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A special study submitted to the Department of Planning, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Science in Human Settlement Planning
By EVA AFRIYIE MENSAH
………………………… Dr. K. O. Agyeman (Supervisor)
................................... Dr Immoro Braimah (Head, Department of Planning)
DEDICATION This dissertation is dedicated to Mum and Dad Mr and Mrs. Anarfi Mensah.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS My greatest appreciation goes to the God Almighty who through his undeserved kindness and love granted me the needed strength, wisdom and knowledge to accomplish this work successfully. The successful completion of this work came about as a result of a massive contribution made by several people; without which the work would not have been materialised. I therefore, deem it necessary to express my profound gratitude to the following people. I first express my profound gratitude to my dynamic and hardworking supervisor of the Department of Planning, Dr. K.O Agyeman, who did not only encourage me to write on the topic but also, supervised and guided me through at no cost. My thanks also go to Mr. Kwabena Boafo Adom-Opare, his teaching assistance, who in diverse ways has contributed to the successful completion of this work. I also express my gratitude to my Parents Mr. and Mrs. Anarfi Mensah. My appreciation further goes to my friend Mr.Evans Obeng Amofa who also contributed to the successful contribution in my work and Mr Charles Adjei at K.M.A who assisted me to administer the questionnaires for this work. To all others whose names cannot be readily mentioned, I am equally grateful to them.
the challenges faced by these institutions and the company in managing solid waste KCM were revealed. Indiscriminate dumping of refuse. regular collection of waste. survival. Town and Country Planning Department and Zoomlion Ghana Ltd. Furthermore. hunger and illness. Kumasi Central Market (KCM) is currently experiencing poor Solid Waste Management. Administration of questionnaires to the store operators within the market enabled the researcher to understand the people’s assessment of solid waste condition in the area. TABLE OF CONTENTS Content 3 Page . Improper way of disposing of solid waste. the main objective of the study was to establish the underlying factors affecting effective solid waste management in the KCM and suggest possible measures to tackle the problem. Therefore. Having a healthy urban environment sets a city on track for development. growth and development. Lack of routine collection of waste. In the light of this problem enumerated above. The study was to understand the solid waste situation in Kumasi Central Market. use of integrated solid waste management approach. There is the need for intensive public education to promote a positive attitude for management of solid waste in KCM. which in most cases clogs drains thereby creating conditions for disease vectors and posing health risks to inhabitants. enforcement of the waste management bye-laws is also recommended to make every individual responsible for good management of solid waste in the Kumasi Central Market. From the interviews.M Inadequate supply of Skip containers at the refuse dump site. the availability of solid waste facilities and services and the awareness of individuals about environmental condition in the market area were analysed. inequality. In addition. the research recommended adequate supply of waste bins and skip containers. interviews were conducted in selected institutions and a private company involved in the Management of Solid Waste in KCM. The following key findings were established to be the factors affecting solid waste in the Kumasi Central Market: these are • • • • Lack of Waste bins in the K.C. In addition. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have set us on a common course to push back poverty.Waste Management and good hygiene are fundamental to health. These include the Waste Management Department.
3 220.127.116.11 Sampling Techniques … Mode of Data Collection and Source … Data Analysis and Presentation … … … … … … … 1.2 Geographical Scope … Contextual Scope … … … 1.7.2 1.6 GENERAL INTRODUCTION … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … 1 2 3 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 6 7 7 7 Page Background to the Study Problem Statement Research Questions … … Objectives of the Study Justification … … … Scope of the Study 1.7.2 1.1 1.5 1.7.8 1.Dedication … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … i ii iii iv ix x xi xii Acknowledgement Abstract … Table of Contents List of Tables … List of Figures … List of Plates … List of Abbreviations … CHAPTER ONE: 1.9 Limitations of the Study Conclusion … … Content CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction … … … … … 3 … … … … … 9 .7 Methodology … 1.1 1.1 1.4 1.
2 … 2.2.1 Introduction … … … … … 3 … … … … … 25 .4.2 2.4.6 … Defining Waste … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … 9 9 10 13 14 15 … … 18 18 … 20 20 21 22 22 22 23 23 23 23 The Classification of waste The concept of waste management The goals of waste management Some Options for Considerations in Management of Waste … The principles of waste management 15 … … 2.8 Introduction … … … … … … … … … … … … … Solid Waste Management Processes … Waste Generation Storage Collection … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … Transfer and Transport Processing and Recovery Disposal … … 18.104.22.168.2.2.7 2.1 2.3 The Urban Solid waste problem in Developing Countries 2.3 2.4.6 2.2 Concepts in Waste Management 2.2.4 Introduction … … … … … … … … … … … The Nature of the Waste Problem in Developing Countries … 19 … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … Urban Solid waste Management in Developing Countries 22.214.171.124 2.3.7 Integrated waste management and the waste hierarchy … 16 2.4 2.5 Solid Waste Management in Ghana … CHAPTER THREE:PROFILE AND METHODOLOGY 3.3 126.96.36.199.5 2.2.5 2.4 2.2.2 2.1 2.
3 4.3.3 Introduction … Selection of the Study sites Sampling Techniques … 3.1 3.1 General Overview … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … 25 25 26 26 26 26 27 27 27 28 28 29 29 29 29 30 30 31 31 3.8 3.1 Random and Cluster Sampling 3.3. … … … 3.5 Introduction … … … … … … … … … … 32 32 34 35 35 Solid Waste generation and collection in the area for a three-year period (2008-2010) Types and Components of Solid waste generated in the area… Drains and Pavement Cleaning Availability of waste bin … … … … … 5 … … … … … … … … … … … … … .7 3.3 Problems within the KCM 3.4 188.8.131.52.2.4 3.6 3.4.1 Poor Market facilities … … … 3.4.2 Purposive Sampling … 184.108.40.206.4.10 Conclusion CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION 4.1 220.127.116.11 3.2 Kumasi Central Market (KCM) 18.104.22.168 22.214.171.124.4.1 Secondary Data 3.9 Preliminary Field Investigation Face to Face Interview Structured Questionnaire … … Data Analysis and Presentation … … … 3.4.5 Data Collection Types of Data … … … … … … … … … … … … ….2 Primary Data Collection 3.4 Research Methodology 3.
4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9
Disposal of waste by store Operators … Secondary waste collection … …
… … … …
… … … …
… … … …
37 38 39 40
Assessment of the Environmental condition of the market … Awareness of KMA By-law on Sanitation in KCM … …
CHAPTER FIVE: 5.1 5.2 5.2.1 Introduction
FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … ... … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … 42 42 42 42 42 43 43 43 44 44 45 45 45 45 46 … 46 … 46 … 47
Key findings …
Factors Affecting Effective Waste Management 126.96.36.199 Unavailabilty of Waste Bins … …
188.8.131.52 Inadequate Skip Containers and irregular collection of waste
184.108.40.206 Poor Attitudes towards Waste Management by store Operators … 5.2.2 5.3 Role of the Private stakeholder in the Management of Solid Waste … … Recommendations … 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.3 5.3.4 5.3.5 5.3.6 5.3.7 5.2.8 5.4 … … … … … … …
Enforcement of Solid Waste Management Regulations and By-laws Provision of Bin within the Market … Education through the media … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … …
Institutional Capacity for Improved Service Delivery Regular Collection of waste … … … … … … … … …
Monitoring of Activities of Service Providers Organisation of Clean-up exercise … … … … … … … … … … … … … …
Future Research Issues … Conclusion … … … … …
LIST OF TABLES Tables Table 2.1 Table 2.2 Table 2.3 Table 2.4 Table 4.1 Table 4.2 Table 4.3 Table 4.4 Table 4.5 Classification of waste … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … Page 10 11 12 12 33 34 35 36 40
Sources and Types of Municipal Solid waste … Material classification of waste … …
Classification of waste based on physical state of waste substances … Solid waste generated and collected in the KCM Major components of waste generated Drains and Pavement Cleaning Availability of Waste Bin … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … …
Assessment of the Environmental condition of the market …
2 Figure 4.1 Figure 2.1 Waste Management Hierarchy Model Key Elements of Solid waste management Awareness of the KMA By-Law … … … … … … … … … … … … … Page … … … 17 21 40 1 .LIST OF FIGURES Figure Figure 2.
3 Map showing the location of Kumasi Central Market Garbage silted drain … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … Page … … … … … 25 37 38 39 39 Garbage scattered In front of shops … Refuse dump site Zoomlion at Work … … … … … … 1 .1: Plate 4.1 Plate 4.LIST OF PLATES Plate Plate 3.3 Plate 4.2 Plate 4.
