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4

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978-0-9869240-1-9

================================================================================
rsufeSmzHk; eSifh aemufa}umzHk;
tifwmeufwGif wifoGif;jzef hcsDaom Tpmrl. rsufemS zHk;rSm OD;atmifxl; t*Fvdyb
f mom jzifh jyKpkaom
“Tin Maung Oo: A Forgotten Hero of Asia” . rl&if;rsufemS zH;k jzpfygonf? xdkenf;wl Tpmtkyef Sifh pyfvSsOf;
I jAdwdoSs 0ef}uD;csKyfa[mif; *dk'ef ba&mif;/ ASEAN Inter-Parliamentary Caucas (AIPMC) . 'k OuUX
Kraisak Choonhaven/ ordkif;ynm&Sif ygarmuQ *sdL;Zuf aq;vfAm; pwdkif; eSifh tar&duef jynfaxmifprk S David
Kramer (Former Assistant Secretary of State and Executive Director of Freedom House) wdk h.oabmxm;rSwfcsuf
rsm; az:jyxm;cJhonfh aemufa}umzHk;rSmvnf; tqdkyg pmtkyfryS if jzpfygonf?
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rl&if;a&;om;xm;csuf twdkif; t*Fvdyb
f momjzifhyif pmtkyf. a&S hqHk;ae&mwGif az:jyxm;ygonf?

xkwfa0ol

5

Forgotten Political Prisoners of Burma’s Gulag Archipelagos

About 35 years ago, a hero of Burma, a hero of Asia, Salai Tin Maung Oo, was murdered in Insein Jail,
the most notorious prison in the whole world. Salai Tin Maung Oo was a university student of the Chin
nationality, a great lover of humanity, freedom, justice and peace. As a student leader, he was at
logger’s head with the military rulers. He led many student demonstrations. At long last, he was arrested
and sentenced to death. Then he was sent to the gallows. He is the very first student leader to be
hanged during the time of Ne Win’s military dictatorship.
He was dead. Unsung. Activists used to say Salai Tin Maung Oo had done a great service to the cause of
liberty and democracy. He is a hero. But he is a forgotten hero of Burma. This was not true when I was
put behind bars. When I was put behind bars, already two decades had gone since Salai Tin Maung Oo
was hanged. Nevertheless, the legend of Salai Tin Maung Oo was the talk of the prison. He was still a
legendary hero among us political prisoners. His name, his strifes, his struggles, his sacrifices are lavishly
talked about among us.
Nowadays, thanks to the thorough and investigative research and lovingly care-intensive prose by the
author, U Aung Htoo, Salai Tin Maung Oo is no more a forgotten hero. His life and struggles are unveiled
to the people of Burma, Asia, and the world over. He now becomes an icon of all the political prisoners
in Burma.
While one of the most submerged and unknown figures in Burmese history is unveiled for the first time,
there still are more than two thousand political prisoners languishing in various dirty, unhealthy and
narrow cells in the gulags, which are widely scattered over Burma. All those political prisoners are
serving terms ranging over 100 years to over 30, 40, 50, 60 years, and so forth. Some of those political
prisoners’ names crop up sometimes in the overseas media. The media reports just mention their
names, not their living conditions. Hence, they virtually are forgotten prisoners anyhow.
6

Over two thousand political prisoners are here in Burma now. There are many kinds of demands for
their release; political resolutions, appeals, requests, prayers, etc. to no avail. Recently the so-called
civilian government, headed by Thein Sein, formerly a general and prime minister of the military junta,
decreed an amnesty order reducing one year for every prisoner. It is a big political joke. A great shame
for the country. A huge insult on top of injury. The whole world has cursed the half-military government
in diplomacy-coated language. The shameless government remains unperturbed, looking foolish to the
whole wide world.
There are over two thousand forgotten political prisoners waiting in the gulags of Burma. Where are
authors, writers, poets like Aung Htoo? Authors wanted; writers wanted; poets wanted for each and
every forgotten political prisoner of Burma. You are highly welcomed. Come ye all.
For the moment, Aung Htoo is more than good enough. He has done his best.
~U Win Tin
National League for Democracy

7

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8

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9

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13

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14

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15

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16

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17

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onf tpOftjrJ&iS foefaernf rkcsjzpfonf?

18

1
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19

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20

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21

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22

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23

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24

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25

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trd/ tz rsm;udk av;pm;*k%fjyKwwfol
ukdwifarmifOD;xHY ukd=unf0if; [kac:aom i,foli,fcsif; wpfa,muf &Scd Jhbl;onf? rdbrJhjzpfaeol
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G fpOfuwnf;uyif rdcif&if;ozG,f jyKpkapmifah &SmufvmcJhjcif;jzpf+yD; 4if; *sDwDtidk f
ausmif;+yD;onftxd &Smau|;cJhonf? wpfae@wGif xdktrsKd;orD;onf touf&,
G f}uD;&ifhvm+yD; toef;toef
zsm;emum aq;&Hkydk@&rnfh tajctaetxd jzpfvmcJhonf? rdcift&if; r[kwfaom tzGm;tdkudk aq;&Hkydk@&eftwGuf
um;rSwfwdkifodk@ ayG@csDac:aqmifoGm;&rnfudk &Sufrdojzifh udk=unf0if;u wGe@f qkwfwGe@f qkwf jzpfaecJhonf? TwGif
tajctae tvHk;pHu
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ajrmuf+yD;awmh ynmwwfwpfa,muf jzpfvmcJhwmbJ r[kwfvm;? wu,fq&dk if olu rif;tart&if;vdkygbJ?
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aoa&;&Sifa&; jzpfaewJhtcsdefrSm rif;u wjcm;vlawGukd bmjzpfvkd@ *&kpku
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vrf;ay:u tzGm;tdkwpfOD;udk ulnDaqmif&Gufay;jcif;
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jzpfyGm;cJhonf? bwfpum;wpfp;D ay:rS qif;vmol tzGm;tdkwpfOD;onf bwfpum;. a&S@ydkif;rSaeI vrf;jzwful;rnf
tjyKwGif bwfpum;. aemufbufraS eI qdkifu,fwpfpif;onf t&Sdefjyif;jyif;jzifh armif;vmonf? xdkqdik fu,fu
tzGm;tdu
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aoG;tdkifxJ vJaeol tzGm;tdkudk rsufvHk;jyL;rsufqHjyL;jzifh rSifaoaoum 'Dtwkdif; 0dkif;=unfhaecJh=uonf? xdktcsdef
26

wGif udkwifarmifOD;onf vltyk f=um;xJodk@ wdk;0ifvm+yD; rl;arhvJusaeaom tzGm;tdu
k dk n‡ifompGm ayG@vkdufum ‚
cifAsm;wkd@ bmvyfae=uwmvJ? ol@udk csufcsif;aq;&Hkydk@&r,fav?‛[k atmfavawmhonf? Todk@rSomv#if
vltyk f}uD;u touf0ifvm+yD; tzGm;tdu
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ol. tusôwGif pGef;usHaeonfudk tr_rxm;bJv#uf udkwifarmifOD;onf tzGm;tdu
k dk aq;&Hka&mufonftxd
um;ay:wGif ayG@csDxm;ay;cJhonf? aq;&Hkodk@a&mufonfh tcgwGif tzGm;tdt
k wGuf ta&;ay: toHk;jyKEkdif&efqu
dk m
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aemuf tjzpftysufwpfckrmS wifarmifOD; (10)wef;+yD;cgp aEG&moDumv. vrdkufnwpfnwGif jzpfyGm;
cJhonf? &yfuGufxJwGif wpHw
k &m aiGa=u;uHkvHkr_&Sdaom rdom;pkwpfpk "g;jywdkufcHcJh&onfh jzpf&yf jzpfonf? xdkrdom;pk
wpfpo
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f pfvHk;wGif aexdkifonf? 4if;teD;tem; ywf0ef;usiw
f Gif
pyg;cif;rsm;jzifhjynfhae+yD; pyg;yifrsm; &ifhrSnfhae=ucsdef jzpfonf? wpfnwGif ‚u,f=uygOD;? u,f=uygOD;?‛[laom
atmfoHwpfck xdkrdom;pktrd frSm xGufay:vmonf? 4if;wdk@ "g;jywkduf cHaecJh&jcif;yg? xdkrdom;pk. ydkufqHEiS fh
vuf0wf&wemrsm; odkrSD;xm;&m ae&mudk od&dES dik fa&; twGuf olcdk;"g;jyrsm;u tdr&f Sifrsm;udk &ku
d fESufppfa=um
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f bmudkif&rSef; rodcJh=u?
Todk@jzifh &yfuGufxJY tm;tifoefpGr;f owWd&do
S l[k emrnfausm=f um;aom wifarmifOD;. aetdro
f dk@
vltcsK@d u oGm;a&muf tultnDawmif;cH=uonf? "g;jywkdufcHae&aom tdro
f nf udkwifarmifOD;aetdrrf Sqdkv#if
rdik fw0ufcef@ a0;uGmonf? udkwifarmifOD;u vufEdyS "f gwfrD;ESifh vSHwpfacsmif;udkqJu
G m 4if;wkd@ESifhtwl
csufcsif;vdkufvmcJhonf? "g;jywdkufcaH e&aom rdom;pktwGuf rnfodk@ tultnDay;&rnfudk 4ifwkd@u
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f Gif tjcm;aom tdrfe;D csif;rsm;vnf; vma&mufpak 0;=u&mY pkpak ygif; vl
ta,muf(20)cef@&SdoGm;onf? 4ifwdk@txJwGif udkvSa&$vnf; yg0ifonf? udkwifarmifOD;u 4if;wkd@udk
‚tm;vHk;em;axmif=u? usaemfwdk@ tJ'Dtrd fem;udk oGm;=ur,f? 'gayr,fh usaemfwdk@ bmoHrrS xGufbJ wdwfwdwfav;
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r&Sdaoma=umifh vrf;rsm;rSm ydef;ydwfatmif arSmifae=uonf? tdref m;odk@a&mufonfhtcgwGif idk,kdjrnfwrf;um
toufcsrf;omay;&ef olcdk;"g;jyrsm;xHrS toem;cHawmif;qdk aeaom tdrf&iS ftrsK;d orD;. toHudk
twkdif;om;=um;vdkuf&onf? xdktcsdew
f Gif "g;jywpfOD;onf tdrfjyifbufrS vufEdyS f"gwfr;D tvif;a&mifwpfckudk
owdjyKrdoGm;onf? TwGif "g;jyrsm;u avxJodk@ aoewfEpS fcsuf ypfazgufum ‚'Dtdref m; vmwJhvlawG tm;vHk;
romjzpfoGm;r,f‛[k atmf[pfajcmufvSe@f cJhonf?
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k dk;aeonfudk
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27

xkd@aemuf olu csufcsif; ‚usaemf t}uHwpfck &+yD‛[kqu
dk m cGet
f m;Avaumif;rGefaom tdref D;csif; vli,f(3)
a,mufukd oGm;ac:+yD; 4if;wdk@udk 0g;vHk;&Snfrsm;/ t0wfpESifh a&eHqDwkd@udk t&SmxGufaponf? vli,f(3)a,muf
uvnf; tarSmifxkxJodk@ ajy;0ifoGm;um teD;tyg;&Sd tdrf+cHrsm;rS ar$aESmuf&mS azGavawmhonf? wc%t=umwGif
4if;wdk@onf 0g;vHk;&Snf(3)acsmif;/ t0wfptcsK@d EiS fh a&eHqDwdk@udk udkifum jyefvnfa&muf&dv
S monf? 0g;vHk;rsm;rSm
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f m;aom t0wfpwpfckudk 0g;vHk;&Snf. wbufxdyw
f Gif
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xdk@aemuf wifarmifOD;u tqdkygvli,f(3)a,muf 0g;vHk;&Snf wpfa,mufwpfacsmif;pDay;um "g;jywkdufcH
ae&onfh tdrfaemufaz;rS 4ifwdk@ukd wdwfwqdwf0ifa&mufoGm;apum 0g;vHk;&Snfrsm;udk tdrf. eab; wbufwcsuf&dS
ajr}uD;xJY pdu
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od&dES dik f&eftwGuf &du
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vli,f(3)OD;tygt0if vltyk f}uD;udk wdwfwqdwfae&ef ajymonf? xdk@aemufolonf 0g;wdkifrsm;&Sd&modk@ tv#iftjref
oGm;a&muf+yD; 0g;wkdif wpfwkdif+yD;wpfwkdif rD;nd‡um vltyk f}uD;&S&d modk@ jyefajy;vmcJhonf?
0g;wdkif rD;pmrsm;rSvmaom tvif;a&mifonf tarSmifxkxJwGif tdrfwpftdrv
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vltyk f}uD;u jrifEdik faomfvnf; "g;jyrsm;rSmrl arSmifraJ eaom tdrftjyifbufodk@ vHk;0rjrifEikd fcJh=uacs? wifarmifOD;u
vltyk f}uD;udk atmf[pf=u&ef/ yH;k rsm;/ cGufrsm;udk wD;acguf=u&efEiS fh &kef@=urf;us,favmifaom toHAvHrsm;
vky=f u&efajymaomtcg ywf0ef;usirf Sm qlnHoGm;cJhonf? wzef udkwifarmifOD;u vltyk f}uD; ajrjyifay:wGif
0yfaeapv#uf xyfrHI atmf[pfrr_ sm;udk jyKvkyaf ponf? TwGif "g;jyrsm;onf aoewfusnfukeo
f Gm;onftxd
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aus;Zl;wifrqHk; jzpfcJh&onf? udkwifarmifOD;. jzwfxdk;^m%faumif;r_udkvJ tr$r;f wifcJh=uonf? tcif;jzpfyGm+yD;
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28

tqdkyg tjzpftysufa=umifh tdrfe;D csif;rsm; t=um;Y cifrif&if;EDS;r_rsm; ydrk w
dk dk;yGm;vmcJhonf? xdk@jyif
ta&;ta=umif; }uHKvmygu 4if;wdk@ tcsif;csif; wpfOD;udkwpfOD; ulnDapmifr =u&rnfjzpf+yD; pnf;vHk;jcif;onf
tiftm; jzpfa=umif;udk em;vnfoabmaygufcJh=uonf? xdktcsdeu
f pwifum &yfuGufxJwGifvnf; ydI
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udkwifarmifOD;onf xdktcsdef uwnf;uyif tdref D;csif;rsm;. av;pm;r_udk &&SdcJholjzpfayonf?

