Stainless Steel Comparator

These steels of the 400 series usually contain a minimum of 11. It compares the types. finishes and applications of stainless produced by AK Steel. grades. metallurgists noticed that chromium had a greater attraction to oxygen than iron did so they added the element chromium to steel.5% up to 18% chromium and have higher levels of carbon than ferritics. they become slightly magnetic when cold worked. yet can be fabricated into intricate shapes for many uses. the chrome united with oxygen to form a very tight transparent layer over the steel surface that prevented rusting by precluding further oxidation.5% to 20% chromium for corrosion resistance and resistance to scaling at elevated temperatures. chemistries. These various grades of stainless are divided into five major families or classes. The basic product information contained in the following pages will help you match the application needs with a specific grade of stainless steel. Corrosion Resistance Strength at Elevated Temperatures Strength and Ductility at Cryogenic Temperatures Oxidation Resistance at High Temperatures Appearance Abrasion Resistance . They possess strength and toughness at both extremes of the temperature scale. They are non-magnetic in the annealed condition and depending on the composition. All 200 and 300 series steels are austenitic and contain 15% to 30% chromium and 2% to 20% nickel for enhanced surface quality. Austenitic Stainless Steels Austenitic stainless steels are the most specified grades produced because of their excellent formability and corrosion resistance. They are nonhardenable by heat treating and are What is Stainless Steel? In the early nineteen hundreds. processing equipment and a variety of industrial applications. formability and increased corrosion and wear resistance.Let’s Go to Class There are more than 250 different stainless steels. Because of this outstanding versatility. wear or denting. and are used extensively in cutlery. The general classes have been developed to consolidate the chemistries and mechanical properties required to meet specific customer application needs. Studies prove that when at least 10% chromium was added. These steels are used for automotive trim. primarily the nickel content. This transparent layer is self-healing when damaged by scratches. stainless deserves careful consideration for any product where one or more of the following requirements are involved: always magnetic. cookware. such as automotive emission control exhaust systems. Ferritic Stainless Steels This group of steels in the 400 series contains 10. sports knives and multipurpose tools. Ferritic stainless is used in applications where resistance to corrosion is important. Stainless steels are materials of enduring beauty. Martensitic Stainless Steels Welcome to AK Steel’s Family of Stainless Steels This product comparator reviews the fundamentals of stainless steels. These steels also withstand the corrosive attack of many acids. They are capable of being heat treated to a wide range of useful hardness and strength levels.

Carbon strengthens stainless steel but promotes the formation of precipitates harmful to corrosion resistance. They exhibit characteristics of both phases with higher strength and ductility. Small amounts of silicon are added to all grades of stainless for deoxidizing. Nickel stabilizes the austenitic structure and increases ductility. chemical. The martensitic group includes 17-4 PH® and 15-5 PH® chromiumnickel. making stainless steel easier to form. Those composition ranges typically include a group of chemical elements for each grade of stainless steel. It also decreases susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking and provides age-hardening effects. with columbium and copper additions. They are austenitic in the annealed state. martensitic and semi-austenitic. which precipitates the copper. particularly in industrial and marine atmospheres. It improves scaling resistance. It acts as a grain refiner and promotes the formation of ferrite.Alloys Make the Grade Precipitation-Hardening Stainless Steels There are two general areas of PH grade stainless steels. from heat to heat and year to year. and food processing applications. AK Steel’s NITRONIC® 19D has good cyclic oxidation. but martensitic in the hardened condition. Aluminum is a very strong ferrite former and lowers the hardenability of stainless steel. springs and aircraft bulkheads. It acts as a grain refiner and promotes the formation of ferrite. such as retaining rings. PH 15-7 Mo stainless is used in applications requiring high strength and hardness. They develop their high strength and hardness through heat treatment. food and textile processing industries. high strength and high resistance to stress corrosion cracking. Manganese promotes the stability of austenite. The martensitic PH steels are used in aerospace. Molybdenum increases corrosion resistance. Manganese is important as a partial replacement of nickel in 200 series stainless grades. Copper is added to stainless steels to increase their resistance to certain corrosive environments. demands precise control of raw material ingredients and melting practices. 