This special study seeks to assess the Solid Waste Disposal (SWD) situation in Ghana and to identify prospects for improvement focusing on remediation of dumpsites and sanitary landfills. (Gyankumah. (Gyankumah. rapid urbanization. In recent times environmental pollution has received more attention than ever before in Ghana and the world at large. low technical capacity for planning and management of solid waste. Increasing difficulties with acquiring suitable disposal sites. 1 . The paper will establish that the key problems with solid waste disposal in Ghana principally relate to problems with indiscriminate dumping. Water and air pollution that used to be the major focus is now declining. 2002).CHAPTER ONE GENERAL INTRODUCTION 1. The Ghanaian experience shows that within the existing socio-economic context.1 Background to the Study Throughout history all nations are confronted with setbacks of the management of solid waste. manual systems are supreme.which allow local authorities to flout environmental regulations without any sanctions have all contributed to compound the problem. The increasing concern about the environment has resulted in an intensified search for safe and viable solutions for handling solid waste. The challenge therefore is to develop and promote disposal systems that require a minimum level of mechanical equipment. Both the advanced and developing countries have now come to realize the need to manage solid waste disposal. Solid waste management is one of the most important environmental related issues in Ghana. Generally. weak enforcement of environmental regulations . Difficulties with conveyance of solid waste by road due to worsening traffic problems and the lack of alternative transport options. The common problem faced by all the developing countries. is the disposal of solid waste and availability of dumping grounds.The pollution of land surface by solid waste disposal has been neglected until recent years.This can be attributed to the fact that solid waste if not properly managed would affect the entire nation by causing the outbreak of diseases which in effect will affect national productivity. 2002). poor financing capacity of local authorities. It is the sole responsibility of every individual within Kumasi central market to ensure that solid waste in their respective sectors within the market is managed properly.
rubber. metal and wood. non-governmental agencies and even individuals to curb the situation. 1. plastics. and open dumping are the only activities practiced. 1996).The Waste Management Department of Kumasi Metropolitan Assembly appears to be overwhelmed by the task of hauling all the solid waste produced in the city. there are still cases of heaps of refuse across the nation which causes flooding in some areas and environmental related diseases: Although there has been a reduction in numbers due to some of the interventions made by some private institutions like Zoom lion There has been an increase in heaps of solid waste in Ghana due to an increase in population and also as results of technological advancement. This study assesses the existing state of solid waste management in Kumasi Central Market with the aim of identifying the major obstacles to its efficiency and the prospects for improvisation of the existing solid waste management (swm) system in the area. These waste materials are bio non .degradable. that is done in a non –technical manner. transportation. paper oil. The existing solid waste management system in the area is found to be highly inefficient. This in a long run affects the 3 .The city (Kumasi) is estimated to generate about 500. Primary and secondary collection. There are many factors contributing to the indiscriminate disposal of waste within the market. The annual waste generation increases in proportion to the rises in population and urbanization. In some situations.000kg of solid waste daily based on the current projected population of 1. D-Plan. furniture. caps are now disposal products due to technology and has resulted in excess increase in solid wastes in the metropolis especially within Kumasi central market. spare parts may be found within the market. bulky materials such as appliances. It is expected to go up by 15% by the year 2010 (KMA.2 Problem Statement Ghana as a developing nation is also facing problems with the management of solid waste despite the numerous strides advanced by the nation’s government. fabrics. The task is so daunting that KMA has become synonymous with Waste Management. Also identifying the factors that contributes to the increase heaps of solid wastes within the market area and recommends ways to reduce these solid wastes. Many Ghanaian cities are facing serious problems in managing solid waste with rise in population and urbanization.867 (2006).610. Plastic bags. These waste generated by commercial sources may contain a mixture of food waste. paper plates.
This problem can leads to environmental related diseases like cholera. This inefficient management of waste has led to the outbreak of environmentally related diseases like cholera. It is the aim of the research to ascertain why even with the existence of these institutions there are still heaps of refuse within the market 1.4 Objectives of the study • To establish the underlying factors affecting effective management of solid waste in Kumasi Central Market. Effects of these solid wastes to the environment include. Due to the influx of people from both rural and urban areas. typhoid. Some of the causes of these problems include. malaria. What are the problems confronting the various institutions. • • • How are these waste disposed to the final disposal site. 2 . The Waste Management Department and other private institutions are the one responsible for the management of solid waste around and within the central market. diarrhea.3 Research Questions The research will address the following questions. malaria. Refuse within and along roads caused by the informal economic activities destroys the aesthetic (beauty) nature of the market. the people’s poor attitude and perceptions about solid waste management have contributed to the problem. Also choked gutters by refuse leads to flooding which destroys goods and structures and even the life’s of people. Some of the areas within the market lack skip bins for dumping of refuse.neighbouring residents making them uncomfortable to live. Inadequate and inefficient of solid waste management equipment and personnel. the population within the market has become unmanageable as almost every visible space is as a selling point without any permission from the Kumasi Metropolitan Assembly. How are the individuals within the market involved in decision making? 1. typhoid and dysentery. This has resulted to heaps of rubbish within the market. inadequate logistics prevent the Waste Management Department from executing its duty effectively. dysentery.
This study will provide a critical and analytical perspective of the need for policy makers in understanding the need for a healthy environment to promote development .5 Justification This research will focus particularly at the central market.It will bring to light the views of the people in the market and why they should be involved in any plan implementation. To recommend appropriate intervention for effective waste management in Kumasi Central Market. public education and sensitization. This is chosen because heaps of waste is found within that area. Data collected will serve as spring board for the private sector to participate in waste management. To examine the roles of the private stakeholders in the Management of Solid Waste in Kumasi Central Market. • 1. 1. equipment holding capacity of KMA and private service providers.1 Geographical scope 1 . It will also provide a basis and an insight to the state and NGOs as to consult the market women as beneficiaries of the project.• • To examine the role of KMA in the Management of Solid Waste in Kumasi Central Market. The research work examines ways of improving solid waste management in the Kumasi central market of Kumasi Metropolitan Assembly (KMA).6 Scope of the study 1. and public health effects and make some recommendations to authorities. A descriptive cross-sectional study based on structured questionnaire will be used to gather data on the factors that affect solid waste management and the inhabitants such as geographical assess to dumping sites.6. any future system for collecting and disposal of refuse will have to be geared to the total amount and quantity of material generated currently. private sanitation agents and other stakeholders in improving the management of solid waste in Kumasi central market. Again.
market women.6m and growing and is viewed as the commercial. The sample size will be determined by the following formulae. It is located in the transitional forest zone and is about 270km north of the national capital. Kumasi is a city with a population of 1. transportation and disposal and the various institutions responsible for the management of the waste.30o – 1. The unique centrality of the city as a traversing point from all parts of the country makes it a special place for many to migrate. an elevation which ranges between 250 – 300 metres above sea level with an area of about 254 square kilometres.6.7 Methodology The study will use various research approaches which are interviews with streets hawkers. (K. analysis and reporting format. questionnaires for various institutions.7.2 Contextual scope The scope will intensively describe the material flow of stream of waste from generation to final disposal. store operators and secondary data based on interplay of deskwork and field survey in order to obtain a sample representative population to work with and also the right amount of information to support the study. cultural and transport centre of Ghana. Based on these techniques store operators will be selected randomly to enhance the chance of element selected.M. It is between latitude 6.35o – 6.40o and longitude 1.Kumasi is a city found in the south central part of Ghana in Ashanti region. Accra. Purposive sampling technique will be used based on the various institutions that will be needed for the project. This comprises generation. observation within and around Kumasi central market. The following activities will however be considered in the research procedure: the data collection process. 1.1 Sampling Techniques Simple random sampling and purposive sampling techniques will be used.35o. collection.A D-plan) 1. (n) =N 1+N( )2 Where n = sampling size 3 . 1.
8 n =98. market women and information on the current practices on waste management extracted. The sources of the Primary data will be obtained from field survey using instruments such as interview guides. matrix and contingency questions will also be applied.2 Mode of Data Collection and Source The researcher will use a combination of primary and secondary data. The major source of data will however be from primary sources.Ltd. Zoomlion Gh. Where appropriate. documents. KMA Waste Management Department and also interview the market women. Questionnaire administration will be conducted for the store operators. Primary data will be collected from Waste Management Department of Kumasi Metropolitan Assembly and private stakeholders. 1 .8 =9680/97. and news papers.3 Data Analysis and Presentation. Observation will be done within and around the market.7. collection and disposal. This was to enable the study obtain information pertaining to waste generation. Both structured (Closeended questions) and unstructured (open-ended questions) will be used.N = total population e = margin of error N=9680 e = 10% = 9680 1 + 9680 ( 0. Interviews will be conducted with field personnel. 1. questionnaires and field observation.1 )2 =9680/1+96.9 1. internet and magazines.7. Interviews guides will also be used in some cases. Secondary sources include Kumasi Metropolitan Assembly’s reports. The data collection instrument will be through the use of questionnaires. The questionnaires will be administered through personal interviews.
1. and also educating them through medias. categorized in tables and processed using a computer programme.8 Limitations of the Study Although the objectives of the study were well explained and understood by the respondents. There is no doubt that solid waste management within urban areas especially in Kumasi central market has not produced the desire objectives.The Data Collected will be synthesized. Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). Quantitative data will be coded. counted. Primary data (interviews. This therefore presents itself as a challenge for proper planning and management approach for the people in the urban areas to grow and live in a healthy environment. 1 .8 Conclusion The past approaches and strategies used in managing solid waste have led to the discrimination of solid waste around Kumasi Central Market. certain sensitive questions such as means of disposing waste provoked hesitation in giving information by the respondents. questionnaire) from the field and secondary data (internet. Integrated and harmonized comprehensively to allow for a clear pattern of analysis and for ease understanding. With this project it will help reduce solid waste that are found within the market area in the sense that various institutions available will understand the need for community participation that is involving people within the market in decision making. It must be emphasized that the way forward will not be easy due to economic resources. 1. The researcher took time to explain the purpose of the study and thus eventually convinced the respondents to answer these questions. There was also lack of cooperation from government agencies and departments as they refused to release some reports which were important for the study. Some respondents were not willing to give answers to some questions since they feared the Metropolitan Assembly would find out about some practices and implicate them. graphics) will be used in analyzing the project. magazines.
