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Lecture 1 Diodes

Lecture 1 Diodes

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Sections

  • Silicon
  • Silicon Doping
  • Current Flow
  • PN Junction
  • PN Junction: Forward Bias
  • PN Junction: Reverse Bias
  • Ideal Diode: I-V characteristic
  • Question 1
  • Question 2
  • Question 3
  • Junction Diode
  • Areas Expanded
  • Reverse Bias Region
  • Breakdown Region
  • Example
  • Diode Models
  • Constant Voltage-Drop Model
  • Piecewise-Linear Model
  • Try out yourself«
  • Zener Diodes
  • Example Part A
  • Example Part B
  • Example Part C
  • Example Part D
  • Example Part E
  • Example Part F
  • Halfwave Rectifier
  • Full-Wave Rectifier
  • Bridge Rectifier
  • Half-Wave Peak Rectifier
  • Full-Wave Peak Rectifier
  • Diode Rectifiers
  • Limiter/Clipper
  • Soft Limiting
  • Examples
  • Clamper
  • Clamper with resistor
  • Reverse Clamped
  • Voltage Doubler

EP391: Lecture 2

Diodes
Silicon
Silicon by itself is a poor conductor i.e. semi-conductor
Covalent bonding
Silicon Doping
p-doping
n-doping
Arsenic: donor Gallium: acceptor
Current Flow
N-Type Semiconductor
P-Type Semiconductor
Electron flow in
Conduction Band
Hole flow in Valence Band
PN Junction
Diagram showing distribution of electrons and holes
in a PN junction and the resulting depletion region
Potential profile across the depletion region, represented by a battery
PN Junction: Forward Bias
Forward bias PN junction
showing motion of
electrons and holes
Graph showing
components of current
Potential across junction
becomes ĭ - V
PN Junction: Reverse Bias
The depletion region widens
Potential across junction
becomes ĭ + V
Ideal Diode: I-V characteristic
Diode Symbol
Question 1.
What is the current through the diode and
the voltage across the diode for the
following two circuits?
Question 2.
What is the output voltage for the following
circuit? (a Rectifier)
Forward Bias Reverse Bias
Rectified Output
V across diode
Question 3.
For the following circuit, if is a sinusoid with 24-V peak
amplitude, find the fraction of each cycle during which the
diode conducts. Find the peak value of the diode current
and the maximum reverse-bias voltage that appears
across the diode.
24sin 12
30 150, or 1/3 of a cycle
24 12
0.12A
100
The maximum revers voltage is 24+12=36V
d
I
U
U
u
e e

! !
Junction Diode
There are 3 areas of operation
The forward-bias region
v > V
x
The reverse-bias region
v < V
x
The breakdown region
v < -V
zk
Vx
-Vzk
Areas Expanded
Shockley Equation: Exponential
Model
I is the forward-bias current
Occurs when v on the diode is positive.
the ³cut-in´ voltage is the voltage beneath which
the current is negligible small (generally around
.5V)
The current exponentially increases, and the
voltage drop typically lies in a narrow range from
.6V to .8V
¦
¦
'
+

'

= 1
T
D
nV
V
s
e I I
Shockley Diode Equation«contd
I
s
is the reverse saturation current.
The saturation current is directly proportional to
the cross-sectional area of the diode.
For ³small-signal´ diodes, the saturation current
is on the order of 10e-15A.
Strongly correlated to temperature
doubles for every 5ÛC rise in temperature.
¦
¦
'
+

'

= 1
T
D
nV
V
s
e I I
Shockley Diode Equation«contd
q
kT
V
e I I
T
nV
V
s
T
D
!
¦
¦
'
+

'

!
Voltage Thermal is
1
-23
-19
Boltzmann's constant = 1.38x10 joules/kelvin
Absolute temperature in kelvins = 273+
the magnitude of electronic charge = 1.60x10 coulomb
k
T C
q
!
!
!
o
at room temperature (20 C), the value o is 25.2m
We generally use 25m
T
T
V
V }
o
Shockley Diode Equation«contd
¦
¦
'
+

