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  • 1.Termen:CICLOTIMIE
  • 2. Termen:PSIHOPATIE
  • 3. Termen:PSHIASTENIE
  • 4. Termen:PSIHOZA
  • 5. Termen:OLIGOFRENIE
  • 6. Termen:CLAUSTROFOBIE
  • 7. Termen:AGORAFOBIE
  • 8. Termen:ABULIE
  • 9. Termen:CATALEPSIE
  • 10. Termen:SEVRAJ
  • 11. Termen:CLEPTOMANIE
  • 12. Termen:ANOREXIE NERVOASA
  • 13. Termen:XENOFOBIE
  • 14. Termen:AMNEZIE
  • 15. Termen:HALUCINATIE
  • 16. Termen:NEVROZA
  • 17. Termen:DEPRESIA
  • 18. Termen:CATATONIE
  • 19. Termen:EPILEPSIE
  • 20. Termen:PARANOIA
  • 21. Termen:DELIR
  • 22. Termen: FOBIE
  • 23. Termen:AGNOZIE
  • 24. Termen:DEMENTA
  • 25. Termen:NEVROZA EXPERIMENTALA
  • 26. Termen:NEVROZA OBSESIVA
  • 28. Termen:SCHIZOFRENIE
  • 29. Termen:AUTISM
  • 30. Termen:ISTERIE
  • 31. Termen:APATIE
  • 32. Termen:MANIE
  • 33. Termen:MELANCOLIA
  • 34. Termen:ALIENARE MINTALA
  • 35. Termen:PANICA
  • 36. Termen:AMBIVALENTA
  • 37. Termen:SINDROM AMOTIVATIONAL
  • 38. Termen:PERSONALITATE MULTIPLA
  • 39. Termen:TULBURARE DE PERSONALITATE NARCISISTA
  • 40. Termen:COMPLEXUL LUI OEDIP
  • 41. Termen:BOALA PICK
  • 42. Termen:NEVROZA TRAUMATICA
  • 43. Termen:PERSONALITATE PASIV-AGRESIVA
  • 44. Termen:NEVROZA ASTENICA
  • 45. Termen:DEPRESIE MAJORA UNIPOLARA
  • 46. Termen:HIPOCONDRIE
  • 47. Termen:ARAHNOFOBIA
  • 48. Termen:DEFICIENT DE ATENTIE
  • 50. Termen:BULIMIA NERVOASA
  • 51. Termen:TULBURARE DE SOMATIZARE
  • 52. Termen:DEPRESIE EXOGENA
  • 53. Termen:DEPRESIE ENDOGENA
  • 54. Termen:TULBURARE DE PERSONALITATE BORDELINE
  • 55. Termen:PSIHOZA REACTIVA SCURTA
  • 56. Termen:TULBURARE BIPOLARA
  • 57. Termen:TULBURARI DISOCIATIVE
  • 58. Termen:CONFABULATIE
  • 59. Termen:TULBURARE DE PESONALITATE DE TIP DEPENDENT
  • 60. Termen:TULBURARE DE PERSONALTATE HISTRONICA
  • 61. Termen:TULBURARE DE DEPERSONALIZARE
  • 62. Termen:TULBURARE DE COMPORTAMENT
  • 63. Termen:TULBURARE EXPLOZIVA INTERMITENTA
  • 64. Termen:ABREACTIE
  • 65. Termen:DEPRESIE ANACLITICA
  • 66. Termen:TULBURARE DE PERSONALITATE DE TIP ANTISOCIAL
  • 67. Termen:ANHEDONIE
  • 68. Termen:TULBURARE POST-TRAUMATICA DE STRES
  • 69. Termen:TULBURARE EMOTIONALA
  • 70. Termen:TULBURARE DE INVATARE
  • 71. Termen:TULBURARE SCHIZOAFECTIVA
  • 72. Termen:DISTIMIE
  • 73. Termen:TULBURARE DE OPOZITIE
  • 74. Termen:SOMNAMBULISM
  • 75. Termen:TULBURARE DE PERSONALITATE DE TIP SCHIZOTIPAL

1.

Termen:CICLOTIMIE Limba termenului: Romnă Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : DEX, DICTIONARUL EXPLICATIV AL LIMBII ROMANE, univers enciclopedic, Bucuresti,1998,ACADEMIA ROMANA,INSTITUTUL DE LINGVISTICA,,IORGU IORDAN’’,Editia a 2-a Definiţie : Stare pshica morbida in care depresia alterneaza cu buna dispozitie. Sursa definiţiei: DEX,DICTIONARUL EXPLICATIV AL LIMBII ROMANE, univers enciclopedic,Bucuresti,1998,ACADEMIA ROMANA, INSTITUTUL DE LINGVISTICA ,,IORGU IORDAN’’, Editia a 2-a Nota bene : Din franceza cyclothymie Corespondent engleză: cyclothymy Concept generic: boala psihica Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim:stare depresiva Hiponim: Sinonim: hipomanie Context : „Ciclotimia reprezinta un sentiment de inadecvare,de izolare,o cadere a performantelor intelectuale si o crestere a timpului de somn marcheaza fazele de tip depresiv:o supraestimare a sinelui,o cautare excesiva de contacte sociale,un sentiment de sporire a facultatilor intelectuale si o diminuare a timpului de somn marcheaza perioadele de tip maniacal. ”

Sursa contextului: DICTIONAR DE PSHIOLOGIE.ROLAND DORON, FRANCOISE PAROT.EDITURA HUMANITAS,BUCURESTI,1999 Context : „Nu se stie exact ce determina ciclotimia, ca si in cazul altor afectiuni mentale, cercetatorii arata ca poate rezulta dintr-o combinatie a mai multor factori: - genetici; - procese biochimice ale corpului, cum ar fi modificari in neurotransmitatorii creierului - factori de mediu’’ Sursa contextului: http://www.sfatulmedicului.ro/Schizofrenia-si-alte-tulburaripsihice/ciclotimia_101 Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Se recomanda ca pacientii care prezinta simptome de ciclotimie sa solicite ajutor medical cat mai precoce. De obicei, tulburarea ciclotima nu se amelioreaza de la sine. Desi pacientul se poate bucura de momentele de euforie si de perioadele in care este mai productiv, acestea pot duce la comportamente impulsive, riscante, cu consecinte serioase. Aceste cresteri emotionale vor fi sigur urmate de caderi care il pot lasa pe pacient deprimat, epuizat, sau chiar cu probleme financiare sau legale. Daca este solicitat consultul medicului de familie acesta va indruma pacientul la un psihiatru cu experienta in ciclotimie si tulburare bipolara. In cazul in care membrii familiei sau prietenii observa simptomele pacientului, e bine ca acestia sa aiba o discutie cu pacientul. Nimeni nu poate fi fortat sa solicite ajutor medical, dar i se poate oferi incurajare si suport si poate fi ajutat pacientul sa gaseasca un profesionist in sanatae mintala. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial

Term : CYCLOTHYMIC DISORDER ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : THE FAMILY MENTAL HEALTH,ENCYCLOPEDIA,FRANK J.BRUNO,PH.D. Definition : Is a mood disorder characterized by alternating periods of elation and depression. Definition source: THE FAMILY MENTAL HEALTH, ENCYCLOPEDIA, FRANK J.BRUNO,PH.D. Nota bene: Generic concept : DISEASE Grammatical category: NOUN phrase Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: Context: „Causes Biological Family: One is 2-3 times more likely to have the disorder if someone in the immediate family has it or if an identical twin has it. In a study by Bertelsen, Harvard, and Huage (1977), if an identical twin had depression, 59% of the identical twins had it also. Gender: Heritability for women ranges from 36-44%; for men, 18-24%. Genes: The same genes may contribute to depression and anxiety. Serotonin: Serotonin regulates other hormones like norepinephrine and dopamine, so when serotonin is low, the other chemicals may fluctuate, causing

irritability, impulsivity and mood irregularities such as Depressed individuals can have high dysthymia and depression. dysthymia Cortisol: Cortisol levels. Cortisol is a stress hormone, and mood disorders often occur during stressful points in one’s life. Elevated stress hormones can affect functioning of the hippocampus, an important centre for memory and cognitive processes. Overproducing cortisol can also impair the brain’s ability to regenerate neurons in the hippocampus. Psychological: Stressful events, as perceived by the individual hopelessness, extreme feelings, negative thinking patterns. Social: Environment Influences the disorder 60-80% of the time. Parenting styles Context source : http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/cyclic+disorder Context : „Ciclothymic disorder bears a great resemblance to bipolar disorder.The elevated phase of cyclthymic is distinguishedby symptoms such as little need for sleep,an inflated self-concept,excessive talk.The depressive phase of the disorder is distinguishedby such symptoms as a poor selfconcept,withdrawal from people,a negative attitude toward goals.In neither case are there delusions or hallucinations.” Context source: THE FAMILY MENTAL HEALTH,ENCYCLOPEDIA,FRANK J.BRUNO,PH.D. Area of use : MEDICINE 2. Termen:PSIHOPATIE Limba termenului: Romnă Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : DEX,DICTIONARUL EXPLICATIV AL LIMBII ROMANE,univers Job loss,

relationship failure, identity change, natural disaster, learned helplessness and

enciclopedic, Bucuresti,1998,ACADEMIA ROMANA, INSTITUTUL DE LINGVISTICA ,,IORGU IORDAN’’,Editia a 2-a Definiţie : Boala pshica ,specific stare morbida caracterizata prin tulburari de afectivitate,de comportament sau de caracter. Sursa definiţiei: DEX,DICTIONARUL EXPLICATIV AL LIMBII ROMANE, univers enciclopedic, Bucuresti,1998,ACADEMIA ROMANA, INSTITUTUL DE LINGVISTICA,,IORGU IORDAN’’, Editia a 2-a Nota bene : Din franceza psychopathie Corespondent engleză: pshopathy Concept generic: boala pshica Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv feminin Hiperonim: afectiune psihopatologica Hiponim: Sinonim: Context : „1891-1 893 J.Koch foloseste pentru prima data termenul izoland inferioritatile pshiopatice care vor deveni tratatul lui E.Kraepelin din 1904 personalitatile pshiopatice. C.Pichard este cel care din 1835 facuse din deficienta,,sensulmoral’’trasatura centrala a Moral Insanity,al carei aspect antisocial se afla in centrul tuturor descrierilor de personalitati pshiopatice” Sursa contextului: DICTIONAR DE PSHIOLOGIE. ROLAND DORON, FRANCOISE PAROT. EDITURA HUMANITAS, BUCURESTI, 1999 Context : „Haloperidsol este folosit in tulburari insotite de agitatie pshiomotorie, dementa, manie, oligofrenie, pshiopatie, schizofrenie acuta si cronica, alcoolism.” Sursa contextului: http://ro.wikipedia.org Arie de utilizare : medicina

Comentariu:,,Formularea care a prevalat timp indelungat este cea a lui K. Schneider,care a impus o tipologie caracteriala in care pshiopatia corespunde unor personalitati al caror caracter anormal sau anormal le face sa sufere sau sa sufere societatea.” Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Termen : PSYCHOPATHIA ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/psychopathy Definition : any disease of the mind, congenital or acquired, not necessarily associated with subnormal intelligence Definition source: http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/psychopathy Nota bene: Greek psyche(mind)and pathos(suffering) Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: abberation Context: „A mental aberration is a significant deviation from a normal mental activity.In this sense,aberration is synonymous with mental derangement,mental illness,psychopathy.” Context source: http://search.medicinenet.com

IORGU IORDAN’’.prin stari de . univers enciclopedic. 1998.org/ Area of use: Medicine Commentary : Designation status : Official 3. ACADEMIA ROMANA.Daniel Kosson and Yana Suchy asked psychopathic inmates to name the emotion expressed on each of 30 faces.. INSTITUTUL DE LINGVISTICA.condition designed to minimze the involvement of lefthemispheric mechanism’’ were used. Bucuresti. Additionally..wikipedia. Termen:PSHIASTENIE Limba termenului: Romnă Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : DEX.psychopaths had a significantly lower rate of accuracy in recognizing disgusted facial affect but a higher rate of accuracy in recognizing anger.Editia a 2-a Definiţie : Forma de nevroza caracterizata prin obsesii si fobii.DICTIONARUL EXPLICATIV AL LIMBII ROMANE.psychopaths had more difficulty in accurately indentifying emotions..” Context source: http://en.Context : „In a 2002 study.when.Compared to the control group .

Editia a 2-a Nota bene : Din franceza psychasthenie Corespondent engleză: neurasthenia Concept generic: boala pshica Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: Hiponim: Sinonim: Context : „Muzicoterapia este terapia prin muzica si sunete armonioase.wikipedia.dupa el.care regrupeaza trasaturi care asociaza in grade diferite tendinta spre scrupule.Muzica poate amelira ai uneori poate vindeca anumite afectiuni cum ar fi:starile provocate de stresul cotidian.meticulozitatea.anxietate. 1999 Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu:.astenia fizica si pshica.1998.ROLAND DORON.Bucuresti.ingloba angoasa.ACADEMIA ROMANA.In prezent acest termen este aplicat personalitatilor patologice de tip compulsiv.fobia.org Context : .. INSTITUTUL DE LINGVISTICA.ca si semne accesorii specific subiective ce asociaza sentimente morbide de tipul impresiei de stranietate a lumii exterioare si chiar a persoanei proprii.” .” Sursa contextului: http://ro. DICTIONARUL EXPLICATIV AL LIMBII ROMANE.durerile de cap. EDITURA HUMANITAS. DEX.inhibitia intelectuala si afectiva. BUCURESTI.nervozitate.indecizia.Termenul a fost propus de P..pshiastenia.. Sursa definiţiei:. Sursa contextului: DICTIONAR DE PSHIOLOGIE.nehotarare si nesiguranta. FRANCOISE PAROT.absenta spontaneitatii cu moralismul rigid si abstractionismul.Janet pentru a desemna o entitate clinica pe care a opus-o isterie si care.obsesia. univers enciclopedic.IORGU IORDAN’’.

" Nevertheless.weakness’’ Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: Context: „Neurasthenia is a psycho-pathological term first used by George Beard in 1869 to denote a condition with symptoms of fatigue.anxiety... He emphasized the example of Elizabeth von R's note that "the stronger these were the more they seemed to push her own pains into the background.com/ Context : „In 1895.Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : NEURASTHENIA ID Language : English ID Country : UK .righthealth.org/ Area of use: Medicine Commentary : Neurasthenia .astheneia. neurasthenia was a common diagnosis during World War I. USA Source : ILLUSTRATED OXFORD DICTIONARY Definition : A general term for fatigue.listlessness Definition source: ILLUSTRATED OXFORD DICTIONARY Nota bene: from Greek neuron. but its use declined a decade later. Context source: http://en.nerve’’.” Context source: http://www.wikipedia.headache. Sigmund Freud reviewed electrotherapy and declared it a "pretense treatment".anxiety.neuralgia and depressed mood.

Hyperesthenic neurasthenia is treated by establishing a suitable routine for work and rest and by alleviating the causes . The increased irritability often expresses itself in tearful outbursts not previously typical for the patient or in impatience and agitation. Neurasthenia was first described by the American physician G. Appetite decreases or disappears entirely. increased sleepiness. The disease usually arises when psychic trauma occurs in conjunction with extremely tense work and such physiological deprivations as chronic lack of sleep. heartburn. and indifferent. all of which weaken the body. sleepiness during the day. tachycardia. constipation. and a sensation of numbness in the heart. infections. and a sensation of heaviness in the stomach occur. stage is characterized by irritable asthenia. and sharp odors are not tolerated. or intermediate. Disturbances in sexual functioning can also arise. and complains of absentmindedness and poor memory. Neurasthenia is accompanied by sleep disturbances. apathy. A typical condition in neurasthenia is irritable asthenia. and insomnia at night.A neurotic disease that is characterized by increased irritability. a state in which increased excitability and irritability are combined with fatigability and rapid exhaustion. bright lights. a picture of depressive exhaustion can develop in which patients are gloomy. Such stimuli as loud noises. foster the development of neurasthenia. Three stages of neurasthenia are distinguished. and depression. The patient is easily distracted. Beard in 1869. Patients frequently complain of headaches. and loss of the ability to endure prolonged mental and physical strain. and intoxications (from alcohol or cigarettes). In the third stage—hypoesthenic neurasthenia—weakness and exhaustion predominate. The second. disturbing dreams. The principal symptoms are sluggishness. shows an inability to control emotions. sluggish. The moods are unstable. with a tendency toward depression. eructation and regurgitation. a poor diet. In severe forms of neurasthenia. Endocrine disturbances. including difficulty in falling asleep. The initial stage—hyperesthenic neurasthenia—is the most common form and is manifested predominantly by irritability and excitability. On slight provocation the patient manifests turbulent irritable reactions or excitable outbursts that are usually brief but frequent. fatigability. superficial or unrefreshing sleep.

The patient’s general physical condition should be improved by a regular diet. and the use of antidepressants and tranquilizers is indicated. the patient is hospitalized. In cases of hypoesthenic neurasthenia. vitamin therapy. The prognosis is usually favorable.of the emotional stress. When necessary. general restorative treatment.DICTIONARUL EXPLICATIV AL LIMBII ROMANE. a change of job is recommended. and psychotherapy. Termen:PSIHOZA Limba termenului: Romnă Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : DEX. Designation status : Official 4.univers .

ROLAND DORON.Sau inca mai ramane un coltisor din creierul nostru care .obsesie.gandirii sau afectivitatii bolnavului si de care acesta este constient. INSTITUTUL DE LINGVISTICA.enciclopedic.cunoastem de mult bazele moleculare care se ascund in spatele unor tulburari precum depresiile.. univers enciclopedic. BUCURESTI. Bucuresti. 1998. Editia a 2-a Nota bene : Din franceza psychose Corespondent engleză: psychosis Concept generic: boala pshica Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: tulburare mentala grava Hiponim: psihoza carcerala Sinonim: Context : „Termenul a fost introdus la mijlocul secolului XIX –lea de pshiatrul german E.pot influenta in mod decisiv comportamentul nostru ar trebui oare redefinite limitele liberului arbitru?La urma urmei.IORGU IORDAN’’.INSTITUTUL DE LINGVISTICA.” Sursa contextului: DICTIONAR DE PSHIOLOGIE.idee fixa. 1999 Context : „Daca elementele externe...EDITURA HUMANITAS.1998.. Bucuresti.precum alimentele. FRANCOISE PAROT. Sursa definiţiei: DEX. ACADEMIA ROMANA. DICTIONARUL EXPLICATIV AL LIMBII ROMANE.sau unele pshioze si dispunem de tratamente destul de eficiente pentru a rezolva unele dintre ele.Feuchterleben pentru a definini ansamblul tulburarilor mentale grave care afecteaza simtul realitatii si al caracter morbid nu este recunoscut de bolnav.IORGU IORDAN’’.creata de cauze exterioare.Editia a 2-a Definiţie : Boala caracterizata prin sau tulburari ale comportamentului. ACADEMIA ROMANA.Stare de spirit bolnavicioasa caracterizata prin surescitare obsedanta si contagioasa.

. Psihoza rezultată din condiţii non-psihiatrice este uneori cunoscută drept „psihoză secundară”. adesea atunci cnd creierul sau sistemul nervos este afectat direct. demenţa “Lewy bodies”. oreionul. indivizii pot rămne într-o stare avansată de psihoză pentru mai mulţi ani.devine stapan al actiunilor noastre viitoare?Se poate poate deveni bolnav. Mecanismele prin care aceasta se întmplă nu sunt încă clare. scleroza multiplă.ro/ Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Psihoza poate fi o caracteristică a mai multor boli. faptul că psihoza poate apărea ocazional în paralel cu nişte maladii (incluznd boli cum ar fi gripa sau oreieonul. intoxicaţiile. dar non-specificitatea psihozei i-a făcut pe Tsuang şi pe colegii săi să argumenteze că „psihoza este 'febra' tulburării mentale — un indicator serios dar nonspecific.romedic. sarcoidoza. pot contribui la dezvoltarea unei psihoze. ct şi experienţa recentă a unui eveniment stresant. În unele cazuri rare.” Condiţiile non-psihiatrice care sunt în mod special legate de psihoză includ tumoarea cerebrală. SIDA.” Sursa contextului: http://www. hipoglicemia. Psihozele de scurtă durată declanşate de stres sunt cunoscute drept „psihoze reactive scurte”. malaria şi lepra.sau pshiopat prin alegere?In plin secol XXI functionarea creierului nostru ramane unul dintre domeniile cele mai obscure. Totuşi. sau poate să aibe simptome psihotice atenuate (cum ar fi halucinaţii de intensitate scăzută). Stresul psihologic este deasemenea cunoscut drept un declanşator al stărilor psihotice. Att amintirea unor incidente traumatice experimentate pe toată durata vieţii. de exemplu) sugerează că o varietate de stresori ai sistemului nervos pot duce la o reacţie psihotică. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. aşa că pacienţii îşi pot reveni în mod spontan la funcţionarea normală în mai puţin de două săptămni.

conducnd la psihoze sau delir şi la alte. Unii oameni trăiesc halucinaţii hipnagogice sau hipnopompice. Definition source: ILLUSTRATED OXFORD DICTIONARY Nota bene: based on Greek psukhein. acestea sunt fenomene normale ale somnului.especially when resulting in delusions and loss of contact with external reality. Totuşi. şi nu sunt considerate semne ale psihozelor.prezente tot timpul.any of a number of the more severe mental diseases that make you belive things which are not real. Statutul desemnarii : Official Term : PSYCHOSIS ID Language : English ID Country : UK . unde trăirile senzoriale neobişnuite sau gndurile apar în timpul trezirii sau în timpul adormirii. efecte ale stopării..to give life to’’ Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: Hyponim: . Deprivarea de somn poate fi legată de psihoză. deşi sunt puţine dovezi care sugerează că este un factor de risc major la majoritatea oamenilor. Totuşi. potenţial letale. USA Source : ILLUSTRATED OXFORD DICTIONARY Definition : A severe mental derangement . şi pot de fapt să micşoreze sau să scadă impactul simptomelor la unii oameni. care are efecte depresante generale asupra sistemului nervos central (în special alcool şi barbiturice) tinde să nu cauzeze psihoze în timpul folosirii. stoparea consumului de alcool şi barbiturice poate fi periculoasă. Intoxicaţia cu droguri.

especially unfounded fear or suspicion • Hearing. . Care in a hospital is often needed to ensure the patient's safety. or feeling things that are not there (hallucinations) • Thoughts that "jump" between unrelated topics (disordered thinking) Signs And Tests Psychiatric evaluation and testing are used to diagnose the cause of the psychosis. but sometimes can help pinpoint the diagnosis. Laboratory testing and brain scans may not be needed. Tests may include: • Blood tests for abnormal electrolyte and hormone levels • Blood tests for syphilis and other infections • Drug screens • MRI of the brain Treatment Treatment depends on the cause of the psychosis.Synonym: Context: „Psychotic symptoms may include: • Disorganized thought and speech • False beliefs that are not based in reality (delusions). seeing.

immediately take the person to the nearest emergency room to be seen by a doctor.Antipsychotic drugs. . Expectations (Prognosis) How well a person does depends on the cause of the psychosis. If the condition is left untreated. References Freudenreich O. See: Schizophrenia for more information about the treatment of psychosis. Philadelphia. may need life-long treatment with antipsychotic medications to control symptoms. Massachusetts General Hospital Comprehensive Clinical Psychiatry. people can sometimes harm themselves or others. Prevention Prevention depends on the cause. If there is any concern about safety. the outlook is often good. For example. Pa: Mosby Elsevier. which reduce hallucinations and delusions and improve thinking and behavior are helpful. Weiss AP. Calling Your Health Care Provider Call your health care provider or mental health professional if you or a member of your family is losing contact with reality. avoiding alcohol abuse prevents alcohol-induced psychosis. Rosenbaum JF. Goff DC. 2008:chap 28. Some chronic conditions. and treatment with antipsychotic medication may be brief. 1st ed. whether the cause is a medical or psychiatric disorder. In: Stern TA. If the cause can be corrected. Fava M. Biederman J. Psychosis and schizophrenia. eds. Rauch SL. Complications Psychosis can prevent people from functioning normally and caring for themselves. such as schizophrenia.

Incidence. Antipsychotic medication such as thioridazine (Mellaril). is a possible side effect of clozapine.righthealth. antipsychotic drug maintenance treatment is typically employed and psychosocial therapy and living and vocational skills training may be attempted. Possible side effects of antipsychotics include dry mouth. sertindole (Serlect). muscle stiffness.Context source: http://www. and tardive dyskinesia (involuntary movements of the body). And Risk Factors A number of substances and medical conditions can cause psychosis. or risperidone (Risperdal) is usually prescribed to bring psychotic symptoms under control and into remission. both during use and during withdrawal . clozapine (Clozaril). After an acute psychotic episode has subsided. If the patient is considered to be at risk for harming himself or others. olanzapine (Zyprexa). then every two weeks. haloperidol (Haldol).com/topic/psychosis#ixzz1DNGFQdAT Context : „Psychosis that is symptomatic of schizophrenia or another psychiatric disorder should be treated by a psychologist and/or psychiatrist. Agranulocytosis. Patients treated with this drug should undergo weekly blood tests to monitor white blood cell counts for the first six months.com/psychosis Area of use: Medicine Commentary : Causes. including: • Alcohol and certain illegal drugs. inpatient treatment is usually recommended. drowsiness. a potentially serious but reversible health condition in which the white blood cells that fight infection in the body are destroyed.thefreedictionary. An appropriate course of medication and/or psychosocial therapy is employed to treat the underlying primary disorder. Treatment of shared psychotic disorder involves separating the affected persons from one another as well as using antipsychotic medications and psychotherapy. ” Context source: http://medical-dictionary. chlorpromazine (Thorazine).

Huntington's disease. such as steroids and stimulants Designation status : Official 5. and certain chromosomal disorders • HIV and other infections that affect the brain • Some prescription drugs. such as Parkinson's disease. Termen:OLIGOFRENIE Limba termenului: Romnă Tara termenului: Romnia .• Brain tumors or cysts • • Dementia (including Alzheimer's disease) Degenerative brain diseases.

DICTIONARUL EXPLICATIV AL LIMBII ROMANE.insotita uneori de tulburari ale dezvoltari fizice si de leziunii ale sistemului nervos central. DICTIONARUL EXPLICATIV AL LIMBII ROMANE.Sursa : DEX. INSTITUTUL DE LINGVISTICA. Bucuresti.retardare mentala Context : eptice usoare„Generalitati” Prin oligofrenie se defineşte o scădere globală a funcţiilor psihice. Sursa definiţiei:.in cursul nasterii sau in perioada copilariei.. Judecata. De obicei este însotită de un anumit grad de distrugere sau de volumul mai mic al creierului.survenite in perioada intrauterina. memoria sunt . pot duce la oligofrenie. 1998.IORGU IORDAN’’.univers enciclopedic. calculul.frenos-suflet Corespondent engleză: oligophreny Concept generic: boala pshica Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: debilitate mentala Hiponim: oligofrenie fenil-piruvica Sinonim: deficienta mentala.IORGU IORDAN’’.din greaca oligos-putin. Bucuresti.INSTITUTUL DE LINGVISTICA .. ACADEMIA ROMANA.ACADEMIA ROMANA. Editia a 2-a Nota bene : Din franceza oligofrenie. DEX.ca urmare a unor suferinte cerebrale.1998. univers enciclopedic. ca alcoolismul. Bolile părinţilor. precum şi encefalitele sau alte boli cu răsunet cerebral ale copiilor.Editia a 2-a Definiţie : Stare patologica caracterizata prin ramanerea in urma a dezvoltarii facultatiilor pshice.

html Context : „Oligofrenia este o diminuare cronica accentuata a functiilor psihice de multe ori intovarasita si de o dezvoltare slaba a organismului. Aceasta deficienţă determină insă dificultaţi importante de adaptare si frecvente tulburari psihice afective si comportamentale.19 ) (5% cazuri). Simptome: Oligofrenia poarte diverse alte denumiri ca inapoierea mintala. întrziere mintală. Asociata cu o sustinere psihoterapeutica. stabilitatea comportamentului._tratament.49 (20% cazuri)._cauze. handicap mintal si se caracterizează prin scaderea funcţiei intelectuale. motorii si instrumentale. starea functiilor senzoriale. Oligofrenia nu corespunde în totalitate noţiunii de boala.69 (75% din cazuri).forma usoara (oligofrenia de gradul I) . toleranta mediului etc.ro/boli/Oligofrenie_simptome. se asociaza uneori neurol. Se pot deosebi: . Clasificare oligofrenie: . Insuficienta intelectuala insoteste persoana afectată de-a lungul intregii sale existenţe.coeficient inteligenta 20 . Tratament . Copilul are mai ales nevoie sa simta incredere in altii si in el insusi. vindecarea sau cronicizare.adnc tulburate. reeducarea permite adesea sa se obtina progrese apreciabile.forma grava (oligofrenia de gradul III) .forma medie (oligofrenia de gradul II) . . in caz de agitatie sau de agresivitate a copilului. armonia familiala. .coeficient inteligenta 0 . debilitate mintală. Bolnavii pot săvrşi fapte penale. Educarea acestor copii este dificilă. Psihicul bolnavilor prezinta alterari in raport cu gradul leziunilor cerebrale. Sursa contextului: http://art-zone.coeficient inteligenta 50 . in sensul clasic de proces dinamic in evolutie cu debut. manifestare acuta. uneori foarte puţin eficace.Orientarea si tratamentul copilului depind de mai multi factori: structura afectiva (uneori foarte bogata). ca furturi şi atentate la bunele moravuri.

com/Oligophrenia Definition : group of diseases that is characterized by defective mental development. vitamin deficiencies. and diabetes mellitus.a) debilitatea mintala. and encephalitis. Oligophrenic diseases can be congenital or acquired in early childhood. including syphilis. Other causes of oligophrenia include Rh-incompatibility of maternal and fetal blood. care constituie un grad mai avansat de oligofrenie. pot citi). Oligophrenia can result from diseases in the mother during pregnancy. Abnormalities in physical development are also common Definition source: http://encyclopedia2. Ei sunt oameni care pot avea un comportament satisfacator in societate. asphyxia of the fetus during childbirth. in care tulburarile psihice sunt mai mici. including seizures. atentia si judecata le sunt destul de greoaie si deficitare. Educatia si instructia lor in scoli reuseste sa-i faca sa progreseze pana la un anumit nivel.thefreedictionary. Oligophrenia can also be inherited. Imbecilii pot fi si ei educati intr-o oarecare masura (invata cu foarte mare greutate notiuni simple de aritmetica. motor disturbances. Feeblemindedness is often accompanied by sequelae of focal lesions in the brain.’’ Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : OLIGOPHRENIA ID Language : English ID Country : UK . and sensitivity.thefreedictionary. Deoarece memoria. thyroid diseases. residual effects of meningitis. trauma. USA Source : http://encyclopedia2. Sursa contextului: http://articole. rubella. toxoplasmosis. b) imbecilitatea.famouswhy.. au nevoie de sprijinul colectivitatii.in deficientele genetice ale inteligentei sau in tulburarile metabolice.com/Oligophrenia Nota bene: .Debilitatea mentala profuna reperabila in dementa. as with Down’s syndrome (seeDOWN’S SYNDROME).ro/despre_oligofrenie/ Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu:.

These degrees of mental inadequacy apply regardless of the etiology of the condition. this is a genetic (inherited) disease characterized by a triad of clinical findings consisting of ichthyosis (thickened fish-like skin). poor vocabulary. imbecility by moderate feeblemindedness. and educating oligophrenics: idiocy is characterized by severe feeblemindedness. treating.Generic concept :disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: Context: „Three degrees of oligophrenia are distinguished for purposes of raising. Context source: http://encyclopedia2. Morons are able to acquire some knowledge and to master some occupational skills despite their poor judgment. Imbeciles can learn how to tend to some of their own needs. spastic paraplegia (spasticity of the legs) and mental retardation (oligophrenia is an old word for mental retardation). The mental functioning of idiots is essentially limited to reflex acts.thefreedictionary. narrow perspective. and moronity by mild feeblemindedness (seeIDIOCY).com/Oligophrenia Context : „Syndrome of ichthyosis. & oligophrenia: Also known as the Sjogren-Larsson syndrome. and the slowness and concreteness of their thought processes. . spasticity. weak memory.

1992. (Joynt.Context source http://www. This has multiple potential etiologies. Clinical Neurology. Scores below 67 are in the retarded range. including genetic defects and perinatal insults.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=8025 Area of use: Medicine Commentary : Oligophrenia: Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual is mentally retarded. Termen:CLAUSTROFOBIE Limba termenului: Romnă Tara termenului: Romnia . IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline mentally retarded range. p28 Designation status : Official 6. Ch55.medterms.

claustrophobie Corespondent engleză: Claustrophobia Concept generic: boala pshica Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: fobie Hiponim: Sinonim: nevroza fobica Context : „Claustrofobia poate aparea ca urmare a unui eveniment trumatic care s-a petrecut la un moment dat in viata unui individ. Poate fi astfel vorba de: • • Transpiratie Intensificarea batailor inimi • Greata • Lesin • Tremurat In plus..IORGU IORDAN.Sursa : DEX. Sursa definiţiei: http://dexonline. cand a ramas blocat in liftul de la serviciu. INSTITUTUL DE LINGVISTICA.Editia a 2-a Definiţie : Teama patologica de spatii inchise. pentru ca. viata unui claustrofob mai poate fi afectata si sub anumite unghiuri.1998. de regula acesta va evita sa faca anumite lucruri pe care o persoana care nu se confrunta cu asmenea probleme nu intampina nicio dificultate in a le duce la bun sfarsit. Bucuresti.ro/definitie/claustrofobie.DICTIONARUL EXPLICATIV AL LIMBII ROMANE. . Poate fi vorba de acel episod din copilarie cand s-a ascuns intr-un loc ingust de unde nu a mai putut iesi sau de la maturitate. univers enciclopedic. Indiferent insa de momentul care a intiparit in creierul claustrofobului reactia fata de locuri inguste. simptomele pe care le (re)simte sunt aceleasi de fiecare data.ACADEMIA ROMANA. Nota bene : Din fr.

com/claustrophobia . Sursa contextului: http://www. multe persoane nu stiu ca sufera de aceasta fobie. Din pacate.ro/articole/585/claustrofobia-sub-lupa.thefreedictionary.thefreedictionary. De aceea este important sa recunosti simptomele pentru a stii cu ce anume te confrunti. va urca scarile si nu va lua liftul.Totusi . Specialistii sunt de parere ca aceasta fobie este de fapt cauzata de o trauma din copilarie.Astfel.Dictionar de medicina’’ Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Claustrofobia este denumirea pentru teama de spatiile inchise. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : CLAUSTROPHOBIOA ID Language : English ID Country : UK .html Context : „Claustrofobia este adesea rezultatul unei experiente traumatizante asociata de un loc inchis. sa calatoreasca cu avionul sau cu masina atunci cand se circula bara la bara.com/claustrophobia Definition : An abnormal fear of being in narrow or enclosed spaces Definition source: http://www.claustrofobia necesita o psihoterapie de fond sau o terapie comporamentala. USA Source : http://www.afla.Poate fi vorba de un fenomen trecator care dispare de la sine. la petrecerile aglomerate va sta mereu langa usa etc.” Sursa contextului: Larousse. el va evita de pilda..

Nota bene: from Latin claustrum "a shut in place" and Greek φόβος. cellars. airplanes and crowded areas. "fear" Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: Context: „Claustrophobia is typically thought to have two key symptoms: fear of restriction and fear of suffocation. if not several. phóbos. but. claustrophobics begin to fear suffocation. believing it will relieve the symptoms. of the following areas: small rooms. However. the fear of restriction can cause some claustrophobics to fear trivial matters such as sitting I a barber’s chair or waiting in line at a grocery store simply out of a fear of confinement to a single space. Often. subway trains. Any combination of the above symptoms can lead to severe panic attacks. rather. caves. most claustrophobics do everything in their power to avoid these situations . elevators. tunnels. locked rooms. Additionally. cars. Many claustrophobics remove clothing during attacks. However. they fear what could happen to them should they become confined to an area. when confined to an area. A typical claustrophobic will fear restriction in at least one. claustrophobics are not necessarily afraid of these areas themselves. believing that there may be a lack of air in the area to which they are confined.

exposure therapy. The patient is taught to see the event with ‘adult' eyes. Counter-conditioning includes behavior therapy. Behavior therapy includes identifying trigger points and recognizing that one's reactions to these triggers are learned instead of natural. Alternative claustrophobia treatments include regression hypnotherapy. through visualization and positive thinking. a less extreme form of exposure treatment is counter-conditioning.Context source: http://www. there are several forms of treatment that can help an individual control her condition.com/claustrophobia Context : „Claustrophobia Treatment There is no cure for claustrophobia. however. as the individual is taught visualization and relaxation techniques before being slowly reintroduced to the trigger situation. in which hypnotherapy is used to remember the traumatic event that led to the individual's claustrophobia. reducing the anxiety provoked by a specific situation or setting. which help to relieve the heart pounding often associated with anxiety attacks. Medications prescribed to help treat claustrophobia include anti-depressants and beta-blockers. which helps to decrease the sense of panic that it has instilled into their minds . Flooding is a type of exposure treatment in which the individual is exposed to a situation until the anxiety attack passes. Treatment for claustrophobia can include behavior therapy. the individual learns to disassociate feelings of danger with the confined space. drugs or a combination of several treatments. Neuro-Linguistic Programming is a type of behavior therapy that deconstructs the individual's preconceived view of reality.thefreedictionary.

org/mental_health/claustrophobia.ro/definitie/agorafobie.epigee. de locurile deschise. Nota bene : Din fr. Corespondent engleză: Agoraphobia . de piețe etc Sursa definiţiei: http://dexonline. agoraphobie.html Area of use: Medicine Commentary : Designation status : Official 7. obsesivă și nemotivată de spațiile largi.ro/definitie/agorafobie Definiţie : Teamă patologică.Context source: http://www. Termen:AGORAFOBIE Limba termenului: Romnă Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://dexonline.

teama ca va muri.dificultati de respiratie .teama ca va lesina . Acest lucru il poate face sa evite pe viitor situatiile care ar putea declansa simptome. Unii dintre agorafobici pot prezenta semne minime de anxietate intrucat pot evita . Desi unii pacienti cu agorafobie simt anxietate marcata si disconfort cand pleca de acasa sau cand se gasesc intr-un loc public.dureri toracice . totusi nu dezvolta un atac de panica. Rareori se intampla ca o persoana sa prezinte toate simptomele in acelasi timp. cand se afla in locuri publice: .ameteli .greata . probabil prezinta un atac de panica. Totusi daca o persoana experimenteaza o parte din aceste simptome in acelasi timp.tremuraturi .transpiratii profuze . In cazurile extreme.Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: fobie Hiponim: Sinonim: Context : „Persoanele cu agorafobie pot prezenta o parte sau toate simptomele de mai jos.senzatie de sufocare .puls rapid . simptomele il pot face pe pacient sa fuga din locul in care se gaseste intr-un loc in care se simte in siguranta.senzatia de pierdere a controlului .

intrucat pot determina dependenta.ro/Fobiile/agorafobia_57 Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Cauza de baza a agorafobiei este necunoscuta. dar nu este foarte clar daca este implicat un factor genetic sau sunt factori de alta natura. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial .sfatulmedicului.situatiile care le determina fobia. pentru calmare in cazurile severe.sfatulmedicului. Agorafobia este de asemeni legata de alte tulburari cum ar fi depresia si tulburarea obsesiv compulsiva” Sursa contextului: http://www.ro/Fobiile/agorafobia_57 Context : „Agorafobia poate fi tratata folosid medicamente sau "terapie prin vorbire" cum ar fi terapia cognitiv-comportamentala. Administrarea se va face pentru cel mult 4 saptamani.” Sursa contextului: http://www.ISRS). sunt cele mai frecvent prescrise medicamente pentru atacul de panica. psihanaliza si terapia de grup. Benzodiazepinele sunt folosite doar pe termen scurt. Tratamentul medicamentos Antidepresivele (in mod special cele cunoscute sub numele de Inhibitori selectivi ai recaptarii serotoninei . iar scoaterea medicatiei se face treptat pentru a evita fenomenul de "rebound" (aparitia intr-o forma mai grava a simptomelor de anxietate la intreruperea brusca a medicamentului). In mod obisnuit ameliorarile apar in 6-8 saptamani. Studiile au aratat ca agorafobia are tendinta de a apare la mai multi membrii ai aceleiasi familii.

com/agoraphobia Nota bene: Etymology: Gk. patients may manage panic attacks in progress with certain tranquilizers called benzodiazepines.” Context source: http://encyclopedia. marketplace.thefreedictionary. fluoxetine (Prozac). patients can benefit from certain antidepressants. Usually. USA Source : http://encyclopedia.Term : AGORAPHOBIA ID Language : English ID Country : UK . agora. fear Generic concept :disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: Context: „Treatment for agoraphobia usually consists of both medication and psychotherapy.thefreedictionary.com/agoraphobia . or public place where escape may be difficult or help may not be available if needed. In addition. such as alprazolam (Xanax) or clonazepam (Klonipin). such as paroxetine (Paxil).com/agoraphobia Definition : anxiety disorder characterized by a fear of being in an open. or sertraline (Zoloft).thefreedictionary. or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. such as amitriptyline (Elavil). Definition source: http://encyclopedia. crowded. phobos.

Context : „Agoraphobia is just one type of phobia. and that traditional female sex roles encourage women to react to anxiety by engaging in dependent and helpless behaviors. The person suffering from agoraphobia usually avoids the anxiety-provoking situation and may become totally housebound. situations. The defining feature of agoraphobia is anxiety about being in places from which escape might be embarrasing or difficult. are not a requirement for a diagnosis of agoraphobia. or activities.com/agoraphobia Area of use:Medicine Commentary : Agoraphobia occurs about twice as commonly among women as it does in men. Other theories include the ideas that women are more likely to seek help and therefore be diagnosed. The gender difference may be attributable to social-cultural factors that encourage. or panic disorder. People with agoraphobia frequently also experience panic attacks. that men are more likely to abuse alcohol as a reaction to anxiety and be diagnosed as an alcoholic. or in which help might be unavailable.thefreedictionary. or irrational fear. Research results have not yet produced a single clear explanation as to the gender difference in agoraphobia Designation status : Official . the greater expression of avoidant coping strategies by women. Context source: http://encyclopedia. but panic attacks. or permit. People with phobias feel dread or panic when they face certain objects.

htm Nota bene : Din fr. promptitudine.deeasoft.ro/cautari/abulie. aboulie Corespondent engleză: Abulia Concept generic: boala pshica Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: tulburare de vointa Hiponim: Sinonim: hipobulie accentuata Context : „Este o boală caracterizată prin lipsa de iniţiativă.dex-online-ro. spontaneitate.8. Mai ales se observă în: confuzie mintală.com/tratament-abulie. Bolnavul abulic stă de obicei nemişcat timp îndelungat.html . depresie. http://www.htm Definiţie : boală psihică manifestată prin pierderea sau slăbirea voinţei Sursa definiţiei:. schizofrenie. răspunde greu şi lacunar la întrebări şi nu execută nici o comandă solicitată de interlocutor” Sursa contextului: http://www. melancolie. Termen:ABULIE Limba termenului: Romnă Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://www.ro/cautari/abulie. etc.dex-online-ro.

will.com/abulia Definition : Loss or impairment of the ability to make decisions or act independently Definition source: http://www.ROLAND DORON.” Sursa contextului: DICTIONAR DE PSHIOLOGIE. BUCURESTI.legata de trecerea la realizarea actului si o abulie intelectuala. without.com/abulia Nota bene: [New Latin.Janet deosebeste aprosexia sau abulia intelectuala de abulia motorie.Context : „P.care corespunde unei incetiniri si unei insuficiente a vointei. indecision : a-. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : ABULIA ID Language : English ID Country : UK .in Indo-European roots.P.Janet descrie o abulie motorie. USA Source : http://www. from Greek abouli .legata de tulburarea atentiei voluntari. see gwel .thefreedictionary.inferior dupa exigentele ratiunii.Ei pot simti dorinta de a face dar sunt neputinciosi sa o realizeze convenabil.bolnavii stiu sa creeze mental. FRANCOISE PAROT.in special in trecerea de la idee la act..EDITURA HUMANITAS.] Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: Hyponim: . 1999 Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: In abulie de deficienta subiectului este legata de realizarea actului pe care si-l reprezinta acest lucru fiind descris de Geuslain cu savoare remarcabila.thefreedictionary. see a-1 + boul.

in the time since its inception. experts mostly agree that aboulia is the result of frontal lesions and not with cerebellar or brainstem lesions. loss of behavior and speech output. slowing and prolonged speech latency. While there is some debate about the validity of aboulia as a separate disease. and reduction of spontaneous thought content and initiative. aboulia may be a . the definition of aboulia has been subjected to many different forms.Synonym: aboulia Context: „Aboulia has been known to clinicians since 1838. expression. some even contradictory with previous ones.[5] Aboulia has been described as a loss of drive.thefreedictionary. As a result of more and more evidence showing that the mesolimbic and the mesocortical dopamine system are key to motivation and responsiveness to reward. The clinical features most commonly associated with aboulia are: • Difficulty in initiating and sustaining purposeful movements • Lack of spontaneous movement • Reduced spontaneous movement • Increased response-time to queries • Passivity • Reduced emotional responsiveness and spontaneity • Reduced social interactions • Reduced interest in usual pastimes Context source: http://encyclopedia.com/abulia Context : „Many different causes of aboulia have been suggested. However.

thefreedictionary.dopamine-related dysfunction. or intracerebral hemorrhage (stroke). especially stroke causing diffuse injury to the right hemisphere. trauma.com/abulia Area of use:Medicine Commentary : Illnesses where aboulia may be present • Depression • Schizophrenia • Parkinson's Disease • Huntington's Disease • Progressive supranuclear palsy • Traumatic Brain Injury • Stroke Designation status : Official . such as dementing illnesses. Aboulia may also result from a variety of brain injuries which cause personality change. Context source : http://encyclopedia.

copilul. http://www. Ele difera prin aceea ca. dar poate fi provocata si disipata artificial prin actiune magnetica.html Definiţie : Stare patologica care apare in unele boli psihice si care se caracterizeaza printr-o rigiditate brusca a muschilor.html Nota bene : Din fr. Corespondent engleză: catalepsy Concept generic: boala pshica Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: stare patologica Hiponim: Sinonim: letargie Context : „Letargia si catalepsia au acelasi principiu: pierderea momentana a sensibilitatii si miscarii datorita unei cauze fiziologice inca neexplicata. Termen:CATALEPSIE Limba termenului: Romnă Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://www.9. iar respiratia devine tot mai inceata Sursa definiţiei:. suspendarea fortelor vitale este generala si da corpului toate aparentele mortii. catalepsie. cf. in letargie. in catalepsie. catalepsia este cateodata spontana. katalepsis – atac.ro/dictionar-medical/Catalepsie-8722. incat sa lase inteligenta sa se manifeste liber.” . gr. bataile inimii scad.copilul. intarirea accentuata a corpului. ceea ce nu permite sa fie confundata cu moartea. Letargia este intotdeauna naturala.ro/dictionar-medical/Catalepsie-8722. ea este localizata si poate afecta o parte mai mult sau mai putin intinsa a corpului.

blogspot. It is also a characteristic symptom of cocaine withdrawal. isolated cataleptic instances can . such as haloperidol.com/catalepsy Nota bene: Etymology: Gk. un model rozator de boala Parkinson” Sursa contextului: http://www.com/2009/02/letargie- catalepsie-morti-aparente. In some cases.thefreedictionary. kata + lambanein.html Context : „Addex. USA Source : http://encyclopedia. It can be caused by schizophrenia treatment with anti psychotics.Sursa contextului: http://amira-paranormal. as well as decreased sensitivity to pain. to seize Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: Context: „Catalepsy is a symptom of certain nervous disorders or conditions such as Parkinson's disease and epilepsy.com/catalepsy Definition : Catalepsy is a nervous condition characterized by muscular rigidity and fixity of posture regardless of external stimuli.thefreedictionary.desprestiri. raportate in timpul iulie sale de C & D in ziua in care la sobolani ADX10059 au aratat un efect dependenta de doza in reducerea catalepsie indusa de haloperidol. Definition source: http://encyclopedia.ro/catalepsie-boala Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : CATALEPSY ID Language : English ID Country : UK . de asemenea.

4 Softgels Spend $49 and get Free Shipping on Any Order! VitaCost.84 Brain Vitality-GPC (Acetyl L-Carnitine) Super Formula by$59. Protein kinase A has been suggested as a mediator of cataleptic behavior.90$34.53 Brain Elevate 60 Vcaps .also be precipitated by extreme emotional shock.htm Area of use: Medicine Commentary : Artistic depictions 6 $8.com/c/catalepsy/intro. Context source: http://encyclopedia.1 oz Free Shippping on orders over $85.thefreedictionary.39 5 .Brain Fuel NuvaLife.wrongdiagnosis.00 (US Deliveries) Total Health Discount Garden of Life Oceans 3 Better Brain with OmegaXanthin -.com/catalepsy Context : Futurbiotics .. 911 Health Shop Herb Pharm .com $1..com Context source: http://www.NOW Foods Swanson Health Products $9.Brain & Memory Tonic .9 Purity.

the protagonist Dowell experiences catalepsy following the death of his wife. and convincingly deceased is able to escape prison. the main character Valentine Michael Smith is believed to have catalepsy when he is returned to Earth. the narrator develops catalepsy. the title character is buried alive and notes that "I must have fallen into one of those . a serial killer (recreation of Jeffery Dahmer's life story) facing a lifetime sentence. and goes to great lengths to prevent this. catalepsy is often used for dramatic effect. In Robert A. It is not mentioned if they are caused by any of the aforementioned factors. the main character Silas Marner frequently has cataleptic fits and seizures. Madeline Usher has catalepsy. In Edgar Allan Poe's "The Premature Burial". père's novel The Count of Monte Cristo.In George Eliot's Silas Marner.In the arts. "The Fall of the House of Usher". He fears being mistakenly declared dead and buried alive. Brite's "Exquisite Corpse". a man feigns catalepsy to gain access to a neurologist's rooms. In Émile Zola's short story La Mort d'Olivier Becaille (The Death of Olivier Becaille). the main character. In literature In Alexandre Dumas. sometimes as a plot device. In Poppy Z. Comptom. the Abbé Faria has fits of catalepsy from time to time. before eventually dying from one. In another of Poe's short stories. In Ford Madox Ford's The Good Soldier. In Arthur Conan Doyle's "The Adventure of the Resident Patient". and is buried alive by her unstable brother Roderick. Heinlein's Stranger in a Strange Land. uses shamanistic techniques to induce catalepsy. the doctor attempts to treat him with amyl nitrite.

Aurora. In Charles Williams 's novel Many Dimensions. it is harder than it looks. Kathy Sweetscent becomes immobilized by withdrawal from JJ-180. I can't free myself. Mrs. I'm going to remain here. the Chief Justice of England: "You are a louse-brained catalept." In Philip K Dick's novel Now Wait For Last Year. In Sam Taylor's Kiki (film) (1931) Mary Pickford feigns a case of catalepsy to keep from being removed from the apartment of the man she secretly loves. This is catalepsy!" In film and television In performances and portrayals. the character Sarina Douglas. Hegel describes Socrates as having catalepsy caused by magnetic somnambulism when in deep meditation. has the same illness. Kathy thought as she stood gazing down at the record by her feet. the main character. exhibits cataleptic . However. In the soap opera La Traición. the main character. "Statistical Probabilities" and "Chrysalis". Arglay. would have cataleptic-like fits if frightened. "My God. where he would curl as if sitting down in a chair and become stiff. El Chavo. an alien (and highly addictive) drug. In Sax Rohmer's Fu-Manchu novels. Dr. catalepsy places unusual demands on actress. Sir Giles Tumulty says to Lord Arglay. Hugo De Medina. In two Star Trek: Deep Space Nine episodes. Later in the telenovela it is revealed that his daughter. In Chavo del Ocho. Catherine Deneuve's character shows signs of the affliction through her erratic and unexplainable behavior. In the 1965 Roman Polanski film Repulsion. a genetically-enhanced human woman. In Charles Dickens's novel Bleak House. Fu-Manchu has a serum that induces a state of catalepsy so extreme as to be indistinguishable from death. has catalepsy. and they'll find me like this and know something's terribly wrong. he could be healed by being splashed with water.cataleptic states that I had read of". Snagsby has violent spasms before becoming cataleptic and being carried upstairs like a grand piano. In Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel's Lectures on the History of Philosophy: Greek Philosophy to Plato.

manifestat printr-o puternică .wikipedia. In "Chrysalis". Designation status : Official 10. Bashir promises to do everything he can to cure her of the disorder. Termen:SEVRAJ Limba termenului: Romnă Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://ro.org/wiki/Sevraj Definiţie : Sevrajul este un sindrom de abstinenţă. Dr. and is ultimately successful.symptoms.

dependentul trece prin diferite stări. Simptomele fizice ale sevrajului nicotinic încep cu durerile de cap. cocaină). 20% din pacienţi evoluează spre deces. Sursa definiţiei:. după 10-15 ani de excese.suferinţă fizică şi psihică. se manifestă la persoane care suferă de alcoolism şi încetează ori reduc consumul de alcool. de către persoana aflată în această stare. irascibilitate sau deprimare. Spre deosebire de sevrajul la droguri (heroină. se instalează la întreruperea fumatului. Pentru că nicotina este vasoconstrictoare. denumit şi sevraj nicotinic. sevrajul se poate manifesta şi prin diaree sau constipaţie. În unele cazuri.org/wiki/Sevraj Nota bene : Din Corespondent engleză: withdraw Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: Hiponim: sevraj tabacic Sinonim: Context : „Se cunosc mai multe tipuri de sevraj: Sevrajul alcoolic. tahicardie. În 3-6 ore de la oprirea consumului. specifică perioadei de încetare. Cnd încearcă sa renunţe la fumat. denumit şi sevraj etilic sau sevraj etanolic. slabă capacitate de concentrare. Fără tratament. http://ro. creşterea apetitului sau insomnie. apar tremurături ale minilor. iritabilitate. slăbiciune. limbii şi ochilor. . frustrare. depresie. stări de anxietate. fizice şi psihice: accese de furie. hipotensiune artostatică. transpiraţie abundentă. lipsa acesteia produce dilataţia vaselor de snge de la nivelul sistemului nervos central. sevrajul la alcool pune viaţa în pericol. tensiune crescută. greaţă şi vomă. a consumului de substanţe care i-au indus starea de dependenţă.wikipedia. • Sevrajul tabacic.