29

3
wuUodkvfausmif;om;b0 atmufarhb,
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onf jrefrmEkdifiHwGif a&S;tusqHk;ESifh tausmf=um;qHk; wuUodkvfwpfck jzpfonf? TwuUodkvfudk +Adwdo#udkvdkeD
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ausmif;om;rsm; aexdkif&m taqmifrsm; wnf&daS e=uonf? &efukew
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S nf? &efuke+f rdK@awmifykid f;
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wuUodkvf e,fajr. tv,facgifwGif t"dywdvrf;[k ac:aom vrf;r}uD;wpfck&do
S nf? wuUodkvf e,fajr.
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30

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31

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32

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33

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34

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tusKd;jyK&ef ydkrdk pdwftm;xufoefvmcJhayonf?

35

4
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36

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tpf}uD;jzpfol. =uifem,k,r_udk oef@Zif. woufwmwGif arhr&EkdifcJhacs?

37

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38

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39

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40

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41

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udk ajymif;vJ&ef aqmif&u
G fEdik fcJhjcif; jzpfonf?

42

5
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tm;vHk;udk &ef&SmaewmbJ? bmjzpfvdk@vJuG‛[k jyefajymonf?

43

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44

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45

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46

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47

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csde;f yJGESifh ywfoufI rnfol@udkr# todray;cJhyg? udkwifarmifOD; tdrfjyefa&mufvmaomtcg vSa&$u ol@udk csOf;uyf
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ig rif;eJ@ pum;ajymcsifw,f? blwm&Hkem;u vrf;ab;t&ufqidk fudk vmcJh?‛[k a&;xm;onf? vSa&$u tpfudk}uD;
twGuf pd;k &dru
f m ‚tpfudk}uD; roGm;oifhbl;xifw,f? 'DvkdaumifrsKd;awGu tifrwef aumufuspfwmaem?‛[k

48

owday;onf? odk@aomfvnf; udkwifarmifOD;u ‚=unfh&wm olu tpfudk}uD;udk wu,f pum;ajymcsifvdk@eJ@
wlygw,fuGm? bmrS pdwfryle@J ? tpfudk}uD; ole@J pum;oGm;ajymr,f?‛[kajymonf?
xdkae@ naewGif udkwifarmifOD;u vrf;ab; t&ufqikd fodk@ oGm;a&mufonf? "g;cifarmifwifu
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rif;eJ@ &efrjzpfcsifawmhygbl;uGm? ig rif;e@J rdwfaqGbJ jzpfcsifw,f? rif;u wu,fudk &JpGr;f owWdeJ@ jynfhpHkwJh
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ay;r,f?‛[kqdkavonf? wifarmifOD;u ‚ig rif;&J@ tultnD rvdktyfygbl;? 'gayr,fh igwkd@ rdwfaqGawGtjzpf
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trsdL;orD;taqmifi,fuav;rsm; &Sad eonf? ausmif;oluav;rsm;rSm a&rdk;csdK;jyD; oeyfcg;yg;uGuf}um;vdr;f /
bavmufpf tuFsDvSvS uav; rsm;0wfum taqmifa&S hjcH0if;xJxGufjyD; rwfwyf&yfpum;ajymol ajymae}u/
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&Sad eonf? &dk;raqmifa&S h ta&mufwGif um;[Ge;f oHvdkvdk }um;rdonf?
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jzpfonf? udkwifarmifOD;u aemufq;Hk uae vdkufvmaoma}umifh tqdyk g*spfum;rSm oleiS fhteD;qHk;jzpfaeonf?
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‚a[haumifawG um; [Ge;f wD;oH r}um;bl;vm;/ rif;wdk hem;yif;ae}uovm;?‛ [k atmfajym vdkufonf?
49

udkwifarmifOD;eSifh oli,fcsif; wpkvHk;rSm &kwfw&uf rSifoufro
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k ifarmifOD;u
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aumif;aumif;ajymyg‛ [k jyefajymonf?
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--- jzpfvm;? rif;ubmaumifvJ
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udk pl;pl;0g;0g; }unfhvdkufonf? vrf;oGm;vrf;vmawG a&m aqmif0if;xJ&Sd rdef f;cav;awGuyg wckckjzpfawmhrnfudk
pd;k &drjf yD; 0dkif;}unfhae}uonf? udkwifarmifOD; twGufrl onfvdk yGJrsdL;rSm &dk;aeygjyD? cyfat;at;yif rwfwyf&yfvdkufjyD;
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wa,muf wa,mufjcif; jzpfaeojzifh rdrdwdk holi,fcsif;awGuvnf; udkwifarmifOD; bmvkyrf vJ
onftwdkif; }unfhaevdkufonf? 0ifa&mufulnDp&mrvdk [kvnf; ,Hk}unfonf? *spfum;xJwGif xdkifae}uaom
wzufu vli,ftyk fonfvnf; xdkenf;twdkif;yif jzpfyHk&onf? bmrS 0ifrajymbJ tomyif }unfhae }uonf?
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cyfat;at;yHak y:aeojzifh rdef;cav;rsm;eSifh vrf;oGm;vrf;vmrsm; a&S hwGif &SufoGm;yHk &onf? &Suf&rf;&rf;onfh
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csifovm;?‛
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50

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vufudk rdrdb,fvufjzifh usm;ykwf ykwfxkwfvdkufjyD; nmvufjzifh jzwfvufoD; wvHk;oGif;vdkuf&m xdkvli,frmS
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jzpfEikd frmS vJ?‛
udkwifarmifOD;u-

51

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jcif;u umuG,fEdik f&eftwGuf udkwifarmifOD;u ol. pGr;f tifudk toHk;cscJhjcif;jzpfonf?

52

6
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53

ynm oif=um;cGifh r&Sd=ujcif;
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54

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55

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56

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57

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olu &Sif;vif;odjrifvmapcJhonf? Tta=umif;a=umifhyif udkwifarmifOD;onf ol. ‘arG;&myg owWd’udk pepfwus
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wum usifh}uHtm;xkwf&mu udkwifarmifOD;onf thcH sD;zG,f&maumif;aom vli,fwpfOD;jzpfvm+yD; vlom;rsm;
twGuf/ vl@*k%foduQmtwGuf/ vl@wefzk;d twGuf pGef@v$wftepfemcH&ef &JpGr;f owWdtjynfhjzifh }udK;yrf;aqmif&Guf
cJhayonf?

58

7
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acgif;aqmifudk rsufprd w
Sd faxmufcHvSsif ‘Ekid fiHa&;bufvdkufr_’ jzpfonf?

59

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pnf;wnfaqmufr_. raumif;aom vky&f yfrsm;ESifh pyfv#Of;I vspfvsL&_xm;jcif;onf ‘EkdifiHa&;bufvdkufr’_
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wpfckckonf teD;uyf r[mrdwf jzpfEikd fonf [laom ta=umif; jycsufjzifh tqdkyg tm%mykdif (odk@r[kwf) Ekid fiHa&;
ygwD (odk@r[kwf) edik fiHa&; zGJ hpnf;wnfaqmufr_. raumif;aom vky&f yfrsm;ESifh pyfv#Of;I vspfvsL&_xm;jcif;onf
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twkr&Sd om;awmfudk ay;tyfcJh&jcif;omwnf;? om;awmfudk ,Hk=unfouf0ifolwkdif;onf aoa=uysufp;D rnf
60

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‚'gu vlwdkif;odygw,fuGm? vG,fvG,fav;bJ? a&vdkwmaygh?‛

61

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62

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63

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64

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65

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66

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67

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69

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ukvor*~ taxGaxG twGif;a&;rSL; befuDreG f;/ tar&duef orRw tdkbm;rm;ESifh EkdifiHaygif;rsm;pGm&Sd acgif;aqmif
rsm;wdk@u csD;r$r;f *k%fjyKcJh=uonf? 2011ckEpS f Zefe0g&Dv (25)&ufrS azaz:0g&Dv (11)&ufae@twGif; jzpfyGm;cJhaom
qENjyyGJrsm;wGif oef;csDaom vlaygif;rsm;pGm yg0ifcJhonfhteuf (60)&mckid fEe_ f;rSm vli,frsm; jzpfonf? csD;rGr;f zG,f
&maom vky&f yfrsm;yif jzpfonf? jrefrmEkdifiHudk =unfhrnfqv
dk #if 1962ckEpS f Zlvdkifv ausmif;om;qENjyyJGrsm;rS
pwifum &J&ifhowWdEiS fh jynfpkaH om vli,frsm;wkd@. paw;cJh&jcif;rsm;udk ordik f;wGif rSwfwrf;wifcJhayonf?
udkwifarmifOD;ESifh a&mif;&if;rsm;onf tqdkyguJhokd@aom pdwf"gwf&do
S lrsm; jzpfonf? 4if;wdk@. vGwfvyfaom
awG;ac:r_jzifh wkdif;jynftajctaeudk avhvmoHk;oyfcJhonf? qef@usifv_y&f Sm; wkdufyG0J if&eftwGuf r[mAsL[mrsm;
a&;qJGcJhonf? 1974rS 1976ckEpS ftxd vlxkEiS fh ausmif;om;qENjyyGJrsm;udk pwif taumiftxnfaz:ay;cJhonf?
Ekid fiHa&; udprP sm;ESifh pyfvsOf;I pOf;pm; qifjcif&mwGif udkwifarmifOD;. awG;ac:ar#mfjrifro
_ nf vGwfvyfr_ tjynfht0
&Scd Jh+yD; ’vGwfvyfpGm awG;ac:r_’udk aumif;rGepf Gm usifhoHk;Ekid fcJhonf?

70

8
b0wdk;wuf&ef ud,
k fusdK;&SmazGr_ ESifh twWpdwu
f dk cGJjcm;az:aqmifjcif;
vlom;wpfa,muftaejzifh rdrd. ukd,fusK;d twGuf &SmazGonf qdkonfrmS xl;qef;aom t&mr[kwfacs?
vlom;wdk@onf pOf;pdrOf pPm/ tm%m/ ausmf=um;r_/ *k%o
f duQm/ cspfcsif;arwWm/ vlra_ &; tqifhtwef; ponfwdk@udk
&SmazG=uonf? udk,fusK;d twGuf &SmazGvkyu
f dkifjcif;a=umifh vl@b0onf t"dyg` ,f &Sdvmonf? Ek;d =um;wufºuGr_
&Sv
d monf? vkycf sifudkifcsifpdwfrsm; wdk;yGm;vm+yD; rdrd. &nfreS f;csuf yef;wdkifodk@ ta&mufvSr;f Ekdif&eftwGuf
wwfEdik for#aom enf;vrf;aygif;pHkudk &SmazGum rdr.
d vkyu
f dkifzefwD;EkdifpGrf;udk tuef@towfr&Sd csJ@xGiaf v
awmhonf? Todk@jzifh rdrd. &nfreS f;csufyef;wkdifudk ta&mufvSr;f Ekdif+yD;onfhaemufwGif vlom;wdk@ 0rf;omyDwd
jzpf=u&onf? xdk@a=umifh rdrdudk,fusK;d twGuf &SmazGvkyu
f dkifjcif; qdkonfrmS b0t"dyg` ,fwpfck jzpfvmonf?
udk,fusK;d =unfhjcif; ESifh twWpw
d fwkd@udk u¾wpfckxJwGif twlwuG xm;&SdEkdifaomfvnf; 4if;wdk@onf
tajccHtm;jzifh uJGjym;=uonf? vl@tzG@J tpnf;tygt0if wyg;olwdk@. tusK;d pD;yGm;udk xnfhoGif;pOf;pm;um rdrd
ukd,fusK;d twGuf &SmazGvkyu
f dkifjcif;onf rdrdtwGuf omru wyg;olrsm;ESifh vl@tzG@J tpnf;udkyg tusKd;jzpfxGe;f
aponf? TuJhodk@aom udk,fusK;d =unfhjcif;onf aumif;aomt&mjzpfonf? odk@aomfvnf; wyg;olrsm;udk
ab;csdwfxm;+yD; rdrd. vkdtifqEN/ avmbpdwfEiS fh wG,fwmpdwfrsm;udkom xnfhoGi;f pOf;pm;wwfaom twWpw
d fonf
yifukd,ftm;jzifh raumif;t&m jzpfonf? twWpw
d fonf wzufowfjrifwwfaom pdwfjzpfonf? wyg;olrsm;.
pk;d &dryf lyefr_/ 'kuQa0'emESifh tajctaersm; OyuQmjyKaeaom oabm&Sdonf?
vl@tzJ@G tpnf;onf vlwpfOD;wpfa,mufcsif;. udk,fusK;d &SmazGEdik fr_ tcGifhtvrf;rsm;udk zefwD;ay;um
udk,fusK;d twGuf &SmazGaeaom woD;yk*v
~ rsm;udk wyg;olrsm;u (okd@r[kwf) tpdk;&tm%mydkifrsm;u 0ifa&muf
aESmifh,Sufjcif; rjyKEkdifap&eftwGuf tumtuG,f ay;&rnf? TuJhokd@jyKvkyf&mwGif jzpfay:vmEkid faom
tpGe;f a&mufr_ ESpfck&do
S nf? yxrwpfckrmS vl@tzG@J tpnf;u vlwOD;csif;wkd@. udk,fusK;d &SmazGrE_ Sifh ywfoufI
pnf;rsOf;pnf;urf; owfrw
S fxm;&Sdr_rsm;/ vrf;!$efjyr_rsm;ESifh }uD;=uyfr_rsm;ukd jyKvkyjf cif;jzpfonf? tm%m&Sif
tkyfcsKyfaom vl@tzG@J tpnf;wGif xdkuJhodk@aom tjzpfrsKd;udk }uHK&wwfonf? tjcm; tpGe;f a&mufrw
_ pfckrmS
wOD;csif;vlyk*d~Kvfrsm;u vl@tzG@J tpnf;wpfckvHk;. ta&;yg t&ma&mufru
_ dk tºuGif;rJh ypfy,fxm;jcif; (odk@r[kwf)
jiif;qefjcif;yifjzpfonf? tqdkyg wOD;csif;vlyk*d~Kvfrsm;. pdwfEv
S Hk;xJwGif twWpdwf ude;f atmif;aeaom tajctae
rsm;Y xdkuJhodk@jzpfwwfonf? ‘twWpw
d f’ }uD;xGm;vmvSsif ‘avmb’/ ‘b0ifjrifhaompdwf’/ ‘vSnhfzsm;vdak ompdwf’/
‘tysufpw
d f’ ‘tmCmw’ eSifh ‘&efjidSK;odkr_’ wdk@udk jzpfaponfESifhtnD wpfpkw
H pfOD;xHwGif twWpw
d f
jzpfwnfvmonfEiS fh w+ydKifeuf 4if;. odpw
d fxJYaomfvnf;aumif;/ rodpw
d fxJYaomfvnf;aumif; pdwf.
oef@pifrr_ Sm aysmufysuf oGm;avawmhonf?

