SDH Concepts & Principle Principle of DWDM, Synchronization DLC

SDH Concepts And Principle Introduction It is an international standard networking principle and a multiplexing method. The name of hierarchy has been taken from the multiplexing method which is synchronous by nature. The evolution of this system will assist in improving the economy of operability and reliability of a digital network. 1. Historical Overview In February 1988, an agreement was reached at CCITT (now ITU-TS) study group XVIII in Seoul, on set of recommendations, for a synchronous digital hierarchy representing a single world wide standard for transporting the digital signal. These recommendations G-707, G-708, G-709 cover the functional characteristic of the network node interface, i.e. the bit rates and format of the signal passing over the Network Node Interface (NNI). For smooth transformation from existing PDH, it has to accommodate the three different country standards of PDH developed over a time period. The different standards of PDH are given in Fig.1. The first attempt to formulate standards for Optical Transmission started in U.S.A. as SONET (Synchronous Optical Network). The aim of these standards was to simplify interconnection between network operators by allowing interconnection of equipment from different vendors to the extent that compatibility could be achieved. It was achieved by SDH in 1990, when the CCITT accepted the recommendations for physical layer network interface. The SONET hierarchy from 52 Mbit per second rate onwards was accepted for SDH hierarchy (Fig.1). 2. Merits of SDH (i) Simplified multiplexing/demultiplexing techniques. (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) Direct access to lower speed tributaries, without need to multiplex/demultiplex the entire high speed signal. Enhanced operations, provisioning capabilities. Administration, Maintenance and

Easy growth to higher bit rates in step with evolution of transmission technology. Capable of transporting existing PDH signals. Capable of transporting future broadband (ATM) channel bit rates. Capable of operating in a multi-vendor and multi-operator environment.


Advantages (i) Multi-vendor environment (mid span meet) : Prior to 1988 international agreement on SDH all vendors used proprietary nonstandard techniques for transporting information on fibre. The only way to interconnect was to convert to the copper transmission standards (G702/703/704). The cost and complexity levels were very high. (ii) Synchronous networking : SDH supports multi-point or hub configurations whereas, asynchronous networking only supports point-to-point configurations. Enhanced OAM&P : The telecoms need the ability to administer, surveil, provision, and control the network from a central location. Positioning the network for transport on new services : LAN to LAN, HDTV, interactive multimedia, video conferencing. HUB : A hub is an intermediate site from which traffic is distributed to 3 or more spur. It allows the nodes to communicate as an angle network, thus reducing the back-to-back multiplexing and demultiplexing.

(iii) (iv) (v)

4. (i)

S.D.H. Evolution S.D.H. evolution is possible because of the following factors : Fibre Optic Bandwidth : The bandwidth in Optical Fibre can be increased and there is no limit for it. This gives a great advantage for using SDH. Technical Sophistication : Although, SDH circuitary is highly complicated, it is possible to have such circuitary because of VLSI technique which is also very cost effective. Intelligence : The availability of cheaper memory opens new possibilities. Customer Service Needs : The requirement of the customer with respect to different bandwidth requirements could be easily met without much additional equipment. The different services it supports are : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Low/High speed data. Voice Interconnection of LAN Computer links Feature services like H.D.T.V. Broadband ISDN transport (ATM transport)


(iii) (iv)


S.D.H. Standards The S.D.H. standards exploit one common characteristic of all PDH networks namely 125 micro seconds duration, i.e. sampling rate of audio signals (time for 1 byte in 64 k bit per second). This is the time for one frame of SDH. The frame structure of the SDH is represented using matrix of rows in byte units as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. As the speed increases, the number of bits increases and the single line is insufficient to show the information on Frame structure. Therefore, this representation method is adopted. How the bits are transmitted on the line is indicated on the top of Fig.2. The Frame structure contains 9 rows and number of columns depending upon synchronous transfer mode level (STM). In STM-1, there are 9 rows and 270 columns. The reason for 9 rows arranged in every 125 micro seconds is as follows : For 1.544 Mbit PDH signal (North America and Japan Standard), there are 25 bytes in 125 micro second and for 2.048 Mbit per second signal, there are 32 bytes in 125 micro second. Taking some additional bytes for supervisory purposes, 27 bytes can be allotted for holding 1.544 Mbit per second signal, i.e. 9 rows x 3 columns. Similarly, for 2.048 Mbit per second signal, 36 bytes are allotted in 125 micro seconds, i.e. 9 rows x 4 columns. Therefore, it could be said 9 rows are matched to both hierarchies. A typical STM-1 frame is shown in Fig. 3. Earlier this was the basic rate but at present STM-0 which is just 1/3rd of STM-1, i.e. 51.840 Mbit per second has been accepted by CCITT. In STM-1 as in Fig.3 the first 9 rows and 9 columns accommodate Section Overhead (SOH) and 9 rows x 261 columns accommodates the main information called pay load. The interface speed of the STM-1 can be calculated as follows : (270 columns x 9 rows x 8 bits x 1/125 s) = 155.52 Mbps.

