2005 IEEE/PES Transmission and Distribution Conference & Exhibition: Asia and Pacific Dalian, China

Study of Directional Relay's Performances for Transmission Line's Multiple Faults
Mao Peng, Jiang Lin, Xu Yang, Ru Feng
protection devices, such as power frequency variation based direction element, transient energy direction element and sequence components based direction element etc.. And these direction elements are generally used by several major companies producing protection equipments. Theory analysis, simulation testing and field performances for a long time have proved that fault components based directional relay can correctly act under the condition of any faults with single orientation, and which play important effect in the power systems. But the performances of the above direction element used by the existing protection equipments should be farther analyzed when faults simultaneously occur on the different phases at different directional sites which respectively lie in front and behind of the protection measure current transformer (CT). There are many kinds of multiple faults. In order to give prominence to the emphases and be up to the practices, only one of basic examining items in the dynamic simulation test of line protection equipment at China Electric Power Research Institute (CEPRI) is discussed in this paper. This kind of multiple fault is that a phase occurs grounded fault at the positive direction exit of the protection device and at the same time another phase of the exit of the adjacent line occurs grounded fault in the double electric transmission line system and short Line ring-bus system whose model is shown in Fig.4. For this kind of typical multiple fault, based on the results of fault additional network analysis, the acting characteristics of above directional elements are firstly analyzed in theory, and then RTDS (real time digital simulation) dynamic simulation test results are presented. And system model and parameters provided by CEPRI are used in the simulation. On the basis of analysis and simulation results, an integrated directional relay with high sensitivity under the condition of the multiple faults is presented in this paper, and whose realization scheme and testing results are presented.

Abstract-- In order to sustain the stability of the power system, the power line carrier direction protection, as the main protection, is required to rapidly and exactly and selectively remove the fault in the high voltage or extra-high voltage system of our county. Thus directional relay used by protection equipment must be able to correctly and rapidly reflect the orientation of the fault site, namely positive direction or negative direction. At present, the generally used directional relays based on the sequence components (such as zero-sequence direction element, negative-sequence direction element and positivesequence direction element using fault component), transient energy directional relay and variation of power frequency component based directional relay etc. can rapidly and correctly determine the orientation of the fault site when a single fault or multiple faults with the same orientation occur in the power system. And such directional relays have comparatively high sensitivity. But when faults at different directional sites simultaneously occur on the different phases within the protected range, abnormal performance of directional relays above would appear, and which would finally result in the fault being removed with time delay or the non-action of protection relays. This paper theoretically analyzes this abnormal performance of directional relays mentioned above, and RTDS (real time digital simulation) dynamic simulation test results prove this point. And an integrated directional relay with high sensitivity is presented in this paper, which could exactly and quickly act under the multiple fault conditions. Theoretical analysis and lots of dynamic simulation tests show that the integrated directional relay presented in the paper could quickly and precisely decide the fault site direction under multiple fault conditions, with the same sensitivity as that under the single fault condition..
Index Terms--Directional relay, Line protection, Multiple faults



system, protection equipment is required to rapidly and

order to sustain the stability and security of the

exactly and reliably and selectively remove the fault in the high voltage or extra-high voltage system of our county. The II. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF DIRECTIONAL RELAY'S FOR power line carrier direction protection, as one of the main MUTIPLE FAULTS protections, is widely used in power systems of our country. Therefore fault components based directional elements are A. Analysis offault network [5] adopted in the directional relays of power line carrier direction The multiple fault system researched in this paper is a electric transmission system with double sources, whose Mao Peng is with Jiangsu Provincial Electric Power R&D Center and model is shown in Fig. 1. Directional protection relay lies in M Department of Electrical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210036 end of the line, and the fault sites of fl and f2 are respectively PRC (e-mail: maopengoajsepc.com.cn). lie in the front and behind of the protection measure CT at M Jiang Lin is with Jiangsu Provincial Electric Power R&D Center, Nanjing end. 210036 PRC
(e-mail: jianglin@jsepc.com.cn).


00 ©2005 IEEE.

and Q'. In the figure.1. U' and uif and U' are produced by the fault additional source U kf ef flI j'kf respectively denote the voltage and current provided by And in Fig. U"f Ulf 1b 1 ef af' . Thus.. Multiple Fault System element. Performance analysis ofsequence quantities based directional relay At present. the amplitude (b) Additional Network with In-zone Fault Source values of sequence component current ik and p of fault Fig. we have. zero sequence and negative sequence superposition of the normal system before the fault and this quantities. '2 are respectively the two of fault additional networks shown in Fig. . The multiple fault system shown in Fig..2 (b). and they belong to the same point only with different fault phase. are reversed to that of the pre-fault normal voltage phasor. the bifurcation emphases of the paper. system sequence impedance of the side N and 4Ib system sequence impedance of the side M. the above current vectors in the each sequence network. such as I' 'f kf kf laf'1bf' Where. the sensitive angle's offset.f + i. Z + Z I " jkf kf Id. bf bf ' kL kN __ k ( _(4) K1 L Ujf (a) Additional Network with Out-zone Fault Source Ok =arg( ZkY (Zk + Zk-M ) .2 (a). = I. B. core of a direction element. 2. Namely.Ua fU2 O . 0. is the are same for the two fault additional networks.f + U. For fault source fl direction. And therefore the fault system agU2 2 0 arg AUl 00 =arg U . On account of the equation (4) and after the trimming. and other parts involved in the coefficients of fault components measured by protection realization. such as the amplitude value's thresholds of devices are unlike because of the current transformer (CT) direction relay. Due to the fault network whose amplitude values are equal to that. are respectively sequence impedance f. the range of the lying in the middle of the two fault sites.f = U. 02are respectively the direction angles of superposition principle can be adopted to analyze.2 according to this processing. sequence components based direction elements in the power line carrier direction protection for high voltage 0. we could know that the measuring fault component voltage and current provided by the fault source f2 (note: the of current IOf and fault component of voltage UiO (note: 0 V positive sequence quantities denote fault components of positive sequence quantities). and U are respectively the fault additional voltage zero sequence and negative sequence measured at the site of sources of negative fault site fl and positive fault site f2. and realizing mode etc. In Especially illuminate: the directional degree's distribution addition. and whose direction analysis at the subsection 2. Their expressions of action are. although the bifurcation coefficients of the same side under this condition. Al1.I kf ) (5) network. the fault components. and the the measured bifurcation coefficient is at the side N which can \ *. and < respectively denote the principle.IXUd.. k f of the line L. k respectively denotes 1. According as fault sequence a' b' c) are the results produced together by the two fault networks. U0. the following expressions are obtained: additional voltage sources.2. 011. system etc.f (1 cAfl wherelX zkL ZkN z.2 Separate Figure of Fault Additional Network branch circuits are equivalent in the fault networks. a rotational angle p is the only difference between multiple faults are respectively analyzed in next parts. In b = arg kf +kf (3) U' Fig.4 Un Ibf j. protection device's installation. the fault components Iff' Uf Ubff Uaf' af' and off. are produced by Li2. and AU1.2 From the point of view of the whole fault additional ICf conclusions presented by this paper are not influenced . voltage and current of positive sequence 's fault components. Due to the superposition the fault source fl. And we can let Zk=ZkL +ZkN. Because The performances of several direction elements generally the referenced phases are different in symmetrical component used by line protection devices under the condition of above analyzing. are not discussed. zero sequence element and positive sequence element During a short period after the fault happens. the electric distance between fault sites fl and f2 is zero when faults are analyzed.2=arg 2 (2) Ai can be regarded as a linear system in the fault analysis and where lX 1. or extra-high voltage transmission lines are commonly adopted positive sequence fault component based direction Fig. parameters hold invariability. 1 can be considered as the positive sequence. Io u 2. we can get.

