SHEIKH TECHNICAL VETERINARY SCHOOL (STVS) Field work Studies in Wajaale, Hargeisa and Berbera

From 29 May 2011 to 17June 2011

Name: Abdirazack Yaziin Warsame

Student No: 096

Date of submission 25th June 2011

Class: Second year.

DECLARATION I Abdirazack Yaziin Warsame Declare that the work presented here is my original work, and has not appeared anywhere else in any other form except for the references made from other published works. Student’s signature………………………………….. Date: …………….………………….

Supervisor’s signature ………………………..…..

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First praise is going to Allah who made me easy to utilize this golden opportunity. After that I would like to thank all the people who dedicate their time and helped me during the field work activity especially Dr Nuoh Haji Abdi, Dr Hassan Isaaq And Yuusuf Mohamed Ahmed also Dr Mahammed Smail (Buroa) Finally I would like to thanks all the members of my class who co-operated with me during the field work plus my mother. and

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Table of Contents DECLARATION ............................................................................................................................ ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ............................................................................................................. iii SECTION ONE: INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................. 1 1.1. INTRODUCTION TO FIELD WORK ................................................................................... 1 1.2. Study Area ............................................................................................................................... 1 SECTION TWO: OBJECTIVES AND METHODOLOGY ......................................................... 2 2.1. OBJECTIVES AND METHODOLOGY ................................................................................ 2 2.1.1 Overall Objective ............................................................................................................... 2 2.1.2. Methodology ..................................................................................................................... 3 SECTION THREE: ACTIVITIES IN WAJAALE......................................................................... 3 3.0 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................... 3 3.1 Wajaale Veterinary Institutions ................................................................................................ 3 3.1.1 Role of Veterinary Association .......................................................................................... 3 3.1.2 Veterinary infrastructures in Wajaale ................................................................................ 4 3.2 Wajaale Livestock Market ........................................................................................................ 4 3.2.1 Factors that Affect Price in the Market .............................................................................. 4 3.3 Wajaale Milk Market ................................................................................................................ 5 3.2.1 Hygiene of Milk Market in Wajaale .................................................................................. 5 3.2.2 Price of Milk in Wajaale .................................................................................................... 6 3.3.3 Constraints of milk market ................................................................................................. 6 3.4 Treatment and Vaccination of Animals .................................................................................... 6 SECTION FOUR: ACTIVITIES IN HARGEISA ......................................................................... 7 4.0 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................... 7 4.1 Maandeeq Slaughter House in Hargeisa ................................................................................... 7 4.2 Hargeisa Livestock Market ....................................................................................................... 9 4.2.1 Market Actors................................................................................................................... 10 4.2.2 Price Determination.......................................................................................................... 10 4.2.3 Municipality ..................................................................................................................... 11 4.2.4 Infrastructure of Hargeisa Livestock Market ................................................................... 11 4.2.5 Constraints of Hargeisa Livestock Market ....................................................................... 11 4.3 Hargeisa Milk Markets ........................................................................................................... 12 4.3.1 Sources of the milk ........................................................................................................... 12 4.3.2 Price of the Milk ............................................................................................................... 12 4.3.3 Constraints of Hargeisa Milk Market ............................................................................... 13 SECTION FIVE: ACTIVTIES IN BERBERA ............................................................................ 13 5.0 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................. 13 5.1 Berbera Quarantine ................................................................................................................. 13 5.1.2 Infrastructure of Quarantine ............................................................................................. 14 5.1.3 Laboratory ........................................................................................................................ 14 SECTION SIX: CONCLUSIONS, RECOMMONDATIONS AND LESSONS LEARNT ........ 14 6.1 Conclusions ............................................................................................................................. 14 6.2 Recommendations ................................................................................................................... 15 6.3 Lessons learnt ......................................................................................................................... 16 ANNEXES .....................................................................................Error! 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SECTION ONE: INTRODUCTION 1.1. INTRODUCTION TO FIELD WORK This report was implemented by the STVS second year students after 21 days of field work in Wajaale, Hargeisa and Berbera in Somaliland. The purpose was to improve students’ practical skills, their knowledge and to collect data from places they were sent to and also to learn more from those areas. This is one of the activities that are undertaken at the end of each academic year. Students come back to STVS on 17/06/2011 after finishing their field work activities. This field trip we exert an urban areas especially livestock markets, slaughter house, milk markets, quarantine area, and also meat markets in Somaliland. 1.2. Study Area During the field work activities the student went to Wajaale ,Hargeisa, Berbera these are main areas which every second year class collects information about livestock sector at the end of Each second year class to enhance their practical experiences from these areas .as map show us these are cities that the students visits in particular areas relates to their lectures and these are including livestock market ,quarantine area ,milk markets ,meat markets .

