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Lecture 1 Diodes|Views: 748|Likes: 2

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02/18/2013

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- Silicon
- Silicon Doping
- Current Flow
- PN Junction
- PN Junction: Forward Bias
- PN Junction: Reverse Bias
- Ideal Diode: I-V characteristic
- Question 1
- Question 2
- Question 3
- Junction Diode
- Areas Expanded
- Reverse Bias Region
- Breakdown Region
- Example
- Diode Models
- Constant Voltage-Drop Model
- Piecewise-Linear Model
- Try out yourself«
- Zener Diodes
- Example Part A
- Example Part B
- Example Part C
- Example Part D
- Example Part E
- Example Part F
- Halfwave Rectifier
- Full-Wave Rectifier
- Bridge Rectifier
- Half-Wave Peak Rectifier
- Full-Wave Peak Rectifier
- Diode Rectifiers
- Limiter/Clipper
- Soft Limiting
- Examples
- Clamper
- Clamper with resistor
- Reverse Clamped
- Voltage Doubler

Diodes

Silicon

Silicon by itself is a poor conductor i.e. semi-conductor

Covalent bonding

Silicon Doping

p-doping

n-doping

Arsenic: donor Gallium: acceptor

Current Flow

N-Type Semiconductor

P-Type Semiconductor

Electron flow in

Conduction Band

Hole flow in Valence Band

PN Junction

Diagram showing distribution of electrons and holes

in a PN junction and the resulting depletion region

Potential profile across the depletion region, represented by a battery

PN Junction: Forward Bias

Forward bias PN junction

showing motion of

electrons and holes

Graph showing

components of current

Potential across junction

becomes ĭ - V

PN Junction: Reverse Bias

The depletion region widens

Potential across junction

becomes ĭ + V

Ideal Diode: I-V characteristic

Diode Symbol

Question 1.

What is the current through the diode and

the voltage across the diode for the

following two circuits?

Question 2.

What is the output voltage for the following

circuit? (a Rectifier)

Forward Bias Reverse Bias

Rectified Output

V across diode

Question 3.

For the following circuit, if is a sinusoid with 24-V peak

amplitude, find the fraction of each cycle during which the

diode conducts. Find the peak value of the diode current

and the maximum reverse-bias voltage that appears

across the diode.

24sin 12

30 150, or 1/3 of a cycle

24 12

0.12A

100

The maximum revers voltage is 24+12=36V

d

I

U

U

u

e e

! !

Junction Diode

There are 3 areas of operation

The forward-bias region

v > V

x

The reverse-bias region

v < V

x

The breakdown region

v < -V

zk

Vx

-Vzk

Areas Expanded

Shockley Equation: Exponential

Model

I is the forward-bias current

Occurs when v on the diode is positive.

the ³cut-in´ voltage is the voltage beneath which

the current is negligible small (generally around

.5V)

The current exponentially increases, and the

voltage drop typically lies in a narrow range from

.6V to .8V

¦

¦

'

+

'

= 1

T

D

nV

V

s

e I I

Shockley Diode Equation«contd

I

s

is the reverse saturation current.

The saturation current is directly proportional to

the cross-sectional area of the diode.

For ³small-signal´ diodes, the saturation current

is on the order of 10e-15A.

Strongly correlated to temperature

doubles for every 5ÛC rise in temperature.

¦

¦

'

+

'

= 1

T

D

nV

V

s

e I I

Shockley Diode Equation«contd

q

kT

V

e I I

T

nV

V

s

T

D

!

¦

¦

'

+

'

!

Voltage Thermal is

1

-23

-19

Boltzmann's constant = 1.38x10 joules/kelvin

Absolute temperature in kelvins = 273+

the magnitude of electronic charge = 1.60x10 coulomb

k

T C

q

!

!

!

o

at room temperature (20 C), the value o is 25.2m

We generally use 25m

T

T

V

V }

o

Shockley Diode Equation«contd

¦

¦

'

+

'

! 1

T

D

nV

V

s

e I I

n is a constant between 1 and 2 that represents

variances in the material and physical structure

of the diode.