and whose expressions are as the following: (Zk. (t) + Sf(.bc. In addition. the definition of bifurcation coefficient a is as by this paper. Auoo and Aioo (00 = ab. we can know that the directionalities of sequence components based direction elements will not have the uniqueness under this condition of multiple faults and will vary with the change of system structures. For this A. in term of testing regulations of line directional relay [2. realized by three phase to phase direction elements. bc. AU. In the formula The action expression of energy based direction element is. singleness. But the power frequency variation based by the fault source fl. energy absorbed by system impedance at the side N to the and whose performances are consistent with those in case of protection CT. and failure to operate can be resulted under respectively lie in both sides of the protection measuring CT in case of the multiple faults. which will change with the variation of system parameters and system |S". And according to the equation (6). ± Au' Ai' )dt direction in this directional relay is inconstant. it is required that the forward The power frequency variation based directional relay is a For the different power system's structure and parameters. and Al. the parameter a is variable.a (6) 0 00 = arg( A ) (9) Where. . ca. Firstly. Under the condition of the multiple faults studied Where. Au.S'. So the expression (5) can be expressed as the follows: Ok =arg( Zk-. and these elements should be synthetically organized fault to the protection CT. (t) f (Au" Ai" Au" Ai" Au" Ai" )dt structures. (t) L(Au'bAi'b + Au/Ai. 00 = ab. this directional relay will Where. in term of the superposition principle we can same as the above. For the multiple fault studied in this paper.bab . (t). the expression (9) can be shown as the following: = arg Uab Xa Olbarg( AU.3 be defined as a . which is negative practice. and the energy measured at the site of direction elements respectively made of the healthy phase and protection relay's installation is S. AI." aIb aIb 00 - + + 3 .) 'ab ±a Ahab Where. Performance analysis ofpower frequency variation based condition. are fault components provided by are fault the fault source fl. Thus. protection devices. components of the voltages and currents measured by the the deducing process is omitted). which is the the fault phase have single phase angles for this multiple fault. Similarly. and 0 is a offset angle. And that the processing the condition of this multiple fault. energy measured by selector. INTEGRATED DIRECTIONAL RELAY AND SIMULATION absorbed by system impedance at the side M with a reverse sign. For any type of faults with a single ) (11) Oab = arg(Z1. principle of delaying to operate isn't feasible for this fault D. Thus it can be have. Abc Albc AUab ) AU' ± A Ua" = G)b arg( arg( Aab 9=arg( AU)b = arg(Z1. according to the or be used in term of the result presented by fault phase directional definition of electric vectors. viz. ±AU Alb. z1 = z2. which is the energy III. it can be seen that if a direction element's function the directivity denoted by the energy function will lose its comprises fault components provided by the two fault sources." ) 6thb)=arg( Al. And these direction elements based protection relays are possibly fail to actuate. which result in the delayed removal of the faults for the multiple faults. Au'4 and Ai' denote fault components provided fail to operate.3] protection equipment at CEPRI. (t) = S' (t) + S'. Performance analysis of energy based directional relay [1] the fault source f2. AU'4 and AJ. are Where. By the deduction. Similarly. ' +a. while for f2 the measured bifurcation coefficient is at the side M which be equal to (1 X a). and C. the sign of energy function S (t) will take on the * 1+ te 1 a singleness. 1+ a eiA 1. Under some condition. and for some system parameters and running the final direction will take on variation and even this element modes the action sensitivity of the energy based directional based relay will fail to operate because the fault sites relay will decline. the protection relay is equal to -Sm .+ ZkM ) * AU"(1 AUb. and the range of its amplitude value is 0-1. Integrated directional relay Based on the theory analysis of these fault components multiple fault studied in this paper.(Z1 + ZIM) * direction. AU'.b =agAU'b+ A U. seen that the phase angle of the direction element made of the (S.ca) are respectively fault used. (t) fault phase at positive direction and the fault phase at negative (8) S' (t) +S. the relation of positive sequence impedance Sm (t) = r (Uab (7) uiab + AUbCAIbC + AUcaAica)dt equaling to negative sequence impedance. parts. (noting: limiting to the paper's length. So the power frequency variation based direction elements can not be simply used in components provided by the fault source f2. components provided by transformation. the sign of the energy function in the protection relay is the result jointly operated by based direction elements commonly used by relays in above the two fault sources at positive and negative direction. according to the superposition principle. we obtain.denote fault faults with a single direction. The analysis of energy function's characteristics for a single grounded fault can be referred in literature [6].