Wajaale

Hargeisa

Berbera

Figure one: Map of Somaliland showing the study areas Wajaale is a major important town situated on the border between Somaliland and Ethiopia. It’s a busy town that links the two countries and all imports destined to Ethiopia from the major port of Berbera go through this strategic border town.

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Hargeisa is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Somaliland. The city was the colonial capital of British Somaliland. Hargeisa was heavily bombed by the Somali military in 1988 because of the SNM activity that was forming in Northern Somalia in the beginning of the Somali civil war. But ever since 1991, the city rebuilt itself and become better and more important than it ever was. Berbera: It is situated on the southern shores of the Gulf of Aden, and is the major port town of Somaliland. Its climate is hot and humid with temperatures above 40 degrees Centigrade in the summer and it has a semi-desert landscape. Berbera has a population of around 50,000 that decreases with seasonal migration to cooler inland cities during the hot seasons. Berbera, is one of the oldest towns along the Somali coast, in the current time Berbera is the capital of newly established Sahil region of Somaliland; it has a lot of veterinary infrastructures such as the quarantine station the holding grounds and the port. SECTION TWO: OBJECTIVES AND METHODOLOGY 2.1. OBJECTIVES AND METHODOLOGY 2.1.1 Overall Objective    To discover the various livestock activities occurring in Wajaale, Hargeisa and Berbera districts. To find out about the veterinary infrastructures into the attached area. To improve collecting and processing data skills and report finding.

Specific Objectives

1. To asses the system and infrastructure of slaughter house 2. To establish the presence of certain diseases through clinical examination. 3. To identify the challenges faced the livestock sector of Somaliland in areas of study. 4. To improve and strengthen the practical skills. 5. To examine the producers used in livestock inspection.

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2.1.2. Methodology Inspection: look at closely typically to assess quality or examine the animals. Observation: is action or process of closely observing or monitoring animals and to provide immunity against a disease. Interview: is asking questions to the people to get information. Clinical examination: to know the history. Palpation: examine part of a body by touching specially for medical purpose. Cut section: to incise a part of organ in order to exam a specific disease. SECTION THREE: ACTIVITIES IN WAJAALE 3.0 INTRODUCTION This section consists of the activities that the students have done during the field work in Wajaale. These include the areas we visited, like the veterinary institution, milk market, livestock market in which the student carried out vaccination. The students also did a few treatments in Wajaale. 3.1 Wajaale Veterinary Institutions The veterinary institution in Wajaale has two doctors, four assistants and one auxiliary staff member and all these members was ministry of livestock employees as shown in figure 2. 3.1.1 Role of Veterinary Association 1. They do vaccination. 2. They carry out treatment. 3. They do inspection. 4. They do surveillance of the animals. 5. They built crashes for holding the animals before vaccination.
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Figure two: Organizational chart of veterinary association in Wajaale 3.1.2 Veterinary infrastructures in Wajaale       Two buildings.(one is an office and one other is for storing drugs) Dam Two toilets. One ramp-used for loading animals. One crash for holding animals when vaccinated. One car.

3.2 Wajaale Livestock Market Wajaale livestock market is the largest market in Somaliland. Most of the species of livestock that it handles are cattle, particularly bulls that are purchased from Ethiopia and Somaliland districts of Allaybaday, Boorame, Gabillay and Wajaale. 3.2.1 Factors that Affect Price in the Market During the study, it was discovered that grades of the animals was the major determinant of price. There were three grades, with grade one fetching the highest price ranging between 600$ to 750$ as shown in table one.
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Grades Grade 1. Grade 2. Grade 3.

