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Designed and Compiled by
JFM.S.Nagalingam, B.Sc., M.A., M.B.A., B.L.,NTF.,
I can be a Trainer too!!
Lead Author & Commentaries by
Past National President JCI Senator Sunil Kumar
International Training Fellow
_______________________________________ Jc. TVN Murthy
National President - 2005
Jc. Chitralekha Kasliwal
National Director - Training - 2005
Jc. Sandeep Morajkar
Chairman - National Faculty Cell
A PUBLICATION OF
(Worldwide Federation of Young Leaders and Entrepreneurs)
Ami Kalash, 2nd Floor, Ami Complex, IC Colony Road, Borivali (W), Mumbai 400 103 Tel.: (022) 28912354, 28913355 • Fax : 022 - 28910807 Email : email@example.com • www.ijc.org.in
Recycle Paper INDIAN JAYCEES
I. INTRODUCTION II. EFFECTIVE MEETINGS II.1. CHECK LIST FOR MEETINGS II.2. AGENDA OF A MEETING III. CHAIRMANSHIP III.1. STYLES OF CHAIRMANSHIP III.2. QUALITIES OF A CHAIRMAN III.3. POWERS OF A CHAIRMAN III.4. CHAIRING A MEETING (DUTIES) III.5. RESPONSIBILITIES OF CHAIRMAN III.6. BASICS OF ANY MEETING III.7. TYPES OF MEMBERS IV. PARLIAMENTARY PROCEDURE IV.1. BASIC PRINCIPLES IV.2. MOTION TO RESOLUTION IV.2.1. SAPTAPADI IN CAPP
3 4 5 7 9 9 12 14 15 15 16 17 19 19 20 20 21 21 21 22 22 22 23 24 24 24 25 26 35 37
IV.3. PROPOSAL IV.3.1. MAIN OR PRINCIPAL MOTION Commentaries & Sessions IV.3.2. INTRODUCING OF MOTIONS IV.4. DISCUSSION A must for every potential trainer IV.4.1. PRIVILEGED MOTIONS IV.4.2. INCIDENTAL MOTIONS IV.4.3. SUBSIDIARY MOTIONS IV.4.4. UNCLASSIFIED OR MISCELLANEOUS MOTIONS IV.5. DECISION This manual has been exclusively IV.5.1. VOTING published out of the Trainers Grid IV.5.2. BASES FOR DETERMINING A VOTING RESULT commitment – AN initiative of National IV.6. KEY MOTIONS AT A GLANCE President JC TVN Murthy IV.7. MOTIONS WITH SPECIAL FEATURES V. CONCLUSION
Getting to be a trainer!
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I too can be a Trainer!
Why not? One of the greatest excitements I have experienced in Life has been to grow up as a Trainer. Every presentation I made led me into a world of unknown and got me closer to appreciating the right way to do things. Thanks to Training, I have been fortunate to have achieved so much in Life and I believe it can happen with anyone who desires to take on Training as a passion. But it does take an effort. Absolutely! One cannot become a Trainer of some repute without investing plenty of time, effort, talent and an attitude to learn. Surely, it is expensive to emerge as someone outstanding. But then, when you are passionate to take home something of value, you need to pay a price – and here the price is of commitment more than anything else. It is said so well … “If education is expensive, try ignorance”. Training begets Training. The more training you do, the more accomplished you shall be. It is a universal law of life that all investment made on ourselves, comes back with rich rewards.
Presented by Sunil
Rewards of – Experience gained, emerging a Visionary, creating a uniqueness Image, Success achievement and several other special features. Why should one not be blessed with all these in life? There is no better way than achieving success through Training – and that too being a Trainer. It is enormously thrilling to see you take on the ladder of Training. This publication “I can be a Trainer too” can help you appreciate the role of a Trainer lot better. It is the result of several years of experience that has created this study to benefit you. I am happy that we have contributions from some key Trainers in Indian Jaycees who have been able to support this publication with the “Key Content” of Sessions and Modules. It is extremely simplified with focus on “Training facts & approaches” and gives you an insight into getting on to be someone special in life. You are invited to take complete advantage of this vast experience that has got published, thanks to the initiative of our National President JC TVN Murthy. Welcome Trainer! Here’s wishing you all the very best!
Sunil Kumar R Lead Author
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Learning the Trainer
• Trainers & Speakers • Adult Learning Principles
Creating the Trainer
Training Approaches Modules ONE TWO : Determining Training Needs : Establishing Program Goals
THREE : Creating the Program Design FOUR : Techniques & Aids supporting Presentation FIVE SIX : Effective Presentation : Feedback & Evaluation
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On your way to … “a Unique Trainer”
The role of a Trainer and how different is a trainer from a speaker Getting to be a trainer isn’t too difficult. And when you have mastered the basic art of “public speaking” it becomes even easier. But that does not entirely mean that all good speakers are good trainers. There is a sure difference. In my years of handling various sizes of groups, several times for 4-5 days in programs like Nalalnda or Veda or for Officers - I’ve experienced that handling bigger groups is exciting when your presentation is designed from a “Trainer perspective” rather than a “Speaker perspective” and thus here are some points based on “sheer long time experience”. Trainer is one, who encourages learning and through interaction is able to assess if such learning is taking place. A Trainer facilitates “growth & correction”, in areas of Knowledge; Skill & Attitude” in those who are there right there as audience. A trainer is not just sharing information, but is able to dialogue with people and “help them see a newer perspective”. In the process, the trainer must help removal of blocks and barriers. And when through interaction, is able to help them better understand the “Why” of what is being advocated, learning becomes easier. Thus the bottom line is clear.
A trainer is involved with “Coaching” – or influencing “understanding” of “Why” – to people in getting them ready to attempt new approaches. Speakers are people who may inspire audience with a good speech, but often do not provide for situations of “facilitating easy learning” and expect people to pick up the good points from what has been said. They are more general in their presentation with “common objectives”. A Trainer is a “Designer” too – someone who designs learning approaches, based upon the group involved. These approaches are to facilitate inspired learning. People of all ages cannot be dealt with in a similar way. Different strategies are required to handle different audience. Imagine when the one set of audience has several levels!. Plus the “quantum growth” that is required in them is what a good Trainer is able to comprehend and plan accordingly. An important trainer skill called “Designing Learning” is something that can be unique to a trainer. Speakers, on many occasions, focus on information sharing, and do not individualize their approaches to ensure people get what they “must”. Speakers go on the basis of “uniform levels” while the skill in a trainer “ensures individualizing interaction”. A question that often comes up is - Can handling a large group be considered as training? Speakers have all sizes audiences – small (upto 50); average (100-200); and large (200-1000 or sometimes even more). Is handling an average or a large group considered “training”? A very large group or even a higher side of the average group, may not be easy for a trainer to handle, since it may be
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impossible to check the levels of learning in most people. The time spent before the group is related with conclusions drawn. But it does not mean that “good trainers” cannot handle big size groups. It depends upon the skill and the time one is willing to invest. Possibly calls for a greater focus on what you do and the manner in which you have taken upon the challenge. If you are able to continue your mobility, despite the size – reach people – encourage interaction – clarify barriers – activate occasionally – talk “their” language – touch them – help them resolve – pick up questions from some provide solutions … isn’t is training? And isn’t it facilitating “learning”? Yes. There can be a general statement that normally Trainers handle small size groups while speakers can handle bigger groups as well. But not a One Hundred Percent concluded opinion. Some other distinct areas between Speaker & Trainer include: · More Formal (Podium – Posture – Dress) Vs More Mobile. Sometimes speakers too get mobile – but the “mobility referred here” from a trainer perspective, is to move closer to such people who may be your focus – get them to see your comfort level – keep mind open to come up with something new or bring in an apt response – on to a discussion mode – maybe more natural than formal. Information sharing Vs Knowledge – Skill or/and Attitude growth or change happening in people. A trainer must check “I may have spoken well, showed good slides, used humour and stories, answered questions – but have I impacted any learning? Have I been able to get questions in the minds of my audience, and also got them identify responses? Will the person across do something towards what I have been suggesting? Will it now be easier for him to attempt something he always wanted to, but never did? All size audiences Vs Size limited to the objective – In a
good trainer the skill of handling audience is immense. · General Approach to all audience Vs more on individualizing focus. Do I know this person? What level of success was possible before? Can I list of some major problems this person currently goes through? What is this person looking forward to now? What you share is what “you think” should be spoken Vs many good trainers go on to a completely new subject since a question or two, have persuaded such a need. Thus the variety of information shared is possible due to a “base” that exists which a trainer must recall to clarify – motivated by the interaction
Training cannot be successful, merely because someone speaks well. Or that you have some good collections to share. It happens only when “people” sitting across– take home learning and “attempt” something that they never did before or something that is not “easy” from their point of view. It is important to move ahead. And not merely repeat what you’ve been doing as a trainer. Try something out – something that you haven’t done before. Something – that others may have not attempted either. Something that set’s you apart from the “similar world”. There has to be an “adventure” in what you do as a Trainer. That’s when you will discover something or someone `new and better’ within. It is exciting when on an early morning, you sit on your keyboard, with no references or no people around, but with your mind open - and quickly be able to key in your thoughts which come alive since you have peeped into your past experiences. Take off Trainer. And surely touch new levels!!
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Adult Learning Principles
Getting to know what’s happens inside them!
Training Adults is far too different than training younger audience. While Training in Jaycees, most of the time we are involved with training Adults. It is a major challenge indeed. But exciting though. As a Trainer, you will not only face audience who are younger or junior to you, but on several occasions, you will encounter an audience, who may be elder or even far senior to you, in terms of their experience and long standing-ness in the professional sphere as well. How would one be able to take on such situations? - is always related with the manner in which you pitch in your presentation. I have always advocated that it is not enough if a trainer is good at making presentations or is able to add on interactive features well. What eventually does matter is the learning you are able to create in the audience. And this comes from “concentrated reading” & “applying experience into training” – be able to share situations you have yourself been involved with in your own profession. This
Jc Elston Pimenta & Jc. Luqman Qazi
Key content Contribution support :
will ease you out of the challenge of facing adults, especially those who may be elder or senior to you. Adults are Adults. Does not matter, whether younger, or older to you. While we can skilfully ring in the attitude of a “child” in him through games and interactive approaches, yet Adults can definitely be rigid internally. They can be unwilling at times, to accept that you have something to share that they are not aware of. Some of them may also carry “I know it all” attitude. The skill of a trainer is to be able to relate to these Adults – to be able to keep them excited in the process of learning. The challenge is not to say something that “they do not know” - but to make them “accept” a point of view, of which you are very certain. This can happen when you have the depth of the subject at your command, and the ability to relate to these Adults by converting their “learning” into “discovering” mode. For instance, when you start off your presentation with a statement of Lao Tse…I cannot teach a person anything. I can only help him discover it within himself, it eases out his attitude from pre-supposing that you are there to teach him. Statements like, “I am sure that in the process, this presentation will get better through your participation, since I am a learner as well” will help in his attitude settings. Adults need statements confirming that while they do possess expertise, upgrades are a way of life, and you as a Trainer are here to share such information which may help their upgrades. Another area that one must aim at is to make learning “exciting” for them. Adults lose that sense of discovery, due to their routine trap. Getting him to “learn by doing” is what can make the program interesting and relevant for him.