The STM-0 contains just 1/3rd of the STM-1, i.e. 9 rows x 90 columns out of that 9 rows x 3 columns consist of section overhead and 9 rows x 87 columns consist of pay load. The STM-0 structure was accepted so that the radio and satellite can use this bit rate, i.e. 51.840 Mbit/s across their section. The different SDH level as per G-707 recommendations is as given in Fig.4. Principles of SDH • SDH defines a number of “Containers”, each corresponding to an existing plesiochronous rate. • • Each container has a “Path Overhead” added to it – POH provides network management capability. Container plus POH form a “Virtual Container”.

Variations accommodated by use of a Pointer – points to beginning of VC.• • • All equipment is synchronised to a national clock.709 defines different combinations of VCs which can be accommodated in the “payload” of an STM–1 frame. i.e. – section performance – frame alignment – other functions. – user channels.368 Mbit/s signal (i.048 Mbit/s signal. – protection switching. In container (container-I) the signal speed is increased from 32 bytes to 34 bytes in the case of 2. • • • • 6. (i) Basic Definitions Synchronous Transport Module This is the information structure used to support information pay load and over head information field organised in a block frame structure which repeats every 125 micro seconds.e. more network management capability is added to form the “Section Overhead”. Delays associated with a transmission link may vary slightly with time–causing location of VC within the STM–1 frame to move. S-2). 534 bytes in 125 seconds) is increased to 756 bytes in 125 seconds adding fixed stuff bits(R). In container-3.. Justification Control Bytes (CC and C’). 34. virtual container. – pointer may be incremented or decremented. SOH remains with payload for the fibre section between synchronous multiplexers. Justification control bits (C-1. . C-2) and Justification opportunity bits (S-1. SOH bytes provide communication channels to cater for : – OA&M facilities. G. Justification Opportunity bytes (s). When STM–1 payload is full. The additional bytes added are fixed stuff bytes (R). (ii) Container The first entry point of the PDH signal is the container in which the signal is prepared so that it can enter into the next stage.

C-2) 2 Justification opportunity bits (S-1. or Six information bits (I) plus one justification opportunity bit (s) plus one fixed stuff bit (R). 10 bits (two sets) (C-1. The types of virtual container identified are lower orders VCs VC-1 and VC-2 and higher order VC-3 and VC-4. 139. POH is 1 column of 9 bytes. In VC-3. (iii) Virtual Container In Virtual container the path over head (POH) fields are organised in a block frame structure either 125 seconds or 500 seconds. In VC-4 also POH 1 column of 9 bytes. (iv) Tributary Unit A tributary unit is a information structure which provides adaptation between the lower order path layer and the higher order path layer. It consists of a information pay load (lower order virtual container) and a tributary unit pointer . Details as follows : seconds) is 9 x 260 bytes are partitioned into 20 blocks consisting of 13 bytes each.Detail follows : 756 bytes are in 9 x 84 bytes/125 seconds frame. The POH information consists of only 1 byte in VC-1 for 125 seconds frame. The last 12 bytes of one block consists of information bits (I). In each row one justification opportunity bit(s) and five justification control bit(s) are provided. S-2) 573 (fixed bits) In container-4. Out of this 1431 information bits (I). They are further subdivided into 3 sub frames 3 x 84 (252 bytes or 2016 bits).264 Mbit/s signal (2176 bytes in 125 increased to 9 x 260 bytes. The first byte of each block consists of either eight information bit (I) or eight fixed stuff bits (R) or One justification control bit (C) plus five fixed stuff bits (R) plus two overhead bits (o).

