Guidebook for Defensive Drivers

Saudi Aramco Training & Career Development Defensive Drivers Development Program

Prepared by: TRAINING & CAREER DEVELOPMENT

This training material is the exclusive property of the Saudi Arabian Oil Company (Saudi Aramco). Distribution, reproduction, or any use of this material, without the express written consent of Saudi Aramco, is strictly prohibited.

© Saudi Aramco • November 2003

Contents Introduction Defensive Driving Driver Improvement Program Driver Improvement Training & Testing Flowchart Vehicle Inspection Outside Your Vehicle Under the Hood Emergency and Special Equipment Final Preparation Traffic Rules Speed Limits Lane Usage Pavement Markings Traffic Lights Traffic Signs Intersections Are You Too Close? Point of No Return at Traffic Signals Turns Yielding the Right-of-Way Following a Vehicle Two-Second Rule Passing or Overtaking a Vehicle Defensive-Driving Techniques Driving Errors Defensive-Driving Formula Space-Cushion Technique Perception Time and Distance Reaction Time. & Stopping Distance Types of Accidents to Avoid Safe-Driving Tips Page 1 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 14 16 33 35 35 36 38 40 41 42 45 46 47 51 51 53 56 . Braking Distance.

Driving Situations City Driving Expressway Driving General Rules for Highway Driving Night Driving Safety Tips for Night Driving Desert Driving Navigation Car Breakdown and Other Emergencies Before Leaving the Road Making a Water Trap Emergencies Emergency Communication Parking Adverse Driving Conditions Driver Condition Vehicle Condition Road Condition Traffic Condition Light Condition Weather Condition Saudi Aramco Policy Reporting an Accident G. 6.030 Summary 57 58 59 60 61 62 66 73 74 75 77 80 81 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 .I.

Introduction Defensive Driving Defensive-driving principles and techniques are the cornerstones of the Driver Improvement Program. Do your part in helping make our roads safe. It also contains a section on off-road driving related mainly to deep desert driving focused on light and medium 4x4 trucks to cover navigation techniques with map and compass. Defensive driving is everyone’s responsibility. It means driving so as to prevent accidents. The defensive driver maintains his vehicle in good running condition and is always prepared for the unexpected. He always knows how to drive in adverse driving conditions. it hopefully will provide useful information for even the most experienced drivers. 1 . GPS receivers. He is always ready to yield the right-of-way to others. and during emergencies. This manual is not the final word on defensive-driving principles and techniques. 4x4 vehicles and trucks.030 is included for the review of Company employees and others operating assigned or privately owned vehicles in Saudi Aramco communities. regardless of the bad driving habits of others. Defensive driving is an attitude or approach one adopts when operating a motor vehicle. A summary of General Instruction 6. This handbook is intended as a quick reference of light and medium categories of 2x4. heavy traffic. But in conjuction with the Driver Improvement Program. and natural phenomena. even when the right-of-way should be yielded to him.

1. • Defensive-driving principles and techniques. Saudi Arab employees. • Individual driver counselling during and after an on-the road evaluation. it remains as an integral part of Heavy Equipment Drivers/Operators tests required for their certification program. 2 . Porto-clinic test (for heavy Truck Drivers/Operators) • Peripheral vision. • Reaction time. • Depth perception. This test was discontinued as a pre-requisite requirement for DIP effective 06/01/1999. • Instruction on proper vehicle preparation and inspection. • Field of vision. contractor drivers. The first session is a six-hour classroom discussion. DIP provides defensive-driving knowledge for new employees required to drive Saudi Aramco vehicles. • Visual acuity. The second one-hour session comprises an on-the road evaluation. • A written examination.Driver Improvement Program According to Loss Prevention General Instruction 6. • Night vision. The program is divided into two sessions.030. • Glare recovery. and employees involved in traffic violations or motor vehicle accidents (MVA). the Driver Improvement Program (DIP) is mandatory for all employees who drive Saudi Aramco vehicles. The program includes: • Instruction on driving in the Saudi Arabian environment. however.

6.Saudi Aramco employees who fail DIP may be enrolled in the On-Road Make Up Driving Evaluation Course.030) 3 . Driver Improvement Training & Testing Flowchart (BASED ON GI. After completing DIP. each employee must attend the Driver Improvement Refresher Seminar (DIRS) once every three years for reevaluating his driving authorization.

To control vehicle use and establish responsibility. vehicle log procedures are used. it doesn’t matter how defensively you drive. The Defensive Driver Always Tells Someone Where He is Going And When He Will Return Odometer readings and other information may be required. 4 . take it to Saudi Aramco Inspection immediately. If your assigned vehicle is not safe to drive. Some drivers may not be as responsible as they should be. but most require the following entries: • Date.Vehicle Inspection Just as safe driving is the responsibility of each driver. • Destination. Most Company vehicles are shared-use (pooled) vehicles. Follow your department’s vehicle log procedure carefully. GI-6. • Time of departure. • Mileage. • Estimated time of return. If your vehicle has a mechanical defect. so is the condition of the vehicle (Ref. These procedures vary from one location to another. Many drivers operate them.029). You are an accident waiting to happen. • Employee name and ID number.

Proper inflation varies according to vehicle. as necessary. • Check that nothing is in front. • Check that side mirrors are clean and not broken. Your area Transportation Division or Loss Prevention Division can give you the correct tire pressure for your vehicle. always do the following: • Check for and report. Clean the entire windshield. • Check that the tires are properly inflated. tire specifications. behind. any physical damage (dents. suspension system. and taillights are clean and work properly. Replace all defective mirrors. Improperly inflated tires are the major cause of tire blowouts. and other factors. weather. scratches) found. or under your vehicle. signal lights. Always keep your tires inflated to the correct pressure. 5 . • Check that your windows are clean and nothing blocks your vision. • Check the wiper blades for cuts and wear. • Check that your headlights. Make it a habit to check the tires (including the spare) for proper inflation.Outside Your Vehicle Before driving anywhere.

Water level in windshield washer. You Are the Only One Who Knows If Something Is Wrong With Your Vehicle 6 . Radiator coolant level (do not open the radiator cap until the engine is cool). Make a mental checklist of the above items to insure the mechanical integrity of your vehicle. Battery condition. not worn (they should not flex more than 1/2” when pressed by your thumb). Clutch/brake fluid level. Drive belts are tight.Under the Hood The defensive driver periodically checks the following items under the hood: • • • • • • Engine oil level. Remember: the safe condition of your vehicle is your responsibility.

Emergency and Special Equipment Emergencies require immediate action. • Hand tools. Before driving. When driving in the desert. radiator hoses). • Tire wrench. Before driving on a long trip. • Compass. The defensive driver has the right equipment for every emergency. • Fire extinguisher (if it is part of your work equipment). Refer to Desert Driving on page 62 . • First aid kit. additional equipment is required. • Map. check that you have the following emergency equipment: • Drinking water. • Two warning triangles.e. • Oil.64 for additional information and a checklist. spark plugs. • Jack. • Shovel. • Extra vehicle supplies (i. Defensive Drivers Keep the Correct Equipment for Emergencies FIRS AID T 7 . In an emergency situation there is no time to search for needed equipment. fan belt.. check that you have the following emergency equipment: • Spare tire.

• Start the engine. Now that you have checked everything inside and out. shift into gear. • Check that the gauges work properly. you must know the traffic rules. Adjust if necessary. • Make certain the parking brake is on. do the following before you start driving: • Adjust the seat. • Ensure that the windshield wipers work. • Check the indicator lights (especially the brake and seat belt indicators). • Examine the headlights (low and high beams). • Fasten your seatbelt. • Release the parking brake. • Test the floor pedals. But before you release your parking brake and merge into traffic. • With your foot on the brake. • Shift into park (automatic transmission) or neutral (manual transmission).Final Preparation After getting in your vehicle and firmly shutting the doors. Make Seat Belts a Habit 8 . you are ready to drive. • Test the horn. • Check the fuel gauge. • Drive cautiously. • Check the rearview mirrors. Make sure all passengers have fastened their seat belts.

Always drive slower than posted speed limits when hazardous conditions exist (bad weather. Note: Crew-cab trucks are not passenger vehicles. National Safety Council statistics show that if you are driving at 120 kph (75 mph) and have an accident. SPEED KILLS! 9 . The defensive driver slows down for conditions and never exceeds speed limits. U. injuries. Disobeying rules is a major cause of traffic accidents. By following them they insure the safety of everyone. You have a one in eight chance of being killed in an accident at 120 kph (75 mph). Unless otherwise posted. Speeding can result in wrecked vehicles. • 30 kph maximum speed in school zones. and death.). At 90 kph (55 mph) your chances are one in 50. At 100 kph (65 mph) you have a one in 20 chance of being killed. Defensive drivers obey the rules of the road.S. poor visibility. you are likely to suffer serious or even fatal injuries. or as posted. so they should be obeyed. at night.Traffic Rules Traffic rules are guides to safe driving. • 80 kph for heavy trucks outside city limits. etc. • 100 kph for passenger vehicles outside city limits. disabilities. Speed Limits Speeding is the major cause of fatal accidents. follow established speed limits: • 50 kph for vehicles within city limits.

use the right lane. or when traffic is merging from the right. Vehicles driving straight ahead use the middle lane. Vehicles turning right. or driving slower. Faster vehicles and vehicles turning left should travel in the left lane. Single-lane roads have one lane in each direction. Don’t move out of your lane unless it is safe to do so. making a left turn.Lane Usage Specific rules govern the use of traffic lanes. Always stay in the right lane unless you are overtaking another vehicle. Do Not Weave from Lane to Lane Double-lane roads allow two lanes of traffic in each direction. Do not block the left lane. Multiple-lane roads allow three or more lanes of traffic in each direction. To avoid having an accident obey the following rules. The Defensive Driver Makes Few Lane Changes 10 . Slower vehicles and vehicles turning right should drive in the right lane. You may drive in the left lane when passing.

