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Tekelec Packet Telephony
Next Generation Networks:
Migration from Circuit to Packet – An Overview
and sometimes just “more”! This can certainly be seen in the rapid growth of mobile network usage. In the U. These too will be key demands placed upon telecommunications networks as they evolve. This paper provides a view of the telecommunication’s network migration that will occur.Introduction The world’s telecommunications market is facing dramatic change. every carrier is evaluating the economies and flexibility of a converged solution. similar regulatory events are spreading this wave of change around the world. and pricing. Regardless of location.)as memory and processor price/performance improve • “Old World” to “New World” interoperability: existing PSTN infrastructure. The mentality of anytime. Key characteristics of NGNs are: • Geographic transparency: boundaries are disappearing and economic benefits independent of service “density” must be realized • Transport efficiencies: transport costs (price/bit) are continuously declining. services. With these new competitors have come innovations in products. Furthermore. customers are seeing innovation across all areas of consumer goods and services with “just in time” services tailored to their specific needs and timeframes. the Telecommunications Act of 1996 has served as a key catalyst. Begin with the end in mind: Where are we going? Key characteristics of Next Generation Networks (NGNs) The demands on the telecommunication’s networks today and in the future are reflected clearly in the societal changes around the world. Also. The net result is that the telecommunications services market has become increasingly competitive. combined with the tremendous growth of the Internet and its associated technology has dramatically changed the incumbent service providers’ world. New competitive long distance and local service providers are challenging these venerable institutions. Page 2 111700R1 . as new services are required in an ever demanding and changing marketplace. S. NGNs must share these efficiencies – for both bearer and signaling traffic • Internet technology economics: leverage services and service delivery through the Internet. This new level of competition. more flexibility. regardless of technology. Customers of all services have historically wanted more for less. and its associated investment must be fully utilized Global resources – global reach The network of tomorrow will be the conduit to resources around the world. anywhere is becoming prevalent around the world – the primary differences between regions being largely a matter of degree. A key enabler of this innovation is the convergence of voice and data. etc. Whether its combining voice and data traffic in the carrier backbone or in the local loop. as well as the “silicon economics” of Internet hardware (servers. the uniform availability of communications services will be the fundamental differentiator between today’s and tomorrow’s networks.
In the late 90’s ISPs began delivering data to both business and residences as demand for the Internet rose. forecasts of data surpassing voice abounded. signaling. As data traffic grew. With the continuing explosion of data traffic. packet transport offers the “promise” of lower costs over traditional time division multiplexing (TDM) transport. and many more aspects. the idea of a common transport gained momentum. depending on your perspective). This has resulted in an arbitrage “play” by upstart carriers as they offer long distance voice for almost free. Packet technology in the form of the Internet has also been created major disruptions (or opportunities.This reality will be based upon standards based transport. services. Figure 1 below illustrates this from a high level. Page 3 111700R1 . Global Packet Telephony Network Service Service Service Service Service Service Universal Services: Location independent “inter-service” connections service access sessions inter-party communications Figure 1 access Where are we today? In the long distance market.
but the traffic does not go through the local voice switch. the steady increase in Internet traffic threatens to exceed these switches capacity. NGN Migration Key considerations in the evolution As carriers move towards solutions using new technologies and architectures. Compatibility with SS7 and intermachine trunk (IMT) requirements are fundamental tenants to supporting a smooth migration to a NGN. 8xx calls). etc. It would be fiscally irresponsible for their management to even consider installing a completely new network. In fact. Today. From the DSLAM the traffic is typically multiplexed into an ATM network and transported to an Internet Service Provider (ISP). the success or failure of these solutions is dictated by many factors. Within the Internet infrastructure. In fact. In particular. This compatibility insures basic call setup and teardown. open protocols is the first step to protecting a carrier’s investment. as well as access to existing Advanced Intelligent Network (AIN) services such as local number portability (LNP).S. Internet Protocol (IP) is the dominant transport. especially in replacing legacy TDM networks. as well as in the enterprise domain. it is important that these key benefits be delivered: Investment protection Operational and capital costs savings Carrier grade reliability Improved service creation capabilities Scalability Improved product selection/choices Investment Protection Today’s carriers today have billions of dollars invested in their existing networks. In fact. this ATM network is separate from the voice network. technologists from both carriers and vendors. there is significant discussion and debate over what is the “best” approach. whether it is “simply” a new network element (NE) or an entire “sub-network”. as well as industry “experts” are hotly debating over the choice of ATM versus IP as the primary transport method. and discarding their network. Given that both ATM and IP have strong supporters. These switches were engineered for traditional voice calling patterns. the local Internet traffic is terminated in the local central office (CO) by a digital subscriber loop multiplexer or DSLAM. The leading technology in this market is an “always on” connection. An example of how this could be Page 4 111700R1 . In the case of the NGNs and “deconstructed” switch / packet network replacing the circuit switch / TDM network. interoperate and leverage existing capabilities. One avenue of relief for this situation is the deployment of residential ADSL. Rather.In the local carrier market. incorporating NGN components based upon standard. characteristics such as frequency of calls and call hold times are markedly different with the added load from Internet dial traffic. U. Internet traffic is causing major concerns and driving reengineering of local End Office switches. With this in mind. free call (ex. it is critical that any new network technology.
