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Goldsack GhulamJabarsRenunciation Text

Goldsack GhulamJabarsRenunciation Text

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GHULAM JABBAR'S
'

RENUNCIATION

',

>

A TALE OF EASTERN BENGAL
BY

The

Rev.

WILLIAM GOLDSACK
'

Author of

Christ in X-sldm,^

etc.

THE CHRISTIAN LITERATURE SOCIETY FOR LONDON, MADRAS:;AND COLOMBO
1913

INI5IA-

^^^^^M^^^mMAev^'

S^%ti^r

V? "

>

A
<

CONTENTS
Chapter
I.

Page
Missionary's Letiteh
1

The

11.

A Momentous

Ii^terview

20

;PHINTED AT
S. P.

THE

III.

C.

li.

PEESS, VEPERY, MADSAs

IV.

1913

V.
VI.

The SwpHB e3^ the Spirit The Maulavi's Challenge The Munshi's Story

29
59
51

New

Views of Truth
Drscussioisr

69
75

VIL
TfllL
IX.

The Public

Counting the Cost Ghulam's Confession
Emarat's Conversion

117
124

X*

13S

ROBERTS LIBRARY

Grkulam Jabbar'^ Benunciation

CHAPTER
*

I

THE MISSIONARY'S LETTER
I

don't know what

to think

;

the missionary assured
the advice of
;

us again and again
Qur'an,

in his

preaching that, in the noble

and

Cliristians if
?

we Muslims are told to ask we are in donbt

Jews
that

but

how can

possibly be

Was

not

Muhammad

the last and greatest

Prophet ? and does not the noble Qur'an contain the and complete revelation of God ? We know that How then can it possibly command us to ask it does. of a people who mistakenly follow a corrupted advice and abrogated Scripture, and worship the Prophet Jesus The speaker was Ghulam Jabbar, a tall and as God
final
' !

handsome Bengali youth
returned
to

of eighteen years,

who had
for

just

his village

home
in

in

Islamabad

his

holidays after six months of hard study in

the Govern^

East Bengal. Ghulam was the only son of Isma'll JabbaT, a wealthy Muslim landowner of Islamabad, a man who lavished all the affection of an intense nature on his son, and had planned

ment school

of

Dhanpur

for

hto a

liberal education

and a siibsequent entry

into

TOBerrs LIBRARY

The lads were. he invited his hearers to go to his certainly could not accept. and UioukIi I forget in what chapter he said the words were to bo found. if ye know not". throwhng hmaself the enthusiasm of youth into h=s preparation for Matriculation a year hence. that the missionary cricket with a fo the further prosecution of his studies. for Ghnlam was a had easily stood first in the his bright. at the close of his preaching. was playinj when I asked Emarat's and hia son called from the school had early "1 like the officials— though I that these missionaries are not used to think they were— to a rice-merchant. to my surprise.a . Williams. but T did not go near him for some days. intelligent who village school. and. from preaching in he welcomed me most graciously. He me. and was giving him an animated account of he new experiences which had been his in the imporant town of Dhanpnr. Ghulam was sitting with his great fnend. There was much that I did not understand in what he said. when the sun had gone down. the Christian mislTonary the days when they attended the village school a. naw and was now. on the bank of the river which flowed past the large village where they had both been bom. m P aced. I hastily stepped up to his door. Islamabad. One day. I had heard. however. aS the went down in a misty haze which betokened stUl greater heat on the morrow. Mr. only a few days before. And. then. I number was told of students. he L. and some things that to T Yes'. and I thought that an introduction was necessary for such an interview.ce of India. surroundings at Dhanpur. he continued.2 GHULAm JABEAr'S RENUNCIATION Nor were his hopes xnislad. and at once ushered and had just retumc^i. falsity of his beliefs. too. therefore. had often corresponded. Emarat Plusain. 'M THE MISSIONARY'S LETTER 5 fe Cvd Serv. go to Dh&npur about him. and I longed in the streets theni. The conversation had drifted from the school and its studies to religion. and now. so he told a market some miles away. and that no letter of introduction was necessary in order to secure an interview with them in fact. both of deeply religious. but . and the old-time confidence and help him in his business as m no way lessened by the passage affectL was so noth of time. V with It all had been a hot and trying day. how Tomij Siddiq had been driven away like a dog by the liveried servants of the magistrate when he one day tried to sec that o&cial. asked to see him. at er was far from rich. for I was a stranger. my informant told me. and they had often read together of him of our Prophet Mnhammad. I remember weU the words themselves. "Ask those who are acquainted witli (ho Scripture. *the missionary read from a Bengali translation of the noble Qur'dn.ves of the Prophets and other popular '"' '' '^' '"" ^ ^''^' ^"^f '° them both when the bo h Th t^'time came for Ghulam to m Dhanpur. which were these. Bnt one day as I was taking my evening walk» to tel] I show him the and saw. was always most glad to receive visitors and . The lads. for that was the missionary's name. new thoughts and questionings which were surging througl thoL? T '^'^ '^'^^'^ *° '''' ^"^-d the to discuss religious matters with them. and Ghulam was describing the preaching of sm house and ask any question concerning religion. and there was none to notice me.

' not to have Muslims .' and. to " ask the people of the Book" who. I was I so surprised at this that all is clear that it is our duty. To my surprise he did not begin to talk about religion at all. for we know that Islam is the last and perfect religion. I have told you all my heart in order that I may hear what you have then it had heard that these missionaries generally abused other religions. began him.* . to. such a for. So I listened in silence until he went on to speak of the Injil.'. and it was only when I ventured to remark that I had heard him preach in the streets of Dhanpur that he books than tion of rid were Jews and Christians. owing to . by way of emphasis.'. Why if our holy Qur'an really taught that. he expressed both and sorrow. and I was prepared to defend the holy religion of Islam to the best of my power in fact. for I had prepared vanished from my had not expected this kind of advice from teaching of these foreigners but that can never be. and strongly advised me to procure a translation of that book in order to become acquainted surprise him to produce them ? and then you would have learned what deceivers these Christian missionaries are. After more conversaa like nature I came away. he again in his street demanded quoted the passage : had heard preaching think that that be shown the passage and. is a sufficient guide for all Muslims. to say to this strange teaching of our holy Book — if indeed.4 ghulAm I jabbAr's renunciation room in THE MISSIONARY'S LETTER said. he The most that can believe of him is that he may be I . Emarat. and. I cannot man wilfully deceived me. ' Yes ! I was to foolish ' returned Ghulam. a large which were more had ever seen before in a private house. sur- I V he did not attempt to criticize Islam at all on the contrary he asked me whether I had studied the noble Qur'an and when I confessed that I had not. Of course. but. caught with such chaff. such teaching be really found there ! ^ W . the words you have quoted are only the creation of your missionary's OAvn fancy. Why did you not challenge my ignorance of the Arabic language. I could quote to him but. listen to the the arguments which mind . and so. when in doubt concerning too open and his tones too earnest and sincere for that. Of course. to my . . then the conclusion ! with its teachings. by the so that its study was no longer incumbent upon us I replied at earth into the swiftly flowing waters of the river before him. hurled a clod of once that the Injll was both corrupted Christians. to I speak of the matter that had brought me to J^ seems clear that the Taurat and Injil are neither corrupted nor abrogated. as such. as Muslims. and abrogated by the noble Qur'an. the Qur'an the final and complete revelation of God. any matter. I found in the do not believe for a moment they are to be noble Qur'an. instead I of arguing with me. For a moment there was are a fool I silence. dear friend. if command really stands in our holy Qur'an. but I cannot get of these words ask the people of the Book. and of the praise which the Prophet of God had bestowed upon that Book. yet. and a Christian missionary. thought you were too old a bird to be holy faith which prise. I had armed myself beforehand with a number of . His face was I about the duty of Muslims. and then Emarat * replied in a voice that shook with passion. . -4V so saying.- . but asked me about my home and my studies. ! Ghulam you historical facts relating to the wonderful spread of our . nie into his study.

and is still. The explanation which would make the words " People inherit his father's estates his father's power and.i W^' ' The missionary's translation. and sat with a look of contemptuous disdain faithful. and. jJl Jj^' l2. and by their evil speech and false address seeking to blind the eyes of the ! and with a forced smile. as you know. on whom be the peace and blessing of God. in simple. of that there you mention is in the no doubt '.^1 is the Muslim displeasure at their listening at Christian missionary. the people were to apply for a solu. and a staunch defender of Islam.^ 7 mistaken. the Book of God. They take a verse of the noble Qur'an. words . you do not know. literally. passage means of the Dhikr. so. so saying. To him. all words of a Ghulam summoned up to the courage. whether there Qur'an.lXwj. tion of all their doubts. told who are entrusted with the Qur'an. Emarat readily acquiesced in his friend's proposal. but finally his story. really any such passage in the noble He the maulavi opened his leather-bound copy at Suratu'l- is. and so saying. was. of course. in the elegantly U' M . after uttering a few gracious words of welcome. for he remembered that one of his visitors their bad one. he requested to know the object Neither was eager to be the first to matter which had brought them thither. that that At any have a proposal 'Ali. twist it to suit ends. the two friends. primarily applied to our Prophet Muhammad. The maulavi received them with pleasure not unmingled with respect. the rich Muhammadan He says it means that the people addressed. contemptuous wave of the hand. overspreading his features. where. and to misrepresent the teaching of our its to understand Greatly relieved. the leading maulavi of these parts. and a 4- Jews and Christians is too absurd to be entertained for a moment.' Anbiy^' (xxi) and read j. and. and wended of way to the home Ghulam. to we go to maulavi Ibrahim is make. for.6 ghulAm is jabbAr's renunciation rate I THE MISSIONARY'S LETTER i-^. The maulavi was angry the fact. it. the maulavi closed the book. who. and.0 : Nothing loth to throw the responsibihty of a decision upon other shoulders. By my life these missionaries are always trying to overturn the faith of the unwary. and." Ask the people But it is in his interpretation of the verse that the Christian priest has lied. taken to apply to all Muslim priests. *' * is not a way to the house of the village priest. of their visit. rose their and took their departure.' he added. are landowner of Islamabad. with profuse thanks to the maulavi.' and. after his death. and and ask him holy religion. before would . straightforward language. for they knew the maulavi well enough to fear his disclose the told to ask the Jews and Christians when they do not know the meaning of certain things.^Jsll J. first of all. and the two soon after rose and made 1\^ . Yes ! the passage is noble Qur'an. he thus made reply. without trying their own meaning. This is clear and when the verse was first sent down. the verse : countenance betrayed and yet he dared not openly reprehend the one his long. the if too. whereas the true interpretation of the priests. and only serves to show the crass ignorance and narrow prejudice of these Chrisof the Dhikr" apply to tian missionaries. was the only son of his patron.

and soon the two friends were busy drafting a letter in the name of Ghulam in which the maulavi's words were quoted. so the question resolves itself into one of interpretation. He affirms that the term People of the Dhikr primarily meant Muhammad. after his decease. that the missionary is a deceiver after all ? I cannot believe it. the i^assage means no more than that Muslims who are in doubt on religious matters are to seek the advice of their religious teachers a rather superfluous piece of advice surely. I must ask to be permitted to Maulavi Ibrahim practically return to the subject. the opportunity of replying to his giving me comments on the passage which I quoted. therefore. and he soon proposed a letter to the missionary. And. tearing open the missive devoured them to seek his aid iii happy proposal which had led their time of difficulty. But Ghulam could not sleep. accepts my translation of the passage. he was assured. length. ' to himself again and again.' i%. the next X morning restless and anxious. and that. * ' — * ' . for me to show that your friend is grievously in error in imagining that the It term People of the Dhikr here means Muslims. that I do not care to enter into any rehgious discussion with your friend simply for the sake of argument for I have seen a great deal of such wrangling. and the very tones of his voice spoke of sincerity and deep religious faith. Soliloquizing thus. and to learn that you are seeking to know the truth concerning the teaching of the Qur'an for I am persuaded that an unprejudiced reading of that book will inevitably lead you to study those other Scriptures of the Christians which it so often mentions as the word of God '. a letter What will the missionary reply . so that he could hardly have been mistaken. It will not be difficult. was salvation to be found and then. it applied to all Muslim teachers of the Qur'an. setting forth the true interpretation of the verse which had caused them such pertufbation. clear hand on the envelopcj the two friends Qur'an. and I know how unprofitable. and congratulated themselves on the and. My dear young friend. at written in came with the name of Ghulam a bold. however. at the outset. yet. why should he speak with such assurance of what he did not understand ? He told me. ? was the thought uppermost in their minds and when. and uniformly commends as . a flat denial to one of the plainest teachings of the * ' . again the comforting words of the maulavi. that he knew Arabic. and even But since the maulavi has given harmful. Let me say. Can it be. I commend your a light and guidance for men. The day passed slowly away and the afternoon of the next day found the two friends impatiently waiting the arrival of the usual mail from Dhanpur. 8 ghulAm jabbar^s renunciation called his own. Nor was Ghulim slow to acquiesce. His whole attitude. and Emarat departed for his home at the other end of the village.%?. he repeated . the two friends bade each other good night. too. decision to seek the advice of one of your reliand I specially thank you for gious teachers. as it was now late. and in doing so has not scrupled to stigmatize as a deceiver '. in which alone.'0' •' THE MISSIONARY'S LETTER away to its 9 ftirnihsed room which he went over hastened a quiet spot on the banks of the river. it may be. It gave me great pleasure ^^ to receive your letter of yesterday's date. It was And this is what they read : now that Emarat's combative nature asserted itself. and that. and which concluded by inviting the missionary to embrace the holy religion of Islam. they ". and rose. contents. me ' Ghulam at last fell into a troubled sleep.

manifestly cannot apply to him. li\t LU^V^ ^a^j' t J^^ . Sabians.'' . of the attempt to avoid a difficulty.l^j J Jl^-oj LX=^ referred and when the preceding Scriptures of the Jews and Christians are meant. : reads thus '-*. Take the passage to which' I referred in Suratu'n-Nahl (xvi).' In the Tafsiru'l-Jaldlain L):^fit^^^ iJ^j^Slj is said that the is. ^ Ask the learned men.ull Jsil 'the peo- Taurat and Injil. This is so clear that the Muhammadan commentators of the Qur'an are unanimous upon the point. for example. and ask what Mushm commentators of reputed standmg and authority have to say regarding the term. or. The word Dhikr is generally used in the Qur'an to express the idea of an Again in the Khuldsatii t. in the ' ' of the Dhikr'. if ye do not know. therefore. first of aU. ii.' In this passage the former prophets of the Jews and Christians are clearly referred to. in the add' ikil-Qur''dn * M ^i the ' word is said to mean ^^j-^-'lc J_ ls\'^^ ) ' '^iV^. in which the people. but the context always makes it clear when that book is to. Thus. I would remark that the let Now says that the term means ple of the it ci-fi^Jjilj sl. to * ' Muhammad. apphed.Tafdsir term is explained thus :— .. But. in the first place. If you turn to the comments of those authorities on the passage quoted by Ibrahim maulavi from Suratu'lIt will be Anbiya* (xxi) you will find the same thing. and showing that the Qur'an is apphed to Jews and Christians. and even Muhammad himself. though I could easily quote many more authorities to the same effect. The very context of the verse . .ir^.' Finally. well. 1. us turn. The learned men friend.' As such is sometimes called a mikr it is true. secondly I shall show that as Muhammad hunself was commanded in the Qur'an to ask the People of the Book for a solution of his doubts. . THE MISSIONARY'S LETTER * 11 means Jews and . further. and._ and was.Xn. . has contradicted the learned commentators of the Qur'in whose words -C have quoted. in his comment on this passage 'Abbas. before we pass to the passage where I i^. the context shows that the word certainly refers to the Scriptures of the Jews and Christians and this the leading Mushm commentators of the Qur'an candidly admit. that is.0 young in his Jews and Christains so. and that the best Mushm commentators of the Qur'an have acknowledged that such is the proper signification of the term. the words. In the passages.M 10 ghulAm in the time of jabbAr's renunciation Christians. ' are.i *. • any Muslim.the Qur'an admonition' or an 'exposition' of religion. to the passage which I quoted. are told to ask the people of the Dhikr. my you must acknowledge that the maulavi. if you do not know. therefore ask ye the people of the Dhikr. word means ^IaUji InjiL' words translated original People ' People of the Book that *the learned men of the Taurat (vol. indeed. plainly . and the people addressed are told to ask the people of those former Scriptures for a settlement of their doubts. and p. ask the Jews and Christians with whom the heavenly books are found. 543) the . one of the most famous of the exegetes of the Qur'an. makes It the meaning clear. to a sect known as the I will now proceed to prove by the term as used in many other parts of this And we have not sent before thee (oh Muhammad) any but men whom we inspired.b ^'f uf .

Jaldlain .c i^A\ [iijA L CJsJ^ . \ read the Book before thee'. v- Let us now turn to Suratu Yunas (x) verse 94. ask those who are reading the book of the Taurat before thee for verily it is confirmed with them. in the Tafsiru'llain and others.J'^\ ^'. O Muhammad.U!1 I ' explained by Ji^^i^l^ ^1. ask the People of the Book* ask the People of the Taurat and to ' ^ S-*-^^ b_ \!ui ^J ^^ AlCW ^^s^jAi ^ . concerning that .' 12 ghulAm Muhammad jabbAr's renunciation * ^- THE MISSIONARY'S LETTER and Christains 13 himself is definitely commanded to seek light and guidance from the Jews and Christians. UiS . ask those ' that v^ho JUi d]j^\\^ A ^ ^iAc A\] ^}^ ^x\\i 'Hsj^Sl J. the Qur'an. concerning mean J.r-0 Injir. ^1>.. (O Muhammad) of which we have sent down unto thee. He (God) commands them that they should ask the people of the Book concerning 'Abbas. : ed in the Tautat and that the (or Injil Thus have shown IaIJI \yi^ ^Afti LiXJl USji! l^x> c3s^ command ' Dhikr) means.! tjKjill L^-AKi iSl^y.!! J. . It is said that the person addressed is the Prophet of God.al * The people Those learn- Taurat and Injil \ and in the Tafsirii'l-J aldlain.^ cX^ cs: ^ . and they will inform thee concerning its truth.j.. which we have sent down to thee of the stories and commands.S-^\?.a> ^^j^t If thou art in doubt. ' Here.csjJi!lj SK^J. the true character of the ancient prophets. there S 'jy ( we read : * It \p.U cj' which we have sent down upon thee of that which we have sent down by Gabriel.' in his comment on the passage. to examine the commentaries on the verse quoted by him.^^51: '.A5 '. In it Muhammad is commanded to refer to the Jews ij t' . then ask those w^ho are reading the book of the Taurat before thee.^ J^«*5 cil!] Uj! U. namely. JaliiThus. The great commentator Imam Baidawi says on page 426 of his Tafsir that the words were : It is for the settlement of his doubts. that ordinary Mushms should be not surprising. That this is the true meaning of told to do the same. for example. the com- mentators are unanimous in explaining the words 'those who read the Book as referring to Jews and The verse before us has only one meanChristians. then. O Muhammad. . 'Abbas comments thus on the same verse that .' CJ^Ui! K'>S=i\ ^^ i\ Baidawi says : And if thou art in doubt. again.. says the words People of the Dhikr' of the it is ' If thou art in doubt.>Jsi) J JL>aJ. and ' s \- h . ing.i we read : (_^^Ai! ^... the verse is candidly acknowledged by 'Abbas. which is clearly contained in the words themselves. on him be the peace and blessing of God.5 Sa^js^^c Ij I'iA^ J^ 'A reply to their words: Is this man aught but a mortal like yourselves.

' Such are the explanations of the ancient commentators. Not a few of the moderns. both Muhammad and his followers are. and the words of your pur'an. Of the truth of the missionary's words he had now no doubt. that the missionary is no deceiver." then it seems to nic tliat it is my bounden duty to study them. Therefore. Lastly. Your own Qur'an that ! i Muhammad l\' as clear as the day that. turning to his com' : and God most high. the Jews and Christians. j)anion. though it clearly shows the perplexity into which the words have thrown many Muslims. WILLIAMS. And after all. . what I felt and believed before. in various verses of the Qur'an. sense of duty to follow the truth so far as revealed to him. whilst admitting _. I again urge you to give heed to my words. being a man. length by Ghulam.and calls those books the " \rard of God.'. he was. who. bears witness that they are ^^lAl! ^d^ ^ j^l * a light In spite of his business surroundings. liable to be troubled in his heart by doubts and anxious possibilities which could only be removed by clear declarations and manifest proofs. to study those holy Books in which God has revealed His will to men. as such. exhorted to ask advice and teaching from the people of the preceding Scriptures. therefore. 29) Yottrr sincere friend. though Muhammad is personally addressed. has no basis in the words of the Qur'an.^ yfi^-^^- 14 ghulAm that it jabbAr's renunciation nnil fi THE Kil!(l« MISSIONARY'S LETTER mankind '. If. oh hearer. It was evident was going on within him. only obeying the not undorsiaiul is 80. strive to find a way out of an obvious difificulty by adding that. in seeking the advice rmd counsel of a Christian missionary. it is only stated as a possibility. Tlie proofs he offers are too strong to be doubted. and you will find that they will lead you into II Hutisfaction and peace such as you have never liu„o Imam Fakhru'd-dln-Razi (vol.y^.. God has sent the Taurat and Injil as a direction and a mercy'. concerning that which we have sent down on the tongue ((iiidance lo IIiioukIi let them. known Ixifore. and that love of and loyalty to his ancestral faith found themselves in violent opposition to a somewhat undefined. if thou art in doubt. A.! concludes a long comment in these words. if we suppose the Prophet himself to be here addressed in his own person as " thou " the explanation is that. however. then. * ' X himself is addressed in the verse before us. then. yet real. as ha asserts. famous commentary called al-Kahir v. I know now. and. namely. The fact is. yet the meaning is that his followers are really meant This explanation.. why tliis should be: I only know 1 feel I canit that cannot stop here. . 15 ^^< 1 refers to his followers or to every one who That is. be your difficulties hears. that you should seek the counsel of those who have been made by God the custodians of those sacred volumes ? Surely it is your highest wisdom to ^iyq heed to their words.' The great scholar 7 you. and he dimly realized that that truth that a great battle might lead him to a w\\ his present one. ' in his p. final resting-place far removed from \j. the Qur'dn speaks so highly of the Taurat and I vi Moreover that Y3 Injll. the perplexities and which of thy Prophet.. . said and. : . command of the noble Qur'an. Is it strange. made this revelation to dispel these misgivings. At any rate I shall ask maulavi Ibrahim what he has to say to a Muslim reading the Christian Scriptures. dear friend. perusal of the mis- When the two friends finished their 8ionary*s letter there lnokcn at was a moment of intense silence. " . Emarat. I am it is to me at least. . above all. For a monu-nt Jim^rat made no reply.