location is fixed with respect to STM-N frame. (viii) Administrative Unit It is the information structure which provides adaptation between the higher order path layer and the multiplex section layer.U. TUG-3 consists of a homogenous assembly of TUG-2s or TU-3. TU-1 pointers are one byte interleaved in the TUG-2. (ii) AU-3 consisting of VC-3 plus A. (vi) Network Node Interface (NNI) The interface at a network node which is used to interconnect with another network node. Tributary unit 1 for VC-1 and Tributary unit 2 is for VC-2 and Tributary unit 3 is for VC-3. Three bytes are H1. TU-3 pointer consists of 3 bytes out of 9 bytes. on which it is supported. when it is mapped for VC-4 through tributary group3. H3 and remaining bytes are fixed bytes. TUG-2 consists of 3 TU-12s (For 2.U.U. pointer indicating phase alignment of VC-3 with respect to STM-N frame. (x) Concatenation The procedure with which the multiple virtual container are associated with one another. A TUG-2 consist of homogenous assembly of identical TU-1s or TU-2.which indicates the offset of the pay load frame start relating to the higher order VC frame start.048 Mbit/sec). A. pointer indicating phase alignment of VC-4 with respect to STM-N frame.U. Two AUs are defined (i) AU-4 consisting VC-4 plus an A. (vii) Pointer An indicator whose value defines frame offset of a VC with respect to the frame reference of transport entity. (ix) Administrative Group AUG consists of a homogenous assembly of AU-3s or an AU-4. with the result their combined capacity could be used as a single container across which bit sequence integrity is maintained. pointer which indicates the offset of the pay load frame start relating to the multiplex section frame start. H2. . TUG-3 consists of either 7 TUG-2 or one TU-3. It consists of information pay load and a A. (v) Tributary Unit Group One or more tributaries are contained in tributary unit group.

9. In Fig. The C-3 container takes the input 34 Mb/s or 44.H. The details of processing and adding pointers from the base level to VC–4 container and then to AUG and then to STM–N is given in Fig. 3 Nos. From the 5th row to 9th row with 9 columns are reserved for Multiplex .544 Mbit per sec is mapped. 12. In the Fig. the entry is 2. Otherwise one VC-3 with TU-3 or 7 TUG2 can go to TUG-3 and 3 TUG-3 are mapped into one VC-4.8. Section Overhead Brief Description The section overhead portion of the STM-1 frame with their relevant bytes are indicated in Fig.D.7. The Fig. it can be noted that pointers gives the phase alignment between the shaded and unshaded areas. At TUG-2 it can be either 4VC-11 with TU-11 or 3VC-12 with TU-12 or 1 VC-2 with TU-2. Similarly.D. S.8. the information signal is shown in Fig.7. The different possibilities are shown in Fig. Figure 11. i. A 139. the pointer locates the position of the virtual container which are floating in the STM–frames. Multiplexing Principles The basic multiplexing principles and processing stage by stage. These three containers passes through their respective virtual containers and tributary unit pointers. i.312 Mbit/sec which is of American standard. From the figure. 6. 1.048 M/bit signal into VC–3 container and then directly through AUG entering into STM frame. gives the details of processing 2.7 Mb/s of the American Standard. These through VC-3 container and with tributary unit-3 goes to Tributary Unit Group–3.H. where the entry 2M bit/sec is shown. Layer Structure The S. In C-2 container the entry.048 Mbit/sec. can be based on layered concept as shown in Fig. This method is also posssible. In C-11. Figure 9 shows the processing of 34 M/bit signal through VC–3 container and going to Administrative group unit and then to STM frame.6 shows the layer interconnection in detail. 7 TUG-2 can be mapped into one VC-3.5. it is seen that 4th row 9 bytes are reserved for AU pointers and this will be discussed separately. 8.e. VC-3 with AU-3 can directly go to AUG and enter STM-frame. The top 3 rows x 9 columns of STM-1 frame reserved for Regenerator Section Overhead (R SOH).7.264 Mbit/sec signal can be mapped into one VC-4 through C-4.e. VC-4 with AU-4 goes to AUG and then to STM-frame. it is shown that 140 M/bit signal is mapped into VC–4 container and then enter into STM frame through AUG.10. In C12 container.

in the transmitter sequence defines the frame reference for each of signal rates. E-2 for order wire purposes. K-2 bytes. In higher order STM their number increases with the STM order. A brief idea of the different bytes in regenerator section overhead and multiplex overhead are given below : A-1. K-1. This is used for error monitoring in the regenerator section. E-1. Z-2 : These bytes are located for functions and yet defined. These are used for error monitoring in the multiplex section. There are 3 bytes for STM-1. D-2 and D-3 are for regenerator section. On line monitoring can be done in this case. 4 or 16. D-4 to D-12 are for multiplex section. i. Z-1. E-1 is for regenerator section order wire. Their values are : A1 : 11110110 A2 : 00101000 (i) These two types of bytes form 16 bit Frame Alignment Word (FAW). as per CCITT recommendations. A-2 are framing bytes. There is only 1 byte in STM1 or STM-4 or STM-16. F-1 is used for fault control purposes.e.Section Overhead (M SOH). STM-4 and 16 will have more number of B-2 bytes as per their order. in STM-4. D-1 or D-12 : These bytes are for data communication channel. B-1 byte are called bit inter-leave parity-8. (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) . It takes binary equivalent to the position in the interleave. B-2 bytes. Inthis D-1. There are 2 bytes for STM-1. there will be 12 A-1 bytes and 12 A-2 bytes. It can support 192 kilo bit per section. STM Identifier with C-1 Byte : In STM-1 there is a single C-1 byte which is used to identify each of inter-leaved STM’s and in an STM-N signal. These are used for co-ordinating the protection switching across a set of multiplex section organised as protection group. They can support 576 kilo bit per second. they are used for automatic protection switching. E-2 is for multiplex section order wire. There are 3 A-1 bytes in STM-1 and 3 A-2 bytes in STM-1. FAW formed by the last A-1 byte and the adjacent A-2 byte.

