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German Underwater Ordnance Mines 1946

German Underwater Ordnance Mines 1946

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OP 1673A



14 JUNE 1946

Thil publication is REstRICTED and ~1th .he .ecurity provilion. of U.S.

Navy l.sutatlon'l

.bCiil be .'eJuurd.d

In accorclance 1920, Articl. 76



OP 1673A



14 JUNE 1946

This publication is RESTRICTED and shall be safeguarded in accordance with the security provisions U. S. Navy Regulations, 1920, Article 76





1. Orcmance PAmphlet l673A provides bB.!;lic infonnetbn on each tY'!'e of Ge:nnen sea mine used or in develo'Oment during World 'war ll. It 1s :not an exhft'lstive analysis of these mines, bllt an over::!ll lurvey of the German discoveries, experiences and Achievenents. 2. The only attempts to co~lle existing infonnet ion on German mines into published form were in OP 1330 and OP e98, both of which were limited in Icope. OP 1330 was intenced solely for ~ine disposal office:"s and OP 898 was an ident1:ice.tion manual. for general lervice personnel. This publication includes some 0: the info~ation from each of these previous pamphlets. Other information has been taken from letter and technical re'Po rts ~repared by the }il'lval Technical Mission in Europe • intelligence repo rts forwa.rded by the Oomeaader , liaval Forces 'in Europe and Com.maDder, Naval Forces ~brth African ~"atera. and field intelligence reports from mine d1s:ooSAl officers assigp.ed to Mobile Explosive Investigation Unite Numbers 2 and 3. These reports are listed in the Bibliography.

3. The information relating to several of the mine items described herein is incomplete for one or more of the follo'tTing reMons:
a. b. c. d. No speclnen8 were found. No docume.nts relating to it 'Were available. Reliable information could not be obtained through interrogation. Specimens have not ss yet been analyzed by the cognizant technical aetivi tiea.

in sc co rdance

Thi. publication 1. RESTRICTED and shAll be 8afeguar~ed W'1th the Be curl ty pro vie ionl 0 f U. S• Navy Regula t ions


1920, Article


G. • HUSSEY I J • Vice Admirtl.l. U. S.


of the Bureau of Or-dnance

.---__ ~ E~i 100( I: .---_.-'---.__~_ Preven'l-Strippin!:...D.__ !:! _ _ _ --_ BV .i ne s ve.-.e1 tverke (L'OJ) ---- Technical Chapter The 4- SlI 1 --.5c·o::: ? ~ze .--SH 1"1 -. _ ~ _ Pe~2Dnnelof Kine and Kinesveepinf Gl'OUp (SVK) .: K:ne~ !.. Facl11tiesof Mine and Mlnesvee....rachutes --LS 1 ---------LS 3 ----------------US-DB -----.-- The The n:c Mine ..l·S Chapter 2 .lle) EM lODe C ---------EM loDe ~ -----------BM 1000 J ... ......-------~ SVl: _ • _ _ _ 'rhe lJ/J._ _ Fune ti..---.-...... up (SVK ).-t·:.."'...:l) ~:!Tie--. t.t.__ Contact-Influence ~!~es -----.A)"lEi Naval ... "'ines --------------------m·: K~ne s -----------_ The !J?:A I·~ine------..gskolil!lle.._ S Raumschutz ----_ _ P' Table of Sase F1e.'..... -" RESTR1CTED 111 .ndo) -..~be~ -------------SH 1 and 2 ------------SH 8 and 5 --...Critique ---------Deve Lo prne rrt .--The E!':GEine -----------~------The En:! Kine --------.) --- _ _ Rhel.-..~ ..:) Bug ver-k 1 I" 1d ur....-----. Hine ~...s.... • _ _ _ ~ Io\lne5 ~ Contact anc l'.mbly Plan for EM 1000 II.St.ne s ...e. _ fo!' _ _ Il:: ...-..-.. The lJ..:ip'es ~..EMC II (Upper Antenr. arid U:=" _ ...li.-.(lll. 'l..__ ~ QI.1al Ac ce s sories BM 1000 ---------- used "'ith _ The EKe I Mine --------EMC I ..!ne~ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Srec.A IUne -The EMB M1...Lurt.. Station ' l ? The EMe Kine ---------------The E~ lODe! Series ----------EM Mine -------- _ _ _ _ (E-Stella) Coordination ------- _ 7 7 7 The Effect of Allied Bombln~ on the Mine Program -----~ _ OrganiZation Chl1'{'t SVx _ Organ1zatlon Chart ....K!.J I • J !I . Fuze .-----MM.lne .J EK iOQO T -----.:e ~:!r.es ----------_ Chal=ter The ":: - !J?l'.. ( Farachutes I.kB . -. A~rcraft Mines -----------------~-_~_ I":':'..M...__ - Functions of Mine ar..-..-.es .!': -. of Tes t Station ("E...:: ne s ..n'1zatiop The The J.--Units Optical Cosmic Ray ~----- Magnetic _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1 1 1 Th<: EI·T ~:!ne The EKD Kine ------------------- Mine -------------------- Infra Red -----------_~---------Underwater Electrical Potent1al Gravl~at1on ---------_ We1lensonde (Wave Probe) -------Combined Units --------------_ Auxiliary Devices --------_ Arming Clocks ---..!'c·raft ..ines .~ --..s 1r._ -_ The Er·::: end :<:1·. .._'..nilDS .Luftvaffe ~_ Chapter betveen the Havel Mine end II...Z US Z (34) I..-_ -.: 10'012 ~:. ~\eche...---- _ _ _ 11 .ts -~------~__ E~C II Degaussing ----------.-.-..-......-- 'rhe iEV...__.ine Case s .~ ~ ~ __ f..---..-----.57/3 ------------------~ _ "'.TA5LE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1 ...-...-..-- lJ._'..Conclu..Type 1..__ ' 51 li:F Kine .-.. ne .__ The EJ':} kl...-Teble c!'" Corit zc t ~·..~~.:A.-.~..::':'ng Graul' (sVY.~_ _ Critique BK 500 -~----------------------EM 2EO ----------Bugspiegles (as 1 and 5S ...e ping G1"0.......vaffe _ nerprobUr.':'nes .......-The E~:'=.ne ----- German (Einheltsmine) BM loaD Pa.!...'...--.~r _ .oored Influence Mine Series ------------The EJ.e..-Base Plates ---------------~_ The -J.soic Fe sear-ch . B . N:ne ---------------------__ FV-5 1·..-._ Period Delay Mechani~ms ---~ _ Sterilizers ------_ Pausenuhr ---------_ The The EMS Kine ----------_ FM Mines ------------------_ r...lIe o. and Luftvaffe Tes t Station (E-Ste...__ ....--.g (BV ?and Sdhctzbe........-.ERC II .o' ~:lnesvee.-Contact I>'.".--.etall Bomb...."--._....) --.-.---------..n ~':lne Ore. ~ Acoustic Units ------------Research after 1941 ---------Pressure Units -------------Experimental -------..::ing Group (SVY.-_--__.::I.-. __ ~ •• _ '1'r1a1 Gro\lp (so:: Snerrvaffes ' Chapter 6 -Al.-..~ ..-----BI....-.-- Twelve-Hour EW -------------.. • ~__ .!.s Personnel of ~'est Station (E-Stelle Facilities of Test...--.ne -.... _...---------- .) ..ne --.....F I·:ine ..Eislery Unl....!'or the UJ.....---....)- 8 9 5' 10 3 .-.-..as tel" 510'1 tch -_ Fuse Deley SVitc!': _~..-.-Po A~5e.G:erm... and E}2j'!-.

ine ------------------The 5MB r.A lar -----M 1 Unit Circuit .Acoustic Jr'~e Unlts A 1 Unit -----------------------A 1 Unit . . and MA 3 Uriits --------------------MA 1 -------------------------MA la ------------------------MA 1st -----------------------MA 2 -------------------------MA 2 with ZX lIe -------------MA 3 -------------------------r.3VX a.GERMAN UNDERWATER ORDNANCE-MINES OP 1673A Chapter 7 ~ Subma.ne ---------------The BM 1000 L Nine ---------------Winterballoon --------------------Wa8serballoon --------------------Chapter 10 . .A 105.HMA Mine ------------------The Hlo:B Mine ------------------The HMC ".nes ---------Chapter 9 .lne ------------------The TMC Mine -------~-----------Chapter 8 .ndLuftwaffe Section 1 .Operation M 3 (ReviSion) Unit Circuit Operation -----------------M 4 Unit -----------------------Unit Construction -----------Latitude Adjustment and Arming Process -------------------M 4 Ueed in Combination with Another Unit --------------M 5 Unit -----------------------M 101 Unit -----------------~---Jrf.f1cations M 1 Unlt --------------------M ls Unit ---~---------------M lr.D.ine ------------------The KM Mines ---------------------The KMA Mlne ------------------The !rlTA Mine.Operation) -----System 3 .M 101 wHh Ten-Place P.Obstructor Stat1c Cpn1cal Sweep (Reisboje) -------------------Aircraft-Laid Sweep Obstructors (BRA .net1C-ACOU!tic Combination 109 114 117 lIB RESTR'ICTED 1. A lilt. A 105st --------------------A 105 (C1rcu1 t .------------------The RMH ~ged as an Influence Mine -------------~----------The RMH used as a Cootrol1ed Mine ------------------------Table of Influence "'~.~LaldMines The 3M ~ines -~~~-----~-----------The SMA "'.--------The BM 1000 F M:1._ -----.Operation -------M 1 (2nd Revision) Unit Circuit . 85 85 85 85 86 86 87 87 88 141 94 94 94 94 96 96 96 144 l4~ 148 150 151 151 152 154 154 155 155 1~~ 159 §~ 99 97 98 100 100 103 103 103 104 105 l§g 161 16.A MIt III) Unit -A 1st .Maspetic Units 77 77 78 78 78 780 8 81 M 1 Unit &..M.A 101 Unit ---------------------MA 105 Unit ---------------------- 169 169 171 177 177 178 178 179 182 . -M 103 Unlt ------. - 119 119 119 121 121 127 127 127 127 129 129 130 130 130 130 133 133 138 138 143 143 143 83 83 B3 81.nil.M.Operation ----System 2 .------------BRB -------------------------Tables of Anchors --------------Chapter 11 .Influence Mine Units .LuftwaffeOperational Ground Influence Mi.ine ------------------The 'I'M r~ne8 ---------------------The Tr~ I Mine ----------------The nm . 163 16~ 169 169 ~ *. MA 1st.-----. A 3 -----------------A 104 ---------------------------A 104 Circuit .oD M 1 (let Revision) Unit Circuit . Modi. 101 Unit Circuit .A 4.II.Special Purpose Mines The HM Mines ---------------------General ----~------------------The .rln.Operation -------M 2 Unit -----------------------M 2 Unit Circuit .D.Bavy ----rnflu"nce Mine Units .Sweep Obstructors Introduction -------------------Explosive Conical Floats (Sprengboje C and Sprengboje D) ---------------------------. A 411t.T!bles Influence Mine Units .Controlled Kines The KMB ~ine ---------------------The RM Mines ----------------~----The RMA Mine ------------------The RMB Mine ---~--------------TheRMCMine ------------------RM Mines used as Influence r.Operation --------A 1 (Allied . and Jr'.A 2st (Allied . MA 2.--------------M 103 Operation -------------Sect10n . A 2st.ines RM fo'ines used as Controlled Mines -----------------------The RMD Mine -------------------The RME Mine ------------------The RMH Mine ..A 7 and A 107 -----Relay Reactions --------------A l07tc -------------------------CircU1t Components -----------Section lolA I. MA lr.nee :-Na'Vl-----------------Operational'Moored Influence Mines .A Mk II) Unit -A 1 (Allied .Operation M 101 Yith Tnree-Place P.Operat1.A Mk VI) Circuit Operation ------Microphones ----------------------Microphone Circuit -----------Basic Systems ----------------S~tem 1 ------------------S~tem 2 ------------------System 3 ------------------Sptem 1 .Operation M 3 Unit -----------------------M 3 Unit Circuit . MA la.A 1..----The SMC r.lne --------------. A 2.BRB) ------------------BRA --------~---.Inrluence F1ring Devices .Navy -----------------1v Sectlon 2 .

d Pi'essure Mine Unite and Detecting Devices ------------------------205 Pressure-Detecting Devl.197 Anti-Freezing Switch -------.9sible Countermeasures to the Mine -----------------------194 .L 232 "'1.201 Acoustic Trigger Circuit ------. and AT 3 Units ------Magnetophone -----------------Magnetophone Construction ----. and Anti-Le<llcDevice --192 AE 1 and AE 101 Unite -----------192 PO..201 The High-Speed C~haft ----.Clocks ano Associated Devices Introduction ----------------------Arming Clocks ---------------------DES I --------------------------DES II -------------------------DES IIa ------------------------Clock Starter Plate ------------DES II and UES III> with LIS ----UES II ano UES IIa with Varkontakt .Subsonlc Units AT 1.202 Transmitter and Firlng Clrcuite 202 The ~eceiver Circuit -------.Pressure and Pressure-Combination Unite 18'2 182 182 185 18" 186 186 186 Character15tics or the D 1'23 Character:!.202 The Lowest-Speed Camshaft --. and DA 152 .2 ---------------SVK Test Mode1 3 ---------------SVK Test Maoel 4 ---------------SVK Test Model" ---------------SVK Test Model Ii ---------------Conclus1ons --------------------Luftvaffe Fore11e Unit ---------Induction Mine Un1te --------------B.:-------------------~.•-----------------Sterilizers (Zel~ Einr1chtur.203 AVC Amplifier and anti-sveep Circuit ----------------205 Sectlon7 .< 210 21~ 21..~avy -------- 22~ 229 22$230 2':.203 The Amplifier --------------203 The Trigger Circuit --------.--Sweeping Characteristics of Influence Mine Units .-----..208 Char~cter1Stic5 of the D 113 -----.CONTENTS Page Section 5 .(1 230 23 2.SUperson!c Units AA 4 and AA 106 Units -----------183 AA 4 Unit -----------------------190 AA 4 Circuits ----------------19(' AA 106 Unit ---------------------191 Acoust~c Triggering Circuit --191 Supersonic Receivers ---------191 Float and Float Re1ea.MA II ------------------.196 Sea Trials --------------------198 EchO-Sounder Mines Types AE 1 and AE 101 -------------------------198 The !/I>snetostrictionTransdUCEr: ----------------------198 The Fjoat ---------------------201 The }oIineshells----------------201 The Circuits ------------------201 Arro!ng of the AE 1 ------------. Receiver Mine A 106 --------in 195 The Magnetostriction Receivers ._ 0 Cosmic Ray Un~t -------------------Wellensonde Unlt ------------------Gravitation Mine Unit -------------~ Elecktroden Effekt ----------------Development of Optl.ce --------. -' 2}C 2..•DA 1112.[e~) --ZE I ---------------------------ZE II --------------------------ZE III -------------------------ZE ------------------------------ 23i 237 <:37 237 2".a on l Receiver -------------~---197 Amplifier B for Vertical Receiver -----------------197 Timing Circuit -------------. AT 2.196 The Triggering Circuit -----.AT' -------------------------1 Acoustic Triggering Circuit --AT 2 Amplifier (Subsonicl ----AT 3 Amplifier (Subsonic ----"Hell" Doppelschwinger ----------Sectlon b .195 The Float ---------------------195 The Clrc~t -------------------196 Preliminary Switching On ---..-------- 20S 21(.201 Arming of the AE 101 ----------..-----------.-----J I ----------------------------J V ----------------------------Characterist1cs of Inf.E.205 General -----------------------205 Description -.ca1 ~:ine-F'irinB Mechanisms -----------------------Luftwaffe 'Units ----------------SVX Test Modell ---------------SVK Test Model . 210 212 ?l.------'BMA III ------------------.'209 RESTRICTED 237 237 v .'7":: 231 ~-- 236 Chap'ter 12 ..202 The Low-Speed Camshaft -----.--------- ------------------------.------------------DA 16'2------------------------DA 244 ------------------------DA 122.---Dfo: 1 Unit ------------------------Se ct1 on 8 .luence Mines Navy --.201 The Rotary Converter -------.T.se ------192 P.196 Amplif1er A for Hcr-Lz t.205 Operation ---------------------206 l'res9ure Components D '2and D 102 -'206 Operation of D 103 Unit ----------. 213 213 21"" 214 213 216 21c 220 220 221 221 221 222 221 AMT 1 ----------------.S.sticsof the D 133 AD 104 UnlL ----------------------Operatio~ ---------------------DA 102 Mine lJnit Series ----------The ~lcrophone ----------------DA 102 OJeratlon --------------DA 11'2------------------------DA 132 -----..1 232 """':"J "'.Expe:rimental Uni ts 5eism1k Mine UnH -----------------AJ 102 and AJD 102 Units ----------JDA 105 Unit ----------'------------AMT Units -------------------------Mounting -----------------------ZR II Mechanism ----------------Blocking -----------------------O~eratlonl>l Chara~ter~stlc9 of Operational Characterist1cs ~r S 101 Unit r~A 106 AMT 2 -----------------..

-------------Sea-Cell P.M.....:echanisms ----------Mechen~cal P.:!. ...L. --------- BVK ---------------------------(Luftwaffe) --------------------- 250 250 250· Firm5 W'orking on IIJ.----------------------..E.L.-- ZK I ---------------------------- ------------------------ZK IIf ------------------------Miscellaneous Clockvork li. e!-.E..!ne e ve l opment D Research Institutes .S. --------------------- Ger~8n -------------Mine DeSignations .._ RepoT'ts .nes ZE IVa -------------------------- ZE VI ------------------------_-Period Delay I>:ecnanlsms (2ahl Kontakt) ------------------------2h II -------------------------.E.~ Te~hn~cal f·:.. -------------Electrical P. 252 252 Abbrev....-..... S . -------------Magnetic A.echanismsFausenuhr (Arming and Disarming Clock) ----------------------Entscharfer ...any ---------Kiscellaneou5 Reports ------------- 268 27C Addenda Personalities E-Stelle Verzoger~lg Werke (VW) (Delay Clock) ----------------_-----Period Delay !...------------------ZE V ---------------------------- Chapter 13 . ---------------Zws-4c &~ti-Withdrawal Device -- T~~ r...A.rmacht -.!\e..!..!l.E.-'..: 211<: 24'" 241 247 247 247 247 248 250 250 2115 p.icEo.Translations --------------_ Mine Un~t Des::..Jerke (EW) (Disarming Clock) --------~------ver-z... ---------------Electrooagnetic A..Allied German .-Mecha~lcal A..cger-ungs Kontakt (. ----------------~echanical P.x 1-:1ne ---------------~----------_ K TR ~:..!.L.S..M..Mlscel1a. or.D.-'.Allied _ German --------_ 2-:> f- 280 _ 28c vi RESTRICTED .B.A. !.gnations .-K TR ~:i }£ --------------------- KK ~ane ---------------------~ _ K TR Mi Jjl --------------------- Bl bli o£.\...:_ Kines of the .D.. ..Equ::'pment (Ce!1e~mhalterelnri lJ·:J3 P. .-.S....-- B~ 1000 P.rarh~ Te-:!:ir..Fuse-Delay Switch ----------------------Automa tic Lati tude-Adjus tment De v i ce s..lss .A.:leous ml.. orking on Mines --------------------------- Others ------------------------- ----------277 Prevenl-Strip..n Europe Mine and !'Cine Un1 t Documents - fo)"'varded fro!!!Germ..-- cht W1g) .at1ons Abbreviations...ng .GERMAN UN-OERWATER ORDNANCE-MINES OP 1673A ZE III for 360 'Pays --~---------ZE IV --------.\"K) (Delay Contact) --------------------- ZK lIb ZK IIc ZK lId ZK lIe 2K IIa ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 24'" 24<: 24" 24" 24.

