This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Welcome to Scribd! Start your free trial and access books, documents and more.Find out more

Reference: “NAGARATH & GOPAL” -- Control System “B.L.TERAJA” - Electrical Technology Apparatus Required: 0-20A MC 0-5 A MC 0-2 A MC 0-50 MA (DMM) MI Voltmeters 0-250 V MC 0-250 V MI 0-30 V MC 0-50 V MI Rheostat 50 , 5 A 1000 , 1 A 50 , 5 A Theory: The transfer function is defined as the ratio of Laplace transform of the output variable to the Laplace transform of input variable. The DC motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. The electrical energy supplied at the armature terminals converted into controlled mechanical energy. (i)Armature controlled DC shunt motor In armature control, the field current is kept constant and the armature voltage is varied and hence the speed is varied. The field current If(t) is maintained constant by keeping the Vf(t) to a constant value Vf and the armature current Ia(t) is varied to change the torque Tm(t) of the load connected to the motor shaft. Thus the input variable of the motor is the armature voltage Va(t) and the output variable is the torque Tm(t). The speed of the DC motor is directly proportional to the armature voltage and inversely proportional to the flux in the armature. i.e. N Va / In the armature controlled DC motor, the desired speed is obtained by varying the armature voltage. Ammeters

Va = IaRa + La dIa(t)/dt + Eb(t) ………. .e. T(t) = Jd2/dt2 + f d/dt …………(6) Taking laplace transform of equation (6). i. T Ia T = Kt Ia ……. the torque developed is proportional to the armature current.Transfer Function By Kirchoff „s law.Eb(s)] / [Ra+sLa] ……… (2) Since the field current is kept constant . The flux developed If(t) . (1) Ra La If = constant Va Ia eb Taking Laplace transform of equation (1) . Kt = T / Ia N-m / A …………..e. …………(7) Substituting equation (4) in (7).(8) Substituting equation (2) in (8). Eb(t) = Kb d/dt = Kb(t) …………(10) Where Kb = back emf constant..f Va(s) = [Ra+sLa] Ia(s) + Eb(s) Ia(s) = [Va(s) . T (s) = Kt Ia (s) ……….(9) Motor back emf is proportional to speed. (3) Taking laplace transform of equation (3). Kt Ia (s) = Js2(s) + f s(s) s(s) [Js+f] = Kt Ia (s) ………... (5) The torque equation is given by. If is constant Hence torque developed T Ia .Eb(s)] / [Ra+sLa] ……….i. s(s) [Js+f] = Kt [Va(s) . we have Tm J..(4) Where Kt =Torque constant. T(s) = Js2(s) + f s(s).

(4). Ra & La.Kb(s)] / [Ra+sLa] (s) [Js+f] = Kt [Va(s) . kg-m2 Block diagram: Using equations (2). . Kt. Va(s) + (s) 1/[Ra+sLa] Eb(s) Kt 1/[Js+f] Kb For finding the transfer function of the armature control DC motor. Eb(s) = Kb(s) …………………(11) Substituting equation (11) in (9). Give the connections as per circuit diagram. La = Armature Inductance . the block diagram is drawn for armature controlled DC motor.Kb(s)] / [Ra+sLa] . (7) & (11). N-m / A Kb = Back emf constant = Eb / N . Ra = Armature resistance . we have to find the values of J. f.Load test to determine Kt & Kf Conduct the load test with two constants normal (rated value) & sub normal (say 80% of rated field current) values of field currents. since d/dt = (s) & s(s)= (s) (s) / Va(s) = Kt / { Kt Kb+ (Js+f) (Ra+sLa)} Where. s(s) [Js+f] = Kt [Va(s) . Keep the field rheostat in minimum position & switch on 230 V supply.Taking laplace transform of equation (10). PROCEDURE: (i). Volts/(rad/sec) f = Frictional constant . Hendry Kt = Torque constant = T / Ia . Kb. N-m/(rad/sec) J = moment of Inertia .

