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Kindergarten Power|Views: 152|Likes: 0

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/58776621/Kindergarten-Power

06/27/2011

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**Chris Biffle Jay Vanderfin
**

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Kindergarten Power Pix, copyright 2009, Chris Biffle and Jay Vanderfin

Introduction Kindergarten Power Pix Overview Four Steps For Teaching Kindergarten Power Pix Kindergarten Language Arts Power Pix Reference list Kindergarten LanGuage Arts Power Pix Signs Kindergarten Math Power Pix Reference List Kindergarten Math Power Pix Signs Free Resources Copyright and Contact Information

4 6 11 23 68 104 134 177 179

All rights reserved. Copies of this document may be reproduced for use by individual teachers. However, no portion of this document may be sold, or offered for sale, without the written permission of the authors.

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Kindergarten Power Pix, copyright 2009, Chris Biffle and Jay Vanderfin

A significiant quantity of brain research demonstrates that we learn best by seeing, saying, hearing and doing. When we see information, we employ the visual cortex near the rear of the brain; when we say and hear information, the language centers, Broca’s area and Wernicke’s area near the front of the brain are active. When we engage in a physical learning activity we employ the motor cortex, our most reliable memory producer, located in a band across the top, center of the brain. Not every learning activity, however, employs all four learning modes. In fact, the most common teaching model, the instructor talking and students listening, is judged by most brain scientiests as the most inefficient way for the brain to acquire new information. Put bluntly, the longer we talk, the more students we lose. What we need in education, from kindergarten through college, are teaching materials and pedagogical styles that are designed for whole brain instruction. For the last nine years I and my teaching colleagues have been developing and classroom testing brain friendly learning modules. We want our students to see, say, hear and do … we want them to experience the joy and power of learning with their whole brains. Power Pix, as you will see employ all four learning modes, and are designed to solve a very practical problem, how to teach the state standards in language arts and math (this edition is designed for the California State Standards.) In 1999, my former student Jay Vanderfin and I began to search for a way to make learning more engaging for our classes. I had some success in my college courses using diagrams to teach complex philosophical topics; Jay was seeking an entertaining technique for teaching the California State Standards to his kindergarteners.

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Kindergarten Power Pix, copyright 2009, Chris Biffle and Jay Vanderfin

In addition to philosophy, I had also taught art history; I was astonished at my students’ ability to attach the correct titles and painters to hundreds of paintings. My classes could process and retain huge quantities of visual information but had a lot of trouble remembering five or ten dates of important historical events. However, when I created a series of memory gestures to accompany the dates, their learning improved dramatically. As I related these experiences to Jay, we both became convinced that the solution to the serious problem of teaching California State Standards had to reside in some combination of visual, auditory, oral and physical learning. And so we set forth on a remarkable journey. We were looking for something that we had never seen before, a multi-modal pedagoguey that teachers could apply to any educational core concept. As we experimented with solutions and researched methods of learning, we eventually learned to call our approach “a whole brain learning method.” We were delighted to see how the visual cortex, auditory cortex, sensory motor cortex, even the amygdala (which processes pleasure and pain) and limbic system (the seat of emotions) were involved in the system we were creating. Jay and I, and our colleague, Chris Rekstad, a fourth grade teacher at Valley Elementary in Yucaipa, gave countless seminars to Southern California teachers, showing rough drafts of our approach ... and we were astonished at the enthusiastic reception we received. We gave away samples of our materials by the box load, over 10,000 pages, to teachers who were eager to try our strategies. Over the last five years, we’ve had a tremendous amount of constructive feedback and have carefully honed and classroom tested the materials you are about to investigate.

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Kindergarten Power Pix, copyright 2009, Chris Biffle and Jay Vanderfin

**Kindergarten Power Pix Overview
**

This booklet is devoted to 35 language arts concepts and 38 math concepts for kindergarteners. The concepts are (in alphabetical order): Language Arts author, black, blue, capital letter, characters, colors, end mark, exclamation mark, fiction, front cover, gray, green, illustrator, letters, lowercase alphabet, nonfiction, orange, period, purple, question mark, red, rhyming words, sentence, setting, sorting, spaces, syllables, table of contents, title, title page, uppercase alphabet, vowels, yellow, white, word Math counting 1 to 5, counting 1 to 10, addition, big hand on a clock, calendar, circle, clock, cone, cube, cylinder, equal numbers, equals sign, estimate, evening, Friday, less than , little hand on a clock, minus sign, Monday, more than, morning, noon, plus sign, pointer counting, rectangle, Saturday, sorting, sphere, square, subtraction, Sunday, Thursday, today, tomorrow, triangle, Tuesday, Wednesday, yesterday Virtually every kindergarten teacher in the country mentions some or all these concepts. If you put yourself in the shoes of a youngster new to school, many of these terms would be no more familiar than oddities of Shakespearean English are to adult readers. Hamlet says, “Who would fardels bear when he could his quietus make with a bare bodkin?” If Hamlet’s meaning is unclear to you, then imagine a pre-literate kindergartener’s confusion when the teacher says, “Always begin your sentence with an upper case letter and finish with a period.”

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Kindergarten Power Pix, copyright 2009, Chris Biffle and Jay Vanderfin

Our classroom tested materials, called Power Pix, enormously simplify the task of teaching these, and many other, core concepts. Power Pix are pictures (usually public domain clip art) used to represent and teach California State Standards. Each Power Pix is printed on a sheet of computer paper. The picture represents the California State Standard; teaching resources for each Power Pix are in the Power Pix Reference List in this manual (for language arts, see page x; for math, see page y). Teachers hold up the Power Pix in the front of their classroom and teach the concept and related memory gesture. After students have repeated the concept and practiced the gesture, the Power Pix is placed on a classroom wall for frequent review. Typically, students can master over 100 Power Pix in a year! Power Pix are an entertaining, effective way for students to acquire large quantities of core knowledge. On the following pagea are a sample Pix and its reference list information

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Kindergarten Power Pix, copyright 2009, Chris Biffle and Jay Vanderfin

**Sample: Power Pix for author
**

California State Standard (Reading 1.3) Picture representing standard Key word in standard (for ease of reading by students, syllables are color coded) Definition of key word (An author writes the words of a book, story, or poem.) Blue border identifies language arts; red border identifies math.

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Kindergarten Power Pix, copyright 2009, Chris Biffle and Jay Vanderfin

Sample: Power Pix Reference List for author . author Question: What is an author? Answer: An author writes the words of a book, story or poem. Gesture: Pretend as if you were writing in the air with a pencil. California State Kindergarten Standard: Reading 2.1: Locate the title, table of contents, name of author, and name of illustrator. Teaching suggestion: (Teach author and illustrator together.) Hold up books and describe the difference between the tasks of an author and an illustrator. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Does this have an author? (Hold up books and also “non-author” materials, like chalk, erasers, etc.) 2. Does every book have an author? 3. Is this the author gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Authors write books. 2. A girl or a boy could be an author. 3. Authors write poems. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with author and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for author and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.)

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Kindergarten Power Pix, copyright 2009, Chris Biffle and Jay Vanderfin

Power Pix employ all four of the brain’s learning modes: --Visual (visual cortex): students learn by looking at a picture representing a concept. --Auditory (Wernicke’s area): students hear the definition of the concept. --Verbal (Broca’s area): students say the definition of the concept to themselves and their classmates. --Kinesthetic (motor cortex): students practice a memory gesture associated with the concept. In addition, Power Pix can be used to develop critical thinking skills which bring together the frontal cortex (reasoning), the hippocampus (memory formation) and the language centers (Wernicke’s area and Broca’s area): --Paraphrasing: after learning the definition of a concept by rote, students can paraphrase the definition by explaining it to their neighbors. --Comparison/Contrast: students can talk and write about similarities and differences among Power Pix. --Connective Thinking: students can talk and write about connections between the concepts and their experience outside the classroom. Finally, Power Pix are ideally suited for collaborative learning. Looking at Pix placed on the wall, students review what they have learned in teams of two. One student asks the question represented by the picture, “What is an author?”; the other student gives the answer, “An author writes the words of a book, story or poem.” When the first student has finished reviewing all the Pix, the students switch roles. The questioner becomes the answerer; the answerer becomes the questioner.

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Kindergarten Power Pix, copyright 2009, Chris Biffle and Jay Vanderfin

**Four Steps for Teaching Kindergarten Power Pix
**

We believe the best way to teach Power Pix is to use a graduated program like the following: Step One: Show your students the picture and teach them the concept (for example, author) and the gesture from the Power Pix Reference List (writing in the air with an imaginary pencil). Put the Power Pix on the wall; review the concept and gesture frequently for at least a week. Step Two: When your class has mastered the concept and gesture, use the Power Pix Reference List to teach them the question (What is an author?) and the answer (An author writes the words of a book, story or poem). For additional learning aids, see the Teaching Suggestion for each Power Pix in the Power Pix Reference List. Step Three: After several weeks of reviewing the concept, gesture, question and answer, you’re ready to assess your students’ understanding. The Power Pix Reference List contains two simple assessment games designed for each Power Pix, Yes/No Way! and Cutie. Yes/No Way! This game provides a rapid evaluation of your students’ understanding without using a pencil and paper test! Simply ask your class questions about a Power Pix that can be answered Yes, or No Way! The Power Pix Reference List contains at least three Yes/No Way! questions for each Pix.

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Kindergarten Power Pix, copyright 2009, Chris Biffle and Jay Vanderfin

Here are the Yes/No Way! questions for the author Power Pix above. 1. Does this have an author? (Hold up books and also “non-author” materials, like chalk, erasers, etc.) 2. Does every book have an author? 3. Is this the author gesture? (Make various gestures.) Ask your class these and other questions about the Power Pix. Tell your students to answer the questions in chorus, either Yes!, or No Way!. Students should be encouraged to pump their fist vigorously when saying Yes!, or shake one finger in emphatic negation (as if exclaiming “No! No! No!”) when saying “No Way!” As students respond in chorus, you can quickly determine how many in your class understood the Power Pix concept. Cutie Yes/No Way! is a rapid meaasure of all your students’ understanding of a Power Pix. Cutie evaluates the understanding of individual students. Cutie is a quick test, abbreviated QT and thus pronounced “Cutie.” When you say “Cutie!,” your students respond “Cutie!” and close their eyes. Next, you make statements about the Power Pix concept that are either true or false. When the statement is true, students, still with their eyes closed, raise their hands. When the statement is false, they keep their hands down. Cutie is a remarkably powerful assessment of individual understanding which, like Yes/No Way!, requires no pencil/paper test. You can tell simply by looking at the show of hands how many of your students understood the Power Pix lesson. The Power Pix Reference List contains at least three Cutie statements for each Pix.