it is reasonable to project possible savings on the order of 50% when the two networks are combined. Whether the horizon is short term or long term the fundamental “raison d’être” is lower costs. incremental upgrades to media gateways or additional media gateways occur. and VXi Media Gateway Controller family are comply with industry standards in signaling and transport. Tekelec will continue to enhance and develop capabilities in this area to insure that its customers receive the maximum return from existing infrastructure investment in transition to an NGN approach. major switch upgrades). significant cost savings will occur over the life of the network. System reliability is also addressed by implementing “mated pairs”. Carrier grade standards for availability are typified by “five nines” or 99. Since NGN solutions are premised upon open standards and are closely linked to Internet technologies. predictably.a strong determinate of pricing trends. Operational and Capital Savings The primary driver behind NGNs is. i. redundant systems often operating in synchronization. and processes whose mission is focused on maximizing network uptime.) there will be dramatic cost and innovation benefits realized – similar to those found in the data networking market with routers. Furthermore. Carrier Grade Reliability Much of the success of today’s telecommunications carriers revolves around the fact that in most industrialized countries the telephones always work.999% uptime. the IP7 Secure Gateway. etc. hard disks. Rather than large purchases (i. Purely from a acquisition cost perspective. architectures. capital budget management and growth planning are both simpler. and PCs.accomplished is shown in Appendix A. etc. interoperability with existing Operational Support Systems (OSS) is required before the NGN can actually be placed into service.e. and the incremental growth characteristic. IP7 Front End. etc. given the distributed nature of NGNs.) or hardware (server and mass storage technologies. switches. the NGN equivalent of a circuit switch – softswitch/MGC and MGs. To achieve this high level of reliability. higher revenues. as well as supporting various management capabilities. from an operational perspective. From a product perspective. links interfaces. These components are rigorously tested by manufacturers who have implemented the most stringent quality standards. economics. together can be less than one third the cost. power supplies. With the leverage of Internet technologies. reliability is typically increased by redundancy – redundant processors. whether it be software (“web” technology. Tekelec’s NGN components. Additionally. Page 5 111700R1 . Furthermore. such as ISO 9000 and TL9000. equipment manufacturers and their carrier customers have developed products. In as much as most carriers currently own and maintain both voice and data networks. or both. Open standards create choice and encourage competition -.e.