• Where and how to park (alternating yellow and black lines on curbing means no parking. • Where to wait to make a right turn. alternating white and black lines on curbing means you can park). • Where to stop at an intersection. Observe Pavement Markings 11 . • Where overtaking is restricted. • Where parking is prohibited. • Where pedestrians may cross.Pavement Markings Pavement markings show the following: • Where you should be on the road.

The vehicle to the right of the solid line must not overtake. The Centerline is Your Lifeline 12 .Two white solid lines are used to indicate that you must not overtake another vehicle. A broken line next to a solid line indicates that the vehicle on the side of the broken line can overtake a vehicle when it is safe.

An open space can also be a highway divider. Never Cross a No-Passing Centerline 13 . These barriers are called median islands or highway dividers. Never cross any highway divider. It is illegal to cross a highway divider or median.On some highways a physical barrier divides the roads.

When the light turns green. make sure the intersection is clear. Do not turn left or right. STOP behind the crosswalk or at the intersection. SLOW DOWN AND PREPARE TO STOP. You must first yield the right-of-way to traffic and pedestrians that are still in the intersection. Go straight ahead only. Always yield the right-of-way to pedestrians and other vehicles. Wait until the light is green. Go in the direction of the arrow (right or left). 14 . Obey them. If there is no arrow you must wait until the red light changes to green. then proceed cautiously. When the light is red. When the light is yellow. The light will turn red in only three to five seconds. They are meant for your safety and the safety of others.Traffic Lights Traffic lights control traffic at intersections.

You may see flashing red/yellow lights at dangerous intersections. Treat it the same as a stop sign. Learn and Follow Traffic Signals Language Running a Red Light is the Quickest Road to an Accident 15 . treat the intersection as you would a four-way stop sign (see Intersections. then drive with caution. page 33). A yellow flashing light means SLOW DOWN. look both ways. Treat it the same as a yield sign.A red flashing light means STOP! Then proceed with extreme caution. If a traffic light is out of order.

They warn of approaching danger. public service stations. Regulatory Signs Circular signs are either prohibitory (red). destinations. hospitals. They point out dangers and give important information about directions. There are three basic traffic signs: Warning Signs Triangular signs are cautionary and advisory.Traffic Signs International traffic signs are used in Saudi Arabia to safely control the flow of traffic. or mandatory (blue). Help Stop Accidents: Observe Traffic Signs 16 . such as traffic direction. Specific directions are indicated by symbols against a white or blue background. which inform drivers of restrictions that must be obeyed. They tell you what you need to know. Black symbols indicate the type of danger. and telephones. names and distances of towns. and points of interest. Informative Signs Rectangular signs are informational. which regulate traffic movement.

The following are examples of common warning signs: Children Crossing Animal Crossing Pedestrian Crossing Dangerous Bends L-R Railroad Crossing w/o Gate Dangerous Bends R-L Left Bend Road Narrows Uneven Road Crossroads Road Works Right Bend 17 . Extreme caution and speed reduction must be applied upon the appearance of warning signs.Warning signs are placed beside the road to alert drivers of possible dangers ahead.

Railroad Crossing with Gate Overhead Powerlines Falling Rocks Two-Way Traffic Traffic Lights Side Road from Left Road Intersection Side Road from Right Airstrip Intersection of Main & Side Roads Cyclists Road Narrows on One Side 18 .

Motor Vehicles Prohibited No U Turn No Parking No Stopping or Waiting Traffic Rotary (Roundabout) No Left Turn No Overtaking Entry Prohibited 60 Speed Limit 60 KPH Closed to all Vehicles in Both Directions Stop STOP Buses Prohibited 19 .

DETOUR Detour Telephone P Parking Allowed First-Aid Center H Hospital Bus Stop Priority is yours Unified Traffic Direction 20 .

Camping Ground

International Road

Repair Center

Closed Road or Dead End

Restaurant

Closed Road or Dead End

Gas Station

Closed Road or Dead End

21

Parking Prohibited and Parking Restricted Signs
Parking and stopping are prohibited at all times. Parking is restricted during specific hours or days indicated on a plaque below this sign.

One-Way Sign
This arrow sign indicates streets where traffic is allowed to travel in one direction only.

One-way (R)

One-way (L)

Signs that End Special Prohibitions Imposed on Moving Vehicles
These signs indicate that prohibitory signs do not apply. Examples of these signs would be for ending a speed limit or ending prohibition for overtaking.

Restricted Speed Limit Ends

End of 35-KM Speed Limit Zone

End of Overtaking Prohibited

End of Overtaking by Trucks Prohibited

22

Mandatory Movement Signs
Mandatory movement signs indicate the direction of traffic movement to be followed at intersections. Pairs of arrows indicate that either direction is allowed.

Mandatory Movement

Mandatory Movement

Mandatory Movement

Mandatory Movement

Mandatory Movement

Mandatory Movement

Pass This Side Sign Pass Either Side Sign
These signs are placed on an island or before an obstacle on the highway and it means that vehicles must pass on the side(s) of the island or obstacle as indicated by the arrow(s).

Pass this Side

Pass this Side

Pass Either Side

23

Diagrammatic Signs 24 .

Primary Route 2. Expressway (Primary System) route markers carry route numbers imposed on the outline of the Arabian Peninsula. Secondary highways are numbered in three digits affixed on white on green marker.Route Markers Distinctive route markers are used on the various categories of highways. 1. Primary routes have up to two digit numbers. Secondary Route 25 . Route numbers are assigned in accordance with the functional classification criteria of Highway Design Manual 1-1.05. white on green with black Naskh style numerals.

Kilometer Posting a. Feeders are numbered in four digit numerals as per graphic below. On two-lane roads. a kilometer post is placed along the right shoulder only. Kilometer signs installed on all classes of highways. b. Kilometer posting also will be used on ring roads (loops). Secondary Route Kilometer Post 26 . c. but with ascending-descending kilometers on either side whichever is appropriate. Numbering runs from west to east and from south to north.3. Feeders 4.

some of which would be: • Next exit number • Primary or expressways • Secondary Highways.Interchange Informative Signs 1. New destination information is introduced into the major signs sequence for an interchange. above • Next town name • Distance to next exit 27 . 2. give all necessary route and destination information through interchanges. Interchange Informative signs. in proper sequence. Interchange Informative signs may carry few sets of information.

Typical Interchange Numbering for Mainline and Ring Routes 28 .

Cloverleaf Interchange 29 .

Diamond Interchange 3 TOWN NAME (ARABIC) 6 TOWN NAME (ARABIC) 35 TOWN NAME (ARABIC) TOWN NAME (ENGLISH) 3 TOWN NAME (ENGLISH) 6 TOWN NAME (ENGLISH) 35 N (Arabic) 23 S (Arabic) N (Arabic) ARABIC ENGLISH ARABIC 23 S (Arabic) 23 ENGLISH ARABIC ENGLISH OR 23 TOWN NAME (ARABIC) TOWN NAME (ENGLISH) TOWN NAME (ARABIC) TOWN NAME (ENGLISH) TOWN NAME (ARABIC) TOWN NAME (ENGLISH) S (Arabic) 23 TOWN NAME (ARABIC) TOWN NAME (ENGLISH) TOWN NAME (ARABIC) TOWN NAME (ENGLISH) EXIT 22 (Arabic) TOWN NAME 12 (Arabic) (ARABIC) 456 TOWN NAME (ENGLISH) EXIT EXIT 22 (Arabic) TOWN NAME (ARABIC) 456 TOWN NAME (ENGLISH) 1 km (Arabic) EXIT 22 (Arabic) TOWN NAME (ARABIC) 456 TOWN NAME (ENGLISH) 2 km (Arabic) 30 .

Typical Interchange Numbering Where Expressway Routes Overlap 31 .

Series of Closely Spaced Interchanges Using Sequence Signs and Sign Spreading 32 .

and stop again at the edge of the barrier which hides the oncoming traffic. yield. The following rules should be obeyed at intersections: At intersections controlled by stop signs. look left again. These accidents happen because some drivers don't obey traffic rules. If the way is clear. Look left. More accidents occur at intersections than any other place on the road. then cross. come to a complete stop at the sign. look right. rotaries (roundabouts). Intersections may be regulated with signals. proceed cautiously.Intersections Traffic moves in many directions at intersections. If there is a stop sign at a blind intersection. Slow Down Before Entering an Intersection STOP View Blocked Crossing a Blind Intersection 33 . Stop at the line. and stop signs. stop your vehicle completely behind the crosswalk.

the driver should slow down. follow the rule. apply the following four-point rule: • KNOW your course. the driver on the left must be ready to yield to the driver on the right. A policeman’s directions overrule traffic signs and signals. • SHOW others your intentions.At intersections controlled by yield signs. check traffic on both sides. Courtesy and Communication is the Rule At a four-way stop intersection. Stop for cross traffic. An uncontrolled intersection has neither traffic signs nor lights. “first stop. first go.” When two vehicles stop at the same time. To safely drive through. • GO cautiously. OP ST OP ST At a Four-Way Stop Intersection ST O P 34 . then proceed cautiously if it is safe. ST P O When Four Vehicles Stop at the Same Time at a Four-way Intersection. At intersections controlled by a policeman. be ready to react to any situation. • SLOW down. always obey his commands.

you should go through the intersection if it is clear of traffic. slow down more. • Point of No Return: A marginal distance. Be aware of: • Stale Green Light: A stale green light is one which has been green for an unknown length of time. If it remains green while you approach the intersection. Point of No Return at Traffic Signals Slow down gradually when you approach intersections regulated by traffic signals. six to ten meters from the stop line at an intersection. 35 . When the light turns yellow. you must decide whether to stop or proceed. If stopping will cause a collision with the vehicle behind. the light will soon turn yellow.Are You Too Close? You are at a safe stopping distance behind a vehicle at a traffic light if you can see that vehicle's rear tires.

stay close to the centerline. • On single-lane roads. Signalling may be done either by electric turn signals or by hand. Finish the turn in the same lane that you started in. stay in the left lane. Study the following diagrams.Don’t Take a Turn for the Worse: mended to perform a safe turn: Drive Safely 1. • For left turns on multi-lane roads. Slow down and check the blind spot on the turning side. detours. junctions. 2. They show the proper lanes to use when making turns.Turns Turns enable a driver to change direction at intersections. Drivers must prepare to turn ahead of time to avoid accidents resulting from last-second decisions. do not cut corners. The following procedure is recom. • For right turns. 50 cm away from the curb. Left Turn on Two-Way Street Left Turn on One-Way Street Right Turn 36 . 4. Turn cautiously at a comfortable radius. Signal your intention to turn 35 meters in advance. or roundabouts. 3. Position your vehicle in the appropriate lane a block ahead of the turn. 5. stay in the right lane.

When signal devices do not work. Stop Forearm Vertical Left Turn Palm Down. use the following hand signals. Arm Extended Missing a Turn is Better Than Missing the Rest of Your Life Right Turn Palm and Arm Curved to the Right 37 .

Yielding the Right-of-Way The defensive driver always yields the right-of-way to others. You yield to avoid an accident. yield the right-of-way to any vehicle approaching or already in the intersection. To yield means to slow down or stop to allow other drivers to continue. This Vehicle has the Right-Of-Way Yield the Right-of-Way to Vehicles on Your Right The Defensive Driver Yields to Arrive Alive 38 . When making a left turn.

Emergency vehicles include ambulances. Always Yield to Emergency Vehicles When backing up. wait until it is safe to pull off the road. fire trucks. 39 . They have the right-of-way even if the intersection is unmarked.Always yield the right-of-way to emergency vehicles when they sound their sirens or flash their lights. and police cars. Pull off to the right side of the road. If you are in the middle lane. Pedestrians always have the right-of-way at intersections. always yield to other vehicles and pedestrians.

• Be aware of your surroundings. Stopping suddenly in front of a tailgater can cause an accident. • Tap your brake. • Communicate your intentions to move right or left. This rule only applies in ideal conditions. increase the distance between you and the vehicle ahead. To avoid tailgating accidents. do the following: • Don't tailgate. If you are being tailgated. Tailgaters usually want to pass because they are in a hurry.Tailgating Following another vehicle too closely is called tailgating. If the road is wet. or vision is poor. Watch Your Back for Tailgaters There should be one car length (6 meters) between you and the vehicle ahead for each 16 kilometers per hour speed you are travelling. • Allow a safe following distance between you and the car ahead using the two-second rule (see the next page). do the following: • Slow down gradually. 40 . • Look in blind spot • Move to the right.

Application of the Two-Second Rule The two-second rule only applies under ideal conditions and when you are travelling at a moderate speed. “one Two Seconds of Awareness thousand one.” you are following the other vehicle too closely. one thousand two. Use the two-second rule again. If the road is wet. start counting. increase your distance by counting for three. 41 . When it passes a fixed reference point. Slow down. until you are following at a safe distance. Watch the vehicle ahead of you. say a telephone pole or a road sign. or visibility is poor.” is all it If your vehicle reaches the same fixed point Takes to Avoid before you finish counting “one thousand on Accident two. four.Two-Second Rule The best way to determine if you are following a vehicle at a safe distance under normal driving conditions is to apply the two-second rule. or more seconds.

• After moving to the right lane. A misjudgment can cost you your life. When passing or overtaking a vehicle always: • Ask yourself if there is any reason for the driver next to you to turn left or move into your lane. Before Passing. • Stay back. using the two-second rule. or flash your headlights at night (if needed). but do not exceed the posted speed limit. • Check the traffic behind. Learn and apply the following rules. stop your turn signal. Check Your Blind Spot 42 . • Switch on your right turn signal. • Accelerate. The left lane must be clear. • Check the traffic ahead.Passing or Overtaking a Vehicle Passing or overtaking a vehicle is a normal part of driving. • Turn on your left signal to show your intention. Use your mirrors. • Turn your head to check your blind spot to the left (on multilane roads). Leave enough room for the vehicle you are passing. • Move into the left lane. but it can be dangerous. • Resume your normal driving speed. • Warn the driver ahead by tapping your horn lightly. Do not return to the right lane until the vehicle you passed is visible in your rearview mirror.

• Move as far to the right as you safely can to allow others to pass. Figure 3 43 . Figure 1 Do not pass on curves when your view is obstructed.When being passed: • Decrease your speed. Never pass a vehicle in the following situations: Do not pass on hilltops. Never Pass on Hills or Curves Figure 2 NEVER pass at intersections.

Figure 4 Never pass where there is a solid line in your lane. Figure 7 44 . Never Pass at Intersections Figure 5 Never pass within 30 meters of a railroad crossing.D o not pass where there are double lines or a “No Passing” sign. Figure 6 Never pass a long row of vehicles.

Driving is a privilege. The defensive driver always considers distance. Never abuse your vehicle or your driving privilege. Poor planning often results in accidents. poor planning. Traffic violations are the worst kind of driving error. weather. and overloading the vehicle. Vehicle abuse includes driving aggressively. use the following defensive-driving techniques. Always plan your trips well ahead of time. He does this by being courteous. It also includes using company vehicles for personal business. The defensive driver always obeys all traffic rules. Discourtesy is a lack of respect for other drivers and pedestrians. The safe driver is always courteous to others. even when it should be given to him. Obey all traffic rules. You will lose your driving privilege if you break the rules. There are four common categories of driving error: traffic violations. speed limits. Allow enough time to complete your trip safely. speeding. The safe driver is like a public relations man.Defensive-Driving Techniques Driving Errors Driving errors are the major cause of traffic accidents. vehicle abuse. and discourtesy. Avoid these common driving errors. you greatly reduce the risk of having a traffic accident. Always use company vehicles with respect and care. He projects a positive image. And always be courteous to others. By applying these techniques with the traffic rules you have learned. not a right. By planning your trip ahead of time you avoid having to hurry. He always gives other drivers the right-of-way. 45 . and road conditions when planning a trip. In addition to avoiding common driving errors.

The Defensive Driver Plans Trips Ahead Never Drop Your Guard: Stay Alert 46 . before it’s too late! Take corrective action: • See danger before it happens. Take Corrective Action in Time Never assume the attitude that “maybe the other driver will change his mind and do the right thing. Stay alert! 2.Defensive-Driving Formula The defensive-driving formula consists of three simple steps: 1. Never drop your guard. • Know what to do. See Danger Before it Happens Develop the ability to see potential danger on the road before it happens. Never assume that everything is all right. • Act quickly and decisively.” Never assume that “maybe nothing bad will happen. 3. The defensive driver learns the specific response for each situation so he can apply it when the time comes.” Assume the worst scenario and then act in time. Never assume that all is safe. Constantly be on the lookout for accidents waiting to happen. Know What to do When a Dangerous Situation Arises Each dangerous situation requires a specific response.

5. Make Sure Others See You. Keep Your Eyes Moving. Keep a Space-Cushion Around Your Vehicle 1. 4. Aim High: Look far ahead while driving.Space-Cushion Technique The space-cushion technique consists of five key points: 1. Aim High in Steering. 3. In the city look one block ahead. 2. On highways look 400 meters ahead. Scan Ahead to Stay Alive Look Far Ahead While Driving 47 . Leave Yourself an Out. Train your eyes to see where your vehicle will be 15 seconds from now. Get the Big Picture.

first establish a safe following distance by using the two-second rule. Slow down in dense traffic.2. See the potential accident that lurks behind every corner and ahead of every vehicle. A safe driving distance is the key to good visibility. Daydreaming and Driving Don’t Mix: Keep Your Eyes Moving to Get the Big Picture Get the Big Picture To get the big picture. 48 . Concentrate on driving. Get the Big Picture: See more than just what’s in front of your eyes. not talking.

Avoid “Fixed Stare” Keep Your Eyes Moving Look in the Rearview Mirrors Every five to eight Seconds 49 . Because traffic is constantly moving. Avoid “fixed stare”: visually concentrating too long on one object. near and far. To avoid affecting your peripheral vision. Keep Your Eyes Moving: This helps you get and keep the big picture. Glance at your mirrors every five to eight seconds. Occasionally glance at the instrument panel. do not stare at any fixed object for more than two seconds.3. your eyes should too. Glance continuously to the right and left.

