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ENERGY RESOURCES IN INDIA N.

Sasidhar (Abstract: This paper outlines the available energy resources in India and how these resources can be put to optimum use for various requirements. It also lists the major guidelines to build up self dependent energy sector on short term and long term basis.) Energy is extracted from various sources to meet many requirements of human beings in this modern age. Energy is used for lighting / illumination, heating, motive power in automobiles, ships & aero planes, water pumping, refrigeration & air conditioning, cooking, motive power of various appliances / machinery, electronic data storage, etc in all sectors such as agriculture, industrial, commercial and domestic sectors. The value of energy minerals produced in India is more than 85% of all the minerals produced. In addition India imports large quantity of fossil fuels spending huge chunk of its exports income. These energy minerals are also used as raw material in production of industrial products but the usage as source of energy is many folds. The following are the primary energy sources • Thermal energy: Fossil fuels (ex: coal, natural gas, crude oil & its products), nuclear fuels, biomass (including wood), geo thermal energy, industrial by products (ex: LPG, coke oven gas & blast furnace gas), etc. • Hydro power: Hydro power energy excluding pumped storage operation. • Non conventional energy: Solar energy, wind power, wave power, tidal power, animal draught power, etc. Energy exists in many forms such as electricity, thermal/heat/chemical energy, potential energy, kinetic energy, etc. Electricity is the most coveted form of energy since it is simple to convert in to other energy forms at very high conversion efficiency and least effects on environment with the help of motors, furnaces, etc. Also transmitting electricity by cables / conductors is comparatively simple and clean method. All the primary energy resources are used to produce electricity as an intermediate energy before converting in to final energy requirements. The major drawback of electricity is that it can not be stored in bulk for using in mobile / transport applications. So the liquid fuels are predominantly used in transport sector. The countries which are endowed with crude oil (source of liquid fuels) reserves are considered as potentially rich countries irrespective of non energy minerals and human resources availability. These energy fuels are not uniformly distributed on earth to meet their demand. Exploration, extraction, transportation and conversion of energy fuels to ultimate energy form is highly capital intensive. They also emit pollutants such as dust, SOx, NOx and green house gases which are harmful to human beings health and long survival. All fossil or biomass fuels contain carbon and hydrogen elements which are mainly contributing to heat energy when burnt or oxidized. The carbon present in the solid/liquid form in these fuels is converted in to gaseous form carbon dioxide. Continuous use of these carbonaceous fuels for meeting ever increasing global energy consumption is gradually increasing the CO 2 in the earth atmosphere. Higher concentrations of CO2 in the earth atmosphere will aid the green house phenomenon or global warming. So carbon derived energy is gradually discouraged. Coal emits 95% of heat energy from its carbon content whereas natural gas (NG), petroleum fuels & bio mass emit less than 50% of heat energy. Global warming point of view, coal is considered as main culprit. India is endowed with vast coal reserves though other conventional fuels are not adequately available. India is also endowed with abundant non conventional energy resources such as Thorium nuclear fuel and solar energy but commercially viable technologies are not available to harness these resources on large scale. The various energy resources used in India are given below