in call capacity. The NGN scales in a straightforward fashion as described above: either by incrementally adding capacity to existing media gateways. telecommunications networks have scaled rather poorly and often at significant cost to the carrier. In contrast. With long development cycles for new features.000 BHCA (Busy Hour Call Attempts) to nearly 1million BHCA. the telecommunications network has relied upon a few large suppliers. The IP7 Secure Gateway scales from 2 to 450 SS7 links. With its distributed nature – softswitch or media gateway controller.e. or in the future by adding Feature/Application Servers. The VXi MGC system is configured with redundant (active/standby) processors. Switches were either “over provisioned” to support growth or they were upgraded to include additional line and trunk cards. while the VXi MGC offers in-service upgrades from 250. i. such as SCPs. and Media Servers. “remotes” or digital loop carriers were implemented. diversely routed links providing the interconnection. redundant systems often operating in synchronization but geographically separated with redundant. Page 6 111700R1 . These solutions were usually expensive from both a capital and operating perspective. media gateways and signaling gateways all interconnected via a packet transport – an NGN solution offers both incremental growth and the ability to leverage advances in technology without the “wholesale” changes that are typical of traditional circuit switches. Tekelec has a celebrated reputation for providing carrier grade reliability in its products. This continues to be the standard industry practice and is part of Tekelec's network proposals. carrier NEBS certification. carriers often felt captive to the vendors of their install base. Tekelec will continue to work with its customers in meeting or exceeding all of the necessary requirements. and in extension to new remote locations. or by adding media gateways. and expensive upgrades to support these features. All of Tekelec’s solutions are carrier grade and meet such stringent requirements as the U. “big iron” nature of circuit switches has led to carriers being overly reliant on these large suppliers.99999%.Architecturally speaking. The IP7 Secure Gateway platform has both calculated and field proven reliability of 99. Tekelec’s products and network proposals offer industry-leading scalability. System reliability is addressed by implementing “mated pairs”. Enhanced Services can be introduced or expanded using existing Network Elements (NEs). Improved Product Selection Historically. The VXi MGC is based on carrier grade computing platforms from Sun Microsystems – the Netra series. redundant Tone and Announcement Servers. NGN architectures support incremental growth in ports (lines or trunks). This fact along with the highly integrated.S. redundancy is again the often the approach of choice. If capacity was required remotely from the serving switch. and redundant internal LANs with companion redundant hubs and routers. additional call capacity. Scalability Historically.
standards-based approach is the key to freeing carriers from this tenuous situation.). A standards-based approach is even farther away. Page 7 111700R1 . once a connection is made. As stated here several times. However.e. the telecommunications industry will face a period of standards “convergence” over the next few years. the new approach must be financially sound. The Internet is based upon a message delivery “philosophy” of “best effort”. support for integrated access devices from Woodwind and Mariposa complement this broad offering. i.. for IP networks there is significant debate on various schemes. The companion requirement to meeting customer expectations is meeting stockholder expectations. the VXi MGC supports ATM and IP MGs supplied by leading manufacturers. NGNs for voice implemented over packet networks. This is affirmed by the extensive list of media gateways supported. However. Not relying on a single transport technology or single vendor. and Cisco. echo delay. and will evolve as these protocols mature. scalability. whether using ATM or IP. There are industry wide discussions on how this is best accomplished. Tellabs. diffserv. and SIP. products that are standards-based will interoperate and offer carriers the best choices in technology. The media gateways supported by Tekelec are an integral edge component of these packet networks. round-trip delay.The NGNs distributed.2931. etc. g. the circuit is more often than not reliable. depend on timely delivery of the voice packets (one way latency. Ideally. Tekelec’s approach is founded on standards-based implementations. Contrasting today’s circuit based networks with the most visible packet based network – the Internet – a critical difference exists. wired versus wireless) and network implementation. Tekelec’s IP7 Secure Gateway and VXi MGC interface to packet networks. given the relative immaturity of the NGN market and their associated standards. they assume that these networks provide the necessary quality of service. there are clearly defined approaches to insure both quality and timeliness. In addition. and as such interoperate with the core transport to deliver the desired level of reliability and performance. and price. On the other hand. accurate and timely delivery is not guaranteed. MGCP. In other words. such as MPLS. however. Though the level of quality varies by technology type (e. customers will continue to expect steady improvement in both the actual voice quality and voice services. while a circuit switched network may not always deliver a call due to congestion. such as Newbridge (Alcatel). A key premise of NGNs for voice is the guaranteed level of service. Foremost is meeting or exceeding customer’s requirements. etc. and there is no clear choice in evidence today. Tekelec will work with its customers and MG partners to assist in creating an NGN network that meets both today’s and tomorrow’s customer expectations.. For ATM networks. This is particularly true as it relates to telephone service. A few words about Quality of Service There are a few key requirements to consider when evolving or replacing an existing service. The VXi MGC supports Q.
