particulate matter. Nitrogen dioxide when combined with sulfur dioxide can even cause a harmful reaction in the atmosphere that can cause acid rain. gas dryers. whether industrial or commercial that cause the increase in the Prepared by: Dr. although was present in the atmosphere earlier. Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals. Harmful Gases: y Carbon dioxide is one the main pollutants that causes air pollution. gas stoves. Air pollution is injurious to life and property. it is no wonder that air pollution is increasing at an alarming rate. ozone. is now considered to be a major pollutant. The manufacturing process of most products would require the use of this gas. offices and even a large number of homes. fireplaces. nitrogen dioxide. Scientists have now therefore identified carbon dioxide as one of those elements that have contributed to global warming. woodstoves. which add to the increased proportion of this gas into the atmosphere. Although carbon dioxide plays an important role in various other processes like photosynthesis. An excess of nitrogen dioxide mainly happens due to most power plants seen in major cities. Vandana Mittal. carbon dioxide remains to be at least 40% of the emission. Many researches show that amongst the various gasses emitted during a volcanic eruption.Raj Kumari. yard equipments as well as automobiles. with radioactive pollutants probably among the most destructive ones (specifically when produced by nuclear explosions). Stratospheric ozone depletion due to air pollution has long been recognized as a threat to human health as well as to the Earth's ecosystems. petroleum refineries. y The combustion of fuels in automobiles. breathing an excess of the same also causes harmful effects towards one¶s health. liquid or solid material suspended in the air which creates an undesirable effect. Sources of Air Pollution: 1. y Jet planes etc all cause the release of several primary pollutants into the air. carbon monoxide. into the atmosphere. Sulfur dioxide is emitted largely to the excessive burning of fossil fuels. the burning of fuels due to various motor vehicles and other such sources. volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and airborne particles. This gas is harmful when emitted from other sources. An excess of the same has a harmful effect on our system. There are various human activities that add to the increased proportions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The atmosphere is a complex dynamic natural gaseous system that is essential to support life on planet Earth. The burning of fossil fuels in big cities which is seen at most factories.Dr. y Carbon monoxide is another such gas which. Sulfur dioxide is yet another harmful pollutant that causes air pollution. Carbon dioxide gas is used in various industries such as the oil industry and the chemical industry. This is also produced due to any fuel burning appliance and appliances such as gas water heaters.Dr. The release of other harmful gases all adds to the state that we see today. or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms. There are many reasons why carbon monoxide can be released into the atmosphere as a result of human activities. Air Pollutants: Some of the most important air pollutants are sulfur dioxide. or cause damage to the natural environment or built environment. which are caused due to human activity.

A large number of food.levels of nitrogen dioxide. lung cancer. power and transportation. 5. Gaseous emissions from automobiles. especially fish in highly polluted rivers.Dr. Material Damage to structural metals. They can kill plants and trees by destroying their leaves. mouth and throat Reduced lung functioning Asthma attacks Respiratory symptoms such as coughing and wheezing Increased respiratory disease such as bronchitis Reduced energy levels Headaches and dizziness Disruption of endocrine. and sulfur dioxide also have harmful effects on natural ecosystems. Effects of Air Pollution: y y y y y y y y y y y y Irritation of eyes.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . Many diseases could be caused by air pollution without their becoming apparent for a long time. Heat. 6. forage and crops have been shown to be damaged by air pollutants. and heart disease may all eventually appear in people exposed to air pollution. Physiological effects on Man and Domestic Animals like lung carcinoma. 2. Air pollutants such as ozone. Air pollution is also responsible for Agricultural damage.Dr.Ansar-Ul-Haque. 3. Diseases such as bronchitis. 4. Vandana Mittal. changes in blood chemistry etc. These and a number of other hazardous air pollutants are emitted with the various numbers of activities that we carry out during the day which are the main causes of air pollution. Factory Chimneys Home Furnaces Burning Refuse Burning fuel for light.Raj Kumari. and can kill animals. reproductive and immune systems Neurobehavioral disorders Cardiovascular problems Cancer Premature death y y y y y y Air pollution is responsible for Visibility reduction produced by the scattering of light from the surfaces of air-borne particles. optic irritation. nitrogen oxides. surface coatings. fabrics and other materials is a frequent and widespread effect of air pollution. Psychological Effects. y Prepared by: Dr. nose.