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Petroleum products: These are derived from crude oil which India imports 80% of its requirements. Diesel, petrol, etc are used in transport sector as motive fuel for road vehicles, locomotives and ships. Many of these products are also used as raw material in the manufacture of organic chemicals, synthetic fibers, synthetic rubbers, plastics, fertilizers, etc. which have wide application in present day civilization. When other fuels are not available, these petroleum products are also used for electricity generation, heating and lighting purposes as alternative fuels. The major advantage of these fuels is their transportability by the transport networks such as roads, railways and ships. They can also be stored easily for mobile and stationary applications. Due to these advantages, petroleum products are extensively and intensively used to power all mobile vehicles covering road, rail, marine and air transport sectors. Natural gas: This is a gaseous fuel and relatively less polluting fuel. Unlike liquid fuels, its inland transportability is possible by pipeline network only and maritime transport is possible by refrigerating in to liquid below minus 160°C temperature. In maritime transport of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), heavy investments are incurred in liquefaction, transport and re-gasification processes. NG has commercial limitation in transporting across the seas. Being a clean fuel and ease of use, it is preferred fuel especially in domestic and commercial sectors. To control the air pollution in cities, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) is increasingly used in intra city transport vehicles in place of diesel/petrol fuels. Natural gas can also be used in Iron manufacturing to reduce the coking coal consumption in blast furnaces. At present, the available NG is mainly used in fertilizer manufacture and power generation. LPG: Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) is extracted from natural gas or produced as a by product from crude oil refining. This gas can be easily liquefied by compressing it to 8 bar pressure at ambient temperature. In addition to pipe line transport, LPG is also transported and stored in pressurized cylinders / tanks. LPG is also clean fuel similar to natural gas and also can be stored in bulk for use in mobile vehicles. The indigenously available LPG is not adequate to meet its ever increasing consumption. In India, most of the LPG produced and imported is used as cooking fuel. Nuclear Fuels: These fuels are used to generate electricity in addition to meet military requirements. The conventional nuclear fuels are Uranium and Plutonium which are used for electricity generation. India does not have substantial conventional nuclear fuels to depend on these fuels for its electricity requirements. However India is blessed with substantial Thorium reserves which can be used for electricity generation once the relevant technology is perfected for commercial level use. Using nuclear fuels is also fraught with environmental problems such as radiation leakages, disposal of spent radioactive fuels & equipment, decommissioning of nuclear reactors after their useful life, etc. The initial capital requirements and the decommissioning expenses of nuclear power plants are very high. Some critics say that the electricity consumed in establishing and operating a nuclear power plant exceeds the electricity it can generate in its life time. Hydro power: Electricity is generated by harnessing the water energy when water is descending in the rivers from high level to lower level. Hydro power is very clean energy. Hydropower plants installation submerges vast area of land and creates social and environmental problems such as displacement of population, submergence of forests, etc. The hydro electricity potential in India is approximately 85,000 MW at 60% load factor. Most of the untapped hydro power is located in North Eastern states. Another 1,00,000 MW at 60% load factor is available lying on both sides of border between China and India which can be jointly harnessed in future. Wind Power: Electricity is generated from the wind energy. The areas with wind speeds exceeding 15 Km per hour is suitable for locating wind power generators. Wind power is also clean fuel but birds get killed when they try to pass through the wind generator rotor. There is no control on electricity generation

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from these units as the power is generated depending on erratic wind availability. India has nearly 10,000 MW wind energy potential at 60% load factor. Wave energy: Wave power is secondary power from wind power. When the wind is blowing on seas/ water bodies, some of the wind energy gets transmitted to water creating wave energy. Till now wave energy is not harnessed for electricity generation on major scale. However there are possibilities to harness wave and wind energy available on oceans to augment fresh water availability and hydro electricity generation. Due to deference in solar radiation incidence on earth surface, the atmospheric global winds are generated on land as well as on oceans. These winds while passing over the seas pick up moisture and convert in to clouds. These clouds yield most of the fresh water in the form of rains on the land mass. Often, rain fall is not adequate in many regions/countries due to unfavorable conditions in the oceans such as ocean currents, surface temperature, etc though the global wind patterns are not changing. The available wave and wind power on the oceans can be utilized to enrich the winds with moisture irrespective of nature’s vagaries. The oscillating water surface when waves are formed are used to pump sea water few meters above the surface level and further atomized in to fine droplets / mist by using wind energy. The mist spayed in to the winds would fully vaporize enhancing the humidity of air / winds. The augmented moisture in the winds segregates in to clouds to yield more rain subsequently on land mass. The south west winds and north east winds are the sources of monsoon rains on Indian subcontinent. South west monsoon winds come from Arabian Sea and cross the peninsular India yielding rain and pass on Bay of Bengal and blow in to North India yielding rain again. North east monsoon winds enrich with moisture while passing on Bay of Bengal and subsequently yield rain in southern part of India. Though the augmentation of global/monsoon winds with moisture is a gigantic infrastructure building task, it is technically feasible by harnessing a fraction of renewable wind energy available on the territorial oceans. Land mass becomes greener / rich in vegetation acting as carbon sequestration. Many countries face severe water shortage frequently and many more countries are occupied by vast deserts (middle east and north Africa) though sea is located adjacent to these regions. Biomass: In agriculturally developed pockets of India, agro waste such as rice husk, crop waste, baggassi, inedible plants and leaves, wood from old plantations, etc is available. Generally rural masses consume bio mass for their cooking requirements. When it is found in surplus, it is also used in electricity generation and process industry. Bio-mass also can be gasified to produce synthetic gas, liquefied by fast pyrolysis process to produce bio-oil and carbonized by slow pyrolysis to produce charcoal. All these processes produce varying percentage of bio-char (charcoal), bio-oil and bio-gas. Biomass carbonization: This is well known technology to produce charcoal and town gas in olden days. The biomass is carbonized either at low temperature (up to 600 deg C) or at high temperature (up to 1200 deg C) in the absence of oxygen. The products of biomass carbonization/slow pyrolysis are charcoal (25% by wt), 850 Nm3 town gas per ton of dry biomass and organic liquid chemicals (30% by wt). The town gas contains hydrogen (45% by wt) with gross calorific value of 3000 Kcal/Nm3. Bio-oil production: Bio mass can be converted in to bio-oil / pyrolysis oil by the latest fast pyrolysis technologies with conversion efficiency up to 70%. Bio-oil has only 50% of heating value of crude oil and also unstable liquid. The bio-oil is rich in Oxygen content and also acidic unlike crude oil and its derivatives. Extensive research is being done to make bio-oil suitable for mobile vehicles though it can be used for stationary low and medium speed diesel engines and gas turbines with minor changes. The production cost of bio-oil is around Rs 10 per kg when the dry biomass cost is Rs 2.5 per kg. Pyrolysis oil can be separated in to a water soluble fraction rich in oxygen content and a heavier pyrolytic lignin. Pyrolytic lignin can be used as feed stock to produce naphtha, diesel, etc by hydro-processing (i.e. reaction with Hydrogen). Hydrogen is produced from water soluble fraction of pyrolysis oil.