17-7 PH stainless has excellent high strength and fatigue properties. The manufacture of quality stainless steel. It resists carburizing at high temperatures and slightly increases tensile strength and hardness. high strength and excellent stress corrosion resistance. chemical and petrochemical. Nitrogen is added to second generation duplex alloys and provides strength and increased weldability. It increases high temperature strength and corrosion resistance. Silicon increases scaling resistance by forming a tight initial scale. It expands the range of passivity and counteracts tendency to pit especially in chloride environments. Alloying Elements Following is a brief look at the alloying elements found in stainless steels and their functions. and creep resistance. and the 2205 alloy provides very good pitting and uniform corrosion resistance. Titanium combines with carbon to reduce susceptibility to intergranular corrosion. Columbium combines with carbon to reduce susceptibility to intergranular corrosion. Exact quantities of presorted scrap and alloying elements are delivered to the melting furnaces so that the heats or lots will be within specified composition ranges. The semi-austenitic grades are 17-7 PH® and PH 15-7 Mo®. Duplex Stainless Steels These alloys have a mixture of austenite and ferrite in their structure. . at or near room temperature and improves hot working properties. and is used in aerospace components. Chromium forms a surface film of chromium oxide to make the stainless steel corrosion resistant. strength at elevated temperatures. It also increases the scaling resistance at elevated temperatures. Addition of up to 2% manganese has no effect on strength. which will withstand cyclic temperature changes. ductility and toughness.

corrosion and stress cracking resistance Heat exchangers. transportation equipment Applications requiring improved finish over Type 409.5 – – – – – – – . Ti – . hopper cars.20 Aluminum coating Ti – .06 . furnace components. Cb – . machine parts Cutlery.01 .35 Si – . miscellaneous automotive. 18 SR 18 Cr-Cb 444 16.5 12 11 11 – 0. better surface finish Corrosion resistance comparable to 409. Cu – .40 . storage tanks and shipping containers Appliance.15 Cb – .38 .012 .02 . Mn – . caskets Electrical cabinetry Mild corrosive service Fractionation towers High-temperature use.15 430 434 436 439 Aluminized 439 435 Mod.015 . heat exchangers. multifunctional tools Cutlery.5 – – .15. solar panels. oxidation.5 16.Typical Chemical Composition % Stainless Types Cr Ni C Other Significant Elements Characteristics AK Steel Typical Applications Ferritic Stainless Steels 409 Aluminized 409 409 Ni 400 400 Cb 410S 11 Cr-Cb 41003 11 – .5 17. toughness and fabricating characteristics General-purpose corrosion resistance Mo – 1. hardenable Increased hardenability Increased hardenability Increased hardenability Cutlery.015 .5 12.70. engine components Martensitic Stainless Steels 410 410H 420 420 HC 11.30 Cb – .80 More oxidation and creep resistant than 409 and 439 Excellent weldability.30 Ti – .75 Al – .02 .01 .5 12.01 Ti – . salt and cosmetic corrosion resistance Improved formability and weldability High-temperature scaling resistance Oxidation resistant.20 Economical corrosion and oxidation resistance Economical corrosion.0 Improved corrosion resistance over 430 Controlled roping Wet corrosion and oxidation resistance Economical corrosion oxidation. auto exhaust systems Water heaters. furnace liners.30. Cb – . welded tubing and auto exhaust components Heating units.70.065 16. exhaust flanges. automotive exhaust systems Coal handling equipment.02 .0 Automotive trim Heating units.25.40.02 Ti – . furnace liners.50 Al – 1. Cb – .5 – – – – .42 General purpose. automotive exhaust systems Heat exchangers. general purpose Si – 1. salt and cosmetic corrosion resistance Corrosion resistance superior to mild and low-carbon steels Corrosion resistance comparable to 409.02 . flue liners Automotive trim 11 11 12 11.14 . chutes. welded tubing and auto exhaust components Automotive trim Industrial ovens.15 Mo – 2.05 .012 .85 – – – – .40 Ti – . creep resistant Oxidation.25. furnace liners Heat exchangers. Al – .5 17 17. Cb – . auto exhaust components Tubing for bus frames. Mn – . rulers Cutlery. food equipment.8 17 17 19.0.5 11.01 .20 Ti – .18 . scissors .015 Mo – 1.20. better surface finish Low-cost. furnaces.55 Ti – .