Diodes made using standard integrated circuit

techniques exhibit an µn¶ close to 1.

Diodes available as two-terminal devices

generally exhibit an µn¶ closer to 2.

Also, we tend to use 1 for Ge and 2 for Si.

We will use n=1 unless specified.

Reverse Bias Region

¦

¦

'

+

'

! 1

T

D

nV

V

s

e I I

In the reverse-bias region, the current is

theoretically

Real diodes often exhibit a much larger

current due to leakages. However, the

current is still quite small (nA range).

There is also a slight increase with voltage

for reverse-bias current.

s

I I $

Breakdown Region

When the voltage reaches a certain negative

potential, the diode will begin conducting current.

This ³knee´ is known as the breakdown voltage,

Vzk.

The Z stands for Zener and the K for knee.

We will learn more about Zener diodes later

(diodes that make use of the breakdown voltage

and it¶s near constant voltage/current relationship

to be used in voltage regulation).

Example

A certain diode has I

D

= 0.1 mA for V

D

= 0.6 V.

Assume n is unity and V

T

= 0.026. Compute

the diode current at V

D

= 0.65 V.

Using the above derived equation we get I

D

=

0.683 mA when V

D

= 0.65 V

¦

¦

'

+

'

=

¦

¦

'

+

'

=

= =

= =

1

2

1

2

1 2

1

2

2 1

log 3 . 2 ln

1 2

1

2

2 1

D

D

T

D

D

T D D

nV

V V

nV

V

nV

V

D

D

nV

V

s D

nV

V

s D

I

I

nV

I

I

nV V V

e

e

e

I

I

e I I e I I

T

D D

T

D

T

D

T

D

T

D

Diode Models

Objective is to understand different diode

models.

Ideal-Diode Model

Exponential Model

Piecewise-linear Model

Constant Voltage-drop Model

Then apply appropriate models to

different circuits

Solving a Circuit: Different models

Given V

DD

= 5V and R=1K, find I

D

and V

D

Assuming Ideal Diode

mA

R

V

I

V

DD

d

D

5

0 ias, Forward In

= =

=

Constant Voltage-Drop Model

Problem Solving using CVD Model

Repeat previous problem using the constant

voltage drop model

mA

k

I

V V

D

D

3 . 4

1

7 . 0 5

7 . 0

=

O

=

=

Piecewise-Linear Model

Also known as the battery

+ resistance model

0

0

0

0,

,

D D D

D D

D D D

D

i v V

v V

i v V

r

= ·

+

= >

¦

' '

0

0.65 and 20

D D

V r = = O

Problem Solving using PWL Model

Repeat earlier problem using the

Piecewise linear model given

0

0.65V and 20

D D

V r ! ! ;

0

5 0.65

4.26mA

1 0.02

0.65 4.26 0.02 0.735V

D

D D D D

I

V V I r

! !

! ! v !

Exponential Model

Assuming Exponential Model

V

D

depend on I

D

, and I

D

depends on V

D

How do we solve?

Option 1. Iterative Analysis

Turns out that we can¶t solve this simple little

equation ± it involves a:

transcendental function

A function which is not an algebraic function. In other words,

a function which "transcends," i.e., cannot be expressed in

terms of, algebra. Examples of transcendental functions

include the exponential function, the trigonometric functions,

and the inverse functions of both.

Solving Exponential Model Using

Equations

Determine the current and the diode voltage for the

following circuit with Vdd=5V and R=1k. Assume that

the diode has a current of 1 mA at a voltage of .7 V

and that its voltage drop changes by .1 V for every

decade of change in current.

2 2

2 1

1 1

2

2 1

1

1 1 2 2

Iteration 1

5 0.7

4.3m

1

ln 2.3 log

2.3 .1

0.1log

0.7 , 1m , 4.3m 0.763

DD D

D

T T

T

V V

I

R

I I

V V nV nV

I I

nV

I

V V

I

V I I V

= = =

= =

=

= +

= = = ÷ 2

Iteration 2

5 0.763

4.237mA

1

4.237

0.763 0.1log 0.762V

4.3

D

I

V

! !