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Kindergarten Power Pix, copyright 2009, Chris Biffle and Jay Vanderfin

Here are the Cutie statements for the author Power Pix above. 1. Authors write books. 2. A girl or a boy could be an author. 3. Authors write poems. Step Four: When your students have mastered the concept, the gesture, question, answer, and successfully passed the assessments, have them play Compare/Contrast and then engage in the Review activities described below. Compare/Contrast Describing similarities and differences between core concepts is an important, higher order thinking activity that should be practiced at every level of instruciton. After the Power Pix concept is understood, students should talk to each other about the similarities and differences they see between one concept and others they have learned. When students explain comparisons to each other, they should lace their fingers together; when they describe differences they should bump their closed fists together. These visual cues reinforce, and make entertaining, comparing (fingers laced together) and contrasting (fists bumping each other.) For a sample demonstration of this comparison and contrast activity, see a video of Jay Vanderfin and his fourth graders at:

www.youtube.com/chrisbiffle or at http://www.teachertube.com/uprofile.php?UID=32259

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Kindergarten Power Pix, copyright 2009, Chris Biffle and Jay Vanderfin

Review Students should be encouraged to frequently review the questions, answers and gestures for the Power Pix they have learned. This review can take a variety of formats: One student makes a Power Pix gesture; his/her partner states the appropriate Power Pix Question and Answer. One student asks a Power Pix Question; his/her partner states the Power Pix Answer. The teacher makes a Power Pix gesture and students give the Answer and/or the Question. The teacher states a Power Pix Question and/or Answer and the students make the appropriate Power Pix gesture. During a timed trial (typically one minute) students work individually or in teams to state as many Power Pix Questions and/or Answers and/or Gestures as possible.

Note that in a procedure like steps 1-4 described above, your students move from relatively simpler tasks, linking a word, picture and gesture to more intellectually complex tasks, inventing their own comparisions and contrasts that create new associations in information they’ve learned. If you follow our suggestions, lower order thinking skills involving the speech, motor and visual centers of the brain lay the foundation for higher order thinking skills involving memory and the prefrontal cortex. You’ll find students amaze themselves, and you, at the amount of information

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Kindergarten Power Pix, copyright 2009, Chris Biffle and Jay Vanderfin

they are able to retain and organize. What are Power Pix? Whole brain learning at its most efficient! Here are some additional suggestions for using Kindergarten Power Pix. Because Kindergarten Power Pix are the foundation of what students need to know in their first year of school, they should be incorporated into as many parts of the curriculum as possible. As you will see, Power Pix can be used in very brief lessons (often no more than one minute) to not only teach core concepts but also to reinforce other important areas of instruction. As you teach each Power Pix, place it on the wall. Whenever you wish, use this wall for a convenient and rapid review of any or all the material you have covered. • Point at various Pix and ask, “What is this?’ Students chorus in complete sentences, “That is a …” (author, period, uppercase letter, etc.) • Point at various Pix and say, “Name this Pix and make the gesture!” • Point at various Pix and say, “Name it! What is the question?! What is the gesture?! What is the answer?!” • Tell your students, “Turn to your neighbor, take turns pointing to the Pix and, as quickly as you can, say the question each picture represents.”

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Kindergarten Power Pix, copyright 2009, Chris Biffle and Jay Vanderfin

• Make the gesture for a Pix, for example, writing in the air. Your students mirror your gesture and then say in chorus what the gesture represents, “That is an author!” • As part of “quiet time” stand in front of the Pix wall, point at each Pix, silently make the gesture. Your students silently mirror your gestures. Here is a list of ways Power Pix can be used to supplement the kindergarten curriculuum.. 1. When you teach letter recognition, A, B, C, etc., go to your Power Pix wall and point at a letter. Say, “Is this an A?” Students must respond in chorus with a complete sentence, either “Yes, that is an A!” or “No, that is not an A!” All humans learn by linking new information with old information. When you learn a foreign language you link new information, “mesa”, with old information “table.” When you teach your class to recognize the letter “A” on your alphabet chart, you then want them to link that information to the new information of an “A” on the Power Pix wall. In fact, this is an excellent way for you to determine your students’ progress. When they can recognize Power Pix letters after learning alphabet letters, they are on track to mastering letter recognition. In general, we want students to respond in unison, not individually, because we want the entire class, not merely star students, involved learning. We also want students to respond to all our

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Kindergarten Power Pix, copyright 2009, Chris Biffle and Jay Vanderfin

questions with complete sentences because, obviously, speaking in complete sentences is fundamental to oral and written communication. 2. When you teach the difference between a capital letter and lower case letter, go to your Power Pix wall and ask, “Is this a capital A?” Students respond, “Yes, that is a capital A!” or “No, that is not a capital A!” In both this exercise and the previous one, your class should be encouraged to vigorously nod their heads and smile when speaking in the affirmative and shake their heads and frown when speaking in the negative. We want students to incorporate body language because this coordinates their brain’s motor cortex with their visual and auditory cortex. We also want students to attach emotions to their responses because emotions, controlled by the brain’s limbic system, are powerful learning aids. 3. When you teach lessons 1 and 2 above, occasionally vary your tone of voice. Students will laugh and mimic your silly voice, robot voice, super fast voice, etc. Any learning activity that is entertaining increases student engagement. The “fun center” of the brain involves the amygdala and the limbic system. According to the English philosopher John Stuart Mill, all humanity is “driven by two sovereign masters, pleasure and pain.” In modern scientific terminology, he might have said, all humanity is driven by the amygdala and the limbic system.

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Kindergarten Power Pix, copyright 2009, Chris Biffle and Jay Vanderfin

4. Power Pix can be used to practice classroom rules. Power Teaching’s rule 1 is “Follow directions quickly.” Say to your class, “all right, we are going to practice rule 1, following directions quickly.” Then speaking very quickly, point at various Power Pix; identify them with complete sentences, “Here are characters! There is a circle!” and so forth as your students quickly repeat what you’ve said. You can also can also use Power Pix to practice rule 1 and other important kindergarten core knowledge as follows: -- Colors and Rule 1: Say quickly, “If this Power Pix is blue, stand up and sit down!” Add other colors, red, green, etc. -- Shapes and Rule 1: “If this Power Pix has a circle in it, stand up and sit down!” Add other shapes, square, triangle, etc. -- Time and Rule 1: “if we learned this Power Pix yesterday, clap your hands and say ‘Oh yeah, we learned it yesterday!’ If we didn’t learn it yesterday, shake your heads and say ‘Oh no, we didn’t learn it yesterday!’ Add other times, this morning, this afternoon, last night at midnight!, before breakfast. -- Comparisons and Rule 1: “If this Power Pix is higher than this Power Pix say quickly, ‘That Pix is higher!’” Add, before/after, above/below, right/ left.

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Kindergarten Power Pix, copyright 2009, Chris Biffle and Jay Vanderfin

5. You can also practice Power Teaching’s rule 2, “Raise your hand for permission to speak” and rule 3 “Raise your hand for permission to leave your seat” using the techniques above. Simply say, “All right. Now, before you answer, I want you all to raise your hand”... and then when everyone has their hand raised, they can answer your question in unison. Or, “Before you answer, I want you all to raise your hand. You are asking for permission to leave your seat, which will mean standing up.” Then when all your students have their hands up, they stand and repeat the answer to your question in unison. Then say, “Sit down quickly and fold your hands!” before going on to the next prompt. Following directions quickly, raising hands for permission to speak or leave seats are fundamental to an orderly class. By incorporating classroom rules, as we have suggested with Power Pix you are involving many areas of your students’ brains and creating the foundation of a solid classroom management system. 6. By rearranging the Power Pix wall occasionally you will not only renew your students’ interest in Power Pix (children always notice and comment when new orders are created) but also teach important pattern recognition skills. When students can recognize Power Pix no matter where they are on the wall, they have moved up an important level in understanding.

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Kindergarten Power Pix, copyright 2009, Chris Biffle and Jay Vanderfin

7. When you are teaching your students to count, stand in front of your Power Pix wall and simply point at Pix and ask them to count in unison. 8. Simple math skills can be reinforced by saying, “Here is one Power Pix and here is another Power Pix. How many do I have?” Or, “Here are two Power Pix and I take away one. How many do I have?” The class should be responding in unison with complete sentences, “You have two Power Pix!” or “You have one Power Pix!” 9. The math routines just mentioned can be supplemented with language development skills. Give one Power Pix to Mary and another to John. Say, “How many Power Pix do John and Mary have?” Your class responds in unison, “John and Mary have two Power Pix.” Spread other Power Pix around the classroom. Say, “Juan has a Power Pix and Susie has a Power Pix and Tanya has a Power Pix. How many do they have?” Your class responds in unison, “Juan, Susie and Tanya have three Power Pix!” 10. Power Pix can be used to help students to employ key sight words in sentences. Let’s say you have just taught the word “the.” Go to your Power Pix wall and point at various Pix and say, “Repeat after me! This is the cylinder.” Your students respond in unison, mimicking your emphasis. Keep pointing at Pix and emphasizing “the” as you speak. Because sight words are so common in our language, you won’t have much problem constructing sentences incorporating them

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Kindergarten Power Pix, copyright 2009, Chris Biffle and Jay Vanderfin

as you point at Pix. For “to” you could say, “My finger is going to the circle!” For “this” you could say, “This is our Power Pix!” And so forth. 11. Language development skills can be increased by asking students to use a Power Pix in a sentence. For example, a student might say, looking at the three pigs on the “characters” Power Pix, “I like pigs.” Many other students will follow suit, “I like circles.” “I like letters.” After a number of students have responded say, “Okay. Great! Now let’s try a harder game. Use a Power Pix in a sentence, but don’t use the word ‘like’.” As the year progresses, students can be asked to speak two, then three sentences, describing a Power Pix. 12. Important critical thinking skills can be developed simply by asking two fundamental questions, “Which two Power Pix are alike?” “Which two Power Pix are different?” Students should be taught to respond using the following introductory phrases, “Characters and setting are alike because ....” “Characters and setting are different because ....” Note that these prompts contain what might be the most important of all words used in reasoning, “because.” When students follow the prompt, “X is like Y because ...” or “X is unlike Y because ...” They are engaged in a fundamental critical thinking skill, backing up a conclusion, with evidence.

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Kindergarten Power Pix, copyright 2009, Chris Biffle and Jay Vanderfin

13. You can teach your students the basic concepts of a narrative simply by asking, “Who can tell me a story using one Power Pix?” As the school year unfolds, the difficulty of the narrative task can be increased, "Who can tell me a story using two Power Pix ... using three Power Pix?", etc. 14. Emphasize Power Pix concepts that are mentioned in stories, or other material, you read to your class. Point out objects in the class or on the playground that are related to Power Pix. In both these ways, you will be showing your students how their environment is composed, in large measure, of the concepts displayed on the Power Pix wall. 15. When students make drawings, encourage them to incorporate at least one of their favorite Power Pix. If you are wondering why your students should be spending so much time, in so many ways, involved with Power Pix, the answer is simple. Power Pix are nothing but visual representations of kindergarten core knowledge. Millions of dollars of grants and countless hours of research have been spent in identifying the fundamental components of a students’ first year of education. The more familiar your students are with Power Pix and their interconnections with the major areas of your curriculum, the more successful they will be in your class and in the rest of their education.

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Kindergarten Power Pix, copyright 2009, Chris Biffle and Jay Vanderfin

(alphabetical order)

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Kindergarten Power Pix, copyright 2009, Chris Biffle and Jay Vanderfin

author Question: What is an author? Answer: An author writes the words of a book, story or poem. Gesture: Pretend as if you were writing in the air with a pencil. California State Kindergarten Standard: Reading 2.1: Locate the title, table of contents, name of author, and name of illustrator. Teaching suggestion: (Teach author and illustrator together.) Hold up books and describe the difference between the tasks of an author and an illustrator. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Does this have an author? (Hold up books and also “non-author” materials, like chalk, erasers, etc.) 2. Does every book have an author? 3. Is this the author gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Authors write books. 2. A girl or a boy could be an author. 3. Authors write poems. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with author and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for author and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.)

