SDH Concepts & Principle Principle of DWDM, Synchronization DLC

SDH Concepts And Principle Introduction It is an international standard networking principle and a multiplexing method. The name of hierarchy has been taken from the multiplexing method which is synchronous by nature. The evolution of this system will assist in improving the economy of operability and reliability of a digital network. 1. Historical Overview In February 1988, an agreement was reached at CCITT (now ITU-TS) study group XVIII in Seoul, on set of recommendations, for a synchronous digital hierarchy representing a single world wide standard for transporting the digital signal. These recommendations G-707, G-708, G-709 cover the functional characteristic of the network node interface, i.e. the bit rates and format of the signal passing over the Network Node Interface (NNI). For smooth transformation from existing PDH, it has to accommodate the three different country standards of PDH developed over a time period. The different standards of PDH are given in Fig.1. The first attempt to formulate standards for Optical Transmission started in U.S.A. as SONET (Synchronous Optical Network). The aim of these standards was to simplify interconnection between network operators by allowing interconnection of equipment from different vendors to the extent that compatibility could be achieved. It was achieved by SDH in 1990, when the CCITT accepted the recommendations for physical layer network interface. The SONET hierarchy from 52 Mbit per second rate onwards was accepted for SDH hierarchy (Fig.1). 2. Merits of SDH (i) Simplified multiplexing/demultiplexing techniques. (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) Direct access to lower speed tributaries, without need to multiplex/demultiplex the entire high speed signal. Enhanced operations, provisioning capabilities. Administration, Maintenance and

Easy growth to higher bit rates in step with evolution of transmission technology. Capable of transporting existing PDH signals. Capable of transporting future broadband (ATM) channel bit rates. Capable of operating in a multi-vendor and multi-operator environment.


Advantages (i) Multi-vendor environment (mid span meet) : Prior to 1988 international agreement on SDH all vendors used proprietary nonstandard techniques for transporting information on fibre. The only way to interconnect was to convert to the copper transmission standards (G702/703/704). The cost and complexity levels were very high. (ii) Synchronous networking : SDH supports multi-point or hub configurations whereas, asynchronous networking only supports point-to-point configurations. Enhanced OAM&P : The telecoms need the ability to administer, surveil, provision, and control the network from a central location. Positioning the network for transport on new services : LAN to LAN, HDTV, interactive multimedia, video conferencing. HUB : A hub is an intermediate site from which traffic is distributed to 3 or more spur. It allows the nodes to communicate as an angle network, thus reducing the back-to-back multiplexing and demultiplexing.

(iii) (iv) (v)

4. (i)

S.D.H. Evolution S.D.H. evolution is possible because of the following factors : Fibre Optic Bandwidth : The bandwidth in Optical Fibre can be increased and there is no limit for it. This gives a great advantage for using SDH. Technical Sophistication : Although, SDH circuitary is highly complicated, it is possible to have such circuitary because of VLSI technique which is also very cost effective. Intelligence : The availability of cheaper memory opens new possibilities. Customer Service Needs : The requirement of the customer with respect to different bandwidth requirements could be easily met without much additional equipment. The different services it supports are : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Low/High speed data. Voice Interconnection of LAN Computer links Feature services like H.D.T.V. Broadband ISDN transport (ATM transport)


(iii) (iv)


S.D.H. Standards The S.D.H. standards exploit one common characteristic of all PDH networks namely 125 micro seconds duration, i.e. sampling rate of audio signals (time for 1 byte in 64 k bit per second). This is the time for one frame of SDH. The frame structure of the SDH is represented using matrix of rows in byte units as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. As the speed increases, the number of bits increases and the single line is insufficient to show the information on Frame structure. Therefore, this representation method is adopted. How the bits are transmitted on the line is indicated on the top of Fig.2. The Frame structure contains 9 rows and number of columns depending upon synchronous transfer mode level (STM). In STM-1, there are 9 rows and 270 columns. The reason for 9 rows arranged in every 125 micro seconds is as follows : For 1.544 Mbit PDH signal (North America and Japan Standard), there are 25 bytes in 125 micro second and for 2.048 Mbit per second signal, there are 32 bytes in 125 micro second. Taking some additional bytes for supervisory purposes, 27 bytes can be allotted for holding 1.544 Mbit per second signal, i.e. 9 rows x 3 columns. Similarly, for 2.048 Mbit per second signal, 36 bytes are allotted in 125 micro seconds, i.e. 9 rows x 4 columns. Therefore, it could be said 9 rows are matched to both hierarchies. A typical STM-1 frame is shown in Fig. 3. Earlier this was the basic rate but at present STM-0 which is just 1/3rd of STM-1, i.e. 51.840 Mbit per second has been accepted by CCITT. In STM-1 as in Fig.3 the first 9 rows and 9 columns accommodate Section Overhead (SOH) and 9 rows x 261 columns accommodates the main information called pay load. The interface speed of the STM-1 can be calculated as follows : (270 columns x 9 rows x 8 bits x 1/125 s) = 155.52 Mbps.

The STM-0 contains just 1/3rd of the STM-1, i.e. 9 rows x 90 columns out of that 9 rows x 3 columns consist of section overhead and 9 rows x 87 columns consist of pay load. The STM-0 structure was accepted so that the radio and satellite can use this bit rate, i.e. 51.840 Mbit/s across their section. The different SDH level as per G-707 recommendations is as given in Fig.4. Principles of SDH • SDH defines a number of “Containers”, each corresponding to an existing plesiochronous rate. • • Each container has a “Path Overhead” added to it – POH provides network management capability. Container plus POH form a “Virtual Container”.

Justification Control Bytes (CC and C’). Variations accommodated by use of a Pointer – points to beginning of VC.. (ii) Container The first entry point of the PDH signal is the container in which the signal is prepared so that it can enter into the next stage. – pointer may be incremented or decremented. The additional bytes added are fixed stuff bytes (R). SOH bytes provide communication channels to cater for : – OA&M facilities. Justification control bits (C-1. Delays associated with a transmission link may vary slightly with time–causing location of VC within the STM–1 frame to move. more network management capability is added to form the “Section Overhead”. – protection switching. In container-3. When STM–1 payload is full. • • • • 6.• • • All equipment is synchronised to a national clock. Justification Opportunity bytes (s). – section performance – frame alignment – other functions.709 defines different combinations of VCs which can be accommodated in the “payload” of an STM–1 frame. i. SOH remains with payload for the fibre section between synchronous multiplexers.048 Mbit/s signal. (i) Basic Definitions Synchronous Transport Module This is the information structure used to support information pay load and over head information field organised in a block frame structure which repeats every 125 micro seconds. In container (container-I) the signal speed is increased from 32 bytes to 34 bytes in the case of 2. – user channels. C-2) and Justification opportunity bits (S-1. virtual container.e. S-2).e.368 Mbit/s signal (i. G. 34. . 534 bytes in 125 seconds) is increased to 756 bytes in 125 seconds adding fixed stuff bits(R).

The last 12 bytes of one block consists of information bits (I). Out of this 1431 information bits (I). The POH information consists of only 1 byte in VC-1 for 125 seconds frame. The types of virtual container identified are lower orders VCs VC-1 and VC-2 and higher order VC-3 and VC-4. They are further subdivided into 3 sub frames 3 x 84 (252 bytes or 2016 bits). 10 bits (two sets) (C-1. C-2) 2 Justification opportunity bits (S-1.264 Mbit/s signal (2176 bytes in 125 increased to 9 x 260 bytes. (iv) Tributary Unit A tributary unit is a information structure which provides adaptation between the lower order path layer and the higher order path layer. It consists of a information pay load (lower order virtual container) and a tributary unit pointer . In VC-3. In each row one justification opportunity bit(s) and five justification control bit(s) are provided. The first byte of each block consists of either eight information bit (I) or eight fixed stuff bits (R) or One justification control bit (C) plus five fixed stuff bits (R) plus two overhead bits (o). 139. or Six information bits (I) plus one justification opportunity bit (s) plus one fixed stuff bit (R). S-2) 573 (fixed bits) In container-4.Detail follows : 756 bytes are in 9 x 84 bytes/125 seconds frame. Details as follows : seconds) is 9 x 260 bytes are partitioned into 20 blocks consisting of 13 bytes each. In VC-4 also POH 1 column of 9 bytes. POH is 1 column of 9 bytes. (iii) Virtual Container In Virtual container the path over head (POH) fields are organised in a block frame structure either 125 seconds or 500 seconds.