!l . and three m.Ge l'e:.taS well r~search upon acoustic would hs.he unsxpe ct.'l. but. and for methods to keep ahead of Allied countermeasures.:i. ThEse in~l\Jd"c SEven conte ct mines.rma had devel::lped the A 1 unit reac] for operational.GNETICUNIT:'.ed initial succr ss of magnetic mines.eeOle type were feaei~)e.h~·"t the liB. Neither one o: th!Osella~ "Usee oper6.e.mcor ed mine s . the Navy continued research for.c s.neby 1911(.mine e rEsearch progran:. c advanced. 1 RESTRICTED . The M 5. on t..o~' CO=Er::cC m:De fir~g mechenls~~.~:. but the AE un.inE t he first world War. Consequently. Firma sought to remedy the d~fects df the A 3 in the A 7. th.:1938. SinCE GerlT'. ::lOtaineo small WIlounts of coppEr and n. 'when t.s~g.any was not self .contained a device which reset the un1t automatically vhen it was actuated or disturbed. ~t !n subsequent years 1t was improved and ". acoustic research cont:!. Thereafter.5 mg.he advanced development stage.t t egat .nes in combination with otber units.the M 5 was not. d e f r ric itself against t1::e magnetic !:'.t1anIlav~ pres~". fitted in EMF caE. &nd M 3 (bipolar) _magnetic un! 1..ickE.. l:lduct!on units. Other research deve:!. use.ftva':ft.he ma'o. A 1i.. and.:. The AT units vere used operationally from 1942 to the close of the val'.SUl'E:-progr. ane the Merchant Mar:!.:t:!. The M lj vas an improvement of the M 3 type. Conso:quen t1~'.d sought other types ::If acoustical units..JE'I' and nickel essential to induction units.gnetic units.:r'he Lu. vhich functions satisfactorily in greater depths than other acou~t1c types. e chnz.. vas abandoned in favor of the more satisfactory M 4..H1STiJRY 1 Bee.relat1vely deep vater off the American coast. III 2 (unipolar).. work centered upon the needle unit. cc . "'hich \la~ in a fav::lred posl t .Lv mal"~E.dld not progress beyond t. but. Baw material shortages prevented largescale German production of induction-type un i t. By 1S-35 the !o\ 1 'unipolar).d ccunt e r-mea sur e s sErio'. Fi. It pos!leBsed B maximum sensitivity of 2. and by thE outbreak of World I. Ben Firma.ff ici~nt in the . 100 of these units. improved Ml designed for use in ground l!L1.net .:sl. beforE the end of the war.iD8 it. All Ger~ . th r.nr-c u e.Eeping t procedure s to Count e-.8 'lfereready for operational use .nning :in th!' e ar Ly } 920' S. Thl~ resulted.llli reselU'ch program failed to ted develop substitutes for copper vindingll and nichl 1'9d8. vas intended for use in moored: mines to be lald in the .ll~'. in m~e progrem .tabll Shed degaus~.Chapter .. he made steady lffipr-cvement s in it. During the val'. )JJI. vas completed in 1~25.n~ct at a Jow pace Ultll the British Lnaugur-s t e c ef!~ctlve countermeasurES in the spring of 19~0. By September Dr. The latter vas used operatlonally. designed . intEDsl ve count e rne c. arships vere degaussed by 1935.product! on. ACJUSTI C UlilTS Tr. an..':':mn..n Navy oevelo. who had laic the !. E-Bik. The German Navy in May assigned a 'sonlc acoustic project vith highest priority to Dr..: t. in 1923. es.t.a!Ii.first directed to .its.lrst magn.mine case. Among them were ground and moored mine s su i table for lay iDg by aircraft .ES 1ihich it thought thE' British had develJP~c. The A 3 acoustic unit for use vlth the EHF and SMA moored influence mines proved unsatisfactory.E Brit::'sh. improvements to the M 2.su. vere laid 'in.s . The first needle type.€ Germans as sume d E'rr::lnem.oJledthe AT subsonic units (also known as AA units) and the AE supersonic units.l to develop the AJD 102 ana JDA lC~ con~i~at~cr. In one test..~lrf·d!=velo-pE-d S\. re search began upon ltinES operat:ng OD non-contact 'principles..!.. Th~ German Navy hac already perfectee hiS!:ly effic:. despite the use of up to eight rode in a single .for use in either lI:007'1::d or ground mino:s in combinatioll vi th ::ltherunits.l~ly·limited their e:ff€'ct1venE5s.jp-ptec to ground end . fight influencE mine ca ee s.s tho: Ger.que s anc BE cause of t. vhich vas in its fin~l te~t stages vhen World War II ended.c r:::1 . Aluminum vind1ng1l on high permeability steel rods were tried. Att~~pts w~rt &150 cade t~ ce~~:JP_a~pl:fiEO induction units far us~ in c~~b~~~t::n vith oth-:r un1ts.ee.he Ka. and submarines. but A111". The AE. sur f ac e VE:sSE'ls.."pE~ re!:dy for mass .t. the development ar d of a magnetic unit.>ni an e xt en s.'Ent contact mines our. Dr. Magnetic unlt~ of eith~r th~ !nduction or the r.coP:. DEGAU~~ING Conc::ll:iltantith the develo'p~ellt of magv netic m:ne una t. and M 3. and almost all tof: them s1mul'taneously pr~matured. and was . a small. in the M 4(unipolar) and 101 5(bipolar).r::.s.::> . the l()ss in sensit1vit1 vas too great.ttat t:-.'arII possessed a number of revolutioner~' t.

Berlin. All these units utll1. Infra Red.Jl Navy deVElopEd a series consist1n. The circuit vas intended for ·use in combination vithother mechanisms such as the M -. Difficulties in obtaining a B8tisfactorily high potentie.a. UEP(Elektroden Effekt).on as their prototypes. and D 2.inVE Lge t Lon vas s't still in the prE'liminEry stagE s. Prel1miD. ~ical. DUring thE COurSE or \lorld \la. mine case. EXPERIMENTAL UNITS An over-all plan to examine all physical lays that ~ght be applied to 1nfluence mine units led the Germans to undertake varying degrees of experimentation with the folloving types of units: optical.. 1 pressure unit and intended to respond at thE subsonic levels of 5-8 cps. each of which operated on a diff"erent principle. in order to fire a unit.g of a . achieved some success.nde (vave probe). the MA 101.l:1zhis potential sloved the project t to such an extent that it .llso.1:1 regu)at1.. PRESSURE UNIT:" arranged that decreases 10 Ilght of preIIcribed intenSity and rate vould actuate the unit.!'ourstandard Geiger-M'.!:edphotoelectric cells 2 .vhich allowed the ai1' to e-scape in as littIe g s three veeks after thE unit vas underwater. "IIere dE'signed for rivers or other relatively smooth ·vaters.GERMAN UNDERWATER ORDNANCE-MINES 80 OP 1673A Other acoustic units embodying devices designed thE A 4. British countermeasures against magnetic and acoustic mines were BO effective that the Germ&ns began a new research program to deVElop units using ne_v firing principles.adam. greater life and sensitivity to units.inciplE.ease of thE undervater cosmic ray level caused by the passage of a ship. Tpe earliest of these. attempted to create a mine mechanism that vould vork on a principle similar to that of the Askania Gravity Balance. ThE Askania Werke. MA 2 'and MA 3 folloved.vas still in little 1D0re.Jteof Pot. COMBINED UNITS Tothvart Bri tis'h countermeasures and give.se. but the idea made relatively insignificant progress. but the German application never progressed beyond the experimental stage. This flav. the prl:si!Ure-aeoustical AD 104. Th~ first ho differed from the A 1 pr1. The Werke made certain calculations in conjunction vith the Geophysical Instit'. designed to provide against actuation by nearby e"plosions. vith imrpove'ments designated MA 102 and MA 105· In 1942 thepressure-magnE'tic DM 1 "ent into productionj the folloving year. A series of uncombined prEssure units.aval investigator5.than the n idee. and Vel1e. no information on the progress in this field vas obtaine1:\ U. combined the M 1 magnetic and A 1 acoustic units. AA 4 and Seismik. The LuftvaffE mad~ a similar combination. combined units. ray unit that vould operate on the incr.ary development vas begun upon a-cosmic.n.l rubber bags. D 123. Subsequently.scovereO that thepa asagE'of'a ship cr-eat an electrical cur-r n t in the"vetE!' ed e vhich could bE det~cted by copper electrodes placeo on the sea bottom. built in 1941. A genE're.Probe). The 5av-y aevised a number of exper nEal optical units.1ng employed until after the Allied Invasion of France in 191!1j. 1nfra red.conduc t ed vith tventy.r the II Gel'lDB. and.l:1ci-pally that -in the A 4 depended on the rate of th~ change of thl' sound 1evl'1 and thl' AA 4 depended on th.combination of'tvo or more f1r1.l sepply and 1. RE:::EARCEAF'TEf11941 By 1941. s t age " at the val" 5 terminatiOIl. by N to date. vhecn the pressure !"iring mechanism D 1 and D 101 verI' completed and readied for operational use.ressure comb1. Cosmic Flay. and at the close of"the varthE . Hovever.gs. The military situation by then vas so gra.ve that the Germans even laid early defective types vith nature. gravitation.a mine unit that would operate on thi s pr. The 5eismik(:::ismogre.Jl Navy di. and auxiliary devices calculated to hinder o~ defeat British sveeping methods. Underwater Electrlcal Fotential (Elektrode.S . cosmic ray. ThEY termed this phenomenon thE "Electroden Effekt" andsotjght to develop . vas remedied by substitution of leakproof synthetic rubber be. a river unit used operationally 10 the latter IItages of theVBr against river bridges. and none vas perfected before the end of the val'. Those designed for uae in the open sea presented serious dUficultiell. ve!'e developed f"or u.se in thE' S!U!lf' combinat!. Frogres s vas sLov . Only the D ~03 vas used operationall~ th( others were still under development at the' end of thE' wa1'. Improved versions known as the· MA ia. These verI' used vith the M 1 and A 104 units to form ·the combined units DM 1 and AD 104.n EtfeHJ . discovered only a short time before the inVasion. follolled oy the DA 102 _The first objective vas realized by 1943. Gravitation. D 113. the MA 1. and I:' 133.tioDS weN.:11er counter tubes cast into the explosive of an Uffimine ce. theD 103. the D 2 and D 102. vessels vould effect upon high frequency alternating currents emanating from e.ph Microph:me) consistE-d _ of a simple electrical circuit utilizing a carbon-buttoD microphone mounted vithin a modified!:. These early p.lrule prohib1ting the employment of mines for vhich no oountermeasures e"isted prevented pressure unf t s f"rom be. A ~. The principle vas siJrilar to the U. The Germans sougEt to utilize the distortion vhich passing.!' dirl'ctional characteristics of thE:' sound.S.Navy's Electrical Discontinuity Discriminator. no reports have been r-ece Lved from Br1tish sOUrces. Vellensonde (Wave . The earliest experiments vere. Al though the Germans made inquiry £rito the possibl~ application of the underwater action of infra red raY5.ng lIIechan1sms. the Gel'lDB.

nfluence mines of the ground type to settle se'curely in the bottom prlor to arm1ng. vas wtended' to defeat the practice of having minesweepers safeguard outg01ng vessels by preccd1. ut1liz:ed a sonic acoustic system for triggering the subsonic or supersonic systems.ntl-l"e-movsl deVices.s.of the clock 'Vas from one-half hour to ell day. vas under development at the cluse of the val".nductionpressure) . the ZE Ill.1natio.r Lc c~l. t.of arming clock.oe lec t.HfSl:ORY pressure-acoustical units. bomb fUZES to explode aircraft mines that fell on shore. This AUX1LJARY DEV1CES Arming Clocks. The last model. Sterili~ers. Varibus ~mprovements ve-re made both prior to _ aha during the. the Pausenubr. was designf·d to me. rubber-covered cable 16" feet in length w1th one copper electrode se: cured 'to thfend and another mounted on. vas an 18-day clock.a :?OO-day electrolytlc cadmium cell IIterili~er vas developed.O da. the mine ease. Another clock. Thie clock could be !let frail)five to tva hundred days.s." The German Navy den'loped this clock after 1t observed that the Brltish normel2. These un1ts. RESTRICTED - -- -------------- . span of only six actuations. MA 14 and MA lar.. the German Navy and theLuftwaffe had e1ther laid or undertaken the development of an impos1ng array of: 96 dlff. three-unit eomb.important. and scuttled the mine at the End of th~. theGerlllB.lated from.!. vith maximum time period!O all 1011owII: ZE . the UES -I."s and alloved trafflc to resume by .var. 'ZE I (80 daYl!l). Th~y vere videly used to permit the replenlshi::!ent of E-boat laid minef1elds off the Eng11sh coast: IIIB. but wsu.lls the attempted to fit Raumschutz' to a1rcraft-Iald mines using.. th~ Germans doOvised a variety of mechanisms commonly referredto as "booby-traps" or "Preve-nt. RaUlbl!lchutz vas a. vhich possEssed e. Several clockvor¥ mechanisms SErved lI'pedal pur-pc se a . Period Delay Mechanisms.ns acquired complete liil'ormation on Allied magnet1C svee-ping procedure through the capture of a BYMS off Ler-os . ~ unit in . and could be utilized either for arlIl1ng or for dlsarmipg.II1portant serIes oJ clock'iiork me'chanisms used in German mine-s ve-re the Period Delay Mechanisms ZX'I.sveepins extremely burdensome. probably the 1nherent mecnan1cal difficulties verI' ineurmountable.E' :'n early phases of t. JDA 105(inductlon-pressure-acoustic) and the AMT 1 and 2(acoustic-magnetic-aubsonic). typE . ZE II (6 dB. The range.he .erent Upes of na. In additlon. According to rp. Pausenuhr. also known as the ZE Ill.. but basic oper-et i on vas ne-ver 11. The only other de Lay Lng armillS clock used vas an eighty-hour type employed vith the BM 1000 mines to permit proper orientatlon of the case prior to arming. They vere in production in 19~~.Stripping Mechanisms. However.By May 1945. They consisted of the MDA l06(Magnet1c-pressureacoustic). (pres sure -sels.val miJ?e cases.h flred the m.ns were reaching the operational etage. . and the settings we-re alvays for the maximum period consistent vith the military objective.ls vh1c. consldering the nature of the dev1ce. In operat10n.courSE of the val'. for use wlth the M 1. Another 1. As a necessary accessory to the first Irif'luence mine units.Il Another important serles of combined units. anc B unr t to fire the m1. PreveDt-~tripp1ng Mechanisms. The third large group of clockiork mEchanisms eODsieted of seven differeDt types of steri11zers. AT 2. A similar 360-day clock. the t\lelVEhour EW.. ZE IV (45 da). phot. sea ce 115 to expl cd e th e mine !f the unit vas exp~~ed to mo!sture.'set perlod if l t plant. MA 1 and MA Is mines.!.ally designee.vor.ll1ik)and the JD 102 (1." They consisted of spec. the mine was rendered pas~lve for the duration of the sea current plus a predeterm~ed period.sveep ias picked up by the electrodes and.l!I) and ZE IVa (E. To prot~ct influence.s.S).. a variety of antivithdraval and .ke cleerance .he double acoustlcs.midday.t:. operationally.1 t ered . serles of seve~ difIerent onl¥ the DA 102 vas used All the ster111~ers vere u~ed in varlQus V€rmines to 11m1t the IH'e of minef.quently. When 'the Germ. Second~rlly.-l!I). During the latter part of the war they verE used i.::'ortl!l.By May 1945. The primary purpose of the arming clock vas to alloy 1. RaWllschut z . The most . theJ' fell into d~9f1'. the sea current produced by anLL-type . ZE III (200 days). These un1ts were known as the AT I. the ZK lIf. which armed and disarmed a mine once in every 24 hour-s .y made morning svee.moorEd 1nfluence mine-s. vhich ~ould be set up to eighty-five.ng their passage from port.1n~ U' 1t 'vere exposed to llght 'by the removal of the un1 t dome.ed lmproperly or vas otherwise disturbed.(BO daye). lt vas USEd to hinder sveeping operatlons. GerlllB.1elds in accordance witb tBctlcal requ~rements.nfre-. vss usee \lith the M.ll :Navy de-slgned a s1x-dayal"lll1ng clock. af t e rseveral accidents 1nvol~ing the loss of G~:rman mining 'per-aonne L. The5~ devf ce s ver~ usee -viae-l:. they undertook development of Raums chut z (area protection) to defeat the LL-type sweep. AT 3 and AA 106{All Bubeon1c) and the AE I Blld AI 101 (both supersoni c) . Hovever. The rlr~t of the mechanisms. were to be designated MIl'. the MA 105 unit. The EI{ tested the mine circuit for a period of up to twelve hours after laying. JlAVAL MlJIE CASES . Of these.ne if it loIe!'eove-a into m ~hallov water or inadvertently la~d in t~dal flats. ZK II and ZX lla through ZK lIfo The mechanisms were so designed that from one to eighty -f1 ve actuations 'vlthin preseribee ttllteperiods vere necessary to fire the mine. . Late in the val" the German Navy 1ntroduced a ne". Twelve-HoUT" EW. ZE HI (360 days). through a sensitive relay. Tvo miscellaneous combined uruts vhich never reached an operational stage vere the DS 1 .ps after mlnelayine: sort.mines from capture.