time and .Va & speed Calculate the torque developed. Total losses in a circuit= VI – Ia2R . From this graph. = 2πN /60 J = (Losses * t *2 ) / (12 -22) N1 = N * e –t1/τm N2 = N * e –t2/τm Give the connections as per circuit diagram. Energy = (Losses * t ) = ½ J (12 -22) N1 =1600 RPM . Plot the graph between T Vs If From this graph. Make the motor to run at a speed greater than 1600 RPM. Open the switch suddenly. The friction constant . By closing the switch . . [Note: The reason why we conduct the experiment for two field currents is to derive Kf from armature control graph. For different loads note down Ia. f is obtained using the exponential relation between speed . The moment of inertia . Repeat the same for 80% of excitation current. J is obtained from the relation between loss .viz.Ia and If.If2) for the same armature current. constant losses and variable losses.VIf Losses = V(Ia + If) . ] From the graph deduce two points (T1. make the measurement of V . N2 = 1400 RPM .2 =1400RPM) Plot a Graph showing relation between speed & time.Ia2Ra . obtain Kf. Adjust the field rheostat to rated speed & consider the corresponding field current as rated field current. Using stop watch.Retardation Test to find J & f The total losses can be divided into two parts. note down the time taken for the speed of the motor to fall down from 1600 RPM to 1400 RPM.If1) and (T2. Plot a graph between T(Y-axis) and Ia (X-axis) for both the cases. time and time constant. (1 =1600 RPM. obtain Kt for any one field current.. The constant losses include frictional & inertia losses.VIf. (ii).

La Give the connections as per circuit diagram. Apply an ac voltage & measure the field reactance Zf & armature reactance Za. give the connections as shown. where f= supply frequency=50 Hz RESULT: QUESTIONS: (COMMON TO ARMATURE / FIELD CONTROL) 1. In field controlled DC servomotor the reversible operation is possible by reversing the field current – State TRUE or FALSE. 4. Distinguish between DC motor & DC servomotor. Measure Ra & Rf. 3. 2. as the armature resistance is of order of 0.21 ohms and it can be measured using the circuit shown] To measure Lf & La. What is the field time constant of field controlled servomotor? 6. What is the purpose of retardation test? . What is meant by reset time? 10. State the assumptions made while obtaining the transfer function of an armature controlled DC motor.the circuit shown can be used for measurement of Rf Similarly . Calculate Xf =Square root of Zf2 –Rf2 and Lf = Square root of (Zf2 –Rf2 ) / 2f Calculate Xa =Square root of Za2 –Ra2 and La = Square root of (Za2 –Ra2 ) / 2f. Calculate no load input power using the values read by ammeter & voltmeter connected to armature circuitry. What is the use of transfer function? 8. V-A method to obtain Ra. What are the characteristics of feedback? 9. What are the characteristics of servomotors? 5. What is the motor gain constant of field controlled servomotor? 7. (iii). [As the field winding resistance is of the order of 250300ohms and it can withstand a current of 1A. To find J : [V(Ia + If) –Ia2Ra -VIf ] * t = (1/2) J(12 -22) τm = (t2 – t1) / (ln N1 – ln N2) To find f : J / τm .

(I). LOAD TEST TO DETERMINE KT & Kb Circuit Diagram 20A Fuse 3 point starter L F A (0-20A) +A S1 + V + 220V D DC P Supply S T 1000Ω/1A A1 S2 F1 (0-300V) F2 + A M A2 Brake Drum (0-2A) - - If (A) Ia (A) Va (V) Tabulation N (rpm) =2N/60 (rad/sec) Eb = Va-IaRa (V) T=EbIa/ (N-m) Rated Value 80% of rated value .

0-300V F2 + A - (0-2A) Tabulation Retardation Test For J only Both J & f Range of Speed (rpm) 1500 to 225 1500 to 225 Time (Sec) (III) . RETARDATION TEST TO FIND J & F Circuit Diagram 20A Fuse 220V DC Supply D P S T L F A (0-20A) + A F1 V S 1000Ω/1A + M .DETERMINATION OF RA Circuit Diagram 5A + fuse 30V DC Supply D P S T (0-5A) + A 500Ω/5A + (0 –30)V V - A1 M A2 - .(II).

Tabulation S.Ohms Za = …….No. Ohms .. DETERMINATION OF La Circuit Diagram 5A Fuse (0 –5A) A A1 M 230V D 1Φ AC P Supply S T A E (0-30V) V A2 c NL Using LCD METER La = Model Graph: To find Kt Torque (N–m) To find Kb Eb( V) Rated 80% of rated Ia(Amps) ω(rad/sec) Model Calculation: Ra = …….. Va (V) Ia (A) Ra (Ohms) Calculation by least square method Ra = [V1I1 +V2I2 +V3I3+V4I4 ] / (I12+I22+I32+I42) (IV).