! !

Exponential Model

Option 2. Graphical Analysis

Try out yourself«

For the same circuit, find the current and the diode

voltage with Vdd=5V and R=10k. Assume that the

diode has a current of 1 mA at a voltage of .7 V and

that its voltage drop changes by .1 V for every decade

of change in current. Use (a) iteration, (b) piecewise-

linear with the same parameters, (c) the constant-

voltage-drop model, and (d) ideal model

(a) 0.434 mA, 0.663V; (b) 0.434mA, 0.659V; (c) 0.43mA, 0.7V;

(d) 0.5 mA

Forward Bias Diode as a Regulator

Diode Regulator

Design the following circuit to provide an output voltage of 2.4V. Assume

the diodes have a current of 1 mA at a voltage of .7 V and that its voltage

drop changes by .1 V for every decade of change in current.

2.4V. Each diode must therefore drop .8V

The current must be 1 decade above 1mA in order

for the diode to change from .7 to .8V drops.

Thus, the current is 10mA, and the resistance must be

10 2.4

10m

O

V

R

!

! A, 760 R ! ;

Zener Diodes

Operate in breakdown region due

to their stable constant voltage

Example Part A

a) Find with no load and

with at its nominal value.

O

V

V

+

0

0 0

0

0

6.8 20 5 , 6.7

10 6.7

6.346

0.5 0.02

6.7 6.346 0.02 6.827

Z Z z Z

Z Z

Z

z

z

O Z Z z

V V r I

V mA V V

V V

I mA

R r

V V I r V

!

! ;v !

! ! !

! ! v !

A 6.8-V Zener diode in the circuit

below is specified to have Vz=6.8V

at Iz=5mA, rz=20 ohms, and

Izk=0.2mA. The supply voltage is

nominally 10V but can vary by +/-

1V.

Example Part B

20

1 38.5

500 2

Line Regulation 38.5m /

0

z

O

z

r

V V mV

R r

+

A = A = ± - = ±

+ +

´ )

b) ind the change in resulting from the 1V change in .

Note that / usually expressed in mV/V, is kno n

line regulation as .

O

V

V V

s

( ( V V /

0

Example Part C

´ )

c) Find the change in resulting rom connecting a load

resistance that draws a current o 1 m , and hence

load regulation ind the in m /m .

O

L L

O L

V

R I

V I A A

The load dra s a current of 1mA

from the diodes .

o

..

ad

20 1 20

egulation=-20mV/mA

O z Z

V r I mV ( ! ( ! v !

Example Part D

The load current ill be approximately

6.8V/ 2k 3.4mA

20 3.4 68mV

This is a quick estimate as it doesn't account

for the change in the diode current.

, ,

o

O z Z

O Z

O O

D L

z L

O

D L

V r I

V V

V V V

I I I

R r R

V V

I I I

R

; !

( ! ( ! v !

! ! !

! !

10 6.7

40 4 100 670

500 20 2000

105 710 6.762

6.762 6.827 65mV

o

O Z

O

z L

O O O

O O O

O O

O

V V

V

r R

V V V

V V V

V V V

V

! !

! !

( ! !

d) Find the change in when 2

O L

V R k = O

Example Part E

of .5k ould dra a load current of

6.8/ 0.5 13.6mA. This is not possible as

the current though is only 6.4mA. Therefore,

the Zener must be cut off.

0.5

10 5V

0.5 0.5

Therefore, the zener i

L

L

O

L

R

R

V V

R R

;

!

! ! !

s not in breakdo n.

e) ind the change in hen 0.5

O L

V R k ! ;

Example Part F

L

To be at breakdo n, 0.2mA

and 6.7V. In this case, the

orst-case (lo est) current through is

9 6.7

4.6mA. The load current is therefore

0.5

4.6 0.2 4.4mA. is therefore

6.7

1.523k

4.4

Z ZK

Z ZK

L

I I

V V

R

! !