Leave Yourself an Out: Have an escape path available should an emergency arise. and eye contact.4. a “space-cushion. body movements. you can avoid accidents. For example. hand signals. tap your horn to let inattentive pedestrians know you are turning.” around your vehicle. horn. Make Sure Others See You 50 . Always keep an open area of space. Let other drivers know what you intend to do. Don’t be Cornered into an Accident: Leave Yourself an Out Leave Yourself an Out 5. Make Sure Others See You: Use your lights. vehicle position. By letting others know what you intend to do.

The average reaction time is 3/4 of a second. Stopping Distance is the total of reaction and braking distances. Identify the situation. the condition of brakes and tires. Reaction. etc.Perception. Each step takes adequate time. The Higher the Speed the Longer the Braking Distance See chart (2) on page 52 51 . the intensity of the situation. vehicle load. and the driver's condition. and stopping distances increase with an increase in speed. and Total Stopping Distance The time required to identify a situation is called perception time. Braking Distance is the ground a vehicle covers between the time the brakes are applied until it stops. 2. Reaction. You’ll be surprised how much distance you cover. Braking. Reaction Time is the amount of time a driver needs to react to an emergency situation. The distance covered by a vehicle during this time is called perception distance. Stop your vehicle. Stopping distance involves three steps: 1. The distance covered during reaction time is called the reaction distance. weather. Perception time can vary according to visibility. road surface. Factors affecting braking distance include speed. 3. React safely. See chart on page 52. braking.

Defensive Driving is Everyone’s Responsibility: Including Yours! KM M PER PER HR SEC 120 34 100 29 85 65 50 35 25 20 16 10 Total stopping distance is the ground a vehicle covers from the instant that the driver perceives a danger until the vehicle is totally stopped. The perception.7654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321 7654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321 7654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321 7654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321 7654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321 7654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321 7654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321 7654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321 7654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321 7654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321 7654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321 7654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321 7654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321 7654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321 7654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321 7654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321 7654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321 7654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321 7654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321 7654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321 7654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321 7654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321 7654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321 7654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321 7654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321 7654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321 7654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321 7654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321 7654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321 7654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321 7654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321 7654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321 7654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321 7654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321 7654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321 7654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321 7654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321 7654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321 7654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321 Remember: These distances are for good brakes and good road surfaces. See the chart below. reaction. KPH MPH 120 110 100 90 85 75 65 60 50 40 35 SPEED 70 65 60 55 35 40 30 50 45 25 20 Reaction Distance Chart (1): Reaction. Braking. braking. Speed and Stopping Distances Braking Distance 237-295 196-245 162-202 132-165 105-131 82-103 Reaction Distance 64-80 36-45 25-31 18-22 47-58 Foot 97 63 STOPPING DISTANCE (1+2) 97-113 Meter 33-38 21-24 16-18 12-13 26-30 40-47 82-97 69-82 59-69 46-54 94 Braking Distance 108-124 314-372 132-153 286-317 228-268 193-226 160-186 69-78 53-59 40-44 86-97 Foot 123 . Increase your distance if roads are wet or slippery. and Stopping Distance REACTION DISTANCE (2) Meter 7 10 24 22 20 19 12 13 10 17 15 9 7 16 18 8 22 Chart (2): Stopping Distance 26 18 Stopping Distance Foot 15 77 72 66 66 33 61 39 28 22 55 50 32 28 BREAKING DISTANCE (2) Meter 20-24 11-14 72-90 60-75 49-62 40-50 14-18 32-40 25-31 52 45 8-9 6-7 + 48 72 Total Stopping Distances with Perfect Brakes on Best Road and Under Favorable Conditions. and total stopping distance will be adversely affected by speed.

• When being passed. Avoid the Six Common Accident Situations 53 . • Conditions are good. Passing a Vehicle: Overtaking and passing can be done safely when conditions are ideal. To pass safely. • Carefully move to the right to let him pass. Vehicles Ahead of You: The defensive driver doesn’t tailgate. • There is enough room to pass safely. • Passing a vehicle. • Vehicles at intersections. To avoid this: • Signal early when turning or changing lanes. Refer to the Two-Second Rule section on page 41. • No vehicle is trying to pass you. • There are no oncoming vehicles. • Oncoming vehicles.Types of Accidents to Avoid Six common situations hold the potential for vehicle accidents: • Vehicles ahead of you. Vehicles Behind You: A tailgating driver could cause an accident that involves you. ensure that: • Passing is legal. • Flash your brake lights ahead of time to warn other drivers that you may have to slow down or stop. • Vehicles behind you. Always allow a safe following distance between you and the vehicle ahead by applying the two-second rule.

Avoid this accident situation by doing the following: When turning right: • Get in the far right of the road or get in the right lane well in advance. • Check the blind spots before turning or changing lanes. • Always watch the traffic condition at a good distance ahead. • Allow the passing vehicle to return to the right lane. Never drive off to the left. This will discourage other drivers from squeezing between you and the curb. Do the following to avoid head-on collisions: • Slow down for better control. Accidents Happen at Intersections Due to Driver’s Errors 54 . and go off the right side of the road. Oncoming Vehicles: Collisions with oncoming vehicles are particularly deadly. • If they show no response.When Being Passed: The defensive driver should always expect others to pass him. To reduce the possibility of an accident in this situation. • Frequently glance in the rearview mirrors. • Allow 50 cm between your vehicle and the curb. Vehicles at Intersections: More accidents occur at intersections than anywhere else. the driver should: • Stay to the right side of his lane. • Use your lights and horn as necessary to warn dozers. glance over your right shoulder. • Flash the right turn signal at least 30 meters before the turn. • Travel at moderate speeds.

Passing and Overtaking is a Normal Part of Driving. • Turn when it is safe. • Check both ways and any blind spots. 55 . • Accelerate through the intersection when it is safe. • Stop and yield the right-of-way to cross traffic and oncoming vehicles. • Count two seconds before moving when the light turns green. • Turn on the left signal at least 35 meters before the turn. • Slow down and prepare to stop. but It Must be Done Carefully. When going straight through intersections: • Be sure you have the right-of-way. • Look left (traffic coming from the left is closest). and then look left again.• Be sure you have the right-of-way and there is no cross traffic. look right. When turning left: • Get in the left lane well in advance.

• Adjust his speed according to the flow of traffic and the road conditions. • Constantly show others his intentions and communicate as situations arise. • Yield the right-of-way to others. • Avoid unnecessary lane changes. Go with the Flow • Keep both hands on the steering wheel and steer high. He develops skills in avoiding accidents. the defensive driver should routinely do the following: • Check that his tail lights are working properly. • Frequently glance at his rearview mirrors. • Avoid driving too slowly. • Slow down before driving into a curve. • Never stop suddenly. • Always signal well in advance. • Maintain a space-cushion. • Make courtesy a habit. He is always expected to do the following: • Fasten his seat belt and encourage passengers to do the same. To avoid rear-end collisions. • Anticipate all turns. Slow down gradually.Safe-Driving Tips A defensive driver is always prepared for the unexpected. 56 . Go with the flow of traffic. • Plan his route before driving anywhere.

Driving Situations City Driving City driving requires different skills than those used when driving in the desert or on a highway. • Always plan your trip ahead of time. 57 . If You Don't Notice Drivers in Parked Vehicles. • Do not concentrate on non-traffic related objects. • Always watch for pedestrians and children. It Doesn't Mean there are None • Always watch for vehicle doors opening. • Be patient when driving in slow-moving traffic. So keep the following in mind: • Always watch for vehicles coming out of side streets.

• Merge with traffic through the outer lane. When exiting an expressway: • Signal your intention. • Yield the right-of-way.Expressway Driving Most expressways provide acceleration and deceleration lanes. increase your speed gradually. • If you need to get in the inner lane. • Use your signal. look into the blind spot. • Do not stop at the end of the acceleration lane unless traffic is heavy. Backing up on an Expressway is Suicidal 58 . These lanes allow drivers to adjust their speed to match the flow of traffic. then change lanes. • Pull into the exit before slowing down. signal. • Watch for an opening in expressway traffic. • Pick up your speed to match the flow of traffic. When entering an expressway: • If the outer lane is clear. view your mirrors. • Move to the lane nearest the off-ramp.

• Do not follow vehicles too closely. • Never try to flag or stop traffic. Never stop on the road. Always leave yourself an out in case of an emergency. • Go with the flow of traffic. If you do. • Be prepared for merging traffic. 59 . Drive on to the Next One • Drive in the right lanes and pass on the left. • Plan your trip in advance so you will know where you want to get on and off. • Pull over to the right shoulder to stop.General Rules for Highway Driving • Always fasten your seat belt. • Stay out of blind spots. • Constantly check your speed and fuel supply. • Use your rearview mirrors to check the traffic behind you. • Allow enough room when passing. you may be hit by a passing vehicle. If You Can’t Reach Your Exit Safely.