Kt = Torque constant = T / Ia = ………… N-m / A Kb = Back emf constant = Eb / N = ………. H f = 50 Hz From Graph. La = Square root of (Za2 –Ra2) / 2f =……. Volts/(rad/sec) From Retardation test o Finding J = o Finding f = Transfer function of armature controlled motor (s) / Va(s) = Kt / { Kt Kb+(Js+f)(Ra + sLa ) (s) / Va(s) = Result: Thus the transfer function of dc shunt motor by armature-control method is determined to be .

5 A Theory: The transfer function is defined as the ratio of Laplace transform of the output variable to the Laplace transform of input variable. The electrical energy supplied at the armature terminals converted into controlled mechanical energy.Field Controlled DC Shunt Motor In field control method. the armature current I a(t) is maintained to a constant value Ia while the field voltage Vf(t) is varied to control the speed or torque of the motor. Ia .TRANSFER FUNCTION OF FIELD CONTROLLED DC MOTOR Aim: To determine the transfer function of a field controlled dc shunt motor Apparatus Required: Ammeters 0-20A MC 1 0-5 A MC 0-2 A MC 0-50 MA (DMM) MI Voltmeters 0-250 V MC 0-250 V MI 0-30 V MC 0-50 V MI Rheostat 50 . f Rf = Resistance of field circuit . Rf Ef If T Let J. The DC motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. Transfer Function The circuit for field controlled dc shunt motor is given in figure. (ii). 5 A 1000 . 1 A 50 . Thus the input of the motor is field voltage V f(t) and the output is the motor speed and the load displacement (t) or (t).

If & T Ia as Ia is constant. Volts If = Excitation current .. which implies (s) = Kf If(s)/[Js+f]………. (7) Substituting equation (2) in (7). Amperes J = Moment of Inertia . (s) / Ef(s) = Kf / {[Js+f] [Rf+s Lf]} . Henry Ef = Excitation voltage .(4) Taking laplace transform of equation (3).N-m / (rad/sec) = Angular velocity = d/dt in rad/sec Applying Kirchoff‟s law. i.(1) Taking Laplace transform of equation (1) Ef(s) = RfIf(s) + Lf sIf(s) . ……(6) Substituting equation (5) in (6). T(s) = Js(s) + f(s).. T(t) = Jd2/dt2 + f d/dt = Jd/dt+f Taking laplace of the above equation.kg-m2 f = Co efficient of friction .which implies T If T =Kf If(t) ……(3) Where Kf = T / If = Constant in N-m /amperes ….e.Lf = Inductance of field circuit .which implies If(s) = Ef(s) / [Rf+s Lf] …(2) The torque developed is proportional to the field current.. Ef(t) = RfIf(t) + Lf dIf(t)/dt ………. Kf If(s) = Js(s) + f(s). T . since the armature current is constant. T (s) =Kf If(s) ……(5) The torque equation is given by.

Va & speed Calculate the torque developed. f. Load test to determine Kt & Kf Conduct the load test with two constants normal (rated value) & sub normal (say 80% of rated field current) values of field currents. Kf. ] From the graph deduce two points (T1. Rf & Lf. Give the connections as per circuit diagram. From this graph. For different loads note down Ia.Block Diagram: Using equations (2). obtain Kf.If2) for the same armature current. Kt & Kf can be found out using load test. Keep the field rheostat in minimum position & switch on 230 V supply. (5) & (6). Repeat the same for 80% of excitation current. . Plot a graph between T(Y-axis) and Ia (X-axis) for both the cases. V-A method cab be used to find Ra. the block diagram is drawn for field controlled dc motor. [Note: The reason why we conduct the experiment for two field currents is to derive Kf from armature control graph. obtain Kt for any one field current. we have to find the values of J.If1) and (T2. (s) Ef(s) 1 / [Rf+s Lf] If(s) Kf T(s) 1 / [Js+f] For finding the transfer function of field control method. Adjust the field rheostat to rated speed & consider the corresponding field current as rated field current. Rf. La & Lf and retardation & Swinburne‟s test can be used to find J & f. Plot the graph between T Vs If From this graph. Procedure: (i).