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The garbage collected in Indian cities and towns has higher water content and biomass. This type of wet / watery garbage is converted commercially in to Bio-oil / Bio-crude by Hydro thermal upgrading (HTU) method which is also a type of pyrolysis process. Biomass gasification: Biomass is gasified in the presence of steam and air to generate producer gas/synthetic gas. Most of the biomass is converted in to producer gas which is rich in hydrogen (15% by wt) with gross calorific value of 1500 kcal/Nm3. In gasification process, the available thermal energy is utilized to produce more hydrogen by splitting water molecules for optimum hydrogen yield. The nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium) present in the biomass are accumulated in the produced ash which can be used as fertilizer. Presently, the non woody surplus biomass such as inedible leaves, inedible crop waste, twigs, etc are either burnt or allowed to degenerate in the fields emitting green house gases such as methane and carbon dioxide. Cattle droppings, human excreta, household garbage, bagasse, poultry droppings, chicken feathers, waste hair, used tires, waste paper, etc are also biomass which can be used for producing bio-oil, bio-gas and bio-char. The spent dung from anaerobic digesters (gobar gas plants) can also be used in production of bio-oil. In India, the dry inedible biomass availability is nearly equal to all the fossil fuels consumption which is approximately 750 million tons per year. This biomass quantity can produce bio-oil three times equal to India’s crude oil imports and generate Bio-char of 200 million tons annually. The bio-char with heating value 7500 Kcal/kg can replace all the mined coal consumed by its thermal power stations. The bio-gas produced from pyrolysis process contains nearly 5% hydrogen by weight. The hydrogen in the bio-gas generated can produce 50 million tons of Urea fertilizer which will transform India in to Urea exporter after meeting all internal consumption. Ethanol: Ethanol / ethyl alcohol is fermented from biomass which is rich in starch / carbohydrates content. It is also consumed by humans in large quantities as liquor. Ethanol can be used as transport fuel by blending in diesel and gasoline fuels. Presently ethanol is produced from food grains and sugarcane which are costly and predominantly used as food source. The economics of using food grains and sugarcane as fuel source is not favorable since they fetch more value as food source in India. Sugar cane is a long duration irrigated crop and consumes lot of water. Cultivation of sweet sorghum which is seasonal dry land crop is a better source of biomass and Ethanol production in huge quantities for meeting the needs of transport fuel. Bio-diesel: The inedible oil seeds produced by plants and trees can be the source of fuel for mobile vehicles to replace costly imported diesel and petrol (gasoline) fuels. The non edible vegetable oils extracted from Jathropa, Karanj (Hindi) / Honge (Kannada) / Koroch (Pongamia pinnata), Algae, etc can be used directly by blending 20% oil in diesel fuel or can be converted in to bio-diesel by esterification of these vegetable oils to replace diesel and petrol fuels totally. Esterification is achieved by adding methanol or ethanol to the vegetable oils. The estimated vegetable oil yields of bio-diesel crops are
• • • • • •

Soybean: 0.4 tonnes oil/ha.year Rapeseed: 0.8 tonnes oil/ha.year Jathropha: 1-1.5 tonnes oil/ha.year (non edible) Palmoil: 4 tonnes oil/ha.year Koroch / Karanj: 3 – 4.5 tonnes oil/ha.year (non edible) Algae: 10-25 tonnes oil/ha.year (non edible)

The most promising sources of bio-diesel are Algae and Koroch (Bengali) which need not compete with other crops and natural forests for land, water, sunlight, etc.