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And of course – this is for those who keep addressing their audience as “participants”. Sorry! You may have to change that approach if you want the best from your audience. They surely are your participants, but it can put off some of them. A better way to address the audience is “Fellow learners” – or Ladies & Gentlemen. Repeatedly addressing them as “Participants” may irk their attitudes. We have more on the subject and let us see how our colleague trainers have handled the same.
Key Content of the Session
“Treat Adults like they need to be treated” Part of being an effective instructor involves understanding how adults learn best. Compared to children and teens, adults have special needs and requirements as learners. Despite the apparent truth, adult learning is a relatively new area of study. The field of adult learning was pioneered by Malcom Knowles. New information and skills must be relevant and meaningful to the concerns and desires of the participants. Know what the needs are of individuals in your class. Participants do not wish to learn what they will never use. The learning environment must by physically and psychologically comfortable. • Adults are people with years of experience and a wealth of information. Focus on the strengths learners bring to the classroom, not just gaps in their knowledge. Provide opportunities for dialogue
within the group. Tap their experience as a major source of enrichment to the class. Remember that you, do not need to have all the answers, as long as you know where to go or who to call to get the answers. Participants can be resources to you and to each other. • Adults have established values, beliefs and opinions. Demonstrate respect for differing beliefs, religions, value systems and lifestyles. Let your learners know that they are entitled to their values, beliefs and opinions, but that everyone in the room may not share their beliefs. Allow debate and challenge of ideas. Adults are people whose style and pace of learning has probably changed. Use a variety of teaching strategies such as small group problem solving and discussion. Use auditory, visual, tactile and participatory teaching methods. Reaction time and speed of learning may be slow, but the ability to learn is not impaired by age. Most adults prefer teaching methods other than lecture. Adults relate new knowledge and information to previously learned information and experiences. Assess the specific learning needs of your audience before your class or at the beginning of the class. Present single concepts and focus on application of concepts to relevant practical situations. Summarize frequently to increase retention and recall. Material outside of the context of participants’ experiences and knowledge becomes meaningless. Adults are people with bodies influenced by gravity. Plan frequent breaks, even if they are 2-minute “stretch” breaks. During a lecture, a short break every 45-60 minutes is sufficient. Adults have pride. Support the participants as individuals. Self-esteem and ego
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are at risk in a classroom environment that is not perceived as safe or supportive. People will not ask questions or participate in learning if they are afraid of being put down or ridiculed. Allow people to admit confusion, ignorance, fears, biases and different opinions. Acknowledge or thank participants for their responses and questions. Treat all questions and comments with respect. Avoid saying “I just covered that” when someone asks a repetitive question. Remember, the only foolish question is the unasked question. • Adults have a deep need to be self-directing. Engage the participants in a process of mutual inquiry. Avoid merely transmitting knowledge or expecting total agreement. Don’t “spoon-feed” the participants. Individual differences among people increase with age. Take into account differences in style, time, types and pace of learning. Use auditory, visual, tactile and participatory teaching methods. Adults tend to have a problem-centered orientation to learning. Emphasize how learning can be applied in a practical setting. Use case studies, problem solving groups, and participatory activities to enhance learning. Adults generally want to immediately apply new information or skills to current problems or situations.
Adults are autonomous and self-directed. They need to be free to direct themselves. Their trainers must actively involve adult participants in the learning process and serve as facilitators for them. Specifically, they must get participants’ perspectives about what topics to cover and let them work on projects that reflect their interests. They should allow the participants to assume responsibility for presentations and group leadership. They have to be sure to act as facilitators, guiding participants to their own knowledge rather than supplying them with facts. Adults are goal-oriented. Upon enrolling in a program, they usually know what goal they want to attain. Instructors must show participants how this class will help them attain their goals. This classification of goals and course objectives must be done early in the course. Adults are relevancy-oriented. They must see a reason for learning something. Learning has to be applicable to their work or other responsibilities to be of value to them. Therefore, instructors must identify objectives for adult participants before the course begins. This means, also, that theories and concepts must be related to a setting familiar to participants. This need can be fulfilled by letting participants choose projects that reflect their own interests. Adults are practical. They focus on the aspects of a lesson most useful to them in their work. They may not be interested in knowledge for its own sake. Instructors must tell participants explicitly how the lesson will be useful to them on the job.
Adults have accumulated a foundation of life experiences and knowledge that may include work-related activities, family responsibilities, and previous education. They need to connect
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learning to this knowledge/ experience base. To help them do so, they should draw out participants’ experience and knowledge which is relevant to the topic. They must relate theories and concepts to the participants and recognize the value of experience in learning. As do all learners, adults need to be shown respect. Instructors must acknowledge the wealth of experiences that adult participants bring to the classroom. These adults should be treated as equals in experience and knowledge and allowed to voice their opinions freely in class.
Motivating the Adult Learner
Another aspect of adult learning is motivation. At least six factors serve as sources of motivation for adult learning: · · Social relationships: to make new friends, to meet a need for associations and friendships. External expectations: to comply with instructions from someone else; to fulfill the expectations or recommendations of someone with formal authority. Social welfare: to improve ability to serve mankind, prepare for service to the community, and improve ability to participate in community work. Personal advancement: to achieve higher status in a job, secure professional advancement, and stay abreast of competitors.
Escape/Stimulation: to relieve boredom, provide a break in the routine of home or work, and provide a contrast to other exacting details of life.
Cognitive interest: to learn for the sake of learning, seek knowledge for its own sake, and to satisfy an inquiring mind.
Barriers and Motivation
Unlike children and teenagers, adults have many responsibilities that they must balance against the demands of learning. Because of these responsibilities, adults have barriers against participating in learning. Some of these barriers include lack of time, money, confidence, or interest, lack of information about opportunities to learn, scheduling problems, “red tape,” and problems with child care and transportation. Motivation factors can also be a barrier. What motivates adult learners? Typical motivations include a requirement for competence or licensing, an expected (or realized) promotion, job enrichment, a need to maintain old skills or learn new ones, a need to adapt to job changes, or the need to learn in order to comply with company directives. The best way to motivate adult learners is simply to enhance their reasons for enrolling and decrease the barriers. Instructors must learn why their participants are enrolled (the motivators); they have to discover what is keeping them from learning. Then the instructors must plan their motivating strategies. A successful strategy includes showing adult learners the relationship between training and an expected promotion.
Learning Tips for Effective Instructors
Educators must remember that learning occurs within each individual as a continual process throughout life. People learn at
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different speeds, so it is natural for them to be anxious or nervous when faced with a learning situation. Positive reinforcement by the instructor can enhance learning, as can proper timing of the instruction. Learning results from stimulation of the senses. In some people, one sense is used more than others to learn or recall information. Instructors should present materials that stimulates as many senses as possible in order to increase their chances of teaching success. There are four critical elements of learning that must be addressed to ensure that participants learn. These elements are 1. 2. 3. 4. motivation reinforcement retention transference
If the participant does not recognize the need for the information (or has been offended or intimidated), all of the instructor’s effort to assist the participant to learn will be in vain. The instructor must establish rapport with participants and prepare them for learning; this provides motivation. Instructors can motivate participants via several means: • Set a feeling or tone for the lesson. Instructors should try to establish a friendly, open atmosphere that shows the participants they will help them learn. Set an appropriate level of concern. The level of tension must be adjusted to meet the level of importance of the objective. If the material has a high level of importance, a higher level of tension/stress should be established in the class. However, people learn best under low to moderate stress; if the stress is too high, it becomes a barrier to learning.
Set an appropriate level of difficulty. The degree of difficulty should be set high enough to challenge participants but not so high that they become frustrated by information overload. The instruction should predict and reward participation, culminating in success.
In addition, participants need specific knowledge of their learning results (feedback ). Feedback must be specific, not general. Participants must also see a reward for learning. The reward does not necessarily have to be monetary; it can be simply a demonstration of benefits to be realized from learning the material. Finally, the participant must be interested in the subject. Interest is directly related to reward. Adults must see the benefit of learning in order to motivate themselves to learn the subject. Reinforcement. Reinforcement is a very necessary part of the teaching/learning process; through it, instructors encourage correct modes of behavior and performance. • Positive reinforcement is normally used by instructors who are teaching participants new skills. As the name implies, positive reinforcement is “good” and reinforces “good” (or positive) behavior. Negative reinforcement is normally used by instructors teaching a new skill or new information. It is useful in trying to change modes of behavior. The result of negative reinforcement is extinction — that is, the instructor uses negative reinforcement until the “bad” behavior disappears, or it becomes extinct.
When instructors are trying to change behaviors (old practices), they should apply both positive and negative reinforcement. Reinforcement should be part of the teaching-learning process
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to ensure correct behavior. Instructors need to use it on a frequent and regular basis early in the process to help the participants retain what they have learned. Then, they should use reinforcement only to maintain consistent, positive behavior. Retention Participants must retain information from classes in order to benefit from the learning. The instructors’ jobs are not finished until they have assisted the learner in retaining the information. In order for participants to retain the information taught, they must see a meaning or purpose for that information. The must also understand and be able to interpret and apply the information. This understanding includes their ability to assign the correct degree of importance to the material. The amount of retention will be directly affected by the degree of original learning. Simply stated, if the participants did not learn the material well initially, they will not retain it well either. Retention by the participants is directly affected by their amount of practice during the learning. Instructors should emphasize retention and application. After the participants demonstrate correct (desired) performance, they should be urged to practice to maintain the desired performance. Distributed practice is similar in effect to intermittent reinforcement. Transference Transfer of learning is the result of training — it is the ability to use the information taught in the course but in a new setting. As with reinforcement, there are two types of transfer: positive and negative. • Positive transference, like positive reinforcement, occurs when the participants use the behavior taught in the course.
Negative transference, again like negative reinforcement, occurs when the participants do not do what they are told not to do. This results in a positive (desired) outcome.
Transference is most likely to occur in the following situations: • • Association — participants can associate the new information with something that they already know. Similarity — the information is similar to material that participants already know; that is, it revisits a logical framework or pattern. Degree of original learning — participant’s degree of original learning was high. Critical attribute element — the information learned contains elements that are extremely beneficial (critical) on the job.
Although adult learning is relatively new as field of study, it is just as substantial as traditional education and carries and potential for greater success. Of course, the heightened success requires a greater responsibility on the part of the teacher. Additionally, the learners come to the course with precisely defined expectations. Unfortunately, there are barriers to their learning. The best motivators for adult learners are interest and selfish benefit. If they can be shown that the course benefits them pragmatically, they will perform better, and the benefits will be longer lasting. In conclusion,
All LEARNING must be
User friendly : Easy to apply User urgent : Must be applied right away User relevant : Relevant to be applied
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Determining Training Needs
An effort to learn the needs of the participants. It is important to be aware of what will be relevant to them – what needs or expectations they carry – the responsibility of trainers to ensure needs satisfied
A Doctor diagnosing a patient A Leader assessing his/her team members A Trainer analyzing the program participants No matter which area one desires to interpret, the central theme everywhere is very similar. You need to know the person who is knocking your door and more important what are his/her current needs. A doctor cannot prescribe the right medicine unless he is sure as to what the body needs at that point of time, and thus accordingly prescribes the required medicine. Any wrong diagnosis can lead to complications. Similarly, Leaders task is to ensure that the members of his/her team are taken care of – their needs met and their task is relevant to their skill. Failing which, he will not be able to hold them for long and will eventually have an unproductive or a non responding person in the team, thus weakening the overall effort. The same is the case with trainers.