Fig. 1 Network Reference Model and Standardization of Digital Hierarchies .

2 SDH Interface Frame Representation Method .One frame Fig.

3 STM-N Frame Structure .Fig.

707 Recommendation) . 4 SDH Standards – Bit Rates (G.Fig.

Fig. 5 SDH–based Transport Network Layered Model .

6(a) SDH Layers .Fig.

Fig. 6(b) Layer Interaction .

Fig. 7(a) Generic Multiplexing Structure .

Fig. 7(b) Reduced Multiplexing Structure .

K2 M1 S1 * Frame Alignment. Data communication channel (DCC) network management. Clock quality indicator. Transmission error acknowledgement. . A1.E2 F1 J0 K1. 12 Section and High Order Path Overhead Bytes The purpose of individual bytes is detailed below. Parity bytes for errors monitoring. Orderwire channel.B2 D1…D3 D4…D12 E1. Maintenance Trace identifier Automatic protection switching (APS) channel. Data communication channel (DCC) network management.Fig.A2 B1. Media dependent bytes.


STM–N Alarm Scheme .Fig.

a Remote Alarm Indication (RAI) for a Low Order Path is sent upstream after Low . other alarm signals are sent upstream to warn of trouble downstream. and detection of major receiver alarm conditions. and Loss of Pointer (LOP) cause Alarm Indication Signal (AIS) to be transmitted downstream. Far End Receive Failure (FERF) is sent upstream in the Multiplexer Section Overhead after Multiplexer Section AIS. or LOF has been detected by equipment terminating in a Multiplexer Section span. and similarly. In response to the different AIS signals. a Remote Alarm Indication (RAI) for a high order path is sent upstream after Path AIS or LOP has been detected by equipment terminating a Path.Fig. or LOS. Major alarm conditions such as Loss of Signal (LOS). Different AIS signals are generated depending upon which level of the maintenance hierarchy is affected. Loss of Frame (LOF). In Service Alarm Events In–Service Maintenance Signals The wide range of alarm signals and parity checks built into the SDH signal structure support effective in–service testing.

Fig.Order Path AIS or LOP has been detected by equipment terminating a Low Order Path. 11 Synchronous Multiplexers Optional Tributary Interfaces Fig. 12 Add Drop Multiplexer .

Though the regeneration of signal at repeaters is similar to PDH. This gave rise to large amounts of multiplex and separate optical line equipment.0 Network Elements in SDH Before the evolution of the standards covering synchronous transmission systems. or line side we have higher bit rate STM–N signals. Synchronous multiplexers can accept a wide range of tributaries and offer a number of possible output data rates. all current plesiochronous bit rates can be accommodated. whereas optical interfaces were entirely proprietary. 10. On the aggregate. On the tributary side. This feature makes it possible to set up ring structures. Fig. 13 Terminal Multiplexer 10. there are some additional equipment in SDH to perform function like cross–connection and OA&M functions as explained in following sections. These are characterized by defined formats and electrical interfaces at each level of the transmission hierarchy. . which have the advantage that automatic back–up path switching is possible using elements in the ring in the event of a fault. On the other hand in SDH.2 Add/Drop Multiplexer (ADM) Plesiochronous and lower bit rate synchronous signals can be extracted from or inserted into high speed SDH bit streams by means of ADMs. multiplexers performs both multiplexing and line terminating functions. networks had to be built up from separate multiplex and line terminal equipment.13 below.1 Terminal Multiplexers Terminal multiplexers are used to combine plesiochronous and synchronous input signals into higher bit rate STM–N signals as shown in Fig.10.

g. service channels E1. as the name implies. Messages are received by extracting various 64 kbit/s channels (e. F1.3 Digital Cross–Connects (DXC) Cross connection is a synchronous network involves setting up semi– permanent interconnections between different channels enabling routing to be performed down to a VC level. 15 10. Fig. in RSOH) and also can be output using these channels. This network element can have widest range of functions such as mapping of PDH tributary signals into virtual containers and switching of various containers up to and including VC–4. 14 Add/Drop Multiplexers 10. They derive their clock signals from the incoming data stream.Fig. have the job of regenerating the clock and amplitude of the incoming data signals that have been attenuated and distorted by dispersion.4 Digital Cross–Connects Regenerators Regenerators. . etc.