! !

!

!

! ! ;

f) What is the minimum value of for which the diode

still operates in the breakdown region?

L

R

Halfwave Rectifier

Given Circuit in (a)

Consider the piecewise-linear

model circuit (b)

Draw the v

o

/v

s

transfer

characteristic (c)

Draw the input and output

waveforms (d)

What is the Peak-Inverse

Voltage (PIV) across the

diode?

PIV=Vs

Full-Wave Rectifier

Given circuit in (a)

Draw the v

o

/v

s

transfer

characteristic (b)

Draw the input and output

waveforms (c)

What is the Peak-Inverse

Voltage (PIV) across the

diode?

PIV = 2Vs ± Vd

Bridge Rectifier

Draw the input and output waveforms.

What is the Peak-Inverse Voltage (PIV)

across the diodes?

PIV = Vs

Advantages

½ the PIV of the full wave

Don¶t need a center-tapped transformer

Only need half of the turns in the

secondary winding

2V

D

-2V

D

Half-Wave Peak Rectifier

Half-Wave Peak Rectifier with load

Full-Wave Peak Rectifier

Diode Rectifiers

Limiter/Clipper

Hard Limiting

Soft Limiting

Examples

Draw the

transfer

characteristic

for the

following

circuits.

Clamper

DC Restorer

Also known as a Clamped Capacitor

assume an ideal diode

The charge on the capacitor, Vc is 6 volts when the diode is conducting,

and Vo is 0.

When Vi jumps to 4 volts, the diode turns off, but there is still 6 volts

across the cap.

Therefore, the output is at 10V.

Essentially, this circuit clamps the voltage on the bottom to 0, and moves

the waveform up.

One use of this circuit is for obtaining average values and detecting ³duty

cycles´ based on the average value. This is useful in PWM (pulse-width

modulation)

Clamper with resistor

While the output is above ground, a current must flow in R.

This comes from the cap discharging (as the diode is off).

This falls exponentially with CR.

When the input switches, the output switches the same amount, and

then the capacitor is rapidly charged from the diode.

The resulting output is just a few tenths of a volt negative.

Reverse Clamped

Voltage Doubler

Voltage Doubler

Note that this circuit is

a clamp followed by a

peak rectifier.

The peak-rectifier

provides a voltage of -

2Vp across C2.

The output voltage is

thus twice the input

peak voltage.

This can be extended

to get larger multiples.

(Klingon Pain Stick?)

Diodes and capacitors

are cool.

We should try this in

lab«Or at least in a

MultiSim where we can

do a transient analysis

Silicon

Covalent bonding

Silicon by itself is a poor conductor i.e. semi-conductor

Silicon Doping

p-doping

n-doping

Gallium: acceptor

Arsenic: donor

Current Flow

N-Type Semiconductor Electron flow in Conduction Band

P-Type Semiconductor Hole flow in Valence Band

PN Junction

Diagram showing distribution of electrons and holes in a PN junction and the resulting depletion region

Potential profile across the depletion region, represented by a battery

V Graph showing components of current .PN Junction: Forward Bias Forward bias PN junction showing motion of electrons and holes Potential across junction becomes .

PN Junction: Reverse Bias Potential across junction becomes + V The depletion region widens .

Ideal Diode: I-V characteristic Diode Symbol .

Question 1. What is the current through the diode and the voltage across the diode for the following two circuits? .

What is the output voltage for the following circuit? (a Rectifier) Rectified Output V across diode Forward Bias Reverse Bias .Question 2.

if is a sinusoid with 24-V peak amplitude.12A 100 The maximum revers voltage is 24+12=36V . or 1/3 of a cycle 24 12 Id ! ! 0. find the fraction of each cycle during which the diode conducts. 24sin U u 12 30 e U e 150.Question 3. Find the peak value of the diode current and the maximum reverse-bias voltage that appears across the diode. For the following circuit.