71

tcsKyftwnf;r&Sad om twWpdwf&djS cif;. &vm'frsm;
wyg;olrsm;. tusKd;pD;yGm;udk vpfvsL&_um ‘twWpw
d f’xm;&Sdaom woD;yk*v
~ rsm;a=umifh vltrsm;wdk@.
‘*k%foduQm’/ ‘vGwfvyfr’_ ESifh ‘tcGifhtvrf;rsm;’udk csKd;azguf&ma&mufEkdifonf? Todk@aom tajctaersKd;wGif
woD;yk*v
~ rsm; twlwuG ,SOfwGJ aexdkif=uaom vl@tzG@J tpnf;wGif ‘vlom;tcsif;csif; ,Hk=unfr’_ uif;rJhaernf?
‘uvJph m;acsjcif;’udk a&SmifvGJI &Ekdifrnf r[kwfbJ vltrsm; +idrf;csrf;pGm twlwuGaexdkifjcif;rSm ysufokOf;oGm;
ayrnf?
twWpw
d fEiS fhtwl vdrv
f nfvSnfhjzm;r_ESifh r&kd;om;r_wdk@ ,SOfwJGvmavh&do
S nf? EkdifiHrsKd;pHw
k Gif tajcpdu
k faom
ukr%
` D}uD;rsm;u twWpw
d fudk usifh}uH&mwGif- 4if;wdk@. ukr%
` Drsm;udk wnfaxmifjcif;a=umifh tvkyf&Ekid faom
tcGifhtvrf;rsm; ydrk w
dk dk;yGm;vm+yD; a'ocH vlxkwdk@ tusKd;tjrwf &&Sdrnf/ Ekid fiHjcm; &if;ESD;jr‡yfESHrr_ sm; 0ifa&muf
vmrnf[k 4if;wdk@u qdkavh&d=S uonf? TtqdkrSm wpHw
k &m twdkif;twmtxdom rSefuefayonf? vufawG@wGirf l
tjrwftpGe;f trsm;pkudk ukr%
` Dvkyif ef;&Sifrsm;uom &&SdoGm;=u+yD; a'ocHvlxku &&Sdaom tjrwftpGe;f rSm
rajymyavmufay?
tpdk;&twGif;&Sd tjrifhqkH; &mxl;ae&mrsm;udk twWpw
d f&daS om tm%m&Sifrsm;u &,lydik fqdkifxm;v#if
vl@tzG@J tpnf;}uD;wpfckvHk; qdk;usdK;cHpm;&ayonf? jynfolydkifypPnf;rsm; tvJGoHk;pm; vkyjf cif; cH&onf? jynfolwkd@.
touftEW&m,frsm;udk xdyg;jcif; cH&onf? woD;yk*v
~ rsm;. vkyyf idk fcGifhrsm; csKyfcs,fuef@owfjcif; cH&+yD;
vl@tzG@J tpnf;wpfckvHk; uaomif;ueif; jzpf&avonf? TuJhodk@aom tajctaersm;udk jrefrmEkdifiHESifh tm&Swkduf&Sd
tcsdK@Edik fiHrsm;wGifom rubJ Oa&mywkduf ta&S@ydkif;/ tmz&duwdkuf/ vufwiftar&duwkdufEiS fh vwfwavm
ta&S@tv,fykid f;a'o&Sd EkdifiHrsm;wGifyg awG@jrifEdik fayonf?
2011ckEpS f azaz:0g&Dv (21)&ufae@wGif vpfbsm;EkdifiHudk (42)ESpf=umatmif tm%m&Siftjzpf
tkyfcsKyfrif;vkyv
f mcJhaom rmrl0g *g'gzDu ol. twWpw
d fudk umuG,f&eftwGuf +idrf;csrf;pGm qENjyaeaom
jynfoljynfom;rsm;udk ppfwyfjzifh ypfcwfEdrS ef if;apcJhonf?wkdif;jynfudk tkycf sKyfrif;vkyo
f lrsm;u twWpw
d fudk
usifh}uHonf[kq&dk mwGif 4if;wdk@u jynfolrsm;. tusK;d pD;yGm; zG@H +zdK;wdk;wufa&;twGuf aqmif&Gufay;rnf[k
ta,mifaqmifavh&d=S uonf? vufawG@wGirf l wkdif;jynf. pOf;pdrOf pPmrsm;udk tkyfcsKyfolrsm;ESifh 4if;wdk@.
taygif;taz:rsm;uom &&SdpHpm;=u+yD; omrefjynfolvlxkrmS c|wf+cHKus =u&onf? tD*spf orRw rlbm&wf.
ESpf(30)=um tkycf sKyfr_udk (18)&uf=um vlxkqENjyyJGrsm;u tqHk;owfapcJh+yD;onfhaemufwGif rlbm&wfu vlxkxHrS
cdk;,lum qGpZf vefb%frsm;xJY odkrSD;xm;aom aiGa=u;rsm; tydwfcHcJh&onf? wle;D &Sm;EkdifiHwGif vlxkqENjyyJG
rsm;a=umifh orRw biftvD. (23)ESpf=um tkycf sKyfr_ tqHk;owfcJh&+yD; 2011ckESpf Zefe0g&Dv (14)&ufae@Y biftvD
u aqmf't
D ma&As Ekid fiHodk@ xGufajy;oGm;cJh+yD;onfhaemufwGif jynfolrsm;xHrS cdk;,lxm;aom vuf0wf&wemrsm;udk
ol.aetdrw
f Gif awG@&SdcJh&onf?
wpfpkw
H pfOD;xHwGif twWpdwf }uD;pdk;aev#if pmemaxmufxm;r_EiS fh &d;k om;r_rsm; uif;rJhoGm;onf?
vl@usi0fh wfESifh *k%o
f duQmrsm; arS;rSdefaysmufuG,foGm;+yD; aemufqHk;wGif vl@wefzkd; r&Sdawmhacs? vGecf Jhonfh
q,fpEk Spfrsm;twGi;f wGif avmb}uD;aom woD;yk*v
~ rsm;ESifh tm%m&Sifrsm;u twWpw
d fudk qxufwdk; usifh}uH
vmcJhjcif;a=umifh wkdif;jynf. a*[pepfrsm; ysufp;D qHk;&_H;cJh&+yD; urBmw0Srf;&Sd oef;aygif;rsm;pGmaom jynfolvlxkwdk@
72

tiwfab;qdkufch&J onf? 4if;. tusK;d &vm'fa=umifh EkdifiHaygif;rsm;pGmwk@d wGif vlra_ &; o[Zmjzpfr_ESifh w&m;r#wr_
rsm; csKyf+idr;f cJh&onf?
wkdif;jynfudk tkyfcsKyfolrsm;/ Ekid fiHa&;orm;rsm;/ pD;yGm;a&;orm;rsm;ESifh omrmef jynfolvlxk tp&So
d nfh
tm;vHk;aom woD;yk*v
~ rsm;onf udk,fusKd;twGuf &SmazGvkyu
f dkifEdik f=uaomfvnf; 4if;wkd@. twWpw
d fudkrl
acszsufoifhayonf? odk@aomf txl;owdjyK&rnfh tcsufrmS udk,fusKd;=unfhjcif;ESifh twWpw
d f wkd@udk wdwdusus
cGJjcm;owfrSwfxm;aom e,ferdwf wpHw
k &m r&Sdjcif;yif jzpfonf? udk,fusK;d =unfhjcif;udk oifhavsmfreS fuefpGm
pDrHcef@cGJEdik fjcif;r&Sdv#if 4if;onf twWpdwf toGifodk@ ajymif;oGm;Ekid fonf? Ttjcif;t&mudk a&Smif&mS ;Ekdif&ef
rdrdudk,fusK;d twGuf &SmazGonfh tcgwdkif;wGif wyg;olwdk@. tusKd;pD;yGm;udkvJ xnfhoGif;pOf;pm;&ayrnf? 4if;onf
t"duusaom tcsufwpfcsufjzpf+yD; wyg;olrsm;ESifh qufqHaqmif&u
G f&onfhtcgwkdif;wGif xdktcsufudk vkdufem
usifhoHk;Ekid fonf? TwGif udkwifarmifOD;ESifh ywfoufaom udp&P yfwpfckudk avhvmoifhayonf?

rdrd. &nfreS f;csufrsm;udk taumiftxnf az:&if;u tjcm;olrsm;udkvnf; jyKpkapmifha&Smufol
udkwifarmifOD;. rdbESpyf g;onf tpdk;&0efxrf;rsm; jzpfonfEiS fhtnD vpmaiG rsm;rsm;pm;pm; r&=uacs?
&cdkifjynfe,f. yifv,fqdyfurf;+rdK@wpf+rdK@jzpfaom ppfawG+rdK@wGif udkwifarmifOD;.taz oGm;a&muftvkyv
f kyf
aecJhpOftcsdefu jzpfonf? udkwifarmifOD;.tazonf ppfawG+rdK@&Sd tpdk;& }udK;rJha=u;eef;&H;k wpfckwGif a&'D,kd
atmfya&wmorm;wpfa,muftjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmifcJhonf? (6)vv#ifwpf}udrf olu &efuke+f rdK@udkjyefum
ol.rdom;pkudk vma&mufawG@qkaH vh&Sdonf? tazvkyo
f l tdrfwGif &Srd aeonfhtcgrsm;wGif udkwifarmifOD;u
tdrfru
_ pPrsm;udk wm0ef,laqmif&Guf&onf? zcifwpfOD;uJhodk@yif ol. nDi,f/ nDri,frsm;udk jyKpkapmifha&Smufonf?
taru om;zGm;q&mrwpfOD;om jzpfaoma=umifh uav;(8)a,mufpvHk;ukd au|;arG;apmifha&Smuf xm;Ekdif
a&; qdkonfrmS olrtwGuf rvG,fulcJhacs? TonfrSm jrefrmhq&dk S,fvpf vrf;pOfygwDu wkdif;jynfudk pDrHtyk fcsKyfr_
nhHzsif;jcif;/ tpdk;& &mxl;Xme tqifhqifhwGif vmbfpm;r_rsm; us,fus,fjyef@jyef@ &Sad ejcif;wkd@a=umifhjzpfonf[k
t"duqdkEkdifayonf? T&vm'fa=umifh Ekid fiHw0Srf;vHk;wGif pD;yGm;a&; c|wf+cHKusch&J onf? aps;uGufxJ&dS pm;oHk;ukef
ypPnf;rsm;rSm wpfae@xufwpfae@ aps;yd}k uD;vmaomfvnf; vlxktrsm;pkwdk@ &&Sdaom vpmaiGrsm;rSmrl wnf+rJtwkdif;
&Sad ecJhonf?
wkdif;jynftwGif;wGif pm;oHk;ukeyf pPnf;rsm;udk vHkavmufpmG xkwfvkyjf zef@jzL;Ekid fjcif; r&Sdaoma=umifh
pD;yGm;a&;tajctaersm;udk ydrk q
dk dk;&Gm;vmapcJhonf? jrefrmEkdifiH&dS omrefvlxkonf 4if;wdk@&&Sad om rpdk@ryd@k
vpmrsm;jzifh rdom;pk0ifrsm;udk au|;arG;xm;Ekdifjcif; r&So
d nfhtjyif taºuG;EHeG pf aecJh=u&onf? aps;xJwGif
aps;onfrsm;u 4if;wdk@ ,Hk=unfpw
d fcs&olrsm;udk taºuG;pepfjzifh aps;0,fciG fhjyK=u+yD; taºuG;,lxm;olrsm;u
vuke&f ufwGif jyefqyf=u&onf? aps;onfrsm;xHu taºuG;0,fpm;olrsm;xJwGif udkwifarmifOD;. tarvnf;
yg0ifonf? olr vpmaiG&onfhtcgwdkif;wGif aps;onfrsm;udk taºuG;jyefaeqyf&aoma=umifh tdrftwGuf
bmrSrusefawmh oavmufyif jzpfonf? xdk@a=umifh aemufvrsm;wGifvnf; taºuG;pepfjzifh aps;0,f&aoma=umifh