Senzaţiile pe care consumatorii le experimentează atunci cnd sunt în sevraj. care trec dupa cteva zile de la renunţarea la fumat dar care şi pot speria persoana ce încearcă sa se lase de fumat. creşterea frecvenţei cardiace şi transpiraţii excesive. care are numele de cod: DSM-IV. vomă. scăderea randamentului fizic şi intelectual. Alte simptome severe ale sevrajului sunt delirul. vertij (ameţeală). De la acest număr în sus şi cu vechime mai mare de 10 ani se consideră că respectivul fumător este şi dependent fizic. apare la oprirea bruscă a ingestiei de cofeină (din cafea) şi se asociază cu cefalee (durere de cap). sunt exact opusul acelora pe care le simt . Dependenţa psihică apare la fumătorii care nu au depăşit niciodată un pachet de ţigări pe zi. convulsiile şi uneori moartea. • Sevrajul la opiacee apare atunci cnd consumatorul dependent renunţă la dozele lui obişnuite de stupefiante. slăbiciune marcată. crampe abdominale. Cafeina nu creează fenomene de sevraj att de severe sau dăunatoare precum sevrajul la droguri sau alcool. cauznd pierderea apetitului. în jur de o secundă. greaţă. sevrajul se poate manifesta în forme foarte violente. După 24 de ore fără drog. Dacă dependenţa este puternică. pot apărea simptome precum anxietatea si agitaţia. Sevrajul nicotinic este calificat de medici drept o boală. incapacitate de concentrare. efecte care sunt de scurtă durată (cteva zile) şi de intensitate mică spre moderată. Sevrajul va dura între două şi opt zile. • Sevrajul cofeinic. • Sevrajul la tranchilizante. Aceeaşi dilataţie a vaselor de snge este cauza unor ameţeli scurte.Această vasodilataţie de la nivelul creierului provoacă dureri de cap care pot dura doar cteva zile.

php?med=3585&fl Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Sevrajul se manifesta printr-o serie de simptome pshice si fizice:anxietate. lăcrimare abundentă.com/Withdrawl Definition : the period a drug addict goes through following abrupt termination in the use of narcotics.thefreedictionary. usually characterized by physical and mental symptoms Definition source: http://encyclopedia.wikipedia.cefalee.ro/medicamente.naduseli.com/Withdrawl Nota bene: Etymology: ME. Anumite niveluri de dependenţă se dezvoltă la 50-90% din copiii din mame dependente de heroină.thefreedictionary.tremuraturi.greturi. Un caz special de sevraj la opioide este observat la nou-născuţii pasiv dependenţi din mame ce abuzează de droguri în timpul sarcinii. tremur muscular.romedic. | tianeptinum Substanta activa: tianeptinum Sursa contextului: http://medicamente. with + drawen. la consumatorul de opiacee pot apărea anxietate.astenie. to take away Generic concept : disease .cnd sunt sub efectul opiaceelor. senzaţia de "piele de găină". iritabilitate.org/wiki/Sevraj Context : „COAXIL.anorexie. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : WITHDRAWL ID Language : English ID Country : UK . În timpul sevrajului. USA Source : http://encyclopedia. secreţii nazale abundente. Copiii născuţi din mame care se droghează sunt şi ei dependenţi de drog şi intră în sevraj la cteva ore după ce vin pe lume în lipsa administrării drogului.dureri musculare. ameteli.insomnie.varsaturi. compr. fapt care le poate pune în pericol viaţa Sursa contextului: http://ro.agitatie.contractii musculare.

This happens after consuming one or more of these substances for a certain period of time. hit a plateau. oral or otherwise. In fact. but is most commonly used to describe the group of symptoms that occurs upon the abrupt discontinuation/separation or a decrease in dosage of the intake of medications. can also play a role in determining the severity of withdrawal symptoms.. In order to experience the symptoms of withdrawal.com/topic/Heroin_Withdrawl?#vIS Context : „Pseudoabstinence is a term used by some authors[3] to describe signs of withdrawal although the dose remains constant. withdrawal from certain drugs (benzodiazapines.Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: Context: „One thing I can tell you about heroin withdrawl is that you only have to go through it once. alcohol) can be fatal and therefore the abrupt . For example.org/wiki/Withdrawl Area of use: Medicine Commentary : Withdrawal can refer to any sort of separation.righthealth. Such signs may arise in use of benzodiazepines and amphetamines. a person will start to feel worse and worse. recreational drugs. whether intravenous. and then the symptoms begin to dissipate. intramuscular. There are different stages of withdrawal as well. However. That's right you don't have to be a mental heavy weight to understand . Context source: http://www. prolonged use of an anti-depressant is most likely to cause a much different reaction when discontinued than the repeated use of an opioid. Generally. Context source: http://en.. which is both dose dependent and varies based upon the drug consumed.wikipedia. such as heroin. and/or alcohol. one must have first developed a physical dependence (often referred to as chemical dependency). the route of administration.

cleptomanie. Nota bene : Din fr.[citation needed] The term "cold turkey" is used to describe the sudden cessation use of a substance and the ensuing physiologic manifestations.ro/definitie/cleptomanie.discontinuation of any type of drug is not recommended. Designation status : Official 11. cleptomanie. – Din fr. Termen:CLEPTOMANIE Limba termenului: Romnă Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://dexonline.ro/definitie/cleptomanie Definiţie : Manie caracteristică prin impulsul patologic de a-și însuși prin furt bunuri străine fără a avea nevoie de ele și fără a urmări vreun profit material. Corespondent engleză: kleptomania Concept generic: boala pshica Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv . Sursa definiţiei: http://dexonline.

5. 1999 Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Indivizii cu cleptomanie experienteaza impulsul de a fura si sunt constienti de faptul ca actul este daunator si lipsit de sens.romedic. usurare si detensionare. depresiv sau se simte vinovata in legatura cu fapta sa (cu furturile) . Frecvent. 2. recurent de a rezista impulsului de a fura obiecte. nu poate fi explicat mai bine de o tulburare de conduita sau un episoade maniacale sau de o tulburare de personalitate de tip antisocial.” Sursa contextului: DICTIONAR DE PSHIOLOGIE. Cleptomania poate fi asociata cu un cumpat compulsiv si cu tulburarile depresive.Hiperonim: Hiponim: Sinonim: Context : „Criteriile de diagnostic pentru cleptomanie sunt reprezentate de : 1. exista o stare de tensiune crescanda emotional inainte de comiterea actului (furtului). FRANCOISE PAROT. esecul repetitiv. dupa comiterea furtului se instituie o stare de placere. ce exercita asupra acestuia o atractie irezistibila. cu cele de comportament . lipsa caracterului de razbunare sau de represalii impotriva unei anumite persoane si nu este un raspuns la o ideie deliranta sau o halucinatie. EDITURA HUMANITAS. 3.” Sursa contextului: http://www.ROLAND DORON. subiectul in cauza se tem sa nu fie prinsi si de multe ori este trist. 4.ro/cleptomanie Context : „Cleptomania este determinanta de un act mai impulsiv decat compulsiv si este precedata de un sentiment de tensiune crescanda si urmat de o liniste sau usurare. ce nu au valoare utilitara sau monetara pentru persoana respectiva.El nu este comis din manie sau razbunare si nu intra in cadrul delicventei pshiopate. de gratificare. cu tulburarile anxioase (anxietate). BUCURESTI.

alimentar (in special cu bulimia). aceasta incapacitate de a se abtine in a fura poate fi cauza multor dificultati si probleme de natura legala. The objects are taken not for their monetary value. -cronica. Din pacate. and recurrent urge to steal. they are usually given away. USA Source : http://www. dar si cu alte tulburari de control al impulsurilor. Multi hoti de asemenea sunt diagnosticati eronat ca avand o tulburare de personalitate de tip antisocial. deoarece acesta este un comportament care recidiveaza. si lungi perioade de remisiune (perioade in care nu a furat) -episodica. cu perioade prelungite de furturi si perioade de remisune care alterneaza. Multe dintre cazuri debuteaza in adolescenta apoi isi urmeaza caracterul episodic sau cronic. cu episoade scurte. ca criminali si de multe ori nu se face o evaluare de specialitate. or . in familie. uncontrollable. in viata profesionala. returned surreptitiously. Au fost descrise trei evolutii tipice: -sporadic. Se pare ca sub 5% din hotii din magazine au cleptomanie. persoanele in cauza sunt de multe ori vazuti ca hoti care recidiveaza. Din informatiile culese se pare ca apare preponderant la femei deoarece ele sunt mai des supuse unei evaluari psihiatrice fata de barbati care in urma acestor acte sunt trimisi direct la inchisoare. immediate need. dar cu un oarecare grad de fluctuatie.com/kleptomania Definition : an anxiety disorder characterized by an abnormal. Multi factori insa influenteaza incidenta si prevalenta cleptomaniei.thefreedictionary. or utility but because of a symbolic meaning usually associated with some unconscious emotional conflict. astfel ca se estimenaza ca 6 la 1000 de persoane din populatia generala sufera de cleptomanie. Din cauza lipsei studiilor se cunosc prea putine lucruri despre cleptomanie. cu tulburarile de personalitate. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : KLEPTOMANIA ID Language : English ID Country : UK .

to steal + -mania Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: Context: „Kleptomania is distinguished from shoplifting or ordinary theft.kept and hidden.” Context source: http://encyclopedia. substance abuse. and anxiety over the possibility of being apprehended and losing status in society. Kleptomaniacs do not steal because they want a particular item and can't afford it. they often discard stolen items. or associated gains and usually display intent or premeditation. Treatment consists of psychotherapy to uncover the underlying emotional problems.com/kleptomania Nota bene: Greek kleptein. while kleptomaniacs are not necessarily contemplating the value of the items they steal or even the theft until they are compelled without motive. In less severe cases the impulse is expressed by continuously borrowing objects and not returning them. But not everyone who shoplifts is a kleptomaniac. Afterward they display signs of depression. such as depression. as shoplifters and thieves generally steal for monetary value. In fact. Definition source: http://www.thefreedictionary.thefreedictionary. or secretly return them to .com/kleptomania Context : „Kleptomania is an impulse control disorder often related to other mood disorders. People who have the condition experience an increased sense of tension before committing the theft and intense gratification during the act. or eating disorders. guilt.

It is the primary reference for mental health professionals in the United States. True kleptomania is quite rare.the store from which they were taken. The 2000 edition of this manual (fourth edition. not kleptomania itself. Area of use: Medicine Commentary : The handbook used by mental health professionals to diagnose mental disorders is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders . However. Instead. the DSM contains diagnostic criteria and research findings for mental disorders. They often feel increased anxiety when the craving hits. They suspect it may be due to a chemical imbalance. That's because people who suffer from kleptomania are sometimes successfully treated with Prozac and other antidepressants. and this can only be relieved by taking the desired item. although scientists aren't sure what causes it. text revision). About 1 percent of people who shoplift are diagnosed with kleptomania. The behavior is often triggered by major stressful events. Published by the American Psychiatric Association. lists five diagnostic criteria for kleptomania: . known as the DSM-IV-TR. this may be because the drugs treat the other mood disorders that often accompany kleptomania. Often they are not even fully aware that they have stolen the item. particularly the brain chemical serotonin. kleptomaniacs are driven by an uncontrollable urge to steal things. and symptoms may appear as early as age five. roughly 5 percent exhibit symptoms of the disorder.

manic episode . Nota bene : Termenul anorexia îşi are originea în greaca veche: an (αν. Sursa definiţiei: http://ro. Corespondent engleză: anorexia nervosa Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : grup nominal . şi órexis (óρεξις) = dor. or antisocial personality disorder. caracterizată printr-o reducere anormală a greutăţii corpului şi printr-o deformare a imaginii propriului corp cu teama prevalentă .sau α -lipsa de.óρεξι = poftă). • Pleasure or relief upon committing the theft.com/Kau-Nu/Kleptomania. a oferi cuiva. • The theft is not motivated by anger or vengeance.org/wiki/Anorexie_nervoas%C4%83. poftă.minddisorders.wikipedia. apetit (de la verbul "orégo" ορεγω = a întinde. "α privativ" ). • Increasing tension immediately before the theft. http://www. a tinde spre) (există şi în greaca modernă: orexi .org/wiki/Anorexie_nervoas%C4%83 Definiţie : Anorexia nervoasă este o tulburare psihiatrică din categoria tulburărilor de alimentare. • The behavior is not better accounted for by a conduct disorder . persistentă.html#ixzz1E7VbMkN7 Designation status : Offic 12.wikipedia. Termen: ANOREXIE NERVOASA Limba termenului: Romna Tara termenului:Romnia Sursa : http://ro. de îngrăşare. and is not caused by a delusion or hallucination.• Repeated theft of objects that are unnecessary for either personal use or monetary value.

purgativ).IV . Francezul Ernest Charles Lasègue a descris o triadă caracteristică. După cum se vede.wikipedia. după opinia lui. Sursa contextului: http://ro. amndoi.TR specifică două tipuri de anorexie nervoasă : • Tipul restrictiv: în timpul episodului curent de anorexie nervoasă. amenoree şi hiperactivitate. În diagnosticul diferenţial el a menţionat tuberculoza. acestei boli. de anorexia nervoasă.org/wiki/Anorexie_nervoas%C4%83 Context : „În 1868 Sir William Wilthey Gull a dedicat şi el bolii un tratat şi i-a dat numele folosit pnă astăzi. Gull şi Lasègue au fost convinşi de existenţa unor cauze psihice şi au legat această boală de isterie. de exerciţii fizice exagerate sau abuz de laxative. persoana nu a avut comportamente regulate de accese de mncare rapidă sau de eliminare sau purgaţie (adică de vărsături auto . folosirea de substanţe anorectigene.ca de pildă abuzul de purgative. tulburări mezenterice.org/wiki/Anorexie_nervoas%C4%83 Arie de utilizare : DSM . şi diuretice. persoana s-a angajat în mod regulat în comportamente ca accese de mncare rapidă sau comportamente de eliminare . şi excesul de exerciţii fizice (anorexia nervoasă de tip eliminator. Sursa contextului: http://ro. clisme. şi a susţinut că în acest caz e vorba de o "apepsie isterica" (hysteric apepsia).Hiperonim:tulburare pshiatrica Hiponim: anorexie nervoasa de tip restrictiv Sinonim: Context : Persoanele suferind de anorexia nervoasă îşi limitează greutatea corpului prin abţinerea voluntară îndelungată de a se hrăni (înfometare sau post voluntar) (anorexia nervoasă de tip restrictiv) şi prin alte metode .provocate. pe care a denumit-o anorexie isterică: post.wikipedia. diuretice sau clisme) • Tipul cu Accese de mncare rapidă sau Tipul eliminator: în cursul episodului curent de anorexie nervoasă.

USA Source : http://www.cmha. Anorexia nervosa is characterized by severe weight loss due to extreme food reduction. It is often coupled with a distorted self image which may be maintained by various cognitive biases that alter how the affected individual evaluates and thinks about her or his body.ca/bins/content_page.wikipedia.asp?cid=3-98&lang=1 Definition : Anorexia nervosa also known as simply Anorexia is an eating disorder characterized by refusal to maintain a healthy body weight and an obsessive fear of gaining weight.(ἀν-. thus meaning a lack of desire to eat. Definition source: http://en.org/wiki/Anorexia_nervosa Nota bene: The term is of Greek origin: an. food and eating. "appetite"). diuretice sau clisme) Comentariu: Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : ANOREXIA NERVOSA ID Language : English ID Country : UK . exerciţii fizice exagerate sau abuzul de laxative. Symptoms include: • refusal to keep body weight at or above the normal weight for one's body type .[14] Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun phrase Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: Context: Three chronic eating disorders have been identified.(vărsături auto-provocate. prefix denoting negation) and orexis (ὄρεξις.

usually coupled with excessive exercise • feeling overweight despite dramatic weight loss • loss of menstrual periods • extreme preoccupation with body weight and shape Context source: http://www.wikipedia. 2) Treating the psychological disorders related to the illness.• dieting to extremes.cmha.3-1% in women and 0.org/wiki/Anorexia_nervosa Area of use: Medicine Commentary: Anorexia has an average prevalence of 0. 3) Reducing or eliminating behaviours or thoughts that originally led to the disordered eating Context source http://en. Mayou and Geddes 2005) Designation status : Official .asp?cid=3-98&lang=1 Context: Treatment for anorexia nervosa tries to address three main areas.ca/bins/content_page. Approximately 90% of people with anorexia are female. 1) Restoring the person to a healthy weight. with between 15 and 19 years old making up 40% of all cases. The condition largely affects young adolescent women. Anorexia nervosa is more prevalent in the upper social classes and it is declared to be rare in less developed countries (Gelder.1% in men for the diagnosis in developed countries.

pnă cnd situația priviliegiată a anumitor studenți africani în . Termen:XENOFOBIE Limba termenului: Romnă Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://dexonline. sau între populațiile creștine și Evrei. în Africa de Sud pe vremea apartheidului. ca în Transilvania pe vremea Imperiului Austro-Ungar.ro/definitie/xenofobie Nota bene : Din fr. Cteodată xenofobia poate fi provocată și întețită de factori politici: Romnii nu aveau nici-o formă de xenofobie împotriva africanilor.ro/definitie/xenofobie Definiţie : Ură față de străini și față de tot ce este străin Sursa definiţiei: http://dexonline. în Irlanda de nord (Ulster) între protestanți și catolici. sau în Europa între populațiile sedentare și Rromi. în Statele Unite între afro-americani. caucaso-americani (cum își spun albii) și hispano-americani. în Algeria pe vremea stăpnirii franceze. xénophobie Corespondent engleză: Xenophobia Concept generic: boalapshica Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim:fobie Hiponim: Sinonim: Context : „”Xenofobia este adesea provocată și întețită de inegalitățile sociale cnd acestea se cuplează cu diferențe de etnie sau de religie.13.

În Evul Mediu. În Antichitate.wikipedia. religia și forma de civilizație Sursa contextului: http://ro.ro/despre/xenofobie Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Statutul desemnarii : Oficial .. xenofobia avea adesea o bază religioasă: credincioșii unei religii se temeau de oricine nu le împărtășea credința. dar colonialismul. a europenilor și a Evreilor.romedic. Arabii erau foarte toleranți cu Evreii și primitori cu călătorii occidentali de secole.. in aceste zile. avea o bază culturală: Grecii și Romanii îi socoteau barbari pe toți cei care nu le împărtășeau limba.” Sursa contextului: http://www.org/wiki/Xenofobie Context : „din romania (oammr) isi exprima ingrijorarea pentru valul de xenofobie antiromaneasca ce marcheaza. 'suntem ingrijorati de evenimentele din italia. transmite corespondentul rompres. apoi conflictul Israelo-Palestinian au provocat în majoritatea lumii arabo-musulmane o intensă xenofobie împotriva americanilor.Romnia pe vremea regimului comunist a provocat abuzuri și tensiuni. deoarece. viata publica din italia.

USA Source : http://www.Term : XENOPHOBIA ID Language : English ID Country : UK .com/xenophobia Nota bene: Generic concept : Grammatical category: Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: racism. xenophoby Antonyms • • • • xenomania xenophilia xenophily allophilia Context: „Xenophobia has two main objects: . especially of strangers or foreign peoples Definition source: http://www.com/xenophobia Definition : A person unduly fearful or contemptuous of that which is foreign.thefreedictionary.thefreedictionary.

Termen:AMNEZIE Limba termenului: Romnă Tara termenului: Romnia . for instance. genocide. All cultures are subject to external influences. resulting in an isolationism that can further xenophobia Context source: http://encyclopedia. but xenophobia may be directed against a group which has been present for centuries. but cultural xenophobia is often narrowly directed. such as mass expulsion of immigrants. pogroms or in other cases.The first is a population group present within a society that is not considered part of that society. or became part of this society through conquest and territorial expansion. The second form of xenophobia is primarily cultural. This form of xenophobia can elicit or facilitate hostile and violent reactions. entire xenophobic societies tend not to be open to interactions from anything "outside" themselves.com/xenophobia Area of use:Medicine Designation status : Official 14. Often they are recent immigrants. at foreign loan words in a national language. and the objects of the phobia are cultural elements which are considered alien. but can result in political campaigns for cultural or linguistic purification. It rarely leads to aggression against individual persons.thefreedictionary. In addition.

Sursa : http://www. de regulă. după o vătămare cerebrală. Amnezia retrogradă apare atunci cnd contextului: http://www..i-medic.. In plus.romedic. iar pierderea memoriei poate fi temporara sau permanenta. se refera la imposibilitatea de reamintire a evenimentelor din trecut sau a informatiilor inmagazinate. Amnezie anterogradă apare atunci cnd pacientul nu poate reţine informaţii noi.ro/amnezie-0R1080 Definiţie : Pierderea memoriei. In functie de cauza sa. ea nu este responsabila si de pierderile insemnate de memorie decat daca este insotita de o boala. sau amnezia. Acest tip de amnezie apare.romedic. eveniment ce determină oprirea în asimilarea de noi amintiri.ro/amnezie-0R1080 Nota bene : Din fr. sau amnezia. amnezia se poate instala subit sau treptat. sau poate fi o combinatie de ambele tipuri. Desi procesul de imbatranire duce in mod normal la dificultatea de a invata si de a retine informatii noi.amnesie Corespondent engleză: amnesia Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: tulburare de memorie Hiponim: amnezie globala Sinonim: afazie amnezica Context : Ce este amnezia?Pierderea memoriei. Care sunt cauzele amneziei?O amnezie poate fi cauzata de o leziune a ariilor. Sursa amnezie Context : „Clasificarea tipurilor de amnezie Neurologii vorbesc despre existenţa a trei tipuri de amnezie: anterogradă. pierderea memoriei poate privi evenimentele recente sau cele din trecutul indepartat. se refera la imposibilitatea de reamintire a evenimentelor din trecut sau a informatiilor inmagazinate Sursa definiţiei: http://www.ro/simptome/pierderea-de-memorie- . retrogradă şi temporară.

deoarece ea se manifestă pe o perioadă scurtă de timp. La persoanele care suferă de Alzheimer în stadiu avansat. în timp ce amnezia cauzată de boala Alzheimer poate fi ameliorată cu ajutorul medicaţiei. o mare parte din memorie.ro/articole/parinti/amnezia---clasificaresi-metode-de-tratament/ Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Diagnosticarea cauzei producerii amneziei implică efectuarea unei serii de teste. însă. însă acestea crează panică pacientului care se află în situaţia de a nu-şi mai aminti nimic timp de aproximativ 24 de ore. însă îşi aduc aminte cu exactitate de întmplări care au avut loc cu ani în urmă. cu att mai serioasă va fi amnezia. Sursa contextului: http://www. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : AMNESIA ID Language : English . afectnd. Însă. Majoritatea vătămărilor cerebrale provoacă amnezie retrogradă şi confuzie post-traumatică. Dacă alcoolismul este cauza amneziei. memoria de lungă durată începe să fie afectată. În cazul amneziilor apărute în urma comoţiilor. însă cu ct lovirea este mai gravă.sanatateatv. deoarece îi ajută să facă faţă pierderilor de memorie. pacientul trebuie să renunţe la viciu şi să fie susţinut emoţional. indiferent care a fost cauza declanşării amneziei.bolnavul nu îşi mai poate aminti niciun moment dinainte de evenimentul traumatic. Tratamentele pentru amnezie diferă în funcţie de cauza care a dus la apariţia bolii. Nu se ştie cauza apariţiilor atacurilor de amnezie. deoarece acesta poate stabili cauza instalării amneziei şi tipul de tratament necesar. Aceştia îşi amintesc cu greu evenimente care au avut loc în urmă cu cteva zile. bolnavul are nevoie de odihnă. Oricine suferă de pierderi inexplicabile de memorie ar trebui să consulte un medic specialist. Amnezia globală temporară este o formă uşoară de amnezie. reabilitarea cognitivă este prezentă în cazul tuturor bolnavilor. Bolnavii de Alzheimer arată la început probleme ale memoriei imediate.

thefreedictionary. forgetfulness. probably from amn sti .com/amnesia Context : „Forms of amnesia . not remembered : a-. usually resulting from shock. USA Source : http://www. usually related to chronic alcoholism. The primary structures involved in the processing of memory within the medial temporal lobe are the hippocampus and the amygdala. Context source: http://encyclopedia2. mn -.] Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: memory loss. brain injury.blakout Context: „Permanent amnesia usually occurs following brain damage to either the diencephalons or the medial temporal lobe. psychological disturbance. to remember.thefreedictionary. One of the most common causes of diencephalic amnesia is Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.com/amnesia Nota bene: [Greek amn si .ID Country : UK . a disorder caused by a thiamine deficiency. or illness. see men-1 in IndoEuropean roots. Amnesia resulting from impairment to the medial temporal lobe can occur following anoxia. see a-1 + mimn skein. and viral infections to the brain.thefreedictionary. not. Definition source: http://www. from amn stos. cerebrovascular accidents.com/amnesia Definition : Partial or total loss of memory. head injury.

com/amnesia Area of use: Medicine Commentary : How is amnesia diagnosed? A mental health professional will want to take a careful personal history. such as stroke • Exposure to a toxic substances such as carbon monoxide • Inadequate diet • Brain tumors • Seizures Designation status : Official . beyond an ordinary degree of forgetfulness. such as a blow to the head • Internal trauma. the ability to form new memories through memorization is impaired or lost.• In anterograde amnesia. a person's pre-existing memories are lost to conscious recollection. people or events after a few seconds or minutes. A person may find themselves constantly forgetting information. but is unable to recall some or all of their life or identity prior to the onset Context source http://encyclopedia. because the data does not transfer successfully from their conscious short-term memory into permanent long-term memory • In retrograde amnesia.thefreedictionary. Causes of amnesia can include: • External trauma. The person may be able to memorize new things that occur after the onset of amnesia (unlike in anterograde amnesia).

html Definiţie : Halucinaţia este o tulburare psihică prin care o percepţie senzorială are loc în absenţa stimulului. Termen:HALUCINATIE Limba termenului: Romnă Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://art-zone. Nota bene : Din Corespondent engleză: hallucination .html. Cu alte cuvinte.15. deşi obiectul fizic nu există în realitate. Sursa definiţiei: http://art-zone.ro/boli/Halucinatiile_cauze_tratament. acesta este perceput de subiect prin intermediul unuia din cele cinci simţuri.ro/boli/Halucinatiile_cauze_tratament.

consumul de droguri (lsd. furnicături. olfactive (mirosuri urte.” Sursa contextului: http://www. ca şi tratamentul care trebuie urmat. „curenţi" etc).starile de delir sau dementa (halucinatiile vizuale sunt cele mai des intalnite). Totusi. prezenta halucinatiilor. . ketamina).famouswhy.ro/delirul_si_halucinatiile/#ixzz1E8NrGkFy Context : „Halucinatiile sunt asociate cu boli mintale si cel mai des cu schizofrenia.alcoolismul. Apariţia delirului.sfatulmedicului. . auditive („voci" sau „glasuri"). pestilenţiale). prin definitie.Concept generic: boala pshica Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: fenomen patologic Hiponim: halucinatie auditiva Sinonim: iluzie Context : „Halucinaţiile sunt percepţii fără obiect. cocaina. heroina. depresie sau manie.epilepsia (din cauza tulburarilor care apar la nivelul lobului temporal) . dar sunt intalnite in rare cazuri.halucinatii . Halucinatiile sunt doar una dintre manifestarile posibile ale tulburarii bipolare. Ele pot îi vizuale (aşanumitele „vedenii"). am fetamina. sau tactile (arsuri. adică formarea unor imagini mintale care nu îşi află corespondent în realitate. acestea pot fi provocate si de tulburarea bipolara. chiar daca este vorba despre un tip sever de depresie maniacala (ciclotimia sau tulburari bipolare II. de exemplu) care exclud. marijuana. mai ales daca au si caracteristici psihotice. fiind singurul în măsură să pună în evidenţă cauza acestor tulburări. însoţit sau nu de halucinaţii este o situaţie în care psihiatrul va fi consultat de urgenţă.ro/Schizofrenia-si-alte-tulburaripsihice/despre-halucinatii_7944 Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Exista mai multe cauze care declanseaza halucinatiile: . Sursa contextului:http://articole.

SIDA si cancer la nivelul creierului Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : HALLUCINATION ID Language : English ID Country : UK .thefreedictionary. sindromul de stres post-traumatic. Hallucinations may occur in a range of neurologic and psychiatric conditions.afectiuni grave: insuficienta hepatica.oflactive. cum ar fi orbirea sau surditatea. Delusional .in mod special la copii si la varstnici. alucinari.tulburari psihice: schizofrenia. A person can experience a hallucination in any of the five senses.com/Hallucination Nota bene: Etymology: L. .febra . insuficienta renala. . to wander in mind Generic concept :disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: delusion. See Schizophrenia. Auditory hallucinations are a common symptom of schizophrenia.thefreedictionary.com/Hallucination Definition : sensory experience of something that does not exist outside the mind. depresia psihotica. . USA Source : http://medical-dictionary. although they are usually considered hallmarks of schizophrenia.illusion Context: „Hallucinations that are recognized as such by the experiencer include those resulting from sensory deprivation.probleme senzoriale. .narcolepsia. . and the phantom limb state. drug use. Definition source: http://medical-dictionary.

• Lilliputian hallucination is an hallucination in which things. or animals seem smaller than they would be in reality. Called also paracusia and paracusis. For example. causes the individual to replace a familiar person (usually the spouse) with an imposter with the same or similar physical appearance. • A hypnagogic hallucination is a vivid dreamlike hallucination at the onset of sleep.asp?articlekey=24171 . Capgras syndrome. people. Frégoli syndrome is the delusional confusion of an individual as a familiar person in disguise.com/hallucination Context : „The types of hallucinations include: • An auditory hallucination is an hallucination involving the sense of hearing. Context source: http://encyclopedia2. • Hypnopompic hallucination is a vivid dreamlike hallucination on awakening. • Kinesthetic hallucination is an hallucination involving the sense of bodily movement. which is commonly seen in schizophrenia. • A gustatory hallucination is an hallucination involving the sense of taste. • Tactile hallucination is an hallucination involving the sense of touch.medterms. • Visual hallucination is an hallucination involving the sense of Context source: http://www.thefreedictionary. • Olfactory hallucination is an hallucination involving the sense of smell.com/script/main/art.misidentification syndromes are a subtype of hallucinations and may also occur in neurological and psychiatric disease. • Somatic hallucination is an hallucination involving the perception of a physical experience occurring with the body.

Fantasy and distortion elaborated upon and confused with actual perception 5. Emergence of surprising or warded-off memory or fantasy images 2. Termen:NEVROZA Limba termenului: Romnă Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://dictionar. Totusi spre deosebire de psihotic. Frequent reality checks 3. in general. Sursa definiţiei:. Anxioliticele pot aduce o ameliorare in momentele cele mai dificile.ro/NEVROZA Nota bene : Din fr.ro/NEVROZA Definiţie : Nevroza reprezinta o tulburare mintala care nu atinge functiile esentiale ale personalitatii si de care subiectul este foarte constient. http://dictionar. O nevroza se traduce in mod obisnuit printr-un sentiment de teama. Psihoterapia permite. nevrozatul nu pierde contactul cu realul si ramane relativ adaptat la mediul sau si la viata sociala. vindecarea unei nevroze. Internal-external boundaries destroyed and possible pantheistic experience Designation status : Official 16. névroser .Area of use: Medicine Commentary : Stages of a hallucination 1. Last vestige of insight as hallucinations become "real" 4.romedic. dar nu constituie in nici un caz un tratament de fond si nu trebuie urmat vreme indelungata.romedic. prin perturbatii ale vietii sexuale si sociale. prin constanta judecatii prin pasional si imaginar.

Nevrozele sint tulburari patologice functionale ale creierului cu ecou negativ in intregul organism Nevroza este o tulburare de care subiectul este constient si o resimte in mod dureros. De obicei. spune dr. puteti citi despre nevroza anxioasa.ro/ghidul-pentru-sanatate/nevroza-otulburare-de-care-sintem-constienti-si-pe-care-o-resimtim-in-mod-dureros~ni4743 . nevrozatul nu pierde contactul cu realul si ramine relativ adaptat la mediul sau si la viata sociala". In numarul de astazi al "Ghidului pentru Sanatate” . spre deosebire de psihotic.Corespondent engleză: neurosis Concept generic: boala pshica Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: tulburare mentala Hiponim: nevroza carcerala Context : „Din Lumea "PSY" Nevroza: o tulburare de care sintem constienti si pe care o resimtim in mod dureros DATA PUBLICARII: 03/01/2007 Aceasta nu atinge functiile esentiale ale personalitatii. Nevroza poate fi considerata intr-un fel o modalitate de aparare impotriva temerilor. Tocmai de aceea. prin pasional si imaginar. spre deosebire de psihotic. lipsa de energie . O nevroza se traduce in mod obisnuit printr-un sentiment de teama. "Nevroza reprezinta o tulburare mintala care nu atinge functiile esentiale ale personalitatii si de care subiectul este foarte constient. cei interesati pot afla mai multe despre nevroza obsesiva si nevroza de esec. medic psihiatru in Policlinica nr. Sursa contextului: http://www. imposibilitatea concentrarii. Gabriel Crumpei. In numerele viitoare. nevrozatul nu pierde contactul cu realul si ramine relativ adaptat la mediul sau si la viata sociala. Nevroza astenica se caracterizeaza prin cefalee. prin constanta judecatii. 1 Iasi. a urii. stare de "astenie". Totusi. prin perturbatii ale vietii sexuale si sociale. nevroza obsesionala sa nevroza de esec. oboseala. nevrozele sint de trei feluri: nevroza anxioasa.ziaruldeiasi. intr-un cuvint familiar. insomnie. a agresivitatii.

Sursa contextului: http://ro. • slab. crampele profesionale. corespunde temperamentului coleric. inert. situații nevrotice particulare. În compartimentul nevroze sunt incluse și astfel de forme nozologice cum ar fi enurezisul. isterică (isterio-neurastenia) și obsesivă.org/wiki/Nevroz%C4%83 Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: În prezent e acceptată concepția unei etiologii multifactoriale a nevrozelor. • puternic. gradul flexibilitatății la influențe psihice patogene. ticul nervos. Fiecare din factorii etiologici deține ponderea respectivă în instalarea . neechilibrat.Context : „Clasificare nevrozelor Se disting următoarele forme principale de nevroze: forma astenică (neurastenia. corespunde temperamentului sanguinic. Diversitatea factorilor etiologici se poate grupa în trei categorii: biologici.wikipedia. Ca parametri ai activității nervoase superioare servesc capacitatea consolidării reflexului condiționat. mobil. psihastenia). sociali. expresivitatea și trăinicia lui. viteza iradierii și concentrației proceselor de excitație. echilibrat. Această clasificare a nevrozelor este în conformitate cu conceptul lui I.P. corespunde temperamentului melancolic. forța inhibiției interne și externe. • puternic. mobil.Pavlov despre tipurile activității nervoase superioare la om: • puternic. echilibrat. corespunde temperamentului flegmatic. neechilibrat. psihogeni.

la persoanele neantrenate sau depășite ca poziție socială și pregătire.thefreedictionary.com/neurosis Definition : Any of various mental or emotional disorders. de răspunderile sociale mereu în creștere Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : NEUROSIS ID Language : English ID Country : UK . but without psychotic symptoms such as delusions or hallucinations. and irrational fears. patogenia nevrozei este o reacție la stres a unui psihic vulnerabil.com/neurosis Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: neuroticism. proporțională cu poziția socială a individului.thefreedictionary. USA Source : http://www. Definition source: http://www. Nevroza se consideră ca reacție la amploarea stresului psihosocial. No longer in scientific use. depression. anxiety. cu un conflict interior dureros. Patogenitatea circumstanțelor vitale se manifestă doar în combinare cu atitudinea individului față de ele. such as hypochondria or neurasthenia. arising from no apparent organic lesion or change and involving symptoms such as insecurity. psychoneurosis .unui anumit tip de nevroză. Astfel.

thefreedictionary.com/neurosis Context : „The severity and types of symptoms of disorders that are considered a neurosis or neurotic disorder vary between the specific disorders and from person to person. Context source: ” http://www.com/n/neurosis/intro. The term was however most influentially defined by Carl Jung and Sigmund Freud over a century later. Excessive anxiety and fear are common symptoms of and/or underlie many disorders that are considered a neurosis or neurotic disorder.wrongdiagnosis. according to The American Heritage Medical Dictionary.htm Area of use: Medicine Commentary : Symptoms of Neurosis  Symptoms depend on the type of neurosis  Emotional distress  Self-awareness of psychological problems .Context : Neurosis was coined by the Scottish doctor William Cullen in 1769 to refer to "disorders of sense and motion" caused by a "general affection of the nervous system". It derives from the Greek word "νεῦρον" (neuron. The American Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) has eliminated the category of "Neurosis". reflecting a decision by the editors to provide descriptions of behavior as opposed to hidden psychological mechanisms as diagnostic criteria. Context source: http://encyclopedia. it is "no longer used in psychiatric diagnosis". These changes to the DSM have been controversial. It has continued to be used in contemporary theoretical writing in psychology and philosophy. For him. it described various nervous disorders and symptoms that could not be explained physiologically. "nerve") with the suffix -osis (diseased or abnormal condition). and.

asupra starii generale de sanatate si asupra persoanelor apropiate. http://www. Sursa definiţiei:.ro/Depresia---tristetea patologica/ depresia-tristetea-patologica_18 Nota bene : Din fr. de suparare sau decat o traire temporara de scadere a energiei. care duce la aparitia unei trairi de tristete sau de pierdere a sperantei pentru o perioada indelungata de timp.sfatulmedicului. Fiind mai serioasa decat un simplu episod de tristete.ro/DEPRESIA Definiţie : Depresia este o tulburare a starii afective. dépressif Corespondent engleză: depression Concept generic: boala pshica Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv . Occupational disturbance  Disturbance of social life Designation status : Official 17.romedic. Termen:DEPRESIA Limba termenului: Romnă Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://dictionar. depresia poate avea un impact semnificativ asupra bucuriei de a-ti trai viata. asupra capacitatii de munca.

varstnicii care trec de la o viata independenta la o viata in care depind de ceilalti au adeseori depresie .afectiunile indelungate (cronice). precum dezechilibrele nivelurilor sanguine ale calciului sau nivelurile scazute ale fierului (anemia) . cum ar fi infectiile virale sau infectiile ficatului sau ale creierului . cum ar fi un dezechilibru al glandei tiroide sau suprarenale . precum artrita. pot determina un dezechilibru al anumitor substante chimice din creier. denumite neurotransmitatori.infectiile.factorii de stres majori.tulburari ale secretiei hormonale. Expertii considera ca predispozitia genetica. ducand la aparitia depresiei. precum saracia.Hiperonim: sindrom afectiv Hiponim: depresie exogena Sinonim: disperare Context : Ce anume cauzeaza depresia este un subiect intens studiat in prezent. bolile cardiace sau cancerul .unele medicamente.factorii de stres cronici. afectiuni medicale. ca de exemplu moartea unei persoane dragi . de substante ilegale sau probleme in legatura cu abuzul de o . din partea societatii sau a celor de aceeasi varsta . de obicei simptomele depresive dispar odata ce medicamentul este oprit . impreuna cu evenimentele de viata stresante.dezechilibre chimice. . cum ar fi narcoticele folosite pentru indepartarea durerii sau steroizii.consumul de alcool. Situatiile care pot declansa un episod de depresie sunt: . probleme medicale grave proprii sau ale unei persoane apropiate. administrarea de medicamente sau alti factori.presiuni asupra copiilor si adolescentilor. dificultatile familiale.

De exemplu. tulburarile alimentatiei si alcoolismul prezinta unele simptome ale sindromului Cushing. inainte de instalarea completa a depresiei. sentimentul de pierdere a placerii in activitatile care altadata erau placute.nasterea recenta.ro/Depresia---tristetea-patologica/ depresia -tristetea-patologica_18 Context : Sindromul Cushing este dificil de diagnosticat. scaderea energiei.romedic.durerea cronica . deoarece semnele si simptomele sale se intalnesc si in cazul altor afectiuni.oboseala . Persoana cu depresie se poate izola social de ceilalti si isi poate pierde interesul pentru activitatea sexuala.substanta .ro/sindromul-cushing/diagnostic Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Depresia poate debuta cu simptome de anxietate (cum ar fi o ingrijorare excesiva) sau cu simptome precum tristetea sau lipsa de energie.sindromul premenstrual cronic . . Sursa contextului: http://www. Pot aparea tulburari in capacitatea de concentrare sau de memorare. sentimentul de pierdere a sperantei.” Sursa contextului: http://www. Depresia. modificari ale somnului si ale poftei de mancare. sindromul ovarului polichistic – un dezechilibru hormonal la femei -se manifesta prin crestere excesiva a parului si prin cicluri menstruale neregulate.stresul .menopauza . care dureaza de mai multe zile sau luni.sfatulmedicului.

Deoarece depresia creste riscul de tentativa de suicid. poate fi necesara o internare intr-un spital pentru o perioada scurta de timp. USA Source : http://medical-dictionary. in special daca sunt prezente ganduri de sinucidere. Depresia poate fi usoara. De exemplu. difficulty with thinking and concentration. In cazul unei depresii severe. persoana respectiva trebuie sa urmeze imediat un tratament daca sunt prezente idei de autodistrugere.thefreedictionary. consiliere profesionala sau o combinatie a celor doua. acestea necesita un tratament de intretinere. Majoritatea pesoanelor cu depresie pot fi tratate cu succes cu medicamente. Un procent mic de persoane se simt depresive in marea majoritate a vietii lor.com/Depression Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: . moderata sau severa.Evolutia depresiei variaza de la o persoana la alta. a significant increase or decrease in appetite and time spent sleeping.thefreedictionary. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : DEPRESSION ID Language : English ID Country : UK . este o depresie cronica usoara. pentru o perioada indelungata de timp sau pentru o perioada scurta. tulburarea distimica. inactivity. Ea poate debuta brusc (depresie acuta) sau poate dura o perioada indelungata (depresie cronica). Pot fi prezente simptome usoare sau severe de depresie. Tulburarile depresive sunt clasificate in functie de severitatea si de durata lor. feelings of dejection and hopelessness. Unii oameni pot avea un episod de depresie majora care se poate suprapune peste o tulburare distimica (depresie dubla). Definition source: http://medical-dictionary.com/Depression Definition : A state of being depressed marked especially by sadness. and sometimes suicidal thoughts or an attempt to commit suicide.

the blues. and difficulties with memory or in making decisions. Major depression is likely to interfere significantly with everyday activity. The disorder may last several months or longer—and may recur—but it is generally reversible in the short run. with symptoms including insomnia. dumps (informal). Typical symptoms include feelings of sadness. trouble focusing. and women tend to be more susceptible to the disorder than men. and a lack of interest in outside events. cheerlessness. informal).wrongdiagnosis.thefreedictionary. despondency. melancholy. Sleep abnormalities may also occur. misery. downheartedness I slid into a depression and became morbidly fascinated with death.Synonym: despair. weight loss. gloominess. depression can accompany other conditions.com/depression Context : „A diagnosis of depression may be missed or delayed for a wide variety of reasons. and anger and irritability. irritability. Context source: http://encyclopedia2. Other feelings may include hopelessness. A diagnosis of depression can be missed because symptoms of depression can be related to many other conditions. dejection. wretchedness. worthlessness. guilt. dolefulness. unhappiness. melancholia. low spirits. people with depression may fear the stigma of or be embarrassed by mental illness and not seek treatment. hopelessness. anxiety. At the same time.com/d/depression/intro. the hump (Brit. For example. Context source: http://www. helplessness. and/or despair that do not go away. bleakness. . People with depression may also experience a loss in interest in activities they once enjoyed. Context: „ Close to 20% of Americans are likely to suffer major depression at some time.htm Area of use: Medicine Commentary : The severity and types of symptoms of depression vary from person to person. chronic fatigue. sadness.

Chronic pain is also associated with depression. Termen:CATATONIE . The two conditions are connected closely because the mood and pain perception centers are both located in the same areas of the brain. Both chronic pain and depression can deplete the body's stores of endorphins and other neurochemicals that regulate mood and sensation and result Designation status : Official 18. Suicidal thoughts or attempts at committing suicidal may also be experienced.such as insomnia or a desire to sleep all the time.

ro/cuvant/catatonie. Există mai multe . http://www. dar niciodată în cazul stuporii catatonice. Sursa contextului: http://wapedia. caracterizat printr-o stare de fixare a corpului în anumite poziții. Tratamentul obişnuit constă în a începe cu o precripţie de antipsihotice. Benzodiazepanele sunt utilizate doar ocazional.Limba termenului: Romnă Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://dictionar. kata – în jos. Catatonia comportă similarități cu alte condiții mintale. spre exemplu în cazul excitării catatonice.html Nota bene : Gen. printre care se pot menționa schizofrenia. catatonie.dexonline. al mai multor boli mintale. tratamentul este orientat spre tratarea cauzei profunde. tulburarea bipolară. ca tratament de bază (aşa cum ar fi Risperdal şi/sau Haloperidol). Există o varietate de medicamente ce pot fi utilizate pentru tratament.romedic. gr. urmată de o ajustare conform evoluţiei. depinznd de tipul de catatonie. / < fr.ro/CATATONIE Definiţie : Sindrom psihomotor al schizofreniei. tonos – tensiune]. -iei. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders). Corespondent engleză:catatonia Concept generic: boala pshica Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: sindrom psihopatologic Hiponim: catatonie tardiva Sinonim: narcolpesia Context : „Din moment ce catatonia este simptomul rezultant al unei dezordini profunde. caracterizat printr-o stare de fixare a corpului în anumite poziţii.mobi/ro/Catatonie Context : „Catatonia este un sindrom psihomotor.news20. listat în Manualul de diagnostic și statistica al tulburarilor mintale (vedeți. conduită stereotipă și stupoare mintală. cf. conduită stereotipă şi stupoare mintală Sursa definiţiei:. depresia clinică și altele. printre care encephalitis lethargica și sindromul neuroleptic malign sunt cele mai notabile.

Tipuri de catatonie Sursa contextului: http://ro. și în funcție de caz.thefreedictionary. Există un subtip de schizofrenie. Indivizii aflaţi în această stare nu au contact vizual aproape deloc sau deloc cu cei aflaţi în preajmă şi/sau pot fi muţi şi rigizi. total opus. denumit "schizofrenie catatonică. ci este un simptom al altor tulburari mintale. fiind adesea agresivi şi chiar violenţi faţă de ei înşişi şi faţă de ceilalţi. se pot folosi unul sau mai multe medicamente combinate. USA Source : http://www. chiar dacă activitatea lor este lipsită de logică şi scop. fiind numiţi hiperactivi. incluznd antipsihotice și benzodiazepane. în care persoana nu reacţionează la stimulii externi. lipsită de mişcare. Excitarea catatonică este o stare de agitaţie constantă şi de excitare motrică şi nervoasă." caracterizat de pierderea extremă a abilității motrice sau. o hiperactivitate motrică. Catatonia nu este o tulburare mintală.org/wiki/Catatonie Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Tipuri de catatonie Stupoarea catatonică este o stare apatică. Pacienții catatonici pot sta în poziții rigide ore întregi ignornd total în decursul stării catatonice orice fel de stimuli externi. Indivizii în această stare sunt extrem de activi.com/CATATONIA .wikipedia. Activitatea motrică este aproape inexistentă. așa cum ar fi cele menționate anterior. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : CATATONIA ID Language : English ID Country : UK .tratamente relativ puse la punct pentru a o trata.

Repetitive odd movements of the fingers or hands. motor activity may be reduced to zero. Definition source: http://www. It comes on suddenly and is characterized by stiffening of the muscles. and history taking. as well as imitating the speech or movements of others also may indicate that catatonia is present. make little or no eye contact with others.thefreedictionary. and initiate no social behaviors. If no cause can be determined following physical examination. Catatonia can also be categorized as intrinsic or extrinsic. If the condition has an identifiable cause. ” Context source: http://medical-dictionary. laboratory testing.thefreedictionary. hopping and skipping. These include odd ways of walking such as walking on tiptoes or ritualistic pacing. confusion and heavy sweating. mania. It is most often associated with schizophrenia. catatonic type schizophrenia Context: „In catatonic stupor.com/CATATONIA Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: catatonic schizophrenia. Violence toward him/herself or others may also be seen.com/catatonia Context : „Recognition of catatonia is made on the basis of specific movement symptoms. the illness is considered to be intrinsic. Individuals avoid bathing and grooming. it is designated as extrinsic. but medical and neurological tests are necessary to rule out underlying lesions or disorders that may be causing the symptoms observed” . stereotypy. may be mute and rigid.Definition : An abnormal condition variously characterized by stupor. NMS is observed as a dangerous side effect associated with certain neuroleptic (antipsychotic) drugs such as haloperidol (Haldol). There are no laboratory or other tests that can be used to positively diagnose this condition. fever. and either rigidity or extreme flexibility of the limbs. and rarely. In catatonic excitement the individual is extremely hyperactive although the activity seems to have no purpose.

ro/Epilepsia-si-Convulsiile/epilepsia-cauzesimptome-tratament_310 . Termen:EPILEPSIE Limba termenului: Romnă Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://www. If these approaches are unsuccessful.Context source: http://medical-dictionary. treatment will be redirected to attempts to control the signs and symptoms of the illness. Antipsychotic drugs may be appropriate in some cases. but often cause catatonia to worsen.thefreedictionary.sfatulmedicului. Designation status : Official 19. Electroconvulsive therapy may prove beneficial for clients who do not respond to medication.com/catatonia Area of use: Medicine Commentary : Treatment of catatonia includes medications such as benzodiazipines (which are the preferred treatment) and rarely barbiturates.

Unii bolnavi isi amintesc ce s-a intamplat in timpul convulsiilor. vorbirea. Convulsiile pot dura de la cateva secunde pana la cateva minute. Corespondent engleză: epilepsy Concept generic: boala pshica Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: manifestare patologica Hiponim: caracter epileptic Context : „Convulsiile sunt singurul simptom vizibil al epilepsiei.sfatulmedicului. depinzand de tipul de epilepsie. care duc la aparitia convulsiilor. Sursa tratament_310 definiţiei:. Epilepsia nu este o forma de retardare intelectuala sau boala psihica si nu este contagioasa. in special daca sunt severe. Aparitia convulsiilor este inspaimantatoare. Sistemul nervos produce descarcari electrice bruste. Exista mai multe tipuri de convulsii.Definiţie : Epilepsia este o tulburare neurologica comuna care se datoreaza unor factori care interfereaza cu impulsurile electrice la nivelul creierului. epilepsia. Convulsiile interfera temporar cu controlul musculaturii. controlul defecatiei (eliminarea de fecale). Constienta poate fi pierduta sau mentinuta in timpul convulsiilor. iar simptomele fiecarui tip in parte se manifesta diferit la diferite persoane. in timp ce altii . http://www. tratamentul reduce impulsurile electrice anormale la nivelul creierului si controleaza crizele convulsive. lat.ro/Epilepsia-si-Convulsiile/epilepsia-cauze-simptomeNota bene : Din fr. Din fericire. excesive si dezorganizate. épilepsie. vederea si constienta bolnavului.

generalizate Sursa contextului: http://www.nici nu realizeaza ca au facut convulsii. De altfel. Convulsiile inceteaza atunci cand activitatea electrica anormala se incheie si activitatea cerebrala revine la normal. cu evolutie progresiva a functiilor de cunoastere si afectiva. adesea. Ceea ce nu trebuie a fi uitat in prezenta unui epileptic. pot fi la multi dintre acestia deosebite” .ro/Epilepsia-siConvulsiile/epilepsia-cauze-simptome-tratament_310 Context : „Cea mai severa dintre evolutiile posibile ale epilepsiei este dementa epileptica. artistic sau al afacerilor. este ca. mai frecventa printre copii. in conditiile controlului adecvat terapeutic. Convulsiile sunt de doua tipuri: . Dar multe convulsii nu implica aceste reactii. si pot fi foarte greu de recunoscut. Convulsiile epileptice survin. cu toate ca unii bolnavi mentioneaza o "aura" inainte de inceperea convulsiilor. Convulsiile in timpul carora bolnavul cade sau muschii devin rigizi (tepeni) sau isi pierde controlul sunt usor de recunoscut. apar probleme emotionale. Altele constau in cateva spasme musculare. atunci cand boala este incomplet controlata terapeutic si asociaza si alte semne neurologice.partiale . fara o avertizare in prealabil. de mare ajutor este siguranta oferita de cei din jur si atitudinea sociala optimista. iar performantele de orice nivel profesional. Unele convulsii se manifesta printr-o privire fixa si pierduta timp de cateva secunde. scorurile la testele de inteligenta sunt la limita normalului. in absenta leziunilor neurologice. sau in caderea capului din pozitia normala sau perceptia unor mirosuri (de obicei neplacute) si unor imagini pe care doar bolnavul le simte.sfatulmedicului.

USA Source :http://medical-dictionary. Definition source: http://medical-dictionary.Sursa contextului: http://www.dureri de cap cu caracter de migrena .com/epilepsy Definition : any of a group of syndromes characterized by paroxysmal transient disturbances of brain function that may be manifested as episodic impairment or loss of consciousness.com/remedii_naturiste/epilepsie. Acestea includ: . dar nefiind de fapt convulsii.ticuri .thefreedictionary. symptoms are due to disturbance of the electrical activity of the brain.tulburari de somn .spasme musculare . from Latin epil psia. from Greek epil psis.intervale de timp de apnee (fara respiratie Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : EPILEPSY ID Language : English ID Country : UK .com/epilepsy Nota bene: French épilepsie. psychic or sensory disturbances.convulsii psihogenice .terapii-naturiste.htm Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Mai multe conditii pot fi asemanatoare convulsiilor. abnormal motor phenomena. from .thefreedictionary. or perturbation of the autonomic nervous system.

com/Epilepsy . to seize. The term “symptomatic epilepsy” was used to designate epileptic manifestations that were either residual symptoms of organic brain damage (for example.] Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: Context: „The various forms of epilepsy were traditionally divided into two groups.com/epilepsy Context : „Epilepsy surgery is an option for patients whose seizures remain resistant to treatment with anticonvulsant medications who also have symptomatic localization-related epilepsy. or cause. as a result of injury) or symptoms of a particular disease (such as a tumor or cysticercosis of the brain).epilambanein. and epilepsy proper (an independent disease” Context source: http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary. The goal for these procedures is total control of epileptic seizures. Cases of unknown origin. Because of the many different causes of epilepsy. some investigators consider it preferable to subdivide all epileptic seizures into epileptic reactions (solitary attacks provoked by an extreme stimulus. epil p-. brain tumor). epileptic syndromes (epileptic seizures accompanying various diseases—for example.[31] although anticonvulsant medications may still be required” Context source http://encyclopedia. a focal abnormality that can be located and therefore removed. to lay hold of : epi-. were classified as “true” epilepsy (also called idiopathic or essential epilepsy). epi.+ lambanein.thefreedictionary. such as intoxication).

Denness as the President and Chief Executive Officer (CEO). prin susceptibilitate. 2011) — The Epilepsy Foundation announces Richard P. D. prin orgoliu exagerat. Termen:PARANOIA Limba termenului: Romnă Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://dexonline.C. prin idei fixe. prin mania persecuției..ro/definitie/paranoia Definiţie : Nume generic pentru un grup de boli psihice cronice care se manifestă prin lipsă de logică în gndire. prin halucinații etc. . effective today. Designation status : Official 20. (February 09.Area of use: Medicine Commentary : Washington.

Aceste scopuri nu sunt insa in concordanta cu posibilitatile reale ale subiectilor. cu situatia lor sociala sau cu raporturile lor cu cei din jur.ro/definitie/paranoia. paranoia. eroare de rationament si suspiciozitate. 2. orgoliu. paranoïa. Cum se manifesta ? In cele mai multe cazuri este vorba de persoane cu un comportament apparent normal. egocentrism. Întruct se așteaptă permanent la ostilitate. în cadrul medical. neincredere. Nota bene : Din fr. Structura morbida pare sa apara tocmai pe linia obiectivelor si scopurilor personale. gr. ele au fost definite ca avnd două elemente centrale: 1. Mai exact.org/wiki/Paranoia Context : „Paranoia se dezvolta pe terenul unei predispozitii constitutionale in care egocentrismul si inadaptabilitatea sunt trasaturi innascute servind ca premise si explicatie pentru intreaga structura deliranta. Individul crede că se întmplă sau se va întmpla ceva rău.Sursa definiţiei: http://dexonline. Structura personalitatii lor este caracterizata prin rigiditate. hipertrofia eu-lui.wikipedia. paranoicul ajunge ușor să sufere de mania persecuției Sursa contextului: http://ro. Pe acest fond.sindrom paranoid Sinonim: delir Context : „Recent. orice traire . nebunie Corespondent engleză: paranoia Concept generic: boala pshica Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: sindrom halucinatoriu Hiponim: paranoia halucinanta. Individul crede că persecutorul are intenția de a-i face rău. bine orientate si capabile sa-si realizeze scopurile propuse. termenul este folosit pentru a descrie deluzii în care persoana afectată crede că este persecutată. Bolnavii au urmatoarele trasaturi: inadaptabilitate. ridiculizare și trădare din partea celorlalți.

” Sursa contextului: http://sanatate. urmariti. În tentativa sa originală de a clasifica bolile mentale. Pacientii devin impenetrabili. caracterizat prin premise false si impenetrabilitatea la critica. Notabil. dar fără o deteriorare aparentă a capacității intelectuale și fără alte caracteristici ale dementia praecox. Bolnavii nu pot intelege neconcordanta ideilor lor cu ale celorlalti si ajung sa se considere persecutati. De exemplu. Unii ajung sa creada ca au de indeplinit misiuni importante. gndul nu trebuia să fie persecutor pentru a fi clasificat ca paranoic. O persoană. Cele mai fecvente premise false sunt furnizate de interpretari si intuitii deliranteale prezentului sau ale trecutului sub forma iluziilor de memorie. ar putea fi diagnosticată cu schizofrenie paranoică fără un delir de persecuție. Astfel se creeaza sistemul delirant.ele.ro/Paranoia_--a7066. altii ca sunt iubiti de persoane distinse sau ca sunt inselati. inselati. ca ostilitate.emotionala sau dorinta nerealizata focalizeaza nejustificat intreaga lor activitate in scopul satisfacerii acestor dorinte. Kraepelin a folosit termenul paranoia pură pentru a descrie o condiție unde era prezent delirul. boala redenumită mai apoi schizofrenie. nu receptioneaza si nu retin din realitate decat acele evenimente care se potrivesc cu interpretarile lor. cum ar fi gndul că ar fi un agent SRI sau un membru cunoscut al familiei regale . deci orice gnd delirant putea fi clasificat ca fiind paranoic. în definiția sa. un delir nu trebuie să aibă ca și caracteristici suspiciunea sau frica pentru a fi clasificat ca fiind paranoic. prin simplul fapt că delirul se referă la ei însăși. Chiar și în prezent. Raspunsul bolnavilor la atitudinea potrivnica pe care o iau cei din jur fata de comportamanetul lor patologic determina inadaptarea lor progresiva si recurgerea la actiuni antisociale. o persoană care are gndul delirant că este o figură religioasă importantă ar fi clasificată de Kraepelin ca suferind de "paranoia pură".htmlmedicina Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Termenul paranoia a fost folosit pentru a descrie o boală mentală în care o gndire delirantă este singura sau cea mai importantă caracteristică. Orice piedica este interpretata ca o nedreptate.

this characterization was used to describe any delusional state. Historically.com/paranoia Definition : Paranoia is a thought process thought to be heavily influenced by anxiety or fear. often to the point of irrationality and delusion.Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : PARANOIA ID Language : English ID Country : UK . from paranoos. mind. noos.thefreedictionary. USA Source : http://encyclopedia. beyond. see para-1 + nous. demented : para-. Paranoid thinking typically includes persecutory beliefs concerning a perceived threat towards oneself. Definition source: http://encyclopedia. madness. Generic concept :disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: Hyponim: .thefreedictionary.com/paranoia Nota bene: [Greek.

persecution complex Context: „The following medical conditions are some of the possible causes of Paranoia. but is not true paranoia. suspicion.  Paranoid disorders  Drug induced  Toxic states  Binswanger's disease Context source: http://www. so ask your doctor about your symptoms.people are diverse and some people have more paranoid beliefs or beliefs in conspiracy theories than other people.com/symptoms/paranoia/causes. delusion.htm Context :„PARANOIA: The Conspiracy Reader Volume 1 Were the Apollo moon landings hoaxed? Is Osama Bin Laden really dead? Who wrote the occult grimoire.  Cannabis intoxication  Marijuana intoxication  Schizophrenia  Schizoid personality disorder  Schizoaffective disorder  Delusional disorders  Social phobia . 24 authors and interviewees discuss the monumental conspiracies of our time” Context source http://www.Synonym: obsessio n.paranoiamagazine. Necronomicon? In this new PARANOIA compendium.  Normal personality .com/ .wrongdiagnosis. There are likely to be other possible causes.excessive concern about other people "watching" or "judging" is like paranoia.

iluzii etc. paranoid has become attached to a diverse set of presentations. "As a noun. J. the term crops up causing trouble as the contentious but stubbornly persistent concept of paraphrenia. to paranoid personality—not to mention a motley collection of paranoid 'psychoses'. délire Corespondent engleză: delirium Concept generic: boala pshica Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: tulburare de constiinta Hiponim: delir cronic Sinonim: iluzie. întlnită în unele boli mintale. Even when abbreviated down to the prefix para-.edu. aiurări. and whose clinical features. course.edu. 'reactions'.ro/definitie/delir Definiţie : Tulburare a conștiinței. Employed as an adjective.ro/definitie/delir Nota bene : Din fr. and virtually every other aspect of which is controversial. Termen:DELIR Limba termenului: Romnă Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://dictionare. through paranoid depression.. paranoia denotes a disorder which has been argued in and out of existence.Area of use: Medicine Commentary : According to clinical psychologist P. în stări febrile Sursa definiţiei: http://dictionare. McKenna. boundaries. from paranoid schizophrenia.halucinatie ." Designation status : Official 21. and 'states'—and this is to restrict discussion to functional disorders. manifestată prin halucinații.

romedic.ro/referate/Starile_confuzionale_acute _si_delirul2006-09-15.e-referate. invadatorii din spatial comic au implantat electrozi in creierul pacientului. insomnie. Tulburarile de atentie. nici o cicatrice) . o convingere intro idee falsa sustinuta ferm in pofida probelor si dovezilor obiective si evidente in sens contrar si in pofida faptului ca alti membri ai culturii respective nu impartasesc credinta respectiva si care trebuie astfel interpretat in functie de traditiile in care a crescut persoana. Astfel.html Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Este foarte important de diferentiat daca este sau nu este “ bizar” un delir. caracterizata prin perioade de agitatie. Sursa contextului: http://www. sau ca organele sale interne au fost inlocuite de niste forte extraterestre printr-o operatie care nu a lasat nici o urma. Delirurile care nu sunt bizare (nonbizare) se situeaza in sfera posibilului (de .” Sursa contextului: http://www. Agitatia din delir variaza in mod caracteristic si poate alterna cu o stare confuzionala discreta. hiperactivitate motorie si stimulare vegetativa. un delir este considerat bizar daca sunt de neinteles. daca niciodata nu se pot intampla si daca nu provine din experienta zilnica a persoanei afectate (de exemplu. cu toate ca el descrie de fapt o varietate clinica distincta a sindromului confuzional.ro/delir-tulburare-deliranta Context : „Delirul: Termenul de delirium este sinonim starii confuzionale acute. halucinatii vizuale.Context : „Delirul reprezinta convingerea absoluta a persoanei care nu poate fi combatuta cu argumente logice si care nu cedeaza in ciuda evidentelor. hiperactivitate mentala. in special pentru a face diferenta intre tulburarea deliranta si schizofrenie. hiperactivitate la anumiti stimuli (zgomote brutale). specifice sindromului confuzional sunt prezente in ciuda unei vigilente aparente.

com/delirium Definition : Delirium is a state of mental confusion that develops quickly and usually fluctuates in intensity.thefreedictionary. este inselat de catre sotie) Delirul poate fi sistematizat (cand temele delirante se leaga intr-un sistem delirant care pare coerent.com/delirium Nota bene: from Latin: madness.thefreedictionary. insanity. furrow Generic concept :disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: madness. literally: to swerve from a furrow. raving. the delirious state often subsides as the severity of the fever . rage. If caused by a fever. ecstasy. hence be crazy. from DE. derangement. passion. fever.exemplu este urmarit de straini.+ līra ridge. lunacy. USA Source : http://medical-dictionary. intalnit in schizofrenie). frenzy. Definition source: http://medical-dictionary. este otravit. hysteria Context: „The duration of delirium is typically affected by the underlying cause. situatie intalnita in paranoia) si nesistematizat (cand temele delirante nu se leaga logic intre ele. fury. from dēlīrāre.” Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : DELIRIUM ID Language : English ID Country : UK .

it may be followed by a "loss of memory and reasoning power.com/Delirium Context : „Delirium involves a quick change between mental states (for example. less alert at night) • Changes in feeling (sensation) and perception • Changes in level of consciousness or awareness • Changes in movement (for example. however. In many such cases. from lethargy to agitation and back to lethargy).subsides. may be slow moving or hyperactive) • Changes in sleep patterns. However. Symptoms include: • Changes in alertness (usually more alert in the morning. with cognitively normal patients who suffer an episode of delirium carrying an increased risk of dementia in the years that follow. delirium undoubtedly does not have a causal nature. of a previously unsuspected (but well-compensated) state of minimal brain dysfunction (early dementia” Context source: http://encyclopedia." Recent studies bear this out. but merely functions as a temporary unmasking with stress.thefreedictionary. Barrough said in 1583 that if delirium resolves. it has long been suspected that in some cases delirium persists for months and that it may even be associated with permanent decrements in cognitive function. drowsiness • Confusion (disorientation) about time or place • Decrease in short-term memory and recall ○ Unable to remember events since delirium began (anterograde amnesia) ○ Unable to remember events before delirium (retrograde amnesia) • Disrupted or wandering attention ○ Inability to think or behave with purpose ○ Problems concentrating .

as delirium becomes more severe. A mild disability to focus attention may result in only a disability in solving the most complex problems. all symptoms may occur with varying degrees of intensity.nlm.• Disorganized thinking ○ Speech that doesn't make sense (incoherent) ○ Inability to stop speech patterns or behaviors • Emotional or personality changes ○ Anger ○ Agitation ○ Anxiety ○ Apathy ○ Depression ○ Euphoria ○ Irritability • • Incontinence Movements triggered by changes in the nervous system (psychomotor restlessness) Context source: http://www. it disrupts other mental functions. and capable of coordinated movements.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000740. but otherwise may have no difficulty with basic activities of daily living. and may be so severe that it borders on unconsciousness or a vegetative state.htm Area of use:Medicine Commentary : Since delirium may occur in very many grades of severity. However. As an extreme example. In the latter state. a person may be awake and immediately aware and responsive to many stimuli. a mathematician with the flu may be unable to perform creative work. . but unable to perform any meaningful mental processing task at.nih.

ro/definitie/fobie Nota bene : Din fr. Termen: FOBIE Limba termenului: Romnă Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://dexonline.ro/definitie/fobie Definiţie : Stare patologică de neliniște și de frică obsedantă.Designation status : Official 22. http://dexonline. phobie Corespondent engleză: phobia Concept generic: boala pshica Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: simptom nevrotic Hiponim: agorafobie Sinonim: Repulsie . lipsită de o cauză obiectivă sau precisă Sursa definiţiei:.

In termeni de specialitate fobia ar putea fi definita ca stare permanenta de teama fata de diverse situatii. mai exact. Pteronofobia – teama de a fi gadilat cu pana: Pteronofobia reprezinta teama de a nu fi gadilat cu pana. au existat nenumarate cazuri de oameni ingropati de vii. Aceasta se pare ca provine pe fondul unor traume din copilarie legate de gadilat. Daca un bebelus este gadilat constant. care desi ar putea parea amuzante sau ciudate. pana la a dezvolta o fobie. Panfobia – teama de… tot Panfobia mai este cunoscuta sub denumirile de Pantofobia. Exista fobii "clasice". al carei catalizator poate fi orice obiect fin. devenind un obstacol real. obiecte. destul de cunoscute majoritatii.Context : Fobiile nu mai sunt demult o necunoscuta pentru lumea medicala. De multe ori insa aceasta teama poate trece de limita suportabilului. tot sau. Acest lucru a contribuit de altfel si la aparitia miturilor legate de strigoi. Personele care sufera de aceasta boala se simt mereu persecutate.. de tot si de nimic. precum arahnofobia si exista fobii rare.. dar mai cu seama penele. sunt intr-o permanenta stare de tensiune si teama. activitati sau persoane. de cele mai multe ori descrisa ca amenintare din partea unui “rau” . Inainte ca medicina moderna sa evolueze si sa se poata stabili cu exactitate daca o persoana a decedat cu adevarat. Tafofobia – teama de a fi ingropat de viu: Desi ar putea parea nejustificata. aceasta teama are o motivatie destul de logica. Insa de la a te gandi la asa ceva. este o distanta foarte mare… de ordin psihologic. pe masura ce creste poate dezvolta aceasta fobie. sunt cat se poate de problematice. Panofobia sau Omnifobia si reprezinta teama de.

de la superstitie la fobie se pare ca drumul nu este foarte lung. Se poate ca unele dintre femeile care nu accepta sa faca sex cu lumina aprinsa. perceptii noi.. sa aiba aceasta fobie. odata cu inregistrarea unor senzatii. Se pare ca teama in cauza este intens corelata cu tulburarile sexuale. reprezentand conditia . aceasta fobie chiar exista. Aceasta fobie reprezinta si un simptom pentru schizofrenie. Gimnofobia – teama de nuditate Reprezinta teama de a fi vazut gol si de a vedea alte persoane dezbracate. Paraskavedekatriafobia – teama de Vineri 13 Data de 13 este asociata de superstitiosi pericolelor si este considerata o zi a ghinionului. Sa speram totusi ca specialistii nu vor descoperi realmente o legatura intre ghinion si cifra 13. Neofobia – teama de noutate Este de obicei generata de aparitia lucrurilor noi. insa poate avea impact si la nivel senzitiv.. Ergasiofobia – teama de munca O fobie care pare sa afecteze din ce in ce mai multe persoane este teama de munca. Astfel. chiar si in situatiile in care acest lucru se considera normal. Din punct de vedere medical.necunoscut. In context generalizat se poate trasa o legatura intre persoanele conservatoare si aceast tip de fobie.

Desi nu reprezinta un lucru neobisnuit in cazul copiilor. or of a physical situation. Cromofobia – teama de culori Oamenii care sufera de cromofobie sunt nevoiti sa stea departe de tot ceea ce este colorat. such as an animal or dirt. De cele mai multe ori adultii nu admit o potentiala aversiune fata de clovni. phobos. Sursa contextului: http://www.ro/articol/Top/2299/Top-10-Cele-maibizare-fobii. such as meeting strangers or leaving the familiar setting of the home..ro/psihoterapie-la-distanta-0N17978 Arie de utilizare : medicina Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term :PHOBIA ID Language : English ID Country : UK . such as heights and open or closed spaces Definition source: http://medical-dictionary. pentru ca ii ingrozeste. irrational.. Cam greu intr-o lume multicolora. fear Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: Hyponim: .psihologica a multor oameni.html Context : „Psihoterapie la distanta Sursa contextului: http://www.thefreedictionary. fiind perfect constienti ca este ceva irational. s-a dovedit ca aceasta fobie poate afecta si adolescentii sau adultii. Coulrofobia – teama de clovni.yuppy. and intense fear of a specific object.com/Phobia Nota bene: Etymology: Gk. De altfel.romedic. se pare ca aceasta teama reprezinta un simptom pentru alte boli mintale mai grave.com/Phobia Definition : an obsessive.thefreedictionary. of an activity. USA Source : http://medical-dictionary.

and cognitive symptoms (particularly thoughts such as “I'm going to die” or “I'm going to make a fool of myself”). affecting approximately 7% of individuals. When persons encounter the phobic situation or phobic object. Kids who have a phobia will be afraid of something every time they see or experience it. shaking. physical symptoms (such as racing heart. Social phobia may be the most common kind. The tremendous relief that escape from the phobic situation provides is believed to reinforce the phobia and to fortify the individual's tendency to avoid the situation in the future. phobic neurosis Context: „Phobias occur in over 10% of the general population. or nausea).org/kid/feeling/emotion/phobias. They won't just be afraid once or twice.thefreedictionary. Context source: http://encyclopedia2. It is also a kind of fear that doesn't go away.html .Synonym: phobic disorder.com/phobia Context : „A phobia is different because it is an extremely strong fear of a situation or thing. hot or cold flashes. Kids who have phobias often go out of their way to avoid the situation or thing that scares them. they typically experience a phobic reaction consisting of extreme fearfulness. Context source http://kidshealth. These usually subside quickly when the individual is removed from the situation.

Certain kinds of antidepressants and anxiolytic medications are often helpful. For example.dex-online-ro. Sursa definiţiei: http://www.htm. and lead to reduced anxiety. pipăite. auzite.ro/cautari/agnozie. Nota bene : Din fr. It is not entirely clear how these medications exert their antiphobic effects. such as propranolol.ro/cautari/agnozie. Agnozia poate . agnosie. beta-adrenergic blocking agents. Designation status : Official 23.dex-online-ro. Termen:AGNOZIE Limba termenului: Romnă Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://www. lower heart rate and reduce tremulousness. although it is believed that they affect levels of neurotransmitters in regions of the brain that are thought to be important in mediating emotions such as fear.Area of use: Medicine Commentary : Medications are sometimes used to augment cognitive and exposure therapies.htm Definiţie : Pierdere sau tulburare a funcţiilor intelectuale de recunoaştere a celor văzute. Corespondent engleză: agnosia Concept generic: boala pshica Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: tulburare de recunoastere Hiponim: agnozie tactila Sinonim: asimbolie Context : „Prin agnozie intelegem incapacitatea de a recunoaste obiecte uzuale in pofida pastrarii intacte a organelor de simt si a unei inteligente normale.

agnozia auditiva si agnozia tactila. and visual.psihoterapie.Agnoziile sunt mai complexe decat par la prima vedere.ceea ce face ca unii autori sa le considere.” Sursa contextului: .com/Agnosia Definition : inability to recognize the import of sensory impressions.thefreedictionary. Sursa contextului: http://www. olfactory. tactile.pentrul ca ele nu implica numai analizatorul afectat ci si procesele de cunoastere si experienta acumulata de subiect. a + gnosis. the varieties correspond with several senses and are distinguished as auditory (acoustic).thefreedictionary. USA Source : http://medical-dictionary.html Context : „Agnoziile sunt prezente atat in clinica neurologica cat si in cea pshiatrica.net/dictionar/a/agnozie. gustatory.Dictionar de pshiatrie’’Constantin Gorgos Arie de utilizare : medicina Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : AGNOSIA ID Language : English ID Country : UK .elemente patologice de granita’’situate intre neurologie si pshiatrie. Cele mai des intalnite sunt agnozia vizuala..com/Agnosia Nota bene: Etymology: Gk. Definition source: http://medical-dictionary.afecta oricare din functiile senzoriale.. not knowledge Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: .

Termen:DEMENTA Limba termenului: Romnă Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://dictionar. Different types of therapies can help to reverse the effects of Agnosia.asp?articlekey=39283 Area of use: Medicine Commentary : For all practical purposes.com/agnosia Context : „Charcot-Wilbrand syndrome: Loss of dreaming after a stroke.ro/dementa Definiţie : Demenţa este caracterizată printr-un declin progresiv al abilităţilor intelectuale şi sociale. or hereditary. . depending on its etiology Designation status : Official 24. Context source: http://encyclopedia. dementia.romedic. In more technical terms the syndrome is characterized by visual agnosia and the inability to revisualise images. Patients who experience dramatic recovery from blindness experience significant to total Agnosia.thefreedictionary.Context: „Agnosia can result from strokes. or other neurological disorders. Patients may improve if information is presented in other modalities than the damaged one. brain infection.ro/ghid-terapeutic/dementa/. Un număr de afecţiuni care determină deteriorarea progresivă în orice parte a sistemului nervos (tulburări neurodegenerative). Named for the French founder of modern neurology Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) and the German neuro-ophthalmologist Hermann Wilbrand” Context source: http://www. Some forms of agnosia have been found to be genetic. occupational therapy or speech therapy can improve agnosia. Sursa definiţiei: http://www.medterms.sanatateatv. It may also be trauma-induced by a head injury. there is no direct cure. In some cases.com/script/main/art.

Cu toate acestea. persoanele cu demenţa îşi pot pierde abilităţi de bază precum limbajul sau alimentatul Sursa contextului: http://www. el sau ea poate afişa furie şi frustrare. Pe măsură ce demenţa evoluează. Sursa contextului: http://www. chiar dacă aceştia nu sunt capabili să le exprime în cuvinte.sanatateatv. Acest lucru poate fi foarte frustrant pentru persoana şi a lui sau ei de cei dragi.Nota bene : Din Corespondent engleză: insanity Concept generic: boala pshica Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiponim: dementa senila Sinonim: alienaţie mintală Context : „Variază de la individ la individ. a capacităţii de gndire.babyboomercaretaker.ro/ghid-terapeutic/dementa Context : „Cnd un om in varsta suferă de demenţă. stilul de viaţă. depinznd de moştenirea genetică. de raţionament şi de limbaj. Cercetatorii au descoperit ca terapia prin artă pentru demenţă este un mod fantastic pentru persoanele care suferă de această tulburare de a se exprima. el sau ea nu numai isi pierde capacitatea lor de a vorbi. dar îşi pierd de asemenea. acest lucru nu trebuie să fie cazul cu un iubit. pot apărea modificări de personalitate şi comportament anormale. Folosind arta persoana va fi capabila să exprime ceea ce simte el sau ea. capacitatea lor de a comunica cu oamenii. Unele dintre caracteristicile generale ale demenţei sunt: diminuarea sau pierderea memoriei. Uneori.com/Romanian/senior- . nivelul cultural şi experienţa personală de viaţă. Ca persoana nu este în măsură să pună gndurile şi sentimentele în cuvinte.

Demenţa este caracterizată prin pierderea abilităţilor cognitive şi emoţionale. Insane.thefreedictionary. deseori trăiesc singure. Simptomele demenţei pot fi evaluate în trei sectoare: cognitiv. Bărbaţii suferind de demenţă. Structura familiei în majoritatea ţărilor europene reflectă că persoane în vrstă văduve de sex feminin. Definition source: http://medical-dictionary. există mai multe femei suferind de demenţă dect bărbaţi. suficient de severe ca să interfereze cu funcţionarea de zi cu zi şi calitatea vieţii.thefreedictionary.com/Insanity Definition : legal term for mental illness of such degree that the individual is not responsible for his or her acts. dar femeile suferind de demenţă sunt deseori văduve.health/elderly-disease/dementia/index. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term :INSANITY ID Language : English ID Country : UK . comportamental şi motor. Soţiile sunt deseori mai tinere dect soţii lor.html Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Datorită faptului că femeile în toate ţările europene trăiesc mai mult dect bărbaţii.com/Insanity Nota bene: Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: . USA Source : http://medical-dictionary. deseori sunt căsătoriţi.

witnessed the end of the progressive ideas of the Greeks and . or folk medicine to rid deranged persons of evil spirits or bizarre behavior. In ancient Israel it was held that disturbances of the mind or emotions were caused by "supernatural forces" or an angry God. and the Jewish prophets were thought to be psychologically abnormal because they acted in strange ways. for example. however. believing that afflictions of the mind did not differ from diseases of the body. They put forth the idea that strong emotions could lead to bodily ailments. and to support such codified into law the principle of insanity as a mitigation of responsibility for criminal acts. in particular the precursor to contemporary practice. The Old Testament is replete with references to kings and commoners that go insane. They saw mental and physical illness as a result of natural causes and an imbalance in bodily humors. dementia Context: „Madness. as a punishment for sin or failure to follow the commandments. departed markedly from the norm in appearance.Hyponim: Synonym: lunacy. herbal mixtures. The Middle Ages. mania. Primitive cultures turned to witch doctors or shamans to apply magic. The Romans also supported humane treatment of the mentally ill. The Greeks replaced concepts of the supernatural with a secular view. Hippocrates frequently wrote that an excess of black bile resulted in irrational thinking and behavior. madness. and foretold of future events that few understood. Romans made further contributions to psychiatry. has been recognized throughout history in every known society. the non-legal word for insanity. the basis of today’s theory of psychosomatic illness.

Pictures from this era portrayed patients bound with rope or chains.com/hamlet/q-and-a/tags/insanity Area of use: Medicine Commentary : Insanity is no longer considered a medical diagnosis but is a legal term in the United States. the French and the British introduced humane treatment of the clinically insane. circa 1773.com/insanity Context : „Hamlet actually slips into insanity at certain moments in the play. often including such conditions as Speech disorder. Context source: http://encyclopedia. also known as Bedlam. schizophrenia. or restrained in straitjackets. which began admitting the mentally ill in 1403. stemming from its original use in common law. speech impediments. Virginia. Is this true. Designation status : Official .thefreedictionary. bipolar disorder and other psychotic disorders. though the criteria for diagnosis and placement in an asylum were considerably looser than today. or is Hamlet merely play-acting insanity” Context source http://www. epilepsy and depression.enotes. often to beds or walls. Before the 19th century these hospitals were used to isolate the mentally ill or the socially ostracized from society rather than cure them or maintain their health. The disorders formerly encompassed by the term covered a wide range of mental disorders now diagnosed as organic brain syndromes.Romans.During the 18th century. The first American asylum was built in Williamsburg. Europe's oldest asylum is the Bethlem Royal Hospital of London.

Sursa definiţiei: DICTIONAR DE PSHIOLOGIE. FRANCOISE PAROT.ro/despre_nevroza/#ixzz1EVXyuUVA .BUCURESTI.ROLAND DORON.FRANCOISE PAROT. Termen:NEVROZA EXPERIMENTALA Limba termenului: Romnă Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : DICTIONAR DE PSHIOLOGIE. Sursa contextului: http://articole. obtinuta la caine de catre Pavlov. bineanteles intr-un mod mai complex.25.EDITURA HUMANITAS. acesta a dedus ca si la om.BUCURESTI.famouswhy.ROLAND DORON.EDITURA HUMANITAS.1999 Nota bene : Din Corespondent engleză: Concept generic: boala pshica Categoria gramaticala : grup nominal Hiperonim: nevroza Hiponim: Sinonim: tulburare de comportament Context : „Dupa nevroza experimentala.1999 Definiţie : Perturbare de comportament care rezulta din manevre experimentale. se petrec aceleasi dereglari ale functionarii scoartei cerebrale privind cele doua procese fundamentale: excitatia si inhibitia.

precum expunerea la discrimari depasind capacitatile animalului sau eruperea unui factor traumatizant.” Sursa contextului: DICTIONAR DE PSHIOLOGIE.ROLAND DORON.Pavlov a aplicat-o la perturbari ale conditionarilor realizate sau la o dificultate de a stabili noi conditionari. 1999 Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu:Pavlov a observat formele diferitepe care le putea lua nevroza experimentala in functie de tipologia cainelui si a fost surprins de persistenta ei. BUCURESTI.Context : „I.El a vazut in aceasta un model experimental al dezordinilor patologice ale comportamentului la om. USA Source : http://www.com/facts/dictionary?experimental+ neurosis Nota bene: Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun . Definition source: http://www. EDITURA HUMANITAS.com/facts/dictionary?experimental+neurosis Definition : A behaviour disorder produced experimentally. FRANCOISE PAROT.ca urmare a anumitor conditii experimentale.mondofacto. as when an organism is required to make a discrimination of extreme difficulty and "breaks down" in the process. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : EXPERIMENTAL NEUROSIS ID Language : English ID Country : UK .mondofacto.

html Context : „In the fromework of the research on conditioning conducted by Ivan PAVLOV. in the general behaviour of our animals (dogs).PH.a experimental neurosis is a state of great agitation and confusion caused by the inability of a dog to make a meaningful choice between two similar stimuli. Whether or not the animal breaks down and in what form depends upon the type of nervous system Context source: http://www. ENCYCLOPEDIA.com/pavlov/chap-46. The factors which have produced neuroses in our animals are: first. and in various phases of the hypnotic state.heretical. castration. FRANK J. months. collision (direct consequential) of the two opposing nervous processes. For us the higher nervous activity is manifested chiefly in the system of conditioned positive and negative reflexes to any stimulus and partially. thirdly. Different combinations of these symptoms give entirely distinct pictures. lasting weeks.” Context source : THE FAMILY MENTAL HEALTH. fourthly and finally.BRUNO. in chaotic nervous activity. Neuroses are expressed in a weakening of both processes separately or together. a strain of the inhibitory process. but to a lesser degree. secondly. and even years. stimuli too strong or too complex.Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: Context: „ AS NEUROSIS we understand a chronic deviation of the higher nervous activity.D. Area of use: Medicine .

anxiété. -atis. Acesta poate sa indice prezenta unei tulburari de anxietate. Corespondent engleză: anxiety Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: tulburari anxioase Hiponim: Sinonim: frica.htm.ro/cautari/anxietate. care nu este justificat prin prezenta unei situatii periculoase.dex-online-ro. Dar unii oameni traiesc o frica foarte intensa si irationala. si care ne ajuta in confruntarea cu pericolul.Commentary : The important point about a experimental neurosis is that it demonstrates that a pathological condition is an organism can be induced by experience alone. Sursa contextului: http://www.ro/cautari/anxietate.dex-online-ro. anxietas. de aşteptare încordată. care este o emotie umana normala. jenă în respiraţie Sursa definiţiei: http://www. însoţită de palpitaţii.ro/anxietate . Nota bene : Din fr. O persoana anxioasa continua sa simta o neliniste permanenta care interfereaza si cu viata sa cotidiana. Insumand cele spuse mai sus.angoasa Context : „Fiecare dintre noi a trecut prin experiente de frica intensa. anxietatea resimtita de o persoana este o frica foarte intensa si nejustificata de un pericol adevarat.stare de panica.htm Definiţie : Stare de nelinişte. Designation status : Official 26. Termen:ANXIETATE Limba termenului: Romnă Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://www.sfatulmedicului. lat.

Centrul anxietatii poate fi reprezentat de prieteni. sau in cazul mai multor situatii. munca. De aceea oamenilor caracterizate prin fobie sociala le este frica sa faca ceva ce le-ar putea umili in fata publicului – de ex.Context : „Anxietate generalizata. ulterior poate sa ajunga la izolare.irascibilitate si iritabilitate usoara. Fobii specifice . . Cei care sufera de fobie sociala poate sa simta frica in cazul unei singure. -insomnie. sau orice alta situatie sociala incluzand comportamentul la petreceri sau/si la locul de munca. bani sau ratarea unei intalniri importante (de fapt tot ceea ce este important persoanei poate sa capteze centrul atentiei ca focus al anxietatii). care. . a folosi toalete publice.probleme de concentrare. In plus persoana mai simte una sau mai multe dintre urmatoarele simptome: .oboseala. sanatate. Aceasta frica poate sa conduca la evitarea situatiilor respective. familie. Vorbim despre anxietate generalizata daca grija exagerata este prezenta in aproape fiecare zi. (nu se simte capabil sa gandeasca) Fobia sociala: Consta in frica de evaluarea si judecata negativa a altor oameni. a manca sau a bea in public. Este frica exagerata si grija legata de lucruri comune. si daca persoana are dificultati in controlarea anxietatii. timp de 6 luni. a vorbi in public.

In orice caz nevoia lor de a evita obiectul. Atacurile de panica pot sa nu fie legate de o situatie anume. involuntare si nedorite. Tulburarea de panica poate sa fie diagnosticata daca atacurile de panica sunt frecvente si exista si o frica intensa si persistenta de aparitia unui alt atac de panica. In acelasi timp se simt si fortate sa efectueze ritualuri mentale si comportamentale. paianjeni. Tulburarea obsesiv-compulsiva (ocd) Oamenii care au aceasta tulburare au ganduri (ex.O persoana cu fobie specifica simte o frica persistenta si irationala de un obiect specific sau de o situatie. in orice caz anxietatea resimtita este exagerata si tulburatoare. sange. ca de ex. Frica poate sa apara fata de anumite animale. daca a incuiat . Adultii care sufera de fobii de obicei sunt constienti de faptul ca frica lor este exagerata si irationala. situatia sau persoana care stau la baza fricii poate sa le restranga viata. trebuie sa aiba circa 4 atacuri de panica lunar intr-o perioada mai indelungata. dar. furtuna. care sunt mai rar intalnite. ci pot aparea spontan. locuri sau persoane. Pentru ca o persoana sa fie diagnosticata cu tulburare de panica. sau la alte obiecte si situatii. si poate sa fie atat de intensa incat persoana respectiva va manifesta simptome fizice intense sau atac de panica. ace. spalatul excesiv al mainilor. Tulburare de panica: Atacurile de panica sunt comune in populatia umana comparativ cu tulburarile de panica. O femeie are senzatia ca sotul ei o insala fara a avea insa nici un indiciu) sau impulsuri (obsesii) intruzive. sau verificarea repetitiva a anumitor lucruri (de ex. dusuri excesiv de frecvente (de mai multe ori pe zi). Aceste fobii se pot referi la caini.

Tulburare de stres post-traumatic (ptsd) Apare dupa un eveniment extrem de traumatic.thefreedictionary.thefreedictionary. abuz fizic) sau poate sa fie intamplat in trecut (ex. De obicei sunt constienti de irationalitatea si natura excesive a comportamentelor sau a gandurilor lor. Reactii de suferinta. care afecteaza in mod dramatic viata lor de zi cu zi. Sursa contextului: http://www. inclusiv locuri si situatii similare. dar sunt mult mai multi cei care sufera simptome suparatoare de stres sau anxietate. Definition source: http://www. De obicei oamenii incep sa evite situatiile sau evenimentele care le reamintesc de trauma. a patient has an anxiety disorder if normal psychological functioning is disrupted or if anxiety persists without an . accident de masina. Evenimentul poate sa fie recent (ex. sau chiar si mai stresante decat evenimentul original.sfatulmedicului. prelungite si intruzive. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : ANXIETY ID Language : English ID Country : UK . sau daca a stins aragazul).com/anxiety Definition : state of apprehension and fear resulting from the anticipation of a threatening event or situation. care sunt la fel de. USA Source : http://www. identifiable cause. abuz sexual in copilarie).usa. Oamenii cu PTSD manifesta reactii severe.com/anxiety In psychiatry. Acestea pot sa includa ganduri sau imagini intruzive despre situatia traumatizanta.ro/anxietate Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Se estimeaza ca aproximativ 6. soc si furie sunt reactii normale dupa evenimente traumatice.5% din populatia lumii sufera sau a suferit de anxietate diagnosticata medical.

" Such conditions came under the aegis of psychiatry at the end of the 19th century and current psychiatric diagnostic criteria recognize several specific forms of the disorder. muscle weakness and tension. or headaches. Context source: http://encyclopedia.com/anxiety Context : „Anxiety can be a symptom of an underlying health issue such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). nausea. shortness of breath. sweating. Abnormal and pathological anxiety or fear itself may be a medical condition that falls under the blanket term "anxiety disorder. stomach aches. they are a common symptom.com/anxiety Area of use:Medicine . blood flow to the major muscle groups is increased. Panic attacks usually come without warning. solicitude Context: „Physical effects of anxiety may include heart palpitations. and immune and digestive system functions are inhibited (the fight or flight response).thefreedictionary. Context source http://encyclopedia. concern. External signs of anxiety may include pale skin. and pupillary dilation. and although the fear is generally irrational. sweating is increased. Although panic attacks are not experienced by every person who has anxiety. Recent surveys have found that as many as 18% of Americans may be affected by one or more of them.Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Synonym: worry. chest pain. heart failure. A person experiencing a panic attack will often feel as if he or she is about to die or pass out. or heart arrythmia. The body prepares to deal with a threat: blood pressure and heart rate are increased. the perception of danger is very real. fatigue. care. Someone who has anxiety might also experience it as a sense of dread or panic.thefreedictionary. trembling.

Termen:NEVROZA OBSESIVA .Commentary : The philosopher Søren Kierkegaard. and spiritual (emptiness and meaninglessness). described anxiety or dread associated with the "dizziness of freedom" and suggested the possibility for positive resolution of anxiety through the self-conscious exercise of responsibility and choosing. the last of these three types of existential anxiety. the author of Man's Search for Meaning. in The Concept of Anxiety. moral (guilt and condemnation). According to Viktor Frankl. Tillich argues that this anxiety can be accepted as part of the human condition or it can be resisted but with negative consequences. The theologian Paul Tillich characterized existential anxiety[23] as "the state in which a being is aware of its possible nonbeing" and he listed three categories for the nonbeing and resulting anxiety: ontic (fate and death). the most basic of all human wishes is to find a meaning of life to combat the "trauma of nonbeing" as death is near. i. According to Tillich. In its pathological form. In Art and Artist (1932). individuation and differentiation. is predominant in modern times while the others were predominant in earlier periods. Designation status : Official 26.e. spiritual anxiety. spiritual anxiety may tend to "drive the person toward the creation of certitude in systems of meaning which are supported by tradition and authority" even though such "undoubted certitude is not built on the rock of reality". when a person is faced with extreme mortal dangers. the psychologist Otto Rank wrote that the psychological trauma of birth was the pre-eminent human symbol of existential anxiety and encompasses the creative person's simultaneous fear of – and desire for – separation.

fixează legăturile dintre unele împrejurări inofensive pentru ei cu succesul sau insuccesul personal Sursa definiţiei: http://ro.org/wiki/Nevroz%C4%83. nevrozele sint de trei feluri: nevroza anxioasa.Limba termenului: Romnă Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://ro.util21. nevroza obsesionala sa nevroza de esec. oboseala.org/wiki/Nevroz%C4%83 Definiţie : Nevroza obsesivă (obsesivo-fobică) apare în situații conflictuale la persoanele cu trăsături de caractre alarmant ipohondrice.ziaruldeiasi. Nevroza astenica se caracterizeaza prin cefalee. la care gndirea logică predomină asupra sentimentelor.ro/produs_4839_ficus-carica- smochin-nevroza-fobica-si-obsesiva-50ml-plantmed.ro/ghidul-pentru-sanatate/nevroza-otulburare-de-care-sintem-constienti-si-pe-care-o-resimtim-in-mod-dureros~ni4743 Context : „FICUS CARICA (SMOCHIN) nevroza fobica si obsesiva 50ml PLANTMED Sursa contextului: http://farmaciaverde.wikipedia. lipsa de energie imposibilitatea concentrarii. intr-un cuvint familiar.html Arie de utilizare : medicina . Sursa contextului: http://www. Bolnavii cu nevroză obsesivă nu sunt siguri de acțiunile lor.wikipedia. stare de "astenie". Concept generic:boala Categoria gramaticala : grup nominal Hiperonim: obsesie Context : „De obicei. insomnie.

teamă și spaimă efectuate în contradicție cu rațiunea. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE NEUROSIS ID Language : English ID Country : UK . ideas. dar tipice pentru nevroza obsesivă sunt gndurile.wrongdiagnosis. and the ritualistic behavior is a learned method of reducing the anxiety. Definition source: http://www. O manifestare frecventă a obsesiilor sunt ritualurile .wrongdiagnosis. or actions that the person is unable to prevent. SYN: compulsive neurosis. însoțite de îndoieli.mișcări și acțiuni obsesive.Comentariu: Mai rare. the repetitive urges or actions vary from simple movements to complex rituals.com/medical/obsessive_ compulsive _neurosis. or ruminations often perceived by the sufferer as nonsensical. obsessional neurosis. anxiety or distress is the underlying emotion or drive state.obsessive-compulsive disorder. urges. the compulsive thoughts may consist of single words. USA Source : http://www. amintirile. mișcările obsesive. se mai caracterizează prin conștientizarea efectului patogen și au o atitudine critică față de acestea.com/medical/obsessive_compulsive_neurosis. în speranța evitării unor întmplări nefericite. care în afară de caracterul lor obsesiv.htm Definition : Obsessive compulsive neurosis: a disorder characterized by the persistent and repetitive intrusion of unwanted thoughts. htm Generic concept: disease Grammatical category: noun Context: „Some of the causes of Obsessive compulsive neurosis are included in the list below: .

 The reality may well be that there is more than one cause and this coupled with environmental factors can trigger OCD  More than half of patients suffer OCD as a life-long chronic condition with periods of exacerbation and improvement Context source: http://www. Any such work necessitates the coordination and effort of a multidisciplinary team.htm Context : „experience from multiple centers suggests a degree of optimism for the use of radiosurgery in the treatment of intractable obsessive-compulsive disorder. This theory is supported by the fact that the use of medications to increase serotonin levels (SSRI's) can alleviate symptoms in OCD sufferers.virginia.  Serotonin theory .medicine.wrongdiagnosis.” Context source: http://www. and future research in psychiatric neurosurgery is proceeding in a cautious fashion.anomalies in the brain structure.low levels of serotonin.edu/clinical/departments/ neurosurgery/gammaknife/disorders/obsessive-page Area of use: Medicine Commentary : These medical disease topics may be related to Obsessive compulsive neurosis:  cognitive behavioural therapy  personality disorder  schizophrenia Designation status : Official .com/medical/obsessive_compulsive_ neurosis. This theory is supported by the fact that brain surgery can alleviate some cases. The exact cause is still unable to be fully determined but the two main theories are:  Biological factors .

Nota bene : Din fr.edu.28.ro/definitie/schizofrenie Definiţie : Boală mintală cronică caracterizată prin slăbirea și destrămarea progresivă a funcțiilor psihice și prin pierderea contactului cu realitatea. .edu. Termen: SCHIZOFRENIE Limba termenului: Romnă Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://dictionare. Sursa definiţiei: http://dictionare. schizophrénie.ro/definitie/schizofrenie.

credinte care nu se bazeaza pe realitate (delir). mai frecvente sunt halucinatiile auditive . „Exista mai multe tipuri de schizofrenie.manifestari agresive .Corespondent engleză: schizophrenia Concept generic: boala pshica Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: psihoza endogena Hiponim: schizofrenie infantila Sinonim: dementa precoce Context : simptomele variaza. astfel ca semnele si In general.neglijarea igienei personale .neindemanare.o senzatie persistenta ca este urmarit . cum ar fi credinta pacientului ca cineva unelteste impotriva lui .comportament catatonic . aceste simptome includ: . miscari necoordonate.probleme de functionare la scoala sau la serviciu .halucinatii auditive sau vizuale (pacientul aude si vede lucruri care nu exista).lipsa emotiilor .vorbire incoerenta .izolare sociala .emotii nepotrivite contextului in care se gaseste pacientul .” .

Sursa contextului: http://www.sfatulmedicului.ro/Schizofrenia-si-alte-tulburaripsihice/schizofrenia_110 Context : „Exista mai multe tipuri de schizofrenie. De exemplu, pacientii care au impresia ca sunt persecutati sunt catalogati ca suferind de "schizofrenie paranoida"; pacientii care sunt incoerenti dar care nu au iluzii sunt inclusi in categoria de "schizofrenie dezorganizata". Forma cea mai debilitanta de schizofrenie este schizofrenia "negativa": pacientii cu aceasta forma de boala sunt lipsiti de initiativa, motivatie, interes social, incapabili sa se bucure si sa reactioneze afectiv. Intrucat schizofrenia difera de la un pacient la altul ca intensitate, severitate si frecventa a episoadelor psihotice sau reziduale, multi specialisti folosesc termenul de "schizofrenie" pentru a descrie un spectru de boli cu gravitate variabila. Sursa contextului: http://www.emedonline.ro/afectiuni/view.article.php?category =6&article=95&page=4 Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Criteriile de diagnostic pentru schizofrenie sunt: - prezenta a cel putin doua din urmatoarele: delir, halucinatii, vorbire dezorganizata, comportament dezorganizat sau catatonic, sau prezenta simptomelor negative - disfunctie semnificativa in abilitatea de a munci, merge la scoala sau a indeplini sarcinile zilnice - aceste semne sunt prezente de cel putin sase luni - nu sunt prezente alte tulburari mentale. Pacientul poate fi diagnosticat cu unul din cele cinci tipuri de schizofrenie, desi nu toti pacientii se potrivesc unei categorii specifice. Aceste cinci subtipuri sunt: - paranoid - catatonic

- dezorganizat - nediferentiat - rezidual. Pacientul poate discuta cu medicul despre tipul de schizofrenie pe care il prezinta pentru a invata mai multe despre boala si despre solutiile de tratament. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : SCHIZOPHRENIA ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/SCHIZOPHRENIA Definition Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder (or a group of disorders) marked by severely impaired thinking, emotions, and behaviors. Schizophrenic patients are typically unable to filter sensory stimuli and may have enhanced perceptions of sounds, colors, and other features of their environment. Most schizophrenics, if untreated, gradually withdraw from interactions with other people, and lose their ability to take care of personal needs and grooming. Definition source: http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/SCHIZOPHRENIA

Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: dementia praecox, schizophrenic disorder, schizophrenic psychosis

Context: „The cause of schizophrenia is unknown. Genetic factors appear to be involved in producing susceptibility to the condition, with studies among identical twins showing a 30%–50% concordance rate, a figure that has been confirmed by the results of adoption studies. Biochemical research suggests that high levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine, or excessive numbers of receptors for dopamine, may be at the root of schizophrenia. Medical imaging studies have revealed various physical and physiological anomalies in some patients. Other research has focused on mistiming of neural responses to stimuli in the brain. Many researchers maintain that a combination of influences, including such environmental factors as viral illness or malnutrition in the patient's mother during pregnancy, may lead to schizophrenia”

Context source: http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/schizophrenia Context : „Medications that are thought to be particularly effective in treating positive symptoms of schizophrenia include olanzapine (Zyprexa), risperidone (Risperdal), quetiapine (Seroquel), ziprasidone (Geodon), aripiprazole (Abilify), paliperidone (Invega), and asenapine (Saphis). These medications are the newer group of antipsychotic medications, also called second-generation antipsychotics. They are known for having the ability to work quickly compared to many other psychiatric medications. As a group of medications, side effects that occur most often include sleepiness, dizziness, and increased appetite. Weight gain, which may be associated with higher blood sugar levels, elevated blood lipid levels, and sometimes increased levels of a hormone called prolactin, may also occur. Although older antipsychotic medications in this class like haloperidol (Haldol), perphenazine (Trilafon), and molindone (Moban) are more likely to cause muscle stiffness, shakiness, and very rarely uncoordinated muscle twitches (tardive dyskinesia) that can be permanent, health-care practitioners

appropriately monitor the people they treat for these potential side effects as well. Also, more recent research regarding all antipsychotic medication seems to demonstrate that the older (first-generation) antipsychotics are just as effective as the newer ones and have no higher rate of people stopping treatment because of any side effect the medications cause. Not all medications that treat schizophrenia in adults have been approved for use in treating childhood schizophrenia.” Context source http://www.medicinenet.com/schizophrenia/page4.htm Area of use: Medicine

Commentary : The psychiatrist Kurt Schneider (1887–1967) listed the forms of psychotic symptoms that he thought distinguished schizophrenia from other psychotic disorders. These are called first-rank symptoms or Schneider's first-rank symptoms, and they include delusions of being controlled by an external force; the belief that thoughts are being inserted into or withdrawn from one's conscious mind; the belief that one's thoughts are being broadcast to other people; and hearing hallucinatory voices that comment on one's thoughts or actions or that have a conversation with other hallucinated voices.[15] Although they have significantly contributed to the current diagnostic criteria, the specificity of first-rank symptoms has been questioned. A review of the diagnostic studies conducted between 1970 and 2005 found that these studies allow neither a reconfirmation nor a rejection of Schneider's claims, and suggested that first-rank symptoms be de-emphasized in future revisions of diagnostic systems. Designation status : Official

29. Termen:AUTISM Limba termenului: Romnă Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://dexonline.ro/definitie/autism Definiţie : Stare patologică manifestată prin ruperea legăturilor psihice cu lumea exterioară și intensa trăire a vieții interioare Sursa definiţiei: http://dexonline.ro/definitie/autism. Nota bene : Din fr. autisme. Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Sinonim: indiferenta afectiva,disociere

Context : „estimatie moderata a predominatiei autismului este de aproximativ 45/10 000 indivizi. Totusi, estimarile recente urca pna la 10/10 000. Daca ar fi sa facem o comparatie, cea de-a doua rata,de 10/10 000, este aproximativ egala cu rata de nasteri a indivizilor cu sindromul Down, cea mai cunoscuta boala cromozomiala si cauza cea mai des întlnita cauza a retardarii mentale. Diferenta dintre ratele de predominanta din diferite studii este cauzata în mare parte de faptul ca, de-a lungul timpului, criteriile de diagnosticare s-au schimbat de la primele descrieri ale lui Kanner iar cel curent este mai larg dect criteriul anterior utilizat. Odata ce s-a nascut un copil autist, riscul de a se naste un alt copil autist variaza între 3 pna la 7%. Autismul apare de 4 sau 5 ori mai des la barbati dect la femei.” Sursa contextului: http://www.autism.ro/istorie.html Context : „Autismul are o plaja larga de gravitate. Incepand de la formele usoare, in care se gasesc copiii greu sociabili, considerati foarte seriosi, care interactioneaza dificil chiar si cu parinti, si au anumite obiceiuri neobisnuite, pana la cazurile grave in care vorbirea lipseste cu desavarsire, iar copiii sunt in imposibilitatea de a fi independenti sau de a interectiona in vreun fel cu lumea inconjuratoare. Depinde foarte mult nu numai gravitatea bolii, ci si momentul in care aceasta este descoperita si se incepe terapia cu ei. Autismul este din pacate, o boala grava, fara leac, dar care poate fi ameliorata daca este depistata din timp si tratata corespunzator. Primele semne pot aparea inca din primele luni de viata. Copilul autist, nu zambeste, nu rade. Nu se uita in ochii celuilalt. Nu intinde manutele catre parinti. Are o expresie a fetei aproape imobila si nu reactioneaza aproape deloc la ceea ce-l inconjoara. Prefera anumite pozitii ale corpului si repeta mecanic anumite miscari. Mai marisor, la varsta primelor gungureli, acestea intarzie. Nici

cuvintele nu se grabesc sa apara in gurita lui. Multi parinti ignora acest aspect punandu-l pe seama unei simple intarzieri in vorbire sau cel mult il suspecteaza de probleme cu auzul si vorbirea.”

Sursa contextului: http://forum.7p.ro/Despre-autism.aspx?g=posts&t=417 Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: În 1943 doctorul Leo Kanner a descris pentru prima data 11 copii care s-au prezentat la clinica sa cu o combinatie de grave deficite de vorbire marcate de anormalitati în interactiunea sociala si o înclinatie spre comportamente stereotipe, repetitive si ritualisitce. Acesti 11 copii au fost primii copii diagnosticati cu autism infantil. Desi denumirea initiala a evidentiat ca autismul infantil e observat în copilarie si documentele descriu comportamentul autist la copii, acum este clar ca autismul e vazut ca o boala pe tot parcursul vietii a carei tip si severitate se modifica în timp odata cu dezvoltarea individului.

Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : AUTISM ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://www.medicinenet.com/autism_and_communication/article.htm Definition : Autism is a developmental disorder that is characterized by impaired

development in communication, social interaction, and behavi Definition source: http://www.medicinenet.com/autism_and_communication/article.htm Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Context: „Individuals with autism fail to develop normal personal interactions in virtually every setting. This means that affected persons fail to form the normal social contacts that are such an important part of human development. This impairment may be so severe that it even affects the bonding between a mother and an infant. It is important to note that, contrary to popular belief, many, if not most, persons with this disorder are capable of showing affection, demonstrating affection bonding with their mothers or other caregivers. However, the ways in which individuals with autism demonstrate affection and bonding may differ greatly from the ways in which others do so. Their limited socialization may erroneously lead parents and pediatricians away from considering the diagnosis of autism” Context source: http://www.medicinenet.com/autism_and_communication/article.htm Context : „How is autism treated?