Price in USD. 600-750$ 450 $ 340 $

Table one: Camel prices according to grade 3.3 Wajaale Milk Market The Wajaale milk market is located in the middle of town. It is where many people meet during the day in order to buy and sell milk. The majority of milk traders are women whose lives depend on the sale of milk. These women sit along the side of the road to buy their milk from the people who walk past on the road. They store the milk in plastic containers which are unhygienic. The lack of hygiene is a major problem with in the milk markets and results in a low quality of milk and a reduction in milk consumption. Most of the milk is from cattle because of the environment is good for rearing cattle. Camel milk is also available but people prefer cattle milk due to the price and availability. Milk is delivered to the market from the nomadic people who settle in areas near the town. 3.2.1 Hygiene of Milk Market in Wajaale Hygiene is important for a healthy life. Unfortunately, most Wajaale residents are not very concerned about practicing good hygiene in the milk market. First, the containers that producers use to bring the milk in to the market are potentially unclean because there are a lot of flies and sand in the containers. Moreover, the places the traders use to purchases the milk are totally unclean because there is a lot of rubbish and contaminated water which has accumulated in these areas due to lack of a drainage system during the rainy season. In this town there is risk that a lack of hygiene will bring human health problems if immediate action is not taken toward the sanitation problem.

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3.2.2 Price of Milk in Wajaale The price of milk varies because the traders have no links at all with one another and there is a lack of government price control. Each one determines his or her own price in order to attract as many consumers as possible. Table two shows the average price for milk for cattle and camel.
Species Cattle milk Camel milk Price/litter 5000shs/lperlitre 6000shs/lperlitre

Table two: Price of milk according to species 3.3.3 Constraints of milk market 1. Lack of infrastructure 2. Lack of government support 3. Competition from imported milk e.g. (node, hallway coast, mudfish) 4. Lack of hygiene 5. Variability the price of milk in the market. 3.4 Treatment and Vaccination of Animals Animals are treated against certain diseases and protected against diseases and their Effects. Students performed mass treatment of animals one day in Wajaale city. During the treatment two drugs were mainly used. Ox tetracycline: an intramuscular injection according to the body weight of animal in between 2ml and 3ml of dose. Albendazole: Albendazole is in the benzimidale group that was used against helmenthiasis and gave in oral administration. The recommended dosage of this drug differs according to the animal species, for cattle is 15ml/50kg of body weight but sheep and goat is 1ml/10kgof body weight. Animal treated with this drug should not be slaughtered for human consumption until two weeks after treatment and their milk should not be drank for up to four days. The drug must be stored in dry and dark place at a temperature below 40c.
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FMD vaccinations in Wajaale (30-31 May 2011) Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material (immunization) to produce immunity of certain diseases. Vaccines can prevent or ameliorate the effects of infection by a pathogen. Therefore living animals are vaccinated to provide protection against target diseases. FMD is highly contagious disease that is caused by Aphthovirus of the family Picornaviridae and affects mainly cattle. It has seven serotypes which are A, O, C, SAT1, SAT2.SAT3 and ASIA1. The animals were vaccinated by all the STVS second year students who had been attached to Wajaale, other students administered ear tags to recognize vaccinated animals. The animals were owned by local traders who were exporting their livestock to Yemen. The vaccines were brought from the Ministry of livestock in Hargeisa few days before vaccination. The vaccinated animals will be shown table three. Species Sex Number Route administration Cattle Male 108 Subcutaneous 3ml O&A FMD of Dose rate Serotype Disease

Table three: FMD Vaccination SECTION FOUR: ACTIVITIES IN HARGEISA 4.0 INTRODUCTION This section we have explored the activities occurring different places in Hargeisa and there are many concerns about the livestock sector. We visited the areas like Mandeeq slaughter house, milk markets (Waaheen and Gobanimo). Also we have seen livestock market, which is second largest market in Somaliland. 4.1 Maandeeq Slaughter House in Hargeisa Mandeeq is privately owned enterprise and is based on the principles of the public private and partnership. The enterprise was founded on March 25th, 2005 by Somaliland citizens Mr.Rashid Haybe Dubad and Mr.Mohamud Rooble Hirsi who were interested and devoted the social

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economic development of the country. Mandeeq is legally registered with Ministry of Commerce and Industry and also with Chamber of Commerce. Mandeeq slaughter house was visited by STVS second year students during the field study with the aim assessing the place and relating findings with what is learnt in class. The students worked on small ruminants the first night, while the next day camels and cattle were dealt with. The slaughter house is located 5 kilometers east from the centre of the capital. Maandeeq slaughter house is private slaughter house where by the butchers slaughter their animals by charging a tax of one dollar per animals. The slaughter house is fairly well equipped and has many workers. The structure of the employees is shown in figure three.

