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A verb is a word that expresses action, a state of being or that asserts something. It is the heart of a sentence. Verbs may consist of one word or a group of words called a verb phrase Verbs can be a transitive or intransitive Verbs have 5 Properties:
¾ Number ¾ Person ¾ Tense ¾ Voice ¾ Mood

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Transitive Verbs are verbs that requires a receiver of its action. ¾ We are pies and cakes at her afternoon party. ¾ The mechanic repainted the car. ¾ She saw a shadow moving among the leaves. Intransitive verbs are verbs that does not need a receiver of its action. ¾ They play around the yard all afternoon. ¾ Hilda Cruz is coming to Manila for a seminar. ¾ The flowers have wilted in the heat of the sun.

€ € € Linking verbs are intransitive verbs that make no complete statement but link the subjects with their complement. feel. Other linking verbs are those that are related to the senses such as taste. seem. appear. sound and look. He appeared calm and collected. . smell. become. The cake tastes burnt. ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ We will become great athletes someday. The most common is the verb ´to beµ. You look terribly upset.

Common auxiliary verbs are: Have ‡ may ‡ can ‡ will ‡ should ‡ would ‡ could ‡ must ‡ ought to ¾ We should try to be punctual with our appointments.€ € € Verbs may consist of one word or a group of words called a verb phrase Verb phrases are formed by a main verb with an auxiliary (helping) verb. ¾ We will exhibit our paintings in June. . ¾ We ought to notify the police about the robbery.

Except for the verb ´to beµ which is inflected for every person to its singular form. ¾ The train runs by electricity. all verbs in the third person present tense. A plural subject requires a plural verb. Words placed between the subject and verb. as well as her brothers. ¾ The dress fits her perfectly.€ € € Verbs should agree with their subjects in person and in number. such as parenthetical expressions or modifiers. singular form. ¾ Ann. . add ´sµ or ´esµ to its base form. A singular subject requires a singular verb. which is surrounded by tall trees. has a Gothic tower. ¾ The house. ¾ Imported goods cost money. is attending the symposium. ¾ The president affixes his signature on every letter from his office. do not affect the number of the subject.

¾ Hammer and saw are tools of a carpenter. the verb is singular. ¾ Every boy and girl in this school is free to express his opinions. ¾ Black and white is the color of my pet dog. ¾ Any of these suggestions are acceptable. ¾ The rich and the poor take the same route to the grave. depending upon the sense of the sentence. € When ´each or everyµ precedes a subject. € . € The pronouns ´noneµ and ´anyµ may take the either singular or plural verbs. it is considered singular. ¾ Any of these dates is convenient. ¾ Each person has his own talents. € However. if the multiple subjects is considered as unit or refers to the same person or thing.Subjects joined by ´andµ take a plural verb. ¾ My English teacher and Department Chairman is absent today.

¾ There goes my lord and master. ¾ Here comes the judge. either«or. € ´Hereµ and ´thereµ are not nouns but are introductory adverbs or expletives.Subjects joined by or. ¾ Either the dog or the cats have eaten the food. ¾ Neither you nor your brothers are participating in the game. they cannot serve as subjects in a sentence. ¾ Neither a doctor nor a nurse was available. ¾ Either your mother or your guardian signs these papers. Therefore. € . the verb agrees with the one closer to it. € However if one subject is plural and the other is singular. neither«nor. generally take a singular verb.

€ x x The Canterbury Tales was written by Chaucer. they take a plural verb. If they are considered acting as a unit. singular verbs. Sunday Times is a magazine published by the Manila Bulletin. . ¾ Aesthetics ‡ civics ‡ measles ‡ semantics ‡ mumps ‡ news ‡ ethics ‡ economics € A title of a single work of art takes a singular verb. x x The family wishes to extend its condolence to the widow. therefore. they take a singular verb.€ Collective nouns may be either singular or plural. if acting as separate individuals in a group. The committee have various activities planned for August. Some nouns have plural forms but are singular in meaning and.

€ Fractions. ¾ One half of the students have submitted their reports . ¾ About one fourth of the land area remains underwater.€ Addition or multiplication calculation may use either a singular or a plural verb. the verb is singular. ¾ Ten minus six is four. and a plural verb if the object is plural. ¾ Four times five is twenty. (are) ¾ Two plus two is four. take a singular verb if the object of the ´of phraseµ is singular. ¾ Fifteen divided by five is three. (are) € But in subtraction and division.

Past. and Future. € These time divisions are expressed in English by two sets of tenses. namely. € There are three divisions of time: Present.Tenses indicates the time of the action or the time of the static condition expressed by the verb. € The English language also recognizes the use of the Progressive Tense to indicate action in progress. the Simple Tenses and the Perfect Tenses. € .

