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Salman - 2005 - Nonlinear Identification of Unmanned Aircraft Vehicle|Views: 17|Likes: 0

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/58709542/Salman-2005-Nonlinear-Identification-of-Unmanned-Aircraft-Vehicle

10/18/2013

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S.A. Salman A. G. Sreenatha

University College,Australian Defence force Academy, ADFA@UNSW

Northcott Drive, Canberra ACT 2600 , AUSTRALIA

[s.salman , a.g.sreenatha]@adfa.edu.au ,

http://www.unsw.adfa.edu.au

Abstract

Unmanned aircraft vehicles (UAVs) have been playing

an increasingly important role in military and civilian

operations and have been used in many fields.

Controller design for UAV is subject to time varying

and non-linear model parameters. Hence, identification

of the mathematical model is an important process in

controller design. In this paper, we use nonlinear state

space identification for UAV. Using the flight data,

nonlinear state space model for UAV is derived and

verified. Simulation results show that the model

dynamics match experimental data.

Keywords: Nonlinear identification, state space,

unmanned aircraft vehicle.

1. Introduction

When the system to be modeled is UAV, the models

are generally dynamic with multiple inputs and

outputs, and the measurements are noisy. While

significant progress has been made in identification of

linear systems over the broad spectrum of aerospace

applications, insufficient research has been performed

to identify the nonlinear flight dynamics [1]. It has

been recognized that the significant improvements of

dynamic performance of current and new generation of

advanced airplanes is possible if flight systems design

integrates nonlinear analysis, control, and

Identification [2]. Identification of nonlinear multi-

input multi-output vehicles is a challenging problem

and the current interest has been shifted to the issues of

handling the nonlinear identification. In this paper, a

nonlinear mapping identification concept [2-5] is

applied to identify the unknown parameters of

multivariable UAV which is mapped by nonlinear

differential equations. This method is developed upon

the assumption that a model structure is available. The

test flights to collect the data are conducted in

ADFA@UNSW.

2. State space Identification

The nonlinear mapping identification method [2-5]

considers the system in the form

) , ( ) ( u x F t x = , , , (1) 0 > t

0 0

) ( x t x =

where is the vector of the measured states with

initial conditions

c

R x e

0 0

) ( x t x = ; is the known input

vector; denotes a continuous vector function

which is defined on

m

R u e

) , ( u x F

{ } 0 \

c

R with . 0 ) 0 , 0 ( = F

System (1) can be written in the matrix state space

form as

) , ( ) ( u x Af t x = , , , (2) 0 > t

0 0

) ( x t x =

where

cxn

R Ae is the real matrix; denotes a

given real analytic function, .

) , ( u x f

n m c

R xR R f ÷ - : ) (

The identified state space model is

) , ( ) ( u x f A t x

m m m

= , , , (3) 0 > t

0 0

) (

m m

x t x =

The main goal of this selection is to identify the

coefficient of matrix .

m

A

The normalized parameter error matrix

cxn

R Ae A is

defined as

m

A A A ÷ = A (4)

The state error vector,

, ) ( , 0 ), , , ( ) , (

) ( ) ( ) (

0 0

x t x t u x x f A u x Af

t x t x t x

m m

m

A = A > A + A =

÷ = A

is introduced. Here, ) , ( ) , ( ) , , ( u x f u x f u x x f

m m m

÷ = A

The error vector is defined as

) , , ( ) ( ) ( u x x f A t x t e

m m

A ÷ A =

Using the differential equation for the normalized

parameter error matrix (4)

0 0

) ( , , ) , ( A t A R K K u x ef A

nxn T

A = A e ÷ = A

**K is a weighting matrix and it is chosen by me.
**

one obtains

0 0

) ( , ) , ( ) ( ) (

m m

T

m

A t A K u x ef t A t A = + =

since the system (2) is time invariant, so . 0 ) ( = t A

**Then, we have the following nonlinear equation
**

ACSE 05 Conference, 19-21 December 2005, CICC, Cairo, Egypt

0 0

) (

) , ( )] , , ( ) ( [ ) (

m m

T

m m m

A t A

K u x f u x x f A t x t A

=

A ÷ A =

(5)

3. Identification of Unmanned aircraft

Vehicle

To validate the reported identification algorithm, we

consider an unmanned aircraft. The aircraft dynamics

are mapped by a set of three highly coupled nonlinear

differential equations as given by

=

th

a

r

e

m m

m m m m

m m

m m m m m

m m m

m m m m m

r

p

r

q

p

qr

pr

pq

A A

A A A A

A A

A A A A A

A A A

A A A A A

r

q

p

o

o

o

o

2

2

311 310

212 29 28 27

111 110

36 35 34 33 31

26 25 22

16 15 14 13 11

0 0 0 0

0 0

0 0 0 0

0

0 0 0

0

**where are the roll, pitch and yaw
**

rates respectively, and

) ( and ), ( ), ( t r t q t p

th a r e

o o o o and , , , are the

elevator, ruder, aileron and throttle servos displacement

respectively.

