# Tutorial: Solving Transonic Flow over a Turbine Blade with Turbo-Speciﬁc NRBCs

Introduction
The standard pressure boundary conditions for compressible ﬂow ﬁx speciﬁc ﬂow variables at the boundary (e.g., static pressure at an outlet boundary). As a result, pressure waves incident on the boundary will reﬂect in an unphysical manner, leading to local errors. The eﬀects are more pronounced for internal ﬂow problems where boundaries are usually close to geometry inside the domain, such as compressor or turbine blade rows. The turbo-speciﬁc non-reﬂecting boundary conditions (NRBCs) permit waves to “pass” through the boundaries without spurious reﬂections. The method used in FLUENT is based on the Fourier transformation of solution variables at the non-reﬂecting boundary. This tutorial demonstrates how to do the following: • Set up and solve the turbine blade ﬂow ﬁeld using the standard pressure outlet boundary treatment. • Activate the turbo-speciﬁc NRBCs and solve the problem again. • Compare the results for the standard and non-reﬂecting pressure boundaries.

Prerequisites
This tutorial assumes that you are familiar with the FLUENT interface, and have a good understanding of basic setup and solution procedures. In this tutorial, you will use turbospeciﬁc NRBCs, so you should have some experience with them. This tutorial will not cover the mechanics of using this feature. Instead, it will focus on the application of turbo-speciﬁc NRBCs to a turbine blade ﬂow ﬁeld. If you have not used this feature before, Refer section 7.23.1 : Turbo-speciﬁc Non-Reﬂecting Boundary Conditions in the FLUENT 6.3 User’s Guide

c Fluent Inc. January 25, 2007

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Grid FLUENT 6.Solving Transonic Flow over a Turbine Blade with Turbo-Speciﬁc NRBCs Setup and Solution: Standard Boundary Conditions Case Step 1: Grid 1..3 (2d. (b) Select atm from the Units list. dbns exp. 2.. Read in the mesh ﬁle (2d-stator. (a) Select Density Based from the Solver list. Enable the standard k. Deﬁne the solver settings. Deﬁne −→ Models −→Viscous. (a) Select pressure from the Quantities list. Deﬁne −→ Models −→Solver. (c) Close the Set Units panel. Step 3: Models 1. ske) Figure 2: 2D Stator Mesh Display Step 2: Units 1.. January 25. c Fluent Inc. Deﬁne −→Units.. Check and display the grid (Figure 2). Deﬁne the units for pressure.msh). 2. (c) Click OK to close the Solver panel.turbulence model with standard wall functions.. 2007 3 .. (b) Select Explicit in the Formulation list.

4 c Fluent Inc. (e) Select Intensity and Viscosity Ratio from the Speciﬁcation Method drop-down list under Turbulence. (a) Enter 0 for Operating Pressure. Modify the properties of air. (i) Click OK to close the Pressure Inlet panel.0 for the Turbulent Viscosity Ratio. Step 6: Boundary Conditions 1. Note: FLUENT will automatically enable solution of the energy equation when the ideal gas law is used. 2007 . (c) Retain the default values for all other properties. Here. (d) Click Change/Create and close the Materials panel. (f) Enter 1% for the Turbulent Intensity.5 atm for the Gauge Total Pressure.. January 25. (a) Select ﬂuid from the Material Type drop-down list.Solving Transonic Flow over a Turbine Blade with Turbo-Speciﬁc NRBCs Step 4: Materials 1.0 atm for the Supersonic/Initial Gauge Pressure.. (b) Select ideal-gas from the Density drop-down list under Properties. (a) Enter 1.. Set the conditions for the inlet (pressure-inlet).0 for the X-Component of Flow Direction. you will set the operating pressure is set to zero and the boundary condition inputs for pressure will be deﬁned in terms of absolute pressures. Deﬁne −→Operating Conditions. (c) Enter 1. (h) Click the Thermal tab and enter 300 K for Total Temperature. (b) Click OK to close the Operating Conditions panel. Boundary conditions for pressure should always be relative to the value of operating pressure. Deﬁne −→Boundary Conditions. Note: You must use the Direction Vector speciﬁcation method for the pressure inlet in order to use the NRBCs.. (g) Enter 1. (d) Enter 0 for the Y-Component of Flow Direction. Step 5: Operating Conditions 1. Set the operating conditions. (b) Enter 1. Deﬁne −→Materials...