You don¶t really need it to express your feeling of happiness.Dr. Classification of Water Pollutants These may be classified into the following categories: A.This will help to reduce the number of vehicles on the already congested roads. Always buy recycled products. Biological Pollutants Prepared by: Dr. Chemical Pollutants These may be organic and inorganic pollutants.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . Physiological Pollutants Undesirable taste and odor present in water used for drinking or food processing is objectionable to the consumer.Try to use minimum amounts of natural gas and even electricity.Prevention of Air Pollution y Carpool. Physical Pollutants These include the following: (a) Color (b) Turbidity (c) Temperature (d) Suspended Solids (e) Foam (f) Radio-Activity. Reuse things such as paper and plastic bags. y Always keep your car tuned properly so that it remains in a good condition. C. paper etc. Avoid the use of firecrackers. B.Dr. The major consideration with respect to organic materials is the depletion of dissolved oxygen. Oil will form surface films. Whenever possible.Raj Kumari. Go in for water-based paints instead of varnishes. D. If you really cannot avoid using your car. Water pollution may also be defined as the addition to a natural body of water of any material which diminishes the optimal economic use of the water by the population which it serves. Vandana Mittal.Ansar-Ul-Haque. even in every small quantities. It includes addition of anything to water which changes the natural quality of water so that the downstream user does not receive the natural water of the stream. avoid y y y y y the use of air conditioner and use a fan instead. This will contribute a lot towards reducing the effects of air pollution and global warming. phenols will affect the taste and odor of water and refractory organics will cause death of fish and other aquatic life. plan your work systematically to reduce air pollution. Taste and odor of water can easily change if chlorophenols is present in it. y Save energy. Undesirable results from the discharge of inorganic materials include changes in the PH of the water caused by soluble salts and toxicity caused by heavy metals or other toxic materials. Water pollution It may be defined as something that adversely and unreasonably impairs the beneficial use of water.

E. They may also use chemicals to enhance the growth of their crops. these chemicals seep into the ground water or run off into lakes. causing health problems and sometimes death. Rivers and lakes are also polluted from heavy silt or sediment run-off from construction sites.The single most important process in the water treatment plant is disinfections. The heavy metals in water have also been linked to severe birth defects. and developmental problems in children.0001 percent. Petroleum often pollutes waterbodies in the form of oil. radioactive substances. The previously mentioned Exxon Valdez is an example of this type of water pollution. resulting from oil spills. When heavy metals filter into water. Other Water pollutants include insecticides and herbicides. or rivers. a damaged or suppressed immune system. These large-scale accidental discharges of petroleum are an important cause of pollution along shore lines. Either way. Specific forms of waste are uranium and thorium mining and refining.Dr.Ansar-Ul-Haque. The construction industry is also at fault for contaminating our water resources with cement. Shellfish and fresh fish are staple menu items for people around the world. volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Vandana Mittal. heavy metals. medical. fertility problems. food processing waste. pollutants from livestock operations. Humans are affected by the heavy metals ingested by the fish and shellfish. amoebic dysentery. Causes of Water Pollution Farmers often use chemicals to hinder bug infestations or other diseases from damaging or ruining their crops. causing water pollution. Radioactive Pollutants The discharge of radioactive waste material into a receiving body. creeks. These pollutants cause bacterial bone diseases.Raj Kumari. Prepared by: Dr. The last form of water pollution is heat. which helps insure the absence of pathogenic organisms in the drinking water. cholera etc. and from the industrial. Heat is a pollutant because increased temperatures result in the deaths of many aquatic organisms.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . Industrial processes produce toxic waste containing heavy metals.Dr. and scientific use of radioactive materials. These decreases in temperatures are caused when a discharge of cooling water by factories and power plants occurs. chemical waste and others. ADDITIONAL FORMS OF WATER POLLUTION Three last forms of water pollution exist in the forms of petroleum. plastics and metals. This is equal to about 0. Farmland that is irrigated and treated with chemicals in the form of fertilizers or pesticides is a major contributor to water pollution. One estimate is that one ton of oil is spilled for every million tons of oil transported. cancer. and heat. off-shore drilling operations contribute a large share of pollution. Besides the supertankers. lubricants. they are fatal to marine life. Radioactive substances are produced in the form of waste from nuclear power plants.