A. when it is mapped for VC-4 through tributary group3. TUG-2 consists of 3 TU-12s (For 2. TUG-3 consists of either 7 TUG-2 or one TU-3.048 Mbit/sec).U. pointer indicating phase alignment of VC-4 with respect to STM-N frame. (viii) Administrative Unit It is the information structure which provides adaptation between the higher order path layer and the multiplex section layer. (x) Concatenation The procedure with which the multiple virtual container are associated with one another.U. (vi) Network Node Interface (NNI) The interface at a network node which is used to interconnect with another network node. on which it is supported. H2. (v) Tributary Unit Group One or more tributaries are contained in tributary unit group. TUG-3 consists of a homogenous assembly of TUG-2s or TU-3.U. . pointer indicating phase alignment of VC-3 with respect to STM-N frame. (ix) Administrative Group AUG consists of a homogenous assembly of AU-3s or an AU-4. (ii) AU-3 consisting of VC-3 plus A. Three bytes are H1. TU-1 pointers are one byte interleaved in the TUG-2. A TUG-2 consist of homogenous assembly of identical TU-1s or TU-2. Two AUs are defined (i) AU-4 consisting VC-4 plus an A. location is fixed with respect to STM-N frame. with the result their combined capacity could be used as a single container across which bit sequence integrity is maintained. pointer which indicates the offset of the pay load frame start relating to the multiplex section frame start. TU-3 pointer consists of 3 bytes out of 9 bytes.U. (vii) Pointer An indicator whose value defines frame offset of a VC with respect to the frame reference of transport entity. It consists of information pay load and a A. H3 and remaining bytes are fixed bytes. Tributary unit 1 for VC-1 and Tributary unit 2 is for VC-2 and Tributary unit 3 is for VC-3.which indicates the offset of the pay load frame start relating to the higher order VC frame start.

it can be noted that pointers gives the phase alignment between the shaded and unshaded areas. From the figure.048 M/bit signal into VC–3 container and then directly through AUG entering into STM frame. This method is also posssible. the entry is 2.7. In the Fig. Otherwise one VC-3 with TU-3 or 7 TUG2 can go to TUG-3 and 3 TUG-3 are mapped into one VC-4. gives the details of processing 2. The top 3 rows x 9 columns of STM-1 frame reserved for Regenerator Section Overhead (R SOH).5.264 Mbit/sec signal can be mapped into one VC-4 through C-4. Similarly. S. it is shown that 140 M/bit signal is mapped into VC–4 container and then enter into STM frame through AUG. 1.7 Mb/s of the American Standard.D. From the 5th row to 9th row with 9 columns are reserved for Multiplex . 3 Nos.H. The Fig. Figure 11. At TUG-2 it can be either 4VC-11 with TU-11 or 3VC-12 with TU-12 or 1 VC-2 with TU-2.8. it is seen that 4th row 9 bytes are reserved for AU pointers and this will be discussed separately.e. Layer Structure The S. In Fig. These through VC-3 container and with tributary unit-3 goes to Tributary Unit Group–3. A 139. 12.7. Section Overhead Brief Description The section overhead portion of the STM-1 frame with their relevant bytes are indicated in Fig. These three containers passes through their respective virtual containers and tributary unit pointers. In C12 container.544 Mbit per sec is mapped. The C-3 container takes the input 34 Mb/s or 44. can be based on layered concept as shown in Fig.8. Multiplexing Principles The basic multiplexing principles and processing stage by stage. VC-4 with AU-4 goes to AUG and then to STM-frame. 9. The details of processing and adding pointers from the base level to VC–4 container and then to AUG and then to STM–N is given in Fig.6 shows the layer interconnection in detail. 7 TUG-2 can be mapped into one VC-3. The different possibilities are shown in Fig.H. i.10. where the entry 2M bit/sec is shown.312 Mbit/sec which is of American standard. 6. Figure 9 shows the processing of 34 M/bit signal through VC–3 container and going to Administrative group unit and then to STM frame. the pointer locates the position of the virtual container which are floating in the STM–frames. the information signal is shown in Fig. In C-11. In C-2 container the entry.e.048 Mbit/sec. 8.D.7. VC-3 with AU-3 can directly go to AUG and enter STM-frame. i.

B-1 byte are called bit inter-leave parity-8. B-2 bytes. It can support 192 kilo bit per section. STM-4 and 16 will have more number of B-2 bytes as per their order. Z-1. FAW formed by the last A-1 byte and the adjacent A-2 byte. in the transmitter sequence defines the frame reference for each of signal rates. (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) . in STM-4. In higher order STM their number increases with the STM order. There are 3 bytes for STM-1. as per CCITT recommendations. E-1 is for regenerator section order wire. E-2 is for multiplex section order wire. D-1 or D-12 : These bytes are for data communication channel. E-1. Z-2 : These bytes are located for functions and yet defined. A brief idea of the different bytes in regenerator section overhead and multiplex overhead are given below : A-1.e. There are 3 A-1 bytes in STM-1 and 3 A-2 bytes in STM-1. There is only 1 byte in STM1 or STM-4 or STM-16. they are used for automatic protection switching. there will be 12 A-1 bytes and 12 A-2 bytes. A-2 are framing bytes. They can support 576 kilo bit per second. D-2 and D-3 are for regenerator section. These are used for error monitoring in the multiplex section. There are 2 bytes for STM-1. D-4 to D-12 are for multiplex section.Section Overhead (M SOH). F-1 is used for fault control purposes. i. K-1. Inthis D-1. On line monitoring can be done in this case. K-2 bytes. STM Identifier with C-1 Byte : In STM-1 there is a single C-1 byte which is used to identify each of inter-leaved STM’s and in an STM-N signal. E-2 for order wire purposes. Their values are : A1 : 11110110 A2 : 00101000 (i) These two types of bytes form 16 bit Frame Alignment Word (FAW). This is used for error monitoring in the regenerator section. These are used for co-ordinating the protection switching across a set of multiplex section organised as protection group. It takes binary equivalent to the position in the interleave. 4 or 16.