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Kindergarten Power Pix, copyright 2009, Chris Biffle and Jay Vanderfin

black Question: What is black? Answer: A tire is black. Gesture: Spin your hands round and round as if they were a tire rolling; say “rrrrr” as if you were motor running California State Kindergarten Grade Standard: Reading 1.17: Identify and sort common words in basic categories (e.g., colors, shapes, foods) Teaching suggestion: While your students are involved in individual or group activities, assemble various colored objects on your desk, including some that are black. Point at things on your desk and in the classroom; use the prompt: “Is this black?” Students respond in chorus, “Yes, that is black!” or “No, that is not black!” Ask students to name, using complete sentences, objects that are, or can be, black. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this black? (Hold up various objects and point at things around the classroom.) 2. Are tires black? 3. Is this the black gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. The sky is black. 2. A crayon can be black.

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Kindergarten Power Pix, copyright 2009, Chris Biffle and Jay Vanderfin

3. Tires are black. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with black and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for black and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.)

blue Question: What is blue? Answer: The sky is blue. Gesture: Lift both hands up toward the sky.; say “geee!” in appreciation of the beauty of the sky California State Kindergarten Grade Standard: Reading 1.17: Identify and sort common words in basic categories (e.g., colors, shapes, foods) Teaching suggestion: While your students are involved in individual or group activities, assemble various colored objects on your desk, including some that are blue. Point at things on your desk and in the classroom; use the prompt: “Is this blue?” Students respond in chorus, “Yes, that is blue!” or “No, that is not blue!” Ask students to name, using complete sentences, objects that are, or can be, blue. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this blue? (Hold up various objects and point at things around the classroom.)

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Kindergarten Power Pix, copyright 2009, Chris Biffle and Jay Vanderfin

2. Is the sky blue? 3. Is this the blue gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. The sky is blue. 2. An orange is blue. 3. All books are blue. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with blue and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for blue and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.)

capital letter Question: What is a capital letter? Answer: A capital letter is a big letter. Every sentence must begin with a capital letter. Gesture: Point one finger up in the air to indicate that a capital letter “stands up.” When you say the word “must” pound your fist in your palm. California State Kindergarten Grade Standard: Core Concept, but not identified as part of California State Standards for kindergarten.

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Kindergarten Power Pix, copyright 2009, Chris Biffle and Jay Vanderfin

Teaching suggestion: (teach capital letter and uppercase letters together.) While your class is involved in individual or group activities, write sentences on the board that have correct and incorrect capitalization. Capitalize various letters in the first word of each sentence, so that students see that capitalizing the first letter is correct. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this correct capitalization? (Point at various letters on the board.) 2. Is a capital letter a big letter? 3. Is this the capital letter gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Every sentence must begin with a capital letter. 2. A capital letter is a big letter. 3. Every sentence must end with a capital letter. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with capital letter and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for capital letter and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.)

**characters Question: What are characters? Answer: Characters are people, animals, or even things in a story.
**

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Kindergarten Power Pix, copyright 2009, Chris Biffle and Jay Vanderfin

Gesture: Using two fingers on each hand, walk your fingers through the air, as if they were characters running around in a story. California State Kindergarten Standard: Reading Comprehension 3.3: Identify characters, settings, and important events. Teaching suggestion: (teach plot, characters and setting together) Tell your class a simple story, like The Three Little Pigs. Explain the difference between plot, setting and character. Ask your students to retell each other a story they have read as a group. After their discussion, ask students to describe the characters. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Does every story have characters? 2. Could a character in a story be an animal? 3. Is this the character gesture? (Make various gestures.) 4. Could a character in a story be a talking orange? 5. Could a character in a story be a little girl? Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Characters are people, animals, or even things in a story. 2. All characters in stories must be people. 3. Every story has characters. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with characters and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for characters and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.)

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Kindergarten Power Pix, copyright 2009, Chris Biffle and Jay Vanderfin

colors (eight colors) Question: What are eight colors? Answer: Eight colors are red, blue, green, yellow, purple, orange, white and black. Gesture: Hold up eight fingers. (Point at the colors as the students name them.) California State Kindergarten Grade Standard: Reading 1.17: Identify and sort common words in basic categories (e.g., colors, shapes, foods) Teaching suggestion: Point at various objects in the classroom and ask students to name the colors. Point at one of the colors on the 8 Colors Power Pix and ask students to name objects that are the same color. Your prompt is, “What color is this?” Students respond in chorus, “That is the color blue!” or “That is the color red!”, etc. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is red a color? 2. Is apple a color? (Substitute other objects and colors.) 3. Is this the 8 colors gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Green is a color. 2. Two is a color. 3. Everything has a color. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with 8 Colors and other Power Pix.

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Kindergarten Power Pix, copyright 2009, Chris Biffle and Jay Vanderfin

Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for 8 colors and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.)

end marks Question: What are end marks? Answer: End marks are periods, exclamation marks and question marks. Every sentence must end with an end mark. Gesture: Make gestures from other Power Pix : periods (Poke the air in front of your face with your forefinger, as if putting a period at the end of a sentence), exclamation marks (Raise your fist over your head and then bring it down excitedly as if you were saying, “Yes!”), question marks (Hold your hands palms up, as if you are saying “what?”) California State Kindergarten Grade Standard: Core Concept, but not identified as part of California State Standards for kindergarten. Teaching suggestion: (Teach end mark after period, exclamation mark, and question mark.) Explain the concept of end marks. Point at other Power Pix including the Pix for period, exclamation mark and question mark and ask, “Is this an end mark?” Students respond in chorus with complete sentences, “Yes, that is an end mark!” or “No, that is not an end mark!” Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is a period an end mark?

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Kindergarten Power Pix, copyright 2009, Chris Biffle and Jay Vanderfin

2. Does an end mark go at the start of a sentence? 3. Is this the end mark gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. An exclamation mark is an end mark. 2. End marks go at the end of sentences. 3. A capital letter is an end mark. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with end mark and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for end mark and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.)

exclamation mark Question: What is an exclamation mark? Answer: An exclamation mark goes at the end of a sentence to show excitement. Gesture: Raise your fist over your head and then bring it down excitedly as if you were saying, “Yes!” California State Kindergarten Grade Standard: Core Concept, but not identified as part of California State Standards for kindergarten. Teaching suggestion: While your class is involved in individual or group activities, write a variety of sentences on the board, with and without exclamation marks. Explain to your students the concept of exclamation marks.

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Kindergarten Power Pix, copyright 2009, Chris Biffle and Jay Vanderfin

Ask students to note how the same sentence has a different meaning, when an exclamation mark is added. “Dad likes beans. Dad likes beans? Dad likes beans!” Have students repeat after you, as you change your inflection to indicate a sentence has or lacks an exclamation mark. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this an exclamation mark? (Point at various letters and grammatical marks on the board.) 2. Does an exclamation mark go at the start of a sentence? 3. Is this the exclamation mark gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. An exclamation mark is a question mark. 2. An exclamation mark shows excitement. 3. Every sentence must have an exclamation mark. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with exclamation mark and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for exclamation mark and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.)

fiction Question: What is fiction? Answer: Fiction is a story that is made up, not real.

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Kindergarten Power Pix, copyright 2009, Chris Biffle and Jay Vanderfin

Gesture: Using three fingers, point to both your eyes and an extra eye in the middle of your forehead. (This symbolizes that a person with three eyes would not be real, would be “fictional”). California State Kindergarten Grade Standard: Reading 3.1: Distinguish fantasy from realistic text. Teaching suggestion: (teach fiction and non-fiction together.) Hold up books that students are familiar with; discuss plots and other elements that make them works of fiction. Ask students about movies, superheroes, cartoons that they know; discuss imaginary, “made up” elements. Contrast fiction and nonfiction Power Pix. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is the story about Batman fiction? (Insert other fictional and nonfictional stories students know.) 2. If a story is fiction, is it made up? 3. Is this the fiction gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. All books are fiction. 2. A story about a girl with wings is fiction. 3. A story is fiction if it is not real. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with fiction and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for fiction and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.)

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Kindergarten Power Pix, copyright 2009, Chris Biffle and Jay Vanderfin

front cover Question: What is the front cover of a book? Answer: The front cover of a book has the book’s title and the author’s name. Gesture: Hold one hand palm up. Tap twice on this hand as if tapping on the title and author’s name on a book cover. California State Kindergarten Grade Standard: Reading 1.1: Identify the front cover, back cover, and title page of a book. Teaching suggestion: Hold up books in a variety of ways, front cover to the front, to the back, upside down and so forth. Ask students to tell you when you are holding the book “the right way.” Tap the back cover, front cover, spine, inside pages of the book. Ask students to tell you when you are tapping the book’s front cover. Your prompt is, “Am I tapping the front cover?’ Students respond in chorus with complete sentences, “Yes, you are [or are not] tapping the front cover.” Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this the front cover of this book? (Hold up and point at various parts of books.) 2. Does the front cover of a book have the book’s title? 3. Is this the front cover gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. All books have front covers. 2. The front cover of a book has the author’s name. 3. The front cover of a book is always red.

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Kindergarten Power Pix, copyright 2009, Chris Biffle and Jay Vanderfin

Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with front cover and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for front cover and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.)

gray Question: What is gray? Answer: An elephant is gray. Gesture: Put both hands in front of you and swing them, like you are an elephant swinging your trunk. California State Kindergarten Grade Standard: Reading 1.17: Identify and sort common words in basic categories (e.g., colors, shapes, foods) Teaching suggestion: While your students are involved in individual or group activities, assemble various colored objects on your desk, including some that are gray. Point at things on your desk and in the classroom; use the prompt: “Is this gray?” Students respond in chorus, “Yes, that is gray!” or “No, that is not gray!” Ask students to name, using complete sentences, objects that are, or can be, gray. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this gray? (Hold up various objects and point at objects around the classroom.) 2. Can the sky be gray? 3. Is this the gray gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following:

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Kindergarten Power Pix, copyright 2009, Chris Biffle and Jay Vanderfin

1. An elephant is gray. 2. All bananas are gray. 3. Gray is a color. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with grey and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for grey and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.)

green Question: What is green? Answer: Grass is green. Gesture: Point both hands down as if pointing at grass; say “achoo!” as if the grass made you sneeze. California State Kindergarten Grade Standard: Reading 1.17: Identify and sort common words in basic categories (e.g., colors, shapes, foods) Teaching suggestion: While your students are involved in individual or group activities, assemble various colored objects on your desk, including some that are green. Point at things on your desk and in the classroom; use the prompt: “Is this green?” Students respond in chorus, “Yes, that is green!” or “No, that is not green!” Ask students to name, using complete sentences, objects that are, or can be, green. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following:

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Kindergarten Power Pix, copyright 2009, Chris Biffle and Jay Vanderfin

1. Is this green? (Hold up various objects and point at objects around the classroom.) 4. Is the grass green? 5. Is this the green gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 4. The sky is green. 5. Plants are green. 6. Green is a color. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with green and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for green and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.)

illustrator Question: What is an illustrator? Answer: An illustrator draws the pictures in a book, story or poem. Gesture: Use both hands to make a frame, as if you were a photographer or a painter.