Ansar-Ul-Haque. and chemical processes to reduce its bulk and toxicity. and industrial processes. therefore. The focus of secondary treatment is reducing organic material by accelerating natural biological processes. or released back into local water systems. secondary.Raj Kumari. toilets. their main threat to natural waters. and they often harbor pathogenic organisms. Agriculture. Treatment of the sewage is required before it can be safely buried. including commercial livestock and poultry farming. used. is from runoff and leaching. The three general phases of treatment are primary. Tertiary treatment is necessary when the water will be reused. nitrogen and phosphorus. and tertiary. is the source of many organic and inorganic pollutants in surface waters and groundwater.Dr. chambers. In a treatment plant. Wastes from commercial feeders are contained and disposed of on land. Vandana Mittal. Animal wastes are high in oxygen demanding material. These contaminants include both sediment from erosion cropland and compounds of phosphorus and nitrogen that partly originate in animal wastes and commercial fertilizers. and a variety of other methods.Dr. Control may involve settling basins for liquids. limited biological treatment in aerobic or anaerobic lagoons. the waste is passed through a series of screens.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . a large percentage of the suspended solids and inorganic material is removed from the sewage. Sources of Water Pollution y y y y y y Domestic Life Industry Agriculture Wildlife Watering Propagation of Fish and other aquatic life Swimming and bathing pools Prepared by: Dr.Wastewater Treatment Raw sewage includes waste from sinks. 99 percent of solids are removed and various chemical processes are used to ensure the water is as free from impurity as possible. During primary treatment.

When toxins are in the water. Other Effects: Waterborne diseases caused by polluted drinking water: y y y y y Typhoid Amoebiasis Giardiasis Ascariasis Hookworm Waterborne diseases caused by polluted beach water: y y Rashes. In fact. Vandana Mittal. Additional effects of water pollution include: 1) The food chain is damaged. temperature and conductivity. 3) Acid rain contains sulfate particles. but it will take efforts on all fronts to prevent and eliminate water pollution locally and globally. The human heart and kidneys can be adversely affected if polluted water is consumed regularly. whereas others don¶t show up for months or years.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . 5) Marine food sources are contaminated or eliminated by water pollution.Dr. which can harm fish or plant life in lakes and rivers. 6) Altered water temperatures (due to human actions) can kill the marine life and affect the delicate ecological balance in bodies of water. The delicate balance between nature and humans can be protected. causing changes in acidity. These factors all have an affect on the marine life. skin lesions. especially lakes and rivers.Raj Kumari. the effects of water pollution are said to be the leading cause of death for humans across the globe. Infectious diseases such as typhoid and cholera can be contracted from drinking contaminated water.y y y Boating poands/lakes Water power generation Transport etc.Ansar-Ul-Haque.Dr. ear ache. 4) Pollutants in the water will alter the overall chemistry of the water. Water pollution effects have a huge impact on our environment and health. Some water pollution effects are recognized immediately. and damage to the nervous system. This is called microbial water pollution. 2) Diseases can spread via polluted water. vomiting. Other health problems associated with polluted water are poor blood circulation. pink eye Respiratory infections Prepared by: Dr. Major Effects of Water Pollution The effects of water pollution are numerous (as seen above). the toxins travel from the water the animals drink to humans when the animals¶ meat is eaten.

solvents and heavy metals. They also have the ability to control or eliminate water pollution. Causes cancers including leukaemia y y y y Lead in soil is especially hazardous for young children causing developmental damage to the brain Mercury can increase the risk of kidney damage. health problems. fatigue. and drinking water. prostate cancer and non-Hodgkin¶s lymphoma Hormonal problems that can disrupt reproductive and developmental processes Damage to the nervous system Liver and kidney damage Damage to the DNA Exposure to mercury (heavy metal): o In the womb: may cause neurological problems including slower reflexes. cyclodienes can lead to liver toxicity Causes neuromuscular blockage as well as depression of the central nervous system Also causes headaches. vomiting. eye irritation and skin rash Other notes: Prepared by: Dr. heart disease. as well as from deposition of air contaminants (such as acid rain) Damage to people may be caused by fish foods coming from polluted water (a well known example is high mercury levels in fish) Damage to people may be caused by vegetable crops grown / washed with polluted water (author¶s own conclusion) y y Soil contamination Some soil pollutants are: hydrocarbons. and stomach aches Conditions related to water polluted by chemicals (such as pesticides. pathogens. heavy metals etc): y y y y y y Cancer. persistent organic pollutants. incl. lakes. diarrhoea. Water is considered polluted when chemicals. hydrocarbons.Ansar-Ul-Haque. and even death o Other notes: The effects of water pollution are far-reaching and affect not only the environment. y Water pollution may also result from interactions between water and contaminated soil. Numerous diseases. autism and brain damage In adults: Parkinson¶s disease. gastroenteritis.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . or contaminants are detected. Vandana Mittal. Water pollution affects our oceans. making it a widespread and global concern. multiple sclerosis. Alzheimer¶s disease. delayed or incomplete mental development. Human beings have the most crucial impact on our water resources. and even fatalities have been associated with water pollution.y Hepatitis. rivers.Dr. learning deficits. nausea.Raj Kumari. but human beings and animals as well. encephalitis.Dr.

plastic containers. paper. and so on. Hence.Ansar-Ul-Haque. more useful purposes. metal. many effects of soil contamination appear to be similar to the ones caused by water contamination y y y Land Pollution Land pollution basically is about contaminating the land surface of the Earth through dumping urban waste matter indiscriminately. cans. Some of the sources of solid waste that cause land pollution are: Wastes from Agriculture: This comprises of waste matter produced by crop. and even used cars and electronic goods are not biodegradable. Land pollution includes visible litter and waste along with the soil itself being polluted.y Contact with contaminated soil may be direct (from using parks.Dr. it also causes damage to terrestrial organisms. chemicals. while also reducing the uses of the land for other. and farm residues. Vandana Mittal. schools etc) or indirect (by inhaling soil contaminants which have vaporized) Soil contamination may also result from secondary contamination of water supplies and from deposition of air contaminants (for example. Thus. Wastes from Mining: Piles of coal refuse and heaps of slag. dumping of industrial waste. animal manure. and settled solids.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . biomass sludge. Soil Pollution: Soil pollution is chiefly caused by chemicals in pesticides. Ashes: The residual matter that remains after solid fuels are burned. cloth. Moreover. Wastes from Industries: Industrial waste matter that can cause land pollution can include paints. Garbage: This comprises of waste matter from food that are decomposable and other waste matter that are not decomposable such as glass. dirty. bottles. and misusing the soil by harmful agricultural practices. and unsightly places to reside in. Prepared by: Dr. Most of the solid wastes. when they accumulate they pose a health threat to people. and so on. and which are disposed because they are hazardous or useless are known as solid waste. mineral exploitation. parks. soil pollution results from: y y Unhealthy methods of soil management. Land Pollution Comprises Of: Solid Waste and Soil Pollution Solid Waste: Semisolid or solid matter that are created by human or animal activities. via acid rain) Contamination of crops grown in polluted soil brings up problems with food security Since it is closely linked to water pollution. Harmful practices of irrigation methods. and streets.Dr. wood. which means they do not get broken down through inorganic or organic processes. plastic. Solids from Sewage Treatment: Wastes that are left over after sewage has been treated. such as poisons that are used to kill agricultural pests like insects and herbicides that are used to get rid of weeds. plus.Raj Kumari. The soil gets polluted by the chemicals in pesticides and herbicides used for agricultural purposes along with waste matter being littered in urban areas such as roads. decaying wastes also attract household pests and result in urban areas becoming unhealthy. like paper.

namely. According to Encyclopedia Britannica: In acoustic noise is defined as any undesired sound. which pleases the listeners. population poverty and pollution if they have to survive. At times. Sound.Land pollution is caused by farms because they allow manure to collect. plastic. and humans in a number of ways. what is music for some can be noise for others. glass and metals should be reclaimed and then recycled Noise Pollution Definition: The present generation and the coming generations have to solve three grave problems. which leaches into the nearby land areas. 1981 includes noise in the definition of µair pollutant¶. a potential hazard to health and communication dumped into the environment with regard to the adverse effect it may have on unwilling ears. What are the Consequences of Land Pollution? Land pollution can affect wildlife. plants.Dr. Environment pollution is assuming dangerous proportions all through the globe and India is not free from this poisonous disease. This is the gift of modern living.Dr. is music and that which causes pain and annoyance is noise. such as: y y y y Cause problems in the respiratory system Cause problems on the skin Lead to birth defects Cause various kinds of cancers The toxic materials that pollute the soil can get into the human body directly by: y y y y Coming into contact with the skin Being washed into water sources like reservoirs and rivers Eating fruits and vegetables that have been grown in polluted soil Breathing in polluted dust or particles How can Land Pollution be prevented? y y y y y People should be educated and made aware about the harmful effects of littering Items used for domestic purposes ought to be reused or recycled Personal litter should be disposed properly Organic waste matter should be disposed in areas that are far away from residential places Inorganic matter such as paper. Chemicals that are used for purposes like sheep dipping also cause serious land pollution as do diesel oil spillages.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . Vandana Mittal. industrialization and urbanization.Ansar-Ul-Haque. It has been defined as unwanted sound. Section 2(a) air pollution means any solid. Prepared by: Dr. Noise is defined as unwanted sound. Unless timely action is taken we have a forbid and bleak future for the world. Pollution being the most dangerous problem likes cancer in which death is sure but slow. Section 2 (a) of the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act. The word noise is derived from the Latin term nausea.Raj Kumari. liquid or gaseous substance including noise present in the atmosphere such concentration as may be or tent to injurious to human beings or other living creatures or plants or property or environment.

Prepared by: Dr.industrial source of noise includes the noise created by transport/vehicular traffic and the neighborhood noise generated by various noise pollution can also be divided in the categories.e. For example. 80 db is the level at which sound becomes physically painful. industry. The Noise quantum of some of the cities in our country indicate their pitch in decibel in the nosiest areas of corresponding cities. Pollution. The industrial source includes the noise from various industries and big machines working at a very high speed and high noise intensity. To smith. or 140 dB at the railroad worker¶s ear. 3. Kolkata .g. construction. Urbanizations and 3. which translates to levels as high as 138.industrial.Raj Kumari.80 db. Product of industrialization. the main sources of traffic noise are the motors and exhaust system of autos .g. rail car retarders can produce a high frequency. or such sound. as the nation seeks to improve its nap-of excessive or annoying degree of noise in a particular area. 20 db is whisper. The zero on a decibel scale is at the threshold of hearing. 2. high level screech that can reach peak levels of 120 dB at a distance of 100 feet. This type of noise can be augmented by narrow streets and tall buildings. industrial and non. Chennai-89 db etc.Dr. i. the noise pollution has two sources. Road Traffic Noise: In the city. 4.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .a sound. Delhi. Air Craft Noise: Now-a-days . non harmonious sounds or vibrations that are unpleasant and irritating to ear. 60 db is normal conversation. buses. Most leading noise sources will fall into the following categories: roads traffic.Noise. natural and manmade. which produce a canyon in which traffic noise reverberates. a harsh disagreeable aircraft operations over national parks.Dr. Noise from railroads: The noise from locomotive engines. and buildings is a major contributor to the urban scene. and switching and shunting operation in rail yards can impact neighboring communities and railroad workers. Measurement: A decibel is the standard for the measurement of noise. e. 2. city streets. a din. Construction Noise: The noise from the construction of highways. the lowest sound pressure that can be heard. and other areas previously unaffected by aircraft noise has claimed national attention over recent years. wilderness areas . Thus noise can be taken as a group of laud. Non. Broadly speaking. smaller trucks. 40 db the noise in a quiet office . and motorcycles.Ansar-Ul-Haque. namely. e.Bombay-85. horns and whistles. the problem of low flying military aircraft has added a new dimension to community annoyance. Noise can be described as sound without agreeable musical quality or as an unwanted or undesired sound. noise in buildings. from traffic or aero plane engines. and consumer products 1.87. 3 Sources of Noise Pollution: Noise pollution like other pollutants is also a by1. on the scale acc. Modern civilization. Vandana Mittal. railroads. aircraft.