Jc. Elston Pimenta & Jc. Luqman Qazi
Key content Contribution support
Every training experience must benefit the learners. That is the singular most important purpose of any training program. Such learning can be in the form of new information gathered or knowledge gained; honing skills; getting motivated to attempt some new activity that has not been hitherto tried out or gaining an insight into application of existing knowledge and experience into some useful activity. The challenge before the Trainers is not merely to make a presentation, but to relate such training to the requirements or needs of the audience. To this extent, it is vital for every trainer to be able to determine the needs of the audience – why are they here for, what are their expectations, what additional knowledge or skills will help them in supporting their behavior, post such training experience. Hence, the cycle of training commences with “Determining Training Needs”. Whose training needs?? Of course, the needs of the participants, who have come before you to gain from such experience. It is an important aspect to be able to diagnose the participant. The most complex skill involved in administering success in homeopathy is primarily through diagnosis. The practitioner keeps on asking as many questions to arrive at the root cause or a series of causes. He/She must be completely aware as to what medicine will get a positive response. And they get to the minutest details in recording all reactions and responses. In training too, it is extremely important to be able to identify what are the expectations of the audience. These expectations unless met, will not give the program any lead into success.
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It is also possible that you have an audience who may not have any specific expectations and are there to take home whatever new is given. This is fairly common, particularly in large programs. People arrive at programs without any definite expectations or needs defined, but generally expect to take home something new, something worthwhile. The focus of a good trainer will be in guiding them to list out what they desire to take home – and help them put up their expectations before. Training Needs can be determined in several stages: (1) Prior to the commencement of the program by assessing the response of the participants – Pre course assessment (2) In many cases, there may not be a perfect assessment done of the learners and thus the skill of the trainer will be to assess them while the program has commenced. This is done when the session on “Unfreezing” or “Ice-breakers are done – or through a discussion leading, where the trainer is able to gauge their levels and needs - On site assessment (3) It may not be completely possible to assess the requirement prior to your main sessions – either through pre course or on site assessment. A trainer may need more time to thoroughly understand the expectations and this is done while the sessions are being presented. However, the capability of the trainer to evolve his program at that stage to address such needs is as important too – On going assessment A sure note for every trainer is to be aware that not all expectations can be always met. And no point that trainers keep going in circles to ensure that this happens and thus lose control on the program. Learners carrying expectations is fine. But as a trainer, you must be able to draw a distinction between “Needs & Wants”, and be able to attempt to satisfy needs, surely. Wants are expectations too, but one must keep in mind the duration of the
program as well, and thus focus on “needs fulfillment” as the priority.
Key content of the session:
Philosophy and Principles: a). Human behavior is influenced by wants and needs. Often, people do not know which are the needs and which are wants. As well, people often sublimate their needs so as to satisfy their wants. Those who choose to train others must know the difference and how to influence people to accept the more important needs over the less important wants. b). Individuals will learn better and modify their behavior more positively if they choose what they learn. Objectives: a) To help individuals determine the difference between a need and a want. b) To help individuals determine which training programs will best enhance their personal and Work lives. c) To gain input from individuals in the preparation and implementation of appropriate training Programs. Theory: In order to develop an effective training program, a trainer must first assess the real needs of the participants. Your role is very similar to that of a doctor. Before a doctor can prescribe the proper treatment for his patient, there are several steps he must take. The first step is to gather information about his patient. Next,
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he will examine the patient to detect certain symptoms. By this time, the doctor has more information, but there is still something missing. Even if the patient doesn’t know exactly what is wrong, he can often give the doctor several answers that will lead to a possible solution. However, the doctor realizes that there are several other sources from which to gather information; therefore, he may consult another doctor for a second opinion and possibly question other people who are in contact with the patient on a regular basis. With all this information, the doctor makes a diagnosis by separating the symptoms from the real problem. After this is completed, a cure is proposed for the patient’ problem with directions on how to complete the cure. But a crucial step is yet to be taken –the follow-up is always necessary to make certain the patient is following directions and taking the necessary steps toward recovery. This analogy shows how important it is for trainers to make a through needs important it is for trainers to make a thorough needs assessment to develop effective training needs.
Methods to Determine Training Needs The Needs Assessment The training needs can be determined by finding what is presently being done and matching that with what could or should be done,
now or in the future. The gap between these two factors will provide clues to the type and amount of training needed by a given group. Note: The finding –out technique can be accomplished by using any combinations of the following methods. It is important to understand that no one method alone will provide you with the clues necessary to determine the training needs of the group. 1. Written Sources: a) Survey- The survey method is an excellent way to determine group training needs. This should be done in the form of a printed questionnaire consisting of a list of questions to be answered by a cross section of the target group. Each question should be brief, specific and phrased in a way that demands a short answer. If this method is used to determine training needs for a Junior Chamber, for instance, the survey should be conducted at least twice during the year. By doing this, it will point out improvements the LOM has made, and many times uncover new training needs. b) Letters: Letters of request and complaints are also great sources to determine training needs. Read between the lines. Many times what the writer is requesting or complaining about is not the entire need-only a symptom of the problem. c) Newsletters: If you are going to train members of an
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organization or association, there are many resources to exploit. Newsletters are an excellent source to uncover training needs. Read each newsletter thoroughly and determine the attitude it conveys. If it appears to be a poor publication, this could be an indication that each other functions of the organization may also be conducted haphazardly. d) Plan of Action: A plan of action, if completed ,is a good source for assessing needs. It includes their objectives, goals and the means by which they intend to achieve their goals. e) Meeting Minutes: The minutes of meeting might give you clues to training needs. 2. Unwritten Sources: a) Informal Talks: Training needs can surface while holding informal talks with prospective participants. You can have these informal talks in any setting. b) Observations: During your travels training needs can be made through social and professional contacts, observations. An expert and creative mind ,good eyes, sharp ears and a discreet mouth are needed. Before you arrive home, write down your key observations so you will not forget them. c) Consultants: Use consultants to obtain advice on the training needs. d) Interviews: Conducting one-on-one interviews with key individual individuals are an excellent way to obtain training information. Prior to the interview, prepare a list of questions that require more than a yes or no answer. Write down their responses and study the answers to uncover training needs.
Skills It is important to help individuals find the best methods possible to determine what learning programs they should undertake in order to achieve their life goals. Once an individual can determine the most beneficial training path, he or she is more likely to participate in training programs. Results It is very obvious that we have one main result to achieve: to ensure that individuals have the techniques and methods of determining their training needs so that they not only select the most appropriate training programs for their life goals, but that they are actually motivated to undertake such training activity.
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Key content Contribution support:
Establishing Program Goals
(A strategy to author the objective of a training program that will guide trainers to design approaches aimed at meeting the trainer’s expectations of the audience performance at the end of the program)
Are you one of those trainers who have set your eyes on future? Are you someone ardently looking forward to a spurt in your levels? The response better be a YES. It is time that you are able to better position yourself and be firmly settled to achieve more in life. And why are you here doing your presentation? Are you completely clear with your purpose? You better be, since it does not serve our objective, if we are operating from an “uncertain” axis. Program Goals offer two way benefits. They are aimed to guide and support the participating leader to perform in an expected manner once the program comes to an end, and such aim will also help trainers roll up sleeves to be able to achieve this aim, and possibly better their previous performances as well. The first aspect is to be clear as to what should be done towards helping the
participating leader perform under certain conditions on a pre defined criteria. The second aspect is the very knowledge of “what should be done” – which can inspire a trainer to be ready with actions and strategy that help in the realization of the “first”. Trainers can perform at their best, when they are absolutely clear about their program goals. It is like driving your car. You know the destination and the time you have at your disposal to reach there. Thus you remain focused. You will guide your car through the right paths. The speed of your travel gets related to the time at your disposal. You may occasionally take short-cuts or sometimes cruise comfortably. All actions completely focused on your “knowledge of arrival” at your destination. A training program must have a destination as well. As a Trainer, your “knowledge” of the ‘destination’ will be of immense help. While it is important for you to be aware of your “audience” and their levels, it is equally imperative for you to be clear about how much “learning you expect them to get involved with” – what they must be able to do, after your program concludes, will be the quintessence of your presentation. Based on this preamble, you will be able to decide the strategy of your training - at what level you must keep the delivery active; what should your training approaches include; the extent of interactive-ness you wish to apply; and sometimes even the ‘target’ audience, you wish to focus on. Always plan results! And design your approaches to earn these results.
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Many training programs get organized or delivered with focus limited to “how effective was my presentation” – “did I get the audience excited” – “were the audience appreciative of my program” – “did I share the right stories, success with humour, relevant references, spoke of the right people”. It is possible that these situations may have given you the strength of having performed well, but what use will it be if the learning experience expected or required has not been met or the subject did not respond to their needs? When one claims he or she is a trainer of “some impact”, then allow this presentation to also get related to the final purpose – that of getting people “learn from the program and be given the right motivation to initiate some action” which has been the key purpose of the training experience. The bottom lines must be absolutely lucid. • How much has the program supported the development or modification in the Knowledge, Skill or Attitude of the participating leader? To what extent has the participating leader expressed willingness to apply this new learning? Will the participating Leader come back to another presentation for a re-charge or review? As the trainer, how well do you justify that your presentation concluded on a positive note – the ‘extra-experience you have gained, some higher level of knowledge or a new level of learning you have acquired to support you handle the same presentation even better at a future experience?
• • •
Program Goals are of tremendous value to a trainer who has a passionate desire to move up, a deep-seated commitment to grow up vertically as a trainer and who is keen to emerge as a master in the arena of trainers.
Program Goals must address these salient attributes: • What should the program do to the participating leaders? To what extent can it help in meeting their needs or providing them solutions to be applied in helping them achieve their purposes? How should they react once the program comes to an end – What should their immediate action be? How well should the audience perform under the perceived conditions, to be able to match your expectation? Firstly they state the expected performance or behaviour, and added on will be the situations under such performance gets initiated, and the hallmark of the goal will be when the “expected standard” of “performance” can be defined and achieved.
Program goals in the form of “Instructional Objectives” though do not specifically state as to how it must help the trainer, however imply definite benefit to the trainer. The questions that can be raised out of a perfectly defined objective, for the trainer could be: • What should the program do to the trainer – How much has it helped the trainer move ahead as a “trainer” and supported in the overall development? How effective should the presentation be in relation to the ability of the trainer to address the needs and expectations of the audience? Will it help the Trainer perform at a higher peak than before? If there were some “discomfort zones” in the previous presentation on the same subject, will the current experience eliminate these zones? The effectiveness issues must be addressed for sure. The strength of a trainer is to keep doing better.
Should the Training Goal or Instructional Objective be announced first?