73

rqHk;Ekdifaom oHo&mvnfaecJhonf? TonfrmS jrefrmEkdifiH&Sd jynfolvlxktrsm;pkwdk@ awG@}uHKcJh=u&onfh &H;k rxGufEkdif
aom 0J=oCqdk;}uD;yif jzpfonf?
rdom;pk aiGa&;a=u;a&;tajctaeESifh ywfoufI udkwifarmifOD;u tawmf pdwfrcsrf;om jzpfcJhonf?
4if;wdk@udk au|;arG;xm;Ekdifa&;twGuf ae@pOfEiS fhtr# &kef;uefv_y&f Sm;ae&aom tarhudk r=unfh&ufcJh? Todk@jzifh
wae@wGif olu tarhtm; ‚aemuf (2)v (3)vpmtwGuf usaemfwdk@&J@ &oHk;aiGpm&if;udk pDrH=upd@k vm;?
taºuG;uif;atmif vky=f ur,fav? usaemfwdk@rSm r&Sd&if rpm;bl;aygh? bmbJ jzpfaeygap usaemfwkd@ taºuG;r,lbJ
aeEkdifatmif vkyf=ur,f?‛[k ajymonf?
Tonfudk taru oabmwl&mwGif udkwifarmifOD;u csufcsif;yif rdom;pktwGuf &oHk;aiGpm&if;wpfckudk
a&;avonf? ‚usaemfwdk@ tpydik f;rSmawmh awmfawmfav; usyfwnf;vdrhrf ,fAs? 'gayr,fh wwfEdik foavmuf
ac|wmoH;k r,f qdk&if aemufykid f;usawmh wjznf;jznf; tqifajyvmrSmaygh?‛[k oluqdkonf? Todk@jzifh
udkwifarmifOD;onf tom;ig;uJhodk@aom aps;}uD;aomt&mrsm;ESifh tjcm; tydktv#H ypPnf;rsm;twGuf toHk;p&dwfudk
z,fxkwfvdkuf+yD; r&Sdrjzpf vkdtyfaom tajccHpm;oHk;p&dwftwGuf ukeu
f saiGrsm;omyg0ifaom &oHk;aiGpm&if;wpfckudk
pepfwus a&;qJaG y;cJhonf?
tpm;taomuf0,f,laom
toHk;p&dwfudk
av#mhcsvkdufonfEiS fhtnD
xrif;[if;csuf&mwGif
tdrfaemufaz;xGuf [if;oD;[if;&Gufrsm;udk tpm;xdk;&eftwGuf olu t}uHjyKonf? tdrfem;&Sd a&uefwGif
aygufa&mufaeaom tyifuav;rsm;/ tdrfaemufaz;jcHxGuf csOfaygif&Gufrsm;/ [if;oD;[if;&Gufudk cl;um txl;
aumif;rGeaf om [if;&Gufar$a=umfrsm;udk udkwifarmifOD;u rdom;pk0ifrsm;twGuf csufau|;onf? olonf
zefwD;EkdifprG f;&So
d l/ [kdem; onfem;u &aom [if;oD;[if;&Gufrsm;jzifh [if;wpf&u
G f jzpfvmatmif vkyEf ikd fprG f;&Sdol
jzpfonf? udkwifarmifOD;u [if;csufvJ tvGefaumif;onf? csufjyKwf+yD;aom tcgwGif olu nDi,f/ nDri,frsm;udk
xrif;pm;yJGodk@ac:+yD; xrif;rpm;rD ajymavh&daS om pum;wpfckrmS ‚xrif;[if;awG ylaEG;aewke;f rSm pm;vdkuf=updk@vm;?
ylaEG;aewJh xrif;[if;awGukd pm;&wm yd+k yD;t&om&Sdw,fuG?‛ [lI jzpfonf? xrif;pm; pm;yJo
G dk@ vma&muf=u&ef
ajymqdkaeaom tpfudk}uD; jzpfol. toHudk nDi,f/ nDri,frsm;u ,ae@wdkif trSwf&aeqJyg?
taru aps;onfrsm;xHrS tau|;0,frpm;onfrmS (1)vcef@ &Sv
d m+yDjzpf+yD; tm;vHk;rSm ol@[mESifhol
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olu toHcyfrmrmjzifh ‚tar/ usaemfwkd@rSm bmrSr&Sd&if rpm;bl;vdk@ ajymxm;wmudk tar arhoGm;+yD;vm;?
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74

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jrefrmEkdifiH&dS vli,fvl&,
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75

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udkwifarmifOD; uJhokd@aom ynmwwf vli,frsm;rSmrl tqdkygvkyif ef;rsm;udk pdwfr0ifpm;cJhacs?
wuUodkvf twef;+yD;aom wnaecif;wGif udkwifarmifOD;ESifh oli,fcsif;wpfpkwkd@ tif;,m;uef.
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76

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77

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78

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79

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80

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81

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82

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83

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TonfrSm jrefrmEkdifiH. ynma&;pepf. tm;enf;csufa=umifhvnf; jzpfayonf?

ynma&;pepfudk jyefvSefoHk;oyfjcif;
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rsm;jym;aeavh&do
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avh&do
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udkwifarmifOD;udk csufcsif;oGm;owd&rdonf? aemufwpfae@wGif ta':u udkwifarmifOD;xH vma&mufum ‚pae/
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u ulnDvkdaom udw
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84

olu oifcef;pmwpfckudk ausmufoifyek f;ay:Y pa&;avonf? TwGif ausmif;olwpfOD;u qD;aphwpfaphjzifh
ypfayguf&m xkdq;D aphonf udkwifarmifOD;. OD;acgif;tem;&Sd ausmufoifyek f;udk oGm;a&mufxdreS fonf? ausmif;ol
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[mo^m%f&i$ faom udkwifarmifOD;a=umifh twef;xJwGif aysmf&$if&,farmp&mrsm;jzifh touf0ifvmonfrmS
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85

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86

9
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bmoma&;onf ‘trSefw&m;’omjzpfa=umif; &Sif;vif;ajz}um;oGm;cJhonf? Todk@rSomv#if ausmif;ol ausmif;om;
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G f &mwGif
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87

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88

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89

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90

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94

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a}uG;a}umfcJh=uaomfvnf; vufawG@wGirf l jzpfrvmcJhacs? tm&yfwkdif;jynfrsm;wGif bk&ifrsm;uomv#if Ekid fiHa&;
tm%mudk qkyfudkifxm;=u+yD; tm%m&Sifpepfudk oufq;dk &SnfapcJhonf? tD*spf/ wle;D &Sm;/ ,DrifEiS fh qD;&D;,m;
tp&So
d nfh orRw EkdifiHrsm;wGifvnf; tm%m&Sif tkyfcsKyfr_pepfudk pwifusihfoHk;vmcJh=uonf? tm%m&Sif pepfrsm;
xJwGif tqdk;&Gm;qHk;jzpfaom ‚bk&ifrsm;. bk&ifpepf‛ udk usifhoHk;vmcJhol rmrl0g *g'gzDonf ,ae@tcsdet
f xd
tm%mwnf+rJaeay ao;onf?
vpfbsm;EkdifiHudk bk&if tD'&pfu tkyfcsKyfaepOftwGif; 1969 ckESpfwGif *g'gzDESifhwuG &mxl;i,f ppfAkv
d f
tcsK@d wdk@u ppfwyftm%modr;f cJhjcif;jzpfonf? ta&S@tv,fykid f;a'o&Sd vli,fwpfOD;jzpfol *g'gzDu tm%m&Sifpepfudk
pwif usifhoHk;vmcsdew
f Gif tm&Swdkuf&Sd vli,fwpfOD;jzpfol udkwifarmifOD;uvnf; vl@tzG@J tpnf; ESifh ywfoufI
pwif avhvmvdkufpm;um tm%m&Sifpepfudk jzKwfcs&eftwGuf jyifqifrr_ sm; jyKvkyaf ecJhonf? Tae&mwGif
4if;wdk@ESpOf D; teuf rnfolu &JpGr;f owWdEiS fh ydjk ynfhpHkonfudk rnfolr# rod&dES dik facs? odk@aomfvnf; owdjyK&rnfh
tcsufwpfcsufrSm &nfreS f;csufyef;wdkifodk@ ta&mufvSr;f &eftwGuf 4if;wdk@. vkyyf u
Hk dkifykrH sm; rwlnD=ujcif;
yifjzpfonf? *g'gzDu ppfwyf tiftm;udk rDcS dktm;xm;aecsdew
f Gif udkwifarmifOD;u vlxkprG f;tm;udk trDSjyKcJhonf?
+idrf;csrf;aom vrf;pOfudk usifh}uH cJhonf? xdktcsdeu
f vlxkprG f;tm;qdkonfrmS a&yef;pm;aom a0g[m&wpfck
r[kwfcJhacs?

uGejf rLepfpepfudk a&Smif&Sm;&ef }udK;yrf;&mrS tm%m&Sifpepfudk axmufcHcJh=ujcif;
udkwifarmifOD;onf 1969ckESpfwGif wuUodkvf yxESpYf wufa&muf ynmoif=um;cJhonf? zdvpfykid fEdkifiH
orRw zm'Deef rm;udk@(pf)u Ekid fiHhordkif;wGif r}uHKpzl; 'kwd,t}udrf orRwtjzpf jyefvnfta&G;cHcJh&onfrmS vnf;
1969 ckEpS fuyif jzpfonf? tif'ked ;D &Sm;Ekid fiHwGif emrnfq;dk jzifh ausmf=um;ol ppftm%m&Sif Adv
k fcsKyf ql[mwdkudk
v$wfawmf u orRwtjzpf a&G;cs,fcef@tyfcJhonfrmS 1968ckEpS fu jzpfonf? tqdkyg orRwESpfOD;pvHk;onf
oufqikd f&m EkdifiH toD;oD;wGif uGejf rLepf ykeu
f eftHkºuGrr_ sm;udk ESrd feif;cJhonf[lI emrnfausm=f um;cJh=uonf?
tm%mr&rDwGif tif'kdeD;&Sm;Ekid fiH Adv
k fcsKyf ql[mwkdonf uGejf rLepfrsm;udk &Sif;vif;okwfoif&eftwGuf ppfwyfudk
OD;aqmifcJh+yD; vlaygif; (5)ode;f cef@udk owfjzwfcho
J nf? zdvpfykid fEkdifiHwGif rm;udk@(pf)u rm&S,favm xkwfcJh+yD;onfh
aemufwGif uGejf rLepfjynfol hwyfrawmfopfudk eSrd feif;&ef ppfwyfudk txl;tm%mtyfeiS f;cJhonf? xdkumvtwGif;
Yyif awmifudk&D;,m; EkdifiHwGifvnf; 'kwd, orRwedik fiHudk jzdKcsjyD; OD;aqmiftm%modr;f cJhol Adv
k fcsKyf ywfc|ef[D;onf
orRwtjzpf jyefvnf ta&G;cHcJh&onf? 1966 ckEpS frS 1976 ckEpS frsm;twGif;wGif w&kwfEdik fiH. acgif;aqmif }uD;
armfpDwke;f u ,Ofaus;r_ awmfvSeaf &;}uD;qifEJc$ Jh+yD; jynfolwkd@. vGwfvyfcGifhudk t}uD;tus,f uef@owfcsKyfcs,f
cJhonf? TonfrmS rSm;,Gif;aom vkyaf qmifcsufwpf&yfjzpfa}umif; w&kwfEdik fiH uGejf rLepfygwD udk,fYuyif
aemufyidk f;Y oHk;oyf oGm;cJhonf? 1975ckESpf uarBm'D;,m;EkdifiHY crmeDygwD tm%m&&Sdvmcsdew
f Gif tqdk;&Gm;qH;k aom
tm%m&Sif tkyfcsKyfr_ pepf jzpfwnfvmcJhonf? udkwifarmifOD; vli,fb0 tcsdeu
f mvrsm;wGif tm&Swkduf&dS EkdifiH
rsm;pGmwdk@Y tm%m&Sifpepf yHpk HtrsKd;rsK;d xGe;f um;aecJhonfudk txufyg jzpf&yfrsm;u oufaojyaeayonf?

95

udkwifarmifOD; t&G,fa&mufpjyKcsdef 1969ckESpw
f Gif Adv
k fae0if;u wkdif;jynftm%modr;f +yD; tkyfcsKyfvm
cJhonfrSm (7)ESpf=um &SdoGm;cJh+yDjzpfonf? ppfat;umvrsm;wGif tif'dkeD;&Sm;Ekid fiH Akv
d fcsKyf ql[mwdk/ zdvpfydkifEdik fiH
zm'Deef rm;udk@(pf)ESifh jrefrmEkdifiH Adv
k fcsKyfae0if;wkd@u ta&S@awmiftm&Sa'owGif uGefjrLepfpepf rjyef@yGm;apa&;
twGuf [ef@wm;ay;Ekdifvdrhrf nf[k tar&duefEkdifiHEiS fh taemufwkdif; 'Drdkua&pDEkdifiHrsm;u ar#mfvifhcJh=uonf?
wzufuvnf; tm&SEdik fiHtoD;oD;wGi&f aSd om uGejf rLepfygwDrsm;ESifh 4if;wdk@. v_y&f Sm;r_rsm;udk qdkAD,uf ESifh
w&kwfEdik fiHwdk@u axmufcHay;cJh=uonf? xdk@a=umifh ppftm%m&Sifrsm;udk qef@usifwkdufzsuf ae=uaom jrefrmEkdifiH
twGif;&Sd omref ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;ESifh jynfolvlxktwGuf Ekid fiHwum. ulnDaxmufyHrh u
_ dk &&Sda&;
qdkonfrmS vHk;0 rjzpfEdik f cJhacs? TwGif udkwifarmifOD;u jrefrmEkdifiH. v_yf&Sm;r_onf wkdif;wyg; tultnDrsm;tay:
tm;udktm;xm;jyKaernfh tpm; jynfwGif;Yom tajcjyKoifha=umif;/ 4if;onf +idrf;csrf;aom v_y&f Sm;r_
jzpfoifhaomfvnf; wufºuGr&_ &Sd ef/ toufyg&efESifh vlxktiftm;udk tcsuftjcmjyKaom v_y&f Sm;r_ jzpf&ef
vkdtyfa=umif;wkd@udk od&eSd m;vnfcJhonf?
wuUodkvf wwd,ESpYf udkwifarmifOD; ynmoif=um;aecsdef 1973ckEpS fwGif zGJ@pnf;yHktajccHOya'opf
rl=urf;a&;qJGa&; vkyif ef;pOfudk ppftpdk;&u zefwD;cJhonf? jrefrmEkdifiH. 1947ckESpf zG@J pnf;yHktajccHOya'onf
1962ckESpf tm%modr;f +yD; aemufykid f;wGif ysufy,foGm;+yDjzpfaoma=umifh ppftpdk;t&u zGJ@pnf;yHktajccHOya'
opfwpfckudk a&;qJG&eftwGuf tpjyKcJhjcif; jzpfonf? jrefrmEkdifiH ordik f;udk=unfhrnfqv
dk #if vGwfvyfa&;&+yD;
aemufyidk f;wGif 1947ckEpS f zGJ@pnf;yHk tajccHOya'ESifhtnD ygvDrefpepfudk usifhoHk;cJh+yD; OD;Ekonf jrefrmEkdifiH.
yxrqHk;aom 0ef}uD;csKyf jzpfvmcJhonf?

