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II. Support and Movement
10. Muscular System: Gross Anatomy
© The McGraw−Hill Companies, 2004
Colorized SEM of skeletal muscle.
Part 2 Support and Movement
Mannequins are rigid, expressionless, immobile re-creations of the human form. They cannot walk or talk. One of the major characteristics of a living human being is our ability to move about. Without muscles, humans would be little more than mannequins. We wouldn’t be able to hold this book. We wouldn’t be able to blink, so our eyes would dry out. None of these inconveniences would bother us for long because we wouldn’t be able to breathe either. We use our skeletal muscles all the time_even when we aren’t “moving.” Postural muscles are constantly contracting to keep us sitting or standing upright. Respiratory muscles are constantly functioning to keep us breathing, even when we sleep. Communication of any kind requires skeletal muscles, whether we are writing, typing, or speaking. Even silent communication with hand signals or facial expression requires skeletal muscle function. This chapter explains the general principles (314) of the muscular system and describes in detail the head muscles (319), trunk muscles (332), upper limb muscles (338), and lower limb muscles (349).
Seeley−Stephens−Tate: Anatomy and Physiology, Sixth Edition
II. Support and Movement
10. Muscular System: Gross Anatomy
© The McGraw−Hill Companies, 2004
Part 2 Support and Movement
■ ■ ■
As they pertain to muscles, deﬁne origin, insertion, synergist, antagonist, prime mover, and ﬁxator. List the major muscle shapes, and relate them to function. Describe and give examples of the three classes of levers.
This chapter is devoted to the description of the major named skeletal muscles. The structure and function of cardiac and smooth muscle are considered in other chapters. Most skeletal muscles extend from one bone to another and cross at least one joint. Muscle contractions usually cause movement by pulling one bone toward another across a movable joint. Some muscles of the face are not attached to bone at both ends but attach to the connective tissue of skin and move the skin when they contract. Tendons attach muscles to bones and other connective tissue. A very broad tendon is called an aponeurosis (ap o ¯-nooro sis). The points of attachment for each muscle are the origin and ¯ insertion. The origin, also called the head, is normally that end of the muscle attached to the more stationary of the two bones, and the insertion is the end of the muscle attached to the bone undergoing the greatest movement. The largest portion of the muscle, between the origin and the insertion, is the belly. Some muscles have multiple origins and a common insertion and are said to have multiple heads (such as a biceps, with two heads). A muscle causing an action when it contracts is called an agonist (ag on-ist). A muscle working in opposition to the agonist, moving a structure in the opposite direction, is an antagonist. Most muscles function as members of a functional group to accomplish speciﬁc movements. Furthermore, many muscles are
members of more than one group, depending on the type of movement being considered. For example, the anterior part of the deltoid muscle functions with the ﬂexors of the arm, whereas the posterior part functions with the extensors of the arm. Muscles that work together to cause a movement are synergists (sin erjists). Among a group of synergists, if one muscle plays the major role in accomplishing the desired movement, it is called the prime mover. The brachialis and biceps brachii are synergists in ﬂexing the elbow, with the brachialis as the prime mover; the triceps brachii is the antagonist to the brachialis and extends the elbow. Other muscles, called ﬁxators (ﬁk-sa ters), may stabilize one ¯ or more joints crossed by the prime mover. The extensor digitorum is the prime mover in ﬁnger extension. The ﬂexor carpi radialis and ﬂexor carpi ulnaris are ﬁxators that keep the wrist from extending as the ﬁngers are extended.
Muscles come in a wide variety of shapes. The shape and size of any given muscle greatly inﬂuences the degree to which it can contract and the amount of force it can generate. The large number of muscular shapes are grouped into four classes according to the orientation of the muscle fasciculi: pennate, parallel, convergent, and circular. Some muscles have their fasciculi arranged like the barbs of a feather along a common tendon and therefore are called pennate (pen at; pennatus is Latin, meaning feather) muscles. A muscle with ¯ fasciculi on one side of the tendon only is unipennate, one with fasciculi on both sides is bipennate, and a muscle with fasciculi arranged at many places around the central tendon is multipennate (ﬁgure 10.1a). The pennate arrangement allows a large number of
Unipennate muscle (a) Bipennate muscle
Multipennate muscle Circular muscle
Figure 10.1 Examples of Muscle Types
(a) Muscles with various pennate arrangements. (b) Muscles with various fascicular orientations.
Seeley−Stephens−Tate: Anatomy and Physiology, Sixth Edition
II. Support and Movement
10. Muscular System: Gross Anatomy
© The McGraw−Hill Companies, 2004
Chapter 10 Muscular System: Gross Anatomy
fasciculi to attach to a single tendon with the force of contraction concentrated at the tendon. The muscles that extend the leg are examples of multipennate muscles (see table 10.20). In other muscles, called parallel muscles, fasciculi are organized parallel to the long axis of the muscle (ﬁgure 10.1b). As a consequence, the muscles shorten to a greater degree than do pennate muscles because the fasciculi are in a direct line with the tendon; however, they contract with less force because fewer total fascicles are attached to the tendon. The hyoid muscles are an example of parallel muscles (see ﬁgure 10.10). In convergent muscles, such as the deltoid muscle (see ﬁgure 10.23a), the base is much wider than the insertion, giving the muscle a triangular shape and allowing it to contract with more force than could occur in a parallel muscle. Circular muscles, such as the orbicularis oris and orbicularis oculi (see ﬁgure 10.7) have their fasciculi arranged in a circle around an opening and act as sphincters to close the opening. Muscles may have speciﬁc shapes, such as quadrangular, triangular, rhomboidal, or fusiform (ﬁgure 10.2a). Muscles also may have multiple components, such as two bellies or two heads. A digastric muscle has two bellies separated by a tendon, whereas a bicipital muscle has two origins (heads) and a single insertion (ﬁgure 10.2b).
Quadrangular muscle (a)
Muscles are named according to their location, size, shape, orientation of fasciculi, origin and insertion, number of heads, or function. Recognizing the descriptive nature of muscle names makes learning those names much easier. 1. Location. Some muscles are named according to their location. For example, a pectoralis (chest) muscle is located in the chest, a gluteus (buttock) muscle is located in the buttock, and a brachial (arm) muscle is located in the arm. 2. Size. Muscle names may also refer to the relative size of the muscle. For example, the gluteus maximus (large) is the largest muscle of the buttock, and the gluteus minimus (small) is the smallest. A longus (long) muscle is longer than a brevis (short) muscle. 3. Shape. Some muscles are named according to their shape. The deltoid (triangular) muscle is triangular, a quadratus (quadrangular) muscle is rectangular, and a teres (round) muscle is round. 4. Orientation. Muscles are also named according to their fascicular orientation. A rectus (straight) muscle has muscle fasciculi running straight with the axis of the structure to which the muscle is associated, whereas the fasciculi of an oblique muscle lie oblique to the longitudinal axis of the structure. 5. Origin and insertion. Muscles may be named according to their origin and insertion. The sternocleidomastoid originates on the sternum and clavicle and inserts onto the mastoid process of the temporal bone. The brachioradialis originates in the arm (brachium) and inserts onto the radius.
Rhomboidal muscle Fusiform muscle
Digastric muscle (two bellies)
Bicipital muscle (two heads)
Figure 10.2 Examples of Muscle Shapes
(a) Muscles with various shapes. (b) Muscles with various components.
6. Number of heads. The number of heads (origins) a muscle has may also be used in naming it. A biceps muscle has two heads, and a triceps muscle has three heads. 7. Function. Muscles are also named according to their function. An abductor moves a structure away from the midline, and an adductor moves a structure toward the midline. The masseter (a chewer) is a chewing muscle.
Seeley−Stephens−Tate: Anatomy and Physiology, Sixth Edition
II. Support and Movement
10. Muscular System: Gross Anatomy
© The McGraw−Hill Companies, 2004
Part 2 Support and Movement
Movements Accomplished by Muscles
When muscles contract, the pull (P), or force, of muscle contraction is applied to levers, such as bones, resulting in movement of the levers (ﬁgure 10.3). A lever is a rigid shaft capable of turning about a pivot point called a fulcrum (F) and transferring a force applied at one point along the lever to a weight (W), or resistance, placed at some other point along the lever. The joints function as fulcrums, the bones function as levers, and the muscles provide the pull to move the levers. Three classes of levers exist based on the relative positions of the levers, weights, fulcrums, and forces.
W P W
F F Class I lever P
Class I Lever
In a class I lever system, the fulcrum is located between the force and the weight (ﬁgure 10.3a). A child’s seesaw is an example of this type of lever. The children on the seesaw alternate between being the weight and the pull across a fulcrum in the center of the board. The head is an example of this type of lever in the body. The atlanto-occipital joint is the fulcrum, the posterior neck muscles provide the pull depressing the back of the head, and the face, which is elevated, is the weight. With the weight balanced over the fulcrum, only a small amount of pull is required to lift a weight. For example, only a very small shift in weight is needed for one child to lift the other on a seesaw. This system is quite limited, however, as to how much weight can be lifted and how high it can be lifted. For example, consider what happens when the child on one end of the seesaw is much larger than the child on the other end.
Class II lever
W P P W
Class II Lever
In a class II lever system, the weight is located between the fulcrum and the pull (ﬁgure 10.3b). An example is a wheelbarrow, where the wheel is the fulcrum and the person lifting on the handles provides the pull. The weight, or load, carried in the wheelbarrow is placed between the wheel and the operator. In the body, an example of a class II lever is the foot of a person standing on the toes. The calf muscles pulling (force) on the calcaneus (end of the lever) elevate the foot and the weight of the entire body, with the ball of the foot acting as the fulcrum. A considerable amount of weight can be lifted by using this type of lever system, but the weight usually isn’t lifted very high.
Class III lever W P W P F
Class III Lever
In a class III lever system, the most common type in the body, the pull is located between the fulcrum and the weight (ﬁgure 10.3c). An example is a person using a shovel. The hand placed on the part of the handle closest to the blade provides the pull to lift the weight, such as a shovel full of dirt, and the hand placed near the end of the handle acts as the fulcrum. In the body, the action of the biceps brachii muscle (force) pulling on the radius (lever) to ﬂex the elbow (fulcrum) and elevate the hand (weight) is an example of a class III lever. This type of lever system doesn’t allow as great a weight to be lifted, but the weight can be lifted a greater distance.
1. Deﬁne the terms origin and insertion; agonist and antagonist; and synergist, prime mover, and ﬁxator. 2. Describe the different shapes of muscles. How are the shapes related to the force of contraction of the muscle and the range of movement the contraction produces?
Figure 10.3 Lever Classes
(a) Class I: The fulcrum (F ) is located between the weight (W ) and the force or pull (P). The pull is directed downward, and the weight, on the opposite side of the fulcrum, is lifted. (b) Class II: The weight (W ) is located between the fulcrum (F ) and the force or pull (P ). The upward pull lifts the weight. (c) Class III: The force or pull (P) is located between the fulcrum (F ) and the weight (W ). The upward pull lifts the weight.
3. List the different criteria used to name muscles, and give an example of each. 4. Using the terms fulcrum, lever, and force, explain how contraction of a muscle results in movement. Deﬁne the three classes of levers, and give an example of each in the body.
Seeley−Stephens−Tate: Anatomy and Physiology, Sixth Edition
II. Support and Movement
10. Muscular System: Gross Anatomy
© The McGraw−Hill Companies, 2004
Chapter 10 Muscular System: Gross Anatomy
An overview of the superﬁcial skeletal muscles is presented in ﬁgure 10.4.
Facial muscles Sternocleidomastoid Trapezius
Pectoralis major Serratus anterior
Biceps brachii Linea alba Rectus abdominis External abdominal oblique Brachioradialis Flexors of wrist and fingers
Tensor fasciae latae Retinaculum Pectineus Adductor longus Gracilis Sartorius Patella Gastrocnemius
Vastus lateralis Rectus femoris Vastus intermedius (deep to the rectus femoris and not visible in figure) Vastus medialis Tibialis anterior Extensor digitorum longus Quadriceps femoris
Soleus Fibularis longus Fibularis brevis Retinaculum
Figure 10.4 General Overview of the Superﬁcial Body Musculature
(a) Anterior view.
. Sixth Edition II. 2004 318 Part 2 Support and Movement Sternocleidomastoid Seventh cervical vertebra Infraspinatus Teres minor Teres major Triceps brachii Splenius capitis Trapezius Deltoid Latissimus dorsi Extensors of the wrist and fingers External abdominal oblique Gluteus medius Gluteus maximus Adductor magnus Iliotibial tract Semitendinosus Hamstring muscles Biceps femoris Semimembranosus Gracilis Gastrocnemius Soleus Fibularis longus Fibularis brevis Calcaneal tendon (Achilles tendon) (b) Figure 10. Support and Movement 10.Seeley−Stephens−Tate: Anatomy and Physiology. Muscular System: Gross Anatomy © The McGraw−Hill Companies.4 (continued) (b) Posterior view.
Describe the actions of the muscles involved in swallowing.6). spinous processes of C7–T12 Mastoid process Dorsal rami of cervical nerves Dorsal ramus of C1 Dorsal ramus of C1 Dorsal rami of cervical nerves Dorsal rami of cervical nerves Accessory Extends. atlas C4–T6 C4–T6 Occipital protuberance. Table 10.5a) lie deep within the neck along the anterior margins of the vertebral bodies. Sixth Edition II.5) Origin C3–C6 Insertion Occipital bone Nerve C1–C3 Action Flexes head Atlas Occipital bone C1–C2 Flexes head Upper thoracic and lower cervical vertebrae Atlas Axis. and laterally flexes head Extends and laterally flexes head Extends and rotates head Extends and rotates head Extends.1 and ﬁgure 10. The muscular ridge seen superﬁcially in the posterior part of the neck and lateral to the midline is composed of the trapezius muscle overlying the splenius capitis (ﬁgure 10. acromion process.Seeley−Stephens−Tate: Anatomy and Physiology. rotates. and name the muscles that produce them. Describe the action of the muscles involved in major movements of the head. Support and Movement 10. 2004 Chapter 10 Muscular System: Gross Anatomy 319 Head Muscles Objectives ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Head and Neck Muscles Most of the ﬂexors of the head and neck (table 10. Extension of the head is accomplished by posterior neck muscles that attach to the occipital bone (ﬁgure 10.5b and c) and function as the force of a class I lever system. nuchal ligament. rotates. and scapular spine Lateral Rectus capitis lateralis (not illustrated) Sternocleidomastoid Atlas Manubrium and medial clavicle Occipital bone Mastoid process and superior nuchal line C1 Accessory Laterally flexes head One contracting alone: rotates and extends head Both contracting together: flex head . Describe and give the actions for the muscles that move the eye. and laterally flexes head Extends and laterally flexes head Oblique capitis superior (ka pi-tis) Rectus capitis posterior (rek t˘ s ka pi-tis) u Semispinalis capitis Splenius capitis Trapezius Occipital bone (inferior nuchal line) Occipital bone Occipital bone Superior nuchal line and mastoid process Clavicle. The fasciculi of the trapezius muscles are shorter at the base of the neck and leave a diamond-shaped area over the inferior cervical and superior thoracic vertebral spines. Muscular System: Gross Anatomy © The McGraw−Hill Companies. List and give the actions for the muscles of mastication.1 Muscle Anterior Longus capitis (lon g˘ s ka pi-tis) u (not illustrated) Rectus capitis anterior (rek t˘ s ka pi-tis) u (not illustrated) Posterior Longissimus capitis (lon-gis ˘ us ı-m˘ k˘ pi-tis) a Muscles Moving the Head (see figure 10. Describe the tongue movements caused by contraction of extrinsic and intrinsic tongue muscles. List various facial expressions.