• When you are 90 meters behind a vehicle. • Use your lights until half an hour after sunrise. Defensive drivers use the low beam to avoid blinding other drivers. Because of this you must reduce your speed to avoid an accident. The average range of your headlights is limited to 150 meters. Use High Beam Only When Driving in Open Areas Without Other Cars Near Always Use Low Beam When Approaching Other Cars so as Not to Blind the Driver Always: • Turn your headlights on half an hour before sunset. Look to the right side of the road. • Apply the four second rule to ensure stopping capability within the lighted span. Always dim your headlights: • When an oncoming vehicle comes within 150 meters. There is also the problem of the blinding glare. Don’t look directly into oncoming headlights. Slow Down at Night 60 .Night Driving At night your vision is reduced.

• Use your headlights. Do not look directly at the bright headlights. • Keep your eyes moving to avoid dangerous “fixed stare. • Use your high beam only when you are driving outside cities and there are no oncoming vehicles or vehicles ahead of you.” • Never wear sunglasses at night. slow down and glance at the right edge of the road as a guide for your lane position.Safety Tips for Night Driving • When you begin to feel tired or sleepy. park on the side of the road to rest. • Even with your high beam on. take these actions to avoid being blinded by the glare of those headlights: • If the car is far enough away. 61 . If an oncoming driver has high beams on. • Glance ahead frequently to check the position of oncoming traffic. • If the oncoming driver continues to use high-beam lights. drive slower than you would during the day. not your parking lights. flick your high beams on briefly to remind the oncoming driver to dim his lights.

Check for proper inflation. horn. Remember: safety is a personal responsibility. Before driving in soft sand. starter. Never fill it completely. • Electrical System: Check the following items: battery electrolyte level. Check for leaks in the radiator. You must know preparation procedures and safety guidelines. etc. Make sure the engine runs smoothly.). check for oil leaks (filter. Never drive alone. Ensure that vehicles have extra fuel tanks. Always travel with two or more vehicles.Desert Driving Desert driving is extremely dangerous. Also check that the fan belts are tight and not cracked. • Oil: Check the oil level. lights. • Cooling System: Check the radiator water level. and engine block. Vehicle Checklist When driving in the desert use a four-wheel drive. Always use a pressure gauge. and dashboard gauges. Preparation for desert driving requires a thorough vehicle check: • Fuel: Make sure you have enough fuel to reach and return from your destination. Inexperienced drivers should know of the dangers before leaving and take necessary precautions. oil pan. A Mistake in the Desert Can be Fatal • Undercarriage: Inspect for broken springs or loose parts. lower the pressure 12 to 16 psi. battery cables. • Sand Tires: Check for cuts and wear. 62 . hoses. gaskets. Make sure the cap is tight. The smallest mistake can lead to disaster. Leave room for the fuel to expand. Carry extra fuel in a vapor-tight metal can.

Supply Checklist
After inspecting the vehicle, run through a checklist of supplies. The amount of supplies you will need is determined by the length of your trip. Following is a partial list: • Compass for map reading, GPS, or cell phone if available. • Map or a guide. • Water (five gallons or 30 liters in summer, and 15 liters in winter per day, per person, with a minimum of a three-day extra supply per person for emergencies). • Food (canned or dried, not fresh; omit salty food items). • Can opener, salt, plastic or glass container for drinking. • First-aid kit with appropriate medicines. • Pressure bandages, antiseptic lotion, and other suitable medicines. • Iodine or bleach to disinfect water (five drops of iodine for each quart of clear water, 10 drops for dirty water, and let is stand for 30 minutes; 10 drops of bleach for each quart of clear water, 20 drops for dirty water, and let it stand for 30 minutes). • Two spare tires. • Lug wrench for changing tires. • Hydraulic and bumper jacks. • Air and fuel pumps. • Low-pressure tire gauge. • Fan belt, radiator hoses, and band clamps. • Tool box containing basic tools. • Electrical wire and jumper cables. • Water pump, carburetor, distributor (including breaker points) for older vehicles.
Driving in the Desert? Don’t Forget Your Compass and Map

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• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Condenser. Spark plugs and wrench. Hose 1/4” x 8 meters long. Hand pump for blowing out gas lines. Friction tape to repair hose leaks. A Trip to the Desert CO2 fire extinguisher. Begins By Signing Out Shovel. at the Main Gate Sand grates (two minimum). Nylon tow rope 20-meter x 1” diameter shackles. One liter of engine oil. Wooden blocks (to put under vehicle frame and on sand to jack it out of a hole in the sand). Sunglasses, hat or helmet, tie ropes or twine. Signal flares. Cotton shirt (long-sleeved) and trousers. Comfortable shoes. Sleeping bag for overnight travel. Large-mouthed containers (four plastic buckets). Clothespins (wooden). Tarpaulin for protection from the sun (bright color). Four large plastic sheets and 1/4” nylon hose, 2 meters long.
Desert driving increases fuel consumption by 64% compared with on-road driving.

Driving on deflated tires in sand will shorten their life service.

Loading the vehicle top will increase the possibility to over turn it.

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TOKYO COMPASS

Do Not Drive in the Desert Without a Compass

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JAPAN

we must realize there are two kinds of north. The circles of longitude of a map are drawn in correlation to the geographical poles.. On an ordinary map.Navigation How to Use a Map-Reading Compass for Navigation A map-reading compass has a special function for using it with a map. It provides higher accuracy than a conventional pocket. However. or dashboard compass. i. Magnetic North and Variation (Declination) Ordinarily we use the words "north. and the lines show the direction of the geographical north. Figure 1 General Knowledge for Using a Compass Geographical North (Map North)." "south. wrist. Geographical north is established geographically. unconcernedly.e.. The direction of these lines is different from the direction the magnetic needle points to. geographical north and magnetic north." etc. up is the direction of geographical north and 66 .

(Refer to Figure 2) To get the geographically correct degree of a direction. subtract the variation from the reading. it is more practical for you to use the bearing you get when you set the magnetic north as 0°. The variation differs from place to place in the world. The angle between the straight lines pointing from the place of observation to the geographical poles and magnetic North Pole is called variation or declination of the place. If the local Figure 2 variation is western. To obtain a true map bearing. The magnetic poles are close to the geographical poles.down is geographical south. if it is eastern. However. 67 . but are not coincidental. you must either subtract or add the local variation. respectively. depending on which side of the zero declination line you are on. read the bearing on your compass. an area topographical map gives the local variation. The right and left sides of the map are east and west. The lines of equal variation are very irregular. however. add it to the reading.

Read the bearing at the index line. Before you start walking. hold your compass as level as possible and point the arrow on the scale to the direction of the pole.) Figure 3 68 32 0 . there is no problem. 3. on the way to the pole you may have to go through wadis or high hills where you cannot see the pole. (To express it exactly. In such cases. This is the bearing of the pole. 1. you must adjust the local variations as explained. you may lose the direction of the pole and need your compass to find it. 2. However. Turn the rotating ring and put N (0°) in the direction of the N end (the luminous end) of the magnetic needle. in Figure 3 the direction of the object is 320°. However.How to Use a Map Reading Compass How to Maintain the Direction of an Object Suppose you can see an object like a communication pole. Keep this bearing until you reach a place from where you can clearly see the pole again. as long as you understand the meaning of variation. For instance. you can say the direction of the object is 320° from magnetic north. If you can see the pole while you are walking.

1. 2. spread the map and draw directional lines of magnetic north according to the variation given on the map. 3. (At this stage you do not have to mind the position of the magnetic needle. Find your present location and your destination on the map and draw a straight line between these two places. First. subtract 5° from 360° and set the bearing graduation 355° to the index line.How to Reach the Destination Shown on a Map Find your present location.) Next. hold your compass and turn yourself slowly until the north end (the luminous end) of the magnetic needle is parallel to the arrows in the compass capsule. Then make the arrows in the compass capsule parallel to the northsouth line of the map (longitude line or up-down frame lines of the map) without moving the rotating ring. If the variation of the place is 5° western. turn the rotating ring and make the arrows in the compass capsule parallel to the magnetic north lines you drew in step 1. the direction of the destination. 69 . and magnetic north. For drawing lines. use the sides of the compass or a ruler. Figure 4 Draw several lines parallel to the first magnetic north line you drew. Place your compass on the line so the index line (arrow mark) points to the destination. and draw a line as shown in Figure 4. Then.

the error at your goal becomes even larger. Go as straight as possible. 70 . repeat the same procedure. If the deviation to the right or left of the correct course is large. While you are proceeding toward the destination. When you arrive at the first destination. you have to make sure of the direction by looking at your compass.Figure 5 Now proceed in the direction the arrow of the travel line points. Go in this direction until you reach the destination. Keep the magnetic needle parallel to the arrows of the compass capsule. Repeat the procedure until you reach your final destination.

Keeping that state. Then. slide the compass on the map until one side of the scale points to the mountain A on the map.Finding your Location on the Map Locate yourself on a high point from where any two distinctive features of the landscape are visible. Plan Your Trip Carefully so You do Not Get Lost in the Desert Figure 6 71 . Then. Suppose you can see mountain A on the left and communication pole B on the right side. turn the rotating ring and set "N" of the dial to the north end of the compass needle. draw a line as shown in Figure 6. The two distinctive features must be shown on the map. Point the index line (arrow) toward mountain A. Place the compass on the map and adjust the map so that the magnetic north line on the map becomes parallel to the magnetic needle and the NS lines in the compass capsule.

The point of intersection of these two straight lines is your present location on the map (Figure 7).Then. Figure 7 Mirages or Shamals may Hide Important Geographical Features Flashlights or Flares are Handy to Signal with at Night 72 . turn towards communication pole B and repeat the same procedure.