There is no cure for ASD. Therapies and behavioral interventions are designed to remedy specific symptoms and can bring about substantial improvement. The ideal treatment plan coordinates therapies and interventions that meet the specific needs of individual children. Most health care professionals agree that the earlier the intervention, the better. Educational/behavioral interventions: Therapists use highly structured and intensive skill-oriented training sessions to help children develop social and language

skills, such as Applied Behavioral Analysis. Family counseling for the parents and siblings of children with ASD often helps families cope with the particular challenges of living with a child with ASD. Medications: Doctors may prescribe medications for treatment of specific ASDrelated symptoms, such as anxiety, depression, or obsessive-compulsive disorder. Antipsychotic medications are used to treat severe behavioral problems. Seizures can be treated with one or more anticonvulsant drugs. Medication used to treat people with attention deficit disorder can be used effectively to help decrease impulsivity and hyperactivity. Other therapies: There are a number of controversial therapies or interventions available for people with ASD, but few, if any, are supported by scientific studies. Parents should use caution before adopting any unproven treatments. Although dietary interventions have been helpful in some children, parents should be careful that their child’s nutritional status is carefully followed. Context source: http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/autism/detail_autism.htm Area of use:Medicine Commentary : Communication is usually severely impaired in persons with autism. What the individual understands (receptive language) as well as what is actually spoken by the individual (expressive language) are significantly delayed or nonexistent. Deficits in language comprehension include the inability to understand simple directions, questions, or commands. There may be an absence of dramatic or pretend play and these children may not be able to engage in simple age-appropriate childhood games such as Simon Says or Hide-and-Go-Seek. Teens and adults with autism may continue to engage in playing with games that are for young children. Designation status : Official

30. Termen:ISTERIE Limba termenului: Romnă Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://dexonline.ro/definitie/isterie Definiţie : Boală nervoasă caracterizată prin apariția unor simptome neurologice foarte variate, nejustificate de existența unor leziuni și declanșate prin șocuri emotive (accese de rs sau de plns, convulsii, sufocări etc.), sugestie sau utosugestie etc.. Sursa definiţiei: http://dexonline.ro/definitie/isterie. Nota bene : Din fr. hystérie, it. isteria Corespondent engleză: hysteria Concept generic: boala pshica Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: sindrom nevrotiforme Hiponim: sindrom isteric

Sinonim: conversie,tulburare de personalitate Context : „Cei care combat psihanaliza în acest mod nu stiu sau au uitat ca la început psihanaliza a fost si ea o terapie scurta. Cazurile din "Studii despre isterie" din prezentul volum ilustraza acest fapt. Primul dintre ele, cel al doamnei Emmy von. N. a durat sapte saptamni în primul an, adica mai putin de doua luni, iar în al doilea, dupa recidiva, opt saptamni. Cazul miss Lucy R. nu a durat mai mult de noua saptamni. Pentru Katharina, al treilea caz, a fost suficienta o singura "sedinta" pentru a demonta simptomul. Am folosit cuvntul sedinta între ghilimele pentru ca întlnirea între Freud si Katharina a fost întmplatoare, în afara oricarui cadru terapeutic. Iar de domnisoara Elisabeth v. R., Freud s-a ocupat o perioada neprecizata, dar nu mai mult de un an, ceea ce, în raport cu psihanaliza actuala, reprezinta o perioada scurta.” Sursa contextului: http://www.librariabucuresti.com/cgi-bin/Carti-Studii-despreisterie-0-1220-14-.htm

Context : „Cauze: Persoanele care fac crize de isterie sunt, de regula, foarte nervoase. Exista o lista lunga de cauze dar mentionarea catorva dintre ele este suficienta: anxietatea, frica subita, indigestiile, nervozitatea extrema, accesele de furie si menstruatia la fetele tinere. In unele cazuri, este vorba, pur si simplu, despre perversitate si nimic altceva. Desigur, cauza trebuie stabilita pentru a putea trata cu succes afectiunea”

Sursa

contextului:

http://blog.mamanatura.ro/isteria-cauzele-si-tratamentele-

crizelor-de-isterie/ Arie de utilizare : medicina

thefreedictionary. hysteria is a feature of hysterical disorders in which a patient experiences physical symptoms that have a psychological. odolean. Nu trebuie sa se manifeste emotie sau mila. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : HYSTERIA ID Language : English ID Country : UK . trebuie sa i se acorde cat mai putina importanta. gura-lupului sau iarba matei. guralupului si iarba matei sunt disponibile.Comentariu: Tratament: Atitudinea fata de o astfel de persoana trebuie sa fie intotdeauna ferma. dramatics. verbina. frenzy. and attention-seeking behavior. Odoleanul. pe cat posibil. In modern psychology and psychiatry. Dupa criza. sub forma de capsule.com/hysteria Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Synonym: delirium. USA Source : http://medical-dictionary. ci blandete. se lasa sa infuzeze 30 de minute si se bea o ceasca de 4 sau 5 ori pe zi. rather than an organic. Se recomanda o cesca inainte de culcare. Se pune o lingurita cu varf la o ceasca de apa clocotita. fury. bolnavul nu trebuie ridiculizat iar episodului.000 years and its definition has become broader and more diffuse over time. Definition source: http://medical-dictionary. and histrionic personality disorder characterized by excessive emotions. in magazinele care comercializeaza plante medicinale. cause.thefreedictionary. craze . Caulophyllum thalictroides. Oricare dintre plantele urmatoare este eficienta: Cimicifuga racemosa.com/hysteria Definition : The term "hysteria" has been in use for over 2.

such as conversion and somatization disorder experience physical symptoms that have no organic cause. and their conversation is full of generalizations and dramatic appeals. Conversion disorder affects motor and sensory functions. Context source: http://medical-dictionary.Context: „Patients with hysterical disorders. These patients are not "faking" their ailments. rather than fact or logic. flirtatious behavior. as the symptoms are very real to them.wrongdiagnosis. their need for immediate gratification. Histrionic personalities are typically self-centered and attention seeking. It begins in early adulthood and has been diagnosed more frequently in women than in men. Disorders with hysteric features typically begin in adolescence or early adulthood. cardiopulmonary. While the patient's enthusiasm.com/hysteria Context : „Causes of Hysteria  Psychological disorders  Physical disorders  Brain disorders  Dementia  Brain tumor Context source http://www. and constant demand for attention often alienates them from others. mercurial displays of emotion. Histrionic personality disorder Histrionic personality disorder has a prevalence of approximately 2-3% of the general population. They operate on emotion. and trusting nature may make them appear charming. nervous.com/h/hysteria/intro. while somatization affects the gastrointestinal. or reproductive systems.thefreedictionary.htm Area of use: Medicine .

in a hysterical symptom. because he has recently heard of a famous hockey player who fell and broke his neck. There need be no gain at all. but he lauded his innovative clinical use of hypnosis to demonstrate how hysterical paralysis could result from psychological factors produced by non-organic traumas (psychological factors that Charcot believed could be simulated through hypnosis). Freudian psychoanalytic theory attributed hysterical symptoms to the subconscious mind's attempt to protect the patient from psychic stress. In the early 1890s Freud published a series of articles on hysteria which popularized Charcot's earlier work and begun the development of his own views of hysteria. To Freud. A child playing hockey may fall and for several hours believe he is unable to move. but with the non-scientific terminology of demonic possession replaced with modern psychological concepts. Designation status : Official . in which the symptom directly relieves the stress (as when a patient coughs to release energy pent up from keeping a secret). this discovery allowed subsequent investigators such as Pierre Janet and Josef Breuer to develop new theories of hysteria that were essentially similar to the medieval conception of a split consciousness. somewhat controversial. Freud questioned Charcot’s claim that heredity is the unique cause of hysteria. such as staying home from a hated job. By the 1920s Freud's theory was influential in Britain and the USA. when a patient is induced subconsciously to display a symptom because of the desires of others (as when a controlling husband enjoys the docility of his sick wife). The Freudian psychoanalytic school of psychology uses its own. in which the symptom provides an independent advantage. a French neurologist.Commentary : A more modern understanding of hysteria as a psychological disorder was advanced by the work of Jean-Martin Charcot. and secondary gain. ways to treat hysteria. Sigmund Freud attributed the rehabilitation of hysteria as a topic for scientific study to the positive attention generated by Charcot’s neuropathological investigations of hysteria during the last ten years of his life. More recent critics have noted the possibility of tertiary gain. In his 1893 obituary of Charcot. Subconscious motives include primary gain. however.

lipsă de interes față de orice activitate și față de lumea înconjurătoare. ai impresia ca nu conteaza? Daca asa stau lucrurile. Ti-e indiferent ce faci astazi. oricum. te poate imbolnavi. inseamna ca te-ai cufundat intr-o stare de apatie: fara putere. fara pasiune. fara initiativa. dezinteres. Termen:APATIE Limba termenului: Romnă Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://dexonline. Etimologia cuvantului apatie(derivat din grecescul apatheia. Sursa definiţiei: http://dexonline. Nota bene : Din fr. si. Apatia se manifesta printr-o atitudine generalizata de indiferenta. fara directie. fara vlaga.. dificultati de acceptare a schimbarilor. ♦ (În concepția filozofilor stoici antici) Ideal moral care constă în înăbușirea oricărei pasiuni. obosea la fizica si psihica. apathie. lat.ro/definitie/apatie.ro/definitie/apatie Definiţie : Stare de indiferență.. desi ai primit mai multe propuneri? Ai o gramada de treaba si nu ai chef de nimic? Nu te mai implici in nicio activitate pentru ca..fara si pathos .. superficialitate. cel mai grav. agatarea de trecut in detrimentul prezentului sau o atitudine de resemnare.31. compus din a . apathia. Corespondent engleză: apathy Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Context : „Apatia te distruge miseleste Iti fura bucuria prezentului si-ti proiecteaza un viitor fara culoare.

de apatie. cei patru „zep” constituiau principalii rivali ai formației Jeff Beck Group. . fiind recunoscuți drept cei mai de seamă „succesori artistici” ai fostului grup Cream. Simultan. poate ma plictisese culoarea parului. fara sa pun suflet. din inerite. In functie de contextul in care se manifesta si de cauzele care o declanseaza. după editarea albumului de debut. astfel membrii fiind nevoiți să traverseze oceanul.. M-am vopsit. de unde? Mi-am luat o zi libera poate reusesc sa ma urnesc din starea asta. Fara emotii. dobndesc în scurt timp consacrarea. Rezultate zero. Fac lucrurile mecanic. vocal). Si nu pot sa-mi explic de ce. Resursele interioare sunt inepuizabile. primul pas pentru a iesi din amorteala specifica apatiei este sa o recunoastem. Fie ca insoteste o astenie pasagera si se extinde si in planul vietii sexuale. Nici asta. Parca nimic nu ma mai atrage. nici de gatit nu aveam chef. viata este terna.com/2010/05/apatie.pasiune) desemneaza lipsa totala de pasiune. Eram intr-un stadiu aiurea rau al existentei mele Sursa contextului: http://delphinash. tot ce se poate deteriora este accesul la aceste resurse.blogspot. nimic nu-mi mai starneste interesul.ro/mens-sana/673/apatia-te-distrugemiseleste. putem considera ca exista mai multe forme de apatie. lipsita de culoare. în care a activat și Eric Clapton (chitară.html Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Trupa a fost primită cu apatie si indiferență de publicul britanic. fie ca se asociaza unor probleme de sanatate sau este cauzata de nefericirea provocata de singuratate sau plictiseala. cum. Html Context : „Apatie De ceva vreme sunt intr-o continua stare de blegeala. CUlmea. Sursa contextului: http://revistaplafar. unde.

com/apathy Definition : an absence or suppression of emotion. concern. adj. pathos. or passion. SENSIBILITY Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Synonym: spiritlessness.thefreedictionary." He acknowledges that the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders does not discuss apathy. Definition source: http://medical-dictionary. USA Source : http://medical-dictionary. dementia. In a Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences article from 1991. FEELING. apathetic. and schizophrenia. numbness. The condition is common in patients with neurasthenia.cannot seem to make do anything. indifference Context: „Mental health journalist and author John McManamy argues that although psychiatrists do not explicitly deal with the condition of apathy.. feeling. in which they get a sense that "nothing matters".thefreedictionary.Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : APATHY ID Language : English ID Country : UK . depressive disorders. the "lack of will to go on and the inability to care about the consequences". Dr Robert Marin MD claimed that apathy occurs due to brain damage or neuropsychiatric illnesses such as Alzheimer’s. an indifference to stimuli found generally to be exciting or moving. Parkinson's. a." and who do not "feel any excitement about seeing loved ones. or . it is a psychological problem for some depressed people. not suffering ANTONYMS: EMOTION. He describes depressed people who ".com/apathy Nota bene: Etymology: Gk." who "can't complete anything..

a state of mortification.Huntington’s. in which the appalling conditions of the Western Front led to apathy and shellshock amongst millions of soldiers. However there is no such text in the Christian Bible. i. Many often had no emotion or thought process concerning killing/death in general . or else an event such as a stroke. Marin argues that apathy should be regarded as a syndrome or illness. a term used by the Stoics to signify indifference for what one is not responsible for (that is. from the University of Toronto in the Journal of Neuropsychiatry (2005) claimed that "depression and apathy were a package deal" in some populations which may help illustrate what people mean when they say that "The opposite of love is not hate. as (they claim) the gospel prescribes. Clemens Alexandrinus. The word has been used since then among more devout writers. in particular. Apathy etymologically derives from the Greek απάθεια (apatheia). according to their philosophy. it is apathy” Context source: http://en. who adopted the term to express a contempt of all earthly concerns. The concept of apathy became more sympathetically accepted in popular culture during the First World War. who aspired after such a sublime pitch of virtue. one being only responsible of his representations and judgments). Some people may believe that the concept was then reappropriated by Christians. all things exterior. A review article by Robert van Reekum MD et al. brought the term exceedingly in vogue.e.org/wiki/Apathy Area of use: Medicine Commentary : Apathy is a common feeling of complete discontent (dissatisfaction. not satisfied) for one's emotional behavior.wikipedia. thinking hereby to draw the philosophers to Christianity.

romedic. logoree. o gndire absolutista. ele ramanand în stare latenta şi potand fi reactivate ulterior de evenimente similare. Antonie cel . pasivitatea. manie. mania şi iritarea. Vasile cel Mare). Nota bene : Din ngr. idee fixă care preocupă pe cineva. Mnia este semnul vãdit al celor ce nu cinstesc pe Dumnezeu (Sf. tristeţea.” Sursa contextului: http://www.ro/cauzele-depresiei/abordarea-congnitiva Context : „Mnia este ciuma rugãciunii (Avva Evagrie Ponticul). Acestea isi au originea în experientele precoce nefavorabile. manía. ce fac ca triada cognitivă negativă să fie mentinuta. Sursa definiţiei: http://dexonline. stare de excitație psihomotorie. fr. Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: sindrom afectiv Hiponim: nebunie maniaco-depresiva Sinonim: tulburare de dispozitie Context : „Activarea acestor scheme de gndire negativă este responsabilă de apariţia simptomelor. p. ext. Nenorocirea acelora care sunt beti fãrã sã se fi îmbãtat de vin (Sf.ro/definitie/manie..Designation status : Official 32. Acestor scheme li se adaugă greşelile de gndire tipice (generalizari abuzive. halucinații. etc). Termen:MANIE Limba termenului: Romnă Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://dexonline. exagerari pozitive şi negative. Mnia este o betie.ro/definitie/manie Definiţie : Boală mintală manifestată prin euforie. dihotomizarea. incoerență a gndirii etc. cum ar fi : frica.

html Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Omul mnios. Mnia nu trebuie sã fie cu cei ce se roagã. care îl răstignesc pe Isus din pricina mniei cauzate de minunile Lui şi de vindecările din ziua Sabatului. face multe prostii şi păcate. înct comandă masacrul pruncilor. care dă fru liber mniei-năvalnică prin firea ei. printre care intră şi certurile. Casian Romanul). Sursa contextului: http://www. Mnia este un primejdios sfãtuitor pentru oricine. Ea este veninul serpilor (Avva Evagrie Ponticul). cazul lui Cain care. Efrem Sirul). Diadoh al Foticeei).Mare). Tot ce se întreprinde la mnie nu e niciodatã chibzuit (Sf. după cum istoriseşte „Cartea Facerii”. Mnia obisnuieste mai mult dect celelalte patimi sã tulbure si sã zãpãceascã sufletul (Sf. Ioan Hrisostom). Mnia orbeste ochii sufletului si nu-l lasã sã vadã Soarele Dreptãtii (Sf. Mnia este în om o groapã pentru el. Grigorie Teologul). cazul fiilor lui Iacov. se mnie foarte tare. văznd că Dumnezeu a privit cu bunăvoinţă spre jertfa lui Abel şi spre a lui nu. Dacã cineva s-ar înfrna de la mncãruri si bãuturi. înşelat de magi. Simeon şi Levi care. Mnia poate fi pricină de omor:(cazul lui Irod care. cine si-a frnt mnia. acela se aseamãnã cu o corabie ce cãlãtoreste pe mare avnd pe dracul crmaci (Avva Evagrie Ponticul). şi îl ucide pe Abel. . dar prin gndurile sale ar întãrta mnia. după cum relatează evangheliile. cazul fariseilor şi cărturarilor. Niciodatã si nicãieri nu gãseste diavolul un loc mai potrivit pentru el ca în mnie si dusmãnie (Sf. se mnie att de tare. Mniosul nu poate deosebi lucrurile rele de cele bune (Sf. au ucis toţi oamenii din cetate. Casian Romanul).com/ortho/filo_manie.plasticsusa. acela a trecut aceastã groapã (Sf. orbiţi de mnia pricinuită de necinstirea sorei lor Dina de către Sihem. arată Solomon.

pe cititorii în stele. pnă cnd a fost dobort fără cruţare.Unul dintre oamenii pe care-i va atinge mnia împăratului este slujitorul de ocară. ci va aparţine acelora pentru care a fost pregătită. Împăratul Egiptului s-a mniat pe doi dregători ai săi: pe mai marele paharnicilor şi pe mai marele pitarilor şi i-a trimis la închisoare. fratele cel mare al lui David se mnie pe acesta. în mnia lui. după ce Dumnezeu l-a ajutat în lupta cu etiopienii şi libienii. relatează Cartea a doua a regilor.împăratul Nebucadneţar. îi binecuvntează . Împăratul Babilonului. s-a sprijinit pe împăratul Siriei. şi îşi prăpădise poporul. Domnitorii filistenilor s-au mniat pe Achiş pentru că vroia să-l ia în luptă şi pe David şi îi interzic lui Achiş acest lucru. pe descntători şi pe Haldei pentru că ei nu reuşiseră să-i spună ce vis avusese. fiul cel mare din pilda fiului risipitor se întărtă de mnie şi nu vrea să intre în casa tatălui său cei 10 apostoli se mnie cnd aud că Isus le spune lui Iacov şi Ioan că cinstea de a sta de-a dreapta şi de-a stnga Tatălui nu atrnă de el. . spunnd că e peste puterea muritorilor acest lucru şi începe să-i omoare. Naaman. relatează cartea profetică Isaia. se aprinde de mnie cnd vede că Elisei nu vine în persoană la el să-l vindece de lepră. cazul lui Esau. cnd vede că David se interesa de răsplata promisă celui care îl va învinge pe Goliat. prefăcuse lumea în pustie. Alteori mnia poate avea roade mai puţin dramatice: în pilda fiului risipitor Isus arată cum auzind că tatăl său îl primise cu mare fast şi bucurie pe fiul cel mic care. se aprinde de mnie pe ghicitorul Balaam pentru că acesta. care se aprinde de mnie pe Ionatan pentru că acesta se împrietenise cu David şi vrea să-l omoare. Balac. furnd prin şiretlic binecuvntarea tatălui lor. căpetenia oştirii împăratului Siriei. şirul crimelor fiind întrerupt de Daniel carei spune ce visase după ce Dumnezeu îi descoperise noaptea visul şi tălmăcirea lui tentativă de omor: (cazul lui Saul. chemat să blesteme vrăjmaşii. Isaac). care se mniase pe fratele său. care se mnie pe vrăjitori. ci îi spune să se scalde de 7 ori în Iordan dar ascultă cuvntul proorocului şi este vindecat. împăratul Moabului. ne asigură Solomon. se întorsese smerit acasă. Eliab. după ce îşi cheltuise cu prostituatele partea sa de moştenire.pedepse severe (A doua carte a Cronicilor relatează cum Asa s-a mniat pe văzătorul Hanani şi l-a pus în închisoare pentru că l-a mustrat că. Iacob şi căuta să-l omoare pentru că îl înşelase.

hyperthyroidism)..Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : MANIA ID Language : English ID Country : UK .thefreedictionary. three hours may be sufficient). Context source: http://encyclopedia. from Greek mani .. see men-1 in Indo-European roots Generic concept :disease Grammatical category: noun Context: „manic episode is defined in the American Psychiatric Association's diagnostic manual as a period of seven or more days (or any period if admission to hospital is required) of unusually and continuously effusive and open elated or irritable mood. or (c) the person is suffering psychosis. and (a) is causing obvious difficulties at work or in social relationships and activities. USA Source : http://www. madness. talks more often and feels the urge to talk longer. To be classed as a manic episode. or (b) requires admission to hospital to protect the person or others. sexual adventures or improbable commercial schemes). reduced need of sleep (e.g.thefreedictionary.com/MANIA Nota bene: Middle English. ideas flit through the mind in quick succession. over indulgence in enjoyable behaviors with high risk of a negative outcome (e. or expanded self-esteem. from Late Latin.thefreedictionary. while the disturbed mood is present at least three (or four if only irritability is present) of the following must have been consistently prominent: grand or extravagant style. where the mood is not caused by drugs or a medical illness (e.com/Mania Context : „Dysphoric mania: The concurrent presence of symptoms of depression . extravagant shopping.g.com/MANIA Definition : a mental disorder characterized by great excitement and occasionally violent behaviour Definition source: http://www.g. or thoughts race and preoccupy the person.

and kleptomania. the urge to steal). it was used as a synonym for delirium or an irresistible urge (for example. Designation status : Official 33. Later. the urge to set fires. In the first half of the 19th century the French psychiatrist J. From the mid-19th century to the beginning of the 20th.ro/definitie/melancolie Definiţie : Boală psihică care se manifestă printr-o continuă depresiune.medterms.com/script/main/art. prin . D. E.asp?articlekey=24356 Area of use:Medicine Commentary : In antiquity the term “mania” referred to all forms of mental disturbance with motor and speech agitation. pyromania. Esquirol advanced the popular conception of monomania—an obsession with a single idea or urge. mania was considered a separate disease. Also called Mixed bipolar state” Context source: http://www. Termen:MELANCOLIA Limba termenului: Romnă Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://dexonline.and mania together.

chiar şi pentru perioade scurte de timp. dupa ce acest diagnostic a fost scos din manualele de boli mintale. atunci cand se confrunta cu pacienti ce prezinta semne de .) pentru a descrie dispoziţia “neagră” (melas-negru) a depresiei.ziare. delir.ro/definitie/melancolie. El este încă folosit astăzi pentru a descrie depresiile caracterizate de: . in secolele V si IV. in 1980. lat. lipsa plăcerii). prin apatie. Gordon Parker conduce o echipa internatioanala de psihiatrii care isi doresc ca melancolia sa fie recunoscuta ca boala mintala. anxietate și obsesia sinuciderii.Chr. fiind folosit chiar de Hippocrate (460-370 î. Sursa definiţiei: http://dexonline. diferită de cea resimţită după moartea cuiva drag In prezent. mélancolie. melancolie. relateaza The Telegraph. ea nemaifiind recunoscuta ca boala de sine statatoare. i.com/viata-sanatoasa/sanatate/melancoliaboala-mintala-1003233 Context : „Melancolia este unul din cei mai vechi termeni psihiatrici.lentoare pshica si motorie Context : „Un psihiatru australian militeaza pentru recunoasterea melancoliei ca si boala mintala distincta. nemaiputandu-se da acest diagnostic. Corespondent engleză: melancholia Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Sinonim: delir partial. Insa in secolul XX a decazut din drepturi.tristețe morbidă. halucinații. dacă se întmplă ceva pozitiv) -o stare de tristeţe aparte.” Sursa contextului: http://www. -lipsa reactivităţii la stimuli plăcuţi (nu se simte mai bine. Melancolia a fost descrisa prima oara de Hipocrate. psihiatrii trebuie sa aleaga intre depresie minora si majora. melancolia.Hr.o anhedonie severă (lipsa capacităţii de a simţi fericire. Nota bene : Din fr.

” Sursa contextului: http://www. apathy. -scădere în greutate -sentimente profunde de vină (deseori exagerate şi legate de evenimente lipsite de importanţă.treziri matinale precoce.com/melancholia . Melancolia este frecvent numită “depresie endogenă” pentru că apare fără să fie precedată de un eveniment de viaţă stresant. USA Source : http://medical-dictionary.-stare mai proastă dimineaţa -lentoare psihomotorie sau agitaţie . definiţie de Emil Cioran Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : MELANCHOLIA ID Language : English ID Country : UK .thefreedictionary.com/melancholia Definition : A mental disorder characterized by depression.thefreedictionary. and withdrawal Definition source: http://medical-dictionary.ro/diagnosticul-de-depresie-tipuri/ melancolia Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Melancolia e sentimentul că nefericirea are să te copleşească chiar în mijlocul paradisului. Răspunde bine la administrarea de medicamente antidepresive. Aceşti pacienţi au frecvent idei de suicid.romedic.

Urn Burial and Holy Living and Holy Dying.Nota bene: Etymology: Gk. chole. and salvation. semper dolens. bile Generic concept :disease Grammatical category: noun Context: „During the early 17th century. melas. respectively. Personality types were similarly determined by the dominant humour in a particular person.") The melancholy man. much of the counterculture of modernism was fueled by comparable alienation and a sense of purposelessness called "anomie". occurred during Sturm und Drang. known to contemporaries as a "malcontent. whose motto was Semper Dowland. with such works as The Sorrows of Young Werther by Goethe or in Romanticism with works such as Ode on Melancholy by John Keats. whose Hydriotaphia. According to Hippocrates. melancholia was . ("Always Dowland." is epitomized by Shakespeare's Prince Hamlet. In music. the post-Elizabethan cult of melancholia is associated with John Dowland.com/melancholia Area of use: Medicine Commentary : The name "melancholia" comes from the old medical belief of the four humours: disease or ailment being caused by an imbalance in one or other of the four basic bodily liquids. Other major melancholic authors include Sir Thomas Browne. or humours. and Jeremy Taylor. A similar phenomenon. though not under the same name. a curious cultural and literary cult of melancholia arose in England. earlier artistic preoccupation with death has gone under the rubric of memento mori. Context source: http://encyclopedia. contain extensive meditations on death. It was believed that religious uncertainties caused by the English Reformation and a greater attention being paid to issues of sin.thefreedictionary. the "Melancholy Dane. damnation." Another literary expression of this cultural mood comes from the death-obsessed later works of John Donne. led to this effect. black. In the 20th century. always mourning.

He carried out a diagnosis on this mental disorder. where he discovered and observed another type of melancholia: clinical lycanthropy. Avicenna dealt with neuropsychiatry and described a number of neuropsychiatric conditions. "dark. In the medieval Arab world. Melancholia was described as a distinct disease with particular mental and physical symptoms in the fifth and fourth centuries BC. poems.caused by an excess of black bile. He wrote the following on this particular type of melancholia: "Its victim behaves like a rooster and cries like a dog. hence the name. a sombre melancholy weighs on people's souls. describing its varied symptoms. associated with certain personality disorders. the patient wanders among the tombs at night. known as "Isaac" in the West. Johan Huizinga noted that "at the close of the Middle Ages. The Canon of Medicine was also translated into Latin in the 12th century. Ali ibn Abbas al-Majusi (d. the patient hardly ever recovers and the disease is hereditary. Kitab al-Malaki. + "χολή" (kholé). characterized all "fears and despondencies. 908). 982) discussed mental illness in his medical encyclopedia. wrote an essay entitled Maqala fi-l-Malikhuliya. Hippocrates. in which he discovered a type of melancholia: the "cerebral type" or "phrenitis". The main clinical features he identified were sudden movement. which was translated into Latin as Liber pantegni. delusions and hallucinations. including melancholia. suffuses court poets and chroniclers alike: Huizinga quotes instances in the . In his study of French and Burgundian courtly culture. sermons. foolish acts. his mouth is dry. which means 'black bile'. See also: sanguine. even in legal documents. phlegmatic. if they last a long time" as being symptomatic of melancholia. "bile". the Arab psychologist Ishaq ibn Imran (d." In chronicles. his eyes are dark." In The Canon of Medicine (1020s). black". He described melancholia as a depressive type of mood disorder in which the person may become suspicious and develop certain types of phobias. an immense sadness. fear. a note of despair and a fashionable sense of suffering and deliquescence at the approaching end of times. choleric. a person whose constitution tended to have a preponderance of black bile had a melancholic disposition. in his Aphorisms. from Ancient Greek "μέλας" (melas).

A famous allegorical engraving by Albrecht Dürer is entitled Melencolia I. exista în medicină numai o presupunere vagă despre o cauză patologică Sursa definiţiei: http://ro.wikipedia. demenţă. a few years later. and not necessarily as a depressive affliction. and in the late fifteenth-century poetry of Jean Meschinot. "to identify all serious occupation of the mind with sadness".org/wiki/Nebunie. smintire. Termenul definea în trecut numai o aberaţie de la comportarea unui om normal (latină delirare). observes Huizinga. "monotonous and gloomy variations of the same dismal theme". sminteală.org/wiki/Nebunie Definiţie : Nebunie sau alienare. a fost pnă sfrşitul secolului al XIX -lea considerată ca o comportare neobişnuită ca nu se încadrează în normele de comportare în societate. This engraving portrays melancholia as the state of waiting for inspiration to strike. Termen:ALIENARE MINTALA Limba termenului: Romnă Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://ro. boală mintală. whose The Anatomy of Melancholy (1621) treats the subject from both a literary and a medical perspective. Că această comportare neobişnuită este legată de o boală. Burton wrote in the 16th century that music and dance were critical in treating mental illness. a sonnet by Edward Dowden. ţicneală. Designation status : Official 34.). The image in turn inspired a passage in The City of Dreadful Night by James Thomson (B. the picture includes a magic square. . embodying for contemporaries "a tendency". and a truncated rhombohedron. especially melancholia.wikipedia. and. and in Georges Chastellain's prologue to his Burgundian chronicle.V. The most extended treatment of melancholia comes from Robert Burton. alienaţie. Amongst other allegorical symbols. Ideas of reflection and the workings of imagination are blended in the term merencolie.ballads of Eustache Deschamps.

disfuncţii cerebrale.php Context : „Tulburari ale ratiunii si vointei care apara de raspundere.să pună adesea alienarea mintală pe seama posedării de către diavol. daca exclud capacitatea persoanei de a intelege faptele savarsite si consecintele acestora. dar in acelasi timp.laurentiudumitru. ce nu implica prea multe eforturi intelectuale.” Sursa contextului: http://www.euroavocatura.Nota bene : Din Corespondent engleză: alienation Concept generic: boala pshica Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Context : „Aflat în faţa vreunui caz de alienare mintală ori tulburare psihică.ro/cazul-tanacu. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : ALIENATION ID Language : English . precum si de a-si autodetermina conduita. este dificil să te pronunţi dacă acela este sau nu sub înrurirea vreunui duh rău. Se întmplă însă ca persoane . însă înţeleg prin natura unei pregătiri generale că disfuncţiile psihice au totdeauna legătură cu anumite disfuncţii organice. Cel care nu are discernamant pentru a se ingriji de interesele sale din cauza alienarii mintale este pus sub interdictie” Sursa contextului: http://www.ro/dictionar/2130/Alienare_mintala Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Activitatea fizica pura. Nu sunt specialist în medicină psihiatrică.care nu înţeleg întru nimic sensul. poate sa duca si la alienare mintala. sugereaza un nou studiu realizat de cercetatorii de la Universitatea New South Wales. ar putea fi eliberatoare. rostul şi necesitatea tratării bolilor psihice de către personalul medical instruit în acest sens . disfuncţii endocrine sau hormonale şi ştiu că acestea pot fi tratate doar în clinici specializate.

L. equating the latter with the objectification of human abilities.com/alienation Definition : A state of estrangement between the self and the objective world or between different parts of the personality.thefreedictionary. This line of thought. such as fear and a feeling of dependence.thefreedictionary. Hess) and by various petit bourgeois ideologists of the 1840’s and 1850’s. Stirner.” Hegel makes no distinction between objectification and alienation. USA Source : http://medical-dictionary. was further reinforced by the Young Hegelians (for example.com/alienation Nota bene: L. including Proudhon and M. alienare. The overcoming of alienation is the theoretical recognition of the falseness of alienation.” the world of alienation and the world of love. to estrange Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Synonym: disaffection. In his critique of Hegel.ID Country : UK . he saw the causes of this alienation in certain psychological states. Feuerbach offered an anthropological interpretation of alienation. which includes idealism and theology. Bauer and M. Marx referred to this as Hegel’s “uncritical positivism. B. Definition source: http://medical-dictionary. which counterposes the “genuine” and the “unreal. He interpreted man’s sensuous nature as the “inalienable” foundation of human life and juxtaposed it to the false world of alienation. estrangement Context: „Real alienation is explained by Hegel as alienation of the spirit. . Regarding religion as the alienation of the material and sensuous essence of man.

declaring that even 'humanity' is an alienating ideal for the individual. Stirner would take the analysis further in The Ego and Its Own (1844). to which Marx and Engels responded in The German Ideology (1845).thefreedictionary. His theory relies on Feuerbach's The Essence of Christianity (1841). namely. or things that are properly in harmony are made to be antagonized.marxists.Context source: http://encyclopedia2. but some time in the future this alienation would be overcome and humanity would again live in harmony with itself and Nature.org/glossary/terms/a/l. In the concept's most important use. which argues that the idea of God has alienated the characteristics of the human being. usually translated as 'species-essence' or 'species-being').htm Area of use: Medicine Commentary : Marx's theory of alienation argues that things that naturally belong together are kept separate. the idea that some time in the past people lived in harmony.com/alienation Context : „The concept of alienation is deeply embedded in all the great religions and social and political theories of the civilised epoch. and then there was some kind of rupture which left people feeling like foreigners in the world. it refers to the alienation of people from aspects of their "human nature" (Gattungswesen. Designation status : Official . Context source http://www. Marx believed that alienation is a systematic result of capitalism.

dex-online-ro. Termen:PANICA Limba termenului: Romnă Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://www.ro/search.ro/search. fara obiect) care cauzeaza .php?cuv=PANICA Definiţie : Senzaţie de spaimă violentă de care este cuprinsă subit (şi adesea fără temei) o persoană sau o colectivitate.35.php?cuv=PANICA. Sursa definiţiei: http://www. teama nedeslusita.dex-online-ro. Corespondent engleză: panic disorder Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: stare anxioasa Hiponim: atac de panica Sinonim: acces de angoasa Context : „ Atacul de panica este un acces brusc de frica intensa sau anxietate (stare afectiva caracterizata prin neliniste psihomotorie.

sentimente de pierdere a controlului sau de moarte iminenta. dar care nu ameninta viata: batai accentuate ale inimii.sfatulmedicului.” Sursa contextului: http://www. dificultatea respiratiei. Tratamentul eficace reduce numarul si frecventa atacurilor de panica. scade anxietatea si imbunatateste calitatea vietii. dureaza de la 5 la 20 minute si poate fi cauzat de circumstante stresante sau poate aparea pe nesteptate.simptome ingrijoratoare.ro/Anxietate-si-atac-de- panica/atacul -de-panica-si-tulburarile-cauzate-de-panica_16 Context : „Tulburarile cauzate de panica pot fi controlate medicamentos (antidepresive) si prin consiliere (terapia comportamentala). acestea oprindu-se dupa inlaturarea cauzei (oprirea medicatiei cu ajutorul medicului).sfatulmedicului. Sursa contextului: http://www. Cateodata atacurile de panica pot continua si dupa inlaturarea factorului cauzal si pot determina tulburari cauzate de panica. In mod obisnuit. Daca atacurile de panica au un factor cauzal anume (reactie medicamentoasa) nu este neaparat necesar tratament.ro/Anxietate-si-atac-de panica/ atacul-de-panica-si-tulburarile-cauzate-de-panica_16 Arie de utilizare : medicina .

Se crede ca este rezultatul unui dezechilibru intre substantele chimice ale creierului (neurotransmitatori).thefreedictionary. It may or may not be associated with a specific situational trigger Definition source: http://www. Copii cu parinti cu astfel de tulburari au sanse de 8 ori mai mari decat altii sa dezvolte boala. such as agoraphobia. While many people experience moments of anxiety. USA Source : http://www. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : PANIC DISORDER ID Language : English ID Country : UK . Un risc crescut il au si cei care au parinti cu depresie sau tulburari bipolare.thefreedictionary. debilitating condition that can .com/Panic+disorder Definition : A psychological disorder characterized by recurrent panic attacks and usually resulting in the development of one or more phobias. De asemenea. Panic disorder is a chronic. panic attacks are sudden and unprovoked. having little to do with real danger.Comentariu: Cauza exacta a tulburarilor legate de panica nu este cunoscuta. poate fi transmisa de la o generatie la alta (genetic).com/Panic+disorder Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Context: „Each year. Tensiunea nervoasa (de exemplu pierderea unei relatii) poate declansa simptome ale tulburarilor de panica. panic disorder affects one out of 63 Americans.

Pounding heart. Context source http://www. heart palpitations. and social life.have a devastating impact on a person's family. the first attack strikes without warning.htm Area of use: Medicine . untreated panic disorder can lead to depression. While it’s important to rule out possible medical causes of symptoms such as chest pain.org/mental/panic_disorder_anxiety_attack_ symptom_treatment. As the person's world narrows. and in rare instances.com/panic+disorder Context : „Most of the symptoms of a panic attack are physical. the person begins to avoid situations in which panic occurred in the past. the experience can be profoundly disturbing. work. driving a car. many people suffering from panic attacks make repeated trips to the doctor or the emergency room in an attempt to get treatment for what they believe is a life-threatening medical problem. As the fear of future panic attacks deepens. suicide. People with untreated panic disorder may have problems getting to work or staying on the job. Context source: http://medical-dictionary. While the attack may last only seconds or minutes.thefreedictionary. Typically. substance abuse. In severe cases of panic disorder. In fact. the victim refuses to leave the house for fear of having a panic attack. This fear of being in exposed places is often called agoraphobia. A person might be walking down the street. A person who has had one panic attack typically worries that another one may occur at any time. or difficulty breathing. and many times these symptoms are so severe that people think they’re having a heart attack. and an overwhelming feeling of impending doom are common features. or riding an escalator when suddenly panic strikes. it’s often panic that is overlooked as a potential cause – not the other way around.helpguide. sweating palms.

Research suggests that people with panic disorder may not be able to make proper use of their body's normal stress-reducing chemicals. Some experts think that people with panic disorder may have a hypersensitive nervous system that unnecessarily responds to nonexistent threats. together with a feeling of certainty that death is imminent. People with panic disorder usually have their first panic attack in their 20s. neurologic. but they suspect the tendency to develop the condition can be inherited. skipping or palpitating heartbeat • shortness of breath or the sensation of smothering • dizziness or lightheadedness • nausea or stomach problems • chest pains or pressure • choking sensation or a "lump in the throat" • chills or hot flashes • sweating • fear of dying • feelings of unreality or being detached • tingling or numbness • shaking and trembling • fear of losing control or going crazy A panic attack is often accompanied by the urge to escape. or other psychiatric disorder is found: • pounding. or "go crazy. they . Four or more of the following symptoms during panic attacks would indicate panic disorder if no medical. suffocate. lose control. Others are convinced they are about to have a heart attack. drug-related." Once people experience a panic attack.Commentary : Causes and symptoms Scientists are not sure what causes panic disorder.

dexonline. Jung utilizeaza termenul de „Ambivalenta in conceptia lui Jung Jung a folosit termenul de ambivalenta pe care l-a preluat de la Bleuer ("ambivalenta" a fost introdus de Bleuer) in . 1. De ex.tend to worry so much about having another attack that they avoid the place or situation associated with the original episode. Nota bene : Din fr.ro/cuvant/ambivalenta. ambivalence Corespondent engleză: ambivalence Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Sinonim: nevroza obsesionala Context : mai multe moduri.dexonline. Designation status : Official 36. Termen:AMBIVALENTA Limba termenului: Romnă Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://www. Aceste sentimente de ambivalenta deriva dintr-o radacina unica si nu dintr-un amestec de calitati in persoana spre care este dirijata ambivalenta.html Definiţie : stare psihologică a unui individ care denotă în acelaşi timp tendinţe şi trăiri contradictorii Sursa definiţiei: http://www. ambivalenta infantila fata de mama pleaca de la coexistenta in copil a capacitatii de a iubi si a celei de a ura si nu de la trasaturile de caracter atragatoare sau respingatoare ale mamei (care pot insa sa sporeasca ambivalenta).html. Ambivalenta ca si contopire a sentimentelor pozitive si negative trezite de una si aceeasi persoana.ro/cuvant/ambivalenta.news20.news20.

"ambivalenta" cu sensul de "bivalenta", pe care il leaga de polarizarea pozitiva si negativa. Sursa contextului: http://www.psihoterapie.net/dictionar/a/ambivalenta.html

Context : „In psihanaliza termenul de ambivalenta este folosit pentru atitudinile emotionale in care coexista impulsuri contradictorii, de tipul ura-dragoste. De exemplu imi urasc mama pentru ca mi-a interzis mereu sa fac anumite lucruri, dar in acelasi timp o iubesc si mi-e teama ca daca ii spun ce am pe suflet se va supara pe mine.” Sursa contextului: http://www.consilierepsihologica.net/?p=527 Arie de utilizare : medicina Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : AMBIVALENCE ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/ambivalence Definition : a state in which a person concomitantly experiences conflicting feelings, attitudes, drives, desires, or emotions, such as love and hate, tenderness and cruelty, pleasure and pain toward the same person, place, object, or situation. To some degree, ambivalence is normal. Treatment in severe, debilitating cases consists of psychotherapy appropriate to the underlying cause. Definition source: http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/ambivalence Nota bene: L, ambo, both, valentia, strength Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Synonym: indecision, doubt, opposition, conflict, uncertainty, contradiction, wavering, fluctuation, hesitancy, equivocation, vacillation, irresolution

Context: „In psychoanalysis, the concept of ambivalence (introduced by Bleuler in 1911) refers to an underlying emotional attitude in which the co-existing contradictory impulses (usually love and hate) derive from a common source and are thus held to be interdependent. Moreover, when the term is used in this psychoanalytic sense, it would not usually be expected that the person embodying ambivalence would actually feel both of the two contradictory emotions as such. With the exception of cases of obsessional neurosis, one or other of the conflicting sides is usually repressed. Thus, for example, an analysand's love for his father might be quite consciously experienced and openly expressed – while his 'hate' for the same object might be heavily repressed and only indirectly expressed, and thus only revealed in analysis. Another relevant distinction is that whereas the psychoanalytic notion of 'ambivalence' sees it as engendered by all neurotic conflict, a person's everyday 'mixed feelings' may easily be based on a quite realistic assessment of the imperfect nature of the thing being considered Context source: http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/ambivalence Context : „Ambivalence manifests itself in many ways:yhe inability to make a choice,doubt in decision,confusion.When one is in a state of great ambivalence about the pros and cons on marrying someone,about a career option,or something of equal significance,the associated mental conflict can have an adverse effect on one’s health.” Context source THE FAMILY MENTAL HEALTH ENCYCLOPEDIA,FRANK J.BRUNO PH.D. Area of use: Medicine Designation status : Official

37. Termen:SINDROM AMOTIVATIONAL Limba termenului: Romnă Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa: http://www.psihoterapia.eu/index.php?option=com_content&task=view& id=175&Itemid=44 Definiţie : pierderea dorintei de a desfasura activitati curente, caracterizat de apatie, lipsa de energie, cresterea in greutate Sursa definiţiei: http://www.psihoterapia.eu/index.php?option=com_content& task=view&id=175&Itemid=44. Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Arie de utilizare : medicina Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : AMOTIVATIONAL SYNDROME ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Amotivational+syndrome Definition : Amotivational syndrome is a psychological condition associated with diminished inspiration to participate in social situations and activities, with lapses in apathy caused by an external event, situation, substance (or lack of), relationship, or other cause.

Definition source: http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Amotivational+ syndrome Generic concept :disease Grammatical category: noun Context: „Amotivational Syndrome" was hypothesized as a long term effect of marijuana use -- that is, it was supposed to be an effect which occured among people who smoke pot, not when they were stoned, but all the time. Various studies were done to try to find "Amotivational Syndrome." Some claimed success. Others claimed that there was no such animal. But there was one trend: the more successful studies were done on young persons” Context source: http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/library/slikker.htm Context : „Amotivational Syndrome It has sometimes been observed that when a young person starts smoking marijuana there are systematic changes in that person's lifestyle, ambitions, motivation, and possibly personality. These changes have been collectively referred to as the _amotivational syndrome_, whose symptoms are: "... apathy, loss of effectiveness, and diminished capacity or willingness to carry out complex, long-term plans, endure frustration, concentrate for long periods, follow routines, or successfully master new material. Verbal facility is often impaired both in speaking and writing. Some individuals exhibit greater introversion, become totally

involved with the present at the expense of future goals and demonstrate a strong tendency toward regressive, childlike, magical thinking." Context source http://www.erowid.org/plants/cannabis/cannabis_myth17.shtml Area of use: Medicine Designation status : Official 38. Termen:PERSONALITATE MULTIPLA Limba termenului: Romnă Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://www.sfatmedical.ro/Boli_si_afectiuni/Psihiatrie/Tulburarea_de_ identitate_disociativa_personalitatea_multipla Definiţie : Este o tulburare cronica ce consta in prezenta a doua sau mai multe personalitati distincte, fiecare avand un set specific de atitudini si comportamente Sursa definiţiei:http://www.sfatmedical.ro/Boli_si_afectiuni/Psihiatrie/Tulburarea _de_identitate_disociativa_personalitatea_multipla. Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Context : „Subiect incitant pentru psihiatri, dar si pentru scenaristii de film, tulburarea 'personalitatii multiple' suscita de ani buni dispute aprinse. Considerata de multi o curiozitate psihiatrica rara si misterioasa, tulburarea de identitate disociata (cunoscuta anterior ca tulburare de personalitate multipla) este de fapt mult mai frecventa. Cercetarile recente realizate de Asociatia Psihologilor Americani arata ca tulburarea de identitate disociata este diagnosticul real pentru 5-20% dintre persoanele din spitalele psihiatrice, din nefericire multi dintre ei primind un alt diagnostic si un tratament gresit. Statisticile plaseaza tulburarile disociative in aceeasi categorie cu schizofrenia, depresia si anxietatea, ca una dintre cele patru probleme mentale majore din anul 2006.”

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http://grajdaru.3x.ro/e107_plugins/content/content.php?

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Context : „Exista semne clinice care ridica ipoteza unei personalitati multiple: • bolnavul raporteaza existenta unor "goluri" de memorie • bolnavului i se descriu de catre alte persoane intamplari in care a fost implicat si de care nu isi aduce aminte • bolnavul este recunoscut de persoane straine care i se adreseaza utilizand un alt nume • modificari notabile in comportamentului bolnavului semnalate de observatori directi • alta personalitate (alte personaliti) apare in cursul hipnozei • utilizarea pronumelui "noi" referitor la propria persoana • cefalee pronuntata • descoperirea de scrieri, desene, articole de imbracaminte intre posesiile bolnavului, dar pe care bolnavul nu le recunoaste ca fiind ale sale • halucinatii auditive, sub forma de voci "venite din interior Sursa contextului: http://www.sfatmedical.ro/Boli_si_afectiuni/Psihiatrie/Tulbu rarea_de_identitate_disociativa_personalitatea_multipla Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Atunci cand se confrunta cu situatii traumatice coplesitoare din care, boala apare ca o aparare dupa o trauma psihica din copilarie: viol, abuz sexual din partea parintilor, violenta fizica in familie. Dupa astfel de situatii, copiii folosesc fuga de realitate ca un mod de aparare extrem de eficace impotriva durerii fizice si emotionale acute sau contra anticiparii ingrijoratoare a durerii. Prin acest proces

or MPD.disociativ. is a mental disturbance classified as one of the dissociative disorders in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). fara speranta" pentru a conserva cateva zone de functionare sanatoasa. USA Source : disorder Definition : Multiple personality disorder.thefreedictionary. copiii care au practicat-o frecvent si o pot folosi automat oricand se simt amenintati sau anxiosi .thefreedictionary. In acest sens. gandurile. Ionel se transforma in Vasilica. dar probabil cifra este asemanatoare.chiar daca situatia provocatoare de teama nu este extrema sau abuziva. Deoarece evadarea disociata este atat de eficace. disocierea defensiva devine in timp consolidata si conditionata. Definition source: http://medicaldictionary. Acestea permit indivizilor sa indure circumstante "disperate. amintirile si perceptiile experientei traumatizante pot fi separate psihologic. MPD or DID is defined as a condition in which "two or more distinct identities or personality states" alternate in controlling the patient's consciousness and behavior.com/multiple+personality+ . pentru un copil ce a fost violat fizic si sexual in mod repetat. sentimentele. Pentru Romania nu exista statistici.com/multiple+ http://medical-dictionary. 8% din populatie a suferit cel putin un episod traumatizant in copilarie. Note: "Split personality" is not an accurate term for DID and should not be used as a synonym for schizophrenia. astfel incat copilul sa functioneze ca si cand trauma nu s-ar fi intamplat. statisticile sunt graitoare: in SUA. Totusi. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : MULTIPLE PERSONALITY DISORDER ID Language : English ID Country : UK . Tulburarile disociative sunt adesea mentionate ca o tehnica de supravietuire foarte creativa. It has been renamed dissociative identity disorder (DID).

personality+disorder Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Context: „This disorder is theoretically linked with the interaction of overwhelming stress. insufficient childhood nurturing. Each cluster of thoughts tends to have a .com/multiple+personality+disorder Context : „Not all children who are severely and repeatedly abused develop multiple personality disorder. A high percentage of patients report child abuse. traumatic antecedents. Others believe that the symptoms of DID are created iatrogenically by therapists using certain treatment techniques with suggestible patients. Several psychiatric rating scales of DID sufferers suggested that DID is strongly related to childhood trauma rather than to an underlying electrophysiological dysfunction. Skeptics have observed that a small number of US therapists were responsible for diagnosing the majority of individuals with DID there. especially during early to mid childhood. People diagnosed with DID often report that they have experienced severe physical and sexual abuse. and that the "alters" tended to be rule-governed social roles rather than separate personalities.thefreedictionary. However. Context source: http://encyclopedia. the disassociated thoughts and feelings may begin to take on lives of their own. if the abuse is repeatedly extreme and the child does not have enough time to recover emotionally. that patients did not report sexual abuse or manifest alters until after treatment had begun. and an innate ability to dissociate memories or experiences from consciousness. but this idea is not universally accepted.

Once that is established. Hypnosis is often a useful tool to accomplish this goal. and only 5 percent are primarily treated in psychiatric hospitals. The most common treatment for MPD is long-term psychotherapy twice a week. or fear. the therapist helps the patient to acknowledge and accept the physical or sexual abuse he or she endured as a child and to learn new coping skills so that disassociation is no longer necessary. each with its own memory and characteristics.common emotional theme such as anger. although the rate of switching seems to slow down in middle age. At the same time. Sometimes mood-altering medications such as tranquilizers or antidepressants are prescribed for MPD patients. The treatment of MPD lasts an average of four year Designation status : Official 39. the therapist must develop a trusting relationship with the main personality and each of the alters. The main and alters are encouraged to communicate with each other in order to integrate or come together. Eventually. sadness.scienceclarified. Termen:TULBURARE DE PERSONALITATE NARCISISTA Limba termenului: Romnă .com/Ma-Mu/Multiple-PersonalityDisorder. About one-half of all people being treated for MPD require brief hospitalization. these clusters develop into full-blown personalities. the emotional issues of each personality regarding the original trauma are addressed. Context source http://www.html Area of use: Medicine Commentary : MPD does not disappear without treatment. During these sessions.

wordpress. Corespondent engleză: narcissistic personality disorder Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : grup nominal Hiponim: componenta narcisica a personalitatii Context : „Simptomele tulburarii de personalitate narcisica cuprind: .exagerarea propriilor realizari si talente .esuarea in a recunoaste emotiile si sentimentele celorlalti . succes si atractivitate .profitare de bunavointa celorlalti . Ei cred ca sunt superiori celorlalti si au putina consideratie fata de sentimentele acestora din urma.dispretul fata de persoanele pe care le considera inferioare . Dar in spatele mastii de incredere foarte mare sta o imagine de sine fragila.credinta ca este mai bun decat ceilalti .credinta ca este special .com/2008/10/03/tulburarea-depersonalitate-narcisista/.asteptarea continua de lauda si admiratie .convingerea ca ceilalti trebuie sa fie de acord cu ideile si planurile sale .prezenta unor fantezii despre putere. vulnerabila la cea mai mica critica. Sursa definiţiei: http://alinamd.com/2008/10/03/tulburarea-de-personalitatenarcisista/ Definiţie : Tulburarea de personalitate narcisica este o afectiune mentala in care pacientul are un simt crescut al propriei importante si o nevoie profunda de a fi admirat.wordpress.Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://alinamd.

com/2008/10/03/tulburarea-depersonalitate-narcisista/ Context : „Psihologii tratează această trăsătură ca fiind o boală foarte greu de tratat.se simte rapid respins si ranit . In mod particular. limitand abilitatile lor de a functiona in cadrul relatiilor sau in alte arii ale vietii. cel puţin controlarea înaintării ei.incredere in sine fragila . nici ceilalţi nu-l vor accepta în preajma lor. Narcisismul este o extremă nefericită a respectului pentru propria persoană.aparenta de persoana cerebrala si neemotionala. cum ar fi profesional sau scolar.gelozie fata de altii . Singurul lucru bun care se poate face este o terapie care să încerce o stopare a înaintării acestei disfuncţii de personalitate sau. narcisistul fiind considerat o persoană foarte dificilă.com/2010/07/tulburarea-de-personalitate-de-tipnarcisic/ Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Tulburarea de personalitate narcisica este una din cele cateva tipuri de tulburari de personalitate. poate chiar fără rezultat optim.credinta ca ceilalti sunt gelosi fata de persoana sa . deoarece el se va simţi întotdeauna superior celorlalţi din punct de vedere estetic. Pe de altă parte. Putem considera această boală ca si o criză permanentă de personalitate.probleme in mentinerea unor relatii sanatoase . o persoană cu care trebuie să te porţi “cu mănuşi”.” Sursa contextului: http://alinamd. Tulburarile de personalitate sunt afectiuni in care oamenii au caracteristici care ii fac sa se simta si sa se poarte dezagreabil in preajma celorlalti..” Sursa contextului: http://nutolera.stabilirea de scopuri nerealiste . personalitatea narcisica este caracterizata de un . Narcisistul nu va avea niciodată prieteni şi nu se va putea acomoda niciodată într-un grup.wordpress.

Tratamentul tulburarii de personalitate narcisica se centreaza pe psihoterapie.” Context source: http://www. usually involving the exploitation of others and a lack of empathy. thus they become diagnosed with this disorder. emotional.com/dis/p20-pe07. This disorder is more frequent in males (50% to 75%) than females. but most adolescents grow out of this behavior. people with narcissistic personality disorder: • Are self-centered and boastful . intrand in aceeasi categorie cu tulburarile de personalitate histrionica. preoccupation with grandiose fantasies concerning the self.comportament dramatic. Unfortunately. antisociala si borderline. this narcissistic behavior persists and intensifies into adulthood. an abnormal need for attention and admiration. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : NARCISSISTIC PERSONALITY DISORDER ID Language : English ID Country : UK .html Context : „In many cases.com/Narcissistic+personality +disorder Definition : a psychiatric diagnosis characterized by an exaggerated sense of selfimportance and uniqueness.thefreedictionary. for some.com/Narcissistic+ personality+disorder Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Context: „The prevalence of Narcissistic Personality Disorder is less than 1% of the general population. It is seen in 2% to 16% of psychiatric outpatients.mentalhealth. Course:Narcissistic traits are very common in adolescents. Definition source: http://medical-dictionary. USA Source : http://medical-dictionary. and disturbances in interpersonal relationships.thefreedictionary.

com/narcissistic_personalitydisorder/article. the attitudes conceal a deep sense of insecurity and a fragile self-esteem. complexul Oedip simbolizează legătura erotică inconștientă cu părintele de sex opus și rivalitatea față de părintele de același sex. . unstable emotions and a distorted self-image.medicinenet. Instead. these attitudes and behaviors do not reflect true self-confidence. Designation status : Official 40.• Seek constant attention and admiration • Consider themselves better than others • Exaggerate their talents and achievements • Believe that they are entitled to special treatment • Are easily hurt but may not show it • Set unrealistic goals • May take advantage of others to achieve their goals Context source http://www. an exaggerated sense of superiority and importance. Narcissistic personality disorder is further characterized by an abnormal love of self.romedic. and a preoccupation with success and power. Termen:COMPLEXUL LUI OEDIP Limba termenului: Romnă Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://dictionar.ro/complex_al_lui_oedip Definitie: În psihanaliză. People with these disorders have intense. However.htm Area of use:Medicine Commentary : Narcissistic personality disorder is one of a group of conditions called dramatic personality disorders.

care se dezvoltă încă din copilărie și provoacă sentimente de vinovăție și teamă în cadrul unei stări nevrotice. referindu-se la o legenda a Greciei antice. Sursa definiţiei: http://ro. Iocasta. Copilul de sex masculin începe să aibă intuiția compotamentului sexual al părinților.rightwords. fara sa stie. In psihanaliza. care se dezvolta inca din copilarie si provoaca sentimente de vinovatie si teama in cadrul unei stari nevrotice. complexul Oedip simbolizeaza legatura erotica inconstienta cu parintele de sex opus si rivalitatea fata de parintele de acelasi sex. Acest impuls inițial de tandrețe este la originea complexului Oedip. in care Oedip. Corespondent engleză: OEDIPUS COMPLEX Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : grup nominal Context : „Complexul lui Oedip este un concept teoretic central in Psihanaliza. fapt care declanșează o primă senzație elementară de plăcere ("faza orală" a vieții sexuale). Laios. termenul de "complex Oedip" (Ödipuskomplex) apare pentru prima dată în lucrarea "Zur Psychologie des Sexuallebens" ("Psihologia vieții sexuale". ucide pe propriul lui tata.wikipedia. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) a descris aceasta notiune. Freud folosește expresiile "complex nuclear" sau "complex matern". si se casatoreste cu mama lui. complexul apare in timpul asa numitei „faza oedipiana” si isi face simtita prezenta in jurul varstei de 3-5 ani” Sursa contextului: http://www. încercnd să se interpună între . fiul regelui din Teba. între care ar exista o complicitate din care el este exclus. Potrivit teoriei.org/wiki/Complexul_Oedip. Sentimentul de frustrație îi provoacă reacții tipice. elaborarea unui "complex Oedip" constituie o etapă normală în dezvoltarea copiilor de sex masculin. 1910). care apoi evoluează în trei faze: • Faza falică. mama fiind percepută din primul stadiu de dezvoltare drept aceea care îi oferă snul pentru a se nutri. După Freud.ro/dictionar/complexul-lui-oedip--9 Context : „În primele sale lucrări.

Refularea impulsurilor sexuale durează pnă la adolescență. Copilul se foloseste de subterfugii pentru a va atrage atentia si a va separa de partenerul de viata. le suporta si se acomodeaza cu ele.org/wiki/Complexul_Oedip Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Este o perioada fundamentala in dezvoltarea copilului. Dezvoltă o rivalitate față de tată și își exhibează penisul în prezența mamei. Cele mai multe consultatii psihologice au loc in aceasta perioada. Conflictul oedipian are loc in general intre varsta de trei si cinci ani. fie ca o identificare cu mama. Aceasta perioada de intrebari este de asemenea o faza a opozitiilor: copilul este supus impulsurilor. intră în camera părinților fără să bată la ușă). ct și de la tată.tată și mamă (de ex.wikipedia. Freud a preluat acest mit pentru a ilustra relatiile tumultoase dintre un copil si parintii lui: copilul va fi indragostit de parintele de sex opus si va manifesta sentimente de rivalitate fata de parintele de acelasi sex cu el. Sursa contextului: http://ro. Caci aceasta faza de organizare a legaturilor afective se traduce printr-o agitatie emotionala intensa. Impulsurile sexuale sunt în această fază refulate și pot genera traume psihice și stări nevrotice. în situația de rivalitate (complex Oedip "pozitiv"). în dorința inversă de a-și seduce tatăl (complex Oedip "inversat". construindu-și propria personalitate cu elemente ce provin att de la mamă. Fiul își imaginează castrarea fie ca o sancțiune din partea tatălui. care demonstrează ambivalența și bisexualitatea umană potențială). vrstă la care fiul se eliberează treptat de complexul Oedip și își caută parteneri sexuali în afara părinților. • Teama de castrare. Insa o situatie oedipiana . Tatăl capătă în reprezentarea fiului statura unei figuri autoritare susceptibilă să-l pedepsească. Amintiti-va ca trece printr-o perioada intensa si incercati sa-l intelegeti in loc sa-l pedepsiti. • Faza rezolutivă sau de identificare.

Many psychiatrists. USA Source : http://www.reusita nu conduce mereu pe calea heterosexualitatii ci participa la echilibrul afectiv.thefreedictionary.com/OEDIPUS+COMPLEX Definition : In psychoanalysis. especially a male child. drawn from the myth of Oedipus designating attraction on the part of the child toward the parent of the opposite sex and rivalry and hostility toward the parent of its own. a subconscious sexual desire in a child. It occurs during the phallic stage of the psycho-sexual development of the personality. for the parent of the opposite sex. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : OEPIDUS COMPLEX ID Language : English ID Country : UK . while acknowledging the significance of the Oedipal relationships to personality development in our culture.com/OEDIPUS+COMPLEX Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Context: „Oedipus complex. usually accompanied by hostility to the parent of the same sex Definition source: http://www. Freud considered this complex the cornerstone of the superego and the nucleus of all human relationships. Resolution of the Oedipus complex is believed to occur by identification with the parent of the same sex and by the renunciation of sexual interest in the parent of the opposite sex. approximately years three to five. ascribe love and . Freudian term.thefreedictionary.

"I do not wish to assert that the Oedipus complex exhausts the relation of children to their parents: it can easily be far more complicated. The Oedipus complex can. 'a child learns what power independent of itself is as it goes through the Oedipus complex. He considered "the Oedipus complex .Freud. "Freud's formula … gives a onesided and too simple an account of the complex interactions of the family.jrank.. Electra. Love. be developed to a greater or lesser strength...org/pages/460/Oedipus-Complex. it can even be reversed.encountering the existence of a symbolic system independent of it'[15].." Read more: Oedipus Complex . Designation status : Official . moreover.html Area of use: Medicine Commentary : One potent postmodern voice of protest against the dethroning of the Oedipus complex has been that of Lacan. Freud writes. Yet. looking to Freud's Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis (1920). Many current psychologists think of it as too simplistic.org/pages/460/Oedipus-Complex.attraction toward one parent and hatred and antagonism toward the other not necessarily to sexual rivalry but to resentment of parental authoritarian power” Context source: http://encyclopedia2.superimposes the kingdom of culture"[14] upon the individual: marks his or her entrance into the symbolic order. and the authors of the Oxford Companion to the Mind (1987) state.. but it is a regular and very important factor in a child's mental life. and Theory http://psychology. and his Oedipus theory has been no exception.html#ixzz1Fj8TlqVS Context source http://psychology.jrank.in so far as we continue to recognize it as covering the whole field of our experience with its signification . Parent.thefreedictionary. Feelings.com/Oedipus+complex Context : „Modern interpretations of Freudian theories are often critical. In this sense." It would be fair to say that this is the current view of Freud's Oedipal notions.

neuronii sunt balonizati.ro/boli-afectiuni/Boala-Pick_688/ Definiţie : .. Termen:BOALA PICK Limba termenului: Romnă Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://www.” Sursa definiţiei: DICTIONAR DE PSIHOLOGIE. Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: dementa Context : „Boala Pick Debuteaza mai devreme decat boala Alzheimer si este dificil de diferentiat de aceasta.fiind insotita de modificari neuronale specifice.Forma particulara din punct si de rara vedere de dementa degenerativa atrofie presenila.paginamedicala.care afecteaza de obicei regiunile frontale si temporale.caracterizata anatomic printr-o circumscrisa.41. atrofii care pot sa prinda si ganglionii bazali. Morfopatologic. iar la coloratia argentica . Examenele imagistice arata atrofii lobare simetrice ale lobilor temporali sau frontali (patognomonice pentru boala Pick).

tratament tintit pentru boala Pick. Simptome includ: tulburari de memorie. stereotipii verbale. reactioneaza identic la evenimente diferite. pierderea initiativei. cresterea poftei de mancare. Simptome includ: tulburari de memorie.ro/boli-afectiuni/Boala-Pick_688/ Context : „Din punct de vedere clinic. cresterea poftei de mancare. USA Source : http://en.wikipedia. pacientii isi pierd capacitatea de a conduce actiuni simple (de exemplu nu mai stiu sa se imbrace.ro/boala-pick Arie de utilizare : medicina Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : PICK’S DISEASE ID Language : English ID Country : UK . Alte simptome care insotesc boala sunt Nu exista un iritabilitatea.). reactioneaza identic la evenimente diferite.prezinta incluziuni citoplasmatice cunoscute sub numele de corpi Pick. boala Pick este o dementa care progreseaza lent.org/wiki/Pick's_disease . Sursa contextului: http://www. Sursa contextului: http://www. Alte simptome care insotesc boala sunt iritabilitatea. boala Pick este o dementa care progreseaza lent. Diferentierea de boala Alzheimer este ingreunata si de faptul ca placile amiloide se intalnesc in ambele cazuri la nivelul creierului.paginamedicala. imposibilitatea de a denumi obiectele cunoscute.). stereotipii verbale. sa foloseasca o bricheta etc. dezinhibitia emotionala. Din punct de vedere clinic. dezinhibitia emotionala. pacientii isi pierd capacitatea de a conduce actiuni simple (de exemplu nu mai stiu sa se imbrace.romedic. provenind din componentele alterate ale citoscheletului neuronal. pierderea initiativei. sa foloseasca o bricheta etc. imposibilitatea de a denumi obiectele cunoscute.

Definition source: http://en.org/wiki/Pick's_disease Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: dementia Context: „Pick's disease is named after Arnold Pick. Pick's disease is one of the causes of the clinical syndrome of frontotemporal lobar degeneration which has three subtypes.wikipedia.. As a result. Symptoms include loss of speech (aphasia). In 1911.) People with Pick's disease .org/wiki/Pick's_disease Area of use: Medicine Commentary : The disease gets worse slowly. a professor of psychiatry from the University of Prague who first discovered and described the disease in 1892 by examining the brain tissue of several deceased patients with histories of dementia.org/wiki/Pick's_disease Context : „The symptoms of Pick's disease include difficulty in speech and thinking. but continue to get worse. is a rare neurodegenerative disease that causes progressive destruction of nerve cells in the brain. Pick's disease pathology is associated more with the frontotemporal dementia and progressive nonfluent aphasia subtypes than the semantic dementia subtype. Alois Alzheimer also noted the complete absence of senile plaques and neurofilbrillary tangles as well as the presence of Pick Bodies and occasional ballooned neurons. speech difficulty.” Context source: http://en. Context source http://en. and impaired thinking occur slowly. (Memory loss is often the main. Tissues in the temporal and frontal lobes of the brain start to shrink over time. symptom of Alzheimer's.wikipedia.Definition : Pick's disease.wikipedia. and behavioral changes. the characteristic histological feature of this disease . and earliest. and dementia. The early personality changes can help doctors tell Pick's disease apart from Alzheimer’s. Symptoms such as behavior changes. The changes in personality allow doctors to distinguish between Pick's disease and Alzheimer's disease.is named a Pick body.a protein tangle that appears as a large body in neuronal tissue .

Some patients will have more prominent difficulty with decision making. Behavioral changes: • Can't keep a job • Compulsive behaviors • Inappropriate behavior • Inability to function or interact in social or personal situations • Problems with personal hygiene • Repetitive behavior • Withdrawal from social interaction Emotional changes: • Abrupt mood changes • Decreased interest in daily living activities • Failure to recognize changes in behavior • Failure to show emotional warmth. or language (trouble finding or understanding words or writing). complex tasks. empathy. General symptoms are listed below. sympathy • Inappropriate mood . The changes in behavior continue to get worse and are often one of the most disturbing symptoms of the disease. concern.tend to behave the wrong way in different social settings.

• Not caring about events or environment Language changes: • Can't speak (mutism) • Decreased ability to read or write • Difficulty finding a word • Difficulty speaking or understanding speech (aphasia) • Repeat anything spoken to them (echolalia) • Shrinking vocabulary Neurological problems: • Increased muscle tone (rigidity) • Memory loss that gets worse • Movement/coordination difficulties (apraxia) Designation status : Official .

ce poate provoca stari de agitatie. Termen:NEVROZA TRAUMATICA Limba termenului: Romnă Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://www.ro/nevrozatraumd. in momentul socului. printr-o criza anxioasa paroxistica. Ea se manifesta.42. de o situatie in care subiectul si-a simtit viata amenintata. Sursa definiţiei: http://www. de stupoare sau de confuzie mentala. Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: nevroza Context : „Evolutia ei ulterioara.html. in general.srdp.ro/nevrozatraumd.srdp.html Definiţie : Tip de nevroza in care aparitia simptomelor este consecutiva unui soc emotional legat. care survine cel mai des dupa un interval liber. permite desprinderea schematica a doua situatii: .

de obicei. Situaţia traumatică generatoare se exprimă prin simptom. Sursa contextului: http://www.ro/nevrozatraumd. Ulterior şocului.). Evenimentul traumatizant este retrăit. subiectul nu poate răspunde printr-o elaborare psihică sau descărcare adecvată. În faţa afluxului de excitaţie traumatic. denumirea de nevroza traumatica acestui al doilea tablou clinic. etc. cosmar repetitiv.” Sursa contextului: http://www.f0. Freud si psihanalistii rezerva. Termenul de nevroza este inadecvat pentru ca in prezent.srdp. stupoare sau confuzie mentală. o asemenea "fixatie la trauma" e insotita de o inhibitie mai mult sau mai putin generalizata a activitatii subiectului. încercndu-se în acest fel „legarea“ (elaborarea) traumei. ce separa prima naştere de o viitoare naştere printr-un efect retroactiv. b) Traumatismul capata o pondere determinanta in insusi continutul simptomului (retrairea evenimentului traumatizant. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial . însoţit de o stare de agitaţie. care pune in evidenta o structura nevrotica preexistenta. din lumea imaginară).html Context : „Nevroza traumatica se dezvolta la un interval de timp ce poate dura ani. care apare ca o tentativa repetata de a "lega" si a provoca abreactia traumei. tulburari de somn.a) Traumatismul functioneaza ca element declansator. el este rezervat pentru a desemna conflictul psihic realizand un compromis intre dorinta şi aparare. Traumatismul se grefează pe o structură nevrotică preexistentă. apare un puseu de angoasă paroxistică.ro/trauma-si-nevroza-traumatica-aparuta-inurma-pierderii-unei-sarcini-in-conceptia-freudiana/ Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Nevroza traumatică este starea consecutivă unui şoc afectiv legat de o situaţie de pericol real (nu pulsional. El desemneaza totuşi un tablou clinic in care evenimentul are parte determinanta chiar in continutul simptomelor. Există un raport între situaţia traumatică şi predispoziţie.

a number of observations corresponding to a clinical picture of this kind were reported. The whole issue was destined to achieve its full immediacy only when historical events brought the war neuroses to the fore. by taking into account predisposition for and tolerance of trauma. first in 1916 in his Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis and once again in the context of his great theoretical revision of 1920.com/topic/traumatic-neurosis . prompting Freud to reconsider traumatic neurosis.answers. In the second half of the nineteenth century.answers. typically in the wake of military action or railroad disasters.com/topic/traumatic-neurosis Definition : The term traumatic neurosis designates a psycho-pathological state characterized by various disturbances arising soon or long after an intense emotional shock. Furthermore. Context source: http://www. and related either to hysteria or to neurasthenia. Definition source: http://www. he jettisoned what had hitherto constituted the specificity of the category.com/topic/traumatic-neurosis Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Synonym: potsttraumatic stress disorder Context: „Freud was to construct his theory of the neuroses on the model of traumatic neurosis.answers.Term : TRAUMATIC NEUROSIS ID Language : English ID Country : UK . USA Source : http://www. by stressing the sexual character of the precipitating factor and the possibility that the action of traumatic neurosis could be deferred. as well as the trauma's significance in the subject's history and mental organization. However. rather than the fright occasioned by an accident's actual threat to life. Freud relativized and reduced the notion of shock and its etiological import.

Context : Conceptual reappraisal of traumatic neurosis awaited simultaneous studies of combat reactions in American Vietnam War veterans and contemporaneous child abuse in the domestic civilian arena. and the field is still marred by lack of conceptual clarity (Singer.bookrags.psihoterapie. but psychodynamic factors were excluded from it and its successor DSM-IV (1994).html Definiţie : subiectii din acest grup manifestand permanent o rezistenta pasiva la orice solicitare sociala sau profesionala. and dissociative disorders.psihoterapie. The diagnostic category of posttraumatic stress disorder emerged from studies of the former.com/tandf/traumatic-neurosis-tf/” Area of use: Medicine Designation status : Official 43. Context source: „http://www. Termen:PERSONALITATE PASIV-AGRESIVA Limba termenului: Romnă Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://www. from the latter. fiind opozitionisti. Corespondent engleză: passive-aggressive personality disorder Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Context : „Ceea ce caracterizeaza trasaturile de personalitate este maniera obisnuita de a percepe mediul inconjurator si propria persoana si maniera de a se comporta si reactiona a acesteia.html. Contemporary dynamic approaches to traumatic neurosis tend to conflate dissociation and repression. negativisti si sabotori mascati. Sursa definiţiei: http://www. 1990). seen by some as a complex form of posttraumatic disorder.net/forum/psihoterapie/tulburari-depersonalitate/tulburarile-de-personalitate. These disorders were incorporated into DSM-III (1980).net/forum/psihoterapie/tulburari-de-personalitate/ personalitatea-pasiv-agresiva. O personalitate este dificila atunci cand unele trasaturi .

manifesta rezistenta la exigentele celorlalti. Personalitatea pasiv-agresiva face parte din categoria personalitatilor dificile si se caracterizeaza prin urmatoarele: .psihoterapie. la prima vedere. Altfel spus. Gabriel Crumpei.fiti amabili. cat si in viata personala . sau rigide. le pune la indoiala ordinele . nu o facem la modul vizibil si clar. ci recurgem la o serie de acte si conduite voalate.ziaruldeiasi. atunci cind dorim sa ne exprimam agresiv fata de cineva.cereti-le parerea cat de des puteti.net/forum/psihoterapie/tulburari-depersonalitate/personalitatea-pasiv-agresiva. dati-le posibilitatea sa participe la luarea deciziilor . pentru a le arata ca le intelegeti punctul de vedere .ajutati-le sa se exprime direct. nu par a avea o dominanta agresiva". atat in domeniul profesional. se considera neinteleasa si rau tratata Sursa contextului: http://www.ro/ghidul-pentru-sanatate/cum-sarelationam-cu-personalitatile-dificile~ni4cq8 Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Metodele prin care puteti relationa cu personalitatile pasiv-agresive sunt urmatoarele: . explica dr. deoarece comportamentul lor reprezinta un mod indirect de a-si exprima agresivitatea fata de cei din jur . binevoitori cu ei. „Caracteristica sa principala se refera la modalitatea de raspuns prin conduita agresiva mascata.are probleme cu reprezentantii autoritatii. multe din trasaturile sale pot fi cu usurinta observate in conduita noastra si a celor din jur. Sursa contextului: http://www. care.html Context : „Personalitatea de tip pasiv-agresiv este extrem de frecventa.taraganeaza in indeplinirea sarcinilor. inadaptate situatiilor si cauzeaza suferinte propriei persoane si celor din jur.ale caracterului sau sunt mult prea accentuate.

.nu va prefaceti ca nu le-ati remarcat impotrivirea. procrastination. altfel spus.html Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun . stubbornness. Definition source: http://www. USA Source :http://www. This disorder can manifest itself as resentment. It is a method of dealing with stress or frustration. ci abordati-i ca pe niste adulti responsabili de faptele lor. However modern psychiatry no longer recognize this condition as an official diagnosis. nu este recomandat sa asteptati sa le treaca supararea de la sine. but actually passively resists them. sullenness.reamintiti-le din cand in cand regulile pe care trebuie sa le respecte in situatiile respective .nu va lasati antrenati in jocul represaliilor reciproce Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : PASSIVE –AGGRESSIVE PERSONALITY DISORDER ID Language : English ID Country : UK . but it results in the person attacking other people in indirect ways.steadyhealth.steadyhealth. This affects almost all interpersonal or occupational situations.com/articles/Passive_Aggressive_ Personality_Disorder_a289.com/articles/Passive_Aggressive_Personality_Di sorder_a289. caci nu se va intampla acest lucru . .html Definition : Passive-aggressive personality disorder is a chronic condition in which a person accepts the desires and needs of others. becoming increasingly hostile and angry. or intentional failure at doing requested tasks.nu ii criticati ca pe niste copii.

That’s why.steadyhealth. These individuals are noted for the stormy nature of their interpersonal relationships and they are resentfully quarrelsome and irritable. .Context: „There are certain behaviors that help identify passive-aggressive behavior.com/articles/Passive_Aggressive_ Personality_Disorder_a289. they are sometimes very difficult to handle.html Context : „It is proven that individuals with passive-aggressive personality disorder are ambivalent within their relationships. They are sometimes very hard to understand because they are in doubt between expressing hostile defiance toward people they see and attempting to mollify these people by asking forgiveness. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Obstructionism Procrastination Resentment Resisting suggestions from others Sullenness Ambiguity Avoiding responsibility by claiming forgetfulness Blaming others Chronic lateness and forgetfulness Complaining Not expressing hostility or anger openly Fear of competition Making excuses and lying Fear of dependency Fear of intimacy Fear of authority Fostering chaos Intentional inefficiency” Context source: http://www.

specific types of psychotherapy (talk therapy). Passive-aggressive individuals are able to trap people into situations wherein whatever they do is wrong. they engage in grumbling. understanding therapist is essential. many psychiatrists and psychologists felt that treatment did not help people with a personality disorder. have now been shown to help many people. moody complaints. However. Termen:NEVROZA ASTENICA Limba termenului: Romnă . and sour pessimism. In most cases. People in relationships with them are just waiting for the next struggle and round of volatility and carping criticism.They often feel like a victim.steadyhealth. Designation status : Official 44.” Context source http://www. These individuals can control others by forcing them into an uncomfortable anticipatory stance.com/articles/Relationships__a289. sometimes with drugs. These socially maladaptive behaviors result in inevitable interpersonal conflict and frustration. Choosing an experienced.html Area of use: Medicine Commentary : Until fairly recently.

Corespondent engleză: asthenic neurosis Concept generic: boala pshica Categoria gramaticala : grup nominal Hiperonim: sindrom nevrotiform Hiponim: sindrom astenic Context : „Nevroza astenica este o afectiune functionala. .scritube.scribd. reversibila ale carei simptome principale sunt: astenia.factorul predispozant care tine de ereditate si constitutie.php . cefaleea si insomnia Sursa contextului: http://www.com/doc/16517169/nevroza-astenica Context : „Se cunosc trei factori mai importanti raspunzatori de aparitia nevrozei astenice: .scribd.factorul psihogen adica tulburarile sufletesti: . Sursa contextului: http://www.com/doc/16517169/nevroza-astenica Definiţie: nevroza astenica este o afectiune psihogena exprimata clinic printrun complex de tulburari psihice si somatice grupate in mod dominant in jurul sindromului caracteristic astenic Sursa definiţiei: http://www.scribd.Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://www.com/doc/16517169/nevroza-astenica.factorul somatogen adica tulburarile organice corporale care pot favoriza sau dezlantui o nevroza.com/medicina/LUCRARE-DE-DIPLOMA -INGRIJIREA-9215207.

The ocular manifestations could be classified into four clinical types according to the dominant ocular symptoms. Context source: http://www.gov/pubmed/18637 Context : „asthenic neurosis (or neurasthenia. continuous fatigue – asthenia and lack of energy. lump in the throat. USA Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Context: „The author has studied over 200 cases of asthenic neurosis. fatigue and weakness at wakening. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : ASTHENIC NEUROSIS ID Language : English ID Country : UK . The ocular disturbances in asthenic neurosis are present especially in persons who regularly work more than 8 hours continuously. concentration .ncbi. In 80% of cases we had favourable results. deoarece el se desparte de mediul sau obisnuit si este nevoit sa decurga la ajuttorul oamenilor straini. 58. cephalgia.34% of these patients were female and 41. sedatives. Acest prim contact constituie un eveniment important în viata bolnavului. 78% of the patients were between 20 and 40 years. 59% were students. sleep disorders.66% were male. insomnias. The treatment consists of physical and intellectual rest periods. In 75% of these cases a raised retinal blood pressure as an ocular manifestation was discovered.Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Internarea bolnavului cu nevroza astenica se face în clinica de psihiatrie cndacesta ia primul contact cu spitalul. vertigo. suffocation fits or breathing disorders. tonics.nlm. and connective tissue therapy with extracts of whole eyeballs.nih.

html#ixzz1FjYsDlGC Under Creative Commons License: Attribution Context source: http://www. emotional hypersensitivity and low tolerance to noise. neuralgias. irritability fits.articlesbase. Read more: http://www. numbness and tingling in the limbs.and memory disorders.html Area of use: Medicine Designation status : Official 45.com/diseases-and-conditions-articles/ neurosis-treatment-3963982. Termen:DEPRESIE MAJORA UNIPOLARA Limba termenului: Romnă Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa: http://www.com/diseases-and-conditions-articles/neurosis -treatment-3963982. nervousness.sfatmedical.articlesbase.ro/Boli_si_afectiuni/Psihiatrie/Depresia_unipolara .

boala obsesiv compulsivă şi unele tulburări de personalitate) au o puternică componentă genetică.ro/Boli_si_afectiuni/Psihiatrie/ Depresia_unipolara_tulburarea_depresiva_majora Context : „Bolile psihice majore (schizofrenia. ea poate duce la pierderea productivităţii. efectele ei pot fi de-a dreptul invalidante pentru pacient. declin funcţional şi creşterea mortalităţii. nivelul de activitate fizică. . capacitatea de concentrare şi de realizare a diferitelor sarcini. depresia majoră unipolară.hrănirea. Marile tulburări psihice sunt determinate de existenţa unei predispoziţii care poate izbucni în contextul unei acţiunii unor factori de stres. boala maniaco – depresivă. Sursa definiţiei: http://www. Ea poate provoca tulburări ale proceselor fiziologice normale .sfatmedical. somnul. Corespondent engleză: unipolar dpression Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: depresie Hiponim: sindrom depresiv-hipocondric Context : „Se suspecteaza tulburarea depresiva majora daca: • cinci (sau mai multe) din urmatoarele simptome au fost prezente in cursul unei aceleiasi perioade de 2 saptamani si reprezinta o schimbare fata de functionarea anterioara • cel putin unul dintre simptome este dispozitia depresiva sau pierderea interesului si a placerii Sursa contextului: http://www.org/boli/depresia. Dacă nu este eliminată._tulburarea_depresiva_majora Definiţie : Dacă depresia durează prea mult sau capătă o formă severă (numită depresie majoră ).sanatate.php.

ro/emisiuni-medicale/psihiatrie/bolilepsihice-majore-conditii-de-transmitere-ereditara/ Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Factori de risc: • istoric de episoade depresive anterior • istoric familial de tulburare depresiva. antiinflamatoare nesteroidiene • absenta suportului social • evenimente stresante.org/wiki/Major_depressive_disorder . cicloserina. stadii debut Alzheimer) • medicamente: rezerpina.Sursa contextului: http://www. steroizi anabolizanti). USA Source : http://en. indeosebi la rude de gradul I • sexul feminin • varsta de debut inainte de 40 ani • perioada post-partum • asociatia cu alte afectiuni (boala Parkinson. negative ale vietii • consum de substante psihoactive Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : UNIPOLAR DEPRESSION ID Language : English ID Country : UK . digitala. boala coronariana.wikipedia. diabet. diureticele tiazidice.sanatateatv. metildopa. neoplasm. hormoni (contraceptive orale.

reduced sex drive. depressed people may have symptoms of psychosis. unipolar depression.org/wiki/Major_depressive_disorder Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Synonym: MAJOR DEPRESSION Context: „Major depression significantly affects a person's family and personal relationships. thoughts and feelings of worthlessness. and an inability to experience pleasure in activities that were formerly enjoyed.org/wiki/Major_depressive_disorder Context : „The term unipolar depression is used to distinguish it from depression which occurs within the context of bipolar disorder. hallucinations.wikipedia. which pervades all aspects of life. hopelessness. a disorder in which a person experiences alternating periods of depression and mania” Context source http://depression.htm Area of use: Medicine . sleeping and eating habits. or ruminate over. usually unpleasant. Depressed people may be preoccupied with. and selfhatred. withdrawal from social situations and activities. and thoughts of death or suicide. Context source: http://en. Other symptoms of depression include poor concentration and memory (especially in those with melancholic or psychotic features).com/od/mooddisordertypes/g/unipolar. and general health. work or school life. Its impact on functioning and well-being has been equated to that of chronic medical conditions such as diabetes. helplessness. In severe cases. clinical depression. and by loss of interest or pleasure in normally enjoyable activities Definition source: http://en. inappropriate guilt or regret.wikipedia.Definition : Major depressive disorder (MDD) (also known as recurrent depressive disorder.about. A person having a major depressive episode usually exhibits a very low mood. major depression. less commonly. or unipolar disorder) is a mental disorder characterized by an all-encompassing low mood accompanied by low self-esteem. These symptoms include delusions or.

cunoscuta popular ca ipohondrie. Termen:HIPOCONDRIE Limba termenului: Romnă Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://www. moderate.[115] Depression without mania is sometimes referred to as unipolar because the mood remains at one emotional state or "pole". Designation status : Official 46.Commentary : A major depressive episode is characterized by the presence of a severely depressed mood that persists for at least two weeks. este o teama permanenta de a suferi de o boala grava. O persoana cu aceasta tulburare tinde sa . An episode with psychotic features—commonly referred to as psychotic depression—is automatically rated as severe.ro/index-medical/adictie Definiţie : Generalitati Hipocondria. Episodes may be isolated or recurrent and are categorized as mild (few symptoms in excess of minimum criteria).sfatulmedicului. or severe (marked impact on social or occupational functioning). a diagnosis of bipolar disorder is made instead. If the patient has had an episode of mania or markedly elevated mood.

ro/Sanatatea-mentala/hipocondriaipohondria_5 Context : „Vizitele la medic vor fi planificate. Sursa definiţiei: http://www. in cazul in care le elimina.” Sursa contextului: http://www. .sfatulmedicului. Sau. Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: sindrom psihopatologic Hiponim: sindrom asteno-hipocondric Context : „Persoanele cu hipocondrie sunt ingrijorate.sfatulmedicului. Evaluarea medicala completa si asigurarea facuta de catre medicul specialist ca totul este normal nu elimina temerile bolnavului. peste cateva zile apar alte temeri legate de alt organ. de un anumit sistem de organe (cum ar fi sistemul cardiac sau sistemul digestiv). Analizele de laborator vor fi recomandate numai daca apar simptome obiectivabile somatic. ci controlarea simptomelor. functiile organismului uman si simptomele usoare. Pacientul va fi sustinut psihologic sa-si mute atentia de pe simptomele hipocondriace. obiectivul terapeutic nu este vindecarea. in mod special.ro/index-medical/adictie. ca pe o boala cu evolutie fatala.interpreteze gresit senzatiile normale. Vor fi tratate de catre psihiatru afectiunile psihiatrice asociate.

hypochondria (sometimes referred to as health phobia or health anxiety) refers to excessive preoccupation or worry about having a serious illness Definition source: http://en.sfatmedical. Se urmareste comutarea atribuirii unor semnificatii gresite senzatiilor cenestezice. inclusiv tratamente de grup psiho-educationale menite sa-i informeze pe pacienti despre realitatea clinica a diferitelor afectiuni reclamate de acestia. Alti factori de prognostic bun sunt nivelul socio-economic mai ridicat. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : HYPOCHONDRIA ID Language : English ID Country : UK . absenta convingerii delirante de boala.suferinta clinica sau afectare functionala.preocuparea deosebita fata de o boala serioasa . cu afectiuni asociate. http://en.org/wiki/Hypochondriasis Definition : Hypochondriasis. Formele cu debut acut de boala.wikipedia. fara tulburari de personalitate asociate au un prognostic mai bun. Sursa contextului: http://www.interpretarea gresita a simptomelor organice .org/wiki/Hypochondriasis .ro/Boli_si_afectiuni/Psihiatrie/ Hipocondria Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Simptomele hipocondriei includ: .absenta halucinatiilor sau psihozei . distragerea atentiei de pe auto-observarea propriului corp.wikipedia. absenta beneficiului secundar. USA Source :. care se poate constitui si la hipocondriac cu timpul.Tratamentul psihiatric va combina tratamentul psihofarmacologic adecvat si psihoterapia.

” Context source http://emedicine. such as depression. fibromyalgia. certain that they have a lifethreatening disease and no physician can help them. but usually between the ages of 20 and 30 years. and multiple chemical sensitivity syndrome). Treasaden I. diarrhea.org/wiki/Hypochondriasis Context : „This disorder has not been well studied with respect to race and ethnicity. Some people have numerous intrusive thoughts and physical sensations that push them to check with family. nausea. someone with psychological issues such as depression or anxiety will sometimes experience physical manifestations of these affective fluctuations. neurasthenia. or balance problems.[” Context source: http://en. rectal. Many people with .wikipedia. joint. sometimes to the point of becoming neglectful of their health when a serious condition may exist and go undiagnosed. (2000) states that hypochondrisis can manifest at any age. Yet. Some consider the disease as a punishment for past misdeeds. In the same way. Common symptoms include headaches. Other people are so afraid of any reminder of illness that they will avoid medical professionals for a seemingly minor problem. back. Again. occurring marginally more in males in contrast to other somatoform disorders which are more common in women. some people are afraid of getting a disease because they have a disease. abdominal.Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Context: „Hypochondriasis manifests in many ways. often in the form of medically unexplained symptoms. or urinary pain.H. Laking P. too. itching. fever and/or night sweats. Puri B. K. More information is needed. dizziness.com/article/290955-overview Area of use: Medicine Commentary : If a person is ill with a medical disease such as diabetes or arthritis.J. chronic fatigue syndrome. there will often be psychological consequences. with regard to its relationship to other medical disorders needing better definition (eg.medscape. friends and physicians. Some even report being suicidal. some others live in despair and depression.

Common to the different approaches to the treatment of hypochondriasis is the effort to help each patient find a better way to overcome the way his/her medically unexplained symptoms and illness concerns rule her/his life. . and are frustrated by their doctors’ repeated failure to provide symptom relief.ro/arahnofobie/cauta/ Definiţie : Teamă patologică față de păianjeni Sursa definiţiei: http://dex-online.ro/arahnofobie/cauta/. Current research makes clear that this excessive worry can be helped by either appropriate medicine or targeted psychotherapy. Termen:ARAHNOFOBIA Limba termenului: Romnă Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://dex-online.hypochondriasis accompanied by medically unexplained symptoms feel they are not understood by their physicians. Designation status : Official 47.

Corespondent engleză: arachnophobia Concept generic: boala pshica Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: fobie Context : „Arahnofobia este denumirea stiintifica a fricii de paianjeni. Este cea mai comuna fobie de vietuitoare pentru care pentru multe persoane are efecte mai mult sau mai putin intense. cand zone din Abissiania au fost abandonate din cauza unei "ciumi a paianjenilor".ro/campus/ARAHNOFOBIA___FRICA_ DE_PAIANJENI/c-727-a-20640 . aceasta fobie nu se intalneste.studentie. Frica de paianjeni are o istorie indepartata. In cazul oamenilor primitivi. Persoanele care sufera o forma mai serioasa nu pot intra intr-o camera inainte ca o alta persoana sa verifice spatiul de paianjeni. In decursul istoriei europene sunt dovezi care atesta ca diferiti indivizi iubeau aceste vietati intr-atat incat se delectau si cu gustarea lor. Autorul francez Reaumur povesteste de o tanara care manca totii paainjenii pe care ii gasea” Sursa contextului: http://www. Fobiile pot fi cauzate de multe animale. Persoana in cauza reactioneaza intens la cel mai mic semn al fobiei cauzate de animal. in cazul indienilor amazonieni.fapt care nu poate fi inteles ca o reactie rationala de catre cei care nu sufera de fobii. Indienii Piaroa chiar mananca paianjenii mai mari. insa paianjenii sunt cauza cea mai des intalnita. Diferiti oameni sufera in mod diferit . Fobiile nu au legatura cu persoanele mai fricoase sau cu cele cu un IQ sub medie. frica de paianjeni nu este intalnita regulat. In timp ce africanii au in general o frica de paianjeni mari. incepand cu primii ani ai erei noastre. Ei nu sunt singurii care apreciaza astfel de placeri gastronomice. considerandu-i o delicatesa.

studentie. cei mai multi arahnofobi (majoritatea oamenilor) au putine cunostinte legate de paianjeni. phóbos.org/wiki/Arachnophobia Definition : is a specific phobia. dar nu-i iarta nici pe barbati (10%). the strength of the associations means . As with all phobias. "spider" and φόβος. USA Source : http://en. Acesta implica un amestec de educatie si experienta. invatarea ajutand suferindul sa-si foloseasca propria gandire pentru a cotraataca emotivitatea crescuta.org/wiki/Arachnophobia Nota bene: from the Greek: ἀράχνη.wikipedia.” Sursa contextului: http://www.ro/campus/ARAHNOFOBIA___FRICA _DE_PAIANJENI/c-727-a-20640 Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Arahnofobia (frica de paianjeni) numara cele mai multe victime in randul femeilor (peste 50%). the fear of spiders and other arachnids such as scorpions Definition source: http://en. ii ia ameteala si nu mai pot respira Statutul desemnarii : neoficial Term : ARACHNOPHOBIA ID Language : English ID Country : UK . Nu conteaza ca este vorba despre un paianjen minuscul sau despre unul urias. aráchnē. "fear") Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Context: „The fear of spiders can be treated by any of the general techniques suggested for specific phobias.wikipedia. prezenta lor ii face pe arahnofobi panicati.Context : „Tratamentul cel mai des folosit in acesta avesiune este cel comportamental.

Brazil.phobiascured.htm Area of use: Medicine Commentary : The alternative view is that the dangers. Instead. Context source: http://en. nausea and dizziness. go on vacation. are overrated and not sufficient to influence evolution. Uruguay and Argentina). rapid breathing. rather than genetic trait.wikipedia. Symptoms may include excessive sweating or clamminess. rather than being an aid. inheriting phobias would have restrictive and debilitating effects upon survival. rapid heartbeat.org/wiki/Arachnophobia Context : „This fear of spiders can dictate where someone chooses to live. For some communities such as in Papua New Guinea and South America (except Chile. work or what sports or hobbies are enjoyed. Designation status : Official . This suggests arachnophobia may be a cultural. spiders are included in traditional foods. and outsiders should not in any way undermine and "play" with the phobia in the meantime.the individual must not actively pursue the consequences.” Context source http://www.com/arachnophobia. such as from spiders.

copilul.html Definiţie : ADHD sau deficitul de atentie reprezinta un "defect" neurologic.copilul.ro/copii-6-11-ani/sanatate-scolari/ADHDAttention-Deficit-Hyperactivity-Disorder-a500.48. Corespondent engleză: attention deficit disorder Concept generic: boala . hiperactivitate – este foarte dinamic si deseori actioneaza fara sa gandeasca. Sursa definiţiei: http://www.ro/copii-6-11-ani/sanatate-scolari/ADHD-AttentionDeficit-Hyperactivity-Disorder-a500. datorat structurii particulare si chimiei creierului si se manifesta prin incapacitatea copilului de a se concentra pe o sarcina sau activitate.html. temperament dificil sau abilitati sociale scazute. Termen:DEFICIENT DE ATENTIE Limba termenului: Romnă Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://www.

Acestea pot fi rezumate după cum urmează: · · · · · · · · Abilitatea de a vedea „în mare” şi o bună atenţie la detaliu Creativitate şi inventivitate Asumarea riscului poate duce la descoperiri importante Abilitate de a procesa informaţiile şi de a face observaţii mai cuprinzătoare Nivel ridicat de energie Abilităţi bune pentru negociere Intuiţie şi reacţie Abilitate de hiper-concentrare Sursa contextului: http://ro. sunt agitati. Este vorba despre sindromul ADHD. Unele caracteristici asociate cu sindromul ADHD pot fi privite şi ca atribute pozitive pe care elevii le aduc în experienţa lor şcolară. Evolutia bolii poate fi descoperita sau oprita doar printr-un control medical. iar peste 10% din copiii consultati zilnic pleaca acasa cu acest diagnostic.ziare.html Arie de utilizare : medicina . Romania este deasupra mediei europene ca numar de bolnavi de ADHD.eu/disabilities/adhdadd.” Sursa contextului: http://www.scips. va fi mostenita cu certitudine de unul dintre copii. Mai mult de jumatate dintre adulti sufera de ADHD si pentru ca este o boala ereditara.Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiponim: deficit senzorial Context : „ Tot mai multi copii romani sufera de sindromul deficientei de atentie tot mai multi copii romani nu se pot concentra mult timp la acelasi lucru.com/articole/sindrom+deficienta+atentie Context : „Cercetările arată că 80 la sută din copii diagnosticaţi cu ADHD continuă să prezinte caracteristicile şi în adolescenţă şi 67 la sută continuă să aibă caracteristicile în perioada adultă. arata Pro Tv. pe care parintii il confunda cu manifestarile unui copil foarte vioi. simptome ale unei boli despre care multi parinti nici nu stiu ca exista.

USA Source : http://en. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER ID Language : English ID Country : UK . Asumarea riscului Rezolvarea problemelor Relaţii interpersonale şi emoţionale – elevii pot părea sociabili dar prieteniile pot fi superficiale Probleme asociate cu medicaţia – acestea pot afecta somnul.Comentariu: Caracteristici ce au impact asupra procesului de învăţare şi a celui de predare.o dificultate a vorbirii interioare. înţelegere cu întrziere şi anticipare ceea ce duce la inabilitatea de a învăţa din greşeli sau din experienţele anterioare. · · · · · Slabă organizare şi management al timpului. terminnd propoziţiile altora şi/ sau întrerupnd Memorie pe termen scurt – abilitate precară de a lua notiţe. · · Adaptare independentă Oscilaţii ale dispoziţiei – mergnd de la un comportament fără astmpăr şi zvăpăiat pnă la căderea pe gnduri (afectnd lucrul la curs şi repetarea pentru examene).org/wiki/Attention_deficit_hyperactivity_disorder .wikipedia. Zone potenţiale ale dificultăţii pentru elevii cu sindrom ADHD pot include: · Lipsa de atenţie – întrerupţi de propriile gnduri sau visare cu ochii deschişi. · · Impulsivitate . trecnd repede la o nouă temă de conversaţie înainte de a termina una şi producnd o lucrare care are o calitate variabilă.

It is estimated that 4.Definition : Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD or AD/HD or ADD) is a neurobehavioral developmental disorder. It is a chronic disorder with 30 to 50 percent of those individuals diagnosed in childhood continuing to have symptoms into adulthood.7 percent of American adults live with ADHD.org/wiki/Attention_deficit_hyperactivity _disorder Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Context: „ADHD is the most commonly studied and diagnosed psychiatric disorder in children. the European Commission ruled that any food products containing the “Southampton Six” (The contentious colourings are: sunset yellow FCF (E110). the British government took prompt action. Following the FSA’s actions. tartrazine (E102) and ponceau 4R (E124)) must display warning labels on their packaging by 2010. In the US. despite the new evidence presented by . Adolescents and adults with ADHD tend to develop coping mechanisms to compensate for some or all of their impairments. In response to these findings.org/wiki/Attention_deficit_hyperactivity _disorder Context : „study published in The Lancet in 2007 found a link between children’s ingestion of many commonly used artificial food colors. the preservative sodium benzoate and hyperactivity. with each behavior occurring infrequently alone" and symptoms starting before seven years of age. It is primarily characterized by "the coexistence of attentional problems and hyperactivity. According to the Food Standards Agency.” Context source: http://en. the food regulatory agency in the UK. food manufacturers are being encouraged to voluntarily phase out the use of most artificial food colors by the end of 2009. quinoline yellow (E104). little has been doneto curb food manufacturer’s use of specific food colors. Definition source: http://en.wikipedia. affecting about 3 to 5 percent of children globally and diagnosed in about 2 to 16 percent of school aged children. allura red (E129).wikipedia. carmoisine (E122).

this developmental lag has been estimated to range from 3 to 5 years. although inattention may still be present to some degree. but they are not . and the use of these colors must be indicated on the package. ADHD is classified as a disruptive behavior disorder along with oppositional defiant disorder. ○ Fewer than six symptoms of inattention are present. Using magnetic resonance imaging of the prefrontal cortex. ADHD has three subtypes: • Predominantly hyperactive-impulsive ○ Most symptoms (six or more) are in the hyperactivity-impulsivity categories. They may sit quietly.the Southampton study. conduct disorder and antisocial disorder. However.org/wiki/Attention_deficit_hyperactivity _disorder Area of use: Medicine Commentary : ADHD may be seen as one or more continuous traits found normally throughout the general population. that they must be given FD&C numbers by the FDA. ○ Children with this subtype are less likely to act out or have difficulties getting along with other children. It is a developmental disorder in which certain traits such as impulse control lag in development. Context source http://en. • Predominantly inattentive ○ The majority of symptoms (six or more) are in the inattention category and fewer than six symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity are present. however. imply a neurological disease.wikipedia. although hyperactivity-impulsivity may still be present to some degree. the existing US Food Drug and Cosmetic Act had already required that artificial food colors be approved for use. This is why food packaging in the USA may state something like. A diagnosis of ADHD does not.

ele. Sursa definiţiei: http://sanatate. • Combined hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive ○ Six or more symptoms of inattention and six or more symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity are present. the child may be overlooked.html. ○ Most children with ADHD have the combined type. in special la doua ore dupa ce au adormit. and parents and teachers may not notice symptoms of ADHD.ro/Psihologie/Somnambulismul_--a9197. Therefore. Termen:SOMNABULISM Limba termenului: Romnă Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://sanatate.paying attention to what they are doing.ele. somnul lent profund. Designation status : Official 48. Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiponim: tulburare a somnului Sinonim: crize de isterie . Somnambulii se trezesc aproape intotdeauna in timpul primei jumatati a noptii. si presupune scularea din pat in timpul uneia dintre etapele cele mai profunde ale somnului.ro/Psihologie/Somnambulismul_--a9197.html Definiţie : Somnambulismul se manifesta prin comportamente complexe si automate.

Atunci cand ies. ei pot iesi din casa si chiar conduce masina. dar pot fi si mai lungi in unele cazuri (pana la 30 minute).ele. adesea merg la bucatarie. El este capabil sa raspunda la ordine sau la intrebari printr-un limbaj monosilabic (da si nu). html Context: : „Episoadele de somnambulism se caracterizeaza prin urmatoarele:  Persoana in cauza nu are nicio amintire asupra a ceea ce a facut. are ochii deschisi (dar nu tine bratele intinse inainte.” .ro/Psihologie/Somnambulismul_--a9197.Context : „In majoritatea cazurilor.  Somnambulul pare treaz. nici chiar ca sa trezit in timpul noptii.  Episoadele sunt scurte. de cateva minute.” Sursa contextului: http://sanatate. Acesta pare plictisit de intrebari si se enerveaza daca impingem interogatoriul prea departe. somnambulii se limiteaza la plimbarea prin propria camera. In aceste cazuri rare. cum vedem in filme).

cauzele pot fi de ordin psihologic.  Factori declansatori: Exista anumiti factori care declanseaza episoadele de somnambulism. USA Source : http://encyclopedia. privarea de somn. html Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu:  Care sunt cauzele?  Genetice: Principala cauza a somnambulismului este de ordin genetic. fara sa se stie exact de ce: stresul. Studiile au aratat ca in cazul gemenilor identici riscul ca ambii sa sufere de somnambulism este de 6 ori mai ridicat decat in cazul gemenilor non-identici.  Tulburari psihologice In cazul somnambulilor la care boala si-a facut aparitia dupa varsta de 20 ani. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : Sleepwalking ID Language : English ID Country : UK . In anumite forme de epilepsie se manifesta de asemenea plimbarile nocturne. in special cele cu litiu.thefreedictionary. Acestea nu sunt de vina insa pentru somnambulismul copiilor.  Tulburari neurologice: Anumiti cercetatori studiaza posibilitatea ca somnambulismul sa aiba cateva mecanisme in comun cu epilepsia. un traumatism de exemplu.  Anumite medicamente Tratamentul cu medicamente psihotrope.com/SOMNABULISM .Sursa contextului: http://sanatate. pot declansa episoade de somnambulism la persoanele predispuse.ro/Psihologie/Somnambulismul_--a9197.ele. efort fizic excesiv sau neobisnuit.

grabbing at hallucinated objects. extremely violent gestures.com/SOMNABULISM Generic concept : disease Context: „There are some drugs that can be prescribed for sleepwalkers such as a low dose benzodiazepine. However. walking to the bathroom. There are conflicting viewpoints on whether it is harmful to wake a sleepwalker. Good sleep hygiene and avoiding sleep deprivation is also recommended. also known as somnambulism. These activities can be as benign as sitting up in bed. Others counter that idea and state that waking a sleepwalker may result in their disorientation.[4][ Definition source: http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.thefreedictionary. Some experts say that sleepwalkers should be gently guided back to bed without waking them. driving. tricyclic antidepressants. and clonazepam. for most sleepwalkers. but it is not harmful Context source: http://encyclopedia. or as hazardous as cooking. and cleaning.[3] or even homicide. Sleepwalkers arise from the slow wave sleep stage in a state of low consciousness and perform activities that are usually performed during a state of full consciousness. many experts advise putting away dangerous items and locking doors and windows before sleep to reduce risks of harmful activity. is a sleep disorder belonging to the parasomnia family.Definition : Sleepwalking.com/SOMNABULISM .

Caligari (English title: The Cabinet of Dr. Jennifer Corvino (Jennifer Connelly). a sleepwalker. witnesses a murder while sleepwalking. when he was really looking for Peter Pettigrew on the Marauder's Map. as a result. Sleepwalking is also central for Charles Brockden Brown's 1799 novel Edgar Huntly. In the 1947 Disney animated short "Sleepy Time Donald". the protagonist's daughter suffers from sleepwalking. In the film Donnie Darko. Also. a woman has sexsomnia (sexual intercourse with her ex-husband while sleepwalking) and becomes pregnant. In the film adaptation of Silent Hill. Lady Macbeth sleepwalks because of her overwhelming guilt and insanity. It is a major plot element in the classic silent German Expressionist film Das Cabinet des Dr. In the film version of Harry Potter and the Half Blood Prince. John William Polidori.Context : The 19th-century German chemist and parapsychologist Baron Karl Ludwig von Reichenbach made extensive studies of sleepwalkers and used his discoveries to formulate his theory of the Odic force. Luna Lovegood claims that she sleepwalks at night and. Donald Duck is a prolonged sleepwalker. the main characters. Sleepwalking has been found as a theme in many dramatic works. he believes that his sleep walking is caused by an outside party or supernatural force. In Dario Argento's Phenomena (1985). earned his medical degree from the University of Edinburgh in 1815 with a treatise on sleepwalking. In Shakespeare's Macbeth. Caligari). Dr. In the movie Step Brothers. the character Donnie Darko sleep walks and in one scene awakens in a golf course. He was present at the famous gathering at the Villa Diodati on 16 June 1816 when Byron issued a challenge to . A sleepwalking murder is the main subject of the 2009 movie In My Sleep. Brennan and Dale. both sleepwalk. wears her shoes to bed. and Daisy Duck steers him away from many hazards. In the House episode "Role Model". a friend of Lord Byron's. the protagonist. Memoirs of a Sleepwalker and in Heinrich Von Kleist's play The Prince of Homburg. in the Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban film Harry Potter uses this as an excuse as to why he was out of bed after hours. Italian composer Vincenzo Bellini's opera La Sonnambula is named after its heroine. Or.

Sleepwalking was initially thought to be a dreamer acting out a dream. Polidori wrote "The Vampyre". the first vampire story in English. it occurs when the sleeper is enjoying his most oblivious. such as fathers. apparently has little to do with dreaming. Context source http://encyclopedia. the distorted fantasies they had about all authoritarian figures. this was the conclusion: "Repression of hostile feelings against the father caused the patients to react by acting out in a dream world with sleepwalking.com/SOMNABULISM Area of use: Medicine Commentary : Sleepwalking has attracted a sense of mystery.him. but it had not been seriously investigated and diagnosed until the last century. Mary Godwin and Claire Clairmont to write a ghost story. deepest sleep—a stage in which dreams are not usually reported. For example. in one study published by the Society for Science & the Public in 1954." This same group published an article twelve years later with a new conclusion: "Sleepwalking. Percy Bysshe Shelley.thefreedictionary." More recent research has discovered that sleepwalking is actually a disorder of NREM (non-rapid eye movement) arousal. In fact. contrary to most belief. officers and stern superiors. Acting out a dream is the basis for a REM (rapid eye movement) .

sfatulmedicului. diuretice sau alte medicamente in scopul unei eliminari fortate a alimentelor.ro/Bulimie-si-anorexie--tulburari-dealimentatie/bulimia-nervoasa-hiperfagie_10. caracterizata de un consum alimentar excesiv. Persoanele afectate de bulimie sunt obsedate de propriul aspect fizic si nu au respect de sine Sursa definiţiei: http://www.ro/Bulimie-si-anorexie--tulburari-dealimentatie/bulimia-nervoasa-hiperfagie_10 Definiţie : Bulimia este tulburare de alimentatie. RSBD). Termen:BULIMIA NERVOASA Limba termenului: Romnă Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://www.sfatulmedicului. sa se supuna unui exercitiu fizic exagerat. pentru ca apoi sa-si provoace varsaturi. O persoana cu bulimie mananca o cantitate mare de alimente intr-o perioada scurta de timp.sleep disorder called REM Behavior Disorder (or REM Sleep Behavior Disorder. More accurate data about sleep is due to the invention of technologies such as the electroencephalogram (EEG) by Hans Berger in 1924 and BEAM by Frank Duffy in the early 1980s. Designation status : Official 50. sa consume laxative. Concept generic: boala pshica Categoria gramaticala : grup nominal Hiperonim: bulimie Sinonim: hiperfagie .

fara luarea de masuri. a orelor la care se va lua masa si cantitatea care va fi consumata. Persoana afectata de bulimie nu trebuie discriminata.ro/Bulimie-si-anorexie--tulburaride-alimentatie/bulimia-nervoasa-hiperfagie_10 Context : „ Inainte de toate. bulimia se vindeca prin intermediul unei consilieri psihologice. fie la psiholog. spre deosebire de persoanele anorexice. Familia si prietenii sunt cei care trebuie sa apeleze cat mai repede la un tratament de specialitate. De cele mai multe ori.sfatulmedicului. duce la agravarea problemei. care prezinta un corp mult prea slabit. prin stabilirea unei diete. a unor alimente care vor fi consumate. influentele sociale (idealul unei siluete perfecte). decesul unei persoane apropiate. afectiunea este identificata de anturaj. In ceea ce priveste consilierea psihologica. Sursa contextului: http://www. din cauza faptului ca persoana afectata va evita sa vorbeasca despre problema pe care o are. Un risc crescut de aparitie a bolii o constituie existenta unui parinte. Se impune apoi o consiliere nutritiva. In cazul bulimiei nervoase. se va apela fie la medicul de familie. fie specializat pe probleme de nutritie. In plus. dimpotriva. ea . Inainte de un tratament medicamentos. schimbarea domiciliului. sora sau frate care are bulimie. insa. aceasta poate fi doar una din cauze. pot declansa boala la persoanele predispuse. psihiatru sau la orice alt medic. pacientul trebuie convins ca problema lui este vindecabila si ca totul se rezuma la timp si la o atitudine pozitiva. fie generalist. bulimia este greu de identificat.Context : „Etiologia bulimiei nu este cunoscuta dar pare sa aiba legatura cu istoricul familial. precum si cu anumite tipuri de personalitate (care tind la perfectionism). persoanele care sufera de bulimie prezinta o greutate corporala normala. Trecerea timpului. Evenimente stresante precum divortul.

Desi initial. Acestea ajuta la diminuarea depresiei care insoteste de cele mai multe ori episoadele de exces alimentar. oferite doar cu prescriptie medicala si pe baza de reteta. Persoanele cu aceasta tulburare cauta ajutor medical pentru alte simptome care insotesc boala. rezultatele arata dimpotriva ca persoanele se pot vindeca mai usor atunci cand cunosc si alte persoane care trec prin aceleasi probleme ca si ei. Majoritatea bulimicilor au o greutate normala. Diagnosticul se bazeaza pe istoricul medical si examenul clinic general. precum si negarea acestei probleme este frecvent intalnita. Se poate efectua o evaluare a sanatatii mentale pentru a vedea daca exista si alte afectiuni psihiatrice (precum depresia).Toate aceste elemente fac ca diagnosticul bulimiei sa fie greu de realizat. Pacientului ii vor fi prescrise cele trei mese obligatorii pe zi.stilfeminin. precum fatigabilitatea sau probleme aparute la nivelul stomacului datorate varsaturilor repetate. Medicatia consta in general in antidepresive. aceasta poate fi privita ca o experienta inhibatoare. pot fi subponderale sau supraponderale.ro/diete-si-fitness/Bulimia-nervoasahiperfagie-simptome-si-tratament. Apetitul exagerat cu infulecare in secret. Nu exista teste de laborator care sa puna diagnosticul de bulimie.html Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Persoanele cu bulimie pot avea o greutate corporala normala.” Sursa contextului: http://www. Alte teste de laborator sunt utile pentru a evalua statusul nutritional . insa supravegheate in ceea ce priveste alimentele si cantitatea consumata.trebuie sustinuta si incurajata in permanenta. Specialistii mai recomanda si terapia de grup. O atitudine optimista poate schimba radical situatia initiala.