1 Network Reference Model and Standardization of Digital Hierarchies .Fig.

2 SDH Interface Frame Representation Method .One frame Fig.

Fig. 3 STM-N Frame Structure .

Fig. 4 SDH Standards – Bit Rates (G.707 Recommendation) .

5 SDH–based Transport Network Layered Model .Fig.

Fig. 6(a) SDH Layers .

6(b) Layer Interaction .Fig.

7(a) Generic Multiplexing Structure .Fig.

7(b) Reduced Multiplexing Structure .Fig.

A1.B2 D1…D3 D4…D12 E1. Media dependent bytes. . 12 Section and High Order Path Overhead Bytes The purpose of individual bytes is detailed below. Parity bytes for errors monitoring. Clock quality indicator. Orderwire channel. Data communication channel (DCC) network management.A2 B1. Data communication channel (DCC) network management. Transmission error acknowledgement. Maintenance Trace identifier Automatic protection switching (APS) channel.E2 F1 J0 K1.K2 M1 S1 * Frame Alignment.Fig.


STM–N Alarm Scheme .Fig.

Loss of Frame (LOF). and Loss of Pointer (LOP) cause Alarm Indication Signal (AIS) to be transmitted downstream. In Service Alarm Events In–Service Maintenance Signals The wide range of alarm signals and parity checks built into the SDH signal structure support effective in–service testing.Fig. and detection of major receiver alarm conditions. or LOF has been detected by equipment terminating in a Multiplexer Section span. Far End Receive Failure (FERF) is sent upstream in the Multiplexer Section Overhead after Multiplexer Section AIS. Major alarm conditions such as Loss of Signal (LOS). Different AIS signals are generated depending upon which level of the maintenance hierarchy is affected. a Remote Alarm Indication (RAI) for a high order path is sent upstream after Path AIS or LOP has been detected by equipment terminating a Path. a Remote Alarm Indication (RAI) for a Low Order Path is sent upstream after Low . or LOS. other alarm signals are sent upstream to warn of trouble downstream. and similarly. In response to the different AIS signals.

Fig.Order Path AIS or LOP has been detected by equipment terminating a Low Order Path. 11 Synchronous Multiplexers Optional Tributary Interfaces Fig. 12 Add Drop Multiplexer .

Synchronous multiplexers can accept a wide range of tributaries and offer a number of possible output data rates. On the other hand in SDH.10. .0 Network Elements in SDH Before the evolution of the standards covering synchronous transmission systems. all current plesiochronous bit rates can be accommodated. or line side we have higher bit rate STM–N signals. This feature makes it possible to set up ring structures.13 below.2 Add/Drop Multiplexer (ADM) Plesiochronous and lower bit rate synchronous signals can be extracted from or inserted into high speed SDH bit streams by means of ADMs. networks had to be built up from separate multiplex and line terminal equipment. Though the regeneration of signal at repeaters is similar to PDH. On the tributary side. 13 Terminal Multiplexer 10. This gave rise to large amounts of multiplex and separate optical line equipment. there are some additional equipment in SDH to perform function like cross–connection and OA&M functions as explained in following sections. 10. These are characterized by defined formats and electrical interfaces at each level of the transmission hierarchy. which have the advantage that automatic back–up path switching is possible using elements in the ring in the event of a fault.1 Terminal Multiplexers Terminal multiplexers are used to combine plesiochronous and synchronous input signals into higher bit rate STM–N signals as shown in Fig. multiplexers performs both multiplexing and line terminating functions. whereas optical interfaces were entirely proprietary. On the aggregate. Fig.