The past participle form is use for the perfect tenses with the auxiliary verb "have". The past form of the verb is use for the past tense.The present form of the verb is used for the present tense and the future tense. with the addition of "shall" or "will" for the future tense. Present Form Past Form carried ordered smoked swam Past Participle Form carried ordered smoked swum carry order smoke swim .

€ Irregular verbs do not follow a common pattern of inflection in forming the past and the past participle.€ Verbs are regular when they form the past and past participle with the addition of "d" or "ed" to the present form. If the verb ends in "y´. change "y" to "i" and add "ed´. write ring lie bear weave wrote rang lay bore wove written rung lain born woven test chant empty confuse enchant tested chanted emptied confused enchanted . A familiarity with these verbs is the only way to get to know them.

€ It may also expressed through the past progressive tense. € . ¾ They used to have a musical band called the Hell Cats. ¾ I did pay my bill.The past tense indicates action that is finished or that is past and done ¾ The rain flooded our streets. € It can also be indicated in the expression "used to" which shows action true in the past but no longer true in the present. € It may also be expressed through the past emphatic with use of "did". It is formed by the past form of the auxiliary verb "to be" plus the "ing" form of the verb. It shows action going on in the past before another past action ¾ He was cutting the grass when the coconut fell on his head.

The English language relies upon other expressions to indicate futurity. ¾ There is to be a fun run sponsored by the Makati Athletic Club. modified by an adverbial phrase. ¾ We are to see the movie this weekend. The infinitive can also be used to indicate the future tense. . ¾ The school year opens in June this year. ¾ I shall be home soon. ¾ The debate will last for two hours. It is formed by using the present form of the verb with the auxiliary verb "will" or "shall".€ € € € € indicates action that will take place some time after the present. The present tense can be used. ¾ I fly to Cebu on Friday.

€ The present tense may also be expressed through the Present Emphatic with the use of "do" for the emphasis or assertion. a general fact or a permanent condition. The present progressive tense is formed by the present form of the auxiliary verb "to be" plus the "ing" form of the verb. x I do wish you luck. She is not there. Meanwhile. ¾ He is strumming the guitar. The present tense may also be used in narration to represent a series of events. either. to the dining room and finally to the kitchen. He runs to the sala. ¾ The boy calls for the maid but she is nowhere around. He looks for his mother in her bedroom.€ € € Present tense indicates present action. The present tense may also be expressed through the Present Progressive Tense. ¾ The sun sets in the west. the monster peeps through the glass sliding door and licks his mouth in anticipation of a good meal. This called the historical present. . He shouts for help but there is no one in the house.

also. Usually. The three kinds of Perfect tenses are: ¾ ¾ ¾ Present Perfect Tense Past Perfect Tense Future Perfect Tense . there are two actions involved in the perfect tenses and usually. one has already begun.€ € € Perfect Tenses indicate action that is already completed or perfected.

(Eating started few hours in the past and just finished) . (Satisfied in the past until the present) ¾ The rain has stopped. It is formed by using the auxiliary verb "have" or "has" with the past participle form.€ € The present perfect tense indicates an action or condition began in the past and just completed or still going on. (Rain which has begun sometime in the past has just ended) ¾ We have eaten our lunch. ¾ We have satisfied our college faculty with their salary adjustment.

) € . € It is formed by using the auxiliary verb "had" with the past participle.The past perfect tense indicates an action or condition began in the past and completed also at some point in the past. (Started working on his thesis in the past and finished it in the past). also in the past. (The signal light had already turned red in the past before the car hit the post. ¾ He had worked on his thesis for eleven months. ¾ The signal light had turned red when the car hit the electric post. ¾ We had discussed the lesson when the brownout occurred. (Discussion done in the past before the brown-out happened which is also in the past).

.) ¾ We shall have graduated from St. Scholastica's College this school year. i.The future perfect tense indicates an action or condition began in the past which will be completed at some future time.e. ¾ I shall have spent all my Christmas bonus by New Year's Day. by New Year. (Selling begun in the past and fifty copies of the book will have been sold next month. (Spending began in the past and will be over in the future.) € . € It is formed by using the future of the auxiliary verb "have" (shall have or will have) with the past participle form.) ¾ My book will have sold fifty copies next month. (Studying in order to graduate started a few years ago in the past and will be completed at the close of this school year.

an adjective or an adverb. However through careful analysis.The term Verbal is used to designate a grammatical form which is derived from a verb but functions as a noun. € Many confuse it for a verb because its form like a verb and it has some characteristics of a verb. one will find that verbals cannot make an independent predication or assertion as verbs can. € Verbals come in the forms of: ¾ Gerunds ¾ Participles ¾ Infinitives € .

He resented my giving him an advice.the infinitive stem plus "ing". ¾ ¾ ¾ Swimming is good exercise. The idea of dancing without music is absurd. but unlike the present participle it functions as a noun.€ € is a verbal noun. i.e. It has the same form as the present participle.. .