On his part. Thus. This notion that waste results hentirely from human activities is corroborated by Jessen (2002) who has noted that “waste is human creation” and “there is no such thing as waste in nature where cut-offs of one species become food for another”. a list of types of waste is substituted for the underlying definition. constituency or manner as to cause a significant alteration in the environment”. “there is no constellation of properties 1 . encyclopaedia and technical reports of governments and organizations. McLaren (1993) has also referred to waste as the “unwanted materials arising entirely from human activities which are discarded into the environment”. discussing the nature and causes of the problem. Definitions of ‘waste’ are rather commonly found in such documents as dictionaries. For example.2. and any other matter that may be discarded accidentally or otherwise into the environment”.2 Concepts in Waste Management 2. The first section discusses some basic concepts related to waste management whilst the second part focuses on the urban solid waste problem in developing countries. Gilpin also suggests that what constitutes waste must “occur in such a volume. the Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English defines waste as “the unwanted material or substance that is left after you have used something” while the New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary on Historical Principles defines it as “the unusable material left over from a process of manufacture.CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction This chapter presents a two-part review of the literature on solid waste management. apart from waste being an unwanted substance that is discarded. the use of consumer goods etc.1 Defining Waste Palmer (2005) observed that the term “waste” is frequently left as an undefined primitive in spite of its critical importance and frequently. Palmer argues that. or the useless by-products of a process” Gilpin (1996) provides a more elaborate definition of the term waste. 2. the amount of it and the impact it makes on the environment also become important considerations in defining waste. According to him. the concept of waste embraces “all unwanted and economically unusable byproducts or residuals at any given place and time. concentration.
1 Classification of waste Criteria for waste classification Sources or premises of generation Examples of waste types Residential. solid. processing and agricultural sources (Table 2. material composition and the level of risk associated with waste substances (Table 2. industrial.2 The Classification of Waste A number of criteria are usually employed to classify wastes into types including their sources. textile Hazardous. commercial. ‘waste’ has been defined as when something it is no longer in use and fail to fulfill its purpose. From the foregoing definitions and for the purpose of this research study. As a default definition. commercial and industrial sources. agricultural Liquid.inherent in any lump. commercial. radioactive Organic food waste. 2.1). construction and demolition. industrial. A good example of the source classification was provided by the World Bank (1999) in a study in Asia which identified the sources of waste as residential. Palmer (1998) suggests that “any substance that is without an owner is waste”. municipal services.2). glass. Table 2. inert.2. object or material which will serve to identify it as waste … an item becomes waste when the holder or owner does not wish to take further responsibility for it”. metal. Such classification of waste provides a basis for the development of appropriate waste management practice. non-hazardous Physical state of waste materials Material composition of waste Level of risk (Source: Tchobanoglous et al 1993) The source classification of waste is based on the fact that waste emanates from different sectors of society such as residential. physical state. building and construction. plastic. municipal services. 2 . gaseous. paper and card.
markets. 2 . special wastes. plastics. concrete. plastics. dairies.Table 2. paper. tires) and household hazardous wastes Paper. pesticides). wood. beaches. steel.2: Sources and Types of Municipal Solid Waste Sources Typical waste generators Residential Single and multifamily dwellings Types of solid waste Food wastes. metals. consumer electronics. restaurants. textiles. cardboard. recreational areas Construction and Demolition New construction sites. orchards. refineries. plastics. renovation sites. landscaping. hotels. beaches. oil. chemical plants. hazardous wastes (e. ashes. metals. mineral extraction and processing Crops. hospitals. government center. road repairs. tailings Spoilt food wastes. glass. food wastes. batteries. power plants. parks. wood. scrap materials. cardboard. metals. hazardous wastes Paper. special wastes (bulky items. general wastes from parks. landscape and tree trimmings. cardboard. feedlots. food wastes. 1999. special wastes. off specification products. farms Industrial process wastes. demolition of buildings Process (manufacturing. hazardous wastes Street sweepings. office buildings Institutional Schools. slay. glass. Agriculture Source: World Bank/IBRD. and other recreational areas Wood.g. Prisons Municipal services Street cleaning. vineyards. agricultural wastes. glass. etc) Heavy and light manufacturing. dirt Commercial Stores.
3). other ferrous. other aluminum Yard waste-grass. paper and cardboard. Examples of these types are shown in Table 2. commerce and industry. textiles metal and inert waste (Table 2. office waste paper. Table 2. other construction and demolition. expanded polystyrene. fines. sewage sludge and mining and quarrying operations. textiles. dense plastic. wood. magazine/glossy Bottles. plastic film. miscellaneous combustibles. diapers. cardboards. aluminum cans. garden waste and food waste (Surreywaste.info. glass. solid. amber glass. other organics carpets.4: Classification of waste based on physical state of waste substances Waste type Examples 1 . demolition and construction activities. UK in 2002/2003. the UK Environment Council (2000) also employed source classification to identify the major sources of waste as municipal sources. the materials in the waste stream can also be categorized into liquid. glass. Frequently. Classifying wastes by their sources is a useful way of determining the relative contributions of the different sectors of society to the waste stream and how to plan for their collection and disposal. ceramics. film plastic.4 Table 2. agricultural sources. other rigid plastics Clear glass. An example of waste classification based on material composition was conducted by the Surrey County. UK in 2002/2003 Using the physical state of waste substances. textiles. gaseous and radioactive wastes. plastic. drywall. other inorganic Source: Surrey County. green glass.In the Stakeholders’ Guide: Sustainable Waste Management. non-recyclable glass Steel cans. the material composition of the waste stream is also used to classify wastes into such types as organic waste. online). ferrous metal.3: Material classification of waste Waste type Paper Plastics Glass Metals Organics Inorganic Electronics Examples Newspapers. yard waste-other. dredged spoils. An analysis of household waste streams in the county identified nine main types of materials: paper/card.
contaminated swabs and sharps. metal. hazardous waste materials require rigorous and cautions means of disposal (Department of Environment and Land Management. and appropriate disposal methods. Waste can also be classified by whether it is biodegradable or non-biodegradable waste (Lapidos. gravel and concrete slates (Environment Council. corrosive waste.Liquid waste Solid waste Gaseous waste Radioactive waste Sewage sludge. reactive waste. 2007). non-hazardous waste does not pose a danger and can be dealt with easily. the potential health or pollution risk of waste materials is used to classify wastes into hazardous or non-hazardous waste (Table 2. The developed countries have made great advances in waste data generation and analysis which have enabled them to improve waste management over the years. 2008). 1993. On the one hand. Because of their potential pollution danger.. however. examples being inert materials such as uncontaminated earth and excavated waste such as bricks. Among other things. vehicle exhaust smoke. it provides useful information that enables municipal authorities to organize waste management operations including the frequency and means of collection. solids. 2 . plastic. DELM 1993). US EPA. contained gases. fumes from burning waste dumps Radiation. 1993. excess energy Source: DELM. Examples include hard clinical waste such as human parts. In most developing countries. US EPA. 2008 Furthermore. as discussed above. keep or dispose of that it requires special disposal arrangements (US. is very important for waste management planning. hazardous wastes can be liquids. hazardous waste refers to wastes with properties that make them potentially harmful to human health or the environment (DELM. uranium. 2000). debris Factory smoke. 2008). In the EPA’s Hazardous Waste Listings (2008) the categories of hazardous wastes include ignitable waste.1). making it difficult to organise waste management effectively (Hardoy et al. plutonium. sand. acute hazardous waste and toxic waste. The classification of waste into types. According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) 2008. On the other hand.EPA. even the most basic data on waste such as the quantities generated and composition of the waste stream are lacking. toxicity characteristic waste. Special waste is one type of hazardous waste which is usually so dangerous to treat. or sludge and can be the by-products of manufacturing processes or simply discarded commercial products like cleaning fluids or pesticides. waste water from bath house and kitchens Food waste. paper. 2001).
transportation. Similarly. supporting the efficiency and productivity of the economy and the generation of employment and income for people. Baabereyir A. separation. has referred to waste management as involving “the collection. systematic control of the generation. Cointreau (2001) argued that “the overall goal of urban solid waste management is to collect. collection.2. 1999). (1996) focus on municipal solid waste management which they define as “the collection. treatment. recycling. transfer.3 The Concept of Waste Management The business of keeping our environment free from the contaminating effects of waste materials is generally termed waste management (US EPA (2008)).2. treat and dispose of solid waste generated by all urban population groups in an environmentally and socially satisfactory manner. the United States Congress enacted the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) which authorized the EPA to regulate waste management and disposal practices. protecting the quality of the environment. recovery and disposal of solid waste in a sanitary. and ✔ ensuring that wastes are managed in an environmentally-safe manner (RCRA. Gbekor (2003). for instance.2. treatment and disposal of waste including after care of disposal sites”. resource recovery and disposal of solid waste in urban areas”. On her part. 2. storage. 2002): 2 . Gilpin (1996) has defined waste management as “purposeful. The goals of waste management that were set by the RCRA included: ✔ the protection of human health and the environment from the hazards posed by waste disposal ✔ the conservation of energy and natural resources through waste recycling and recovery reducing or eliminating the amount of waste generated. aesthetically acceptable and economical manner” while Schubeller et al. processing. the priority of a waste management system must always be the provision of a cleansing service which helps to maintain the health and safety of citizens and their environment (Cooper. (1996) stated the goals of municipal solid waste management as protecting environmental health. the Ghana Environmental Protection Agency has noted that waste management is essential in the present day context for the following reasons (Ghana EPA. transport. Thus. 1976) Similarly.4 The Goals of Waste Management Schubeller et al. (2009) defined waste management as the practice of protecting the environment from the polluting effects of waste materials in order to protect public health and the natural environment. using the most economical means available” In 1976. recycling.
. financial and managerial capacities. are “to minimize waste generation. unable to achieve the basic objective of waste management which is to protect public health and the natural environment against waste pollution (Hardoy et al. It can be concluded from the above that the main objective of waste management is to protect public health against waste-related hazards and risks. maximize waste recycling and reuse. This means that waste management should be approached from the perspective of the entire cycle of material use which includes production. (1996:19). private sector waste companies and government agencies.5 Options for Considerations in Management of Waste To achieve the goals of municipal solid waste management. water and air as well as the aesthetic quality of the environment. The systems put in place for solid waste management must be appropriate to the particular circumstances of the city and its various localities.6 The Principles of Waste Management The principles of waste management. and to maintain ecosystem services by preventing the pollution of the natural environment and its resources such as land. the United Nations’ 2005 study of the consequences of ecosystem change for human wellbeing. water and land ✔ To produce energy which could be an alternative for the fast depleting fossil fuels and other conventional sources of energy ✔ To make optimum use of the waste generated ✔ For a better and sustainable future. Due to their low technical. 3 . Pacione. and ensure the safe and environmentally sound disposal of waste”. To achieve sustainable waste management. as identified by Schubeller et al. businesses. 1996) including civil society. most municipal authorities in developing countries fail to achieve the goals of waste management and are.2. such a system must harness and develop the capacities of all stakeholders in the waste sector (Schubeller et al. it is necessary to establish sustainable systems of solid waste management which will meet the needs of the entire urban population including the poor. 2. 2001.2. The objectives of waste management are also in line with the goals of the Millennium [Ecosystems] Assessment (MA). 2006) 2. therefore.✔ To protect human health against waste-related hazards and risks ✔ To prevent pollution of the environment and its natural resources like air.
Hardoy et al. Be supportive of good governance 2. Such a programme should: 1. 2001). Foster environmentally appropriate technologies and sites 7. Pacione. In other words. and ensure the safe and environmentally sound disposal of waste in Kumasi Central Market. Conduct strategic facility planning and development 9.7 Integrated Waste Management and the Waste hierarchy In recent years. the concept of integrated waste management (IWM) has become popular as a new approach to waste management. While immediate priority must be given to effective collection and disposal. 1996).. The approach involves the selection and 2 .distribution and consumption as well as waste collection and disposal. treatment and disposal. 2000). While these are important aspects of waste management. Embrace public participation 6. 2005). cited in Environment Council. Establish cost recovery mechanisms for long-term financial sustainability 4. 2001.. The waste management situations in most developing countries show that the goals and principles of waste management are far from being achieved (Schubeller et al.2. Provide economic service delivery 3. Cointreau (2001) has also identified ten principles that should guide a sustainable and integrated solid waste management programme. maximize waste recycling and reuse. recycling and resource recovery 8. Build institutional capacity 10. Seek appropriate levels of source segregation.This principles are very important in this research study when the various institutions involved in management of these waste put these principles into practice. public and private sector participation (Cointreau. As defined by the World Resource Foundation (WRF. IWM is an approach which relies not only on technical solutions to the waste problem. 2. since its will help minimize waste generation.. waste reduction and recycling should be pursued as equally important longer-term objectives (Schubeller et al. several other issues are equally important including good governance. but on a wide range of complementary techniques in a holistic approach. transportation. this means that waste management involves much more than the practical organization of waste collection. Conserve natural resources 5. IWM refers to “the use of a range of different waste management options rather than using a single option”. Invite private sector involvement In line with Gilpin’s (1996) notion of waste management. 1996.
(1995). issues such as social. inadequate. incineration without energy recovery and disposal in landfills in that order of priority (Durham County Council. from best to worst”. where this is not possible. techniques and management practices to design a programme that achieves the objectives of waste management (Tchobanoglous et al. disposal is placed at the bottom to show that it should be the last resort among the strategies for waste management. incineration with energy recovery.. The concept of IWM seems to have emerged from the realization that technical solutions alone do not adequately address the complex issue of waste management and that there is the need to employ a more holistic approach to waste management. economic and environmental factors are considered in the design of an IWM project (Tchobanoglous et al. to produce less of it. cultural. and not economical”. As shown in Figure.application of appropriate technologies. “a single choice of methods for waste management is frequently unsatisfactory..1. 1993. all stakeholders participating in and affected by the waste management regime are brought on board to participate in waste management. composting to produce manures. 1995. material recovery from waste streams. In this approach. re-use of materials and products. Use of an integrated approach to managing solid waste has therefore evolved in response to the need for a more holistic approach to the waste problem. waste reduction/minimization. At the other extreme. 1993). Furthermore. recycling of materials. Schubeller et al.. 2.. 2007: online) These elements of IWM are frequently formulated into a waste hierarchy model which Girling (2005) has described as “a penny-plain piece of common sense that places the various strategies for waste management in order of environmental friendliness. waste reduction are placed at the top to show that the best way to deal with waste since waste cannot be prevented from its production and. 1996) These elements most commonly associated with integrated solid waste management are waste prevention. Rhyner et al. As argued by Rhyner et al. 2 .
Thus.8 billion in 1995. Tannerfeldt and Ljung. and even though Asia and Africa are relatively less urbanized. while cities in these countries grapple with socio-economic problems such as poor shelter. The rapid urbanization which is currently occurring in the developing parts of the world has many positive impacts including economic growth and modernization but it is also accompanied by problems of a social. (2001). they both have very large urban populations and rapidly growing cities (Songsore. 2006). 2004).3.3 The Urban Solid Waste Problem in Developing Countries 2. This module is very important since as often as waste is produce it can be recycled or pass through the necessary processes before disposing it.1 Introduction Rapid urbanization which occurred in the developed world in the late 19 th and early 20th centuries is now underway in the developing parts of the world (Songsore. cities are growing rapidly. 2. the urban population in these regions grew more than fivefold from 346 million in 1950 to 1. 2004. 2. fuelled by large-scale ruralurban migration and natural increases within the cities (Songsore. In Asia.1: Waste Management Hierarchy Model Since waste cannot be prevented. economic and environmental nature. poverty 1 . it can be recycled and re-use so that as more waste is produced it is put to a use to prevent problems related to waste management. According to Hardoy et al.Fig. 2004). Africa and Latin America. unemployment.
Also.. 2005). 2001). the poor environmental sanitation created by the waste situation militates against the achievement of the major objective of solid waste management which is to protect human health and the environment from the hazards posed by waste (RCRA. For example. The appalling solid waste situation in the world’s poor cities has attracted attention even at the global level. 1999. 1996. Hardoy et al. Hardoy et al. Pacione. four major programme areas was identified which were: ✔ Minimizing wastes ✔ Maximizing environmentally sound waste reuse and recycling ✔ Promoting environmentally sound waste disposal and treatment ✔ Extending waste service coverage In most cities in the developing world. insufficient coverage of the collection systems and improper disposal of municipal waste (Onibokun and Kumuyi. Major urban settlements are.. In 2002. 1995.3. improving maternal health (MDG 5).and misery. 1997. 2001. Furthermore. 2005. Palczynski and Scotia. In particular. 1976. available studies on the topic suggest that solid waste management in generally characterized by inefficient collection methods. Schubeler et al. therefore.2 The Nature of the Waste Problem in Developing Countries While data is generally lacking in the waste sector of developing countries. therefore. reducing child mortality (MDG 4). have become great challenges to municipal authorities (Kwawe. the United Nations Centre for Human Settlement (UNHabitat) raised concern about the solid waste situation in poor country cities in the following 2 . 1999. 2001. Most cities in the developing world are. 2005). To address the waste problem confronting the world under the UN Resolution 44/288. drowning in waste (Chazan. Hardoy et al. effective and sustainable waste management will promote the attainment of the remaining MDGs. there are also mounting environmental problems including poor sanitation and water quality. 2002)... Pacione. among other problems.. Pacione. achievement of many of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) depends on maintaining clean and healthy human settlements. slum development and a worsening solid waste situation which. 2. the urban solid waste situation in most poor countries is worrying. reducing malaria and other environment-related diseases (MDG 6) and ensuring environmental sustainability (MDG 7) are directly affected by the quality of waste management. 2001. Hardoy et al. Onibokun and Kumuyi. characterized by waste accumulations and poor environmental sanitation (Habitat. 2002).
writers suggest that large proportions (between 30 and 50 percent) of the solid waste generated by the residents are never collected for disposal and end up rotting on the streets. storage. According to them.1 Urban Solid Waste Management in Developing Countries Introduction The term solid waste management has been viewed differently by various authors. most poor city governments have great difficulty regarding the collection and safe disposal of solid wastes. 2006). 2001. in drains and in streams (Hardoy et al.4. transportation. provide a more comprehensive definition of solid waste management. storage. Cointreau (2001). Hardoy et al. roads and open spaces. However. up to 60 percent of solid waste generated within urban centres in poor countries remains uncollected and such refuse accumulates on waste lands and streets. In many Third World cities. On the basis of 2 . sometimes to the point of blocking roads 2. processing and disposal of solid wastes in a manner that is in accord with the best principles of public health. 1993). treatment. aesthetics and other environmental considerations and that is also responsive to public attitudes. processing. Therefore.4 2. engineering. Depicting a similar picture of the problem. (2001) for instance have reported the extensive lack of solid waste collection in cities across the developing world. Ali.. According to him. Tchobanoglous et al (1993). collection. 2005. Pacione. conservation. the fundamental aspects and relationships involved must be indentified and understood clearly (Tchobanoglous et al. source separation. solid waste management is that discipline associated with the control of generation. Pacione (2005) has also commented on the lack of provision for urban waste management in poor countries and the resulting poor environmental conditions in the cities.words: “The need for the collection and disposal of solid waste in urban settlements is far from adequately recognized. Kumah (2007) defines solid waste management as “the administration of activities that provide for the collection. Uncollected refuse accumulates in drains. if solid waste management is to be accomplished in an efficient and orderly manner. disrupting community life and creating additional problems in the operation of other public services” (Habitat 2002). economics. and disposal of waste”. has estimated that in some cases. He estimates that between one third and one half of all solid waste generated in Third World cities remains uncollected and the collection rate could be as low as 10 – 20 percent in some cases. transfer. transfer and transport.