Junction Diode There are 3 areas of operation The forward-bias region v > Vx v < Vx Vx -Vzk The reverse-bias region The breakdown region v < -Vzk .

Areas Expanded .

the ³cut-in´ voltage is the voltage beneath which the current is negligible small (generally around . and the voltage drop typically lies in a narrow range from .8V .5V) The current exponentially increases.6V to .Shockley Equation: Exponential Model ¨ I ! Is ©e © ª VD nVT ¸ 1¹ ¹ º I is the forward-bias current Occurs when v on the diode is positive.

Strongly correlated to temperature doubles for every 5ÛC rise in temperature. the saturation current is on the order of 10e-15A.Shockley Diode Equation«contd ¨ I ! Is ©e © ª VD nVT ¸ 1¹ ¹ º Is is the reverse saturation current. . The saturation current is directly proportional to the cross-sectional area of the diode. For ³small-signal´ diodes.

2m We generally use VT } 25m .Shockley Diode Equation«contd ¨ I ! Is ©e © ª VD nVT ¸ 1¹ ¹ º kT VT is Thermal Voltage ! q k ! Boltzmann's constant = 1. the value o VT is 25.60x10 -19 coulomb at room temperature (20oC).38x10-23 joules/kelvin T ! Absolute temperature in kelvins = 273+oC q ! the magnitude of electronic charge = 1.

Also. Diodes available as two-terminal devices generally exhibit an µn¶ closer to 2. Diodes made using standard integrated circuit techniques exhibit an µn¶ close to 1. We will use n=1 unless specified. .Shockley Diode Equation«contd ¨ I ! Is ©e © ª VD nVT ¸ 1¹ ¹ º n is a constant between 1 and 2 that represents variances in the material and physical structure of the diode. we tend to use 1 for Ge and 2 for Si.

However. the current is still quite small (nA range). In .Reverse Bias Region V ¨ nVD ¸ I ! I s © e T 1¹ © ¹ ª º the reverse-bias region. There is also a slight increase with voltage for reverse-bias current. the current is theoretically I $ I s Real diodes often exhibit a much larger current due to leakages.

We will learn more about Zener diodes later (diodes that make use of the breakdown voltage and it¶s near constant voltage/current relationship to be used in voltage regulation). The Z stands for Zener and the K for knee. Vzk. the diode will begin conducting current. .Breakdown Region When the voltage reaches a certain negative potential. This ³knee´ is known as the breakdown voltage.

Example A certain diode has ID = 0.3nVT log© I ¹ ª D1 º ª D1 º Using the above derived equation we get ID = 0.026.1 mA for VD = 0. Assume n is unity and VT = 0.683 mA when VD = 0. Compute the diode current at VD = V 0. V D1 D2 I D1 ! I s e nVT I D2 e ! VD 1 ! e I D1 e nVT VD 2 nVT I D 2 ! I s e nVT VD 2 VD 1 nVT ¨ I D2 ¸ ¨ I D2 ¸ VD 2 VD1 ! nVT ln© ¹ © ¹ © I ¹ ! 2.65 V.65 V .6 V.

Diode Models Objective is to understand different diode models. Ideal-Diode Model Exponential Model Piecewise-linear Model Constant Voltage-drop Model Then apply appropriate models to different circuits .

VD ! 0 VDD Id ! ! 5mA R .Solving a Circuit: Different models Given VDD= 5V and R=1K. find ID and VD Assuming Ideal Diode In Forward ias.

Constant Voltage-Drop Model .

Problem Solving using CVD Model Repeat previous problem using the constant voltage drop model VD ! 0. .7 ID ! ! 4.7V 5 0 .3mA 1k.

vD e VD 0 ¨ vD VD 0 ¸ iD ! © ¹ . .Piecewise-Linear Model Also known as the battery + resistance model iD ! 0.65 and rD ! 20. vD u VD 0 ª rD º VD 0 ! 0.