Figure three: Structure of Maandeeq slaughter house administration Postmortem Examination in Maandeeq slaughter house It is estimated that every night around 1,300 animals are slaughtered in the slaughter house. However, during the study, students examined 160 animals. Only 10 out of the 160 animals examined had postmortem abnormalities. This could imply that animals brought to this slaughter house are to the greatest extent healthy. The students had postmortem equipment such as knives, forceps and scalpel blades and every organ that is suspected of abnormality were cut and sectioned for further examination. Table four shows the guide that was used in the examination of the small ruminants.
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Species Sheep

Organ Intestines

Description of lesion

Suspect

Nodules at the upper surface of the intestines Helminthiasis particularly the ileum and colon

Sheep

Lungs

Color change of the lungs, the color of the lungs has Atelectasis changed to blackish pale

Goat

Lungs

A gas was trapped b/t the capsule and the Emphysema parenchyma of the lungs

Sheep Sheep

Lungs Liver

Left caudal calcified lesion Hard and inflated liver and fatty infiltration of the Cirrhosis middle lobe of the liver. Liver hyperplasia

Sheep

Lungs and Fatty infiltration of the middle lobe, small cysts in Cirrhosis liver cranial and middle lobes and hyperemia of the liver, caseous abscess in the left and middle lobe of the Liver hyperplasia lungs and adhesion of the lungs in the thoracic cavity. On cut section the liver was hard in cutting and fracture in palpation.

Goat

Lungs

Lungs were pale in color

Anemia

Table four: Postmortem of small ruminants Out of the 30 Cattle examined during the study, only five were found to be having lesions. Also, 5 of the 35 camels examined were found to be having lesions. However, due to the time constraints, diseases that could be associated with these lesions were not identified. 4.2 Hargeisa Livestock Market Hargeisa livestock market is the second largest market in Somaliland and is located in the eastern corner of city; the area of the market is around 0.5km2. The market consists of four parts: one for cattle, one for camel, one for donkeys and one for shoats (sheep and goat). All these four

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domestic animals were sold in this market; mostly the male shoats were used for export, while the females are used for local consumption. 4.2.1 Market Actors The main actors in the market included: brokers, producers, market actors, interregional and traders. Below is a brief description of each actor. Brokers: these people are the link between the buyers and sellers so, if there is no broker the market doesn’t work probably. The role of the brokers in the market is: 1. Negotiating of the price between buyers and producers 2. Facilitating the market functions 3. Providing the sellers and buyers with a fair price Producers: these are the people who rear and produce their animals, producers are mainly pastoralist and they transport their animals to the market using vehicle. Interregional: these people are that link of the product from one region to the another region Traders: are those who sell and export their animals abroad to countries such as Yemen and Saudi Arabia. The animals that are exported by the traders depend on the demand of the importing countries. 4.2.2 Price Determination There was no price discrimination in this market according to customers. However, the grade and sex of the animal playing a big role in determining price. Sheep and goat had the same price depending on their grade as shown in table five. Grades Grade 1. Grade 2. Grade 3. Price in s/l shillings 360,000 320,000 252,000 Price in dollars 55.3 $ 49.2 $ 38.7 $

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Table five: Price of Sheep and goats On the other hand, the camel was the most expensive animal in this market costing up to 800$ depending for male camel that was grade one. Female camels did not fetch as high prices as the male. When asked why, the camel sellers said that while female camels were mostly for domestic consumption, most of the male camels were transported to Berbera for export thus attracting higher prices since there is competition between the local people and the exporters of these animals. The prices for camel are summarized in table six. Grades Price in dollars for male Price in dollars for female camels which are camels Grade 1. Grade 2. Grade 3, 800 $ 600 $ 450-500 $ mainly for local consumption 615 $ 461 $ 300 $