Participles are verbals used as adjectives. € Participles come in three forms: € ¾ Present Participle ¾ Past Participle ¾ Perfect Participle Present Participle Past Participle Seeing Doing Facing Seen Done Faced Perfect Participle Having seen Having done Having faced . € They have forms that are similar to verbs.

€ € € The Present Participle is form by adding "ing" to the infinitive stem. the man slipped and fell. was a visual delight. ¾ His parents were happy. having seen the last of their brood graduate. ¾ The boy felt disgraced. The Perfect Participle is formed by using the present participle of the auxiliary verb "to have" followed by the past participle. ¾ Choreographed by Santiago. the Tales of Pan. . listed on the menu. is an original recipe. police-man drew his gun and fired. seeing his father in a drunken stupor. ¾ The Sherbet. The Past Participle is the third principal part of any verb. ¾ Having chased the robber to a dead-end. ¾ Running furiously through the field.

¾ Hoping to establish a democratic form of government.is a verbal that is used as a noun. to feed the animals in the farm. ¾ His idea to flush out the hijacker was rejected. is fun. ¾ Are you ready to listen to the teacher? . ¾ I have nothing to do with that suggestion. ¾ Her job. an adjective or an adverb. ¾ He gave the command to fire at the crowd. he ran for president. € As Adverb ¾ We hid to escape from mother's thrashing. € As Adjectives ¾ The power to rule is an important prerogative of a leader. € As Noun € ¾ To see the world is my dream.

must. ¾ I must do my work. may. see and watch. "to" as a sign of the infinitive is omitted after such verbs as can. € However. help.It is commonly preceded by the word "to" and followed by the present form of the verb. . hear. ("to" omitted after "watch") € € The sentences that are formed by using infinitives with the omitted "to" are normally in the imperative mood. ("to" omitted after "must") ¾ Can you help me with the dishes? ("to" omitted after "can") ¾ Watch me create a work of art.

¾ We would like to talk things over seriously. € . € Awkward: ¾ To dangerously live is many a young man's fancy.Split infinitives are to be avoided because they affect the clarity and accuracy of the sentence. € Better: ¾ To live dangerously is many young man's fancy. ¾ We would like to seriously talk things over. ¾ He promised to immediately give the Christmas bonus. ¾ He promised to give immediately the Christmas Bonus.

.€ € € € The property of a verb to indicate whether the subject is the doer or the receiver of the action is called voice. If the subject performs the action. the verb is in the passive voice. If the subject is being acted upon. the verb is in the active voice. The two distinctive type of voice is called the Active and the Passive voice.

direct and vital action. However.Active Voice expresses dynamic. x Lolo smoke rolled cigars and chews beetle nut. x Dinner is served. x The storm rumbled through the village. x The pope blessed the children. € Passive Voice is formed by using the auxiliary verb ´to beµ with the past participle of the verb. when performer is less important than the performance. It is unemphatic. uprooted and trees and crushed the nipa huts. x An investigation was conducted on the leakage of examination questions. € . the passive voice is preferred. x Let the truth be heard. indirect and wordy.

€ The English language has commonly three moods: the indicative. (You ´understoodµ. And Imperative sentence states a request or a command. (You ´understood. please sign the paper. € Indicative Mood shows that the speaker regards the statement as fact and formulates it as a question or a statement. ¾ Metro Manila has become terribly polluted. be early tomorrow. Also omitted is the controlling subject pronoun which is ´youµ.) € .Mood is the property of verbs which show the attitude of the speaker toward what he says. € Imperative Mood has the same form as the present infinitive but with the ´toµ omitted. the imperative and the subjunctive. ¾ Be early tomorrow. ¾ We regard her as a second mother.) ¾ Please sign the paper.

we will have your car simonized. an improbability or in ´thatµ clauses expressing a recommendation. € Like the future perfect tense. a supposition. we will have your car simonized. ¾ If it please you. a supposition mood is used to express a condition contrary to fact. we shall invite him to perform in our Christmas Party. a parliamentary motion. a wish or a regret. ¾ If it pleases you. € It is now substituted by the indicative verb forms: ¾ If he sings well. the subjunctive mood is also slowly disappearing from the Modern English.Subjunctive Mood is used to express a condition contrary to fact. € . ¾ If he sing well. we shall invite him to perform in our Christmas Party.

I would tell the truth. might. however. should. ¾ So be it.€ There are also instances where the subjunctive mood can be better expressed with the use of would. still retains a number of subjunctive forms in sayings. ¾ If I should decide to go. could. I shall let you know ¾ If you would consent to be my girl. ¾ Even if you might hang me. . ¾ Come what may. I shall marry you. ¾ God forbid. ought. need and other auxiliary verbs. a certain exclamations and wishes like: ¾ Peace be to you. € The English language.

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