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Algae: Algae (pond scum) are tiny cellular plants suspending in water (fresh, brackish and sea water) which absorb dissolved carbon dioxide in water to produce biomass by photosynthesis with the help of sun light. Algae grow fast and many species of algae contain up to 60% of its dry mass as Bio-diesel (lipids / fats). The de-oiled algae cake is rich in proteins and is good source to augment proteins in cattle and poultry feed. Extensive research has taken place on algae cultivation in developed countries to demonstrate the farming technology but it could not be commercialized in these countries because of limited favorable weather conditions and high cost of labor. However India has favorable tropical climate to cultivate algae throughout the year on its sandy coastal areas using abundantly available sea water or brackish water. The only external raw material required is carbon dioxide gas in Indian climate. The gobar gas produced in rural areas by using cattle dung contains 50% carbon dioxide gas and 50% methane. When this gobar gas is used in electricity generation by diesel engines, the available exhaust gas is the cheap source of carbon dioxide gas for algae cultivation in rural areas. The combustion gases from Biomass / bio char burning can also be cheap local source of carbon dioxide gas. The skilled labor cost in rural India is also nominal compared to western countries. Algae cultivation is not new in India. Algae are used to treat the sewage water in natural oxidation ponds to produce oxygen to meet the Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD). Algae produced in the oxidation ponds are not yet harnessed for Bio-diesel production in India. Indian climate is very much suitable for Algae cultivation similar to natural oxidation ponds. Spirulina which is an alga rich in proteins content is commercially cultivated in India. Koroch: Koroch in Bangladesh is a fresh water flooded tree. This tree can grow on lands which are water inundated up to1.5 meters depth for six months at a stretch. The seedlings can survive under water during the long submergence period. Koroch tree reaches 20 meters height and lives for 100 years. The dry seed pods contain 25% toxic vegetable oil which can be used as bio-diesel. Koroch / Honge is a tree native of India whose oil is used in illumination lamps in olden days. Since Koroch is a flooded forest tree, it can be grown in our man made water reservoirs up to a depth of 1.5 meters without the need to compete with land based food crops. India has nearly 30,000 square km of manmade water bodies and many water storage reservoirs are yet to be built to harness the water resources fully. The reservoir bed up to 1.5 meters depth are exposed for seven months in a year when the stored water in these water bodies are used for irrigation, drinking water, etc, India can become self sufficient in its energy requirements if one year oil imports cost (50 billion US$) is invested on pyrolysis oil and bio-diesel production technologies/infrastructure to meet its energy needs. India is endowed with tropical climate to sustain these renewable and carbon neutral energy resources. Solar energy: The energy of sun light is used for electricity generation during day time. The average solar radiation per square meter is one KW during day time. Clouds free sky is required to generate solar power and also it needs vast unused area by farm lands, water bodies and forests which also depend on sun light for their existence. Solar power generation on major scale is not yet commercially proven. Though it is a clean energy, the materials used in solar cells may be source of soil and water contamination causing health hazards. India is blessed with vast solar energy resources and substantial solar power generation is possible as the technology matures. Animal draught power: Animal power is extensively used in agriculture and transport in rural areas. The draught animals such as bullocks and he-buffaloes can be used for generating commercially viable electricity for meeting daily peak load demand. It will boost the rural employment and income by using the idle time of the cattle for electricity generation. The installation cost and time are comparatively low. In many countries & few parts of India also, cows & she-buffaloes are used for draught power and can also be used for electricity generation.

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TABLE – I : PREFERENTIAL FUELS Purpose Preferred fuel Next preferred fuel Mobile military Diesel, petrol Ethanol, bio-diesel hardware Air transport bio-diesel Ethanol Marine transport Bio-oil / pyrolysis oil LDO, HFO, bunker fuel, Nuclear fuel, LNG Civilian transport Bio diesel, CNG, LPG Battery vehicles power/electricity Railways Pyrolysis oil, Electricity, Bio LPG diesel Illumination/ Electricity, Koroch / bio Natural gas, LPG lighting diesel Domestic- cooking Natural Gas, Koroch / bio LPG, Electricity diesel, charcoal Domestic - space & Pyrolysis oil, charcoal, Solar LPG water heating energy, Natural Gas Domestic - other Electricity Battery power appliances Commercial-cooking Natural Gas, bio-char LPG, Pyrolysis oil, Electricity Commercial- space Solar energy, Natural Gas, LPG & water heating Pyrolysis-oil Commercial- other Electricity, bio-diesel, Battery power appliances Industrialmotive Pyrolysis-oil, bio-diesel, bio- Natural Gas, LPG power gas, Electricity Industrial- heating & Pyrolysis-oil, Coal, lignite, Natural Gas, Electricity cooling Bio-char Urea fertilizer Bio-gas / synthetic gas, bio- Natural gas, coal, char Industrialraw As required materials Agriculture- water Pyrolysis-oil, bio-diesel, LPG pumping Electricity Agriculture- heating Bio-mass, Pyrolysis-oil, LPG, bio-gas & drying AgricultureBio-diesel, LPG CNG, bio-gas transport AgricultureBio-diesel, Electricity LPG, bio-gas appliances Electricity Local coal, bio-char, lignite, Natural gas (peaking nuclear, bio mass, pyrolysis power) oil, bio-gas, gobar gas, hydro, wind, (As per economical cost at user locations)

Least preferred fuel ATF, HSK Diesel / petrol Diesel Kerosene Kerosene Electricity, Kerosene Diesel / petrol Kerosene Electricity, Kerosene Diesel / petrol Diesel / petrol Fossil liquid fuels Naphtha Diesel / petrol Diesel / petrol Diesel / petrol Diesel / petrol Petrol, Diesel, NGL, LPG, LDO, HFO, Naptha

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Coal and lignite: These are mainly used to generate electricity, to fire boilers in process industry, to produce cement, etc. Coking coal is used as raw material in Iron manufacturing which is in shortage in India. India imports most of its coking coal requirements. India is blessed with 200 billon tons coal reserves which will last for 400 years at the present rate of consumption. The coal reserves will last for 40 years even the consumption is increased by 10 folds. These reserves are estimated based on coal found up to 600 meters depth. The reserves would increase further if the exploration is carried out at more depths and also under shallow sea water area. The presently used coal mining technologies are not cost competitive beyond 600 meters depth. However, underground coal gasification technology is maturing to convert coal in to clean gaseous fuel. The latest technology adopted from oil & gas wells drilling such as serpentine drilling / inseam drilling, guided drilling, bunching of wells, etc. has made in situ coal gasification technology a reliable and commercial proposition. Big country like India cannot depend on imports as it is going to be huge portion of international trade in energy fuels. Coal is going to be the backbone of its energy sector until another lucrative energy harnessing technology is developed. The per capita CO 2 emission by Indians will be less than world average, even after the coal consumption is increased to five times of present consumption. Indian coal is of low calorific value with high ash content. They have comparatively less sulfur and heavy metals which are advantageous in pollution point of view. Indian coal also has high ash fusion temperature which is a positive factor in coal fired boiler design. Well proven boiler technologies are in use to fire high ash content coal. The existing rail infrastructure to transport coal to various distant power stations is not adequate. Dedicated cross country coal slurry pipe lines are to be constructed to meet the coal transport requirements. Energy starvation: It is defined as people living in surroundings where the temperature is less than 20˚C and more than 30˚C. When natural ambient temperature is not in the range of 20˚-30˚C and surrounding temperature is not controlled, it is considered that energy starvation conditions are prevailing. This can be while in house or in work place or in commercial establishment or in mobile vehicle. The per capita energy starvation duration in India is in excess of 70%. Thus lot of demand for various energy resources will be felt in future decades as the living standards of people reach that of developed countries. Energy policy of India: Depending on availability & geographical distribution of various energy sources and commercially viable technologies, the short & long term energy policies of India are to be framed for meeting energy requirements. Other than petroleum products and natural gas, all other energy resources are predominantly used for electricity generation. The following points are to be implemented in India

Since the liquid fuels are imported in large quantities, their consumption should be limited to unavoidable mobile hardware such as military vehicles, marine transport and air transport only. • Bio-diesel, CNG and LPG are preferred fuels for rest of transport sector. • Domestic & commercial sectors shall be supplied with piped natural gas for meeting heating and catering requirements. • Cross country natural gas pipe lines and city gas distribution piping network are to be constructed to supply natural gas to all users. • All available energy resources other than liquid and gaseous fuels should be used for electricity generation. The means of electricity generation shall be based on the delivery cost of electricity at user door step taking in to account generation and transmission costs. • For transporting coal to long distant power stations, cross country coal slurry pipe lines are to be constructed to reduce the cost of coal transport.