and have not only have corrupted .- U!---. were indeed commended in Could it be that the missionaries were the Qur'an ! right in urging their study It was with upon Muslims such thoughts as these that the young merchant hailed the proposal of his friend with cordial approval.s. 4o ask about the Taurat and Injil. that the Christian Scriptures. to the copies which were in peace not right for The hfm * . praise of the Christian Scriptures. apply. the great champion of Islim. We cannot read the Arabic Qur'an. many things which are not true. It certainly good Muslims to read the Taurat and is The words of the noble Qur'an. Surely this time he would be able to help them. upon whom be the peace and blessing of God. if . as the Christians call their so that tures. upon whom be the peace and blessing " light of God. W that be so. and then it was that God spoke of it as a " but these infidel Christians and guidance for men added it since then. he cried in conclusion.^^ Ji. It Scriptaught that the Bible. and have become ^1 K. No. it a moment. so that even some learned maulavis in the Panjab have been deceived by them.: '. with his Qur'an on a low stool before him. Emarat had a deep religious nature.. and as he Prophet Muhammad. 16 ghulAm jabbAr'S renunciation much THE MISSIONARY'S LETTER - 17 which were both uncongenial and strongly destructive of any real piety. and not to the corrupt copies 'tS It is thus of those Scriptures which are now current. -. which seem Injil now. '. 'ilk* •-'' -^ .^. at most. lads waited quietly until his recitation was ended. and that they " word of God " and " a light are there described as the and guidance for men. addressed and : ' . but they have also cut out of it many cies concerning our soon found themselves once again at the house of the maulavi. would be able to give an answer to the anxious questions which forced themselves unbidden upon his mind. on whom be the swayed body from side sonorous Arabic of the Qur'an his to side was intoning the in a musical kind of chant. _Vl. these Christian missionaries are leading astray so many have come to you. then Ghulam. whom he described as infidels. The latter was sitting on the floor of his house.' he said. the missionary's letter. we Muslims are no longer required to read it but. then why ? does the Qur'an speak of it in terms of such high praise Scriptures. but we have been told that it contains We Muslims. and indeed was so in the time of * ' ' ! ! be. with feelings of genuine relief that he hailed his friend's proposal to again interview the village priest on the subject of the Christian wavered in it.. such as the stories about a pretended death of the Prophet 'isa on the prophecross. to allow that.t- 1*''' ii. which he had always been taught to regard as both corrupted and abrogated. yes it of God did you say may have been once. he asked himself.& Vi. but also abrogated. when once a path was made clear to him he seldom and „ . and blessing of God. therefore. that the The maulavi was silent for The word almost to wish that they had stayed away. existence in the time of the Prophet. and then Chrislaunched out into such a violent tirade against lads began tians. and they ! our holy Prophet. and would speak words that would quiet the tumultuous feelings which were stirring the very depths Surely he. maulavi Sahib. Could of his soul. and his soul was strangely stirred by the concluding lines of His sense of duty was strong.\. is not only corrupted." Now we have always been v"' was.."**. with a respectful salutation.

as he grasped the hand. for these and I have often seen them preaching streets in the heat of own country and it cannot men seem to be always busy^ in the public is it. I village lives. who went away more puzzled than ever as to the course they ought to pursue. many references to the coming of the " Seal of the Prophets. that now. that these missionaries England. uttered with the copies which were current in the time of our Prophet contained." The burning words feeling much Muhammad. wended his Ghulam rose. as our maulavi has often taught us. But the missionary is a learned man. and a Muslim.^'' endeavour to teach others to believe in it. and not to the mutilated and untrustworthy copies which are current amongst the Christians to-day. able to lead him to Perhaps I shall be Prophet as the last acknowledge our Injil.- know . that we have been wandering when God had sent the Taurat to give us it Can be * '. light ? The great messenger of God. for all The holy Qur'an is sufficient good Muslims. said his friend in the by is in following a corrupted dark. men to astray ? \ * with such dramatic suddenness.. taking for granted all that had been taught on once assured me that they could easily earn much more i them God and religion by the village priest. And yet it is equally impossible for me to j''\ and declamation. The most that he said was that such verses apphed to the copies of the Taurat and Injil which were currentin the time of our Prophet. . but I noticed that he did not deny the presence of these praises of the Taurat and Injil in the holy Qur'an. of his friend. Take my with them or their Book. with another Scripture and another our tropical climate which I so perversion of truth which they had always been taught to regard them. he should endanger his soul by still clinging to this corrupted Injil. I cannot understand and intend. Prophet.8 ghulAm jabbAr's renunciation advice. know who has been .1. knowing these things. and what possible motive could he have for wilfully leading It new questions which had. and taking leave wards. and him how mistaken he Ghulam. and have nothing to do :: THE MISSIONARY'S LETTER 19 Christians. maulavi sahib said many hard things about the Christians. been brought before them. cannot be money. Can '.' and so saying. but as a great God-given book and rehgion. People do not do such things without a motive. and twilight deepened into night as they sat together on the bank of the river discussing the believe that. for I So long they had of lived their quiet. or should m. to seek tell out this Christian priest.' of the maulavi. ' it be that he is ignorant of these things ! It seems that almost impossible to believe that he does not . way home- •\ . upon my return to school next week. they were both perplexed and dismayed. uneventful are poor. when suddenly brought be love of ease. trying for these foreigners. taking money in business in their trust every statement concerning the Qur'an and their face to face not as the faith. made a great impression upon the two friends.

as our subsequent to the time deliberation. find." follow the to that Injil by advancing such arguments .-wk. No for it educated Muslim to-day would think of risking his reputation for learning is which was in use in the time of our Prophet. and... ' . about the prophet conceivable that Such being the case... . the Christians. according to the words " ask the people of the Book. many prophecies and have added many passages and hard denunciation which had characterized the latter's speech. as this grave tall. or to study the Christian Scriptures. . I your friend the " ask the Christians concerning matters of religious faith and practice./. It soon came in accents slow and deliberate. and which agree.. The fact is.r i -. and he wondered. maulavi told us. and it turn to the holy doctrines of IsMm. and. to the Jews and Christians in Muhammad's time who Taurdt and Christians and through the note of sadness there was an possession It of the uncorrupted unmistakable ring of glad assurance which spoke of confidence and power.t^pj # it A MOMENTOUS INTERVIEW would still 21 be our wisdom...' So saying.'-.'• . the passages of the Qur*an in which Christians are commanded to obey and Injil. would acknowledge his error. whilst he deplored the lack of historic knowledge which marked the maulavi's words. Injil. in all essential u \: .."'. it is inMuslims should now be 'expected to 'isa. cannot possibly apply the The missionary spoke with quiet to-day who follow a mutilated Gospel. not without hope. -^ * Yes ! ' the missionary continued. Ghulam noticed an entire absence of that bitter invective of our Prophet. that the missionary II A MOMENTOUS INTERVIEW at school in must be confessed. anger or bitterness in Dhanpur There was no trace there of either the before he sought out the missionary. If that copy were current to-day we should. Similarly. 1. !. and can scarcely blame him . maulavi has been taught thus.* he said *the verse of the noble Qur'an which you quoted about our asking advice of the people of the Book ^and I must admit missionary's voice as he made answer. for if he had had the benefits of a sound modern our maulavi told us. sir.. the command can no longer be binding.. and acquainted him with the result of his interview with maulavi Ibrahim. seeing that the CHAPTER Ghulam had not been long back has been so radically altered since that time.-. be bound to read it. „. what his answer would be. Injil But circumstances alter cases.. as well as our duty. have cut out of the Injil relating to his mission.1 '. man looked into his eyes with that earnest look now were that it does refer to Christians of — — could to only apply which had so impressed him on a previous visit. well known now that there are copies of the Injil in existence to-day which were written the birth of many years before Muhammad. to turn to Christian priests for guidance and instruction. the young student waited a reply. all refer education he would never have spoken as he did.7. On the contrary was an undertone of sadness which the keen ears of Ghulam were quick to detect. of course.. 'You see.

and were written. besides birth of Muhammad. with the copies current throughout the world to-day/ * T of Muhammad and until about four hundred years after a copy of the at least. an ancient manuscript of the the Alexandrian manuscript. if there are such.' . for they none of these ancient copies mentions the coming of Muhammad or suggests the appearance of a true Pro. and one called the Sinaidc manuscript another. and dates from or more than a time of Muhammad. that the copy of the Qur'an which I saw in Cairo must be at least eight centuries old. that the ancient copies you mention are really as old as you say ? What are the proofs that these copies of the Christian Scriptures really date back to a time anterior to hundred years before the time of i Muhammad. The proofs are many. at least two hundred years before the There are other copies. and there saw. Now. ^. scholar. Petersburg. To in begin ^ m "^ from the fourth century A.< :^ . were written in Cufic characters^ phet later than Jesus but they all contain the same which. that is. now Both preserved in the great library at of these date St. so also. as some ignorant people imagine.' That is just where you err. ' it is just because those ancient copies do not contain any reference to a later Prophet named Muhammadj and because their teaching with reference to the person and work of the Lord Jesus is the same as that found * ' and not in the cursive or running hand of in later times. prove the utter worthlessness of those copies of the they were written in large capital letters. It is obvious. * do you mean to be seen Qur'an written in Cufic characters must. copy of the Injil. Then. therefore. Muhammad ' ? ' * . preserved in the Vatican library at Rome. Taurat and Injil which are current to-day.^»22 ghulAm jabbAr'S renunciation A MOMENTOUS INTERVIEW 23 particulars. Christian or would deny I their validity to-day. been transcribed before the fifth have century of the Hijra.^ some years ago saw in the library of the great Now the important point to remember al-Azhdr University some very ancient copies of the Some of those copies carried their own proof Qur'an. beyond question. carefully Injil called preserved. it is well known. and non- are so conclusive that no Christian. which were also written before the time of served. was the script in use in the time accounts of the life and death of Jesus Christ as are found . the fifth century of the Christian era. that to What tell me ! ' interjected the that the Muslim very same copies are youth.W)lu. they must. the earliest copies of the Greek Injil were written in what is called uncial letters. There ( is and still earlier. to-day which were current before the time of our Prophet. let me use an illustration. Thus we know. It is written in the uncial in the we * Gospels current throughout the world to-day that know the Injil has not been altered subsequent to the ' characters which I have just described. therefore. of their age.-. by the prophecies of Muhammad false w^hich they contain. written in these same uncial letters. when I was just as I of the Qur'an I London. the Hijra.-. returned the missionary.D. with. and their freedom from teaching about the Prophet *Isa. similarly..* replied the missionary.l^i^ .' But how do you know/ retorted Ghulam. the ones I have mentioned.. When I was Cairo Muhammad. and are still carefully preis this '. Now. visited the British Museum. in have seen an ancient copy Cufic characters.

be heard to attempt a further conversation. whilst . 'Ghulam. he said in earnest tones. he asked permitted to take his.. but of the precious privilege of none of these early translations. evident em- radically different and work of the Lord Jesus Christ from that which appears in the pages is barrassment which his question had caused. and to in the ancient versions or Book still extant. his hand. made with the greatest care from the Greek originals. leave.' were a "light and guidance" for men then. and showed 4 have nought to call our own. As the missionary ceased speaking.- nothing. overwhelmed with that he had seen and 'Another proof of the integrity of the the missionary continued.> >.' the latter poured out his heart to God. These meant nothing to him. The conclusion is is me whilst I pray. the of the Injil which current to-day. he placed a kindly hand on the young man's shoulder and said kneel with did. and. have you ever asked God for guidance in this all-important matter ? * spread of Christianity the need soon arose for translations of The young man blushed. and. said of the Injil which he had been describing. and as early as the second century of the Christian era we find a translation of the Injil into Syriac. contains any mention of Muhammad or presents any version of the life communion with God as a Father he knew The missionary was quick to note the >%. As a boy he had been obliged to memorize them. * we are Thine un- and took from bound copy of the Bible.. without waiting for further answer. again. translations of that * Injil is found'. Later. they are certainly still so to-day. same as was at and before the time of Muhammad. and how unwise it is to decline to study that Book now. as a duty. he reached out his desk before Our Heavenly Father. him a leatherThis he opened. regularly ever since. but it to-day the young man knelt beside the Christian.. Therefore you see how foolish it is to pretehd that Christians have altered the Injil since the time of production of a page of the very Alexandrian manuscript *This'. fact to observe that Now. for the Christian Scriptures into different his only idea of prayer languages spoken by the converts. is translations were made into Latin.' 'Ghulam will you Scarce knowing what he : obvious : the Injil has not been altered. but long before the had been the repetition of the Arabic canonical prayers taught by Muhammad to the Arabs of the seventh century. and you will now be in a position to appreciate the reverential care with which Christians have collected and preserved he. ' . With the the early as he took the young student's hand. . he had performed time of Muhammad.'jtM 24 ghulAm jabbAr'S renunciation world A MOMENTOUS INTERVIEW to the astonished 25 in the copies of the Injil current throughout the Ghulam a beautiful photographic re- to-day. and the oft-repeated praises lavished upon the holy Books by the Qur'an may be equally applied to the present copies of the Injil/ The young Muslim took reverently kissed then. the important them more or less Gothic and other languages. All we have comes from Thee. even the impulses for worthy children.. too it the volume it in his hands and before returning all to its owner. and. Muhammad. The missionary rose. ' is not the same as those referred to in the Qur'am If they the ancient copies of their Scriptures.. or to "Ask the People of the Book" under the mistaken idea that the present copies of the Injil are an exact copy of the famous manuscript.' he cried. We K.

almost without thinking what he did. not connected with the Qur'an. as the gentle breeze cooled his heated forehead. How ^.Muslim. ' . still. m his own " . Yet how plain it ali seemed now It was now that the long drill in an Enghsh school yielded its results. of those solemn moments still seemed to linger with ! The missionary had prayed for guidance'. lust go :.. anxious tlioughts chased each other with lightning rapidity through his futility of - Provincial madrassa. find a fleeting place in our unworthy hearts. and the latter stepped from the missionary—but not that night. the missionary ' warmly pressed resolved to seek an early opportunity to procure one '•. \- surprise him that Ibrahim 'Ali knew nothing Injil. Amen. mind. and the truth as .J- . ^' . . as they rose to their feet. the more willing to and he was. and was to-day the uncorrupted word of God. enabled him to appreciate at their full value tho inonientous facts which the missionary had placed \m Oh help us now. of the ancient manuscripts of the Taurat and '' on that account. Reveal to him Thy great love as manifested in ! . for he had long been aware of the ignorance of that gentleman of all questions which lay outside the narrow curriculum of the :v - would lead him. ! For the first time in his life he had which he knew heard a man speak with God. and listened once more. ' Ghulam scarce knew whither he went. a light and Yus ! . Then. the hand of the young.-' . . We ask it guidance* to S^>' all in the ' name of Jesus Christ our Lord. for his heart was torn with conflicting thoughts. to fight a battle . : . and he had long since learned the applying to him for assistance in any matter It did not. and he knew only village too well the reception which would be his in his known there.y •• J out into the night. he. He copy of that Book without delay.: ' . conducted in a free. and he longed to quietly such as he had never fought before for he had heard enough concerning the contents of the Injil to dimly ai)prehend where such a study.' Then. to different from any kind of prayer wonderful prayer. . therefore. and river.. he sat on.. ' home to think. f . Help this young seeker after truth. he sat across the waters of the on the green grass and gazed The place and its loneliness soothed him. and he No. ary's None knew better than he the truth of the mission- words with regard to the maulavi. it almost seemed. . Yes. which had slowly and imperceptibly been developing in of ignorance. Injll * Thou unto him. A all MOMENTOUS INTERVIEW 27 good. He had a dim J- ' -^ ' consciousness of wishing to be alone. too seldom.• consider the fateful interview which had just . as ever. and the holy atmosphere him.' Yes he * ' .' :. Thus the home when the truth was unprejudiced spirit. come to an ' / - end. until at last he found himself on the bank of the Ganges. the desire to I i which.-^Hfl . Ghulam needed that he had asked for light. and But the revelation which had come to Ghulam that night was astonishing beyond anything of which he could have dreamed. beUeve that the mind as he strode on into the night. .. Jesus Christ.. Ixifoi'^' liini. must have a who would follow its teachings. narrow bigotry of the latter was born not of wickedness. he went over again the words of the missionthat ary. and the historic sense. down and. strengthen him to follow and obey dost reveal it Unere could be no longer any doubt about it the had remained unchanged. . Let the glorious light of Thy truth shine into his soul. .''%:$f 26 ghulAm jabbAr's renunciation know and do Thy will.1 ' \ ' -\ - • . he must heart ".

and none of his Muslim fellow-students or the maulavi who was his Persian teacher. at whatever cost. Bible. and. He felt that he must without delay share his secret with his friend who had not yet learned that the Injil was the uncorrupted word of God. knew perfectly well what would happen when that secret became known. . . and he knew that God had answered his prayer. For the first time in his life Ghulam really prayed—and the angels in heaven rejoiced and the faithful God.his nearest and dearest friend. had realized what he was doing. — children. -^ '. a ? voice seemed to say to him. who was already nearer to the light than he THE SWORD OF THE The next day found friend knew. too.s-. even remotely suspected Ghulam V the crisis through which he was passing. . heard and answered. and to enabled him to share with another. and before the young Muslim. as his pen flew from page to page. .'. Ghulam too busy writing to his Emarat for a visit to the missionary. I'/V y which surged mind. It gave vent to his pent-up feelings. How well the foreigner had gauged his needs his thoughts 1 ! how accurately read As the young Muslim soliloquized thus. . . he found himself upon his knees and pouring out his heart to God in passionate entreaty. jabbAr's renunciation '<• *' needed that also for he was enveloped in a darkness so dense that his very soul cried out in agony.'%i\ .' This was learn there the will of God for himself news indeed. that it could not much longer be hid for he was resolved. as ever.W Bm28 ghulAm . For it was still a carefully guarded secret. jii' ' V h r : I \ I writing of this letter came as a great relief Ghulto. and tell him face to face of all the new hopes and fears * ! . the burden of a great secret. and would not be put aside. a light and Moreover he was determined to guidance for men. jK. why cannot you also pray CHAPTEB * III SPIRIT ^ The thought almost stunned him by yet it its suddenness. still. and that one. as he rose to a strange quiet and peace seemed to fill his soul. whose ears are ever open to the cry of his for. he longed to clasp his chum by the hand once more. to procure and study a copy of the Holy The . and he knew.. > in alternate confusion through his anxious '. his feet.

without son of Abraham of ! grandeur of the Biblical narratives. and THE SWORD OF THE imheart thrilled with a SPIRIT 31 The next day Ghulam waited new emotion as he realized that patiently for the deepening shadows of evening to bring he was now face to face with the God-given story of the him the opportunity he sought for another visit to the mission house. the Prophet Isma'il the God. allowed him to de- youth could scarce control his excitement as he followed the man of God from his home in Haran. with a warm handshake. mean. the the Taurat and InjU. as he met. was a clear intimation of the great blessing them with the puerile absurdities of the had heard them from the lips of wandering maulavls. What. xii. and. Still. wise to read the young ing more man's thoughts. for the first time. him from unfriendly other of the Prophets save Muhammad and the V. though he was dimly aware of the fact that in some way or other He was Him.' ' In thee shall it all the families of what it at the first had to teach of God and salvation. made their temporary home. found no . said to mention of the Prophet Jesus. Ghulam wondered. trace his descent from. and make thy name and I will bless them great. part without further conversation. and. 2-3)."wva. took from his shelves a cloth-bound copy of the precious Scriptures and placed it in his hands. and him that curseth thee will I curse and in thee shall all the families of the earth be blessed (Gen. and was ushered in to the well-stocked library of Mr. and that. to this be the teaching of these ancient Scriptures. Williams. and. No wonder. he was interested. under the care of one of the masters. the Friend of God. and self the youpg student de- ahve the torch of monotheistic religion. then. ! * . Here. It was a copy of the Bible he wanted nothand the missionary. it possi- noticed certain. * which should come to the world through the Arabian Prophet. Tightly clasping his to the hostel new treasure. is some way. and his contrasted traditional stories as he * '. scarce waiting for the darkness to shield great Patriarch* Ghulam had heard not a little of Abra- ham : indeed his was a more familiar name than any himself.. determined to learn for him- ing of that last clause. or read them in such books as the As he read on the name fanciful Lives of the Prophets of Abraham. He began page but to his surprise and regret. Abraham was the Friend of God. for That he could not have done so was Ghulam remembered distinctly his saying . the earth be blessed." 30 ghulAm jabbAr'S renunciation passed slowly. for what else could these startling words. Did not Muham- mad. was the meanas he kept in the midst of the idolatrous nations. the centre of the Christian faith. ' voted himself to his Bible. and be thou a blessing that bless thee. the divine revelation surely pointed. then.' met his gaze. Yes there was no mistaking it. how is missionary should never have yet. { i a eyes. he walked up to the door of the missionary's home. and I will bless thee. and watched — him . Ghulam wended his way where he and a dozen other Muslim students. The next day was Sunday. addressed to him by the Deity Himself. But he had grown bolder. and mentally doubt. ble that this verse And the ? he asked himself. Surely the ham should spring last meant that from Abraand greatest Prophet. he Qur' an commands men to study for if himself. the history of Adam and Noah. in Muhammad. he was struck with the simple then the truth of Islam assured. I will make of thee a great nation.