02 Multipurpose Low carbon minimizes carbide precipitation during welding Oxidation resistant Mo – 2 Mo – 2 Ti – 5XC min.5 4. marine applications Welded Type 316 applications Heat exchangers to intermediate temperatures.5 17 14. water heater tanks 2205 22 5.5 10.02 Precipitation-Hardening Stainless Steels 17-4 PH® 15-5 PH® 17-7 PH® PH 15-7 Mo® 15.5 10. excellent fatigue properties High strength and hardness Aerospace. pressure vessels. coal buckets and hopper cars Wheel covers. abrasion resistance.05 .5 .0.06 .5 . chemical and petrochemical.085 .25 Cu – 3. aircraft 301 17 7 .5 4.085 Cu – 3. flat springs Retaining rings.5 16. shafts and press rolls . high resistance to stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue Tubing.0. tanks. tubing.17 Low nickel. high work hardening High strength. Al – 1.0 Mo – 2. low thermal expansion.5.5-5. chemical and petrochemical. high work hardening 304 304L 309S 316 316L 321 18 18 8 9 . ferrite free High strength.8 9. pipe. Mn – 5. furnace parts Heat exchangers.02 Cu – 0.10 High strength. N – . Cb – . springs.5. fans.25 Al – 1. architectural trim Welded parts and other 304 applications Heating elements. Pitting corrosion resistance Low carbon minimizes carbide precipitation during welding Titanium stabilized 22 16.05 . food processing Aerospace components.Typical Chemical Composition % Stainless Types Cr Ni C Other Significant Elements Characteristics Stainless Steel Typical Applications Austenitic Stainless Steels 201 NITRONIC® 30 16 16 3. hose clamps.05 .5 17 12.5 .0 High strength and hardness High strength and hardness. high strength and good stress corrosion resistance High strength. good formability Hose clamps. chemical equipment.02 Mo – 3.05 .02 . cookware Hose clamps. bulk solids handling equipment.5.5 7 7.5 14.5 .02 Mn – 6-7. Cb – .25 .0 Heat exchangers. truck and bus frames. aircraft bulkheads Duplex Stainless Steels NITRONIC 19D 21 1.5 Mn – 8. food processing Aerospace. good cyclic oxidation.0 2.0 Ferrite/austenite matrix. springs.06 . food processing equipment Food equipment.

the AK Steel logo. dull surface that results from hot rolling to the speci ed thickness followed by annealing and descaling. which prevents oxide scale formation. In consumer products. Reflections on Finish Surface nish is an important element in any speci cation or purchase order for stainless steel regardless of the intended end use. Intergranular Corrosion — Corrosion that occurs at the grain boundaries in austenitic stainless steels that have been heat treated between 850˚ and 1450˚F. the steel is heated in a furnace lled with hydrogen or nitrogen gases. the appearance of stainless steel is a critical design element and speci cation of the wrong nish can alter the desired e ect. It is especially useful for applications requiring an attractive cosmetic appearance at high temperatures. Alloying — Alloying. especially the stainless steels. refers to the dissolving of one or more elements in a metal to produce a metallic mix or alloy. such as low chromium and martensitic stainless steels. a cold rolled bright annealed nish might be speci ed instead of a more expensive No. 17-4 PH. No. 4 polished nish. 17-7 PH. . 2D — A dull nish produced by cold rolling to gauge. And. Bu ng — A polishing operation utilizing a very ne abrasive compound on a prepared rotating wheel. In bright annealing. Usually caused by precipitation of the chrome carbides. Color Lock is available in a wide range of colors for use in metal roo ng. Balanced Analysis — A term used to indicate the relative quantities of alloying elements necessary to produce the speci ed properties or metallurgical structures in a speci c type of steel. to resist normal corrosion to the point where the metal remains unattacked. Orange Peel — Roughening of the surface sometimes encountered in forming or drawing stainless steels that have a