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• Since coal is abundantly available, underground coal gasification technology is to be developed on commercial scale to convert coal in to gaseous fuel not only for electricity generation and but also for other energy requirements. • There shall be technology mission to commercialize bio-diesel production from Algae and Koroch cultivation to replace the conventional transport fuels. • There shall be extensive efforts to popularize biomass gasification and biomass pirolysis to serve as chemical feed stocks, raw material in Urea production, and heating fuels. The preferred fuels for various requirements are indicated in Table-I. When these preferred fuels are used for each application, the import of petroleum products, LNG, coal and nuclear fuels could be minimized to build self dependent energy sector till the commercially proven technologies are established for using biomass, solar energy and Thorium nuclear fuel. ………………. References: (Note: Copy and paste the links in the browser if not working directly) 1) A technology assessment of coal slurry pipelines. http://www.fas.org/ota/reports/7817.pdf 2) Comparing the studies of coal slurry pipeline. http://www.vwrrc.vt.edu/pdfs/specialreports/sr171983.pdf 3) Black Mesa Pipeline. http://www.blackmesapipeline.com 4) ‘Coal slurry pipelines’ http://www.scribd.com/doc/58789309/Coal-Slurry-Pipelines 5) ‘Selection of thermal power plant’ http://www.scribd.com/doc/59763540/Selection-of-a-Thermal-Power-Plant 6) ‘Arunachal Pradesh hydroelectric potential’ http://www.indiawaterportal.org/sites/indiawaterportal.org/files/Arunachal%20Pradesh%20hydroelectric %20potential.pdf 7) “Enhancing fish stocks with wave-powered artificial upwelling” http://www.cyberiad.net/library/pdf/bk_ocm_articleaspublished.pdf

8) “Process to maximize monsoon benefits by cloud-suppression”
http://www.scribd.com/doc/58877109/PROCESS-TO-MAXIMISE-MONSOON-BENEFITS-BYCLOUD-SUPPRESSION 9) “Productive usage of Biomass” http://www.scribd.com/doc/58789356/Productive-Usage-of-Biomass 10) Large-scale pyrolysis oil production: A technology assessment and economic analysis. http://www.forestbioproducts.umaine.edu/documents/37779.pdf

11) Opportunities for biorenewables in petroleum refineries http://www.pyne.co.uk/Resources/user/PYNE%20Newsletters/001338_Pyne%20p4-7.pdf

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12) The Shell company HTU process for bio-crude oil.

http://www.cpi.umist.ac.uk/eminent/Confidential/meeting/RigaMeeting/Riga %20Workshop/PresenatieHTUBiofuel.ppt
13) Renewable electrolytic fertilizer production. http://www.nd.gov/ndic/renew/projects/r-002-006rep6-09.pdf 14) Sweet harvest – Sweet sorghum crop http://www.agronomy.unl.edu/newfacultystaff/research/sweetsorghum/sweetsorghum-article.pdf 15) Bio diesel extraction from Algae http://ifsa.boku.ac.at/cms/fileadmin/Proceeding2008/2008_WS5_04_Rengel.pdf 16) “Fresh water flooded forests” http://www.scribd.com/doc/58789361/Rain-Water-Harvesting-by-Freshwater-Flooded-Forests 17) Pongamia Pinnata (Honge) bio-diesel in India http://www.goodnewsindia.com/Pages/content/discovery/honge.html 18) Pongamia Pinnata – The bio-diesel tree. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Millettia_pinnata 19) Review of underground coal gasification technological advancements ... www.berr.gov.uk/files/file18660.pdf 20) Review of the feasibility of underground coal gasification in the UK www.berr.gov.uk/files/file19143.pdf 21) Directional drilling in coal. - BERR www.berr.gov.uk/energy/sources/renewables/publications/page20921.html 22) Appendix 1, Directional Drilling in Coal: www.berr.gov.uk/files/file19146.pdf

23) Key world energy statistics – 2007 from International Energy Agency (IEA) http://www.iea.org/textbase/nppdf/free/2007/key_stats_2007.pdf 24) Technology transfer: Multipurpose cows for milk, meat and traction in small holder farming Systems: http://www.ilri.org/InfoServ/Webpub/Fulldocs/TechTran/TechTran.pdf (Tips to get more information: Search with relevant words/terminology on any topic in internet search engines & for pictures / video search in ‘Google image / video’.) Note: This paper was first written in March 2008 and subsequently updated

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