Part of this work has already been done. The status of synchronisation in the BSNL network is as follows : 3 nos.R. long periods of network downtime. . The synchronisation plan is based upon provision of Synchronisation Supply Units (SSUs) which will be deployed as an essential component of the synchronisation network which will support synchronised operation of the SDH network.G. Improper synchronisation planning or the lack of planning can cause severe performance problems resulting in excessive slips. However. The classical method of synchronising network element clocks is the hierarchical method (master–slave synchronisation) which is already adopted in the BSNL network for the TAXs. all the other TAXs are to be synchronised. This master–slave synchronisation uses a hierarchy of clocks in which each level of the hierarchy is synchronised with reference to a higher level.C. For synchroisation of the SDH network. – Slave Clock (Transit Node) – Slave Clock (Local Node) – SDH Network Element Clock. The back up NRC is available at Delhi. The architecture employed in the SDH requires that the timing of all the network clocks be traceable to Primary Reference Clock (PRC) specified in accordance with ITU Rec. it has been decided to use the clock source available through the TAXs at the major stations. elusive maintenance problems or high transmission error rates. From these two TAXs at Mumbai.811. the highest level being the PRC.Synchronisation The role of synchronisation plan is to determine the distribution of synchronisation in a network and to select the level of clocks and facilities to be used to time the network. A direct synchronisation link is also available between GDS Mumbai and Karol Bagh TAX at Delhi. The hierarchical level of clocks are defined by ITU as follows : – P. This involves the selection and location of master clocks for a network. the distribution of primary and secondary timing through out the network and an analysis of the network to ensure that acceptable performance levels are achieved. a proper synchronisation plan which optimises the performance. is a must for the entire digital network. Hence. all the Level–I TAXs are yet to be synchronised. of cesium clocks at VSNL Bombay provide the Master National Reference Clock (MNRC). The MNRC feeds the reference signal to the VSNL GDS at Mumbai and from the GDS both the new technology TAXs at Mumbai are synchronised.

Architecture for Primary Rate Networks SDH Equipment Clock .

4 The BSNL. . G.812. of SSUs to provide a clean reference primary source for other stations. has decided to go in for 10–20 nos. therefore. The SSU is an important component of this hierarchical master–slave synchronisation network scheme and of a slave clock belonging to the transit node level or the local node level as defined in ITU Rec. jitter and wander and provide the exact sync.Each node is associated with a particular hierarchical level of clock prescribed above and is referred to as a nodal clock. These SSUs are basically high stability filter clocks which eliminate phase transients. signal needed for every network element. 4.

10 Gbit/s). Currently. TDM could not be used to take advantage of this tremendous bandwidth due to limitations on electrical technology. WDM the spacing between . it was possible to transmit 140 Mbit/s with optical PDH – systems. it is possible with WDM wavelength division multiplex systems to transmit between 32 and 96 times 10 Gbit/s (320 Gbit/s) over very large distances. SDH and IP. The basic idea is to use different optical carriers or colours to transmit different signals in the same fibre. 2. Evolution of Transmission Capacity In the 80’s. SDH can transmit the capacity of 16 times 140 Mbit/s or 155 Mbit/s (16 X STM 1 = STM 16. In the case of optical systems the available bandwidth can exceed several Terahertz (1012Hz). With channels can be relatively large. Soon we will have 160 times 10 Gbit/s. In optical networking utilizing DWDM is analogues to accessing the unused lanes on the highway (increasing the number of wavelengths on the embedded fibre base) to gain access to an incredible amount of untapped capacity in the fibre. A distinction is made between WDM and DWDM (Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing). SDH technology in the 90’s has improved this capacity. The solution was to use frequency multiplexing at the optical level or Wavelength Division Multiplexing. Electrical circuits simply cannot work on these frequencies.5 Gbit/s) or up to 64 times 140 Mbit/s or 155 Mbit/s (64 X STM 1 = STM 64. Consider a highway analogy where one fibre can be thought of as a multi-lane highway. and in the laboratory it is possible to transmit in the terabit range (10 X 1012).DWDM 1. Consequently the vehicles on the highway can carry ATM packets. Traditional TDM systems use a single lane of this highway and increase capacity by moving faster on this single lane. An additional benefit of optical networking is that the highway is blind to the type of traffic that travels on it.

increasing the overall spectral density of the transmitted signal. TDM FDM WDM 3 Fig. Technological reasons limit DWDM applications at the moment to the third and fourth window. FDM and 2. 1 Comparison between TDM.In Dense multiplexing the frequency spacing between channels can be as small as 50 GHz or less. The losses caused by the physical effects on the signal due by the type of materials used to produce fibres limit the usable wavelengths to between 1280 nm and 1650 nm. Transmission Windows Today. usually the second transmission window (around 1300 nm) and the third and fourth transmission windows from 1530 to 1565 nm (also called conventional band) and from 1565 to 1620 nm (also called Long Band) are used. Within this usable .