Ia and If. τm = (t2 – t1) / (ln N1 – ln N2) (iii). as the armature resistance is of order of 0. La & Lf Give the connections as per circuit diagram. f is obtained using the exponential relation between speed .Retardation Test to find J & f The total losses can be divided into two parts.V-A method to obtain Ra.21 ohms and it can be measured using the circuit shown] To measure Lf & La. [As the field winding resistance is of the order of 250300ohms and it can withstand a current of 1A. note down the time taken for the speed of the motor to fall down from 1600 RPM to 1400 RPM. (1 =1600 RPM. The friction constant .2 =1400RPM) Plot a Graph showing relation between speed & time. Energy = (Losses * t ) = ½ J (12 -22) N1 =1600 RPM . . = 2πN /60 J = (Losses * t *2 ) / (12 -22) N1 = N * e –t1/τm N2 = N * e –t2/τm Give the connections as per circuit diagram.time and . The moment of inertia . The constant losses include frictional & inertia losses. Using stop watch.. constant losses and variable losses. give the connections as shown. Rf. Total losses in a circuit= VI – Ia2R . Measure Ra & Rf.the circuit shown can be used for measurement of Rf Similarly .(ii). time and time constant. By closing the switch . To find J : [V(Ia + If) –Ia2Ra -VIf ] * t = (1/2) J(12 -22) To find f : J / τm . J is obtained from the relation between loss .viz.VIf. Make the motor to run at a speed greater than 1600 RPM. N2 = 1400 RPM . Open the switch suddenly.VIf Losses = V(Ia + If) . Apply an ac voltage & measure the field reactance Zf & armature reactance Za. make the measurement of V . Calculate no load input power using the values read by ammeter & voltmeter connected to armature circuitry.Ia2Ra .

Load Test to Determine KT & KF Circuit Diagram 20A Fuse L F A (0-20A) + A S1 + V + 220V D DC P Supply S T 1000Ω/1A . Retardation Test to find J & F Circuit Diagram 20A Fuse 220V DC Supply D P S T L F A + (0-20A) A S 1000Ω/1 F1 + V + A F2 (0-2A) M Tabulation Retardation Test For J only Range of Speed (rpm) 1500 to 225 Time (Sec) .M (0-300V) S2 F1 F2 + A Brake Drum (0-2A) From load test Ia (Amps) - If (Amps) Va(Volts) (II). Calculate Xf =Square root of Zf2 –Rf2 and Lf = Square root of (Zf2 –Rf2 ) / 2f Where f= supply frequency=50 Hz (I).

Determination of Lf Circuit Diagram 1A P 230V 1Φ AC 50Hz D P S T C N By using LCR meter Lf = Model graph: To find Kf Torque (N-m) A (0-300)V 1/[Rf + s Lf] E F2 (0-100)mA A F1 Zf If (amps) .No.Both J & f 1500 to 225 (III). DETERMINATION OF Rf Circuit Diagram 2A + Fuse 220V DC Supply D P S T (0-2)A + A + V 1000Ω/1A F1 Rf (0-300V) - F2 - Tabulation S. Vf (V) If (A) Rf(Ohms) Using Least square method Rf = (IV) .

H f = 50 Hz From Graph.. Kf = T / If = …………… N-m /amperes\ From Retardation test o Finding J = o Finding f = Transfer function of field controlled motor (s) / Ef(s) = Kf / {[Js+f] [Rf+s Lf]} (s) / Ef(s) = Result: Thus the transfer function of dc shunt motor by field-control method is determined to be .Ohms Zf = ……. Ohms Lf = Square root of (Zf2 –Rf2 ) / 2f = ……..Model Calculation: Rf = …….

- Armature Controlled DCMotor Transfer Function
- Exp 7
- Four quadrant operation
- transfer function of d.c.machine using generalised machine theory
- The DC Motor [PDF Library]
- TF Armature Controlled DC Motor
- New Microsoft Word Document
- ME467 Engine Starting
- Mayank's Presentation on d.c. Motor
- Core Loss Testing
- Stepper Motors
- Man 2258
- 061709-Introduction to Motors
- 5.Assessment of motors
- XC9572XL application note
- Start Delta Starter vs Soft Starter
- AxialFlywheel IEEE-IAS 2002
- Acdrives Assign
- Maxon EC13 30Watt Sterilisable
- IJERIVOLUME 2, NUMBER 2 Fall 2010
- Motor
- Double Acting Hacksaw Machine Using Scotch Yoke Mechanism
- AC motors
- Synchronous Condenser
- DC Motor Drive With a Router Speed Controller1_1
- WEGSM
- Reluctance & Hysteresis Motor
- Electric Motor
- Web Soft Starter Pb Dkddpb07b102
- MegaOhmsGuidelines

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd