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INTRODUCTION : The human resource is the most significant and the only active factor of the production. All over the factors like capital, materials, buildings, plant & machine etc. remain inactive unless there are competent people to utilize them for producing goods & services desired by the society. Human brain which is he creation of nature has limit less energy to think and art. The goal of achieving, greater quality and higher productivity depend on the skill of the people.

Developing human resource , upgrading their skills and extending their knowledge and competencies would lead to organizational development. Therefore, human resource development is the key to entangling the effecting utilization of intellectual, technological and entrepreneurial skills of human resource

The concept of Human Resource Development is comparatively of recent origin and is now used at both macro and micro levels. At the macro level human resource development is the core of all developmental efforts in the sense the organizational level human resource development

connotes the improvement in the quality of managers and workers so as to achieve greater quality and higher levels of productivity. However are shall concentrate on the micro view of Human Resource Development and study the mechanisms and processes of Human resource development.

Significance of Human Resource Development : As stated earlier the term human resource refers to the knowledge skills, creative abilities, talents, aptitude, values and believes of an organisations workforce. The most important aspects of human resources are aptitudly values attitudes and beliefs. But in given situation if these vital aspects remain same, the other aspects of human resource like knowledge, skill, creative abilities and talents play an workforce. However enhancement of utilization value of human resource depends upon improvement of the human resource aspects like skill, knowledge, creative liabilities and talents and moulding of other aspects like, values, beliefs aptitude and attitude in accordance with the changing requirements of groups, organisation and society at large. This process is the essence of human resource development improves the human resource development improves the utilization values of anorganisation. The effective performance of an organisation depends not just on the available resources but its quality and conference as required by the

organisation from time to time. The difference between two nations largely depends upon the level of quality of human resources.

Similarly, the difference in the level of performance of two organisations also depends on utilization value of human resources. Moreover the efficiency of production process and various area of management depend to a greater extent on the level of human resources development.

HRD assumes significance on view of the fast changing organisational environment and used of the organisations to adopt new techniques on order to respond to the environmental changes. The changes environmental factors include. Unprecedented increase in competition within and outside the country consequent upon the enouncement and implementation of economic libations. Trends toward market economy are move prevalent in most of the countries including the while communist countries

These trends towards marketing economy resulting in severe competition not only among the industries in the globe but also industries within the nation. This competition allows only the industries *** in all respects to continue in the market and the other industries are forced to

withdraw from the market. The vitality of human resources to a nation and to industry depends upon the level of its development. Organisations to be dynamic growth oriented and fast changing should develop their human resources. It is needless to say that the organisation possessing competent human resources grow faster and can dynamic. Through the positive personnel policies and programmes motivation the employees, but their commitment and loyalty but these effort cannot keep the organisation dynamic and fast changing. It is need less to say that the organisation possessing competent human resources grow faster and can dynamic. Though the positive personnel policies and programmes motivation the employees, but their commitment and loyalty but these efforts cannot kept the organisation dynamic and fast changing.


HRD is mainly concerned with developing the skill, knowledge and competencies of people and it is people oriented concept when we call it is a people oriented concept when we call it as a people oriented concept the questions of people be developed in the larger or national context or in the smaller organisational context is it different at the macro level.

HRD can be applied both for the nation level and organisational level. The concept of HRD is not yet we conceived by various authors though they have defined the term from their approach as it is of recent origin and still is in the conceptualizing stage. It is an understanding of the terms; i.e. new or rather was new. HRD is not training and development. But many personal manager and organisations view HRD as synonymous to paining and development. Any organisations in the country renames heir training departments as HRD departments. Some educational institutions starting awarding degrees and diplomas in HRD even though the concept in HUF yet crystal clear. The concept of HRD was formally introduction by Leonard Nadlering 1969 in a conference organized by the American society for frainent and development. Leonard

Nadler defined HRD as those learning experiences which are organized for a specified time and designed to bring about the possibility of behavioral change.

The terms learning experience refers to purpose full or international learning not incidental learning. Among the Indian authors T.V infantries wara Rao worked extensive on HRD. The define HRD is the organisational context as a process by which the employees of an organisation are helped in a continuous, planned way to:-

i. Acquire or sharpen capabilities required to perform various functions associated with their present or expected future roles.

ii. Development their funeral capabilities as individual and discover and exploit their own inner potentials for tour own and /or organisational development purposed.

iii. Development an organisational culture in which superior subordinals retations hip, term work and collaboration among subunits are strong will-having, motivation and pride employee.

HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT FRAME WORK Recent economic peralization announced by government of India lend forwards market and economic and started creating more dynamic environment in India then ever before HRA plays a significatn and crucial role in market economics under dynamic environment human resource development should be effective for the candidate who do not possess potentials to perform present and future roles in organisational in dynamic environment.

HRD to be effective should essentially have a strong base of human resource planning, recruitment and selection based on effective un effective HRD requirement. These part features enable the organisation to develop its Human resources efficiently human resources planning for HRD should planfor human resources not only for the present and future jobs but also role, futures, human resource, planning should plan for potentialities. Recruitment for HRD refers to searching for prospective employee having skill, and also for development and motivates them to apply for jobs.

Selection for HRD refers to designing the selection techniques like written test, selection test, interview etc. fit for selection the candidate suitable for future development. These base factors influence the analysis

of roles of employees as individual as membe of terms and organisations, along with the ever changing environment. The positive base factors exert portative influence on the analysis of role vice versa is true in case of negative facture.

Process of HRD : Identification of Inputs Analysis of Rolls as - Individual

Recruitment & selection based on Forecasting manpower needs based on HRD

- Member of Teams - Member of Organisation


Potential Appraisal

Performance Appraisal

Employees Present Capabilities and potentialities

Capabilities to be acquired

Input skills, knowledge, values behaviour etc.

Analysis of

roles employees as individuals, number of ****** and

number of organization helps the positive base factors exert portative influence on the analysis of role vice versa is true in case of negative facture. Analysis of roles of employees as individuals, members of and members of organizations helps the organizations know the member present capabilities and potential. Future performance appraisal and appraisal techniques help to evaluate the present capabilities, performance and potentials more accurately. Organizations plans including the plan for change, based on environmental oppurtunities and threats are the based to determine organizational requirement,. In turn are the based to determine the future requirement of various roles in the organization. The difference between the employees present capabilities and future role requirement are the human resource to be acquired and development. Organization requirement. In turn are the based to determine the future requirements of various roles in the organization. Human resources to be acquired and developed are determined in terms of skills, knowledge, abilities, values aptitude, beliefs, commitment etc. Suitable technique is / of human resource development is / are to be selected depending upon the resource to be acquired and developed. These techniques include, performance appraisal potential appraisal, training, management development organizational development. Career

planning and development, worker participation in management quality circles and social and spiritual programmers. The outcomes of HRD are four-fold, viz. to the organization, t o the individuals, to the groups and to the society. HRD benefits the organization by developing the employees and make them ready to accept responsibilities, welcome change, adapt to change, enables the implementation of the programmes of total quality management maintenance of sound human relations , increase in productivity and profitability. The HRD, also benefits the individuals, in allowing of potentials, increase informations, fulfilling their needs and enhancing social and psychological status. The HRD helps the groups in the form of increase in cooperation, increase in collaboration and team effectiveness. Further, it helps the society in the form of developing human resources and increased contribution of human resources to the society.

A SCHEMATIC REPRESENTATION OF HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM IN LARSEN AND TOUBRO LIMITED Manpower Planning 1. Forecast manpower needs based on the policies and strategies of the **** etc. 2. Determine the adiquacy of current manpower resources in relation to future needs. 3. Complete manpower planning based on forecast, internal search and manpower audit. Critical Attribute Analysis 1. Determine the technical skills required for each job, list them. 2. Determine the behavioural skills required for each job, list them. 3. Determine the managerial and other skills required for each job, list them. 4. Develop indicators of each of the attributes and valid methods of assessing and measuring them. Industrial Relation 1. Recruitment & placement. 2. Job analysis 3. Supervision 4. Wage administration 5. Trade Union matters 6. Job redesigning

Selection & Placement Use the criteria and measures developed for selection procedures and placements.

Feedback and counselling 1. Give critical and supporting feedback. 2. Discuss with the employee the difference between his self rating by the immediate superior. 3. Discuss the steps the employee can take for improvement.

Training 1. Assess training needs of different groups of employees. 2. Search available outside training facilities. 3. Develop in co. training strategy including pretraining and post training activities. 4. Prepare training packages and modules. 5. Organise specific programmes as welfare general development programmes with own and outside resources. 6. Evaluate training efforts.

Reinforcement and advancement 1. Promotion 2. Salary review 3. Salary administration 4. Rewards and punishment

Performance appraisal 1. Help employee in self-appraisal. 2. Review his performance in relation to the objectives and other behaviours. 3. Check review done by the supervisors 4. Send summary information for central storage and use

Organisation development 1. Organisation diagnosis 2. Team building. 3. Task force 4. Other structural and process intervention like role development, job enrichment, job redesigning etc.