Table six: Price of camel 4.2.3 Municipality There are 12 municipal members in Hargeisa livestock market, five for branding, three for the security of market and four for collection of taxes and keeping the sanitation of the market. 4.2.4 Infrastructure of Hargeisa Livestock Market The market has two rooms of buildings one for the Government that is used to collect the tax and one for Maandeeq slaughter house. The market also has seven shades and seven ramps, and these are used to provide shade for the people who participate in the buying and selling of the animals and facilitating unloading of animals. 4.2.5 Constraints of Hargeisa Livestock Market     Lack of water storage and limited shade. Lack of good roads. High taxation. Reduction of milk in drought time.
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4.3 Hargeisa Milk Markets There are two common milk markets in Hargeisia; one is in the center of the town and known as Waaheen, the other is located in the north of the city - Gobanimo. These two markets are very crowded and operate between 9:00am to 5:00pm. The markets have stalls which are intended for selling of milk. The milk is sold in plastic containers which is not hygienic. Most of traders in this market are women whose livelihoods are solely dependent on selling milk. This market creates jobs for women and men. These jobs include: drivers, mediators, cleaners, tea shop owners. 4.3.1 Sources of the milk Hundreds of Jerry cans are brought to the markets per day, during the summer time an average of 700 liters are sold by each seller and can exceed in the spring (the rainy season). Most of the milk in the market is transported from areas far from Hargeisa. Some of it is from the northwest area like Geed-ballaar, Gebilay and Alla-ibaday while some is from places like Illimaha, Faraweyne and Balligacas. In the west it is transported from Quraca Abriin and Waddo miikaahiil. In the South it is transported from Balli-gubadle and Haro-haadlay and the eastern of the town there is a lot of places that the milk from. 4.3.2 Price of the Milk The milk is consumed by Hargeisa local community and is priced according

to the demand and supply. Both cattle and camel milk are highly consumed and are sold for 3000 S/L shillings per milk cup; they measure a cup of 750ml which means each liter is about 4000 S/L shillings. Goat milk is the least preferred, each cup is sold about 1500 S/L shillings and sheep is not milked because of the culture of the Somali communities. Table seven summarizes the prices according to species.

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Milk type Camel milk Cattle milk Goat milk

Price/milk cup 4000 S/L shillings 4000 S/L shillings 2.500S/L shillings

Table seven: Milk price in Hargeisa 4.3.3 Constraints of Hargeisa Milk Market 1. Lack of roads 2. High taxation 3. Hygienic problem 4. Lack of training 5. Lack of enough sheds SECTION FIVE: ACTIVTIES IN BERBERA 5.0 INTRODUCTION It is good to mention the main events going on in Berbera. It is a seaport town and it has a lot of places which are important to the livestock stakeholders. We went to these areas during field work activities the quarantine area was visited. In the quarantine there is a laboratory that we also visited. Finally, there is also a holding ground near the quarantine area which is intended for containing the animal before shipment. 5.1 Berbera Quarantine The quarantine is located on eastern part of the town and its area is about 5km 2 .the capacities of animals that the quarantine can hold is 4200,000. This includes 300,000 shoats, 70,000 cattle and 42000camel. It has played a critical role in reducing the risk of the spread of disease in Somaliland. During the field trip, the students visited Berbera quarantine station to see how it works. During all sections of the quarantine were visited and below is the description of the place. Before the animals are taken into the quarantine, they are kept in pens or holding grounds. This pace is near the quarantine. The quarantine station has two 2km2 buildings, it has two doors,
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entrance door and exit door which an animal gets to access into the quarantine station and exit door which animals exit after testing. It has holding closures in which the animals are allowed to rest for maximum of 14 days. Water and food are provided to the animals at a charge of 7$ per head. This is paid by the exporter or trader. 5.1.2 Infrastructure of Quarantine The quarantine has 17 shades, two ramps, water troughs, feeding system places, five offices, one pool, three toilets, and disinfectant places. 5.1.3 Laboratory
The laboratory is inside the quarantine and it consists of two departments; the serology department and the bacteriology department which is well equipped. There are at least six expert laboratory technicians with four assistants. The type of test that doctors make depends on the conditions of importing countries because each country has different regulations. For instance, animal exports to Saudi Arabia are tested for brucellosis while animals exporting to Yemen are tested for FMD. There were various diagnosis tests that laboratory of the quarantine of which, the agglutination test is the most widely used as it is has the simplest methods. The used in this laboratory include: 1. Diagnosis of PPR for ELISA TEST 2. Agglutination test, for Brucellosis 3. Precipitation test Brucellosis 4. Complement fixation for FMD