dump trucks (and their back-up signals). Vandana Mittal. motors. Noise from Consumer products:Certain household equipment. and even through building walls.Ansar-Ul-Haque. and pavement breakers. These tensions result in certain disease like blood pressure or mental illness etc. Animal and property are as follows: I. traffic. Harmful Effects of Noise Pollution: On Human Being. The noises are recognized as major contributing factors in accelerating the already existing tensions of modern living. loaders. Sudden Noise causes abortion in females. Noise in building: Apartment dwellers are often annoyed by noise in their homes. The effects of Noise Pollution on Human Being.There should be cool and calm atmosphere during the pregnancy. Thus human efficiency is related with noise. Noise in Industry: Although industrial noise is one of the less prevalent community noise problems. among whom noise. 5. and fans.For better quality of work there should be concentration . 6. Improperly insulated walls and ceilings can reveal the soundof-amplified music. The noise of traffic or the loud speakers of different types of horns divert the attention of the people working in offices. Unpleasant sounds make a lady of irriative nature. and compressors mounted on the outside of buildings Interior noise can also be transmitted to the community through open windows and doors. Abortion is caused: . so varied & so pervasive as it is seen in the last of this century. In this case. neighbors of noisy manufacturing plants can be disturbed by sources such as fans. especially when windows are open or insufficiently glazed. internal building noise from plumbing. Noise causes lack of concentration. refuse collection. generators. V. mostly all the offices are on main road. In big cities . air compressors. It attacks on the person¶s peace of mind. Noise pollution makes men more irritable. Prepared by: Dr. footfalls and noisy activities from neighboring units.Raj Kumari. voices. Fatigue:. It causes Blood Pressure: . such as vacuum cleaners and some kitchen appliances have been and continue to be noisemakers.Noise Pollution causes certain diseases in human. Thus they have to give their more time for completing the work and they feel tiring IV. II. It decreases the efficiency of a man:. Animal and Property: Noise has always been with the human civilization but it was never so obvious.Dr.Regarding the impact of noise on human efficiency there are number of experiments which print out the fact that human efficiency increases with noise reduction. These interior noise sources have significant impacts on industrial workers. The effect of noise pollution is multifaceted & inter related.Because of Noise Pollution. External noise from emergency vehicles. boilers. bulldozers.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .Dr. especially when the building is not well designed and constructed.Construction noise sources include pneumatic hammers. III. can be audible and annoying. 7. Lack of concentration:.induced hearing loss is unfortunately common. and other city noises can be a problem for urban residents. so intense. people cannot concentrate on their work. air conditioners. A study by Sinha & Sinha in India suggested that reducing industrial booths could improve the quality of their work. although their contribution to the daily noise dose is usually not very large.

287.decency . 80 to 100 db is unsafe. For prevention of danger to human life. health or safety the magistrate can direct a person to abstain from certain acts. Directive Principal of State Policy: .Right to religion does not include right to perform religious activities on loud speaker and electronic goods which produce high velocity of noise. IX.Now is well known to all that plants are similar to human being.Dr. It is well settled by repeated pronouncements of the Supreme Court that right to life enshrined in Article 21 is not of mere survival or existence. (c) I.C. Private Prepared by: Dr. . telephone operators etc.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . EFFECT ON ANIMAL:.P. EFFECT ON PROPERTY:. They become dangerous. permit the industry which effect the environment. The provision can be utilized in case of nuisance of environment nature. Physictist. Noise pollution causes poor quality of crops in a pleasant atmosphere. Fundamental Duties: . Public Nuisance 268-295 Chapter IV of Indian Penal code deals with offences relating to public health.Loud noise is very dangerous to buildings.C. morals under Sections 268. Impairment as a result of noise at the place of work. physicians & psychologists are of the view that continued exposure to noise level above.Article 21 of the Constitution guarantees life and personal liberty to all persons. Right to Information:. EFFECT ON VEGETATION Poor quality of Crops:. Right to Religion and Noise: . It guarantees a right of persons to life with human dignity.Raj Kumari.. Loud noise causes temporary or permanent deafness. All have their hearing . (b) Cr.The effect of nose on audition is well recognized. 269.. 288. There should be cool & peaceful environment for their better growth. comfort and quiet within his house has a right to prevent the noise as pollutant reaching him. Section 133 Here Section 133 is of great importance. 279. bridges and monuments. 280. 290 291 294.P.Dr.Ansar-Ul-Haque. They are also as sensitive as man. VIII.every citizen of the country has the fundamental duty to clean the environment. Vandana Mittal. Any one who wishes to live in peace. Temporary of permanent Deafness:.The state has the object to make the enviorment pollution free.Every one has the right to information know about the norms and conditions on which Govt. safety.. It creates waves which struck the walls and put the building in danger condition. Noise pollution can be penalized with the help of above section. It weakens the edifice of buildings. Legal Control: Constitution of India Right to Life: . Animal looses the control of its mind. 270. Mechanics . VII.VI. Section 133 the magisterial court have been empowered to issue order to remove or abate nuisance caused by noise pollution Sec 133 empower an executive magistrate to interfere and remove a public nuisance in the first instance with a conditional order and then with a permanent one. Under Crpc. locomotive drivers. He can adopt immediate measure to prevent danger or injury of a serious land to the public.Noise pollution damage the nervous system of animal.