Muscular System: Gross Anatomy © The McGraw−Hill Companies. Lateral flexion of the head (moving the head back to the midline after it has been tilted to one side or the other) is accomplished by the lateral flexors of the opposite side.6b). 2004 320 Part 2 Support and Movement Rotation and abduction of the head are accomplished by muscles of both the lateral and posterior groups (see table 10. The sternocleidomastoid (ster no -klı do -mas toyd) muscle is ¯ ¯ ¯ the prime mover of the lateral group. Sternocleidomastoid Trapezius Semispinalis capitis (a) Splenius capitis Sternocleidomastoid Trapezius Splenius cervicis Seventh cervical vertebrae Splenius capitis (cut) (b) Rectus capitis posterior Figure 10. (b) Posterior superﬁcial. the head is rotated toward the opposite side. they flex the neck.5 Muscles of the Neck (a) Anterior superﬁcial.Seeley−Stephens−Tate: Anatomy and Physiology. If both contract together. . Sixth Edition II.1). especially if the head is extended slightly and rotated to one side (figure 10. Support and Movement 10. It’s easily seen on the anterior and lateral sides of the neck. If the sternocleidomastoid muscle on only one side of the neck contracts.
may result from injury to one of the sternocleidomastoid muscles. Sternocleidomastoid Trapezius Diamond-shaped bare area Splenius capitis Trapezius Sternocleidomastoid (a) (b) Figure 10. (b) Lateral view. or wry neck). 2004 Chapter 10 Muscular System: Gross Anatomy 321 Splenius capitis (cut) Rectus capitis posterior Oblique capitis superior Semispinalis capitis Longissimus capitis Interspinales cervicis Multifidi Semispinalis cervicis Longissimus cervicis Iliocostalis cervicis Seventh cervical vertebra Levator scapulae (c) Figure 10. twisted neck. Support and Movement 10.Seeley−Stephens−Tate: Anatomy and Physiology. Muscular System: Gross Anatomy © The McGraw−Hill Companies. P R E D I C T Shortening of the right sternocleidomastoid muscle rotates the head in which direction? . Sixth Edition II. Muscles of the Neck (a) Posterior view.6 Surface Anatomy.5 (continued) (c) Posterior deep. Damage to an infant’s neck muscles during a difﬁcult birth sometimes causes torticollis and can usually be corrected by exercising the muscle. Torticollis Torticollis (to ¯r-ti-kol is.
producing vertical corrugations (furrows) in the skin between the eyes (see ﬁgures 10. usually indicates that the nerve to the ¯ levator palpebrae superioris has been damaged. Many animals have cutaneous muscles over the trunk that allow the skin to twitch to remove irritants such as insects. (b) Anterior view.8c). Muscular System: Gross Anatomy © The McGraw−Hill Companies. The orbicularis oculi (or-bik u-la ris ok u-lı ) closes the eye¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ lids and causes “crow’s-feet” wrinkles in the skin at the lateral corners of the eyes.7) are cutaneous muscles attached to the skin. Several muscles act on the skin around the eyes and eyebrows (ﬁgure 10. The corrugator supercilii (kor u -ga ter.Seeley−Stephens−Tate: Anatomy and Physiology. A droopy eyelid on one side. In humans.7 Muscles of Facial Expression (a) Lateral view. the palpebral ﬁssure is the opening between the eyelids) ¯ ¯ superioris raises the upper lids (ﬁgure 10.2 and ﬁgure 10. called ptosis (to sis). Support and Movement 10. Sixth Edition II. The levator palpebrae (le-va ter. The occipitofrontalis (ok-sip ito-frun-ta lis) raises the eyebrows and furrows the skin of the fore¯ ˘ ˘ head.7 and 10.8 and see ﬁgure 10. Occipitofrontalis (frontal portion) Orbicularis oculi Temporalis Auricularis superior Auricularis anterior Occipitofrontalis (occipital portion) Auricularis posterior Masseter Corrugator supercilii Procerus Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi Levator labii superioris Zygomaticus minor Zygomaticus major Levator anguli oris Sternocleidomastoid Trapezius Orbicularis oris Mentalis Depressor labii inferioris Depressor anguli oris Risorius (cut) (a) Buccinator Occipitofrontalis (frontal portion) Orbicularis oculi Procerus Orbicularis oculi (palpebral portion) Levator labii superioris Zygomaticus minor Zygomaticus major Levator anguli oris Risorius Depressor anguli oris Depressor labii inferioris Corrugator supercilii Temporalis Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi Nasalis Zygomaticus minor and major (cut) Levator labii superioris Levator anguli oris (cut) Masseter Buccinator Orbicularis oris Mentalis Platysma (b) Figure 10. facial expressions are important components of nonverbal communication. le -va to r ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ pal-pe bre.7). and the cutaneous muscles are conﬁned primarily to the face and neck. kor u -ga tor soo per-sil e -ı ) draws the eye¯ ˘ ¯ ¯ ˘ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ brows inferiorly and medially. .8a). 2004 322 Part 2 Support and Movement Facial Expression The skeletal muscles of the face (table 10.
and mandible Fascia of deltoid and pectoralis major Bridge of nose Bridge and ala of nose Skin of eyebrow and nose Circles orbit and inserts near origin Fascia and other muscles of lips Skin over inferior border of mandible Frontalis Facial Facial Facial Facial Closes lip Facial Depresses lower lip. elevates eyebrows Closes eye Maxilla Occipital bone Maxilla and frontal bones Nasal septum. le-va ter l¯ b¯ -¯ e a ¯ a eı s¯ -p¯ r e-¯ r-is) u e ¯ o Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi (l¯ -v¯ tor. flattens cheek Depresses medial portion of eyebrow and draws eyebrows together as in frowning Depresses angle of mouth Depresses lower lip Depressor anguli oris (d¯ -pres or ang g¯ -l¯ ¯ r ˘ s) e ˘ u ıo u Depressor labii inferioris (d¯ -pres or l¯ b¯ -¯ e ˘ a eı in-f¯ r ¯ -¯ r-is) e eo Levator anguli oris (l¯ -v¯ tor. Sixth Edition II. maxilla. le-va ter ang g¯ -l¯ ¯ r ˘ s) e a ¯ u ıo u Levator labii superioris (l¯ -v¯ tor.Seeley−Stephens−Tate: Anatomy and Physiology. elevates lower lip Dilates nostril Moves scalp. Support and Movement 10. Muscular System: Gross Anatomy © The McGraw−Hill Companies.2 Muscles of Facial Expression (see figure 10. wrinkles skin of neck and upper chest Creates horizontal wrinkle between eyes. le-va ter l¯ b¯ -¯ e a ¯ a eı s¯ -p¯ r ¯ -¯ r-is ˘ -lak a n¯ z¯ ) u e eo a ˘ a ı Levator palpebrae superioris (l¯ -v¯ tor.7) Muscle Auricularis (aw-rik u-l˘ r is) ¯ a Anterior Posterior Superior Buccinator (buk s˘-n¯ t¯ r) ı a o Corrugator supercilii (k¯ r ˘ g¯ ter. as in frowning Abducts angle of mouth Facial Platysma and masseter fascia Zygomatic bone Zygomatic bone Orbicularis oris and skin at corner of mouth Angle of mouth Orbicularis oris of upper lip Facial Facial Facial Elevates and abducts upper lip Elevates and abducts upper lip . le-va ter pal-p¯ br¯ e a ¯ e e s¯ -p¯ r ¯ -¯ r-is) u e eo Mentalis (men-t¯ lis) a Nasalis (n¯ z˘ -lis) a a Occipitofrontalis (ok-sip i-t¯ -fr˘ n t¯ lis) o u a Orbicularis oculi (¯ r-bik u-l¯ ris o ¯ a ok ¯ -l¯) u ı Orbicularis oris (¯ r-bik u-l¯ ris ¯ r is) o ¯ a o Platysma (pl˘ -tiz m˘ ) a a Procerus (pr¯ -s¯ r˘ s) o e u Risorius (ri-s¯ r ¯ -˘ s) o eu Zygomaticus major (z¯ g¯ -mat i-k˘ s) ı o u Zygomaticus minor (z¯ g¯ -mat i-k˘ s) ı o u Lower border of mandible Lower border of mandible Maxilla Maxilla Lip near angle of mouth Skin of lower lip and orbicularis oris Skin at angle of mouth and orbicularis oris Skin and orbicularis oris of upper lip Ala at nose and upper lip Facial Facial Facial Facial Elevates angle of mouth Elevates upper lip Maxilla Facial Elevates ala of nose and upper lip Elevates upper eyelid Lesser wing of sphenoid Skin of eyelid Oculomotor Mandible Skin of chin Facial Elevates and wrinkles skin over chin. 2004 Chapter 10 Muscular System: Gross Anatomy 323 Table 10. soo per-sil e-¯ ) o u a ¯ ı Origin Insertion Nerve Action Aponeurosis over head Mastoid process Aponeurosis over head Mandible and maxilla Nasal bridge and orbicularis oculi Cartilage of auricle Posterior root of auricle Cartilage of auricle Orbicularis at angle of mouth Skin of eyebrow Facial Facial Facial Facial Facial Draws auricle superiorly and anteriorly Draws auricle posteriorly Draws auricle superiorly and posteriorly Retracts angle of mouth.
and lateral neck muscles. posterior. a notorious ﬂirt. The orbicularis oris (o r-bik u-la ris o r is) and buccinator (buk si-na-to r). they help move the food in the mouth and hold it in place between the teeth. smiling.8). ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ the kissing muscles. on seeing Sally Gorgeous raises his eyebrows. Slight mandibular depression involves relaxation of the mandibular elevators and the pull of gravity. and frowning? What causes a dimple on the chin? What usually causes ptosis on one side? P R E D I C T Harry Wolf. the levator ¯ ¯ ˘ anguli (ang gu -lı ) oris.8 Surface Anatomy. . What muscles does she use? Mastication Chewing. Smiling is accomplished by the zygomaticus (zı go -mat i-ku s) major and minor. Muscles of Facial Expression Several muscles function in moving the lips and the skin surrounding the mouth (see ﬁgures 10. or mastication (mas-ti-ka shun).9 and 10. Sneering is ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ˘ accomplished by the levator labii (la be -ı ) superioris and frown¯ ¯ ¯ ing or pouting by the depressor anguli oris. What is unusual about the insertion (and sometimes the origin) of facial muscles? 8. the depressor labii inferioris. pucker the mouth.3 and 10. and the mentalis (men-ta lis). and smiles. What is torticollis (wry neck)? 7. Name the facial muscles he uses to carry out this communication. 5. Sally. frowns and ﬂares her nostrils in disgust. Sixth Edition II. and the nose? For puckering the lips. and even though the muscles of the tongue and the buccinator (see tables 10. Name the major movements of the head caused by contraction of the anterior. Which muscles are responsible for moving the ears. a chin dimple may appear between the two muscles. the eyelids.4. 2004 324 Part 2 Support and Movement Frontal portion of occipitofrontalis Levator palpebrae superioris Zygomaticus major (a) (b) Levator anguli oris Mentalis Frontal portion of occipitofrontalis Zygomaticus minor Zygomaticus major Risorius Corrugator supercilii Procerus Orbicularis oculi Nasalis Depressor anguli oris (c) Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi Levator labii superioris Depressor labii inferioris Nasalis Orbicularis oris Buccinator Platysma (d) Figure 10. Support and Movement 10. winks.10). Name the movements of the head and neck caused by contraction of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Opening the mouth wide requires the action of the depressors of the mandible. The elevators of the mandible are some of the strongest muscles of the body and bring the mandibular teeth forcefully against the maxillary teeth to crush food. the eyebrows.2 and 10. Muscular System: Gross Anatomy © The McGraw−Hill Companies. ﬁgures 10. thoroughly displeased with this exhibition. whistles. 6.Seeley−Stephens−Tate: Anatomy and Physiology.5) are not involved in the actual process of chewing. If the mentalis muscles ¯ are well developed on each side of the chin. and the risorius (rı -so r e -us). sneering. The muscles of mastication and the hyoid muscles move the mandible (tables 10. involves forcefully ¯ ˘ closing the mouth (elevating the mandible) and grinding food between the teeth (medial and lateral excursion of the mandible).7 and 10.
and the zygomatic arch and part of the mandible are cut away to reveal the deeper muscles. Muscular System: Gross Anatomy © The McGraw−Hill Companies. involved in excursion Elevates and protracts mandible. Support and Movement 10.9) Muscle Temporalis (tem-p˘ -r¯ lis) o a Masseter (ma se-ter) Pterygoids (ter i-goydz) Lateral Lateral side of lateral pterygoid plate and greater wing of sphenoid Medial side of lateral pterygoid plate and tuberosity of maxilla Condylar process of mandible and articular disk Medial surface of mandible Mandibular division of trigeminal Protracts and depresses mandible. Masseter and temporalis muscles are removed. involved in excursion Protracts and elevates mandible. Masseter and zygomatic arch are cut away to expose the temporalis.7 and 10. involved in excursion Origin Temporal fossa Insertion Anterior portion of mandibular ramus and coronoid process Lateral side of mandibular ramus Nerve Mandibular division of trigeminal Mandibular division of trigeminal Action Elevates and retracts mandible.Seeley−Stephens−Tate: Anatomy and Physiology. involved in excursion Zygomatic arch Medial Mandibular division of trigeminal Temporalis Zygomatic arch (cut) Lateral pterygoid Zygomatic arch cut to show tendon of temporalis Buccinator Orbicularis oris Medial pterygoid Masseter (cut) (a) (b) Superior head Inferior head Sphenoid bone Lateral pterygoid plate Temporal bone Medial pterygoid plate Articular disk Condylar process Lateral pterygoid muscle Medial pterygoid muscle (c) Figure 10.9 Muscles of Mastication (a) Lateral (superﬁcial) view. . (c) Frontal section of the head showing the pterygoid muscles from a posterior view. 2004 Chapter 10 Muscular System: Gross Anatomy 325 Table 10.3 Muscles of Mastication (see figures 10. (b) Lateral (deep) view. Sixth Edition II.
fixes hyoid in mandibular depression Depresses hyoid. fixes hyoid in mandibular depression Depresses larynx. passing with hypoglossal Depresses hyoid. anterior belly—mandibular division of trigeminal Fibers of C1 and C2 with hypoglossal Mandibular division of trigeminal Facial Depresses and retracts mandible. .4 Hyoid Muscles (see figures 10. depresses mandible Elevates floor of mouth and tongue. fixes hyoid in mandibular depression Depresses hyoid and elevates thyroid cartilage of larynx. 2004 326 Part 2 Support and Movement Table 10. Sixth Edition II. Muscular System: Gross Anatomy © The McGraw−Hill Companies.Seeley−Stephens−Tate: Anatomy and Physiology. elevates hyoid Origin Insertion Nerve Action Geniohyoid (j˘ -n¯-¯ -h¯ oyd) e ıo ı Mylohyoid (m¯ l¯ -h¯ oyd) ı o ı Stylohyoid (st¯-l¯ -h¯ oyd) ı o ı Infrahyoid Muscles Omohyoid (¯ -m¯ -h¯ oyd) o o ı Sternohyoid (ster n¯ -h¯ oyd) o ı Sternothyroid (ster n¯ -th¯ royd) o ı Thyrohyoid (th¯-r¯ -h¯ oyd) ı o ı Genu of mandible Body of mandible Body of hyoid Hyoid Protracts hyoid. fixes hyoid in mandibular depression Hyoid Thyroid cartilage Hyoid Digastric (anterior belly) Mylohyoid Stylohyoid Hyoid bone Omohyoid (superior belly) Thyroid cartilage Sternohyoid Cricothyroid Sternocleidomastoid Trapezius Omohyoid (inferior belly) Thyroid gland Thyrohyoid Digastric (posterior belly) Levator scapulae Longus capitis Scalenes Clavicle Sternothyroid Figure 10.10 Hyoid Muscles Anterior superﬁcial view. depresses mandible when hyoid is fixed Elevates hyoid Styloid process Hyoid Superior border of scapula Manubrium and first costal cartilage Manubrium and first or second costal cartilage Thyroid cartilage Hyoid Upper cervical through ansa cervicalis Upper cervical through ansa cervicalis Upper cervical through ansa cervicalis Upper cervical. Support and Movement 10.10 and 10.11) Muscle Suprahyoid Muscles Digastric (d¯-gas trik) ı Mastoid process (posterior belly) Mandible near midline (anterior belly) Posterior belly— facial.
2004 Chapter 10 Muscular System: Gross Anatomy 327 Tongue Movements The tongue is very important in mastication and speech: (1) it moves food around in the mouth. The tongue consists of a mass of intrinsic muscles (entirely within the tongue) which are involved in changing the shape of the tongue. Tongue Rolling Everyone can change the shape of the tongue.11) Muscle Intrinsic Muscles Longitudinal. but other factors are involved. (3) it pushes food up to the palate and back toward the pharynx to initiate swallowing.5 Tongue Muscles (see figure 10. The ability to accomplish such movements apparently is partially controlled genetically. It’s not known exactly what tongue muscles are involved in tongue rolling. and (4) it changes shape to modify sound during speech. In some cases one of a pair of identical twins can roll the tongue but the other twin cannot.5. transverse.Seeley−Stephens−Tate: Anatomy and Physiology. The intrinsic muscles are named for their ﬁber orientation in the tongue.11). and no anatomic differences are reported to exist between tongue rollers and nonrollers. Table 10. Support and Movement 10. The extrinsic muscles are named for their origin and insertion. (2) with the buccinator it holds food in place while the teeth grind it. ﬁgure 10. Muscular System: Gross Anatomy © The McGraw−Hill Companies. and extrinsic muscles (outside of the tongue but attached to it) which help change the shape and move the tongue (table 10. but not everyone can roll the tongue into the shape of a tube. and vertical (not illustrated) Extrinsic Muscles Genioglossus (j˘ n¯-¯ -glos us) e ıo ˘ Hyoglossus (h¯ ¯ -glos us) ıo ˘ Styloglossus (st¯ l¯ -glos us) ı o ˘ Palatoglossus (pal-˘ -t¯ -glos us) a o ˘ Genu of mandible Hyoid Styloid process of temporal bone Soft palate Tongue Side of tongue Tongue (lateral and inferior) Tongue Hypoglossal Hypoglossal Hypoglossal Pharyngeal plexus Depresses and protrudes tongue Retracts and depresses side of tongue Retracts tongue Elevates posterior tongue Within tongue Within tongue Hypoglossal Change tongue shape Origin Insertion Nerve Action Styloid process Tongue Palatoglossus Frenulum Stylohyoid Genioglossus Styloglossus Hyoglossus Mandible Geniohyoid Hyoid bone Figure 10. . Sixth Edition II.11 Muscles of the Tongue As seen from the right side.
Most of the laryngeal muscles help to narrow or close the laryngeal opening so food does not enter the larynx when a person swallows. Swallowing (see chapter 24) is accomplished by elevation of the pharynx. tetanus infections. for example. Laryngospasm can develop as a result of. Opening the auditory tube equalizes the pressure between the middle ear and the atmosphere. The noise usually is made by vibration of the soft palate but also may occur as a result of vocal cord vibration. to which the pharynx is attached. the opening is closed completely. tube). pharynx. To observe this effect. this is why it’s sometimes helpful to chew gum or swallow when ascending or descending a mountain in a car or when changing altitudes in an airplane. severe allergic reactions. which in turn is accomplished by elevation of the larynx.12) Muscle Larynx Arytenoids (ar-i-t¯ noydz) e Oblique (not illustrated) Transverse (not illustrated) Cricoarytenoids (kr¯ k¯ -ar-i-t¯ noydz) ı o e Lateral (not illustrated) Posterior (not illustrated) Cricothyroid (kr¯-k¯ -th¯ royd) ı o ı Thyroarytenoid (th¯ r¯ -ar i-t¯ noyd) ı o e (not illustrated) Vocalis (v¯ -kal ˘ o ıs) (not illustrated) Soft Palate Levator veli palatini (l¯ -v¯ tor. Snoring and Laryngospasm Snoring is a rough.6 and are illustrated in ﬁgure 10. which connects the middle ear with the pharynx.6 and ﬁgure 10. The remaining muscles shorten the vocal cords to raise the pitch of the voice. Laryngospasm is a tetanic contraction of the muscles around the opening of the larynx. The salpingopharyngeus also opens the auditory tube. Table 10.12b. raspy noise that can occur when a sleeping person inhales through the mouth and nose. Support and Movement 10. the suprahyoid muscles can help depress the mandible. le-v¯ ter vel ¯ e a a ı pal a-t¯ n¯) ˘ e ı Palatoglossus (pal-˘ -t¯ -glos us) a o ˘ Temporal bone and auditory tube Soft palate Soft palate Pharyngeal plexus Pharyngeal plexus Elevates soft palate Lateral side of cricoid cartilage Posterior side of cricoid cartilage Anterior cricoid cartilage Thyroid cartilage Arytenoid cartilage Arytenoid cartilage Thyroid cartilage Arytenoid cartilage Recurrent laryngeal Recurrent laryngeal Superior laryngeal Recurrent laryngeal Recurrent laryngeal Narrows opening to larynx Widens opening of larynx Tenses vocal cords Shortens vocal cords Arytenoid cartilage Arytenoid cartilage Opposite arytenoid cartilage Opposite arytenoid cartilage Recurrent laryngeal Recurrent laryngeal Narrows opening to larynx Narrows opening to larynx Origin Insertion Nerve Action Thyroid cartilage Arytenoid cartilage Shortens vocal cords Tongue Narrows fauces.4 and ﬁgure 10. the thyrohyoid muscle (an infrahyoid muscle) can elevate the larynx. The muscles of the soft palate close the posterior opening to the nasal cavity during swallowing. and constriction of the palatopharyngeus (pal a-to -far-in-je us) and salpingopharyn˘ ¯ ¯ ˘ geus (sal-pin go -far-in-je us. 2004 328 Part 2 Support and Movement Swallowing and the Larynx The hyoid muscles (see table 10. salpingo means trumpet and refers to ¯ ¯ ˘ the trumpet-shaped opening of the auditory.10) are divided into a suprahyoid group superior to the hyoid bone and an infrahyoid group inferior to it. When the hyoid bone is ﬁxed by the infrahyoid muscles so that the bone is stabilized from below.6 Muscles of Swallowing and the Larynx (see figure 10. forcing food into the esophagus. Muscular System: Gross Anatomy © The McGraw−Hill Companies. If the suprahyoid muscles ﬁx the hyoid and thus stabilize it from above. The pharyngeal constrictor muscles then constrict from superior to inferior. place your hand on your larynx (Adam’s apple) and swallow. Sixth Edition II. air no longer can pass through the larynx into the lungs. In severe cases.12). or hypocalcemia. and larynx contain several muscles involved in swallowing and speech (table 10. or eustachian. elevates posterior tongue continued . The soft palate. and the victim may die of asphyxiation.Seeley−Stephens−Tate: Anatomy and Physiology. The muscles of the larynx are listed in table 10.
elevates pharynx Tenses soft palate.Seeley−Stephens−Tate: Anatomy and Physiology. floor of mouth. and side of tongue Auditory tube Pharyngeal raphe Pharyngeal plexus and external laryngeal nerve Pharyngeal plexus Pharyngeal plexus Narrows lower pharynx in swallowing Narrows pharynx in swallowing Narrows pharynx in swallowing Soft palate Sphenoid and auditory tube Posterior nasal spine Pharynx Soft palate division of auditory tube Uvula Pharyngeal plexus Mandibular. and Larynx (a) Inferior view of the palate. division of trigeminal Pharyngeal plexus Narrows fauces. Palatoglossus and part of the palatopharyngeus muscles are cut on one side to reveal the deeper muscles. Sixth Edition II. depresses palate. . opens auditory tube Elevates uvula Origin Insertion Nerve Action Middle Superior Pharyngeal raphe Pharyngeal raphe Salpingopharyngeus (sal-ping g¯ -far-in-j¯ ˘ s) o eu Stylopharyngeus (st¯ l¯ -far-in-j¯ ˘ s) ı o eu Pharynx Pharyngeal plexus Glossopharyngeus Elevates pharynx. Pharynx.12 Muscles of the Palate.6 continued Muscle Soft Palate—cont’d Palatopharyngeus (pal a-t¯ -far-in-j¯ ˘ s) ˘ o eu Tensor veli palatini (ten s¯ r vel ¯ o ı pal a-t¯ n¯) ˘ e ı Uvulae (¯ v¯ -l¯ ) u u e Pharynx Pharyngeal constrictors (f˘ -rin j¯ -˘ l) a ea Inferior Thyroid and cricoid cartilages Stylohyoid ligament and hyoid Medial pterygoid plate. opens auditory tube in swallowing Elevates pharynx Styloid process Pharynx Aponeurosis of tensor veli palatini Tensor veli palatini Pterygoid hamulus Palatopharyngeus Levator veli palatini Salpingopharyngeus Musculus uvulae Tongue (a) Palatoglossus Tonsil Figure 10. Muscular System: Gross Anatomy © The McGraw−Hill Companies. 2004 Chapter 10 Muscular System: Gross Anatomy 329 Table 10. Support and Movement 10. mandible.
are directed superiorly (looking up). Sixth Edition II. Name the muscles responsible for opening and closing the jaw and for lateral and medial excursion of the jaw. thus they also medially deviate the gaze as they contract. In some cases the condition may be caused by a weakness in either the medial or lateral rectus muscle. and larynx. Contrast the movements produced by the extrinsic and intrinsic tongue muscles. the lateral rectus laterally deviates the gaze (looking to the side). pharynx. in which direction would the eye deviate? . If the lateral rectus of the right eye is weak. Describe the muscles of the eye and the movements that they cause. Explain the interaction of the suprahyoid and infrahyoid muscles to depress the mandible and to elevate the larynx. Which muscles open and close the openings to the auditory tube and larynx? 13. Support and Movement 10. 11. Movements of the Eyeball The eyeball rotates within the orbit to allow vision in a wide range of directions.7. The superior rectus and inferior rectus are not completely straight in their orientation to the eye. The movements of each eye are accomplished by six muscles named for the orientation of their fasciculi relative to the spherical eye (table 10. Part of the mandible is removed to reveal the deeper structures.Seeley−Stephens−Tate: Anatomy and Physiology. The oblique muscles (so named because their ﬁbers are oriented obliquely to the axis of the eye) insert onto the posterolateral margin of the eyeball so that both muscles laterally deviate the gaze as they contract. and thus the gaze. 12. 10. 2004 330 Part 2 Support and Movement Tensor veli palatini Levator veli palatini Superior pharyngeal constrictor Stylopharyngeus Middle pharyngeal constrictor Pterygomandibular raphe Buccinator Styloglossus Stylohyoid ligament Hyoglossus Mylohyoid Hyoid bone Inferior pharyngeal constrictor Thyroid cartilage Cricothyroid Cricoid cartilage (b) Figure 10. Muscular System: Gross Anatomy © The McGraw−Hill Companies. ﬁgure 10. The superior oblique elevates the posterior part of the eye. P R E D I C T Strabismus (stra-biz mus) is a condition in which one or both eyes ˘ deviate in a medial or lateral direction. and the medial rectus medially deviates the gaze (looking toward the nose). 9. Each rectus muscle (so named because the ﬁbers are nearly straight with the axis of the eye) attaches to the eyeball anterior to the center of the sphere. The inferior rectus depresses the gaze. The superior rectus rotates the anterior portion of the eyeball superiorly so that the pupil.13). The inferior oblique elevates the gaze.12 (continued) (b) Lateral view of the palate. thus directing the pupil inferiorly and depressing the gaze.
7 Muscles Moving the Eye (see figure 10.13 Muscles Moving the Eyeball (a) Superior view of the right eyeball. .13) Muscle Oblique Inferior Superior Rectus Inferior Lateral Medial Superior Fibrous ring Fibrous ring Fibrous ring Fibrous ring Sclera of eye Sclera of eye Sclera of eye Sclera of eye Oculomotor Abducens Oculomotor Oculomotor Depresses and medially deviates gaze Laterally deviates gaze Medially deviates gaze Elevates and medially deviates gaze Orbital plate of maxilla Fibrous ring Sclera of eye Sclera of eye Oculomotor Trochlear Elevates and laterally deviates gaze Depresses and laterally deviates gaze Origin Insertion Nerve Action Optic nerve Levator palpebrae superioris (cut) Lateral rectus Superior rectus Superior oblique Inferior oblique Trochlea Medial rectus View (a) Trochlea Levator palpebrae superioris (cut) Optic nerve Inferior rectus Superior oblique Superior rectus Lateral rectus View Inferior oblique (b) Figure 10. Support and Movement 10. Sixth Edition II. 2004 Chapter 10 Muscular System: Gross Anatomy 331 Table 10.Seeley−Stephens−Tate: Anatomy and Physiology. Muscular System: Gross Anatomy © The McGraw−Hill Companies. (b) Lateral view of the right eyeball.
abduct. and lumbar spines Superior six ribs Inferior six ribs Ribs and vertebrae Dorsal rami of spinal nerves Dorsal rami of thoracic nerves Dorsal rami of thoracic nerves Dorsal rami of thoracic and lumbar nerves Extends vertebral column Extends. Describe the pelvic ﬂoor and perineum.8). ilium. and rotates vertebral column Middle cervical vertebrae Superior six ribs Inferior six ribs Thoracis (th¯ -ra sis) o Lumborum (lum-b¯ r ˘ m) o u Longissimus (lon-gis i-m˘ s) u Capitis (ka p˘ ı-tis) Sacrum. ilium. and rotates vertebral column Extends. the muscles of the deep group extend from vertebra to vertebra. Table 10.Seeley−Stephens−Tate: Anatomy and Physiology. Sixth Edition II. 2004 332 Part 2 Support and Movement Trunk Muscles Objectives ■ ■ ■ Muscles Moving the Vertebral Column The muscles that extend. laterally flexes. laterally flexes. In general. Comparable muscles in cattle are relatively delicate. these back muscles are very strong to maintain erect posture. In humans.5 and 10. and rotate the vertebral column are divided into deep and superﬁcial groups (table 10. They constitute the List and give the actions for the muscles that move the vertebral column. Support and Movement 10. e-rek t¯ r sp¯ n¯ ) e o ¯ o ı e (divides into three columns) lliocostalis (il e-¯ -kos-t¯ lis) ¯ o a Cervicis (ser-v¯ sis) ı Origin Insertion Nerve Action Sacrum. laterally flexes. and rotates vertebral column Extends. whereas the muscles of the superﬁcial group extend from the vertebrae to the ribs. Muscular System: Gross Anatomy © The McGraw−Hill Companies.14) Muscle Superficial Erector spinae (¯ -rek t˘ r.8 Muscles Acting on the Vertebral Column (see figures 10. Describe and give the actions of the muscles of the thorax and abdominal wall. and lumbar vertebrae Upper thoracic and lower cervical vertebrae Upper thoracic vertebrae Ribs and lower thoracic vertebrae Mastoid process Dorsal rami of cervical nerves Extends head Cervicis (ser-v¯ sis) ı Thoracis (th¯ -ra sis) o Spinalis (sp¯-n¯ lis) ı a Cervicis (ser-v¯ sis) ı (not illustrated) Thoracis (th¯ -ra sis) o Semispinalis (sem ¯ -sp¯-n¯ lis) e ı a Cervicis (ser-v¯ sis) ı Thoracis (th¯ -ra sis) o Splenius cervicis (spl¯ n¯ -˘ s ser-v¯ sis) e eu ı Longus colli (lon g˘ s k¯ l¯) u o ı (not illustrated) Upper cervical vertebrae Upper lumbar vertebrae and ribs Dorsal rami of cervical nerves Dorsal rami of thoracic and lumbar nerves Extends neck Extends vertebral column C6–C7 C2–C3 Dorsal rami of cervical nerves Dorsal rami of thoracic nerves Extends neck T11–L2 Middle and upper thoracic vertebrae Extends vertebral column Transverse processes of T2–T5 Transverse processes of T5–T11 C3–C5 C3–T3 Spinous processes of C2–C5 Spinous processes of C5–T4 C1–C3 C1–C6 Dorsal rami of cervical nerves Dorsal rami of thoracic nerves Dorsal rami of cervical nerves Ventral rami of cervical nerves Extends neck Extends vertebral column Rotates and extends neck Rotates and flexes neck continued . although quite large.
Support and Movement 10. and the spinalis (sp-ı -na lis).14 Deep Back Muscles On the right. On the left.8 continued Muscle Deep Interspinales (in-ter-sp¯-n¯ l¯ z) ı a e Intertransversarii (in-ter-trans ver-s˘ r ¯ -¯) a eı Multifidus (m˘ l-tif i-d˘ s) u u Spinous processes of all vertebrae Transverse processes of all vertebrae Transverse processes of vertebrae. The erector spinae (spı ne) group of muscles on each side of the back consists of ¯ ¯ three subgroups: the iliocostalis (il e-o ¯ ¯-kos-ta 1is).14). The longis˘ ¯ ¯ simus group accounts for most of the muscle mass in the lower back (ﬁgure 10.Seeley−Stephens−Tate: Anatomy and Physiology. the erector spinae group of muscles is demonstrated. Splenius capitis (cut) Third cervical vertebra Multifidus (cervical portion) Interspinalis 1 Semispinalis capitis Levator scapulae Longissimus capitis 2 3 Semispinalis cervicis Iliocostalis cervicis Longissimus cervicis 4 5 Semispinalis thoracis Spinalis thoracis 6 7 8 9 Erector spinae Longissimus thoracis Diaphragm 12 10 11 Iliocostalis thoracis Iliocostalis lumborum Intertransversarii Quadratus lumborum Multifidus (lumbar portion) Figure 10. 2004 Chapter 10 Muscular System: Gross Anatomy 333 Table 10. Sixth Edition II. posterior surface of sacrum and ilium T12–L1 Transverse processes of all vertebrae Next superior spinous process Next superior transverse process Spinous processes of next superior vertebrae Dorsal rami of spinal nerves Dorsal rami of spinal nerves Dorsal rami of spinal nerves Extends back and neck Laterally flexes vertebral column Extends and rotates vertebral column Origin Insertion Nerve Action Psoas minor (s¯ as m¯ ner) o ı Rotatores (r¯ -t¯ t¯ rz) o a o (not illustrated) Near pubic crest Base of spinous process of superior vertebrae L1 Dorsal rami of spinal nerves Flexes vertebral column Extends and rotates vertebral column area from which tenderloin steaks are cut. these muscles are removed to reveal the deeper back muscles. the longis¯ simus (lon-gis i-mus). . Muscular System: Gross Anatomy © The McGraw−Hill Companies.
or from having a poor ﬁtness level.or half-moon-shaped ¯ line). If this dome of skeletal muscle or the phrenic nerve supplying it is severely damaged.18) ﬂex and rotate the vertebral column. Sleeping on your side all night. Tendinous intersections (tendinous inscriptions) transect the rectus abdominis at three. see ﬁgure 10. In a relatively muscular person with little fat. using a low-back support when sitting. or sometimes more. Lateral to the rectus abdominis is the linea semilunaris (sem-e-loo-nar is. A few changes may help: sitting and standing up straight. and lumbar vertebrae Insertion Central tendon of diaphragm Nerve Phrenic Action Inspiration. elevates ribs Expiration. Abdominal Wall The muscles of the anterior abdominal wall (table 10. Four major groups of muscles are associated with the rib cage (table 10.9 Muscles of the Thorax (see figure 10. depresses ribs . and sleeping on your side on a ﬁrm mattress. 2004 334 Part 2 Support and Movement Back Pain Low back pain can result from poor posture. vomiting. extending from the area of the xiphoid process of the sternum through the navel to the pubis. ¯ ˘ ˘ or white line. exercising.16–10. urination. This tendinous area of the abdominal wall is devoid of muscle.18). causing the abdominal wall of a well-muscled person to appear segmented.16–10. internal abdominal oblique.9 and ﬁgure 10. especially the back and abdominal muscles.10 and ﬁgures 10. lateral to it are three layers of muscle (see figures 10. may be difﬁcult because most people change position over 40 times during the night. from being overweight. is so named because it consists of white connective tissue rather than muscle (see ﬁgure 10. ¯ The diaphragm (dı a-fram. It is a domeshaped structure and when it contracts.15a) causes the ¯ ˘ major movement produced during quiet breathing. The scalene (ska len) muscles elevate the ﬁrst two ribs during inspiration. The internal intercostals and transversus thoracis (tho-ra sis) muscles depress the ribs during forced expiration. locations. Support and Movement 10. depresses floor of thorax Intercostalis (in ter-kos-ta lis) External Internal Scalenus (sk¯ -l¯ n˘ s) a e u Anterior Medial Posterior Serratus posterior (s˘ r-¯ t˘ s) e a u Inferior (not illustrated) Superior (not illustrated) Transversus thoracis (trans-ver sus th¯ -ra sis) o (not illustrated) T11–L2 C6–T2 Sternum and xiphoid process Inferior four ribs Second to fifth ribs Second to sixth costal cartilages Ninth to twelfth intercostals First to fourth intercostals Intercostal Depresses inferior ribs and extends back Elevates superior ribs Decreases diameter of thorax C3–C6 C2–C6 C4–C6 First rib First rib Second rib Cervical plexus Cervical plexus Cervical and brachial plexuses Elevates first rib Elevates first rib Elevates second rib Inferior margin of each rib Superior margin of each rib Superior border of next rib below Inferior border of next rib above Intercostal Intercostal Inspiration. the dome ﬂattens slightly.15). On each side of the linea alba is the rectus abdominis (see figures 10. resulting in inspiration. meaning a crescent. From superﬁcial to deep. The crossing pattern of the abdominal muscles creates a strong anterior wall that holds in and protects the abdominal viscera. Muscular System: Gross Anatomy © The McGraw−Hill Companies. The ¯ ¯ external intercostals (in-ter-kos talz) also elevate the ribs during ˘ inspiration. a vertical line is visible. Table 10. Thoracic Muscles The muscles of the thorax are involved mainly in the process of breathing (see chapter 23). defecation. Contraction of the abdominal muscles when the vertebral column is ﬁxed decreases the volume of the abdominal cavity and the thoracic cavity and can aid in such functions as forced expiration. the linea alba (lin e-a al ba). however. causing the volume of the thoracic cavity to increase.16 through 10.18).16). losing weight.15) Muscle Diaphragm Origin Interior of ribs. sternum. and childbirth. Sixth Edition II. these muscles are the external abdominal oblique.Seeley−Stephens−Tate: Anatomy and Physiology. the amount of air moving into and out of the lungs may be so small that the individual is likely to die unless connected to an artiﬁcial respirator. and transversus abdominis.
depresses thorax Compresses abdomen Origin Insertion Nerve Action Internal abdominal oblique Iliac crest.10 Muscles of the Abdominal Wall (see figures 10. iliac crest.15 Muscles of Respiration (a) Anterior view. Muscular System: Gross Anatomy © The McGraw−Hill Companies.4.Seeley−Stephens−Tate: Anatomy and Physiology. Table 10. depresses thorax Flexes and rotates vertebral column. inguinal ligament. compresses abdomen Flexes and rotates vertebral column. compresses abdomen. and pubic tubercle Branches of lower thoracic Branches of lower thoracic Lower thoracic Flexes vertebral column.18) Muscle Anterior Rectus abdominis (rek t˘ s ab-dom i-nis) u External abdominal oblique Pubic crest and symphysis pubis Fifth to twelfth ribs Xiphoid process and inferior ribs Iliac crest. and lumbar fascia Seventh to twelfth costal cartilages. 10.17. and rectus sheath Tenth to twelfth ribs and rectus sheath Xiphoid process. 2004 Chapter 10 Muscular System: Gross Anatomy 335 Third cervical vertebra Anterior scalene Middle scalene First thoracic vertebra 1 2 3 4 Central tendon 6 Sternal part Diaphragm 7 Costal part Lumbar part consisting of right and left crura 8 9 Aorta 10 Internal intercostals Esophagus 5 Transversus thoracis Inferior vena cava Internal intercostals Posterior scalene Sternum External intercostals External intercostals (a) (b) Figure 10. lumbar fascia. inguinal ligament. and inguinal ligament Transversus abdominis (trans-ver s˘ s u ab-dom i-nis) Lower thoracic Posterior Quadratus lumborum (kwah-dr¯ t˘ s a u l˘ m-b¯ r ˘ m) u o u Iliac crest and lower lumbar vertebrae Twelfth rib and upper lumbar vertebrae Upper lumbar Laterally flexes vertebral column and depresses twelfth rib . compresses abdomen. (b) Lateral view. Sixth Edition II. and 10. A few selected intercostal muscles and the diaphragm are demonstrated. linea alba. Support and Movement 10.
16 Muscles of the Anterior Abdominal Wall Windows in the side reveal the various muscle layers. . Support and Movement 10. Sixth Edition II. Muscular System: Gross Anatomy © The McGraw−Hill Companies. (b) Abdominal muscles shown individually (lateral view). 2004 336 Part 2 Support and Movement Pectoralis major Latissimus dorsi Serratus anterior Rectus abdominis (covered by sheath) Linea alba Linea semilunaris External abdominal oblique Umbilicus External abdominal oblique Iliac crest Inguinal ligament Inguinal canal Tendinous intersection Internal abdominal oblique Transversus abdominis Rectus abdominis (sheath removed) Figure 10. Linea semilunaris Linea alba Rectus abdominis (a) Skin Fat External abdominal oblique Internal abdominal oblique Transversus abdominis Transversalis fascia Parietal peritoneum Ribs Rectus sheath External abdominal oblique Iliac crest Inguinal ligament Xiphoid process Rectus abdominis Internal abdominal oblique Lumbar fascia Transversus abdominis Lumbar fascia Symphysis pubis Pubic tubercle (b) Figure 10.17 Muscles of the Anterior Abdominal Wall (a) Cross section superior to the umbilicus.Seeley−Stephens−Tate: Anatomy and Physiology.
(a) Male. Most of the pelvic ﬂoor is formed by the coccygeus (kok-si je-us) muscle and the levator ¯ ˘ ani (a nı ) muscle.19 Muscles of the Pelvic Floor and Perineum Inferior view.19).Seeley−Stephens−Tate: Anatomy and Physiology. le-v¯ ter a n¯) e a a ¯ ı External anal sphincter (a na l sfingk ter ) ¯ ˘ External urethral sphincter (u-r¯ thra l sfingk ter) ¯ e ˘ (not illustrated) Transverse perinei (p˘ r i-n¯ ¯) e eı Deep Superficial Ischial spine Ischial ramus Posterior pubis and ischial spine Coccyx Pubic ramus Ischial ramus Ischial ramus Median raphe Central perineal Pudendal Pudendal Supports pelvic floor Fixes central tendon Median raphe Urethra Ischiocavernosus Bulbospongiosus Central tendon of perineum Deep transverse perineal Superficial transverse perineal Levator ani Ischial tuberosity Anus External anal sphincter Gluteus maximus Coccyx (a) (b) Vagina Figure 10. Support and Movement 10. Muscular System: Gross Anatomy © The McGraw−Hill Companies.18 Surface Anatomy. . erects penis Pudendal S3 and S4 Perineal Fourth sacral Fourth sacral and pudenda Pudendal Erects clitoris Elevates and supports pelvic floor Compresses base of penis or clitoris Elevates anus. referred to jointly as the pelvic diaphragm. ¯ ˘ which is somewhat diamond-shaped (ﬁgure 10. The ¯ area inferior to the pelvic ﬂoor is the perineum (per i-ne u m). (b) Female. Sixth Edition II.19) Muscle Bulbospongiosus (bul b¯ -sp˘ n j¯ -¯ s˘ s) o u eo u Origin Male—central tendon of perineum and median raphe of penis Female—central tendon of perineum Insertion Dorsal surface of penis and bulb of penis Base of clitoris Coccyx Corpus cavernosum Sacrum and coccyx Central tendon of perineum Median raphe Nerve Pudendal Action Constricts urethra. 2004 Chapter 10 Muscular System: Gross Anatomy 337 Linea alba Linea semilunaris Tendinous intersection of rectus abdominis Inguinal canal Pelvic Floor and Perineum The pelvis is a ring of bone (see chapter 7) with an inferior opening that is closed by a muscular wall through which the anus and the urogenital openings penetrate (table 10. The anterior Rectus abdominis Figure 10.11 Muscles of the Pelvic Floor and Perineum (see figure 10.11). Muscles of the Anterior Abdominal Wall Table 10. supports pelvic viscera Keeps orifice of anal canal closed Constricts urethra Coccygeus (kok-si j¯ -˘ s) eu (not illustrated) Ischiocavernosus (ish ¯ -¯ -kav er-n¯ s˘ s) eo o u Levator ani (l¯ -v¯ tor.
What openings penetrate the pelvic ﬂoor muscles? Name the area inferior to the pelvic ﬂoor. The muscles of the upper limb include those that move the scapula. Scapular Movements The major connection of the upper limb to the body is accomplished by muscles (table 10. and scapular spine Dorsal scapular Dorsal scapular Long thoracic Subclavian Accessory and cervical plexus Retracts.12 Muscles Acting on the Scapula (see figure 10. Sixth Edition II. elevates ribs Fixes clavicle or elevates first rib Elevates. le-v¯ ter e a a skap u-l¯ ) ¯ e Pectoralis minor (pek t¯ -ra lis) o Rhomboideus (rom-b¯ -id ¯ -˘ s) o eu Major Minor Serratus anterior (ser-¯ t˘ s) a u Subclavius (s˘ b-kl¯ v¯ -˘ s) u a eu Trapezius (tra-p¯ z¯ -˘ s) e eu T1–T4 C6–C7 First to ninth ribs First rib External occipital protuberance. which forms a “subﬂoor” to the pelvis in that area and consists of the deep transverse perineal (per ˘-ne al) ˘ ı ¯˘ muscle and the external urethral sphincter muscle. During pregnancy.Seeley−Stephens−Tate: Anatomy and Physiology. 17. acromion process. depresses. 14. Muscular System: Gross Anatomy © The McGraw−Hill Companies. rotates. and speciﬁc exercises are designed to strengthen them. What is the name of the superﬁcial group? 15. rotates. and fixes scapula Rotates and protracts scapula. laterally flexes neck Depresses scapula or elevates ribs Third to fifth ribs Anterior thoracic . the muscles of the pelvic diaphragm and urogenital diaphragm may be stretched by the extra weight of the fetus. and pectoralis (pek to ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ra lis) minor. Name the muscles that extend and ﬂex the forearm. rhomboideus (rom-bo -id e-us) major and ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ˘ minor.22a and c): the trapezius forms the upper line from each shoulder to the neck. Table 10. slightly elevates. Describe the two functional groups of forearm muscles and the movements they produce. Upper Limb Muscles Objectives ■ List the muscles forming the rotator cuff. and the origin of the serratus anterior from the ﬁrst eight or nine ribs can be seen along the lateral thorax. and C7–T12 Medial border of scapula Medial border of scapula Medial border of scapula Clavicle Clavicle. Support and Movement 10. and the posterior half is the anal triangle (see chapter 28). and fixes scapula. retracts. serratus (ser-a tus) anterior. and those that move the arm. These muscles move the scapula. ligamentum nuchae. and the hand.20).12 and ﬁgure 10. How do other muscles aid this movement? 16. extends neck Origin C1–C4 Insertion Superior angle of scapula Coracoid process of scapula Nerve Dorsal scapular Action Elevates. Name the muscle that is mainly responsible for respiratory movements. Describe and give the functions of the extrinsic and intrinsic hand muscles. The muscles attaching the scapula to the thorax include the trapezius. permitting a wide range of movements of the upper limb. and fixes scapula Retracts. retracts. List the actions of the group of back muscles that attaches to the vertebrae or ribs (or both). The superﬁcial muscles that act on the scapula can be easily seen on a living person (see ﬁgure 10. rotates. or act as ﬁxators to hold the scapula ﬁrmly in position when the muscles of the arm contract. and describe their function. ■ ■ ■ ■ Describe the movements of the arm and the muscles involved. the forearm. and rotates scapula. The urogenital triangle contains the urogenital diaphragm. Explain the anatomic basis for the segments (“cuts”) seen on a well-muscled individual’s abdomen. levator scapulae (skap u-le). 2004 338 Part 2 Support and Movement half of the diamond is the urogenital triangle. What are the functions of the abdominal muscles? List the muscles of the anterior abdominal wall.20) Muscle Levator scapulae (l¯ -v¯ tor.
20 Muscles Acting on the Scapula (a) Posterior view. Sixth Edition II. Muscular System: Gross Anatomy © The McGraw−Hill Companies. Pectoralis major is removed on both sides.Seeley−Stephens−Tate: Anatomy and Physiology. Support and Movement 10. The pectoralis minor is also removed on the right side. . (b) Anterior view. 2004 Chapter 10 Muscular System: Gross Anatomy 339 Trapezius Seventh cervical vertebra Levator scapulae Rhomboideus minor Rhomboideus major (a) Subclavius Pectoralis major (cut) Coracoid process Supraspinatus tendon Pectoralis minor (cut) Subscapularis Biceps brachii Latissimus dorsi Serratus anterior Subscapularis Teres minor Teres major (cut) Pectoralis minor Latissimus dorsi (cut) External abdominal oblique Three of four rotator cuff muscles (b) Figure 10. Trapezius is removed on the right to reveal the deeper muscles.
The deltoid muscle is like three muscles in one: the anterior ﬁbers ﬂex the shoulder.13 as both a ﬂexor and extensor.21. t¯ r-¯ z) ¯ e e Infraspinous fossa of scapula Subscapular fossa Supraspinous fossa Lateral border of scapula Greater tubercle of humerus Lesser tubercle of humerus Greater tubercle of humerus Greater tubercle of humerus Suprascapular C5 and C6 Subscapular C5 and C6 Suprascapular C5 and C6 Axillary C5 and C6 Extends shoulder and laterally rotates arm Extends shoulder and medially rotates arm Abducts arm Extends shoulder. The muscle ﬂexes the extended shoulder and extends the ﬂexed shoulder.13 as a ﬂexor and extensor. The deltoid (deltoideus) muscle also is listed in table 10. Support and Movement 10.23) Muscle Coracobrachialis (k¯ r ˘ -k¯ -br¯ -k¯ -¯ lis) o a o a ea Deltoid (del toyd) Origin Coracoid process of scapula Clavicle.21. 10. adducts and medially rotates arm.20. and 10. acromion process.14 Summary of Muscle Actions on the Shoulder and Arm Flexion Deltoid Pectoralis major Coracobrachialis Biceps brachii Extension Deltoid Teres major Lattissimus dorsi Pectoralis major Triceps brachii Abduction Deltoid Supraspinatus Adduction Pectoralis major Latissimus dorsi Teres major Teres minor Triceps brachii Coracobrachialis Medial Rotation Pectoralis major Teres major Lattissimus dorsi Deltoid Subscapularis Lateral Rotation Deltoid Infraspinatus Teres minor . usually the supraspinatus muscle. t¯ r-¯ z) ¯ e e Medial crest of intertubercular groove Lateral crest of intertubercular groove Medial crest of intertubercular groove Thoracodorsal Anterior thoracic Subscapular C5 and C6 Rotator Cuff Infraspinatus (in-fr˘ -sp¯-n¯ t˘ s) a ı a u Subscapularis (s˘ b-skap-¯ -l¯ ris) u u a Supraspinatus (soo-pr˘ -sp¯-n¯ t˘ s) a ı a u Teres minor (ter ez.13 and ﬁg˘ ˘ ¯ ¯ ure 10. however. abduction. A rotator cuff injury involves damage to one or more of these muscles or their tendons. adducts and laterally rotates arm Table 10. and scapular spine T7–L5. extends shoulder Flexes shoulder. The primary muscles holding the head of the humerus in the glenoid fossa. Table 10. extension.20b). Sixth Edition II. and abdominal aponeurosis Lateral border of scapula Insertion Midshaft of humerus Deltoid tuberosity Nerve Musculocutaneous Axillary Action Adducts arm and flexes shoulder Flexes and extends shoulder. abducts and medially and laterally rotates arm Adducts and medially rotates arm.21c). 10. Try these movements yourself and notice the position and action of the muscle. the lateral ﬁbers abduct the arm. see ﬁgure 10. Muscular System: Gross Anatomy © The McGraw−Hill Companies. sternum. 2004 340 Part 2 Support and Movement Arm Movements The arm is attached to the thorax by the pectoralis major and the latissimus dorsi (la-tis i-mus do r sı ) muscles (table 10.14).13) because they form a cuff or cap over the proximal humerus (ﬁgure 10.13 Muscles Acting on the Arm (see figures 10. and circumduction (table 10. The muscles moving the arm are involved in ﬂexion. sacrum and iliac crest Clavicle. rotation. and the posterior ﬁbers extend the shoulder. adducts and medially rotates arm Latissimus dorsi (l˘ -tis i-m˘ s d¯ r s¯) a u o ı Pectoralis major (pek t¯ -r¯ lis) o a Teres major (ter ez.Seeley−Stephens−Tate: Anatomy and Physiology. Notice that the pectoralis major muscle is listed in table 10. are called the rotator cuff muscles (listed separately in table 10. adduction. The deltoid muscle is part of the group of muscles that binds the humerus to the scapula. extends shoulder from flexed position Extends shoulder.22.
Support and Movement 10. (c) Anterior view of the rotator cuff. (b) Posterior view. . and subscapularis muscles. infraspinatus. showing the teres minor. supraspinatus. Sixth Edition II.21 Muscles Attaching the Upper Limb to the Body (a) Anterior view. 2004 Chapter 10 Muscular System: Gross Anatomy 341 Deltoid (cut) Deltoid Pectoralis major Coracobrachialis Biceps brachii Serratus anterior (a) Acromion process Clavicle Coracoid process Levator scapulae Rhomboideus minor Rhomboideus major Supraspinatus Infraspinatus Subscapularis (anterior to scapula and seen in part c) Teres minor Teres major Latissimus dorsi Twelfth thoracic vertebra Infraspinatus Greater tubercle Supraspinatus Lesser tubercle Subscapularis Teres minor Rotator cuff Humerus (c) External abdominal oblique (b) Figure 10.Seeley−Stephens−Tate: Anatomy and Physiology. Muscular System: Gross Anatomy © The McGraw−Hill Companies.
rotator cuff muscles. (d) Photograph showing a dissection of the posterior shoulder. and the trapezius. which is accomplished by the trapezius. . Sixth Edition II. (c) Surface anatomy of the posterior shoulder. Abduction from the anatomic position through the ﬁrst 90 degrees (to the point at which the hand is level to the shoulder) is accomplished almost entirely by the deltoid muscle. The pectoralis major forms the upper chest. 2004 342 Part 2 Support and Movement Abduction of the arm involves the deltoid.22). however. The deltoid is a common site for administering injections. Muscular System: Gross Anatomy © The McGraw−Hill Companies. and the deltoids are prominent over the shoulders. Damage to the supraspinatus muscle can prevent abduction past 90 degrees. What rotator cuff muscle is probably damaged? What is the cause of the pain? Several muscles acting on the arm can be seen very clearly in the living individual (ﬁgure 10. Trapezius Clavicle Sternocleidomastoid Acromion process Deltoid Pectoralis major Pectoralis major Biceps brachii Deltoid Sternocleidomastoid Biceps brachii Serratus anterior Serratus anterior (a) (b) Trapezius Trapezius Infraspinatus Deltoid Infraspinatus Teres minor Teres major Deltoid Teres minor Teres major Triceps brachii Triceps brachii Latissimus dorsi Latissimus dorsi (c) (d) Figure 10. Feel the inferior angle of your scapula as you abduct to 90 degrees and then to 180 degrees. Place your hand on your deltoid and feel it contract as you abduct 90 degrees. P R E D I C T A tennis player complains of pain in the shoulder when attempting to serve or when attempting an overhead volley (extreme abduction). Support and Movement 10.Seeley−Stephens−Tate: Anatomy and Physiology. primarily involves rotation of the scapula. (b) Photograph showing a dissection of the anterior shoulder. cannot occur unless the head of the humerus is held tightly in the glenoid cavity by the rotator cuff muscles. so that the hand is held high above the head. Do you notice a big difference? Abduction from 90 degrees to 180 degrees.22 Shoulder (a) Surface anatomy of the anterior shoulder. Abduction from 90 degrees to 180 degrees.
The brachialis lies deep to the biceps and can be seen only as a mass on the medial and lateral sides of the arm.15 Muscles Acting on the Forearm (see figures 10. Flexion and Extension of the Elbow Extension of the elbow is accomplished by the triceps brachii (bra ke-ı ) and anconeus (ang-ko ne -us).24c and d). Where are these muscles located? 22. Supination and pronation of the forearm are produced by what muscles? Where are these muscles located? P R E D I C T Explain the difference between doing chin-ups with the forearm supinated versus pronated.23). Name seven muscles that attach the humerus to the scapula.24) Muscle Arm Biceps brachii (b¯ seps br¯ k¯ -¯) ı a eı Long head—supraglenoid tubercle Short head— coracoid process Brachialis (br¯ k¯ -al is) a e Triceps brachii (tr¯ seps br¯ k¯ -¯) ı a eı Humerus Long head—lateral border of scapula Lateral head—lateral and posterior surface of humerus Medial head— posterior humerus Forearm Anconeus (ang-k¯ n¯ -˘ s) o eu Brachioradialis (br¯ k¯ -¯ -r¯ d¯ -al is) a eo a e Pronator quadratus (pr¯ -n¯ -ter. 2004 Chapter 10 Muscular System: Gross Anatomy 343 Forearm Movements The surface anatomy of the arm muscles is illustrated in ﬁgure 10. table 10. and ¯ ¯ brachioradialis (bra ke -o-ra de -al is. and describe their function. 20. te r-e z) (ﬁgure 10.Seeley−Stephens−Tate: Anatomy and Physiology. If the elbow is forcefully ﬂexed in the midprone position (midway between pronation and supination). Support and Movement 10.22. The biceps brachii is readily visible on the anterior aspect of the arm. List the muscles forming the rotator cuff.23b and 10. t¯ r-¯ z) o a o ¯ e e Lateral epicondyle of humerus Lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus Distal ulna Olecranon process and posterior ulna Styloid process of radius Distal radius Radial Radial Anterior interosseous Median Extends elbow Flexes elbow Pronates forearm Coronoid process of ulna Olecranon process of ulna Musculocutaneous and radial Radial Flexes elbow Extends elbow. extends shoulder and adducts arm Radial tuberosity Musculocutaneous Flexes shoulder and elbow. ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ 18. The triceps constitute the main mass visible on the posterior aspect of the arm (see ﬁgure 10.26). What two muscles attach the humerus directly to the trunk? 19. Muscular System: Gross Anatomy © The McGraw−Hill Companies. biceps brachii.23 and 10. What muscles cause ﬂexion and extension of the shoulder? Abduction and adduction of the arm? What muscle is involved in abduction of the arm to 90 degrees? Above 90 degrees? What muscles cause rotation of the arm? 21. see ﬁgure 10. supinates hand Origin Insertion Nerve Action Medial epicondyle of humerus and coronoid process of ulna Lateral epicondyle of humerus and ulna Radius Pronates forearm Supinator (soo pi-n¯ -ter. List the muscles that cause ﬂexion and extension of the elbow.15. ¯ ¯ ¯ Table 10. The brachioradialis forms a bulge on the anterolateral side of the forearm just distal to the elbow. pr¯ -n¯ -t¯ r o a o a o kwah-dr¯ t˘ s) a u Pronator teres (pr¯ -n¯ -t¯ r ter ez. ﬂexion of the elbow is ac¯ ¯¯ ¯ ¯ ˘ complished by the brachialis (bra -ke -al is).24a and c). Sixth Edition II. Which muscle or muscles are used in each type of chin-up? Which type is easier? Why? Supination and Pronation Supination of the forearm is accomplished by the supinator and the biceps brachii (see ﬁgures 10. the brachioradialis stands out clearly on the forearm. a soo pi-n¯ -t¯ r) a o Radius Radial Supinates forearm . Pronation is a function of the pronator quadratus (kwah-dra tus) and the ¯ ˘ pronator teres (ter e z.
and pectoralis minor muscles are removed to reveal deeper structures. Muscular System: Gross Anatomy © The McGraw−Hill Companies. Support and Movement 10.23 Muscles of the Arm (a) Lateral view of the right shoulder and arm. pectoralis major. 2004 344 Part 2 Support and Movement Acromion process Spine of scapula Clavicle Deltoid Pectoralis major Triceps brachii Long head Lateral head Biceps brachii (long head) Brachialis Deltoid Brachioradialis Anconeus Long head Triceps brachii (a) Lateral head Biceps brachii Brachialis Brachioradialis (c) Serratus anterior (cut) Coracobrachialis Short head Biceps brachii Long head Teres major Tendon of latissimus dorsi (cut) Long head Triceps brachii Medial head Radius Biceps brachii tendon Medial epicondyle of humerus Brachialis Aponeurosis of biceps brachii Pronator teres Ulna (b) Figure 10. (c) Photograph of arm muscles. Sixth Edition II. . Deltoid. (b) Anterior view of the right shoulder and arm (deep).Seeley−Stephens−Tate: Anatomy and Physiology.
Sixth Edition II. Pronator teres. (d ) Deep muscles of the right posterior forearm. Support and Movement 10. . ﬂexor carpi radialis and ulnaris. Brachioradialis. pronator teres. palmaris longus.24 Muscles of the Forearm (a) Anterior view of the right forearm (superﬁcial). Muscular System: Gross Anatomy © The McGraw−Hill Companies. 2004 Chapter 10 Muscular System: Gross Anatomy 345 Medial epicondyle of humerus Pronator teres Flexor carpi radialis Palmaris longus Flexor carpi ulnaris Radius Ulna Flexor digitorum superficialis Brachioradialis Lateral epicondyle of humerus Radius Supinator Medial epicondyle of humerus Ulna Flexor pollicis longus Pronator quadratus Flexor digitorum profundus Palmar aponeurosis Lumbricales (a) (b) (c) Extensor digitorum (cut and reflected) Medial epicondyle of humerus Anconeus Extensor digiti minimi (cut) Extensor carpi ulnaris (cut) Extensor indicis Supinator (deep) Extensor carpi radialis longus Extensor carpi radialis brevis Abductor pollicis longus Extensor pollicis longus Extensor digitorum Brachioradialis Extensor carpi radialis longus Extensor carpi radialis brevis Extensor carpi ulnaris Abductor pollicis longus Extensor pollicis brevis Extensor pollicis longus Extensor retinaculum Extensor indicis tendon Extensor digitorum tendons Extensor digiti minimi tendon Extensor pollicis longus tendon First dorsal interosseus Cut tendons of extensor digitorum (d) Extensor pollicis brevis (e) Figure 10. and ﬂexor digitorum superﬁcialis muscles are removed.Seeley−Stephens−Tate: Anatomy and Physiology. Extensor digitorum. Brachioradialis muscle is removed. and palmaris longus muscles are removed. ﬂexor carpi radialis and ulnaris. (b) Anterior view of the right forearm (deeper than a). extensor digiti minimi. and extensor carpi ulnaris muscles are cut to reveal deeper muscles. (c) Anterior view of the right forearm (deeper than a or b). (e) Photograph showing dissection of the posterior right forearm and hand.