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This is a common debate. Many trainers opt not to reveal their training objective. One reason for “some” could be that a trainer fears non fulfillment of the objective. The other reasons could indicate – not sure of the pattern in which the program will advance, unsure of performance of self; unsure of the audience levels, and so on. It has been found to be of extensive help to both the Trainer and the participating Leaders to be aware of the specific objective prior to the program, since it always helps cruise better. In these days of more trainers than ever before with the arena full of trainers, and surely bountiful opportunities coming up as well, the challenge of a trainer is to keep “moving ahead” – to be able to handle more powerful challenges. It is only when you take up tasks that are unmanageable, will growth occur. If things seem under control, you’re just not going fast enough.” : Mario Andretti Key Content : The What, Why and How of Program Goals A ship with no port of destination, knows no favorable wind: Anonymous If you do not know where you are going you will probably end up somewhere else : David Campbell
Having done the needs analysis successfully you are entering the next step of programming your goals as far as the training is concerned. As a trainer, through your program Where do you want to go? How do you want to go? What conditions would help you go there? How do you make sure you have gone there? Questions are incessantly pouring into your mind and the answers to them will help you devise your program goals. Expectations to results The program goals you have set are meant to help you successfully achieve them. They must address “how effective will they prove on the audience”. It is a definite meeting point of expectations - of both the trainer and participants which will lead to desired results. Every participant is coming out with a very pertinent question in his mind as “What is in it for me?” It is the duty of the trainer to help the participants achieve a transformation from his present level to be able to perform better. To enhance the achievement levels of the participating leaders is helping them to achieve a change in their knowledge level or skill level or attitudinal level, either independently or collectively. A
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training objective will help the trainer crystallize his efforts towards achieving the program goals. Training Objective Without objectives, a trainer will be functioning in a fog of his own making, until he knows just what he wants his trainees to be able to do at the end of the course : Anonymous Training objective is defined as statement that describes what the learner will be able to do after completion of the training program. In other words it is a statement of certain behaviours or observable actions that a learner will be able to demonstrate utilizing his/her Knowledge, Skill or Attitude, in a desired manner, when the influence of the trainer on him/her has come to an end. It is also defined as a statement of an observable proficiency in which the criteria for acceptable performance is specified and measurable. The resources important in the performance of the task are also stated.
Advantages of Training Objective
To the Trainer Clarify instructional intent Articulate the goal of the training - Trainers need to know what new skills and behaviors will result from a training course in order to make informed choices about what programs to offer Guide development of assessment and evaluation Aid in selection of course content and strategies Design training materials and methods Monitor and manage the training situation towards expected results
Evaluate training achievement in a systematic way Revise and modify the next training session as a result of structured feedback obtained from training evaluation To the trainee • Help him state expectations of the training program, which will in turn help him visualize the course of training at the beginning of it and define his/her role as well the intent - By dispelling unrealistic expectations trainee gains a clear sense of current status and desired outcome to better measure personal progress the expected level of performance he/she should achieve in every training step under what conditions he/she is expected to perform the criteria and standard with which he/she can objectively assess his/her own performance
• • •
It is better to develop training objectives at the planning stage and make them known to the trainees before the training session begins. Trainers are expected to go through the objectives and explain these to the trainees. Writing them alone will not improve the training process or achievement.
Characteristics of a Training Objective:
Useful objectives contain three important characteristics viz., Behavior (performance), a Condition, and a Degree (criterion). Behavior An objective always says what a learner is expected to be able to do. The objective sometimes describes the product or result of the doing. The emphasis here is on “Behaviour” – some visible action
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Ask yourself, what is the learner doing when demonstrating achievement of the objective? Conditions An objective always describes the important conditions (if any) under which the performance is to occur. It is not completely enough if the performance happens. The challenge is that this performance must happen under defined conditions. Criteria (Degree) Wherever possible, an objective describes the criterion of acceptable performance by describing how well the learner must perform in order to be considered acceptable. “How well” is the key. In other words, it means that the trainer expects participating learners to perform under certain conditions at a “level” – a level that is “acceptable” to the trainer. 1. BEHAVIOR: The verb used to describe a desirable behaviour in a training objective must be observable and measurable, that is, with active verbs. This often requires translation from the general to the specific.
General term To Know
Specific term count, define, describe, identify, label, list, match, name, outline, point, quote, read, recall, recite, recognize, record, reproduce, select, state, write associate, compute, convert, defend, discuss, distinguish, estimate, explain, extend, extrapolate, generalize, give examples, infer, paraphrase, predict, rewrite, summarize, translate add, calculate, change, complete, compute, demonstrate, discover, divide, examine, graph, interpolate, interpret, manipulate, modify, multiply, operate, predict, prepare, produce, report, show, solve, subtract, translate, use arrange, breakdown, categorize, classify, combine, design, detect, develop, diagram, differentiate, discriminate, illustrate, infer, outline, point out, relate, select, separate, sequence, subdivide build, compile, compose, create, derive, design, devise, explain, generate, group, integrate, modify, order, organize, plan, prescribe, propose, rearrange, reconstruct, relate, revise, rewrite, summarize, transform, specify appraise, assess, compare, conclude, contrast, criticize, determine, grade, interpret, judge, justify, measure, rank, rate, support, test, score
BEHAVIOR SUMMARY 1. A training objective describes an intended outcome of training rather than an instructional procedure.
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2. An objective always states a performance, describing what the learner will be DOING when demonstrating mastery of the objective. 3. To prepare an objective describing an instructional intent: a) Write a statement that describes the main intent or performance you expect of the trainee. 2. CONDITIONS To state an objective clearly, you will sometimes have to state the conditions you will impose when students are demonstrating their mastery of the objective. Here are some examples: Given a problem of the following type… Given a list of… Given any reference of the learner’s choice… Given a matrix of intercorrelations… When provided with a standard set of tools… Given a properly functioning… Without the aid of references… With the aid of references… Without the aid of a calculator… Without the aid of tools… Your description shall be detailed enough to be sure that the desired performance would be recognized by another competent person, and detailed enough so that others understand your intent as YOU understand it. Here are some questions you can ask yourself about your objectives as a guide to your identifying important aspects o f the target, or terminal performances you wish to develop:
1. What will the learner be allowed to use? 2. What will the learner be denied? 3. Under what conditions will you expect the desired performance to occur? 4. Are there any skills that you are specifically NOT trying to develop? Does the objective exclude such skills? 3. Criteria (DEGREE) If you can specify the acceptable level of performance for each objective, you will have a standard against which to test your instruction. Therefore, you will have the means for determining whether your instruction is successful in achieving your instructional intent. You would know, and the participant would know, the quality of performance necessary to work for or exceed. What you must try to do, then, is indicate in your objectives what the acceptable performance level will be by adding words that describe the criterion of success. If the thought that now pops into your mind is something like, “Much of what I teach is intangible and cannot be evaluated,” - consider this. Maybe so. But if you are teaching aspects that cannot be evaluated, you are in the awkward position of being unable to
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demonstrate that you are teaching “some” aspects at all. The issue here is not whether all important aspects can be measured or evaluated. The issue is simply whether you can improve the usefulness of an objective by making clear how well the participant must be able to perform to be considered acceptable. Sometimes such a criterion is critical. Sometimes it is of little or no importance at all. But adding a degree to an objective is a way of communicating an important aspect of what it is you want your participants to be able to do. Examples of degrees: time limits, accuracy, quality. CONDITION AND DEGREE SUMMARY: 1. A successful objective will specify the important conditions or constraints under which you want the trainee to perform. 2. A successful objective will include a statement that indicates how well that trainee must perform to satisfy the trainer. COMMON PITFALLS OF OBJECTIVE WRITING: 1. FALSE PERFORMANCE. Have a thorough understanding of time management. Demonstrate a comprehension of the short-story form. Be able to relate to others in a demonstration of empathy. Be able to understand individual differences in family members. The above statements have the appearance of objectives, but contain no performances. They are not objectives. 2. FALSE GIVENS Given three days of instruction… Given that the participant has completed six laboratory experiments on…
Given that the participant is in the category of gifted… Given adequate practice in… These are words or phrases that follow the performance statement in an objective - but they describe some situations, more than specific conditions the learner must have or be denied, when demonstrating achievement of the objective. Most typically, the words describe something about the instruction itself. Don’t describe the instructional procedure in your objective. 3. TEACHING POINTS Be able to choose an art print or photo that illustrates a theme of your choice and explain how it illustrates that theme. Similar to a false objective, this statement describes a teaching point, a practice exercise, or some other aspect of classroom activity. Don’t describe a classroom activity and call it an objective. The main function of an objective is to help course planners decide on instructional content and procedure. If the objective describes a teaching procedure, it will fail to perform its primary purpose because it will be describing instructional practice rather than important instructional outcomes.
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Other examples: Be able to discuss in class the case histories handed out by the trainer. 4. GIBBERISH Manifest an increasing comprehensive understanding… Demonstrate a thorough comprehension… Relate and foster with multiple approaches… Have a deep awareness and thorough humanizing grasp… The trainee must be able to demonstrate an ability to develop self- confidence and self-respect… 5. TRAINER PERFORMANCE The trainer will provide an environment that will promote the development of self-esteem, confidence, and security in participants. Demonstrate to participants the proper procedures for completing NTTTS application form An instructional objective describes trainee performance. It avoids saying anything about trainer performance. 6. FALSE CRITERIA To the satisfaction of the trainer. Must be able to make 80% on a multiple choice exam. Must pass a final exam. Participants know who they have to perform for. With the second, you are only giving half of the picture. Eighty percent has no substance. It doesn’t tell the participant anything. Eighty percent of how many questions? What’s in the questions? What exactly is it that they are performing here? The ability to get 80%?
Evaluation of a Training Objective 1. Read the objective. 2. Can you say in concrete and active terms what the learner is expected to do? 3. The objective is defective and must be rewritten. It must state clearly what is expected of the trainee in terms of behavior that can be observed and measured. Rewrite. 4. From reading the objective, do you know precisely what standard of performance you expect from the trainee. 5. The objective does not enable you to decide how much or how well the trainee has learned. If a level of acceptable performance is stated, it enables you to make accurate judgments. Rewrite. 6. Does the objective say under what conditions the trainee will carry out the required activity? (E.g., will they be given [or not] certain tools, materials, aids, etc? Is there a time constraint? Where will the activity be performed? And so on.) Go to # 2. If yes, go to #4. If no, go to #3. Go to #1.
If yes, go to #6. If no, go to #5. Go to #1.
If yes, go to #8. If no, go to #7.
7. Verify that these sorts of things do not have If rewriting, any bearing on the trainee’s level of accep- go to #1. table performance. If you think they do, the objective must be written to include them. 8. The objective would seem to be satisfactory.
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Key content Contribution support
Creating the Program Design
(A guide to understanding & appreciating the importance of a design, strategies to develop the content; and how the program must impact and guide the participants at a training program evolve into the objective that has been determined).
A Fashion Designer A Home Designer A Car Designer Every designer has ONE sure objective – a bottom-line. The design must be most relevant, receive acceptance and must be rewarded with results. It must be created to respond to a need; ignite a desire; generate a goal; provide guidance to accomplish; and market the designer. That is what success of a design is all about. What results can be considered rewarding? · · · Current trends Technically sound Benefit to recipient, exciting
Jc. Mukesh Pahwa
· · ·
Asked for more Value for investment – for both. Supports Designer’s growth!