'

! 1
T
D
nV
V
s
e I I
n is a constant between 1 and 2 that represents
variances in the material and physical structure
of the diode.
Diodes made using standard integrated circuit
techniques exhibit an µn¶ close to 1.
Diodes available as two-terminal devices
generally exhibit an µn¶ closer to 2.
Also, we tend to use 1 for Ge and 2 for Si.
We will use n=1 unless specified.
Reverse Bias Region
¦
¦
'
+

'

! 1
T
D
nV
V
s
e I I
In the reverse-bias region, the current is
theoretically
Real diodes often exhibit a much larger
current due to leakages. However, the
current is still quite small (nA range).
There is also a slight increase with voltage
for reverse-bias current.
s
I I $
Breakdown Region
When the voltage reaches a certain negative
potential, the diode will begin conducting current.
This ³knee´ is known as the breakdown voltage,
Vzk.
The Z stands for Zener and the K for knee.
We will learn more about Zener diodes later
(diodes that make use of the breakdown voltage
and it¶s near constant voltage/current relationship
to be used in voltage regulation).
Example
A certain diode has I
D
= 0.1 mA for V
D
= 0.6 V.
Assume n is unity and V
T
= 0.026. Compute
the diode current at V
D
= 0.65 V.
Using the above derived equation we get I
D
=
0.683 mA when V
D
= 0.65 V
¦
¦
'
+

'

=
¦
¦
'
+

'

=
= =
= =

1
2
1
2
1 2
1
2
2 1
log 3 . 2 ln

1 2
1
2
2 1
D
D
T
D
D
T D D
nV
V V
nV
V
nV
V
D
D
nV
V
s D
nV
V
s D
I
I
nV
I
I
nV V V
e
e
e
I
I
e I I e I I
T
D D
T
D
T
D
T
D
T
D
Diode Models
Objective is to understand different diode
models.
Ideal-Diode Model
Exponential Model
Piecewise-linear Model
Constant Voltage-drop Model
Then apply appropriate models to
different circuits
Solving a Circuit: Different models
Given V
DD
= 5V and R=1K, find I
D
and V
D
Assuming Ideal Diode
mA
R
V
I
V
DD
d
D
5
0 ias, Forward In
= =
=
Constant Voltage-Drop Model
Problem Solving using CVD Model
Repeat previous problem using the constant
voltage drop model
mA
k
I
V V
D
D
3 . 4
1
7 . 0 5
7 . 0
=
O

=
=
Piecewise-Linear Model
Also known as the battery
+ resistance model
0
0
0
0,
,
D D D
D D
D D D
D
i v V
v V
i v V
r
= ·
+

= >
¦
' '
0
0.65 and 20
D D
V r = = O
Problem Solving using PWL Model
Repeat earlier problem using the
Piecewise linear model given
0
0.65V and 20
D D
V r ! ! ;
0
5 0.65
4.26mA
1 0.02
0.65 4.26 0.02 0.735V
D
D D D D
I
V V I r

! !

! ! v !
Exponential Model
Assuming Exponential Model
V
D
depend on I
D
, and I
D
depends on V
D
How do we solve?
Option 1. Iterative Analysis
Turns out that we can¶t solve this simple little
equation ± it involves a:
transcendental function
A function which is not an algebraic function. In other words,
a function which "transcends," i.e., cannot be expressed in
terms of, algebra. Examples of transcendental functions
include the exponential function, the trigonometric functions,
and the inverse functions of both.
Solving Exponential Model Using
Equations
Determine the current and the diode voltage for the
following circuit with Vdd=5V and R=1k. Assume that
the diode has a current of 1 mA at a voltage of .7 V
and that its voltage drop changes by .1 V for every
decade of change in current.
2 2
2 1
1 1
2
2 1
1
1 1 2 2
Iteration 1
5 0.7
4.3m
1
ln 2.3 log
2.3 .1
0.1log
0.7 , 1m , 4.3m 0.763
DD D
D
T T
T
V V
I
R
I I
V V nV nV
I I
nV
I
V V
I
V I I V