5 for the Courant Number under the Solver Parameters. January 25. (d) Enter cd-history for the File Name. (e) Click the Thermal tab and enter 300 K for the Backﬂow Total Temperature. (b) Enter 0.. Solve −→ Monitors −→Residual. (a) Enter 0. Solve −→ Controls −→Solution. Step 7: Solution 1. (a) Enter 0. (c) Enable Plot and Write in the Options list. Enable the plotting of residuals during the calculation. (c) Click OK to close the Residual Monitors panel. Solve −→ Monitors −→Force. (e) Click Apply.0 for the Backﬂow Turbulent Viscosity Ratio.. (a) Enable Plot in the Options list. (b) Select Intensity and Viscosity Ratio from the Speciﬁcation Method drop-down list. (c) Enter 1% for the Backﬂow Turbulent Intensity. (c) Enter 0. Enable monitors for lift and drag coeﬃcients.. 2007 5 . (d) Set the Multigrid Levels to 4. 3. c Fluent Inc. (e) Click OK to close the Solution Controls panel. (a) Select Drag from the Coeﬃcient drop-down list. 3. (b) Select First Order Upwind for all the discretizations under Discretization. 2. Set the solution parameters.Solving Transonic Flow over a Turbine Blade with Turbo-Speciﬁc NRBCs 2.8 atm for the Gauge Pressure. (f) Click OK to close the Pressure Outlet panel.0001 for Absolute Criteria for continuity. the history information will be lost when you exit FLUENT. Close the Boundary Conditions panel. If you do not select the Write option...8 for the Turbulent Kinetic Energy and Turbulent Dissipation Rate in the Under-Relaxation Factors group box. (d) Enter 1. (b) Select stator-blade from the Wall Zones list.. Set the conditions for the outlet (pressure-outlet).

dbns exp. Save the case ﬁle (nrbc-1. (b) Click Iterate... (a) Select inlet from the Compute From drop-down list. 2007 . 6 c Fluent Inc. Initialize the solution.gz). ske) Figure 3: Scaled Residuals (c) Close the Iterate panel. 7.. (a) Enter 2000 for Number of Iterations. (g) Close the Force Monitors panel. 5.3 (2d. File −→ Write −→Case. Save the data ﬁle (nrbc-1.. File −→ Write −→Data.Solving Transonic Flow over a Turbine Blade with Turbo-Speciﬁc NRBCs (f) Similarly deﬁne the parameters for Lift and enter cl-history as the File Name... Residuals continuity x-velocity y-velocity energy k epsilon 1e+01 1e+00 1e-01 1e-02 1e-03 1e-04 1e-05 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 Iterations Scaled Residuals FLUENT 6. (b) Click Init and close the Solution Initialization panel. 6. January 25. Iterate the solution.cas. Solve −→ Initialize −→Initialize.gz). 4.dat.

3 (2d. January 25.0000 5000.0000 10000.0000 Cl 8000.0000 12000.0000 20000.0000 7500.0000 4000.0000 10000. 2007 7 . dbns exp.Solving Transonic Flow over a Turbine Blade with Turbo-Speciﬁc NRBCs 27500.0000 6000.0000 Cd 12500.0000 2000.3 (2d.0000 14000. dbns exp.0000 15000.0000 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 Iterations Lift Convergence History FLUENT 6.0000 22500.0000 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 Iterations Drag Convergence History FLUENT 6. ske) Figure 4: Drag Coeﬃcient Convergence History 16000.0000 17500.0000 2500.0000 25000. ske) Figure 5: Lift Coeﬃcient Convergence History c Fluent Inc.

dbns exp.39e+00 1.28e+00 1.72e-01 4.26e-01 4. (b) Select Pressure.44e+00 1.. (c) Click Display.04e-01 8.18e-01 Contours of Static Pressure (atm) FLUENT 6.50e-01 7.01e+00 9. and Mach Number in the Contours Of drop-down lists. select Velocity. (c) Click Display. 2007 . Display ﬁlled contours of Mach number (Figure 7).07e+00 1.. (a) Enable Filled in the Options list. Display −→Contours.58e-01 9.34e+00 1.42e-01 6.80e-01 5. January 25.12e+00 1.3 (2d.. ske) Figure 6: Contours of Static Pressure 2. 1.17e+00 1.Solving Transonic Flow over a Turbine Blade with Turbo-Speciﬁc NRBCs Step 8: Postprocessing 1.88e-01 6... Display ﬁlled contours of static pressure (Figure 6).34e-01 5. 8 c Fluent Inc.23e+00 1. (b) Make sure that Filled is selected under Options.96e-01 7.50e+00 1. and Static Pressure in the Contours of drop-down lists.. (a) In the Contours panel.