Migration architectures Voice Trunking: Tandem Replacement The first step supported both by the technology available and industry consensus is the migration of the voice trunking network from TDM transport to packet transport (ATM or IP). Figure 2 and Figure 3: STP STP SS7 STP End Office End Office SCN TDM Access Tandem TDM TDM SCN STP Access TDM Tandem Access Tandem TDM STP End Office SCN Traditional TDM Architecture Figure 2 SCN End Office IP7 SG SS7 STP SS7 TALI/SCTP STP End Office End Office SCN TDM Media Gateway VXi MGC MGCP UNI 4. This is demonstrated in the following two illustrations.0 Media Gateway SCN TDM Media Gateway Packet Transport Media Gateway (ATM/IP) Voice Trunking with Packet Transport TDM SCN End Office SCN End Office Figure 3 Page 8 111700R1 .
Application/Feature Server (AS/FS): This is a shared resource associated with the packet transport. pending its ratification. However. While leveraging packet transport economies. TDM trunks from End Offices. Note: Tekelec will offer standard based interfaces where available. Examining the architecture. and ingress/egress to the packet network. Voice over IP: End Office Replacement The transition to End Office support is based on the addition of two devices: • Media Gateways (MG): These are of the access gateway variety and perform the functions common to the trunking gateways of TDM to packet translations. as well as including trunk management. These MGs are of the trunking gateway variety. Variations. now use a distributed transport and switching network.Effectively. TALI). these devices continue terminate analog local loops to support traditional telephone handsets. and management of SS7/ISUP country variants. comprised of a packet transport and a softswitch / media gateway controller for call control. call forward no answer. • Page 9 111700R1 . meaning they terminate TDM trunks. number translations. etc. Packetized SS7 information is forwarded to the MGC via standard interfaces. In cases where customer’s require capabilities not yet standardized. The interface will typically be a SIP interface. etc. • Media Gateway Controller: Call control. but one that interoperates with the MGC or softswitch. The MGC controls the MGs via standards such as Q. Service Nodes. and correct trunk routing. the three key components and their roles are: • Media Gateways: TDM to Packet translation for the bearer channel. Today. or will use the latest DRAFT of a potential standard. • Signaling Gateway: Conversion of SS7 signaling from TDM to packet. such as call waiting. Tekelec will either develop and promote an open standard (e. caller ID. but the AS/FS will also support the implementation of the next level of call control features. which typically connect directly to a Tandem or Transit switch network.g. this includes TALI. screening. and in the future SCTP. based on the nature of the local loop and the intelligence of the customer telephone device are discussed below.2931 for ATM MGs and MGCP for IP MGs. this voice trunking approach also allows use of existing services provided by SCPs.
Tekelec is basing its development. and focus on standards. In a VoDSL application the VoDSL gateway can support either a traditional TDM interface (GR-303) to a standard End Office switch. the migration to “intelligent” phones. SIP phones. the requirement for continued support of “black phones” will remain for many years. there are no carrier grade installations of true “black phone” to “black phone” with the requisite services supported. Page 10 111700R1 . recommended architectures. Due to the huge number of installed telephones.0 SS7 TALI/SCTP STP SIP Application Server Media Gateway Media Gateway End Office End Office SCN TDM SCN TDM Access Gateway TDM Packet Transport (ATM/IP) Media Gateway SCN Access Gateway End Office SCN End Office Voice Trunking and End Office Support with Packet Transport Figure 4 The current state of the industry for End Office support can best be characterized as experimental. With this in mind. with the abundant availability of Microsoft’s NetMeeting application. another viable component. Another emerging technology well suited to the softswitch/End Office approach is voice over DSL (VoDSL). deployable capabilities for End Office applications. Tekelec is actively working with customer’s today to move towards viable.The Voice over IP architecture is shown below in Figure 4: IP 7 SG SS7 STP VXi MGC Media Gateway MGCP/ UNI 4. While there are actual implementations of PC to PC and PC to phone. the PC to PC approach has been based on H. it is critical that any NGN implementation provide the flexibility to support whatever access technology is predominant. used as a media gateway.323. Historically. ex. or it can support a suitable “packet” oriented interface such as Media Gateway Control Protocol (MGCP). becomes available. This will allow a straightforward migration to various access technologies as they implement standard interfaces such as MGCP and SIP. This model is based on the assumption that the end user device is significantly more intelligent than today’s telephone handset. With the advent of voice and data integrated access devices leveraging the bandwidth available from digital subscriber loop technology. There is also significant development underway to implement SIP and SIP phones as the “next generation” of customer telecommunications devices.
follow me – expansion of existing services to include recognition of a user’s online presence as a contact reference / location.) Find me. etc. this capability serves primarily to minimize a carrier’s internal problem (i. SCN. In addition. the new services will involve logically coupling Internet sessions with the voice capability of the PSTN. there will be linkages between Internet. Internet traffic causing congestion in switches designed for voice traffic with 3-minute hold times).Converged Services: PSTN/Internet Interworking Another step in NGN migration is the incorporation of the Internet into the overall telecommunications architecture. typically based upon the “sending” web site content to a user supplied number from an Internet session. In reality. text to voice. One of the early applications involving softswitches has been the offloading of traffic destined for the Internet from the circuit switched network. Various options regarding call acceptance are possible. but one that creates and sends a fax. Unified Messaging – providing true integration of various messages into a single multimedia “mailbox” and offering translations between the media (voice to text. however. Examples include: • • • • • • Internet Call Waiting – allowing an incoming call alert to be displayed on a PC window while maintaining an Internet connection. New services are possible. Click to fax – an ability similar to click to talk. from an access perspective could be viewed as the initial capability of the converged services aspect of NGNs. Content to Audio – retrieval of Internet based content in an audio format to a user-selected device. and VoP to support the capabilities listed above as well as other services. This application.. Primarily. but does not offer any new capabilities to customers. customer service. Click to talk – the ability to initiate a voice call while visiting a web site supporting a voice dialog for ordering. etc.e. The converged services approach would most likely be an incremental migration from the previous VoIP solution to include additional devices such as: • • Mediation media gateway – “access point” to Internet transport services with appropriate firewall capabilities Media servers – devices capable of offering retrieval and translation of content to differing media. This high level architecture is shown in Figure 5 below: Page 11 111700R1 . with a converged services network.
SIP (ATM/IP) Mediation Gateway Access Gateway Media Server SCN End Office Web PC Pager Internet PDA SIP Phone Converged NGN/Internet Figure 5 Services today and in the future A key issue in the migration from today’s PSTN to any NGN is the creation of new services. form the initial services platform. Page 12 111700R1 . NGNs which implement some form of signaling gateways and SS7 interconnects.0 SS7 TALI/SCTP STP SIP Application Server Media Gateway End Office End Office SCN TDM Media Gateway SCN Access Gateway TDM Media Gateway Packet Transport MGCP. Once this capability is insured then implementation of additional services databases and the requisite interoperability rules and protocols can be defined. This service compatibility requires welldefined interface points and clear protocols between the two environments (PSTN and NGN). For this reason.IP7 SG SS7 STP VXi MGC MGCP/ UNI 4. while maintaining existing services. along with “higher-up-the-stack” capabilities such as TCAP and AIN features.
For now. Deregulation has opened up this market for aggressive and agile entrants who do not have the burdensome capital investment in traditional networking equipment. change is certainly here. from another perspective nothing is sure. In fact. Conclusion The future of NGNs is from one perspective assured: the traditional TDM network will be replaced. Whether the architecture of the “new world” replaces the “old world” in next five years or ten years. are dramatically affecting the market for both the every day subscriber and the incumbent carriers. a new market opportunity for offering services is likely to develop form today’s nascent application service provider (ASP) space. but what exactly will an NGN look like? When will NGNs be implemented? And. (Authorization is assumed). it is critical that equipment suppliers and carriers alike understand the dynamics of the changing telecommunications landscape. what will be the key services of the future? These and other questions will be answered in the coming months and years.The vision of the NGN is that these services can reside anywhere and be accessed by anyone. These new entrants . Appendices Page 13 111700R1 . “Internet-time” has reached the carrier market.CLECS and ICPs.