= = =
= =
=
= +
= = = ÷ 2
Iteration 2
5 0.763
4.237mA
1
4.237
0.763 0.1log 0.762V
4.3
D
I
V

! !
! !
Exponential Model
Option 2. Graphical Analysis
Try out yourself«
For the same circuit, find the current and the diode
voltage with Vdd=5V and R=10k. Assume that the
diode has a current of 1 mA at a voltage of .7 V and
that its voltage drop changes by .1 V for every decade
of change in current. Use (a) iteration, (b) piecewise-
linear with the same parameters, (c) the constant-
voltage-drop model, and (d) ideal model
(a) 0.434 mA, 0.663V; (b) 0.434mA, 0.659V; (c) 0.43mA, 0.7V;
(d) 0.5 mA
Forward Bias Diode as a Regulator
Diode Regulator
Design the following circuit to provide an output voltage of 2.4V. Assume
the diodes have a current of 1 mA at a voltage of .7 V and that its voltage
drop changes by .1 V for every decade of change in current.
2.4V. Each diode must therefore drop .8V
The current must be 1 decade above 1mA in order
for the diode to change from .7 to .8V drops.
Thus, the current is 10mA, and the resistance must be
10 2.4
10m
O
V
R
!

! A, 760 R ! ;
Zener Diodes
Operate in breakdown region due
to their stable constant voltage
Example Part A
a) Find with no load and
with at its nominal value.
O
V
V
+
0
0 0
0
0
6.8 20 5 , 6.7
10 6.7
6.346
0.5 0.02
6.7 6.346 0.02 6.827
Z Z z Z
Z Z
Z
z
z
O Z Z z
V V r I
V mA V V
V V
I mA
R r
V V I r V

!
! ;v !

! ! !

! ! v !
A 6.8-V Zener diode in the circuit
below is specified to have Vz=6.8V
at Iz=5mA, rz=20 ohms, and
Izk=0.2mA. The supply voltage is
nominally 10V but can vary by +/-
1V.
Example Part B
20
1 38.5
500 2
Line Regulation 38.5m /
0
z
O
z
r
V V mV
R r
+
A = A = ± - = ±
+ +
´ )
b) ind the change in resulting from the 1V change in .
Note that / usually expressed in mV/V, is kno n
line regulation as .
O
V
V V

s

( ( V V /
0
Example Part C
´ )
c) Find the change in resulting rom connecting a load
resistance that draws a current o 1 m , and hence
load regulation ind the in m /m .
O
L L
O L
V
R I
V I A A
The load dra s a current of 1mA
from the diodes .
o
..
ad
20 1 20
egulation=-20mV/mA
O z Z
V r I mV ( ! ( ! v !
Example Part D
The load current ill be approximately
6.8V/ 2k 3.4mA
20 3.4 68mV
This is a quick estimate as it doesn't account
for the change in the diode current.
, ,
o
O z Z
O Z
O O
D L
z L
O
D L
V r I
V V
V V V
I I I
R r R
V V
I I I
R

; !
( ! ( ! v !

! ! !

! !
10 6.7
40 4 100 670
500 20 2000
105 710 6.762
6.762 6.827 65mV
o
O Z
O
z L
O O O
O O O
O O
O
V V
V
r R
V V V
V V V
V V V
V

! !
! !
( ! !
d) Find the change in when 2
O L
V R k = O
Example Part E
of .5k ould dra a load current of
6.8/ 0.5 13.6mA. This is not possible as
the current though is only 6.4mA. Therefore,
the Zener must be cut off.
0.5
10 5V
0.5 0.5
Therefore, the zener i
L
L
O
L
R
R
V V
R R

;
!
! ! !

s not in breakdo n.
e) ind the change in hen 0.5
O L
V R k ! ;
Example Part F
L
To be at breakdo n, 0.2mA
and 6.7V. In this case, the
orst-case (lo est) current through is
9 6.7
4.6mA. The load current is therefore
0.5
4.6 0.2 4.4mA. is therefore
6.7
1.523k
4.4
Z ZK
Z ZK
L
I I
V V
R
! !
! !

!
!
! ! ;
f) What is the minimum value of for which the diode
still operates in the breakdown region?
L
R
Halfwave Rectifier
Given Circuit in (a)
Consider the piecewise-linear
model circuit (b)
Draw the v
o
/v
s
transfer
characteristic (c)
Draw the input and output
waveforms (d)
What is the Peak-Inverse
Voltage (PIV) across the
diode?
PIV=Vs
Full-Wave Rectifier
Given circuit in (a)
Draw the v
o
/v
s
transfer
characteristic (b)
Draw the input and output
waveforms (c)
What is the Peak-Inverse
Voltage (PIV) across the
diode?
PIV = 2Vs ± Vd
Bridge Rectifier
Draw the input and output waveforms.
What is the Peak-Inverse Voltage (PIV)
across the diodes?
PIV = Vs
Advantages
½ the PIV of the full wave
Don¶t need a center-tapped transformer
Only need half of the turns in the
secondary winding
2V
D
-2V
D
Half-Wave Peak Rectifier
Half-Wave Peak Rectifier with load
Full-Wave Peak Rectifier
Diode Rectifiers
Limiter/Clipper
Hard Limiting
Soft Limiting
Examples
Draw the
transfer
characteristic
for the
following
circuits.
Clamper
DC Restorer
Also known as a Clamped Capacitor
assume an ideal diode
The charge on the capacitor, Vc is 6 volts when the diode is conducting,
and Vo is 0.
When Vi jumps to 4 volts, the diode turns off, but there is still 6 volts
across the cap.
Therefore, the output is at 10V.
Essentially, this circuit clamps the voltage on the bottom to 0, and moves
the waveform up.
One use of this circuit is for obtaining average values and detecting ³duty
cycles´ based on the average value. This is useful in PWM (pulse-width
modulation)
Clamper with resistor
While the output is above ground, a current must flow in R.
This comes from the cap discharging (as the diode is off).
This falls exponentially with CR.
When the input switches, the output switches the same amount, and
then the capacitor is rapidly charged from the diode.
The resulting output is just a few tenths of a volt negative.
Reverse Clamped
Voltage Doubler
Voltage Doubler
Note that this circuit is
a clamp followed by a
peak rectifier.
The peak-rectifier
provides a voltage of -
2Vp across C2.
The output voltage is
thus twice the input
peak voltage.
This can be extended
to get larger multiples.
(Klingon Pain Stick?)
Diodes and capacitors
are cool.
We should try this in
lab«Or at least in a
MultiSim where we can
do a transient analysis

Silicon
Covalent bonding

Silicon by itself is a poor conductor i.e. semi-conductor

Silicon Doping

p-doping

n-doping

Gallium: acceptor

Arsenic: donor

Current Flow
N-Type Semiconductor Electron flow in Conduction Band

P-Type Semiconductor Hole flow in Valence Band

PN Junction
Diagram showing distribution of electrons and holes in a PN junction and the resulting depletion region

Potential profile across the depletion region, represented by a battery

V Graph showing components of current .PN Junction: Forward Bias Forward bias PN junction showing motion of electrons and holes Potential across junction becomes .

PN Junction: Reverse Bias Potential across junction becomes + V The depletion region widens .

Ideal Diode: I-V characteristic  Diode Symbol .

Question 1.  What is the current through the diode and the voltage across the diode for the following two circuits? .

 What is the output voltage for the following circuit? (a Rectifier) Rectified Output V across diode Forward Bias Reverse Bias .Question 2.

if is a sinusoid with 24-V peak amplitude.12A 100 The maximum revers voltage is 24+12=36V . or 1/3 of a cycle 24  12 Id ! ! 0. find the fraction of each cycle during which the diode conducts. 24sin U u 12 30 e U e 150.Question 3. Find the peak value of the diode current and the maximum reverse-bias voltage that appears across the diode.  For the following circuit.

Junction Diode  There   are 3 areas of operation The forward-bias region v > Vx v < Vx Vx -Vzk  The reverse-bias region   The breakdown region  v < -Vzk .

Areas Expanded .

the ³cut-in´ voltage is the voltage beneath which the current is negligible small (generally around . and the voltage drop typically lies in a narrow range from .8V .5V) The current exponentially increases.6V to .Shockley Equation: Exponential Model ¨ I ! Is ©e © ª    VD nVT ¸  1¹ ¹ º  I is the forward-bias current Occurs when v on the diode is positive.

Strongly correlated to temperature  doubles for every 5ÛC rise in temperature. the saturation current is on the order of 10e-15A.Shockley Diode Equation«contd ¨ I ! Is ©e © ª VD nVT ¸  1¹ ¹ º  Is is the reverse saturation current. .  The saturation current is directly proportional   to the cross-sectional area of the diode. For ³small-signal´ diodes.

2m We generally use VT } 25m .Shockley Diode Equation«contd ¨ I ! Is ©e © ª VD nVT ¸  1¹ ¹ º kT VT is Thermal Voltage ! q k ! Boltzmann's constant = 1. the value o VT is 25.60x10 -19 coulomb at room temperature (20oC).38x10-23 joules/kelvin T ! Absolute temperature in kelvins = 273+oC q ! the magnitude of electronic charge = 1.

Also. Diodes available as two-terminal devices generally exhibit an µn¶ closer to 2. Diodes made using standard integrated circuit techniques exhibit an µn¶ close to 1. We will use n=1 unless specified. .Shockley Diode Equation«contd ¨ I ! Is ©e © ª  VD nVT ¸  1¹ ¹ º     n is a constant between 1 and 2 that represents variances in the material and physical structure of the diode. we tend to use 1 for Ge and 2 for Si.

However. the current is still quite small (nA range).  In .Reverse Bias Region V ¨ nVD ¸ I ! I s © e T  1¹ © ¹ ª º the reverse-bias region.  There is also a slight increase with voltage for reverse-bias current. the current is theoretically I $  I s  Real diodes often exhibit a much larger current due to leakages.

We will learn more about Zener diodes later (diodes that make use of the breakdown voltage and it¶s near constant voltage/current relationship to be used in voltage regulation). The Z stands for Zener and the K for knee. Vzk. the diode will begin conducting current. .Breakdown Region    When the voltage reaches a certain negative potential. This ³knee´ is known as the breakdown voltage.

Example  A certain diode has ID = 0.3nVT log© I ¹ ª D1 º ª D1 º  Using the above derived equation we get ID = 0.026.1 mA for VD = 0. Assume n is unity and VT = 0.683 mA when VD = 0. Compute the diode current at VD = V 0. V D1 D2 I D1 ! I s e nVT I D2 e ! VD 1 ! e I D1 e nVT VD 2 nVT I D 2 ! I s e nVT VD 2 VD 1 nVT ¨ I D2 ¸ ¨ I D2 ¸ VD 2  VD1 ! nVT ln© ¹ © ¹ © I ¹ ! 2.65 V.65 V .6 V.

Diode Models  Objective is to understand different diode models. Ideal-Diode Model  Exponential Model  Piecewise-linear Model  Constant Voltage-drop Model   Then apply appropriate models to different circuits .

VD ! 0 VDD Id ! ! 5mA R .Solving a Circuit: Different models   Given VDD= 5V and R=1K. find ID and VD Assuming Ideal Diode In Forward ias.

Constant Voltage-Drop Model .