ThE purpose of the float vas sill'. Accordingly. The l.GERMAN UNDERWATER ORDNANCE-MINES OP 1673A the relatively small mine dama£e 1n th~ lnlt!al amphibious assaults at Anzio and Salernc indicated that th~ Allies had perfected a method of detecting moored m~es by ASDIC.u to e. series of drifting.spl:":e1'!.x1mwr. This ~~~ vas ~ntended for l"ocal fabriCs. the Navy made major changes in chain moorings.gn v:::ct also hous~d an M 1 unit.~~::· undertook the de'velopment of Ii !:linE case to house 1t. EMB. the OHA series of moored. constant -depth assembly appe ar-e . more difficult. E.t. a.1 pair:. identical e~cEpt for the veight of charge. decoy.11a1" the t o!" a dr og. both of . a number 01" ne. surface -contact !l!ine and the E. The ~.ng. to s10:. an aircraft-laid.A/S and..ot suitable . Since this ·development vas aSSigned a low priority it proceeded at a slov pace and vas never completed.ntet!on of t~~ rr.gh-altitud!".hie:. It placed especial emphasia upon the EMC. Contac t. The ansver found vas the Bomb-Mine 1000. They differed from thE air t.]:: a minimum or rubber fittinb~' CONCLUSION When the Germe. ccnet. a speciall:.MG shallov5 .tion Shoved that the case tended to slee! =n layi·ns. rough seas caused and disarminr.r II out of I!tocks remaining on hand.11. and r-edesrgnat ed lJl. 3. descent of thE lI'. vas designed.l:.a c t minefield 'thet voule! meet the rtqu irement s of an:.n~ laUnched their resee... rivers vith en !o{ 1 unit.ltenEo1.ng by surface vessels. This led the Luftvaffe to push the perfection of a hi..·:!. added corkfloated s. the EMK and EMU.MA and 1MB received geveral interesting var-ttme modifications .(:t e st ed and rejected these.!.in thE var it hoped to eliminate rather than men l~' ree!uce the respons~ obtained frcm caseE vith a mrtal core t.eal deEl~ ves to insure proper orl~.ype s only in the type of tail used and th( el1minatiol) of the bomb fuzE'.nE d f::lrla:.. the BMC. Command for sol!tetime had been seeking an ansver to th= proble·lT. ~C RM::. When ~xperl::lE::t.ne vater and to prein vent sledding anc tlJ!r. ~ith satisfactory resu~ts e)l.A ano l.0. Tllo interesting contact-mine developments verE undertaken dur1ne: the var. The\" ve1"e used very videly during the val'. mounted antenna and mechanj. ANTI-AS~IC RF3EARCH The Germans began another development when 4 RESTRICTED .r.~bEr case . ThE hem!. These VerE the ?~. i.. and UMA. the Germans sought to e7. the mines vere changed so that they could be laid by E-Boats.:!. and in other ways.s and coats of r-ubbe r.Infl uenc.lspherlcal in shape.-leid gr-ound mines' \lhic. larger UMA.!. The . ThE t-Eca.. throug]:: specie. The UMB..• IfhEn British airpover and antiaircraft fire made aircraft mining extremely hazardous.thE...ruc t f cn . During the course of the val'.Japanese JA Minel used operationally in the Pacific after. additional Th~s seriES con- mineE of the 2.': g 1"en 'tac ti cal need . and desir.plant.. carryin~ bulky and heavy minE' cases over long distances. After completing the RMA ane FiXB. FMB. cyllnd:-!ce:l in ShaPE and of sll-alumlnum construction. The EHA and EMB.for·delayed-rlsing mines.cal cutters on th~ mooring cable.cili E could be tie partially relievec frou. VEry leotI. they developEC the par-achu t I" Inine!l D'.. vas a copy of th~ EHA. Sll:f.nag lines.M2.19ijl. laying speeds and altitudes vere too 10'01.ceptfor one important factor: . high-spef'd mine that voUld provide greater safety for the laying a1rcraft. The mines fall into tv.gnetlc Qlit afte:.:!. vas a vooden-bal': see I::ine of simple dee. va t e r .in!' CO!II!:r.t . The plumilJEt-type standard surface anchor vas n.ing. In deep vater. the Germans had a series of l:liversiflel'! aval mines adequat~ for coepos tng N a cont. :roe Rr-:D could be 1"1t ted vl th 13.a.e Mines. ?~. improved these types to rem!'dy defects or conform with changing military requirements.the ma.overcome the follov!ns shortcom1llgs found in previous German moo-red mine's: 1." 0:' tl:~ various fi1'103 L~it£.. total does not take into consideration captured foreign mines vhieb the Germans used.~w. the:.t.h couJd be uti:izec5s influenCE and/or controlled ~ines. EMD. exce ss Lve s_stee! 0:' surfacE. Thi s d group of moored contact mines' was fortified by the d. With this mine arsenal.contact m~es ver~ developed..rc~ for a magnr t Ic mine um. of all-e. verI" her. In addition.rlnes..:n:r.t. anc thE F.e separate groups -contact and influence. vas introduced. the RME vas for use ~. 1MB/S.. contact mines vere readied rer operational use. The E 1"v€'re ground mines.:r. EMC. vhich is discussed in later paragraphs.. The German Navy developed the remaining five types between 1923 and 1939. These mines vere inte·nded to.. which was the most videly used and the most adaptable.ploit thE potential value of' influenCE mines thet cou ld be laid by aircraft. A further innovation ill all these mines yas thE substitution 0: pressed paper(Frestoff) for al~1num in th€ RM ser~es wer~ developed. The Germans started Vorld War It vith seven different types of moored contact mines: the EMA. moored. The first of these vas the design of tva combination contact-influence mine cases. In shallov arming vater. the EMS. hydrostatic pressure sometimes prevented armIng by counterbalancing the pull of the mooring cable.on~ so t ne t O"Ert axe d transportation :'e.e. FMC. .hr-cugh design of an all spong~ -rt. A limited quantity vere laid during World Wa. Contact Mine e .evelopment of a ground contact mine made of concrete and known as KMA.b::!.. During the war. 4. The earliest or thOSE eases verI' the RMA and RMB ground minES. contact mine. The use of e~plos1ve containers vithin the mine reduced the damage radius and served to render proper mine Orientation. 'designee floe t vas acded to the mine. vere World War I mines designed for laying by subma.

The first of this series was the Sfot~ vh i ch ve s .ng submar:i. coo red influence case for surface ll!~'ing.s of up to 9.feet at speeds of over 400 m. watertight.t ec low-alti- unsatisfied \lith the The oth~r 5e:.LM? Ho~e-veT} thi~ ~1nf pr~ved UDaa t i sfe c t or-y c~r1nc. In 194'.intended to attain the s~e result~ es the.y being fired from aubmar-Lne-s staruEn~ of: shore.MB mine e pre sented ar.i tYPE vep 9 used operationally during the var.:.h.• lald off th€. "as undertaken prior to thE' val' but Dtver progressed beyond -the preliminary design at age because of the low priority assigned to the project.ximli:l: about 12. 0: \ 'When these l!:1nes had been completed.ubes.ecpera iOD.!. beiDE tude drops at low speeds.nflUE. This mint' vas intendec for use in d. This e5~embly .ncfroc t.t~.1J.A and l. hexan1te. RESTRICTED .s u'l. TMC nouse c OV.laid.nce mines. additional problem. One. the lMF/S was introduced for la~1ng by E-BoRts .irtE'en'd1fferent tYPES of bomb~re_ines.s and vas ab~ncone-d in 1944. The development of an additional type of SM !!l1n~. the 5MB.. It was difficult to keep_these types. TM mine Simultaneously . a heavy charge. e e t ::. and o t he r s cc. of m1nes and anchor. to be la~d b. desie. The LY.-c. To round out their 1. This \las achieved by th" use of break-away flat noses.n coasts.ned for u se LTl as depths pf up to approximEtely 1.000 feet.e sor t e s . five \ler~ used operationally. Later a modified lMF. the EM 1000t. s Of th.~ vert1calshafts o! special m1ne-lay!. small parachutes.000 feet... In 1939 the TMC. the Germm Nav)' perfectec e. the development of Ii mine t.rin€s.the TMA (moorlOc) and thE.orpf-do (MTA) vas undertaken . especially off th~ p~er~cE.TMB (ground).s cppo sed to the me.p. ~h~s t I!lodified assembly vas callte the SMC. 5ubma. submarint"-laid mine \lith ne ce sst t a.600 eet e.1e~ of submar:nt-lalc ~1nes vere all of tht moor-ed typ~ for le:. r e qu e st s for E. By 1945 they had 'developed m1nE'S that they could drop from heights of up to 21. and mines of ti:.000 . but.HISTORY fabricat10n of the Illlnecase. in order to reduce the high cost and to forestall any future aluminum shortage. drop~lni': t e s't. pushee the development of their cylindrical.::. as the~ werE foUnd stored st operational airfields in France and Belgium. the development of the 1th series..in harbors.nfluence mine program.OOT'eO ty-pC':!' lay1n£ fron. the LY~/F aQd LMB/F.fe replenIshment of f. it ve s u ed 1:7.Ly -::0:::ef pleted by 19~. the BM 1000 series... a larger ve r s i on of the TI·E" ve s developed to meet fiE Ie.OOO lb.laid from submarine torpedo t. This project was suc ce. they WE'rE in us~ or ~eady for USE-..ne~.:'T c. manganese steel bomb-mines.tensively during the val'. The Luftwafle. of the ground :!.:. the Germans dE'velopec e var1ety or ground and !!:. The advantages "ere that it :rEduc d the risk of detection by harbor defenses ane permittee :>a. 'was B moored m~e. a clock vas addec to the SMA anchor to obtain e delay of up to 60 day 5 Ln s. S1nce they \lere of the ground in!'luencE' tYJle they could not be employed in jepths of up to 1. The ['''I' earl1est ~e-rf those v~:ch could be.h·ld~ al!'lOec:. t::" EMf.Americas in fields off Halifax ant Panama in 1942-1~~3.1 !tines because' they . The lt~no was intended for USE.

(ll Mines.gle.lcLnE. If.ler-e . and deSign vo~k vas handled by the Technical Department and the MarinE exp€rience added by Ul. The Personnel of SVK vas under the superVision of Kdr. as Shown in Figure 2. etc..instrument·s. In 1943. W).etanks of various s i zes. among the Department's four eectlons. Wash1ngton. Until 1941. for te stIn!. on II.lJll bu!. gun. (The-E-Stelle was established within the Luftwaffe. and made manufacturing dravings of the lI1ines and m1ne components for contracting firms. 5.mine. MinE School build.Kapt. vhich vae divided as follovs: lj Mines. .. during the progress of the work it was found that original requirements co~ld not be met. Foreign MinE ~\use".' found in metallurg':'callaborat. SVl< vaS cnarged v1th.Cbapter " THE GERMAN MINE nRGANlZATION . and ~.ng administrstive and 6 3. 5.includ1ng aircraft types. ThE' major tesH. Physical t est. Pr-e ssur.C.: barracks. as needed. Main laboratory and administration bu1lding. th!. In practice. for the development of a bOlllb-.Lll£ achines of the typIC m normall.n. technical.cr-age MII'IE AND MlNE-SWHPING GROU1'(SVK) bullc~:nf besid. suitable for testlne minE.ng equipment aveilebl<:-to SVK vas as fOllows: 1.iler that of to Navy Yard. th~ specifications vere modified accordingly.and were divided 1nto tvo departments (1) Naval and (2) Technical.rsuchskoll1lll&fldo) vhich fitted into the over-all German Mining Program a"l shown in Figure 1. t. The prinCipal buUdinfs ccmpr-I sing the installa tion at Nt E'. and the docks. (2) Influence Sveepe.0clud.l ~partment consisted of about 450 personnel about 60 of vhom were in the scientifIc and' design dIv1sion. In 1938. (2) Sweeps {3 Influence devices and physical fields: Ii Depth charges and aircraft mine cases.!. D.lc'3. Includint a lArgE v1ng for drafting fil e 9. 1. consisting of about 200 veesels ranging in size and purpose from IItealub. the remaining personnel bei.he st-amant s point of vie'll.o shop bl!!lcin~~ in the form of a qUll. In addition. and a flotilla. vith the private firm of A.lpsto motor boats. vhilE others remained ina civllian status.G.drant. required by !'line as Inspection SI (Sperrvaffeninspektion). FUNCTIONS OF clerical. The draft4&g rooms and shops were sllocsted 50 and 300 personnell re9pectlvel~. the SEK was establlShe~ under the cOlllIlland a Fst.E. 3. The Techn. at. Electrical and acoustical laborator. The Naval Department vas assigned approximately 500 Naval personnel vho ve_re allooated. scientific..Labor-a tory (all.ff. Assembl:.n (E~Ste.in€ types large enou~ to e. Kpt. ' 2. BroE'cke:lmann of for the purpose of testing mine ~tErial for sErviccabllIt:_. f RESTRICTED . SVK remained 1n complete control of mlnp development until 19-41. TRIALS GROUP(SEK:SPfRRWAFFEWERPROBUNGSKOMMANDO) In the Fall of 1943.$" the sea bottom.ecided tbat the IJ!-type piU'achute =1nes developed by SVK would nOt meet futur·1!' tactical requirement s and contracted .ories. SVK furnished first drafts of instructional and operational 'P&I1Iphlets. vhen the Luftllaffecreated a. SVK was shorn of further responsibilities with the formation of an ipdependent Navy testin~ establishment kDovn as the TrIals Group (SEK: 5perrwaffenerprobungskommando).as follows: v 1. the Luftvaffe had d.rrom.ccommoda t e !:i-:n~ cases. 2.t. Naval Department.a. FACILITIES OF MINE AND MINE-SWEEPING GROUP( SYR) SVY. l1a1. they made no attempt to perfEct large acoustical tanlc or slmulat_10n ecurpment.le tr. ~ magnetic unf t s. Miscellaneous service bul1din~s. (Ii) Sveeps. the magnet 1c . after consul tation \lith SVK. Some Technical personnel hEld special Naval rank. The SPE"cifications a:ndrequirements for the mines vere laid down by the General ~-T. The earliest German establishment charged vith tbe technical development and the testing of Sea Mines vas the Navy's Mine and Mine~weep1ng Group (SVX: Spe:-rve. Zur See Br8l1lesfeld. PERSONNEL OF MINE AlID MINE-SWEEPING GROUP(SVK) E.eral mechanical.o. (3) Depth Charges.separate and independent organization known as tne Test Stat:1.trop testing equipment IIJld shocl< testing S1nce SVK preferred to mal<e field measurements of mine units OD the sea bottom... ana l"fOproductions.lle: EprobWlgstelle) for the purpose of pushing the development of the bomb-mine. 7. Tank bulldinf sin-. lo'1 vo~c construction) 1n the center of thE o~atran. the deVelopment of all German Naval mines.However.). gen. Severa) laboratoI'J'ships.

.iD !:.est':'n[_ o! ~~I :tt. 'p'ound minE:!.\·~:::ce s e r-epo rt s o:! t he t e s t s 'W( '~. c<HlopllI.ions nne l'E'oulr£l!Ient 9 by F. Tests w~r< de s i gned to slmlllat'f fi. E-St_elle the-n arrangEd to borrov spEcill.J'I.l-~_ ..:'.n': ::1Ir. ::..nt.stkrch. t~·tn:" SP[~.ance s t!'li ~ method cotllc be e I t e rec 50 :::::.ons L.ncl!.:.jj.o ~rovlde the f.. 1. .emIl 1'(.he article to be lO£de. .natl..l. and es- Th~ buildings tablishment at 1. (:.v.. was .r:.£.L' ) .u t·ll' as sect:'l. I.il .f va r-Lous te chn~CiUlS of S\'}(..erial recr!.c AlI' De ve Loprie rrt (F~)... tbrr~ was no set pattErn for !.. Th" function of 1:-:trl)" ~('t~:)lJ ::'·7 (!-::nE s ) ..uJr.. \i'". On ceble mec:!.L Ti':'T ~T"_J:::-I: Group (~. ~~r~ brine car:l'G on b~ vario~L outS1Cl s. th{ ~an~~ectuT thfY ~~tnhl~s~~~ Cf~~~!n gene~- various ('-ffect o~ 8.'.d met. t::1s: met}.-' r-e c ommenda t t on s . Tr::.=!:"p~n~~~~:~:~T·r-("'~\"Lc. . . vho had famil1 :"l'i H'C hl~l>( If vith thf:' unf t be iDE tE s t e d by vOl'klne togEther vith 5\1\..1nts. SOZllEtlmes there WEre difflcu1tiES vhich 'Ver! in l'eality duf' only to the policy of the firms 1:1 qutstlon. F ACILlTIf:: OF TF:OT STAr I ON (E -:TLl. 1lI0d:'f~ca·· tions found ne CEsSll.\'Et. I~ 20:'. " [E-I).nE'!veeJWrs and york boa t s . if the it el!lvas nd a1 read~' cpc r-e t t.1 eng1- RESTRICTED 7 . r L<.n.)" was a I s<.:. c e gear..he pl'! va t e manu. va s spot.L ~!IE "J'. til( (. s pon s lb2 f ~o. but. tl!"':s2 'IJ.· COORr:INATJON ( ~ .. th~ task bEi.e 1.. ZIl1.e lII8. If modlfication~ reqUf:-steoc by rlrms were of mlnor lmportance.anc c o~ .. Th€ 12 tecnnic~l personnel werE bolstered b] about 50 lndepEndent sc1f_ntists end techniclans. vn'~ ct.1't to the Luftvaffe. ApparEntly.GERMAN MINE ORGANIZATION Thi ~ c.::-:t. An alrr. fuel and peraoane I .t. Bl:ch as (.BYE: plnf.:~~!!"'~.nce the ::::-2tf12!'s in t he t.' 1:: 7('0 officers.!~:i" or magn(·t:c trinls of m. ::::.n€ c.1"'( unsat t c _..n:orlT.''iUf:'~tt:'C. boat witt Jr.:t :r: e.!l& le.n':cal diff:c"l t:! ..It:tsio€ agl'ncif 0 vh~ch con s i s t. :-:":Jr::. t~· coordinet. 5.~r.'f... or r:or~ .: t )rt of thf: s c onc l:lt 110'1'" C~!r. 11ttlE alrcraft te:ltin. on ~ccount of the ahortage of planes.. At other times.~nt wo!".~.-7 tEChn~cal staff W.c~llf all of thE former's r. t::!. 1:.' :.g vas carried out. -'.1l' und s I' tf s 1.'cms IIP. not directly interested ~ the matter. tiLe j'.. .'ontrolled mi.raft mine section.advice of outside manu· facturing experts.~nlJ t he t e s t ~nc of e i r-cr e [t !::. "'ory-shop and Laboratory 3.:" .eacioucrt~ r-s v....:. c-o !':~nt Inspection (SI) and madEc its ovr.borg:. ~.t cia I.!!.report.El"~ assibll. C . ·thl .an\.s. vitI: f xp l ene t Lcns &r. and Two crust: 5. it WiB. f . 4.o.r.::'.bl~cation~ pr-epar-e o by S\li and C'.:. In these cases.. If the firm requestEd lmportruJt mar.s"'-£n~c !. ~. d::'sC\Jssed. In edd::t1on..S tncr-e ~T Le s s str'_:_nG~n:J b'. headEd by anAlr For-ce offleer...p: in that' prect!.contract to t. ~-: tv . scpar-at. trl-t. and ratlngs comprised thr staf:. th. r.K) reported thf trial re~1l1~:. Dc nnar-): and consietec! ofa flotilla of mint:: layers..as the preparation of spfc~f!cat. T!':I!E. t:: thE as s i s t. not afr~ct~hg the 'VorkinS pr ops r-t.':-7 o"c< spot checks on accept<.:'tLIlL. On~ shlp 2~ On~ llhlp Tllo motor 0: abcu~ C-r-Ci t. l'S . OfpotS.cn s . f or vhatev~r purposes de~::'rfd..ur~ of a particular part would I"~quirE' some patent procl'"ss oj' another firm..:.nee .1rm with tht requlsite Fqu:'pment.re-questedbefore any de c t s Lons wer.c work hc..t F.:)c '-~..ffE Capte.e.ve·d. I'. mE' hanl cal mine .th thr firm..E) cocpr:'sing Fr.e o mainly of pr~. t ne first step .l1<: d:'f:-o'ec frot:: ~\. Ii] E!. under.facturing flrms assoc!etf~ ~ith F-~tEIIF.ci!!..''.~~ll workshops'.SsignEc.:"- 1.rcec t.z-t~r.ion bet.-::ia. the fi:'m tak1ng up thf' manuf8ct..l C..-n~~E:!on 1n: ormally pocLi d anc t"_ cr. or lf it vas unable to carry out.'c'ti\O~. svzrr rsc G:.~ CHE'd ':J~ .t in or~·!' to d. o! mat. The VE5Slol<! c l Lov a : fi.2'.\~ at 1 on s .nc t" £ tH~ . srr . SEL could advise d I accnt Lnuence .·r~el Et-o:r"C !.. Mt-mb~rE o.Db t._ ~ 01 unc!r [CO hoats. t_rn~rr sp~c!e.c~:::. .e cnat cal men..~ rejl c t e c .IIEEn :h! tvo ~~n' 6fvllopcfn.tyal1 were (Used for the E-St€ll~ as follows: offlcEs buildingS.. Explosive storage sheds and other ~scellaneous charges.:· ll'P ns ~[N se Lc c t e-d e.(nc::'~ S Me fc:::-' 50!:lf Lnrie pe nd nt Ci \'llo?I':'. dont by . HOVE v ..c'.5Tl'l.£ing.nl: 6t·~r. the-n s~eps vert· taken t.C' . Ta!'g t sh:ps pl oVideo t ne actuation under SUpE-l'v~510n of 11 speci~list of!!cer.r. 11.: t s 1.::JD of C< Vi 1 oprr. tJ. for fuzes. ThEj' cons.n of e.. mocr-ec mine s . .a s [1P.at~ manulactur~n£ flr~s). bullding.·!:erf a lot Qf on€ hundr('c i..~ Co S'\i1: vfOre madE . small ex- Wht'rE' d€velopn:ent 1101'1: "as In\'~lHc.mc...aftinc: vcr k Y&. and dr.:lc':::>:-y J' an ~ct~.::::-...ls As e re5tilt nf the lntcrcrrv!cF rivalJ'J..C"::'~'.t .!·CU1:et.('-c' "nc ttst\'c. Jpproxim. groups. boats.de.CtF(:y!:) Mir LtiFT J.~-:.:. they ver-e generally allowed.:..nt:r vel"'" $c·lfc·t.. t ons . as well ::5 be tW£'fn t!".. 'was created. D€partments verI' set up for each typr of mine and sear..Air I'Eveloprnent: If. ~\ t.i s ted oi 12 t.1S s ~hI €-.l!.1::'~ gl'Ol:.~S . plosive- Faracbute Storage handling sheds.c . .I"!T:in~nc thr ac(tr.~n t.. r-r - rules for drt.d t c pr'o\'idE lieison vl.Le e of t.r~' vhEn th~ article was pu-t to USE.tl" to I:. !'..r.e ch org. "'''''5 1e:.oordi.tc':::]~:. Thereaftcr !! !:lI'!'1ItfecturEr vas se le cte" ant'! the projEcct.r.. "Gr:t. rTEi:ts :>f p. because of lack or suitable llIanufllcturlnc EQuipment.lnl 1-::1. H~ar space .:.inEs (FlE-7) and TEst Station: ~11n...i t t ona as cloaely as P.::!\ froD an ope r-a t t ona l V~Fwpo:'nt. t-out 50 DEn to dischllrg~ m:scelleneou& mEchanical and orananCE tasks anc about 6[0 mEn to handle the var:' ~UsplanEs and boats e s s rgned to the :::ection. flares.mmand vas baeed at 1\&1 Ullf..in£het ThE pErsonnEl of E-5tEllt verL under thE !. E.Eld c ond.!f!catlons.. etc.~ rf.:..E control oj !l Luftllr.