4. storage. 1993).02 billion tones. processing and recovery and final disposal. collection.2 below.this solid waste management incorporates the following: source separation. This means that when waste is generated it is first stored in either dustbins or skips. when waste is collected it can be transferred from small collection equipment like the tricycle to a bigger truck for final disposal. transfer and transport. representing a 7 per cent annual increase 3 . the key elements in solid waste management include: waste generation. in 2006 the total amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated globally reached 2.3 Waste Generation Waste generation encompasses those activities in which materials are identified as no longer being of value and are either thrown away or gathered together for disposal (Momoh and Oladebeye.2. 2.4. transportation and disposal of solid waste in an environmentally sustainable manner (Tchobanoglous et al. On the other hand. 2010). Also. storage. It is then collected and finally disposed of in landfill.2 Key Elements of Solid Waste Management Waste Generation Storage Collection Transfer and Transport Processing and Recovery Final Disposal (Source: Tchobanoglous et al 1993) 2. collection. waste collected can be processed and recovered for materials to be reused. According to UNEP (2009). These elements have been illustrated in Figure 2. Figure 2.2 Solid Waste Management Processes As shown in figure 2.
global generation of municipal waste will rise by 37. commercial set-ups was done in concrete receptacles placed at strategic points and conveyed by trucks/tractors. the total health-care waste per person per year in most low income countries. the causes of this increased should have enumerated by the organisation and therefore. It is further estimated that between 2007 and 2011.4. According to Kreith (1994). Accordingly. On the other hand. as per WHO estimations. Individual bins/containers were also placed alongside the shops in certain areas.5 Collection The element of collection includes not only the gathering of solid waste. This prevents people from dumping waste indiscriminately.4.6 Transfer and Transport 2 .4 Storage Tchobanoglous et al (1977) explain storage to mean where solid waste is stored before it is collected. but also the hauling of waste after collection to the location where the collection vehicle is emptied ( Kreith.3 per cent. It is accepted that solid waste generation is increasing at a faster rate globally as indicated by UNEP and this is confirmed by Mensah and Larbi (2005) concerning solid waste generation in Ghana.4. storage is of primary importance because of the aesthetic consideration. which were emptied directly into the trucks/tippers. equivalent to roughly 8 per cent increase per year (UNEP. That notwithstanding.since 2003. It could be stored in a skip or dustbins and not thrown away indiscriminately. According to them. According to the USPS (2000). the most common type of residential collection services in the United States include “curb”. has not exhausted the issue on discussion.5 kg to 3 kg. there were concrete bins and containers provided at various locations from where the waste was lifted for disposal. The programme also says that. 2. 2. in the city of Thimphu in Bhutan the collection of solid waste from households. is anywhere from 0. 2. 2009). “setout-setback” and “backyard carry”. the building of these concrete bins and containers may be expensive to do in Ghana and for that matter TAMA. 1994).
separation operations have been devised to recover valuable resources from the mixed solid wastes delivered to transfer stations or solid waste processing plants (Tchobanoglous et al. physical and financial resources so as to achieve desired objectives.According to Kreith (1994). with market friendly. 2. These methods according to the Centre for Environment and Development (2003) vary greatly with types of wastes and local conditions. 2. Having explained the various elements in the diagram by some authorities. 2000). 2004). Ghana’s regulatory authority. Most possibly. In the recovery. like that in most SSA countries has followed European models.4. followed by the enactment of the Provisional National Defence Council (PNDC) Law 116 in 1985. large scale industrial development (Issahaku. later 4 . For the purpose of this analysis. These solid waste management processes are very important to this research study since they explains the need for the various institutions involved in managing these waste generated in the study area. and facilities used both to improve the efficiency of other functional elements and to recover usable materials. Ghana’s environmental policy. According to Edoho and Dibie (2000). transfer and transport involves two steps: (1) the transfer of wastes from the smaller collection vehicle to the larger transport equipment and (2) the subsequent transport of the wastes. this situation can hardly be attributed to absence of policy and institutional frameworks. equipment. 1977).4.8 Disposal It is the ultimate fate of all solid wastes whether they are residential wastes collected and transported directly to landfill site.5 Solid Waste Management in Ghana Ghana typifies most Sub-Saharan African countries with respect to dearth of reliable data on the management of solid waste (Anomanyo. Since independence in 1957. the next section analyses in further details the final disposal methods of solid waste. the Environmental Protection Council (EPC) was created in 1974. Several methods of solid waste management have evolved over the years. usually over long distances to the final disposal site. the Ghanaian situation is a result of failure of established frameworks to manage human. 1977). 2. conversion products or energy from solid wastes (Tchobanoglous et al.7 Processing and Recovery The element of processing and recovery includes all the technology. this section is divided into early practices of managing solid waste and contemporary methods of waste management systems.
core issues bordering on sustainable management of development processes remains largely unaddressed in any concerted manner to date (Issahaku. Despite the creation of the EPC in 1974 there was no formal procedure for environmental assessment in Ghana until 1994. This became necessary with the establishment of a full fledged Ministry of the Environment charged with policy issues at the national level (Ahorttor and Asiamah. 2000). when the EPC changed into the Environmental Protection Agency through an Act of Parliament. Earlier in 1988.1 Introduction This chapter presents the profile of Kumasi Central Market (KCM) and the Research Methodology 3. Despite these strides. 2000).1 Kumasi Central Market (KCM) General Overview 2 . 2000). Ghana established its Environmental Action Plan. forestry. mining and manufacturing. a policy document that dovetailed into Ghana’s Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) which strongly emphasized sustainability in agriculture.replaced with PNDC Law 207 of 1988 which made District Assemblies responsible authorities for matters relating to environmental management (Edoho and Dibie.2. CHAPTER THREE PROFILE AND METHODOLOGY 3.2 3.
Plate 3.The Kumasi Central Market (KCM) within the Kumasi Metropolis is said to be one of the largest urban open daily markets in Africa and the surrounding business area is one of the busiest economic centres in the country (Integrated Development Consultant. about 87 years ago and is situated in the subin constituency.1 below shows the location of Kumasi Central Market.1 Problems within the KCM Poor market facilities One of the biggest problems of the Central Market is the lack of basic facilties like waste bin etc. plagued by flooding and dilapidated structures.000 stores (Acheampong. 2011 3.1991). The market was built in 1924. Plate 3. where the market traders are excluded from the process.1: Map showing the location of Kumasi Central Market Source: Town and Country Planning Department March. Currently KCM can boast of about 10. 1991). The market is unsanitary. Revenues generated from specific facilities in the Kumasi Metropolis are not earmarked for their maintenance.3. 2010). laid out in back-to-back rows (Integrated Development Consultants. KCM covers 25 hectares and has 119 original blocks of stalls/stores.3 3. The problems arise in assessing maintenance priorities. 2 .
The Kumasi Central Market serves some 200. Since this is not the only commercial centre where heaps of refuse are found within the Kumasi Metropolis. were obtained through the review of relevant reports and documents from literature that are related in issues with regards to the subject matter of the study. Business drops during flooding.1 Research Methodology Introduction The thrust of this chapter describe the procedures as well as the techniques of gathering data for the study on Kumasi Central Market. That is primary and secondary. Another technique that was employed in gathering primary data was physical survey and observations of the selected area. a problem for both customers and traders. The main drain that passes through the city centre winds through the market. The primary data were obtained from identified institutions and store operators. The data were extracted through structured questionnaire administration. 3.2 Selection of the Study Sites The Kumasi Central Market (KCM) is said to be one of the largest urban open daily markets in Africa and the surrounding business area is one of the busiest economic centres in the country. Drainage problems also pose sanitation hazards in the market. Despite these problems and the fact that the KMA is not living up to its responsibilities.4 3. The nearest toilet is located outside the market some about half a kilometer away. The data for the study were gotten from two main sources. causing flooding. as do incomes. many traders move out of the market during the rainy season. 1991) 3. All the major commercial centres in Kumasi including 3 .4.1991) people on a daily basis but has neither public standpipes nor toilets. the traders continue to pay their tolls and rents for fear of being ejected from the market. selling their goods from unauthorized locations on the streets. During rainy seasons. three possible study locations emerged from the preliminary investigation that are confronted with the solid waste crisis. drains in the market are choked.000 (Integrated Development Consultant. The secondary data on the other hand. ( Integrated Development Consultants. The market is prone to all sorts of accidents but no health post or clinic operates within the market boundaries.4. In light of this and the lack of response of the KMA to fix the drainage problem.
respondents who can answer the research questions best are selected. As the name implies. The layout was divided into clusters.3 Sampling Techniques The following sampling techniques were employed to select the respondents for the study. 3.3. In this case.M. Market Manager • • Number of stores within the market Types and components of waste generated.M were selected based on the most hit solid waste problem in the area. the following process was followed: 1. In adopting this.220.127.116.11. 3.2 Purposive sampling Purposive sampling technique was used to select the key stakeholders in waste management within the study area.A. in trying to adhere to the objectives of the study. The study utilized the cluster and random sampling technique to select respondents. All the store operators within the selected clusters were therefore interviewed 3.1 Random and cluster sampling Random sampling was used in the selecting of the store operators since each member in the sample frame which is the store operators has an equal chance of being selected and Cluster sampling applied since Kumasi Central Market is very large and its vary expensive to administer the whole store operators. 5. cluster. random and purposive sampling. these key stakeholders had the necessary information. These were. 2 Waste Management Department and Zoomlion Ghana Ltd. K. 2. Below is the type of data collected from each key stakeholder. After establishing that the waste menace was common to all the commercial centers. 3 out of these 6 clusters were randomly picked for the exercise.C. 4. Layout of the study area was obtained from the T&CPD of the K. adequate knowledge and experience on solid waste management in the study area.M face equally tragic waste situations that need to be investigated. 3.Adum.C.: . Each cluster was assigned a number from 1 to 6 based on how the market has been distributed. Race Course and K.