It is a large object that can be easily located by search teams. Signalling to Rescuers Some of the signals used to attract the attention of rescuers are: • Lighting a fire by using a mixture of engine oil and 20% gasoline. or beduins. stay close by it. other distant motorists. • Burning a tire or bushes.Car Breakdown and Other Emergencies If your car breaks down or is stuck in sand or subkha. • Make sure the airplane pilot sees you before you start signalling the following: Ground-To-Air Signal Code 73 . • Spreading the colored (bright) tarpaulin 2 meters from the car. • Using the internal rearview mirror of the car to signal to aircraft.

Also note the sun and wind direction. • Determine which direction has firmer ground (forward or backward). Look for landmarks (such as jebels or pipelines).Before Leaving the Road Before leaving the road and driving into the desert. The desert wind usually blows from the north. Never drive off-road at night. if you are travelling with a second vehicle. Never Drive When stuck in the sand: Off-Road at Night • Engage second gear low range before leaving the road. • Take everybody out of the vehicle if your vehicle gets stuck in sand.) • Dig sand away from front. Another method. back. You don’t want it to get stuck too! 74 . • Lighten the load by removing cargo. Be careful the second vehicle doesn’t travel too closely. Mark them down on your map or in a notebook as you pass them. Never travel in windy or wet weather. and sides of tires (don’t dig too deep). or sand mat) under the wheels in the direction you will go. is to use a tow line. Be careful not to spin the wheels. and make them push. • Have the driver (the lightest person) apply power slowly. Always check weather conditions before beginning your trip. If the vehicle remains stuck: • Lower tire pressure to 15 psi. This is the quickest way to get lost or have an accident. (Use automatic tire deflators. always establish your location. • Stuff material (bushes. • It is always preferred to back up if the sand is softer ahead. boards.

Vehicles are easier to spot in the desert than a walking person. • Place a wide-mouthed receptacle in the hole. Drink plenty of water and rest in the shade. staking it down with rocks or sand. Don’t continue driving. • Place one end of a hose in the bottom of the bucket.When Lost in the Desert The first thing you should do is park on high ground. Keep the other end of the hose closed to prevent entry of dust and insects. Soak the spare tire in kerosene and light it. (Don’t use gasoline only. Do not abandon the vehicle and walk away. During the night. mix it with oil because gasoline is dangerous. condensation will create drops of water that fall in the receptacle. • Place a small rock over the receptacle to create a slight sag in the plastic sheet. Make sure it is taut. Fasten it to the bucket side with a clothes-pin. Making a Water Trap • Dig a hole 12 to 18 inches deep. Don’t panic. Lost in the Desert? Don’t Walk Away from Your Vehicle • Stretch a plastic sheet across the hole. 75 . If you are stuck overnight. make water traps to collect extra drinking water (four traps per person).) The black smoke will alert the search team of your location. Make several water traps. Remain fully clothed to minimize sweating.

For recreational trips. For work trips you must sign out in the Industrial Security log at the nearest main gate. if any. Provide both with a map of where you intend to go and the time you expect to return. inform the main gate and a good friend. When you leave the desert and return to the road: • Disengage the front-wheel drive. Never Drink Water from a Radiator: Coolant is Poisonous 76 . • Take the vehicle to the repair shop and use a replacement vehicle temporarily. • Report to the main gate. • Remove the automatic deflators. their estimated time of arrival and return. • Notify your supervisor and friends. all Saudi Aramco employees must notify their supervisor(s) of their destination. • Reinflate the tires to the designated psi. • Fill out designated Saudi Aramco forms if vehicular damages occurred. Sign in the same log upon returning.Checking Before Leaving and After Returning Before beginning a desert trip.

Do not apply the brake or clutch pedal. Shift into a lower gear. As a defensive driver. they will pull to one side or not work at all. then turn both front wheels onto the pavement slowly. Slow down gradually and pull off the road. like a guardrail. • Brakes Fail Pump the pedal several times to see if the pressure builds up. Pull off the road and brake to a stop. If they are wet. Honk your horn to warn pedestrians and other vehicles. Apply the brakes softly. Wait until there is no traffic. If you are on a hill. keep a firm grip on the steering wheel. 77 . Drive slowly in low gear. • Wheels Go Off the Pavement Take your foot off the gas pedal. turn the steering wheel in the direction of the skid. Reduce speed gradually. Slap the pedal with your foot. coast in gear and use the parking brake. look for something to sideswipe. Hold the steering wheel firmly. test the brakes lightly. Don’t brake! Concentrate on steering. When your vehicle skids. you must know what to do in an emergency. Don’t Brake… • Tire Blowout Decelerate Gradually If your tire blows out. If it remains stuck. • Wet Brakes After driving through deep water. Apply your brakes lightly to If Your Tire Blows Out. If it doesn’t. • Accelerator Sticks Concentrate on your steering. shift to neutral and turn off the engine. • Skidding Skidding occurs when the tires lose their grip on the road. dry them.Emergencies An emergency situation can occur at any time.

Do not brake! Steer straight. Steer Clear of Accidents: Learn What to do in an Emergency At low speeds. • Hydroplaning Hydroplaning occurs when water builds up on the tires. The driver does not have complete control of the vehicle. Let the vehicle coast. Drive slowly in heavy rain to avoid hydroplaning. At speeds above 90 kph. a tire cuts through water at tire-road juncture. At speeds above 50 kph. and remains in complete contact with the road. The vehicle rolls over when the driver tries to drive back onto the road without slowing down.• Rollovers Rollovers may occur when vehicles are forced off the road into the sand. If you find yourself off the road. causing total hydroplaning. take your foot off the accelerator. a water wedge may increase and the tire loses complete contact with the road. a water wedge may penetrate tire-road contact and partial hydroplaning occurs. 78 . The vehicle is lifted off the road on a film of water.

brake sharply. there is probably a short circuit. Try to extinguish the fire with your fire extinguisher. This will lessen the impact if there is a collision. Give the entire lane to the oncoming car.• Vehicle Approaching in Your Lane Steer to the right side of the road. The gas tank may explode. Sound your horn and flash your headlights. 79 . If you don’t have a tool. Use good judgment. • Fire If your vehicle catches fire. Use a jack handle or other tool to rip out burning wires. If the fire gets out of control. Personal safety comes first. If you cannot leave your lane. get away from the vehicle quickly. try to smother the fire with sand or a blanket.

Turn on your four-way flashers to warn others that your vehicle is not moving. It is not safe to open the hood or trunk cover. or if you can. pull off the road and park. turn on your four-way or emergency flashers. you are moving very slowly.• Emergency Communication If your vehicle breaks down. or the dashboard indicators signal engine failure. if visibility is so poor that driving is dangerous. Keep the flashers on after placing the warning triangles. 80 . and firmly move out of traffic toward the right shoulder of the road. Instead. When you think a tire is punctured. turn on your four-way flashers. In fog or heavy rain. use the emergency flashing lights to signal other drivers. reduce your speed gradually. Emergency flashing lights tell other drivers that you can't move.

do the following: • Bring your vehicle to a complete stop.Parking A vehicle doesn’t have to be moving to cause an accident. and another at 100 meters. • Place one warning triangle 50 meters in front of the vehicle. • Lock the doors. • Shift into park (automatic transmission) or first gear or reverse (manual transmission). you must do the following: On two-way roads: • Move your vehicle at least 2 meters away from the road. When parking. • Remove your keys. • Place another warning triangle 100 meters behind the vehicle. A Vehicle Doesn’t Have • Set the parking brake. Improperly parked vehicles can cause accidents and even death. Emergency Parking In addition to following the above steps during an emergency parking situation. On multi-lane roads: • Place two warning triangles behind the vehicle: one at 10 meters. • Don’t forget to retrieve the rear triangles on the road before moving your vehicle. • Switch off the ignition. to be Moving to • Turn your wheels toward the Cause an Accident sidewalk shoulder if you are parking downhill. and away from it if you are parking uphill. 81 .

• Turn the wheels sharply to the right and back slowly toward the vehicle behind. Never Leave Your Vehicle Without Setting the Parking Brake 82 .Parallel Parking Contrary to what some people think. • Stop even with the vehicle ahead (about 60 cm away). Practice the following steps. parallel parking is easy.

• Turn the wheels sharply to the right and pull toward the curb. 83 . straighten the wheels and continue straight back.• When your front door passes the back bumper of the vehicle ahead. turn the wheels sharply to the left and back up slowly. • When clear of the vehicle ahead.