of .Lon s \iter· t ake n .Mechanical (Gemein) Sveeps (Kersten l Mines Shops Fersonnel . -: Air F:JrCfs chose ta nfglrct thf~. end.SVK Na~ High Command (OKM: Oerkomma.'l'activ.4 . On t he o::.T -3 Firing Units (HagelllB..h€r the research and d~vflopmEnt ~stE. von Linden.Y.hough particularly \'uln.. Drafting tion Above details Kpt. fl'al}('~. d(vf'lopment. to ·B 11' at t ack . Figure 1 .llE..GERMAN UNDERWATER ORDNANCE-MINES OP Ib73A ORGANIZATION CHART .ned te' r... Sin:~IB.2 . no the Allied bombing of Germany thE crEation ef transportation furt·hn· pr" eaut. at leest in 'Pllr:.ESTRICTEL .1red.T -2 Sweeps (Behrens) ..except Lon of tn" one at l'I51.Jon: arees &nc to..>:trf~tJy difficult. A!ldp fr~~ had nc ~lftct on tho proeuctlon.Anti-Submarine and depth charges (Davids) . ar. T. a Lt.l) thE' mill!' depots.Influence Sweeps (L~lllbrecht) .r-actor-. r~5Earch. with t h.iliar E second Tirrr.ndoll!B.>:cfll~nt camo~rlee.inistrE.l o!'t..e l'ebl".i.'c. Kenter Ad61ral Muller) 1 (S1: Spervaffeninapektion: Mine Imlpect:!.val (SEX: Sperrvaffen erpro- Group 'and Mlne- M. eec ape G dame-at throuehout the val' solely bfcause thE' All!..T -4 Calles Aircraft . Adam. 3 P. Baud~rektor (Schuller) von 'Ledebur Technical .M1.lI!. f or ~h~ . bottltn~cks.1 .e s eepe d dem"'.u:tion froc thF ~ir f. To se!'~guBrdproduction. e throughout the . that cr-Lt f ca l perts be mant:.me chan Lc s far..on Vice I Admi. . Kpt. bo~h.Mine Groups Foreign Kines organizational supplied by Fgt. o..r1ne) (SW: Sperrvaffen: Assls~ant ~lne Co=and I r Adill. Bachenkohler) (swa:Srerrwaffen: fOr Mines etc.c Ad!r.t~~n er ~\11( and E-5telh..nes (von Linden) Flotilla (Rodiger) T -1 Cases MooredMlnes . the~r ~.'. Th~ tscap~ oj tt<s~ lettl.. hand.- Rooms .. cue to th!"ir Lo ca t i on within hfavlls . h.SVK Organi%ation.ties was.'.hls erJ'en~{merit..3 . from th DE-E'!' ~: rte s t e r.ral Michels) Trials· bungs kommando: Broekelmann) Na.nn) . pr-ove ci fntirfO1..lactuI'(n bJ at Le-a s t tlolO se pnr-ate firms.' satl sf!lctor~.. the Germans dlspErsEKl tht1r contracts emone various fac~orlf's and rfqu.!ne School Arsenals Fgt.I.1ch comb:.. tho tl': eont.:·k.. 0:' st or-age of Naval Mines.

GERMAN ('\.eI1t (TL~: Tecbnischen Air Luft RU5t~~g) (FLE: Fwgt\.!n!lnaer oer Co~~ander Control of Test Stations ~rprooung. Doorman) Figure 2 . In~..: nHtery C !"oll'..Luftvaffe Organization.'Ing.u.sttellen located at Hamburg) Trel'F.a.L: MINE ORGANIZATION Airforce HiGh Command Oberko=ll..2 (Pop. lng. S~ieler) Grauf..l (7cr~doe~ l'!aurt:r.t.ndD del" Luftvaffe) J C'rerat~ons Ste.:GA"i!ZATIO!l' HART . u FLE-S (Torpedoes FU-7 (t':~nes ) LF-12 Other Sections locsted (r-:Ultary Control at Ha'mburr) (kr. Kern) GraUl:> 3 (St..LUFT'~fcfYt C (Or..::."f Chief of Technical Armarr..~. E:' t. E-'-. .nde Other Test StEtlo~s (Erprob~'1~s t t e l) er-) E-:_ . e 1 ) Gr-oup 1 (St.'r.'lcklung) Ail" Development PI':lC re me n t.

After the collapse of France. OIleLuftwaffe formation based in northwest Germany arid cooperating v1th the Fleet vas to carry out all aircraft laying. and W6. As a result. they were vel')' likely to be discredited b injudicious use.S not content with the invisible and often immeasurable results of Naval Mine W'arfa:· At the same time. rni scalculat Lons at several points lLarred the pr-ogr em. although they could not Exercise control: but eVED in ttls they had little success.ng suffered consi stent ly . at the time.n over its mine-laying activities. inte11igent].-ld of marine mines. too few submarines were assigned to mine-laying in Americ8J:).ene its area of operation. it was not. t. The Luftwaffe 1nsi8te~ upon it~ own independence. and with the sole specif1cation that it be of the same s1ze and shape as a bomb. and the Naval Minin£: Section (1 SkI) had DO jurlsdictio. shortages curtailed operat lon~.to ext. enough. Ritler and the German people pictures of bombed 6llcburning Eng11sh C:itles.b was suffic1ently versed in milling problems to obtain P. to develop its own . uSf. The Luftwaffe placed an order for the first bomb-mine without any knowledge of the principles of that type of mining. the direction of mine warfare failed to rise above its second-rate position.ines. Even the specialists be Lieved that whilE m. taken about the beginning of the war. destroyers. Interservice politics lltIdoubtedly had their part in the decision of the Luftwaffe. Admiral Muller declared.from its subord!. The Havy maintained that every min~laying operat10n vas a naval operation. subsequent inter-SErvice rivalries seriously lmpaired t·he effect 1vene ss : and.here vere no effective minefields in the vestern. the Luftwaffe ccnt Lnuee to use bomb s.g Command vas readily apparent in operations.the highly centralized control the Mining Command held. in the ir latter stages oj the war. . The weakness of the IUn1. of 'Because .) but by then it vas too late. This l.1abil1ty to fortu!tou5 rise and fall in the sto.ant 10 tonnage. but never fullJ exploited it.irpoint of potential destructiveness against thE Allies.elped destroy thelr surprise effect. submarines. Atlantic to iUsrupt coastvise shipping and convoys to Europe. capable of large-quanti ty plant s.rdingly they tried to influence policy. Apart from a sma1l group of speCialIsts. the German Navy Emphas!1€d guns and torpedoes. A number of factors pr~v!'ntE'dth€ Ger~ mines from reaching th(. the results of which were tangible and of greater propaganda value. The exclusion of'German naval forces from British waters led the Luftwaffe .ve and grasp to present the caee t o» mining with enough ror-ce before the High Command. At the beg!nning of the var.ing Command possessed suffi·cfenr dr1. the Luftwa!'fe bad no technical staff of its ovn. and thus h. highspeed mlnelayine vessels. "Goering vas interested in showint.mine priority 'wae d1sproportionately lover than that of torpedoes.e Navy that it prematurelY laid tvo new types of mines before they were ready in large numbers. cruisers.nate standing.bomb-mine to replace the Wavy parachute mine. Al though Schnell boats. At first the NavJ' ):lacE'd littlE lmportance upon them. uo one in the Min.ESTRICTED . since such sinkinf made bettEr press-relea'se ID8terial and created higher morale than did the sinking of small minesweeping vessels. but. Aceo.! Throur. and on a l~sser scale between the Navy and the Army. waters.cklIl"y veIl have contributed to deprive mine ~eve]cpment of the conaistent directirb and driv~ to be seen in German torpedo C eVEJcpmerrt . over materials. the Luftwaffe preemp:ec much of the Navy's jurisdiction over both operation and product10n.hout a large part of the war. As a re. could be powerful weapons. The greatest weakness in the min1ng program w~s the lack of cooperation betwe£D the Navy and thE L~ftwaffe. . The field commanders persisted in laying only tbose mUles designed to sink mercb. The pre-war plSil had been' for ai'rcrart minf'laying to be confined to estuarles and such coastal waters as could not be reached by surf~ce craft or submarines. No one in the Navy held operational corrt r-o'I over mining. Germany possessed a . The Ger~ Navy had no specially built. interestEd in mlnea. and the plan quickly broke down. Pressul'~ from the High COllllnand finall y resulted in a change of polic.vhic.8ult. and certain merchantmen vere fitted for minelaying. none of these vessels vas ever available 1n lIuffic1ent number of combination to meet the strategiC reQuirelllents the mine group. The tact1cal considerations behind the decis10n ver-e no doubt solltld. M1n!.-chnical advancement in the fi.D.-d. In its minelaying it so completely 19nored th.high degree of tf. when the Navy came to the view that an effectiVE sea blockade of England vould bring her to her kne es. In addi't1on.Chapter CRITIQUE :. The decentralization of control over operations and operation policy contrasted markedly vith.

undr-rc.ge a.th U" Arrnybettf-J' r·t-sul ts might ha ve be e n .:ary !. To Ii lesser e~tent. the German Navy had apllro:xilIIaulyc. plan!:' s .y di.-ll eneaged in 1!q:rovim: e:xl~t!. SubseQuent) y .'1 c and nie comt::: ne magnetii:'-nco1l!ltlc m. to the end of 19~:.e-en the Ravy !i+ld the Army. Once :mO!'t ttf> LuftYafh' 5tultif1~d thf effect through prflllRture lllying.E m.mand acceleratEd. LMA' ~ an':: lJill' s and ae VL r a 1 h<l11aN d 1'lMA' =. S try."f O. As a resu 1 t.~l\Jence fHIds.I 5u. tim(' yhfn t..stems and correspon~ing modification! of thE BM(bomb ~ine). YBS on .ll and temporar. bo't.n of erf or-t invo.ts use \11th an acoustic unf t.x r.introduct :''::In of thE IIIsgrwt. fcir· laying.ade in personnel. I onicelly.1ng de ve 1s vai 1$.me'·5 t'!:tl.n IS'. N~y~rtheless.nr. The second p~ riod.. her ". r-e COVE'N-d tl'-.icl'.l r-ush df'velopment.ha. and installed then. the same eort of divi!!ion eXi. the star f had no exper. but it did rl'cel ve completed speciml'ns. 'II(.£ht sefel~ be laid in small nllmb". firinE.od tho.in the LM.ll£ oPH'ationl<l II'.c YaT'.ffe and the Navy disagreed on principle sand c.n1inishf'd. but w.rpri Sf'.tremely 10'01 and at a constant lEVel. ° EVr:-D b".ra.:iJ. Later.. mainly in ind 1.' 101.an mll-~' tic.c in lS2S.rEoE st z.11:'vf.~sure mine.• they had no cognizanc£' of any over·-s11 beach defensf.th th'e lI<agneti c um t . Thf Germans began.m11Hs 'lias e.rs. froll'.lli~ d e tion became mor-e aggr-e s SlVE.1ne ). I'll sh O!oH lopmento[ th e au d:.~. after much ai'E:uml:nt.hat no JlES'j'l':1 C']'ED II . vas onE of stea J rEsearch but no ~ssentia] novelties. e aps clally in h< Mt (':1 t~ rranEtln. the .. sy stematic etudy of ships' in.'. Y!l!.r0:ximat~ls 5!_.1 t s use in combina·tion y1 th othtr un! t s .e generally usee!: for torpedo work at 'l'ravemunde.r.odel sand . 0C mines of all tYPfS ready for opErat.. At the tim!" dev!"lopm!"nts b!"gan at Travemund e .. The Navl! inSisted 011 combining it wi.ional USE.hr ·Nllv\. Subsequently a tes't1ng sta t i cn for mine s vas con structed . Mines 1ntended for USE &gain:.e d cf ap. an of ricer' vith mine exper-Lenee yas asslgned to the station in 1943.hE carnp&ign aEa~nst Engl and an c. sent for information and sugge st 1oris • . tIe expe rime. Th. thE dive.chutem.ed on . montts aft~ r tt..c turE<d their 01m versions. Thf' only equipment a. Quickly they overr:e.CRITIQUE a balanced OJllllEll t s . [0]] OInd bJ tnt .h ser vice s manufe. Thr NfiV~ ff-lt that thf'sE yert fsr mort 11kely t~ b. io/1th t he exceptLon 0:: the pressure unit.C. vhich vas a spec.d ant. eon. T.allablf' '1181> !lom.0 ma s s production. se ems to be sound. as the bes!'s for a policy of tt chnf.n. ln5uffici~nt stoc~s of magnEtic minesyere on hand to W!I£f an a1l-ott and E'.escale . the Navy had already produced all essentially l). and it took seime time to train the nec€ssary staff and initiatec 'test1.~ ~~lC1om ar.t riv!':r shiplllng.ted thE eff e.'nbtJ' 1939.l-·1. mines lIe're vc ry smal) _Thf. The Na. .lst':'n~ s to ck s of meen . comblnEd magn"'tic-acou st rc mine.. spi t!:c the fa. by area commande r s . )e!d U. As e.:'nt·s in the Thil.mprov15st:on~. l~'~ c The Germo.sponslble for harbor securi t~' and control mine~ .t':".::e for thE Ya1'.c t or th f msgnE t 1c mme . Coastal defenses an. ThE' Navj \lll.·s. and fOJ' anti-invas10n purpo aeswer-e e~tremecly s.ng and development on the requhH. '\oIh~n production york start. m!.I:!vasion matters 'IIer€' under ttle jurisdictlon of area commanders. € ife-eti VEness Of th". c fr~ nuericy s cou s 1. systf-ms fE 11 1nt. the viey of G¢rman naval off.Il ship-laid or submarine-Ie! c minf'!:. S1nce the Luftvaffe did not get them any Quicker. v~l opme nt(Jf 1T.' 5 • ult 1ma tely the Luftvaffeput mucn effort into the design of firing sy. .ECHNJCAL DFVEl.is. . 'o1h en th e Luftvaf f e 'und ert ook m1.o t).cti1J'~ I an..I· in 3Eptf.t':"onh] u s. against bridgE'S.lliEs. magnetic min~ had se-r!::lusl. attack.} case.irst !r. TiH e7.E:'W fir...n~ ('e1 d.minir:c: plans developed byth!': Army.n Navy expected thE: magnf-t!c m!ne to suffi. . the services aga. e.·affl. and proceeded 1n 19111 to d!-vtlop s.P.e the val' lasted.forp th~ British nege.dnot.Ddir' fOl' ope rIO.··cr.· the end of th .sted bet'll.ff~ cti Vl IJin~.coUin' d.ru! procured loca.. Al though the Navy vas re.d en the pr(.:.OP"'-ENT D".and llMP. the Luftv!l. N&vyplaced tbF b1a(!lF for th!f upon till" Ll:ft. a'nt: t·(1. Adjei1n1ng vas an airfield originally used for experimental work vith se8.d theN fore produced a.Thl·! shortage (xi~t(·c oe cau se tnt· va)' cam!' ll·te.he fi.C vi th nrin f S • e Thf' original sugg!"stion to transfeI' trainee personnel from the Navy vss rE:jected. when the unit vas reed::.N U\ou~!:.f'or-me d about such l.::.:.rng systems.as ".:. peri.ct the t t. con s t s t. of theauc':'o frEquency Bcoustic and combinEdmagnf'ticacoustl c m!nf-s.orough ly und es irabl e.e. v'" re built up. \lS.i !"D. mine un! t 'va~ rr.and ehangE sm.f. solution. tl'.F:I·· Yf-N actually PT'Oduclng ecou~ticmln"s in smell number-s wi thln thrf-s.J'st (T€rrr.l c-acoustl c minp in the SutrllTwr or 1941. It sa'll the ~ntroductlon of tht magne t Lc min! lIitl'! it 5 succ ees t Vt mod!-Ji. In Apr I 19~ 2.. r~sul t.vy seldom atteoded trial s of nev dev·lce s at TravelDund E .in disagre. c] 0 s e r COOPfC"l'& tlon \l1.).1Cers that the a-epara t i on va 5 th.odr·ls.mt' the operationa] limitations of tb€. Through 1942 the monthly demand for .. 'Whll.cs. 'We~ st. the p~riod rro~ CctabE~ to th' ~.sign. the BM was more restrict~d in its cond1tion o[ drop than the Navl! lJol (pa. T)1' f1r~t. of ~lgniri cent !nnovet1on~. Luftvaffe Colonel Jlo~el complained that the naval system \ISS far too' rigid to get result squlck]y. ..:1mpleto manuf6.. yer~ aVli!labll' for a heav. at the outb:r'!ollkof th.'d thet in. nov <.thin " year the Brittsn '111'1'1' applying successf!:l count(r'mpasur~9.rsio. c:a·tions. Later a strong technical staff and considerable developmen t re s our-c e s . finally.1 VE:d in the dual decvelopmei1t continued. as yet. thf' GErman Navy began tt.€' outbreak of tt. yhile thE Luftwaffe preferred ~.l.ll tal and testing fae!lit i e s vere ve1':)1 5JDB..i ly makeshift.u~er of 191!1. B:. t.hr de.cb a..lly Tht' German t.

:.~ ~!. a~ ! Th~ All!~~ ...ch!:.l. 4 8 12 4 8 -----+. 1n thl ci~1 of German submer!nf! e~t t..·.~r:~· :J~ rr:~n( e . !'i.'L.:~:.~ e.:{:: cr.k :. -t.. =. t h. By thin the-'liE\'(~l r:::'gh Corr.!"i" .. fruit.r~s.f- Th( Grrm!ln~ hac c. r'~n·f~·]r. n~ce-:. ef~.: 1t s camr into EL r v ice..~Sj vl for thE old onES .v:c:.c at t he general po l r cy o~ laying ml~ed fle-lds.nf S 'W.:p~~~r~.?'(l bE corr.3'"= .GERMAN UNDERWATER ORDNANCE-MINES 01' Ib73A f::'l"st the...\·c. unve Lc ome • tr.'r. s.pr!n('~p]I". a~ a )"0 su . Gi.fE.! n. 4 8 1144 12 I 194'S A. val'.c I _( s s .:..1o fr<: nu=ncv c !orc\.nC ot he r ne.c ~tllr:!..y n. l~':: on. apon s .:.E \101.f nc ..:: t"r."_]]:.a.. ~~ ~e.F!.}: .::'·m warfare b~t vas fo~~~j t~ cut ~~~~r~ :~ ~~~_ ~O~~ ~:th thf ma~~mum p~~~:blf~r~c~c:!jn.. the l'. k::~~~ I ------1942 f.a.-..s r-.Luf...!. T::15 took :::.:)!H":: bt.. have b en \'~r:.~ nr t th{ i:nd!v~ct:u_ minf.:T'r:re... errlv<. u se ...rl1cat'C':'n[11'':'11.o:'k Fr·::n-.n~ 1'):'::. :'" . sarr...a!. demand t:e: m':'_r~'~ S T'E a chc.... If tr....ff' rn .Gf rr.v arr:r. r» e e carninE' ou t and SUCCE. '\ ej:"... t:.. ·af: e 'took m~ninr. ·t.1' scs I e of ope r-s t Lon s .:.AMOUNT D-SUPPLIES DEMAND LAID RECEIVED ON HAND (1110) F1gu. J? ." r-~~n* v e.nf d'"l ~n~. tho( luft . the low-rrt~u.. 150:4.~ t r.. b!... nne t:h.rJ" p.· t ':'rrF tt:at G". ~. t.-----1143 I 12 I . vlry ~~~t 6.-~~_).'.. ~t::...:.. These grEatl:... count'rmf8surlS t. At -= IJ ~cr-...! cr"El.lrmolln".: :~.se1'!.:..):\15.':nr i::s ~nst.·ouldJ n Dur.vaffF anc 3uo~e-q'Jl?nt.. r~ fo~tunetE e that.t.~ hnd rt&a~n~~ !ts o_f~n:!v~ ?3W~rJ tt~ Ie he \'IE dE. tht laSing capa~':'ty o~ ~~eLuft .. :n~rtE5t~ .' EZ':'n: j~ ':'0lT..he de s i cn t 01 t hr p~F v lou s t~· ane 8 hal f y< ar-e bo. Ene vnr .. t h.bJ (J th~ \il'E..!.ano e ppr-ec i a t sc the va Jue. :.nr t.':'n':"n.C-T'i<)u.c 1t ~ OlJt--a..:r. r-r.1.ll ~: s t a t t s t Lc s .t c. Thr prFs3urr. en vs .~~ =: E=..MILITARY a-MINES C..!.h» third pf.( tlm ... v: tr.ne v .1oI00&pon ·pos::'t':'.invasion :H.:J. nint \.01 t!-<.-. r!Od. r :!n("i" rrc s:1n~lt r. bl:t th.£' otftn!>ivt in thIO last stag"" 0. mor-e s.: the war. tr.ft tc.h~ proble-ms c~ ~""~Epln~.~ore._J'1ne c ffort.. La t e in thE.( ~~'.iL.rC err] ~r_b]I~: !n~oJvLd :n co~n:'r!n( t:.ar..1. hi l"1 rr.n r-c vs r-s c s on all fron:." L1.:.c: out 01 the n..n th. de-clln~G h a\'':'l:.. t!. NE V:I hlid UnC'l dr_ V(]=p~'nt & ~1dF vartrt~ J! oth~r ~tE~=n~_ manr o! onr tho tf ':"l":n~- Th!. c t h.s.... anc ~ 0. of M1nea Laid.. 1~ op~raere t i on . from tht bt g':'nof 1:'1.in~ : . ~n"'l.~ l:.. At th.ly th lIa\'j'. t ntinl) 6. !.po. VL}OPL'c! not onl~ D'W bt:t also nr .re 3 _ GrallI'.gg..on.ncy acoustic. the bomb~r pos!tion lola!no: !n phe~.

. '" '" ........... <'II .......0 ·~I :£ ?E5'!'~"I TE:J C .... 0"> 4: ..... .. '" 0 ....... '" '" 8 .... . o '" ~ '" ..... ... .. il ~ .....CRITIQUE ~8 ._ !I ... ....I .. .. 0 . OQ OQ <'II . o 0"> i! i! <'II tv o '" o il ..... .

inc:thereto vere found.EMI. Theile types ~ere designated EMA.rpe vaB laid in World .~.l midaectlon.~.. Its appearance in ""orld . Only the surface crLft t..~.ceptlon of the EMS. EM1C and EMU either vere abandone. .l on lover hemisphere mooring IIvitch CH EM I CAL HORN 151 AR""I'<G BOOSTER REL. The EMH.ogth Charge Description Horns St. Itll production Ya!! discontinued atthe cloee . the information contained herein on lIuch mines is based Bole1y on statements made by German prisoners of va. Ac. eLnce the other type Jar required specially fitted !ubmarlnes vhl~ vere not availa.ith e. the which vas a drifting mine.r and should be treated accord. Detonator carrier mounting ~oor1.ne !leries consi!lted of 13 different types of lies m.1ngly. ODe for 1n laying by surface craft and the other by Bubmarj_ne.~. F'lgure 6 . The mlne e:r. block-fitted he. EMS.IliE SEPIES) Material D1amat-er Le. it vall deslgnated Elektrische ~~ne type A.!leque. equally spaced...d i.eel 3. 1n.EMA/EME Mine ..anlte of External Fittings F1ve: one in center of upper hemillpherei tour.ntly. around upper hem18phere 6n mid-llection.INE) 1".E~SE.. The German E1nhe1h Minen. (EJol) m1.~. and EMU.Chapter 4 COI'I'ACT AlID MOORED INFLUENCE MINES TjTE GEFW.r counted for by the fact that IItockll remained on hand in 1939..j_ated t-vo modele.n the developmental !ltage or yere incomplete at the close of the war. cylindrica.T?ICE:.cordingly. sWIre>! a MOORINGPUL. II 1e aca. seoured by keep ring In bottom center of calle Arming IIv1tcn and boos terre lease The EMA Mine.ble. Con.~. ~. jo1Ded by a 12-i. and no specimens of any of thelle types or documents relat.Id\ £1< (EI)\:lElTS~.ng bracket Bolted to tvo luga and vh1te met!!... II..n. all of the eeries vere moored mines lald by lIurface and/or undervater craft.nell.EMA ~ine Afloat RE.~.LEY IlCOME-ALONG DEPTH-tlKING I1VOllOSTAT DETONATOR CARRIER MOUNTING Figure 5 . The EMA vas developed durIng Vorld War 1 and vas the f1rllt German mine with a chemical -horn firing !!ys tem. 330 lb. EMC.of the val". Descriptlon Shape of Csse Tvo hemispheres. to differentiate it from the pendulum-type minell then in use .. 46 In.~.

. Separation of the anchor an~ case vithdraws e sefety pin from the ~ming switch and booster release. type fj t t. O:ffen~ive or defenSive mine.CONTACT AND MOORED INFLUENCE MINES Mooring pulley and Attached to exten~1m "come-along" of mooring bracket Depth taking hydro~tat Bolted to extension on mooring bracket ness.BMine.5 in. contact. diameter. from center. The improved mocel vas deSignated and the original type rede81.i 0.:xl. 22 1n. 660 lb. 39 in. The origi!lal EMC mine vas completed 1ri 1924. .r plate 7.mUIt depth or vater or 1700 feet. It utilited • bronze Mse plate and an eighth . twr. (r1g~e 7). and the base plate parte were redesigned to give greater lire and vatertightRESTP.EMC II (UEpel'" Antenna i General Moored. four eQually llpaced around upper hemisphere. "'~xim~ depth or case when moored 245 feet. flush type. 9 1.horn (KE) vhich was placed on top or the moor1ng earety IIwi cb • In 1936 tne IIl1ne t vas i.A E!(B 330 lb. 17 in. secured by 10 bolts Description of External Fittings Horns The EMC I Mine. It is a moored c cntac t.ICTE:D Cov. 2 . making the c1rc~t from the horn batteries to the detonator and allowing the booster to drop over the detonator. block-fitted hexanlte Seven: one in center of cover plate.gnated Two pa1r of electrical leads extend from the white metal mooring ~witch.mproved. Descrlption of Case Shape Tvo hemispheres. ill center of upper hemisphere. Operation. f1ttinge vere prov1ded for antennae and scuttling devices. laid by sur:fsce crart.or.C ! - EMC II . chemical-horn mine. !line takes depth by hydl"ostat. 48. one set to the detonator carri.e d to take seven chemical horns. on brackets..ing IIvitct. the other to the al"lr.1 l'1'e1' a9 1'011 owe: cr. &p&l't.ere in. EJ.. vr. trom center of lover hem1~ Ipb. arming the circ~it of the internal born to arm the mine. and vss designed for use againBt surface and underwater craft. Mooring ·tension extends tbe spindle of the white metal 12I00ringsvitcJ::.C II EJolC I. The ·EIf. jo1ned by a 2 cylindrical midsection Steel i9 Material Diameter Length Charge 46 In. 'rhe eighth horn _s 1Il0vedto the side of the moor1ng sv1tchj & soluble plug vas Bubstituted for a dash-pot type or delay system. 485 lb. E".'. for use 1n me. EIt. Thie mine is identical to the ERA except for the veight of charge.

ndB. and.ne copper ahort~ge then prevalent.rd type ENC II EMC II with Lover Antenna Lo.1n rough vaters. depth of caee EMC II ¥ith Tombac Tubing Tombac tubing is an anti-sveep cable fitted over the mooring cable Tombac Tubing Depth Setting 3 to 190 ft. 245ft..-:-l t ed '1'1.in€- Base plate Lift1. to 190 ft. closing the mooring safety SWitch.EMCII ~. \lith Upper and Lover Antenna 130 ft. to 190 ft.. :. A fifty-foot bight of the mooring cable vas flaked on the top of the anchor and kept in 8 locked position by 8 s1~day clock. tripping the booster release lever and the mine is armed. of 5/8-~r.ntenna Depth setting Upper an tenna Depth setting Chain mooring Depth setting 100 ft. Upper antenna Lover &lltenna Depth setting Max. The upper antenna V8S abandoned in 1941 because of the excessive numbers that broke loose . from center of upper hemisphere Operation. Mooring tension pulls out tbe mooring spindle. Standard chemical-horn firing. :. 20 ft.ing II and Corl.C with Chain Mooring II EII. The only self-disarming device i~ the mooring safety svitch which is deSigned to dislll'm the mine by opening the firing circuit upon release of mooring tension. Mine takes depth by plUllllllet.. the lover antenna vas abandoned because of t. in 1943. The EMC II existed in the lIix types ehovn in figure 49a. The general characteristics of each of the various types are as follo\ls: EMC II EMC II vith Cork-Floated ~pper Antenna 65 ft.GERMAN UN DERW A TER OR DNA N CE-M IN ES OP 1673A \ / Figure 10 .C vi th Chain Moo]". Tva. "'ra. Exper~mentB vere conducted to obtain delayed rising of the mine. floats 4Q ft. In operation the mine 1I0uld plant at itl! lIetdepth and. 20 ft.ng eyes sta. chain :. 100 ft. Err.. IIhen the clock had run flE:3TR!CTEr . to 190 ft. 100 ft.. In 1940 the eighth horn vas removed from all German base plates. because experience had ahovnthat this device \185 often actuated in heavy se8S. apart. 3 to 190 ft.. Snag Line Chain moor1ng Snag line Depth setting 80 rt . EMC II Mine. 22 in. 19 in. of w! th 5/8 cork 1n.

Lcca ti on by ~\lch oetllods.l c ck . The steel horns were so constructed that the lIIetaland welds yould not pa. etc. delays in the openir.e e t tcn type m1ne .CONTACT AND MOORED INFLUENCE M. up to 32 8econda.U1d and started t'ly pilling a vir'e lanyard at the base cf the de'li .oJ" casualties..C)"'?S~ Section off. A pull of approximately 1}0 pounds is sufficient to bend the horn and brea. RESTRICTED .. the German Io:!.ideredsU]:lerior.iI experimented a }Cl-seconc. In 1944.he~' gave s ome thought to the deve Lcpee nt. Aceordlr.mu).th vas selected by turnjrc a d!al cn the face of the ~.e cases vi ttl rubber am.aneous 1 J' 'J/o!.ubstituted for the standard Hertz le. because of 8 critical ehortage of lead.gly.the steel type J:roved satisfactory operationally.E used to lecats the ~cored mines.n Submarine COIMAnd.nd ct.. penetrat!ne: the field of moored contact m!ne5 laid off 5alerno.lNES CHEMICAL HpRN i7) / OORING 'SAFETY SWITCH DETONATOR SET --MOORING SPINDLE F1gure 11 - EItC Il .g of cargo 'parachutes. Tr. This clockwork vas standard Luftwafre squirment used to obtair. Hovever. It oper-a ted as fOllo . using spee!al type pair..r. of a m:!ne case that would r-e eIs t. Altho~ the lead borns vere cOflz.ing COllllll. Th1s idea proved unworkable because of the exceeslve ~traln created on release of the bight...y mir.ad-aCid horn. eteel horns vere developed ~d . the Allies succeeded !r.nner vial... sought to aprly a. To this extent. s: v!.. Early 1h 1911lJ. :rise 50 feet.:"n~ . At the crrosH€' end. their effoTts paralleled those of the Germa.. 'IIith hen.e that A.culd be one eu:]:l oying The time delay desired. t.rt it bent to an angle of 9C degrees.nt:!hich detection methods to submarines.".i~ device \IEIS 5imple and easy to j:roduae... ..ts.. ce another vire ve s run cfr.nyard va s snarped 1r. The c 1cck \ISS si.. .clcckwork release (levies to rer-lace the standard dash-pot plclIIl1let delay. 'the vire la. relativel. the foregoing methods rroved \:''lsatisfac tor'" and It \l8S finally decided that the best antidat.SDl C .k the l. the GeMrafl l'lav. by the srrlr::g'-lcadec: cleek drum and the safety ]:'1n vltlldra\ln.!l. t. They sought to at la1 n til: II end by coa tine uo·!r.as suepe d beir.

Navy "'ine Disposal Per-scnne Li ) The E~~ "!1ne.Ett.ents in th. and lias designed for use against s~face craft only.D I N1 ne 18 RESTRICT~D . VinE. A emall cover plate. Limited experimentation vas comoenced to deter~ine the resronse o.hes in diameter.GERMAN UNDERWATER ORDNANCE-MINES OP 1673A Fip. In 1936 it vas improved along the same lines as the EMC. no mine cases of this type 'IIere actually built. equidis tant from the lifting eyes and ~5 inches frolll the center of the upper tleml sphere. It 'lias moored a contact type fitted for five chemical horn~. (A field of ENG I mme s vas laid in the South Pacific.he 'liar caught these experim. model beWl del!ignated EMD II and the ori ginal type 'EMD I.case. !lome of vhich .CII Chain Kinf" "'ith 20-ft. III 80-ft . The end of t.oaccommodate an SO-day c Lock and flooder.ure 12 .ded t. The first E~iD mine vas ready for oper~tlonal use in 192~.. the ne". Both ~odels of th~s mine vere laid operationally. MODring Figure 14 . La. Except for the absence of such horns and its smaller size. tel'.Rubber IT ttl Snag L1ne an all sr-onge-z-ubbez. consequently. the EIID is practically identical to the EMC. 6. vas ad. it had no lover horns. an e lectrode plate mounted on a plastiC cover and Figul'f" 13 .EI'. Consequent] Y.5 inc. (Both mine types use the same base plate!!. S.were recover-eo by U. ancncr-s .E}'.eir early stage.{. and accessories).f var Ious types of synthetic sponge-rubber to ASDIC..

CONTACT AND MOORED INFLUENCE MINES ~laced in the center of ~t~ urper hemisphere vas added as an antenna connector. b.... e General 'by surface n.nite UPPER ANTENNA CHEMICAL -HORN (. re laid opera.tionallY. hi The manufacture of EMD II vas discontinued in the early part of iIIorld War rr to perini t greater production of the EMC II. for use 1n t. ohemical-horn mi'ne.EMD II Mine . E>pherlcal Share Material nne C NNECTOR PLAT..Cr088 Seotion RESTRICTED .mum Moored.Upper-Lower II Ant..EI>~D Mine . Descr1rtlon Diameter Charge Figure 15 . I . ExistinE stocks of EI>'J) and EIo IT . laid craft Offensive or def...l ock fit tee hexe.a:o:..E 330 l'b.!. contaot. tl"r of ~ 1': 0(1 ree ~lnc.ns~ve derth of .e of Case Steel ~O 1n.4) EXPLOSIVE FLOODER SECURING LUG DETONATOR DETONATOR r SET ~PIN ~OORING SPINDLE HOUSING SPINDLE SCREW IIIOO."G Figure 16 . which was coas1dered more sultable.