It is the same with every good training program. The bottom line is clear. It must have a design that score’s. The participant must get the thrill of being there, completely get involved, and take home a “learning experience”. The skill of the trainer in creating the most comprehensive design is what adds value to the trainer. There are trainers who are very good at: · · · · · Language Speaking Ability Getting along with people Presentation Aids All of these
But when it comes to design, they fumble. Their design has no “special value” or an “innovative approach”. It is very similar to what every other trainer has been using for a long time. That’s because, no special focus has been laid on “how well can the design impact”! Design is the crux of any training program and the programs relevance gets greater when the most appropriate and creative design is conceived, every time!! Design in the Training Cycle · · · ·
Needs Assessment Instructional Objective Program Design Techniques & Aids
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· Program Presentation · Evaluation The approach is quite clear. We have the group whose needs are assessed. And the challenge of any trainer is to ensure that these needs are met – the expectations of the participants in terms of fulfilling their needs must be fulfilled. “How well?” is the key question. A few situations that normally come up at the end of a training experience: • Programs where the trainer believes that participants expectations are met, but unfortunately a sizeable part of the audience does not think so Programs where the trainer fails to deliver expectations and is completely unaware of the fact that despite the “wah wah”(applause), the design lacked the “purpose” Programs that possibly meets the needs or expectations of the learning group but the “inspired drive” continues to be missing.
There could be many more such situations – all of them leading to one certain finding that the design lacked the “punch” or an “impact that’s long lasting”. What could be a positive response to a training design? • It was directly aimed to support the objective – to help people
appreciate the need to move up and gave them the required strategy to accomplish the same • It was designed with a blend of “interactive-ness”; “inspireddrive”; “innovative-ness”; and “initiative-ness strategy’s offered” – If you are to be a great trainer, always remember … “the proof of the pudding is it’s eating” – No matter how well the pudding may appear; how well it may be decorated or draped; how well it may be packed; how colourful it may look or how ornamentally it may be designed – yet the person eating the pudding must enjoy every bit of it” The learning experience was truthful, extremely provoking; and full of value. It’s approaches and contents have re-engineered the thinking process of participants by its masterly craftsmanship. – The challenge is in “Crafting” – to be able to take care of all aspects that facilitate “learning” and “application” – both. There is no point talking about “What” and “Where” unless the learners are able to appreciate the “Why” & “How” Another response a trainer must await is : Thank you. It helped me see from a new perspective and guided me alter and addon to my approaches in Life. I am now more successful and probably in the right direction. Can we have a higher level program, please, to help me go to the next stage”
Making a lasting impact with “Design” • • • Analyse what is required and at what level it must be offered Identify what you have to offer Identify your own learning goals – Every program must make you move advanced. And thus it is integral to growing up, that
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your design must be built-in with areas that you are currently not completely aware of Package all these three : what is required+what you have to offer+your own learning goal – supports your design with • Learning approaches cannot be “routine”. Your specialty is in creating that “inspired approach” Levels cannot be common. Your domain is to ensure that you can respond to all levels Presentations cannot be monotonous in their content. Your forte is to enliven them with content that not only offers an indepth analysis of the subject but is also packaged with situations from “real-life experiences”.
Integrating all these three : inspired approach+multilevel+researched content relevant to real-life experiences – can be a fantastic design of presentations
Key Content : Strategies in Designing
(A) The SIX relevant questions for designing a Training Program A training program is simply the structured arrangement of Activities that facilitates learning A Trainer’s Philosophy, Character, Personality, Education and
Experience influence the effectiveness of the course content. These personal factors will also influence the Trainer’s selection of Training content tools and techniques. The 6 relevant Questions for Designing a Training Program are – WHO, WHY, WHAT, WHERE, WHEN and HOW! WHO? Who are the participants, for whom you are designing a training program? What are their needs, their individual learning styles? What is their “Level of knowledge and experience”?. And what is ‘their capacity to learn and capability to perform”? How many participants are attending the training program? All these factors should be considered whole setting the course objectives. WHY? Why are you conducting this program? The participants “needs” are taken into consideration while the trainer sets the course objectives - and prepares to concentrate on either increasing the knowledge, skills & attitudes as the case may be. WHAT? Keeping in mind the ‘Who & Why’ (objectives), identify the contents of your training programme. What is the subject, what are the various topics you would like to cover to meet the needs of the participants?
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Analyse and select the appropriate and effective training methods/ techniques to impart the training. The effectiveness will depend on the knowledge gained, improvement in skills and in the attitudinal change brought about in the participant. Spend time in preparing the visual aids which will make your training effective. Analogies, humor, anecdotes will help supplement your point of view. Incorporate them regularly in your training programme. WHERE? Having identified your course content, techniques, aids etc., the next logical sequence is to gather the material you require. Where to find it? You have internal and external sources. Your IJC/JCI publication/ manual on the subject. Books, written by specialists on the subject. Libraries Expert trainers on the subject. Periodicals, articles published And You and your life-relevant experiences.
Research is the key to better quality courses.
WHEN? Before you start organising your material and start developing it, keep in mind the time factor. How much time do you have at your disposal? Whether the program will be completed in one session or in more than one session? Will there be breaks during the programme for tea or lunch? This knowledge will help you in scheduling your sessions and in condensing the overall programme to fit in the time available. HOW? a) Framework: Prepare the outline of your course. Organise your
material in a proper order. List the broad content areas (major concept). Divide each major concept into various headings, subheadings/ topics. Make sure that the material you have assembled can be encompassed in this framework. This will be the skeleton of your course. b) Expand: The outline is to be expanded to include very detail of the course. Develop each point under its heading in a proper sequence. Maintain continuity from one point to another. c) Make it better: Include objective-oriented learning experience. It certainly makes a significant contribution in enhancing the participant towards the desired objectives. d) Enhance your final product: Pay attention to the following points Be sure the course is loaded with good content. Complex concepts and skills are made easy to understand by breaking them down into simple concrete elements. Arrange for activity, involve the participants throughout the training programme. Determine the ways and means of getting group participation. Use plenty of stories, anecdotes and case histories to illustrate your point clearly. Enliven with humor at the right places. Make learning enjoyable. Trainees need time to absorb. Determine points at which to quickly summarise. Review at the conclusion of each major concept.
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Create links between one topic and another. Abrupt change from one point to another reduces understanding. Device methods to get feedback from your participants during and after the programme.
e) The finishing touch: After the course is finalised, try it out. You may detect errors or find need to modify your design. Prepare your opening and closing well.
Now ! you are ready to implement your training programme. GO AHEAD! Here’s wishing you success!
B) “Bomber B” A mnemonic device to help you structure your Presentation. Bang – Always start with attention-getting “hook” Outline main message (Road Map) Give only 4-5 key message. Make a Bridge between each key messages and the Participant’s experience & needs Give frequent examples to help the participants visualize what you mean. Be sure to summarize & conclude.
Opening – Message – Bridge –
Example – Recap –
Bang! Always finish with closing “hook”.
(“Bomber B as the nick name of B Gunar Edeg R.A.F (B) the Icelandic pilot who helps trainers to structure their courses.)
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Jc. Elston Pimenta & Jc. Luqman Qazi
Key content Contribution support
MODULE FOUR MODULE ONE
Techniques & Aids supporting Presentation
Commentary • • •
Is the audience active? If it is a very passive crowd, how can a Trainer make the audience jump into action? Is the audience too large for a training program? How can the Trainer take advantage? Is the audience full of people with very limited “levels” – of understanding and skill? How can a Trainer influence their learning?
“Training Techniques” is the name of the game. The right way to go about as a Trainer, is to be able to get the audience participate. Keep them active. Get them do activities. Bring them into closer interaction with others. Be able to gauge their grasp. Push up their participative initiatives. Give them involved in solving and responding to problems and exercises. Pool them into groups and encourage them deliver presentations. Ask Questions
Key content Contribution
Jc. Nirmal Parekh
that make them respond. These are some of those strategies Trainers must have up their sleeves to effortlessly get the audience active. These strategies serve benefits in several ways: a) The audience is “active” – keeps them from dozing off or turning passive b) Interaction between participants builds teams and sets them off on an active tone The training environment is energetic and lively Interest gets generated and the desire to participate shoots up Feedback is assessed Trainer too is able to use the appropriate approaches relating to the situation Learning is tremendous, especially in groups The “right leaders” in the audience get identified And many more
c) d) e) f) g) h) i)
True to its word, “Techniques” imply styles or methods of delivery which the Trainer can prefer to suit the situation and make the delivery highly effective. They are, primarily presentation techniques, which help the Trainer in creating a lasting impact while making a presentation and also supports his objective of facilitating “definite learning” Techniques are approaches that a trainer takes. Experience confirms that there is not one single technique that is the “best”. It is up to the Trainers to take advantage of these techniques and depending on the situation before them, they can choose the most appropriate one. Sometimes, it is depending on the group and its levels, techniques are chosen. For instance, a highly participative
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and extremely active audience can respond positively to a well delivered lecture, since their basic level is “active” and their knowledge level is “high”. However, a group that is not as active or as skilled, may prefer very short lectures and more interactive approaches like discussion leading or buzz groups or some other forms, which actually get them active. The quintessence here is to first – have a thorough knowledge of how to handle techniques and second – to be able to apply the right technique depending on the objective and audience levels. It is also the size of the audience that has to be taken into consideration while determining the right technique. A large audience may be difficult to be broken into groups, and a smaller audience will prefer an interactive or two way dialogue rather than a monologue. And added to this is the aspect of time available with the Trainer. Some techniques are extremely time consuming and if you have very limited time, then there is absolutely no point trying out buzz groups and their response in large audience. Thus, techniques are situational. Absolutely! The ability to apply a particular technique, for sure, comes from detailed analysis of understanding what makes the participant in the audience get active and involved. This is easier to determine once you have some experience of handling all techniques and have experienced their results. While a technique is primarily to get the participant into an “involved mould”, the skill of choosing or applying the right technique is the testing time for the trainer. Techniques require careful handling. Over a period time, the techniques that have been hitherto published, have now evolved into newer techniques as well. And these new ones have been tried and proved extremely successful. Some of them include:
Presentation by Trainers in Teams or Group Presentation: One session with several Trainers – frequently changing guards. This is extremely risky and must have complete consent of all trainers involved and they need to synergize well, otherwise it may fall flat. The best part of this technique is it brings out different opinions on one point under discussion and also adds variety into presentation. Thus no matter how long the session, the question of audience falling out is very limited, if the Trainers making the joint presentation are able to rhythm well and individually capable of keeping the audience active. Creation of Individual Profiles or Publishing Audience responses : This involves getting the audience fill in a series of questionnaires and then publish all findings in the form of a book that could be returned back to them duly printed. Several times it has been found that audience is only made to answer questionnaires without any serious investment from the Training team in evaluating or appreciating their response. The participants are also not aware as to how well they have responded to a particular statement or question, once the program is over. This strategy helps in compiling data on behalf of the participants, and gets them take home a published version, which is extremely useful to them for any future review.
But training techniques alone are not enough. They have to be supported by the right aids which can create that lasting impact, we have been talking about. What are these “Training Aids” and how should a Trainer handle these “Aids” is a matter of more skill and definite knowledge, as well. It is important that Trainers learn out of experience, and are able to use different methods and aids as they keep progressing.
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Training Aids have indeed evolved into extremely superior situations. Technology supported the advance of “Training Aids” into amazing and incredible situations. There was time when usage of a Blackboard meant “monotonous” an approach. And thus came in the “White Board” with colour markers. What a change it was! It certainly was exciting to see the “Black” fade away and get on to colours. But, white board did not stay long either. It was taken over by pre-designed attractive flip charts, which gave way to Overheads, and then to very colourful slides, and now to Powerpoints. And what levels in “powerpoints” again. I hate to see a Trainer who does not evolve. It is often a mindset that prevents a Trainer from moving into newer zones of activity. And the challenge of any training is to break “mindsets”. Trainers must learn to not only develop new visual aids, but also discover comfort zones in using them. Visual Aids, thanks to technology, have by themselves become a training program. These days, you have a pre-recorded interactive training program available to you on a DVD. They are completely ready to wipe you off the scene or turn you into mere facilitators if you do not evolve, for they carry tremendous impact, quality in all aspects of presentation and a definite variety. The challenge of a Trainer, thus, is to evolve into a completely updated and upgraded level of using the best of visual aids which have made a Trainers’ life a lot more easy, thanks to computers!! Audience out there is looking forward to something new from people they have already experienced, someone different in handling upgrades; someone very evolving in using current
approaches; and surely they want “all current” data in the most modern format. The challenge of a Trainer, I believe, is to deliver that! To prove, you are ahead of the audience and in tune with times. While a Trainer surely has the experience and knowledge level to boast of, yet how well the Trainer sets the rapport with the audience is equally important to determine the success of any presentation. Techniques & Training Aids are thus meant to respond and increase audience initiatives!
Training methods and techniques
Analyze and select the appropriate and effective training methods/techniques to impart the training. The effectiveness will depend on the knowledge gained, improvement in skills and attitudinal change brought about in the participants. Use humour extensively while the anecdotes will help supplement your point of view. Incorporate them regularly in your training program. A good trainer should have a working knowledge of the Methods and techniques available to him. The following are few of them. Each one is different and each poses unique problem and requirements. Apply either one of, or combination of or suitable modification of such techniques. Remember your objectives. Now, study them carefully. Ice Breaking DESCRIPTION: A form of Introduction to achieve a relaxed and friendly atmosphere. ADVANTAGES: It breaks down the stiffness and formality in the
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participants. It also eliminates shyness in them. One can use the Ice Breaking as a tool to take them into the learning environment. It also helps in needs assessment. CAUTION: Sometimes it encourages status building contest. Mind you, few participants are modest. If they are not MODULE ONE crisp, they turn out to be time wasters. Also, the ice-breakers should be relevant to the point under discussion. Any aimless physical activity is not an ice-breaker. Brain Storming DESCRIPTION: A technique to achieve in shortest time, maximum number of ideas without prior judgment and criticism. It can be used at any given point of time. ADVANTAGES : Stimulates creative ability of the members. Get many creative ways of solving problem. Improves communication between members. Encourages reserved participant. CAUTION : Care should be taken so that participants’ thoughts are not distorted. Use participants’ own Key phrases. Don’t make any remarks on ideas. Buzz Groups DESCRIPTION: Technique to explore all avenues of a particular problem and obtain the views of all the participants in group of 5 to 8 members. It shall have a group leader and a spokesman.
ADVANTAGES: Every one gets an opportunity to participate & express his views and feel part of the group. Leader gains experience to lead the discussion. Spokesman gains experience to summarise the discussion and report verbally. It facilitates Team building. CAUTIONS: A careful briefing should be given by the Trainer. He should check with each leader. See that the Buzz group is not dominated by one or two people. Lecture DESCRIPTION: Is a prepared talk. It provides knowledge, and information. It gives a direct message. ADVANTAGES: This is used when time is a constraint. It can be dealt with more facts, principles and concepts. This is by large used by knowledgeable and motivational speakers. It gives direct, clear and controlled information. CAUTION: Don’t be dull. It requires speaking ability. Don’t be careless in preparation. It must be well organised, developed and presented. Must motivate group interest. Should not drag out in length. Discussion Leading DESCRIPTION: A 5 stage plan to get the best result out of discussion. It is a process of pooling the ideas, experience & abilities and finally selecting the best. 1. Define the problem. Explore various aspects. 2. Produce ideas. Give alternative solutions to the problems. Unlock ideas.
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3. Test the ideas using experience and knowledge with alternatives. 4. Choose. Reach to a decision on alternative solutions. Choose the best. 5. Plan of action. What has to be done? ADVANTAGES: Brings out different view points. Group decisions have been proved superior. Trainees are more likely to change attitude after discussion. CAUTION: See that everyone has opportunity to contribute. Don’t let discussion be dominated by a few/most vocal. Don’t examine or criticize ideas as it comes up. Guide the group. Don’t tell what to do. Keep the discussion moving. Summarise the progress Role – play DESCRIPTION: A technique of human interaction that involves realistic behaviour in imaginary situation. Guidance of the trainer is essential. Used mainly for dealing with face to face situation. ADVANTAGES: It is an excellent method of participants’ learning with fun. It provides participants with realistic experience. This makes it possible for the individuals and group to improve their effectiveness. CAUTION: Avoid unpopular people for unpopular roles. Don’t use real names of characters. Don’t let role players get into rut and stereotype pattern. Role playing is not play acting but it is reality practice. Case Study DESCRIPTION: Consciously written, practical and realistic casestudies which will induce thinking. Analysis, pro and con discussion
and genuine effort to find solution to problems of real-life situations. ADVANTAGES: Provides opportunities for exchange of ideas and consideration of possible solutions to problems that the participants face in their work situation. It is very effective in the group of 8 to 10 people. CAUTION: Don’t give information but assist participants to analyse and think about the problem. Participants look to the trainer to give the right answer. Flexibility is required. Participants may get a wrong impression of the real work situation. Clarify. Effectiveness of different training methods: Ranking of methods depending on TEACHING GOALS (1=high, 8=low)
Method KnowAttitude Problem InterParticipant ledge Change Solvin.g personal accepacquisition Skills tance 4 1 8 5 6 3 2 7 5 3 7 4 6 8 2 1 1 4 7 2 8 6 3 5 5 4 8 3 6 7 1 2 1 5 7 2 4 8 3 6 Knowledge retention 4 2 3 7 5 1 6 8
CASE STUDY WORKSHOP LECTURE GAMES FILMS/VIDEO PROGRAMMED INSTRUMENT ROLE-PLAY GROUP ACTIVITY
“A picture is worth a thousand words” Audio-Visual aids make a greater impact on the participants in
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terms of better retention of the content. Hence they are one of the most important tools that a trainer should use in the development of his presentation. The commonly used Audio-Visuals are Black Boards, slide/overhead projectors, flip charts, films, video tape recorded message etc. These could be used to help the participants and also the trainer in achieving better results in the training process. The advantages to the participants : The audio visual aids can: 1) Make participants follow logical sequence of talk. 2) Make a visual impact. 3) Facilitate following the talk more easily, especially when the participants are slow in grasping. 4) Ensure clarity of each point. 5) Impress thoroughness, efficiency and knowledge of subject. Advantages to the trainer: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) They ensure that the trainer follows a logical sequence. The participants immediately gain interest. They help participants maintain interest. They help the trainer in explanation. They give him confidence.
Make your presentation effective with the help of audio-visual aids. You must: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Make your visuals visible Use colour and not art for your headline Simplify-eliminating details. Clarify the obvious Show all the key points. Allow ample preparation time. Check all arrangements before you go on. Maintain contact with your audience.
9. Keep your visuals moving. 10. Use only well-trained assistants. 11. Make your presentation straightforward. 12. When you are through put your visuals away. Selecting the best: Select the appropriate visual aids which will create desired impact. The effectiveness of visual aids will depend on: Type and quantum of information you would like to present The size of group you will be addressing; Physical arrangement facilities available; and Resources available to you for preparation.
The VHF communication Human beings store incoming data in one of the following three ways: Visual : they memorize pictures, images, diagrams, charts, graphs
Hearing : they memorize sounds, conversations, melodies, accents etc. Feeling : they memorize emotions, smells, tastes, tactile experiences and … pain.
However, each of us has a preferred “channel” for remembering data (V, H or F). so, an effective trainer provides his varied audience with as wide a range of stimuli as possible. Here’s a resume of the aids and techniques available to you: Visual Aids : *Flip charts *Black/White/Pin Board *Overhead Projector * Slide Projector
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*Props *Video Clips *Word Pictures * LCD Hearing Aids: *Audio Cassettes *Video *Sound effects *Music *Onomatopoeia Feeling Aids: *Music *Handouts *Props *Verbal description / analogies
Remember: feelings stay longer than facts. *Yes, if you don’t have the equipment – use your voice!
1. PREPARATION 2. PAPER 3. GRAPHICS ATTRACTIVE * Give each flip a title * Use bullet points (like the ones on this page) * Use at least 2 dark colours BIG & BOLD * Use THICK markers (bring your own) * Should be legible from 10 meters! CAPITAL KEYWORDS * Never write sentences!
Whenever possible, use cartoons or drawing to personalize and add interest to your headings.
STANDING Every time you turn your back on the audience, your voice and their attention disappear. Since you can’t write and face the audience at the same time (unless you are a contortionist!) You should * * Write (a few words/seconds) Turn and Talk • Write (a few words/seconds) • Turn and Talk.
OVER HEAD PROJECTOR
1. THE PROJECTOR • Make sure the projector lens and projection surface are cleaned before starting your presentation (if you can’t get hold of some glass cleaning liquid and a cloth, turn the projector off and use a handkerchief to clean the glass surface). Check for a spare projector lamp Test projector/screen distance with a sample transparency for positioning and focusing
2. SCREEN POSITION • The best position for the screen is in a corner of the conference room – high enough for everyone to see without craning, peeping, standing or leaning! Avoid keeping the screen at a
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centre. Such a position of the screen will take away the primary attention of the participants. In fact, you, as a trainer, should always get the primary attention of the participants. 3. PROJECTION ANGLE • Avoiding the “keystone” effect
Keep the projector beam at 90O to the screen by tilting the screen (ideal) or by jacking up the projector until keystone disappears. If you jack the projector you’ll need a chock to prevent transparencies sliding forward. 4. PLANNING A PRESENTATION USE THE ‘STORY BOARD’ APPROACH One transparency with chapter headings One transparency per chapter heading One transparency per point/topic in each chapter • Use consistent design • Print series name & number on each TIPS • Concentrate message in center • Use only 2/3 space for message Preparing the slides & transparencies Preparing the slides and the transparencies is very important. You must decide the content for every slide. The content should not exceed a few lines for every slide/transparency. You may Write/draw directly onto a transparency (with permanent or non-permanent pens). While using free hand lettering, • • • • Use permanent OHP markers Place transparency on squared paper to ensure alignment Use colours as much as possible Be bold. Practice your own “alphabet”
• • •
For full letters, use light colour to block in letters before outlining with darker colour.