coarse grain structure. Passivity — The ability of certain metals and alloys. The coating features excellent color retention and chalk. I n architecture or other highly visible applications. The Type 1 hot-dipped aluminum coating provides excellent resistance to mu er condensate corrosion and pitting from road salt which allows the exhaust system to remain virtually rust free. restaurant. thus retaining its good appearance. nish is a design element and must be speci ed. and AK Steel 18 Cr-Cb. These products are particularly useful in applications involving the cold end of exhaust systems such as mu ers and tail pipes. or as a preliminary step to polishing. then annealing and pickling in acid to remove scale and oxide from an open air anneal. fascias. No. The uoropolymer top coat is a Duranar® highperformance coating designed for architectural coil coating applications. In institutional kitchen. Type 439. which contacts the work surface. Oxide Film Theory — An explanation of passivity based upon the supposition that a relatively impermeable layer of oxide forms on the surface of stainless steel that retards attack by corrosives. pretreated and primed stainless steel coil. properly nished stainless helps to emphasize the feeling of cleanliness. that do not require quenching to produce hardening by the martensitic reaction. 15-5 PH. Stainless Steel Sheet Finishes No. 8 polished nish. I n addition to visual appeal of polished stainless. PH 15-7 Mo. G reystone. Black Coat stainless steel products provide enhanced formability compared to bare stainless alloys. and hospital applications. Aluminized 409. so ts and specialty accent applications. Black Coat™ Stainless Steels AK Steel Black Coat stainless steels a re available as Type 409. for those applications in which appearance is important. A knowledge of nishes can sometimes result in signi cant savings. t he heated steel combi es n with oxygen in the air to form a layer of oxide on the steel’s surface. Air Hardening Steel — Steels. polished stainless steel not only looks clean. there are a number of functions served by properly prepared stainless surfaces. except that a light temper pass on polished rolls is performed on the annealed and pickled product. in the common metallurgical sense. corrosion. For example. chemical and pollution resistance as well as good exibility and adhesion. Duranar is a registered trademark of PPG Industries. mansard roofs. In sanitary applications. 1 — A rough. or some proprietary rolled nishes might serve the same purpose as a No. NITRONIC and Unibrite are registered trademarks of AK Steel Corporation. There are also economic considerations in specifying nish. Bright Annealed — Bright annealing prevents the formation of undesirable scale that occurs on the surface of steel during the annealing process. Duplex — Steels exhibiting both austenitic and ferritic structures. 2B — A re ective coldrolled nish produced in the same manner as a 2D Sheet Finish. but also is easy to clean and keep clean. The Black Coat system is a multi-layer surface coating continuously applied to stainless steel coils. This is the general-purpose cold-rolled nish that can be used as is. the gleam of well-polished stainless steel has strong sales appeal. Glossary of Stainless Sheet and Strip Terms Abrasion– resistant Steels — A family of steel products developed for those applications involved in sliding and impact abrasion. ©2007 AK Steel Corporation AK Steel.AK Steel Coated Stainless Steels Aluminized Steel Type 1 Stainless Steels Aluminum coated 409 and 439 stainless steels were developed to provide the automotive industry with longer life exhaust system materials. Black Coat and Color Lock are trademarks of AK Steel Corporation. Color Lock™ AK Steel Color Lock stainless steel consists of a uoropolymer paint system applied to a clean. During typical annealing.