Messages are received by extracting various 64 kbit/s channels (e. This network element can have widest range of functions such as mapping of PDH tributary signals into virtual containers and switching of various containers up to and including VC–4.4 Digital Cross–Connects Regenerators Regenerators. F1.Fig. 14 Add/Drop Multiplexers 10. 15 10.g. Fig. etc. in RSOH) and also can be output using these channels. have the job of regenerating the clock and amplitude of the incoming data signals that have been attenuated and distorted by dispersion. . They derive their clock signals from the incoming data stream. service channels E1. as the name implies.3 Digital Cross–Connects (DXC) Cross connection is a synchronous network involves setting up semi– permanent interconnections between different channels enabling routing to be performed down to a VC level.

is a must for the entire digital network.C. all the other TAXs are to be synchronised. . The architecture employed in the SDH requires that the timing of all the network clocks be traceable to Primary Reference Clock (PRC) specified in accordance with ITU Rec. long periods of network downtime.R. of cesium clocks at VSNL Bombay provide the Master National Reference Clock (MNRC). the highest level being the PRC. The hierarchical level of clocks are defined by ITU as follows : – P.G. The synchronisation plan is based upon provision of Synchronisation Supply Units (SSUs) which will be deployed as an essential component of the synchronisation network which will support synchronised operation of the SDH network. it has been decided to use the clock source available through the TAXs at the major stations.811. For synchroisation of the SDH network. This master–slave synchronisation uses a hierarchy of clocks in which each level of the hierarchy is synchronised with reference to a higher level. However. The status of synchronisation in the BSNL network is as follows : 3 nos. The MNRC feeds the reference signal to the VSNL GDS at Mumbai and from the GDS both the new technology TAXs at Mumbai are synchronised.Synchronisation The role of synchronisation plan is to determine the distribution of synchronisation in a network and to select the level of clocks and facilities to be used to time the network. Part of this work has already been done. a proper synchronisation plan which optimises the performance. This involves the selection and location of master clocks for a network. The classical method of synchronising network element clocks is the hierarchical method (master–slave synchronisation) which is already adopted in the BSNL network for the TAXs. – Slave Clock (Transit Node) – Slave Clock (Local Node) – SDH Network Element Clock. A direct synchronisation link is also available between GDS Mumbai and Karol Bagh TAX at Delhi. elusive maintenance problems or high transmission error rates. Improper synchronisation planning or the lack of planning can cause severe performance problems resulting in excessive slips. all the Level–I TAXs are yet to be synchronised. Hence. The back up NRC is available at Delhi. the distribution of primary and secondary timing through out the network and an analysis of the network to ensure that acceptable performance levels are achieved. From these two TAXs at Mumbai.

Architecture for Primary Rate Networks SDH Equipment Clock .

G. therefore.Each node is associated with a particular hierarchical level of clock prescribed above and is referred to as a nodal clock. has decided to go in for 10–20 nos.812. . signal needed for every network element. of SSUs to provide a clean reference primary source for other stations.4 The BSNL. 4. jitter and wander and provide the exact sync. These SSUs are basically high stability filter clocks which eliminate phase transients. The SSU is an important component of this hierarchical master–slave synchronisation network scheme and of a slave clock belonging to the transit node level or the local node level as defined in ITU Rec.

and in the laboratory it is possible to transmit in the terabit range (10 X 1012). it was possible to transmit 140 Mbit/s with optical PDH – systems. Electrical circuits simply cannot work on these frequencies. SDH and IP. In optical networking utilizing DWDM is analogues to accessing the unused lanes on the highway (increasing the number of wavelengths on the embedded fibre base) to gain access to an incredible amount of untapped capacity in the fibre. Currently.DWDM 1. 2.5 Gbit/s) or up to 64 times 140 Mbit/s or 155 Mbit/s (64 X STM 1 = STM 64. TDM could not be used to take advantage of this tremendous bandwidth due to limitations on electrical technology. With channels can be relatively large. SDH can transmit the capacity of 16 times 140 Mbit/s or 155 Mbit/s (16 X STM 1 = STM 16. Consider a highway analogy where one fibre can be thought of as a multi-lane highway. Consequently the vehicles on the highway can carry ATM packets. WDM the spacing between . SDH technology in the 90’s has improved this capacity. A distinction is made between WDM and DWDM (Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing). In the case of optical systems the available bandwidth can exceed several Terahertz (1012Hz). An additional benefit of optical networking is that the highway is blind to the type of traffic that travels on it. The solution was to use frequency multiplexing at the optical level or Wavelength Division Multiplexing. 10 Gbit/s). Evolution of Transmission Capacity In the 80’s. Soon we will have 160 times 10 Gbit/s. The basic idea is to use different optical carriers or colours to transmit different signals in the same fibre. it is possible with WDM wavelength division multiplex systems to transmit between 32 and 96 times 10 Gbit/s (320 Gbit/s) over very large distances. Traditional TDM systems use a single lane of this highway and increase capacity by moving faster on this single lane.

increasing the overall spectral density of the transmitted signal. Within this usable . Transmission Windows Today. usually the second transmission window (around 1300 nm) and the third and fourth transmission windows from 1530 to 1565 nm (also called conventional band) and from 1565 to 1620 nm (also called Long Band) are used. The losses caused by the physical effects on the signal due by the type of materials used to produce fibres limit the usable wavelengths to between 1280 nm and 1650 nm. FDM and 2.In Dense multiplexing the frequency spacing between channels can be as small as 50 GHz or less. TDM FDM WDM 3 Fig. 1 Comparison between TDM. Technological reasons limit DWDM applications at the moment to the third and fourth window.

Based on existing fibre optic backbone networks.10THz 1480.2.0 nm 1528. The biggest advantages of such an optical network would be : . 0. In short. therefore. optical networks are the future of the information superhighway. New architectures will increase network reliability and decrease the cost of bit rates and distance.77nm 198.1 THz Fig.6THz 196. creating economic benefits for network operators and users alike. Wavelength Plan for 50 GHz Grid 3. Application Advantages Optical networks are opening up new horizons for telecommunication operators.0 nm 202. Technologies such as wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) and optical amplification are giving them a multitude of ways to satisfy the exploding demand for capacity.61 nm 192.range the techniques used to produce the fibres can cause particular wavelengths to have more loss so we avoid the use of these wavelengths as well.4 nm 50 GHz 1510. the idea of an all optical network (AON) is revolutionizing the structures of our communication networks.6THz 1560.

The Transponder adapts to the arbitrary bit rate of the incoming optical signal. Its main function is OEO. Optical transparency yields a multitude of new application options and enables network operators to utilize existing network resources in a far more flexible manner. video and voice over a common transport network 4. . The semitransparent transponder keeps one of the major advantages of the DWDM i.Properties Multiple use of fibres Extremely high transport capacity at low cost Format transparency and bitrate Applications Ideal in cases of fibre shortage Multiple yielding use of optical amplifiers and decreased investments maintenance costs. like SDH. It provides major advantages such as : • • • • Greatly enhanced transmission capacity. New services offered. Protocols are transmitted transparently. ATM or PDH signals. It converts wavelength (say 1550 nm) coming from user equipment to electrical signal and electrical signal is converted into optical signal of a specific wavelength. Data. providing a very high flexibility.e. Use of devices and interfaces from other vendors. Transmission of restructured signals. which forms an optical channel for particular user. Transponder Applications A Transponder Terminal can be used to transmit a wide variety of signal types. and maps its wavelength to the chosen WDM channel.

4.SDH NE Regenerators SDH NE Fig.3. Situation without WDM SDH NE SDH NE Optical Terminal MUX Optical Amplifier Optical Terminal MUX Fig. Situation with WDM Fig.4 Situation without WDM .

5 . (c) Transponders Wavelength “change” and 2R regeneration (reshaping and amplification) or 3 R regeneration (reshaping retiming and amplification). . the signals have to be demultiplexed. electrically regenerated and multiplexed again. They are necessary if the length to be bridged is too long to be covered only by optical amplifiers. Optical NE Types We have already met following NEs : (a) Optical Multiplexer/Demultiplexer Multiplexing and Demultiplexing of different wavelength signals. Transponder 5. Therefore. (d) Regenerators Real 3 R regeneration (reshaping. as these only perform reshaping and retiming.5. retiming and amplification) of the signal. (b) Optical Amplifiers Pure optical 1R regeneration (just amplification) of all transmitted signals. T r a n s p o n e r A p p lic a tio n Fig.IP IP Tr DW DM M UX DW DM M UX Tr SD H T ra n sp o n er T ra n sp o n er SD H ATM ATM PDH PDH SD H M U X SD H M U X F ig .

Most demultiplexers are symmetrical devices and can also be used as multiplexers. (b) By using Diffraction Grating The function of a diffraction is very similar to that of a prism. 6. Using the effect of dispersion (different speed of light for different wavelengths). (b) (c) (d) 7.DSF). Use of non-zero dispersion shifted fibre (NZ . This may use complete de-multiplexing or other techniques. light is split into its spectral components.(e) Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer Adding and Dropping only specific wavelengths from the joint optical signal. With such a grating sometimes also called a bulk grating channel spacings of done to 50 GHz can be achieved. Wave Division Multiplexing of Optical Signal (WDM). only here interference is the important factor. (f) Optical cross-connects To cater for the huge amount of data expected in an optical network even the cross-connects have to work on a purely optical level. The purpose is to extract the original channels from a DWDM signal. Description of Optical Multiplexer and Demultiplexer : An optical demultiplexer can be built as an association of optical filters or as a single stand device. (a) Future Trends Use of Optical Amplifier – The best developed optical amplifiers are Erbium doped fibre amplifier (EDFA) which operate at 1550 nm and praseodymium doped fibre amplifiers operating at 1300 nm. . The requested properties of this device are the same as for the optical filter : isolation and signal distortion. However channel number and impose spacing must be considered now because demultiplexers can limitations on the number of channels or the total available bandwidth. (a) By using Prism The easiest and best-known optical demultiplexer is the prism. A mixture of light is also split into its contributing wavelengths. Use of passive optical components (PON).