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Kindergarten Power Pix, copyright 2009, Chris Biffle and Jay Vanderfin

California State Kindergarten Grade Standard: Reading 2.1: Locate the title, table of contents, name of author, and name of illustrator. Teaching suggestion: (teach author and illustrator together.) Hold up sample pages from books with illustrations and describe the tasks of an illustrator. Contrast the activities of authors and illustrators. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Does this have an illustrator? (Hold up illustrated books and also “non-illustrated” materials, like chalk, erasers, etc.) 2. Does every book have an illustrator? 3. Is this the illustrator gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Illustrators write the words in a book. 2. A girl or a boy could be an illustrator. 3. Illustrators make pictures in books. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with illustrator and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for illustrator and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.)

letters

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Kindergarten Power Pix, copyright 2009, Chris Biffle and Jay Vanderfin

Question: What are letters? Answer: Letters can be joined together to make words. Gesture: Wiggle one finger to represent a letter. California State Kindergarten Grade Standard: Reading 1.5: Distinguish letters from words. Teaching suggestion: While your class is involved in individual or group activities, make a list of letters and numbers on the board. Explain the difference between letters and numbers. Point at items from one list and then the other. Your prompt is, “Is this a letter?” Students respond in chorus with, “Yes, that is a letter!” or “No, that is not a letter!” Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this a letter? (Point at letters and numbers on the board.) 2. Are letters and numbers the same? 3. Is this the letter gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. “B” is a letter. 2. “Four” is a letter. 3. Letters are in the alphabet. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with letters and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for letters and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.)

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Kindergarten Power Pix, copyright 2009, Chris Biffle and Jay Vanderfin

lowercase alphabet Question: What is the lowercase alphabet? Answer: The lowercase alphabet is the small letters of the alphabet. Gesture: Hold your thumb and forefinger together to indicate small letters. California State Kindergarten Grade Standard: Reading 1.6: Recognize and name all uppercase and lowercase letters of the alphabet. Teaching suggestion: (Note that the vowels are in black and the “y” is the only red letter.) While your class is involved in individual or group activities, write the upper and lowercase alphabets on the board. Explain the difference between the two alphabets. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this a lowercase letter? (Point at lowercase and uppercase letters on the board.) 2. Is this the lowercase alphabet Power Pix? (Point at various Power Pix.) 3. Is this the lowercase alphabet gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Lowercase letters are the big letters of the alphabet. 2. Lowercase letters are the small letters of the alphabet. 3. “a, b, c,” start the lowercase alphabet. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with lowercase alphabet and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for lowercase alphabet and other Power Pix.

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Kindergarten Power Pix, copyright 2009, Chris Biffle and Jay Vanderfin

(For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.)

nonfiction Question: What is nonfiction? Answer: Nonfiction is a story that is real, not made up. Gesture: Point to both your eyes. California State Kindergarten Grade Standard: Reading 3.1: Distinguish fantasy from realistic text. Teaching suggestion: (Teach fiction and nonfiction together.) Hold up a newspaper or other nonfictional documents; discuss the difference between real and imaginary events. Ask students to talk about who they are in their daily lives and who they pretend to be when playing. Contrast fiction and nonfiction Power Pix. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is a story about a talking rabbit nonfiction? 2. Is this the nonfiction Power Pix? (Point at various gestures.) 3. Is this the nonfiction gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Nonfiction stories are real, not made up. 2. A story about a flying dog would be nonfiction. 3. A nonfiction story is about something that really happened. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with nonfiction and other Power Pix.

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Kindergarten Power Pix, copyright 2009, Chris Biffle and Jay Vanderfin

Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for nonfiction and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.)

orange Question: What is orange? Answer: An orange is orange. Gesture: Pretend as if you were peeling an orange; say, “mmmm, delicious!” California State Kindergarten Grade Standard: Reading 1.17: Identify and sort common words in basic categories (e.g., colors, shapes, foods) Teaching suggestion: While your students are involved in individual or group activities, assemble various colored objects on your desk, including some that are orange. Point at things on your desk and in the classroom; use the prompt: “Is this orange?” Students respond in chorus, “Yes, that is orange!” or “No, that is not orange!” Ask students to name, using complete sentences, objects that are, or can be, orange. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is orange a color? 2. Is this the orange Power Pix? (Point at various Power Pix.) 3. Is this the orange gesture? (Make various gestures.)

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Kindergarten Power Pix, copyright 2009, Chris Biffle and Jay Vanderfin

Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. An orange is orange. 2. Orange is the color of apples. 3. A crayon could be orange. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with orange and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for orange and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.)

period Question: What is a period? Answer: A period goes at the end of a sentence. Gesture: Poke the air in front of your face with your forefinger, as if putting a period at the end of a sentence. California State Kindergarten Grade Standard: Core Concept, but not identified as part of California State Standards for kindergarten. Teaching suggestion: (Teach period, exlamation mark and question mark together.) While your class is involved in individual or group activities, write sentences on the board that end with periods, exclamation marks or question marks. Explain to your students the concept of periods. Ask students to note how the same sentence has a different meaning, when the end mark changes. “Dad likes beans. Dad likes beans? Dad likes beans!” Have

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Kindergarten Power Pix, copyright 2009, Chris Biffle and Jay Vanderfin

students repeat after you, as you change your inflection to indicate a sentence has or lacks a period. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this a period? (Point at various letters and grammatical marks on the board.) 2. Does a period go at the start of a sentence? 3. Is this the period gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. A period is a question mark. 2. A period shows excitement. 3. Every sentence must have period. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with period and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for period and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.)

purple Question: What is purple? Answer: Grapes are purple. Gesture: Pretend as if you were plucking a grape from a bunch and then eating it; say, “Yum! Yum! Yum!”

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Kindergarten Power Pix, copyright 2009, Chris Biffle and Jay Vanderfin

California State Kindergarten Grade Standard: Reading 1.17: Identify and sort common words in basic categories (e.g., colors, shapes, foods) Teaching suggestion While your students are involved in individual or group activities, assemble various colored objects on your desk, including some that are purple. Point at things on your desk and in the classroom; use the prompt: “Is this purple?” Students respond in chorus, “Yes, that is purple!” or “No, that is not purple!” Ask students to name, using complete sentences, objects that are, or can be, purple. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is purple a color? 2. Is this the purple Power Pix? (Point at various Power Pix.) 3. Is this the purple gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. An orange is purple. 2. Purple is the color of grapes. 3. A crayon could be purple. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with purple and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for purple and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.)

question mark

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Kindergarten Power Pix, copyright 2009, Chris Biffle and Jay Vanderfin

Question: What is a question mark? Answer: A question mark is placed at the end of a sentence to show it is a question:. Gesture: Hold your hands palms up, as if you are saying “what?” California State Kindergarten Grade Standard: Core Concept, but not identified as part of California State Standards for kindergarten. Teaching suggestion: (Teach period, exclamation mark and question mark together.) While your class is involved in individual or group activities, write sentences on the board that end with periods, exclamation marks or question marks. Explain to your students the concept of question marks. Ask students to note how the same sentence has a different meaning, when the end mark changes. “You like dogs. You like dogs? You like dogs!” Have students repeat after you, as you change your inflection to indicate a sentence has or lacks a question mark. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this a question mark? (Point at various letters and grammatical marks on the board.) 2. Does a question mark go at the start of a sentence? 3. Is this the question mark gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. A question mark is a period. 2. A question mark shows excitement. 3. Every sentence must have a question mark. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with question mark and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for question mark and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.)

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Kindergarten Power Pix, copyright 2009, Chris Biffle and Jay Vanderfin

red Question: What is red? Answer: An apple is red. Gesture: Pretend as if you were reaching up high to pluck an apple from a tree; say “ohhhh!” as if you were stretching very hard. California State Kindergarten Grade Standard: Reading 1.17: Identify and sort common words in basic categories (e.g., colors, shapes, foods) Teaching suggestion: While your students are involved in individual or group activities, assemble various colored objects on your desk, including some that are red. Point at things on your desk and in the classroom; use the prompt: “Is this red?” Students respond in chorus, “Yes, that is red!” or “No, that is not red!” Ask students to name, using complete sentences, objects that are, or can be, red. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is red a color? 2. Is this the red Power Pix? (Point at various Power Pix.) 3. Is this the red gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. An orange is red. 2. Some apples are red. 3. A crayon could be red.

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Kindergarten Power Pix, copyright 2009, Chris Biffle and Jay Vanderfin

Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with red and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for red and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.)

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Kindergarten Power Pix, copyright 2009, Chris Biffle and Jay Vanderfin

rhyming words Question: What are rhyming words? Answer: Rhyming words are two words that sound the same. Gesture: Hold up three fingers on each hand. Wiggle the first finger on each hand. These are the letters that change in the rhyme on the Power Pix: cop and pop. California State Kindergarten Grade Standard: Reading 1.10: Identify and produce rhyming words in response to an oral prompt. Teaching suggestion: While your class is involved in individual or group activities, write pairs of words on the board, some of which do, and do not, rhyme, sing, thing, ball, bat, ball, small, etc.. Explain the concept of rhyming words. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Do these two words rhyme? (Point at various pairs of words.) 2. Do “sing” and “thing” rhyme? (Substitute other pairs of words that do, and do not, rhyme.) 3. Is this the rhyming words gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. “Hat” and “cat” are rhyming words. 2. “Dog” and “frog” are rhyming words. 3. “Hat” and “apple” are rhyming words. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with rhyming words and other Power Pix.

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Kindergarten Power Pix, copyright 2009, Chris Biffle and Jay Vanderfin

Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for rhyming words and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.)

sentence Question: What is a sentence? Answer: A sentence is a complete message. Every sentence must start with a capital letter and must end with an end mark. Gesture: Hold your hand up to your ear as if listening to a phone. Pound your fist into your palm when you say “must.” (We prefer to define a sentence as a “complete message” rather than a “complete idea.” Ask your students to imagine someone calls them in the middle of the night and says, “is phone” and hangs up. This is not a complete message. We call this the midnight phone call test and use it to help students understand the difference between sentences (complete messages) and fragments (incomplete messages). Sentences pass the midnight phone call test; they make sense. Fragments don’t pass the midnight phone call test; they don’t make sense (at midnight or any other time.)) California State Kindergarten Grade Standard: Reading 1.1: Recognize and use complete, coherent sentences when speaking. Teaching suggestion: While your class is involved in individual or group activities, write sentences and phrases (fragments) on the board, for example, I like apples, liking apples, Juan goes home, goes home, etc. Explain the concept of the midnight phone call test to your class. Ask students to hold imaginary phones to their ears. Speak

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Kindergarten Power Pix, copyright 2009, Chris Biffle and Jay Vanderfin

sentences (complete messages) and fragments to them. Ask them to loudly say “huh?” when they hear a fragment. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this a sentence? (Point at various sentences and phrases on the board.) 2. Is a sentence a complete message? 3. Is this the sentence gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Say, “We’re going to play Cutie. When I speak words that are a sentence, please raise your hand.” 1. I like you. 2. Running along the beach. 3. Lentisha runs along the beach. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with sentence and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for sentence and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.)

setting Question: What is a setting? Answer: A setting is where a story takes place. Gesture: Sweep your arms out in the air, indicating that the classroom could be the setting for a story. California State Kindergarten Grade Standard: Reading 3.3: Identify characters, settings, and important events.

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Kindergarten Power Pix, copyright 2009, Chris Biffle and Jay Vanderfin

Teaching suggestion: (teach plot, characters and setting together) Tell your students a simple story, like The Three Little Pigs. Explain the difference between plot, setting and character in the story. Ask your students to retell each other a story they have read as a group. After their discussion, ask students to describe the setting. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Does every story have a setting? 2. Could the setting in a story be a city? 3. Is this the setting gesture? (Make various gestures.) 4. Could the setting in a story be a character? 5. Could the setting in a story be a farm? Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. A setting is where a story takes place. 2. Every story has a setting. 3. A setting could be an imaginary place. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with setting and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for setting and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.)

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Kindergarten Power Pix, copyright 2009, Chris Biffle and Jay Vanderfin

sorting Question: What is a sorting? Answer: Sorting is putting things together that are similar. Gesture: Using both hands, pretend as if you are sorting items on a table in front of you. California State Kindergarten Grade Standard: Reading 1.7: Identify and sort common words in basic categories (e.g. colors, shapes, foods). Teaching suggestion: Sorting is an important intellectual skill which will take kindergarteners some time to learn. Give students various colored shapes to sort: triangles, squares, circles. Ask them to sort the objects by shape and then by color. Show students other examples of objects that are, and are not, similar. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Are these two things the same color? (Hold up a variety of objects that are, and are not, the same color.) 2. Do these two things have the same shape? (Hold up a variety of objects that are, and are not, the same shape.) 3. Is this the sorting gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Sorting is putting things together that are similar.

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Kindergarten Power Pix, copyright 2009, Chris Biffle and Jay Vanderfin

2. A blue crayon and a blue grape have the same color. 3. A circle and a ball are both round. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with sorting and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for sorting and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.)

spaces Question: What are spaces? Answer: Spaces must separate words in a sentence. Gesture: Hold up a forefinger on each hand and jab the fingers up and down, as if indicating spaces between words. California State Kindergarten Grade Standard: Penmanship 1.4: Write uppercase and lowercase letters of the alphabet independently, attending to the form and proper spacing of the letters. Teaching suggestion: While your students are involved in individual or group activities, write short sentences on the board that have, and don’t have, good spacing between the words. Explain the concept of spacing to your students. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this good spacing between words? (Point at examples on the board.) 2. Do we need good spacing to make words easy to read?

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Kindergarten Power Pix, copyright 2009, Chris Biffle and Jay Vanderfin

3. Is this the spaces gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Words in a sentence should be separated by spaces. 2. We need good spacing to make sentences easy to read. 3. We should write our words as close together as possible. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with spaces and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for spaces and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.)

syllables Question: What are syllables? Answer: Syllables are parts of words. Ta-ble has two syllables. Car has one syllable. Gesture: Clap out the syllables for table and car. California State Kindergarten Grade Standard: Reading 1.13: Count the number of sounds in syllables and syllables in words. Teaching suggestion: While your students are involved in individual or group activities, write a list of simple one and two syllable words on the board. Explain the concept of syllables. Speak a list of words with one and two syllables.. Have students join you in clapping out the syllables. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following:

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Kindergarten Power Pix, copyright 2009, Chris Biffle and Jay Vanderfin

1. Does _______ have one syllable? (Point at and say various words on the board. Say the word slowly; clap once or twice to indicate the number of syllables.) 2. Does cat have one syllable? (Substitute other words.) 3. Is this the syllable gesture? (Say the answer above and clap for the syllables in table and car.) Quick Test: Say, “We’re going to play Cutie. When I say a word with one syllable, please raise you hand.” 1. dog 2. girl 3. grasshopper Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with syllables and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for syllables and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.)

table of contents Question: What is the table of contents? Answer: The table of contents is near the front of a book and shows the book’s parts. Gesture: Put both palms together. (This symbolizes a closed book.) Then, open your hands. (This symbolizes opening a book.) Then, with one finger, tap several times on the palm of the other hand. (This symbolizes tapping at various places on the table of contents.) Act out and explain this routine with your hands and also with books.

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California State Kindergarten Grade Standard: Reading 2.1: Locate the title, table of contents, name of author, and name of illustrator.” Teaching suggestion: Point at various parts of a book, the title, the title page, the table of contents. Explain the concept of a table of contents. Holding up sample books, explain the difference between the table of contents, cover, title and title page. Using as many different books as possible, hand each student a book. Ask them to quickly open their book to the table of contents. Check to see if they have opened to the correct page. Finally, ask them to trade books and do the exercise again. Repeat as many times as necessary. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this the table of contents? (Hold up books and point to various parts of each book.) 2. Is the table of contents the same as the title page? 3. Is this the table of contents gesture? Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. The table of contents shows a book’s parts.. 2. A table of contents is near the middle of a book. 3. A table of contents is near the start of a book. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with table of contents and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for table of contents and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.)

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29. title

Question: What is the title? Answer: The title is the name of a book, story or poem. Gesture: Put both palms together. (This symbolizes a closed book.) Then, with one finger, tap on the back of the other hand. (This symbolizes tapping on the book’s title.) Act out and explain this routine with your hands and also with books. California State Kindergarten Grade Standard: Reading 2.1: Locate the title, table of contents, name of author, and name of illustrator. Teaching suggestion: Point at various parts of a book, the title, the title page, the table of contents. Explain the concept of the title. Holding up sample books, explain the difference between the table of contents, cover, title, and title page. Using as many different books as possible, hand each student a book. Ask them to quickly point at the title. Then, ask your students to open their book to the title page. Check to see if they have opened to the correct page. Finally, ask your class to trade books and do the exercise again. Repeat as many times as necessary. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 3. Is this the title? (Hold up books and point to various parts of each book.) 4. Is the title the same as the table of contents? 3. Is this the title gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. The title shows a book’s parts..

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2. The title of a book is on the front cover. 3. The title of a book is in the middle of the book. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with title and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for title and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.)

title page Question: What is the title page? Answer: The title page has the book’s title and the author’s name. Gesture: Put both palms together. (This symbolizes a closed book.) Then, open your hands. (This symbolizes opening a book.) Then, with one finger, tap once on the palm of the other hand. (This symbolizes tapping on the title page.) Act out and explain this routine with your hands and also with books. California State Kindergarten Grade Standard: Reading 1.1: Identify the front cover, back cover, and title page of a book. Teaching suggestion: Point at various parts of a book, the title, the title page, the table of contents. Explain the concept of the title page. Holding up sample books, explain the difference between the table of contents, cover, title, and title page. Using as many different books as possible, hand each student a book. Ask them to quickly point at the title page. Check to see if they have opened to the correct page. Finally, ask your class to trade books

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and do the exercise again. Repeat as many times as necessary. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this the title page? (Hold up books and point to various parts of each book.) 2. Is the title page the same as the table of contents? 3. Is this the title page gesture? Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. The title page shows a book’s parts.. 2. The title page has the title of the book. 3. The title page of a book is in the middle of the book. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with title page and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for title page and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.)

uppercase alphabet Question: What is the uppercase alphabet? Answer: The uppercase alphabet is the big letters of the alphabet Gesture: Put one hand high above the other, showing that the uppercase alphabet is made of “big” letters.

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California State Kindergarten Grade Standard: Reading 1.6: Recognize and name all uppercase and lowercase letters of the alphabet. Teaching suggestion: (Note that the vowels are in black and the “y” is the only red letter.) While your students are involved in individual or group activities, write the uppercase and lowercase alphabet on the board. Explain the difference between the two. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this an uppercase letter? (Point at various letters on the board.) 2. Are upper case letters the big letters of the alphabet? 3. Is this the uppercase gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Uppercase letters are the small letters of the alphabet. 2. “A, B, C” are the first three letters of the uppercase alphabet. 3. “4” is an uppercase letter. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with uppercase alphabet and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for uppercase alphabet and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.)

**vowels Question: What are vowels?
**

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Answer: Vowels are a-e-i-o-u and sometimes y. Every word must have a vowel. Gesture: Use your forefinger to point at the fingers on the other hand. These fingers represent a-e-i-o-u. Then wiggle the pointing finger to represent “sometimes y.” California State Kindergarten Grade Standard: Reading 1.14: Match all consonant and short-vowel sounds to appropriate letters. Teaching suggestion: While your students are involved in individual or group activities, write the alphabet on the board. Underline and explain the concept of vowels. Point at letters in the alphabets on the board and on Power Pix cards. Ask your class to say “That is a vowel!” each time you point at a-e-i-o-u. They should say “Sometimes y is a vowel!” when you point at the y. Your students should say “Those are consonants!” when you point at the other letters. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this a vowel? (Point at various letters.) 2. Is “R” a vowel? (Substitute various letters.) 3. Is this the vowel gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Say, “We’re going to play Cutie. When I say a letter that is a vowel, raise your hand.” 1. R 2. E 3. T Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with vowels and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for vowels and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.)

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white Question: What is white? Answer: Clouds are white. Gesture: Wave one hand back in forth in the air as if pointing at a large cloud; say “ahhh!” as if you were appreciating its beauty. California State Kindergarten Grade Standard: Reading 1.17: Identify and sort common words in basic categories (e.g., colors, shapes, foods) Teaching suggestion: While your students are involved in individual or group activities, assemble a group of colored objects on your desk, including some that are white. Point at things on your desk and in the classroom; use the prompt: “Is this white?” Students respond in chorus, “Yes, that is white!” or “No, that is not white!” Ask students to name, using complete sentences, objects that are, or can be, white. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this white? (Hold up various objects and point at things around the classroom.) 2. Is grass white? 3. Is this the white gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Clouds are white.

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2. Apples are white. 3. All books are white. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with white and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for white and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.)

word Question: What is a word? Answer: A word is a group of letters that make sense. Gesture: Hold the fingers of one hand wide apart (these are “letters”). Then snap your fingers together indicating the letters have been joined together to make a word. California State Kindergarten Grade Standard: Reading 1.15: Read simple one-syllable and high-frequency words (i.e., sight words).” Teaching suggestion: While your students are involved in individual or group activities, write two and three letter words on the board; mix them up with nonsense words like “rr”, “xvy” etc. Ask your students to say “That is a word!” and make the word gesture whenever you point at a word. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this a word? (Point at various words, and nonsense words, on the board.) 2. Is “spooink” a word? (Substitute various words and nonsense words.)

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3. Is this the word gesture? Quick Test: Say, “We’re going to play Cutie. When I say something that is a word, please raise your hand.” 1. Hill 2. Street 3. Nurwarddle Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with word and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for word and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.)

yellow Question: What is yellow? Answer: The sun is yellow. Gesture: Wipe imaginary sweat from your forehead as if you were sweating beneath a hot sun; say “whew!” California State Kindergarten Grade Standard: Reading 1.17: Identify and sort common words in basic categories (e.g., colors, shapes, foods) Teaching suggestion: While your students are involved in individual or group activities, assemble various colored objects on your desk, including some that are yellow. Point at things on your desk and in the classroom; use the prompt: “Is this yellow?” Students respond in chorus, “Yes, that is yellow!” or “No, that is not yellow!” Ask

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students to name, using complete sentences, objects that are, or can be, yellow. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this yellow? (Hold up various objects and point at things around the classroom.) 2. Is the sun yellow? 3. Is this the yellow gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Lemons are yellow. 2. Tires are yellow. 3. All cats are yellow. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with yellow and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for yellow and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.)