AE] A 1014 AA 4 (Unit abandoned '7 in 1944) The on) y self-dlsa·rm.1neEngllsche" t (EME) 'liseused solely for exper-Iment. desisned for submarine laying only. Its flooder ~late was located 26t inches frc~ the. It vas cOj.T. froe: center' COVlOl" t la te 7. Thl s mine '11&9 & moored tact t7.1 attemrts were made to fit th:!! mine \lith an acoustic uru t kncvn as A. which closes the mooring safety switch. Standard Chemical-horn firing. 3 ~ 1. there were no provis~ons for an SO-day clock.lated .lt should be fitted to the ~i~e:- Operation. trips the booster release lever.an~.1niO fl A 0(" t Horns Five: one in center of cover plate. No or t~J1 mine are available. Its larger ccunt.' ~r 1I. !It about the same t ilT. one 72.he ZYJ' used the E~IC anchor and vas de s i gne d for surface laying only (figure 18).rd. from center of lower hemiSphere The E~U'"~ane.temr. ce n t e r.here: howe vel'.5 in. from CEnter cf lower hernisrhere: three. condeeig.:. 201 r:.fl. Mine takes darth hy r1ummet.ed 'Elektr isehe ~'.A.cf !n ier~ErE rlust ty. <:.tl. 2?~ ln~ from center of u~per he~isrhere Se curing 1usa Five. Mooring tension ~ulls out the mooring s. 16.s t Lon .5 in.EU.lndle. In the final model the case 'lias1mrroved in RESTRI C'l'ED . cen tel' of the upper hemls):.dy for' ope r-e ona I use.E""ine.s.E€ bought from a Br1tish firm and nil.r1ate Urr'cl" :berr:-- Stanc"'.s design va s undertaker: in 1926 and compl e t ec in 1931. on the other hand.Ej sect:rec by Ie belts Ba se.E' unsuccessf1:. l!.Itcenter of upper hemisphere: One 31 in. The min~ \las laid or~rat10nal]y only with thE' ~ 3 uni t .12 in.n:e E~:C II Two. In 1936 the base rlate wa~ revised an~ the mine put into production. the Sr-'.OC::'!' t influence mine de ve Lcpe d by the GeI'lr.er-part.GERMAN UNDERWATER ORDNANCE-M INES OP 1673A UNIT COIolPAIHII E NT STERILIZING 'CLOC~ POCKET n[u!'£' 17 . sta£~ered. 1nfluence ur.. The E~~ vas the r! r 5 t. it 'liB! rea. anart. but the magnetic t. By 193.that the fellowin .igned to disarm the mine b~' ol'ening the firing circuit upon release of mooring tension. frc. The first model vss a spherical case consisting of two hemisrheres welded toge~her. dia~eter. and arm a the mine.i uni t in existence proved un sa t f sf'act cr-y. foUl' equall)' sracee -ar-ound u~~eI' ~e~~sThere.ing device Ls the mooring safety switch lIhich is des. To 1941 the"" 3 hsd been perfected and adarted for use vi th the EIIJ. and S~:C S were. ] t. The EtI.5-i~.F. It details T.

1n.' tl". ur{:!er h. 12 hour s .€' .}. Slock-fitLed ~50 lb.scri r-t t or. . hook a ha:ped: tva on lowgr hem1s~here. io.ned by a cyl!. us: .:r.25 kLots and s. 11. t e r Sfcured by 10 bellS 2oye~ t .cl:or .~n~ eye~ on 20* In.l E. diameter. on . I urm.ly ae 1 f.. '".1g thE de.nk he. u. 28..• cr! tripting the booster release Jever and rI1e~~in~ the locking balls fro~ the clockvork srln~~e. sa:po:.16 knets J!_r.i. The opera ti ona 1 character15tlc~ of this mine are as fall 0 .. Tl". -. 5:- in. 2.securing lugs Three.n.. lift.. in.ec. . 050 ft.s):'hel"e.di sar~i.l Fl tUngs Tva 600 apart.Ln.vith cable . in 11ne w~th flooder ~:~te .with . . from cent.:!:d~ s e c t i on Diamete::: lJ5 in. cvc re .:. whlch is deg1~ned to scettle the mine :f the c Lcck s t or-s at. spring 7"~C: :'(0':--_: as~] ~ ~ere . from center The or.1ne.. ):reesUI'e de):resse~ the clock s~in~le at a ater depth of 15 feet.:as adde~. from center. arid t!1e un i t s t a r ts its test1'pf.. Opel'a t·i .5 ...t itself Troperly after a Fre-set time of uf tc the rr.arEe "'. secured by lObolta 'REST'EICTED 7/16. in.3t !n '. d1amete~. frolll'center: one or.CONTACT AND MOORED INFLUENC~ MINES Mr>orlnp Buff. u.roar 2a~ on he'misphere.: a~d t. .ooring t en sion r-u'l Ls out thf' !re· r.. . Lay.ndrltT.1ng roe j gil t s 1~ ft. . clock. Th~ cl'ck r una off its delay period.rrer he m1 a ~ ~here.~ by . R s c u ttl1n!.:": E ~ rr-J" '!"[ ·~~~c .~ ~. Flooder plate 6·1n.: :-!::'. O~ he~ls[here.anj t e De. starting the clock.:h takinr IDech- ~G-tn~ ~Jock c~"eY ~)9t~ ~-ln.1vc he~lspherest C'&] 5c. 2] 3/8 965 ft. 160 apart..with ~ab1e '5/)6 In.. c. of1 ta se t pe r-I or ur on c cmr le ti on of 1 ts sa t ad period.anc o.with cable cable 164c ft. lf the mine does net orter.e rrJ ne t ske s ce r t.el!1i.~ de v 1ce 15 the SO-de:.fE):ternli. ..~'ll f ~l"e to 5!.~ 16 ft. frau: eel. in.er La~ine deJ'th~ 3:?5 ft. ~ l". any time pr10'r tccoOirlet~or.

. The EMG assembly conSisted of a ballasted EII. Etel'nit hemis):. (80 + 50) DESICCATO L. (The original plan contemplated that this assembly wocld be employee to protect the flanks of German shipfing lanes es'tab11shed in an iLvas10n of Eng]un~.Cmine case .Bi~c:caE:e Suspension for t<: . eight to 820 feet. at which time it was abandoned in favor ~~ the t~/K and Cl>'~type Jr. M t cons tan t. it vas deCided to dea5 si gn a cheape l' me ored II: 1ne' case of she e t-1 ron constructlon. mine fields utilizing this assembly were eas11y detected and aVOided.. 1 t vas undergeing tests at the close of the var. the assembly c·ocld be usee in greater depthS .G l ne ." The EMH Mine. in the English channel from attack by British torpedo boats and other simlla.GERMAN UNDERWATER ORDNANCE-MINES OP Ib73A ACID HORN (51 -...as discontinued.. __ ~lnlmurr and ~a~~I:1tm case dept.The Et>'. by ler:gthening the mooring cable betveer: the anchor and the .TED .aterial called Eternit .ts vere conducted . However.Lc IT.ed "Simulacker fur EMG.oored mines. the Germans developed a duremy EMG assembly which ccr:sisted n:erely of the norma! float and anchor.p. The assembly . [)ETONATOR In 1944 e~perimet.E~U ~ln~ This assembly cc~ld be laid in depthS ranging from 30 to 190 feet: but.. itl1 the 10ller horns blan. Unit SW.) The assembly was used eperationally until 1943.F case "ma. Since the EMG . to be known sa the E~~..rotj'lct German shiT'rine.d that 1 t mai"nta1ned a constant depth of eight feet. expensive to bulld. the develorment of the EMH ". a float. They ver-e de sLgna t. ere still seekIng to develor an acoustic unit for use 1n Jr.ne as seIT.heres bolted o together to form a sphere similar in dimenslons and Ii ttings to the normal EI>'.. Tbe E~lG"was a moored..EltI ~lm. re~ardles9 of the stage of the tide.. .c ..e.. Slnce the aluminum E¥~ . Figur~ 22 ... In 1942 the Germans .ure 21 .. RES'l'!U C.~u'wDEN WiRE SCUTTLER F'ir. and a 325-foot length of mooring cable. 90 dea~ s igne. cont.. since the design of an acoustic unit for moorec ~ines was progressing very slovly.de of a r Laa t..1CH RM I " Minimum depths laying 130 ft. To ffia~ this arparent disadvantage inure to thelr own beneflt. and a weight arranged for ccnstant derth. .. an EJ.ked off..bl de si. This moce] was known as EltY (Et) anC consisted of t. .hs 50 to 115 ft.ines.aerth mi. an ith ~"'.--_.r craft. The assembly was designed in 1940 to ):.float rode sllgtltly above the vater-surface.gnec for dey fense against small surface craft such as torredo boats. These d~1e9 vere laid in separate flelds or together with EMG's.Canchor.

The Germans felt.the EMU.naryevelopment work had d been done. To cure these defects an ent~rely nev t. . An 13. By 1940 the Germans had realized that their IItandard-type base platee fOr moored m1nell had tvo eerious IIhortcomingll: 1..rmingand di sarmlng. These mines vere actus.EMU Mine and Anchor It vas intended that the Ev. t The E. In deep vater.5 in. The three types of this mine emrloyed the same mine case. F!E~T!'ilCTED 21 in. In de]: ths over '..ounterhalancing the pull of the mooring cable. Its most noteworthy fea:ure ~as the fact that it ~as so designed as to perw~t depth setr-ing elther by plummet or by hydr09tat (figure 23).C case. In shallow vater.mechanism vh1 ch main talned arm1. (figure 22). vas discontinued in favor of the lIm. 100 lb. veter depths of les8 than )0 feet. (The !MK -vae deeigned for' a charge of 660 lb. disarming due to ve~tltal motion of the case vas prevented by a dash. Because of its departure frorr. The characteristics follolls: Method of firing Veight of charge Weigpt of case without flotation gear Height of case Diameter of calle Diameter of case including horn bo~ses of the mine case are as 5 sens1tive Bwitch horns 24-30 lb. 110 that vater pressure and mooring-cable tension c ombaned to arID the mine. Sh'ortages of nlckel and carpel' prohibited the large scale use of naval 1.tably modified E)o'.l at teltpt by either the y Germa. prev!ous German types.t type of mine. 2. In. The EMS Mine. The plUllllnet-linerum V8S deslg:1ed d to acoommodate 100 feet of 3/16-inch cable. It existed in three forms. use an FMC anchor. they are discua sed together in the folloving paragraphe. EMS rr. that loadins the mines in this manner ~ould give ~he mine a greater lethal range and permit better mine or1entatlon. they tntended to utili ze a 5u. After ]:rel1m::. which was still incoltplete. which vere designated EMS I. The EM! Mine'. m .rs from normal Gel"tnan practice.MI was the on. their development progrelleed 1I10wly. .~oot length of chain wss Lc be used betveen mooring spindle and moor~ng cable.aller EMU. The EMK and EMU Mines_ The development of the EMK was undertaken In 1940. Whereas all otter German moored mines employ a charge container. hydrostatic pressure alone would ~aintetn the mine in an armed pOsition..ither the !MK nor its euecellllor. In 1940 the Germane undertook the development of a mine case that would house an induction-type magnetic unit.23). they d!ffered only in the method of flotation. Since the EM!< and EMU yere identical.pot .nduction un1 t s .iameter and EMU 40 lnches). the EMU for 220 lb. The EMK was dropped in 1944 in favor of the ElilU because of a shortage of exploeive. work.'0 feet. and fre q ue n tly wore out the spindle-mechanism membrane. which was to. and the mooring-cable dr~ 500 feet of 7/16-!nch cable.be known as EMI. rough 8eas caused exce sII ive a.CONTACT AND MOORED INFLUENCE MINES 2.H be laid by surface craft. y sileep-o II ruc ors utilizing an E~C ~:r:e case moored to an EMC anchor by a sing:e or double length of SiS-inch standard chain.ype of base plate vas des Lgned .i. at the end of the war ne. and EMS !II. Induction units had not been suffiCiently developed to 'perlllitheir use in moored mines. wall completed. 13 in. of the mine for 60 seconds after release of tens!o~ on t!-. exce):'tfor e1ze (EMK 44 inches Ln cl. be the same size all the EMe. the E¥~ and Et-IU were designed to house the charge on the bottom o·f the mine case. The EMS (Sehrohrtreibcine sl is a drifting decoy or anti-pursu:.) 5ince thelle micee vere radical departures from previous German types (figures 22. the mine bei~g intended for use as a moored contact and/or influence-type mine. The method of placing the main charge in the EMK and EMU diffe. the ~lne was dropped for the followine: reasons: 1. regardless of vertical motton of the mine case. To reduce development.n8. Figure 23 . and be capable of the same de~th settings as the EMC. The anchor of the E)'IJ{ and EMU mine s ""S al2 c of ne~ deSign.n Navy or the Luftwaffe to develop a moored induotion-type m1ne. the de velopillentof this anchor progressed slovly and vas not completed at the end of the val'. hydrostatiC presllure 80metimes prevented arming by c. 18.~C. ThB base plate utilized an inverted spindle action. Coneegu8!ltly.e ooring spindle. In 1944 its development.

. and was designed to create the illusion ofa partit.er for surface-craft laying: nov- . F!e~re Case ma"er~al th!ckne5$I/B ~ethod Maximum Maximum Minimum Arming 24 .ilhouette of the head and shoulders of a man as he ""ould appear vhen operating a Narder. but the perl scope was replaced b. and the project vas abandoned. hlch vas approximately 13 Ln ches in dlameter and eight inches high. When laid. This float vas approximately 25 l'1ches in diameter and 14 inches high. the ~lne drifted with the upper portion of the float protruding several inches above. danger to la~ ing per 9 onne I. This mine employed the same case as the EMS. - of laying laying lay~ng height .. plexlglass float de s f gne d to :resemble the dome of the Marder (midget submarine). They veNt a ••embled on deck and l~ld by hand by a tvo-man team. 18 knots (approx. steel float . Later.lly submerged midget submarine vith its dome exposed (figure 26). This float vas designed to ride flush vi til the SIrface of the vater and to be Lnvt sib.ellirt!. It vas des igned to be laid by surfaced Li -boa t e against all antisubmarine craft. ) irateI'depths time 10 ft.speed Surfaced V-bo~t or surface craft 10 ft. E~\:: II employed a C-Il. The EMT mine was p:rima. s.ree types of rlotatien gear are as folloys: EMS I employed a steel float deSigned to resemb1e a periscope. surface (fie.erlod.ed. vhich is 66t inches long and inches 1n diameter.E~'_SII r. The floal vas painted vith B.GERMAN UNDERWATER ORDNANCE-M INES OP Ib73A Pieur'e 25 .ine The Characteristics of the th. the ~T vas designated the E~~S n. a camouflaged elliptical float.r11y designed as a drH't. and the ex treme 1y aens i t·l e v evltch horns. . only a fev of these mines vere used operationally. EMS III employed a hemispherical.mo~lae. 6.de the submarine and had to be handed up through the conning tover vhen needed.me EMS I. Because of handling and stovage difficulties.ure 24)-. and the E~~S mine beca. These mines ver-e stowed Lns t. experiments vere conducted vith the E~T mine.ca:.le to pursuing vessels (figure 25). During the s~e . 15-20 minutes (solublevasher) 6-day Clock Self Destroying Mechanis~ Work on the EMS mine vith periscope vas started in 1941 and completed in 1942.EMS 1 ~1n~ and Rolled steel !n. the.

c on si at.CONTACT AND MOORED INFLUENCE MI NES Figure «- P". arr-r~y. The H." boat~ as decoys aga:!.er':"ne ~ ir. World War II.iththe Silhouette of a mid£et submarine ope r-a or' for USE "ith the t EMS mine case vas delivered in Novemner 1944.t. contact.is :.::n-e vas replaced by the n:E'.: series )I!lS c ons i de r.ver :f later imrroved models.-r]s attac!1ment to resemble Tbese ~he we!"e FII. char-ge 0.olas .-. THE dome o!"'-·e. ·chec:lcal-horn mine using the norma.e d nexern t e . respectively.to arrr.C ~:Jeffect~ve.l 'Plummet~ type ancncr.' vaters of the Balt1c and Black Seas and 1n rivers and estuaries.r!st patl'ol craft. it ~as aba~doned at the sa~e t~rr-e as thE. c the beg Lnn Ing of' the war vere 1eid o.nesLn . because of operationaj dIfficulties and a sms..end B.~r. The FKBELnd FMC bo tn u 9 e d a w Lre cable Illooring and a spring buffer.llia:r!ly becau!. for :. The F'I. closed the mooring safety ayl tch and the "A-E" s\ll t ch .C Mine vas developed arid com:r1eted betyeen 1926 and 1. only the FMC tool!' depth by plummet..:: was C cc. ThLs modifica tlon had no German designat1 on.1.rd c. rr.lner. and tripped the booster-release lever . xrxrs FHA. The "A-E" svitch in these mines served only to open Dr close a svitch 1n the horn cire u:! .Bvas completed in 1926 j hovever.. ~ne~ a~:: ~evl::0ied !IS a moored. The Fri.Id·loli.28. and consequently. t~. and rxc The FMB and FM. FMC had one 11ftlnr eye welded to the upper he~~s~hel"'e and three anchor-sec~rln8 lugs. and only sup~lies on ha~d vere lald.lCTE!l De ta i19 .e fall o: 19ljlj the German a I'Lca t Snea:': rr. The FII.::laso c<:-.he !OamE "eason~.rrnx!ffiate1y ??~ inche~ i~ die~e[er1 ~!tt r~ve chetL!cal horns. hovever. The PM minea vere small moored contact mines intended primarily for use in shallaI.. one on the upper hemisphere and tvo on the lover· hemf ephere.dedto be la~d by small -::-le:r.. the mines. Tr. ever.. contact. There are two designations for the F~ffi mine.ErS. These d..s. Pluss Flo:!: /':: ne . sur!'ac€'-la~d C'. chem~cal-horn ::-J. r!. a c\'lindl"~u cal preset-type anchor(Anke r u:! ~ absteckb"re:r.Band FMC differ from each other as folloW9l .1ffer onl~' in the veight of explosive.ll S uFrly of cupolas.ed of three types.S III. Lng IT_ine ".· The F''''. a mool"'!n~ buffer anc w~r" cab l e 'lj'Joor1ns .:"dE'et subrr. The Germe.ar...[. .l cck-T'it t.t. c cnt.lne for use in the estuarIes of the Baltic. FII. t F~C was develored and produce~ betveen lS<~ a:Jd If?B.e of the sm&ll exr1c'ive charEI) and the ease with vt!ch :t could oe sve r t . (FM) mine ser-Le s FMB. FMC Mine.'e:"stionally.etel:: 22 pounc s of b. vas the f::.eo B In t r. 28 pounds and ~~ pounds. pri..tad two lifting t eyes velded to the urrer hemisphere.. the FMA vas abandoned short1 after production y vas ~tarted. nO~e vere ]:f'oduced durine. . it Ls referred to as EIl. anke r-t. tOne.au}. It vas abandoned ~n [s.A yas designed and developed in 1920. Very few of these mOdified EMS mines were laid. The first cons~gnment of cu. and only the s urrl ~e s on hl. s e r-Le s to be de.l. The H::. _" conS~!tgd of e hemlsphe~!ce: z:e~i cast 8.n Fl uos Minen.:. for purposes of identification.C ~:int. but vas abandoned in fa VOl' of -FMB. at . The FilE.it!" motel" boats or "Linser.B andf1o:B(35).e ~. Mooring tension pulled out the arming spindle. Command (K1:'1:) r-e que st.act .ter:. The RE2-T!'. rnocl'~d.C vere completed and used operationally.r le ted in!l:"TrOY: ~ mately 192c. It YB2 a su~face-laldj moored. It vas a surface-la1d. The FIo'.d containing a heavier charge than the Fl>'i3 IUne.ines AttBC~. in heavily rrotected sea lanes.

rge 28 lb. . contact. oHA ·1II . and OM/X.umber of horns 5. The OMA II and Ol'. vhiCh is designed to disarm t. eurface mine the development of . or 48 lb..!l.!I.lnal'Y de ve 1opment stage . It. 20 RES'!'!'.. 7/16-1n. d1ameter THE O~:. diameter 50 ft.. 5/16-in.ini.meter N. I and OMA/K verI!' l:~1.rsw1tch. I. plus length of depthsetting mechanism 160 It.te 1942 . Of tnere 1'1 ve lI.odelll only' the OHA. Dia. Number of horns The OMA (Oberfl. long 1/2-1n. F'/l. of charge 88 10.meter Weight of min!! CaB!! 30 in. in cent~ of upper hemisphere. long 1/2-in.A "'nlE~ FMC Mine Dia. FlE'-'rf' 28 .FMC ~iine 1 ft.p..he mine by opening the firing circuit upon r-e Le BS e of moori nS ten s 1on . I II were abandoned in the pre lir. one.p. 475 ft. It utili ze d a novel type of' !Iline case and vas designed in five models.mum depth sett1ng Mooring cable 13 ft. OM IV.l CTED .Chen Mine A) was a l'Doored.GERMAN UNDERWATER ORDNANCE-M INES OP 1673A . to 15 rr.5 Mine of mi ne Ca.. OMA II.round upper hemisphere preset Depth sett1ng . IIeq 0011 y spaced a.SE 26 in.lly . vhich were designated Or-'.. ich h vas undertake ntn 1s.r!lling device ia tne moo.F'MB Klne Figure Depth setting 29 .. lone: d1ameter long dla.Ole self-dls. and the O!l. 1011 ni mum depth ~ett1ng Moor1ng ca.meter Weight of cha. ing safety The only 25 re .A IV vas un pe rfec ted at the c1 0 9 e of the war..d ope ra t i ona.