Red White Blue Effect of a prism Effect of a grating .

where the optical signal is converted into electric domain by using a receiver and then regenerated by using a transmitter. (a) Optical Amplifiers Introduction Fiber loss and dispersion limit the transmission distance of any fibre-optic communication system. systems designer. The use of each configuration as advantages and disadvantages that must be considered by the The problems come when considering non-linear effects in the transmission fiber and also generated by the amplifiers. For long-haul WDM systems this limitation is overcome by periodic regeneration of the optical signal at repeaters. optical amplifiers which amplify the optical signal directly. (b) Optical Amplifier Applications (i) (ii) (iii) In-line amplifiers Booster amplifiers Pre-amplifiers Booster In-line amplifiers are used to directly replace optical regenerators. Several kinds of optical amplifiers were studied and developed during the 1980 s. Pre-amplifiers are used before the receiver or demultiplexer to increase the received power and extend distance. amplifiers are used immediately after the transmitter or multiplexer to increase the output power. Such regenerators become quite complex and expensive for multichannel lightwave systems. Although regeneration of the optical signal is necessary for dispersion-limited systems. Some of the requirements for optical amplifiers for DWDM purpose are : • • • high gain low noise flat amplification profile . loss limited systems benefit considerably if electronic repeaters were replaced by much simpler and potentially less expensive.8. The technology has matured enought that the use of optical amplifiers in fiber-optic communication systems has now become widespread.

A pp lications for optical am p lifiers Rx .ODM X OMX O /E /O O /E /O O /E /O O p tical A m p lifier F ig. P assage from optical/electrical regen erators to op tical am plifiers B ooster Tx P ream p lifier Rx Tx Fi Rx In -lin e am plifier Tx F ig.9.8.

Mixed use of them are permitted in a group (a channel bank) • An elementary group of the DLC transmission is the digital primary group produced by PCM-30. In order to accommodate rural subscribers into the existing public telephone net work the RT collects subscriber lines around the target area and transfers the collected telephone signals to the existing local switching equipment (central office) through digital transmission line. individual subscriber is connected to the RT with usual metallic line (drop wire). the fibre optic transmission system becomes popular in technical and its material and equipment cost becomes reasonable then the combination of the DLC system and fiber optic transmission system can provide feasible rural telephone system. In this way the DLC system can expand subscriber line up to rural area without any degradation of signal quality. The DLC system collects plenty of traffic from remote subscribers and carries them to the local switching office of the public telecommunication network.gain system (Pair-saving system) which consists of a central office terminal (COT) Remote Terminal (RT) and digital transmission system. It can provide various modern telecommunication services to remote subscribers with high quality. and it can be transmitted over an existing digital transmission line. Today. At the central office side the COT receives the signals from the RT and after demultiplexed the receipt signals the COT transfers them to the local switching equipment through its subscriber line terminals. Features of the digital Loop carrier (DLC) system are summarized below: A typical DLC system consists of a Central Office Terminal (COT) installed in an existing local switching office a Remote Terminal (RT) installed at the subscriber lines collection Point. and digital multichannel transmission link. • The fibre optic transmission line can extend subscriber lines up to about 50 Km without a repeater • The DLC system has remote testing functions for convenience of maintenance the connection from a subscriber to RT and the multi- . Both terminals COT and RT are connected by PCM metallic transmission line or optical fibre cable transmission line preferable transmission network type to DLC system is in line type and tree type.DIGITAL LOOP CARRIER SYSTEM The digital loop carrier (DLC) system is a small to medium size pair . • Various types of interface condition for subscriber and signaling are acceptable. This section describes the Digital Loop Carrier system (DLC) as the optimum rural telephone subscriber accommodation method.