Because bulimia results from an excessive concern with weight control and self-image. ceea ce face diagnosticul si mai dificil. The behavior often serves to reduce stress and relieve anxiety. known as bulimics. feminine of nerv sus. bulimia + nerv sa. Din pacate nu exista un screening de rutina pentru tulburarile de alimentatie. bulimia si complicatiile acesteia debuteaza cu mult inaintea diagnosticului. o persoana apropiata pacientului remarca problema si cauta solutii pentru rezolvarea acesteia.com/BULIMIA+NERVOSA Nota bene: New Latin b l mia nerv sa : b l mia. Detectia precoce a bulimiei este importanta pentru recuperare. Deseori. it is also considered a psychiatric illness. USA Source : http://www. People with bulimia.si. sunt utile in diagnosticul diferential cu alte boli. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : BULIMIA NERVOSA ID Language : English ID Country : UK .thefreedictionary. nervous . or using laxatives. excessive exercise. consume large amounts of food (binge) and then try to rid themselves of the food and calories (purge) by fasting. Ascunderea simptomelor acestei boli este frecventa. de cele mai multe ori.thefreedictionary. vomiting. Un diagnostic precoce si un tratament corect al acesteia reduc riscul aparitiei complicatilor pe termen lung sau al decesului in cazurile mai grave. Definition source: http://www. and is often accompanied by depression. de asemenea.com/BULIMIA+NERVOSA Definition : Bulimia nervosa is a serious and sometimes life-threatening eating disorder affecting mainly young women.

an eating disorder that leads to excessive weight loss. even death. In addition. cardiac arrest. Irregular menstrual periods can also result. This cycle may be repeated several times a week or. and may directly cause: • Chronic gastric reflux after eating • • Dehydration and hypokalemia caused by frequent vomiting Electrolyte imbalance. or inflammation of the esophagus .com/BULIMIA+NERVOSA Context : „These cycles often involve rapid and out-of-control eating. In the case of purging. although the risk of death is not as high as for anorexia nervosa. Binge eating may in rare instances cause the stomach to rupture. The bingeing and purging activity associated with this disorder can cause severe damage. and even death • Esophagitis. heart failure can result due to loss of vital minerals such as potassium. which may stop when the bulimic is interrupted by another person or the stomach hurts from overextension. including acid-related scarring of the fingers (if used to induce vomiting) and damage to tooth enamel. which can lead to cardiac arrhythmia. several times a day. Vomiting causes other serious problems. and interest in sex may diminish. followed by self-induced vomiting or other forms of purging.Generic concept : disease Hyperonym: eating disorder Context: „Bulimia nervosa is a serious health problem for over two million adolescent girls and young women in the United States. the tube that brings food from the mouth to the stomach (the esophagus) often becomes inflamed and salivary glands can become swollen.thefreedictionary. in more serious cases. Context source: http://www.

on general populations. Studies on time trends in the prevalence of bulimia nervosa have also yielded inconsistent results.3% and 9. and between 0.0 6.943 adolescents (ages 15– 1. According to Gelder.4% of males. high school or university students. Mayou and Geddes (2005) bulimia nervosa is prevalent between 1 and 2 per cent of women aged 15–40 years. in which repetitive insertion of fingers or other objects causes lacerations to the lining of the mouth or throat • • • Gastroparesis or delayed emptying Constipation Infertility • Enlarged glands in the neck. Bulimia nervosa occurs more frequently in developed countries (Gelder.• Oral trauma. under the jaw line • Calluses or scars on back of hands due to repeated trauma from incisors • Constant weight fluctuations Context source http://encyclopedia. These have yielded a wide range of results: between 0. Most studies conducted thus far have been on convenience samples from hospital patients.4% female 8 17) % mal .thefreedictionary. Yea r Country Sample size and type Incidence Australia 200 1. Mayou and Geddes 2005).1% and 1.com/Bulimia+nervosa Area of use: Medicine Commentary : There is little data on the prevalence of bulimia nervosa inthe-large.4% of females.

067 psychiatric patients 0.3% female Spain 1.028 high school students 0.6% female 1.509 female adolescents (ages 4 13–22) 0.3% female .3% combined 0.e 200 6 Portugal 2.200 high school students 0.3% female 0.8 Brazil 200 4 1.807 students (ages 7–19) % mal e 200 2.4 Hungary 200 3 580 Budapest residents % mal e 199 8 3.152 college students % mal e Norway 199 19.7 7.3% female 1.2 USA 199 6 1.4% female Australia 4.

Bulimia is more prevalent among Caucasians. modeling. such as dance.9% female 1. running.1% female 1. rowing and figure skating.1 Canada 199 5 8. cheerleading.4 USA 199 2 799 college students % mal e There are higher rates of eating disorders in groups involved in activities which idealize a slim physique.[40] gymnastics.7 Japan 199 5 2.116 (random sample) % mal e 0. acting.597 high school students % mal e 0. Exposure to mass media also appears to have an effect: a survey of 15–18 year-old high schoolgirls in Nadroga.1% female .3% in 1998. 5.% 5 mal e 0. Fiji found the self-reported incidence of purging rose from 0% in 1995 (a few weeks after the introduction of television in the province) to 11.

sfatmedical.sfatmedical.Designation status : Official 51.ro/Boli_si_afectiuni/Psihiatrie/Tulburarea . Sursa definiţiei: http://www. precum si de solicitarea frecventa a serviciilor medicale.ro/Boli_si_afectiuni/Psihiatrie/Tulburarea_de_ somatizare Definiţie : Tulburarea de somatizare este o tulburare cronica polisimptomatica care se insoteste de o semnificativa diminuare a functionarii normale a individului. Termen:TULBURARE DE SOMATIZARE Limba termenului: Romnă Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://www.

nemotivate de obtinerea unor beneficii.” Sursa contextului: http://www. scopul fiind obtinerea unor beneficii mai mult sau mai putin evidente". senzatie de arsura la nivelul organelor genitale. „De cele mai multe ori. varsaturi.ziaruldeiasi. completeaza dr. abuz de substante psiho-active. febra. Crumpei. circa 2/3 din acesti pacienti prezentand si alte simptome psihiatrice. Simularea mai poarta numele de sindromul Munchausen si poate include manifestari precum automutilarile. Hipocondria este preocuparea excesiva pentru ingrijirea propriului corp. respiratie dificila.ro/ghidul-pentru-sanatate/nevrozele-opalarie-mare-sub-care-se-ascund-multe-afectiuni-psihiatrice~ni4c33 .ro/Boli_si_afectiuni/Psihiatrie/ Tulburarea_de_somatizare Context : „Tulburarile de somatizare pacientele prezinta in antecedente operatii chirurgicale. senzatie de nod in git. tulburare de stres post-traumatica). motivata de o spaima de boala si caracterizata de o perceptie si o reactivitate crescuta. pacientele se pling de dismenoree.” Sursa contextului: http://www. o jumatate din ei alte boli psihice (tulburare anxioasa. Corespondent engleză: somatization disorder Concept generic: boala pshica Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: somatizare Hiponim: discomfort somatic Sinonim: Briquet’s syndrome Context : „Tulburare de somatizare poate coexista cu alte afectiuni. Este insotita de atacul de panica. ce erau cu manifestari inconstiente. in familie se regasesc persoane care sufera de afectiuni reale cu simptomatologie asemanatoare. diferita fata de toate afectiunile de pina acum. preocuparea pentru tratamente medicamentoase si chirurgicale devenind un stil de viata._de_somatizare. Simularea este producerea intentionala a simptomatologiei. uneori amnezie. convulsiile. hemoragiile.sfatmedical. neintentionate. Clasic.

care trebuie sa-i ofere ocazia de a-si expune simptomele. dar in cadrul unor vizite scurte.nlm. Uneori poate fi nevoie de administrarea unui tratament medicamentos psihotrop. incalcand prescriptiile medicale. ci doar sa constituie o reevaluare a schemei terapeutice. Metodele cele mai indicate sunt psihoterapia individuala sau de grup.htm Definition : Somatization disorder is a long-term (chronic) condition in which a person has physical symptoms that involve more than one part of the body.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000955. USA Source : http://www. Examenele de laborator care s-ar impune trebuie in general evitate.nih. indeosebi cand coexista cu afectiuni depresive/anxioase. Cand bolnavul frecventeaza mai multi medici va avea ocazia sa-si dezvolte excesiv tendinta de a produce simptome somatice. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : SOMATIZATION DISORDER ID Language : English ID Country : UK . Consultatia la psihiatru nu trebuie sa marcheze sfarsitul relatiei terapeutice cu medicul de familie. Pacientului trebuie sa i se limiteze contactul cu medicul in afara vizitelor regulate preprogramate. Medicul curant poate fi chiar medicul de familie. dar acesta trebuie atent administrat si monitorizat intrucat acest gen de pacient tinde sa utilizeze medicable intr-o maniera proprie. in care interviul sa fie precedat de o examinare tintita pe simptomul/ simptomele acuzate "in premiera" de pacient.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000955.Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Pacientul cu tulburare de somatizare beneficiaza de tratament daca se afla in grija unui singur medic.nih. care trebuie sa-i asigure un orar regulat (lunar) de vizite.nlm. but no physical cause can be found Definition source: http://www.htm Generic concept: disease Grammatical category: noun .

which could help keep the symptoms from becoming more severe” Context source http://en.Context: „The disorder usually begins before age 30 and occurs more often in women than in men.org/wiki/Somatization_disorder Area of use: Medicine Commentary : The goal of treatment is to help you learn to control your symptoms. The pain was dismissed as being "all in their head. this disorder was thought to be related to emotional stress. The disorder is more common in people with irritable bowel syndrome and chronic pain. . patients will be well aware of how to deal with stressors.wikipedia.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000955. In addition. Having a supportive relationship with a health care provider is the most important part of treatment.nih. However. those who are prone to it should benefit from greater awareness of the condition. This can be obtained by going to counseling or other psychological conventions. having a good relationship with a health care provider is very beneficial. not every person with a somatization disorder has a history of abuse.htm Context : „While there is no known way to prevent the acquisition of somatization disorder.nlm. People who have a history of physical or sexual abuse are more likely to have this disorder." However. Pain and worry create a cycle that is hard to break. there is more evidence that emotional well-being affects the way in which people perceive pain and other symptoms” Context source: http://www. As researchers study the connections between the brain and body. In the past. With early knowledge of the disorder. patients who have a somatization disorder seem to experience pain or other symptoms in a way that increases the level of pain.

can help you deal with your pain. it may respond to antidepressant medications. Many health care providers now recognize that real physical symptoms can result from psychological stress. a kind of talk therapy. even if you still have pain If you have depression or an anxiety disorder. Termen:DEPRESIE EXOGENA Limba termenului: Romnă Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://www.• You should have only one primary care provider. During therapy. • Schedule regular appointments to review your symptoms and how you are coping.adevarul. You should not be told that your symptoms are imaginary. de cauze externe) Unele depresii au sau par a avea o relatie cauzala directa cu diverse "suparari" sau . to avoid having too many tests and procedures. Designation status : Official 52. The health care provider should explain any test results.ziare.ro/societate/sanatate/medicina_clasica/Antidepres ivele-cu_dus_si_intors_0_160784358.html Definiţie : http://www. Finding a mental health provider who has experience treating somatization disorders with talk therapy (psychotherapy) can be helpful. you will learn: • To recognize what seems to make the pain worse • To develop methods of coping with the symptoms • To keep yourself more active. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Depresia "exogena" (ce vine din afara.com/articole/depresie+sezoniera Sursa definiţiei:.

poate persista zile. Corespondent engleză:exogenous depression Concept generic: boala pshica Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: depresie Context : „Cum se manifesta bolile psihice. Depresia exogenă poate să răspundă bine şi la alte medicamente. inainte de a deveni psihotic (schizofrenie paranoida) e frustrat mereu. adică fără cauză aparentă). De aici frustrarea paranoicului. cum ar fi sedativele şi anxioliticele. Depresia exogena provine din epuizarea creierului de mediatori chimici (serotonina.ro/discutii/ftopic21405. chiar ani de zile iar frecvent se asociaza cu devieri de comportament. ce poate varia de la deznadejde pana la disperare. la randul sau persecuta pe toata lumea apoi i se raspunde cu aceeasi moneda si cercul se inchide. se simte amenintat din toate directiile.html Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Boala depresiva este caracterizata printr-o schimbare a dispozitiei constand intr-un sentiment de tristete. luni.html&mode= threaded&pid=877455 Context : „Există două categorii de antidepresive: clasice (triciclice) şi. adică reactivă. atitudine si gandire. Sursa contextului: http://www.adevarul. moduri in care apar Paranoidul ca structura. Toate sunt eficace în ambele tipuri de depresie (exogenă.ro/societate/sanatate/medicina_clasica/ Antidepresivele-cu_dus_si_intors_0_160784358.roportal. şi endogenă. frustrarea produce in timp depresie reactiva exogena (nu endogena. suparare. Schimbarea de stare este pregnanta. mai bine suportate. noradrenalina) datorita actiunii prelungite a factorilor stresori (pe care singuri ni-i provocam si-i mentinem” Sursa contextului: http://www. antidepresivele moderne (inhibitoare ale captării serotoninei). Acest tip de depresie trece de obicei odata cu disparitia circumstantelor din cauza carora a aparut sau cu adaptarea individului la acestea.dezamagiri suferite. care apare oricum si nu are lagatura cu nici o frustrare). Depresia este .

intalnita in 35-40% din cazurile care ajung la un consult psihiatric. sau poate fi declansata de factori externi-depresia exogena. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : EXOGENUS DEPRESSION ID Language : English ID Country : UK . USA Source : http://www. In more severe or resistant depression. and usually involves a combination of medication (such as antidepressants) and psychotherapy (or "talk" therapy). aceasta din urma neavand o perioada de agravare specifica. Treatment depends upon the individual. Ea poate fi determinata de factori constitutionali. ” . incidenta fiind intre 45-65 de ani cu un maxim la 55-60 de ani.thefreedictionary. electroconvulsive therapy may be employed.com/exogenous+depression Definition : an inappropriate state of depression that is precipitated by events in the person's life (to be distinguished from normal grief) Definition source: http://www.com/exogenous+depression Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Synonym: reactive depression Context: „Doctors treat exogenous and endogenous depression similarly. denumindu-se depresie endogena-caracteristic este agravarea dimineata.thefreedictionary.

ehow.html Context : „An individual may experience both endogenous and exogenous depression simultaneously. as opposed to endogenous depression. Designation status : Official 53. doctors treating depression are more likely to view it as an "interaction between genes. it may be difficult to distinguish between endogenous and exogenous depression because many people suffering from depression have been subject to recent stressful events.html. and biology. Termen:DEPRESIE ENDOGENA Limba termenului: Romnă Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://www. Acest tip de depresie apare cel mai adesea din cauza problemelor legate de familie Sursa definiţiei: http://www.html Definiţie : Acest tip de depresie nu este intotdeauna cauzat de un eveniment stresant din viata.com/facts_5586142_exogenous-depression_." possibly triggered by stressful events” Context source http://www. ci mai repede poate fi vorba de un dezechilibru al reactiilor chimice ale creierului. which is a chronic or life long condition.ro/sanatate/medicina-preventiva/totul-despre-depresiearticol-3985.com/facts_5586142_exogenous-depression Area of use: Medicine Commentary : Exogenous depression is a short term illness.eva.ehow.ro/sanatate/medicina-preventiva/totul-despredepresie-articol-3985. environment.eva. . whether or not they also have a chemical imbalance. According to John McManamy of Depression and Bipolar Web.Context source: http://www. In fact. past experiences.

Corespondent engleză: Endogenous depression Concept generic: boala pshica Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: depresie Context : „Depresia este o stare mentala caracterizata prin tristete patologica. depresie de involutie. Cred ca poti sa o indulcesti tot cu medicamente. Mie depresia mi-a disparut aproape in totalitate abia dupa 4-5 luni de efectin. ci mai repede poate fi vorba de un dezechilibru al reactiilor chimice ale creierului.sfatulmedicului. preponderenta simptomelor somatice) si de etiologie (depresie endogena. durere morala.org/wiki/Endogenous_depression .ro/arhiva_medicala/depresie+ endogena Context : „Depresia endogena nu este intotdeauna cauzata de un eveniment stresant din viata. anxietate la care se asociaza o incetinire psihomotorie (bradipsihie. Daca nu sunt eficiente cele doua pe care le iei. depresie nevrotica. depresie mascata. roaga-l pe medicul tau sa ti le schimbe. Au fost descrise numeroase forme de depresie in functie de aspectul clinic (intensitatea anxietatii. depresie psihogena. autodevalorizare.html Arie de utilizare : medicina Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : ENDOGENOUS DEPRESSION ID Language : English ID Country : UK . dezinteres. depresie post-partum. pesimism.” Sursa contextului: http://forum. USA Source : http://en. Acest tip de depresie apare cel mai adesea din cauza problemelor legate de familie. akinezie.ro/prod/depresia_endogena_08305.wikipedia. depresie somatogena” Sursa contextului: http://www. abulie etc.) si simptome somatice (constipatie.romedic.). anorexie etc.

Designation status : Official . A sufferer is prone to become depressed on the advent of traumatic events. But don't worry this type of depression is treated by medication.wrongdiagnosis. There is not exact cause or specific reason or event that depression is endogenous.org/wiki/Endogenous_depression Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Context: „People who don't respond to medication are also called as endogenous depression. Although psychotherapy is not usually prescribed.Definition : Endogenous depression is a mood disorder that affects some people from birth and is believed to be a genetic condition.indepression. Context source: http://www. knowledge of techniques to deal with stress and anxiety may be beneficial to the patient. Endogenous depression directly affect on life style. It is considered to be genetic in origin. exhaustion or when under high levels of stress and may not be aware of the disorder until confronted by symptoms of depression for the first time Definition source: http://en.com/e/endogenous_depression/intro Area of use:Medicine Commentary : The treatment for endogenous depression is fundamentally identical to the treatment of non-endogenous depression.com/endogenous-depression.html Context : „Symptoms of Endogenous depression Click to Check:  Low mood  Inability to experience pleasure  Hopelessness Context source http://www.wikipedia.

ro/Schizofrenia-si-alte-tulburari-psihice tulburarea-de-personalitate-borderline_91 Definiţie : Tulburarea de personalitate borderline poate fi o conditie medicala suparatoare.ro/Schizofrenia-si-alte-tulburari psihice/tulburarea-de-personalitate-borderline_91. felul in care relationeaza cu ceilalti si felul in care se comporta. atat pentru pacient cat si pentru cei din jurul sau. Pacientul cu personalitate borderline are dificultati in controlarea emotiilor si este deseori in stare de revolta – probabil datorita unor experiente traumatice in copilarie sau unor disfunctionalitati cerebrale Sursa definiţiei: http://www.sfatulmedicului.sfatulmedicului.54. . Termen:TULBURARE DE PERSONALITATE BORDELINE Limba termenului: Romnă Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://www. Corespondent engleză: Bordeline personality disorder Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : grup nominal Hiponim: stari bordeline Sinonim: stare-limita Context : „Tulburarea de personalitate borderline afecteaza felul in care persoana se vede pe sine.

cineva poate fi ori bun ori rau. Este modelata atat de tendinte mostenite cat si de factorii de mediu.ro/Schizofrenia-si-alte-tulburaripsihice/tulburarea-de-personalitate-borderline_91 Context : „Personalitatea se formeaza in timpul copilariei. .Pacientul are sentimentul unei nesigurante fata de cine este el. Acest lucru se intampla intrucat persoanele cu aceasta tulburare accepta cu dificultate zonele gri – pentru ele lucrurile sunt ori albe ori negre. Poate avea relatii de tip dragoste-ura cu ceilalti. Acest lucru inseamna ca imaginea de sine a acestuia sufera schimbari rapide si repetate. Uneori se poate vedea ca fiind foarte rau. De obicei pacientul are relatii agitate.manie nemotivata. uneori ajungand pana la confruntare fizica . Si aceeasi persoana poate parea buna intr-o zi si rea in urmatoarea. Exista anumiti factori legati de dezvoltarea personalitatii care pot creste riscul de aparitie a tulburarii de personalitate borderline. in ochii unei persoane cu tulburare de personalitate borderline.episoade intense dar scurte de anxietate sau depresie . O imagine de sine instabila poate duce la schimbari frecvente ale locului de munca. valorilor si identitatii de gen. Spre exemplu. relatii sexuale neprotejate. din cauza unor greseli marunte sau a unor neintelegeri minore. sau de experientele din copilarie.dificultati in controlarea emotiilor si impulsurilor . cum ar fi condus periculos.sfatulmedicului.emotii puternice care se schimba in mod frecvent . Alte semne si simptome ale tulburarii de personalitate borderline sunt: .comportament suicidar .teama de a ramane singur. Sursa contextului: http://www. joc de noroc compulsiv si abuzul de droguri ilicite . scopurilor. iar alte ori sa se simta ca si cum nu ar exista deloc.comportamente impulsive si riscante. Poate idealiza la un moment dat pe cineva pentru ca apoi sa se schimbe dramatic si brusc in furie si ura. prietenilor.

Statutul desemnarii : Oficial .abuzul in copilarie: multe persoane cu aceasta tulburare afirma ca au suferit un abuz fizic sau sexual in copilarie . tata sau frate – creste riscul de aparitie la alti membrii . personalitatea borderline este mai frecventa la femei decat la barbati.Acestia sunt: .neglijarea: unele persoane cu aceasta tulburare descriu deprivare severa.ro/Schizofrenia-si-alte-tulburaripsihice/tulburarea-de-personalitate-borderline_91 Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Nu exista un drum sigur de recuperare din tulburarea de personalitate borderline. Multe persoane cu aceasta afectiune isi gasesc echilibrul si stabilitatea la varsta de 30-40 ani. De asemeni. Afectiunea pare mai grava la tinerii adulti si se amelioreaza cu varsta.predispozitia ereditara: prezenta afectiunii la un membru al familiei – mama.sfatulmedicului. Cu varsta tumultul interior descreste si pacientul poate sustine relatii iubitoare si avea cariere de succes. Sursa contextului: http://www. neglijare si abandon in timpul copilariei.

it is possible to diagnose the disorder in children and adolescents. Symptoms may persist for several years. the features must have been present for at least 1 year. USA Source : http://en. but a more conservative approach should be taken.wikipedia." In other words. characterized by depth and variability of moods Definition source: http://en.org/wiki/Borderline_personality_disorder Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Context: „Onset of symptoms typically occurs during adolescence or young adulthood.org/wiki/Borderline_personality_disorder . with some individuals fully recovering. The DSM-IV states: "To diagnose a personality disorder in an individual under 18 years. therapists are discouraged from diagnosing anyone before the age of 18.org/wiki/Borderline_personality_disorder Definition : Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a personality disorder described as a prolonged disturbance of personality function in a person (generally over the age of eighteen years. if applicable. although medication and other approaches may also improve symptoms. would be helpful in creating a more effective treatment plan for the child or teen. While borderline personality disorder can manifest itself in children and teenagers. but the majority of symptoms lessen in severity over time.Term : BORDELINE PERSONALITY DISORDER ID Language : English ID Country : UK .wikipedia. There are some instances when BPD can be evident and diagnosed before the age of 18. Context source: http://en. The mainstay of treatment is various forms of psychotherapy. due to adolescence and a still-developing personality. There is some evidence that BPD diagnosed in adolescence is predictive of the disease continuing into adulthood. It is possible that the diagnosis.wikipedia. although it is also found in adolescents).

There is evidence that suggests that BPD and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are closely related. Hospitalization may provide a a temporary removal from external stress.Context : „Treatment includes psychotherapy which allows the patient to talk about both present difficulties and past experiences in the presence of an empathetic. neurobiological factors.edu/~corelli/borderline. with the patient encouraged to talk about his or her feelings rather than to discharge them in his or her usual self-defeating ways.stanford. The goals of treatment could include increased self-awareness with greater impulse control and increased stability of relationships. accepting and non-judgemental therapist. Brief hospitalization may sometimes be necessary during acutely stressful episodes or if suicide or other self-destructive behavior threatens to erupt. such as a genetic predisposition. Outpatient treatment is usually difficult and long-term . the causes of BPD are complex and not fully understood. The therapy needs to be structured. lithium carbonate. or brain abnormalities.html Area of use: Medicine Commentary : As with other mental disorders. A positive result would be in one's increased tolerance of anxiety. Therapy should help to alleviate psychotic or mood-disturbance symptoms and generally integrate the whole personality. consistent and regular.sometimes over a number of years. abuse or neglect. With this increased awareness and capacity for self-observation and introspection. or antipsychotic medication are useful for certain patients or during certain times in the treatment of individual patients. environmental factors. Sometimes medications such as antidepressants. One finding is a history of childhood trauma. Treatment of any alcohol or drug abuse problems is often mandatory if the therapy is to be able to continue. Evidence further suggests that BPD might result from a . although researchers have suggested diverse possible causes. it is hoped the patient will be able to change the rigid patterns tragically set earlier in life and prevent the pattern from repeating itself in the next generational cycle” Context source http://www.

php?option=com_content&task =view&id=172&Itemid=44.incoerenta . Pacientul prezinta de obicei: . perplexitate.psihoterapia. durata scurta a simptomatologiei Sursa definiţiei: http://www.eu/index.php?option=com_content&task=view& id=172&Itemid=44 Definiţie : forma de psihoza caracterizata de debut brusc. Intotdeauna exista un eveniment cauzator identificabil. confuzie.psihoterapia. a vulnerable temperament and stressful maturational events during adolescence or adulthood. Concept generic: boala pshica Categoria gramaticala : grup nominal Hiperonim: psihoza Context : „Psihoza reactiva scurta urmeaza unui eveniment stressant din viata pacientului si simptomele dureaza mai putin de 1 luna. Simtomele afective sunt in general obisnuite. Termen:PSIHOZA REACTIVA SCURTA Limba termenului: Romnă Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa: http://www.eu/index.combination that can involve a traumatic childhood. Designation status : Official 55. Semnele si simptomele in psihoza reactiva scurta sunt similare cu cele din schizofrenie si tulburarile bipolare.

Termenul a fost folosit pentru a se distinge tulburările care se credeau a fi ale minţii. ca o alternativă pentru demenţă şi manie. Diviziunea psihozelor majore în psihoză maniaco-depresivă (numită acum tulburare bipolară) şi demenţă praecox (numită acum schizofrenie) a fost făcută de Emil Kraepelin. avnd rădăcinile de la cuvntul psyche (minte) şi -osis (condiţie anormală sau boală). El a încercat să creeze o sinteză a variatelor tulburări mentale identificate în secolul 19 de către psihiatrii acelor vremuri. cu treceri rapide de la o stare la alta” Sursa contextului: task=view&id=232&Itemid=400 Context : Gelu Vlașin .comportament dezorganizat sau catatonic .tulburari emotionale.Psihoza reactivă Gelu Vlaşin .halucinatii .Psihoza reactivă Psihoza reactiva de Gelu Vlașin starea ta m-a distrus pe mine edulcoratul cînd beam vodka și mîncam parizer cu muncitorii cînd tu îmi vorbeai despre ginsberg și ********************* fidel castro starea ta mult invidiatule mi-a distrus închisoarea în care-mi tîram existența pisici perverse și femei mutilate starea ta a distrus monotonia-sistem și-a dat naștere unui poem. fiind opus nevrozei.ro/lingvistica/CautareDex?query= PSIHOZ%C4%82 Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Cuvntul psihoză a fost folosit pentru prima dată de Ernst von Feuchtersleben.. prin gruparea împreună a afecţiunilor. Kraepelin a folosit termenul de 'psihoză maniacodepresivă' pentru a descrie întregul spectru al tulburărilor de stări sufleteşti.delir . în anul 1845.archeus. Sursa contextului: http://www. bazndu-se pe clasificarea simptomelor comune. despre care se credea că provine dintr-o afecţiune a sistemului nervos. într-un sens .

The person may or may not be aware of the strange behavior. chiar şi fără medicamentaţie Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : BRIEF REACTIVE PSYCHOSIS ID Language : English ID Country : UK .nlm. short-term display of psychotic behavior. În clasificarea lui Kraepelin.htm Definition : Brief reactive psychosis is a sudden. and is followed by a return to the previous level of function. . USA Source : http://www. however. Talk therapy may also help you cope with the emotional stress that triggered the problem. such as hallucinations or delusions.htm Generic concept :disease Grammatical category: noun Context: „Brief reactive psychosis is triggered by extreme stress (such as a traumatic accident or loss of a loved one). psychotic symptoms go away on their own in less than 1 month.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001529.htm Context : „By definition.nih. and 40s.nih. 30s. Acestea sunt caracterizate de probleme cu controlul dispoziţiei şi de faptul că episoadele psihotice apar asociate cu tulburări de stare.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001529.nlm. ca şi tulburarea bipolară şi alte tulburări de dispoziţie.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001529.nih. brief reactive psychosis can be the beginning of a more chronic psychotic condition. such as schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. In some cases. Context source: http://www.nlm. People who have personality disorders are at greater risk for having a brief reactive psychosis. Antipsychotic drugs can help decrease or stop the psychotic symptoms. cum ar fi ciclotimia. This condition most often affects people in their 20s. acesta ar include depresia clinică 'unipolară'.mult mai larg dect este folosit în ziua de azi. that occurs with a stressful event Definition source: http://www. iar pacienţii vor avea perioade frecvente de funţionare normală între episoadele psihotice.

nlm. Designation status : Official 56.ro/Schizofrenia-si-alte-tulburari-psihice/ tulburarea-bipolara_29 Definiţie : Persoanele care au schimbari extreme de dispozitie.htm Area of use: Medicine Commentary : Symptoms of brief reactive psychosis may include the following: • Disorganized behavior • False ideas about what is taking place (delusions) • Hearing or seeing things that aren't real (hallucinations) • Strange speech or language The symptoms are not due to alcohol or other drug abuse and they last longer than a day. Termen:TULBURARE BIPOLARA Limba termenului: Romnă Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://www.nih.sfatulmedicului. de la depresii severe pana la episoade maniace.Context source http://www. but less than a month. In cursul episoadelor maniace persoanele care sufera de tulburarea bipolara tin sa . ar putea suferi o tulburare bipolara.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001529.

agitati si fara sa simta necesitatea somnului. Cand este vorba de perspectivele pe termen lung legate de pacientii cu tulburare bipolara. persoanele care sufera de aceasta tulburare sunt tristi. este foarte important de subliniat evolutia bolii cu si fara tratament. vinovati si/sau fara valoare si au un nivel scazut de energie. Tulburarea bipolara ciclica rapida Se poate vorbi despre tulburare bipolara ciclica rapida cand pacientii manifesta un numar mai mare de 4 episoade maniace sau depresive. Corespondent engleză: bipolar disorder Concept generic: boala pshica Categoria gramaticala : grup nominal Hiponim: depresie bipolara Context : „Tulburarea bipolara de tipul I este forma "clasica" a acestei afectiuni. Adesea acestia cheltuiesc sume mari de bani. Tulburarea bipolara este o boala care afecteaza si apropiatii bolnavilor. ceea ce duce la aparitia problemelor financiare severe. Sursa definiţiei: http://www. Fara un tratament adecvat. se simt fara speranta. in care pacientii au episoade de manie si depresie periodic.sfatulmedicului.aiba o dispozitie euforica. sa fie hiperactivi. Tulburarea bipolara de tipul II: Reprezinta forma in care bolnavii nu dezvolta manie severa dar trec prin episoade mai blande de hipomanie care alterneaza cu depresie.ro/Schizofrenia-si-alte-tulburaripsihice/tulburarea-bipolara_29. boala tine sa se agraveze in . In cursul episoadelor depresive.

sfatulmedicului. Sursa contextului: http://www.org/wiki/Bipolar_disorder Definition : Bipolar disorder or manic-depressive disorder. also referred to as bipolar affective disorder or manic depression.net/1Leu/tulburarea-bipolara Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Este important ca tulburarile bipolare sa fie tratate cat mai curand si sub supraveghere medicala. is a psychiatric diagnosis that describes a .wikipedia. terapia va ajuta la reducerea frecventei si severitatii episoadelor maniace si/sau depresive.slideshare. pentru ca pacientii sa se poate bucura de viata. Pe de alta parte cand este urmat un tratament adecvat. urmand un tratament adecvat. In mare parte.timp.a fost separata de Kraepelin in 1889 de celelalte psihoze” Sursa contextului: http://www. pacientii cu tulburari bipolare pot avea o viata normala si productiva. Majoritatea celor care sufera de tulburari bipolare pot realiza o stabilizare a schimbarilor de dispozitie si a simptomelor asociate cu acestea.ro/Schizofrenia-si-alte-tulburaripsihice/tulburarea-bipolara_29 Context : „tulburarea bipolara cunoscuta pana nu demult sub denumirea de psihoza maniaco-depresiva. Pentru a controla boala pe termen lung o combinatie intre medicatie si un tratament psihosocial reprezinta cea mai buna schema de tratament. Tulburarile bipolare sunt afectiuni recurente in care este necesara terapia pe termen lung. USA Source : http://en. episoadele maniace si depresive devin din ce in ce mai severe. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : BIPOLAR DISORDER ID Language : English ID Country : UK . De asemenea episoadele tind sa fie din ce in ce mai frecvente.

org/wiki/Bipolar_disorder Context: Bipolar Disorder Spotlight10 . the younger the age of onset—bipolar disorder starts in childhood or early adulthood in most patients—the more likely the first few episodes are to be depression.category of mood disorders defined by the presence of one or more episodes of abnormally elevated energy levels. Bipolar disorder can appear to be unipolar depression.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bipolar_disorder Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Context: „Bipolar disorder is a condition in which people experience abnormally elevated (manic or hypomanic) and. and there is no simple physiological test to confirm the disorder. Additionally. abnormally depressed states for periods of time in a way that interferes with functioning. Often bipolar is inconsistent among patients because some people feel depressed more often than not and experience little mania whereas others experience predominantly manic symptoms. What distinguishes bipolar disorder from unipolar depression is that the affected person experiences states of mania and depression. Definition source: http://en.[6] Because a bipolar diagnosis requires a manic or hypomanic episode. and mood with or without one or more depressive episodes. Not everyone's symptoms are the same. many patients are initially diagnosed and treated as having major depression” Context source: http://en. even for mental health professionals. in many cases.wikipedia. cognition. Diagnosing bipolar disorder is often difficult.

but I know one woman whose mania and psychosis get severely worse at that time.and a shorter time between episodes than women whose symptoms don't get worse. Overall. I myself haven't experienced bipolar flares before menstruation.does (or did) your bipolar disorder get worse during the premenstrual period? Context source http://bipolar. and the annual average suicide rate is 0.and worse hypo/manic and depressive episodes during the year-long study. este o categorie utilizata pentru a cuprinde: elemente legate de derealizare.4%.Results of another study from the huge STEP-BD program reveal that women whose bipolar disorder gets worse during the premenstrual period are likely to have more episodes . Female readers . The standardized mortality ratio from suicide in BD is between 18 and 25 Designation status : Official 57. starile comatoase neasociate cu o conditie medicala generala.este o categorie ce include tulburari caracterizate prin simptome disociative. One out of 3 people with bipolar disorder report past attempts of suicide or complete it. starile disociative care apar la subiectii supusi unor proceduri de persuasiune. identitatea sau constiinta. Termen:TULBURARI DISOCIATIVE Limba termenului: Romnă Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://www.com/ Area of use: Medicine Commentary : Bipolar disorder can cause suicidal ideation that leads to suicidal attempts. .com/sociologie/psihologie/Tulburari-disociative13247 Definiţie : imposibilitatea de a integra normal amintirile.scritube. which is 10 to 20 times that of the general population. care nu satisfac criteriile necesare pentru diagnosticarea uneia dintre tulburarile anterioare.about.mostly depressive episodes . the first group had more . in lipsa depersonalizarii. perceptiile.

la un moment dat. unui program de la radio sau unei conversatii cu un pasager. in mod natural. Cu toate acestea alte forme de disociere perturba sensul sinelui persoanei si memoria evenimentelor vietii. intr-un grad care poate varia de la o zi la alte.sindromul Ganser (are ca si caracteristica raspunsul alaturi) atunci cand nu apare asocierea cu fuga sau amnezia disociativa.com/boli-si-tratamente/boli/tulburariledisociative.medicultau.com/sociologie/psihologie/Tulburari- . Cind identitatea este fragmentata impreuna cu memoria apar amnezia completa sau tulburarile disociative de identitate. In tulburarile disociative se presupune ca aceasta capacitate de a exercita un control constient si selectiv este afectata.com/sociologie/psihologie/Tulburari Corespondent engleză: DISSOCIATIVE DISORDERS Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Context : „Tema comuna impartasita de tulburarile disociative (sau conversivE) este o pierdere partiala sau completa a unei integrari normale intre amintirile trecutului. Sursa definiţiei: http://www. datorita preocuparilor legate de grijile personale. transa disociativa. Exista. Perceptia durerii poate fi disociata sub hipnoza. un grad considerabil de control constient asupra amintirilor si senzatiilor ce pot fi selectate pentru atentia imediata si asupra miscarilor ce vor fi executate. constientizarea identitatii si a senzatiilor imediate si controlul miscarilor corporale.php Context : „Fiecare om traieste ocazional experienta disocierii fara a fi rupt de realitate.scritube.scritube. sau chiar de la o ora la alte. o persoana care conduce automobilul spre o anumita directie si. Sursa contextului: http://www. apar tulburarile de depersonalizare” Sursa contextului: http://www. CInd memoria este prost integrata apare amnezia disociativa. De ex. De obicei este foarte dificil sa evaluam gradul in care unele pierderi a functiilor pot sa fie sub control voluntar. sa realizeze ca nu-si reaminteste multe aspecte din perioada in care conducea. Cind trairea si perceperea sinelui sunt tulburate.

wikipedia. care poate fi generat de evenimente traumatizante de viata. . The hypothesis is that symptoms can result. accidente sau dezastre traite direct sau la care s-a asistat ca martor sau de conflicte interioare de nesuportat care forteaza mintea sa separe informatiile si sentimentele incompatibile sau de neacceptat Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : DISSOCIATIVE DISORDERS ID Language : English ID Country : UK . treatment for individuals with such a disorder may stress psychotherapy.org/wiki/Dissociative_disorder Definition : Dissociative disorders[1] are defined as conditions that involve disruptions or breakdowns of memory.disociative13247.php Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Tulburarile disociative sunt de obicei asociate cu stress coplesitor. to the extent of interfering with a person's general functioning.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dissociative_disorder Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: Context: „Since dissociative disorders seem to be triggered as a response to trauma or abuse. USA Source : http://en. awareness. identity and/or perception. when one or more of these functions is disrupted Definition source: http://en.

Dissociative disorders are a group of psychiatric syndromes characterized by disruptions of aspects of consciousness. Many of the symptoms of dissociative disorders occur with other disorders. or environmental awareness. identity.htm Context : „Since the 1980s. depersonalization disorder.nami. dissociative identity disorder (DID).although a combination of psychopharmacological and psychosocial treatments is often used. A person in treatment for a dissociative disorder might benefit from antidepressants or antianxiety medication. memory.org/Content/ContentGroups/Helpline1/ Dissociative_Disorders. Context source: http://emedicine. such as anxiety and depression. and dissociative disorder not otherwise specified (DDNOS).” Context source: http://www. These include dissociative amnesia (DA). dissociative fugue. the concept of dissociative disorders has taken on a new significance. Fourth Edition.com/article/294508-overview Area of use:Medicine Designation status : Official . They now receive a large amount of theoretical and clinical attention from persons in the fields of psychiatry and psychology. Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) includes 4 dissociative disorders and one category for atypical dissociative disorders. motor behavior. The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. and can be controlled by the same drugs used to treat those disorders.medscape.

weblog. in unele stari de depresie.58. in intoxicatiile cu substante psihoactive Sursa definiţiei: http://seiza. Termen:CONFABULATIE Limba termenului: Romnă Tara termenului: Romnia Sursa : http://seiza.ro/2009/01/30/confabulatia/. Confabulaţia apare în parafrenie. . Confabulaţia are valoarea unei supliniri a lacunelor mnestice din cadrul psihozei Korsakov şi face parte din imaginaţie.ro/2009/01/30/confabulatia/ Definiţie : Confabulatia: producerea unor false amintiri despre sine sau despre realitatea inconjuratoare.weblog. Corespondent engleză: confabulation Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: Hiponim: Sinonim: Context : „Tulburare de memorie constnd din redarea unor evenimente pe care bolnavul nu le-a trăit. Apare in diverse boli psihice.

80% din ceea ce spunem.ro/cursuri/psihologie/semiologia_ memoriei-6989.comarion. USA Source : http://en.psihoză presenilă. Se vor trata afecţiunile care au produs afecţiunea în funcţie de fiecare în parte.” Sursa contextului: http://www. or beliefs about the self or the environment—usually as a result of neurological or .org/wiki/Confabulation Definition : In psychology. 90% din ceea ce spunem si aplicam în urma învatarii de tip logic si activ” Sursa contextului: http://facultate.regielive.php?value= Confabulatie. 30% din ce vedem. în urma unei activitati de învatare retinem: 10% din ce citim.html Arie de utilizare : medicina Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term :CONFABULATION ID Language : English ID Country : UK . confabulation is the spontaneous narrative report of events that never happened.ro/retete_naturiste/index. 50% din ce vedem si auzim simultan. perceptions. etc. It consists of the creation of false memories. Cercetarile asupra memorie în conditiile unei atentii voluntare cu un grad optim de concentrare arata ca în general.wikipedia.&detalii=Tratamente Context : „Confabulatia – consta într-o productie mnezica compensatoare. bolnavul relatnd fapte imaginare fata de care el are convingerea realitatii acestora rezultnd false amintiri si fabulatii. 20% din ce auzim.

notably. or the confused application of true memories. sometimes bizarre ideas. and"gap filling" are discussed.a falsification of memory occurring in clear consciousness in association with an organically derived amnesia". sometimes consisting of "real" memories displaced in their temporal context. information regulation.g.wikipedia.. disinhibitory states. • "fantastic" (or "spontaneous") confabulations—characterized by the spontaneous outpouring of irrelevant associations.psychological dysfunction. it appears that confabulatory states frequently are associated with cerebral damage that involves the right hemisphere. When it is a matter of memory. the frontal (often bilaterally) and parietal lobes—areas intimately involved in arousal. incomplete information reception. Definition source: http://en... which may be held with firm convicti Context source: http://en. He distinguished between: • "momentary" (or "provoked") confabulations—fleeting. paralysis. and conditions that often give rise to these disorders.org/wiki/Confabulation Generic concept :disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: Context: „Berlyne (1972) defined confabulation as ". confabulation is the confusion of imagination with memory. attention. blindness). including denial of illness (e. and invariably provoked by questions probing the subject's memory. such as cerebral disconnection. and integration” .wikipedia. On the basis of clinical observation and a review of a number of studies. Confabulations are difficult to differentiate from delusions and from lying.org/wiki/Confabulation Context : „Various forms of confabulation.

Termen:TULBURARE DE PESONALITATE DE TIP DEPENDENT Limba termenului: Română Tara termenului: România Sursa: http://www.psihologia. The historical background of the confabulating individual rarely provides supporting evidence for their "fables". Sursa definiţiei: http://www.info.psihologia.ro/index. as well as deep rooted psychopathological disturbance and early-stage dementia. Designation status : Official 59. Confabulations usually involve harmless matters.personalitate.personalitate. simple lies and purposeful deception are included in the confabulation differential.php?option= com_content&view=article&id=52&Itemid=80.Context source: http://brainmind. Corespondent engleză: DEPENDENT PERSONALITY DISORDER Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : grup nominal Hiperonim: Hiponim: . confabulation may be difficult to detect.ro/index. Regardless of its biological or psychological etiology.info. unlike the paranoid and psychotic delusions expressed in defense of abnormal actions of serious criminal actions. Those with long term relationships are most likely to recognize the disorder most quickly.html Area of use: Medicine Commentary : Within personal relationships.php?option=com_ content&view=article&id=52&Itemid=80 Definiţie : Tulburarea de personalitate de tip dependent se caracterizeaza prin dependenta psihologica de alte persoane.com/Confabulation. however tangentially related. Fables may be embellished beyond any possible evidentiary support and will usually ultimately reveal the disorder if appropriate investigations are applied.

dar exista o serie de factori etiologici posibili: Temperament suprasensibil Educatie inadecvata din partea parintilor . in propria judecata sau in propriile abilitati Se straduieste excesiv sa obtina aprobarea si suportul altora. datorita lipsei de incredere in sine. chiar oferindu-se sa faca diverse lucruri neplacute Se simte inconfortabil si neajutorat atunci cand este singur datorita temerilor excesive ca nu isi va putea purta singur de grija Cuata urgent o alta relatie ca sursa de suport si ingrijire atunci cand pierde o relatie Este preocupat in mod nerealist de temeri sa nu fie lasat singur Sursa contextului: http://www.personalitate. avand nevoie de sfaturi in exces si reasigurare din partea altora Nevoia ca altii sa isi asume responsabilitatea pentru domeniile principale ale vietii Dificultati in exprimarea dezacordului datorita fricii de pierdere a sprijinului sau aprobarii celorlaltora Dificultati in initierea de proiecte sau in a face diverse lucruri de unul singur.ro/index.info.php?option= com_content&view=article&id=52&Itemid=80 Context : „Cauzele exacte ale tulburarii de personalitate de tip narcisist sunt necunoscute.Sinonim: Context : „Criteriile diagnostice in tulburarea de personalitate de tip dependent sunt: Dificultati in a lua decizii legate de viata de zi cu zi.psihologia.

info. Această neîncredere se poate extinde şi asupra propriilor opinii pe care cel în cauză nu şi le susţine. acceptarea şi sprijinul. Cel investit cu forţă şi influenta nu numai ca este căutat dar. ci şi pe cea a acceptării de către ceilalţi. personalităţile dependente investesc timp şi energie considerabile. nu le argumentează şi nici nu se ghidează conform acestora. individul prezintă o continuă căutare a suportului unei persoane investite (din punct de vedere moral.- Valorizarea de catre parinti ca mijloc de reglare a propriei stime de sine Admiratia excesiva neechilibrata de feedback realist Ingrijire defectuoasa parentala Laudele excesive Invatarea comportamentului manipulativ de la parinti De obicei persoanele cu tulburare de personalitate de tip narcisist nu apeleaza la psihoterapie” Sursa contextului: http://www. este asaltat de către persoana eu tulburare dependentă spre a-i capacita atenţia. oferă dovezi de loialitate şi îşi pun la dispoziţie întreaga lor disponibilitate şi deplină fidelitate nu numai . Pentru a-şi atinge scopul. Avand o slabă stimă de sine şi încredere în sine. mai ales cnd aceştia sunt oameni influenţi. social) fără de care se simte ameninţat şi invalidat.ro/index.personalitate.php?option= com_content&view=category&layout=blog&id=34&Itemid=53 Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Persoana care suferă de o astfel de tulburare manifestă neîncredere faţă de propriile sale posibilităţi de a executa anumite acţiuni. profesional.psihologia. odată găsit. persoana trăieşte nu numai nevoia aprobării. Mai mult dect att.

nu numai în privinţa unor decizii esenţiale. ca o trăsătură validă a personalităţii dependentului şi nu ca o consecinţă logică a altor trăsături.com/doc/33412400/Tulburarea-de-PersonalitateDependenta Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : Dependent personality disorder ID Language : English ID Country : UK . uneori banale. This personality disorder is a long-term (chronic) condition in which people depend too much on others to meet their emotional and physical needs Definition source: http://en.wikipedia. Persoana dependentă prezintă o chinuitoare nehotărre. ci şi pentru că are nevoie ca alţii să-şi asume responsabilitatea problemelor şi acţiunilor pe care le întreprinde. ci de o incapacitate deliberativa per se.scribd.wikipedia. USA Source : http://en.pentru a-şi dovedi ataşamentul faţă de cel investit. Sursa context: http://www.org/wiki/Dependent_personality_disorder Definition : Dependent personality disorder (DPD). Trebuie făcută precizarea că aici nu este vorba numai de prudenţă şi teamă de a nu greşi (manifestări întlnite la obsesiv). cotidiene. is a personality disorder that is characterized by a pervasive psychological dependence on other people.org/wiki/Dependent_personality_disorder Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun phrase Hyperonym: Hyponim: . ci şi în probleme curente. formerly known as asthenic personality disorder.

Associated features may include perceiving oneself as helpless. incompetent.org/wiki/Dependent_personality_disorder Context : „Psychotherapy is sometimes used in conjunction with medication as a treatment for dependent personality disorder. and lacking stamina. 2. passive. and undue compliance with their wishes.wikipedia. 6. It is characterized by at least 3 of the following: 1. inadequate.Synonym: asthenic personality disorder Context: „World Health Organization The World Health Organization's ICD-10 lists dependent personality disorder as F60. and self-defeating personality (disorder) • It is a requirement of ICD-10 that a diagnosis of any specific personality disorder also satisfies a set of general personality disorder criteria Context source: http://en. because of exaggerated fears of inability to care for oneself. However. 4. the medication is usually used to .7 Dependent personality disorder. preoccupation with fears of being abandoned by a person with whom one has a close relationship. encouraging or allowing others to make most of one's important life decisions. limited capacity to make everyday decisions without an excessive amount of advice and reassurance from others. unwillingness to make even reasonable demands on the people one depends on. 5. 3. subordination of one's own needs to those of others on whom one is dependent. and of being left to care for oneself. Includes: • asthenic. feeling uncomfortable or helpless when alone.

a surprising number of studies have upheld the descriptive validity of dependent personality traits. as well as other symptoms such as panic attacks. These help people cope with the depression and anxiety that is often a part of the disorder.sfatulmedicului.aspx Area of use: Medicine Commentary : Clinical interest in dependent personality disorder has existed since Karl Abraham first described it.ro/Schizofrenia-si-alte-tulburaripsihice/tulburarea-histrionica-de-personalitate-teatralismul_7439 .wikipedia. or as a constellation of both pathological and adaptive traits under the rubric http://en. The most common medications used for treatment are antidepressants and anti-anxiety medications. One of the most difficult issues that doctors face in prescribing medications is that many people with dependent personality disorder are at high risk of substance abuse and addiction. oral character traits.brighthub. rather than the dependent personality disorder itself. and habit-forming medications are never prescribed Context source http://www. or passive dependence.com/mental-health/depression-mood/articles /86514. oral dependence. viewed as submissiveness.treat another mental health condition. Termen:TULBURARE DE PERSONALTATE HISTRONICA Limba termenului: Română Tara termenului: România Sursa : http://www. Medications are therefore prescribed only when absolutely necessary. the personality type first appeared in a United States Department of War technical bulletin in 1945 and later in the first edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual in 1952 (American Psychiatric Association. Since then. 1952) as a subtype of passive-aggressive personality disorder. such as depression or generalized anxiety.org/wiki/Dependent_personality_disorder Designation status : Official 60. As a disorder.