And surely.ight * in turn to Abraham and Isaac was fulfilled in the person of the Lord Jesus and Jacob. and this will I establish with Isaac whom Sarah shall bear unto fully I would recommend you to study. him the passage which he had found. . Prophet Muhammad through Ism^'ll from Abraham. you will find that God there repeated the promise to Isaac himself saying.. when evening drew near. have blessed him.^mfr> 1^. at latter least. to me that this passage contains a prediction of our surely. and I him exceedingly twelve princes shall But my covenant will make him a great nation. ' that live before Thee! and God said.. of the earth are to him that all the nations be blessed— in other words.' SPIRIT ' 33 said the that the Bible contained no Muhammad This. connected with Isaac. for from it you will see that it was to be in the line of Isaac. ed. for. was by God Himself upturned and animated face of the young Muslim be'Yes/ the latter was saying. try as he would. There are several good translations sin . and but Sarah thy wife shall bear thee a son. " the Friend of God. . ^K- . and all who come to God through Him receive . *it seems plain fore him. and you will find a Read total it care- absence of :<: . and. for yourself. that blessing of Isma'il The latter listened patiently as Ghulam read close book of Genesis. and obviously.' continued the And Abraham said unto God. "in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed. 32 ghulAm jabbAr'S renunciation mention of THE SWORD OF THE Ihoe at this set time in the next year. Qur'an.-/- the blessings of eternal salvation. And as for Isma'il." . he.. Christ. I have heard thee : behold. 'it is fitting that God's blessing to the world should flow through the fruit of lawful wedlock rather than through the son of a bondMoreover if you turn to the fourth verse of the maid.' he continued." ' salvation/ This great promise. the Qur'in repeatedly represents him as being commanded by God to ask pardon for his sins. ' I wish. nay. is descended for. he again presented himself at the mission house and unburdened his mind to the sympathetic ears gentleman. ^M?^' WV". and a recorded but the " everlasting covenant which mani- observer might have noticed a look of yearning compassion in his deepest grey eyes as he looked into the festly refers to a spiritual blessing. one of them. The and the fulfilment of the promise here made for him is clearly related in the twenty-fifth chapter of this same in that of Isma'il. get it is in twenty-sixth chapter of Genesis. and will he begets of the Qur'an now to be had in the English language. and not of that mankind was to be blesswas to be a temporal one. and. I on the contrary. Ismi'il m.J The youth was honestly puzzled. make him fruitful. and thou shalt call bis name Isaac and I will establish my covenant with him for an everlasting covenant for his seed after : then you would see that Muhammad never claimed to be a saviour from him. he could find no satisfactory explanation of the missionary's words. . and study you would secure a translation of the it side by side with the Injil. 'furnishes the answer to your question. and multiply will . opening it at the seventeenth chapter of Genesis. where the names of his twelve sons are ". therefore. Oh that missionary. made his For reply the missionary took down well-thumbed Bible from the desk before him. began reading from the eighteenth verse. . so. ' whatever. the son of Abraham's wife Sarah. to missionary. the work of a Muslim.

that you thought out imof matter for yourself. all. ' in was not without a trace of anger. intercession. had they been spoken in any other tone. do you mean to say the that the noble Qur'an does not make Muhammad ! and almost with solemaity. The youth had been brought up in an orthodox Muslim home. as yet. to consider what the missionary's words involved.. had often spell-bound listening to the marvellous stories of Muhammad's many miracles. is Muhammad You in the Qur'an. which he could not analyze. Muslims. scarcely dared. or to look squarely in the face and did he work many wonderful miracles in order to prove that he was a great Prophet sent from God great intercessor at the day of judgement the not ! 'Gently. Prophetship. Muhammad other pictured in the Qur'an as a sinner like if —that he never claimed to be an intercessor sinners at the judgement-seat of God — for again. Little wonder. and in any other feet Muhammad them. then. as he turned to go. then clearly he cannot that he was almost shocked at the missionary's words.faced man was right. that than that the Arabian Prophet would stand up at the great judgement-day. let me repeat. and by his intercession secure salvation for all good Jesus in the will find. consistently disclaimed the power leave. and I shall help you to the best of my power and. . and for said before. be a saviour for. What ' ! cried the young Muslim. even as he knew it. your study of the Taurat. and he had never been able to understand the men. the young Mushm would have sprung to his and dared any man to speak thus of the Prophet of God. leaders 7 I. . 34 the ghulAm extravagant in jabbAr^s renunciation claims later THE SWORD OF THE for SPIRIT 35 which have been made The closing words of the missionary. and. and had been taught from childhood to look upon Muhammad as the last and As a boy he greatest of a long succession of Prophets. But Ghulam earnest. one thing at a time.' replied and not so his companion.. uttered with Muliammad followers. and no lesson had been more persistently drilled into his youthful ears sat would portant rather. mireasily disposed of. The formalism of much of that which went under the name of religion had often puzzled him. ask God's guidance and blessing upon your to for yourself just and then determine is what "<i claimed for Injil. come to me. When you meet any difficulty. of later above truth. Muhammad had yet to learn how different was the of the Qur'an and of history from the of the traditionists wonder-working creation centuries. For it was not. . someimpression thing within him seemed to tell him that this tall. yet. almost sad. present. seek the constant h^Ip and guidance of God's spirit that He may lead you into all And yet there was an undefined dissatisfaction with Islam. as to miracles. ? men —and he be a sinner. to work My spirit. made a great upon Ghulam. however. this I acles are big words. and. * my young friend. real He and turn to the Injll where you will find recorded the life and work of the Lord Jesus. how can a sinner be an intercessor — and. dissatisfaction with Muhammad which had sent Ghulam to a Christian advice to you now is to for the missionary. Empty your mind know as I prejudice study. momentous issues which hung upon the truth of what he had just heard.' ' centuries by his too-admiring a voice which deliberation.

I V • . Muslims to pray in an unknown tongue. the Heavenly Father it answer to his enquiries. our friend Ghulam ' I wonder what possmight be taken for a missionary. Bible Don't you know he said. was not which had occasioned the laughter. beyond all doubt. in which he proves. he turned to his companions and cried in a voice of bitter sarcasm. : ' as with a familiar friend. to their astonishment. who scrupulously kept the day in the month during the hours of the the night in revelling and can no longer be I Ramadan. without in the which quickly brought the superintendent of the hostel. had so roughly handled the volume of Scripture. a noisy group of students approached. whilst the band of students turned to their teacher and. with a look of incredulous astonishment. in communion with after. for that wonderful experience on the river-bank had taught him the privilege of much of a Muslim teacher of the school. essed him to get a I - * . he found himself comparing that prayer with the hfeless formalism which compelled so many milhons of Bengali moment there was silence. and deliberately stamped upon it. and. ' A Bible ! By my ! life. so saying. showed neither strange that he should turn aside. as the word Muslim knew God. least miderstanding the meaning of what they said. too. Yes and ! he. almost unconsciously. and then passed gluttony. Ghulam ? cried under his arm. he w^as feeling Before he returned to his incident L. corrupted by the Christians. the the Anjuman-iTslam. nor surprise at one of his pupils reading the Bible on the contrary he sternly reproved the lad who . displeasure. therefore. that these books have been is said by many. He could not forget. he knew that his precious son was reading such a volume to book. related the whom '. lodgings in the school enclosure. As he entered the room Ghulam stooped down and picked up the soiled book. was learning to pray. and. would say prayer which had come to him since that memorable night when he had heard the missionary speak wdth bis God 'y. and I have * As Ghulam entered the ' hostel. holy Taurat and Injll."^^^Tl 36 ghulAm jabbAr'S renunciation l>y THE SWORD OF THE the Christians that of it SPIRIT 37 accepted in the fast Muslim community. •'S addressing Ghulam. degree. I Why! thought that every that. as he reached out his hand and took the book ' know. written by one of our greatest Indian Muslims. The master. Then. but when I was at college I read a learned commentary on this self-same Bible. he turned towards his lodgings. the leader. for I have read much praise of these ancient Scriptures in the noble Qur'dn.' and. and then the group of students burst out into a boisterous roar of laughter. pour out his heart in earnest supplication to God. either. in the deep sha- dows of a clutnp of mango trees which stood on an empty block of land near by. the new view of honoured President of if wonder what your father. and he quoted many . 'that this book has been so altered ancient Muhammadan authorities to prove that the .A. that the Taurat and Injil have not been altered in the way many modern Muslims suggest. the youth dashed the For a the ground. saying Let no boy in this hostel dishonour the as he did so. and then. Sir Syed Ahmad Khan. and quickly noticed the neatly-bound book often studied the copy which was presented to me the Bible Society when I obtained my B. I by It What have you there. with his precious Bible tightly clasped to his side. upon the scene.

to treat with Book. nurtured in the bosom of orthodox Muslim homes. consequently. more or less by the newspapers and magazines of the more liberal school of Muslims. ere he had finished the perusal of his friend's letter. and his vanity was piqued at the '. looked quite aghast at this reversal of current ideas. and though Ghulam took Httle part in it. as exists to-day.e.i^. and fell into a sound sleep. It ill becomes you students.:t\^^. hailed with influenced proofs were founded on accurate and scientific knowledge. for. Ibrihlm 'All was annoyed to learn that his previous words had not finally settled the question of the integrity of the Taurat and Injil. and. was who make pretensions to learning. The departure of the teacher was the signal for a remarkable outburst of religious discussion on the part of the students. some of them. therein the fore. and it the other day I when I was looking to get it for another advise you young men THE MAULAVrS CHALLENGE When Emarat received his friend*s letter and to read in before you again run into sin by treating the holy if it which Bible as Hindus. itself Muslim priest who posed as the oracle for the whole Muslim community of the district in which he lived. One remark of his teacher had impressed that. he would visit the public and secure for perusal the copy of Sir Syed Ahmad's commentary on the Holy Bible which the teacher had mentioned. and he mentally resolved which loved to probe things to the bottom. He had not received the educational advantages which Ghulam had enjoyed. and detailed the new and fascinating story of the ancient manuscripts of the Bible. he received something of a shock. if more intolerant. Yet Emarat was His was a nature not one to take things on trust. upon whom be the peace and blessing of God. . the teacher returned to his private room. is substantially the time of our Prophet.^ 38 GHULAM it JABBAR'S RENUNCIATION same as it Bible. and was. the latter had described his interview with the missionary. which our holy Qur'an again and again calls "the word of God. The discussion which ensued was both long s f and acrimonious. when library the morning dawned. whilst others. it was with feelings of satisfaction and thankfulness that he laid his head upon the pillow a little later. upon his mind.' were a scripture of these idolatrous So saying. slower to appreciate the value of the who bad been proofs of the integrity of the Christian Scriptures which yet he dimly realized that those that story afforded . and were not likely to be overthrown by the unfeigned delight the unexpected testimony of their teacher.j^*'»j. he had determined to once more interview the Maulavi and acquaint him with the substance of the missionary's reply. less-educated.•*»^ ' r ." I believe I saw a copy of Sir Syed Ahmad's book in the public library of this such disrespect CHAPTER IV ^ ^ Dhanpur book.

-r-i-T"

"T-

•*•

40

ghulAm

jabbAr's renunciation
young
disciples should, after their

THE MAULAVrS CHALLENGE
attests the integrity of those

41
give

thought that these

Books, and again

I

him

interview with him, have again sought out the Christian missionary. Moreover, he knew perfectly well that he

was not

answer these new arguments of the Christian. Both his training as a Muslim priest and his subsequent reading had been confined within the narrowest limits, and the general question of historical
qualified to criticism

can bring a dozen verses from the holy Qur'an and our itself to prove that the Bible has been altered Take your traditions are full of the same teaching.
the
lie.

I

;

missionary this challenge

:

tell

him

I

am

prepared to

meet him

in public debate; and, as

he has referred to
I

our noble Qur'an, that Qur'an shall be our judge.

involved

in

the

argument

based

by Mr.

undertake to prove from the Qur'an that the Taurat and
Injil

him as the Greek written. He, very
real issue in

Williams on the ancient manuscripts was as foreign to in which those manuscripts were
adroitly, therefore, passed

are, therefore,

have been corrupted by Jews and Christians, and no longer worthy of credence. If I can
the missionary
is

over the

silence,

and devoted

hiinself to the
It

more

do he

congenial task of raising other issues.

would be both

an undertaking that will embrace Islam whilst, if, on the other hand, I Now go he fail to do so, I will become a Christian.
so,

to give

;

!

'

wearisome and unprofitable
in detail all that the

to the reader for us to relate
in his

exclaimed with a wave of the hand,

'

if

your fine English-

maulavi said

impassioned reply

man
is

refuses

my challenge,

then

to

Emarat.

tianity in
cular,

was largely made up of abuse of Chrisgeneral and Christian missionaries in partiIt

afraid,

and

that, as Islam

let all men know that he won and conquered the

lands of the Injil in the glorious days of old, so again
to-day,
faiths.'
it

but he did not forget to recall the past glorious
youthful listener of

has demonstrated

its

superiority to all other

history of Islam, nor to remind his

Thus saying

the Maulavi dismissed his

young

the wonderful
miracles of

spread of that
too,

faith.

The marvellous
to,

visitor.

Muhammad,

as attesting the divine
and, finally,
suited to

As Emarat returned
were busy. the maulavi

origin of Islam,

were repeatedly referred

He
;

humble home his thoughts had been impressed by the assurance of
to his

in a burst of fervid rhetoric,

more

an audience

whilst the dramatic challenge thrown

down

of hundreds than the solitary youth

who

sat before him,

to the Christian missionary

had roused

his

enthusiasm

he concluded thus

:

and whetted
others,
;

his curiosity.

What, he wondered, would

Islam

is

the final and perfect religion of God, which
all

the missionary say in reply.
lenge
?

Would

he accept the chal-

has superseded

superseded nor overthrown
rule

and which can never be and the Qur'an is the one
for
all

and

if ?

he did, could he answer the arguments of

the maulavi

Emarat doubted

both, for he

was not yet
and
had

of

faith

and practice

men

to-day.

The
I

aware
priest,

of the fact that

Mr. W^illiams, though a Christian
to the study of Arabic,

Christian missionary

may

bring a thousand arguments to
Injil are

had given much time

prove that the Taurat and
n,M.

uncorrupted, but

really

knew

a great deal more of Arabic and

Muham-

will not believe him.

He

says that the noble Qur'an

madan

literature than did the

maulavi himself.

He

fy

w

-

•^
''^-

411

^Tr^sp S"^?'»"

i

42

GHULAM

JABBAR'S RENUNCIATION

'

THE MAULAVrS CHALLENGE
friend's

43

yet to see that wonderful library in the mission house at

stated the case fully to him, secured the promise of his

Dhanpur which contained amongst
'lations of that

its

treasures not only

active

support in soliciting

the missionary's

several Arabic copies of the Qur'an together with trans-

acceptance of the maulavi's challenge.

book

into English,

Persian,

was also the custodian of the most famous Muslim commentaries of the Qur'an, and provided the reader with complete sets of the most authoritative collections of Muslim traditions. Now we shall see, mused the young merchant, whether the Christian missionary really knows what he is talking about; and, as Emarat pictured already in his mind the
Bengali, but

Urdu and a number of

The two

friends

discussed long and

earnestly

the

whole position, and whilst neither had much hope that the missionary would meet the maulavi, they were both exceedingly anxious that such a meeting should take place in order to settle, once for al], the doubt and
uncertainty which possessed them.
tient of delay,

Emarat was impafriend, and,

and wished

to visit the missionary that

evening, but

prospective struggle, he inwardly hoped that the Maulavi

drawing his
all

Ghulam had much to tell his arm in his, talked long and

earnestly of

would be

victorious.

Yet the thought came

to

him again

that perhaps the Christian

would decline the challenge, and content himself with asking, from his home in Dhanpur, an answer to his argument based on the ancient manuscripts. Such a course, Emarat had to admit, would be perfectly legitimate, for, until that argument was disposed of, the missionary had a perfect
right
to

few days as they strolled across the fields that led to the bank of the Ganges. But the dews were heavy this autumn evening, and, as the shadows deepened, the two friends retraced their steps to Ghulam's room in the school hostel, and there
the experiences of the last

li

Emarat discussed together their plans for the future. in the copy of the Bible which was interested, too,

decline to

take up the consideration of any

Ghulam now showed him, and he
ever, to obtain a

resolved,

more than

other point.

Yet Emarat hoped that such would not
to

be the case, for he honestly longed

know

the truth,

and realized as he did so how inconclusive the result would be if the missionary declmed to meet the maulavi.

He resolved, therefore, to go himself to Dhanpur and urge the Christian to take up the Mushm's challenge.
Emarat was anxious,
also, to

meet

this

man who had

so

profoundly influenced his friend Ghulam, and he was not without hope that he might be able to secure a copy of
the

Bible for his

own

perusal.

A

day or two
and,

later,

copy of that book for him.self. But there were other treasures to be inspected, and» as Ghulam took from his trunk a copy of Sir Syed Ahmad Khdn's Commentary on the Holy Bible, his friend's eyes Emarat had never heard of the two bulky sparkled. volumes which now met his gaze, but Sir Syed's name was a household word in every town and village of Eastern Bengal, and the young merchant had often heard the great Muslim leader and founder of Aligarh college spoken of in public meetings, and in the Muslim
press in terms of the highest praise.

therefore,

when
town,

business required his presence at the

provincial

he sought out

Ghulam

having

was coming

to

his

For Syed Ahmad own, and the man, who, for his

,.

..!^\...^.-l^^:-

,.Ht/.y.:.>:i.--;

44
„,,

ghulAm
of

jabbAr's renunciation
as the

THE MAULAVrS CHALLENGE
lliat

45

advocacy
to

western learning

stepping-stone

.

'

^

Muslim progress in India had, but a few years before, been anathematized on Muslim platforms and in the
was now the popular idol the most conservative Muslims in India.
pressj

a great many of the ancient Muslim commentators of the Qur'an took the same position. This was surprise upon surprise, and yet Sir Syed could not have been
mistaken,
for,

,

-:

Muslim

of

all

but

in

this

book, he quotes at length,

in

True, the

the original Arabic and Persian, those great writers to

great leader had gone, but the infliience of his
.,',

work

whom
*

he

refers.

Look

here, for example,' continued the

remained, and from Cashmere in the north to Tuticorin
,;';

.'

^,.

/-'r

,

'^)\-\
T.-'
;
"

Muslim lads, destined to be the leaders of that community a few years hence, were pressing into the spacious halls of the great college at Aligarh, and were imbibing something of the spirit of the great
in the south,

youth, as he turned over the pages of the first volume, liere is a quotation from one of the greatest commentaries of the

Holy Qur'an kno-wn as
c)^v^\-!

the Tafsirul^Kahir.

j^^i^i^
[kii

i>j^x\) jsii[^

ly^"
li.5>

LtV^
j^^f-*!.--

uj^

1^"

reformer himself.

^J.A.A^

Ul.

Us^i^

«_A!i-*^

-^

•-,

Maulavi *Abdu'llah, our Persian teacher, advises us Ghulam was saying, he is, as you know, a B.A. and a great admirer of Sir Syed. It
*

to read this book,'

'**V"

t^Sii .i*AJ

tJj^.J.JS^

^i

/V';

b"^-'

.'
'* .""
;

was he who took
that
if

my

part on

the evening
I

when

the

students dishonoured the

Holy

Bible, and

verily believe

he had not appeared when he

did,

they would

Razi states in his commentary, on the authority of Ibn Abbas, that the Jews and early Christians were altering the text of the Pentateuch
'

Imam Fakhru'd-dm

'

',

'

have destroyed
reveals

my

copy altogether.
is

This Commentary
author,

and

\
'

New

Testament but
;

that, in the opinion of
it

eminent

'

on the Holy Bible,
'

a most interesting book, and
of
its

doctors and theologians,

was not

practicable thus to

.

the

wide learning
service

illustrious

corrupt the text, because those Scriptures were generally

for Arabic,
ji
,

Hebrew, Persian, Urdu and English are
in

alike

pressed into

order

to

elucidate

his

'^'
',i

^

'-i'v'

'-

'

.

,

.;;.-,
.;',

.

\,
'

•''..
'

-'

But what is of most interest to me is Syed practically agrees with Mr. Williams in affirming that the copies of the Holy Bible, current throughout the world to-day, are the same as those copies which are so praised in the noble Qur'4n, and which were current in the time of the Prophet Muhammad. I must confess that I had not knovra before that such a famous Muslim leader held such views; but when I came to study his book, I found
important theme.
fact

the

that

Sir

known and widely circulated, having been handed down from generation to generation. No interpolation could, therefore, be made in them, although it is admitted that some people used to conceal their true
sense and interpretation.'
''

*Look here

again,' continued

over the leaves to page 74, here
Tafsir-i-dttrr-i-Manthilr.
;;l
i,A/4vll

is

Ghulam, as he turned a quotation from the

^i\

J

/Jl

'^jr^

jhXX^

j.i}

^.;F'

e:-

and that no alterations have been made in them. for all thing from original nature. but are amongst the most influential leaders in Islamic literis reach of mutilation. for I have never heard such opinions expressed by our village priests. .' replied his friend.' I am astounded broke in Emarat.46 dl^^'^ GHULAm JABBAR'S RENUNCIATION I^ sic < THE MAULAVrS CHALLENGE 47 r^-* lb f^{^^ ». Can it be that the latter do not know these things ? or are they * ' Here. see that the writers quoted by Sir come from God.' • have hitherto heard about that book. and that there no man this teaching about the is Injil being the uncorrupted to everything I word of God so new. and so opposed who could corrupt a single word of what has proceeded from God.wilfully concealing them? But if this be really the i:jfj^i M A\] Iw^jI-£d ^^ lid Jj . persuade your Christian friend to come to Islamabad so that we may hear both sides of this important question. dear friend. and beyond the writings. There were other books which the Jews had themselves written. that I find if difficult to take it in and yet it agrees exactly with what . I ^A£=J1. ^jy^l-^>. Does Sir Syed Ahmad bring forward and this But after all. then what did Maulavi Ibrahim mean by saying that he could bring a dozen verses from i^-i)^* our Scripture to prove that the Taurit Im^m Muhammad word its Isma'il Bukhari writes in his book and I Injil have been corrupted by Jews and Christians. that the tahrif (corruption) signifies to change a is confess. to hear such words from our Muslim cojnmentators. on the authority of Ibn same state of purity in which they were sent down from heaven. ^^''*^ . intolerable uncertainty brought to an end. but that the Jews were wont to deceive the people by unsound arguments. — Mandhar and Ibn Munba that Abi Hatim state. two commen- any other ' authorities ! ? Why yes many. :—.3- Ia^AkA the missionary said about the ancient manuscripts of the jJl«j . Syed Ahmad ature. for example. that I am still in still a maze . for only thus can our doubts be set at rest. and by wresting the sense of Scripture. so that the Jews and Christians could corrupt only by misrepresenting the meaning of the words of God. really inspired The in were which were careful keeping.^ ^9)"^. a quotation on page 69 ' from the great Buldiari *i. are not obscure and unknown authors. ii^c ^1!! I feel more than ever that we must Taurat and Injil. ^^^)^ J^ (J^ *^^11 iJ^J^?. ' I haven't time to .f!j i^yhji ^i^J^^.S^l tj-. although they falsely pretended that those books had the Taurat and Injil are in the you have only quoted me the opinion of tators of the Qur'an to the effect that the Injil has not been corrupted. to be able to read these books for but I in order that you may you one or two more examples. (»' read them yourself all to you now. In the Tafsir-i-durr-i-Manthiir. however. and will give I am sorry that you do not know enough English ..> teaching of the noble Qur'an.