articles. therefore. employed interviews. Furthermore. Frequency of collection. aspects of the data were physically observable and could be gathered through direct field inspection or observation. newspapers and internet sources on solid waste management to review literature. Availability of waste management equipment. it became useful to combine different methods from both qualitative and quantitative approaches in my attempt to gather the data needed for this investigation. These were analysed in chapter 1 . Secondary data were obtained from books. Qualitative data are data were obtained through interview guides and observation whiles Quantitative data were also obtained through questionnaire administration.4 Data Collection After carefully considering the research questions.• • • • • • Quantity generated. it became evident that the best way to collect adequate data for the research would be a combination of the methods of both quantitative and qualitative approaches. could be elicited by means of questionnaires.4. The study. 3. well-structured questionnaires. There was also a range of published information including newspaper articles and other publications that could yield useful data for the study. Provision of dustbins. Disposal site.4. journals. publications. This is because some of the data required were qualitative in nature and could best be obtained through interviews while others were quantitative and thus. In view of this. field observation and documentary analysis.1 Secondary Data Substantial relevant secondary data on elements of solid waste management have been gathered and reviewed thoroughly to understand what has already been done in the field of solid waste management. 3. drawing upon the strengths of these different methods to improve the quality or validity of the data.5.5 Types of data Secondary and primary data played a key role in obtaining substantial information for the study.4. Mode of collection. The Secondary data is important to provide a frame and direction for the study. the nature of the data needed for the analysis and the prevailing conditions on the research field. 3.
photographs were taken of waste scenes such as market litter. in addition to questionnaires and interviews. collaborators and indicative cost.4. solid waste. This process weighed the problems and guided the formulation of questionnaire survey and interview schedule.5.7 Face to Face Interview Interviewing is a useful way of collecting qualitative data because the technique is ‘introspective’ and allows respondents to report on themselves. the level of solid waste disposal services available. their beliefs. transportation and disposal and the management of solid waste. the dump sites. The field observation involved scouting through the study area to assess the following. 2003). and the method enables the investigator to observe the phenomenon under study directly. observations are a form of evidence that do not depend on verbal behaviour. • • • Solid waste collection skips.4. 3. implementing agencies.2 Primary Data Collection Primary data were collected through preliminary field investigation. interactions and concerns (Freebody.6 Preliminary Field Investigation According to Yin (1982). the collection.two. field observation was done as part of the data collection exercise. waste storage containers. This involved the observation of solid waste situations and other conditions that could affect solid waste management in the study areas such as the layout of area and road access within the KCM. practices. key informant interviews. their views. Waste Management Department of the Kumasi Metropolitan Assembly. The data obtained include objective of waste management by the Assembly. In the course of the field observation. Dustbins in the study area Dump sites. Thus.4. This was included in the analysis of data gathered from the field. These are further discussed in the sub-sections below. is one which lends itself to direct field observation. activities. The exercise enabled me to gain first-hand knowledge of the solid waste situation in the study area including the solid waste disposal habits of the people. 3. strategies. questionnaires survey and Observation. 3.The interview technique was employed to 2 . Secondary data were also obtained from the Zoomlion Ghana Ltd. time frame. The phenomenon under study.
KCM Town and Country Planning. An advantage of the questionnaire was that while the closed questions made the questionnaire easy to complete. 2 . availability and type of solid waste disposal services.9 Data analysis and Presentation Both quantitative and qualitative data were gathered for the study using questionnaires.4. Simple percentages and means were used to analyse the quantitative data obtained from the questionnaire administration. supported with data from documentary sources and my own field observations of the waste situations in the two case-study cities. The survey questionnaire was well-structured.4. 3. store operatiors’ perceptions about the solid waste situations in the KCM and how the situation could be improved. field observation and documentary sources. the open-ended questions provided the opportunity for respondents to give more detail information about the issues being investigated. The closed-ended questions required the respondent to make choices from alternative responses while the open-ended questions provided space for them to give their own answers to questions. containing both open-ended and closed-ended questions. The data were coded and fed into Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 14. interviews. The qualitative data from interviews conducted with all other categories of respondents were analysed manually by making summaries of the views of the respondents and supporting these with relevant quotations that captured these views. The analysis (presented in the next chapter) is organised under themes derived from the data and the research questions that guided the entire investigation. Kumasi Waste Management Department of KMA Zoomlion Company Limited Structured Questionnaire 3.obtain data from the following key stakeholder groups as far as solid waste management is concerned in the study area.0. The data were processed into statistical tables and charts for interpretation and discussion. Analysis was undertaken to generate a descriptive picture of the data gathered. for Windows) software.8 The questionnaire for the KCM survey was developed to cover an aspect of the objectives of the study which was to investigate issues concerning solid waste generation and disposal practices. payments for solid waste disposal services. These were: • • • • Market Manager.
questionnaire survey were employed to gather primary data. Data were analysed both quantitatively and qualitative using tables. bar graphs.3.10 Conclusion Data were collected from two main sources namely secondary and primary. pie charts and pictures. 3 . The sampling techniques used were cluster sampling. Field investigation.4. random and purposive sampling. face to face interview.
2 Solid Waste generation and collection in the area for a three-year period (20082010) Historical data on amount of solid waste generation and collection provides the basis for city authorities to strategically formulate effective management tools for handling the solid waste.167 tons was recorded culminating into a daily solid waste generation of about 1233 tons. questionnaire survey and face-to-face interviews. with the 20 percent 1 . 4. ✔ Types and components of solid waste generated in the area. Moreover. This translates into a daily waste collection of about 1000 tons leading to a deficit of 23. the total solid waste generation had increased by 50 percent. the total solid waste generated between the years 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 increased by 20 percent and 25 percent respectively.1 Introduction This chapter analyses the data collected from the study area through preliminary field investigation. On the other hand.3 percent of uncollected waste daily in the Market. Considering the 3-year period. (Refer to appendix I for details of the Questionnaire ).CHAPTER FOUR DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION 4. It can be observed from the 3-year data that. a yearly solid waste collection of 365. In all. 99 respondents were surveyed and interviews were carried out with on key institutions including the Market Manager of the study area. ✔ Drains and Pavement Cleaning ✔ Availability of Waste Bins in the area ✔ Disposal of Solid Waste by Shop owners ✔ Secondary solid waste collection ✔ Assessment of Environmental Condition of the Market ✔ Awareness of KMA By-law on Sanitation in the KCM These are discussed in the sub-sections below. The figure below illustrates the total solid waste generation and collection in the study area over a three year period. Data were collected on the following issues: ✔ Solid Waste generation and collection in the area for a three-year period (2008-2010).000 tons was registered. The analysis further shows that. a yearly solid waste generation of 450.
However. with a 25 percent increase in solid waste generation between 2009 and 2010 there was a 20per cent increase in waste collection. It can also be seen from the Table 4. Table 4. 1999 which suggests that solid waste management in developing countries is generally characterized by inefficient collection methods.000 365. It can be deduced from the foregoing analysis that KMA has not been able to meet their expectation with regards to the solid waste generation in the KCM and has led to pollution of the environment and its natural resources like air and land.1: Solid waste generated and collected in the KCM Year Total waste generated (Tons) 2008 2009 2010 Average 365. 2009 and 2010 respectively.000 438. 83 percent and 80 percent were collected in the years 2008. This study corroborates studies by Onibokun and Kumuyi. It can be concluded that the main objective of waste management of protecting public health against waste-related hazards and risks. there was a corresponding increase of 25 percent in the waste collection. a proportion of 80 percent. out of the total waste generated in the study area.0 81.1 Percent of waste collected (%) Source: Waste Management Department.increase in solid waste generation between 2008 and 2009.1 that.000 438.167 Total Waste collected (Tons) 292.000 547. Further. KMA 1 . the uncollected waste poses environmental health hazard.000 80.3 80.500 450. water and air as well as the aesthetic quality of the environment is far-fetched within the study area This also underscores the need for KMA to examine its methods in waste collection within the study area.000 365. impact negatively on the quality of the environment and ultimately affect productivity of the economy.0 83. and maintaining ecosystem services by preventing the pollution of the natural environment and its resources such as land.
6percent of solid waste generated in the market.2 below. composting can be used depending on the component of waste generated. Sand) which these components can be combined as organic waste and low proportions of materials which are recyclables (papers/cardboard.2: Major Components of Waste Generated Component Percentage Generated (%) Greens/vegetables/Fruits 44.64 Rubber 0. rubber.2 above shows that.6 percent of all the components of waste generated in the area.52 Fabrics/Textiles 3. The table above shows that KCM has a high proportion of Greens/vegetables/Fruits and Miscellaneous (Ash. Food. Sand) 44. Vegetables. Table 4. food waste and ashes. 1 .6 Source: Waste Management Department. the two most waste generating components in the KCM were waste from Greens/Vegetables/Fruits and Misc (Ash.2 Paper/Cardboard 3.1 Bottles 0. the commonest types of waste generated in the area were Greens. These components are shown in table 4. they contribute 88. Food. This implies also that the organic waste can be used for compositing and hence use as fertilizer for agricultural purposes. the latter accounted for 44. metals. KMA Table 4. According to the Waste Management Department.64 Metals 0.0 Plastics 3.3 Types and Components of Solid waste generated in the area Knowledge on types and the components of solid waste generated will inform management to use the appropriate method to effectively deal with the various components in solid waste. Together. Methods such as source separation.3 percent.4. Food. etc). Fruits. The least component of waste generated was rubber representing 0.3 Miscellaneous(Ash. Sand). recycling. The high composition of organic waste implies a high rate of putrefaction and hence a potential odour nuisance. Whereas the former constituted about 44 per cent.