9.27 MG Controller 6.18.29 MG Controller Gateway ISUP/TCAP/IP SIP+ [MGC] [MGC] [SG] 4.24 SSP 1 LEC A Media Gateway [MG] MGCP RTP MGCP [MG] FGD Trunks ISUP/SS7 LEC B 11 .5.23.14.(RTP connection) [MG] SSP LEC C LNP Message Flow Network Configuration Source: IN Forum. IN-IP Workgroup Figure 6 Page 14 111700R1 .26.16.25 Signaling Gateway ISUP/TCAP/IP [SG] SIP+ ISUP/TCAP/IP ISUP/SS7 FGD Trunks IP Network FGD Trunks 10.12.Appendix A PSTN to IP to PSTN Message Flow Diagram with LNP Query SCP SCP 8 ISUP/TCAP/SS7 ISUP/TCAP/SS7 IP IXC Signaling 3.28 22.214.171.124 SSP 126.96.36.199.21 MGCP 2.
PSTN (call origination) to VoIP to PSTN (call destination) with an LNP Query LEC A OFF-HOOK IAM IAM ISUP/IP .IAM CRCX ACK INVITE TCAP/IP (LNP) TCAP (LNP) TCAP (LNP) TCAP (LNP-Response) TCAP TCAP/IP (LNP-Response) CRCX ACK ISUP/IP . IN-IP Workgroup Page 15 111700R1 .IAM IAM IAM 100 TRYING MDCX ACK ACM ACM ISUP/IP (ACM) 180 RINGING MDCX ACK ISUP/IP (ACM) ACM ACM ANM ANM ISUP/IP (ANM) 200 OK ISUP/IP (ANM) ANM ANM ACK 25 26 27 28 29 OFF HOOK 24 18 19 20 21 22 23 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 8 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 Origination Origination Media Media Gateway Gateway Controller Origination Signaling Gateway STP SCP STP Terminating Terminating Terminating Signaling Media Gateway Media LEC B LEC C Gateway Controller Gateway Figure 7 – LNP Message Flow Diagram Call Scenario B Source: IN Forum.
or an integrated MGC/MG *** ) 4. the called party has changed from Carrier B to Carrier C. 12. and sends a CRCX (create connection . The originating MG (OMG) returns an ACK acknowledgement containing the originating MG (OMG) RTP port address to be used for the call. The destination Media Gateway Controller (DMGC) launches a TCAP/IP (IP encapsulated TCAP SIGTRAN) LNP query to the destination Signaling Gateway (DSG). LEC A sends SS7 IAM to the originating SG (OSG). 10. 2.LNP Service Delivery . ( The SG is shown as a separate physical element and uses the open interface being developed by IETF/SIGTRAN *** The SG may be integrated with the MGC. and sends an ACK (connection acknowledge) to the destination Media Gateway Controller (DMGC) containing the destination MG RTP port information used for the IP connection. 5. and forwards it to the DSG. refer to Figure 6. The originating MGC (OMGC) determines where the call is destined and sends an INVITE command to the destination Media Gateway Controller (DMGC) with the encoded IAM. The destination MG (DMG) establishes an RTP connection with the originating MG (OMG). The destination Media Gateway Controller (DMGC) sends 100 TRYING to the originating MGC (OMGC). 13. The destination Media Gateway Controller (DMGC) determines the destination MG (DMG) based on the LRN and sends a CRCX (create connection . refer to Figure 7. 9. 1. 11. Note: This Call Scenario does not contain the call tear-down messaging at this time. and sends it to the originating MGC (OMGC). 14. The 100 TRYING message contains the destination MG RTP port information to be used for the call. The destination Media Gateway Controller (DMGC) updates the IAM based on the LNP query response.MGCP) command to the destination MG connected to Carrier C. The OSG receives and encapsulates the IAM in an IP packet (SIGTRAN). 8. The message numbers also correspond to the LNP Network Diagram. The LNP database may return the Location Routing Number (LRN) or the original dialed digits. MG. 6. formats an SS7/IAM message and forwards it to Carrier C. Caller goes off hook. thus an LRN for Carrier C is returned in the LNP TCAP response.Message Flow Description The message numbers contained in this message flow description correspond to the numbering in the LNP Message Flow Diagram. The destination SG receives the encapsulated IAM. The DSG encapsulates the LNP response in an IP packet and sends it to the destination Media Gateway Controller (DMGC). encapsulates it in an IP packet. 7. In this instance. Destination Media Gateway Controller (DMGC) receives the INVITE and parses the IAM portion and determines the NPA-NXX resides in a ported MSA.MGCP) command to the originating MG (OMG). 3. The originating MGC (OMGC) (Media Gateway Controller) parses the IP encapsulated IAM. The DSG removes the IP encapsulation and sends an SS7 LNP TCAP query to the LNP SCP. 16 .