^^: known as the ^Fuz-ul-Kabir :^ .48 ghulAm Here is jabbAr's renunciation quotation another on page 70 from the Persian commentary.

as evening his friend stepped . then I decline to follow without further proof.-'^^ . and being debarred from continuing his own studies. finished speaking.. let us ask God's guidance in house. . . and when the Christian goes so far as to say according to the noble Qur'an..v fi: ^fl.:'>j. no means should be left untried to induce him to visit Islamabad and meet Maulavi Ibrahim in public debate.•. He can help us at a time student fell and. with conversation.•> . he was not a little proud of Ghulam's unbroken record of success as a student. Emarat looked with no little He already had a visitor. but those in another life men lived "and moved and he had never in all his actually conversed with an Englishman. and. of course he could not intercede. for it was his first actual meeting with one of the ruling race. however.. not merely because he was a foreigner and a Christian. when. so saying." ".*' When Ghulam silence friend. for only like this '.f . but because he was the friend " man who had t ' " ' so . . often seen It is true he held Government world than officials during their visits of i*' inspection to Islamabad. turning to up to the door of the missionary's he said Emarat. The white his. to the Then they parted with the promise of a whom he was engaged in he turned and extended a warm welcome to the two young men who were now shown into the room. To tell the truth." » . man who now so graciously welcomed him to his home claimed his interest. Why.r '!. Ghulam for some seconds.i'-""... Ghulam.' we Muslims for are upon him a mad moment CHAPTER V THE MUNSHI'S STORY On and the following day. '-'r^' house of the missionary on the morrow. and were ushered into that gentleman's study.. . " \ ''. the Prophet Muhammad him m was a sinner ii .. profoundly influenced his .. and to rest our hopes for salvation longer.i'rw-.-'^ 50 ghulAm all. had always rejoiced at the successes of his chum. the young his knees and poured out his heart to God for upon light and visit guidance. jabbAr's renunciation Muhammad all this and he even denied that Saviour at I claimed to be a is * confess that inexplicable to that. 1 like other men. if such were the case.:i'. there was a profound his drew near. earnest but ' . * : then. • interest upon this foreigner. they determined. \~'. Emarat was naturally a hero-worshipper. this difficult matter. me. and he had begun to <i- I' ^ - .

in excellent Bengali. Mushm most was the searching impressed the young glance of those grey. He word was to be listened to with the deepest respect. was rather short of stature. and with strong purpose written deeply upon the lines about his mouth. He had been baptized. above the middle age. and then his attention young merchant in a was diverted to the stranger to whom he was now introduced. therefact that fore. in the foreigner before him from the him as a man of God. He was usually known. was in Dacca. misled and mistaken he deceiver this man was no . where he had been sent for theological training after his baptism. but the man who was now introduced to him was the first actual Muslim convert to Christianity whom he had met. he had been living with his family at Dhanpur. iexpressed But what his pleasure at making his acquaintance. therefore.52 look GHULAM JABBAR'S RENUNCIATION -'-#:* THE MUNSHI'S STORY both 53 upon him as one of very superior intellectual The judgment of Ghulam always counted attainments. but Emarat felt instinctively that such a man. and by his address showed himself to be a man of more education than is usually associated with village Muslim priests. that seemed to live there. simply Emarat had heard of Muslims emas 'the munshi'. and a close observer might have noticed a faint smile playing about his lips as the youth grew eloquent with enthusiasm. so he told them. ' . then. the missionary informed them. and of the latter's challenge to the missionary to meet him there in pubhc debate concerning the Qur'anic testimony to the Taurat % and Injil. but since his return from the great college at Serampur. and. told the story of his interview with Maulavi Ibrahim at Islamabad. bracing the Christian religion before this. and had been assisting the missionary there in preaching the Christian religion to hidden there. earnest eyes. a large city two hundred miles away. he informed them. . was Mozir Latif now a Christian preacher. humble home near the mission church. however. weli-built man before him rose and greeted him with a #^ ^V shook hands warmly with the two friends. and with a beard showing unmistakable streaks of grey. how Ghulam had spoken of those same eyes and of the world of feeling Yes! his friend was right. some ten years before. warm handshake. and he was the more interested. which seemed as if they would pierce his very soul and reveal the secrets ^^¥ His home. in a mind of the moment of time. Emirat was more than interested. much with him. The munshi. \. and from the lips of the missionary. and showed so unmistakably his belief in the ultimate victory of the maulavi. but at few hurried sentences. as the tall. The missionary Ustened in silence as the young man told his story. All this flashed through the Greetings over. and. and as one whose Ghulam regarded he and his friend Ghulam felt their interest aroused to an unusual degree by this stranger. amongst his Christian acquaintances.'-' r . He remembered. The name of the gentleman. Put the hopes of the two friends were dashed to the ground by the very first words which proceeded one time a Muslim priest. Hindus and Muslims alike. and concluded by extending to them both a hearty invitation to visit him in his might be . the impetuous Emarat at once rushed into the subject which was nearest his heart. for as such we shall hereafter speak of him. almost ascetic in his looks. was a man who believed he had a mission in life.

A . affitrm that no such corruption has taken matter then. My 'i advice to your maulavi friend to prayerfully study this met any other teaching on the contrary. I very carefully. and when have almost they have taken place they have invariably been unsatI do not fear to meet any isfactory in their results. ? brother. I always avoided them in the past. he rose and bade the two Then. mere dialectical victory will do that neither him nor me any good and as to his proposal the vanquished should embrace the religion of the victorReligion is well. are we to arrive at the truth of the ? How. as Muslims. and in the meantime I -will reconsider the whole question and let you know my final decision '. missionary. whilst the Jews are sometimes accused of altering the meaning of certain passages by false exegesis. We students have not the leisure to study these subjects for ourselves. than opportunity to put him ' right. this matter You know that seldom pay attention to place.' Emarat. no more because I " .' could myself enter Islam because. and are even accused of hiding the truth. the truth is bound to ultimately prevail but I feel that such discussions seldom do good.' anything which contradicts our noble * Oh seldom made with the desire of learning the truth. I could not entertain it for a moment. 'in such debates. You these challenges. forsooth. are simply made in order to gain for the challenger a notoriety of the Christian tell us that there are ancient manuscripts written long still in existence which were Scriptures which he would not otherwise possess. which.''. But does this contradict the teaching of the Qur'an? ^ ^^k.' interrupted Ghulam. yet the Qur'an nowhere accuses them of altering the text of their Scriptures. perience leads My own ex- me to think that such challenges are before the time of Muhammad.4'. usually becomes a most bitter enemy and .f:^ THE MUNSHTS STORY inqurired the 55 he began. more often than not. .( receive the maulavi into the Christian Church. said: * Now. that the Taur^t and Injilhave been corrupted by Jews and Christians ' But.' i. turning to the munshi. religious difficulties There is undoubtedly something to be said for this replied view of the matter the missionary. and which agree with the accept copies current to-day. cannot Qur'an. a careful study of every passage of that book which refers to the Taurat and Injil will show that. I was not No. the Muslim who is proved to be in the ^'* wrong. and I have studied the Qur'an must confess that I have never * . and often do harm by matter for himself. . Muslim in debate. and yet if we our long to know is the truth of the matter. You. on the contrary. instead of acknowledging the fact and seeking for further light. . sir. * but I are not settled in such an arbi- trary fashion. so saying. and.mMiPV •^Ji jj i . Moreover. surely this challenge affords a good had managed to beat him in argument. and I could a matter of the heart . ' Well. the contrary. cannot promise now come to-morrow or the next day.' replied ' However. more than of the head. ' I do wish you would reconsider your decision. sir. but we. clever enough to answer my opponent's objections. stirring is up angry feelings.lll l jniipil 54 'I ghulAm have little jabbAr'S renunciation faith/ '. beyond the shadow of a doubt. I maulavi * in error. the maulavi says that he can produce a dozen verses from the noble Qur'an which prove. to grant your request.'j"v''". he friends goodnight. what is your opinion with regard to I since the time of our Prophet.

?. ' responded the missionary. ! any unseemly wranghng or introduction you know these and if your mature ' of irrelevant matter.' am inclined to advise your acceptance of the see. like you.' will be able to and believe it would be best for you by the We can arrange beforehand the terms of the debate in such a manner that each speaker shall have a certain to set forth his views. 57 to must confess that * view with the gravest misgivings ' Such a thing must not be allowed to the delight of happen a meeting of the nature indicated in this challenge.*Well. judgment advises such a course. challenge. evening. when we were together last Well. the conversation allotted tinie in shall. so that the usual Muslim practice of rushing from one point to another will be absolutely My proposal is this: let me go to Islamabad vetoed. moreover. as a matter of fact. which will and was not Muhammad the it has always been a puzzle last Muslim could become a Christian. it munshi should proceed to Islamawas arranged that the bad and arrange for a public discussion in the terms of At the munshi's the challenge made by the maulavi. young men. too.' What if the Injil be the uncorrupted word of God Did not the Qur'an come after the Injil and abrogate its doctrines . You remember how. whether he * He ' ' u. am anxious to know what induced the munshi to forsake our glorious religion. 'k. ' Ghulam will then be at listen to home profit For to go. and then there is that greater audience which will be present to listen to the discussion at Islamabad. there will ing his * religion for Christianity '. and fall in with it. *' when they to rush off " to prayers Muslim apologists fiiid themselves getting into difficulties in debates of this and have embraced Christianity. seems an educated fellow. and I have a proposal to make. and yet. . who really seem anxious to know the truth. that there must be no wandering from the subject Then. as Ghulam and Emarat were taking their evening walk together.56 I GHULAM JABBAR'S RENUNCIATION I THE MUNSHI'S STORY nature. been baptized make it possible to carry out the programme It is a favourite practice with as previously arranged. W On the following day. shall be written out and signed by both has studied the Taurat and InjiL' Personally I cannot understand any Muslim exchang' you and him. much the debate for his . Muslims much better than I do. replied the munshi. I wonder. in this case. too. and to me how any yet I know that in the Panjab quite large numbers of and precepts I ! Prophet! confess our co-religionists have. and we upon the speaker keeping to the terms of the challenge. personally and arrange the terms of the debate with the maulavi. and discussion. for. I. Ghulam was I w^onder what led him to become a Christian. saying. he invited us to visit him in his home. which insist drifted to the munshi. know Arabic sufficiently well to imderstandthe noble Qur'an ? I wonder. too. These think.'' „! \*. I If such a course be pursued. Does he. a time must be fixed set down for discussion. retorted Emarat.' That is true sir '. hohdays. not be.^-. then I am ready to But one thing I must insist upon. I at Islamabad. that is. besides the maulavi himself. their sakes I There are these Ghulam and Emarat. suggestion the week following Christmas was fixed for So.>-' =V. You there are others. said he. to be considered.

. and they mentally contrasted it with the empty formalism of most of what they had been taught to call What impressed them most of all. " : t: . was soon plying his new friend with more questions. Perhaps we may be able to persuade him to abandon Christianity and return to the rehgion of his fathers. turbed from some serious study by the advent of the two young men. ' what I am doing I now is work which keep for my And spare hours.!i. who expressed himself both and honoured by the visit..' ' I fear '.i^r'>"'\^y'' jl' '. that good works could never cancel sin? all their :S- impatience longer.n. came I the quick reply. years before. whilst a pile of disordered manuscript lay littered around. but the lads both noticed a well-filled book-case in one corner. with its mystical pantheism. and. ' ' Oh no.. was the religion. unbidden. they noticed two or three open Urdu books. he had found Islam unable to satisfy the deepest needs of his heart. and the latter was soon engaged in a long and earnest description of his fruitless search after peace until he found it in Christ. been tried and found wanting until. began Ghulam. was evidently dis- had found rest to bis Injil soul through the perusal of :r '^\-.. as the munshi said. for it is evident that you are busy.. by whom they were at once ushered into a small room which did duty as a guest-room. and Emarat. that we are trespassing upon your time. whilst. and soon the two friends found themselves standing before the door of the munshi. the lads found their own eyes wet with tears. and had ultimately abandon- hung prominently on the Scripture walls. Emarat. broke in with the question which had long been hovering upon his lips But Munshi S^hib to forsake ' * Such thoughts as these flashed. awful sense of sin which the mmishi had experienced Was it true. unable to restrain his * : vaunted works were as filthy rags in the sight of the all-holy God ? Could it be.' then ensued little a lot of desultory conversation. very evening ?' chum. not at all '.. What do you say to a visit this opportunity as this question afforded. for. themselves.L> ( U^'^lt'^ . JL— juiaiiiiiiV^j-i/^'. * What induced you ? our glorious faith and become a Christian little The young Muslim thought how the Christian preacher had been praying and waiting for such an were not yet dead.. that am always pleased to see visitors. which would be of interest to the reader. had peace. a copy of the which had fallen into his hands. But doubts he exclaimed. at and has little bearing upon our length. and wandered from place to place in search of Sufiism.:v" . Ghulam cordially agreed to the proposal of his the It would take too long to relate to the reader all search but the preacher's wonderful steps in that long . The room was simply furnished. in beautiful illuminated texts were several EngHsh and and adopted the garb of a fakir or ascetic. they asked before coming into the light. religious experience of such a type as this in all their lives. the wanderer ed the world in despair Bengali. too.r "-.V^^ !''' '.Uif-'- 58 ghulAm jabbAr's renunciation THE MUNSHI'S STORY :- l§ why not let us go and have a talk with him. finally.Uij:. pleased The munshi. story. through their minds as the preacher told his story. eyes again and again filled with tears as he told how.' \. when he had finished with a triumphant testimony to the peace and joy of forgiven sin through the atoning death of Christ. impulsive as ever. on the little table in the centre of the was a long one. until.. for they had never met The story room. and the two friends were strangely moved by its recital.

'that every Muslim must enter bell before he " can ultimately hope for the joys of Paradise ? Here is the passage. Such teaching brings no comfort to one burdened with sin. the Maulavi intercession of our great Prophet will ensure the salvation of all true Iniada'd-Din. . then what need of was so impressed with it teaching of the Qur'an that to Christianity ?' formed one of the factors which decided him ' forsake Oh fails.' Well. and the Satans all then will we set Muslims must first enter hell. accordmg to the Qur'an. he asked. I have never heard anything like this before % ' maulavis never speak of this.' In the And I swear by thy Lord . and.. that is just where Islam at Islam. no one it. do you really mean ' to say that the Qur'an teaches this horrible doctrine ? Our Prophets and Apostles but the Qur'an. the Christian. but the Qur'an makes clear :.i^li> ^\ that "enter hell". nor shall any ransom be taken.lllil^^-_ 60 ghulAm jabbAr's renunciation in THE MUNSHI'S STORY ' il But what'. Muslims and. nor does it give hope and courage to the their knees round as hell .. there of them on you who shall not ' go down unto it Or. . in this place./ 1. only after suffering the punishment of their sins there will they be finally released. do not all know from sin himself * can be a saviour of returned that what th6 Qur'an really teaches ' rephed the munshi. that our great Prophet is not powerful enough to save his ' followers from such a fate free ? ' ' Only one who is absolutely others. neither shall they be helped. in the Tafsir-i-J aldlain jftJ^T^ [J.. unfortunately. 'was there Qur'an that failed Islam and the ? nor do they care to speak of it when they do knov/ late to satisfy your soul Surely the hul one of the greatest of them. is explained is.f^ J ' of the Arabic Qur'an from his table and opened at the 69th and 72nd verses of Sdratu Maryam (xix) fj _ „ „ ^^j^^j ' /*^ -^j J*^^ H"*-* ^^5" "^^ ^^^-^-^ ^ iS And fear ye the day all. death..' ' What ! ' interjected Ghulam. as he heaved a deep sigh.' replied the munshi as he took ' ' . on the contrary says in Suratu'l-Baqara Ghulam. - . distinctly says. it 'Abbas explains human soul as it stands face to face with the last the verse by saying that .' In the the Qur'an does not teach that for it Where is it taught in the noble Qur'an/ interjected Muhammad ment Day verse 48 : will intercede Muslims the Judg- . that every one must enter hell. together them. who afterwards became this a Christian priest. nor do they ever hint at such a gloomy future for the followers of the last Prophet/ ' Can it be exclaimed Emarat. ! ' replied the munshi. ^ * up a copy it . first place. when soul shall not satisfy for C -» c soul at nor shall any intercession be accepted from ' Uj^ij 'il *f ^^i will surely l-Ui them.' it Your maulavis. I we is gather next place. ' if so. covers every one except the great enemy.

j /. we read. \ I' ./^. and they assure us that.C« 5 . but also.--. so that .^. verily. *but our maulavis tell us that Muhammad was sinless.::^>li .. Verily.62 ghulAm jabbAr's renunciation a sinner like other men. he was interjected Another sin of (ix) 44. that the best it. runs thus 4s/ jji Vn jf h and the burdened soul » The commentators us that the sin for which Muhamof re- mad was told to ask pardon in this verse. gave permission to certain of his soldiers For fight. -.•. was that for shall not bear the it is burden of another.i:*. Merciful. God .) J^i^j »U£Jl iili] l^if U! ^^Jw^5 £i u>. contrary Muhammad was commanded sins. why stay behind)'. versel9and . iJJl In Suratu'n-Nisa' (iv) 106.jli (^mawj! ^' Ul ^J L5" ii:j) '^. ). But with the deceitful ones dispute not: and implore pardon of others.. repeatedly commanded by God to ask pardon There is a verse of the Qur'an which makes abundantly clear that no sinner can be a saviour of It is found in Suratu'l-Fatir (xxxv).' J . 4.. and was. to stay at home instead of proceeding to the pardon this he is told in the verse I have quoted to ask of God.' when I studied the matter carefully. ask pardon for of the own The grammatical construction I passages not only requires this meaning.2^ rj'j:t ^C <^i1j sic >. according to the to at the time of the battle of to Tabuk Muhammad.^v .l J:^ \ ^lIlcJMl -AJ :.' committed by one of his (Muhammad's) followers whom the Prophet was wishing to save from punishment. that thou mayest judge between men according as God hath given thee insight. The Qur'^nic reference to it runs thus :— matter clear.-J THE MUNSHI'S STORY fV * 63 Muhammad was for his sins. ^ (Jo • r i^j. - we have sent down the Book to thee (O Muhammad) with the truth." From this verse solving to unjustly punish an innocent man a crime clear that those who put their trust in the intercession of Muhammad Yes! ' are leaning upon a broken reed. it book says.jL3*.u. vrv^: Ghulam. found. ancient commentators of the Qur'an also admitted and some instances related the very faults for which Muhammad was commanded to ask pardon. _ . Muhammad There it is is referred : to in Suratu't-Tauba written only told to ask pardon for the sins of his followers/ I used to think so once. It is didst thou that give them leave (to said found convinced me that.' replied the munshi. tell God is Forgiving. in the passages of the Qur'an to which you refer. (kU! -AxjujIj l/t. his is but a which such ' 'God forgive thee (O Muhammad).„ t..^J-^A5l^!. in thorough study of the various passages teaching Qur'an. 1 . ^^J \J ^ '•)•* ^-^'^ cxiii^ Uj LAJ. God's orders. Let me give you one or two examples which will make the in 'Yet another sin of Muhammad mentioned in the Qur'an is the one referred to in Sriratu'l-'Abasa (Ixxx) 1-9.

Later Muham- Let me show you one more verse of I . It is clear. 317) says of this passage that. that Muhammad committed a grave fault in his unjust treatto Ibn Umm Makhtum be twice for the believers.' the sins of male and female believers. and the " later " sins to those which he committed after that call. 'Abbas. amongst them committed by Muhammad before his call to the prophetic office. as he turned over the leaves. Vexed at the interruption. it is evident that the was engaged in conversa- verse clearly proves that so unable to save others. man.J^i'V=5>•i!J (xlvii) 21. to him thou wast all attention yet is it not thy concern if he be not cleansed but as to him who cometh to thee in earnest.' * Muhammad was tion with some of the wealthy leaders of the Quraish. and he turned his back. therefore. a sinner. both ^'And ask pardon for thy sin (O Muhammad). Welcome him on whose account my Lord hath ^LsU-^S^IU CJs^iJJ . Some of them. Other commentators say the words refer to his lying with his Coptic slave Mary contrary to his oath. because the blind man came to him. that We have won for thee an undoubted victory.-JJOWii 64 " GHULAM JABBAR'S RENUNCIATION "• - THE MUNSPirS STORY that 65 that found frowned.*-Ij l^ 5 CJ.. and only Avhen this Sura was revealed was he assured of his repentance having been accepted of his Lord. sins. 'that Muham* mad is commanded to ask pardon for his own ment * of the blind beggar. and full of fears him thou didst neglect. tells us that the blind whose name was 'Abdu'llah ibn Prophet when the latter Umm Makhtum. in his Selections from the Qur'dn (p." MirzS Abu'l. " God forgiveth thee thy earlier and later sin. and to this verse is Muhammad. in Fadl. and men and women. — J " Verily." The ancient commentators of the Qur'an give many interesthad once turned ing details of the incident referred to in this verse.aAAwjIj reprimanded me. take the "former" sins to refer to sins Qddi Baidawi." 'You see here'. both from the words of the commentators and from the Qur'an itself. at this passage in S<iratu Look here :^icv^ ^^3J <j:^j i<V^ n.^) Muhammad ^*. and whenever he met was wont to say to : Ibn — Umm Makhtum t>s«-^ dealing with this matter before close the * book/ said the munshi.W(3 . continued the munshi. which. came his marrying Zainab the wife of his adopted son. made him quite uneasy. and Some Muslim Another passage of the Qur'an which clearly indicates apologists are fond of explaining the verses of the Qur'an I V ." Baidawi further tells us that Muham- mad showed ing the sincerity of his repentance by appoint- Governor of Madma.the Qur'an mad repented.. But what assured thee that he He Muhammad was a sinner like other men is They run in Suratu'1-Fath (xlviii) 1-2- as follows: would not be cleansed or be warned and the warning profit him ? As to him who is wealthy. later on. and Whichever view be the correct one." All It is related that Muhammad the commentators agree that the person addressed in away from an unfortunate (blind) beggar. . . _ ' ' i't ' . the Prophet " frowned and turned his back " on the bhnd supplicant. to the for instance.

and at last offered as a sacrifice for the sins of the world. out—with the exception of Mary and her son. because \ He alone is sinless. •- ^ i . my dear young friends. that in this passage. then. the merit of that atonement can up himself Only through ^^ls*^ ^lial-^!! <L.. saying that the passages refer to the sins of his followers. and not even you." himself In this tradition had God Muham- mad mercy confesses burden of sin hke other men. and Injil.mmmm 66 ghulAm jabbAr's renunciation is THE MUNSHI'S STORY by at the touch of Satan he cried 67 where Muliammad told to ask pardon for his sins. The Prophet 'Is^ Himself has N. and the only possible translation is "thy sin". Have you never heard the tradition which says. He alone can save.}\ ^h ^^ U> we obtain the forgive- ness of our sins "There is no son of Adam who has been born except he was touched by Satan at the time of his birth. first Is it not clear. then. O J c women". God. celebrated Mishkdtu-l-Masdbih and being with a passage in that book relative to inability to much struck Muhammad's In these passages the pronoun used in the second save sinners.^a>^^ "i] Jj!j^ a. The tradition runs thus :— person. God? He replied. and then we shall each one appear before the great judgment throne to give an account of our deeds. to ask pardon. is it not your highest wisdom. Then and reconcihation with. the eternal "Word of God". The works of none of you will ever save you. head in the sand. not even I unless and his I have made it clear to you that Muhammad me of with his mercy. entirely salvation. shut your dependent upon the God for his own like the ostrich which How vain. then. The Injil tells and Hadith with one voice proclaim the Lord Jesus Christ to be that One. Muhammad his commanded and. This transitory life will soon come to an end. at least. They replied.Ail^l^. and take refuge with the sinless prophet 'isa.! is . I Moreover. Qur'an look to him to save you from the punishment of your sins. buries its Why. to \':. and not in the third. and. whilst there is time. "Ask men and I _ jj . afterwards. the sins for own ? sins. refuse to recognize the which threatens you ? Only one sinless and danger perfect Being has trodden this earth. eyes to such an obvious fact. in the passage of the Qur'an which :\^' have sin. then." I They quite overlook the fact that in such a case the ^^aj jj . took human flesh and dwelt amongst men. just quoted the for the words are.w j. Be warned. liJjj us that He. O ' Apostle of cover that " no burdened soul can bear the burden of another ". to turn to the I have shown you sinless Prophet *Isa for salvation? of his followers The Apostle of God (upon whom be the blessing and peace of God) said. Oh my friends be warned in time. pardon for thy and is believers.kk'X^\^ remember once reading the Arabic would read and not c3." for That being so.