and Static Pressure in the Y Axis Function drop-down lists. 4.3 (2d..27e+00 1. January 25.13e+00 1..40e+00 1.05e-01 4.11e-02 Contours of Mach Number FLUENT 6.82e-01 7.51e-01 7. This will plot temperature vs.02e-02 2.34e+00 1. ske) Figure 7: Contours of Mach Number 3. (b) Select stator-blade. in the Surfaces list.13e-01 6.20e+00 1.06e+00 9. Create an XY plot of the static pressure distribution on the blade surface.89e-01 9. (d) Click Plot (Figure 8). 2007 9 .67e-01 2. c Fluent Inc.29e-01 1.59e-01 9. Close the Contours panel. Plot −→XY Plot. (c) Retain the default Plot Direction of X. the x coordinate along the selected surface (statorblade).74e-01 5. (a) Select Pressure.98e-01 2.44e-01 5.20e-01 8...36e-01 3.Solving Transonic Flow over a Turbine Blade with Turbo-Speciﬁc NRBCs 1. dbns exp.

05 0.. ii.00e-01 6. i. January 25. 10 c Fluent Inc. Select the Write to File option and click the Write.04 0.00e-01 4.20e+00 Static 1.01 0. Enter pdata-std-bc. dbns exp. button to open the Select File dialog box. ske) Figure 8: XY Plot of Static Pressure Distribution on Stator Blade (e) Save the plot data to a ﬁle.3 (2d.06 Position (m) Static Pressure FLUENT 6. 2007 .02 0.00e-01 0 0.40e+00 1.Solving Transonic Flow over a Turbine Blade with Turbo-Speciﬁc NRBCs stator-blade 1.03 0.60e+00 1. (f) Close the Solution XY Plot panel.00e+00 Pressure (atm) 8.xy in the XY File text entry box and click OK to close the Select File dialog box..

90170e-02 -> -2.00000e+00 pressure-outlet-4: l = 1.’s [no] yes Step 2: Solution 1.29761e-01 r extents : -3. Enable the turbo-speciﬁc NRBC using the commands shown in boxes: > /define/boundary-conditions/non-reflecting-bc>turbo-specific-nrbc /define/boundary-conditions/non-reflecting-bc>turbo-specific-nrbc> enable enable non-reflecting b.5 2.00000e+00 -> 0. 2D Initialize_Non_Reflecting_Boundaries pressure-inlet-2: l = 0. Perform turbo-speciﬁc NRBC initialization using the initialize TUI command: /define/boundary-conditions/non-reflecting-bc/turbo-specific-nrbc> initialize FLUENT will display the following summary in the console window. under-relaxation factor [0.81080e-02 -> 3.81283e-02 q extents : 0.38378e-02 r extents : -9.62364e-02 (m) pressure-outlet-4: Pitch = 7.38378e-02 -> 6.29761e-01 -> -1. type the following command: /define/boundary-conditions/non-reflecting-bc/turbo-specific-nrbc/set> under non-reflecting b. kmax = 1 x extents : 6.c. January 25.00000e+00 -> 0.62363e-02 (m) c Fluent Inc.00000e+00 pressure-inlet-2: Pitch = 7.5 using the commands in boxes: (a) In the FLUENT console window.c.Solving Transonic Flow over a Turbine Blade with Turbo-Speciﬁc NRBCs Setup and Solution: Non-Reﬂecting Boundary Conditions Case Step 1: Turbo-Speciﬁc Non-Reﬂecting Boundary Conditions 1. Set the turbo-speciﬁc NRBC under-relaxation factor to 0.27807e-02 q extents : 0. 2007 11 .75] 0. kmax = 1 x extents : -1.

Save the data ﬁle (nrbc-2. Residuals continuity x-velocity y-velocity energy k epsilon 1e+00 1e-01 1e-02 1e-03 1e-04 1e-05 0 250 500 750 1000 1250 1500 1750 2000 2250 2500 Iterations Scaled Residuals FLUENT 6. (b) Click Iterate.gz)..Solving Transonic Flow over a Turbine Blade with Turbo-Speciﬁc NRBCs 3.. (c) Close the Iterate panel.. File −→ Write −→Case. 2007 . Iterate the solution. ske) Figure 9: Scaled Residuals 5. 12 c Fluent Inc.dat. January 25.gz).cas. dbns exp. 4.. Save the case ﬁle (nrbc-2. File −→ Write −→Data.3 (2d. (a) Enter 1000 for Number of Iterations.

3 (2d.0000 5000.0000 10000.Solving Transonic Flow over a Turbine Blade with Turbo-Speciﬁc NRBCs 27500.0000 25000.0000 6000.0000 0 250 500 750 1000 1250 1500 1750 2000 2250 2500 Iterations Lift Convergence History FLUENT 6.0000 Cl 8000. ske) Figure 10: Drag Coeﬃcient Convergence History 16000.0000 0 250 500 750 1000 1250 1500 1750 2000 2250 2500 Iterations Drag Convergence History FLUENT 6. 2007 13 . dbns exp.0000 Cd 12500.0000 20000.0000 10000.0000 15000.0000 7500.0000 4000.0000 12000. ske) Figure 11: Lift Coeﬃcient Convergence History c Fluent Inc.0000 2500. January 25.0000 17500.0000 2000.3 (2d. dbns exp.0000 22500.0000 14000.