3 .percent undertook the exercise themselves.3: Drains and Pavement Cleaning Source: Field Survey. However.5 below presents availability of waste bin and their location. 62 representing 63 percent hired private individuals to clean the pavement and drains everyday whilst 37.Drains and Pavement Cleaning Myself Private Individuals Total How often do you see it cleaned Everyday 37 62 99 Percent 37. out of the 99 respondents. it can be deduced that although the respondents confirmed cleaning the drains and pavement. the efficiency and effectiveness of that exercise is questionable. 4. all the respondents ensure that the pavement and drains are cleaned every day. 2011 The analysis further shows that. This shows that. Table 4. Table 4.4 62.6 Availability of Waste Bin An interview with the Market Manager revealed that lack of waste bins within the KCM was a major problem.4 Drains and Pavement Cleaning The further investigated into group of study persons responsible for cleaning the pavement in front of their shops and drains and the frequency with which they are cleaned. it was found that most of the drains were choked with garbage. By contrasting these two observations.4 that. Kumasi Central Market March. the respondents are aware of importance of keeping their environment clean. It can be observed from Table 4.6 100 4. from the field observation.
1 . From plate 4. All the respondents indicated that there were no public waste bins in the KCM. The dumping of waste in the drains can easily cause flooding as it reduces the efficiency of the drain. It is a worrying situation as majority of the respondents did not have waste bins. Kumasi Central Market March.4: Availability of Waste Bin Availability of waste bin Yes No Location of waste bin On the Not In the shop pavement applicable 6 0 22 0 0 71 Total 28 71 99 6 22 71 Total Source: Field Survey. The salient question is where do all these people deposit their waste? From a reconnaissance survey undertaken. it can be observed that the drain is choked with refuse and plastic waste. Further analysis showed that. this may cause malaria through stagnated water and pollute the environment.1 below. it will block water that is flowing thereby causing flooding.Table 4. The unavailability of the public waste bins has fuelled indiscriminate dumping of waste within the study area. it was observed that most of the drainage facilities in the study area were choked with refuse and has led to perennial flooding in the KCM over the past years. such people empty their waste in such drainage facilities. 2011 Out of the 99 respondents. It is an undeniable fact that. 28 representing 28 percent had waste bin whilst 72 percent responded in the negative. Additionally. 21 percent placed their waste bins in the shop whilst 79 percent placed it on the pavement. This can easily affect nearby shops in the area. This is because when the drain is choked with waste. out of the 28 respondents that had waste bins. The study also revealed that the indiscriminate dumping could be attributed to the negative attitudes of the people towards waste disposal.
Again.1: Garbage silted drain Source: Field Survey. silting or blocking of drainage channels are largely affected as those solid waste find themselves in drains during nighttime downpour.2 clearly depicts indiscriminate disposal of plastic waste in front of shops by the shop owners. 3 . all the respondents dispose their waste or empty their waste bins in front of the shop after close of work. This response was sought primarily to ascertain the involvement or contribution of the shop operators to the irregular disposal of solid waste in the study area. 2011 4.Plate 4. Kumasi Central Market April. This attitude of the shop owners is very appalling and highly contributes to the unkempt nature of the central market.7 Disposal of waste by Store Operators The disposal of solid waste is one of the functional elements in the management of waste. Plate 4. This was done with the anticipation that the hired persons will collect the waste early in the morning. It was found that.
regular waste collection is an important exercise in solid waste management. it was therefore not surprising that the skips normally overflowed with solid waste leaving a mountain of waste at the site.8 Secondary waste collection The survey further showed that all the respondents in the study area dumped their solid waste in skips for onward collection by ZoomLion Ghana Ltd (ZL). It is an undeniable fact. This 3 . The shop owners were charged an amount of 20p or more depending on the size of the solid waste collected by ZL.2: Garbage scattered in front of Shop Source: Field Survey. However.Plate 4. Most of the residents complained about the insanitary condition of the area. (Lapidos 2007). Kumasi Central Market April 2011 4. The skip site is located within the study area near Aboabo station. Looking at the size of the KCM and the contribution of waste from the neighbouring communities. the frequency and urgency with which the skips were emptied by Zoomlion was not encouraging. The survey indicated that the wastes were collected three times a week. A visit to the site showed four skip containers that have been provided by Zoomlion Company Limited.
4: at Source: Field Survey.3 and 4. Plates 4.3: Refuse dump site Source: Survey.4 show the dump site at Aboabo station and the operation of Zoomlion respectively. Kumasi Central Market April.rendered the surrounding in a very unhygienic condition. 2011 4. Central Field Kumasi Market April. Plate 4.9 Assessment of the Environmental Condition of the Market 2 . 2011 Plate Zoomlion Work 4.
Out of this. for the KMA to involve the shop operators on any strategies geared towards arresting the solid waste crisis in the KCM. Majority 74 percent of the respondents were not aware of such provisions in the KMA By-laws. As argued by Rhyner et al. A total of 94 respondents representing 95 percent indicated that the market was dirty. the tendencies of breeding diseases such as typhoid. “a single choice of methods for waste management is frequently unsatisfactory. Kumasi Central Market March.5: Assessment of the Environmental condition of the Market Degree of cleanliness of Environment Clean Dirty Very Dirty Total Number of Respondents 5 64 30 99 Percent 5 65 30 100 Source: Field Survey. 1 . Ironically. The obliviousness of such provision by the respondents defeats the Integrated Waste Management (IWM) approach which brings on board all stakeholders participating in and affected by the waste management regime.7 presents the respondents assessment of the environmental condition of the market. 26 accounting for 26 percent responded in the affirmative. about one-third of respondents indicated that the market was very dirty. 5 percent said the market was clean. It further indicates the deteriorating environmental condition in the KCM. chicken pox which are sanitation-related diseases aggravate. 2011 The analyses indicate the failure of the KMA to strategically manage the solid waste menace in the Central market. (1995). 4. inadequate. Table 4. Again.The survey also sought the assessment of the environmental condition of the market by the respondents.3 illustrates the percentage distribution. It is therefore important. The appalling environmental condition poses threat to human health with respect to waste-related hazards and risks. Out of the 99 respondents.10 Awareness of KMA By-law on Sanitation in KCM The awareness of the respondents to the KMA by-law indicating that every individual is responsible for cleaning the pavement around his/her business premises and the immediate surroundings including the drains were investigated. Table 4. cholera. Figure 4. and not economical” and therefore the use of a more holistic approach to managing the waste problem has been found to achieve much more results.
Paper/Cardboard. recommendations and conclusion of the study.M. the main objective of the study was 3 .A bye-law on sanitation. the underlying factors effecting the effective management of solid waste included: lack of waste bins.A was found to be non existence as was evidenced in their unknowingness of the K. Again the involvement of the shop operators in solid waste management by the K. RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION 5. indiscriminate dumping of solid waste. Fabrics/Textiles. The next chapter therefore. The study further reviews the poor environmental condition within the KCM and the danger its poses to human health.M.M. Metals. CHAPTER FIVE FINDINGS. Bottles.A By-Laws In summary. summarises the key findings. irregular collection of waste among others the types of waste generated in the Kumasi Central Market include the following: Greens/vegetables/fruits. Therefore.3 Awareness of the K. Plastics. Rubber and Ash/Food/sand with Ash/Food/sand as the major component of waste.Figure 4.1 Introduction In the Kumasi Central Market indiscriminate dumping and irregular collections of solid waste are the key problems in solid waste management.
1. Additionally. 5. It is therefore important that as part of the contractual obligation of the service providers and Waste 2 . Again. 5.to establish the underlying factors affecting effective waste management in the KCM and suggest possible measures to tackle the problem.1 Unavailability of Waste Bins Unavailability of waste bin supply was a major factor affecting waste disposal in the KCM.2 Inadequate Skip Containers and Irregular Collection Inadequate supply of skips coupled with bi-weekly collection was found to have encouraged indiscriminate dumping of waste at the site by the hired private individuals. drainage channels were observed to be silted or blocked as most of these solid wastes were deposited in those channels during night time down pour. Below are the key findings of the study. the research objectives that formed the basis for this study are revisited. The major findings thus.2. 5. Education is another important factor which should be looked at waste management. This behaviour has contributed to the deplorable environmental condition within the area.3 Poor attitudes towards Waste Management by Store Operators. It is believed that this had contributed to the insanitary nature of the market.C.2. the survey also established that all the respondents deposit their waste or empty their waste bins in front of their shops after close of work for onward collection by the hired private waste collectors. The survey revealed that the skips normally overflow with solid waste living a mountain of waste at the refuse site.1 Factors affecting effective management of solid waste in K.2 Key Findings In the light of the preceding analysis. store operators and the neighbouring communities. The survey established that about 71 per cent of respondents have no access to waste bins for disposing their waste. This has rendered the surrounding in an unhygienic condition.2. are summarized under the following research objectives.M 5.2.1. Most of the store operators had not obtained any educational serminar organized in effective waste management.1. 5. It is therefore not uncommon to experience the perennial flooding of the market in the raining season.