Barbatii si femeile cu personalitate histrionica se confrunta cu o emotivitate excesiva. inceput in perioada de adult tanar si prezent in contexte diverse. Comportamentul acestor pacienti solicita constant aprobarea sau atentia celorlalti.Definiţie : Tulburarea histrionica de personalitate (teatralismul) este diagnosticata in special la femei si se manifesta prin dorinta permanenta de a atrage atentia celor din jur. cu tenta sexuala in situatii inadecvate inclusiv in relatii sociale si profesionale. sunt autodramatice. si se evidentiaza prin farmecul. prin abilitatea dezvoltata de a flirta. au tentinta de a privi lucrurile intr-o maniera emotionala.sfatulmedicului. pacientii cu aceasta tulburare sunt caracterizati ca fiind persoane impresionante. teatrale. entuziasmul si deschiderea lor. Sursa definiţiei: http://www. pline de viata si energie.ro/Schizofrenia-si-alte-tulburaripsihice/tulburarea-histrionica-de-personalitate-teatralismul_7439: Corespondent engleză: HISTRONIC PERSONALITY DISORDER Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Grup nominal Hiperonim: Hiponim: Sinonim: Context : „Criteriile de diagnostic DSM IV pentru tulburarile de personalitate histrionica sunt urmatoarele: Pattern pervaziv de excesiva emotionalitate si de cautare a atentiei. astfel. De asemenea. indicat din cinci (sau mai multe) din urmatoarele: . egocentrice.

eva. considera relatiile pe care le are drept mult mai intime decat sunt. Cu toate acestea initiativa de a apela la un specialist ar putea apartine si persoanei cu tulburare histrionica de personalitate daca sufera de o depresie majora in urma unei pierderi sau relatii recent incheiate sau a altor probleme care le provoaca suferinta. teatralitate si expresie exagerata a emotiilor. interactiunea cu altii se caracterizeaza adesea prin comportament nepotrivit de seductiv sau de provocator din punct de vedere sexual. 8. se simte inconfortabil in situatii in care nu este in centrul atentiei. in general. cu alte cuvinte – usor influentat de altii sau de circumstante. problemele apar cand vine vorba despre relatii intime. 3. se foloseste constant de aspectul fizic pentru a atrage atentia asupra sa.” Sursa contextului: http://www. care necesita o implicare profunda. Scopul tratamentului este de a ajuta pacientul sa descopere motivatiile individuale si temerile asociate cu gandurile si comportamentul sau. Majoritatea persoanelor cu aceasta tulburare nu intampina dificultati in stabilirea relatiilor sociale sau cele profesionale. are un stil de a vorbi care este excesiv de impresionist si de lipsit de amanunte. Psihoterapia este. 5.ro/psihologie/autocunoastere/personalitateahistrionica-articol-20946. 6. 7. persoanele cu tulburare histrionica nu recunosc ca ar avea nevoie de tratament.1. este sugestionabil. manifesta expresii emotionale rapid schimbatoare si superficiale. 2. in cazul in care acestea se manifesta.html Context : „De regula. . 4. dar si de a ajuta pacientul sa se raporteze la cei din jur intr-un mod pozitiv. manifesta dramatizare de sine. fapt care face dificila stabilirea si urmarea unui plan de tratament. mai putin egocentric. tratamentul de electie in cazul tulburarilor histrionice de personalitate. Medicatia este recomandata pentru a trata simptomele depresiei si anxietatii.

ro/psihologie/autocunoastere/personalitateahistrionica-articol-20946.org/wiki/Histrionic_personality_disorder Definition : Histrionic personality disorder (HPD) is defined by the American Psychiatric Association as a personality disorder characterized by a pattern of excessive . USA Source : http://en.Comportamentul suicidar poate fi intalnit si la persoanele care sufera de personalitate histrionica. care se manifesta ca niste raspunsuri rigide declansate intr-o serie de situatii sociale si personale.M.wikipedia.ro/Schizofrenia-si-alte-tulburaripsihice/tulburarea-histrionica-de-personalitate-teatralismul_7439 Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Tulburarile de personalitate reprezinta modele de comportament stabile si profund inradacinate in structura psihica a persoanei.sfatulmedicului. De regula. actul sinuciderii este planificat. Sursa context: http://www. Aceasta tendinta se poate manifesta atunci cand pacientul doreste sa atraga atentia prin gestul sau. acestea constituie deviatii extreme si importante de la modul in care un individ mediu din cadrul unei culturi percepe .html Statutul desemn arii : Oficial Term : HISTRONIC PERSONALITY DISORDER ID Language : English ID Country : UK .eva. simte. Sursa contextului: http://www. si acest aspect ar trebui urmarit si luat in calcul pe parcursul terapiei. gandeste si stabileste relatii cu ceilalti"(O.. Pentru ca si automutilarea este o actiune caracteristica histrionicului.S. motiv pentru care gandurile si modul de actiune ale persoanei cu personalitate histrionica trebuie tratate cu seriozitate.

enthusiastic. They may be inappropriately sexually provocative. express strong emotions with an impressionistic style. and be easily influenced by others. aimed at self-development through resolution of conflict and advancement of inhibited developmental lines. These individuals are lively.org/wiki/Histrionic_personality_disorder Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun phrase Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: Context: „Because of the lack of research support for work on personality disorders and long-term treatment with psychotherapy. Group therapy can assist individuals with HPD to learn to decrease the display of excessively dramatic behaviors. Definition source: http://en. . including an excessive need for approval and inappropriate seductiveness. usually beginning in early adulthood. but must be closely monitored because it may provide the person with an audience to play to (perform for). the treatment of choice is psychotherapy and/or cognitive-behavioral therapy. dramatic. On the basis of case presentations.emotionality and attention-seeking. the empirical findings on the treatment of these disorders remain based on the case report method and not on clinical trials. self-indulgence. thus giving opportunity to perpetuate histrionic behavior.wikipedia. Associated features may include egocentrism. continuous longing for appreciation. and flirtatious. and persistent manipulative behavior to achieve their own needs.

wikipedia.org/disorders/personality_disorders/hic_ histrionic_personality_disorder. if any. illnesses within the immediate family which present constant anxiety.• Family therapy • Medications • Alternative therapies • Cognitive behavioral therapy Context source: http://en. Termen:TULBURARE DE DEPERSONALIZARE Limba termenului: Română . Psychoanalytic theories incriminate authoritarian or distant attitudes by one (mainly mother) or both of the parents of these patients. divorce of parents and genetics may be involved. of this disorder. Designation status : Official 61. Little research has been conducted to determine the biological sources.aspx Area of use:Medicine Commentary : The cause of this disorder is unknown.org/wiki/Histrionic_personality_disorder Context : „Histrionic personality disorder can affect a person's social or romantic relationships and how a person reacts to losses or failures. men with some quite similar symptoms are often diagnosed with narcissistic personality disorder. or love based on expectations from the child that can never be fully met.” Context source: http://my. but childhood events such as deaths in the immediate family. Histrionic Personality Disorder is more often diagnosed in women than men. People with this disorder are also at higher risk than the general population to suffer from depression.clevelandclinic.

aceste senzatii nu sunt determinate de droguri. cum ar fi un accident sau un atac. Dar cand aceste senzatii de depersonalizare continua sa apara. Sursa definiţiei: http://www. depresia .sfatulmedicului. Aceasta tulburare poate fi severa si interfera cu relatiile cu cei din jur. alcool sau alte afectiuni medicale. munca si alte activitati.ro/Sanatatea-mentala/tulburarea-dedepersonalizare_6242. .apare dupa un eveniment amenintator de viata. se considera ca persoana sufera de tulburare de depersonalizare.sfatulmedicului. episoadele pot fi declansate de stres sau traume si deseori apar alaturi de alte afectiuni psihice cum ar fi anxietatea.ro/Sanatatea-mentala/tulburarea-dedepersonalizare_6242 Definiţie : Depersonalizarea este o senzatie ca lucrurile din jur nu sunt reale. Corespondent engleză: DEPERSONALIZATION DISORDER Concept generic: boala pshica Categoria gramaticala : Grup nominal Hiperonim: depersonalizare Hiponim: Sinonim: Context : „Sentimentele de depersonalizare pot: . sau nu dispar complet nicicand.fi declansate de teama de a nu mai avea inca o experienta de depersonalizare. Sentimentele de depersonalizare pot fi foarte deranjante si pot face pacientul sa se simta ca si cum ar pierde contactul cu realitatea sau prezinta senzatia ca traiste intr-un vis. sau senzatia ca persoana se priveste pe sine din afara corpului. Totusi.apare fara un factor declansator. Multe persoane au o experienta de depersonalizare la un moment de-a lungul vietii. In cazul tulburarii de depersonalizare. .Tara termenului: România Sursa : http://www.

cum ar fi depresia. hipoparatiroidism. socuri emotionale). clomipramina si clonazepam.sfatmedical. fara o cauza aparenta. Aceasta ajuta la intelegerea motivelor pentru care apare tulburarea de depersonalizare si ajuta pacientul sa nu se mai gandeasca la simptome pentru ca acestea sa dispara. tumori cerebrale. Mai mult. se pare ca exista o legatura cu echilibrul anumitor substante chimice din creier (neurotransmitatori). intoxicatia cu monoxid de carbon sau cu mescalina). sau in situatii speciale (oboseala extrema. In unele cazuri.” Sursa contextului: http://www. anxietate.ro/Boli_si_afectiuni/Psihiatrie/ Tulburarea_de_depersonalizare Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Tratamentul tulburarii de depersonalizare poate include: 1. tulburare obsesivcompulsiva. hipotiroidism. depersonalizarea se descrie intr-o multitudine de afectiuni psihiatrice (schizofrenie. encefalita). Statutul desemnarii : Oficial . manie). Sursa contextului: http://www.sfatulmedicului. depresie. Medicatia.ro/Sanatatea-mentala/tulburareade-depersonalizare_6242 Context : „Studiile arata ca perioade tranzitorii de derealizare/depersonalizare sunt descrise de pana la 70% din populatie. Tulburarea de depersonalizare poate fi ameliorata si atunci cand consilierea ajuta la ameliorarea altor afectiuni. migrena. Unele dintre acestea sunt fluoxetina. metabolice (hipoglicemie. ele apar brusc. deprivare senzoriala. Consilierea psihologica.sau schizofrenia. Desi nu exista medicamente create special pentru tratamentul tulburarii de depersonalizare. neurologice (epilepsie. 2. In timp ce cauza tulburarii de depersonalizare nu este pe deplin inteleasa. exista medicamente folosite in general pentru tratarea anxietatii si depresiei si care pot fi eficiente.

perception.minddisorders. or is dissolving. Depersonalization disorder is sometimes called "depersonalization neurosis source: http://www. is changing.html Definition : Depersonalization is a state in which the individual ceases to perceive the reality of the self or the environment. identity.html Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun phrase Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: Context: „Depersonalization disorder is classified by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders .minddisorders. information. the patient's self-perception is disrupted. These are mental disorders in which the normally well-integrated functions of memory.com/Del-Fi/Depersonalization-disorder. also known as the DSM-IV-TR as one of the dissociative disorders. or that they are detached from their own bodies. or with an intense internal conflict that forces the mind to separate incompatible or unacceptable knowledge. The patient feels that his or her body is unreal. 4th Edition. or that he or she is outside of the body Definition disorder. Patients feel as if they are external observers of their own lives. In depersonalization disorder. text Revision.com/Del-Fi/Depersonalization- . or feelings. and consciousness are separated (dissociated). USA Source : http://www. The dissociative disorders are usually associated with trauma in the recent or distant past.Term : DEPERSONALIZATION DISORDER ID Language : English ID Country : UK .

from another world. outside my own body and individuality. The July 8. Is this madness?" Context source http://en.org/wiki/Depersonalization_disorder Area of use: Medicine Commentary : A person suffering from depersonalization disorder experiences subjective symptoms of unreality that make him or her uneasy and anxious." As a result. I am depersonalized. depersonalization disorder may be underdiagnosed because the symptom of depersonalization is underreported Designation status : Official . as distinct from the objects of those thoughts and perceptions outside the mind. as it were. 1880 entry reads: "I find myself regarding existence as though from beyond the tomb. I am.com/Del-Fi/Depersonalizationdisorder. or will think they are "crazy. all is strange to me.wikipedia. cut adrift.html Context : „The word depersonalization itself was first used by Henri Frédéric Amiel in The Journal Intime.minddisorders.Context source: http://www. Because depersonalization is a subjective experience. "Subjective" is a word that refers to the thoughts and perceptions inside an individual's mind. detached. many people who have chronic or recurrent episodes of depersonalization are afraid others will not understand if they try to describe what they are feeling.

. mai ales. idei delirante. Simptome si semne Subiectul trece periodic prin crize de manie sau de melancolie. intrerupte de faze normale. insomnie si. in general.sfatulmedicului.62. constitutia psihica (subiect picnomorf.. Sursa definiţiei: http://www.ro/arhiva_medicala/tulburare+comportament Definiţie : Este o tulburare psihica caracterizata prin alternanta a crizelor de excitatie (manie) si a episoadelor depresive (melancolie). tendinta la sinucidere. sarcina. soc chirurgical. adica de conformatie robusta). de asemenea.sfatulmedicului. chiar schimbarea anotimpurilor pot fi. Psihoza maniacodepresiva se manifesta. tulburari de comportament alimentar si ale greutatii corporale. Rasturnarile de situatie. menopauza etc.ro/arhiva_medicala/tulburare+ .). de o importanta mare (soc emotional. de natura fizica sau psihica. profilul psihologic sau de o dereglare a centrilor cerebrali ai starii de spirit. Accesul se traduce atat pe plan psihic. factori declansanti. dupa varstele de 30-40 ani. Termen:TULBURARE DE COMPORTAMENT Limba termenului: Română Tara termenului: România Sursa : http://www. cat si pe plan fizic: stare de spirit trista sau euforica. Ea ar putea fi determinata de ereditate.

Copiii cu tulburare de comportament au de obicei probleme cu regulile. fara ca acesti sa isi dea seama ca este vorba despre o afectiune mentala. Corespondent engleză: CHARACTER DISORDER Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Grup nominal Hiperonim: Hiponim: terapie comportamentala Sinonim: Context : „Tulburarea de comportament se manifesta prin comportament persistent in directia violarii drepturilor celorlalti si a regulilor sociale de baza. esecul scolar si experientele de viata traumatice.Simptomele tulburarii de comportament la copil si adolescentCopiii si adolescentii cu tulburari de comportament pot prezenta unele din urmatoarele simptome:agresivitate fata de oameni si animale. Copiii si adolescentii cu aceasta tulburare au dificultati in a urma regulile si in a se comporta in societate in mod acceptabil.Cauzele tulburarii de comportament la copil si adolescentCauzele tulburarilor de comportament la copii si adolescenti sunt multiple. fie la scoala. fie cu legea.” Sursa contextului: http://www. Adesea sunt priviti de catre alti copii si adulti ca fiind rai sau delincventi. vulnerabilitatea genetica.comportament. abuzul in copilarie.html Context : „Ce este tulburarea de comportament?Tulburarea de comportament se refera la un grup de probleme comportamentale si emotionale la tineri. intrand in conflict cu legea si unii din ei devin "clienti" ai inchisorilor sau scolilor de corectie.initierea . incluzand leziunile cerebrale.intimidarea sau amenintarea altora.eva.ro/psihologie/situatii-si-sfaturi/cum-semanifesta-tulburarea-de-comportament-articol-22286.

Tratamentul este in general dificil si de durata.distrugerea deliberata de bunuripornirea de incendii. probleme de relatie.. • obisnuieste sa minta.fuga de acasa. dificultati de invatare. Pentru a vorbi de tulburare de comportament ca boala. anxietate.com/2009/03/ce-estetulburarea-de-comportament. care are scopul de a invata copilul cum sa isi exprime furia in mod adecvat. cu comportament de tip antisocial.Copiii si adolescentii care nu sunt tratati dezvolta probleme aditionale in perioada de adult. lucruri care nu sunt proprietatea sa). sare la bataia adesea. copilul sub 18 ani trebuie sa prezinte: • episoade de agresiune fata de oameni sau animale (repede.furt. poarta cutit sau alte arme albe. agreseaza pe cei din jur. intimideaza..cruzime fata de oameni si animale. murdareste.chiulul de la scoalaminciuni Tratament si psihoterapie pentru tulburarile de comportamentCopiii cu asemenea tulburari de comportament necesita o evaluare complexa. tulburari ale gandirii. pacaleasca sau sa fure. .batailor. pentru ca in multe situatii tulburarile de comportament se asociaza cu tulburarea bipolara. fura sau forteaza pe cineva pentru a intretine relatii sexuale). La unii copii poate fi necesara medicatia. este crud cu alte persoane sau cu animale. cu intentia de a distruge. ADHD. strica. abuz de diverse substante. incapacitatea de a-si mentine o slujba.html Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Cand tulburarea de comportament devine boala.viol. Tratamentul copiiilor cu tulburari de comportament include psihoterapia.spargeri in casa altor persoane.blogspot. • episoade de distrugere a proprietatii (in mod deliberat distruge lucruri.” Sursa contextului: http://integrareacopiilor.

When personality or character traits present major obstacles to functioning in a healthy way. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : CHARACTER DISORDER ID Language : English ID Country : UK .com/character+disorder Definition : a chronic.• violeaza regulile in mod consecvent.com/character+ disorder Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: personality disorder Context: „Personality and character disorders are not the same thing.thefreedictionary. USA Source : http://medical-dictionary. while our character is defined by the level of social conscientiousness and virtue in our personality. habitual maladaptive and socially unacceptable pattern of behavior and emotional response Definition source: http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary. they might constitute a disorder. Our personality defines the stylistic way we tend to interact. .

Context source: http://counsellingresource.com/features/2008/09/10/what-is-acharacter-disorder/ Context : „Personality disorder, also called character disorder, mental disorder that is marked by deeply ingrained and lasting patterns of inflexible, maladaptive, or antisocial behaviour. A personality disorder is an accentuation of one or more personality traits to the point that the trait significantly impairs an individual's social or occupational functioning. Personality disorders are not, strictly speaking, illnesses, since they need not involve the disruption of emotional, intellectual, or perceptual functioning. In many cases, persons with a personality disorder do not seek psychiatric treatment for such unless they are pressured to by relatives or by a court" — Encyclopedia Britannica.” Context source: http://www.ptypes.com/overviews.html Area of use: Medicine Designation status : Official

63. Termen:TULBURARE EXPLOZIVA INTERMITENTA Limba termenului: Română Tara termenului: România Sursa: http://www.sfatmedical.ro/Boli_si_afectiuni/Psihiatrie/Tulburarea_ exploziva_intermitenta Definiţie : Tulburarea exploziva intermitenta consta intr-un comportament episodic violent care nu este datorat unei cauze organice sau altui diagnostic psihiatric Sursa definiţiei: http://www.sfatmedical.ro/Boli_si_afectiuni/Psihiatrie/Tulburarea _exploziva_intermitenta. Corespondent engleză: INTERMITTENT EXPLOSIVE DISORDER Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Grup nominal Hiperonim: Hiponim: Sinonim: Context : „Tulburarea are urmatoarele caracteristici: • cateva episoade distincte de incapacitate de a rezista impulsurilor agresive, rezultand in acte agresive serioase sau in distrugere de proprietate (bunuri) • gradul de agresivitate exprimat in cursul episoadelor este mult disproportionat fata de orice stresori psiho-sociali precipitanti

• episoadele agresive nu pot fi explicate mai bine de o alta tulburare mintala si nu se datoreaza efectelor fiziologice directe ale unei substante (de ex., un drog de abuz, un medicament) sau ale unei conditii medicale generate (de ex., traumatism cerebral, boala Alzheimer) Sursa contextului: http://www.sfatmedical.ro/Boli_si_afectiuni/Psihiatrie/Tulburarea_ exploziva_intermitenta Context : „Diagnosticul diferential al tulburarii explozive intermitente are in central atentiei agresivitatea care poate surveni si in alte afectiuni. Astfel, acest diagnostic se pune numai dupa ce sunt excluse alte afectiuni, ca deliriumul (in acest caz apare o perturbare de comportament) . Se distinge de dementa, de modificari a personalitatii datorita unei conditii medicale generale, tip agresiv care este diagnosticata cand episoadele agresive sunt datorate unuor efecte fiziologice directe ale unei conditii medicale generale, (ca in cazul unui traumatism cerebral), in cazuri destul de rare aceasta violenta poate aparea la persoanele cu epilepsie frontala si de lob temporal (epilepsie complexa partial). Explozii violente de comportament pot surveni de asemenea in asociere cu intoxicatia sau sevrajul de o substanta (cel mai des incriminate fiind alcoolul, cocaina si alte stimulante, barbiturice, inhalante) – se efectueaza teste in urina sau sange pentru depistarea lor.” Sursa contextului: http://www.romedic.ro/tulburarea-exploziva-intermitenta Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Tratamentul in tulburarea exploziva intermitenta cuprinde asocierea intre farmacoterapie si psihoterapie particularizandu-se astfel dupa fiecare caz in parte. Pentru aparitia unui rezultat satisfactator se pot utiliza diverse clase de medicamente dintre care antagonisti ai receptorilor ß-adrenergici, anticonvulsivante (carbamazepina, fenitoina, litiu), medicamente serotoninergice (buspironul, trazodonul) si SSRI (fluoxetina) . Benzodiazepinele pot sa agraveze aceasta conditie prin efectul dezinhibitor. Alte masuri include psihoterapia suportiva, Terapia de grup fixarea de limite si terapie familiala daca pacientul este un copil sau adolescent. trebuie folosita cu prudenta daca

bolnavul ar putea ataca alti membri ai grupului. Din punct de vedere al evolutiei se cunoaste ca odata cu trecerea timpului severitatea episoadelor poate creste. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial

Term : INTERMITTENT EXPLOSIVE DISORDER ID Language : English ID Country : UK , USA Source : http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/intermittent-explosive-disorder/DS00 Definition : Intermittent explosive disorder is characterized by repeated episodes of aggressive, violent behavior in which you react grossly out of proportion to the situation. Road rage, domestic abuse, and angry outbursts or temper tantrums that involve throwing or breaking objects may be signs of intermittent explosive disorder (IED). People with intermittent explosive disorder may attack others and their possessions, causing bodily injury and property damage. Later, people with intermittent explosive disorder may feel remorse, regret or embarrassment. If you have this anger disorder, treatment may involve medications and psychotherapy to help you control your aggressive impulses Definition source: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/intermittent-explosivedisorder/DS00730 Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun phrase Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym:

Context: „Intermittent explosive disorder was originally described by the eminent French psychiatrist Esquirol as a "partial insanity" related to senseless impulsive acts. Esquirol termed this disorder monomanies instinctives , or instinctual monomanias . These apparently unmotivated acts were thought to result from instinctual or involuntary impulses, or from impulses related to ideological obsessions. People with intermittent explosive disorder have a problem with controlling their temper. In addition, their violent behavior is out of proportion to the incident or event that triggered the outburst. Impulsive acts of aggression, however, are not unique to intermittent explosive disorder. Impulsive aggression can be present in many psychological and nonpsychological disorders. The diagnosis of intermittent explosive disorder (IED) is essentially a diagnosis of exclusion, which means that it is given only after other disorders have been ruled out as causes of impulsive aggression. Patients diagnosed with IED usually feel a sense of arousal or tension before an outburst, and relief of tension after the aggressive act. Patients with IED believe that their aggressive behaviors are justified; however, they feel genuinely upset, regretful, remorseful, bewildered or embarrassed by their impulsive and aggressive behavior. Read more: Intermittent explosive disorder - children, causes, DSM, therapy, withdrawal, drug, person, people http://www.minddisorders.com/Flu-Inv/Intermittentexplosive-disorder.html#ixzz1I1ywheXn Context disorder.html Context : „Treatment is achieved through both cognitive behavioral therapy and psychotropic medication regimens. Therapy aids in helping the patient recognize the impulses in hopes of achieving a level of awareness and control of the outbursts, along with treating the emotional stress that accompanies these episodes. Multiple drug regimens are frequently indicated for IED patients. Tricyclic antidepressants and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, and source: http://www.minddisorders.com/Flu-Inv/Intermittent-explosive-

sertraline appear to alleviate some pathopsychological symptoms; the reasons for such will be explained further in the subsequent section. GABAergic mood stabilizers and anticonvulsive drugs such as gabapentin, lithium, carbamazepine, and divalproex seem to aid in controlling the incidence of outbursts. Anxiolytics help alleviate tension and may help reduce explosive outbursts by increasing the provocative stimulus tolerance threshold, and are especially indicated in patients with comorbid obsessive-compulsive or other anxiety disorders” Context source http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intermittent_explosive_disorder Area of use:Medicine Commentary : IED is characterized by violent behaviors that are impulsive as well as assaultive. One example involved a man who felt insulted by another customer in a neighborhood bar during a conversation that had lasted for several minutes. Instead of finding out whether the other customer intended his remark to be insulting, or answering the "insult" verbally, the man impulsively punched the other customer in the mouth. Within a few minutes, however, he felt ashamed of his violent act. As this example indicates, the urge to commit the impulsive aggressive act may occur from minutes to hours before the "acting out" and is characterized by the buildup of tension. After the outburst, the IED patient experiences a sense of relief from the tension. While many patients with IED blame someone else for causing their violent outbursts, they also express remorse and guilt for their actions. Designation status : Official

html Definiţie : Descarcare emotionala prin care subiectul se elibereaza de afectul legat de amintirea unui eveniment traumatic. mai ales in stare de hipnoza provoaca astfel un efect de catharsis. abr'eaction Corespondent engleză: ABREACTION Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: Hiponim: Sinonim: Context : „In psihologia analitica jungiana abreactia reprezinta retrairea dramatica a unui moment traumatizant. separata printr-un interval mai scurt sau mai lung de traumatismul initial. producand astfel un efect de catharsis.ro/abreactied.html. mai ales sub hipnoza. Abreactia poate avea loc si in mod spontan. o recapitulare emotiva a acestuia in stare de veghe sau de transa hipnotica.srdp. pana cand aceasta inceteaza sa mai aiba o influenta ravasitoare". Sursa contextului: http://www.html Context : „Abreactia care poate fi provocata in cursul psihoterapiei. ce poate fi provocata in cursul psihoterapiei. permitandu-i astfel sa nu devina sau sa ramana patogen. poate avea loc si in mod spontan.net/dictionar/a/abreactia. o repovestire care "depotentializeaza afectivitatea experientei traumatice. separata printr-un interval mai scurt sau mai lung de traumatismul initial Sursa definiţiei: http://www. Nota bene : Din fr. Abreactia. Termen:ABREACTIE Limba termenului: Română Tara termenului: România Sursa : http://www.psihoterapie.srdp.ro/abreactied.64. Inceputul utilizarii abreactiei se leaga de teoria lui Freud asupra traumei si de primele .

thefreedictionary. Abreactia detine o importanta centrala in alte terapii. Jung avea o alta parere decat Freud privind abreactia si in privinta eficacitatii utilizarii abreactiei. de exemplu in terapia primara.thefreedictionary. Jung a descoperit ca in sine abreactia este insuficienta.experimente psihanalitice. Aceasta s-ar putea realiza pe baza relatiei cu terapeutul. La aceeasi parere in ceea ce priveste abreactia avea sa ajunga mai tarziu si Freud. to react Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: Hyponim: . ce poate fi utilizata intr-o ANALIZA. or the imagination. astfel incat persoana sa se poata reconecta la continutul pozitiv sau prospectiv al complexului si prin aceasta sa readuca afectul sub control. Abreactia este o forma de PUNERE IN SCENA.com/abreaction Definition : To release (repressed emotions) by acting out. the situation causing the conflict. USA Source : http://www. Jung a identificat scopul tratamentului mai degraba in integrarea disocierilor legate de trauma decat in abreactia traumei. as in words. Arie de utilizare : medicina Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : ABREACTION ID Language : English ID Country : UK . relatie care consolideaza personalitatea constienta a pacientului astfel incat complexul autonom sa reintre sub autoritatea EULUI. nefolositoare sau daunatoare.com/abreaction Nota bene: Translation of German abreagieren : ab-. In opinia lui Jung aceasta re-experienta ar trebui sa releveze aspectul bipolar al nevrozei. away + reagieren. behavior. Consideratiile privind utilizarea (si inadecvarea) abreactiei il vor conduce pe Jung la definirea propriei sale metode si la clarificarea rolului jucat de transfer in cadrul curei psihanalitice. Definition source: http://www.

org/wiki/Abreaction Context : „abreaction is an unpleasant response that may occur during trance. Jung believed that the skill.Synonym: catharsis. This may happen at any time during hypnosis as the subject is accessing areas of the mind that are normally beyond conscious awareness.wikipedia. Jung stated that: "though traumata of clearly aetiological significance were occasionally present. Other therapists prefer to look at a traumatic experience from a disassociated position. sometimes a client will cry after a moment of insight. even so normal. to help them release unconscious emotional energy. An abreaction is typically an uncomfortable situation. or what he referred to as "trauma theory". devotion and self-confidence regarding the way the analyst did his work was much more important to the patient than the rehashing of old traumatic emotions Context source: http://en. that they could be regarded at most as a pretext for the neurosis. but later decided it had limitations concerning the treatment of neurosis. So what happens if your client has an abreaction? Initially you will need to make sure that your client is abreacting. It is usually triggered as repressed uncomfortable memories are brought to conscious awareness during trance. Many traumata were so unimportant. you should . but it is more likely to occur during regression. But what especially aroused my criticism was the fact that not a few traumata were simply inventions of fantasy and had never happened at all". katharsis Context: „Early in his career. Many therapists attempt to induce an abreaction in their patients as a form of therapy. psychoanalyst Carl Jung expressed interest in abreaction. the majority of them appeared very improbable. This can yield remarkable results. allowing more recently gained wisdom to change the way that an event affects their life.

be happy that you have been able to do so. The efficacy of this therapy has been likened to "lancing a boil". It is not important to make sense of these feelings here and now. A wonderful sense of release and calm can wash over you as you recognize a remarkable step forward in the healing process.com/website/abreaction.htm Area of use: Medicine Commentary : Abreaction therapy is a form of psychotherapy in which abreaction is used to assist a patient suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder by re-living the experience in a controlled environment. and although I am not sure exactly what you are feeling right now. usually accompanied by tears. Designation status : Official 65. Exposing the wound releases the "poison" and allows the wound to heal. "You are crying." Using such a script will enable you to pace your client to a more comfortable place and give them a positive outlook of the experience. Termen:DEPRESIE ANACLITICA Limba termenului: Română Tara termenului: România Sursa : http://www.mindworks. as the tears run down your face you can understand that your subconscious mind knows that it is safe for you to have this experience.drandrei.uk.recognize it as distress. just be comfortable that you can trust yourself and feel whatever it is you need to feel and then. Context source: http://www. re-living the trauma can be highly distressing for the patient. To deal with an abreaction it is important to remember that it is simply a response to an experience. You can immediately ease the client by gaining rapport and leading them to a more comfortable place. You can do this with a simple script such as the one outlined below. and memories of the pain can be physically felt. In the same way that the lancing process is painful. with a great sense of relief.ro/index. Hypnosis is often used as a tool for recall in abreaction therapy.php?page=Un%20concept&path=continut/ .

ramanand de recuperat retardul somatomotor. definita ca un ansamblu de dezordini fizice si psihice care se instaleaza progresiv la sugarul separat de mama sa dupa ce a avut o relatie cel putin satisfacatoare in prima luna de viata. reversibil de asemenea prin aparitia unei motivatii si a spiritului de autoconservare. mai mult sau mai putin explicite. privati de afectiunea si atentia materna. De exemplu. Sursa definiţiei: http://www.php Definiţie : Rene Spitz introduce notiunea de depresie anaclitica. sub diverse moduri. Multe din „datele interne” ale fiecaruia individ se capata in cadrul acestora relatii primare. Relatiile interpersonale cu parintii au un rol pivotal in dezvoltarea individului si a tipului de relatii pe care le va stabili ulterior cu alti indivizi de-a lungul vietii. ca el sau ea nu este capabil de a face un .php.concept. Corespondent engleză:ANACLITIC DEPRESSION Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Grup nominal Hiperonim: Hiponim: Sinonim: Context : „Depresia anaclitica este un fenomen descris la copiii foarte mici. Daca mama revine la copilul sau ori se gaseste un inlocuitor eficient si acceptabil pentru copil pana la sfarsitul perioadei critice situate intre sfarsitul lunii a treia si sfarsitul celei de-a cincea luni de dupa abandon. stima de sine.ro/index. tulburarile psiho-afective pot sa dispara. Daca unui copil i se repeta.drandrei.php?page=Un%20concept&path= continut/concept.

in care va fi tentat sa atribuie celorlalti o pricepere. bntuiti de depresii permanente sau periodice. nefiind capabili de a relationa dect în jurul ideii de suferinta.ro/relatiile-interpersonale-in-dezvoltareapsihologica. de-a lungul vietii. Miscarile .html Context : „Hospitalismul . ura si neputinta. incapabili de a construi relatii armonioase cu parteneri lor. de umilinta a celuilalt. daca este in permanenta comparat cu cei care au performante mai bune (parintii sau fratii mai mari) sau daca pur si simplu nu este lasat a se descurce singur in diverse situatii potrivite vrstei.e in legatura uneori cu ostilitatea pe care o resimte mama fata de el si pe care o deghizeaza in anxietate. submisiv. La rndul lor. Sursa contextului: http://www. adulti fiind.in greaca semnifica sprijin). împovarati de grave sentimente de vinovatie.depresie anaclitica (pana la 18 luni) (anaklinein . Iar relatiile pe care le va stabili cu alti indivizi. papetarie Oamenii nefericiti nu au dreptul de-a avea copii. ghiozdane Reflexe inconditionate / conditionate. Un alt exemplu este cel al copiilor care au crescut privati de o minima afectiune.psihogen.cervicale / manuale / de mers. Unii vor deveni la rndul lor niste abuzatori. Copiii care au fost abuzati psihic.lucru cum trebuie. vor fi probabil de tip dependent. Unii copiii crescuti in inchisoare de catre mama lor se dezvoltau mult mai . daca este criticat tot timpul. vor fi incapabili sa ofere altora afectiune. de a se descurca. Eczema copilului .veghe / plans. dupa modelul relatiei cu proprii parinti. putere si importanta mai mare decat lui însusi. vor deveni niste adulti cu o stima de sine scazuta.A Lapidar Bowlby convoaca etapele hospitalismului in cei 3D Disperare / Descurajare / Detasare. atunci copilul respectiv va dezvolta o neîncredere în sine. Copilul sub 6 luni nu are non-REM si ca atare el intra direct in REMul nictimeral din orice stare prezumata . fizic sau sexual. se va îndoi toata viata de propriile lui capacitati de a face fata.constata Spitz .

Sursa contextului: http://athos-club.org/wiki/Hospitalisme Definition : Hospitalism (or anaclitic depression in its sublethal form) was a pediatric diagnosis used in the 1930s to describe infants who wasted away while in hospital. Mai bine sa gresim aratand prea multa iubire decat prea putina . USA Source : http://en. Spre 12 luni copilul doarme mai mult noaptea si mai putin ziua. Fazele Hospitalismului .4 luni (jucarii cromatizate / profone) 4 .bine in raport cu cei crescuti in Centrele de Plasament unde se acuza o crasa penurie de afectivitate. Infants in .pruncul cauta realitatea iar adultul via experienta ludica doreste sa evadeze din ea.blogspot. and disruption of perceptual-motor skills and language.html Arie de utilizare : medicina Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : ANACLITIC DERESSION ID Language : English ID Country : UK .wikipedia. The symptoms could include retarded physical development. birotica Copilului mic dati-i jucarii mari .apare prin iterarea activitatii .8 luni (jucarii dexterogene) 8 . It is now understood that this wasting disease was mostly caused by a lack of social contact between the infant and its caregivers.revolta (hipno-patiile) / abandonul (plansul) / apatia / indiferenta. 1 . Prin joc .Getz. Hormonul de crestere e secretat doar in reprizele hipnagogice.com/2009/12/hospitalismul-depresieanaclitica-pana. La 4 luni pruncul doarme 18 ore pe zi.12 luni (jucarii noncasabile) Pana la 7 luni pruncul nu suporta prezenta altui copil ci cauta exclusiv adultul.Verneil.

Spitz coined the term anaclitic (leaning upon) depression to identify their condition. Since these children had no one to "lean on" for the nurturance they required. After three months. mental retardation .wikipedia. the children exhibited a number of physical and psychological symptoms. eventually exhibiting further signs of deterioration. Definition source: http://en. retarded psychomotor development. In the most extreme cases. sleeplessness.org/wiki/Hospitalisme Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: Hospitalism Context: „The concept of anaclitic depression was introduced in 1946 by psychiatrist René Spitz to refer to children who became depressed after being separated from their mothers for a period of three months or longer during the second six months of life. They were socially withdrawn and suffered from weight loss.poorer hospitals were less subject to this disease since those hospitals could not afford incubators which meant that the hospital staff regularly held the infants. a condition in which a child wastes away from starvation. their depressed state led to death from marasmus. children who continued without adequate mothering did not improve. some developed physical rigidity. Context source: http://findarticles. and they were restored to normal emotional health. Without an adquate mother substitute. In those children who were reunited with their mothers within six months. the condition was completely reversed.com/p/articles/mi_g2602/is_0000/ai_260200003 . The clinical recognition of anaclitic depression as a reaction to maternal separation helped stimulate interest in mothering as an important behavioral and developmental factor in infants. or lethargy. However. including agitation. and a greater-than-average incidence of physical illness.

The other may be more likely to occur in an adult therapeutic setting or in adult relationship settings.htm Area of use: Medicine Designation status : Official . like a mother. and concerns itself with what happens if attachment to a caregiver is disrupted for a long period of time during the first year of life. In anaclitic depression of the first type. the term evolved after observations were done on children in orphanage or hospital settings. was reunited with a child before six months had passed. Both of these have to do with attachment. The studies done on this issue tended to show that losses could be regained if a single caregiver.com/what-is-anaclitic-depression. when a person forms extremely depend attachments on others.Context : „Anaclitic depression has two very different definitions in psychological literature. some children exhibited retardation. This is because the children had no opportunity to bond with a single and consistent caregiver. Beyond that point. social problems or in the worst cases would suffer a decline so significant that they might have failure to thrive Context source http://www. who lost a caregiver for an extended period of time. most of them began to have strong losses or failure to progress developmentally.wisegeek. Even if these children were well cared for and had their physical and medical needs met. but a different population group is affected in each type. One type of anaclitic depression is a term not very much used anymore.

ro/Schizofrenia-si-alte-tulburari-psihice/ tulburarea-de-personalitate-antisociala_104 Definiţie : Tulburarea de personalitate antisociala este o conditie in care persoana arata lipsa de consideratie fata de lege si de drepturile celor din jur. Termenii “sociopat” sau “psihopat” sunt uneori folositi pentru a descrie o persoana cu tulburare de personalitate antisociala. Tulburarea de personalitate . Persoanele cu tulburare de personalitate antisociala tind sa minta sau sa fure si nu-si indeplinesc obligatiile profesionale si cele de parinte. Termen:TULBURARE DE PERSONALITATE DE TIP ANTISOCIAL Limba termenului: Română Tara termenului: România Sursa : http://www. Oamenii care cresc intr-un mediu abuziv sau in care sunt neglijati prezinta cel mai mare risc. iar adultii care prezinta aceasta tulburare au avut debutul simptomelor de conduita inainte de varsta de 15 ani.sfatulmedicului.66. Debutul adolescentei reprezinta o perioada critica pentru dezvoltarea tulburarii de personalitate antisociala.

Corespondent engleză: ANTISOCIAL PERSONALITY DISORDER Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : GRUP NOMINAL Hiperonim: Hiponim: Sinonim: Context : Caracteristicile persoanelor cu tulburare de personalitate de tip antisocial sunt: .Diagnostic de tulburari de comportament in copilarie . adesea violent.Tendinta de a viola drepturile si granitele altora (proprietatea. psihoterapia si unele medicamente pot ajuta la ameliorarea simptomelor.Dificultati permanente sau recurente cu legea . simptomele tulburarii de personalitate antisociala descresc odata cu inaintarea in varsta.Dispret fata de siguranta propriei persoane sau a altora . Tulburarea de personalitate antisociala este o conditie cronica si reprezinta una dintre cele mai dificil de tratat tulburari de personalitate. legal) . Sursa definiţiei: http://www.ro/Schizofrenia-si-alte-tulburaripsihice /tulburarea-de-personalitate-antisociala_104.antisociala este de trei ori mai frecventa la barbati decat la femei si este mult mai prevalenta in populatia din inchisoare decat in populatia generala. Totusi. fizic.Abuzul de substante .Disforie. inclinatia de a se implica in diverse lupte sau batai .Comportament agresiv. dispozitie persistent agitata sau depresiva . In multe cazuri.sfatulmedicului. sexual.Furtul sau minciuna constante . emotional.

Lipsa de remuscari atunci cand ii raneste pe altii . Mamele copiilor cu tulburare de personalitate de tip antisocial sunt adesea alcoolice si au tendinte impulsive. USA Source : http://www.personalitate.com/dis/p20-pe04. Se pare ca exista de asemenea o conexiune intre tulburarea de personalitate de tip antisocial si deprivarea materna in primii cinci ani de viata.mentalhealth. the individual must be at least 18. For this diagnosis to be given.php?option= com_content&view=article&id=51&Itemid=79 Arie de utilizare : medicina Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : ANTISOCIAL PERSONALITY DISORDER ID Language : English ID Country : UK . De asemenea istoricul familial (unul din parinti antisocial) creste riscul.psihologia. and violation of.ro/index..Impulsivitate . Deceit and manipulation are central features of this disorder.” Sursa contextului: http://www. .Probleme cu autoritatea sau figurile autoritare Sursa contextului: =comcontent&view=article&id=51&Itemid=79 Context : „Cauzele tulburarii de personalitate de tip antisocial nu sunt cunoscute. dar se pare ca un rol il au factorii genetici.Farmec superficial .Incapacitatea de a-si face sau mentine prietenii .html Definition : Antisocial Personality Disorder is a condition characterized by persistent disregard for. the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood.info.

This disorder is only diagnosed when these behaviors become persistent and very disabling or distressing. or conning others for personal profit or pleasure • Impulsivity or failure to plan ahead • Irritability and aggressiveness. delinquency) before age 15.html Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun phrase Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: Context: „Diagnostic Criteria: Three or more of the following are required: • Failure to conform to social norms with respect to lawful behaviors as indicated by repeatedly performing acts that are grounds for arrest • Deceitfulness. if age is 18 or older). or stolen from another Since these antisocial behaviors are commonly observed in children and adolescents. as indicated by repeated failure to sustain consistent work behavior or honor financial obligations • Lack of remorse. as indicated by repeatedly lying.and must have had some symptoms of Conduct Disorder (i. use of aliases. mistreated. The diagnosis of Antisocial Personality requires that there was evidence of delinquency (Conduct Disorder) with onset before age 15 years.mentalhealth.e... as indicated by repeated physical fights or assaults • Reckless disregard for safety of self or others • Consistent irresponsibility. This is in contrast to the (non-DSM-IV) diagnosis of being a psychopath which .e. as indicated by being indifferent to or rationalizing having hurt. Definition source: http://www.com/dis/p20-pe04. this disorder is only diagnosed if these antisocial behaviors persist into adulthood (i.

[17] Schema therapy is being investigated as a treatment for antisocial personality disorder.including histrionic features nomadic antisocial .including sadistic.wikipedia.including narcissistic features risk-taking antisocial . has been shown moderately effective for behavioral change.[16] although others have reported contradictory findings. The diagnosis of Antisocial Personality Disorder is not made if the occurrence of antisocial behavior occurs exclusively during the course of Schizophrenia or a Manic Episode Context source: http://www. Context source http://en. such as substance abuse.variant of the pure pattern where individuals feel that life has not given them their due. Any antisocial individual may exhibit none.com/dis/p20-pe04. although contingency management programs.including schizoid. • • • • reputation-defending antisocial . paranoid features. one or more than one of the following: • covetous antisocial . as well as medicinal marijuana treatments.does not require a prior diagnosis of Conduct Disorder. or a reward system.org/wiki/Antisocial_personality_disorder Area of use: Medicine Commentary : To date there have been no controlled studies reported which found an effective treatment for ASPD.html Context : „Millon's subtypes Theodore Millon identified five subtypes of antisocial behavior. avoidant features malevolent antisocial .[18 Designation status : Official .[15] Some studies have found that the presence of ASPD does not significantly interfere with treatment for other disorders.mentalhealth.

Depresia poate fi datorata unui eveniment trist ca moartea unei persoane apropiate. ganduri sinucigase.ro/Sanatatea-mentala/anhedonia-incapacitateade-a-simti-placere_82 Definitie : Anhedonia este incapacitatea unei persoane de a simti placerea in cursul unor experiente care ar trebui sa determine placere. deoarece oamenii de stiinta erau preocupati de alte simptome evidente ale depresiei ca si lipsa concentrarii.sfatulmedicului. o boala psihica sau un dezechilibru in chimia creierului. care se afla in acelasi moment al vietii lor si este o afectiune cu potential fatal datorita riscului mare de sinucidere. Anhedonia este acum recunoscuta ca unul dintre principalele simptome ale depresiei si cercetarile care se fac dezvaluie noi legaturi intre creier si depresie Sursa definitiei: http://www. Termen:ANHEDONIE Limba termenului: Română Tara termenului: România Sursa : http://www. A fost pentru prima data definita in secolul al 19-lea. somnul si pofta de mancare dereglate.ro/Sanatatea-mentala/anhedoniaincapacitatea-de-a-simti-placere_82. dar a fost ignorata pana in anii 1980. Corespondent engleză:ANHEDONIA Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: Hiponim: Sinonim: Context : „Depresia afecteaza unul din cinci oameni.67. oboseala. Nu orice sufera de .sfatulmedicului.

dar de obicei se vindeca o data cu ea. Dupa cateva episoade de boala in adolescenta. Unul dintre cele mai grele momente a fost atunci cand si-a ascultat cantaretul preferat si starea ei nu s-a schimbat cu nimic desi asculta muzica pe care a placut-o toata viata. acest lucru va ajuta la indepartarea stigmatului care este atasat ei. Daca cercetarile vor dovedi ca depresia este cauzata de schimbari in creier. probleme financiare si amenintarea permanenta de a fi evacuata.sfatulmedicului.sfatulmedicului. A ajuns in aceasta situatie dupa mai multe evenimente neplacute: divort. Sursa contextului: http://www. Context : „pacienta a vorbit despre cum depresia si anhedonia i-a afectat viata.ro/Sanatatea-mentala/anhedoniaincapacitatea-de-a-simti-placere_82. Anhedonia ei a avut mai multe forme si inca sufera partial de ea. Condusa de nevoia de a mentine in limite cat mai normale vietile celor doi copii si ajutata de antidepresive si de consiliere psihologica a reusit sa-si imbunatateasca starea. la 31 de ani a fost diagnosticata cu depresie majora. Inca nu poate sa se bucure de proprile realizari si ale copiilor ei. actioneaza doar partial pe simptomele anhedoniei” Sursa contextului: http://www. care partial i se datoreaza.ro/Sanatatea-mentala/anhedoniaincapacitatea-de-a-simti-placere_82 Arie de utilizare : medicina Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Antidepresivele . Este rar intalnita in depresia usoara. Anhedonia poate persista dupa ce persoana s-a vindecat de depresie. Chiar poate spune ca pana acum a fost o boala invizibila. Cu timpul a invatat sa traiasca cu simptomele ei si informatiile care i se ofera o ajuta atunci cand se simte deprimata. sanatate precara. schimbarea domiciliului de la un capat la altul al tarii. dar creaza probleme serioasa la cei care sufera de depresie severa.depresie sufera si de anhedonie.

Definition source: http://en. schizoid personality disorder and schizophrenia.wikipedia. exercise.g.org/wiki/Anhedonia Definition : is defined as the inability to experience pleasure from activities formerly found enjoyable. Anhedonia can be a characteristic of mental disorders including mood disorders. "without" + ἡδονή hēdonē. The DSM criterion of weight loss is probably related to it and many depressed people with this symptom describe a lack of enjoyment of food. "pleasure Generic concept :disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: Context: „As a clinical symptom in depression.an-. hobbies. anhedonia rates highly in making a diagnosis of this disorder.Term : ANHEDONIA ID Language : English ID Country : UK . People suffering from anhedonia in association with depression generally feel good in the morning and unhappy in the evenings and can portray any of the non-psychotic symptoms and signs of depression” Context source: http://en. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) describes a "lack of interest or pleasure" but these can be hard to tell apart given that people become less interested in things which do not give them pleasure.org/wiki/Anhedonia Nota bene: Greek ἀν. social interaction or sexual activity.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anhedonia . Affected schizophrenic patients describe themselves as feeling emotionally empty. USA Source : http://en. schizoaffective disorder. e.wikipedia.

It was brought on by a series of events: the break-up of her marriage. it will be immensely helpful in removing the stigma that is attached to it . she felt unmoved by the music she had always loved.netdoctor. a teenager is left unmoved by passing her driving test.netdoctor. a writer and single mother from South London. spoke to NetDoctor about how depression and anhedonia affected her life. and says being given information and reassurance helped when she was depressed. Driven by the need to keep the lives of her two children as normal as possible. Lizzie's anhedonia took many forms and partly remains with her. making it difficult to take things forward. 'Up to now it has been an invisible illness. Anhedonia places a great strain on relationships and is usually accompanied by a loss of sex drive. Lizzie has learned to live with her symptoms. a move from one end of the country to another.htm Designation status : Official One of her darkest moments was when she sat down to listen to Elgar's Enigma variations.htm Area of use:Medicine Commentary : Lizzie Gardiner. Lizzie was hit by a major depression at the age of 31.co.Context : „People with anhedonia have an incredibly flat mood. She didn't know about anhedonia then.uk/special_reports/depression/anhedonia. 'If the research can show physical evidence that depression is caused by changes in the brain. After several short bouts of the illness in her teenage years.uk/special_reports/depression/anhedonia. They can't react properly or feel anything. She still can't gain pleasure from her own achievements or see that her children are a credit to her as well as to themselves http://www.co. antidepressants and psychological treatment helped Lizzie through. Context source http://www. To her horror.' she said. It is best described by examples. There is no variation of mood. financial problems and the threat of eviction. a footballer isn't excited when he scores the winning goal. An anhedonic mother gains no joy from playing with her baby. but has since taken part in the Institute of Psychiatry's research. bad health.

cel de-al doilea razboi mondial . numai ca se intinde pe o durata mult mai mare de timp (cel putin trei luni) si presupune o afectare persistenta si marcata a vietii persoanei in toate domeniile importante ale vietii sale. 4) fuga de realitate.ro/tulburarea-post-traumatica-de-stress. depresii.68. Sursa definitiei: http://www.ro/tulburarea-post-traumatica-de-stress Definitie : Tulburarea post-traumatica de stress are aceleasi caracteristici ca si cea acuta. Tabloul tipic al tulburarii a fost descris pentru prima data la veteranii razboiului din Vietnam. Corespondent engleză: POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Grup nominal Hiperonim: Hiponim: Sinonim: Context : „”Simptomele acestei tulburari pot aparea si la sase luni distanta de la evenimentul traumatic.romedic. 3) fixarea pe circumstantele evenimentului traumatic. Termen:TULBURARE POST-TRAUMATICA DE STRES Limba termenului: Română Tara termenului: România Sursa : http://www.romedic. Toate descrierile acestui fenomen includeau totdeauna un sir de elemente comune: tulburari de somn. excitabilitate crescuta. Sursa contextului: http://www.ro/tulburarea-post-traumatica-de-stress Context : „Cercetarile asupra stresului posttraumatic au debutat cu mai mult de jumatate de veac urma. 2) reactie nestapta la excitanti brusti. Kardiner da pentru prima data o descriere complexa a simptomaticii acestui fenomen: 1) excitabilitate si iritabilitate.romedic. vise cu cosmaruri. .

” Sursa contextului: http://www. Desi au fost experimentate diverse strategii terapeutice pentru TSPT (terapia psihodinamica. nu ajuta la restabilirea relatiilor deteriorate si nici nu unatateste controlul furiei. retragerea sociala. folosirea expunerii a fost combinata cu antrenarea managementul anxietatii generale. interventie criza). neadaptarea ocupationala. Totusi.ro/psihologie/stresul_posttraumatic. care au o importanta vitala procesul de recuperare. USA . precum si a unei mari parti din anxietatea generala care o oteste. acest context unii autori au sugerat ca este necesar un program de tratament comportamental care sa tinteasca ariile disfunctionale specifice folosind strategii comportamentale si faze de tratament diferite.5) predispozitia pentru reactii agresive necontrolate. terapia cognitiv-comportamentala de grup si antrenarea abilitatilor sociale. cu rol de suport si siguranta. Datele obtinute din aceste studii indica faptul ca expunerea intensiva ajuta la reducerea trasaturilor distinctive ale TSPT (de ex: simptomele intruzive si reactivitatea fiziologica).e-scoala. studiile nu indica faptul ca expunerea ar avea un efect semnificativ asupra simptomelor „negative" ale TSPT (evitarea. terapia cognitiv-comportamentala care pune un accent deosebit pe metode variate de expunere.html Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Psihoterapia ajuta pacientii cu TSPT sa identifice si sa stabileasca relatii benefice. Astfel. adresindu-se simptomelor multiple si complexe asociate cu aceasta tulburare. Desi expunerea poate diminua teama si „hiper-activarea" maladaptativa. a fost cea mai atent studiata si s-a dovedit a avea rezultatele cele mai promitatoare. dificultatile interpersonale. obtinandu-se rezultate benefice pentru tratamentul TSPT Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER ID Language : English ID Country : UK . ea nu se adreseaza deficitelor de aptitudini de baza. paralizia emotionala) si nici asupra unor anumite aspecte privind controlul furiei.

life-threatening. Some of that difference is thought to be due to higher rates of dissociation soon before and after the traumatic event (peritraumatic).com/posttraumatic_stress_disorder/article. have less social support. or otherwise highly unsafe experience.htm Generic concept :disease Grammatical category: noun phrase Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: Context: „Complex posttraumatic stress disorder (C-PTSD) usually results from prolonged exposure to a traumatic event or series thereof and is characterized by longlasting problems with many aspects of emotional and social functioning. and Native Americans compared to Caucasians in the United States. a tendency for individuals from minority ethnic groups to blame themselves.medicinenet. and an increased perception of racism for those ethnic groups. many of the differences have been found to be the result of increased exposure to combat at younger ages for minority groups. Hispanics.htm Definition : Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an emotional illness that that is classified as an anxiety disorder and usually develops as a result of a terribly frightening. Other important facts about PTSD include the estimate of 5 million people who suffer from PTSD at any one time in the United States and the fact that women are twice as likely as men to develop PTSD. Definition source: http://www.Source : http://www. In military populations. Somewhat higher rates of this disorder have been found to occur in African Americans. with the lifetime occurrence (prevalence) in combat veterans and rape victims ranging from 10% to as high as 30%. .medicinenet. Statistics regarding this illness indicate that approximately 7%-8% of people in the United States will likely develop PTSD in their lifetime. as well as differences between how ethnic groups may express distress.com/posttraumatic_stress-disorder.

For twin pairs exposed to combat in Vietnam. Another recent study found a single SNP in a putative estrogen response element on ADCYAP1R1 (encodes pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide type I receptor or PAC1) to predict PTSD diagnosis and symptoms in females. iar cei mici pot dezvolta tulburari emotionale pe care adultii le cred trecatoare. These findings suggest that individuals with these SNPs who are abused as children are more susceptible to PTSD as adults. Context source http://en. This is particularly interesting given that FKBP5 SNPs have previously been associated with peritraumatic dissociation (that is.com/posttraumatic_stress_disorder/htm Context : „There is evidence that susceptibility to PTSD is hereditary. FKBP5 may be less expressed in those with current PTSD. dissociation at the time of the trauma). incat uita sa mai comunice cu propriul copil.org/wiki/Posttraumatic_stress_disorder Area of use: Medicine Designation status : Official 69.Context source: http://www. un copil cu o astfel de afectiune trebuie tratat . Recently. Furthermore. In realitate. this SNP is also associated with fear discrimination. having a monozygotic (identical) twin with PTSD was associated with an increased risk of the co-twin having PTSD compared to twins that were dizygotic (non-identical twins).medicinenet. Incidentally. which has itself been shown to be predictive of PTSD.wikipedia. it has been found that several singlenucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) interact with childhood trauma to predict severity of adult PTSD. The study suggests that perturbations in the PACAP-PAC1 pathway are involved in abnormal stress responses underlying PTSD. Termen:TULBURARE EMOTIONALA Limba termenului: Română Tara termenului: Romania Context : „Tulburarile emotionale juvenile pot ascunde boli psihice grave Parintii de azi sunt atat de ocupati sa isi faca o situatie materiala cat mai buna.

thefreedictionary. Depresia postpartum .parinti.prescolar. poate avea ganduri sinucigase de la o varsta frageda Sursa contextului: http://www.com/Tulburariemotionalepostnatale DepresiapostpartumDPP-articol-172. major affective disorder . poate suferi emotional. USA Source : http://www.thefreedictionary. Sursa contextului: http://www. Multe femei insa nu trec niciodata prin astfel de stari.html Arie de utilizare : medicina Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : EMOTIONAL DISORDER ID Language : English ID Country : UK . mai rau. un avort spontan sau a intrerupt alaptatul recent.ro/sanatate/sfaturi/sf053. emotional disturbance.htm Context : „Tulburari emotionale postnatale.DPP Orice femeie insarcinata sau care a dat nastere unui copil in ultimul an sau a avut o intrerupere de sarcina. indiferent de cate sarcini fara probleme a avut inainte sau de cum s-a adaptat rolului de mama.com/emotional+disorder Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun phrase Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: affective disorder.imediat pentru ca mai tarziu poate suferi de boli psihice grave sau.com/emotional+disorder Definition : any mental disorder not caused by detectable organic abnormalities of the brain and in which a major disturbance of emotions is predominant Definition source: http://www.

edu/~kbach/emotion. that is.html Area of use: Medicine Designation status : Official 70. but at least it does not speculate heavily on underlying etiological questions.4 Even so.calificativ. or perhaps ultimately neurophysiological causes. attentional. Tulburarile se pot manifesta in diferite feluri: -tulburari de citire. we should note that whereas some emotional disorders may involve problems caused by emotions. -tulburari matematice.Context : „The conception of emotional disorder to be sketched here offers a descriptive framework for identifying and connecting several key elements of emotional disorder.sfsu.html Definiţie : Tu Tulburarea de invatare reprezinta o afectiune neurologica ce interfereaza cu capacitatea unei persoane de a ingloba si prelucra informatii.lburarile de invatare Sursa definiţiei: http://www. Termen:TULBURARE DE INVATARE Limba termenului: Română Tara termenului: România Sursa : http://www.ro/Tulburarile_de_invatare-a18552.ro/Tulburarile_de_invatare-a18552. emotional effects of cognitive.calificativ.html. Context source http://userwww. -tulburari de compunere a unor texte. -tulburari de scriere. To the extent that this conception goes beyond conceptual analysis it may smack of armchair psychology. . others may only be problems with emotions.

DSM (Learning Disorders ) iar in ICD (Specific Developmental Disorders of Scholastic Skills . disgrafii.php . Manifestarile descrise in cadrul acestor entitati erau denumite anterior ( dislexii. Sursa contextului: http://www. copiii necesita orientare catre scolile speciale.com/sociologie/psihiatrie/TULBURARIDE-DEZVOLTARE-A-ABIL31254.Corespondent engleză : LEARNING DISORDER Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Grup nominal Hiperonim: Hiponim: tulburare de citire Sinonim: Context : Tulburarile de invatare nu pot fi vindecate.). citit . numai in formele severe in care exista si tulburari senzoriale.calificativ. Acesti copii.„ Sursa contextului: http://www. Evolutia este in general satisfacatoare. factorul psihologic si educational are o pondere foarte mare in gravitatea aceste boli.html Context : „Terminologia este usor diferita in cele doua manuale de diagnostic . Aceste dificultati se pot manifesta numai in ariile mentionate sau le po 212f57c t cuprinde pe toate. exista totusi autori care continua sa utilizeze acesti termeni considerindu-i adecvati si pentru copilul aflat in procesul dezvoltarii ariilor de limbaj. in marea lor majoritate . Cu toate acestea.scritube. discalculii) terminologie care astazi se considera ca defineste o simptomatologie bine circumscrisa cu debut brusc la o persoana care a achizitionat limbajul scris.ro/Tulburarile_de_invatare-a18552. In privinta cauzelor care determina aparitia acestei tulburari neurologice se poate spune doar ca exista teorii care sustin mostenirea genetica. dar persoanele cu astfel de afectiuni pot invata sa compenseze lipsurile si slabiciunile pe care le au. defectul disparand in timp. De cele mai multe ori problemele se pot observa in momentul in care copilul intra in clasa I si modul sau de dezvoltare este mult mai incet decat al celorlalti copii. au un QI intre 75-80 si 90.

storage.org/wiki/Learning_disability Definition : Learning disability (sometimes called a learning disorder or learning difficulty).wikipedia.Arie de utilizare : medicina Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : LEARNING DISORDER ID Language : English ID Country : UK . position and size of items seen. This disorder can make it problematic for a person to learn as quickly or in the same way as someone who is not affected by a learning disability. USA Source : http://en.org/wiki/Learning_disability Nota bene: Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun phrase Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: Context: „Learning disabilities fall into broad categories based on the four stages of information processing used in learning: input. People with a learning disability have trouble performing specific types of skills or completing tasks if left to figure things out by themselves or if taught in conventional ways Definition source: http://en. and output. is a classification including several disorders in which a person has difficulty learning in a typical manner. • Input: This is the information perceived through the senses.wikipedia. Difficulties with visual perception can cause problems with recognizing the shape. There can be problems with . integration. usually caused by an unknown factor or factors. such as visual and auditory perception. The unknown factor is the disorder that affects the brain's ability to receive and process information.

• Storage: Problems with memory can occur with short-term or working memory." A poor vocabulary may contribute to problems with comprehension. Difficulties with visual memory can impede learning to spell. such as gesturing. Difficulties with motor abilities can cause problems with gross and fine motor skills. and put the thoughts into words before we speak. that is. People with gross motor difficulties may be clumsy. organize our thoughts. that is. • Output: Information comes out of the brain either through words. For example. Some children appear to be unable to process tactile input. they may be prone to stumbling. Students with problems in these areas may be unable to tell a story in the correct sequence. • Integration: This is the stage during which perceived input is interpreted. answering a question on demand. which can make it difficult to learn new material without many more repetitions than is usual. or related to previous learning. which can relate to deficits with processing time intervals or temporal perception. unable to memorize sequences of information such as the days of the week. they may seem insensitive to pain or dislike being touched. writing or drawing. placed in a sequence. able to understand a new concept but be unable to generalize it to other areas of learning. or through muscle activity. falling. categorized. Difficulties with language output can create problems with spoken language. or able to learn facts but be unable to put the facts together to see the "big picture. or with long-term memory. They may also have trouble . It can also cause trouble with written language for the same reasons. such as the sound of the teacher's voice. for example. Most memory difficulties occur in the area of short-term memory. Difficulties with auditory perception can make it difficult to screen out competing sounds in order to focus on one of them. language output. in which one must retrieve information from storage. or bumping into things.sequencing.

nih.wikipedia.gov/medlineplus/learningdisorders.ro/tulburare-schizoafectiva. fie ai depresiei. tying shoelaces.nlm. fie ai maniei Sursa definiţiei: http://www. chiar si in eventualitatea oscilatiilor afective spre polii extremi. simultana a simptomelor afective si schizofrenice.romedic.html Area of use: Medicine Designation status : Official 71.running. People with fine motor difficulties may have trouble buttoning shirts.romedic. or learning to ride a bicycle. posibila si alternand dar tot cu caracter mixt.org/wiki/Learning_disability Context : „Learning disorders affect how a person understands. Termen:TULBURARE SCHIZOAFECTIVA Limba termenului: Română Tara termenului: România Sursa : http://www. Context source: http://en. Corespondent engleză: SCHIZOAFFECTIVE DISORDER .ro/tulburare-schizoafectiva Definiţie : Tulburarea schizoafectiva este caracterizata prin evolutia concomitenta. remembers and responds to new information. climbing. People with learning disorders may have problems • Listening or paying attention • Speaking • Reading or writing • Doing math Context source : http://www. or with handwriting.

in cazul in care tulburarea cuprinde numai episoade depresive ma” – Sursa contextului: http://www.Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Grup nominal Hiperonim: Hiponim: Sinonim: Context : „Tulburarea schizoafectiva din datele care se cunosc este mai putin frecventa decat schizofrenia.” Sursa contextului: http://www. Pattern familial: Exista dovezi concrete referitoare la riscul crescut de schizofrenie al rudelor de gradul 1 ale persoanelor cu tulburare schizoafectiva. este mai frecventa la adultii mai in varsta in comparatie cu schizofrenia. incidenta fiind aceasi la ambele sexe. tipul bipolar se pare ca este mai frecventa la adultii tineri.ro/tulburare-schizoafectiva Context : „Tipuri de tulburare schizoafectiva: – tipul bipolar:-in cazul in care tulburarea cuprinde un episod maniacal sau mixt (sau un episod maniacal sau mixt si episoade depresive majore) . tipul depresiv. De asemenea. Prevalenta pe durata intregii vieti este mai mica de 1%. ei fiind defapt bolnavi de schizofrenie cu simptome ce afecteaza starea de dispozitie marcat sau pot avea o tulburarea de dispozitie cu simptome psihotice marcate.romedic. Etiologie: Unii pacienti pot sa fie diagnosticati eronat.ro/tulburare-schizoafectiva . etatii si sexului: Tulburarea schizoafectiva.romedic. De asemenea. Elemente specifice culturii. In familiile schizoafectivilor prevalenta schizofreniei este crescuta. se presupune ca tulburarea schizoafectiva apare mai frecvent la femei. dar prevalenta tulburarilor de dispozitie este mai mica. tipul depresiv:. exista studii referitoare la riscul crescut al rudelor celor cu tulburare schizoafectiva de a avea tulburari afective. iar tulburarea schizoafectiva.

USA Source : http://en. deprimanta. fie maniacal sau mixt. medicamente) sau datorita unei afectiuni medicale generale existente. or of .org/wiki/Schizoaffective_disorder Definition : Schizoaffective disorder is a psychiatric diagnosis that describes a mental disorder characterized by recurring episodes of elevated or depressed mood.wikipedia. simptomele care satisfac criteriile pentru un episod afectiv sunt prezente pe o perioada destul de lunga de timp pe parcursul perioadelor active si reziduale de boala. comportament dezorganizat) . – – – aceasta afectiune nu se datoreaza efectelor fiziologice directe folosirii unei substante (de exemplu: droguri. halucinatii. in aceasi perioada a bolii au existat deliruri sau halucinatii pe o perioada de cel putin doua saptamani. – de specificat. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : SCHIZOAFFECTIVE DISORDER ID Language : English ID Country : UK . in cursul careia la un anumit moment dat. sa apara un episod fie depresiv major.Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Criterii de diagnostic: – O perioada neintrerupta de evolutie a bolii. concomitent cu simptome care indeplinesc criteriul A pentru schizofrenie (deliruri. ca in cursul episodul depresiv major sa se intalneasca si o alta conditie: dispozitia depresiva. dar in absenta altor simptome afective evidente.

Psychosis is defined by paranoia. Mood disorders are defined by discrete periods of clinical depression. distortions in perception. psychosis must also occur during periods without mood symptoms. In schizophrenia. delusions and hallucinations. Definition source: http://en. in schizoaffective disorder. Since these differences can be difficult to detect. or occur together with. It should be noted that delusions in schizoaffective disorder are acute manifestations of an active psychosis and are not personality traits. The illness tends to be difficult to diagnose since the symptoms are similar to other disorders with prominent mood and psychotic symptoms like bipolar disorder with psychotic features. has some special purpose or destiny (such as to save the world). Manifestations of delusions include the individual being convinced that he or she is Jesus or the Antichrist. a firm diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder may thus require an extended period of observation and treatment. mood episodes have been thought to be absent or less prominent than in schizoaffective disorder. they go away when the psychosis subsides. that is. recurrent depression with psychotic features and schizophrenia. although it has been diagnosed (very rarely) in childhood.wikipedia. mixed episodes and manic episodes. . that alternate with.simultaneously elevated and depressed mood. Individuals with the disorder may experience psychotic symptoms before. during or (commonly) after their depressive. Schizoaffective disorder is a mental illness characterized by recurring episodes of mood disorder and psychosis.org/wiki/Schizoaffective_disorder Generic concept :disease Grammatical category: noun phrase Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: Context: „Late adolescence and early adulthood are the peak years for the onset of schizoaffective disorder. mixed or manic episodes. or is being monitored. the individual with schizoaffective disorder may experience delusions. as it is presently defined. Untreated. By contrast.

Context source: http://en. The untreated individual may sleep too much. The untreated individual may quickly change their mind about their romantic partner. the individual may see overt visual hallucinations such as monsters. or be unable to sleep. most or even all of their functionality. isolate themself from the person or group until they regain normal thoughts. Individuals may also experience strange sensations. Without treatment. individuals with schizoaffective disorder may withdraw socially and become isolated. There may be a decline in work or school functioning during episodes of illness. many individuals with schizoaffective disorder may recover much. Difficulties with executive function may also be a problem for individuals with schizoaffective disorder. conversely.) Hallucinations involving all five senses can also occur in untreated or undertreated schizoaffective disorder. For example.watched or persecuted by something (commonly government agencies). have trouble swallowing. music. the individual may see. For example. That is. when in reality they often are not. (See thought insertion. Other delusions may include the belief that an external force is controlling the individual's thought processes. With comprehensive treatment. as a result they may attack or. smell.wikipedia. This may include difficulties with concentration. and then believe that outside forces are controlling their throat functions. These hallucinations may worsen when the individual is intoxicated. logical reasoning and impulse control. the individual may feel anxious. the individual with schizoaffective disorder may further worsen in their delusional thought processes. Comorbid or co-occurring anxiety disorders may also play a role in the subjective experience of schizoaffective disorder and thus may shape the individual's delusional thought content.org/wiki/Schizoaffective_disorder . feel or taste things that aren't there. attention. hear. the devil or more subtle ones such as shadowy apparitions. Things may look or sound different. Individuals may hear voices or. in some cases. Individuals may also feel extremely paranoid. As stated above. They may also suffer from various phobias which may also manifest as delusions. friends or family if they hear something negative being said about them.

an early onset. Persons who immigrated to a country have higher suicide rates then people born in that country. 1998). but men complete suicide more often. whereas the prognosis of people with the depressive subtype is thought to be similar to that of people with schizophrenia. but this appears to be influenced the fact that more women are in the depressive subtype as compared with the bipolar subtype.com/article/294763-overview Area of use: Medicine . determination of the prognosis is difficult. an unremitting course. or their having a family member with schizophrenia Context source http://emedicine. women attempt suicide more than men. Also consider difference in suicide attempts among different ethnic groups. • A poor prognosis in patients with schizoaffective disorder is generally associated with a poor premorbid history. • Individuals with the bipolar subtype are thought to have a prognosis similar to those with bipolar type I. In regards to gender. That is. negative symptoms. Caucasian individuals have a higher rate of suicide than African Americans. • The incidence of suicide is estimated at 10% (Williams. the prognosis is better with schizoaffective disorder than with schizophrenic disorder but worse than with a mood disorder alone. no precipitating factors. an insidious onset. a predominant psychosis. • Schizoaffective disorder affects more women than men. Overall.Context : „The prognosis for patients with schizoaffective disorder is thought to lie between that of patients with schizophrenia and that of patients with a mood disorder.medscape.

have made scientific observations of schizoaffective disorder based on assumptions of a biological and genetic etiology of the illness.[38] In 1959. dementia praecox (now called schizophrenia) and manic depressive insanity (now called bipolar disorder and recurrent depression). one episode of psychotic depression. before and after Kasanin. psychiatrist Kurt Schneider (1887–1967) can be said to have been the first to begin to conceptualize the different forms that schizoaffective disorders can take since he observed "concurrent and sequential types". In 1863. that is. while longitudinal refers to long-term observation of many distinct episodes [similar or different] often occurring over the span of years. Kahlbaum distinguished between cross-sectional and longitudinal observations." He based his description on a case study of nine individuals. the area between schizophrenia and severe mood disorders.Commentary : The term schizoaffective psychosis was introduced by the American psychiatrist Jacob Kasanin in 1933 to describe an episodic psychotic illness with predominant affective symptoms. for example. that was thought at the time to be a good-prognosis schizophrenia. specific episode of the illness. (Cross-sectional refers to observation of a single. psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin (1856–1926). Kraeplin acknowledged that "there are many overlaps in this area". while his sequential type refers to a longitudinal course predominantly . observed a "great number" of cases that had characteristics of both groups of psychoses that he originally posited were two distinct and separate illnesses. Other psychiatrists. Kasanin's concept of the illness was influenced by the psychoanalytic teachings of Adolf Meyer and Kasanin postulated that schizoaffective psychosis was caused by "emotional conflicts" of a "mainly sexual nature" and that psychoanalysis "would help prevent the recurrence of such attacks.[36] (The concurrent type of illness he referred to is a longitudinal course of illness with episodes of mood disorder and psychosis occurring predominantly at the same time. German psychiatrist Karl Kahlbaum (1828– 1899) described schizoaffective disorders as a separate group in his vesania typica circularis. the founder of contemporary scientific psychiatry.) In 1920.

Designation status : Official 72. in special cand tulburarea apare in copilarie.sfatulmedicului. iar calitatea generala a acesteia poate fi scazuta. de regula. In general. cel putin doi ani si deseori mai mult decat atat. In cazul distimiei.sfatulmedicului. pacientul isi pierde interesul pentru activitatile de fiecare zi.ro/Depresia---tristetea-patologica/ distimia_100. Termen:DISTIMIE Limba termenului: Română Tara termenului: România Sursa : http://www. Distimia mai este cunoscuta si sub numele de tulburare distimica.ro/Depresia---tristetea-patologica/distimia_100 Definiţie : Distimia este o forma usoara.marked by alternating mood and psychotic episodes.)[37] Schneider described schizoaffective disorders as "cases in-between" the traditional Kraepelinian dichotomy of schizophrenia and mood disorders. se simte fara speranta. Simptomele distimiei dureaza. depresie cronica sau depresie minora. distimia il impiedica sa-si traiasca viata din plin. Desi simptomele distimiei pot fi de intensitate mai mica decat cele ale depresiei. Corespondent engleză: DYSTHYMIC DISORDER Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: Hiponim: Sinonim: Context : „Semnele si simptomele distimiei cuprind: . ea poate afecta mai grav viata pacientului pentru ca dureaza mai mult. Sursa definiţiei: http://www. nu este productiv si are incredere scazuta in sine. dar cronica de depresie.

foame exagerata .php?option=com_content& .probleme de somn .pierderea apetitului .tristete . pacientului ii este greu sa fie vesel chiar si cu ocazii fericite – si poate fi caracterizat de cei din jur ca fiind o persoana posaca. Sursa contextului: http://www.pierderea interesului pentru activitatile zilnice .eu/index.ro/Depresia---tristetea-patologica/ distimia_100 Context : „Spitalizarea nu este de obicei necesara si tratamentul in distimie este medicamentos si psihoterapeutic: psihoterapie interpersonala.oboseala .evitarea activitatilor sociale .probleme de concentrare a atentiei .psihoterapia..iritabilitate .stima de sine scazuta .sfatulmedicului.lipsa de energie .probleme in luarea unor decizii .sentimente de vinovatie Simptomele distimiei apar si dispar de-a lungul unei perioade de mai multi ani. Sursa contextului: http://www.lipsa productivitatii . iar intensitatea lor se poate schimba de-a lungul timpului.manie .lipsa de speranta . Dar in general. psihoterapie cognitiva si comportamentala.autocriticism .

for at least 2 years.reducerea calitatii vietii .depresia majora . Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : DYSTHYMIC DISORDER ID Language : English ID Country : UK .dificultati de relationare . In .conflicte familiale .abuz de substante . more days than not.probleme scolare sau profesionale .comportament suicidar .scaderea productivitatii.task=view&id=236&Itemid=612 Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Complicatiile pe care distimia le poate determina sau cu care se poate asocia sunt: .izolare sociala . USA Definition : Dysthymic Disorder is a chronic condition characterized by depressive symptoms that occur for most of the day.

characterizes dysthymic disorder. During a majority of days for two years or more. 2.com/dis/p20-md04.children. the mood may be irritable rather than depressed. The essential symptom involves the individual feeling depressed for the majority of days and parts of the day for at least two years. Dysthymic Disorder is more common in the first-degree biological relatives of individuals with Major Depressive Disorder” Context source: http://www. Sufferers have often experienced dysthymia for many years before it is diagnosed. disturbances in sleep or in appetite.mentalhealth. People around them come to believe that the sufferer is 'just a moody person'. Fatigue or low energy . When depressed. decreased or increased sleep (insomnia or hypersomnia) 3. decreased or increased appetite 2. the patient has two or more of: 1. and the required minimum duration is only 1 year Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: Context: „First-degree biological relatives of individuals with disorder have elevated rates of Dysthymic Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder compared with the general population. and low self-esteem typically contribute to the clinical picture as well.html Context : „The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). published by the American Psychiatric Association. Low energy. the adult patient reports depressed mood or appears depressed to others for most of the day. Note the following diagnostic criteria: 1.

8. and duration must be at least one year. Generally. The symptoms may cause significant problems or distress in social. The patient has never fulfilled criteria for cyclothymic disorder. Dysthymics who cope well with daily life tend to follow particular routines that provide certainty.wikipedia. The depression does not exist only as part of a chronic psychosis (such as schizophrenia or delusional disorder). or other major areas of life functioning.4. or other medications. Individuals with this disorder respond to tricyclic antidepressants. In children and adolescents. People suffering from dysthymia aren't always well capable of coping with their everyday lives. in contrast to two years needed for diagnosis in adults. 9. including drug abuse. mood can be irritable. the patient has not had a major depressive episode. work. During this two-year period. 6. The patient has not had any manic. Feels hopeless or pessimistic 3. The symptoms are often not directly caused by a medical illness or by substances. research is showing that the medications that are effective in treating Major Depressive Disorder are also effective in Dysthymic Disorder. Reduced self-esteem 5. academic. 7. 5. MAOI antidepressants (classical and . or mixed episodes. During the first two years of this syndrome. hypomanic. 4. Decreased concentration or problems making decisions 6.org/wiki/Dysthymia Area of use: Medicine Commentary : There is little research on the treatment of Dysthymic Disorder. the above symptoms are never absent longer than two consecutive months. Context source: http://en.

ro/afectiuni. Supportive psychotherapy and psychoeducation (teaching patients and their families about this illness) significantly improve patient compliance and family cooperation Designation status : Official 73. adesea greu de . Termen:TULBURARE DE OPOZITIE Limba termenului: Română Tara termenului: România Sursa : http://www.php#Tulburarea%20de%20 Definiţie : Copilul cu tulburare de opozitie are urmatoarele trasaturi clinice: un copil cu varsta mai mica de 18 ani (de obicei cu varsta mai mica de 9 ani).reversible). and SSRI antidepressants (of which the best current evidence is for fluoxetine).psihiatriepentrutoti.

adesea greu de controlat. mersul la culcare sau pregatirea pentru scoala . mersul la culcare sau pregatirea pentru scoala . creste . sau modifica profund relationarea cu ceilalti (parinti.9% cu o medie de 5. cu frecvente “crize de incapatanare” .7 .php#Tulburarea%20 Corespondent engleză: OPPOSITIONAL DEFIANT DISORDER Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Grup nominal Hiperonim: Hiponim: Sinonim: Context : „TULBURAREA DE OPOZITIE 1. care nu respecta regulile parintilor legate de orarul mesei. cu frecvente “crize de incapatanare” . creste ca severitate.com/sociologie/psihologie/TULBURAREA-OPOZITIE84161.psihiatriepentrutoti.scritube.5%. care nu respecta regulile parintilor legate de orarul mesei. Sursa contextului: http://www. prieteni Sursa definiţiei: http://www. În DSM IV apare o prevalenta de 2-16%. uneori chiar agresiv. uneori chiar agresiv.php Context : „Copilul cu tulburare de opozitie are urmatoarele trasaturi clinice: un copil cu varsta mai mica de 18 ani (de obicei cu varsta mai mica de 9 ani). Diagnosticul de tulburare de opozitie se stabileste pe anumite criterii bine definite si atunci cand acest comportament opozitionist se permanentizeaza.Epidemiologie    Prevalenta variaza între 1. Diagnosticul de tulburare de opozitie se stabileste pe anumite criterii bine definite si atunci cand acest comportament opozitionist se permanentizeaza. In procesul neurodezvoltarii exista o perioada fiziologica intre varsta de 3 si 5 ani denumita “criza de opozitie”. colegi. educatori. In procesul neurodezvoltarii exista o perioada fiziologica intre varsta de 3 si 5 ani denumita “criza de opozitie”.controlat.9.ro/afectiuni. profesori. Vrsta de debut se considera a fi de 6 ani.

org/wiki/Oppositional_defiant_disorder Definition : Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is described by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) as an ongoing pattern of disobedient.wikipedia. whether intentional or not. sau modifica profund relationarea cu ceilalti (parinti.psihiatriepentrutoti. The most effective way of treating disruptive behavior disorders is behavioral therapies [3] Behavioral therapy for children and adolescents focuses primarily on how problematic thoughts or behaviors may accidentally get "rewarded" within a young person's environment. USA Source : http://en.ca severitate. colegi. These rewards or reinforcements often contribute to an increase in the frequency of these thoughts and . educatori. prieteni).” Sursa contextului: http://www. Definition source: http://en. profesori. of the unwanted behaviors. hostile and defiant behavior toward authority figures which goes beyond the bounds of normal childhood behavior.php Arie de utilizare : medicina Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : OPPOSITIONAL DEFIANT DISORDER ID Language : English ID Country : UK .wikipedia.ro/afectiuni. People who have it may appear very stubborn.org/wiki/Oppositional_defiant_disorder Generic concept: disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: Context: „One of the key factors in the development and maintenance of the negative behaviors associated with oppositional defiant disorder results is reinforcement.

family and academic life.behaviors. Furthermore. cognitive behavioral therapy. and other adults. therapists encourage children and adolescents to try new behaviors and not to allow negative "rewards" to dictate the ways in which they act. However. Context source: http://en.org/wiki/Oppositional_defiant_disorder Context : „All children are oppositional from time to time. Oppositional behavior is often a normal part of development for two to three year olds and early adolescents. defiant. openly uncooperative and hostile behavior becomes a serious concern when it is so frequent and consistent that it stands out when compared with other children of the same age and developmental level and when it affects the child’s social. talk back. treatments for ODD are tailored specifically to the individual child. According to the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. disobey. there is an ongoing pattern of uncooperative. and hostile behavior toward authority figures that seriously interferes with the youngster’s day to day functioning. Other approaches to the treatment of oppositional defiant disorder. and children. family therapy. adolescents. and social skills training. hungry. therapists may work with parents to discontinue ways in which they are unintentionally reinforcing negative behaviors. individual psychotherapy. An approach developed by Russell Barkley uses a parent training model and begins by focusing on positive approaches to increase compliant behaviours. stressed or upset.wikipedia. and different treatments are used for pre-schoolers and adolescents. include parent training programs. In children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). Behavior therapies can be applied to a wide range of psychological symptoms among adults. They may argue. Symptoms of ODD may include: • Frequent temper tantrums • Excessive arguing with adults • Often questioning rules . teachers. In behavioral therapy. particularly when tired. and defy parents.

Termen:SOMNAMBULISM Limba termenului: Română Tara termenului: România . These behaviors must also persist for at least six months. or placing him or her in harmful situations. frequent temper tantrums or angry outbursts. these young people may appear resentful of others and when someone does something they don't like they often take revenge on them. often persistent anger. In order for a child or adolescent to qualify for a diagnosis of ODD these behaviors must cause considerable distress for the family and/or interfere significantly with academic or social functioning. In addition. and are easily annoyed. Children and adolescents with this disorder often annoy others on purpose.org/page. and disregard for authority. blame others for their mistakes.• Active defiance and refusal to comply with adult requests and rules • Deliberate attempts to annoy or upset people • Blaming others for his or her mistakes or misbehavior • Often being touchy or easily annoyed by others • Frequent anger and resentment • Mean and hateful talking when upset • Spiteful attitude and revenge seeking Context source: http://aacap. Interference might take the form of preventing the child or adolescent from learning school material or making friends. Designation status : Official 74.ww?name=Children+with+Oppositional+ Defiant+Disorder&section=Facts+for+Families Area of use: Medicine Commentary : Common features of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) include excessive.

La fel. o stare alternanta a constientei. fie in timpul perioadelor de somn fara miscare rapida a ochilor (NREM). un orar al somnului neregulat. neuroleptice.ro/somnambulismul Definiţie : Somnambulismul sau mersul in somn este o tulburare de somn care se incadreaza in cadrul parasomniilor. antidepresive. tranchilizante majore. Corespondent engleză: SLEEPWALKING DISORDER Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: Hiponim: Sinonim: Context : „Studiile au aratat ca somnabulismul apare mai frecvent la gemenii monozigoti si cu o frecventa de 10 ori mai mare in cazul in care in familie este o ruda de gradul intai care are un istoric de somnambulism. Parasomniile reprezinta tulburari ale somnului caracterizate prin evenimente comportamentale si fiziologice anormale ce apar in asociere cu somnul si cu etapele acestuia. ca cele din clasa sedativelor hipnotice (droguri inductoare de somn). antihistaminice. adica inseamna activarea sistemelor fiziologice la ore inadecvate pe parcursul ciclului somn. droguri.veghe.romedic. stimulante. deficit de magneziu. medicamente impotriva bolii Parkinson.Sursa : http://www. Poate aparea in relatie cu unele stari fiziologice ca de exemplu in timpul sarcinii si a menstruatiei. Toate aceste fenomene pot aparea fie in timpul somnului cu miscare rapida a ochilor (REM). in cazul cansumului de anumite substante: alcool. in care fenomenele de somn si veghe sunt combinate.ro/somnambulismul. Mersul in somn poate apare in caz de stres. unele antibiotice. febra. insomnie. anticonvulsivante. se considera ca unele afectiuni medicale pot duce la aparitia somnambulismului ca de exemplu in: . sau in orice perioada a somnului fara a se putea specifica cu exactitate.romedic. Sursa definiţiei: http://www. In cazul consumului de medicamente.

refluxul gastroesofagian. iar frecventa de aparitie intre sexe este relative egala. potrivit unui studiu recent. citat intr-un comunicat al organizatorilor. dar nefiind exclusa intalnirea afectiunii la varsta adulta. riscul de a se rani pe sine sau alte persoane creste. de la Spitalul Universitar din Zurich.romedic. Somnambulii se pot plimba dezbracati. hipertiroidie. El apare uneori ca . care recomanda totusi luarea unor masuri pentru a evita ranirile. In plus. Studiul a fost realizat de cercetatorii elvetieni si prezentat luni. Se pare ca nu este cunoscuta o predilectie anume pentru o anumita rasa. a afirmat Claudio Bassetti.aritmii. febra. tulburari psihice ca stresul post traumatic. Somnambulismul este mult mai frecvent decat se credea. avea raporturi sexuale sau chiar isi pot viola partenerul in somn. iar la femei este mai frecvent mancatul in timpul somnului (date culese in urma analizarii comportamentelor in timpul esantioanelor clinice) . migrene. Mai pot aparea comportamente sexuale deviante. Cauzele somnambulismului nu sunt cunoscute.romedic. asigura dl Bassetti. la Societatea Europeana de Neurologie. iar unul din trei s-a ranit deja sau a ranit pe altcineva in timpul plimbarilor nocturne. Se observa o aparitie mai frecventa a episoadelor in care intalnim violenta la barbati. la varsta adulta. potrivit specialistului. In copilarie apare mai frecvent la femei.” Sursa contextului: http://www. iar la maturitate la barbati. atacul de panica. Nu toti somnambulii fac rau. la Berlin.ro/somnambulismul Context : „Somnambulismul apare mai frecvent in timpul copilariei si in perioada preadolescenta cu un varf al incidentei maxime in jurul varstei de 11-12 ani.ro/somnambulismul Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Intre 2% si 4% dintre europenii adulti sunt somnambuli Intre 2% si 4% dintre adultii din Europa sunt somnambuli.” Sursa contextului: http://www.

Between 10 and 30% of children have had at least one episode of sleepwalking.webmd.com/articole/somnambulism Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : SLEEPWALKING DISORDER ID Language : English ID Country : UK . The sleepwalker is unable to respond during the event and does not remember sleepwalking. Sleepwalking disorder is seen in only 1– 5% of children and occurs more frequently in boys.com/sleep-disorders/guide/sleepwalking-causes Definition : Sleepwalking is a sleep disorder that causes people to get up and walk during their sleep. mai mult http://www. USA Source : http://www. in acest caz.com/sleep-disorders/guide/sleepwalking- . In some cases.webmd. Definition source: http://www. with the first episodes usually between the ages of four and eight years. Context causes Context : „Sleepwalking can occur at any age but is most common in children. cum ar fi Parkinson sau epilepsia. The peak of sleepwalking behavior occurs at about 12 years of age.com/sleep-disorders/guide/sleepwalking Generic concept : disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: Context: „Episodes of sleepwalking typically occur when a person is in the deep stages of sleep. Adults who sleepwalk typically have source: http://www.ziare.webmd.urmare a unor boli. medicamentele pot fi eficiente. sleepwalking is associated with incoherent talking.

or dissociative states. si dezvolta anxietate extrema in situatii sociale . Termen:TULBURARE DE PERSONALITATE DE TIP SCHIZOTIPAL Limba termenului: Română Tara termenului: România Sursa : http://www. panic attack. such as multiple personality disorder Designation status : Official 75.sfatulmedicului.com/Py-Z/Sleepwalking-disorder.5%. for example. Sleepwalking events occur in approximately 1–7% of adults while sleepwalking disorder occurs in about 0.minddisorders. Context source http://www. Aceste persoane au tendinta mai mult de a se inchide in sine decat de a interactiona cu ceilalti.a history of sleepwalking that stems back to childhood.html Area of use: Medicine Commentary : Medical conditions that have been linked to sleepwalking include: • Arrhythmias (abnormal heart rhythms) • Fever • Gastroesophageal reflux (food or liquid regurgitating from the stomach into the food pipe) • Nighttime asthma • Nighttime seizures (convulsions) • • Obstructive sleep apnea (condition in which breathing stops temporarily while sleeping) Psychiatric disorders.ro/Schizofrenia-si-alte-tulburari-psihice/ tulburarea-de-personalitate-schizotipala_92 Definiţie : Tulburarea de personalitate schizotipala este o conditie serioasa in care pacientul are foarte putin sau deloc relatii apropiate cu semenii sai. posttraumatic stress disorder.

Corespondent engleză: SCHIZOID PERSONALITY DISORDER Concept generic: boala Categoria gramaticala : Grup nominal Hiperonim: Hiponim: Sinonim: Context : „mod clasic. deseori asociata cu lipsa increderii in ceilalti si mai degraba cu inabilitatea de a comunica. In adolescenta. Ei prezinta anxietate sociala.credinta in abilitati speciale. actiunile si emotiile altor oameni.ro/Schizofrenia-si-alte-tulburari- psihice/tulburarea-de-personalitate-schizotipala_92. cum ar fi telepatia .sfatulmedicului. semnele personalitatii schizotipale pot debuta ca preferinte pentru activitati solitare sau prezenta unui grad inalt de anxietate sociala.interpretarea incorecta a evenimentelor externe ca avand o semnificatie personala . cum ar fi credinta in extraterestrii sau in “al saselea simt”. Deseori au idei neobisnuite. Uneori cred ca pot influenta in mod magic gandurile. persoanele cu personalitate schizotipala sunt niste singuratici care au putine relatii apropiate sau nu au deloc. Simptomele tulburarii de personalitate schizotipala includ: . si vorbesc fara sfarsit despre subiecte tangente cu discutiile in desfasurare. credinte si comportamente ciudate . Deseori persoanele cu personalitate schizotipala au un mod particular de a vorbi. Ei se vad ca straini si singuratici.Sursa definiţiei: http://www. Se pot imbraca intr-un mod particular si au un mod ciudat de a vedea lumea din jurul lor. Copilul poate avea rezultate scolare slabe sau sa nu fie integrat in grupul de colegi si din acest motiv devine deseori subiect al ironiei si agresivitatii celorlalti. si aceasta izolare le provoaca durere pe masura ce se desprind si mai mult de relatiile cu ceilalti si se retrag fata de lumea exterioara.gandire. decat cu o imagine de sine negativa.

transpiratie.distimie.alterari perceptuale. o stare mintala severa caracterizata prin pierderea contactului cu realitatea.suferi de depresie majora .a dezvolta schizofrenie .ro/Schizofrenia-si-alte-tulburaripsihice/tulburarea-de-personalitate-schizotipala_92 Context : „Persoanele cu personalitate schizotipala au risc crescut de: ..sfatulmedicului. Ambele afectiuni. vorbire vaga si cu tendinta de a devia de la subiect . in unele cazuri iluzii somatice incluzand “dureri fantoma” sau alte distorsiuni ale simtului tactil . cu tulburarea de personalitate schizoida in capatul mai usor si cu schizofrenia in cel mai sever.suspiciune sau idei paranoide .tulburare de anxietate. o forma de depresie usoara care dureaza mai mult de doi ani .fobie sociala. apartin tulburarilor numite general “spectrul schizofrenic”. caracterizata prin izbucniri de teama asociata cu simptome somatice (tahicardie. care se caracterizeaza prin psihoza intensa.vorbire idiosincretica. frecvente si intense ca in cazul schizofreniei.tulburarea de panica.anxietate sociala excesiva sau persistenta care nu se amelioreaza in timp.lipsa prietenilor apropiati in afara membrilor familiei . caracterizata prin anxietate coplesitoare si autoconstientizare excesiva in . impreuna cu tulburarea de personalitate schizoida. Personalitatea schizotipala poate fi usor confundata cu schizofrenia. caracterizata prin ingrijorari prelungite . senzatie de moarte iminenta) . Persoanele cu personalitate schizotipala pot avea episoade psihotice scurte cu delir si halucinatii. Personalitatea schizotipala cade in mijlocul acestui spectru.” Sursa contextului: http://www. dar care nu sunt atat de pronuntate.aplatizare emotionala sau raspunsuri emotionale inadecvate .

wikipedia. USA Source : http://en.ro/Schizofrenia-si-alte-tulburaripsihice/tulburarea-de-personalitate-schizotipala_92 Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Deoarece personalitatea tinde sa devina de neschimbat pe masura ce omul inainteaza in varsta. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : SCHIZOID PERSONALITY DISORDER ID Language : English ID Country : UK . Definition source: http://en. sometimes sexually apathetic.tulburarea de personalitate evitanta caracterizata printr-un pattern pervaziv de inhibitie sociala si sentimente de inadaptare Sursa contextului: http://www. a tendency towards a solitary lifestyle.[1] SPD is not the same as schizophrenia. e bine ca pacientul sa solicite tratament pentru tulburarea de personalitate cat mai curand posibil. Persoanele din jurul pacientului pot sugera in mod delicat ca acesta sa se prezinte la medic.situatii sociale obisnuite . Pacientii cu personalitate schizotipala cel mai probabil solicita tratament doar indemnati de prieteni sau rude. secretiveness.org/wiki/Schizoid_personality_disorder Definition : Schizoid personality disorder (SPD) is a personality disorder characterized by a lack of interest in social relationships.org/wiki/Schizoid_personality_disorder Generic concept : disease .sfatulmedicului. and emotional coldness.wikipedia. although they share some similar characteristics such as detachment or blunted affect and there is increased prevalence of the disorder in families with schizophrenia. pentru inceput la medicul de familie sau direct la psihiatru.

considering them instead as simultaneously present as varying potentials in schizoid individuals. For Kretschmer the majority of schizoids are not either oversensitive or cold. Since then. and secondly. firstly.Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: Context: „The term schizoid was coined in 1908 by Eugen Bleuler to designate a natural human tendency to direct attention toward one's inner life and away from the external world. kindliness. reservedness. pliability. Bleuler also labeled the exaggeration of this tendency the “schizoid personality”. In these characteristics one can see the precursors of the DSM-IV division of schizoid character into three distinct personality disorders. the dynamic psychiatry tradition which includes the exploration of covert or unconscious motivation and character structure as elaborated by classic psychoanalysis and object-relations theory. and eccentricity 2. a concept akin to introversion in that it was not viewed in terms of psychopathology. but they are oversensitive and cold “at the same time” in quite different relative . seriousness. nervousness. excitability. and fondness of nature and books 3. and cold emotional attitudes. and describable symptoms which finds its clearest exposition in the DSM-IV revised. the descriptive psychiatry tradition which focuses on overtly observable. though Kretschmer himself did not conceive of separating these behaviours to the point of radical isolation. honesty. indifference. shyness with feelings. quietness. timidity. studies on the schizoid personality have developed along two separate paths. unsociability. sensitivity. silence. The descriptive tradition began in Ernst Kretschmer’s (1925) portrayal of observable schizoid behaviours which he organized into three groups of characteristics: 1. behavioral.

firstly. began with observations by Eugen Bleuler (1924) who observed that the schizoid person and schizoid pathology were not things to be set apart.proportions. the ability to mobilize self-preservative defenses and self-reliance.org/wiki/Schizoid_personality_disorder Context : „In response to stress. and Avoidant) often co-occur with this disorder” Context source: http://www. individuals with this disorder may experience very brief psychotic episodes (lasting minutes to hours). secondly. Individuals with this disorder are at increased risk for Major Depressive Disorder. Context source: http://en.html Area of use: Medicine Commentary : There is some evidence to suggest that there is an increased prevalence of schizoid personality disorder in relatives of people with schizophrenia or schizotypal personality disorder. D. this disorder may actually develop into Delusional Disorder or Schizophrenia. The second path. most notably from writers Nannarello (1953). the need to regulate interpersonal distance as a central focus of concern.mentalhealth. and the defensive need for distance. Schizoid. Winnicott (1965).[51] Following Fairbairn. In 1940 W. with a tendency to move along these dimensions from one behavior to the other. Here Fairbairn delineated four central schizoid themes. Other Personality Disorders (especially Schizotypal.wikipedia. that of dynamic psychiatry. If the psychotic episode lasts longer. thirdly a pervasive tension between the anxiety-laden need for attachment. the dynamic psychiatry tradition has continued to produce rich explorations on the schizoid character. Unloving or neglectful parenting is hypothesized to play a role Designation status : Official . Laing (1960). R. and fourthly an overvaluation of the inner world at the expense of the outer world. Fairbairn presented his seminal work on the schizoid personality in which most of what is known today about schizoid phenomena can be found.com/dis/p20-pe02. which manifests in observable behavior as indifference.

In behavioral therapy. Oppositional behavior is often a normal part of development for two to three year olds and early adolescents. therapists may work with parents to discontinue ways in which they are unintentionally reinforcing negative behaviors.Other approaches to the treatment of oppositional defiant disorder.An approach developed by Russell Barkley uses a parent training model and begins by focusing on positive approaches to increase compliant behaviours. Context source: http://en.Context:ÄOne of the key factors in the development and maintenance of the negative behaviors associated with oppositional defiant disorder results is reinforcement. family therapy. whether intentional or not. and different treatments are used for pre-schoolers and adolescents. and children. disobey. of the unwanted behaviors. stressed or upset. These rewards or reinforcements often contribute to an increase in the frequency of these thoughts and behaviors. treatments for ODD are tailored specifically to the individual child. talk back.org/wiki/Oppositional_defiant_disorder Context : ÄAll children are oppositional from time to time.According to the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. therapists encourage children and adolescents to try new behaviors and not to allow negative "rewards" to dictate the ways in which they act. adolescents.wikipedia. They may argue. include parent training programs. However. and defy parents. openly uncooperative and hostile behavior becomes a serious concern when it is so frequent and consistent that it stands out when compared with other children of the same age and developmental level . teachers. Behavior therapies can be applied to a wide range of psychological symptoms among adults. individual psychotherapy. and social skills training. cognitive behavioral therapy. The most effective way of treating disruptive behavior disorders is behavioral therapies [3] Behavioral therapy for children and adolescents focuses primarily on how problematic thoughts or behaviors may accidentally get "rewarded" within a young person's environment. and other adults. particularly when tired. hungry. Furthermore.

Interference might take the . Children and adolescents with this disorder often annoy others on purpose. In children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). there is an ongoing pattern of uncooperative.ww?name=Children+with+Oppositional+Defiant+Disorder &section=Facts+for+Families Area of use:Medicine Commentary :Common features of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) include excessive. and are easily annoyed. often persistent anger. family and academic life.and when it affects the child¶s social. In order for a child or adolescent to qualify for a diagnosis of ODD these behaviors must cause considerable distress for the family and/or interfere significantly with academic or social functioning. Symptoms of ODD may include: y y y y y y y y y y Frequent temper tantrums Excessive arguing with adults Often questioning rules Active defiance and refusal to comply with adult requests and rules Deliberate attempts to annoy or upset people Blaming others for his or her mistakes or misbehavior Often being touchy or easily annoyed by others Frequent anger and resentment Mean and hateful talking when upset Spiteful attitude and revenge seeking Context source:http://aacap. In addition. defiant. frequent temper tantrums or angry outbursts. and disregard for authority. and hostile behavior toward authority figures that seriously interferes with the youngster¶s day to day functioning.org/page. blame others for their mistakes. these young people may appear resentful of others and when someone does something they don't like they often take revenge on them.

in care fenomenele de somn si veghe sunt combinate. fie in timpul perioadelor de somn fara miscare rapida a ochilor (NREM). Parasomniile reprezinta tulburari ale somnului caracterizate prin evenimente comportamentale si fiziologice anormale ce apar in asociere cu somnul si cu etapele acestuia. Termen:SOMNAMBULISM Limba termenului: Român Tara termenului: România Sursa : http://www. Toate aceste fenomene pot aparea fie in timpul somnului cu miscare rapida a ochilor (REM). sau in orice perioada a somnului fara a se putea specifica cu exactitate. o stare alternanta a constientei.veghe. or placing him or her in harmful situations. Corespondent englez :SLEEPWALKING DISORDER Concept generic:boala Categoria gramaticala : Substantiv Hiperonim: Hiponim: Sinonim: Context : ÄStudiile au aratat ca somnabulismul apare mai frecvent la gemenii monozigoti si cu o frecventa de 10 ori mai mare in cazul in care in familie este o ruda de .ro/somnambulismul Defini ie :Somnambulismul sau mersul in somn este o tulburare de somn care se incadreaza in cadrul parasomniilor.romedic. Designation status : Official 74. These behaviors must also persist for at least six months.ro/somnambulismul. Sursa defini iei:http://www. adica inseamna activarea sistemelor fiziologice la ore inadecvate pe parcursul ciclului somn.romedic.form of preventing the child or adolescent from learning school material or making friends.

febra. stimulante. hipertiroidie. in cazul cansumului de anumite substante: alcool. medicamente impotriva bolii Parkinson. tranchilizante majore. Mersul in somn poate apare in caz de stres. anticonvulsivante.ro/somnambulismul Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu:Intre 2% si 4% dintre europenii adulti sunt somnambuli Intre 2% si 4% dintre adultii din Europa sunt somnambuli. neuroleptice. unele antibiotice.romedic. la Berlin. Studiul a fost realizat de cercetatorii elvetieni si prezentat luni. se considera ca unele afectiuni medicale pot duce la aparitia somnambulismului ca de exemplu in: aritmii. refluxul gastroesofagian. insomnie. potrivit unui studiu recent.´ Sursa contextului: http://www. ca cele din clasa sedativelor hipnotice (droguri inductoare de somn). tulburari psihice ca stresul posttraumatic.ro/somnambulismul Context : ÄSomnambulismul apare mai frecvent in timpul copilariei si in perioada preadolescenta cu un varf al incidentei maxime in jurul varstei de 11-12 ani. un orar al somnului neregulat. atacul de panica. droguri. Poate aparea in relatie cu unele stari fiziologice ca de exemplu in timpul sarcinii si a menstruatiei.gradul intai care are un istoric de somnambulism. iar frecventa de aparitie intre sexe este relative egala. la Societatea Europeana de Neurologie. antidepresive. iar la maturitate la barbati. iar unul din trei s-a ranit deja sau a ranit pe altcineva in timpul plimbarilor nocturne.romedic. Se observa o aparitie mai frecventa a episoadelor in care intalnim violenta la barbati. La fel. In cazul consumului de medicamente. deficit de magneziu. migrene. In copilarie apare mai frecvent la femei. antihistaminice. iar la femei este mai frecvent mancatul in timpul somnului (date culese in urma analizarii comportamentelor in timpul esantioanelor clinice) .´ Sursa contextului: http://www. dar nefiind exclusa intalnirea afectiunii la varsta adulta. . Se pare ca nu este cunoscuta o predilectie anume pentru o anumita rasa. febra.

In plus. la varsta adulta. medicamentele pot fi eficiente. de la Spitalul Universitar din Zurich. care recomanda totusi luarea unor masuri pentru a evita ranirile. avea raporturi sexuale sau chiar isi pot viola partenerul in somn. in acest caz.com/sleep-disorders/guide/sleepwalking Generic concept :disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: Context:ÄEpisodes of sleepwalking typically occur when a person is in the deep stages of sleep. USA Source : http://www. Somnambulii se pot plimba dezbracati.com/sleep-disorders/guide/sleepwalking-causes Definition : Sleepwalking is a sleep disorder that causes people to get up and walk during their sleep. Nu toti somnambulii fac rau.webmd. a afirmat Claudio Bassetti. El apare uneori ca urmare a unor boli. citat intr-un comunicat al organizatorilor. cum ar fi Parkinson sau epilepsia. riscul de a se rani pe sine sau alte persoane creste. asigura dl Bassetti. Mai pot aparea comportamente sexuale deviante. Definition source:http://www.ziare.Somnambulismul este mult mai frecvent decat se credea. potrivit specialistului.webmd.com/articole/somnambulism Statutul desemnarii : Oficial Term : SLEEPWALKING DISORDER ID Language : English ID Country : UK . The sleepwalker is unable to respond during the event and does not . Cauzele somnambulismului nu sunt cunoscute. mai multhttp://www.

sleepwalking is associated with incoherent talking. for example. panic attack. Sleepwalking events occur in approximately 1±7% of adults while sleepwalking disorder occurs in about 0. The peak of sleepwalking behavior occurs at about 12 years of age. posttraumatic stress disorder. In some cases.5%. Context source http://www.webmd. with the first episodes usually between the ages of four and eight years. or dissociative states.com/Py-Z/Sleepwalking-disorder.minddisorders.com/sleep-disorders/guide/sleepwalking- Arrhythmias (abnormal heart rhythms) Fever Gastroesophageal reflux (food or liquid regurgitating from the stomach into the food pipe) Nighttime asthma Nighttime seizures (convulsions) Obstructive sleep apnea (condition in which breathing stops temporarily while sleeping) Psychiatric disorders.html Area of use:Medicine Commentary :Medical conditions that have been linked to sleepwalking include: y y y source: http://www. Sleepwalking disorder is seen in only 1± 5% of children and occurs more frequently in boys. Context causes Context : ÄSleepwalking can occur at any age but is most common in children. Between 10 and 30% of children have had at least one episode of sleepwalking.remember sleepwalking. such as multiple personality disorder Designation status : Official y y y y . Adults who sleepwalk typically have a history of sleepwalking that stems back to childhood.

sfatulmedicului.ro/Schizofrenia-si-alte-tulburaripsihice/tulburarea-de-personalitate-schizotipala_92. si dezvolta anxietate extrema in situatii sociale Sursa defini iei:http://www. Ei prezinta anxietate sociala. Aceste persoane au tendinta mai mult de a se inchide in sine decat de a interactiona cu ceilalti.ro/Schizofrenia-si-alte-tulburari-psihice/ tulburarea-de-personalitate-schizotipala_92 Defini ie :Tulburarea de personalitate schizotipala este o conditie serioasa in care pacientul are foarte putin sau deloc relatii apropiate cu semenii sai. Termen:TULBURARE DE PERSONALITATE DE TIP SCHIZOTIPAL Limba termenului: Român Tara termenului: România Sursa :http://www.75. Corespondent englez :SCHIZOID PERSONALITY DISORDER Concept generic:boala Categoria gramaticala : Grup nominal Hiperonim: Hiponim: Sinonim: Context : Ämod clasic. deseori asociata cu lipsa increderii in ceilalti si mai degraba cu inabilitatea de a comunica. si aceasta izolare le provoaca durere pe masura ce se desprind si mai mult de relatiile cu ceilalti si se retrag fata de lumea exterioara. decat cu o imagine de sine negativa.sfatulmedicului. persoanele cu personalitate schizotipala sunt niste singuratici care au putine relatii apropiate sau nu au deloc. Ei se vad ca straini si singuratici. Deseori persoanele cu personalitate schizotipala au un mod particular de a vorbi. Se pot imbraca intr-un mod particular si au un mod . si vorbesc fara sfarsit despre subiecte tangente cu discutiile in desfasurare.

actiunile si emotiile altor oameni. care se caracterizeaza prin psihoza intensa.ciudat de a vedea lumea din jurul lor. . semnele personalitatii schizotipale pot debuta ca preferinte pentru activitati solitare sau prezenta unui grad inalt de anxietate sociala. Copilul poate avea rezultate scolare slabe sau sa nu fie integrat in grupul de colegi si din acest motiv devine deseori subiect al ironiei si agresivitatii celorlalti.anxietate sociala excesiva sau persistenta care nu se amelioreaza in timp. Simptomele tulburarii de personalitate schizotipala includ: .suspiciune sau idei paranoide . Personalitatea schizotipala poate fi usor confundata cu schizofrenia. apartin tulburarilor numite general ³spectrul schizofrenic´. In adolescenta.aplatizare emotionala sau raspunsuri emotionale inadecvate .credinta in abilitati speciale. cum ar fi telepatia . credinte si comportamente ciudate . frecvente si intense ca in cazul schizofreniei. vorbire vaga si cu tendinta de a devia de la subiect . Ambele afectiuni. in unele cazuri iluzii somatice incluzand ³dureri fantoma´ sau alte distorsiuni ale simtului tactil . dar care nu sunt atat de pronuntate.lipsa prietenilor apropiati in afara membrilor familiei . o stare mintala severa caracterizata prin pierderea contactului cu realitatea.interpretarea incorecta a evenimentelor externe ca avand o semnificatie personala . Persoanele cu personalitate schizotipala pot avea episoade psihotice scurte cu delir si halucinatii. Uneori cred ca pot influenta in mod magic gandurile. Deseori au idei neobisnuite. impreuna cu tulburarea de personalitate schizoida.alterari perceptuale. cum ar fi credinta in extraterestrii sau in ³al saselea simt´.gandire.vorbire idiosincretica.

e bine ca pacientul sa solicite tratament pentru tulburarea de personalitate cat mai curand posibil. Persoanele din jurul pacientului pot sugera in mod delicat ca acesta sa se prezinte la medic.tulburarea de personalitate evitanta caracterizata printr-un pattern pervaziv de inhibitie sociala si sentimente de inadaptare Sursa contextului:http://www.suferi de depresie majora .tulburare de anxietate.ro/Schizofrenia-si-alte-tulburaripsihice/tulburarea-de-personalitate-schizotipala_92 Arie de utilizare : medicina Comentariu: Deoarece personalitatea tinde sa devina de neschimbat pe masura ce omul inainteaza in varsta. senzatie de moarte iminenta) . cu tulburarea de personalitate schizoida in capatul mai usor si cu schizofrenia in cel mai sever.sfatulmedicului. o forma de depresie usoara care dureaza mai mult de doi ani .Pacientii cu personalitate schizotipala cel mai probabil solicita tratament doar indemnati de prieteni sau rude. Statutul desemnarii : Oficial . pentru inceput la medicul de familie sau direct la psihiatru.fobie sociala.Personalitatea schizotipala cade in mijlocul acestui spectru. caracterizata prin anxietate coplesitoare si autoconstientizare excesiva in situatii sociale obisnuite .tulburarea de panica.distimie.ro/Schizofrenia-si-alte-tulburaripsihice/tulburarea-de-personalitate-schizotipala_92 Context : ÄPersoanele cu personalitate schizotipala au risc crescut de: . caracterizata prin ingrijorari prelungite . caracterizata prin izbucniri de teama asociata cu simptome somatice (tahicardie.sfatulmedicului.a dezvolta schizofrenie . transpiratie.´ Sursa contextului:http://www.

org/wiki/Schizoid_personality_disorder Definition :Schizoid personality disorder (SPD) is a personality disorder characterized by a lack of interest in social relationships. a tendency towards a solitary lifestyle. and describable symptoms which finds its clearest exposition in . USA Source :http://en.wikipedia. secretiveness. a concept akin to introversion in that it was not viewed in terms of psychopathology.org/wiki/Schizoid_personality_disorder Generic concept :disease Grammatical category: noun Hyperonym: Hyponim: Synonym: Context:ÄThe term schizoid was coined in 1908 by Eugen Bleuler to designate a natural human tendency to direct attention toward one's inner life and away from the external world. and emotional coldness.wikipedia. the descriptive psychiatry tradition which focuses on overtly observable.Term : SCHIZOID PERSONALITY DISORDER ID Language : English ID Country : UK . behavioral.[1] SPD is not the same as schizophrenia. sometimes sexually apathetic. studies on the schizoid personality have developed along two separate paths. Definition source: http://en.Since then. firstly. Bleuler also labeled the exaggeration of this tendency the ³schizoid personality´. although they share some similar characteristics such as detachment or blunted affect and there is increased prevalence of the disorder in families with schizophrenia.

secondly. nervousness. firstly. sensitivity. Fairbairn presented his seminal work on the schizoid personality in which most of what is known today about schizoid phenomena can be found. and eccentricity 2. began with observations by Eugen Bleuler (1924) who observed that the schizoid person and schizoid pathology were not things to be set apart. that of dynamic psychiatry. the need to regulate interpersonal distance as a central focus of concern. silence.The second path. indifference. and fourthly an overvaluation of the . honesty. and secondly. but they are oversensitive and cold ³at the same time´ in quite different relative proportions. though Kretschmer himself did not conceive of separating these behaviours to the point of radical isolation. considering them instead as simultaneously present as varying potentials in schizoid individuals. the ability to mobilize self-preservative defenses and self-reliance. timidity. kindliness. pliability. quietness. and fondness of nature and books 3. The descriptive tradition began in Ernst Kretschmer¶s (1925) portrayal of observable schizoid behaviours which he organized into three groups of characteristics: 1. R. D. In these characteristics one can see the precursors of the DSM-IV division of schizoid character into three distinct personality disorders. reservedness. seriousness.the DSM-IV revised. shyness with feelings. the dynamic psychiatry tradition which includes the exploration of covert or unconscious motivation and character structure as elaborated by classic psychoanalysis and object-relations theory. and the defensive need for distance. thirdly a pervasive tension between the anxiety-laden need for attachment. In 1940 W. with a tendency to move along these dimensions from one behavior to the other. excitability. unsociability. For Kretschmer the majority of schizoids are not either oversensitive or cold. and cold emotional attitudes. Here Fairbairn delineated four central schizoid themes. which manifests in observable behavior as indifference.

Winnicott (1965). individuals with this disorder may experience very brief psychotic episodes (lasting minutes to hours).mentalhealth.html Area of use:Medicine Commentary :There is some evidence to suggest that there is an increased prevalence of schizoid personality disorder in relatives of people with schizophrenia or schizotypal personality disorder. and Avoidant) often co-occur with this disorder´ Context source: http://www. Other Personality Disorders (especially Schizotypal. this disorder may actually develop into Delusional Disorder or Schizophrenia. Individuals with this disorder are at increased risk for Major Depressive Disorder. Unloving or neglectful parenting is hypothesized to play a role Designation status : Official .[51] Following Fairbairn. Laing (1960).com/dis/p20-pe02. Schizoid.org/wiki/Schizoid_personality_disorder Context : ÄIn response to stress. the dynamic psychiatry tradition has continued to produce rich explorations on the schizoid character.wikipedia.inner world at the expense of the outer world. Context source: http://en. If the psychotic episode lasts longer. most notably from writers Nannarello (1953).

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