Date storage & processing 1. Maintain systematic information about the individual emp: history, characteristics, performance record, potential record, promotion, other promotion, other records, additional qualification, remarkable achievements, salaries etc. 2. Supply files to deptt. whenever solicited for counselling, career planning, training etc. 3. Design data cars for computers 4. Monitor feeding in an out of the data. 5. Process data for research on trends etc.

Potential appraisal 1. Make thorough potential appraisal of the employee once in 3 years. 2. Appraise the potential of the employee annually.

Career development and career planning 1. Make new employee aware of the general phases of their development in the company. 2. Plan with senior employees career paths. 3. Plan development and coping strategies with employees showing limited potential.

FEATURES OF HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT The essential features of human resource development can be listed as follows:1. Human resource development is a process in which employees of the organizations are recognized as its human resource. It believes that human resources is most valuable asset of the organisation. 2. It stresses on development of human resources of the organisation . It helps the employees of the organisation to develop their general capabilities in relation to their present jobs and expected future role. 3. It emphasis on the development and best utilization of the capabilities of individuals in the interest of the employees and organisation. 4. It helps in establishing / developing inter-personal relations. It stresses on developing relationship confidence. 5. It promotes team spirit among employees. 6. It tries to develop competencies at the organization level. It stresses on providing healthy climate for development in the organization. based on helps trust and

7. HRD is a system. It has several sub-systems. All these sub systems are inter related and interwoven. It stresses on collaboration among all the sub-systems. 8. It aims to develop an organization culture in which there is good, senior subordinate relations motivation quality and sense of belonging. 9. It tries to develop comprehence at individual, interpersonal, group and organizational level to meet organizational goal. 10. It is an inter-disciplinary concept. It is based on the concepts, ideas and principles of sociology, psychology, economics etc. 11. It form on employee, welfare and quality of work life. It tries to examining identify employee needs and meeting them to the best possible extent. 12. It is a continuous and systematic learning process. Development is a life, long process which never ends.

Mr. Harald Richter, Head, Department of Senior Executives of Bayer AG, has mentioned following eight characteristics relating to HRD: 1. The people have capabilities to learn. They can be developed by providing them learning opportunities.

2. Investment, in human resource development can be considered as long term investment. By investing in development of human resources long term refund can be increased. 3. Human resources can be developed through proper education and training system. HRD is not only the responsibility of the country. Industry will have to play a vital role by stressing on HRD activities. 4. It is a long term approach. There is no short cut to HRD. 5. It requires common understanding between people, industry, trade unions and government. 6. It is required at all levels . It stresses that there is constant need of retraining and development of people to adapt to new technologies. 7. It provides possibilities for training. It stresses that on the job training, is better than class room training. 8. It depends upon needs of the industry. HRD assists in meeting the objectives of individuals as well as organization. So, pace of growth of HRD depends upon the industry's needs.

OBJECTIVES OF HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT The main objectives of HRD are as follows: 1. To develop the capabilities and comprehences of human resources in relation to the present job. 2. To develop capabilities and competencies, of human resources in relation to their expected future role. 3. To build up competencies at individual interpersonal , group and organisational levels to meet the individual and organisation goals. 4. To help the development of people and their maximum utilization in the interest of society and nation. 5. To help the employees to plan their career. 6. To develop team spirit and interpersonal relation among employees in the organization. 7. To providing the employees a climate for job enrichment, opennes,, innovation, increawed communication etc. 8. To motivate the employees for their contribution by suitable rewards. 9. To ensure the availability of competent and committed people to occupy key position at higher level. 10. To achieve better organization (OD) system so that organization can respond to changes effectively.

11. To develop a suitable human resource information system to objective data on employees / HR. 12. To increase organizational effectiveness i.e. higher productivity, lower costs, more profits, better organization image. 13. To develop an organizational culture.

BENEFITS OF HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT Human resource development now-a-days a days is considered as the key to higher productivity better relahons and greater profitability for any organisation appropriate HRD provides unlimited benefits to the concerned organisation. Some of the important benefits are being given here.

1. HRD makes people more competes HRD develops new skill, knowledge and attitude of the people in the concern organisations.

2. With appropriate HRD programme people become more committed to their jobs. People are assessed on the bests of their performance by having a acceptable performance appraisal system.