0 nm 1528.6THz 196.2. Application Advantages Optical networks are opening up new horizons for telecommunication operators. The biggest advantages of such an optical network would be : . Wavelength Plan for 50 GHz Grid 3. optical networks are the future of the information superhighway.61 nm 192. New architectures will increase network reliability and decrease the cost of bit rates and distance. therefore. Technologies such as wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) and optical amplification are giving them a multitude of ways to satisfy the exploding demand for capacity. Based on existing fibre optic backbone networks.4 nm 50 GHz 1510. 0. In short. creating economic benefits for network operators and users alike.77nm 198. the idea of an all optical network (AON) is revolutionizing the structures of our communication networks.0 nm 202.10THz 1480.1 THz Fig.6THz 1560.range the techniques used to produce the fibres can cause particular wavelengths to have more loss so we avoid the use of these wavelengths as well.

providing a very high flexibility. It converts wavelength (say 1550 nm) coming from user equipment to electrical signal and electrical signal is converted into optical signal of a specific wavelength. Protocols are transmitted transparently. and maps its wavelength to the chosen WDM channel. Data. like SDH. Transponder Applications A Transponder Terminal can be used to transmit a wide variety of signal types. Its main function is OEO. Use of devices and interfaces from other vendors. Transmission of restructured signals. New services offered. ATM or PDH signals.e. Optical transparency yields a multitude of new application options and enables network operators to utilize existing network resources in a far more flexible manner. It provides major advantages such as : • • • • Greatly enhanced transmission capacity. video and voice over a common transport network 4. which forms an optical channel for particular user. . The Transponder adapts to the arbitrary bit rate of the incoming optical signal.Properties Multiple use of fibres Extremely high transport capacity at low cost Format transparency and bitrate Applications Ideal in cases of fibre shortage Multiple yielding use of optical amplifiers and decreased investments maintenance costs. The semitransparent transponder keeps one of the major advantages of the DWDM i.

SDH NE Regenerators SDH NE Fig. 4.3. Situation without WDM SDH NE SDH NE Optical Terminal MUX Optical Amplifier Optical Terminal MUX Fig.4 Situation without WDM . Situation with WDM Fig.

IP IP Tr DW DM M UX DW DM M UX Tr SD H T ra n sp o n er T ra n sp o n er SD H ATM ATM PDH PDH SD H M U X SD H M U X F ig . (d) Regenerators Real 3 R regeneration (reshaping. retiming and amplification) of the signal.5 . (b) Optical Amplifiers Pure optical 1R regeneration (just amplification) of all transmitted signals. Transponder 5. . They are necessary if the length to be bridged is too long to be covered only by optical amplifiers. the signals have to be demultiplexed. (c) Transponders Wavelength “change” and 2R regeneration (reshaping and amplification) or 3 R regeneration (reshaping retiming and amplification). Therefore. Optical NE Types We have already met following NEs : (a) Optical Multiplexer/Demultiplexer Multiplexing and Demultiplexing of different wavelength signals. electrically regenerated and multiplexed again.5. as these only perform reshaping and retiming. T r a n s p o n e r A p p lic a tio n Fig.

This may use complete de-multiplexing or other techniques. (a) By using Prism The easiest and best-known optical demultiplexer is the prism. (b) By using Diffraction Grating The function of a diffraction is very similar to that of a prism. Wave Division Multiplexing of Optical Signal (WDM). (f) Optical cross-connects To cater for the huge amount of data expected in an optical network even the cross-connects have to work on a purely optical level. 6. However channel number and impose spacing must be considered now because demultiplexers can limitations on the number of channels or the total available bandwidth. The requested properties of this device are the same as for the optical filter : isolation and signal distortion.(e) Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer Adding and Dropping only specific wavelengths from the joint optical signal. Using the effect of dispersion (different speed of light for different wavelengths). (b) (c) (d) 7. Use of passive optical components (PON). light is split into its spectral components. Description of Optical Multiplexer and Demultiplexer : An optical demultiplexer can be built as an association of optical filters or as a single stand device. Use of non-zero dispersion shifted fibre (NZ . only here interference is the important factor. . Most demultiplexers are symmetrical devices and can also be used as multiplexers. With such a grating sometimes also called a bulk grating channel spacings of done to 50 GHz can be achieved.DSF). A mixture of light is also split into its contributing wavelengths. (a) Future Trends Use of Optical Amplifier – The best developed optical amplifiers are Erbium doped fibre amplifier (EDFA) which operate at 1550 nm and praseodymium doped fibre amplifiers operating at 1300 nm. The purpose is to extract the original channels from a DWDM signal.