_-^. -. and thanking the munshi for his hospitality. and you : ! — CHAPTEE VI NEW VIEWS When his .:. self. then. but through the atoning death ! Ghulam said good-bye to his friend he entered If what you say be true. shall find there the answer to all my questions. no said. said the young student to himfailed to give him. the two young men rose.' returned for even if you cannot use English translathe Qur'an may now be had in both Urdu and least ' Bengali. and he seemed to picture over again this determined seeker after truth as he tramped the forest glens and the wild mountain sides in search of a peace which Islam had Yes. and. and so. V '. then little of the Prophet 'isa wonder that so many intelligent Muslims in the Panjab andNorth.--. the Truth and the Life. He had opened it at the story of the birth of Jesus the Christ. then. the earnest events of the evening. As he * .. ' our own righteous acts. OF TRUTH . Circular Road.^. But he could not sleep. writing to Lower ''. and tossed from side to side in the vain endeavour to blot out from his memory the Do what he would. Plere.. By the . Oh. is a Bengali translation of the Qur'an It is with the Arabic text and notes. how * I wish I knew Arabic sufficiently well to be room in the school hostel and soon retired to rest.. words of the munshi continued to ring in his ears.'Ai. not by the merits of Him. And. was pouring over the pages of the Injil. for their minds were busy and at the school gate Emarat said good-bye to his friend and turned his face towards the bazaar.' It was by this time growing late. " I man cometh Father but by me.-.' When the munshi finished speaking there was ' By silence for a moment. too. where a bullock-cart stood waiting to take him .' At the munshi.„.^^. Little was said as they passed down the street. and the solution of all my difficulties. you may study them in translations. And it was the Injil which taught him able to study these things for myself. :<^. and by the light of the little kerosine lamp which he called his own. took their departure. but of which I know so little. he came to the words of the angel.L-'^ . Calcutta. and thou shalt call his name people from their sins '. for instance. and then Emarat said Muhamstrange things to-day my life we have heard mad a sinner and unable to intercede all Muslims destined to hell fire and salvation./''. pointing to the table before him. JesuSj for he shall save his back to his home at Islamabad.'* Take refuge with will find a peace and joy such as you have never known before. " .i-w-i^:jiikt. almost before he realized what he was doing.mmmm 68 ghulAm am the to the jabbAr's renunciation Way.-. '•' / way of peace: the book which I possess.' ' he said.^. Perhaps I.Western Provinces areembracing Christianity. tions.L. published at 41. there is no mistaking the light and joy which shine from his eyes now..( - manager at that address you may easily procure a copy for yourself. the young student had left his bed. after a few more remarks. as he read the inspired narrative.

a sinner like other men. saying. that the Prophet Jesus was the one God-given saviour of the world ? Then the munshi's words came back to him. they seemed to be burned into his very soul. was the ascription of this very title Son of that Muhammad was. for Ghulam had always been taught by the village priest that the Christians had invented the name 'Son of God' for the Prophet Jesus. himself a great prophet. ' by too all who accepted that revelation. Of such passages were the words in the Qur'an about God's hands and feet. Ghulam read on. almost solemn in the Qur'an. and which must be The matter had made such an accepted by faith.' name Jesus. then. This is as the youth re-read the words of the Injil. testify- the very words. in whom I am well pleased. NEW surprise to VIEWS OF TRUTH 71 did so. sin. should the Son of God \ the Christians were only following the doubts began to clear. might be the meaning to eyes. must be accepted God by the Christians to Jesus Christ. ' own * recorded the fact that * Son * and here. for if there was one thing. beloved Son. and as he read the words before him once again. time of perplexity that — was John the ing that the Baptist. teaching of God's word. clearly enough. at the head of certain chapters.. how it true. how that these hidden ' ' and a voice from son. Yet the young quite clearly that the words were a Muslim now saw part of divine revelation. but none know the interBook. according to the Qur'an ! itself. must be ac- of the term. Yes the truth was beginning to dawn upon him at last. loved to ' Was had said. against which the itinerant Muslim preachers. the Injil itself God himself had applied the title Christ.. as the missionary inveigh. claimed to be a saviour from What did it all mean ? who ' at various times it had visited Islamabad. in calling Jesus make cepted in faith until such time as God As he thought over the passage his clear its meaning. he reached it which there are some verses clear to be understood they are the mother of the book and others are ambiguous . and now. heaven. as well as the letters A. and. Muhammad.. for here in the third chapter of Matthew Maulavi Ibrahim had once told him there were many things in the Qur'an the meaning of which was hidden from men. then. I my truths of revelation must be accepted by faith on the well pleased. in the heavens opened clearly the maulavi's explanation. Ghulam saw clearly that. of that there could be no doubt.' Ghulam. But the young student could not doubt the evidence of his beloved whom am authority of Scripture alone.' he my had not the slightest doubt that this./-. remembered the ' words never of the missionary. in —and the thought brought him consolation his Thou shalt call his their sins. was recorded This is pretation of it except God. ii Cv -iiri * : . L. He remembered. Whatever. of — — the last verse of the chapter where that. i \ 70 ghulAm lie jabbAr's renunciation earnest. more than another. The discovery came as a great Qur'an abounds in passages If the and he said to himself which are beyond human : I 1 r-l *^} '. as such.' than whose shoes as am not worthy to And at lo ! then.' Here was a discovery indeed. impression upon him at the time that he had remembered He it is who has revealed to thee the * Christ I. who should come I after him ' is mightier bear. etc. M. which no one could explain .' and he could recall quite the baptism of Jesus. too. for he shall save his people ! from Yes this Jesus was great.

continued the learned that youth himself. j. expected her to understand it ! and.V^K ^i^ . the conversation quickly turned to those deeper subjects which lay so near the young Muslim's heart. and he viewed with feehngs something akin to dismay the prospect of such a union.'' -^'^Z'-y -iA'iiK^M'j-^'y . for the moment end of the room sat years. and I cultured tone of her brief and phes.NMM ' i t' 72 ghulAm it jabbAr's renunciation should not surprise us if NEW tion VIEWS OF TRUTH Ghulam was 73 comprehension. way through the same doubts and difficulties which now confronted him. membered how his friend Em^rat had been early married to a girl of ten years. with their was soon brought back. who enquired whether Emarat The silence thus had returned to his village home. struck at once with the is clear that Jesus is the 'Son of God'. Bengali.-? '^J-. evidently her brothers. The next evening found the young student again at the munshfs. she was yet capable of helping her younger brothers to master the intricacies of English and. had returned to seat. who. upon What a difference. yet many had congratulated Emarat upon the wedding. was half regretting that the all- a beautiful girl of some seventeen who was help- too-brief interview could not have been prolonged. broken. and had recently returned from school i 1 " i 'I . He ing two younger boys. somehow. sinful mortal like himself. He felt. God ' ! Muhammad had no was the such titles as these. Amiran in Cal- by name. even though I do not fully understand the meaning of that relationship. to the prosaic present Enghsh lessons. that his own father was contemplating some such match for him.. he and was soon fast asleep. "V. Yes I she was beautiful the object of his and Ghulam forgetting visit. Then Ghulam again took up the book before him. that ! Muslims were turning Christian no wonder ! the missionary spoke with such assurance and.a^^isfeiJl. For one thing. the munshi had been himself a Muslim. But he could not read. as he thought of these things. the Injil also cutta where she had successfully passed her Matricula- contains things difficult to be understood. of course. No many wonder. grammar Ghulam gazed with . Ghulam knew. he said to himself. the ! girl before Cultured. and he longed to unburden his heart to a friend as sympathetic as he felt the latter would be. there- Examination. This time he found the munshi reading a fought his religious paper. fore. that the latter could help him more than the foreign missionary. and had flung himself his bed. whilst at the other admiration at the tall and graceful figure of the girl. She was his eldest daughter. . able to cook him presented and sew. . r Jesus Christ the * Saviour ' ' of the world and * Son of somewhat bashful reand he mentally contrasted her speech with the ungrammatical and often coarse language of too many He reof the Muslim girls of his own family circle. and yet modest. He was overwhelmed by the discovery he had made in the first three chapters of the Injil . and in low tones. and then introduced him to the young lady.. whose sole accompHshment consisted in the ability to read the Arabic Qur'an. however. then. by the voice of his host.. At No one. The munshi rose and greeted Ghulam with undisguised pleasure. her the first brief introductions over. wearied out with the excitement of the hour. an erring. most. he Apostle of God \ to and. it To me. according to although she could neither read nor write her own the Qur'an. too. must acknowledge him as such. mother tongue.. continued her lesson.

Mr. with no little impatience.'--— . The munshi CHAPTER It was the last VII -"'* ' THE PUBLIC DISCUSSION canopy. Then followed a heart-to-heart talk. Then.i 'jei-' M-'lk-iiJiilldi. a restless and excited crowd God need for light and guidance. Avho cry unto Him in their time of and if you will deliberately place yourself in His hands.. as little able to judge of the merits of such a discussion as they were to understand the Arabic in which they had been taught to say their of ^ V. News of the gathering had spread far and wide.' Then the two knelt together whilst the munshi offered up a simple.'. 'i . The people sat on mats which had been spread on the groimd. he warmly pressed Gliulam's hand. all He has promised to hear the prayer of . rose from their knees. The majority of those who composed it. encouraged by the sympathetic and kindly words of the munshi. and prayed that he might be led out into the glorious hberty of the Gospel of Christ. when he first learned what it meant to pray. waiting. childlike prayer to the Heavenly Father above. for * continue to pray to Jabbar. for the chief actors tO' appear. in the course of which the munshi once more referred to the wonderful peace and joy which had become his since placing his trust in story.. as they i ". ' Above all/ he concluded.» »-" and. but at one end of the enclosed area a few chairs had been placed upon a raised platform. . but a cold wind blew from the north. and testified to the importance of the great man whose home was now to be the scene of the first public discussion between Muslim and Christian in that part of East Bengal. under a huge little expense by Maulavi Isma'il Jesus. one could easily see. Williams.. tj: i riii Mi^i aB!!i!gl!WgWi^ 74 GHULAM JABBAR'S RENUNCIATION ". listened patiently to the young student's and a tear glittered in his e^'-e as the youth told of that memorable experience on the banks of the Ganges. Ghulam's father. and the people were literally packed into the available space. were ignorant peasants. and. in which he commended the young enquirer who knelt by his side into the Divine keeping. Muslims awaited the long-talked-of discussion between Maulavi Ibrahim and the missionary. until you arrive at a certainty concerning the great questions which now confront you.. .. and bade him good night. Fie will certainly direct you by Flis Spirit. erected at no /> day of the year. he soon found himself unburdening his soul of all the doubts and perplexities which still lin- gered there. and ever and anon raised a cloud of dust in the spacious courtyard of the great landowner. The audience was a curious one. . The day was bright and sunny.

he returned with evident the latter's polite and effusive welcome Then followed introductions and the audipleasure. and a code of rules. rose of ' and Allah Akbar bly. and. proceeded to place on the low table which had been provided for the say.i \ . but not least. president of the Anjuman-i- then. after which each should be . the latter chairman and. cussion. Briefly. his hand in friendly . whose heart beat in unison with theirs. two were doctors. these formalities over.. there was prayers five times a day. nay. accompanied by the munshi. opened the meet. for it was two only too well. of the him. for he was no sooner w^ithin the large enclosure than he began to courteously salute those nearest . a of number Arabic. and. several were maulavis from the surrounding villages. As Maulavi Ibrahim rose to address the meeting he task of arranging for the meeting. Would they give the Christian fair play ? Could his father. as Ghulam's father. who now advanced at the call of the JabMr. landowner. Surely if resounded through the great assemever man entered upon a great task ' the original terms of the challenge mony to the Christian Scriptures —the Qur'anic — and provided in testi- that each speaker should have the platform given a further fifteen minutes for reply. some half a dozen taught the rising generation how to spell more or less correctly the simple Bengali of the primary schools. the hour fixed for at stop the discussion. but two. Islam. were in deepest sympathy men. as he knew blinded with prejudice and intoxicated with excitement. all possession for thirty minutes. and. for ever cast out of that Bengal village. when the missionary arrived the pandal.V which swept the pandal and made the very air electric. Maulavi Ibrahim as he faced nearly a thousand that December morning with of whom. as Ghulam listened to those hoarse cries of 'Allah Akbar * \i peared. these limited the discussion to audience received a tremendous ovation. Isma'il hastened forward to greet him. and chairman-elect of the meeting held. extended ence was quick to notice that the missionary greeting to Maulavi Ibrahim. but there was one great assembly. besides the two Christian other in that preachers.:! .76 ghulAm jabbAr's renunciation his arrival. and longed to see him come victorious out But enter. now to be ' calling ing in a short introductory speech before upon The munsM had carried out well his self-appointed the champion of Islam to state his case. a thousand thousand. and the whole whilst delirious shouts cheered again and again. and yet. There was a lull in the buzz of conversation as he appurpose.. battle of words upon which he was about to wanted some minutes to ten. a few were intelligent merchants with some education. THE PUBLIC DISCUSSION 77 Of the rest. which limited both the subject and the method of dishad been drawn up and signed by both maulavi and missionary. all but two . It still undisputed did under favourable circumstances. and longed that the truth might prevail. against a his heart sank wdthin him. just f eehngs of f ' and a polite though he was. who had been waiting hostile mob ? As the young student mused . restrain the angry to him. and last. and error be ! did we who Urdu and Bengali books which he had brought with him in his bullock-cart. The first impression created by the missionary was a good one. and necks were strained to see the foreigner who was soon to cross swords with the Islamabad champion.

therefore. Holy Book that the JeAvs and Chrishave so corrupted and mutilated the Taurat and both by addition and subtraction.' continued . and runs :. nature of the alterations here referred to. as well as the addition of doctrines about the person of the Prophet many on false at once to Isa. reference to the past glories of Islam. -in the early centuries of its history. he called the attention of those present to the fact that another great Faith was claiming to share with Islam the religious conquest of India. and force upon them a Scripture which has. and knew is only rehgion for men to-day. it. on whom be God. The maulavi began by an eloquent Si \y\^ji cJ' cJ>x^ hjS] . I have undertaken to prove from is ! book the uncorrupted not clear from this passage that the Taurat and have been altered by Jews and Christians ? Of course it is and I can only wonder at the temerity of Injil . for it is ' here distinctly stated that in other them perverted *. these missionaries in affirming so confidently that their Scriptures are the the pages of our ' tians Injil. that those books time of same to-day as they were before the the Prophet Muhammad. and are. added Prophet 'isa. and. he continued. prove by quotations from our Holy Qur'an that the Jews and Christians have not only cut out manyprophecies concerning the Prophet of God. he half regretted having pressed the missionary to come. everywhere seeking to turn the steps of the unwary. long since. and its emissaries are so. we meet word these Christian preachers the word of Is it God after they had heard and understood ' with their ' Injil. on whom be all . and he reminded his hearers of the wonderful spread of the religion of the Arabian Prophet your attention thus. Then. 'that the Jews and Christians have corrupted the Taurat and certain of Injil.^_ wmmim^m 78 ghulAm jabbAr's renunciation the peace THE PUBLIC DISCUSSION and blessing of 79 ^^ thus. and. the maulavi. . they even presume to say that our noble Qur'an teaches the same thing That being so. for the many I false stories about the maulavi was on his ' feet. quite unworthy of our serious regard. Another verse of the noble Qur'an which teaches that . as the first wild burst of the peace and blessing of will call God. It is unnecessary for me to deal with this matter in detail. been both corrupted and abrogated. on whom be the peace and V'You that it is as I say and so I shall proceed. and Ghulam's attention was thereafter rivetted upon his old teacher. turning to the matter before him. found in Suratu'l-Baqara. It is not difficult to guess at the can no longer be regarded as the word of God. . not content with teaching that that of God. The first verse to which is welcome died away.. Wherever we go. 'that Faith claims to be the ^1!) A^ ' Desire then ye that for your sakes (the Jews) should ? believe Yet a part it of then perverted that they did after ' them heard the word of God and they had understood it. hkewise. (ii) 70. whom be the peace and blessing of God. know blessing of God. and without doubt they included the erasion of the name of Muham- mad the Apostle of God. in village or in market. But there was httle time for reverie. he began his speech.' Plere then my first proof. 'Rather'. '. but have. on whom be the peace of and blessing God. words corrupted.

. SI. of cutting out certain. for it asserts that certain passages which they affirmed were from God. because the noble Qur'an tells us that. Verily some are there among them who torture the blessing of God. 'is one: God.ir? -. y * '. 03 there written. made against the Jews and J -» Christians.rrrr w -rr^vef^frrr j-'P:! . what we have shall curse Muslims to study them ? Yet another proof that the Taurat and Injii have been corrupted by Jews and Christians is furnished by the words of Suratu Ali 'Imran (iii) 72. ^. can: .-. Verily those who conceal aught that we have God either of clear proof or of guidance..^ lJ^^^^j dXA] ^^ C^j 1 u ^y ^y.' of the clearest in the noble Qur'an which proves that the Scriptures with suppose it to ^^» Taurat and Injil have been corrupted by the people of the Book. then. but they are also^ hiding in other words. the Taurat and Injil have been corrupted that is of adding false stories Baqara 154. some people the Jews used to ' hide certain parts of the Taurat^ and though we is are not told to difficult to what 'VI u y - t^^y . that men in who curse to of the book. that is. -_. U. on whom be the peace and -:l ' ^. CjC M^'<> i^i ^ shall curse them'. Here.-^ 3 )U£=iil i^-t i al ixXc u^n GJ - those passages referred.' ^ THE PUBLIC DISCUSSION the truth with falsehood '.'-"."r'j ifs. yet it not underjtUl - stand that they referred to the coming of the last and greatest Prophet Muliammad. were a part of the Scriptures. after sent down.. - uijyXXI!) ' these Christian missionaries aifirm that those Scriptures have not been corrupted? and how dare they urge. upon whom be the of the Taurat and Injil ? In this verse the Jews and Christians are not only accused of clothing ' are false peace and blessing of God.j^* we distinctly stated in the noble Qur'an. Such stories we know.I - ymrvrt Vr'.mmn 80 ghulAm (ii) jabbAr's renunciation is in Suratu'l. j^ii i^^ passages from the Taurat and How. ' Aa£=JI :^U MiXMhsi) ^j^V. c ^& ^^i„«j^li ic)y y jLUb ^^!1 J j&aJ^j Js)b ^^ii^ their tongues in order that ye may be from the Scripture.'. Injil... yet it is not from the Scripture and say "this is from God. upon the cross. *0 People of the Book! why clothe ye the signs God with falsehood ? Why wittingly hide the truth?' What can this passage mean but |cornipof tion were really not a part of the Scriptures at alL- Surely this verse refers to the false stories about the alleged death of the Prophet 'Isa. continued the maulayi. clear charge of hiding ' the words of It is we have another God.'' ''.. and doctrines accused of * to the '. and they again. word of God. . It is there written." yet it is not from 'This passage'. e. * Again in Suratu Ali *Imran * (iii) 64. It is there distinctly stated that C so clearly shewn see it them.

' the maulavi paused in his recital. God has protected its and first let (iv). . and only by following attain to the joys of paradise. Holy Qur'an these Chriscan maintain that that book proves the integrity of the Taurat and Injil passes my comprehension."' ... air. and. "'f integrity of the Taurat and Injil had been shattered to of helpless entreaty at reads thus : pieces. ' ' ' per\^erted.r. ^j lj. and of/ forgot a portion of that which they were reminded distinctly told that the Jews Here. and shouts of ' Allah Akbar ' again rent the did so Ghulam's heart sank within him.MPHHIia i''^!. Williams on the contrary the latter's calm. but by way of emphasis.l£=il ljt>U J'ldi] ^^ So saying.' who Here again we •1. forgot ' portions the How. there arose a perfect storm of applause from the assembled multitude. - THE PUBLIC DISCUSSION 83 the passage refers when it speaks of the people of the have clear proof of the corruption of the Jewish ScripIt is this very perversion of which we Muslims tures. As they The passages of the Qur'an which the maulavi had just quoted seemed to afford incontrovertible proof of the corruption of the Christian Scriptures. * *My It last quotation/ continued the maulavi. 'Ghulam detected no trace of either anger or anxiety upon the face of Mr. and he gazed with a look o - - - c cJ^^/ss. we are ' and he once more settled himself to listen as the maulavi again began to speak. complain. face of such statements of the tian missionaries Book As torturing the Scriptures with their tongues. what I undertook to prove in this meeting. after bringing forward one more quotation. me JCK/tfl read you the 48th verse of Slaratu'n- change. I shall gladly resume my seat in order to hear left the a maze of perplexity and doubt. which only moderated when the chairman stood up and thus addressed the gathering Muslim brethren You have heard the learned address ' ! * And of those who are Jews there are those pervert the words from their places.5" . then. corrupted the text of the Taurat.' from holy precepts can Nisa' we .-? the face of the Christian missionary as the latter sat silently waiting for the maulavi to resume his speech. .. . bring forward one or two of the Mushms be Qur'an all expected to believe in for us for then.^j Ux> lSi= AM. in other words. ^ 1/ \ i' • : - '<'£:''- '^i' V "i ':f. is ' ' from „^ Staratu'l-Ma'ida (v) 14. . those I have already given are amply sufficient ^relief. *They perverted the words from their places..zX'~zr^. again.' the words of the Taurat from ' their places. so. Maulavi Ibrahim 'Ali resumed his seat midst a storm of applause. and they in if. of but the Qur'an says that they Scriptures altogether. and by reason of which we steadfastly refuse How in the to read the Taurat or consider its claims.'^'- M'^ S2 lie ghulAm was taken up jabbAr'S renunciation alive into heaven. unruffled features brought him a certain amount of .) * !> dfX/Cl^'C 'i-^' T U' X£=x^ . No ! the noble it more verses noble Qur'an before I sit down. to prove I shall. the latter began. It is to this. Not only so. in a few short moments. can good and study Scriptures ? which have been so shamefully treated is sufficient . his newly-found belief in the young student lost It seemed to him as what the foreigner has to say in reply. There is no need to multiply quotations. .

the ancient commentators affirm that maulavi I am debarred from bringing forward. he began. —^- . is both unreasonable and foohsh. at this timej the most convincing proofs of the integrity of those if^.. . thorough. this and the Christian missionary. to assume that in such a case. We must not forget. I am sure. consequently if I can show that. mere affirmation is not enough in such a case.lL-j. first of all. 'lt \A-i>. I now call upon -him to address the meeting.'. but he must know that his the Qur'an which. and.<. however. I am told that the missionary is an Arabic scholar.i'*^.ust say that I had no conception that there were so the Qur'an to their authenticity and integrity. and give the speaker a has been altered by either Jews or Christians. The ancient commentators of the Qur'an cannot be ignored It is fair. and we all agree. there are many passages in ^the '^- Qur'an which make altered in the * it clear that those alleged. therefore..mj-. based upon any such belief. I think. and has visited Cairo. Mr. and. In now like calling upon the Christian priest to am bound to say that I have foimd no make will all his reply. therefore. He promised to prove from the Injil holy Books drawn from history and literature. but ' soon died away into silence as he began to speak thus '. prove that the Taurat and the Injil it : A 4.*. I Muslim friends you very heartily for inviting me Mr. matter of deciding whether we should study and follow All I The maulavi deserves our grateful thanks for the teaching of the Taurat and Injil. with regard to every passage which he quotes. desire to and for confirming us in our own holy religion.. their refusal to read those divine Boolcs. show here '[i: morning is that the Qur'an does not teach that the text of the Taurat and Injil has been corrupted in the manner which many modern Muslims affirm.A. Books have not been way Maulavi Ibrahim has quoted several passages from have been corrupted. Maulavi Ibrahim has quoted the strongest passages which he could find in support of his contention. Damascus and other great MusHm cities.( .-: .. that this is a public discussion between Maulavi Ibrahim making the matter so clear. according to the terms of the agreement made respecting this meeting. Chairman and must.. We must ask what meaning was put upon such passages by Muhammad himself and by his early followers. Williams. < and respectful hearing.34 -of GHULAM JABBAR'S RENUNCIATION ' : THE PUBLIC DISCUSSION 85 Maulavi Ibrahim.. Speaking for myself I m. and My I reading of the Qur'an has been very assembly. thank to be present at this great assembly in order to reply to the remarks made by Maulavi Ibrahim 'All with regard to the Taurat and By the terms of the agreement made with the Injil. On }.V. is entitled to our respect. and must confine myself to observations regarding the testimony of pages of the noble Qur'an that the Taurat and have been corrupted by Jews and Christians.r- low murmur went round the assembly as ' missionary rose to reply. this it In doing must not be inferred that I thereby acknowledge the Qur'an to be the word. I can only express the hope that you fair passage which states that the text of the Taurat and Injil behave gentlemen.' the contrary. He.J fL jj'Ci «. he says. of God.. that he has amply fulfilled his promise. on your behalf. or that I am even prepared to accept it many references in the as a reliable guide in the important noble Qur'an to the corruption of the Christian Scriptures. the latter now has the right to address the and that..