• In an intersection. Sidewalks are for Pedestrians. • In a tunnel. Not Vehicles: Don’t Park on Sidewalks It is Against the Law to Double Park 84 . • Within 10 meters of a stop sign. • Where signs prohibit parking. • On a bridge or overpass. • On railroad tracks. • Within 5 meters of a fire hydrant. Move your vehicle off the road.Never Park: • Next to any vehicle parked along a curb. • Within 6 meters of a fire station driveway. • Near street excavation. • Where you obstruct traffic or entrances of garages. (double park) • On a sidewalk. • On highways.

and emotional condition of the driver. An alert and physically fit driver is able to respond to any situation. shamal.). Never drive when you are tired or sleepy. If you are sleepy. mental. Never drive when you are taking prescription drugs that cause drowsiness. it is possible to drive safely. pull off the side of the road and rest. This is particularly true when driving under adverse conditions. fog. 85 . etc. Read instructions regarding possible side effects. But even under the most adverse conditions (rain. Driver Condition The most important factors affecting safe driving are the physical.Adverse Driving Conditions Most accidents are caused by driver error.

and disease. consult your physician before driving. The Condition of Your Vehicle Affects Your Ability to Control it 86 . Never drive in the rain or fog if your windshield wipers are not working properly. It also affects your ability to see other drivers and pedestrians. the vehicle should be in excellent condition.Always take into consideration any physical impairments you may have. Vehicle Condition The condition of your vehicle affects your ability to control it. These include old age. which will kill you. Never drive if you have a defective muffler. When your vehicle has a mechanical defect. If you suffer from a physical impairment. Like the driver. It could cause your vehicle to fill with carbon monoxide. Defective tires cause skidding and blowouts. Make sure your tires are properly inflated and not worn. Never drive a vehicle that has faulty brakes. take it to a mechanic immediately. poor vision.

• About to become narrow.Make sure your turn signal and headlights work properly. 87 . Make sure your horn works. They affect both your vision and your ability to signal other drivers of your intentions. Posted speed limits are for ideal conditions only. decrease your speed. Poor weather is the biggest factor affecting road condition. When the road surface is wet and slippery. you could misalign your front wheels or even lose control of your vehicle. Speed must be reduced when roads are: • Curved (bends. you may need to sound a warning. rocky. The defensive driver always adjusts his speed to the road surface condition. • Uneven. The defensive driver always fastens seat belts and enforces their use. • Intersecting with railroads or bridges. If you hit a pothole or dip too hard. detours. Watch out for potholes and dips in the road surface. Don’t Become Another Statistic: Keep Your Vehicle in Excellent Condition Road Condition The condition of the road affects your ability to steer the vehicle. and cloverleaf interchanges). or sandy. It also affects your ability to stop. Make sure the seat belts are in good condition. In an emergency situation. • Undergoing maintenence or repair. • Fitted with speed bumps or rumble strips.

go with the flow. avoid rush traffic. Traffic is heavier during the morning and afternoon when people are going to and coming from work. Remember: the more traffic. This means conforming to the pace of the traffic around you. If you drive faster or slower than the vehicles around you. When possible. you cause The Defensive Driver additional passing. The amount of traffic depends on the time of day and the day of the week. When in heavy traffic. plan your route to avoid heavily congested streets (feeders). Additional Avoids Rush Traffic passing increases the chance of an accident. P STO STO P In Heavy Traffic Go with the Flow 88 . It is also determined by the number of pedestrians. the greater the risk of an accident. If you are unable to avoid driving during rush traffic.Traffic Condition Traffic condition is determined by the number of other drivers on the road.

Light Condition The light condition affects your ability to see and be seen. Always Reduce Your Speed at Night 89 . Switch your headlights on at dusk and at dawn. When driving in too much light. Night driving is particularly dangerous. they have difficulty seeing you. such as driving directly in the morning sun. Take care so others can see you. wear sunglasses or use your sun visor. See Night Driving on page 60 for safe-driving techniques for nighttime driving. So take extra precautions. Also remember that when you have difficulty seeing other drivers.

Weather Condition Bad weather includes rain. Never Drive Faster Than is Safe Under Existing Conditions 90 . fog. it is best not to drive at all. you should turn on your low-beam headlights. Do not drive with your flashers on. reduce your speed. Always watch for red taillights. If you must drive. and sandstorms. pull over and wait. Turn your low-beam lights on in fog. When your vision is reduced to 300 meters or less during the daytime because of bad weather. If you are on the road and the weather gets worse. Always be prepared to make an emergency stop. Slow Down in Bad Weather When the weather is very bad.

a traffic accident. 1816 427-5555 Dial 110 for Emergency Service Do not leave the scene of the accident. Dhahran Abqaiq Ras Tanura Safaniya ‘Udhailiyah Yanbu’ Abu’Ali Berri Ju’aymah Mubarraz Tanajib Riyadh Jiddah 874-2055 572-5291 673-5231 378-3301 577-8212 321-4500 678-2228 678-7226 678-9227 577-2344 378-3274 285-1812. return as soon as possible. contact the nearest main gate. Use the telephone numbers listed below. He is there to help you.Saudi Aramco Policy Reporting an Accident If you are involved in. Cooperate with the investigating officer. do not move your vehicle until you have been told to do so by the investigating traffic officer. Also. If you must take someone to the hospital. 91 . If you do not have access to a telephone. send someone in person to the main gate. or become aware of.

Citations for Unsafe Driving Practice: • Industrial Security is responsible for issuing citations for traffic violations using SA-2412 "Notice For Unauthorized Parking and Unsafe Driving Practice" • Department head takes corrective action. • Off-road vehicles and heavy trucks drivers must pass the related *T&CD tests. according to G. 4. • Authorized drivers should take a **DIRS every three years. Following is a brief summary of important points: 1.007). • A copy is kept in the employee’s file. Note: Whether employees are assigned to drive Saudi Aramco vehicles or not. 2.G. 6. Requirements to Drive a Company Vehicle: • Hold a valid driver’s license recognized by the Government. 3. must complete DIP and take DIRS *T&CD **Driver Improvement Program Refresher Seminar 92 . • Complete DIP.029.030 Loss Prevention General Instruction 6.I.030. • Criteria of employee’s department. 6.I. states that all Saudi Aramco licensed driver employees and contractor employees assigned to drive company vehicles must satisfactorily complete the Driver Improvement Program. 50. Unassigned Saudi Aramco drivers are also included. • Number of days driven without MVA/violations. • Take supervisor’s road test. Criteria Determining Safe-Driving Incentives: • Number of kilometers driven (refer to G. Motor Vehicle Accidents resulting in damage to Company vehicles must be reported on Saudi Aramco form 1193.I.

More than 3 people in front seat 8. Driving on the wrong side of a divided roadway 4. or repeated infractions.000 damage 2. Speeding: Exceeding speed limit by — 10 kph or less — 10 to 20 kph — 21 to 30 kph — Over 30 kph 3. Preventable MVAs: — Vehicle a total loss — $1. Reckless driving (combination of moving violations) 2. Reckless driving which results in injury 3. Moving Traffic Violations 1. Passing in a "No Passing" zone 5. Failure to obey a traffic signal or stop sign 6. Penalty points will be issued to the drivers involved in the infraction. Penalty points assigned should reflect such factors as whether an *MVA or violation involved personal injury. damage to property. I. Motor Vehicle Accidents 1. Passengers in back of open pickup truck * Motor Vehicle Accident 10 3 6 8 10 10 6 8 8 5 4 14 9 4 14 0 93 . Penalty point categories are listed below.000 or more damage — Less than $1. Not using seat belts (drivers or passengers) 7. Non-preventable or non-recordable MVAs II.5.

Parking in a posted "Reserved" area 4 4 3 2 1 Multiple Violations Could Lead to the End of Your Driving Privilege Driving is a Privilege. Parking on the wrong side of the street (against the traffic flow) 4.III. Parking in a posted Handicapped Parking area 3. Parking in a posted "No Parking" zone 5. Parking in an emergency route or emergency vehicle space 2. Parking Offenses 1. Not a Right 94 .