Red White Blue Effect of a prism Effect of a grating .

The technology has matured enought that the use of optical amplifiers in fiber-optic communication systems has now become widespread. Several kinds of optical amplifiers were studied and developed during the 1980 s.8. where the optical signal is converted into electric domain by using a receiver and then regenerated by using a transmitter. optical amplifiers which amplify the optical signal directly. systems designer. (b) Optical Amplifier Applications (i) (ii) (iii) In-line amplifiers Booster amplifiers Pre-amplifiers Booster In-line amplifiers are used to directly replace optical regenerators. Such regenerators become quite complex and expensive for multichannel lightwave systems. For long-haul WDM systems this limitation is overcome by periodic regeneration of the optical signal at repeaters. amplifiers are used immediately after the transmitter or multiplexer to increase the output power. The use of each configuration as advantages and disadvantages that must be considered by the The problems come when considering non-linear effects in the transmission fiber and also generated by the amplifiers. (a) Optical Amplifiers Introduction Fiber loss and dispersion limit the transmission distance of any fibre-optic communication system. Some of the requirements for optical amplifiers for DWDM purpose are : • • • high gain low noise flat amplification profile . Although regeneration of the optical signal is necessary for dispersion-limited systems. loss limited systems benefit considerably if electronic repeaters were replaced by much simpler and potentially less expensive. Pre-amplifiers are used before the receiver or demultiplexer to increase the received power and extend distance.

ODM X OMX O /E /O O /E /O O /E /O O p tical A m p lifier F ig. P assage from optical/electrical regen erators to op tical am plifiers B ooster Tx P ream p lifier Rx Tx Fi Rx In -lin e am plifier Tx F ig.9. A pp lications for optical am p lifiers Rx .8.

• The fibre optic transmission line can extend subscriber lines up to about 50 Km without a repeater • The DLC system has remote testing functions for convenience of maintenance the connection from a subscriber to RT and the multi- . Both terminals COT and RT are connected by PCM metallic transmission line or optical fibre cable transmission line preferable transmission network type to DLC system is in line type and tree type. Mixed use of them are permitted in a group (a channel bank) • An elementary group of the DLC transmission is the digital primary group produced by PCM-30. This section describes the Digital Loop Carrier system (DLC) as the optimum rural telephone subscriber accommodation method. the fibre optic transmission system becomes popular in technical and its material and equipment cost becomes reasonable then the combination of the DLC system and fiber optic transmission system can provide feasible rural telephone system. Features of the digital Loop carrier (DLC) system are summarized below: A typical DLC system consists of a Central Office Terminal (COT) installed in an existing local switching office a Remote Terminal (RT) installed at the subscriber lines collection Point. It can provide various modern telecommunication services to remote subscribers with high quality. In this way the DLC system can expand subscriber line up to rural area without any degradation of signal quality.gain system (Pair-saving system) which consists of a central office terminal (COT) Remote Terminal (RT) and digital transmission system.DIGITAL LOOP CARRIER SYSTEM The digital loop carrier (DLC) system is a small to medium size pair . and digital multichannel transmission link. and it can be transmitted over an existing digital transmission line. Today. At the central office side the COT receives the signals from the RT and after demultiplexed the receipt signals the COT transfers them to the local switching equipment through its subscriber line terminals. In order to accommodate rural subscribers into the existing public telephone net work the RT collects subscriber lines around the target area and transfers the collected telephone signals to the existing local switching equipment (central office) through digital transmission line. The DLC system collects plenty of traffic from remote subscribers and carries them to the local switching office of the public telecommunication network. • Various types of interface condition for subscriber and signaling are acceptable. individual subscriber is connected to the RT with usual metallic line (drop wire).