tpdk;& zGJ@pnf;yHk trsKd;tpm;rsm;ESifh tm%m wnf&Sdr_rsm;
urBmt&yf&yf&dS wkdif;jynfrsm;udk oHk;oyf=unfhrnfqydk gu t"dutm;jzifh tpdk;& ESpfrsKd;ESpfpm;udk awG@Ekdif
ayonf? 4if;wkd@rSm ygvDrefpepf (0ef}uD;csKyfu OD;aqmifaom Ekid fiHawmf tkyfcsKyfa&;tzG@J )ESifh orRwpepf (orRwu
OD;aqmif aom EkdifiHawmf tkyfcsKyfa&;tzG@J ) wkd@jzpf=uonf? ygvDrefpepfwGif v$wfawmftrwfae&m trsm;qHk;&&Sdaom
Ekid fiHa&;ygwDu 0ef}uD;tzG@J udk zG@J pnf;+yD; ygwDacgif;aqmifjzpfolu 0ef}uD;csKyf&mxl;udk qufcHonf? xkd@a=umifh
ygvDrefpepfwGif rnfol0ef}uD;csKyf jzpfvmrnfudk vlxku }udKwifreS f;qEkdifjcif; r&Sdacs? 0ef}uD;csKyfudk jynfolvlxku
wkduf&kduf a&G;cs,fwifajr‡muf jcif; r[kwfbJ ygvDref&dS v$wfawmftrwfrsm;u 0ef}uD;csKyfudk a&G;cs,fwifajrSmufjcif;
jzpfonf? orRwpepfwGifrl orRw&mxl;udk jynfolvlxku wdkuf&kduf rJay;a&G;cs,fonf? TpepfwGif rnfol orRw
jzpfvmrnfudk jynfolvlxk u rSef;qEkid f=uonf?
ygvDref tpdk;&pepfwGif trsm;tm;jzifh rJtrsm;qHk;&&Sdaom ygwDu EkdifiHawmf tkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJ@udk
zGJ@pnf;onfrmS rSeaf omfvnf; t+rJwapawmh r[kwfacs? a&G;aumufyGw
J Gif tEkdif&&Sdaom ygwDu v$wfawmfae&m
trsm;qHk;&&So
d nf qdkaomfvnf; xdkygwDonf v$wfawmftwGif;&Sd tjcm;ygwDwpfckckudk 0ef}uD;csKyf&mxl; ay;tyfvkduf
Ekid fonf? Tenf; tm;jzifh Ekid fiHa&;&m udp&P yfrsm; pdppfEkdifaom tcGifhtvrf; &So
d Gm;+yD; v$wfawmftwGif;&Sd tpdk;&udk
xde;f csKyfEdik fayonf? odk@aomf orRw tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfwGifrl Ekid fiHa&;t& }uyfrwfrE_ Sifh v$wfawmftwGif;rSaeI
xde;f csKyfrr_ sm; r&Sdacs? orRw ESifh v$wfawmfwdk@rSm oyfoyfpjD zpfonf? v$wfawmf. vkyfief;aqmifwmrSm Oya'jyK&ef
96

jzpf+yD; orRwjzpfolu pDrH cef@cJGa&; tm%mudk usifhoHk;&onf? orRwpepfwGif aumif;aom tcsufrsm; &So
d uJhokd@
raumif;aom tcsufrsm; vnf; &Sad yonf? EkdifiHtwGif;Y vGwfvyfaom w&m;pD&ifa&;pepfuJhodk haom ckdifrmonfh
wdkif;jynftaqmufttHktcsdK@/ vGwfvyfaom vlxk tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;/ vGwfvyfaom owif;rD',
D m ponfwdk h
wnf&d+S yD; jynfolvlxk. EkdifiHa&; todw&m; jrifhrm;aom tar&duefEkdifiHuJhodk@ Ekid fiHrsKd;wGif orRwpepf aumif;rGepf Gm
vnfywfEdik fonf? odk@aomf uHraumif; ta=umif;rvSonfrmS orRwpepfudk usifhoHk;vmcJhaom zGH@+zdK;qJEikd fiH
(33)EkdifiHwdk@wGif z&dkz&J tajctae rsm;udk }uHKawG@cJh=u&onf? Oyrm =unfhrnfqv
dk #if orRwpepfudk usifhoHk;aom
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r&Sd aoma=umifh aomfvnf;aumif;/ trsK;d rwl uJGjym;aom udk,fpm;vS,f tzGJ@rsm;t=um; wGif ygvDrefpepfrSmuJo
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rsm; tm;vHk;eD;yg;Y jy\emrsm; }uHKawG@&jcif; jzpfonf?
jrefrmEkdifiHudk wkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd;aygif;pHkwkd@ESifh zG@J pnf;xm;onfEiS fhtnD orRwpepfudk usihfoHk;&mwGif txuf
az:jyyg tajctaersm;tjyif jy\em(3)ck &So
d nf? yxrwpfckrmS tm%mcGJa0r_jzpfonf? orRw wpfOD;wnf; uom
v#if qHk;jzwfydik fcGifh tm%mudk &&Sdxm;jcif;a=umifh wkdif;&if;om; vlrsKd;toD;oD;t=um;wGif tm%mudk oifhwifh
avsmufywfpmG cGJa0Ekid fjcif; r&Sad cs? 'kwd,jy\emrSm orRw jzpfoludk jynfolvlxk. rJtrsm;pkjzifh wkduf&kdufa&G;cs,f
wifajr‡mufojzifh jrefrmEkdifiH vlOD;a&. trsm;pkrmS jrefrmvlrsKd; jzpfonfEiS fhtnD orRwjzpfolonfvnf; t+rJwap
jrefrmvlrsKd;yif jzpfaeedkifonf? wwd,jy\emrSm orRwpepft&qdkv#if t}uD;qHk; EkdifiHa&;ygwD. axmufcHru
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qdkv#iv
f nf; wkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd;pk wpfckudk tajccHI zG@J pnf;xm;aom EkdifiHa&;ygwDonf t}uD;qHk; Ekid fiHa&;ygwDwpfck
vHk;0 jzpfrvmEkid facs? odk hjzpfI jrefrmr[kwfaom tjcm; wdkif;&if;om;vlrsLd ;xJu orRw tjzpf a&G;cs,f wifajrSmuf
cH&&efrSm jzpfeidk fajcr&Sdavmufatmifyif enf;vGef;vSonf?

zG@J pnf;yHk tajccHOya'. tjypftemtqmrsm;
Adv
k fcsKyfae0if; OD;aqmifaom ppftpdk;&u 1974ckESpf zGJ@pnf;yHktajccHOya'ESifhtnD wkdif;jynftyk fcsKyfa&;
pepfudk ygvDrefpepfrS orRwpepfodk@ ajymif;vJcJh&mwGif orRwpepf. tjypftemtqmrsm;udk vlrsm;pkwdk@u od&dS
em;vnfjcif; r&Scd Jh=uacs? omrefvlxktwGif;wGif zGJ@pnf;yHktajccHOya'qdkif&m todynmenf;yg;r_a}umifh ppftpdk;&.
vky&f yf udk vufcHcJh=uolrsm;vnf; &So
d nf? 1974 zGJ hpnf;yHktajccHOya'onf qdk&S,fvpfpepfta&jcHKxm;ojzifh
qdk&S,fvpf pepfudk ,Hk}unfcJh}uonfh xif&mS ;aom edkifiHa&;acgif;aqmif tawmfrsm;rsm;uvnf; vufcHcJh}uonf?
zG@J pnf;yHktajccHOya' r&SdbJ ppftpdk;&u wkduf&kduf tkyfcsKyfonfxufpmvSsif wkdif;jynfa&;&mrsm;udk udkifwG,f
ajz&Sif;&mY zG@J pnf;yHktajccHOya'u tcsuftcsmusaom ae&mrS yg0ifywfoufvmvSsif ydrk adk umif;rGev
f medkifa}umif;
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axmufcHrr_ sm;vnf; &SdcJhonf? pifppftm;jzifhqkv
d #if 1974ckEpS f zG@J pnf;yHktajccHOya'onf ppftm%m&Sifpepfudk
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97

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zG@J pnf;yHktajccHOya'udk twif;t}uyf twnfjyKcJhonf? aemufyidk f;wGif AdkvfcsKyfae0if;onf orRwOD;ae0if;
jzpfvmchJayonf?
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d fcwfcJhonfESifh pyfvsOf;I tcef;(5)wGif
az:jycJh+yD;jzpfonf? tD*spfEkdifiHrS tm(bf)'J emqmESifh jrefrmEkid fiHrS Adv
k fcsKyfae0if;wdk@ ESpfOD;pvHk;onf ppfwyftm%m
odr;f jcif;jzifh tm%m &&Sdvmaom EkdifiHacgif;aqmifrsm;jzpfonf? 1961ckEpS fwGif tm(bf)'J emqmu ‘tm&yf
qdk&S,fvpfpepf’[k [pfaºuG;um tpPvrfbmomESifh qdk&S,fvpf0g'wdk@udk aygif;pyfcJhouJhokd@yif 1962ckESpw
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k fcsKyfae0if;uvnf; ‘jrefrmh qdk&S,fvpfvrf;pOf’[k [pfaºuG;um Ak'<bmomESifh qdk&S,fvpf0g'wkd@udk aygif;pyfcJh
ayonf? xdk@jyif t"duusaom tcsufwpfcsufrmS tD*spfEdik fiHY zG@J pnf;yHktajccHOya'udk w&m;0iftwnfjyKum
1971ckESpfwGif orRw pepfudk usifhoHk; cJhouJhokd@yif jrefrmEkid fiHYvnf; Adv
k fcsKyfae0if;u zG@J pnf;yHktajccHOya'ukd
w&m;0iftwnfjyKum 1974ckEpS fwGif orRwpepfudk pwifusiho
f Hk;cJhonf? vuf&dt
S ajctaewGifrl wle;D &Sm;/ tD*spf/
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tajccHOya' rsm;t& tmrcHay;xm;aom tm%m&SiftkyfcsKyfa&;pepfudk qef@usifonfh vlxkwdkufyGJrsm; jzpfay:
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‚edkifiHom;wkdif;Y vkyo
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ajymqdkcGifh/ vGwfvyfpmG a&;om;cGifh/ vGwfvyfpmG xkwfa0cGifh&Sdonf?‛ [kqx
dk m;onf? 1974ckESpf zG@J pnf;yHktajccHOya'
xGufay:vmcsed fwGif tvkyform;rsm;onf zG@J pnf;yHktajccHOya' pmtkyrf sm;udkudkifum vrf;rrsm;Y qENjycJh=uonf?
zG@J pnf;yHktajccHOya'ESifhtnD tmrcHay;xm;aom tcGifhta&;rsm;udk &ydkifcGifh&o
Sd nf[k 4if;wdk@u xifrw
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dk m ppftpd;k &u qENjyyGJrsm;udk &uf&ufpufpuf ESdrfeif;cJhonf?
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f Gif olEiS fh ol.a&mif;&if;rsm;onf zJ@G pnf;yHk
tajccHOya'ESifh ywfoufaom Ekid fiHa&;jyoemwpfckudk }uHKawG@cJh=u&onf? TonfrmS 1974ckESpf zG@J pnf;yHk tajccH
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98

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99

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100

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101

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102

10
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wzufwGif ukeaf ps;E_ef;rsm; w&dy&f dyfwufvm aeaomfvnf; vpmwdk;jcif;r&dS/ 0ifaiGenf;vGef;vSonfh tcsdefwGif
tqdkyg rw&m;r_rsm;tm; awG@jrifae&aomtcg tvkyform;rsm; rausreyfjzpfcJh=uonf?

tvkyform; ta&;tcif;. aemufcH ta=umif;t&mrsm;
1974 ckEpS f rwfvtwGif; yvdyf csnfr#ifEiS fh txnfpuf&kHY vnf;aumif;/ arvtwGif;wGif jrpfi,f rD;&xm;
wGJjyif puf&kHYvnf;aumif;/ tvkyo
f rm;qENjyyGJrsm; pwifjzpfyGm;vmaomtcg wjynfvkH;puf&kH toD;oD;&dS tvkyf
orm;rsm;t=um;wGifvnf; &du
k fcwfrr_ sm;&dv
S mcJhonf? tvkyo
f rm; ta&;tcif;rsm;onf jrefrmEkdifiHw0Srf;&Sd puf&Hk
trsm;tjym;wGif jzpfyGm;cJhaomfvnf; 4if;wdk@onf rnfolwpfOD;wpfa,muf (odk@r[kwf) rnfonfh tvkyo
f rm;
or*~}uD;wckck. A[dak cgif;aqmifra_ tmufYrSs pepfwusay:aygufvmcJhjcif; r[kwfacs? 4if;. tusKd;&vm'fa=umifh
puf&kw
H pf&Hk ESifh wpf&Hk. awmif;qdkcsufrsm;rSm uJGjym;aecJh+yD; tvkyform;rsm;ESifh puf&krH sm;onf wpkwpnf;xJ
taejzifh cdkifckdif rmrmawmif;qdkr_ vkyfEkdifjcif; r&SdcJhacs?
Todk@ jzpf&jcif;. ta=umif;&if;rSm 1962ckESpf ppfwyftm%modr;f +yD;aemufyidk f;wGif ausmif;om; or*~rsm;/
q&mq&mr tpnf;t&H;k rsm;/ v,form; or*~rsm;ESifh tvkyo
f rm; or*~ rsm; tygt0if vlxktoif;tzG@J rsm;ESifh
tpdk;&r[kwfaom tzGJ@tpnf;rsm; zG@J pnf;wnfaxmifvnfywfjcif;udk ppftpdk;&u cGifhrjyKawmhaoma=umifh jzpfonf?
Ekid fiHa&;tm%m &Sad om tpdk;& ESifhjzpfap/ aiGa=u;tiftm; awmifhwif;aom tvkyf&Sifrsm;ESifhjzpfap
zuf+ydKifEkdif&eftwGuf tvkyform;wkd@xHwGif oD;jcm;vGwfvyfaom/ tm;aumif;aom tvkyform; or*~rsm;
103