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5 METERS RESTRICTED SPEED LIMIT ENDS MANDATORY MOVEMENT END COMPULSORY MINIMUM SPEED THIS SIDE ROAD IS CLOSED FIRST AID STATION TELEPHONE AHEAD FLASHING YELLOW (YIELD) OVERTAKING IS ALLOWED FROM LEFT STOP LINE AT TRAFFIC SIGNAL CROSS CAUTIOUSLY (ON GREEN) d² Ä ± ∞ ∞  U½«uO×Kà d³FÄ o Ó o¹d Þ UN Ã Ë √ Á d Dš   UO M× M Ä —U O Kà 5LOë sÄ vŽd o¹dÞ ‰ u š b à « Ÿ uM 2 v — U E ² ½ ô « Ÿ uM 2 t ¹ œ d H à « ÂU ¹ ô «   « — U O K à “ Ë U −² à « Ÿ u M 2 t ³ M * « ‰U L F ² Ý« Ÿ uM 2 v²?ë  «—UO ë —ËdÄ ŸuM2 d²Ä ≤ sŽ UN{dŽ b¹e¹ 5 L O K à b Š« Ë Á U &« 5LOKà ȗU³ł« ÁU&« Á UA L K à ȗ U ³ ł « o ¹d Þ c U½ dOž o¹dÞ vH A ² Ä WM¹ b *« œË b Š n Á l DI² Ä d LŠ √ o ¹d Dë n B² M Ä j š Á — U ý ≈ bM Ž · u Á u à « j š nÁ “ Ë U − ² à « Ÿ uM 2 ONE WAY RIGHT ENTERING TRAFFIC HORIZONTAL CLEARANCE 2-METERS H MANDATORY MOVEMENT PEDESTRIANS PERMITTED THIS SIDE ROAD IS CLOSED HOSPITAL ÷U¹dë CITY LIMITS FLASHING RED (STOP) CENTER OF ROAD LINE STOP LINE AT "STOP" SIGN OVERTAKING IS PROHIBITED RAILROAD TRACKS AHEAD 100 METERS ANIMAL CROSSING SLIPPERY ROAD DANGEROUS BENDS LEFT . ROAD WITH YIELD IS AHEAD BENDING OF THE ROAD DIRECTION SIGNS .RIGHT ENTRY PROHIBITED FOR ALL VEHICLES NO WAITING ON ODD DAYS OVERTAKING PROHIBITTED DO NOT SOUND HORN ONE WAY RIGHT d ² Ä µ∞ o ¹ d D à U Ð ‰U L Ž √ —Ë d Ä Á —Uý « p Ä UÄ √ tOz u { Á d D š   U O M × M Ä t K KÝ — U O ë sÄ v Žd o¹d Þ   « —U O ë — Ë d Ä Ÿ u M2 v — U E ² ½ ô « Ÿ uM 2 t O ł Ë e ë  U ¹ô « “ Ë U − ²Ã « Ÿ u M 2   U MŠ U AK à 5 ð — U O Ý 5 Ð t U Ä qÁ √ d ²Ä µ ∞   U ½ « u O ( « — Ë d Ä Ÿ uM 2 — U O K à bŠ«Ë ÁU &« — U O K Ã È — U ³ ł« Á U &« È — U ³ ł « d O Ý Á U &« v à ˜ o¹ d Þ   « — U O Ý nÁ u Ä Á U& ô «   « — Uý ≈ Á U& ô « W Ä öŽ t ¹ d ¹ c % ◊ uD š o ¹d Þ p Ä UÄ √ n Á tOK C √ v M × M¹ o¹d D ë ONE WAY 50 METERS ROADWORK 50-METERS BETWEEN VEHICLES DO NOT PASS FARM ANIMALS P MANDATORY MOVEMENT MANDATORY MOVEMENT INTERNATIONAL HIGHWAY PARKING TRAFFIC SIGNALS AHEAD WINDING ROAD LEFT ENTERING TRAFFIC NO CARS PERMITTED NO WAITING ON EVEN DAYS NO TRUCKS PASSING AHEAD ONE WAY LEFT .LEFT DIVIDED HIGHWAY ENDS STOP NO STOPPING/ WAITING PERMITTED NO TRAILERS PERMITED PRIORITY FOR INCOMING TRAFFIC VERTICAL CLEARANCE 5.WARNING b¹ b Š W J Ý l Þ U I ð © t Ы u Ð ÊË b Ð ® „d ×²Ä d ł ÁUA*« —u³Ž REGULATORY ‚ dÞ l Þ UI ð vKŽ dOÝ WIDMÄ 5¼U&≈ INFORMATION SIGNS   ö U (« — Ë d Ä Ÿ u M 2 5 L O K à Á U & ô « Ÿ uM 2 ∂∞ tŽ d K à b Š v BÁ √ ” Ø r K b ¹b % tID MÄ W ¹U N ½ ” Ø r K  ∂ ∞ t Žd ë 5 L O à « Âe à « È —U ³ ł ≈ Ê « —Ë œ p Ä U Ä « — U O à « Ë 5 L O Kà — Ë d * « t O KC √ ¡ U N ² ½ ≈ t O K C √ È– t I ¹d Þ —Ë d *« r F DÄ TRAFFIC SIGNALS — c × Ð d Ý ©d Cš √ ® PAVEMENT MARKINGS Î U O F D Á “ Ë U −² à « Ÿ u M 2 PEDESTRIAN SIGNALS nÁ v O z — o ¹ d Þ lÞ U I ð vŽd lÄ ‰öš ·uÁuë —uD Ä tMOFÄ ÂU¹«Ë  UŽUÝ »d * « b¹ b% jš P RAILROAD CROSSING WITHOUT GATES DRAW BRIDGE PEDESTRIAN CROSSING ZONE CROSSROADS TWO-WAY TRAFFIC SIDE ROAD CROSSES THE MAIN ROAD PARKING/STOPPING TIME-RESTRICTED NO BUSES PERMITTED NO RIGHT TURN MAXIMUM SPEED LIMIT 60 KPH END 60-KM SPEED LIMIT ZONE PASS THIS SIDE MANDATORY MOVEMENT END OF THE RIGHT OF WAY ROAD WITH PRIORITY RESTAURANT GO CAUTIOUSLY OVERTAKING IS PROHIBITED LANE DETERMINATION LINE STOP b¹ b Š W J Ý l Þ U I ð ©tÐ «u ³Ð ® t ¹ u K Ž t O z U Ð d N  „ ö Ý« dD š l H ð d Ä 5LOKà nDFMÄ sÄ oOC¹ o¹dDë 5 L O ë d ¹ b ² Ä Á U &« v · u Á u à « Ÿ uM 2   U Á Ë ô« l O L ł   U M ŠU A à « — Ë d Ä Ÿ u M 2 Î « — U ¹ Á U& ô« Ÿ u M 2 ±∞ t Ãu L Š v B Á « sÞ “Ë U − ² ë Ÿ u M 2 W ¹U N ½ —U O ë  e ë d ¹ b ² Ä Á U &« bŠuÄ ÁU &« Õ ö ≈ e d Ä tK UŠ n Á u Ä n Á © d L Š√ ® “Ë U − ² ÃU Ð `L ¹ dš Q Ð o ¹ d D ë ¡ UI ² Ã≈ vŽd dE ² ½ « © d L Š √ ® P RAILROAD CROSSING WITH GATE ELECTRICAL WIRES UPHILL INCLINE (8:1 RATIO) ROAD BENDS TO THE RIGHT RIGHT LANE ENDS MERGE LEFT APPROCHING TRAFFIC CIRCLE PARKING/STOPPING PROHIBITED NO TRUCKS PERMITTED NO LEFT TURN 10-TON LIMIT END OF OVERTAKING PROHIBITION PASS THIS SIDE ROTARY TRAFFIC (ROUND ABOUT) UNIFIED DIRECTION OF TRAVEL SERVICE STATION BUS STOP STOP OVERTAKING IS ALLOWED SIDEROAD INTERSECTION AHEAD WAIT (ON RED)   « d z UÞ j ³ N Ä t D Á U ²Ä — u dD š — b × M Ä — U O Kà nD F M Ä sÄ oOC¹ o¹dDë 5 ³ ½U' « —Ëd*« WOKC √ jŽ√ — U E ²½ ô « Ÿ u M 2   U ³ Âd * « —Ë dÄ Ÿ u M 2 Á — uD I * «   « – n K KÃ Ê « — Ë b à « Ÿ uM 2 —u×LKà tÃuLŠ vBÁ« sÞ ≥ b Š « u ë “ Ë U & Ÿu M 2 t ¹ U N ½   U M ŠU A à « v ³ ½ U ł b Š√ v K Ž d O à « o¹dDë t ¹ — U ³ ł≈ t Ž d Ý v½ œ √ vKŽ —Ëd*« tOKC √ pà tK Ð UI *« … — UO ë   UÁ Ë d × Ä W D× Ä h B Ä o¹ d Þ j I   « — U O Kà · u Á u Kà bF ² Ý ≈ © d H « ® Á — U O K à “ ËU − ² à U Ð ` L ¹ s 1_ « » d * « v d š Q Ð o ¹ d D à « ¡U I ² à √ v Oz— QONð ©lDI²Ä dCš√® —u³FKà AIR STRIP FALLING ROCKS DOWNHILL INCLINE (7:1 RATIO) ROAD BENDS TO THE LEFT ROAD NARROWS YIELD THE RIGHT OF WAY NO WAITING PERMITTED NO TANDEM TRUCKS PERMITTED NO U-TURN 3-TON LIMIT EACH AXLE END OF OVERTAKING BY TRUCKS PROHIBITION PASS EITHER SIDE COMPULSORY MINIMUM PRIORITY IS YOURS PETROL STATION AHEAD THIS ROAD IS FOR CARS ONLY PREPARE TO STOP OVERTAKING IS ALLOWED FROM RIGHT MAINROAD INTERSECTION AHEAD PREPARE TO CROSS (ON FLASHING GREEN) — cŠ≈ d² Ä ± µ ∞ È u ² Ä d O ž o¹d Þ UN ÃË √ Á d D š   UO M× MÄ 5LOK à ÃË œ e * « o ¹ d D à « W ¹ U N ½ nÁ — U E ² ½ ô « Ë · uÁ u à « Ÿ u M 2   « — u D I * « — Ë d Ä Ÿ uM 2   « — U O Kà t O KC ô « tÄ œU Ië d ² Ä µ \ µ Ÿ U H ð — « v KŽ √ b ¹b % tID MÄ t ¹ UN ½ tŽ d à « — U O K Ã È — U ³ ł √ Á U &« t Ž dÝ v ½ œ√ t ¹ U N ½ t¹—U³ł≈ c U½ dOž o¹dÞ · U F Ý ≈ e d Ä n ðU¼ ¡È b ¼ © l D I ² Ä dH « ® tŽ d à « Á —UO K à “ Ë U− ² ÃU Ð `L ¹ d ¹ ô « » d *« v Á — Uý « b M Ž ·u Á u ë j š tOz u { —c×Ð d³Ž√ ©dCš√® b ¹ b Š WJ à « j š sÄ t U *«   «d ý R Ä 150 METERS CAUTION UNEVEN ROAD DANGEROUS BENDS RIGHT . ÂUÄbë . Ê«dNEë d³)« DIRECTION SIGNS WARNING LINES STOP.

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