as well as applications where the brighter No. It is comparable to a No. 1 finish for strip approximates No. produced in the same manner as a Bright Annealed Finish. The buffing provides a finish that is uniform in color and reflectivity. A light temper pass on polished rolls is performed on the brightannealed product. embossed stainless steel is suitable for a wide variety of decorative applications. Mill-Buffed — Is a highly reflective finish obtained by sending either No. Bright Annealed — A bright. 2D finish for sheet. 3. Leinen — A rolled-on. No. and exterior building panels. This finish is also available without the final temper pass. then bright annealing in a protective inert atmosphere. Greystone™ Bright — A rolledon. reflective. and either annealed or bright annealed. 1 finish followed by a final light cold rolling pass. Retained Austenite — A tendency in martensitic alloys that increases with the alloy and carbon content and with rate of cooling. No. depending on the stainless steel grade. to retain at room temperature a fraction of the austenite phase that is stable at the high temperature and which fails to transform to martensite on cooling. This process results in no scaling of the product. 3 — A polished finish produced in the same manner as a 2B Sheet Finish. 2 — A smooth reflective surface produced by the same processing used for No. highly reflective finish retained by final annealing in a controlledatmosphere furnace. 4 — A polished finish similar to No. Steel’s Leinen Finish is suitable for elevator doors. household trim. done using highly polished rolls. . per ASTM A 480. Initially designed for roofing applications to minimize the glare of sunlight. leaving a bright reflective finish. reflective. tableware and utensils. This depletes chromium in the area of the grain boundaries and makes the metal susceptible in those areas to attack in some corrosive media. 2 or bright annealed strip through a continuous buffing pass. 3 Polish. 2 finish for strip approximates No. Sigma Phase — A brittle and hard intermetallic compound of the general formula FeCr. This finish is used for severely drawn or formed parts. The atmosphere usually consists of dry hydrogen. This product results in a uniform finish that can be substituted for polish finish in many applications. tableware. This process results in a finish with uniform color and reflectivity. except that the product is conditioned on a mill buffing unit. Unigrain — A rolled-on grit finish produced in the same manner as a 2B Sheet Finish. annealing and pickling. The purpose of atmosphere control is to prevent scaling or oxidation during annealing. except that shot-blasted rolls are substituted for polished rolls on the light temper pass. Semi-hardening — A hardening treatment for martensitic steels in which the metal is quenched from such a low austenitizing temperature that only a portion of the metal transforms. Subzero Treatment — Part of a hardening treatment in which the martensitic steel is quenched from the austenizing temperature and brought immediately to a very low temperature to promote the development of martensite — particularly useful for steels tending to have “retained austenite”. dull. Greystone Bright is ideal for moldings and trim. tending to form particularly in the ferrite of high chromium stainless steels when heated for a period of time in the general range of 925˚ to 1750˚F. With its random pattern. Greystone Dull — A rolled-on. TM — A rolled-on dull finish produced in the same manner as a 2B Sheet Finish. 2D finish for sheet. automotive trim. This product results in a dull. No. but having a composition range of broad extension. ceiling panels and column covers. the carbon in the steel combines with some of the chromium and precipitates as chromium carbide at the grain boundaries. giving it a somewhat smoother appearance than No. AK Steel’s Precipitation Hardening — Hardening that is caused by the precipitation of a metallic compound from a supersaturated solid solution. elevator door panels. except that grit rolls are substituted for polished rolls on the light temper pass. produced by cold rolling. nondirectional finish that is suitable for many painting and coating applications. pebble-like finish produced on an annealed and pickled substrate in a manner similar to a 2B Sheet Finish. linen-like finish produced in the manner similar to a bright annealed and temper rolled product. cold rolled. except that the product is belt polished using 150 grit emery cloth belts. 2 for strip is a general-purpose finish widely used for household appliances. No. in which case the finish is not quite as bright. This pattern is always in the rolling direction and may require metal removal by polishing if a smooth surface is desired. Greystone Dull Finish is ideal for a variety of architectural applications. The non-directional glossy gray surface finish is an embossed pattern applied in the temper rolling operation. Stainless Steel Strip Finishes No. Roping — A fibrous surface pattern that can occur in 400 series sheet and strip when stretched or drawn. pebble-like finish produced in a manner similar to a bright annealed and temper rolled product. Sensitization — A term used to describe the condition of the austenitic stainless steels resulting from heating them in the temperature range of approximately 800˚ to 1500˚F and cooling to room temperature. This finish is used for automotive trim. 7 Sheet Finish.Bright Annealed — A highly reflective cold-rolled finish produced by cold rolling to gauge. utensils and plumbing fixtures. except that the product is belt polished using 120 grit emery cloth belts. which is generally AK Steel Custom Finishes Embossed — An imprinted overall design on the surface of cold rolled stainless steel produced by passing the steel between rolls etched with the design pattern. 2D finish is not required. which allows for seamless connection of pieces. No. yielding a semimartensitic alloy particularly adaptable to machining operations. 1 — A dull gray matte to a fairly reflective finish. When the metal is held in the sensitization range. trim. Unibrite® — AK Steel’s high luster finish. No.

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