Majority 74 per cent of the store operators were not aware of the KMA By-Law which obliges every individual to clean the pavement around his/her business premises and the immediate surroundings including drains. there was irregular collection of waste by Zoomlion Ghana Ltd at the refuse dump site. This waste confirmed by the amount made (23 percent) of uncollected waste bins daily in the market.2.M 5. 5. It was found that. hunger.A in managing them. Voluntary 2 . It is therefore imperative for the information unit of the KMA to educate the store operators of such provision. The survey revealed that. The following recommendations are offered based on the issues identified during the analysis of the data collected. The solid waste generators.2 Role of the Private Stakeholders in the Management of Solid Waste. Knowledge of such provision and with strict enforcement would keep the market free from filth 5.3 Recommendations Good Solid Waste Management is a precondition for good health and for success in the fight against poverty. It is also central to human rights and the personal dignity of every human being. Service Providers and Managers all have a part to play to ensure good Solid Waste Management in Kumasi. Zoomlion Ghana Ltd were the one responsible for the collection. transportation and disposal of the solid waste from the refuse dump site to the final disposal site.3 Enforcement of Solid Waste Management Regulations and Bye-Laws The study revealed that the principal cause of the poor Solid Waste Management conditions in Kumasi can be attributed to the poor attitude of the people towards Solid Waste. The effective management of Solid Waste requires strategies that bring about fundamental change in how people perceive Solid Waste in the city and service delivery. It is therefore important to the Waste Management Department to effectively monitor the operations of Zoomlion in order to address the solid waste menace in the K. there should be a collaboration between these institutions to periodically educate the store operators concerning the need for disposing waste at the right place in order to maintain the market clean.C.2. The participation of private stakeholders in the management of solid waste in the study area is very paramount because of the increasing rate of solid waste generation which has overwhelmed the waste management department of K.Management Department.M. and also increase in productivity.
Enforcing the bye-laws would result in compliance and cost savings for the Assembly and they can then invest more in the provision of solid waste bins and other solid waste facilities and equipments since objectives seeks to establish the underlying factors affecting effective management solid waste in the KCM. People know what constitutes good management of solid waste practices but they would just not engage in good solid waste practices. especially the radio station within the market. Therefore there should be an educational programme organized by the Waste Management Department through the media. Business owners should be encouraged to place waste bins in front of their business.2 Provision of Bins within the Market The study revealed that pedestrians litter anywhere due to the unavailability of solid waste bins on streets and at vantage points.M.2. and the WMD of K. This would reduce the amount of solid waste disposed of on within and around the market.2. The KMA Task Force should be reinstituted and empowered to arrest solid waste offenders. This would ensure that store operator.compliance cannot be relied on to ensure that solid waste generators engage in good management of solid waste behaviour in Kumasi. the health and economic benefit that can be accrued from engaging in good solid waste practices.2.A Waste Department about the need for solid waste minimization. The WMD alone cannot provide the needed equipments such as bins. campaigning on the good ways of minimizing solid waste and ensuring that solid wastes are not left in front of shops after close of work. when these enforcement of the bye-laws are been regulated its will improve upon the effective management of solid waste in Kumasi Central Market. The Assembly has to collaborate with the Judiciary to establish Solid Waste Tribunals. tractors. Adequate investment should be made in the provision of waste bins within and around the market. market women understand the concept of solid waste disposal.1 Institutional Capacity for Improved Service Delivery 2 .M. They can effectively do their work with collaboration from the Kumasi Central Market.A must ensure that the solid waste management company responsible for such areas empties the waste bins regularly. 5.3 Education Through the Media The study revealed that there had not been any educational programme organized by K. Zoomlion Ghana Ltd should be encouraged through incentives to provide the necessary equipments. KMA has to make conscious effort to implement and enforce the solid waste regulation and bye-laws in Kumasi. 5. 5.
2. and sanction companies that do not meet quality service standards.2. by the KWMD staff to assess work done. This can be done through partnership with other stakeholders. The market manager in collaboration with the K. 5. particularly the refuse dump site in Aboabo station to avoid heaping and over flowing of skips with solid waste.2. This will not only keep the market tidy but reduce the deficit of solid waste left in the market. a daily waste generation and collection were recorded with a deficit of 23 per cent of uncollected waste daily in the market. This will keep the place constantly clean and prevent any possible outbreak of communicable diseases such as cholera and typhoid.2 Regular Collection of Waste There should be regularity of waste collection by Zoomlion Ghana Ltd. adequate staff and equipment to be effective in their activities. 5. The Assembly has to institute effective monitoring of the management of solid waste activities of the private waste management companies. The company may need assistance in acquiring the needed equipment to provide effective management within the market.3 Monitoring of Activities of Service Providers The study revealed lapses in the service provision of the private waste management companies. This would ensure that effective work are done. 5.2. This can be done through regular visits to sites where the service providers operate.A Department should organise a clean up exercises at least the last Saturday of every month to keep the market tidy.4 Organisation of Clean up Exercise The study revealed that. The frequency and urgency with which the skips were emptied by Zoomlion was not encouraging due to inefficient skip containers within the refuse dumpsite. solid waste should be collected daily in these areas since they generate a lot. At least. 5.M. The banking sector could also play an important role in providing low cost loans for solid waste improvements to these companies to help them secure the necessary tools. There should be regular monitoring of waste collection by the Metropolitan Assembly. Due to the important role played by Zoomlion in improving the management solid waste in Kumasi Central Market as identify from the objectives to examine the role played by the private institution.8 Future Research Issues 2 .The study revealed lapses in the service provision of Zoomlion Ghana Ltd.
lack of routine collection of waste and poor methods of waste management. the following objectives were set to be achieved. The first objective was to establish the underlying factors affecting effective solid waste management in the KCM and suggest possible measures to tackle the problem. It is therefore essential that more empirical studies are done to establish the occurrence of such phenomenon in the metropolis 5. Race course is also exhibiting the characteristics of these problems related to KCM and factors affecting the effective management of waste.4 Conclusion In the study. However. the research seeks to examine the roles of the private stakeholders in the disposal of solid waste. the survey established that the factors affecting effective solid waste management were lack of waste bins. this was woefully inadequate as there is always a backlog of uncollected waste which has worsened the environmental condition within the KCM. Therefore. Thirdly. this was poorly executed as most of the collected wastes were dumped in nearby drainage facilities. The second objective was to examine the role of KMA in the management of solid waste is to monitor the Zoomlion. The survey revealed that the role of KMA in the collection and disposal of solid waste is to ensure effective solid waste management through daily collection and disposal of the waste. To effectively tackle the problems enumerated. However. ✔ Provision of adequate skips and dustbins ✔ Regular collection of Waste ✔ Use of Integrated Solid Waste Management Approach ✔ Creation of environmental awareness through education of the shop owners ✔ Enforcement of Solid Waste Management Regulations and By-Laws 3 . indiscriminate dumping of refuse.Admittedly. The study revealed the involvement of Zoomlion Ghana Ltd in managing solid and the engagement of unidentified private individuals. the following measures are recommended. the study has barely has barely identify factors that is affecting the effective management of these wastes which was gathered through the questionnaire administration and observation from the store operators.
Name of Interviewer……………………………………………………………………………….. it will bring about effective solid waste management. APPENDIX 1 QUESTIONAIRE FOR WASTE MANAGEMENT DEPARTMENT DEPARTMENT OF K. Contact Number………………… 3 .. ensure a clean environment and curb any possible outbreak in the Kumasi Central Market..If the above recommendations given are well taken and implemented.A Name of Respondent………………………………………………………………………………. Date of Interview………………………. Position of Respondent…………………………………………………………………………….M.
M. What is the average quantity of solid waste generated within Kumasi central market daily? (a) 1000 tonnes (b)2000-4000 tonnes (c)above 5000 (d)Others specify………………………………………………………………………………… 5.A Waste Department (b) Zoomlion (c)The Assembly (d) others. ……………………………………………………………………………..1. What is the average quantity of solid waste generated within the various years ? Year 2008 2009 2010 Total waste generated Total waste collected 6. 8.M. How is solid waste managed at the final disposal sites? ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 10. Who manages the refuse dump sites at Kumasi central market? (a) K. What are the problems confronting this Department? …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …… 1 .A? ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3. Which of these type of solid waste is the highest generated? (a) Bottles (b) Paper/Cardboard (c) Fabric (d)Fabric /Textiles (d) Plastics/Polythene (e) Specify………………………………………………………………………………… 4. What major role does the K.A Waste Department play in managing solid waste in Kumasi Central Market? 2. How many refuse dump sites are there in Kumasi Central Market and where are their location? …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …… 7. Where is the location of the final disposal sites? ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 9.M. Which private agencies are involved in Solid Waste Management in Kumasi Central Market apart from the Waste Management Department of K. specify……….
Who is responsible for cleaning the pavement in front of your shop and the drains? KMA Zoom Lion myself Other (please specify) ______________ 3. How often do you see it cleaned? everyday every three days once per week other (please specify) _________ 4. Do you have a waste bin? Yes No Who provided the waste bin? 1 5. 6.APPENDIX 2 QUESTIONAIRE FOR STORE OPERATORS 1. Where is your source of supply from? KCM Race course Techiman Outside the region 2. Where have you placed the waste bin? In the shop On the pavement .
What is your general assessment of the environmental condition of solid waste within the market? Very clean Clean Dirty Very dirty 17. why don’t you have a waste bin? If no where do you and your customers dispose your litter? In front of the shop On the street/pavement Other ______________ How much do you pay for waste disposal/collection? ___________________ Daily weekly monthly yearly other (please specify) _________ 11. If no.Bought it myself Zoomlion KMA Other______________ 7. Are you aware that according to the KMA bye-laws. How often do you pay for the waste collection? __________________________________________________________________ 3 . Whom do you pay to? KMA Private individual collectors money collectors Zoomlion 12. Do you have public waste bins within the market? Yes No 14. What is your assessment of the environmental condition of the market? Very clean Clean Dirty Very dirty 13. every individual is responsible for cleaning the pavement around his/her business premises and the immediate surroundings including the drains? Yes No 15. Yes/No If yes how often (a) Daily (b)Weekly (c)Monthly (d)Yearly (d) Not at all 16. 9. 8. Do you organize any clean up exercise in this section of the market. What can the waste authorities do to ensure that people engage in good solid waste practices? _____________________________________________________________________ 10.
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