26 v 0.65V and rD ! 20. 5 0.02 VD ! VD 0 I D rD ! 0.Problem Solving using PWL Model Repeat earlier problem using the Piecewise linear model given VD 0 ! 0.65 4.26mA 1 0.735V .02 ! 0.65 ID ! ! 4.

the trigonometric functions.Exponential Model Assuming Exponential Model VD depend on ID. Examples of transcendental functions include the exponential function. . and ID depends on VD How do we solve? Turns out that we can¶t solve this simple little equation ± it involves a: Option 1. and the inverse functions of both.." i. Iterative Analysis transcendental function A function which is not an algebraic function. In other words. a function which "transcends. algebra.e. cannot be expressed in terms of.

3m R 1 I I V2 V1 ! nVT ln 2 ! 2.3 V1 ! 0.7 ! ! 4. Assume that the diode has a current of 1 mA at a voltage of .237mA 1 4. I 2 ! 4.Solving Exponential Model Using Equations Determine the current and the diode voltage for the following circuit with Vdd=5V and R=1k.763 ID ! ! 4.1 V for every decade of change in current.7 V and that its voltage drop changes by .1log I2 I1 V2 0. I1 ! 1m .3m .3nVT ! .763 0. Iteration 1 VDD VD 5 0.237 V2 ! 0.1 V2 ! V1 0.763 Iteration 2 5 0.7 .762V 4.1log ! 0.3nVT log 2 I1 I1 ID ! 2.

Exponential Model Option 2. Graphical Analysis .

0.434mA.Try out yourself« For the same circuit. and (d) ideal model (a) 0. 0.43mA.1 V for every decade of change in current. (c) the constantvoltage-drop model. Use (a) iteration.659V.434 mA.7 V and that its voltage drop changes by . Assume that the diode has a current of 1 mA at a voltage of . (d) 0. (b) piecewiselinear with the same parameters.5 mA . find the current and the diode voltage with Vdd=5V and R=10k.663V.7V. (c) 0. 0. (b) 0.

8V drops. Assume the diodes have a current of 1 mA at a voltage of .1 V for every decade of change in current. R ! 760.7 V and that its voltage drop changes by .Forward Bias Diode as a Regulator Diode Regulator Design the following circuit to provide an output voltage of 2.4V. Each diode must therefore drop . and the resistance must be 10 2.8V The current must be 1 decade above 1mA in order for the diode to change from .4 ! 10mA. VO ! 2.7 to .4V. R . Thus. the current is 10mA.

Zener Diodes Operate in breakdown region due to their stable constant voltage .

02 VO ! VZ0 I Z rz ! 6.346mA 0.7 ! ! 6.02 ! 6.346 v 0. and Izk=0. v 5mA.Example Part A A 6.2mA.7 6. a) Find VO with no load and with V at its nominal value.5 0.8V at Iz=5mA. VZ0 ! 6.8-V Zener diode in the circuit below is specified to have Vz=6. The supply voltage is nominally 10V but can vary by +/1V.827V .7V Iz ! V VZ0 R rz 10 6. VZ ! VZ0 rz I Z 6. rz=20 ohms.8 ! VZ0 20.

V0 ( Note that (VO //V V usually expressed in mV/V.Example Part B b) ind the change in resulting from the s 1V change in V . is kno n .

rz 20 (VO ! (V ! s1 v ! s38.5mV R rz 500 20 Line Regulation 38. as line regulation.5m / .

and hence ind the load regulation .Example Part C c) Find the change in VO resulting rom connecting a load resistance RL that draws a current I L o 1 m .

. (VO ! rz (I Z ! 20 v 1 ! 20mV oad egulation=-20mV/mA . The load dra s a current of 1mA from the diodes ..(VO (I L in m /m .

7 VO ! 40 4VO ! 100VO 670 VO 500 20 2000 105VO ! 710 VO ! 6.827 ! 65mV . ! 3.762 6.762V (VO ! 6.4mA (VO ! rz (I Z ! 20 v 3. ID ! . The load current ill be approximately 6.8V / 2k.Example Part D d) Find the change in VO when RL ! 2k . VO VZo V VO V I! . IL ! O R rz RL V VO VO VZo VO I ! ID IL ! rz RL R 10 VO VO 6.4 ! 68mV This is a quick estimate as it doesn't account for the change in the diode current.