abducts wrist Extends thumb . Support and Movement 10. Two major anterior muscles. extend the wrist. the extensor carpi radialis longus. Most of the posterior forearm muscles cause extension of the wrist and ﬁngers. and the extensor carpi ulnaris. The tendon of the ﬂexor carpi radialis is an important landmark because the radial pulse can be felt just lateral to the tendon (see ﬁgure 10. and Finger Movements The forearm muscles are divided into anterior and posterior groups (table 10. Extrinsic Hand Muscles The extrinsic hand muscles are in the forearm but have tendons that extend into the hand.16 Muscles of the Forearm Acting on the Wrist. see ﬁgure 10. the ﬂexor carpi radialis (kar pı ¯ ra-de-a lis) and the ﬂexor carpi ulnaris (u l-na ris). A strong band of ﬁbrous connective tissue. flexes wrist Base of third metacarpal Radial Lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus Base of second metacarpal Radial Extends and abducts wrist Lateral epicondyle of humerus and ulna Lateral epicondyle of humerus Lateral epicondyle of humerus Ulna Radius Ulna Base of fifth metacarpal Phalanges of fifth digit Bases of phalanges of digits 2–5 Second digit Proximal phalanx of thumb Distal phalanx of thumb Radial Radial Radial Radial Radial Radial Extends and adducts wrist Extends little finger and wrist Extends fingers and wrist Extends forefinger and wrist Extends and abducts thumb. 2004 346 Part 2 Support and Movement Wrist. Table 10.24a). Sixth Edition II. and Fingers (see figure 10. coronoid process. covers the ﬂexor ¯ ˘ and extensor tendons and holds them in place around the wrist so that they do not “bowstring” during muscle contraction (see ﬁgure 10. The wrist ﬂexors and extensors are visible on the anterior and posterior surfaces of the forearm. Most of the anterior forearm muscles are responsible for ﬂexion of the wrist and ﬁngers. Hand.24) Muscle Anterior Forearm Flexor carpi radialis (kar p¯ r¯ -d¯ -¯ lis) ı a ea Flexor carpi ulnaris (kar p¯ ul-n¯ ris) ı˘ a Flexor digitorum profundus (dij i-t¯ r ˘ m pr¯ -f˘ n d˘ s) o u o u u Flexor digitorum superficialis (dij i-t¯ r ˘ m soo pero u fish-¯ -¯ lis) ea Flexor pollicis longus (pol i-sis lon g˘ s) u Palmaris longus (pawl-m¯ r is lon g˘ s) a u Posterior Forearm Abductor pollicis longus (pol i-sis lon g˘ s) u Extensor carpi radialis brevis (kar p¯ r¯ -d¯ -¯ lis ı a ea brev is) Extensor carpi radialis longus (kar p¯ r¯ -d¯ -¯ lis ı a ea lon gus) Extensor carpi ulnaris (kar p¯ ul-n¯ ris) ı˘ a Extensor digiti minimi (dij i-t¯ mi n˘ ı) ı ı-m¯ Extensor digitorum (dij i-t¯ r ˘ m) o u Extensor indicis (in di-sis) Extensor pollicis brevis (pol i-sis brev is) Extensor pollicis longus (pol i-sis lon g˘ s) u Posterior ulna and radius and interosseous membrane Lateral epicondyle of humerus Base of first metacarpal Radial Abducts and extends thumb. abducts wrist Extends and abducts wrist Medial epicondyle of humerus Medial epicondyle of humerus and ulna Ulna Second and third metacarpals Pisiform Median Ulnar Flexes and abducts wrist Flexes and adducts wrist Origin Insertion Nerve Action Distal phalanges of digits 2–5 Middle phalanges of digits 2–5 Ulnar and median Median Flexes fingers and wrist Medial epicondyle of humerus. ¯ ¯¯ ˘ ¯ and three posterior muscles. ﬂex the wrist. and radius Radius Medial epicondyle of humerus Flexes fingers and wrist Distal phalanx of thumb Palmar fascia Median Median Flexes thumb and wrist Tenses palmar fascia.24e). bracelet).24). the extensor carpi radialis brevis. Hand.16. Muscular System: Gross Anatomy © The McGraw−Hill Companies.Seeley−Stephens−Tate: Anatomy and Physiology. the retinaculum (ret-i-nak u-lu m.
and fourth digits Adducts second. a small pinch could be placed into the anatomical snuffbox and inhaled through the nose. The little ﬁnger has an additional extensor. the extensor pollicis longus. and fourth digits Second. ab-d˘ k-t¯ r u u o pol i-sis) Flexor pollicis brevis (pol i-sis brev is) Opponens pollicis (˘ -p¯ nens pol i-sis) o o Hypothenar Muscles Abductor digiti minimi (ab-d˘ k-ter. and the opponens pollicis form a ﬂeshy prominence at the base of the thumb called the thenar (the nar) eminence (see ﬁgures 10. Intrinsic Hand Muscles Flexion of the four medial digits is a function of the ﬂexor digitorum (dij i-tor um) superﬁcialis and ﬂexor digitorum pro˘ fundus (pro -fun du s. deep). third.25). This condition is often called tennis elbow because it can result from playing tennis. and scaphoid Third metacarpal. fourth. The intrinsic hand muscles are entirely within the hand (table 10. ˘ ¯ The ﬂexor pollicis brevis.26b). and fifth digits Flexes proximal and extends middle and distal phalanges Origin Insertion Nerve Action Ulnar Two on radial side—median. It is also called lateral epicondylitis because it can result from other sports and activities such as shoveling snow.Seeley−Stephens−Tate: Anatomy and Physiology. fourth. When snuff was in use. and fifth metacarpals Tendons of flexor digitorum profundis Proximal phalanges of second. These tendons form the sides of a depression on the posterolateral side of the wrist called the “anatomical snuffbox” (see ﬁgure 10. two on ulnar side—ulnar Thenar Muscles Abductor pollicis brevis (ab-d˘ k-ter. the extensor ¯ indicis (in di-sis).25 and ¯ Table 10. third. Muscular System: Gross Anatomy © The McGraw−Hill Companies.17 Intrinsic Hand Muscles (see figure 10. trapezoid. ab-d˘ k-t¯ r u u o dij i-t¯ min im¯) ı ı Flexor digiti minimi brevis (dij i-t¯ min ˘ ı brev is) ı ı-m¯ Opponens digiti minimi (˘ -p¯ nens dij i-t¯ o o ı min i-m¯) ı Pisiform Base of fifth digit Ulnar Abducts and flexes little finger Flexor retinaculum.26b). The index ﬁnger also has an additional extensor. and the extensor pollicis brevis. Abduction of the ﬁngers is accomplished by the interossei dorsales (in ter-os e-ı dor-sa lez) and the ab¯ ¯ ¯ ductor digiti minimi. and capitate Flexor retinaculum and first metacarpal Trapezium and flexor retinaculum Proximal phalanx of thumb Median Abducts thumb Proximal phalanx of thumb Proximal phalanx of thumb First metacarpal Ulnar Adducts thumb Median and ulnar Median Flexes thumb Opposes thumb Hamate Middle and proximal phalanx of fifth digit Fifth metacarpal Ulnar Flexes little finger Hamate and flexor retinaculum Ulnar Opposes little finger . and fifth digits Second through fifth digits Ulnar Abducts second. Sixth Edition II. repetitive use of the forearm extensor muscles can damage them where they attach to the lateral epicondyle. The tendons of this muscle are very visible on the dorsum of the hand (see ﬁgure 10. second metacarpal. trapezium. 2004 Chapter 10 Muscular System: Gross Anatomy 347 Tennis Elbow Forceful. whereas adduction is a function of the interossei palmares (pawl-ma r ez). Extension is accomplished by the ex¯ ˘ ˘ tensor digitorum.25) Muscle Midpalmar Muscles Interossei (in ter-os e-¯) ı Dorsales (d¯ r-s¯ l¯ z) o a e Palmares (pawl-m˘ r ¯ z) a e Lumbricales (lum-br˘ -ka l¯ z) a e Sides of metacarpal bones Second. the extensor digiti minimi (dij i-tı min i¯ mı ). Support and Movement 10. Movement of the thumb is caused in part by the abductor pollicis (pol i-sis) longus. fourth. the abductor pollicis brevis. ab-d˘ k-t¯ r u u o pol i-sis brev is) Adductor pollicis (ab-d˘ k-ter.17 and ﬁgure 10.
Abductor pollicis brevis is cut. .25 Hand Palmar surface of the right hand. Support and Movement 10. 2004 348 Part 2 Support and Movement Thenar eminence Abductor pollicis brevis (cut and reflected) Opponens pollicis FD Flexor retinaculum Abductor digiti minimi FD FD FD Flexor digiti minimi brevis Opponens digiti minimi L Lumbricales FD Flexor digitorum superficialis tendons Hypothenar eminence Flexor pollicis brevis Adductor pollicis L L L L First dorsal interosseous Palmar interossei (a) Flexor digitorum tendons (cut) Flexor retinaculum Opponens pollicis First dorsal interosseous Dorsal interossei Palmar interossei Opponens digiti minimi Metacarpals Phalanges (b) Figure 10. Sixth Edition II.Seeley−Stephens−Tate: Anatomy and Physiology. Muscular System: Gross Anatomy © The McGraw−Hill Companies.
and list the muscles involved in each movement. Because these muscles share a ¯ common insertion and produce the same movement. Describe the muscle groups that cause ﬂexion and extension of the wrist. Describe the movements of the leg and list the muscles involved in each movement.18). 2004 Chapter 10 Muscular System: Gross Anatomy 349 Deltoid Deltoid Triceps brachii (lateral head) Biceps brachii Triceps brachii (lateral head) Biceps brachii Brachialis Brachioradialis Extensor carpi ulnaris Extensor digitorum Forearm flexors Tendon of palmaris longus Thenar eminence Tendon of flexor carpi radialis Hypothenar eminence Anatomical snuffbox Extensor carpi radialis Forearm extensors Tendons of extensor digitorum (a) (b) Figure 10.29). What is the retinaculum? What is the location and action of the thenar and hypothenar muscles? 25. When the thigh is ¯ ¯ ¯ ﬁxed. The deep hip muscles function as lateral thigh rotators (see table 10. Contrast the location and actions of the extrinsic and intrinsic hand muscles. and the gluteus medius. Lower Limb Muscles Objectives ■ ■ ■ ■ Describe the movements of the thigh. For example.Seeley−Stephens−Tate: Anatomy and Physiology. the iliopsoas ﬂexes the trunk on the thigh. (b) Lateral and posterior view. ﬂexor digiti minimi brevis. The tendons of what muscles form the anatomical snuffbox? Thigh Movements Several hip muscles originate on the coxa and insert onto the femur (table 10.18 and ﬁgures 10. List the muscles in each compartment of the leg. The posterolateral hip muscles consist of the gluteal muscles and the tensor fasciae latae (fash e -e la te ). Support and Movement 10. The thenar and hypothenar muscles are involved in the control of the thumb and little ﬁnger. Muscles of the Upper Limb (a) Anterior view. the iliopsoas actually does most of the work when a person does sit-ups. ﬂex the hip. The gluteus medius and minimus muscles help tilt the pelvis during walking.26 Surface Anatomy. posterolateral. The anterior muscles. which accounts for both the sprinter’s stance and the bicycle racing posture. Describe the muscles that move the thumb.26a). The abductor digiti minimi. 24.27 through 10. the iliacus (il-ı a -ku s) and the ¯ ˘ ˘ psoas (so as) major. These muscles are divided into three groups: anterior. Describe and give the functions of the extrinsic and intrinsic foot muscles. creates a smaller mass just superior and lateral to the maximus. 10. Sixth Edition II. The gluteus maximus functions at its maximum force in extension of the thigh when the hip is flexed at a 45degree angle so that the muscle is optimally stretched. and give their action. and deep. a common site for injections. they often are referred to as the iliopsoas (il e -o -so as). 23. . Muscular System: Gross Anatomy © The McGraw−Hill Companies. and opponens digiti minimi constitute the hypothenar eminence on the ulnar side of the hand. The gluteus ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ (gloo-te u s) maximus contributes most of the mass that can be ¯ ˘ seen as the buttocks.
sacrum. Sixth Edition II. abducts and laterally rotates thigh Abducts and medially rotates thigh. flexes hip. Ischial tuberosity Ischial spine Obturator internus tendon Obturator internus tendon Greater trochanter of femur Greater trochanter of femur Greater trochanter of femur Intertrochanteric ridge of femur L5 and S1 L5 and S1 Laterally rotates and abducts thigh Laterally rotates and abducts thigh Laterally rotates thigh Laterally rotates and abducts thigh Laterally rotates and abducts thigh Laterally rotates thigh Inferior margin of obturator foramen Margin of obturator foramen Sacrum and ilium Ischial tuberosity Obturator Ischiadic plexus* Ischiadic plexus* Ischiadic plexus* .18 Muscles Acting on the Thigh (see figure 10.27) Muscle Anterior Iliopsoas (il e-¯ -s¯ as) ¯ o o Iliacus (il-¯ a-kus) ı˘ Psoas major (s¯ as) o Posterior and Lateral Gluteus maximus (gloo-t¯ ˘ s mak si-m˘ s) eu u Gluteus medius (gloo-t¯ ˘ s m¯ d¯ -˘ s) eu e eu Gluteus minimus (gloo-t¯ ˘ s min-i-m˘ s) eu u Tensor fasciae latae (ten s¯ r fash e-¯ l¯ t¯ ) o ¯ e a e Ilium.Seeley−Stephens−Tate: Anatomy and Physiology. and coccyx Ilium Ilium Anterior superior iliac spine Gluteal tuberosity of femur and the fascia lata Greater trochanter of femur Greater trochanter of femur Through iliotibial tract to lateral condyle of tibia Inferior gluteal Extends hip. depresses side of pelvis Iliac fossa Lesser trochanter of femur and capsule of hip joint Lesser trochanter of femur Lumbar plexus Flexes hip and laterally rotates thigh Flexes hip Origin Insertion Nerve Action T12–L5 Lumbar plexus Superior gluteal Superior gluteal Superior gluteal Deep Thigh Rotators Gemellus (j˘ -mel ˘ s) e u Inferior Superior Obturator (ob too-r¯ -t˘ r) a o Externus (eks-ter n˘ s) u Internus (in-ter n˘ s) u Piriformis (pir i-f¯ r mis) o Quadratus femoris (kwah -dr¯ t˘ s fem o-ris) a u ˘ *Formerly referred to as the sciatic nerve. depresses side of pelvis Tenses lateral fascia. depresses side of pelvis Abducts and medially rotates thigh. Support and Movement 10. 2004 350 Part 2 Support and Movement Table 10. Muscular System: Gross Anatomy © The McGraw−Hill Companies. abducts and medially rotates thigh.
sartorius. The piriformis is cut. superﬁcial. Muscular System: Gross Anatomy © The McGraw−Hill Companies.27 Muscles of the Posterior Hip (a) Posterior view of the right hip. Psoas minor Anterior superior iliac spine Tensor fasciae latae Pectineus Pectineus Gracilis Adductor longus Gracilis Sartorius Rectus femoris Vastus intermedius (deep to rectus femoris and not visible in figure) Vastus medialis Vastus lateralis Adductor brevis Adductors Adductor longus Iliacus Iliopsoas Psoas major Iliotibial tract Adductor magnus Quadriceps femoris Patella Patellar ligament (a) Tibia Fibula Insertion of gracilis on tibia (b) Figure 10.Seeley−Stephens−Tate: Anatomy and Physiology. . Gluteus maximus and medius are removed to reveal deeper muscles. Tensor fasciae latae. (b) Posterior view of the right hip.28 Muscles of the Anterior Thigh (a) Anterior view of the right thigh. Support and Movement 10. 2004 Chapter 10 Muscular System: Gross Anatomy 351 Iliac crest Origin of gluteus medius Gluteus medius Posterior superior iliac spine Origin of gluteus maximus Piriformis (cut) Sacrum Gluteus maximus Superior gemellus Coccyx Inferior gemellus Ischial tuberosity Obturator internus Obturator externus Quadratus femoris Gluteus minimus (b) (a) Figure 10. deep. (b) Adductor region of the right thigh. Sixth Edition II. and quadriceps femoris muscles are removed.
28 (continued) (c) Photograph of the thigh muscles.29 Posterior Muscles of the Right Thigh Hip muscles are removed. Sixth Edition II.19 and 10.20). Support and Movement 10. some of the muscles located in the thigh originate on the coxa and can cause movement of the thigh (tables 10. which adduct the thigh. and the medial. which extend the hip. the posterior. Table 10.19 Summary of Muscle Actions on the Hip and Thigh Flexion Iliopsoas Tensor fasciae latae Rectus femoris Sartorius Adductor longus Adductor brevis Pectineus Extension Gluteus maximus Semitendinosus Semimembranosus Biceps femoris Adductor magnus Abduction Gluteus maximus Gluteus medius Gluteus minimus Tensor fasciae latae Obturator internus Gemellus superior and inferior Piriformis Adduction Adductor magnus Adductor longus Adductor brevis Pectineus Gracilis Medial Rotation Tensor fasciae latae Gluteus medius Gluteus minimus Lateral Rotation Gluteus maximus Obturator internus Obturator externus Superior gemellus Inferior gemellus Quadratus femoris Piriformis Adductor magnus Adductor longus Adductor brevis . Muscular System: Gross Anatomy © The McGraw−Hill Companies.Seeley−Stephens−Tate: Anatomy and Physiology. Tibia Fibula In addition to the hip muscles. Three groups of thigh muscles have been identiﬁed based on their location in the thigh: the anterior. 2004 352 Part 2 Support and Movement Iliacus Psoas major Tensor fasciae latae Pectineus Iliopsoas Adductor longus Gracilis Sartorius Rectus femoris Quadriceps femoris Semitendinosus Ischial tuberosity Vastus medialis Vastus lateralis Hamstrings Biceps femoris Semimembranosus (c) Figure 10. Figure 10. which ﬂex the hip.