For filing a suit under law of torts a plaintiff is required to comply with some of the requirement of tort of nuisance which are as follows:1. (g) Noise Pollution Control Rule 2000 under Environment Protection Act 1996 :Further for better regulation for noise pollution There are The Noise Pollution ( Regulation and Control ) Rules. This article punishment in case of Public nuisance law of torts covers. Similarly.Dr.Dr. A common nuisance is not excused on the ground that it causes some convenience or advantage. (f) Motor Vehicle Act. under the Modal Rules. A person is guilty of public nuisance who does any act or is guilty of an illegal omission which causes any common injury. 2.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . limits for noise exposure for work zone area have been prescribed. danger. Who ever commits a public nuisance in any case not otherwise punishable by this code. 2000 ± in order to curb the growing problem of noise pollution the government of India has enacted the noise pollution rules 2000 that includes the following main provisions:# The state government may categories the areas in the industrial or commercial or residential # The ambient air quality standards in respect of noise for different areas have been specified. In an action for nuisance actual damage is required to be proved.Ansar-Ul-Haque. Provision Relation to use of horn and change of Engine:. However. As a general rule either the presence or absence of malice does not matter. Schedule (see rule 3(l) and 4(l) Ambient Air Quality Standards in respect of Noise Area Code Category of Area/Zone Limits in dB(A) Leq * Day Time NightTime (A) Industrial area 75 70 (B) Commercial area 65 55 (C) Residential area 55 45 Prepared by: Dr.Raj Kumari. There should be reasonable interference. Vandana Mittal. Between 10 pm to 6 am # A person found violating the provisions as to the maximum noise permissible in any particular area shall be liable to be punished for it as per the provision of these rules and any other law in force. unde the Third Schedule Sections 89 and 90 of the Act. # An area not less than 100 m around hospitals educations institutions and court may be declare as silence are for the purpose of these rules. # State government shall take measure for abatement of noise including noise emanating from vehicular movement and ensure that the existing noise levels do not exceed the ambient air quality standards specified under these rules. obstruction danger or annoyance to persons who may have occasion to use any public right. Interference should be with the use & enjoyment of land. (d) Law of Torts Noise pollution is considered as civil wrong:Under law of torts . 200.The Factories Act does not contain any specific provision for noise control.remedies suits in the area may related to public nuisance under A299. which may extend to Rs.In Motor veichle Act rules regarding use horns and any modification in engine are made. shall be punished with fine. (e) Factories Act Reduction of Noise and Oil of Machinery:. 3. But in some cases deviation from the rule has been made. # A loud speaker or a public address system shall not be used except after obtaining written permission from the authority and the same shall not be used at night. is mentioned as notifiable disease. a civil suit can be filed claiming damages for the nuisance. or annoyance to the pubic or to the people in general who dwell or occupy property in the vicinity or which must necessarily cause injury. noise induced hearing loss.