The state vector is given by

=

) (

) (

) (

) (

t r

t q

t p

t x

, is given by ) , ( t x f

| |

T

th a r e

r p r q p qr pr pq t x f o o o o

2 2

) , ( =

,

and the parameter matrix is given by

=

0 0 0 0

0 0

0 0 0 0

0

0 0 0

0

) (

311 310

212 29 28 27

111 110

36 35 34 33 31

26 25 22

16 15 14 13 11

m m

m m m m

m m

m m m m m

m m m

m m m m m

m

A A

A A A A

A A

A A A A A

A A A

A A A A A

t A

4. Flight data collection

Flight tests are carried out to collect a range of data for

differing flight conditions. Inertial Navigation Unit

with three axis gyros and accelerometers is employed

for this. Figures 1 and 2 show the test flight data for a

typical condition.

As shown in these figures 1 and 2 the data is noisy.

Initially, the original data is used for identification.

Later on the data is filtered by taking the average for

three subsequent points. This is shown in Figure 3.

0 20 40 60

70

75

80

85

e

le

v

a

t

o

r

0 20 40 60

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

r

u

d

d

e

r

0 20 40 60

60

65

70

75

80

85

a

ile

r

o

n

0 20 40 60

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

t

h

r

o

t

t

le

Figure 1 Input flight Data

Figure 2 Sensor output flight data

3.5

Figure 3 filtered sensor output flight data

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

1.5

2

2.5

3

3.5

p

(

t

)

,

r

a

d

/

s

e

c

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

1.5

2

2.5

3

q

(

t

)

,

r

a

d

/

s

e

c

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

2

2.5

3

3.5

Time, secs

r

(

t

)

,

r

a

d

/

s

e

c

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

1.5

2

2.5

3

p

(

t

)

,

r

a

d

/

s

e

c

3

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

1.5

2

2.5

q

(

t

)

,

r

a

d

/

s

e

c

3.5

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

1.5

2

2.5

3

r

(

t

)

,

r

a

d

/

s

e

c

Time, secs

ACSE 05 Conference, 19-21 December 2005, CICC, Cairo, Egypt

5. Results

first, we used the data as it is and we didn’t apply any

filtering. In the identification algorithm, we switch it

on for the first five points then switch it off for the next

20

th

.

Figure 4 shows the identified model (Bold) and the

flight data (gray). From the simulation, the identified

model and flight data match very well.

Figure 4 Identified model (bold) and flight data (gray)

Figure 5 shows the identified model (Bold) and the

flight data (gray) after applying filtering to the flight

data. This seems to be giving a better identified model.

Figure 5 After applying filtering ,Identified model (bold) and flight

data (gray)

6. Conclusion

A nonlinear mapping identification concept is applied

to identify the unknown parameters of multivariable

UAV which is mapped by nonlinear differential

equations. The method is based on the nonlinear model

structure for UAV. Simulation results show that very

good match between the flight data and the simulated

data. After applying the filtering for the data, the

results from identification are much better. The main

disadvantage of this algorithm is that, it starts with a

given structure. It is quite likely that another structure

may give better results. Hence, the work is continuing

to come up with an identification algorithm that does

not require a structure.

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

1.5

2

2.5

3

3.5

p

(

t

)

,

r

a

d

/

s

e

c

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

1.5

2

2.5

3

q

(

t

)

,

r

a

d

/

s

e

c

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

1.5

2

2.5

3

3.5

Time, secs

r

(

t

)

,

r

a

d

/

s

e

c

Bold Identified model

Gray Flight data

7. References:

[1] Morelli, E. A, System identification Programs for

aircraft (SIDPAC), AIAA Atmospheric Flight

Mechanics Conference, Aug.5-8, 2002, Monterey,

Canada.

[2] Lyshevski, State-space identification of nonlinear

flight dynamics, Proceeding of the 1997 IEEE

International Conference on Control Applications,

Hartford, CT, October 5-7, 1997.

[3] Lyshevski and Chen “Nonlinear identification of

aircraft” Proceeding of the 1996 IEEE

International Conference on Control Applications,

Dearborn, MI, September 15-18, 1996.

[4] Pappano, Lyshevski, and Friedland, Nonlinear

identification of induction motor parameters,

Proceeding of the American Control Conference,

San Diego, California, June 1999.

[5] Lyshevski, Identification of nonlinear flight

dynamics: theory and practice, IEEE Trans. On

Aerospace and Electronic Systems, Vol. 36, No. 2,

April 2000

[6] Gerber, Design of an autopilot for model aircraft,

final year project thesis, UNSW@ADFA, October

2004

3.5

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

1.5

2

2.5

3

p

(

t

)

,

r

a

d

/

s

e

c

3

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

1.5

2

2.5

q

(

t

)

,

r

a

d

/

s

e

c

3.5

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

1.5

2

2.5

3

Time, secs

(

t

)