Sixth Edition II. the vastus medialis. and flexes hip Adducts.20 and ﬁgure 10. ¯ ¯ ˘ The quadriceps femoris is actually four muscles: the rectus femoris. laterally rotates thigh. The patellar ligament is the point that is tapped with a rubber hammer when testing the knee-jerk reﬂex in a physical examination. Sartorius—the Tailor’s Muscle The term sartorius means tailor. The posterior thigh muscles are collectively called the hamstring muscles and consist of the biceps femoris.28a). The sartorius is the longest muscle of the body. and extends hip Adducts thigh.29). The rectus femoris also ﬂexes the hip because it crosses both the hip and knee joints. Some of these muscles also laterally rotate the thigh and/or ﬂex or extend the hip. extends hip Ischial tuberosity Tibial Leg Movements The anterior thigh muscles are the quadriceps femoris (fem o-ris) ˘ and the sartorius (sar-tor e-us) (see table 10. laterally rotates thigh. laterally rotates thigh. a-d˘ k t¯ r lon g˘ s) u u o u Adductor magnus (a-d˘ k ter. a-d˘ k t¯ r brev is) u u o Adductor longus (a-d˘ k ter. it ﬂexes the hip and knee and laterally rotates the thigh. 2004 Chapter 10 Muscular System: Gross Anatomy 353 Table 10. a-d˘ k t¯ r mag n˘ s) u u o u Gracilis (gras i-lis) Pectineus (pek ti-n¯ ˘ s) eu Posterior Compartment Biceps femoris (b¯ seps fem o-ris) ı ˘ Medial side of tibial tuberosity Femoral Flexes hip and knee: rotates thigh laterally and leg medially Pubis Pubis Pubis and ischium Pubis near symphysis Pubic crest Femur Femur Femur Tibia Pectineal line of femur Obturator Obturator Obturator and tibial Obturator Femoral and obturator Adducts.29) Muscle Anterior Compartment Quadriceps femoris (kwah dri-seps fem ˘ -ris) o Rectus femoris— anterior inferior iliac spine Vastus lateralis—femur Vastus intermedius— femur Vastus medialis—linea aspera Anterior superior iliac spine Patella and onto tibial tuberosity through patellar ligament Femoral Extends knee: rectus femoris also flexes hip Origin Insertion Nerve Action Sartorius (sar-t¯ r ¯ -˘ s) o eu Medial Compartment Adductor brevis (a-d˘ k ter. The sartorius muscle is so named because its action is to cross the legs. This movement is the action required for crossing the legs.28b and c). Support and Movement 10. The vastus lateralis sometimes is used as an injection site. . Their tendons are ¯ ˘ easily felt and seen on the medial and lateral posterior aspect of a slightly bent knee (see ﬁgure 10.20 Muscles of the Thigh (see figures 10. and semitendinosus (sem e ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ten-di-no sus) (see table 10. Muscular System: Gross Anatomy © The McGraw−Hill Companies. extends hip Flexes knee and medially rotates leg. on and around the patella. especially in infants who may not have well-developed deltoid or gluteal muscles. The muscles of the quadriceps femoris have a common insertion. and the vastus intermedius. The medial thigh muscles are involved primarily in adduction of the thigh (ﬁgure 10. tenses capsule of knee joint. The patellar ligament is an extension of the patellar tendon onto the tibial tuberosity.20 and ﬁgure 10. a common position traditionally preferred by tailors because they can hold their sewing in their lap as they sit and sew by hand. the vastus lateralis. The quadriceps group extends the knee. flexes knee Adducts thigh and flexes hip Long head—ischial tuberosity Short head—femur Ischial tuberosity Head of fibula Long head—tibial Short head—common fibular Flexes knee and laterally rotates leg.Seeley−Stephens−Tate: Anatomy and Physiology. semimembranosus (sem e-mem-bra-no sus). extends hip Semimembranosus (sem ¯ -mem-br˘ e a n¯ s˘ s) o u Semitendinosus (sem ¯ -ten-di-n¯ s˘ s) e o u Medial condyle of tibia and collateral ligament Tibia Tibial Flexes knee and medially rotates leg. the patellar tendon. The gracilis also ﬂexes the knee.31). and flexes hip Adducts. crossing from the lateral side of the hip to the medial side of the knee. As the muscle contracts.28 and 10.
Ankle.32): anterior. and second through fourth metatarsals Tibial Flexes four lateral toes. The anterior leg muscles are extensor muscles involved in dorsiﬂexion and eversion or inversion of the foot and extension of the toes. and Foot (see figures 10.32) Muscle Anterior Compartment Extensor digitorum longus (dij i-t¯ r-˘ m lon g˘ s) o u u Extensor hallicus longus (hal i-sis lon g˘ s) u Tibialis anterior (tib-¯ -a lis) e Fibularis tertius (peroneus tertius) (per ¯ -n¯ ˘ s ter sh¯ -˘ s) o eu eu Posterior Compartment Superficial Gastrocnemius (gas-trok-n¯ m¯ -˘ s) e eu Plantaris (plan-t¯ r is) a Soleus (s¯ -l¯ ˘ s) o eu Deep Flexor digitorum longus (dij i-t¯ r ˘ m lon g˘ s) o u u Flexor hallucis longus (hal i-sis lon g˘ s) u Popliteus (pop-li-t¯ ˘ s) eu Tibialis posterior (tib-¯ -a lis) e Tibia Four tendons to distal phalanges of four lateral toes Distal phalanx of great toe Posterior tibia Navicular. and lateral. Table 10. cuneiforms. cuboid. plantar flexes and inverts foot Flexes knee and medially rotates leg Plantar flexes and inverts foot Medial and lateral condyles of femur Femur Fibula and tibia Through calcaneal (Achilles) tendon to calcaneus Through calcaneal tendon to calcaneus Through calcaneal tendon to calcaneus Tibial Plantar flexes foot. Foot. plantar flexes and inverts foot Flexes great toe. Sixth Edition II. and Toe Movements Muscles of the leg that move the ankle and the foot are listed in table 10. These extrinsic foot muscles are divided into three groups. 2004 354 Part 2 Support and Movement Hamstrings The hamstrings are so named because in pigs these tendons can be used to suspend hams during curing. Muscular System: Gross Anatomy © The McGraw−Hill Companies. dorsiflexes and everts foot Extends great toe. flexes knee Lateral condyle of tibia and fibula Middle fibula and interosseous membrane Tibia and interosseous membrane Fibula and interosseous membrane Four tendons to phalanges of four lateral toes Distal phalanx of great toe Medial cuneiform and first metatarsal Fifth metatarsal Deep fibular* Extends four lateral toes.21 and are illustrated in ﬁgures 10. Ankle. . usually near the origin of the muscle. Some animals such as wolves often bring down their prey by biting through the hamstrings. interosseous membrane.Seeley−Stephens−Tate: Anatomy and Physiology. each located within a separate compartment of the leg (ﬁgure 10.31. and fibula Tibial Tibial Lateral Compartment Fibularis brevis (peroneus brevis) (fib-¯ -l¯ ris brev is) u a Fibularis longus (peroneus longus) (fib-¯ -l¯ ris lon g˘ s) u a u Fibula Fifth metatarsal Superficial fibular* Everts and plantar flexes foot Everts and plantar flexes foot Fibula Medial cuneiform and first metatarsal Superficial fibular* *Formerly referred to as the peroneal nerve. Support and Movement 10.30 and 10.21 Muscles of the Leg Acting on the Leg. therefore. “to hamstring” someone is to render the person helpless.30 and 10. dorsiflexes and inverts foot Dorsiflexes and inverts foot Dorsiflexes and everts foot Origin Insertion Nerve Action Deep fibular* Deep fibular* Deep fibular* Tibial Tibial Plantar flexes foot. A “pulled hamstring” results from tearing one or more of these muscles or their tendons. flexes knee Plantar flexes foot Fibula Tibial Lateral femoral condyle Tibia. posterior.
Sixth Edition II. (c) Posterior view of the right calf. and soleus muscles are removed. (d) Posterior view of the right calf. superﬁcial. . Gastrocnemius is removed. Muscular System: Gross Anatomy © The McGraw−Hill Companies.30 Muscles of the Leg (a) Anterior view of the right leg. 2004 Chapter 10 Muscular System: Gross Anatomy 355 Soleus Gastrocnemius Gastrocnemius Fibularis longus Soleus Tibialis anterior Anterior compartment muscles Extensor digitorum longus Extensor hallucis longus Fibularis tertius Soleus Fibularis longus (cut) Tibialis anterior Fibularis brevis Lateral compartment muscles Extensor digitorum longus Anterior compartment muscles Fibularis tertius Tendon of fibularis longus (cut) (a) (b) Two heads of gastrocnemius Plantaris Tibia Popliteus Posterior superficial compartment muscles Tibia Fibula Soleus Flexor digitorum longus Tibialis posterior Deep posterior compartment muscles Tendon of gastrocnemius (cut) Calcaneal tendon (Achilles tendon) Medial malleolus Lateral malleolus Flexor hallucis longus (c) (d) Figure 10. (b) Lateral view of the right leg. plantaris. deep. Support and Movement 10. Gastrocnemius.Seeley−Stephens−Tate: Anatomy and Physiology.
(b) Posterior view.30 (continued) (e) Photograph of leg muscles. . Tensor fasciae latae Sartorius Rectus femoris (quadriceps) Gluteus medius Gluteus maximus Adductors Vastus lateralis (quadriceps) Tendon of biceps femoris Vastus lateralis (quadriceps) Vastus medialis (quadriceps) Tendons of semitendinosus and semimembranosus Gastrocnemius Soleus Calcaneal (Achilles) tendon (a) (b) Figure 10. Muscles of the Lower Limb (a) Anterior view. 2004 356 Part 2 Support and Movement Gastrocnemius Soleus Tibialis anterior Fibularis longus Fibularis brevis Extensor digitorum longus Extensor digitorum brevis Fibularis longus tendon Fibularis brevis tendon Extensor digitorum longus tendons (e) Figure 10.31 Surface Anatomy. Muscular System: Gross Anatomy © The McGraw−Hill Companies. Support and Movement 10.Seeley−Stephens−Tate: Anatomy and Physiology. Sixth Edition II.
the anterior compartment muscles may swell with blood.33). Anterior compartment syndrome. 31. Intrinsic foot muscles. his heel was vulnerable and proved to be his undoing. 2004 Chapter 10 Muscular System: Gross Anatomy 357 Posterior compartment Superficial posterior compartment Plantar flexes foot Flexes knee Posterior Deep posterior compartment Plantar flexes foot Inverts foot Flexes toes Achilles Tendon The Achilles tendon derives its name from a hero of Greek mythology. 30. held him by the heel and failed to submerge this part of his body under the water. What movement do the ﬁbularis (peroneus) muscles have in common? The tibialis muscles? 32. tendon (see ﬁgure 10. and describe the movements for which each muscle is responsible. The deep muscles of the posterior compartment plantar ﬂex and invert the foot and ﬂex the toes. Shinsplints Shinsplints is a catchall term involving any one of the following four conditions associated with pain in the anterior portion of the leg: 1.32 Cross Section Through the Right Leg Drawing of the muscular compartments. His mother. They join with the small plantaris muscle to form the common calcaneal (kal-ka ne -al). the gastrocnemius (gas-trok-ne me -us) and soleus. he was shot in the heel with an arrow at the battle of Troy and died.22 and ﬁgure 10. Excessive stress on the tibialis posterior. or Achilles. which made him invulnerable to harm everywhere the water touched his skin. Fibula Tibia Nerves and vessels Anterior Anterior compartment Dorsiflexes foot Inverts foot Everts foot Extends toes The lateral muscles are primarily everters of the foot. .Seeley−Stephens−Tate: Anatomy and Physiology. Describe the movements produced by the gluteus muscles. 2. Support and Movement 10. Tibial periostitis. These mus¯ ¯ cles are involved in plantar ﬂexion of the foot. List the muscles of each compartment and the individual action of each muscle. his mother dipped him into magic water. Lateral compartment Plantar flexes foot Everts foot Figure 10. however. located within the foot itself (table 10.30c). 28. 26. causing pain. but they also aid plantar ﬂexion. They are arranged in a manner similar to that of the intrinsic muscles of the hand. The best treatment for any of these types of shinsplints is to rest the leg for 1–4 weeks. Which of them can also plantar ﬂex the foot? 33. Name the leg muscles that ﬂex the knee. What muscles act as synergists to this muscle? 27. extend. resulting in pain along the origin of the muscle. Name the muscle compartments of the thigh and the movements produced by the muscles of each compartment. 4. Muscular System: Gross Anatomy © The McGraw−Hill Companies. thus the nerves and vessels are compressed.30 and 10. Sixth Edition II. List the general actions performed by the intrinsic foot muscles. Consequently. 29. ﬂex. abduct. an inﬂammation of the tibial periosteum. saying that someone has an “Achilles’ heel” means that the person has a weak spot that can be attacked. Stress fracture of the tibia 2–5 cm distal to the knee. and adduct the toes. The superﬁcial muscles of the posterior compartment. 3. Name the anterior hip muscle that ﬂexes the hip. depending on the type of shinsplint. form the bulge ¯ ¯ ˘ of the calf (posterior leg) (see ﬁgures 10. How is it possible for thigh muscles to move both the thigh and the leg? Name at least four muscles that can do this.31). Thus. The overlying fascia is very tough and does not expand. What movements are produced by the three muscle compartments of the leg? Name the muscles of each compartment. When Achilles was a baby. During hard exercise.
. fourth.33) Muscle Abductor digiti minimi (ab-d˘ k ter. a-d˘ k t¯ r u u o hal i-sis) (not illustrated) Extensor digitorum brevis (dij i-t¯ r ˘ m brev is) o u (not illustrated) Flexor digiti minimi brevis (dij i-t¯ min ˘ ı ı ı-m¯ brev is) Flexor digitorum brevis (dij i-t¯ r ˘ m brev is) o u Flexor hallucis brevis (hal i-sis brev is) Dorsal interossei (in ter-os e-¯) ı (not illustrated) Plantar interossei (plan t˘ r in ter-os e-¯) a ı Lumbricales (lum bri-k¯ -l¯ z) a e Quadratus plantae (kwah dr¯ t˘ s plan t¯ ) a u e Origin Calcaneus Insertion Proximal phalanx of fifth toe Nerve Lateral plantar Action Abducts and flexes little toe Calcaneus Great toe Medial plantar Abducts great toe Lateral four metatarsals Calcaneus Proximal phalanx of great toe Lateral plantar Adducts great toe Four tendons fused Deep fibular* with tendons of extensor digitorum longus Proximal phalanx of fifth digit Four tendons to middle phalanges of four lateral toes Two tendons to proximal phalanx of great toe Proximal phalanges of second. third. Muscular System: Gross Anatomy © The McGraw−Hill Companies. and fifth digits Second through fifth digits Tendons of flexor digitorum longus Lateral plantar Extends toes Fifth metatarsal Flexes little toe (proximal phalanx) Flexes lateral four toes Calcaneus and plantar fascia Cuboid. ab-d˘ k t¯ r u u o hal i-sis) Adductor hallucis (a-d˘ k ter. ab-d˘ k t¯ r u u o dij i-t¯ min ˘ ı) ı ı-m¯ Abductor hallucis (ab-d˘ k ter. 2004 358 Part 2 Support and Movement Table 10. Support and Movement 10. third. adduct second toe Adduct third.22 Intrinsic Muscles of the Foot (see figure 10. fourth. Tendons of flexor digitorum brevis (cut) Adductor hallucis Lumbricales Flexor hallucis brevis Flexor digiti minimi brevis Plantar interossei Flexor hallucis longus tendon Flexor digitorum brevis Abductor hallucis Abductor digiti minimi Plantar aponeurosis (cut) Flexor hallucis longus tendon (cut) Tendons of flexor digitorum longus Flexor hallucis brevis Quadratus plantae Flexor digitorum brevis tendon (cut) Figure 10. Sixth Edition II. and fifth toes Flex proximal and extend middle and distal phalanges Flexes toes Third.33 Muscles of the Foot Plantar view of the right foot.Seeley−Stephens−Tate: Anatomy and Physiology. and fourth toes. and fourth digits Proximal phalanges of third. fourth. medial and lateral cuneiforms Metatarsal bones Medial plantar Medial and lateral plantar Lateral plantar Flexes great toe Abduct second. and fifth metatarsals Tendons of flexor digitorum longus Calcaneus Lateral plantar Lateral and medial plantar Lateral plantar *Formerly referred to as the peroneal nerve.
number of heads. General Principles (p. Muscle Shapes Muscle shape is determined primarily by the arrangement of muscle fasciculi. S U M M A R Y Body movements result from the contraction of skeletal muscles. The difference between Figure A Bodybuilders the results of the new studies and the older ones is attributed to modern bodybuilding techniques that include aerobic exercise and running. rotation.” Bodybuilding has its own language. even though the soreness may only last 5–10 days. Tongue Movements Intrinsic tongue muscles change the shape of the tongue. More recent studies. indicate that the cardiorespiratory ﬁtness of bodybuilders is similar to that of other welltrained athletes.Seeley−Stephens−Tate: Anatomy and Physiology. Skill. and deltoids. and adduction of the head. insertions are into the skin. trapezius. Sixth Edition II. lips. and concentration are required to build a wellproportioned. Three classes of levers have been identiﬁed. Antagonists oppose or reverse the movement of another muscle. abduction. Bodybuilders refer to the “lats. Participants in this sport combine diet and speciﬁc weight training to develop maximum muscle mass and minimum body fat. Mastication Three pairs of muscles close the jaw.” and “delts” rather than the latissimus dorsi. Is the old adage “no pain. muscular body and to know which exercises build a large number of muscles and which are specialized to build certain parts of the body.” “preacher curls. They cause ﬂexion. Movements Accomplished by Muscles Contracting muscles generate a force that acts on bones (levers) across joints (fulcrums) to create movement. untrained muscle builder can build some muscles and ignore others. healthy persons untrained in a sport. no gain” correct? Not really. Overexercising can cause small tears in muscles and soreness. An uninformed. or function.” and “triceps extensions. size. gravity opens the jaw. 319) Head and Neck Muscles Origins of these muscles are mainly on the cervical vertebrae (except for the sternocleidomastoid). extension. 1. training. Nomenclature Muscles are named according to their location. 3. 2004 Chapter 10 Muscular System: Gross Anatomy 359 Clinical Focus Bodybuilding Bodybuilding is a popular sport worldwide. 314) Head Muscles (p. complete physique. extrinsic tongue muscles move the tongue. as well as “pumping iron. orientation of fasciculi.” Photographs of bodybuilders are very useful in the study of anatomy because they enable easy identiﬁcation of the surface anatomy of muscles that cannot usually be seen in untrained people (ﬁgure A). 2. the more movable end is the insertion. insertions are on the occipital bone or mastoid process. however. The exercises also have special names such as “lat pulldowns. Endurance tests conducted years ago demonstrated that the cardiovascular and respiratory abilities of bodybuilders were similar to those abilities in normal. Synergists are muscles that function together to produce movement. Fixators stabilize the action of prime movers. and it may take up to 3 weeks to repair the damage. Forced opening is caused by the lateral pterygoids and the hyoid muscles. Torn muscles are weaker. Prime movers are mainly responsible for a movement.” “traps. the result is a disproportioned body. Facial Expression Origins of facial muscles are on skull bones or fascia. causing movement of the facial skin. . shape. with their major goal being a well-balanced. and eyelids. The less movable end of a muscle attachment is the origin. Support and Movement 10. origin and insertion. Muscular System: Gross Anatomy © The McGraw−Hill Companies. Bodybuilders concentrate on increasing skeletal muscle mass.
In a class III lever system the a. Upper Limb Muscles Scapular Movements (p. A prominent lateral muscle of the neck that can cause ﬂexion of the neck or rotate the head is the a. Hyoid muscles can depress the jaw and assist in swallowing. latissimus dorsi. fulcrum is located between the pull and the weight. The leg is divided into three compartments. e. 5. weight is located between the fulcrum and the pull. vastus lateralis. • Muscles of the posterior compartment ﬂex the leg. transversus abdominis—circular c. Muscles of the buttocks are responsible for extension of the hip and abduction and rotation of the thigh. e. mylohyoid. Muscular System: Gross Anatomy © The McGraw−Hill Companies. Which of these muscles is correctly matched with its type of fascicle orientation? a. Lower Limb Muscles Thigh Movements (p. Extrinsic hand muscles are in the forearm. b. b. R E V I E W A N D C O M P R E H E N S I O N 1. • Muscles in the anterior compartment cause dorsiﬂexion. orbicularis oris—parallel 4. b. rotation. Supination and pronation are accomplished primarily by forearm muscles. gluteus maximus. and circumduction of the arm. rotation. 2. antagonists. These muscles extend. pull is located between the fulcrum and the weight. Muscles extending the wrist and ﬁngers originate on the lateral epicondyle. • The medial compartment muscles adduct the thigh. hateful. pectoralis major—pennate b. plantar ﬂex and invert the foot. 3. 2. Foot. biceps femoris—parallel e. Forearm Movements 1. Sixth Edition II. digastric. Muscles attached to the ribs aid in respiration. and the posterior thigh muscles ﬂex the leg. temporalis—convergent d. 3. rotate.Seeley−Stephens−Tate: Anatomy and Physiology. b. d. Intrinsic hand muscles are in the hand. Trunk Muscles (p. The most movable attachment of a muscle is its a. adductor magnus. c. c. ﬁxators. e. or eversion of the foot and extension of the toes. 2. inversion. or ﬂex the vertebral column. 2. 332) Muscles Moving the Vertebral Column 1. 6. and Finger Movements 1. Support and Movement 10. • The anterior compartment muscles ﬂex the hip. and lateral ﬂexion of the vertebral column. Forearm muscles that originate on the medial epicondyle are responsible for ﬂexion of the wrist and ﬁngers. 2004 360 Part 2 Support and Movement Swallowing and the Larynx 1. Intrinsic foot muscles ﬂex or extend and abduct or adduct the toes. c. and Toe Movements 1. • Muscles of the lateral compartment plantar ﬂex and evert the foot. Anterior pelvic muscles cause ﬂexion of the hip. fascia. origin. A deep group of muscles connects adjacent vertebrae. 338) Ankle. 2. c. Arm Movements Seven muscles attach the humerus to the scapula. 3. insertion. extending from the vertebrae to the ribs. c. 2. fulcrum. Movements of the Eyeball Six muscles with their origins on the orbital bones insert on the eyeball and cause it to move within the orbit. d. Most respiratory movement is caused by the diaphragm. The anterior thigh muscles extend the leg. 2. sternocleidomastoid. Abdominal Wall Abdominal wall muscles hold and protect abdominal organs and cause ﬂexion. 2. . platysma. belly. Muscles that oppose one another are a. and ﬂex the toes. Hand. b. 1. Leg Movements Some muscles of the thigh also act on the leg. levers. 349) Thoracic Muscles 1. auditory tubes. Wrist. d. A more superﬁcial group of muscles runs from the pelvis to the skull. e. and larynx. abduct. Two additional muscles attach the humerus to the trunk. Muscles open and close the openings to the nasal cavity. adduction. These muscles cause ﬂexion and extension of the shoulder and abduction. Six muscles attach the scapula to the trunk and enable the scapula to function as an anchor point for the muscles and bones of the arm. synergists. Flexion and extension of the elbow are accomplished by three muscles located in the arm and two in the forearm. • The posterior compartment muscles extend the hip. The muscle whose name means it is larger and round is the a. buccinator. teres major. d. Pelvic Floor and Perineum These muscles support the abdominal organs inferiorly. The thigh can be divided into three compartments.
4. orbicularis oculi In which order did Harry use these muscles? a. levator scapulae c. external abdominal oblique 2. d. supraspinatus b.5. supinator 21. are the central point of attachment for all the abdominal muscles.2 c. extensor pollicis longus e. prevent food from entering the larynx. both a and b e. 2. Given these muscles: 1. extension of the ﬁngers. a.3. latissimus dorsi b. ﬂexor pollicis longus d. lateral ﬂexion of the vertebral column c. 11. ﬂexion of the wrist. ﬁx (prevent movement of) the hyoid. b. Given the muscles listed: 1. brachialis c. Tendinous intersections a.4 8. Harry Wolf has just picked up his date for the evening. trapezius e. all of the above. internal abdominal oblique 3. e. rhomboideus major and minor b. 3. extrinsic tongue muscles. 2004 Chapter 10 Muscular System: Gross Anatomy 361 7.5. c. 9. biceps brachii b. She’s wearing a stunning new outﬁt. gluteus maximus b. subscapularis 20. all of the above 14. all of the above. The soft palate muscles a.3 d. rectus abdominis d. The infrahyoid muscles a. pectoralis major e. force food into the esophagus. 2. d. Which of these muscles is an antagonist of the triceps brachii? a.1 b. separate the abdominal wall from the thigh. prevent food from entering the nasal cavity. Which of these muscles can both elevate and depress the scapula? a. e. zygomaticus 2. all of the above 24. 2. gluteus medius c. all of the above. elevate the mandible. d. c. ﬂexion of the ﬁngers. diaphragm b.2. Which of these movements is not caused by contraction of the erector spinae muscles? a. superﬁcial back muscles (erector spinae) c. latissimus dorsi d. pectoralis minor 18. infraspinatus c. biceps brachii b.5. d. tensor fasciae latae e. are the site of exit of blood vessels from the abdomen into the thigh. c. d. Support and Movement 10. coracobrachialis 19. Which of these muscles does not adduct the arm (humerus)? a. e. anconeus c. Which of these muscles is not involved with the inspiration of air? a. 3. Harry shows his appreciation by moving his eyebrows up and down. hypothenar muscles c. e.1 e. Which of these muscles would you expect to be especially well developed in a boxer known for his powerful jab (punching straight ahead)? a. Which of these muscles can extend the hip? a.4 e.1. elevate the larynx. Which of these muscle(s) is an intrinsic hand muscle that moves the thumb? a.3. teres major e. occipitofrontalis 4. brachioradialis e. both a and b.Seeley−Stephens−Tate: Anatomy and Physiology. scalene d.2. Muscular System: Gross Anatomy © The McGraw−Hill Companies. move the mandible from side to side. 10.1. b.3. both a and b. e.3 b. 23. b. 1. b. intrinsic tongue muscles. rotation of the vertebral column 13. external intercostals c. and ﬁnally kissing her. triceps brachii e. temporalis muscles. divide the rectus abdominis muscles into segments. b.2 16.1. Which of these muscles is (are) responsible for ﬂexion of the vertebral column (below the neck)? a. 2. both a and b.1 c. teres major d. Which of these muscles abducts the arm (humerus)? a. extension of the vertebral column d. transversus thoracis 15. The tongue curls and folds primarily because of the action of the a.5. sartorius . c. deltoid c. smiling. masseter muscles. trapezius d.3. teres minor d. attach the rectus abdominis muscles to the xiphoid process. levator labii superioris 3. The posterior group of forearm muscles is responsible for a. close the auditory tube. c. thenar muscles b. Sixth Edition II. 12. transversus abdominis Choose the arrangement that lists the muscles from most superﬁcial to deepest. An aerial circus performer who supports herself only by her teeth while spinning around should have strong a.4. winking. supinator 22.3 d. ﬂexion of the vertebral column b. gluteus minimus d. orbicularis oris 5. serratus anterior d. buccinator muscles. 3. b. 1. 17. 2. deep back muscles b.
ﬂexor e. winking—orbicularis oculi and then levator palpebrae superioris. and other study tools. the tongue muscles relax. frowning—corrugator supercilii and procerus. During surgery. What neck muscles might be injured in this type of accident? What is the easiest way to prevent such injury in an automobile accident? 5. gastrocnemius d. extensor 29. triceps brachii. involves the supraspinatus. With the forearm supinated. Given these muscles: 1. 3. The brachialis only ﬂexes. The pain occurs because as the arm is abducted the supraspinatus tendon rubs against the acromion process. . risorius. The mechanical support of the head of the humerus in the glenoid fossa is weakest in the inferior direction. deltoid. ﬁbularis (peroneus) d.3 26. Pain in one of the four rotator cuff muscles. vastus medialis c. tibialis anterior b. both muscles can ﬂex the elbow optimally. gracilis d. the biceps brachii does less to ﬂex the elbow. Which tongue muscle is responsible? How can this be prevented or reversed? 7. Which of these is not a muscle that can ﬂex the knee? a. 2. Visit the Online Learning Center at www. smiling—levator anguli oris. quadriceps femoris. tibialis c. which are associated with abduction. coracobrachialis. Raising eyebrows—occipitofrontalis. a. gracilis e. For each of the following muscles. Chin-ups with the elbow supinated are therefore easier because both muscles ﬂex the forearm optimally in this position. 1 b. sartorius Which of the muscles act to ﬂex the hip? a. Two arm muscles are involved in ﬂexion of the elbow: the brachialis and the biceps brachii. what type of lever system is in action? If the weight is placed on the forearm? Which system can lift more weight. 2. tibialis. 1. dorsiﬂexion of the foot more than normal. a branch of the patient’s facial nerve was accidentally cut on one side of the face. sartorius 28. whereas the muscles invert the foot. ﬁbularis (peroneus).Seeley−Stephens−Tate: Anatomy and Physiology. biceps femoris b. iliopsoas 2. 1. ﬂaring nostrils—levator labii superioris alaeque nasi and nasalis. (1) describe the movement that the muscle produces. and zygomaticus minor. and (2) name the muscles that act as synergists and antagonists for them: longus capitis. 10. Weakness of the lateral rectus allows the eye to deviate medially. What muscles were apparently affected? 6. What muscles help prevent dislocation of the shoulder when a heavy weight such as a suitcase is carried? 8. 2004 362 Part 2 Support and Movement 25. whereas the biceps brachii both ﬂexes the elbow and supinates the forearm. tibialis. gastrocnemius b. 1. How would paralysis of the quadriceps femoris of the left leg affect a person’s ability to walk? 9. rectus femoris 3. Which of these muscles causes plantar ﬂexion of the foot? a. It also slightly elevates the chin. The muscles evert the foot. A patient was involved in an automobile accident in which the car was “rear-ended. sartorius Answers in Appendix F C R I T I C A L T H I N K I N G 1. ﬁbularis (peroneus) tertius d. zygomaticus major.2. 4. ﬂexor. sartorius c. Propose an exercise that would beneﬁt each of the following muscles speciﬁcally: biceps brachii. 5. rectus abdominis. vastus medialis e. Shortening the right sternocleidomastoid muscle rotates the head to the left.3 e. and how far? 4. ﬁbularis (peroneus). extensor digitorum longus c. whistling—orbicularis oris and buccinator. semitendinosus 27. and abnormal bulging of the calf muscles.mhhe.” resulting in whiplash injury of the head (hyperextension). Which of these muscles is found in the medial compartment of the thigh? a. erector spinae. after the operation. Sixth Edition II. Explain the nature of her injury. Consider only the effect of the brachioradialis muscle for this question. the lower eyelid and the corner of the patient’s mouth drooped on that side of the face.2 c. What muscles are required to turn this page? Answers in Appendix G A N S W E R S T O P R E D I C T Q U E S T I O N S 1. Support and Movement 10. soleus e. Muscular System: Gross Anatomy © The McGraw−Hill Companies. rectus femoris b. 2. 3. When a person becomes unconscious. and gastrocnemius. and the tongue tends to retract or fall back and obstruct the airway. Examination of her right leg revealed the following symptoms: inability to plantar ﬂex the foot against resistance.3 d. Bodybuilders who wish to build up the brachialis muscle perform chin-ups with the forearms pronated. As a result. interactive learning exercises. If a weight is held in the hand and the forearm is ﬂexed. normal ability to evert the foot. Speedy Sprinter started a 200 m dash and fell to the ground in pain.com/seeley6 for chapter quizzes. when pronated.
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