Problem Solving using CVD Model  Repeat previous problem using the constant voltage drop model VD ! 0. .7 ID ! ! 4.7V 5  0 .3mA 1k.

vD e VD 0 ¨ vD  VD 0 ¸ iD ! © ¹ . .Piecewise-Linear Model  Also known as the battery + resistance model iD ! 0.65 and rD ! 20. vD u VD 0 ª rD º VD 0 ! 0.

26 v 0.65V and rD ! 20. 5  0.02 VD ! VD 0  I D rD ! 0.Problem Solving using PWL Model  Repeat earlier problem using the Piecewise linear model given VD 0 ! 0.65  4.26mA 1  0.735V .02 ! 0.65 ID ! ! 4.

the trigonometric functions.Exponential Model  Assuming Exponential Model   VD depend on ID. Examples of transcendental functions include the exponential function. . and ID depends on VD How do we solve? Turns out that we can¶t solve this simple little equation ± it involves a:   Option 1. and the inverse functions of both.." i. Iterative Analysis  transcendental function  A function which is not an algebraic function. In other words. a function which "transcends. algebra.e. cannot be expressed in terms of.

3m R 1 I I V2  V1 ! nVT ln 2 ! 2.3 V1 ! 0.7 ! ! 4. Assume that the diode has a current of 1 mA at a voltage of .237mA 1 4. I 2 ! 4.Solving Exponential Model Using Equations  Determine the current and the diode voltage for the following circuit with Vdd=5V and R=1k.763 ID ! ! 4.1 V for every decade of change in current.7 V and that its voltage drop changes by .1log I2 I1   V2 0. I1 ! 1m .3m .3nVT ! .763  0. Iteration 1 VDD  VD 5  0.237 V2 ! 0.1 V2 ! V1  0.763 Iteration 2 5  0.7 .762V 4.1log ! 0.3nVT log 2 I1 I1 ID ! 2.

Exponential Model  Option 2. Graphical Analysis .

0.434mA.Try out yourself«  For the same circuit. and (d) ideal model  (a) 0. 0.43mA.1 V for every decade of change in current. (c) the constantvoltage-drop model. Use (a) iteration.659V.434 mA.7 V and that its voltage drop changes by . Assume that the diode has a current of 1 mA at a voltage of . (d) 0. (b) piecewiselinear with the same parameters.5 mA . find the current and the diode voltage with Vdd=5V and R=10k.663V.7V. (c) 0. 0. (b) 0.

8V drops. Assume the diodes have a current of 1 mA at a voltage of .1 V for every decade of change in current. R ! 760.7 V and that its voltage drop changes by .Forward Bias Diode as a Regulator  Diode Regulator  Design the following circuit to provide an output voltage of 2.4V. Each diode must therefore drop . and the resistance must be 10  2.8V The current must be 1 decade above 1mA in order for the diode to change from .4 ! 10mA. VO ! 2.7 to .4V. R . Thus. the current is 10mA.

Zener Diodes  Operate in breakdown region due to their stable constant voltage .

02 VO ! VZ0  I Z rz ! 6.346mA 0.7 ! ! 6.02 ! 6.346 v 0. and Izk=0. v 5mA.Example Part A  A 6.2mA.7  6. a) Find VO with no load and with V  at its nominal value.5  0.8V at Iz=5mA. VZ0 ! 6.8-V Zener diode in the circuit below is specified to have Vz=6. The supply voltage is nominally 10V but can vary by +/1V.827V .7V Iz ! V   VZ0 R  rz 10  6. VZ ! VZ0  rz I Z 6. rz=20 ohms.8 ! VZ0  20.

V0 (   Note that (VO //V V usually expressed in mV/V.Example Part B b) ind the change in resulting from the s 1V change in V  . is kno n .

rz 20 (VO ! (V ! s1 v ! s38.5mV R  rz 500  20 Line Regulation 38. as line regulation.5m / .

and hence ind the load regulation .Example Part C c) Find the change in VO resulting rom connecting a load resistance RL that draws a current I L o 1 m .