(b) Click Display.27e-01 2.36e+00 1.89e-01 8.3 (2d..95e-01 6.22e+00 1. Display ﬁlled contours of Mach number (Figure 13)..21e-02 2.62e-01 Contours of Static Pressure (atm) FLUENT 6.12e+00 1.Solving Transonic Flow over a Turbine Blade with Turbo-Speciﬁc NRBCs Step 3: Postprocessing 1.50e+00 1. and Mach Number in the Contours of drop-down lists.12e+00 1.66e-01 2.08e-02 Contours of Mach Number FLUENT 6.25e+00 1.36e-01 8..06e+00 1.43e-01 7..17e+00 1.40e+00 1. Display ﬁlled contours of static pressure (Figure 12).43e-01 8. 2007 .26e+00 1. ske) Figure 13: Contours of Mach Number 14 c Fluent Inc.40e-01 8. Display −→Contours.31e+00 1.00e+00 9.72e-01 5.78e-01 8. January 25.11e-01 4. Make sure that Filled is selected under Options.05e-01 1.83e-01 9.50e-01 3.56e-01 6. and Static Pressure in the Contours of drop-down lists.17e-01 7. ske) Figure 12: Contours of Static Pressure 2. dbns exp. (a) Select Velocity..88e-01 3. (c) Click Display.09e-01 5. 1.3 (2d.96e-01 7..56e-01 6. 1.03e+00 9. dbns exp.33e-01 5.49e-01 7.45e+00 1.08e+00 1. (b) Select Pressure.02e-01 6.18e+00 1. (a) Enable Filled in the Options list.

Create an XY plot of the static pressure distribution on the blade surface. Read the plot ﬁles you saved for the two solutions and compare them in a single plot (Figure 15).. ii. 4. the x coordinate along the selected surface (statorblade). Notice that the shock wave position for the NRBC case is moved closer to the trailing edge of the vane. (a) Select Pressure. stator-blade 1.00e-01 8. This is due to the fact that pressure variations in the vicinity of the shock are permitted to pass through the exit boundary without being artiﬁcially constrained by assuming a constant (uniform) exit pressure.04 0.30e+00 1..50e+00 1.10e+00 Static 1. in the Surfaces list.01 0.20e+00 1. (d) Click Plot.40e+00 1.00e-01 5. and Static Pressure in the Y Axis Function drop-down lists. Select the Write to File option and click the Write.05 0.Solving Transonic Flow over a Turbine Blade with Turbo-Speciﬁc NRBCs 3. i.3 (2d.00e-01 7.00e-01 0 0. as is the case when the NRBCs are disabled. dbns exp. (b) Select stator-blade. January 25.xy in the XY File text entry box and click OK to close the dialog box..00e-01 6. The resulting XY plot for static pressure distribution is displayed in Figure 14.06 Position (m) Static Pressure FLUENT 6.. ske) Figure 14: XY Plot of Static Pressure Distribution on Stator Blade (e) Save the plot data to a ﬁle. button to open the Select File dialog box..02 0. (c) Keep the default Plot Direction of X.03 0..00e+00 Pressure (atm) 9. This will plot temperature vs. Enter pdata-nrbc. 2007 15 . c Fluent Inc. Plot −→XY Plot.

60e+00 1.02 0.3 can be used with the coupled implicit solver.01 0.3 (2d.00e-01 0 0. dbns exp. the pressure waves are not constrained and are permitted to vary along the boundary such that waves are not spuriously reﬂected. With NRBCs. 2007 . It was shown that the location of the shockwave is dramatically diﬀerent when standard pressure BCs are used.00e-01 6. January 25. NRBCs can be used in 2D or 3D and with FLUENT 6.04 0. This is not surprising since you are forcing the static pressure at the exit to be uniform.05 0. 16 c Fluent Inc. ske) Figure 15: Comparison of XY Plots Summary This tutorial demonstrated the salient points of setting up and solving of a problem with FLUENT’s turbo-speciﬁc NRBCs.40e+00 1.20e+00 Static 1.00e+00 Pressure (atm) 8.03 0.00e-01 4.06 Position (m) Static Pressure FLUENT 6.Solving Transonic Flow over a Turbine Blade with Turbo-Speciﬁc NRBCs Standard BC NRBC 1.