910 -105.710 80.680 -77. And noting that tested protection devices are respectively installed at terminal L and terminal N of line NL.870 -102. and the integrated direction element presented by this paper can do it with high sensitivity.330 80. Calculating results of every direction element are provided by the relays near the fault site.170 -107. arg *b| arg ui Aa Alb ~~~Energy A direction AIca relay -106.550 -97. 1 RTDS TEST RESULTS Test Items AN(K1)-BN(k2) AN(K1)-CN(k2) BN(K1)-AN(k2) BN(K1)-CN(k2) CN(K1)-AN(k2) CN(K1)-BN(k2) AN(K3)-BN(k4) AN(K3)-CN(k4) BN(K3)-AN(k4) BN(K3)-CN(k4) CN(K3)-AN(k4) arg All arg .620 78.110 81. lots of testing items are carried out based on the long.2 I~2 ALJ~~~ U2U0 arg .540 80.622 5.500 -170. using RTDS (Real Time Digital Simulator) dynamic simulation TAB.22 -8.040 -175. Thus this problem should be radically solved in theory for this type of fault. and this system model is rather advantageous to prove the above analysis in cases of the multiple faults.-Il Fig.450 -79. and existing principles are still employed in other conditions.250 -102. In order to distinctly see the performances of every direction element.648 4.8390 -101. The testing system model is shown in Fig. three power frequency variation based direction elements are respectively calculated. and if all of elements meet the requirement of sensitivity and two of them respectively take on positive and negative direction.700 64.650 -102. 1.4 500kv Short Line Ring-bus Model Action A Negative Direction E3 ementi BC Negaive Direction element + CA Negative Dlrection Element .080 4 .120 -109.890 68.960 -107. The operation principle is shown as follow: AB Positive Drection Elem6ent Rf? DA641itir3nrrin1.290 82.200 -103. a novel integrated direction element is presented in this paper. consequently a positive direction is decided by the integrated direction element.730 -100.550 -101.680 -171.760 -31.200 -172. typical testing results of the 500kv Short-Line-Ring-bus system are given.560 -28.019 4.3 Operation Principle of Integrated Direction Element B.900 81.180 -109. it can be deduced that a fault site exits at forward.780 -99.090 75.500 -99. AUb.120 CN(K3)-BN(k4) 83.450 -99.490 -27.510 -76.560 -102.0 0O AU~~~~.340 80. both are possible to fail to operate in some cases of system structures and parameters.500 77. results listed in this table are directional results of relays lying in the terminal N. Simulation In order to test the analysis results in theory and the Testing results are listed in Tab.470 65.850 -97. By these results in Tab.030 85.990 81.410 79.250 -102.440 -100.960 -27.65 -102.100 -105.730 -94.820 -105. Combined with above analyzing results.770 -30. whose basic idea is that in any case of fault. performance of presented integrated direction element.760 80. and anticipative results are obtained.920 81.410 -99.720 -103.130 64. 1.630 -30.957 -4.253 5.103 Integrated direction relay (Positive) -106.650 -97. if delaying principles are used by both of the protection relays respectively lying in two sides of the bus line M.120 80.600 81.210 -125. namely if faults occur at the sites of kl-k2.365 -4.440 -171. 12 @pi2 K/ 53ik QP/ 23ik @pi/ I/ I1 @piO K L @O J ATR/ LJ/ ATRO KO CAB ositive Direction Element Fig.520 -103.35 -102.470 -126.4.469 -4.770 -102.080 5. In addition. we can see that all of existing direction elements can not keep a consistent directionality in the cases of multiple faults studied in this paper.810 82.340 80. short and ring-bus 500kv transmission line systems offered by CEPRI.Smn system.09 -10.560 -174.500 -102.540 -124.870 76.24 3.440 79.100 81.860 -125.050 81.220 -124.260 64.040 -105.430 65.53 -8.4 fault phase within the protected range must be quickly tripped within 20ms in case of this multiple fault [4].

1995. Zhu Shengshi. Jin Huafeng. Shen Guorong." Proceedings of the CSEE. 5 . 19(1): 41-47. In order to farther advance some performance index in part. 1973. BIOGRAPHIES Mao Peng was born in Tai'an. 2002. Periodicals: V.5 IV. on June 22. and Ph." Automation of Electric Power System. 2001(8). China WaterPower Press. degree from Shangdong engineering college in 1995. Li Ju. PRC. Currently. Wang Shirong etc. [4] Zhou Zexin.. He Benteng. respectively. and that plays an important role in safely and stably running of power systems. His main research areas are protective relaying. He received the B. it is necessary to study and analyze the characteristics of protection elements in some cases of special fault types based on existing productions. "Developing A New UltraHigh Speed Directional Comparison Protection. degrees from Tianjing university. Xi'an Jiaotong University Press." Automation of Electric [5] Ge Yaozhong. Zhou Chunxia. New Type Distance Protection of Power Line.S. and M. CONCLUSIONS All of fault components based directional relays generally used in line protection devices can reliably and exactly operate in most cases of practical faults. Dai Xue'an. "Principle and Property Research of the Energy Directional Protection.. Tianjing. 1996. [6] Xu Zhenya. and it should be radically ensured that protection devices can still trip off fault phases with rather high indexes. distribution automation. So performances of every relays in this case must be analyzed and processed in theory.D. and Al applications to power systems." Automation of Electric System. etc. "A Brief Discussion on the Protection Relay Based on Power Frequency Variation Principle. New Types of Protective Relaying and Fault Location Their Theory and Techniques. Shandong province.S. 1997. Books: VI. in 1998 and 2000. The type of multiple faults is a required item in the dynamic simulation test of line protection equipment at CEPRI. 1987(3). 17(3): 166-170. Southeast University. "Several Problems Appeared In Dynamic Simulation Tests For Microprocessor-Based Transmission Line Protective Relays. Li Kang. REFERENCES [1] [2] [3] System. He is a postdoctor with Jiangsu Provincial Electric Power R&D Center and Department of Electrical Engineering.

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