DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

EBB1113

TEST 1 (10 % coursework)

Instructions: Answer ALL questions. Time allocation: 60 minutes.

1.

Classify the differential equation

d 2x  2 sin x ! sin 2t dt 2
by type , order and linearity. Give reason(s) for your answer. (4 marks) Type : ODE since one independent variable ( t )

d2x Order: 2 since the highest derivative is dt 2 Linearity: Non-linear because of sin x which is a non linear function of the dependent variable x
2. Solve the differential equation i.

dy x5 ! dx 3 ln y
(4 marks)

3 ln ydy ! x 5 dx 3´ ln ydy ! ´ x 5 dx

x6 3 y ln y  y ! c 6 x6 y ln y  1 ! c 18

(left side: integration by part:

u ! ln x dv ! dy

)

DATE: FEBRUARY 20, 2009

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

EBB1113

ii.

1 dy . (Solve for x ) ! 2 dx y  x
(5 marks)

dx ! y2  x dy dx  x ! y2 dy

linear P ( y ) ! 1 and f ( y ) ! y 2

Integrating factor Q ! e ´ Solution x( y ) ! 

dy

! e y

1 e  y y 2 dy y ´ e 1  e  y ( y 2  2 y  2)  c (after 2 integration by y e

x( y ) !
parts)

?

A

2 y Finally x( y ) !  ( y  2 y  2)  ce

iii.

2 xy  y dx  x dy ! 0 (by finding an appropriate integrating factor)
2 2

(7 marks)

M ! 2 xy  y 2 and N !  x 2 M y ! 2x  2 y ,

x 

My M

! 

2 x  2 x  2 y  4 x  2 y  2( 2 x  y  2 ! ! p( y ) ! ! 2 xy  y 2 2 xy  y 2 y (2 x  y ) y

Integrating factor Q ! e

Multiplying the initial equation by the integrating factor, we obtain

¨ 2x ¸ x2 ©  1¹ dx  2 dy ! 0 © y ¹ y ª º

DATE: FEBRUARY 20, 2009

 

! 2 x

Non exact

¡

´  y dy

2

! e  2 ln y !

1 y2

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

EBB1113

Now M !

2x  x2  1 and N ! 2 y y 
2x 2x and N x ! 2 2 y y
now Exact!

My !

there exists f such that

xf 2 x ! 1 xx y f ( x, y ) ! ´ ( x2 2x  1)dx !  x  g ( y) y y
x2 xf !  2  g ' ( y) y xy

Finally f ( x, y ) !

x2 xc y
Solution

DATE: FEBRUARY 20, 2009

£

xf Since we have also ! xy 

x2 x2 x2 ! 2 , we get  2  g ' ( y ) !  2 y y y g ( y) ! 0 g ( y) ! c

x2  xc ! 0 y

¢

2x xf xf !M !  1 and ! xx y xy

! 

x2 y2

TOTAL MARKS: 20

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