,

r

a

d

/

s

e

r

c

ACSE 05 Conference, 19-21 December 2005, CICC, Cairo, Egypt

rad/sec 3 2. the original data is used for identification. Identification of Unmanned aircraft Vehicle To validate the reported identification algorithm. and the parameter matrix is given by Am11 0 Am 31 0 Am 27 0 0 Am 28 0 0 Am 22 0 0 Am 29 0 Am13 0 Am 33 Am110 0 Am 310 Am14 0 Am 34 Am111 0 Am 311 Am15 Am 25 Am 35 0 Am 212 0 Am16 Am 26 Am 36 Am (t ) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 4. and th elevator. Cairo. 85 90 85 80 elevator rudder 75 70 0 20 40 60 80 75 70 65 60 0 20 40 60 3. Egypt Am (t ) [ x(t ) Am f ( x. rad/sec 2.5 3. secs 40 50 60 x(t ) f ( x. pitch and yaw rates respectively.5 2 1. Figures 1 and 2 show the test flight data for a typical condition. rad/sec 2. 19-21 December 2005. 0 10 20 30 Time. r . Later on the data is filtered by taking the average for three subsequent points. The state vector is given by p(t ) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 3 2.5 r(t). rad/sec 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 where p(t ). This is shown in Figure 3. secs 40 50 60 Figure 3 filtered sensor output flight data .5 2 1. a .5 3 q(t). The aircraft dynamics are mapped by a set of three highly coupled nonlinear differential equations as given by p q r Am11 0 Am 31 0 Am 22 0 Am13 0 Am 33 Am14 0 Am 34 Am15 Am 25 Am 35 Am16 Am 26 Am 36 aileron 85 80 75 70 65 60 90 85 80 throttle 0 20 40 60 75 70 65 60 0 20 40 60 pq pr qr p 0 Am 27 0 0 Am 28 0 0 Am 29 0 Am110 0 Am 310 Am111 0 Am 311 0 Am 212 0 q r p2 r2 e r a th p(t). Flight data collection Flight tests are carried out to collect a range of data for differing flight conditions. t ) q(t ) . CICC.5 2 1. we consider an unmanned aircraft. q(t ). Initially.5 2 1.5 r(t).5 2 1.5 p(t). ruder. u ) T K Am (t 0 ) Am 0 (5) As shown in these figures 1 and 2 the data is noisy. aileron and throttle servos displacement respectively. and r (t ) are the roll. x m . t ) is given by r (t ) pq pr qr p q r p2 r2 T e r a th Figure 2 Sensor output flight data 3. and are the e .5 3 2.5 0 10 20 30 Time. f ( x. rad/sec 3 2.5 2 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 .ACSE 05 Conference. u )] f ( x. Inertial Navigation Unit with three axis gyros and accelerometers is employed for this.5 3 q(t).5 3. rad/sec Figure 1 Input flight Data 3.

rad/sec 3 2. [3] Lyshevski and Chen “Nonlinear identification of aircraft” Proceeding of the 1996 IEEE International Conference on Control Applications. October 2004 40 50 60 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 40 50 60 Figure 4 Identified model (bold) and flight data (gray) Figure 5 shows the identified model (Bold) and the flight data (gray) after applying filtering to the flight data. secs 0 10 20 30 7. the results from identification are much better. The method is based on the nonlinear model structure for UAV. 1996.5 r(t). Hence. CICC.5 3 q(t). final year project thesis. Results first.ACSE 05 Conference. Proceeding of the American Control Conference.5 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 3. IEEE Trans. 1997.5 0 10 20 30 Time. A. System identification Programs for aircraft (SIDPAC). [5] Lyshevski. Lyshevski. UNSW@ADFA. San Diego. Vol. the work is continuing to come up with an identification algorithm that does not require a structure. we switch it on for the first five points then switch it off for the next 20th .5 2 1. California. [4] Pappano. Identification of nonlinear flight dynamics: theory and practice. Bold Identified model Gray Flight data equations. 3.5-8. the identified model and flight data match very well. From the simulation. After applying the filtering for the data. MI. April 2000 [6] Gerber. 2002. This seems to be giving a better identified model. Canada. Egypt 5. State-space identification of nonlinear flight dynamics. AIAA Atmospheric Flight Mechanics Conference. rad/sec 3 2.5 2 1. On Aerospace and Electronic Systems.5 2 1. Cairo. Figure 4 shows the identified model (Bold) and the flight data (gray). we used the data as it is and we didn’t apply any filtering. CT. 2. 36. The main disadvantage of this algorithm is that.5 r(t). rad/sec 2. Simulation results show that very good match between the flight data and the simulated data. Design of an autopilot for model aircraft. [2] Lyshevski. Conclusion A nonlinear mapping identification concept is applied to identify the unknown parameters of multivariable UAV which is mapped by nonlinear differential . No. rad/sec 3 2. 3. References: [1] Morelli. September 15-18.5 2 1. Aug.5 p(t). secs 40 50 60 Figure 5 After applying filtering .5 p(t). In the identification algorithm.5 3 q(t). Dearborn. rad/sec 3 2. it starts with a given structure. and Friedland. Monterey.5 2 1. It is quite likely that another structure may give better results.5 3.Identified model (bold) and flight data (gray) 6. 19-21 December 2005. October 5-7.5 0 10 20 30 Time. Proceeding of the 1997 IEEE International Conference on Control Applications. Hartford. rad/sec 2. Nonlinear identification of induction motor parameters. E.5 2 1. June 1999.

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