.EST1UCTED r~e~t~. t!"'.kE::. ?he develcrme r.de a"rrangemen t.A/i<: .~t\le.se:-. both tITes pr-e sent ec 8 great numbe r of difficulties and .t c: ~l"".) However. as Th. tlr to ~: feE:.. i -r. lt~ S\litc~e5 0:.i ree vas s r. lei:! ::'r. the p·oblerr. E ebrt.the normal moor. 27 ...eq~irerr. ~a'.. eight.. req.:lete:!. sur J'a m:ne deor-e ac ce veloped by the Germans va r !'. Hove ve r-. contact.sminelo'as to conSist of an E~C anchor...:. surface m!ne for derths up to 985 feet ..:.~ ~.t t ..' case precl uded the use of a double chain mooring in derths over SC fee t . tel'S or the El be Es tuar-y.sS}:-indle or hydr-oa ta t Lc types. Because of the relative comple~lty and 10'" priority of this mln~. I I I / .·j' .t. the de ve I Dpmen t ofotr..''' \__ IB lbs..:)ya:lcy of the OJ:'. or·~.. guf. na t e d Lcc s e . .A/K.Il:.rtme:1!.A/Y. De~art~e~t ordered that they be fitted vltl': a ZE . ar.. This assembIy lias designated CKA IV..". abandoned in th~ rrel~~ln8ry ere development staBe. P. Y..e fall-o~ thp ~B~. its develop~ent .. Gr!CirlC!l requiremenT" fer tl"". an~ !: ~&f l~:d !~ tte f~:l cf 1~4~.!.ent~ lIere s ut sequently !ncreased to 325 feet.!.e \.c d .r.TVa. I no!" theCV. c or.hs The r~r'st n. The characteristics of lhe case are as fol10 .vemonths.. II and O~:AIII vas unde r-t. 1:·4:.] aTlP..e .e. This was due to the fact that these mines had a slack moorln~ cable and could not bE f~tted .e .~ cO::-:.~ the the Ge:--:T. A schematic representation of the aesembl'Y is shovn in figure 31. feet and !'eque~ted a~ ar~ro~riate rroc:ficat. Late in 1943 the development of a moored. Since these mines broke adrift fairly Often. the German Nav. and 8.A J... (The OKA/r. "'Il tel' de r t.. r e c uc ed tr. T!ie r-e 5uI t':'nE m. their use created an unaccertable hazard to German shiprln~ and shore installations.be ~ :"~:_" : n Lne s c!"e e.- / 1===:::.akeri . r:::-. 5.Ii6.e~-dertt.. To remedy this ~ituatlon the deve Lcpment. jur.hof 5(. . the problem of ~r~ventln& e~~essiv6 ~r~:'ters \185 succe~srclly met for aert~2 ur to 50 feet. Therefore.CONTACT AND MOORED INFLUENCE MINES "rr : ....A I and C'~. I I I 35 II..::'ne ~"" '. remained uns o I ved for use in greater derthz.CE'r r-~ with the normal cisarliling devices :-ound 1r: moored mines.[ de~:::i:tted ~t·:. Since disarming devices of the normsl type coul d not be errl j ed to the OV. 175-round ..e Ln the ext r-emeIy !'o~£h d "'13.e use if. a. a larse steel float vi th (l..!.~e n ur.: c a l Le d fer H.. table deT-.er t.1a. las ted for more than !:I. an milA ~:ine case with a n-ormal spindle. yeer the develormec of a Ir:. incomplete as at the close of the ..r.lYTle arming and disarming Slo'ltch.t. t r.. t e st..::':-ements toe n.on of the 1a::". undertaken. but [tore ef!'~~!er. The OJ·:A I I was to ~ncorrora te a mechanical-type disarminG device and the ClI'.:t b:.:/.'. 0[ Dera.tec 1_~. l~2./r. (60-day disarming clock).e..ar. of the ou.ffa!r de s. The five models of this ~ine util!zed the same type of mine case.)d~f ~ cet i cn ve s des 1£- Wi tl"".r.r:i c lS~. f!..J.~s t~~s t~"TE: be!. since the b\.A III an electrical type.- /' / . I r.i-r!_ !l..r r-e s u._£ O:...:~de~ ~S..9..eC mi r. vner.

e Fi t tir. The anchor-s vere s ub s t an t t a I> 1y the same. lb .c r.lnc. exceT't that the cylindricnl m::'ne s\. U' !:i'::7!'ov€'mer. p t . ]:1 aprear~d.5 IT. tJ?:A/K and t'K5.t~ons iT: t..1E.n feature of this mine case vas t. 440 :"]i - . Ir: J 53:: the~~: s.ht of chain secured on one end to the mine case and on the other end to a len~th of chs::'n leadln~ from the r. three. ·~bf?' ll~ . .. It vas a moored.ines. af\. r. from center.e~ less sl:::.o~eof tl:i5 skirt lIa~ to ell~:nate dirr!n~ of the mine. used. . svitch. S j::here i foUl". Tt:e fir:. center of upper hemisphere 28 .eye One ~9 In.mOO1'~"E cons 1s ted of a leng th of chain 5ecure~ on one end ta the mine case' and on the other end to a lencth of steel cable lead1ne.g !. 1'ete.gs Ei~ht: one che~cal.he s t e e L sl:irt f::.. in center of 1.:::. equally spaced aroW'lo uPfer hernisFhere.ot ype Base plate Standard type UMA LU t!li.-.::. t r.ne (m.' .2 Ln .tedto the unde rs::'deof the' ca se .he Lito''. from center Horns The U-Bootsa 1vehl"w!. the 1. it ve~ tt.troduced. intend~d for use primarily ae:a::'rlstubmarine:!. T Descrirtion of Cn~e !'Oteel [iamet.ts anct. II urface -lald mine 9.. 22 !n. chemi ca) . eon~e.i ne anchor.>l' wCod~r~c8.al'c mcor ar.t by surfaGc crefL. The tJl!'JA II.~.. lb.h lielr:!":t ch~<r. le. 7he pu:rj:...=.ct.II vas ~r.1.e 'The siE!1:f. r:>f th::'~ D~Clml?t.e of (ca~t) Pes! t! ve 1:lucYllnc:..~ developed 1n 1928. chemicaland ~1I1tch-horn ~inD. 15~ !on. The O~:A I and the or.:]:T.or! C'1f r1~!n.GERMAN UNDERWATER ORDNANCE-MINES OP 1673A j': ~.es COD9i9ted of tlu'ee types of moored. on of External fitted nexaru t. 'blCCK- 69 De !lel·J.001 around vh::'ch the moorinG vas colled lIa~ higher on the CKA I than on the Or:fI/}:.er .::'ne 5e)'1.A/l: ver-e identical e xcept for the types of moorinE and anchors . ·cor-tact.rt 4ct :n_ 20-·. s In 1)'36 the pr-ot.!_cant des1.ne C8~e anc m"cr~7". :'r..s Tl'e(~E c e s s ors .~ ~&~€ e~ s]jghl.A/i: moorinr cons~5ted of a 35-foot bif..!.int: t'i S (Sol ubl e va sne r ) i t.) IT..t.l lIe:f.vher . The uK" .er hem. fro . ~el'::'€:i be came t.t of this gerie~ ve. Ba~~c8!ly.The O~.from the mine anchor. 17 in. 66 lb. equal] y spaced around 1 ove r hemi 9 pner-e.

.e by of mooring' tenSion.· .. t.ne ...~ '.~ .A rUne .no develcped in La tel:.g ey~.ine case ..Ild a cas t. "'._. -. 1 s sho ..ard! es s Of the tide. For dcrths of 85 a 55-foot moorine cable ~~ used bet"..:"rollche~ ·to llt>rthern Eur-ope frOl:' Allied attack. .n. -e /... ftch . INFLUENCE MINES CHEMICAL HORN (51 / CHARGE swiTCH H~N (3)\' .) declgned t'od!sarill.. the moorln~-eable cas'e retia ins the staee of derths gf 85 to 150 f~et. . rt>E:..A/r.A IT..e as gerr:1. It rerlaceo the E~G mine asse.ch.eii' by the amount of mooring caMe used.. and .'ee:l tr.. ~\\ ~) " ..... The de~th of the m~ne case !E preset and de term~r. ly va~ dee i gne d a.-pound .. the sea . l11ch m1r:.. Lng safety release the The only eelf-d!8ermin~ device 19 the moers.f.:-------- HOUSING MOORING SPINDLE .ch.. when i t vas in turn ren a ce d b:-o the Cl-:...1 .mtl y... ] fOo fror... opening the firing circuH upon . The sseeml:ly on the i~ so designed 5 REST?lCTED -------_-- - . ~oorlne tension T"ulh out the mooring spindle.as cor.is- Operation. '4 E SWITCH GEARS -'( .!> lever. f'r-orn cerii. 19 1:-1.A/K consis ts of a normal UI. The Germer....!..:_. tri .. UMA/y'rr. i gh t !l.MOORING SPINDLE 800STER. i S eas t~ iron 11 0. wh1.: the boos ter-re le.erphe r-e of u?per he•..aee i ir..:. The sssemtly of the above cOIlij:'onents before and after lay.cr ce 5 Sec tion r.// . 1ron e anchor we~r.... f1gures n 35 and 3(..h1ng 50C rounds. eiGht: fOI' de~t~e of 10e to 165 feet.lr. The tJ?o:..------- Figure ~.:...3.. 1. tt: the J ever horns blanked eff..~!'t. ir..42 to defend ttlat t.Ul'. el cs iq..he ~ine ur race.r e d unsa t1 ~fac"or~' for the defense of such vaters. and the ~~~e !S arme~.~ \..ar. the moor.CONTACT AND MOORED. RELEASE LEVER DETONATOR DETONATOR SET CABLE FOR ANTI-SWEEP SWITCH ..e curre caae and . us~d as ope r-a ti onal1 y until 1941.ing safety e.s 1 de. . It may be laid iI: to 165 reet.

ES'I'F:JCTE~ Steel Diamete:r Charge 33.S f:'~·~:' ~ts. ed use It aga. ::. 194~ Case chain and improvec Description Shape Spherical Material len~th ~s lncrN69~d to Us feet.GERMAN UNDERWATER ORDNANCE-MI NES OP 1673A BALLAST RI NG ?he li1·iE l. me::he. t cmba c tubi nE: n 1J]'. lI1a:>:ilr.:cD-l cutter.:.e anchor and \leigh!... fc:' feet.o. \later ceTtr of 50~ fect. ani te . contact.Ur. mocr-e is 110 h d _941 crei'1.\..._nst .¥~s an offensive or ~efenslve ~ine.I'e o t in 1enSU!.:' i'C·C. and it a.::tin 1S. The Forms ut·~5 . 1943 ut-:l! \lith cha-i n .S. i~ 1'. laid bJ' sur-r ac e craft. checlcalBnd sw~tchhorn mine .5 in. t\lO 194~/4- \11th 5-foot of cutters. 90 lb. roechanica} cutter.:peared in :01.ar::'ne~.:B \Ii th 5-fQot 5-root chain and. thr r.('Drine cable betvecn tl.if1e. aric subrr.4l. In both ca~es. . It \laB a moored. in maxl~uu. !".er. and co~k-floaLed ~:B mechanical snea line. block- fit te d he]. The Ul'~) w:'nf::: I_B.r.dept!: The Four surface of ca se .

(Jne. from center of lover' hem). 1"1in. chemical.5 1n diameter. chemical.5-1n. in center of upper hemisphere.sphere De~cr1~tion of External Fit:ing5 }io.1n. diameter. CMmica "Horn ") Main ---IIIlh-----Charg" \' \ --f-- Swftch Horn (. one.. the chemical horn d!. cur-eo 31 . 23 in.rt 12 in. three. four.:!or!.nked off. When the mine is so rigged.) Pacitti. from center Standard type ~B Two: 6. 17 in. 7. connect1ng t\/O s\litch horns. frolll center of upper hemisphere: one.'t1one. t equally spacep around 10\ler hemisphere./ Switch Figure 37 . from center of upper hemisphere. two 200 apa. s\l1 cb . one. from center of upper' t.bove is bla. equally spaced around upper hemisphere. Blanked Off ~I SDM . 17.er of three-foot' len£tt: of .. froJJl center of 10\ler hem1~phere RESTF.:reetlya. from center.l) 79 feet lons..ICTED ExplOSive flooder coveT' Securing lugs Base plate flyclrosta c ti 8'111tch covers Snag line (0J.elris" phere Three.Crose Section 6. 20 in.ons Eight.5-in.CONTACT AND MOORED INFLUENCE MINES _. SEtc cent.U~~ Mine .

er. sVite~ vil1 nc: opec Wlder any circumstances.U!. ~ill close a ~viteh on the .ten fer a per:od l dash-pot delays of 20 the Figure 39 ~ 1.hen t ch d te the 9vitch Is rigged to operate as descr!bed above. than that set on the hydrostat.~n£ 1'011 t cr. upori laying. An additional t.t which controls a dDuble-pole 8. c~..lnted reel. If the Ulin~ mDor~ eor:re c tly.! "'. e.sveer vire contacting it. A serev ~lug. an the lbver hemisphere is des:gn~~ tc Qre~ or close the fi!'ing c :!. ~plant h..rmed....:"e h rises ab6ve or descends belov a derth Cf si~ A glyeerine~filled T'he hydrastatitt.. t a contacts. is paint. actlon of the s.rc. the mine moors at a de~th 9hal 16.. 1teh on the uppe r hemi sphere is an ant'i ~shall 0. t a depth greater than that set on the ant~8hal1ov~plant hydrosta t Lc Ev1ter:..e '\If..:. and the mine is a.·t .rc.. The mine hes standard Chemical or svitch~ horn firing. "ane Arrr. ilv.1. :feet. it indicates that the Ivitoh has been closed dur ins as I e mb ly. 10'1'... The' hydro~tat may be set to anyone of four depths: 0. the fl oode r circui t is broken.111 fire upon closure. hoveve r .) and. Uplo'ard movement of this tubing along. at a del't. cf the moorine safety svltch. gl'E:tS tel' tJ-. 5.:ing the flooder circuit. ritted to the cen~er of the s'\Ii cover.GERMAN UNDERWATER ORDNANCE-MINES OP lenA CONTACT (4) ~ __ ~r. the mooring cable. A spr in!'.iring method me}"' be incorporated by fitting a "tomba. tha.De takes depth by 1'1 umme t Thehydl'os tatic svi tch c Lnse s 11" si. The hydrostatic seuttlings .JMB M. If. the e~)2 RESTRICTED .re':rms:1e n [l Y bra<'-...le plug al10vs mooring teneion tc pullout the mooring epindle.he boos ter.. 1toh. (i..e~.A_-_ SPRING CONTACT (4) Figure 40 ~ H'ydrostatic U)l'J.s....loaded detent is u~ually fitted to lock the mooring ~pindle out. Di S solution of a lolub.. seconds.ine Af'loat Operatl'on. or 15 meters...:e tat s over to t.!ngSvj tct for p10sive flooder . 10.~!:. if the mine me or-s Ii. flgUl"e 4C'." antisveep tubing to the mooring cable. closing the moor.drost. normsll y m. The I!l. the.itch is permaJlen tl y cl 0 eeO.:O: feet of vater (if red scr-ev plug is fitted.de to one of . t he n.. If the plug :9 pa.. In this case. aucn all might be caused by 9..t~et on the bydroi1 J t"e s'ol~t cr.he o t n 10'1' Con tee c t .Lng safety 8v1 teh and tripp1.:release Lever.1.ng t. be ing hel d i'n tha t pas 1t ion by a special extension arm added to the screv plug.

e 1 ther sine1.re 43 . 26 inc~e5 to 46 lnc~Ei.cl". these TrOces!e~ heing controlled through the rooor!n£ s~:ndle ~~ the base plate.9 r!tted. (Ar".:sually de pe nc on 01001'1::f_" ~e~.:. or a ~ES'!'RICTJ.sveer .~! or. !s alse de:15ned to break the f1r1n. D~ronOlor Sel Scr. mechanism. cetent on the moorine spincle. anc are loaded eithe~ W~t~ cLet or ~-ock-rltted Re~ahlte.e n th~ de:e~t !.:€' of !:'. The mo:. fer arm!. t r..erior) th.e self destroying the mooring safety spindle..e rl or :' tUb1cg and fire the main charge.. The cases are of mild ste~l. C~emical ano 5~it~h hcrns are em~l oyed.. e \lh1La s cr-ev r--lu£. The hydrostatic ar~!. at which time the lever is trlr'ped and the booster is freed to drop over the detonator.:..t.ted on the inside of ·the base J:lete.. I·:~ne. r-e l€R!.cr.~ The booster release lever is mounted in the booster tube and i~ connected..in c omt :na tion. The Belt~destroying mechanism may be either an eleCtrochemical internal horn (often referred to as the "eigtth horn") used in the Type EMC II base rlate. switch. by means of a mechanical linkage to the mooring .srl":E:re~ joinec by a cyli..n£ sw!tcr.Base Flate Type EMC IJ (Exterior) Fi g ur-e II" . th 3A52 PLATES ..nE tens! or: exce p t vr. of the mooring sl'imlle peral fo!'!!:.oC"r!. c ::'::'I::.r D.erfst. General cbar-e c t. vary 1n diameter froF.!! fcllo'lo'ingfurictions : the It trips It arms It closes the booster release lever.r::'ng safety swit.'onalo' All base ~lates are fitted vith stra!ghtshank mcor-Lng s·plndles vh! cb are wi thdr-avn by mooring tension against tension of a coil spring mour.nc.r s are given below:' c Moorm~ Spinal.. ::.i t ::..erlca: or have cases' c cns i s t Lng of t .~. Figu. c hetr.llGe r-n.r :'~ t.Base Plate Type UMF (E"t..a c t ffiinee ere ~pr. de sLgne d to is c~~s~~ ~hp ~!ne by open!.anmoor-eC cor.CONTAG AND MOORED INFLUENCE MINES F::'gure III ..A (Ex t.. ceva ce nor the locz!. Slrong Bac ~. ~ec .!. The lever holds the booster In the "Safe" pos1tlon above the detonator until the mooring spindle is withdrawn.) c r.nr. of t.~.Bas e· PIa t.cmba c " ant.e ~'Y"De LW.ng and disarmin£.r!cal c i dsect~on.hf s type t. Mines fitteo ~1th snag lines ~~l] not normally be fitted . Wi thdra .ng the firlnt ciI'c~it u. the "t..