Special transparencies, for directly printing them through an inkjet colour printer are also available. They are slightly costly but you can make colour transparencies for much better effect. 5. GOLDEN RULES F FRAME Use standard, horizontal frame & “Logo” for all transparencies L LARGE USE LARGE, LEGIBLE LETTER Titles = 1.2 cm. text = 0.5 – 1 cm I IMAGES Use illustrations on ALL transparencies WORDS ARE NOT VISUAL AIDS! C COLOUR Use 2-3 complementary colours on ALL transparencies K KISS Keep it short and simple ! One idea only per transparency • Maximum 6 lines of text • Maximum 6 words per line
6. PRESENTATION TECHNIQUES
a. Overlay • Use several superimposed transparencies to build up a story or argument Note : Make sure you mount your overlays so that they fit onto each other exactly – every time b. Revelation • When you have several important points on one transparency, use a mask to gradually reveal your argument step by step (If you don’t, your audience will be reading point 6 when you’re talking about point 1)
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For important, high quality presentation, try the “window” technique
c. Animation • Solid objects or cutouts on the projection surface will block the light and give sharp silhouettes on the screen. With cardboard cutouts, you can design an interesting and original animated presentation. Example: Production process, moving arrow. Female silhouette, light bulb etc. d. Presentation Techniques • Use a POINTER to highlight messages e.g.: cut out arrow, transparent pointing finger, pen or pencil (be careful it doesn’t roll off) or a laser pointer. Place pointer on the transparency and move as you change messages. DON’T HOLD IT. Murphy says your hand will shake!
9. USING THE PROJECTOR PREPARE PLACE * Prepare transparencies in sleeves; in the right order; unclipped * Place a transparency on the projector align. Switch on.
POSITION * Do not block any participants view of the screen. Switch off projector between each transparency
THE CASSETTE RECORDER/PLAYER
1. MUSIC Here are some ways you should be using recorded music in you training seminars : • To create a friendly atmosphere at the beginning of the course as participants Come in, meet each other and settle down. As background music during coffee breaks/intervals. To provide a relaxed “learning” environment during As an introductory “bang” To create specific atmospheres for special message (film music, theme tunes, sound effects, etc.) To illustrate a point amusingly with a song “snippet” (Example for a course on customer service: “Help” , “ Keep the customer satisfies”, “You cant always get what you want “, etc.).
• • • • •
2. VOICE Recorded speech can be useful for: • • • • • • Illustrating role-plays (interviewing, Public Speaking, salesman customer, boss-Subordinate) Examples of opinions (market research interviews etc.) Bringing an absent colleague to the seminar Interjecting humorous anecdotes Giving examples of current radio ads/trends Use cassette deck to record your presentation so you can work of your mistakes
NB: When recording audio examples make sure you leave very little space between each recording. In this way you can press the “pause” button at the end of one example knowing that the next recording is cued to start as soon as you hit the button.
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1. WHEN TO USE PHOTOGRAPHIC SLIDES? • • • • • • When you have the time and the money! When you need a “higher quality” presentation When you want to show photographs \ cartoons etc. When you wish to change place or differentiate from colleagues “omnipresent overhead slides”. When you wish to dramatize a point and create expectancy by darkening the conference room When contact with and participation of the audience is not essential
2. WHEN NOT TO USE PHOTOGRAPHIC SLIDES • • • • • • • When you only have words to show When you can’t darken the room sufficiently When audience participation is important When you are a persuasive “eye contact” speaker When you have a tight budget! When “everybody else does, so I suppose..” When you don’t know how to work the projector MISSING
3. THE LINK
Many slide presentations fail because they forget that slides should be used as VISUALS. Examples of where slides can be used to clarify things visually are:
• • • • • •
Charts and graphs – Instead of tables Diagrams of processes – Instead of words Photographs – Instead of descriptions Flow charts – Instead of lists Graphic Titles (Logos, Drawings etc) Cartoons – Instead of anecdotes
4. SLIDE RULES Make sure that you will • • • • • • • • Always use several colours Be aware and beware of “colour camouflage” (i.e. no yellow on white, blue on green, pink on red etc.) Never put more than 6 lines and max. 6 words (ideals - what you could write on a T-shirt) Use photos, cartoons, drawings as much as possible Use a consistent design for series of slides Keep words horizontal (especially on pie charts) Never show photos of pages from a book Remember that words are not visual aids!
5. SLIDE PRESENTATION RULES • • • • • • • Check the projector lamp before going on Mark each slide for correct insertion in the carousel Do a dry run to check that slides are in the right order and the right way up and the right way up and round Stand away from projector – use remote control Use “back” slides for natural breaks Explain what is on the screen – but don’t read text If you have to talk too – double your enthusiasm and use PAMPERS
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1. QUESTIONS • • • Does the video really support your message? Does the video raise questions which you’d rather avoid Is the occasion right? A budget presentation – probably not A sales training meeting - may be Can you work the video player? Is it too complicated to set up? Can you afford the time for necessary discussions Can you risk people falling asleep?
• • •
2. APPLICATIONS TRAINING • Video is the best teacher in interpersonal skills training; “I am what other tell me I am” becomes: “I am what I see I am” .
IMPROVING TEAMWORK • When you record a group session on video:
“ I understand what my behaviour does to you because you, or another group member tells me”’ becomes: “I understand what my behaviour does to you because I see it’.
If you have an access to computer, try and use Microsoft Powerpoint (ppt) software to make slides. Powerpoint is very easy to learn and is user friendly. Incorporate pictures / cliparts / photographs / colour combinations etc. to make your slides very creative and impactful. Use graphical presentations instead of plain data. If you are using an LCD projector along with a computer, animated slides will create a great impact. Office XP software gives the latest animation effects. For making transparencies for use with OHP take a laser print-out of computer–generated visuals and , photocopy them directly onto a transparency. Wherever possible use symbols as well as letters Don’t be afraid to use “speech bubbles”, large arrows or “special offer” flashes:
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Can you move people with your talk? Are you a Trainer who can handle any group effortlessly? Can you keep an audience active during your presentation? Are you a Trainer who can easily read the minds of your audience and amend your presentation if required? Can you touch people via your talk? Are you ready to develop a skill on how to create a lasting impact while making a presentation? Can you keep your audience totally attentive, active and energetic while your presentation is in progress? Any presentation is a rare art. Be it a presentation on the screen, or be it making a presentation before a live audience, not everyone is blessed with the skill to present. But the skill is not all that difficult, that one cannot be in a position to master it. All it requires is a genuine effort and an inspiring initiative to appreciate the skill as well as develop the strategy involved. No great trainer was born as one. It only took good trainers some extra effort and enthusiasm to master this skill. And I firmly believe that you could be one too.
Jc. Sen. Sunil Kumar
Key content Contribution:
It all begins with the basic skill of Public Speaking. One extremely important skill people could possess in life is to be able to stand up and speak to an audience. It is surely an amazing skill, which transforms an individual into several forms, in life. So much can be written about the benefits of Public Speaking, but it would suffice to say that it is an incredible fine art in life. And when the skill of a public speaker evolves into a Presentation at a Training Program, it helps the individual master this skill‘s highest form. Self Confidence; Ability to comprehend thoughts; Timely recall from memory; Language improvisation; Presence of mind; Think as you speak; Formulate opinions; Mobility – move with ease while speaking to an audience; Modulating voice to add clarity and richness to presentation - are some of those developments a trainer gains while making presentations. The most important aspect of any training program is not just its content, nor the visual aids; nor the training ambience – it is the “presentation of the program” – the manner in which the trainer is able to strategize the delivery, is able to keep the audience spell bound, keep them on a thinking mode by the concepts the trainer implants; blends presentation with techniques and thus is able to dramatize the situation to create a powerful impact. Added to this, another special skill of the trainer is creating the “designer” in him/her. It is the designer who supports the success of the presentation. Designing the distribution of content; Designing the style of presentation; Designing the delivery blend with Techniques and Visual Aids; Designing the audience grouping; Designing the overall presentation to ensure that it not only helps achieve the objective, but also creates uniqueness and an extremely positive response. The presentation must not only stir the audience
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into a very responsive situation, but also enhance the effectiveness of the trainer at every attempt. What makes a Presentation powerfully impressive and successful? · · The manner in which the content is brought out The presentation style of the trainer – voice pitch; pause; modulation; gestures; mobility; speaking “with” audience; frequent usage of “questioning technique”; quality language; frequenting with humour and anecdotes; are surely some aspects of a good trainer The strategy through which the trainer is able to make learning happen easily - relating to what is being said to the audience and get them immediately link what is being said with their real-life situations, getting the audience to solve or answer several of those situations narrated The usage of appropriate slides / visuals to support what is being said. Always important to appreciate that when people “see” what is being said, the retention is higher and the message gets across with greater clarity. “See” here denotes the build up of mental images which get created due to the Trainer’s presentation The overall design of the delivery – Handling the presentation in a manner that makes it very unique, very different, very inspiring; encourages audience to try out something that they have never attempted before – the linkage with current.
Over the vast years, it has been experienced that any good presentation is always eagerly looked forward to by the audience and the success of a “Trainer” is measured by the demand the Trainer is able to create which is determined by “repeat” assignments
Presenting the Program: Key Program Content
Like it has been said before, Presentation of the program is a rare skill. As you take on the task of a trainer ask yourself these questions to ensure you have the right responses a) Are your participant levels assessed? At what level must you pitch in? b) Have their Needs been determined? What will your presentation focus on? c) Is your training content comprehensive to respond to the audience levels and their needs? d) Have appropriate training techniques designed to activate learning? e) What presentation visuals and aids are created to support presentation? Presenting the program is the most integral part of any training program. It accounts for over 70 percent effectiveness of any program. The participating leaders normally judge a program based on “how well” it was delivered. Presentation is the proof of the pudding and thus a trainer has to be at his/her best in delivery. Experience indicates that one has to take care of the following approaches in delivering the program.
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Trainer is first - A good Speaker! How well can you speak before an audience? You must not only be good as a formal speaker on the podium, but as a trainer, you must develop the skill of an interactive speaker. Apart from having a good content up your sleeve, your delivery must be tailored to facilitate extensive discussion during your presentation. In other words, as you make a presentation, unlike public speaking where you are undisturbed while the delivery is on, you are bound to be interrupted by questions that keep coming up. How you respond to these questions and continue to move on with the rest of your content? – this is the crux. That is the significant difference between a speaker and a trainer. The bottom-line, of course, is that every good trainer must have mastered the art of public speaking. Let us try and get across to the various strategies that we have possibly gone through while learning this skill. Recalling the Borden Formula Make sure your public speaking approach is in order: Ho Hum: Getting Attention – Eliminating noise in the audience minds Why bring this up: Building the bridge with the audience For Instance: Adding on examples So what? : Getting the audience to respond and meet the presentation objective Getting closer with SK’s OPENINGS Open after a few moments: Don’t rush delivery – Take a few seconds to breath. Peep into audience: Maintaining eye contact and control over all
directions of audience Electrify the opening: The first statements you make must draw complete attention Navigate your voice: Drive your voice. Create variety in delivery through modulation Include Humor – Anecdotes: Making your presentation interesting Normalcy Regained: Checking your normalcy. Ensuring you will say all that you had planned to. Gesticulate: Using body language. Gestures help effectiveness of presentation Smile – Keep sporting a smile. Watch your audience emerge happy with your smile. Trainer in an interactive role As said several times before, the purpose of a trainer is to encourage easy learning. This is done through several approaches which the trainer must adapt in his/her training. Let us take a look at them • Easy speaker: The trainer must be able to talk his presentation. In other words, you should be ready to do normal one-to-one discussions with the group effortlessly. That will not only get the audience closer, but also support your comfort levels. Your thoughts get comprehended. You are able to recall from your vast experience and knowledge base. You are able to co-relate several subjects to lead audience to a conclusive opinion. Discussion leading frequently applied gets you into this situation.