various opinions of the commentators. then it will be safe to assume that those other passages of the same nature which. U^ *^ t^?' u^'j^.( a party of them iheard the word of God.86 GHULAM JABBAR'S RENUNCIATION THE PUBLIC DISCUSSION trouble to consult the great S7 only corruption of the meaning is meant. which they call tahrifu'1-ma nawi ? It is failure to distinguish between these two kinds imagine of corruption which has led Maulavi Ibrahim to Christians of that the Qur'an accuses the Jews and .'^-^^' u^' . Thus Baidawi. and reads thus should believe ? Yet then that for your sakes t}xe Jews ' e^2> . twist the obvious meaning of the Qur'an. which they call tahrifu'l-lafzl and corruption of the meaning. after they had understood it. either from ignorance or wickedness. We know how. The first is the seventieth Desire ye verse of Staratu'l-Baqara. saysthe it Learned Muslims speak of two kinds of corruptioncorruption of the text. but if he had taken the i "H ^-r3^i!. such as the late Ghuldm Ahmad oi Qadian in the Punjab. At any rate I am quite prepared to discuss any further quotations which the maulavi may which he has quoted is simply that the Jews altered theimaning of the words they heard. &xx^ i' ' I .«iiM&i^-:^.. even in our own day. referring to this very passage. assigned to the word of God.J.. famous Iaj commentary. he would have learned that the true meaning of the passage same meaning. shows that the they had understood it. indeed. page 79. They interpret ' according to what ' they desire in the In other words.JsJt/-i: -ii/:. he says. says *The clause "heard the word of God and then.^ •Si--istii^^ . as I shall now prove. ' to certain passages of the Taurat. perverted it. after '*. the corruption referred meaning itself. In the Tafsir-i-Durr- suade all the other Muslims of the worldto alter their copies ! i'Manthur it is recorded that of the Qur'an as well referred to v-t-: Let us now turn to the passages by the maulavi. the great Muslim leader in India Sir Syed contrary. perverted it : men. are to be found in the Qur'an. but we also know how absolutely impossible would be for such persons to alter the text of the Qur'^n—unless. . and not to the text altering their Scriptures.. * that words mean (j^^j to is ^^j^si '. and then. the Qur'an nowhere suggests that those people had altered the text of the Taurat or Injil.5. Ahmed Khan in his Mohomedan Commentary on the and again accuses them its of giving false interpretations of meaning. some Holy Bible. . afterquoting in his care to make when he addresses you for a second time.C ^-« w Qur'an to prove that the Jews and Christians had corrupted the Taurit and Injil. have the Muhammadan commentators- of the Qur'an before he came here this morning.Ji J. they could first perit: change was only verbal in reading not that the written Thus we see that the words of the text were changed ? quoted by the maulavi proves nothing more than passage that certain Jews were wont to attribute false meanings . and knew that they did/ The maulavi brings forward this verse of the Uj <dll t\ic ^^'0 ja> (j^'^^Jj (*t- «j. but it again There is absolutely no suggestions On the that the Jews altered the words of the Taurat.'^ . The fact is.

'i)j^] i^»^\jh u-jU£=iI) Jib) J^^ JU" i* ^ a> ^j) ^5^ called al-Kahir that 1 ' There The a tradition from Abti Huraira that he said. like the one quoted previously. ./" 88 * ghulAm is jabbAr's renunciation TPIE PUBLIC DISCUSSION that the contents of the Taurat 89 by Ibnu'l-mandhar and Ibn Abi Hatim Mumba that not a letter has been •altered of the Taurat and Injil from that which was sent down by God but they (the Jews) used to lead people astray by changing and altering the meaning. to the people of Islam in Arabic' according to Abla Huraira. that it refers to the cutting out by Jews and Christians of certain passages of the Taurat and Injil which referred to the coming of the Prophet Mohammad. Thus the great Muslim scholar and famous exegete Fakhru'd-din RazI says in his commentary. It is it undoubtedly to this that when accuses the Jews of altering 'All . and make them believe therefore. told that the Jews used. and they who curse shall curse them. after what we have so clearly shown to men in the Book. God shall curse them.riMHIBiMWi^ \k . They do not. to alter the false Taurat by exegesis. that being the case. dare to alter the actual words of those prophecies.' The concealing referred to in the verse quoted by the maulavi is taken by him to mean corruption of the text In fact. it is from God". and had not been altered. They used also to write books from themselves and then say. the Qur'an refers the Taurat. The second passage quoted by Maulavi Ibrahim is also ' : found in Siiratu'l-Baqara (ii) 154 and reads thus meaning of the very day they misinterpret the many prophecies of that book concerning the Prophet *Is4. when they were not from God. Now. he would have us believe of the word of God. Far from ' ' word of God. furnishes an in their interpretation of the Taurat. people of the book used to read the Taurat in is it HebreWj and explain Obviously. and has no reference whatever to any alteration of the actual words of Scripture. however. and refuse to beHeve in him as a Prophet sent from God. for on page 84 of the third volume of his great collection of traditions he tells us that example of Tahrifu'i^ma nawl. for to this as then. a reference to the great The manner great in Bukhari gives us an indication of the to mislead the MusHm commentaries of the Qur'an makes it clear that which the Jews used Muslims this verse. . . however.' One is not surprised to be It related were very different from from Wahab ibn what they actually were.. it would be a comparatively easy task for the Jews to mislead their ignorant hearers. But the (real) books of God were protected from change. . they confine themselves to false exegesis of the Those who conceal aught that we have sent down either of clear proof or of guidance.

the words " Verily those who conceal " concealing' of the truth by the Jews is ter of fact this referred to more than once in the Qur'an. continued the missionary. and then was seat down is sage The same explanation of the pasgiven by Ibn Hisham in his Life of the Prophet. It is as follows * : ' the word of God *lil ./3*J ^^c J^^j Jl^ ^^^. * does it mean I that they altered or cut out the actual words of what took of Scripture. as he up a large Arabic volume from the table be- fore him. and concerning certain commands. ^^\J <J'^^/ *"' Jj^^ ^^ f'i.^^'- ttJ^ 'Asked the Jews concerning in the Taurat.90 ghulAm jabbAr'S renunciation peace and blessing of God. Here is a remarkable confirmation am saying. but nowhefe '.' There ij^i it is stated that certain people. Then the glorious God sent down As a matetc./' 3 J . Here in this secKitabu'l-Hadi:id is a tradition which entitled tion throws a flood of light upon these verses of the Qur'dn in is which the charge of concealing made. in This is the celebrated Mishhdtu%MasdhiJt which the most important traditions collected by Bukhari and Muslim are to be found. and refused to inform them of the matter. but they hid certain things which were them. ^1. this verse.&U1 S^A'ii^U l^ i. but they concealed the matter.

is of the Prophet.. said in the- •111 )— --^ ii. Injil. we may confuse their religion for them. Here. it " it is from God ". as before. then am afraid he has lamentably .\%'^X^S maulavi claims this verse of the Qur'an as one of the clearest proofs of the corruption I of the Taurat and ^J' */*I. but in the clothing with falsehood their not iis to believe that this verse proves the corruption of the openly avowing their disbelief in him. i- no allusion xvhatever here to Tahrif u'1-lafzt. If that be so. and runs as follows: *' People of the Muslims from believe in their faith. because the great commentators Qur'an candidly admit that there is no hint even All that is morning ol Tahrifu'l-lafzi in this passage. or corruption of the words of Scripture.mmtm m of ghulAm God jabbAr's renunciation ''. real intentions. Then sent down the l'.' They The ^-i-aJ U: . Come let us in the ! of the prove his case. in order that ye may suppose to be (*V:^^C U-^' yj^ h^t.*?• .J^. and as follows :~ Yet another verse quoted by Maulavi Ibrahim (iii) Suratu Ali *Imran 72. it is not from the Scripture. It reads as follows * : And some it S^ :Si-0 {J-^ (^«^r^^ duly are there among them Jjil v^J who torture the Scriptures ^^^l \^{xi ^x. yet is not from God. again.lorious God concerning them the words. 'The next verse quoted by the maulavi is Suratu ^ 1 1 isham it is clear that the reference in this verse of the All Qur'an is to certain lying Jews who. 'O People of llie Book why clothe ye the truth with falsehood? Why wittingly hide the truth ? From the words of Ibn evening in order that ! ' examination of the remaining verses quoted by him. yet jiay. in order to lead the Imr^n (iii) 64. and turn back from their religion.r . but a reference.' THE PUBLIC DISCUSSION bolieve in 93 As a matter refers to the question of the stoning of adulterers. 'Adi bin Zaid and ahHaritJi bin Auf spoke together thus. J^'' cj5^^- failed to ^Abdu'llah.iirMBfti-''H' • I . to the works of the great Muslim commentators proves beyond the shadow of a doubt that there is evening. w^e see that there even the implication that the actual words of the Scriptures Jews tampered with the and the maulavi must . is Taurat and InjO by Jews and Christians. pretended in the morning ' tO' clothe ye the truth with falsehood ? " wittingly hide the truth ? The Muslim apologist ! Book why Why asks Muhammad and and the ' Qur'an. The occasion of the be hard pressed indeed for arguments. Y<k^^\ with their tongues. and that they may act in like manner as ourselves. x^f-^x^ ^J^A^jj l^C^c ^U^lj from the Scripture. and us disbeheve in the Taurat up to the present day. and may be seen in the twenty-second chapter of the Book of Deuteronomy. ' ' hiding the ' truth of the matter. Thus what we have said is sufficient to show the baselessness of the maulavi's assertion that the charge of hiding the word of God refers to the corruption of the actual test of Scripture and so we pass on to an ' . when he has to quote such a passage to prove the corruption of the utterance of the words quoted 'Life is recorded by Ibn is Hisham in his Taurat and ' Injil. of fact the verse of stoning remains in what has been sent down upon let Muhammad it the and his companions. bin Da'if.

he would have been not in their book. far. the Let me On page missionaries should continue to urge our Muhammadan Muslims. and not in the text quite apart from the explanations of the commentators. /^-' and Injll have been corrupted. Hear at thou.' The maulavi expresses surprise and indignation that we Christian word of God which lay open before them. and they Is to it know that the maulavi had taken the trouble to read the words of the Qur'an which follow this verse. I can only express tells us. he would have found that (I notes the words used in this verse refer to the words of Muhamsurprise ability as . and say " We have heard and we have ' ' : obeyed. . and shows itself. again quote the learned Syed Ahmed Khan. ' tongues *. introduced into their reading words and phrases which had no existence in the written passages before them. The great scholar 'Abbas makes it clear in his comment that certain Jews were in the habit of falsely adding to their reading of the Tanrat certain words and phrases which were not in.' this Where. for there clear that the it is made Maulavi Ibrahim. without trying understand the passage. has jumped to certain conclusions which are quite contrary to the true meaning. my mad 'They speak what they say Tahrlfu'l-lafzi lies is himself. then. and not to those of the Taurat at all ! If against God. rather tongues. is the in passage ? not clear that saved from his foolish mistake. verbal repetition of the Taurat. steadfastly refuse to consider commentator Verse : 'Abbas says in his comment on ^11 Ic this i^\i u- k\ ^i ^^aUj » ^ L-J^ and sorrow that a man of such learning and Maulavi Ibrahim 'All should talk thus without first enquiring as to the real meaning of the verse he for if he had done so.' The great in the the claims of those books so long as such passages exist to prove their corruption. amply show that there is no mention whatever ) '' r . at the time of 48 in reading ttie Taur^t. also quoted Stlratu'n-Nisa' (iv) 95 verse in question that certain Jews. 'Look us' — Raina)" and ' perplexing with their their revilings'. he brethren to read the Taurat and Injil 77 of his Mohomedan Commentary on * Holy Bible whilst passages such as this remain in the Qur'an. but it does not show that there was any tampering with the written text itself. from being a proof torture with their that the Taurat i Jews used certain words of the Muslims with a bad meaning in order to vex and dishonour the Prophet. that the altering took place in the course of the wounding the Faith by Here we see that the simple context suffices to of the passage. follows: 'Among the Jews are those who pervert the words from their places. In reply. and this is the perversion referred to in the The whole passage will make this clear. he says were : This verse shows that the Scripture readers habit of substituting words of their own for those of the text.94 GHULAM JABBAR'S RENUNCIATION is THE PUBLIC DISCUSSION 'The maulavi corrupted. then. It is as text. but as one that heareth not {[^c]j . They assured their Arab hearers that these creations of their the support of his charge that the Taurat and Injil had been The passage is as follows ' : Among the own imagination virere part of Jews are those who pervert the words from their places. The phrase the book at all which lay open before them.

they used to alter the words he had taught them. With regard to the word Ra'ind. his refusal to is That being read and obey the Taurat and Injil void of any foundation. He tells us that.. U:^( ' Jl^ (JS) O. P.. * The last verse of the Qur'an quoted by the maulavi was a bad word in the Jews' language or was abuse.\ '^ ." his Tafsiru'l-Kabir that these words refer to the com- 3 . . used to address the Prophet by the word Ra in^. 'Before I close my remarks I will read to you the A. ^^^ A J 'may to disaster meaning of the passage said : that God addressing ' Imim Fakhru'd-din Razi says that the Muhammad. And yet Maulavf Ibrahim bases his refusal to read the Taurat on such passages. But. taunting and also said in the same Tafsir to say.' they used overtake thee ! Prophet of God.Xj passage refers to the fact that the Jews used come to ^J:^^'0 Muhammad and ask him certain questions. therefore.i. Seeing the Muslims the Jews also. taking their leave of him. they used to come to the Prophet. In other words. (e) word ' Ra'ina (look on us) pronounced Ra'ina. as I have .' been said by the commentators. ! k^i) .c1j i<lll /^^ ^OO dJj*a. keeping the bad meaning in their minds. as well a^ from the context of A^ ^j^ e. they addressed the For example. he 'peace be tells us.t--'- lia! ^JiJ the verse it is clear. and have forgotImam Razi says in ten part of what they were taught. of the is. Here is the work of the great Muslim commentator Jalalu'd-din. . It is as follows "They shift the words of Scripture from their places.lw ^ i^'O -ji«j words J. 168.ARJ p. as a shepherd reproaching him.' THE PUBLIC DISCUSSION * 97 ever of the Taurat in the verse. *-— ^" . that Maulavi Ibrahim has totally failed to understand the meaning X^ii-i^^ of the passage which he quoted. it is explained that.i . the letter 'ain it <^/^ \J^^ f.' that the of cattle and is goats.' 'This word (Ra'ina) to prove that the Taurat is and Injil have been corrupted : Suratu'l-Ma'ida (v) 16. For this reason the Muslims were commanded not to use the word Ra'ina. that O alter certain salutations current amongst the people.i*jJM^J dJ--'-^.^ ^ii^yT?^«'<ali)|liii"i| r 96 GHULAM JABBAR'S RENUNCIATION '- . but.s>ij '^ ^-^ S\h '\. i^i Uj.. - ' • .:^-* tJ^O LS^ . some of the Jews used to of ^ *The Jews lengthening our shepherd". my beloved. and instead of saying (^jj^c AJi\ on thee..A-* J!^^i ^. on whom It is be the peace and blessing of God. . thy enemies the Jews are change which the Prophet had taught Qadir says that J^^^^^ ^^^ : his followers.' ' -n one or two Muslim exegetes from these books on the table before me. so.- " ^ mand of the Taurat to stone adulterers.a> . after U?. In the Tafsirnl'Qddari. in order to ridicule Muhammad. 'Abdu'l- From what has ing thy words from their places.

They are from Muslims and thing is others. People of the Book until ! ye have no ground to stand Tauratj it clear from the words of Imara on ' Fakhru'-d-din-Razi that the "shifting" here alluded to has been sent ye observe the Taurat and Injil and that which down to you from your Lord. p. w^e find «r. think you will ei^'^i^^i. ". and did not refer to the actual written words of the Scripture." is to be Ye observe to are explained in the Tafsiru'l-Qadari. . This is exactly what Syed Ahmed Khan has said in his famous Mohomedan Commentary on the Holy Bible.98 ghulAm so that jabbAr'S renunciation command is is still THE PUBLIC DISCUSSION the * 99 already shown. Qur'an commanding Jews and Christians in the strongest terms to study and obey these very Scriptures. ia 'I . Injil have not been corrupted. If the as the Qur'an teaches. For there were not a few in the audience that December morning- who had. to follow and obey the understood as implying that the people perverted the Taurat and Injil. long since. prove the Gospel ? The maulavi has apparently : and I in view of the words of the Qur'an aIiI whom I have quoted.' and conclude these imperfect remarks by entreat' corrupted in the that ' way some Muslims pretend. forgotten what they were taught. act ac- cording to them.A!! L^Iiii have degenerated into an unseemly squabble. which the maulavi conand who now rejoiced. or to the hiding of the truth ' ( giving a blank denial to one of the clear statements of his own Qur'an! * No! my friends. that he has quite failed to prove anything of the sort. I f. it is ing you to study for yourselves those wonderful books Muhammad would have warned the people against which the Qur'an again and again calls the word of those books. the assembly. in accusing the Taurat and Injil of being cor! I by him has anything to do with tlie corruption of the text of the Bible. quoted by Maulavi Ibrahim corruption of the Taurdt and great authorities Injil.' and he fails to - see that. mean ^S (J^*^ tj^j) i^-^*?.' that the Jewish This completes my discussion of the passages of the corrupted. not the chairman quickly risen to his feet. Taurat and Injil had been certain men. 79. . He there writes The words. 236. had Thus In Suratu'l-Ma'ida (v) 72 it is written:— - •^. p. he is of God.' So we see the Qur'an urges Jews and Christians in the strongest terms. 'that is.' The words ' was verbal only. At most they refer to changes made in the explanation of the Scriptures. 'i. I a light and guidance for One certain. become attitude dissatisfied with the super- cilious and scornful sistently adopted towards them.i JtU^ There is agree with me. far from that being the case. would soon iilj. for This verse alone is sufficient to prove and Christian Scriptures have not been who would tell men to obey a corrupted forgotten the 2 * Qur'an. Not one of the verses quoted none who can change the words rupted. but. gentlemen. the (. meaning ' of Scripture.' ' God!' As the missionary resumed excited his seat a low murmur of comment rose through. that standing in O. the Taurat and still. and not that they mutilated the 'Ali to text. which.

and God'. others here this morning. knowledge of Islam and of the Arabic language is only He is God alone is ! God the Eternal ! He is begetteth — not. as he looked out over the mass ' human beings seated before him. ' have heard the reply of the missionary. after all. ' ' : was textuid corruption of the Christian Scriptures to which the Qur'an referred ? Such were the questions which rose unbidden to the lips of many. mingled with fear.. faith. saw in the missionary's words a distinct attack upon their and resented all the more. brethren. and I shall not stand long between you and the maulavi.. on whom be the peace and blessing" I has been a pleasure to listen to him. the son of God.U11 Muhammad betake is the Apostle of V • ' . although. there were still more who. and there none like — unto call Him^ O. and the He : not begotten. true believers '' " . of men.100 ghulAm On jabbAr'S renunciation *. and expectancy. because they were unable to answer him. as a good Muslim. Christian ? 101 spite of their religious prejudices. • J 'j: .1 I shall not waste {cx'iv). I have been astonished at the * A!l] ^5) knowledge which this foreigner possesses both of our rehgion and our literature. died upon the cross as an atonement for the sins Plow. Muhammadan 'isa. Book only corruption of the meaning. who is doubtless anxious to reply to the arguments which have been so ably put before you by the sahib.'' - _ *There is . '' } THE PUBLIC DISCUSSION audience. the arguments drawn from their own religious literature with which he had so conspicuously silenced But the chairman was on his feet. without further delay. ^ :. the murmurs died away into silence as he began to address you Muslim brethren he said the great audience.y no God but Allah. equalled by his perfect tongue. and the excitement of the audience rose to fever pitch as the maulavi began to speak. I will now ask him that the corruption of the in our holy Taurat and Injil referred to to again address you'. O. They also falseiy teach the Prophet of men. was written deeply upon the faces of many in the great and . But one thing I must say before I sit down. at his obvious discomfiture. It command of our own Bengali He should have a son. Would he be able to show that. . these Christians Prophet on whom blessing of God. However. we are all eager to hear what Ibrahim maulavi has to say in reply. . my time this morning by dealing ^ Suratu'n-Nds SLiratu'l-Akhlas (cxii) 1-4. ' . Could the Muslim meet the arguments of the the other hand. and the maulavi.^J-^. I could have wished that his address had dealt with some other topic. and it is this hke many : C^Ly jjcl ^ 'I me for refuge with the Lord of say. ^U) Jj-^^ S^^s^^ ^ ^IH ^I ^^l ^ ' .. can such people be accepted aS in guides and teachers It matters affecting our holy Qur'an?* this Christian matters not to me whether is can prove and so. There was a dead silence as the Muslim champion rose to his feet. 'isa. it blinded by prejudice and ignorance. but far be that be the peace and it from Him that . of God. then. Whatever we may think of and I confess I wait with no little eagerhis arguments ness to hear our maulavi's reply we must at least pay His the tribute of respect to his learning and eloquence..' he cried.

does not this verse in that of the presence of is God abrogates one Scripture in favour it. ary that it is 103 further with that point. Scriptures. then evident that He i ' \ intend that men should read. . Here. them. its precepts alone are able to guide them to "'" 'l' : stated the noble Qur'an that the better the joys of Paradise. need for There abrogated the Taurat and me to say more. I ' could be proved that no alteration has taken a matter of common experience that when place in the written words of the Jewish and Christian „.. The holy religion of Islam is \\f. Consequently the Qur'an my answer to ourselves clearly the Christian priest. important. ji«-j It — runs as fohows :— . the doubt whatever that both the Taurat and the no have little and until it can be shown that the Qur'an has not Injil I decline to consider been abrogated by the noble Qur'an. with the advent of the Profaith and practice. ' Whatever verses we may annul or cause (thee) to for- then the Qur'an was sent religions down former is get. This verse alone furnishes a suflicient answer to the laboured arguments of the Christian priest for when . should is and Scriptures. to be studied or obeyed.. therefore. and Plere. much know that he less obey.Jli • d^l 1*)"^ ^hw-iA) W the Prophet of God. So. the Injil became current. in like manner. At the time of the Prophet Moses. whom be the peace and blessing of God. Book. yet noble we all know that by the descent of the Qur'an those Scriptures have been abrogated. on whom be the peace and blessing to abrogate the of God. began to preach the holy doctrines of Islam. ? Is it wilfully conceal- of another which follows so that there can be Injil is ing that knowledge At any rate. content myself with quoting one or The is first passage to which (ii) two pasI would It is your attention : Suratu'l-Baqara 100. and introduces others more suited to the nev/ circumstances and limes. Why we busy it ' now alone the standard by which men must shape their over questions of corruption in when is so * actions. So it is with religion. then. and I shall. again. and cause does not I men ' to forget them. we will bring a better one or its hke'. ' -A: '' * .. God it am surprised that the Christian priest. another in SCiratu'n-Nahl (xvi) 103. 'Isa. and the preceding phet dispensations were abrogated. clear on this point. remind the mission- even '-' "-. •> 102 ghulAm if it jabbAr's renunciation It really is not THE PUBLIC DISCUSSION matter further. when 1 l^Ar^ T^'^i Ai L«j.l^ it is so clearly stated that Scriptures of the God would it is abrogate the for- mer Jews and Christians. in passing. "It" verses of that tures? Book have abrogated the preceding Scrip- 'There in addition to the passage I have just quoted. upon the laws of the The noble Qur'an sages to that call effect. there written l^XA^ Taurat were in force. and is. for I would. which teaches the same thing. but when the Prophet David was born the Zabur became the rule of Later.' is ledge of the Qur'an. all his And when we change one verse for another. is Consequently they are no longer an earthly monarch dies his successor not infrequently abrogates the laws his predecessor had made. with know- knoweth best what he clearly stated that revealeth. this is my answer.

