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[PDF] [2009] ITIL V3 Foundation Complete Certification Kit, 2009 Edition Study Guide Book

[PDF] [2009] ITIL V3 Foundation Complete Certification Kit, 2009 Edition Study Guide Book

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Goal: To restore normal service operation as quickly as possible and minimize the adverse impact
on business operations, thus ensuring that the best possible levels of service quality and availability
are maintained.

Normal service operation is defined as operating within the agreed Service Level Agreement (SLA)
limits.

What is the difference between Incident Management and Problem Management?

QUESTION: If we had our gardens and lawns being affected by weeds, how would we address
the situation?

Incident Management: Use techniques that address the symptoms but still allow the weeds to
grow back (e.g. Pull them out, mow over them, use a hedge-trimmer, and buy a goat)

Problem Management: Use techniques that address the root-cause of the symptoms, so that
weeds will no longer grow (e.g. Use poison, dig roots out, re-lawn, concrete over etc.)

This shows the difference between Incident Management and Problem Management. Incident
Management is not concerned with the root cause, only addressing the symptoms as quickly
as possible.

What is an Incident?

1. An unplanned interruption to an IT service.
2. A reduction in the quality of an IT service.
3. Failure of a CI that has not yet affected service, but could likely disrupt service if left
unchecked. This can be raised by internal IT staff.

ITIL® V3 Foundation Complete Certification Kit: 2009 Edition

130

Copyright The Art of Service

Email: service@theartofservice.com | Web: http://theartofservice.com | eLearning: http://theartofservice.org
Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 | Brisbane, Australia

Major Concepts:

Categorization:

Figure 7.K – Priority Grid

Categorization is the unemotional/statistical
aspect of prioritization. It uses the following
formula:

IMPACT + URGENCY = PRIORITY

Impact: Degree to which the
user/business is affected
Urgency: Degree to which resolution
can be delayed

Escalation:

Figure 7.L – Escalation Graph

Escalation is the human element of Incident
Prioritization
. It helps us identify incidents that
may need to be moved up or down the priority
list due to changing factors or priorities.
Escalations can also be combined.

Functional:

• Based on knowledge or expertise
• Also known as “Horizontal Escalation”

Hierarchical:

• For corrective actions by authorized line management
• Also known as “Vertical Escalation”
• When resolution of an incident will not be in time or satisfactory

A combination of both escalation methods may also be appropriate.

ITIL® V3 Foundation Complete Certification Kit: 2009 Edition

131

Copyright The Art of Service

Email: service@theartofservice.com | Web: http://theartofservice.com | eLearning: http://theartofservice.org
Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 | Brisbane, Australia

Activities:

Figure 7.M – Activities of Incident Management

Ownership, Monitoring, Tracking & Communication

• The Service Desk typically OWNS/accountable for ALL Incidents
• Monitor progress, escalation of Incidents
• Advise user and IT management

Incident identification and Logging

• Update/confirm Incident and user details

Categorization, Prioritization (Most critical activity) & Initial Support

• Categorize so the exact type of call is recorded e.g. Incident (E.g. Desktop, Network, Email)
• Assess urgency and impact to assign correct priority
• Match against existing Problems/Known Errors
• Match multiple Incidents and create new Problem record (if necessary)
• Provide initial support based on evidence already gathered (such as currently known issues).

Investigation and Diagnosis

• Assess the Incident details and provide workaround (if available)
• Escalate to support areas (Functional) or IT management (Hierarchical)

Resolution and Recovery

• Resolve the Incident or raise a RFC

Incident Closure

• Update details of actions taken and classification of Incident
• Confirm closure with User

ITIL® V3 Foundation Complete Certification Kit: 2009 Edition

132

Copyright The Art of Service

Email: service@theartofservice.com | Web: http://theartofservice.com | eLearning: http://theartofservice.org
Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 | Brisbane, Australia

Major Incidents:

The highest category or impact defined for an incident. A major incident results in significant disruption
to the business.

A separate procedure, with shorter timescales and greater urgency, must be used for ‘major’ incidents.
A definition of what constitutes a major incident must be agreed and ideally mapped on to the overall
incident prioritization system – such that they will be dealt with through the major incident process.
This often leads directly into Problem Management, to ensure that the root-cause of the Incident is
removed and the incident never occurs again.

Roles and Responsibilities:

Incident Manager:

• Drive effectiveness & efficiency of process
• Manage incident management team
• Ensure SLA targets for Incident resolution are met

Skills:

• Analytical
• Technical
• Business understanding
• Communication
• Calm under pressure.

Service Desk:

• Log/record Incidents
• Incident classification and categorization
• Provide initial support
• Match to existing Incident or Problem records
• Manage communication with end-users

1st, 2nd, 3rd line support groups:

Including Technical and Application Management
• Incident classification
• Investigation and resolution of Incidents

ITIL® V3 Foundation Complete Certification Kit: 2009 Edition

133

Copyright The Art of Service

Email: service@theartofservice.com | Web: http://theartofservice.com | eLearning: http://theartofservice.org
Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 | Brisbane, Australia

Key Performance Indicators for Incident Management:

Just like any other ITIL® process, a balanced range of metrics must be used to demonstrate
effectiveness and efficiency of the Incident Management process, including:

• Total number of incidents;
• Percentage of Incidents handled within agreed response time (Incident response-time targets
may be specified in SLAs, for example, by impact code);
• Average cost per Incident;
• Percentage of Incidents closed by the Service Desk without reference to other levels of

support;

• Number and percentage of Incidents resolved remotely, without the need for a visit.

Challenges affecting Incident Management:

• Are all calls registered? Under a unique number?
• Which priority codes do we use and how is the priority determined?
• Organization of the 1st line
• Organization of the 2nd line, which may be from disparate support groups
• What % “closed on first call” is possible through Incident Management?

ITIL® V3 Foundation Complete Certification Kit: 2009 Edition

134

Copyright The Art of Service

Email: service@theartofservice.com | Web: http://theartofservice.com | eLearning: http://theartofservice.org
Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 | Brisbane, Australia

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