3. An environment of must and respect can be created with the help of human resource development.

4. Acceptability towards change can be created with the help of HRD. Employees found them selves better equipped with problem solving capabilities.

5. It improves the all round growth of the employees. HRD also improves term spirit in the organisation. They become more3 open in their behaviour. This, now values can be generated.

6. It also helps to create the efficiency culture in the organisation. It leads to greater organisational effectiveness, resources are property utilised and goals are achieved in a beltir way.

7. It improves the participation of worker in the organisation. This improve the role of worker and workers feel a sense of pride and alievement while performing their jobs.

8. It also helps to collect useful and objective data on employees programmes and policies which further facilitate rather human resource planning.

Hence it can be concluded that HRD provides a lot of benifits in every organisation. So, the importance of concept of HRD should pre recognised and given a place of eminence, to face the present and future challenges in the organisation.

PRE-REQUISITES OF EFFECTIVE HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT Human resource development facilitates development of an enabling culture in an organisation. Enabling culture means creating an environment where employees are motivated to take initiative and risk, they feel enthused to experiment, innouation and they make things happen. To achieve and to create the effect the effect the HRD certain points must be studied and considered seriously for having effective HRD programme so, the following prerequisites are essential

Approach of Top -level management: The main goal of the HRD is to develop the capabilities o each employee as an Individual in relation to his present job and future rule. This can be done only by having a knowledge of capabilities, limitations and problems of the employees of the concern. Obviously this information can be collected by top level measurement by being in touch with the employees at all levels of measurement. Top executives should frequently visit the work place of the workers and spend time with term. So the top- level management must try to know full capabilities and problems of the work force of the organisation at all levels. By adopting his approach top management can better utilise the capabilities of the

available work force and creating must among the people of the organisation.

Communication System and Feedback: A success-mentation also depends on proper communication and fredback system. A p[roper communication should be developed and implemented. It should be such which provide all important information to the employees from the beginning to the end. This system should be formal are well as information is connected with feed balk so the importance of feed balk should be under spool in full and veliable feed balk system should be structured.

Conditions for Growth and Development: Human resources are the most important arrests in the organisation. They can be developed to an unlimited extent. For that a wealthy organisational elimate (epenness, frust, couaboration ) should be developed. The progress of the company must be hearted with the employees, their efforts should be appreciated and recognised by giving them rewards promotions, incentives etc. Their excellence should be rewarded in an appropriate and acceptable way. At the same time punishment can also be given. If required in normal or exceptional

circumstances so a balanced environment among all these should be maintained, so as to create the conditions for development of workers.

Investment in HRD Programme: There are to success. The maintenance of a weathly working climate and the development of its human resources is very complicated process. So to ensure the desired results the top level management and HRD professionals must invest proper time, funds and energy in each. The top level management must clear the path, create a development climate and help the employees to realize their potential.

Proper Utilisation of Human Resource Skill: HRD must try to make proper utilisation of available and potential human resource skills. Manpower planning and right sizing of human resources may be used for his purpose.

Decentralisation: There should be proper system of Involvement of persons at all levles of management. If the proper importance is given to each person this creates the since of belongings and commitment among the worker. Although major polity decisions, may be centralised but other important decisions should be made with the involvement of various subordinates.

A balanced approach should be maintained in the centralisation and decentralisation.

So, by adopting the above-requesting even ordinary people can produce extra ordinary results. The people in the concern it self grow and help the organisation to realise their goals and progress.

Human Resource Development and Organisational Effectiveness: Human resource development is a process, which is linked to organicational effectiveness. There are many instruments of Human Resource Development. These Human Resource Development resource development climate and processes such human resource development climate. Should result in move completing satisfied and committed people. Ultimately these HRD outcomes improve organisational effectiveness. Prof. T.V. Rao has developed a model which explains the interrelationship between human resource development instruments process, at comes and organisational effectiveness. Prof. T.V. Rao has developed the model presenting the interrelationship between the following four aspects of human resource development. I. Human Resources development mechanism or systems un instrument.

II. Human Resources development processes and human resources development (climate variables. III. Human resources development out comes variables. IV. Organisational effectiveness.

A Schematic Presentation of linkage between HRD instruments, Porcesses, out comes and organisational effectiveness.

HRD Mechanism or Sub systems or Instruments * HRD Department * Performance appraisal

HRD Process & HRD limake variables * Role Clarity * More

HRD out comes variably

* Review, Discussion Feed back, counselling sessions * Role Analysis * Proactive on Exercise entation. * Potential * More Trust * Higher job Development Exercise. * Training * Collaboration & Team work * Communication * Authenticity * Most Team-

* Planning of Development by every employee * Awarness of comptencies required for Job performance

competent People * Better developmentRoles * Higher work commitment & Job Involvement * Bether problem solving. satisfaction & work motivation * Better organisational health work synergy respect poreach other.

Organisational Effectiveness Dimensions * Higher productivity

* Growth and Diversification

* Cost Reduction * Most Profits

* Better Image.

* Policies * Openness * Job Rotations * Risk-taking * OD Exercises * Value Generation * Rewards * Clarification of norms & standard * Job enrichment * Increased Programmes communication * Other *Most objective Mechanism rewards * Generation of objective data on employees Personnel Policies, Top management styles, investment on HRd top management's commitment History, Previous culture line manager's interest ect.

Other Factors Environment, technology resources availability history, Nature of Business etc.

HRD MECHANISMS OR HRD SUB-SYSTEMS OR HRD INSTRUMENTS Human resource development in total system. It has various sub systems. These sub-systems are also known as human resource development mechanism or human resource are applied by the organisation to develop desired human resource development climate and improve organisational effectiveness through human resource development out comes. There are the large numbers of Sub-Systems or instruments that can be used to develop and facilitate human resources development. T.V. Rao has stated the human resource development matrix. It includes the following sub- system. (a) HRD Department. (b) Performance appraisal (c) Review, Discussion, Feed back, counseling sessions. (d) Rate Anlysis Exercise. (e) Polential Development Exercise. (f) Training. (g) Communication Policies. (h) Job Rotations (i) OD Exercise (j) Rewards. (k) Job Enrichment Programmes.

(l) Other Mechanisms. HRD mechanism in sub systems should be periodically reviewed to ensure check whether if has resulted in developing desired HRD climate or not.

Some of the Important human resource development instruments art explained in detail as under:

(a) Performance Appraisal: Performances is measured lerns of results. Performance appraisal is concern with evaluating the present performance/ output of the employees by linking if with for requirements. In indicates the extent to which an employee satisfies fulfills his present job requirements. It's aimed at identification of competency gaps. It enables the organisation to evaluate the present position, strength and weakness of its human resources. It helps the organisation to assess where it stands in terms of its completeness of the human resources required of different levels, of the organisational hierarchy as against desered/expleted level of human resources requirement. It also aims at idecutifying the improvement potential of its human resources. According to by are and rue, "Performance appraisal not only let the employee know how well he is performing but should also influence her furture level of effurt activities

result and task direction". Similarity prof. T.V. Rao has rightly stated that performance appraisal system here dual approach (i) Evaluation Approach and (ii) Development approach. Development oriented performance appraisals have gained movementum. The recent years further achieving human resources development goals through training and developments is better then achieving goals through performance appraisal alone.

(b) Potential Appraisal and Development: Business and people have to be managed proactively potential approsal means assessment and identification of inherent capabilities i.e. skill, knowledge etc possessed by an employees. This capability of the employee may not be in use at present. Taking into consideration the dynamic rather of the business, development of the new technology, diversification, modernization, increased competition etc. the potential of the available human resources with the organisation must be assessed in advance to **** development relates enhancing the employee's potential to accept and responsibility to handle higher position in future. Thus potential development aims at identify cation and development of the potential of employees to occupy key position in further and accept responsibility.

(c) Feed back and counseling: The performance appraisal/evaluation report of employees may be used an a feedback information. Management may discuss and evaluate the progress of the subordinate with his immediate superior. This review and discussion may serve various purposes. It may help in assessing the need for counselling to the employee's. Counselling can serve various useful purposes. It may help the seniors, to understand the problems of t heir subordi9nates and vice-versa. It can help the employees in setting goals and designing an action plant to meet these goals. It can also help the employees to overcome the problems faced by him and make the best utilization of his strengths.

d) Role Analysis: The concept of role is broader than that of a job. A job is an assignment of work /fast. Each job calls for a specific set of duties and responsibilities. A role consists of the total pattern of expected behaviour, interaction and sentiments for an individual possessing an assigned job. Role analysis is a process. It aims at defining the contents of a role in relation to all those with whom the employees have to deal and interact for performing the job. Role analysis is

identified as an intervention for the purpose of role clarity and performance appraisal.