If you’d like more information about Power Pix, or would like to schedule a Power Pix demonstration at your school, contact Chris Biffle at: Cbiffle@AOL.com

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(alphabetical order)

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addition Question: What is addition? Answer: Addition is putting together. (If you prefer a definition that is more complete, use “Addition is putting numbers or things together.” The definition we have used, “Addition is putting together” makes a clear contrast to our definition of subtraction, “Subtracting is taking away.”) Gesture: Start with your hands wide apart. Then, hold up two fingers on one hand and three fingers on the other hand. Finally, bring your two hands together so that you are showing your students a group of five fingers. California State Kindergarten Math Standard: Number Sense, 2.1: Use concrete objects to determine the answers to addition and subtraction problems (for two numbers that are each less than 10). Teaching Suggestion: (Teach addition and subtraction together) While your students are involved in individual or group projects, write simple addition and subtraction problems on the board. Use these problems and groups of objects to teach students the concept of addition. Point out that adding with numbers always involves a plus sign. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this an addition problem? (Point at various problems on the board.) 2. Is this the addition picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the addition Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the addition gesture? (Make various gestures; include addition occasionally.) 4. Is four plus six addition? (Use other examples, including subtraction, “Is 9 minus 3 addition?” 5. Do we always use a plus sign in addition? Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Two plus two is an addition problem. 2. Three take away two is an addition problem. 3. Addition is putting numbers or objects together. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with addition and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for addition and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.)

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big hand on a clock Question: What is the big hand on a clock? Answer: The big hand on a clock points at the minutes. Gesture: Point one arm straight down. (This is the “big hand” on a clock.) California State Kindergarten Math Standard: Measurement and Geometry 1.2: Demonstrate an understanding of concepts of time (e.g., morning, afternoon, evening, today, yesterday, tomorrow, week, year) and tools that measure time (e.g., clock, calendar). Teaching Suggestion: (Teach little hand on a clock, big hand on a clock and clock together.) Use a clock with moveable hands to teach your students the concept of telling time. Explain that the big hand points at minutes. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this the big hand on a clock? (Point at various objects in the classroom and parts of the clock, the frame, numbers, big hand and little hand.) 2. Is this the big hand on a clock picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the big hand on a clock Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the big hand on a clock gesture? (Make various gestures; include the big hand on a clock gesture occasionally.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. The big hand is longer than the little hand. 2. The big hand on a clock points at minutes. 3. The big hand on a clock points at hours. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with big hand on a clock and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for big hand on a clock and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.) calendar Question:

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Answer: A calendar shows the months of the year and the days of the week. Gesture: Move one hand through the air, left to right and then right to left, as if searching for a date on an imaginary calendar. California State Kindergarten Math Standard: Measurement and Geometry 1.2: Demonstrate an understanding of concepts of time (e.g., morning, afternoon, evening, today, yesterday, tomorrow, week, year) and tools that measure time (e.g., clock, calendar). Teaching Suggestion: Use a calendar to show your students its major features. Explain the difference between days, months and a year. (For kindergartners, this may amount to no more than indicating that months have lots of days and years have lots of months.) Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this a calendar? (Point at various objects in the classroom, including the calendar.) 2. Is this the calendar picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the calendar Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the calendar gesture? (Make various gestures; include the calendar gesture occasionally.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. The calendar tells us about hours and minutes. 2. A calendar shows the months of the year and the days of the week. 3. A calendar has a big hand and a little hand. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with calendar and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for calendar and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.) circle Question: What is a circle? Answer: A circle is a round shape. Gesture: Using the thumb and forefinger of one hand, make a circle. California State Kindergarten Math Standard: Measurement and Geometry 2.1: Identify and describe common geometric objects (e.g., circle, triangle, square, rectangle, cube, sphere, cone). Teaching Suggestion: Show students examples of circles and explain their similarities (each one is round, has no corners or straight lines, etc.) Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following:

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1. Is this a circle? (Hold up a variety of objects.) 2. Is this the circle picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the circle Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the circle gesture? (Make various gestures; include the circle gesture occasionally.) 4. Is a square a circle? Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. A circle is made from four straight lines. 2. A circle is a round shape. 3. A circle has four corners. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with circle and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for circle and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.) clock Question: What is a clock? Answer: A clock is for telling time. Gesture: Bend one arm and put it slightly above your head. (This is the little hand on a clock.) Point your other arm straight down. (This is the big hand on a clock.) California State Kindergarten Math Standard: Measurement and Geometry 1.2: Demonstrate an understanding of concepts of time (e.g., morning, afternoon, evening, today, yesterday, tomorrow, week, year) and tools that measure time (e.g., clock, calendar). Teaching Suggestion: (Teach little hand on a clock, big hand on a clock and clock together.) Use a clock with moveable hands to teach your students the concept of telling time. Explain that the little hand points at hours and the big hand points at minutes. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this a clock? (Point at various objects.) 2. Is this the clock picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the clock Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the clock gesture? (Make various gestures; include the clock gesture occasionally.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. A clock is for telling time.

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2. A clock shows us the days of the week. 3. A clock tells us what time it is. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with clock and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for clock and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.) cone Question: What is a cone? Answer: A cone has a circle on one end and a point on the other. Gesture: Hold an imaginary ice cream cone in one hand and take a big bite out of the ice cream. California State Kindergarten Grade Math Standard: Measurement and Geometry 2.1: Identify and describe common geometric objects (e.g., circle, triangle, square, rectangle, cube, sphere, cone). Teaching Suggestion: Show students examples of cones and explain their similarities (a circle at one end and a point at the other.) Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this a cone? (Hold up a variety of objects.) 2. Is this the cone picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the cone Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the cone gesture? (Make various gestures; include the cone gesture occasionally.) 4. Does a cone have a circle on each end? 5. Is an ice cream cone a cone? Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. A cone has a circle on one end. 2. A cone has a point on one end. 3. A can of soda is a cone. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with cone and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for cone and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.)

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counting 1 to 5 Question: What is counting 1 to 5? Answer: Counting 1 to 5 is counting 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. Gesture: Hold up one finger for each number until you are holding up five fingers. California State Kindergarten Math Standard: Number Sense 1.2: Count, recognize, represent, name, and order a number of objects (up to 30). Teaching Suggestion: Using various groups of objects and numbers, teach students how to count from 1 to 5. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is 1, 2, 3 counting 1 to 5? (Vary the sequence, occasionally using the correct number set.) 2. Is this the counting 1 to 5 picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the counting 1 to 5 Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the counting 1 to 5 gesture? (Make various gestures; include the counting 1 to 5 gesture occasionally.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Counting 1 to 5 is counting 1, 2, 3, 4, 6. 2. Counting 1 to 5 is counting 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. 3. Counting 1 to 5 is counting 2, 3, 4, 5. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with counting 1 to 5 and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for counting 1 to 5 and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.) counting 1 to 10 Question: What is counting 1 to 10? Answer: Counting 1 to 10 is counting 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10. Gesture: Hold up one finger for each number until you are holding up ten fingers. California State Kindergarten Math Standard: Number Sense 1.2: Count, recognize, represent, name, and order a number of objects (up to 30).

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Teaching Suggestion: Using various groups of objects and numbers, teach students how to count from 1 to 10. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 counting 1 to 10? (Vary the sequence, occasionally using the correct number set.) 2. Is this the counting 1 to 10 picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the counting 1 to 10 Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the counting 1 to 10 gesture? (Make various gestures; include the counting 1 to 10 gesture occasionally.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Counting 1 to 10 is counting 1, 2, 3, 4, 10. 2. Counting 1 to 10 is counting 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10. 3. Counting 1 to 10 is counting 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10 Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with counting 1 to 10 and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for counting 1 to 10 and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.)

cube Question: What is a cube? Answer: A cube is made of six squares! [sound excited] Gesture: With two hands, shape a cube in the air, as if you are holding top and bottom, side and side, front and back. California State Kindergarten Math Standard: Measurement and Geometry 2.1: Identify and describe common geometric objects (e.g., circle, triangle, square, rectangle, cube, sphere, cone). Teaching Suggestion: Show students examples of cubes and explain their similarities (all have six sides, every side is a square, no sides are rectangles, etc.) Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this a cube? (Hold up a variety of objects.) 2. Is this the cube picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the cube Power Pix occasionally.)

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3. Is this the cube gesture? (Make various gestures; include the cube gesture occasionally.) 4. Is a book a cube? 5. Is an ice cube a cube? Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. A cube is round. 2. A cube is made from squares. 3. A cube has corners. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with cube and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for cube and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.) cylinder Question: What is a cylinder? Answer: A cylinder has a circle on both ends. Gesture: Use the thumb and forefinger on each hand to make circles. Then hold these circles in the air to show both ends of a cylinder. California State Kindergarten Grade Math Standard: Core Concept, but not mentioned in the state standards. Teaching Suggestion: Show students examples of cylinders and explain their similarities (a circle at both ends). Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this a cylinder? (Hold up a variety of objects.) 2. Is this the cylinder picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the cylinder Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the cylinder gesture? (Make various gestures; include the cylinder gesture occasionally.) 4. Does a cylinder have a circle on each end? 5. Does a cylinder have corners? Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. A cylinder is made from four straight lines. 2. A cylinder has a circle on both ends.

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3. A can of soda is a cylinder. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with cylinder and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for cylinder and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.) days of the week Question: What are the days of the week? Answer: The days of the week are Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday, Sunday. Gesture: Hold up one finger for each day of the week, until you are holding up seven fingers. California State Kindergarten Math Standard: Measurement and Geometry 1.3: Name the days of the week. Teaching Suggestion: Use a calendar and other appropriate materials to teach your students the days of the week. Make a one week calendar on the board. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this ______? (Point at various days, on the one week board calendar; ask “Is this Monday ... Tuesday ... “ ) 2. Is this the days of the week picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the days of the week Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the days of the week gesture? (Make various gestures; include the days of the week gesture occasionally.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. There are seven days of the week. 2. January is one of the days of the week. 3. Monday is one of the days of the week. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with days of the week and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for days of the week and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.)

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equal height Question: What is equal height? Answer: Equal height means the same height. (One person and three people on top of each other.) Gesture: Hold both hands up as high as possible, showing they have equal height. California State Kindergarten Math Standard: Number Sense 1.1: Compare two or more sets of objects (up to ten objects in each group) and identify which set is equal to, more than, or less than the other. Teaching Suggestion: While your students are involved in individual or group projects, make simple drawings of pairs of objects on the board, i.e. a tree and a house, a square and a rectangle, a boy and a girl. In some pairs, the objects are equal height; in other pairs one object is smaller than the other. Use the drawings and various props and/or groups of stackable objects to teach students the concept of equal height. Next, play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Are these equal height? (Point at pairs of various objects, including drawings on the board that do, and do not, represent equal height.) 2. Is this the equal height picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the equal height Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the equal height gesture? (Make various gestures; include the equal height gesture occasionally.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. A boy and a girl four feet tall have equal height. 2. Equal height means the same height. 3. Two things with equal height must be the same color. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with equal height and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for equal height and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.) equal numbers (with 3 = 3) Question: What are equal numbers?