&Sad ea&;rSm tvGefta&;ygaom t&mwpfckjzpfonf? tvkyo
f rm; or*~ zG@J pnf;wnfaxmifa&;twGuf qENjyyJGrsm;.
ueOD;ydkif;wGif tvkyo
f rm;rsm;u tav;xm; awmif;qdkjcif; r&SdcJhacs?
tvkyo
f rm;rsm;. vkyt
f m;pGrf;&nfESifh puf&Hk t&nftaoG; usqif;&jcif;. t"du ta=umif;&if;rSm ppf
t&m&Srd sm; u puf&kt
H vkyf&Hkrsm;udk }uD;=uyf!$e=f um; cJhjcif;a=umifh jzpfonf? ppfAkv
d fcsKyf wpfOD;onf
ppfajrjyifta=umif; aumif;aumif;em;vnfrnf jzpfaomfvnf; tvkyo
f rm;wdk@. ae@pOfb0 cHpm;&r_
tajctaersm;ESifh puf&Hktvky&f Hk vnfywfr_ tajctaersm;udk od&deS m;vnfEdik frnf r[kwfacs? ppf t&m&Sdrsm;u
wkdif;jynfudk umuG,fay;&rnfhtpm; udk,fEiS fhrqdkifaom t&mrsm;Y 0ifa&mufpu
G fzufaom tcgwGif wkdif;jynf.
zG@J pnf;wnfaqmuf vnfywfykrH sm; c|wfacsmf vJGrmS ;&awmhonf?

vlxkt"du vl@tzG@J tpnf;twGif;&Sd tpdk;&. wm0efEiS fh tcef;u¾rsm;
*Gsefavmhc.
f tqdkt& ‚vlxkt"du vl@tzG@J tpnf;‛qdkonfrmS vl@tzG@J tpnf;. tpdwftydkif; wcsdK@w0uf
om r[kwfbJ tpdwftydkif;rsm; tm;vHk;jzifh zGJ@pnf;xm; jcif;udk &nfn$e;f onf? Tae&mwGif vlrsKd;/ bmoma&;/
pD;yGm;a&;/ vlra_ &;ESifh EkdifiHa&; tajctaersm; rnfodk@yif uJGjym;aeapumrl vl@tzG@J tpnf;. tpdwftydkif;wkdif;wGif
jzpf&v
Sd maom yËdyuQtajc taersm;udk ajz&Sif;Ekdif&eftwGuf ‘tekyÉdavmrenf;us usK;d a=umif;qifjcifI trSef
w&m;udk qef;ppf&SmazGjcif;’ enf; vrf;udk oHk;um vlxk aqG;aEG;yJGrsm; jyKvkyjf cif; [laom qdkua&;wD;. tawG;
tjrifwpfckudk rS;D jirf;Ekdifonf? tkyfcsKyfjcif;ESifh tkyfcsKyfcH&jcif; qdkonfh aumif;jrwfaom vkyif ef;aqmifwmudk
Ekid fiHom;rsm;u r#a0,ljcif;ESifh oufqidk faom ‘toif;tzG@J rsm;. toif;tzG@J ’[lonfh t,ltqudk t&pf(pf)wdkw,f
u tus,fw0ifh az:jy&Sif;vif; cJhonf? Ttajctaeudk taumif;wumh taumif;qHk; Ekid fiHwpfcktjzpf
em;vnfoabmaygufEdik fonf? TuJhodk@ aom Ekid fiHrsKd;wGif yavwdku az:n$e;f onfh w&m;r#waom vl@tzG@J tpnf;
jzpfxGe;f edkifayonf?
vl@tzG@J tpnf;. tqkd;taumif; tajctae trsm;pkudk tpdk;&u zefwD;jcif;jzpfonf? vl@tzG@J tpnf;Y
wnf+idrrf _ &&Sdatmif zefwD;&mwGif wpkwpnf;wnf;jzpfaom EkdifiHa&; pGrf;yum;wpfcktaejzifh tpdk;&. tcef;u¾
onf tvGe@f tvGef ta&;ygvSayonf? odk@aomf Tae&mwGif tpdk;&. wm0ef0wW&m;rsm;udk OD;pGm owfrw
S f&ay
rnf? yxrqHk;taejzifh tpdk;&onf w&m;Oya'pd;k rdk;a&; ed,mrrsm;ay: tajccHonfh w&m;r#waom Oya'rsm;ESifh
tnD vl@tzG@J tpnf;udk pDpOfwus&Sdatmif xm;&Sd&rnf? 'kwd,taejzifh tpdk;&onf wyg;olwdk@. tcGifhta&; rsm;ESifh
udk,fydkifvGwfvyfr_wdk@udk xdyg;apmfum;olrsm;ESifh vl@tzG@J tpnf;wpfckvHk; ysufokOf;oGm;ap&ef }udK;yrf;tm;xkwf
aeolrsm;wdk@a=umifh ab;oifhcH&aom EkdifiHom;rsm;udk tumtuG,f ay;&rnf? wwd,wpfckrmS tpdk;&onf EkdifiHom;
wdk@ oifhwifah vsmufywfpmG aexdkifpm;aomufEdik faprnfh pD;yGm;a&; tajctaersKd;&Sv
d map&ef zefwD;jr‡ifhwifay;&rnf?
oifhwifah vsmufywfaom pD;yGm;a&;tajctaersdK; &Sv
d map&ef zefwD;ay;&rnf[k qdk&mwGif tpdk;&onf
pD;yGm;a&; tm%m udk &,l+yD; vl@tzG@J tpnf;wpfckvHk;Y &Sdaom pD;yGm;a&;&m u¾udk uef@owfcsKyfcs,f&rnf[lI
t"dyg` ,f vJGrSm; aumuf,lr_ rjyKoifh? tpdk;& qdkonfrmS r&Sdrjzpfvdktyfaom ewfq;dk jzpfonf [laom
qdk&dk;wpfck&daS yonf? urBmh Ekid fiHaygif;rsm;pGmwk@d &dS qdk;,kwfaom tpdk;&rsm;udk Oyrm=unfhyg? Todk@jzpf&jcif;.
104

t"duta=umif;&if;rSm tpdk;&onf txufwGif az:jyxm;aom wm0ef0wW&m;rsm;udk a&Smif=uOfum 4if;. tm%m
t&Sdeft0gudk vdktyfonfxufykI
d jzef@=uufaoma=umifh jzpfonf? tpdk;& tcef;u¾udk vlxkt"du vl@tzG@J tpnf;
. tpdwftydkif;wpfcktaejzifh =unfhjrifoHk;oyf&mwGif tpdk;&u EkdifiHa&;tm%mudkom t"duxm; usifh}uH+yD; aiGa&;
a=u;a&; tm%mudk omref Ekid fiHom;rsm;tm; ay;tyfaom pHjyKyHpk Hwpfck &So
d nf? rnfonfh Ekid fiHa&;t,ltqudk
usifhoHk;onf jzpfapumrl tpd;k & onf EkdifiHa&;tm%ma&m pD;yGm;a&;tm%mudkyg vHk;0vuf0g;}uD;tkyx
f m;v#if
xdktpd;k &onf zdedyS af zgufjyef+yD; cspm;vm a=umif;ukd ordik f;u oufaojycJ+yD;jzpfonf? tpdk;& azgufjyef&jcif;.
tusKd;&vm'fa=umifh vlxkt"du vl@tzG@J tpnf;. r&Sdrjzpf vkdtyfaom wefzk;d rsm;jzpfonfh yGifhvif;r_ESifh wm0ef,l
wm0efcHrr_ sm; qHk;&_H;&avawmhonf?
txufaz:jyyg tajctaersm;udk a&Smif&mS ;Edkif&eftwGuf tpdk;&tm%mydkifrsm;onf vlxkt"du vl@tzG@J
tpnf; oabmw&m;udk vufcHusifhoHk;um tm%mudk tuef@towfjzifh &,l&ayrnf? odk@r[kwfygu tm%mrsm;
aygif;pkvm&mrSwqifh oufOD;qHydkifpepfodk@ toGiaf jymif;oGm;um tpdk;&u tm%mudk tuef@towfrhJ &,lusifhoHk;
jcif;a=umifh vl@tzG@J tpnf; wpfckvHk;wGif oufOD;qHykid fpepf v$r;f rdk;oGm;Ekid fonf? xkd@jyif vGwfvyfaom toif;tzG@J
rsm;/ tpdk;&r[kwfaom tzG@J rsm; ponfwdk@u tpdk;&. vnfywfr_qdkif&m ,EW&m;rsm;/ rl0g'rsm;ESifh vkyif ef;
aqmifwmrsm;udk apmifh=unfhppfaq;jcif;/ tpdk;&u 4if;. vkyif ef;aqmifwmrsm;udk vkdufemaqmif&u
G faejcif; &Sdr&Sd
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jy\emrsm; tygt0if 4if;wdk@. a}umif;usKd;qufE,
G frr_ sm;udk az:xkwfjcif;/ jynfvlxk. cHpm;ae&r_rsm;
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tygt0if vl@tzG@J tpnf; tqifhtwef;udk jr‡ifhwifay;jcif; wdk@rSm ydI
k yif ta&;ygaom udp&P yfrsm;jzpfonf?
Todk@rSomv#if tqdkyg toif;tzG@J rsm;udk vlxk toif;tzG@J rsm;[k owfrw
S fEdik fayrnf?
jynfoljynfom;rsm;onf vlxkt"du vl@tzG@J tpnf;ESifh ywfoufI todynm enf;yg;aev#ifaomf
vnf;aumif;/ woD;yk*v
~ rsm;. vGwfvyfcGifhudk qHk;&H;_ ap+yD; vGwfvyfpmG pnf;&Hk;ydkifcGifh/ pka0;ydik fcGifhESifh xkwfaz:ajymqdk
ykid fcGifhwdk@udk wif;usyfpGm ydwfyifwm;jrpfxm;aom w&m;r#wr_r&So
d nfh Oya'rsm; vl@tzG@J tpnf;twGif; }uD;pdk;aev#if
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Ekid fiHawmf tkyfcsKyfr_u¾.atmufwGif c,0yfwGm;ae&v#ifaomfvnf;aumif;/ tpdk;&u tm%mudk tvGeftu|H
&,lum wif;usyfaom A[kdcsKyfudkifr_ usifhoHk;+yD; 4if;. wm0ef0wW&m;rsm;udk ysufuGufv#ifaomf vnf;aumif;/ vl h
tzGJ htpnf;. t"duusaom tpdwftydkif;}uD; av;ckjzpfonfh (1) tpdk;&/ (2) aumif;rGeaf om tkycf sKyfr_udk
taxmuftuljyKaom vGwfvyfonfh wdkif;jynf taqmufttHkrsm; (3) pD;yGm;a&; u¾&Sd yk*~vdu jynfolrsm;ESifh
yk*~vduydkifvkyif ef;rsm; (4) vGwfvyfonfh owif;Xmersm;tygt0if vGwfvyfonfh vlxk toif;tzGJ@rsm;wkd@ u
tcsif;csif; apmifh=unfhppfaq;jcif;/ tjyeftvSef}uyfrwfjcif;/ [efcsufnDatmif aqmif&u
G fjcif; ponfwdk h udk
raz:aqmifvSsif vlxkt"du vl@tzG@J tpnf; jzpfwnfvmEkdif&ef vrf;rjrifacs?
vkdtyfcsuf&daS eolrsm;udk ulnDaqmif&Gufay;&Hrk Ssjzifh vlxkt"du vl@tzG@J tpnf; tvdktavsmuf
ay:xGe;f vmrnf r[kwf? Oyrmtm;jzifh zG@H +zdK;wdk;wufa&; tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;onf 4if;wdk@. pDrHcsufrsm;ESifh tnD
v,form;rsm;tm; oifwef;rsm; yd@k csay;jcif;/ tyifpku
d fenf;rsm;/ rsKd;aphrsm;ESifh ypPnf;ud&,
d m wefqmyvmrsm;
ay;tyfjcif; ponfwkd@udk jyKvky}f uonf? v,form;wdk@. ae@pOfb0rsm;udk wpHw
k &m jr‡ifhwifay;aoma=umifh tqdkyg
105