and will then pass few observations. will deal. and in the next world he shall be among the lost. is in so doing. the reference Apostle of God. that the Jewish 'The maulavi declares therefore.*The maulavi (ii) refers. first of with the passages quoted by the maulavi. he affirms. just as the referred to.' . guide to faith and practice. Whatever verse forget. until he attempts some more satisfactory reply to my previous interpretation. with regard to the question of abrogation in general. He bases his view upon two passages of sionary. to * : Suratu'bBaqara 100. were educated men. for 'whosoever craves other than Islam for a religion. which. to a . in attempting to turn the argument into another channel. and never to corruption of the text. were eager to know how the Christian would meet this new attack upon his faith. was not only begging the question which had brought them together. teach most clearly that the Taurat and Injil have been completely annulled by the Qur'an. it and Christian Scriptures have been abrogated by the Qur'an. at the better or annul or cause (thee) to its like '. and proceed to show that the maulavi is as mistaken in his judgement regarding the question of the abrogation of the Christian Scriptures as he is still were keen enough to see that the maulavi. champion had taken up. Not a few of those present. therefore. he refuses either to by the Qur'an. was perfectly satisfied the Qur'an. argument. and attention was once more strained as the latter again rose in answer to the Chairman's with the position its The new crowd. obey or read the Scriptures which preceded the Qur'an. and. and was quite persuaded that his words constituted a sufficient reply to all that had been advanced by the missionary in support of the integrity of the Taurat and Injil. but for the sake of the many Muslims present. Let no Muslim.this the : -^y. I will from the latter lips something like a sigh of relief rose of the assembled Muslims. Few of the waive that objection. first of all. and that. but. so that the latter book I is now the only all. proves the abrogation of the Taurat and sion. then. we will bring a aflirms that this verse Injil *I am The maulavi reply of is Maulavi Ibrahim. as well as for the s?ike of the truth itself. be led astray by the words of the Christian missionary. " THE PUBLIC DISCUSSION of the Taurat and Injil is 105 is the last and perfect religion. therefore. he said. largely based upon the Qur'an. however. as a matter of fact. was acknowledging his own inability to in a very real manner answer the arguments of the mis- no longer incumbent upon men to study those books. is the seal of the Prophets and the great Inter- cessor at the day of judgement.' ^ There was a moment's silence as the maulavi resumed his seatj and. which. My reply is . and fewer with regard to that of their corruption. taking his stand upon this arbitrary conclu- contention that wherever in the Qur'an the corruption 1 Siiratu Ali 'ImrAn (iii) 79. on of whom be the peace and blessing I only and always to corruption of the meaning by false God. we may surprised and] disappointed. Under these circumstances it would be perfectly legitimate for me to refuse to take cognizance of the new argument now advanced by the maulavi. no reply at all for he n?ade no attempt to answer my . The verse reads as follows invitation.104 ghulAm jabeAr's renunciation Muhammad. it shall surely not be accepted from him.

as explained by the Jalalain.''. but to those verses of the Qur'an less itself — and the later '. ' Injil.. upon the utterances > Muhammad himself to or of the Com- ^ panions (ashab).VJU SAs^^ j^I Ull? m 'MJ. madan commentators Qur'an are unanimous not to the Taurat and Injil at ." With regard " that to the words " Cause Jews Do ye not it. cause Aluhammad to forget what had previously been revealed to him." the same commentators is. say. ^^1 . etc. read you the comments would bring a better verse than the one abrogated by him.J j it.'. / . of the for the great Muhamin Jalalain. Muhammad.. verily Muhammad com- y u mands forbids his it companions a certain to-morrow.^ . then.''--. l. is perfectly easy of comprehension. The whole matter. as they have been preserved to us ui the traditions. - . would. " one of the comparative authority of Maulavi Ibrahim on the one hand. and I cannot but regret that Maulavi Ibrihlm should make such baseless charges against the Christian Scriptures without first of " . in the position . In reply it is stated that God ' .. see Muhammad. more than once. 4i:A taking the trouble to enquire as to the real ' meaning of the verse he quoted.Xl] ^ Let me quote another leading commentator of the I yA\^^\.'. Vi. ^^ Qur'an. Muhammad to the himself..''"''. and the great Muslim commentators of the Qur'an on the other commentatorsj let me remind you whose views are invariably based — of — same authorities. " What- ^ This (verse) came down when the idolaters or the said... (thee) to forget. and said. • . <. upon him the ridicule of the unbelievers in the language quoted by the Jalalain. ^'.'. some of these great scholars of Islam on the passage quoted by the maulavi."' . commentators say they number no than two hundred . . ever we annul. all./ affirming that the passage quoted by the maulavi refers.''p. will cause thee it Muham". moreover. then came down thing to-day and the words.106 ghulAm is jabbAr's renunciation From THE PUBLIC DISCUSSION these it 107 the matilavi either grossly ignorant. with regard to the verse.. then. he commands a cer- tain thing to his followers.^^'».' In the Tafsinil-Qddari passage means : 26). the Qibla and so on.' '-. had occasion to reverse certain commands and prohibitions which he had laid upon his followers with regard to These changes called down Jihad. or perversely deceitful words is of the great commentators. it is said that the mad) to forget and will blot out of thy heart.'' not to the alleged abrogated verses of the Taurat and . ITere is what the two Jalals say in the I'afsini'l-Jaldlain. l^^mij ^1 (O concerning and afterwards forbids them and commands them the very opposite. „ .. This is the unanimous view of Muslim commentators.V. of his famous tiiA^^ On : page twenty-twa commentary he says i* ai J /U>I1 Jls ki ^)\^ and when the unbelievers taunted (Muhammad) concerning abrogation. have been abrogated by verses of itself into the The question. but to the words of God. the great Qadl Baidawi. which he takes up. according .' (p. l: . clear that the words of the text refer. CJnM* (j^ Iy.v' ...-L^ . resolves _ ."-'" and tw^enty-five —which Qur'an. Let me.

/ . reference to the Taurat and said it From what I have (p. 17) we read./^j'^/ ' !^» (*^^ 1^ jUi ^7^ u5^ c^-^ J SA..' ^*a u'r f' uH i ^js . J'b" i^^ s c. <<^ V *^s^ Xici " /i ci^. In the Tafsirnr-Raufi. afterwards the command was given that one Muslim should (only) fight We two infidels. it said that the command which words mean temple at Jerusalem. ing to the exigences of the time or cause to forget from the. 114).L IjJO ). that is send. existed to i ^:l T* . it. may be instanced by the bow towards the holy whereas the command was afterit ".-^-* ^^J''-- ^f ^^JsAaII c::-^.108 ghulAm • jabbAr's renunciation I'^V. j*^ ij'^t <^ ^ ^ and reads as follows This another. and the command given for one Ghazi to fight only two infidels and as. in will bring a better than for as. a better at first. ^ .si' I.' ' in the direction of Whatever we abrogate -Qur'an.^.^ i) U^ tiiLAll * '^^L^X'i Whatever verse then of the Qur'an we abrogate accordthan Whatever verse we abrogate from the Qur'an we such abrogated verse. .A^ r^^ ^=» ^Xjl^i A. and when we change one verse for . as.' The maulavi has quoted one other passage in support ' lii. we will bring. In the well-known commentary of 'Abdu'l-Qadir in affirming that the verse he has qu. the command was examplcj the command for one Muslim warrior (Ghazi) to fight ten infidels was abrogated.^y ^^-w. • iifj i^ly A^^ s '^^.J LiJ -*>j s of the verses of the noble into wards given to say the prayers Mecca. It is ' : (^«^1 ^ \^' f*-^ t:. that one for example.^ ^:^€ ^*^.oted has any Injil. ..'/ '^•-.% us. ' will send a verse equal to at first Ka'ba : at Mecca.J»^ 'rr y- of his position.^?' tiJ^t ic. heart.^ (_^K^ LT ^ J i. the changing of the Qibla to the * from Jerusalem is Muslim should fight ten infidels.U1 WJ„rO' . ' but it is surely unnecessary to bring further I long disquisition relating to the various kinds of abrogation ' evidence to show is how hopelessly mistaken the maulavi which have taken place with regard to the Qur an. which was easier for the Muslims. war.' continued the missionary.' (p.' has exactly the same meaning as the one previously verse found in Suratu'n-Nahl (xvi) 103. for instance.:^^ ^^?.' After which the commentator enters a could go on repeating such quotations. that the verse means : must be perfectly clear to every one who is not blinded by prejudice and bigotry that the passage in question has reference only to the verses of the Qur'an.l THE PUBLIC DISCUSSION 5 109 . and God knoweth best what he revealeth.

Jjiu^ M^ i.\> on a certain occasion when Muhammad became involved in an argument with some Jews concerning lawful All . will that in neither of the passages quoted is by the maulavi quote the remarks of a ' before resuming it is my : seat.. said to the Prophet.' Qadi Baidawi here makes it clear as noonday that the passage refers to the commands of the Qur'an. when HaSU dealing with the subject of the alleged corruption of read a verse of the Qur'an to 72] in 'They. there the slightest foundation for the erroneous belief In the TafsiriCl'J aldlain 1 written that that the Taurat and Injil have been abrogated by the Qur'an. very passage alone furnishes undoubted proof that the Scriptures of the Jews and Christians have not been abrogated. thou commandest something and after- men But surely it is inconceivable that the '. T . ! '.e.- 'Again.f stantially the the best Muslim commentators fev^^ of the Qur'an. thou art only a forger Bring ye then the Taurat and recite of truth. but most of them do not know the truth of the Qur'an and Is it which the People of had no ground to stand on until they observed (i.aIIj ' *They. . by others. that is the infidels. obeyed) the Taurat and Injil. it THE PUBLIC DISCUSSION 111 refers to certain verses of the Qur'an ^ ' . on whom be the peace and blessing of God. i.. and leave no manner of doubt that the words refer solely to the Qur'an.£=> cJJf *Ail^ x abundantly clear that those books have not. i £. In order to show how opposed the maulavl I is to *Abdu'l-Qadir and others give subsame explanation of the words quoted by the maulavi. 366) the verse is ex- plained thus .j:^i] Uil is. Thus it is proved Injil.^ verses of the Qur'an for those of the preceding Scripture.' not clear from this mand men to follow an abrogated Scripture. On the contrary. if ye be against God.e. Thus this comment of the Jalalain that the Qur'anic abrogation of one command by another called forth the derisive taunts of the unbelievers that the Prophet hiniself was the author of them ' '.ii£zi!l uS"l IJ and unlawful food he was .. The Muslim commentators of the Qar'an are unanimous on this point but Maulavi Ibrahim would have us . and has nothing whatever to do with the Taurat and believe that the passage teaches the substitution of the '.. and cannot be.XX1 told to say : J' ^xc AXi cx\ SJ-i fMiJ (jl UjUlj L'K. abrogated in the way it make some ignorant Muslims imagine. the Taurdt and Injil. thou speakest (these things) from thyself. wards forbiddest it.-* iti^Sil I—>)t>.' it. we are told in Suratu Ali 'Imran (iii) 87 that In the Tafsiru'l-Batddwi : (p. S' ' .""1 no ghulAm jabbAr's renunciation discussed..:" ' .JJ)S/0 JL. said.:'' li. But it is inconceivable that God should com[Suratu'l-Ma'ida the you Book were informed that they the benefit of abrogation.J ' I IaJI f^*** ^ ^^^ ^^ O-i 15!"^ ls^'^ iU£=J1 Ijjli the Qur'an which ^^/ -^A) C^dlc . which have been changed. . I (v) For example. . thou art only a forger. S.. that is abrogated. . there are many passages of O. that is the infidels.

: ' . 'If ^J'T^*'"^1? "" People of the Book) observe the Taurat and the Injil and what hath been sent down to them from their Lord.. ? Taurat and Injil have not been abrogated Here we calling for a reference to the find the distinct book had not been abrogated.' continued the mis- f^l^^jd (^'i (jf^ ^-^ J ^^'1 Jf^ ^^ . in the Qur'an people are warned not to make any difference whateyer between the different books of Scripture..wJiEa. than this. in the face of such texts as these. 113 that the Prophet should refer decision on disputed points.^j. Scriptures. Again. [Suratu'l-Ma'ida ' 12]. One ous Scriptures'.' What greater . the at the temerity of Qur'an cannot both books. Abraham and Ishmael and and that which hath been and that which hath been sent down to Isaac and Jacob and the 213) says often Then how absurd is the opinion expressed so by the Muhammadans. and that which was given to the prophets from their Lord. ' Before ^ I I conclude my remarks.^ ^ 1*^0 tU-t ^y J. as sent down W KsS^^ ' confirmatory of previ(v) from God. two Muslim scholars in Commenting on the words they (the tli'^J^ Ls'^y J C—>iii*) ^ (jW'^i of 5 Suratu'l-Ma'ida 70. * of the Qur'an. and that which hath been |given to Moses and to Jesus. single Nowhere does that a word may express the abrogation of the . So obvious is this fact that many learned Muslims have candidly admitted it. too.i ^. ' Now the cannot but marvel. will quote one or I support of what l^U_^«ii)J have (v) said. . and affirmed their conviction that no abrogation of the Jewish and Christian Scriptures not a single passage in the whole Qur'an these words has taken place. down to us. was exactly the same category as the Qur'an there is sent to confirm the previous Scriptures. in other parts make no distinction whatever between All are alike Again. Muhammad ^iSi ^jX> repeatedly described the Qur'an the Qur'an and the preceding Scriptures. No difference do we make between any of them and to God are we resigned. that it is it confirm is * ' and ' abrogate same men who Prophet so blindly denounce as as ! and since it repeatedly stated in that book ' abrogated what the described being in fact is. repeated. to command.miii j. to insist that it The surely presumption for any one has abrogated them. Hakim Khan Say ye sent ' : in his Commentary of Qur'an We believe in God..JLJI. Li h^ ^-J) have their them and from beneath shall surely fill of good things from above '. 112 ghulAm jabbAr's renunciation to THE PUBLIC DISCUSSION proof could you ask. and on their authority by * : Christians. that the holy Qur'an abrogates the preceding the holy Qur'an contain tribes. an abrogated Scripture for a Surely his very action in Taurat proves that that my friends. and so we find in Suratu*l-Baqara (ii) 130 * which states that the Qur'an has abrogated the Taurat and Injil. their feet Muhammad the 'Abdu'l (p. they i:j^l J. and all claim our faith and reverence. Pentateuch or of the Gospel or of other Scriptures but it repeatedly claims to be a confirmation of their teachings* . -^^'^^ ^^'*' Vj* sionary.•_— -^ jjn.

it will appear palpably . The theory of knows nothing whatever about 'Another Muslim scholar. The great Muslim scholar Jalalu'd(p. a falsehood of which there is no trace in the Qur'an or nay. he simply the doctrines and articles maulavi. be a part of the 268) Those who imagine it Muhammadan creed that one law we has totally repealed another.i L.: ilw-ia. my Muslim Prophet Spirit of ' i. to study carefully and earnestly the holy word of God Muhammedan of his faith. even if its action on the previous Scriptures be admitted. Zabur does not abrogate the Taurat. Shaikh Hdji Rahmatu'llah. Syed- Ahmad Khan. only remains for me. to entreat the that the New Qur'an.^[xi ^j^^ xaIc the same.!il 22) i^^xW ^i ^ >: A' . there is no trace of it in in the commentaries . only apply to commands. to says in his (p.* authoritative book belonging to the people of Islam. says in his book the Ishdrul-Haqq that the opinion that the Taurat and Injil have been abrogated by the Qur'an is only that of ignorant and uninstructed Muslims and . and the Zabur by the appearance of the not your highest wisdom. Mohommedan Commentary ' : on the Holy Bible. Plistory can never be abrogated. is it —never of with facts. evident that abrogation. O.' -'. \ i . and the Zabur was (a collection of) prayers.Ui-!i! abrogation only happens in connexion with prohibitions - ' The statement that the Taurat was abrogated by the Injii is commands and being so. in our opinion the The honoured founder Aligarh college. as contained in the Taurat and Injil. and if any ignorant should assert to the contrary.' •^' Mazhari says "^" . and teachings of the ' whom you call the 'Word God and ") \-"r •. ^j^d ) J'*' J L5^^ L/^j^^^.' That Zabur. can.' I commend the testimony of the three great Muslims I have quoted to the careful attention of Maulavi Ibrahim 'Ali before I pass And abrogated the Taurat (Pentateuch) in turn that the Taurat .AA. din-Seyuti truly says in the Itqan ^jill^ .^1)\ Ja>^ MAx^ll ^^tJi.! i.*2lwsil r' .M^Al 1 k ^l^^ll. and do not believe that the Zabur (Book of Psalms) .u^ ^!|aj4UHll-4MM=Ml ' 114 ghulAm it jabbAr's renunciation affirms THE PUBLIC DISCUSSION any 115 Abrogation of of devilish inspiration Sir only. and the he continues on pages eleven and twelve of his book as follows : and claims of the Prophet *Isa are as true to-day as when they were first preached by the records of the life fishermen of Galilee. on * to It gave way to the Injil (New Testament) and one or two closing remarks. We Testament was suppressed by the Holy hold no such doctrine. f^' '^ ik'^^'^ '^Hj^ i^^ .^S=i\ ^A v-> ^5 ' 'i] abrogation only can take place in relation to commands and iJ^i) * prohibitions. are utterly mistaken. to study the life 'Isa. and every other Muslim in this great audience.. nor is it abrogated by the Injil David was subject to the religious law of Moses. at most. abrogation put forward by the maulavi has neither the support of the Qur'an nor of reason for if we give the matter a moment's consideration. brothers. in concluding. "V.

and. t: . like COUNTING THE COST Ghulam - ' ' without the semblance of a speech. refuse the Christian invitation to study the he showed his friend the passages which had so impressed him on the night of his departure from Taurat and Injil. Jabbar.' There was a tense silence as the missionary ceased speaking.. and men looked from one to another with something Isma'ii CHAPTER VIII . after taking a hasty farewell of the Christian preacher. The words of the missionary had fallen like a thunderbolt into the midst of their complacency. with any show his attention during his recent study of that book.^ amazement written upon their faces. Then. had been badly worsted in the and that they could no longer. however. as the two friends sat together in Ghulam's room two evenings later. Not a few of the more openminded amongst them did. as he opened the Scripture this book. and especially to a which had forced themselves upon admit it. but Ghulam! invited his childhood. first of all. and these he now produced for the inspection of his friend. The latter had now to reluctantly admit that the maulavi had failed to establish his case. the chairman. the crowd melted away from the courtyard. was visibly affected. As he did so. they talked long and earnestly of what their future course should be. that the maulavi discussion. a matter. and they began to realize for the first time in their lives that the call to consider the claims of the was overjoyed at the result of the discussion between the maulavi and Mr. 'Isa himself : is recorded the that the Prophet truth. not only his Bible. was ordained by God to be the Saviour of the world. eager to inspect the attention. Moreover I find that God Himself gave the same Prophet the title Son of God and that it was Isa ' '. repeated from their latter. \. only to gather outside. secretly resolve to secure for themselves a copy of the Christian Scriptures. which has now been vindicated as the uncor' ' rupted word of God. Most openly even when not prepared to number of all of passages to the Injil. but also a Bengali translation of the Qur'an. but by me. Williams. Ghulam had brought with him from Dhanpur. indeed. and the and the hfe way. and he seized the first opportunity to discuss the whole matter with his chum Emarat. First of reason. Christian Scriptures could not be set aside by the very Emarat was repetition of dull platitudes. of those present felt. for in that to be which I have to-day proved it neither corrupted nor abrogated. no one cometh unto the I • :: said. into excited knots of eager disputants. i7^ ^\ . abruptly dismissed the assembly. and.' y ^. clearly states that the Prophet had sold a full dozen copies of the Injil to those earnest seekers after truth. about 'corruption' and 'abrogation*. he sought the seclusion of his house. and before the missionary left for his distant home in Dhanpur he Dhanpur. ' am Father.116 ghulAai jabbAr's renunciation '? God Let me entreat you not to neglect so important Injil. See here he said.

just as they are found in the copies in the hands of Christians. It is certain that those prophecies Prophet Muhammad.^'i /. but by then. '•c. 119 not an impious creation of the Christians as Prophet 'isa did not die on the cross. remember. and you might as well expect to satisfy a rupee debt by payment of a pice as expect the debt of a man's sins to be paid by the blood of an S:-A. language. make such claims as are involved in these words of the ' and who had no object whatever not true. t Muhammad . never claims for himself the power I sacrifice for the sins of the world which was to be made to save sinners on the contrary. not once. . Muhammad. he said. we any longer close our eyes to such claims. of course.i . that is in the history of Where. How. and always have been. missionary was speaking to me on this matter.:>M. and I will give you rest/ I have not yet read the Qur'an right through from beginning to end.:5sr. the . -jv ^ sX'l 118 ghulAm . in the clearest but over and over again. but I must confess. but now that I know the the Taurat and Zabfir... Isa announced. death of the Messiah. or any one else. So long as the integrity of the text in doubt. contain several prophecies of the Injil is the same to-day as it was in the time of the. and afterwards that the latter if men from * their had been sent into the world to save sins. in stand the meaning or the value of our animal sacrifices it which he is commanded to ask pardon for his sinsAgain it is clear to me that there are several mistakes in ^the Qur'an. dare me '. Maulavi Ibrahim quoted a passage from the Qur'an the other day which. one night. showed me very clearly that the animal sacrifices of the Taurat were simply types of the great }kj Prophet -.. a . accept not sure of the inerrancy of the because find that these statements as true.. 'in . that Then. cannot get out of my what was head the words of the munshi about sacrifice and atonement. and these have greatly puzzled me. does mentioned Roman history. I He did die. seems ' to me to be the more probable. look here/ he continued. and the truth. have already found by for the Messiah. cow away our Man is of more value than a cow. those claims. that one day when the which exclude I Muhammad and every other prophet from . those times written by men who were not Christians. For example. I in asserting Lord Jesus Come unto me. such as Silratu'l Mu'min (xl) 57. I no one cometh unto the Father. no other prophet has ever made such claims. as I were not inserted by wicked Christians in order to bolster he opened the clearly Injil at the fourteenth chapter of th& sayslife . who do not believe on the Prophet Isa. for example. and yet those prophecies are found in their copies of the Taurat and Zabtir. jabbAr's renunciation some of Prophet COUNTING THE COST alive into heaven. He. so far as I have gone. that. but was taken up our maulavis teach. too. in the hands of the Jews. and the up a pretended death of Christ. because those books are. can no longer dare to disregard For example. this verse the Prophet *Isa I am the way. To tell the truth. meant that the never seemed reasonable to or a goat should take me that the blood of sins. he told V exercising the functions of Saviour indeed. all ye that labour and a\e heavy laden. over and over again. Besides. so far as me that the death of Christ on the cross in was clearly can see. moreover. Gospel by John. even we were I I' of the Injil all was could not. I never could under- several passages. I He must confess Injil. I find that the But the Injil states clearly. that rose again from the dead.