This is not possible as the current though the Zener must be cut off.8 / 0. .5 Therefore. 6. the zener is not in breakdo n. hen RL ! 0.4mA.5 ! 10 ! 5V R RL 0. Therefore.5 0.5k. VO ! V RL 0.5k . ould dra a load current of is only 6.6mA.Example Part E e) ind the change in VO RL of .5 ! 13.

6 0. RL ! 4. In this case. the orst-case (lo est) current through is 9 6.Example Part F f) What is the minimum value of RL for which the diode still operates in the breakdown region? To be at breakdo n.7V.2mA and VZ ! VZK ! 6.5 4. The load current is therefore 0.4 .7 ! 4.2 ! 4.4mA. L is therefore 6.7 ! 1. I Z ! I ZK ! 0.6mA.523k.

Halfwave Rectifier Given Circuit in (a) Consider the piecewise-linear model circuit (b) Draw the vo /vs transfer characteristic (c) Draw the input and output waveforms (d) What is the Peak-Inverse Voltage (PIV) across the diode? PIV=Vs .

Full-Wave Rectifier Given circuit in (a) Draw the vo /vs transfer characteristic (b) Draw the input and output waveforms (c) What is the Peak-Inverse Voltage (PIV) across the diode? PIV = 2Vs ± Vd .

What is the Peak-Inverse Voltage (PIV) across the diodes? PIV = Vs Advantages ½ the PIV of the full wave Don¶t need a center-tapped transformer Only need half of the turns in the secondary winding -2VD 2VD .Bridge Rectifier Draw the input and output waveforms.

Half-Wave Peak Rectifier .

Half-Wave Peak Rectifier with load .

Full-Wave Peak Rectifier .

Diode Rectifiers .

Limiter/Clipper Hard Limiting .

Soft Limiting .

Examples Draw the transfer characteristic for the following circuits. .

and Vo is 0. and moves the waveform up. this circuit clamps the voltage on the bottom to 0. Therefore. the diode turns off. the output is at 10V. When Vi jumps to 4 volts.Clamper DC Restorer Also known as a Clamped Capacitor assume an ideal diode The charge on the capacitor. Essentially. Vc is 6 volts when the diode is conducting. This is useful in PWM (pulse-width modulation) . One use of this circuit is for obtaining average values and detecting ³duty cycles´ based on the average value. but there is still 6 volts across the cap.

. the output switches the same amount. When the input switches. This falls exponentially with CR.Clamper with resistor While the output is above ground. a current must flow in R. This comes from the cap discharging (as the diode is off). and then the capacitor is rapidly charged from the diode. The resulting output is just a few tenths of a volt negative.

Reverse Clamped .

Voltage Doubler Voltage Doubler Note that this circuit is a clamp followed by a peak rectifier. (Klingon Pain Stick?) Diodes and capacitors are cool. We should try this in lab«Or at least in a MultiSim where we can do a transient analysis . The output voltage is thus twice the input peak voltage. This can be extended to get larger multiples. The peak-rectifier provides a voltage of 2Vp across C2.

NumRecDFT

Table of Laplace Transforms

Special Relativity and Maxwell Equations

Fabrication of 3D Photonic Crystals

Infrared Quantum Dots

Electrodynamics of Metallic Photonic Crystals

Laplace Table

Defects in 3D Photonic Crystals

Electrodynamics of Metallic Photonic Crystals

Defects in 3D Photonic Crystals

Infrared Quantum Dots

Time-Independent Massive EKG Solution in a Schwarzschild Exterior

1 Spinors

Perturbative Gauge Theory

grNotesVarPrin

RPenrose

Vuille_relativity talk

The Motion of Point Particles in Curved Spacetime

Entropy.and

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