SECTION SIX: CONCLUSIONS, RECOMMONDATIONS AND LESSONS LEARNT 6.1 Conclusions The 21 days that were spent in the field were very worthwhile. Visiting different livestock activities in Wajaale, Hargeisa, and Berbera was a great opportunity that enabled the students to have a hands-on experience especially with dealing with large numbers of animals. In Wajaale, students vaccinated cattle bulls with the help of veterinarians who were in the field with us. The vaccine used was inactivated of serotype A and O named Fotivax in activated foot and mouth disease.
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In Hargeisa we visited the milk market, Maandeeq slaughter house, and the livestock market. In milk market we found that the most common milk is from cattle. The major challenges students identified in the milk market was the long time it takes for milk to be delivered to the market and the unhygienic use of plastic and traditional container. In Mandeeq slaughter house, the major slaughterhouse in Hargeisa, we observed that the hygiene was poor and the workers were not concerned about the sanitation of the place. In the Hargeisa livestock market animals are taxed differently. For goats the tax is 0.14$ and 0.17$ for cattle and camel respectively. The infrastructure in the livestock market is poor: there is no shade for animals to take rest and there is not enough water. In Berbera, we visited Berbera quarantine although at that time there were no animals, we interviewed the people that are involved in carrying out activities in the quarantine. All the places visited, Berbera quarantine was the most organized and well coordinated. 6.2 Recommendations The field work was successful, however there were gaps which are needed to be filled therefore these recommendation are destined to all livestock stakeholders 1. In Wajaale the ministry of livestock should provide enough syringes instead of using one syringe for all animals. For example, they only use one syringe to vaccinate all cattle bulls. 2. Livestock market of Wajaale and Hargeisa are open places, shades and water should be provided for animal. 3. The Government or NGOs should construct stalls for the selling of milk in both Hargeisa and Wajaale. 4. Sanitation of Maandeeq slaughter house should be improved upon and the workers should be provided with trainings on hygiene and sanitation. 5. Ministry of Livestock should employ veterinary inspectors to check on the meat being slaughter plus the milk brought to the market. 6. The taxation of slaughtered animal should be reduced by the Government.

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6.3 Lessons learnt
During the field work activities in wajaale, Hargeisa and Berbera the lesson learned are as follow:  A First lesson is dedication and commitments in the field work, also strengthen the skills of technically and practically.      Inspection of the exporting animals and the abnormality which can be seen during the inspection. Understanding the parts and functions of Berbera quarantine station and laboratory. Preparing and administering of FMD vaccine and performing of ear tags. The different institutions on attached area. Working with livestock owners and making them help in the field.

ANNEX
Annex one: Interview guide for the livestock market Interview guide for trader 1. How many agents work in the market? 2. How do you evaluate the animal? 3. Do the traders have license from the government? 4. Do you give out commission to the brokers? 5. At what season do the animals have the highest demand for the traders? 6. Do you give out any veterinary services to the animal? 7. Do you transport live animals? 8. What is cost of each animal? 9. What is the tax of each animal? 10. Where do you buy from the animal? Interview guide for producers 1. Which system do you use for rear the animals? 2. What is the highest or lowest price you sell your animals? 3. What drugs do you give the sick animal? 4. Where do you get drugs from? 5. Which season do you supply your products to the market? 6. What is the process do you use for your animals to take to the market? 7. Do you have direct contact with traders? 8. Do you any help from the government? 9. Do you have veterinary services? 10. Do you give any tax to the government?

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Interview guide for brokers 1. How many animals do you sell per day? 2. Do you have licenses from the government? 3. How do you communicate with farmers and traders?
Interview guide of milk markets 1.What is the price of one litter of milk? 2.Do you have license from the government? 3. Where do you get milk from? 4. Do you pay taxes? 5. How many litters do sell per day? Interview guide of Maandeeq Slaughter house 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Do you have inspection team? How many animal do you slaughtered per night? How many workers do you have? When did you establish this company? Do you export meat to the outside or do you produces only for local?

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