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Mobility: Never stand at one place. You must also try and physically get closer to the last of the audience. Your entire design of the layout must be so open that you can walk across to people right behind. As you speak, learn to keep moving in all directions. This helps extra attention from your audience and you are able to address those passive or dozing off people in your audience. Mobility is extremely important and must be given complete effort Questioning: This is a discussion technique. When you have to get your audience into interactive situations, one sure way is to get them respond to your training is the technique of Questioning. Get them involved by making them answer the questions you pose from time to time. However, a trainer must have complete control over the questioning technique. Here are a few tips: o Refrain framing a question that gets you YES or NO for an answer. For instance: Do you think this approach will help in effective decision making? Or - Will the members of a team feel excited when you announce incentives? The answers to these questions are always responded with a YES or NO and thus do not encourage an concentrated participation of the audience. Instead, you could rephrase the question as “Why do you think this approach will ….. or What would happen when incentives are announced to your team members?”. Here the answers have to be a statement rather than a mere YES or a NO. And such a statement will not only make the participant say more, but the response will support your feedback on how much has been understood or what level would you attach to your people. Avoid Leading Questions: Trainers always exert certain amount of influence over their audience. Sometimes, such influence leads people to believe what you say is right and
they may not want to give their personal opinions. This is seen when Trainers ask “Leading Questions” – Questions that have an answer in them and may have people agree with what is said. For instance – Why do you think this program is the most appropriate one for every one to attend? You are compelling them to agree that the program is the most appropriate. Instead, you could rephrase suggesting – Could you please suggest your opinion about this program? In the former, you are confirming to your audience that this program is the most appropriate one and it normally takes a rebel in the audience to challenge your question and respond otherwise, and not all audiences have such rebels. Questions must be phrased in a manner that gets correct audience responses. o Don’t name the target first: It often happens that a trainer picks upon a person, addresses this participant first, and then throws open a question. For instance, Mr Gupta. Will you be able to suggest the various strategies involved with handling audience? In this situation, the rest of the audience is not as much involved, since the question is already addressed to someone else. Passive learners will continue to be passive. Instead, if the question is rephrased to say: Well friends, I have a question for you : Will you be able to suggest the various strategies in handling audience? – you look into the audience and then focus on your target to say – Mr Gupta, can you please try and respond?. This will get the complete attention of the audience to your question. They are not too aware as to who will be asked to respond and everyone is mentally getting ready for a response, since that person believes he/she may be the one asked to respond.
Keep changing the Technique: Never use the same technique throughout. Keep changing techniques. The most
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effective technique has always been discussion leading – where people are led into discussions, encouraged to participate – ask questions – respond. Depending upon the content and the learning goal, the trainer must use appropriate techniques. But try and keep changing those techniques. It could be Buzz groups followed by a Case study and depending on the time available, any number of techniques can be used. And don’t lecture for long. You are a trainer, not a lecturer or a school teacher. You are addressing adults and you are aware of their resistances. • Training Aids mastery: It is not enough if you are good at carrying the best of hardware. How to operate them does matter. Interruptions during your presentations in trying to set up the hardware or make it work can be irritating. Do try and master the skill of handling hardware that is normally used in a program. Do not completely depend on the hired operator. You must be ready with adequate knowledge of handling those gadgets and it is not too difficult to learn. And more important, is the manner in which you organize your slides. Whether you are using a Power Point or an OHP or slides, ensure that you know what is coming up next. There are situations where Trainers, occasionally get surprised with a slide that show’s up and without realizing reveal their discomfort. Please avoid this. It is good to link one slide with the other and say out a part of the next slide even before it shows up. Do not always read your slide. As you were designing slides, you must have rehearsed or memorized in such a way, that you do not need to read into the slide. You must be aware of its content thoroughly, even if it is a quote – and be able to say what is on the slide without always looking at the screen or monitor every time. Remember – if you are Trainer of some repute, learn to demonstrate your mastery.
Sporting the right Attitude Trainers talk about attitude. They keep saying that “Attitude” is as important as “Ability”. Now ask yourself this question. What about your attitude? How do you think will the audience rate you? Here are some tips on a trainer attitude. o o o o o Be humble to poor learners Do not go hard on “Critics” or “I know it all” audience When someone has a better opinion than you on a subject matter, acknowledge the same Accept your ignorance instead of throwing a fast one. You could keep saying to yourself, I am learning too! Always remember you are on a learning experience. Thus you are as involved in this experience as your audience is. Your training is not to the audience. It is with the audience. Empathy. How would you have reacted to a similar situation if you were a participant and another Trainer handling the session? Please do not get away by creating difficult or embarrassing situations, just because you have been given the label of a Trainer. Appreciate extensively. Every good response deserves a pat on the back. Carry chocolates to acknowledge good participation. Even if someone is not supportive, do not show off your disapproval on this person. Carry the diplomacy and the wit to handle such participants. It is always said at the JCI institute - Nobody cares how much you know, until they know how much you care. That’s a terrific take home on the attitude of a trainer.
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Evaluation & Feedback
It is a process to see the Trainer and the Program from the audience perspective. Evaluation strategies help assessment of participants understanding and the relevance of the program meeting their needs
Commentary How well was my presentation? – This is a question that has to be frequently asked. If a Trainer desires to grow up, it is of tremendous importance that every presentation surpasses the previous performance. Towards this objective, every Trainer must attach tremendous importance to “Evaluation” and design the process of evaluation in such a manner that he/she is able to see the program happening from the “other side”. This can be exciting indeed. Frequent feedback from participants helps in gauging the success of presentation. This feedback does not happen by itself. There has to be smart and inbuilt strategies to ensure this feedback, which helps the Trainer, assess the wellness of his/her presentation.
Jc. Elston Pimenta & Jc. Luqman Qazi
Key content Contribution support
It is not enough to deliver a great performance. Such performance must help achieve training goals. Evaluation strategies can be of immense help in this direction. Evaluation is a process to · · · · · · Assess the participant levels and needs Help get frequent feedback from audience on the relevance of the program Identify the key issues being understood by the participants Examine the levels of growth that takes place in participants Get feedback for the Trainer if his presentation levels are appreciated Receive feedback on amendments that are required to strengthen the program
Evaluation is a continuous process. It commences prior to the program which help in assessing the participant’s needs and levels (Pre-Course). The Trainer continues to utilize evaluation while the presentation is taking place (On going). And on the completion of the training program a detailed assessment is sought from the participants (Post-Course) The best part of evaluation comes in when a Trainer is able to make changes in the content or the delivery levels of the program, based on the response received, and thus is able to focus more effectively on the achievement of program goals.
Key Content Contribution : 2004 ZTWS Manual Lead Author & Compiler : JC Nirmal Parekh
ZTWS - 2005
Evaluation for Enriching Evaluating a training program which has just completed is a beginning of the improvement of the next one. Evaluation is a prerequisite for improvement. If you wish to keep growing as an effective trainer, and want to achieve that stage of unconscious competence, you must evaluate. You can enrich your future programs only through honest, sincere and thorough evaluation. Remember, you must enrich your programs continuously and that is possible only through evaluation. Evaluate the Needs Assessment, Training Methods & Techniques, Learning Principles, Audio Visual Aids, Design of the Program, and the Presentation. Ask as many questions as possible, w.r.t. every possible thing you can think of, which is associated with the program. When you seek answers to these questions, you come up with the total picture of how the training program has gone. Some of these questions can be as under: How has the program been taken by the participants? Were the sessions enough? Were the material and the concepts covered enough? Has the instructional objective been met? What are the problems that you encountered during the program and why? How could you eliminate these problems? Were the facilities, the venue and the physical arrangements sufficient? Have the expectations of the participants been met? Are they satisfied, if yes, then to what extent? What are the suggestions from the participants? Did they like the output sessions, exercises and games?
Were they comfortable through out the program? What were the disappointments and why? Would the participant want to attend another program by the same faculty? What are the additional inputs that they wanted? Evaluation is not a formality done as a ritual. It is neither only a small form filled by the participants at the end. It is the means of improving the quality of program by adding value for ultimate customer delight. Your participants are your customers. Therefore, they must get what they want, in a manner they want and at a time they want. In fact, they must get a little more than they want so that they are delighted about your program. Finally, you should let the participants evaluate YOU, YOUR program, YOUR attitude and YOUR knowledge. How to evaluate? By oral tests, performance tests, observing the behavioural changes in the participants. And the participants’ reactions. After the course, one can know from various sources, agencies, and the organization by the ultimate feedback of the effectiveness of the program.
ZTWS - 2005
To be a Trainer is an honour. This distinction can come for the first time when you’ve been inducted as “Trainer”. But the challenge is to keep this honour alive and growing. It can only happen when one is conscious of getting into such a situation.
One of the most helpful skills for people is getting to be a good “Trainer”. Every training experience must prepare you to deliver an even better presentation on next experience. You must outgrow all weaknesses and beat all previous performances, no matter how well you may have delivered them. Evolution is the name of the game. Being a trainer not only helps you to improve your individual vision – ability – perception – image – wisdom, but develops a complete personality within. How you convert this developed personality in your profession – in your social involvement, is something you must always relate to. One cannot be a good trainer in presenting a program “Managing People” and in his professional or personal life is poor in “Inter-personal relations” or keeps losing key staff; losing friends or fails to get team members deliver. I keep saying Trainers live in a glass house. Practice what you preach. Let the world know that all that you do in your professional
Jc. Elston Pimenta & Jc. Luqman Qazi
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and personal life which you must directly relate to the concepts that you keep preaching in your program. A Trainer on creative thinking cannot imprison himself in a routine. A Trainer on Public Speaking cannot be a poor speaker himself or go uninvited to speak before large audiences. A Trainer in Business Leadership cannot be someone without a high-level employment - or a leader who cannot boast of any successful and established profession. Yes. Trainers have no option, but to live in a glass house where your individual work and achievements are measured by all, particularly those, who are your audience. And Trainers have no option, but to apply learning and develop them into successful people. Set your goal right away. No matter what! You will be someone extremely unique. Someone, very different! Someone, who will want to grow by accepting that you are not as good - and sees plenty of room for improvement. Be modest to your success and keep your learning curve moving upward. All the very best!
ZTWS - 2005
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