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Answer: Equal numbers are the same numbers. Gesture: Hold up three fingers on each hand, showing equal numbers. California State Kindergarten Math Standard: Number Sense 1.1: Compare two or more sets of objects (up to ten objects in each group) and identify which set is equal to, more than, or less than the other. Teaching Suggestion: While your students are involved in individual or group projects, write equal number pairs on the board, using numbers from 1 to 10, for example 1 = 1, 3 = 3, etc. In some examples, make one number taller than the other or a different color, so that students understand equal numbers refers to number value not height or color. Using the number pairs on the board and various groups of objects, teach students the concept of equality. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Are these equal numbers? (Point at various objects, letters, numbers, including the equal numbers on the board.) 2. Is this the equal numbers picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the equal numbers Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the equal numbers gesture? (Make various gestures; include the equal numbers gesture occasionally.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Four and four are equal numbers. 2. Four and six are equal numbers. 3. Three and three are equal numbers. 4. Equal numbers are the same number. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with equal numbers and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for equal numbers and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.) equals sign Question: What is the equals sign? Answer: The equals sign means “the same as.”

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Gesture: Make an equals sign by holding your forearms parallel to the ground in front of your body. California State Kindergarten Math Standard: Number Sense 1.1: Compare two or more sets of objects (up to ten objects in each group) and identify which set is equal to, more than, or less than the other. Teaching Suggestion: While your students are involved in individual or group projects, write groups of numbers on the board, some of which include the correct use of the equals sign. Explain the concept of equality and the equals sign. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this an equals sign? (Point at various symbols/numbers on the board, including correct examples of the equals sign.) 2. Is this the equals sign picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the equals sign Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the equals sign gesture? (Make various gestures; include the equals sign gesture occasionally.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. The equals sign means “one more than.” 2. The equals sign means “the same as.” 3. Two plus two equals four. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with the equals sign and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for the equals sign and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.) estimate Question: What is an estimate? Answer: An estimate is a guess. Gesture: Scratch your head as if you are thinking and say, “hmmmm.” California State Kindergarten Math Standard: Number Sense 3.1: Recognize when an estimate is reasonable. Teaching Suggestion: Ask students to make estimates about various things in the classroom: the number of books on a shelf, the number of pencils in a can, the distance in steps from a chair to the door, the number

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of pages in a book, etc. Explain the concept of estimating and the difference between good and bad estimates. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: *** 1. Is it an estimate, guess, to say this is a class? (Include other statements that are, and are not, estimates. For example, “Is it an estimate, a guess, to say, your name Jose? ... Is it an estimate, a guess, to say, I think you weigh about 50 pounds?”) 2. Is this the estimate picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the estimate Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the estimate gesture? (Make various gestures; include the estimate gesture occasionally.) 4. Is every estimate a good guess? 5. Is it a good estimate that there are two students in this class? Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. All estimates are guesses. 2. All estimates are good guesses. 3. A bad estimate is that there are three books in this room. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with estimate and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for estimate and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.) evening Question: What is evening? Answer: Evening is after the sun sets. Gesture: Make a circle with both hands and then bring your hands down, (symbolizing the sun setting). California State Kindergarten Math Standard: Measurement and Geometry, 1.2: Demonstrate an understanding of concepts of time (e.g., morning, afternoon, evening, today, yesterday, tomorrow, week, year) and tools that measure time (e.g., clock, calendar). Teaching Suggestion: (Teach morning, noon, afternoon and evening together.) Explain the relationship between sunset and evening. Draw or show pictures that represent the evening (stars and moon out, lights on, etc.) Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following:

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1. Is this the evening? (Point at various drawings or pictures.) 2. Is this the evening picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the evening Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the evening gesture? (Make various gestures; include the evening gesture occasionally.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Evening is after the sun sets. 2. Evening is when the sun rises. 3. Evening is nighttime. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with evening and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for evening and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.) less than Question: What is less than? Answer: Less than is when one group is less than another group. [Note: Though, in general, we try to avoid “kid talk”, it is sometimes useful to describe abstract concepts, like less than, in concrete terms, “one group is less than another”, as we have here. This teaching preference in early education for the concrete over the abstract dates back, at least, to Piaget.] Gesture: Hold up one finger on one hand and five fingers on the other hand. Say the answer as follows, “Less than is when one group (waggle one finger) is less than another group (waggle five fingers).” California State Kindergarten Math Standard: Number Sense 1.1: Compare two or more sets of objects (up to ten objects in each group) and identify which set is equal to, more than, or less than the other. Teaching Suggestion: (Teach more than and less than together.) While your students are involved in individual or group projects, make simple drawings of objects on the board, i.e. two circles and two squares, three houses and two cars, one tree and one dog. Use the drawings and various props and/or groups of objects, to teach students the concept of less than. Use pointer counting to compare the number of objects in two groups. Then, Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this group less than this group? (Point at various groups of objects and drawings on the board.)

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2. Is this the less than picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the less than Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the less than gesture? (Make various gestures; include the less than gesture occasionally.) 4. Is two apples less than ten apples? (Insert other numbers and examples.) 5. Am I holding up less than five fingers? (Hold up your fingers in various combinations.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Two is less than one. 2. Less than is when one group is less than another group. 3. You have less than 30 toes. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with the less than and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for the less than and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.) little hand on a clock Question: What is the little hand on a clock? Answer: The little hand on a clock points at the hours. Gesture: Bend one arm and put it slightly above your head. (This is the little hand on a clock.) California State Kindergarten Math Standard: Measurement and Geometry 1.2: Demonstrate an understanding of concepts of time (e.g., morning, afternoon, evening, today, yesterday, tomorrow, week, year) and tools that measure time (e.g., clock, calendar). Teaching Suggestion: (Teach little hand, big hand and clock together.) Use a clock with moveable hands to teach your students the concept of telling time. Explain that the little hand points at hours. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this the little hand on a clock? (Point at various objects in the classroom and parts of the clock, the frame, numbers, big hand and little hand.) 2. Is this the little hand on a clock picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the little hand on a clock Power Pix occasionally.)

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3. Is this the little hand on a clock gesture? (Make various gestures; include the little hand on a clock gesture occasionally.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. The little hand on a clock is shorter than the big hand on a clock. 2. The little hand on a clock points at minutes. 3. The little hand on a clock points at hours. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with little hand on a clock and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for little hand on a clock and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.) minus sign Question: What is a minus sign? Answer: A minus sign shows subtraction. Gesture: Hold one forearm parallel to the ground, making a minus sign. California State Kindergarten Math Standard: Core concept, but not a California State standard. Teaching Suggestion: While your students are involved in individual or group projects, write a list of subtraction and addition problems on the board. Use these problems to show students examples of how a minus sign appears in simple subtraction. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this a minus sign? (Point at numbers, minus signs and plus signs on the board.) 2. Is this the minus sign picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the minus sign Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the minus sign gesture? (Make various gestures; include the minus sign occasionally.) 4. Is the minus sign used in addition? Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. A minus sign shows one number is added to another. 2. A minus sign is used in subtraction problems. 3. A minus sign is the same as a number. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with minus sign and other Power Pix.

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Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for minus sign and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.) more than Question: What is more than? Answer: More than is when one group is more than another group. [Note: Though, in general, we try to avoid “kid talk”, it is sometimes useful to describe abstract concepts, like more than, in concrete terms, “one group is more than another”, as we have here. This teaching preference in early education for the concrete over the abstract dates back, at least, to Piaget.] Gesture: Hold up three fingers on one hand and two fingers on the other hand. Say the answer as follows, “More than is when one group (waggle three fingers) is more than another group (waggle two fingers).” California State Kindergarten Math Standard: Number Sense 1.1: Compare two or more sets of objects (up to ten objects in each group) and identify which set is equal to, more than, or less than the other. Teaching Suggestion: (Teach more than and less than together.) While your students are involved in individual or group projects, make simple drawings of objects on the board, i.e. two circles and two squares, three houses and two cars, one tree and one dog. Use the drawings and various props and/or groups of objects, to teach students the concept of more than. Use pointer counting to compare the number of objects in two groups. Then, Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this group more than this group? (Point at various groups of objects and drawings on the board.) 2. Is this the more than picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the more than Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the more than gesture? (Make various gestures; include the more than gesture occasionally.) 4. Is ten desks more than four desks? (Insert other numbers and examples.) 5. Am I holding up more than two fingers? (Hold up your fingers in various combinations.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Two is more than one. 2. More than is when one group is more than another group.

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3. You have more fingers than eyes. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with more than and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for more than and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.) morning Question: What is a morning? Answer: Morning is when the sun rises and we wake up. Gesture: Make a stretching motion like you are waking up. California State Kindergarten Math Standard: Measurement and Geometry, 1.2: Demonstrate an understanding of concepts of time (e.g., morning, afternoon, evening, today, yesterday, tomorrow, week, year) and tools that measure time (e.g., clock, calendar). Teaching Suggestion: (Teach morning, noon, afternoon and evening together.) Explain the concept of morning to your students. Ask exploratory questions like, “What are things you do in the morning? ... What do your parents do in the morning? ... What do you do on mornings when you go to school? .... What do you do on mornings when you don’t go to school?” Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Do we wake up in the morning? (Include examples of activities that are, and aren’t, associated with the morning.) 2. Is this the morning picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the morning Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the morning gesture? (Make various gestures; include the morning gesture occasionally.) 4. Does morning start before lunch? Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Morning is when the sun rises and we wake up. 2. Morning is when the sun sets and we go to sleep. 3. Morning is before lunch. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with morning and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for morning and other Power Pix.

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(For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.) noon Question: What is noon? Answer: Noon is when both clock hands are on the 12 and we eat lunch. Gesture: Put both hands over your head, like clock hands pointing at 12, and then use an imaginary spoon to put food in your mouth. California State Kindergarten Math Standard: Core Concept, but not mentioned in the state standards. Teaching Suggestion: (Teach morning, noon, afternoon and evening together.) Explain the concept of noon to your students. Use a clock with moveable hands to show students the position of the hands at noon. (Save the concept of midnight for later in the year!) Ask exploratory questions like, “What are things you do at noon? ... What do your parents do at noon? ... What do you do at noon when are in school? .... What do you do at noon when you don’t go to school?” Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this noon? (Move the clock hands to various positions; occasionally put both hands pointing at 12.) 2. Is this the noon picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the noon Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the noon gesture? (Make various gestures; include the noon gesture occasionally.) 4. Is noon before breakfast? Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Noon is when the sun rises and we wake up. 2. Noon is when the sun sets and we go to sleep. 3. Noon is when both clock hands are on the 12 and we eat lunch. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with noon and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for noon and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.) plus sign Question: What is a plus sign? Answer: A plus sign shows addition.

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Gesture: Cross your forearms making a plus sign. California State Kindergarten Math Standard: Core concept, but not a California State standard. Teaching Suggestion: While your students are involved in individual or group projects, write a list of addition and subtraction problems on the board. Explain the concept of the plus sign and addition and contrast it with the minus sign and subtraction. Then, play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this a plus sign? (Point at numbers, minus signs or plus signs on the board.) 2. Is this the plus sign picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the plus sign Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the plus sign gesture? (Make various gestures; include the plus sign occasionally.) 4. Does the plus sign show addition? 5. Does the plus sign show subtraction? Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. The plus sign is a number. 2. The plus sign shows addition. 3. One plus one is two. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with the plus sign and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for the plus sign and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.) pointer counting Question: What is pointer counting? Answer: Pointer counting is pointing and counting. Gesture: Use the index finger of one hand to point at and count three fingers on the other hand (saying, “one, two, three” as you point). California State Kindergarten Math Standard: Number Sense 1.2: Count, recognize, represent, name, and order a number of objects (up to 30).