e) Career Planning: A career is a sequence of positions occupied by a person during the course of his work life. Edwin B. Flippo states, "A career is a sequence of separate but related work activities that provided continuity, order and meaning in a person's life." Career planning is a process. It helps the employees to plan their career. It encourages the employees to analyse and assess their capabilities and inform them about the career opportunities that are available in the organization. The major focus of career planning is to help the employee's to match their skills and abilities to the needs and demand of organization. It aims at providing accelerated career growth opportunities for its efficient and capable employees. So, career planning is a systemic process of determination of the career prospects, career development and career growth of an individual employee. It helps to strengthen human resource development system of the organization.

f) Training and Development: Training and development are the human resource development instruments or sub-systems used by every organization. The importance of training has increased as a results of fact and constant improvement in the technology. Training is an act of increasing the skill and knowledge of an employee to do a particular job. It aims to increase the efficiency of an employee, for a specific job on the other hand, employee development aims at overall development of the employee. So, most of the organizational believe not only in recruiting the best in the industry but also in developing t heir competence.

g) Organizational Development: Bennels states "Organization Development (OD) is a complex educational so that they can better adapt to new technologies, marketsf and challenges. In simple words, organization development is a systematic process of managing change. It is a planned effort initiated by top management to improve the organizations health and effectiveness. It aims to improve the problem solving process in the organization. On process includes the following steps:-

i) Diagnosis / identification of the problem.

ii) Planning strategy to introduce change. iii) Use intervention: OD practioners, consultaants changes agents may be consulted. Organization development may use various intervention such as sensitivity training, managment by objective programs, survey feedback, management grid etc.

iv) Evaluating implementation change: According to Edwin B. Flippq "OD is a planned and calculated attempt to a attain some specific goals such as : (a) Decision making on the basis of competence (b) Creatively resolving conflicts (c) Maximizing collaborations (d) Increasing commitment and a sense of ownership (e) Increasing the degree of interpersonal trust and support (f) Creating a climate in which human growth, development are a natural part of the enterprises daily operation and; (g) Developing a communication system characterized by mutual openness in solving organizational problems.

(v) Rewards: Reward is the compensation to the employees for their services to the organization Rewards are necessary to retain the services of efficient employee, motivate the employee for better performance and to attract capable and efficient potential employees to the organization. Employees must be suitably rewarded for their contribution to the organization. Reward may be; (i) Extinsic reward, and (ii) Intrinsic reward

Extrinsic reward is related to monetary benefits such as salary, promotion, bring benefits etc. Intrinsic reward is related to the job itself i.e. job satisfaction, pride in word, recognization as an individual etc. Better rewards helps to achieve HRD goals . Most of the successful organizations try to provide a combination of intrensic as well as extrinsic rewards to their employees. For instance, ITCs human resources philosophy enables them to deliver high quality performance and reward talent with competitively superior compensation. Similarly, BSES Ltd. confers, "Meritorious Performance Award" to encourage employees to contribute to progress, prosperity and growth of organization. So, it motivate the

employees to improve their capabilities to become eligible for such intrinsic rewards.

(i) Job Rotation: Job Rotation is another human resource development mechanism or sub-system. This instrument is the least practiced instrument in the industry. This instrument is used to develop managers and supervisors in an organization. It is a systemic and planned programme of interchanging employees from one job to another for a definite period of time. It enables to develop empathy and understanding of functioning of other departments.

(j) Job Enrichment: Job enrichment refers to widening the contents of a job. It is a deliberate upgrading of responsibility, scope and challenging in work. It is a process which helps the individual to grow slow and steady . It is based on the belief that employees / workers want more responsibility. The success of job enrichment depends on how effectively it is being implemented by the work groups.

HRD PROCESS AND HRD CLIMATE VARIABLES Human resource development mechanism or sub-system or instrument leads to development of desired human resources development climate or process. Human resource development culture is an essential part of the organization climate. HRD (Human Resource Development) culture in the organization. In the words of T.V., Rao, "Human resource development climate is the perception of the employees about the human resources development culture in the organization, "Human resource development experts use the term 'OCTAPACE" to express the important features of human resource, development climate. The salient features of human resource development culture are at presented in the following figure. OCTAPACE Openness Confrontation Trust AutoProAuthenticity Collaboration Experimentation

nomy action

Human resource development climate in an organization is reflected by its role, clarity, openness, trust, team work, proactive orientation, planning of development of every employee etc. HRD departments are a sub system in instrument to initiate HRD culture and achieve objectives of HRD.