vky&f yfrsm;ukd aumif;aom vkyf&yfrsm;tjzpf owfrw
S fEdik fonf? odk@aomfvnf; v,form;rsm;. ajr,m ydkifqidk fcGifhESifh
ywfoufI aomfvnf;aumif;/ tm%mydkifrsm;u v,f,majrrsm; twif;t"rR w&m;r0if odr;f qnf; jcif;udkaomf
vnf;aumif; rodusdL;uGsejf yKxm;r_rsm;/ rdrd pdwf}udKuf aumufyo
J D;ESH pdu
k fysKd;ydkifcGifhESifh v,f,mxGuf ypPnf; rsm;
vGwfvyfpmG ukeo
f G,fa&mif;0,fydik f;cGifhwkd@udk ydwfyifwm;jrpfjcif;rsm; tp&So
d nfh tpdk;&. rl0g'rsm;ESifh pyfvSsOf;I
raumif;onfh tcsufrsm;udk axmufjy/ az:xkwf/ qef husif/ v_y&f Sm;I wdkufzsufjyD;ajymif;vJ&ef r}udK;yrf;v#if tqdkyg
toif;tzGJ@rsm;udk vlxk toif;tzG@J rsm;[k owfrw
S fI r&Ekid facs? xdk@a=umifh ‘vl@tzG@J tpnf;’udk ‘vlxt
k "du
vl@tzG@J tpnf;’tjzpf jyKjyifajymif;vJ&mwGif vlxk toif;tzGJ@rsm; wnf&dv
S nfywfaejcif;rSm tvGeftrif; ta&;
ygonf? odk@aomfvnf; vlxk toif;tzGJ@rsm; wnf&daS e&Hrk #jzifh rvHk avmufacs? txufwGif az:jyxm;aom
tpdwftydkif; (4)ckteuf tpdk;&rS vGJI usef&Sdaom tpdwftydkif; (3)ckwdk@. tcef;u¾ rSmvnf; tvGef ta&;yg+yD;
4if;wdk@onf oufqidk f&m e,fy,fxJwGif xda&mufpmG &yfwnfvnfywfae&ef vdktyf onf? xdk@jyif xdk@xufykI
d
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[efcsufnDatmif xde;f n‡djcif;rsm; &SdaerSomv#if 4if;udk vlxkt"duvl@tzG@J tpnf;[k owfrw
S fEdik fayrnf? vlxk
t"du vl@tzG@J tpnf;qdkif&m jy\emrsm;ukd jrefrmEkdifiHYomr[kwfbJ tm%m&Sifpepfudk yHpk HtrsKd;rsKd;jzifh
usifhoHk;aom urBmt&yf&yf&dS tjcm;EkdifiHrsm;wGifvnf; awG@jrifEdik fonf? Oyrmtm;jzifh tm&yfEdik fiHrsm;wGif
vufwavm jzpfysuf aeonfrsm;udk =unfhyg?
udkwifarmifOD; udk,fYu ‘vlxkt"du vl@tzG@J tpnf;’[laom pum;vHk;udk oHk;E_ef;jcif; r&SdcJhaomfvnf;
pifppftm; jzifh olonf jrefrmEkdifiHwGif vlxkt"du vl@tzG@J tpnf; ay:xGe;f vma&;twGuf }udK;yrf;aqmif&GufcJhjcif;
jzpfonf? Tonfudk tcsuf(3)csufjzifh oufaojyEkdifonf? yxrtcsufrmS ‘tpd;k &’. tcef;u¾ESifh
oufqidk fonf? ‘tuef@towfjzifh tkyfcsKyfaom tpdk;&’qdkaom t,ltqudk udkwifarmifOD;u cH,lonfEiS fhtnD
ol. b0 wpfav#mufvHk;wGif tm%m&Siftyk fcsKyfa&;pepfudk qef@usifv_yf&mS ;oGm;cJhonf? 'kwd,tcsufrmS wdkif;jynf
taqmufttHkrsm;ESifh oufqidk fonf? wyfrawmftygt0if vHkjcHKa&; tzGJ htpnf;rsm;onf wdkif;jynftaqmufttHk
wenf;tm;jzifh tkyfcsKyfa&;,EW,m;. tpdyt
f ydkif;jzpfonf? tm%m&Sifpepfudk csKyfjidr;f apvSsif wyfrawmftygt0if
vHkjcHKa&; tzGJ htpnf;rsm;udk jyKifajymif;vJ zGJ hpnf;&rnfjzpfonf? udkwifarmifOD;onf ppftm%m&Sifpepfudk
csKyfjidr;f apvdkaom ppft&m&S}d uD;rsm; eSifh qufoG,fjyD; ppfwyftwGif;Y tajymif;tvJrsm; jzpfay:vmap&ef/
wyfrawmfjyKjyifajymif;vJoGm;ap&ef }udK;yrf;cJhonf? aemufqHk;tcsufrmS vGwfvyfaom vl@toif;tzG@J rsm;ESifh
oufqidk fonf? udkwifarmifOD;onf ausmif;om; or*~ zG@J pnf;Ekdifa&;twGuf vkyaf qmifcJhouJhodk@yif tvkyform;
or*~rsm; jzpfwnfvmapa&; twGufudkvnf; tvkyo
f rm;rsm;udk tm;ay;cJhonf? xdk@a=umifh udkwifarmifOD;.
vky&f yfrsm;onf vlxkt"du vl@tzG@J tpnf; oabmw&m;rsm;ESifh wom;wnf;jzpfaeonf[k qdkEkdifayonf?
tvkyo
f rm; ta&;tcif; jzpfyGm;csdew
f Gif udkwifarmifOD;onf &efukef 0dZ…mESifh odyHw
` uUodkvfwGif owWaA'
'kwd,ESpf ausmif;om;tjzpf ynmoif=um;aecJhonf? tvkyo
f rm;wkd@. ae@pOfb0 twd'kuQtajctae rsm;udk
udkwifarmifOD;ESifh oli,fcsif;rsm;u ae@pOfEiS fhtr# awG@}uHKjzwfoef;cJh=uonf? xdk@a=umifhvnf; ta&;tcif;
pwifjzpfyGm;onfEiS fh w+ydKifeuf 4if;wdk@ wwfprG f;or# ulnDaqmif&Gufay;&ef qHk;jzwfcJh=ujcif; jzpfonf? wpfae@wGif
tvkyo
f rm; ta&;tcif;rsm; ysH@E@SH aeyHEk Sifh ywfoufI udkwifarmifOD;u wuUodkvf0if;twGif;Y pwifaqG;aEG; cJhonf?
TwGif 4if;. oli,fcsif; ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;onf tvkyo
f rm;rsm; qENjy&jcif;. tajccHta=umif;&if;udk
106

csufcsif;yif em;vnfoabmaygufoGm;cJh=uonf? jzpfysufaeaom tajctaersm;udk apmifh=unfh&ef/ tjcm;
wuUodkvf&Sd oli,fcsif;rsm;udk qyfpyfxm;&efESifh qENjyyJGrsm; &efukeo
f dk@ ul;pufvmv#if tvkyo
f rm;rsm;udk
tultnDay;&ef twGuf eD;pyfaom ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;t=um;wGif oabmwlnDcJh=uonf?
udkwifarmifOD;onf aumfvmrygaom &Syt
f usôvuf&n
S fudk yHu
k syef;us 0wfwwfonf? tjyifoGm;onfhtcg
wdkif;wGif olonf jrefrmh&dk;&m vG,ftw
d fwpfvHk;udk ykcHk;ay: t+rJvG,fxm;avh&do
S nf? vG,ftw
d fxJwGif pmtkyrf sm;ESifh
twl vufudkify0g/ abmif;bDwdk tydkwpfxnf/ tm;upm;vky&f eftwGuf ypPnf;ypP,rsm; xnfhwwf+yD; wcgw&HwGif
vrf;o&J*dk%;f om;rsm;. &efu umuG,f&eftwGuf "g;wpfacsmif;yg xnfhxm;wwfonf? olonf ykqdk;udk aumif;rGef
aooyfpGm 0wfwwfonf? qHyif tvGeaf umif;onf? qHyifudk aemuf&n
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107

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108

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109

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110

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111

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112

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113

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114

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115

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118

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119

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120

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128

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129

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130

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132

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133

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134

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135

12
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136

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137

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145

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148

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149

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150

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168

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170

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171

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172

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aus;aus;yif jiif;y,fvdkufonf? odk@aomfvnf; olu rjzpfrae tajctaersKd;wGif toHk;jyKEkid f&eftwGuf (9)
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d fyk@d ckdif;&ef pDpOfay;onf?
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bufukd !$ejf yum xdkae&modk@ a&muf&eftwGuf em&D0uf/ (45)rdepf cef@om vdkawmha=umif; ajymqdktm;ay;onf?
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(okd@r[kwf) pufavSEiS hf oGm;&rnfjzpfonf? 4if;wkd@ ,ckuJhokd@ olEiS fhtwl vkdufygvm ay;cJhonfhtay: udkwifarmifOD;
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onf xlxJaom awmtky}f uD;udk jzwfoef;um 4if;wkd@!$ejf y&m t&yfbufokd@ wpfudk,fa& ajcusifc&D;ESifavonf?
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oDoDav; vGwfoGm;jcif;yif?
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174

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179

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180

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wpfckwnf;udkom emcHae&ygu ppfreS faom 'Drku
d a&pDpepfodk@ toGiful;ajymif;a&; qkdonfrmS rnfodk@r# jzpfvm
Ekid frnf r[kwfa=umif;udk olu od&deS m;vnfcJhonf? xdk@a=umifh Tjzpf&yfrsKd;udk a&Smif&Sm;Ekdif&eftwGuf wyfrawmf
twGif;rSmyif tm%m&Sif pepfudk qef@usifvdk=uonfh ppfr_xrf;rsm;udk qufoG,f&rnf? todtrSwfjyK &rnf?
axmufcHtm;ay;&rnf [k olu cH,lcJhonf?
udkwifarmifOD;. r[mAsL[mESifh qufpyfum ppfwyftwGif; jzpfysufaeonfrsm;udkvnf; aphaphpyfpyf
avhvmtuJcwfoifhonf? 1974ckEpS fwGif ae0if;u Adv
k fcsKyf}uD; wifOD;udk zrf;qD;cJhonf? xdktcsdeu
f Adv
k fcsKyf}uD;
wifOD;onf ppfom;rsm;t=um;wGif tvGefausm=f um; a&yef;pm;aecJhol jzpfonf? trsK;d rsK;d aom ppftyk fpkwkd@udk
pkpnf;nD!Gwfr_ &Sv
d map&ef pGrf;aqmifEdik fjcif;/ qlylrr_ sm;udk ajz&Sif;EkdifprG f;&Sdjcif; ponfh t&nftaoG;rsm;ukd
Adv
k fcsKyf}uD; wifOD;u ykid fqidk fxm;onfESifhtnD 4if;onf rdrd. tm%mudk xdyg;vmEkdifonf[k
tm%m&Sifae0if;u,lqum Adv
k fcsKyf}uD;wifOD;udk zrf;qD;cJhjcif;jzpfonf? xdktcsdew
f Gif Adv
k fcsKyf}uD; wifOD; xHwGif
emrusef;jzpfaeaom &ifaoG;wpfOD; &SdcJhonf? ppfwyfwGif wm0efxrf;aqmifaeaom ol. ZeD;onf q&m0efru
uav;udk txl;ukwpfa,mufxH oGm;a&mufjyo&eftwGuf t*FvefEdik fiHodk@ ac:aqmifoGm;cJhonf? uav;.
tajctaerSm oufomaumif;rGef vmcJhaomfvnf; ae0if;u Tonfudk tcGifhaumif;,lum AdkvfcsKyf}uD; wifOD;tm;
4if;wkd@rdom;pkonf EkdifiHawmf b¾maiGrsm;udk t*FvefEkdifiH oGm;a&mufI tvJGoHk;pm; vkyaf ecJhonf[k pGyfpGJcJhonf?
Todk@jzifh ae0if;onf AdkvfcsKyf}uD;wifOD;. &mxl;ESifh tm%mrsm;udk jzKwfcsum ppfwyfxJu xkwfy,fcJhonf?
Adv
k f}uD;tke;f ausmfjrifh onf Adv
k fcsKyf}uD;wifOD; &mxl;u z,f&mS ;jcif; cHcJh&onfhtay: tvGef pdwfemcJo
h nf?
xkd@a=umifh 4if;onf tkypf kwpfpkudk OD;aqmifzJ@G pnf;um ae0if;udk vky}f uHowfjzwf&eftwGuf v#Kd@0Suf}uHpnfaecJhonf?
Adv
k fcsKyf}uD;wifOD;udkvnf; ol. t}uHtpnfrsm;ESifh ywfoufI today;cJhonf? Adv
k fcsKyf}uD; wifOD;u 4if;udk aocsm
pGm pOf;pm;csifhcsdef cJhaomfvnf; wpHw
k &m ta=umif;jyefjcif; r&SdcJh? wcsdew
f nf;rSmyif ae0if;udk vky}f uHowfjzwf+yD;
Adv
k fcsKyf}uD;wifOD; udk tm%m jyefvnfay;tyfrnfh Adv
k f}uD; tkef;ausmfjrifh. t}uHtpnfrsm;rSm ppfwyftwGif;&Sd
Adv
k f}uD;wpfOD;a=umifhae0if;xH ayguf=um;oGm;cJh&onf? TwGif ae0if;u Adv
k fcsKyf}uD; wifOD;udk tjypfzk@d um ol.tdrf
odk@ 0ifa&mufp;D eif; &SmazG&mwGif vky}f uHr_ t}uHtpnfrsm; yg&Sdonfh pm&Gufpmwrf;rsm;udk awG@&SdcJhonf? Adv
k fcsKyf}uD;
wifOD;u TZmwfuGufwGif rdrd yg0ifywfoufr_ r&Sda=umif; jiif;qdk&m/ vky}f uHr_ t}uHtpnf rsm;udk od&dx
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aemuf Adv
k fcsKyf}uD; wifOD;ukd zrf;qD; axmifcscJhonf? xdk@jyif Adv
k f}uD; tkef;ausmfjrifhudkvnf; csufcsif;zrf;qD;+yD;
aemufyidk f;wGif }udK;ay;uGyfrsufcJhonf?