young I counted it last night in my room. dear friend. **What shall a man be profited if he shall gain the whole world. and unworthy of His would be ungrateful indeed. the only I Saviour of the world. as if these two passages of the Injil were not enough. 121 inferior animal. what are the fleeting pleasures of the gift of eternal life ! world comI pared with the great before returning to and intend. but to minister. embrace have already counted the cost Christianity. and I have no longer any doubt that many other passages in the another verse which read. and whom the Qur'an calls the Son of 'Word of God' the ' your father dies young and you Complete your education first. and this student. then. Injil. There was silence for a moment. an atoneI you ' to I Indeed. and all your bright prospects will be ruined.' ' replied the what I shall a man give in exchange for his life ? ". and I No. Can't you. too. Have you counted the cost ? Think Ghulam and said ' : my father's wealth ! Death no respecter of persons. I dare not do as you say. be Who it will not my turn next ! Besides. however. for I. for His sake. pondered over these words of the Prophet *Is4 I *' Seek ye first his (God's) As met ii Jesus Christ is.120 ghulAm jabbAr'S renunciation The case is COUNTING THE COST present. for dare no longer hide this belief. and to give his life a ransom for many. Bible helped me to a decision. what your baptism will mean.' Injil I have noticed which show clearly that the atoning death of the Prophet 'Isa on the cross is the one means of salvation for sinful men. have counted the cost. am I cannot ask you to do more than must be true but I am beginning to think Christianity ." then. and then Emarat. it will be easy for Spirit of God'. as I turned over its pages this solemn warning of the Lord Jesus Christ. My advice to you is to conceal your real faith for the far . him will I also confess before my Father which is in heaven but whosoever shall deny me before men. only the other day. for this is what God said to me through its pages. one of the brightest students in my class in Dhanpur was suddenly taken ill with cholera. disgraced. and all these things shall be added unto you. Emarat. Injil calls when a and ment ' great Prophet. what the Prophet did I 'Isa suffered for iove. *' Every one therefore who shall confess me before men. when the was reading the that Prophet sins of 'Isa distinctly asserted that he had come for the into the world in order to make an atonement men. You will not only be and. I met. turned to his friend. of I me upon the cross. him will I also deny before my Father which is in heaven. as the Injil so clearly states. but disinherited as well. believe God will give me grace to bear c^ . Here is the passage in the twentieth chapter of Matthew's Gospel. I one day noticed. refiise to suffer the loss of earthly I goods from taking such a decisive step as baptism. quite altered. a Muslim ? that. and remain outwardly at least. be a Christian in and died within four hours. and forfeit his life ? or '. should not live to complete my is education or to inherit with a voice that shook with emotion. gives his sinless life as for sin." No. * Even as the son of man came not to be niinistered unto. and. knows that when I think your heart. whom the God'. Dhanpur to acquaint my father with li my decision to become a Christian.' kingdom and his righteousness. when and remember that he is no longer — — inherit his wealth. Suppose I .

like the Prophet Moses. 123. life. after rose left. and Christianity true.. returned more.i :"- ' ' J. the Injil. people of God.. :. if I but not enough of the martyr even I have were quite sure /'.. who chose for a season. spirit. than all the honour and riches this world can bestow..' Thanks.. to enable me . could almost wish I daren't. if it must be purchased at the cost of alienation from Him. Pharaoh's daughter for the same reason.^'m • m ^'m^ ^• •i 122 ghulAm jabbAr's renunciation trials COUNTING THE COST Emarat. will It was this : "Be thou faithful unto death. ]-'\'l .' and afflictions may come no- Well Ghulam'. for your promise of help. take my stand and by Plis grace and help shall continue to guide my life by what is revealed there/ These words of Ghulam.^^^r^<i<. with patience whatever to me. if such be the cost of obedience. the copy of the Bengali ' lent him. You know as well as what awaits you I you announce yourself a Christian. .. who soon taking with him. rather than to enjoy the pleasures of sin and who refused to be called the son of I !-v.'..1.!:.' to my I case. Sh -!»» .^-'l^V. " ( were false . ! .. aye and death itself. and I . and from that divine book have learned much of His promises of grace to help in time of need. . fif. his friend.J' difficulties . dear friend. uttered with great deliberation and earnestness. . remember that you can always rely upon your chum Emarat.!. made a deep impression upoa on God's holy word." replied the student. ^iX^' tSi^gf:sg^f^. myself with you in that Islam to take this matter. - "' . to suffer affliction with the ii.ft . but my trust is in God..\ ." and give thee the crown of So... I ' I can say if when he Qur^dn which Ghulam had and took his departure. am sure would rather have poverty and persecution with Him.. "'r^'s'. I have such a stand ' ' 1- . ' r&ad many pages of the holy Injil since I I saw you I last..I but if ever you need help in the which are bound to meet you.^ . Why only this morning I came across a verse in the Injll which seemed pecdiarly suited will not fail He me.

a MusUm. and he seemed to feel intuitively that he had at last discovered the reason of the strange reticence. the infuriated father stepped forward and laid his hand heavily on Ghulam's shoulder. and the time had come to choose between the will of God and the will of men. this ? ' . ' explanation. as he spoke. of the Christian Scriptures Our noble Qur'an is good enough for all . As Isma'il Jabbar repeated his question for the second time. was of short duration. to secrete the book which lay open before him. not the Muslim his father had described. and I order you now to promise me that you will carry out faithfully my wishes with respect to this matter/ have you here Ghulam ? he asked. lives at Dhanpur. light and denied my Saviour. Bible. unspoken prayer to : God for Father long I '. but a humble disciple of Jesus Christ. there was in them a gleam of triumph. determination. I of the Book when in doubt visited the missionary this who copy CHAPTER IX . well-bound volume. and. ' What * For a moment there was silence. had arrived. Isma'il Jabbar's knowledge of English was most elementary. * with one quick. book again. the crisis in his life. There are . thus replied This. There was no time. then. but now. >' had marked the demeanour he cried again in a tone of his son. and his father's gaze was at once attracted to the father entered. which.' Scriptures. The die had long since been cast. father. the youth. as he took up the Book and. as he lifted his eyes to those of his father. is a copy of the holy Too have hidden my what you ask is impossible. and his true followers of the Apostle of God. On last I the Ghulam was sitting in his room reading when the door suddenly opened. forsooth cried the angry 'what need have you. he began. which he had long foreseen. and as he made reply. there was in his voice a ring of settled . and now stood facing him with respectful attention. He had heard the call to take up his cross and follow the Christ he had counted the cost of discipleship. The latter had risen at his father's entrance. The struggle in the mind of the young student. as the noble Qur'an teaches us to seek the help and advice of the People concerning any matter. ' What is which demanded an answer.' am and. I absolutely forbid you to read or touch this. Bible which I procured when at iDhanpur. at last. GHULAM'S CONFESSION the morning following the events narrated in our chapter. For eighteen years Ghulam had loyally obeyed every behest of an indulgent father. even had the youth so desired. he had chosen his treasure in heaven rather than on earth. for weeks past. and so. as his eye caught the title Holy Bible in bright gold lettering. and Ghulam knew himself to be. however. ' help. but he knew enough to understand the meaning of the words he had just read. Hearken to me Ghulam. Christian ! father. he turned to the youth with a frown and demanded an ' ..ghulAm's confession many things concerning religion of which I 125 ignorant. and from him procured ' of the Christian Scriptures.

must obey I God The rather than you. it must be confessed. time has come for you plainly amongst the Muslims of thought. and. have felt for I some glad men. cannot. In his drual capacity as landlord and President of the Anjumanreligious my authority and bring you '/• Understand. that the time has at length come to definitely Do you know sir/ he cried.' and. 'to be reminded that you are my son./. whilst the sudden reversal of all his hopes concerning the future career of his son and heir cast him into the depths of despair. therefore. as such. and as President of the local Anjuman-i-Islam he exercised no little authority over the other Muslims of the locaHty. but in matters of religion the claims of God I *and am willing to . and valued the esteem and honour of his fellow men. on my return to Dhanpur. 126 ghulAm last the jabbAr's renunciation me to tell GHULAM'S CONFESSION i-Islam he easily ranked that part of the country. and of and become a son.. and he humiliated to the very pictured the disgrace and contumely which would be his if his tized. ' what it means to be V place myself on the side of those I who follow that Protell baptized? of such a count it my duty. mortified and maddened him.' cried the angry father. and I dare no longer remain a Muslim is when only Bible " to I tells me that the Prophet 'isa I the "way God the Father. and if you are not wise enough to follow the advice of your seniors in matters which you do not understand. Rage and grief chased each other alternate succession through his significance of what he had felt just heard mind as the full came home to dust as he pay the price so that I might gain eternal life for what shall it profit a man if he gain the whole world and lose his soul ? I am ready... I have counted the co^t/ the young bombshell into the astonished ears of the Islamabad landowner. and locked the door behind him. that am my this a Christian. therefore. he cared little whether Christianity or Islam were true. Never before had his son addressed him in such tones. to be baptized.>^^ come first. I .'. time past that must confess my faith. to you that You mad scarcely have weighed the consequences act . In his own heart of hearts. . AA iiv. but he was a man of the world. his intention to be baptized. that day you my home cease to be my man f 'Yes replied.' Christian. to obey you in everything else.x. and it gives me greater pain than you think to have to speak to you thus. and he was staggered by the announcement which / -. for the day you leave I intend. Isma'il Jabbar strode from the t - room.. then I must resort to other measures to enforce to your senses. forsake the read-. of all first 127 but at that I -<. should renounce Islam and become a Christian.-f . him. therefore.::. . therefore. In the meantime you will get but one meal a day. man.' Ghulam's declaration of his faith in Christ. so saying. son really carried out his purpose of being bapIsma'il Jabbar was not what one might call a 'You need sir. that you do not until leave this room you have given me your promise neither to touch the Bible again nor to have any further dealings with Christians. and join the Christian Church. ing of Bible. . and be permitted to speak to no one. father. father. and the claims of rehgion sat lightly upon him.ri . and I dare not act differently. his only son. fell like a fell from the latter's in lips. and am now phet.

too. or children. and shall book I find that the Prophet *Isa is the God-appointed . and he rose calmed and strengthened with the assurance that the Master whose name he had unseen Companion in his lonely prison. of At a further sign from Isma'il Jabbar these men now fell upon the defenceless Ghulam^ and belaboured him so unmercifully that the lad at sticks in their hands. starve You may imprison me kill you may me . and as Ghulam lay upon his bed he had ample leisure to review the events of the past few His Bible had been taken from him. and as the shadows of evening drew near his quick ears detected his father's footsteps outside the * ' and a moment later the latter was standing before him. that the Bible is the word or father. father. Would you bring down the grey hairs of your father in sorrow to the grave.. or mother. accompanied by Maulavi Ibrahim entered the room. but I cannot deny the the effects of his beating.' the father began I hope that further consideration has led you to see the folly of disobeying my commands.' fold.' : ' Father. can you so dishonour your aged 'as to even think of renouncing the glorious religion of Islam. he opened the door. for his mother was permitted to visit him. When Ghulam in light returned to consciousness he found himself lying alone upon his bed. Well Ghulam. and beckoned to a group of male '. and at sore. shall receive a hundred eternal life. but many a familiar passage came back to him bringing its message of comfort and peace. He was his father. * . I know Every one that hath left houses.' shrieked the father. The day passed slowly away. aye. your own loss ! for if 9 .' he continued. servants who stood waiting outside with heavy bamboo once accosted Ghulam.' eousness' sake hours. and she bathed his wounds and gave him some nourishing food. and for ever cover your family name with shame and obloquy ? Think. The morning brought some measure of relief. length fell senseless at his father's feet. stiff his body a re- Lord who died your mad folly now infuriated Then the consequences of be upon your own head. and expressed his surprise and 'How grief at the news of his threatened apostasy.• -„ . 129 As away the sound of his father's retreating footsteps died His body was bruised and swollen^ threw himself upon his knees and poured his heart to God in prayer for grace and strength to out stand firm under the trials which awaited him just confessed . and he passed a sleepless night tortured with pain. Saviour of ]nen. or brethren. and he found deep consolation in repeating to himself the words of Christ Blessed are they that have been persecuted for rightfor theirs is the kingdom of heaven. and in that sake.1 128 ghulAm GhuMm jabbAr's renunciation ghulAm's confession barred windows.' The from following day found Ghulam almost recovered though still me. or sisters. I must adopt more extreme ' mained prisoner. was an The day passed door. kept close but noon *Ali. for my name's inherit of God. with the room bathed the from the full moon which shone through you become a Christian you will be disinherited and cast out upon a heartless world Think what bright prospects you without a pice. or lands.\ . I cannot alter * my decision to be a Christian/ ' the lad rephed. you may for me. slowly away. neither corrupted nor abrogated-. The latter at measures to teach you obedience and so saying.

so that even is if I you have said. on one occasion. though He. and he showed me very clearly that the Prophet 'Isd never mentioned the coming of a prophet named Muhammad. so that if. I have read the Injil. and I know that the Prophet 'isa is the sinless Prophet who gave his life as a sacrifice for the sins of the world. Surely i^i pass away". Him. man. for he felt a strange sense ' power from he looked into the face of his old teacher. and. a religious teacher. he were a Prophet The fearless words of Ghulam exasperated the maulavi . you will lose if you become a Christian—and for what ? You know as well as I do I God ' forbid. or even as to His alleged death upon the cross for what do these things matter ? The Prophet 'isa Himself foretold the . this questions of I. Indeed it seemed as special if. there is nothing to be gained by following him even '.' retorted the maulavi. often asked pardon for his on the own sins. never claimed to be a saviour from contrary. a few days before. and earth shall pass away.' Well. That *Isa will I believe to admit Muhammad Prophet.130 ghulAm ! jabbAr's renunciation for ghulAm'S confession 131 will forfeit I know later a certainty that your father contemplated. worldly gain or loss for one. ' if you are baptized. There was no trace of indecision or of fear voice of Ghulam it in the as he replied to the maulavi's words. it Besides. I canmot if would be as the to the last world even we did may bring to me of joy or of sorrow. All and much more. Maulavi Sahib/ he began. and so up with you as to the sinlessness of the Prophet upon this foolish infatuation. see what gain thus indicating that should such a matter as should not count. then. On the contrary. grant you all the seal of the Prophets. sending you to England that have any weight with me. should at such a time as this have nothing better to urge than worldly considerations in order to induce of exaltation as same objection to a Christian preacher in Dhanpur many days ago. to be failed to justify his rejection of the Taurat and Injil. as such. ^ for I found it easy to speak. and relieve the mind of your anxious parents. care not what the world never be abrogated or superseded. on. Pie himself but. he had been given on high. had so signally difficult to still the last great Prophet. and whom God has ordained as the Saviour of men until I am shown that I am wrong in following considerations such as you have advanced can as you allege. in that raised the supreme moment. no almost beyond endurance for the thought that a pupil of .' That I cannot believe'. plead with you for the sake of your aged father. this. be found in following the Prophet . but He said: *'PIeaven my words shall never Christianity me to give up Christianity. he obeyed and followed. ' I am surprised that you. advent of Muhammad. our noble Prophet is He had found but to this speak plainly to his father. What I do care for is that I may be found doing the will of God before whom I shall one day be judged. you might enter the civil service of this country. of gain or of loss. that I should endanger my salvation by denying Him. and I plead with you for your own sake to give that poverty and disgrace await you I am not going to argue 'Isa.' whom be the peace and blessing of God. answered the student. sin. who. warned His followers against false prophets who should arise after H^im.

translation of the Qur'an Jabber as he spoke the fateful words. Slowly and deliberately the words fell which proclaimed Ghulam a stranger in his and own home. Qhulam a perfect Finally. to which he. parrot-like. if V The leave of ^ but that. you drive this infidel out His mind has been so utterly . and disowned. narrated in the last chapter. had rejected how men passage a revelation from God. and two minutes later he learn pleased. opportunity which now came to him to learn something into the of the contents of the Qur'an that he sat late He was both interested night poring over its pages.. astray.132 ghulAm jabbAr's renunciation him thus was more than he could r . and he knew was by his side. stood alone before his father he the evening preceding the events he took with him a copy of As Ghulam knew a Bengali instinctively that a great crisis had arrived in his life. he proceeded to pour out upon torrent of abuse. There was no sign of pity in the stern face of Ism^'il which Ghulam had young merchant at the So overjoyed was the lent him. as he read the first short chapter. as he read. Then he turned to Stiratu'l-Baqara (ii).iti" -i'! :\ his should address tolerate. he saying. To him sincere prayer of a man seeking guidance Patiha as not being a part of the Qur'an sent down from heaven. he said * : The sooner. and a Qur'an reader (Qari). but he wondered. and he looked a he saw before he could convince himself that the words (verse thirty-two) ] " . that him take courthe Master whom he had chosen it seemed the and help. had so the meaning of the prayer The beauty of the simple prayer imoften uttered. and. sir. one of the Companions Suratu'lphet. "Who knows. but had not proceeded far in his reading before he met a passage which made him rub his second time eyes with astonishment. found himself outside his father's gateway disinherited pressed him. turning to the boy's father. chapter x EMARAT'S CONVERSION remember that when Emarat took his corrupted useless to by these Christian missionaries that it is hope for repentance from him. of your house the better. and he prepared himself to hear the sentence which would for ever cut him off from all this world held dear. small voice of an approving conscience bade age. a derision and a byeword in the village where he had been born. could call the Deep down in his own heart the still. Yet Ghulam's faith did not waver. and as he read the brief notes at the foot of the fact the page.' he stays here longer. the angry may lead others reader will So Muslim strode out of the Ghulam on room.:'::. he was confirmed in his opinion by of the Prothat Ibn Mas'ud. without replying to what had just been spoken.

and he continued his study assailed by doubts as to the divine origin of the book he was reading. worshipping Him the passage in which is prescribed that Muslims he met there be no ' alone. Christian too. and wherever ye be turn your * faces towards that part' (verse 139). weary and disdown the book and fell asleep. Ghulam. break. or else Islam decides me. that explanation failed to satisfy his mind. ' This. cogitated the youth.134 ghulAm jabbAr's renunciation emArat's conversion cannot be a religion intended for all 135 world. then wor- the God would impossible. for it distmctly states that. never command men to do that which all. in heaven. he said to himself. men to keep the Muslim From this passage which had transpired since As Ghulam spoke of his beating. Turn. for he could not understand how a book which taught so strongly the unity of God. Then. the angels were commanded to worship Adam and he could not help wondering how such a book could compulsion in religion [Suratu Ali 'imran (iii) 79] Emarat knew tion. ' is not from God. and showed his friend the marks of the blows upon his arms and shoulders the young merchant's eyes blazed him all the events it is clear. and where. save Ibhs. and led him away related to to a quiet spot on the river bank where he be manifestly impossible for fast. Emarat. then. '' astonished the angels. and the duty of shipped they Then Emarat came to * to passages inciting the '. Eat and drink ' cession seemed fitting that the Creator of all the earth should be omnipresent. later on. to become a hesitated. The next passage which (ii) The youth was arrested his attention delighted with the words. on that day. then fast (ii) Two friend days later Emarat was suddenly accosted by his strictly until night. therefore. partly So long I have from . If this verse be true. their last meeting. should distinctly state that. did not spend much time over this difficult passage. the youth read on until he came to the words of the Qur'an regarding the observation of the fast. how the God whose he laid found only at Mecca tressed. that either the Qur'an with anger.' said he. for is were really a part of the Qur'an. The latter drew his arm in his. then Muhammad cannot be an intercessor at the day of judgement. The 136]. thy face towards the sacred mosque. still later on. fight against the infidels it ' and. east will was Suratu'l-Baqara shall not satisfy 45 'Fear ye the day when soul all.' The youth was honestly puzzled. until ye can discern a white thread from a black thread by the day- was everywhere should now be and at length. but with a mind anxious and perplexed proceeded to finish really dictory passages of the Qur'an by the doctrine of abroga- the chapter. 'And when we said to Bow down and worship Adam ". Emarat were these. face . it would 183] . The words that so. but his joy was turned into dismay when. ^ somehow. no intercession will be accepted. he read. and he wondered . but. as he read. that the maulavis explained such contra- be a revelation from God. and the west are God's.' [Suratu'l-Baqara and as he turned to the notes at the foot of the page he was reminded of the existence of countries like Iceland and Greenland where the summer's day is nearly six months long. however. into it He guideth whom He (ii) the right path' [Suratu'l-Baqara for for soul at nor shall any inter- be accepted from them/ and. thoroughly perplexed.

Our story "where he is ended. and I purpose. and in thanksgiving to God who had led . I teachings. I am turned out of my home. and would examine the Qur'an and the great commentaries on it. that. who has also been baptized. and. . and. The latter is not without hope that his father will yet surrender himself to the claims of Christ. and do not fear that. continued his studies he passed the matriculation examination of the maulavl's treatment of you. and would compel men against To tell the victions to follow Muhammad. and Ghulam is now dare not reject ' Yes.i 136 GHULAM JABBAR'S RENUNCIATION I emArat's conversion He until 137 somehow. was baptized by the missionary. Mr. they would be compelled to believe in and obey tke Taurat and InjiL a welcome visitor at his old home.' rejoined Ghulim. days when they planned sionary to Islam. if Muslims would study this matter without prejudice. their contruth. but he has long ing. for the teaching of the Injil is clear for that only in the Prophet *Isa there salvation. As my course spend my life countrymen ' is clear. with the latter's help.1. instead of relying upon hearsay. we might be found wrong in our judgements. like you. the missionary's words at the meeting the other day practically decided Injil is me its . I have hands to work. is happily settled in a town some distance south of Dhanpur. If..i. God willing.' replied Emarat. to in seeking to bring my Muslim * fellow-. Williams. to a knowledge of the truth'. J . I am persuaded. has decided me that I can- He then entered the famous Serampur College for theological trainCalcutta University a few weeks later. Ghulam returned to Dhdnpur. He is the uncorrupted word of God. partly because hoped that. shall at once inform my father of my purpose to become a Christian. th. with the munshi's daughter Amiran as a wife. and what I have seen of the fear. and he and Emirat. and. I And as for me. together and tallc of the convert the Christian mis- And when coming me. I will seek my fortunes elsewhere. often sit to. up their them to ^ peace and safety. came forth equipped for his life's now an earnest preacher of the Gospel. in work. I shall prosper/ lifted Then hearts the two friends knelt together. then.' since repented of that cruel beating. GhuJam's father is still a Muslim. with God on my side. not longer remain in a religion which substitutes force for argument. as such. for I can see clearly now that the due time. they do that they cannot stop short of beis Christians. But what I have read in the Qur'an.\ .

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