Human resource development climate and processes are dependent on personnel policies, top management styles, investments on HRD, top management, commitment , line manager's, interest, previous culture etc. To sum up the relationship between human resource development mechanism and human resource development processes and climate can be explained as under:-

a) HRD mechanism are most useful instruments / interventions to develop a healthy HRD climate. b) HRD instruments are used to develop desired human resource development processes. For instance, performance and potential appraisal help to arsey and determine the competence required for job performance. Review, discussion feedack, counselling session help in building trust and better senior subordinate relations. Role analysis exercises result in role clarity in the organization. Training and potential development exercise have proactive orientation. Job enrichment is a deliberals exercise of upgrading of risk and responsibility in work-group. OD exercises help to manage change and problems in the organizations. It promotes openness, effective, communication, inter departmental collaboration in the organization. It aims at providing a climate for growth and development.

c) HRD climate is dependent on human resource development mechanism as well as personnel policies, top management styles etc. d) HRD mechanism and personnel policies should be periodically reviewed to create / develop desired human resources development climate.

HUMAN OUTCOMES VARIABLES: Human resource development mechanism generates human resources development climate and processes human resource development climate and processes human resource development climate and processes generate human resource development outcomes. Thus, human resource development outcome is the result of human resource development mechanism and human resource development processes. Better human resources development climate results in better human resource development outcomes e.g. more competent, satisfied and committed employees. Besides these outcomes, it results in better utilization of internal resources, team work and better organizational health. An

organization with competent and satisfied people is likely to be more effective in comparison to an organization, which is low on the these outcome variables. To sum up, the situation of human resource development outcomes in the matrix is explained as under:-

a) HRD outcomes are the result of HRD climate and processes. b) Better HRD climate and processes result in more competent, satisfied and committed people. c ) HRD processes, are many where as HRD outcomes are limited. d) HRD outcomes generate and determine organizational effectiveness. e) An organization with competent and committed workers is likely to be more effective. f) An organization with poor HRD outcomes is the result of its poor HRD climate poor policies and commitment of its top management. It shows that here is need of improvement in organizational climate and processes.

HRD outcomes include: 1. Training makes people more competent. They develop new skills, knowledge and attitudes. 2. There is greater clarity of norms and standards . People become better aware of the skills required for job performance and the expectations which other members of their role set have from them. 3. People become more committed to their jobs because now there is greater objectivity in the administration of rewards. The data based

appraisal system reduces subjectively to minimum. They become more proactive in their orientation. 4. People develop great trust and respect for each other. They become more open in their behaviour. Thus, new values come to be generated. 5. There is great collaboration and team work which produces synergy effect. 6. There is greater readiness on the part of employees to accept change. They find themselves better equipped with problem solving capabilities. 7. Lot of useful and objective data on employees are generated which fulfill human resource planning. 8. Participation develops in workers a sense of achievement and pride in work.

HRD at macro and micro level: People are the most important assets of the organization. It is not merely a decorative piece in the hardware of an organization. They must be treated as human. The great or big organizations have always had good faith in their man power and their capabilities. So it is very important to get the people who are winner but is even more important to retain those winners due to acceptance of this concept human resource development is

in the limelight these days. But the question, is what does the HRD means at macro and micro level? The answer to it is not as easy as it seems to be . HRD is essentially treated as a collective human and team efforts directions towards improving of human abilities available in a given environment. It is mainly related with the development of inner potentials of people working with the organization . One more objective of HRD is to develop the innovative or newer capabilities in the people so as to make them competent to face the present as well as further challenges. HRD concept applies to both macro as well as micro level.

MICRO LEVEL: For any dynamic and growth oriented unit, HRD activities play a very crucial role. In the present fast changing environment, it is like a small wonder for the organization with the help of which a unit can achieve its objective in an effective way. Normally, HRD at micro level performs the task of organization's man power planning, selecting training, performance appraisal, development potential appraisal, compensation, organizational development etc. All these activities collectively provide answer science in the organization. Human resources development's involvement in the all the above stated areas provide advantage to the concern in the form of development man power. Development have is related with the development of new capabilities among the employees of

the concern with this they can achieve and face and present sub and challenges of the future.

Macro Level: At the macro level, HRD is related with the development of people and nation as a whole. This takes wealth, capabilities, skill, activities of people which are more useful to the development among them and nations for overall development as well as while calculating the national income indicators like national income, economic planning. In spite of importance of HRD at mass level, it has not achieved more popularity at the national or macro level.

One thing, however, is certain that human resource development is a collective human effort directed towards recognizing and improvising the human abilities available in a given environment. So to achieve the benefit of human resource development it is essential to understand the micro and macro concepts of the human resources development.