. (VO ! rz (I Z ! 20 v 1 ! 20mV oad egulation=-20mV/mA . The load dra s a current of 1mA from the diodes ..(VO (I L in m /m .

7 VO !    40  4VO ! 100VO  670  VO 500 20 2000 105VO ! 710   VO ! 6.827 ! 65mV . ! 3.762  6.762V (VO ! 6.4mA (VO ! rz (I Z ! 20 v 3. ID ! . The load current ill be approximately 6.8V / 2k.Example Part D d) Find the change in VO when RL ! 2k . VO  VZo V  VO V I! . IL ! O R rz RL V  VO VO  VZo VO  I ! ID  IL   ! rz RL R 10  VO VO  6.4 ! 68mV This is a quick estimate as it doesn't account for the change in the diode current.

This is not possible as the current though the Zener must be cut off.8 / 0. .5 Therefore. 6. the zener is not in breakdo n. hen RL ! 0.4mA.5 ! 10 ! 5V R  RL 0. Therefore.5  0.5k. VO ! V  RL 0.5k . ould dra a load current of is only 6.6mA.Example Part E e) ind the change in VO RL of .5 ! 13.

6  0. RL ! 4. In this case. the orst-case (lo est) current through is 9  6.Example Part F f) What is the minimum value of RL for which the diode still operates in the breakdown region? To be at breakdo n.7V.2mA and VZ ! VZK ! 6.5 4. The load current is therefore 0.4 .7 ! 4.2 ! 4.4mA. L is therefore 6.7 ! 1. I Z ! I ZK ! 0.6mA.523k.

Halfwave Rectifier      Given Circuit in (a) Consider the piecewise-linear model circuit (b) Draw the vo /vs transfer characteristic (c) Draw the input and output waveforms (d) What is the Peak-Inverse Voltage (PIV) across the diode?  PIV=Vs .

Full-Wave Rectifier     Given circuit in (a) Draw the vo /vs transfer characteristic (b) Draw the input and output waveforms (c) What is the Peak-Inverse Voltage (PIV) across the diode?  PIV = 2Vs ± Vd .

What is the Peak-Inverse Voltage (PIV) across the diodes? PIV = Vs     Advantages ½ the PIV of the full wave Don¶t need a center-tapped transformer Only need half of the turns in the secondary winding -2VD 2VD .Bridge Rectifier    Draw the input and output waveforms.

Half-Wave Peak Rectifier .

Half-Wave Peak Rectifier with load .

Full-Wave Peak Rectifier .

Diode Rectifiers .

Limiter/Clipper  Hard Limiting .

Soft Limiting .

Examples  Draw the transfer characteristic for the following circuits. .

and Vo is 0. and moves the waveform up. this circuit clamps the voltage on the bottom to 0. Therefore. the diode turns off. the output is at 10V. When Vi jumps to 4 volts.Clamper  DC Restorer   Also known as a Clamped Capacitor assume an ideal diode      The charge on the capacitor. Essentially. Vc is 6 volts when the diode is conducting. This is useful in PWM (pulse-width modulation) . One use of this circuit is for obtaining average values and detecting ³duty cycles´ based on the average value. but there is still 6 volts across the cap.

. the output switches the same amount.  When the input switches. This falls exponentially with CR.Clamper with resistor  While the output is above ground. a current must flow in R.   This comes from the cap discharging (as the diode is off). and then the capacitor is rapidly charged from the diode.  The resulting output is just a few tenths of a volt negative.

Reverse Clamped .

Voltage Doubler  Voltage Doubler        Note that this circuit is a clamp followed by a peak rectifier. (Klingon Pain Stick?) Diodes and capacitors are cool. We should try this in lab«Or at least in a MultiSim where we can do a transient analysis . The output voltage is thus twice the input peak voltage. This can be extended to get larger multiples. The peak-rectifier provides a voltage of 2Vp across C2.

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