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Teaching Suggestion: Use various props and/or groups of objects to teach students the concept of pointer counting, i.e. pointing at objects and counting them. Next, have students repeat after you, as you point at objects in the classroom and count aloud. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this pointer counting? (Point at and count various objects in the classroom. Occasionally, to demonstrate incorrect pointer counting, say the alphabet or nonsense words in place of numbers.) 2. Is this the pointer counting picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the pointer counting Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the pointer counting gesture? (Make various gestures; include the pointer counting gesture occasionally.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Pointer counting is pointing and counting. 2. We start counting with one. 3. Pointer counting is counting 4, 8, 9. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with the pointer counting and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for the pointer counting and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.) rectangle Question: What is a rectangle? Answer: A rectangle has four sides. Gesture: With one finger, draw an imaginary rectangle in the air. (Make the top and bottom lines very long and the end lines very short, to distinguish rectangles from squares.) California State Kindergarten Math Standard: Measurement and Geometry 2.1: Identify and describe common geometric objects (e.g., circle, triangle, square, rectangle, cube, sphere, cone). Teaching Suggestion: Show students examples of rectangles and explain their similarities (all have four sides, all have four corners, etc.) Distinguish between rectangles and squares (the latter having four equal sides.) Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this a rectangle? (Hold up a variety of objects.)

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2. Is this the rectangle picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the rectangle Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the rectangle gesture? (Make various gestures; include the rectangle gesture occasionally.) 4. Is a triangle a rectangle? 5. Is a ball a rectangle? Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. A rectangle is made from four straight lines. 2. A rectangle is a square. 3. A rectangle has four sides. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with rectangle and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for rectangle and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.) sorting Question: What is sorting? Answer: Sorting is putting things together that are similar. Gesture: Grab four fingers of one hand with the other hand, to symbolize bringing things together that are similar (your fingers). California State Kindergarten Math Standard: Algebra and Functions 1.1: Identify, sort, and classify objects by attribute and identify objects that do not belong to a particular group (e.g., all these balls are green, those are red). Teaching Suggestion: Show students examples of sorting based on a variety of attributes (all green things, all round things, all plastic things, etc.) Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Are all these ______, ______? (Point at groups of objects in the classroom. Create Yes/No Way! questions. Are all these desks, wood? Are all these pencils, yellow? Are all these crayons, square?) 2. Is this the sorting picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the sorting Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the sorting gesture? (Make various gestures; include the sorting gesture occasionally.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following:

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1. Sorting is putting things together that are similar. 2. I could sort red blocks together because they are all red. 3. I could sort red blocks together because they are all yellow. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with sorting and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for sorting and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.) sphere Question: What is a sphere? Answer: A sphere is like a ball. Gesture: With one hand, pretend as if you are bouncing a ball on the floor. California State Kindergarten Math Standard: Measurement and Geometry 2.1: Identify and describe common geometric objects (e.g., circle, triangle, square, rectangle, cube, sphere, cone). Teaching Suggestion: Show students examples of spheres and explain their similarities (all are round, can roll in any direction unlike a cylinder, etc.) Also, point out that some spheres are not balls, for example, a globe. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this a sphere? (Hold up a variety of objects.) 2. Is this the sphere picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the sphere Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the sphere gesture? (Make various gestures; include the sphere gesture occasionally.) 4. Do spheres have corners? 5. Are all spheres blue? Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. A sphere is round. 2. A sphere is like a ball. 3. A basketball is a sphere. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with sphere and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for sphere and other Power Pix.

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(For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.) square Question: What is a square? Answer: A square has four equal sides. (Emphasize equal as you say the answer, to distinguish squares from rectangles.) Gesture: With one finger, draw an imaginary square in the air. California State Kindergarten Math Standard: Measurement and Geometry 2.1: Identify and describe common geometric objects (e.g., circle, triangle, square, rectangle, cube, sphere, cone). Teaching Suggestion: Show students examples of squares and explain their similarities (all have four equal sides, all have four corners, etc.) Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this a square? (Hold up a variety of objects.) 2. Is this the square picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the square Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the square gesture? (Make various gestures; include the square gesture occasionally.) 4. Is a square round? 5. Is a triangle a square? Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. A square is made from four straight lines. 2. A square has four equal sides. 3. A square has three corners. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with square and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for square and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.) subtraction Question: What is subtraction? Answer: Subtraction is taking away.

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Gesture: Hold up two fingers on one hand next to three fingers on the other hand. Then move the hand with three fingers away, symbolizing “taking away.” California State Kindergarten Math Standard: Number Sense, 2.1: Use concrete objects to determine the answers to addition and subtraction problems (for two numbers that are each less than 10). Teaching Suggestion: (teach addition and subtraction together) While your students are involved in individual or group projects, write simple addition and subtraction problems on the board. Using these problems and groups of objects and numbers, teach students the concept of subtracting. Point out that subtracting in math problems always involves a minus sign. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this a subtraction problem? (Point at various problems on the board.) 2. Is this the subtraction picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the subtraction Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the subtraction gesture? (Make various gestures; include the subtraction occasionally.) 4. Is subtraction taking away? 5. Do we always use a minus sign in subtraction? Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Three minus one is a subtraction problem. 2. Three take away two is an subtraction problem. 3. Subtraction is taking away. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with subtraction and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for subtraction and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.) today Question: What is a today? Answer: Today is the day we are in right now. Gesture: Clap hands twice. And then point at the ground (symbolizing “right now”). Say, “Today is the day we are in right [clap] now [clap].”

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California State Kindergarten Math Standard: Measurement and Geometry 1.2: Demonstrate an understanding of concepts of time (e.g., morning, afternoon, evening, today, yesterday, tomorrow, week, year) and tools that measure time (e.g., clock, calendar). Teaching Suggestion: (Teach today, yesterday and tomorrow together.) Using a calendar, show students the day it is today (Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, etc.) Show students what day it was yesterday and what day it will be tomorrow. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is today Wednesday? (Substitute other days of the week. Return several times to the correct day for today.) 2. Is this the today picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the today Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the today gesture? (Make various gestures; include the today gesture occasionally.) 4. Was this morning part of today? 5. Will this evening be part of today? Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Today is the day we are in right now. 2. Today is ______. (Insert correct or incorrect day.) 3. Today is yesterday. (Or, tomorrow.) Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with today and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for today and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.) tomorrow Question: What is tomorrow? Answer: Tomorrow is the day after today. Gesture: Put your palms together and then point both arms straight ahead (as if making an arrow toward the future, tomorrow.) California State Kindergarten Math Standard: Measurement and Geometry 1.2: Demonstrate an understanding of concepts of time (e.g., morning, afternoon, evening, today, yesterday, tomorrow, week, year) and tools that measure time (e.g., clock, calendar).

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Teaching Suggestion: (teach today, yesterday and tomorrow together.) Using a calendar, show students the day it is today (Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, etc.) Show students what day it was yesterday and what day it will be tomorrow. Explain to students that tomorrow comes after today. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Will tomorrow be Thursday? (Substitute other days of the week. Return several times to the correct day for tomorrow.) 2. Is this the tomorrow picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the tomorrow Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the tomorrow gesture? (Make various gestures; include the tomorrow gesture occasionally.) 4. Was this morning part of tomorrow? 5. Is tomorrow the day after today? Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Tomorrow is the day before today. 2. Tomorrow is the day after today. 3. Tomorrow will be ______. (Insert correct or incorrect day.) Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with tomorrow and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for tomorrow and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.) triangle Question: What is a triangle? Answer: A triangle has three sides. Gesture: Bringing together the thumb and forefinger of both hands, make one triangle. California State Kindergarten Math Standard: Measurement and Geometry 2.1: Identify and describe common geometric objects (e.g., circle, triangle, square, rectangle, cube, sphere, cone). Teaching Suggestion: Show students examples of triangles and explain their similarities (all have three sides, all have three corners, etc.) Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this a triangle? (Hold up a variety of objects.)

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2. Is this the triangle picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the triangle Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the triangle gesture? (Make various gestures; include the triangle gesture occasionally.) 4. Is a triangle a circle? 5. Does a triangle have three corners? Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. A triangle is made from four straight lines. 2. A triangle is made from three straight lines. 3. A triangle has three sides. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with triangle and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for triangle and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.) yesterday Question: What is yesterday? Answer: Yesterday is the day before today. Gesture: Jerk your thumb over your shoulder, indicating yesterday is “past.” California State Kindergarten Math Standard: Measurement and Geometry 1.2: Demonstrate an understanding of concepts of time (e.g., morning, afternoon, evening, today, yesterday, tomorrow, week, year) and tools that measure time (e.g., clock, calendar). Teaching Suggestion: (teach today, yesterday and tomorrow together.) Using a calendar, show students the day it is today (Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, etc.) Show students what day it was yesterday and what day it will be tomorrow. Explain to students that yesterday comes before today. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Was yesterday Monday? (Substitute other days of the week. Return several times to the correct day for yesterday.) 2. Is this the yesterday picture? (Point at various Power Pix; include the yesterday Power Pix occasionally.) 3. Is this the yesterday gesture? (Make various gestures; include the yesterday gesture occasionally.)

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4. Was this morning part of yesterday? 5. Will this evening be part of yesterday? Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Yesterday is the day before today. 2. Yesterday was a school day. 3. Yesterday was ______. (Insert correct or incorrect day of the week.) Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with yesterday and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for yesterday and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see pages 11-14 of this manual.)

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Free Resources

Power Pix are produced under the guidance of Power Teachers of America, an organization of K-14 classroom teachers founded in 1999 that produces innovate K-12 classroom materials and that presents free Power Teaching conferences. Over 5,000 educators representing 250,000+ students have attended Power Teaching conferences. Power Teaching websites receive over 2,000 hits per day. 1. A wealth of material on Power Teaching is available on the Internet. Google “Power Teaching” (in quotes!) 2. A great place to start learning about Power Teaching is a website set up by Jeff Battle in North Carolina classroompower.com 3. A forum devoted exclusively to Power Teaching, involving hundreds of K-12 educators from across the United States can be found at: http://forums.atozteacherstuff.com/forumdisplay.php?f=114 4. 100’s of pages of free downloads describing Power Teaching’s classroom management, reading and math strategies. are available at: http://homepage.mac.com/chrisbiffle/Menu38.html 5. Videos demonstrating Power Teaching techniques are available at: www.youtube.com/chrisbiffle and at http://web.mac.com/chrisbiffle/iWeb/Site/Home.html

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http://www.teachertube.com/uprofile.php?UID=32259 6. You can see Jeff Battle, one of our middle school specialists, in a segment presented on ABC television http://www.wlos.com/shared/newsroom/learning/wlos_vid_204.shtml (wait a few seconds for the video to load) 7. A model Power Teacher training site is available at http://www.quia.com/pages/hemet.html: 8. More about our organization can be found at: www.powerteachers.org

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**Copyright and Contact Information
**

Kindergarten Power Pix is the sole property of its authors, Chris Biffle and Jay Vanderfin. Individual copies of this document may be reproduced by teachers for classroom use. However, no portion of this document may be reproduced, sold or offered for sale without the written permission of the authors.

For more information, contact: Chris Biffle Power Teachers of America Chairperson, Philosophy and Religious Studies Crafton Hills College, Yucaipa, California Or email, CBiffle@AOL.com

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