183

OD;oef@ ta&;tcif;wGif rnfonfhausmif;olausmif;om;rsm; yg0ifywfoufcJh=uonfudk ppfwyftwGif;&Sd
&mxl;}uD; ppfrx
_ rf; rsm;pGmwdk@u od&dcS Jh=uonf? jrefrmEkdifiH&dS jynfoljynfom;rsm; vGwfajrmufa&;ESifh 'Drdkua&pD pepf
jyeftoufoGif;a&;wdk@twGuf ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;u &k;d om;ajzmifhrSeaf om ppfrx
_ rf;rsm;. axmufcHr&_ ,l&ef
}udK;yrf;aecJhjcif;rsm;ESifh ywfoufIvnf; 4if;wkd@u od&dcS Jh=uonf?
tcsdK@aom &mxl;}uD; ppfrx
_ rf;rsm;onf udkwifarmifOD;udk qufoG,fum udkwifarmifOD; tygt0if
tjcm;aom ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;ESifhtwl v#dK@0u
S faqG;aEG;yJG jyKvky&f eftwGuf 4if;wdk@. udk,fpm;vS,fwpfOD;udk
apv$wfvdkufonf? ocifudk,fawmifrdi_ f; &mjynfhyJG tcrf;tem; ae@&ufwGif csDwufqENjyjcif;onf ta&;tcif;
aemufwpf}udrf jzpfvmEkdif&eftwGuf toifhawmfq;Hk tcGifhtvrf;jzpfonf[k xkdudk,fpm;vS,fu ausmif;om;rsm;udk
t}uHjyKcJhonf? Adv
k fcsKyf}uD;wifOD;tay:opPm&Sdaom ppfr_xrf;rsm;pGmwdk@uae0if;. vky&f yftay: tvGet
f rif; pdwfem
cJh=ujcif; jzpfonf?
ppfwyfudk,fpm;vS,fu tqdkjyKaom tpDtpOfrmS qENjyyGJjzpfvmaomtcg ausmif;om;rsm;u OD;aqmifjyD;
Adv
k fcsKyf}uD;wifOD;tm; jyefvnfcef hxm;a&;twGuf a}uG;a}umfawmif;qdk}u&efjzpfonf? xdktcg tqifhjrifh ppft&m&Sd
}uD;rsm;onf pkaygif;jyD; wyfrawmftwGif;Y ppfa&;t& ta&;,laqmif&u
G foGm;rnf? Tvky&f yfonf ppfwyfudk
xufjcrf;uJGoGm;aprnf jzpf+yD; 4if;wkd@u Adv
k f}uD;tke;f ausmfjrifh. tultnDjzifh ppfwyf twGif;udk xde;f csKyfxm;um
ae0if;. bufawmfom;rsm;udk ajcr_ef;I Adv
k fcsKyf}uD;wifOD;ukd &mxl; jyefvnf cef@tyfxm;rnfjzpfa=umif; udk,fpm;
vS,fu ajymonf? tu,fIom xdI
k xdkr# wdkawmif;aom tcsdeu
f mv twGif;wGif Adkvf}uD; tkef;ausmfjrifh. t}uH
tpnfrsm; atmifjrifrnfqdkcJhygu udkwifarmifOD;. toufudk u,fwifEdik fcJhrnf jzpf+yD; jrefrmEkdifiH ordik f;wpfckvHk;yg
ajymif;vJoGm;cJhayrnf? odk@aomfvnf; xdkuJhokd@ jzpfrvmcJh? TonfrSm udkwifarmifOD;. r[mAsL[m
rSm;,Gif;r_a=umifh r[kwfbJ tm%m&Sif ppftpd;k &. ppfaxmufvSr;f a&;u vufOD;r_ &&So
d Gm;cJhjcif;a=umifhom jzpfonf?
Adv
k fcsKyfae0if;OD;aqmifaom ppftm%m&Sifrsm;onf 1974ckEpS f zGJ@pnf;yHktajccHOya'udk wnDw!GwfxJ
vufcHtwnfjyKum ppf0wfpkHrsm; c|wf+yD; t&yfom;0wfpkrH sm;jzifh udk,fa,mifazsmufaecJh=uaomfvnf; jrefrmEkdifiH
wGif tm%m&Sif tkycf sKyfa&;pepf qufvuf wnf+rJaeao;a=umif;ESifh tm%m&Sifrsm;udk zHk;uG,faxmufr ay;aeaom
Ekid fiHa&;pepfatmufwGif ppfreS faom 'Drdkua&pDudk rnfonfhtcgr# &&SdEkdifrnf r[kwfa=umif;wkd@udk udkwifarmifOD;u
em;vnfoabmaygufcJhonf? udkwifarmifOD;. &yfwnfcsufrsm;onf &Sif;vif;jywfom;vSonf? tm%m&Siftyk fcsKyfr_
pepfudk wenf;wzHk oufq;dk &Snfap&ef ulnDyhyH k;d ay;aeolrsm;jzpfygu ppfwyftwGif;&Sd t&m&Srd sm; tygt0if rnfonfh
vly*k K~d vfeSifhr# udkwifarmifOD;u n‡dE_dif;aqG;aEG;cJhjcif; r&Sdacs?
udkwifarmifOD;onf tm%m&Sifpepfudk +zdKcs&efoabmxm;&Sdolrsm; tm;vHk;ESifh yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufvdkpdwf
&Scd Jhonf? xkd@a=umifhvnf;olu tqdkygoabmxm;&Sdaom ppfwyf. udk,fpm;vS,frsm;ESifhyif qufqHaqmif&u
G fcJhjcif;
jzpfonf? EkdifiHwpfEkdifiYH ppfrSefaom 'Drku
d a&pD pepf xGe;f um;aernfqv
dk #if ppfwyfonf 4if; vkyo
f ifhvkyfxdkufaom
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ppfwyftwGif;&Sd pnf;vHk;nD!Gwfr_ ckdif+rJvmayrnf? odk@aomfvnf; wkdif;jynf wnf+idrrf _ &&Sda&;twGuf
[laomta=umif;jycsufjzifh rnfonfh tajctae wGif rqdk ppfwyftwGif; pnf;vHk;nD!Gwfr_ &Sad eoifo
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184

wkdif;jynftwGif;wGif tay:,HYom wnf+idrrf _ &Sad eayrnf? TuJhokd@aom tajctaewGif ppfwyftwGif;
pnf;vHk;nD!Gwfr_ qkdonfrmS
tm%m&Siftyk fcsKyfa&;pepf tjrpfwG,fap&eftwGufom jzpfvmayvdrfrh nf?
ppfwyftwGif; pnf;vHk;nD!Gwfr_ &&SdEkdifa&;twGuf jynfolvlxk. vGwfvyfr_rsm; paw;&rnfh tjzpfrsKd;udk
udkwifarmifOD;u vHk;0 oabmrwlcJh? udkwifarmifOD;. r[mAsL[mrSm ppfwyftwGif;&Sd tjrifrSef&aeolrsm;udk
pnf;&Hk;odr;f oGi;f +yD; 4if;wdk@taejzifh ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;/ tvkyo
f rm;rsm;ESifh vufwJGapEkid fa&;twGuf
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udkwifarmifOD;. r[mAsL[monf ,ae@tcsdex
f dwkdif toHk;cs&ef oifhawmfaeqJjzpfonf? Tr[mAsL[mudk
toHk;csjcif;jzifh wkdif;jynfudk vrf;rSeaf y:a&mufvmatmif jyKvkyEf ikd fayrnf? ordik f; wa=umhjyefvmonfh tjzpfrmS
Adv
k fcsKyfrLS ;}uD;oef;a&$ OD;aqmifaom ppftm%m&Sifrsm;onf 2008ckEpS f zJ@G pnf;yHktajccHOya'udk twif;t}uyf
twnfjyKjyÏmef;vdkuf+yD; ppf0wfpkrH sm;udk c|wfum t&yfom;0wfpkrH sm;jzifh udk,fa,mifazsmuf ae=ujyefjcif; jzpfonf?
tm%m&SifpepfrSmvnf; ydI
k yif cdkifrmpGm qufvuf wnf+rJaeao;onf? tm%m&Sifpepfudk zH;k zdxm;aom
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k w&m;0ifjzpfvmatmif vkyx
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'Drdkua&pD &&SdEkdif&ef vrf;rjrifacs?
vuf&dS jrefrmEkdifiHwGif oef;a&$ OD;aqmifaom tm%m&Sifrsm;onf 1974ckESpf umvrsm;Y ae0if; az:aqmif
cJhaom y&d,m,frsKd;udkyif jyefvnfusifhoHk;ae=uonf? udkwifarmifOD;u }udKjrifxm;cJh ouJhokd@yif ppfwyftwGif;Y
tajctaersm; ydrk q
dk dk;&Gm;vmaeonf? xdyo
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&ykdifcGifh tcGifhtvrf;rsm;. uGm[r_rmS ydI
k yif odomxif&mS ;vmonf? ppftyk fpkxdyo
f D;rsm;u wdkif;jynf o,HZmw
rsm;. tusKd;tjrwfrsm;udk trsm;qHk;&&Scd Hpm;ae=uonfhtcsdew
f Gif atmufajcppfom;rsm;rSmrlum; omreftvkyf
orm; rsm;uJhokd@yif c|wf+cHKusae=u&onf? 4if;. tusK;d &vm'fa=umifh ppfwyftwGif;wGif atmufajcppfom; rsm;.
qENjyr_rsm; rsm;jym;vm+yD; tv,ftvwftqifh ppft&m&Sd rsm;pGmwk@d uvnf; ppfom;rsm;bufudk ygvm=uonf?
udkwifarmifOD;. acwfumvukd jyef=unfhrnfqv
dk #if ppfrx
_ rf; t&m&Srd sm;u rausreyf jzpf&onfhta=umif;
&if;rSm 4if;wdk@av;pm;&aom ppfwyf t}uD;tuJ Adv
k fcsKyf}uD;wifOD; &mxl;u xkwfy,fcHcJh&jcif;a=umifh jzpfonf?
xdk@a=umifh Ttajctaeukd yk*~dKvfa&;ESifh ywfoufonfh rauseyfcsuf[k ajymI&Ekdifayonf? udkwifarmifOD; uvnf;
Tonfudk tcGifhaumif;,lum rausreyf jzpfae=uaom ppfrx
_ rf; t&m&Srd sm;ESifh yl;aygif;I tm%m&Sif pepfudk
jzKwfcs&ef }udK;yrf;tm;xkwfcJhayonf? ,ae@acwfumvwGif tv,ftvwftqifh ppf t&m&S}d uD;rsm; tygt0if
atmufajc ppfom;rsm;. rauseyfcsufrsm;onf yk*~dKvfa&;a=umifh r[kwfbJ wdkif;jynf. rl0g'rsm;/ Ekid fiHa&;cH,lcsuf
rsm;ESifh ydrk dk qufE,
G faeayonf? 2011ckEpS f {+yDvwGif ajcjrefwyf&if; trSwf (709)ESifh (710)wdk@onf 2008ckEpS f
zG@J pnf;yHktajccHOya'ESifh ppfr_rxrf;rae& Oya'wkd@udk jyifqif&ef / 4if;wkd@. vlaer_ tqifhtwef;rsm; tm;wdk;jr‡ifh
ay;&ef/ jrefrmEdkifiH&dS tajccH usaom Ekid fiHa&; jy\emrsm;udk Ekid fiHa&;enf;vrf;jzifh ajz&Sif;&ef/ jynfolvlxk.
ppfreS faom axmufcHru
_ dk &,lum tpdk;& jyefvnf zG@J pnf;ay;&ef ponfwdk htwGuf vuf&dt
S yk fpdk;aeaom tm%m&Sif
tpdk;&xH awmif;qkdcJhonf?
2010ckEpS f twkta,mif a&G;aumufyJrG sm; t+yD;wGif orRwode;f pdef OD;aqmifaom tpd;k &opfwpf&yfudk
zJ@G pnf;vdkuf+yD; jzpfapumrl ppfwyftwGif;wGif tqdkyguJhodk@aom rauseyfcsufrsm; xGufay:vm&jcif;. vuQ%mrSm
185

tm%m&Sifpepftay:wGif ppfr_xrf;rsm;. rauseyfcsufrsm; wdk;yGm;vmaeonf [laomoabmyif jzpfonf? 4if;rSm
ppfwyftwGif;&Sd ppfom; ajrmufrsm;pGmwdk@onf tm%m&Siftyk fcsKyfr_udk onf;rcHEdkifawmhbJ aygufxGufawmhrnfh
taetxm;udk jyqdak eonf? 0rf;enf;p&maumif;onfrmS udkwifarmifOD; usqHk;oGm;cJh+yDjzpfonf? TwGif rnfolu
udkwifarmifOD;. enf;AsL[mudk xdxda&mufa&muf vufcHusihfoHk;rnfenf; qkdonfu ar;p&mjzpfvmonf? tm&yf
Edik fiHrsm;pGmwkd@wGif tm%m&Siftyk fcsKyfr_pepf qef@usifa&; v_y&f Sm;r_rsm; wjznf;jznf; tm;aumif;vm=u+yDjzpf
aomfvnf; jrefrmEkdifiHwGif ,cktcsdeYf bmoHrS xGufrvmao;onfrmS 0rf;enf;p&myif? udkwifarmifOD;uJhokd@yif
&JpGr;f owWdEiS fh jynfhpHk=u&efeiS fh trsm;jynfolwkd@.aumif;usKd;twGuf tm%m&Sif pepf qef@usifa&; v_y&f Sm;r_rsm;udk
az:aqmif }u&ef ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;/ vli,frsm;udk OD;aZmf0if;u wdkufwGe;f E_d;aqmfonf?
udkwifarmifOD;. r[mAsL[mudk vdkufygaz:aqmif&eftwGuf &JpGr;f owWdomrubJ &Sif;vif;jywfom;aom
oabmxm; tjrifEiS fh tpDtrHrsm; vdktyfayonf? ,ckvuf&dS jrefrmEkdifiHwGif oabmxm;tjrif rjywfom;r_rsm;
jzpfay:vSsuf&do
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aomfvnf; xdka0g[m&udk rnfonfhEdkifiHa&;ygwDur# &Sif;vif;jywfom;pGm t"dyg` ,fziG fhqkjd cif; r&Sdao;acs? yxrqHk;
taeESifh ajym&rnfqv
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wuG ,SOfwJGaeEkid fjcif; r&Sd[laomtcsufjzpfonf? 4if;wkd@ESpfckteufu wpfckudk usihfoHk;rnfqv
dk #if tjcm;wpfckudk
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jyefvnfoifhjrwfa&; tygt0if tjcm;aom EkdifiHa&;&m jyKjyifajymif;vJa&; vkyif ef;pOfrsm;udk av#mav#m&SL&SL
taumif txnfaz:Ekdifrnf jzpfonf? TonfrmS udkwifarmifOD;. &Sif;vif;jywfom;aom vrf;a=umif;yif jzpfonf?
'kwd,tcsufrmS trsK;d om;jyefvnfoifhjrwfa&;udk &Gwfqadk eaomfvnf; }uD;rm;vSaom jypfr_}uD;aygif;
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191

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}uonf? ,if;rSm a,mufsm; uav;rsm; aexdkif&m taqmif? rvSjrdKif onf txufwef;ausmif;oluav; rSsS om
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wdk h&daS e}uonf? trsm;pkrmS 4if; wdk h. tcef; rsm;xJ rS xGufrvm}uao;? ausmif;om;rsm;onf yHrk Sefausmif;wuf
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pwifa[mvdkufaomtcg '*Hkaqmif&daS usmif;om;rsm;onf yxrawmh tH}h o rSifoufro
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192

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olwdk honf ausmif;om;rsm;uJhodk h 0wfqif xm;aomfvnf; ppfaxmufvSr;f a&;rsm; jzpf a}umif; odomonf?
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xdk haemuf ppfaxmufvSr;f a&;rsm; aemufqkwfoGm;}ujyD; wuUodkvf0if; twGi;f 0ifa&mufum aysmufuG,f
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193

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aqmifu ausmif;om;awGbJ? igwdk@ &nfrSef;csufuvJ rif;wdk@eJ@ twlwlbJ? 'Dawmh twlwuG aygif;pnf;jyD;
csDwuf}u&atmif?‛ [k ajymonf?
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jyifqifvm}uonf? olwdk@xHwGif tvHrsm;/ vufudkifpmwrf;rsm; eSifh ocifudk,fawmfrd_if; yHkudk a&;qGJxm;aom
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tm;jzifh waxmife;D yg;cef hrsS &So
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&aumif;&edik fw,f? usrwdk heJ hyl;aygif;jcif yl;aygif;vmedik fw,f?‛

194

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Adv
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195

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198

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215

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216

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218

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225

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226

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227

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230

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231

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