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Job Design:Job design involves conscious efforts to organize tasks, duties and responsibilities into a unit work to achieve certain objectives. Job design follows job analysis. Job design involves three steps: 1. The specification of individual tasks 2. The specification of methods of performing each task and 3. The combination of tasks into specific jobs to be assigned to individuals. Steps 1 and 3 determine the content of the job, while step 2 indicates precisely how the job shall be performed. The key or to be successful in job design balance the requirements of the organization and the job holder. Impact of Job Design on Organizations and Employee s Objective:The design of jobs has a critical impact on organizations and employee objectives. From the organizations perspective, the way tasks and responsibilities are grouped can affect productivity and costs. Jobs that are too demanding are difficult to fill. Boring may lead to higher turn-over. For an employee, motivation and job satisfaction are affected by the match between job factors (content, qualifications, rewards) and personnel needs. Therefore, thoughtful design of jobs can help both the organization and its employees achieve their objectives. Jobs are the foundation of organizational productivity and employee satisfaction or lack thereof. How well the jobs are designed will play an important role in success, or even survival of any firm. As the number of workers coming to labor market and international competition
Work Flow: The flow of work in a firm is strongly influenced by the nature of product and service. Job Design 6. Organizational Factors:Organizational factors include characteristics of task. Well designed jobs will become more important in attracting and retaining a motivated workforce which is capable of producing high quality products and services. The product or service usually suggest the sequence and between the jobs if work is to be done efficiently. Organizational Factors 2. Characteristics of task: Job design requires the assembly of a number of tasks into a job or a group of jobs. An individual may carry out one main task which consists of a number of inter-related elements or functions. task functions may be split between a team working closely together or strung along on assembly line. environmental and behavioural factors. On the other hand. Productive Satisfying Job design is affected by organizational. FACTORS AFFECTING JOB DESIGN:1. scope of decisions that have to be made. Behavioural Factors 4. Feedback 5. A properly designed job will make it productive and satisfying. work flow. ergonomics and work practices. Complexity in a job may be reflection of the number and variety of tasks to be carried out. Environmental Factors 3. .increases.
Behavioural Factors:- . switches and other facilities is changed to make the job holder feel comfortable. management style and work sophistication and attitudes are just some of the differences that will be neglected which in turn will affect job design. hours of work.Ergonomics: Ergonomics is concerned with designing and shaping jobs to fit the physical abilities and characteristics of employees. Considerable thought must be given as to who will actually do the work. Social and Cultural Expectations:When designing jobs there shall be instances where some national and cultural differences. Environmental Factors:The external factors that have a bearing on job design are employee abilities and availability and social and cultural expectations. religious beliefs. rest breaks. (e. Nature of jobs remains the same but the location of tools. These methods may arise from tradition or the collective wishes of employees. Employee abilities and availability: Efficiency consideration must be balanced against the abilities and availability of the people who are to do the work.g) When Henry Ford made use of the assembly line. So jobs were designed simple and required training. Work Practices: Work practices are set ways of performing works. he was aware that most potential workers lacked any automobile making experience. holidays.
which tend to increase the employee s sense of recognition and self-esteem. It is the freedom to control one s responses to the environment. Use of Abilities: The job must be perceived by individuals as requiring them to use abilities they value in order to perform the job effectively. defining the feedback.Feedback: Individuals need to receive meaningful feedback about their performance by evaluating their performance. Boredom in turn. leads to fatigue in turn causing mistakes. Jobs that give workers authority to make decisions will provide added responsibilities. personnel specialists can reduce errors caused by fatigue. . Autonomy: Autonomy is being responsible for what one does. Variety: Lack of variety may cause boredom. This implies that they need to ideally work on a complete product. By injecting variety into jobs.
planning and controlling powers. Job becomes enriched when it gives job-holder more decision making. layout of the workplace. . Characteristics of an enriched job:Direct Feedback: Employees should be able to get immediate knowledge of the results they are achieving. When an activity is no longer challenging.JOB DESIGN APPROACHES Job Rotation: Jobs rotation involves moving employees from job to job to add variety and reduce boredom. Job Engineering: Job engineering focuses on the tasks to be performed methods to be used. Scheduling own work: Freedom to schedule one s own work contributes to enrichment.g) An auto mechanic undergoes job enlargement when he switches from only changing oil to changing oil. workflows among employees. It reduces boredom and dis-interest through diversifying the employee s activities. the employee would be moved to another job at the same level that has similar requirements. Deciding when to tackle which assignment is an example of self scheduling. greasing and changing transmission fluid. (e. Job Enlargement: Job enlargement refers to the expansion of number of different tasks performed by an employee in a single job. Client Relationship: An employee who serves a client or customer directly has an enriched job. Job Enrichment: It involves adding more motivators to a job to make it more rewarding. performance standards and interdependent among people and machines. New learning: An enriched job allows its incumbent to feel that he is growing intellectually. The client can be outside the firm or inside.
Personal Accountability: An enriched job holds the incumbent responsible for the results.Unique Experience: An enriched job has some unique qualities or features such as a quality controller visiting a supplier. such as quality assurance manager handling a customer s complaints about quality. Direct Communication Authority: An enriched job allows the worker to communicate directly with people who use his or her output. Control over Resources: One approach to job enrichment is for each employee to have control over his or her resources and expenses. .