and may cause death. deformities and death of fish life Too much sodium chloride (ordinary salt) in water may kill animals (24) y y y y y Other notes: y We also assume that some higher forms of non-aquatic animals may have similar effects from water pollution as those experienced by humans. this may lead to increased mortality rates and even animal extinction y Prepared by: Dr. nutrient pollution can also cause outbreaks of fish diseases Chemical contamination can cause declines in frog biodiversity and tadpole mass Oil pollution (as part of chemical contamination) can negatively affect development of marine organisms. Particularly. Environmental Pollution Effects on Animals Air Pollution y y Acid rain (formed in the air) destroys fish life in lakes and streams Excessive ultraviolet radiation coming from the sun through the ozone layer in the upper atmosphere which is eroded by some air pollutants. The young children of impressionable age should be motivated to desist from playing with firecrackers. phosphates etc) causes overgrowth of toxic algae eaten by other aquatic animals. Vandana Mittal. may cause skin cancer in wildlife Ozone in the lower atmosphere may damage lung tissues of animals y Water Pollution (23) y Nutrient pollution (nitrogen. can also cause gastrointestinal irritation.Dr.Ansar-Ul-Haque. and damage to the nervous system Mercury in water can cause abnormal behavior. Holding of special talks and lectures can be organized in the schools to highlight the menance of noise pollution and the role of the children in preventing it . and death Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) may cause declines. Suitable chapters can be added into textbooks. religious and social functions. slower growth and development.(D) Silence Zone 50 40 Conclusion:We have made the law relating to noise pollution but there is need to creating general awareness towards the hazardous effects of noise pollution.Raj Kumari.Dr.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . in our country the people generally lack consciousness of the ill effects which noise pollution creates ad how the society including they themselves stand to beneficiary preventing generation and emission of noise pollution. and thus have a negative effect on predator animal species Small life forms may consume harmful chemicals which may then be passed up the food chain to larger animals. which teach civic sense to the children and teach them how to be good and responsible citizen which would include learning by heart of various fundamental duties and that would obliviously include learning not to create noise pollution and to prevent if generated by others. this may destroy some layers of the primary food chain. reduced reproduction. which cause noise pollution. family get-togethers and celebrations etc. use of high sound producing equipments and instruments on festivals. as described above (author¶s own conclusion) Soil Contamination (25) y Can alter metabolism of microorganisms and arthropods in a given soil environment. increase susceptibility to disease and affect reproductive processes. liver and kidney damage. The target area should be educational institutions and more particularly school.

clay and other similar materials Plants may be killed by herbicides in water.Ansar-Ul-Haque.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . herbicides are chemicals which are most harmful to plants y y y Soil Contamination y y May alter plant metabolism and reduce crop yields Trees and plants may absorb soil contaminants and pass them up the food chain Environmental Pollution Effects on Wider Environment Apart from destroying the aquatic life in lakes and streams. The Tran boundary nature of environmental pollution makes it even more difficult to manage ± you cannot build stone walls along the borders of your country or put customs cabins at every point of entry to regulate its flows into your country.Dr.Raj Kumari. acid rain can also corrode metals. driving many animal species to endangerment and even extinction.Conclusion Environmental pollution is causing a lot of distress not only to humans but also animals.Dr. we all depend on each other¶s actions and the way we treat natural resources. destroy the leaves of plants. and while the nature supplies us with valuable environmental services without which we cannot exist. can infiltrate soil by making it unsuitable for purposes of nutrition and habitation Ozone holes in the upper atmosphere can allow excessive ultraviolet radiation from the sun to enter the Earth causing damage to trees and plants Ozone in the lower atmosphere can prevent plant respiration by blocking stomata (openings in leaves) and negatively affecting plants¶ photosynthesis rates which will stunt plant growth. ozone can also decay plant cells directly by entering stomata y y Water Pollution y y May disrupt photosynthesis in aquatic plants and thus affecting ecosystems that depend on these plants Terrestrial and aquatic plants may absorb pollutants from water (as their main nutrient source) and pass them up the food chain to consumer animals and humans Plants may be killed by too much sodium chloride (ordinary slat) in water Plants may be killed by mud from construction sites as well as bits of wood and leaves. Prepared by: Dr. Everything on our planet is interconnected. Vandana Mittal. and cause soil acidification. damage surfaces of buildings and monuments. Pollution of water may cause oxygen depletion in marine environments and severely affect the health of whole ecosystems. Environmental Pollution .Environmental Pollution Effects on Trees and Plants Air Pollution y Acid rain can kill trees.

Dr. Perhaps we should adopt a holistic view of nature ± it is not an entity that exists separately from us. there is no way for the environment to recover in good time and continue ³performing´ well in the future. Prepared by: Dr.Ansar-Ul-Haque. Vandana Mittal.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . and we should care for it in the most appropriate manner. we are an inalienable part of it.Raj Kumari. Only then can we possibly solve the problem of environmental pollution.It¶s widely recognized that we are hugely overspending our current budget of natural resources ± at the existing rates of its exploitation. the nature is us.Dr.

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