• The subscriber distribution radius of each rural area is smaller than 2-3 kilometers. . • The trunk capacity and transmission capacities of the junction line between LS are enough for newly added traffic from sub-urban and rural areas. • The sub-urban area is newly developed business center and it has emergent demand of the 200-300 subscriber lines this means that the demand is emergent but too small to introduce a new local switching center. The DLC system can be applied to discrete type or homogeneous type of subscriber distribution. • Each rural area has telephone demand of several tens subscriber lines but they are 5-10 kilometers away from the main road . TYPICAL SYSTEM CONFIGURATION Fig. commercial power supply is available for RT. The connection from COT to the subscriber line link frame of telephone switching equipment will be tested from the test board of the switching system. • The urban area and suburban area is connected by well designed highway that has good roadside space for cable duct construction. The main road has enough space for buried cable laying. • At each rural area. • The RT equipment can be installed in a special outdoor cabinet and it saves the construction fee and period • The configuration of digital transmission line can be a in line type or tree type. • Existing wooden poles of open wire transmission line are available for overhead optical fiber cable installation between main road and rural transmission link between RT to COT can be tested at the COT. • The multi-channel transmission line equipment of the DLC system has the same technical specifications as the digital toll connection line equipment. This figure is illustrated under following imaginary conditions : • The urban area is provided good telephone service and LS-1 has enough extra subscriber accommodation capacity.1 typical DLC system configuration .

1 Typical Configuration of DLC System .Fig.

DC power supply is necessary for the Remote Terminal Equipment . LTM. 2 Simplified Block Diagram of DLC System CH . A simplified block diagram of the DLC system is shown in fig-2 Both terminal equipment. The line terminal multiplexer (LTM) consists of higher order multiplexer and optical line terminal which converts the electronic signal to / from the optical signal. COT and RT consist of channel bank (CH). Analog (VF) interface (Digital or Analog Switching Equipment) Further descriptions are given by using of the details Fujitsu Digital loop Carrier Equipment.Channel Bank LTM .The digital hierarchy bit rates of the DLC120 conforms to the CCITT recommendations G 702. Subscriber end interface • 2. Model DLC-120 and Line Terminal Multiplexer Equipment Model LTM-8. . the radius of a service area belonged to a local switching office will be limited within 4-5 kilometers but introduction of DLC system expands the service area radius up to 50-60 kilometers.Supervisory facility • 1.The Channel bank consist of four PCM-30 multiplexer with signalling function. This will require some modifications of the charging system and maintenance system. Office end interface • 3.Generally. Fig.Line Terminal & Multiplexer SV . line terminal multiplexer (LTM) and fiber optic transmission line .

This combination can provide subscriber accommodation capacity up to 1920 lines No larger capacity than 1920 subscriber lines might be required in rural area application. The model LTM. the unit system will be stacked up to the capacity and higher order multiplexer and optical line terminal are combined. Model DLC -120 equipment . More larger capacity system can be established by combining the 140Mb/s higher order multiplexer equipment 140 Mb/s optical line terminal equipment and DLC-120S.The model DLC -120 is major equipment of COT and RT of a DLC system.8 is used for 8Mb/s (equivalent to 120 telephone channels) digital data transmission line and LTM-34 is used for 34Mb/s (equivalent to 480 telephone channels) digital data transmission line. 1. It is deigned as subscriber line interface unit which has 120 lines capacity for larger capacity system.

In each example 2Mb/s standard interface condition is applied between DLC–120 and LTE (LTM) . Typical terminal configuration (COT. 4. 5. 6.RT) Fig. In the Figs.2. three application examples of DLC–120 are shown.703 Central Office Terminal and Remote Terminal have similar equipment’s configuration except for the interface condition of their channel cards. 3 Typical configuration of DLC 120 & Terminal of DLC System As shown in Fig 3 the DLC -120 consists of four channel banks and together with a Multiplexer and optical line terminal it composes a major part of COT or RT of the DLC system The channel bank is a PCM -30 equipment with respective subscriber interface The 2Mb/s digital group transmission interface of the channel bank conforms to the CCITT recommendation G.

4 2Mb/s System Over Metallic Pair Cable Fig. 5 8 Mb/s System Over Optical Fibre Cable .Fig.

6 34Mb/s System over Optical Fibre Cable APPLICATION AREA ESTIMATION The DLC system application area is estimated which is made under bold manner such as • Existing local switching equipment has enough extra capacity and no additional cost is needed for new accommodation of the rural subscriber. • Subscriber distribution radius of each rural is less than 1 Km. because a little difference from above assumptions will cause a big difference of the cost estimation results In actual feasibility study. detail cost estimation should be done under the particular conditions. • • • No need of access road construction for radio station is estimated. All cables and wires are installed in overhead type. • There are no difficulties for the construction work such as cable laying. In this figure. antenna and tower construction. those application area of each system is estimated by comparison of the estimated initial investment cost referring to the experience.Fig. AC commercial power is available at every rural area. . there will be a big discrepancy between actual cost estimation and an expectation by this figure. At the less demand area.

it is clearly shown that the DLC system has very broad application area if there is an existing local switching center near the target rural community.From this figure. . the number of subscriber are more than 50 and their distribution area is limited with in 1 Km radius .The upper border of the DLC will be determined by the application area of an RSU (Remote Switch Unit) and the border number of subscriber will be about 2000.

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