THE FUNCTIONS OF HRD MANAGERS HRD managers or departments play a crucial role in the organization. They perform a variety of functions. These functions include: i) Role Analysis: The HRD manager should design the wider roles rather than mere jobs based on the organization's present and future needs. The HRD manager should also take into consideration the internal and external environmental factors.

ii) Human Resource Planning: The HRD manager, role analysis should plan for the human resource which would meet not only the future organizational requirements but also capable of being developed. The steps in human resource planning include: a) Estimation of present and future requirements and supply of human resources based on objectives and long range plans of the organization. b) Calculation of net human resource requirements based on present inventory of human resources. c) Taking steps to mould, change and develop the strength of existing employees in the organization so as to meet the future human resources requirements.

d) Preparation of action programmes to get the rest of human resources from outside the organization and to develop the human resources of existing employees.

iii) Recruitment: It is the process of searching for prospective employees and simulating them to apply for jobs in an organization. It deals with : a) Identification of existing sources of applicants and developing them. b) Creation / identification of new sources of applicants. c) Stimulating the candidates to apply for jobs in the organization. d) Striking a balance between internal and external sources.

iv) Selection: It is the process of ascertaining the qualifications , experiences, skills, knowledge etc. of an applicant with a view to appraising his/her suitability to a job. This function includes: a) Framing and developing of application banks. b) Creating and developing valid and reliable testing techniques. c) Formulating interviewing techniques. d) Checking of references e) Setting up of medical examination policy and procedures.

f) Line managers decision g) Sending of letters of appointment and rejection. h) Employing the selected candidates who report for duty.

v) Placement: It is the process of assigning the selected candidate with the most suitable job. It is matching of employee specifications with job requirements. This function includes: a) Counselling of the functional managers regarding placement. b) Correcting misplacements, if any.

vi) Induction and orientation: Induction and orientation are the techniques by which a new employee is rehabilitated in the charged surroundingly and introduced to the practices policies, purposes and people etc. of the organization. They include:a) Acquaint the employee with the company philosophy , objectives, policies, market share, social and community standing, company history, culture etc. b) Introduce the employee to the people with whom he has to work such as peer, superiors and subordinates.

c) Mould the employees attitude by orienting him to the new working and social environment.

vii) Performance appraisal: It is the systematic evaluation of individuals with respect to their performance on the job and their potential for development , it includes:a) Developing of policies, procedures and techniques. b) Helping the functional managers. c) Reviewing and consolidation of reports. d) Evaluating the effectiveness of various programmes.

viii) Training: Training is a systemic process by which employees learn skills, knowledge, abilities or attitudes to further organizational and personal goals. It includes : a) Identification of training needs of the individuals and the company. b) Developing suitable training programmes. c) Helping and advising line management in the conduct of training programmes. d) Imparting requisite job skills and knowledge to employees. (e) Evaluating the effectiveness of training programes.

ix) Management Development: It is the process of elesigning and conduching suitable executive dvelopment the managerial and human relations skills of employees. It includes: (a) Identification of the areas in which management development is needed. (b) Conducting development programmes. (c) Motivating the executives. (d) Designing special de3velopment programmes for promotions. (e) Using the services of specialists, and or utilising the institutional executive development programmes.

x) Career Planning and Development: It is the planning of one's career and implementation of career plans by means of education training, job search and acquisition of work experiences. It includes internal and external mobility. Internal Mobility: It includes vertical and horizontal movement of an employee within and orgnaisation. It consists of transfer, promotion and demotion.

Transfer: Transfers and promotions are the two important ways of personnel adjustments. When employees or demotion, it is simply a transfer. This activity deals with. (a) Development employees and the management on transfers. (b) Guiding employees and the management on transfers. (c) Evaluating the execution of transfer policies and procedures.

Promotion: It deals with upward reassignment given to an employees in the organisation to occupy higher position which commands better status and/or pay keeping in view the human resources of the employees and the job requirements. This function covers: (a) Formentating of equitable, fair and consistent promotion policies and procedures. (b) Advising line management and employees on matters relating to promotions. (c) Evaluating the executing of promoti9on polities and procedures.

Organizational Climate & HRD Climate Techniques - Performance appraisal - Training - Management development - Career development - Workers participation - Organization Development - Quality Circles - Social and Spiritual Development

Human Resources

Development of human resources output: - Skill - Knowledge - Behaviour - Values

Outcomes - Individual goals - Team goals - Organization goals - Social Goals

Means - Individual - Team - Family & Friends - Society PROCESS OF HRD: Techniques and Output