• The sub-urban area is newly developed business center and it has emergent demand of the 200-300 subscriber lines this means that the demand is emergent but too small to introduce a new local switching center. This figure is illustrated under following imaginary conditions : • The urban area is provided good telephone service and LS-1 has enough extra subscriber accommodation capacity. • The urban area and suburban area is connected by well designed highway that has good roadside space for cable duct construction. .channel transmission link between RT to COT can be tested at the COT. • Existing wooden poles of open wire transmission line are available for overhead optical fiber cable installation between main road and rural areas. commercial power supply is available for RT. • The subscriber distribution radius of each rural area is smaller than 2-3 kilometers. • The multi-channel transmission line equipment of the DLC system has the same technical specifications as the digital toll connection line equipment. • At each rural area. The main road has enough space for buried cable laying. The DLC system can be applied to discrete type or homogeneous type of subscriber distribution. • The RT equipment can be installed in a special outdoor cabinet and it saves the construction fee and period • The configuration of digital transmission line can be a in line type or tree type. TYPICAL SYSTEM CONFIGURATION Fig.1 typical DLC system configuration . • Each rural area has telephone demand of several tens subscriber lines but they are 5-10 kilometers away from the main road . The connection from COT to the subscriber line link frame of telephone switching equipment will be tested from the test board of the switching system. • The trunk capacity and transmission capacities of the junction line between LS are enough for newly added traffic from sub-urban and rural areas.

Fig.1 Typical Configuration of DLC System .

Subscriber end interface • 2. COT and RT consist of channel bank (CH).Line Terminal & Multiplexer SV . .Generally. Office end interface • 3. LTM.Channel Bank LTM . the radius of a service area belonged to a local switching office will be limited within 4-5 kilometers but introduction of DLC system expands the service area radius up to 50-60 kilometers. The line terminal multiplexer (LTM) consists of higher order multiplexer and optical line terminal which converts the electronic signal to / from the optical signal. 2 Simplified Block Diagram of DLC System CH . This will require some modifications of the charging system and maintenance system.Supervisory facility • 1.DC power supply is necessary for the Remote Terminal Equipment .The Channel bank consist of four PCM-30 multiplexer with signalling function. A simplified block diagram of the DLC system is shown in fig-2 Both terminal equipment.The digital hierarchy bit rates of the DLC120 conforms to the CCITT recommendations G 702. line terminal multiplexer (LTM) and fiber optic transmission line . Model DLC-120 and Line Terminal Multiplexer Equipment Model LTM-8. Analog (VF) interface (Digital or Analog Switching Equipment) Further descriptions are given by using of the details Fujitsu Digital loop Carrier Equipment. Fig.

1. More larger capacity system can be established by combining the 140Mb/s higher order multiplexer equipment 140 Mb/s optical line terminal equipment and DLC-120S.The model DLC -120 is major equipment of COT and RT of a DLC system. the unit system will be stacked up to the capacity and higher order multiplexer and optical line terminal are combined. It is deigned as subscriber line interface unit which has 120 lines capacity for larger capacity system. The model LTM. This combination can provide subscriber accommodation capacity up to 1920 lines No larger capacity than 1920 subscriber lines might be required in rural area application. Model DLC -120 equipment .8 is used for 8Mb/s (equivalent to 120 telephone channels) digital data transmission line and LTM-34 is used for 34Mb/s (equivalent to 480 telephone channels) digital data transmission line.

2. 3 Typical configuration of DLC 120 & Terminal of DLC System As shown in Fig 3 the DLC -120 consists of four channel banks and together with a Multiplexer and optical line terminal it composes a major part of COT or RT of the DLC system The channel bank is a PCM -30 equipment with respective subscriber interface The 2Mb/s digital group transmission interface of the channel bank conforms to the CCITT recommendation G. 4. 5.RT) Fig.703 Central Office Terminal and Remote Terminal have similar equipment’s configuration except for the interface condition of their channel cards. 6. In each example 2Mb/s standard interface condition is applied between DLC–120 and LTE (LTM) . Typical terminal configuration (COT. In the Figs. three application examples of DLC–120 are shown.

Fig. 5 8 Mb/s System Over Optical Fibre Cable . 4 2Mb/s System Over Metallic Pair Cable Fig.

Fig. At the less demand area. • • • No need of access road construction for radio station is estimated. All cables and wires are installed in overhead type. In this figure. antenna and tower construction. . detail cost estimation should be done under the particular conditions. • There are no difficulties for the construction work such as cable laying. AC commercial power is available at every rural area. those application area of each system is estimated by comparison of the estimated initial investment cost referring to the experience. 6 34Mb/s System over Optical Fibre Cable APPLICATION AREA ESTIMATION The DLC system application area is estimated which is made under bold manner such as • Existing local switching equipment has enough extra capacity and no additional cost is needed for new accommodation of the rural subscriber. there will be a big discrepancy between actual cost estimation and an expectation by this figure. because a little difference from above assumptions will cause a big difference of the cost estimation results In actual feasibility study. • Subscriber distribution radius of each rural is less than 1 Km.

The upper border of the DLC will be determined by the application area of an RSU (Remote Switch Unit) and the border number of subscriber will be about 2000.From this figure. . it is clearly shown that the DLC system has very broad application area if there is an existing local switching center near the target rural community. the number of subscriber are more than 50 and their distribution area is limited with in 1 Km radius .

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