The originating MG (OMG) sends an ACK (connection acknowledge) to the originating MGC (OMGC). 19. 27. Destination Media Gateway Controller (DMGC) sends 200 OK command to the originating MGC (OMGC) containing the encoded ANM.15. IN-IP Workgroup Page 17 111700R1 . 21. updates. 28. extracts. The originating MGC (OMGC) sends a MDCX (modify connection . 22. 18. 20. The originating MGC (OMGC) sends an MDCX (modify connection) command to the originating MG (OMG). 25. The Called Party answers the phone. The originating SG removes the encapsulation and forwards the ACM to Carrier A. ************** Call Setup Complete************* Source: IN Forum. 24. LEC C returns an ACM to the SG. Destination Media Gateway Controller (DMGC) sends 180 RINGING message to the originating MGC (OMGC) containing the encoded ACM. The originating MG (OMG) establishes an RTP connection to the destination MG and sends an ACK (connection acknowledge) to the originating MGC (OMGC). encapsulates and forwards the ANM to the OSG. The originating MGC (OMGC) acknowledges the 200 OK by sending an ACK message to the destination MGC. 17. and sends it to the destination Media Gateway Controller (DMGC). 16. 26. The destination SG encapsulates the ANM (SIGTRAN).voice cut through) to the originating MG (OMG). Originating MGC (OMGC) receives 200 OK command. Carrier C sends an ANM to the destination SG. The originating Signaling Gateway (OSG) encapsulates the ACM and sends it to the destination Media Gateway Controller (DMGC). The originating MGC (OMGC) forwards the updated ACM to the OSG. 23. The origination SG strips off the IP encapsulation and forwards the ANM to Carrier A. 29.
NG HTML.) are effectively used. as the NGN technologies mature and are deployed the more complete the move to NGNs. These cost advantages are key drivers for NGNs. the more substantial will be the benefits. Regardless of the level of NGN “integration” into today’s existing circuit switched networks. both hardware and software products are on dramatically different price/performance curves from traditional telecommunications equipment. These seldom interworked. the traditional telecommunications networks depended on a select group of vendors offering closed. the volume (that drive prices down) and the standards (that promote interoperability) form yet two more techno-economic reasons for NGN implementation. Furthermore. this “promise” has yet to be realized simply because NGN’s are still in their infancy. this evolution compared to the rapid evolution seen in the PC and Internet worlds has occurred at a snail’s pace. Since the NGNs leverage significant aspects of these two areas. This market structure favored vendors and allowed significant control of product evolution by these same vendors. Contrasting that with “Moore’s Law” in the PC market place and “Internet time” in the Internet communications space illustrate a key motivator for NGNs. the operational costs of combining (i. The fourth and perhaps the most unproven reason for migration to NGN implementation is the ability of these new networks to support rapid introduction of new and different services. however. etc. There are at least four key techno-economic drivers for NGNs: • Costs (capital and operational) • Price/performance • Standards • Speed of innovation and introduction of services With the dramatic hardware technology changes in the PC world (“obsolescence. however they are not the only drivers.” typically in 18 months) and the rapid innovation within the Internet. LDAP. benefits will be realized. except at clear lines of demarcation in standard interfaces. If Internet technologies (ex. converging) the traditional disparate voice and data networks ostensibly could be in the 50% range as well. rapid. Today’s circuit switched architecture(s) have evolved over the last 100 years. Page 18 111700R1 . However. millions and millions) and rapidly evolving standards – but standards nonetheless. Today’s PC and Internet markets are based on “consumer” market quantities (eg. Historically. Industry analysts often quote IP network capital costs to be as little as 50% of comparable switched network costs. DNS. however.Appendix B Techno-economic discussion for Next Generation Networks (NGN).e. Consistent with the characteristics of Internet applications. innovative services may prove to be the most compelling reason for NGNs. The lifecycle of equipment in the traditional telecommunications marketplace is measured in decades. proprietary solutions.