With Base Plate Type UMB . Retraction of the s]::indle carries the CM. disarming the horn circuit. and the former with spring-loaded contacts. The latter are fitted vith brass contact . Its operation 1~ controlled by a mechanical linkage c onne c t ed to the mooring spindle. circuit and remains closed.a switCh consisting of eight contacts. small pin into po~ition behind a cam. Retraction of the spindle breaks the upper set of contacts.uJ'C l.!. Withdravel of the moor-Lng spindle cl. two-po. bakelite housing mounted on the base rlate and enclo~ing the inner end of the mooring spindle. The lover set i9 in the S~.o=ted on the mooring spindle and t'110on thetnooring spindle housing. Withdr8val of the spindle carries 8.Interlol' the spindle ~ake~ the conLBcts.:oieces.B two-position rotary s. 90 tha t 'the contac t pie ce s make their I'e ct. ve ape contacte. two bakelite-covered brass cylinders ~ounted one above the other on the inner end of the mooring spindle.osesthe 9witch. UK':'.A base plates.' The electrolyte then runs lnto a battery.tch-tYJ'e self-.ition switch used in the Type Et·:C I or LW.a s~itch consisting of two main parts: a cylindrical. wh:'cr:aha t t er-a the electrolyte ampoule. disarming the horn circuit.?(I~e 1"ll. arming the horn circuit.tOll"tor Contacts A£ Switoh Fir. if the self destroying mechanism 1s in the firing circuit. With Base Plate Type EMC II . di sal"min& the her!'.ath Base Plate~ Trr·e~ E~:C I and. c' ""cult. Retraction of the srino" breaks the contact 5. The sv1. ~lthcreval of the Brindle allows a cocking pl-n to move the armed posltion. back vith the ~in and closes the switch. energizing it. casti rig sec ured to the inin side of the base plate b~ four bolts. Retraction cif the spindle cpe ns the switch.67JA o.destroying mechanism 1s mounted on a bracket on the inner end of the mcc r i ng s. The various base plates use the folloving types of mooring safety switches: With Base Plate Type EMC . four of which are RESTRICTED rotar!. two of which are t IT.producing a momentary c~rent sufficient to fire the detonator and ~in charge. Wlthc1re.~ . and retraction of the spindle rlvots the cocking pin and :release s a s]::ring-loaded firing p1n.tctounte:: en s m bracket On the mooring s)"indle and connected to the base rlate by a mechanical linkage.~.GERMAN UNDERWATER ORDNANCE-MINES OP 1.wal of . being locked by a spring-loaded detent.:·lndlearid i~ connected to the base plate by a mechanical linkage.. Withdrawal of the spindle pulls dovn the two cylinders with respect to the housing.a avitch cona 1.\'e Type E~'. a~p~nr L~e horn c!_~cu1t.C II (.5 ~ng of four contacts. The bern-type self-destroying mechanism is rnol!!ltec! Il. arming the horn and selfcoest:roying lIlechanism circuits. l.

except in bsse j:late "ryre UMB. e~tendlnE vertically upward and then bending at an angle of 900 to ente~ the booster tube..erior} ~ounted on a cross-head On the ~oorlng spindle and four on the n:oor.:. spf Withdra~al 01 the spindle makes the contacts. sl"J:1ing he hor-n circuit. . plastic diSC.lndie ~reaks the contacts.Lion.t he circuit and both should orerate as des1. the SD~'.. about a hall inch in dia~eter. .de9troylng mechan:. A Bpindle vhich 'controls an internal. II.late fittings. where it 1s in the circuit of the tombac anti-sweer device. vhere it is in the circuit of the" '" tJ'lilB.f1t ted in the a t r-cngback .p. A red arrow is stamped on its face to indirate the Bvitch setting and the letters! and E are sta. T.mped on the part of the base plate adjoining.Fin ~hi en 1'i LS into a~ e.~.1s . t Fietract i cn of the s. F. If the arrow ~olnts tc E (pain te d red).r vhen 1t is inserted in the booster tubA. A detonator carrier is f!t~ed in a veIl located externally on the base rlate beside the n:oorin. s~:'ndle..sm or "tombac" is not A' B' CDEF' GHISTRlKER SPRING STRIKER GUIDE PIN GLASS VIAL NEGATIVE CONTACT STRIKER SPRING HOUSING STRIKER RELEASE PAWL STRIKER HORN BATTERY POSITIVE CONTACT Figurt ~7 - E'rrt~ EQrr in the Circuit.~-~~. A soluble rlUB'holder may be found alongside the 'O:00r1n8 sF.ESTF. Uote that the presence or absence of this disc provides a fositive means of determinine:.CONTACT AND MOORED INFLUENCE MINES :: . secured by a strongback. c sprln~-loaded contacts are mounted on the inside of the base ~late... In some cases.. tva-position rotarJ' Bvitch is t:lcounted at either 900 or 1350 rrom the detonator carrier. the svitch is open and the 5e~f.' FiFure 4E . A black. The screw fits into a boss on the detonator ca.ay be found: A gland for connecting EI 10... and is held ::'0 place by a strongback and B single setscre . Pl. AC . However. These contacts make similar contacts on the detonator carr~e.nd Le hcua Lng .rmed.. the mooring s~lndle is de s i gne d to lock in the "out " pc s. {lnt.nnu~ar groove on the setscre. ~. I CTED 35 .ned. dlsarm!ng the horn circu!t.fng. If the arrow ro~nts to A (painted wh~te).ntelUla er or "tombac" anti-sweep device circuit A slotted s~re\i rlug for applyinS tester 8.rrier and is se cur-ed by a U. whether or not the mine has ever a.1s in.::.indle... This Bwitch 1s in the circuit of the SBM. ~- . ~ithdrawal of the mooring spindle upon dissolution of'the a o Lub Ie p lug pushes this disc out of the strongback. or "tombac n.!\se'Plate Type Ul'. the follov1ng additional base r.

.C II ..:..-~-=r-----------..58 flateType trl>. DORING SAFETY SWITCH BOOSTER RELEASE LEVER~~------~~ EIGHTH HORN (SOM) DETONATOR SET SAFETY BASE MOORING DORING PLATE HOUSING SPINDLE SPINDLE' F1rUl'l< 4'.Diagram of Be.J------§.GERMAN UNDERWATER ORDNANCE-MINES OP 1673.4.HOUSING MOORING SPINDLE --------~--- ..i!. SDM DETONATOR DETONATOR SET CABLE FOR ANTI-SWEEP SWITCH ------~ A E SWITCH GEARS '-J.__= Switch Horn (3) Pocket Blanked Lever Off Switch Moorfn Spindle Figure 45b ...a ... ~r..r::lag!'Il'" cr Base Plat€: Type Et>'..~-.

• . ..... . .u~ .. .. ... ........a o" JI .. ~'5 II ..e 0 1><7'> VI .. "' .. &: .c . ~~ U "0 "'J> .'<:1 . II.. II U II ...... ..... I ~. '" ... bO. .. 0 ... " .. • " "' ...... '<:I ::> . .... } .'" " '" .c o ~ o u .: o u " "' .. .... II 0'- . 01 . ~ II . Pl ... j . til Q ... ... ..... ... . II:! RESTRICTED ..... '". .... 0 ... ..... o ..... ..... . . .... .. '" )0 •• 011 .. . . 'ii1 II . '" "' .. I 0.. .c e "' ) .".. .. 0 o 3 . ... ill' ~. 01 . ::I u II "' ....0 ..t rl<l 0" .c .. I> -... II' o . '" II I> N ... ..... ... C" ~~ &::: 0 .•.e~ .....CONTACT AND MOORED INFLUENCE MINES .. o "- "o .: " ".y ...... .. . '" 8 .... II :. " e II ~ f-I f1 :f if . u Q .... .= 0'<I ..... o .. .. VI :::& ....... . . II " ..... . '"...... ...... u k0 ::1. .. .. ... II. 0 " :<. .... . .....0 C" .. o ~ p 'd .:~... ... . """ ::I.:.. . .. o .. . J> e :... II If> ...J "d :o :.... a I .......u . 0...

ENe II II . i::t~C II II II 6. 2. EMC - eork- floa ted upper a.rer - Upper and lower' a.ntenna i.GERMAN UNDERWATER ORDNANCE-MINES OP 167M - -- ----7-f - 2 3 KEY TO FIGURE l. E~e 4. II 4 428 5 6 7 ENG 1 3. EMC 7 •.:hain mooring P.ntenna tubing an re nna 5.ES'fRICTED . E~J) I.Tombac l~·.

.Snag mechMi cal mooring.ACT AND MOORED INFLUENCE MINES 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 15 1.TOlllbac tub1. 11.~? F"IC lJl.J:f' 1I.I CTED .t..6 KEY TO FIGURE 49b 8.. ·0 cutters F igl. and mechanical mooring. 10.iC Chain and 1.. 11+.. Ihie.~:R .e r1.b-.ng tW:E .. chain c ut t e rmoor':'nE m·!B E!.Cp&rs tl anal l.lA tlNB .. and 1.:.CONT. 16... 15. . .eye FMB 9.Chain cut.:ine s am! Sweep Obs true t.or-s 'Cont ':'nLf fj I REST:'.

:.ed) !.GERMAN UNDERWATER ORDNANCE-MINES QP 1673A 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Dol 'i'0 FlGUl'll:: 49c l\roj:'~ 1~: • :::..c' .Opera t1 ona l' . ~(.M1nes ape: S ..Dn~~lp chain F1 E\.Per) tYJ:!< l~ 1..·:S I .Float tJr! E~5 III . ". E:..Cupula p·.t r'Cb~ t ruc tor's (C·ontlm.G ~y~~ G~~/K .l"!.'4s.c.S II .:.. .

.. .ep flca . t1.>. Figure 119d .. sxc 1Io:F 29. "fl. BRB 3}.l.. float 31. :.n s. E::<rlD~ive . Ett._ S~:J. :!O.eveep C D E:Xl-'lD~ive anti-sloIt.. ~f~~ :....CONTACT AND MOORED INFLUENCE MINES ~ \ \ ~~ ~ / . 27... n.Operational Mines and Sweep Obstructors (Concluded) . 26.. Mechanical 32.~ 25 26 27 28 29 30 3J 32 33 34 KEY TO FIGURE 49d 25..loIeepfloat t1ar.R EWL'J 34.o.

Ope ra t1 OD:a1 Moored 1100 red Su.·Del ~o...ln Lln~ Moor!¥: ! .C I Operet!ctlAl.d/or tlce Wllt Steel 50 F1gu:re ~.t~ ow Koored. t 1 onal 1100 red Surfs. ~:a 120 o! G ! Ca . k.GERMAN UNDERWATER ORDNANCE-M INES QP .\ Cha.. u' an- to Shel 46 48 D':C II TCotk'::1loa ted U2E6r A. t1 anAl I!..oored Surface Ch . .gtb ~.tari&l Dt.lI.DIG OpereUonal Moorad SlI. Surface L...1nfluaa1I. lciLl horn he>rn Stea! 118 ::J.) Ope 1'0..m. horn .rfaoe 1118 Ope no.ier tenll2o.1673A D.:ICTED .!n! Moored ~ . (ct'ntinlled or.rface Surface CII..b .ble of fat·s.-Clan. l!'L!!!Hon St!!:l.glent koored Surface Chemicill. Ope r&.mli:&l born Steel 48 48 KMC II Cllnieal IIor'll 1Dver II.8 gf De.!l tellll&) 030 to 660 550 Suel 46 lot log lkC II (Chain ke>oT1!:!f.vel ~ p"en t Hethed...lircr. Surface Chemle41 \ollIlA Op<!ret..oe Chemical hoz:n horn S~eel 110 4-0 ug .0.thod 1'1f1y--' of lit. ce Chemical 550 330 b60 b60 Steel ~6 48 1/11 Opo r!l.. r rne Chemical horn 330 480 050 Steel Ope fetl'Jual lIooud S'maCI do ~\1blll&rlue Chemical horn Steel 46 Dl.e horn Steel Stul 26 26 34 )4 46 44 44 46 "".oored 5ur!aee Chem! cal horo and antenna hOMl 550 660 5~O 6a to Steal liB An- and 10. .O w Contact ~ane:.:C II (Sna!:ian.T".l'face ChemlCfll St e e I 116 ~5 iiMI De"elop.che horn 120 ~ jXB Ope rat tonal Moored S\U'faCQ& .le>n"l ko.C .J Opera t lonal Moored Su.EKO Opera ti onal MOO'red Surf . UOtll'll koor . Diu. Lep. d. next Pl.E€) REST.Dd upper antenna Chemical hOrD and t~lIIbllO tu'b- b60 Steel 46 116 i:MC II (Toll>":lllc Tub~M...ft ot lI. ~C II (Lo.BMcjs Ope rIOt 10<Ul} Le-Clancb...

to mccript..ICTElJ . ". .e~ol:l. 24:>0 Developed. loped at lame time al EHO but ~tend. A conltan. lIIine n..\ allallow-draft . cable.hle!l ad Ited in two lIodel. eloele va.. !hl1 1111ne.d for ule ~inBt.w::h a.be J:IoIC. protection ~lIjnlt lubmarine. til8 o the r by .. wida un lower All te~ 2375 2400 11l the nrlo\a (orrol lilted.t~r and. to lqlll&. layl!1.. h only SVl( mlne in vhi&' boo. one for 18.. emento to ban 2500 Tombae tubl~ at antl-I"'oep Thll tlnt added.Which Zi 111 (8D-~ clock) lcuttllnt. device.a. Conlequently Ule. Pl'-boah.oond. d. and epaclal bollaa' weight.peCial yertlcal-ahAlt V-boat.all oth. ell .t atteropt h d.. Stock. are IllU'rhd prior bl' SVi for Ule by tile Luftwaffe. 'BMC/ S but for J. and U vae tn yet. (vlUl "01101') 14)0 1430 ZOOO Dnoloped. by ~boat.. iHC ". to defend against ehallo .velop &ga~n. plato. Io'orld W&r 1 min.va' fir..{. to PMyld'.11. e croIt only. RESTF.r rlfp. tb~ Itll!ldarl Ditter.. by luriaee' crrut and.d no lower hon:ll. _- UDi::lIo"..n a m.dieally different frolP \.ator Seme ..-.lu..ctl to »iC e:rcept for' .. tit ted.)'ill{.. contaet minI.t-iepth a ••• mbll' d•• lgned t~ pro teet cal. It Ii_Uar ln.. Impr> .. d. 2500 2500 2100 2680 D .L-a!t ve. of the luriaee-lal~ model wbich remained On band 1n 1939 WIre 1a1~ dur!ng World oar 11. {l'tIm Mootel I by un of uppe r uod .CONTACT AND MOORED INFLUENCE MJNES ToUl lit. AIld \c act 2400 V&I type of :wee . it b. 20<00 '1'hil v. ine to . float..uriac.

. Cut tar tIKB I Ope rnt1c_nt<l Operational ole .Ull 30 30 220 15 OperaUonal Developiliellt Sw1\cb. ~ Method.wi t ch bo TIl Cbemlcal born 66 Stul Ste..rllll S~eel St .! QtlJ.. of lit.. wi ti:h horn horn 75 )0 4<l !!!..rr. 15 I+Q Bill !!i! M Chem!CAl horn rmd." &.r"ti~~u Operational Operat!o" OperaUonal Operational Ab&ndoned Aband.nt Operat1onlll Operat1 0 D..ain " Two Cuuenl & .UbIllBrln." Dillienolono D1&11l.GERMAN UNDERWATER ORDNANCE-MINES os 1673A Dulet10n »451 5t!:£e of De"<!tlo2!. Chweal born IIf1 teb horn Chemical Chuleal horn horn 33 33 33 l.oned D. l Steel Ca.thod. MOOTId 1oI00te(\ Surface Surface :'urface Surface SurfaCe SurtBell 22 Sted or 44 Suel 23 2& )0 86 29 33 47 41 41 ru !!!:! !2M..are ).. ett!) L 15 S'il'rllce or lub_r1ne So.!Il lIE! Dr1ft1~ Drifting Dr1ftlJ1& Moored. tloond.. 1tcll hoJ'll Mlne~ _ Table of Lata (con~lute~) 44 ..CI or IU_Bnne Surface Sw1tch ho".0 of ) M. Surface Surface Surface Surface lNrface &: .w1\cll born (Cb..f./K Cbemt~al llor'Il Chedcal ChemIcal Cbellli<:a) Steel Concn t e Steel Shel 30 al Ground Surface Surface horn hon noZ'll 165 66 ~7 42 42 &6 ~ ~ ~ ~ lIKl\ Moored Moored Moored. Moored.l! B!."elopment Operat loWll (To:ll- Moored..u-f".itch bac Tub 1!!£) 00 {ChaIn & Cutter> no TIl ho TIl ss 88 88 88 . Sa.ce 0 r ./or influence \1111 t Cheillical Ch_lcal hOnl !:Ionl 45 25 Abandoned Op..lXB (S2!..-Llne Chai.l Steel Steel Steel 29 33 29 33 33 33 33 Operational Ope ra l1 anal Chemieal Ia • .. M. of 71riM . 1 St ..

. V. 1800 925 utl1izlll& the OIU I cau llMC anchor KAIIu!aeture of thh min .u1table.. OlO. . d.od"l ot ~. tlXll b.lgo8d float.. but with but .llo.!l1 cal eleetrlca. vai halted prior to 1940."UOD ehalcber I18..CONTACT AND MOORED INFLUENCE MINES Total Io't.. A . dl.&ll..eptn.t-tTP' anchor. (wan 8Dchor) 100 Vt1lin. th . II. pn .. for Ia...Ub to be . of Bal tic. 1400 1400 1400 Dlft..llgoed fOT watc~l~g 011 . VllkllowlI PT1_rll)' 920 2200 2)80 2)80 Inteodd. 10 .de to r. 'tt'u II..i cs added. t-t1Jle ancl!or. onl)....~cept fOT type of moorl~ Intended Jot·. uled.".&me II. Only mlo~ 'peeiall)' d.. Similar to fMC . . OKA I .r.r .pee1al .. In type of moorl~ Uled..IIDd were laid during World.. a no ". Mode 1 I but a C&IIOu! laged 5. dhanoln& dulce ft.l~ eOlalderet Stockt aD h.pt for Utllil•• Dermal plummet-type anchor....ur1aee.&me a. and Sam.! OMJ. up to and & 'p"cIRlly de.nded to be . SUle a.. a. 111plaee IIr ·p"T1Ieope·.dded.l. wahrt 111e.~c. ble a perhcop •• m float und.ha. a IOecha. mbly faT UI! in. moTe .armlng de .. Und p:re .

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