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for planning, implementing and evaluating curriculum in school.I helps in answering what schools are for, what subjects are important, how students should learn and what materials and methods should be used. In decision-making, philosophy provides the starting point and will be used for the succeeding decisionmaking. The following four educational philosophies relate to curriculum: 1. Perennialism. The focus in the curriculum is classical subjects, literary analysis and considers curriculum as constant. 2. Essentialism. The essential skills of the 3 R's and essential subjects of English, Science, History, Math and Foreign Language is the focus of the curriculum. 3. Progressivism. The curriculum is focused on students' interest, human problems and affairs. The subjects are interdisciplinary, integrative and interactive. 4. Reconstructionism. The focus of the curriculum is on present and future trends and issues of national and international interests. Educational philosophy lays the strong foundation of any curriculum. A curriculum planner or specialist, implementer or the teacher, school heads, evaluator anchors his/her decision making process on a sound philosophy. (Activity: Compare the four Philosophies of Education based on the aim of education, role of education and curriculum trends. How does a strong belief or philosophy influence curriculum? Historical Foundations of Curriculum. Curriculum is not an old field. Majority of scholars would place its beginning in 1918 with the publication of Franklin Bobbit'sbook."The Curriculum" Philippine education came about from various foreign influences. This can be traced back to the glorious history. Of all foreign educational systems, the American educational system has the greatest influence on our educational system. The following six curriculum theorists contributed their views on curriculum: 1. Franklin Bobbit (1876-1956)- presented curriculum as a science that emphasizes on students' need. 2. Werret Charters (1875 -1952) - considered curriculum also as a science which is based on students' need, and the teachers plan the activities. 3. William Kilpatrick (1871-1965) - viewed curriculum as purposeful activities which are child-centered.
4. Harold Rugg (1886-1960) - emphasized social studies in the curriculum and the teacher plans the lesson in advance. 5. Hollis Caswell (1901-1989) - sees curriculum as organized around social functions of themes, organized knowledge and earner's interests. 6. Ralph Tyler (1902-1994) - believes that curriculum is a science and an extension of school's philosophy. based on students' need and interests. The historical development shows the different changes in the purposes, principles and content of the curriculum. (Question: What are the implications of ever-changing curriculum top teachers?) Psychological Foundations Psychology provides basis for the teaching and learning process. It unifies elements of the learning process and some of the some of questions which can be addressed by psychological foundations. The following are the three major groups f learning theories: 1. Behaviorists Psychology - consider that learning should be organized in order that students can experience success in the process of mastering the subject matter, and thus, method of teaching should be introduced in a step by step manner with proper sequencing of task. (Activity: Discuss the contributions of Edward L. Thorndike, Ivan Pavlov and Robert Gagne to the present views on curriculum) 2. Cognitive Psychology - focus their attention on how individuals process information and how the monitor and manag e thinking. For the cognitive theorists, learning constitutes a logical method for organizing and interpreting learning. Learning is rooted in the tradition of subject matter where teachers use a lot of problem and thinking skills in teaching learning. These are exemplified by practices like reflective thinking, creative thinking, intuitive thinking, discovery learning, etc. (Activity: Discuss the contributions of Jean Piaget, Lev Vygotsky, Howard Gardner, Felder and Silverman and Daniel Goleman to curriculum development. 3. Humanistic Psychology - concerned with how learners can develop their human potential. Based on Gestalt psychology where learning can be explained in terms of the wholeness of the problem and where the environment is changing and the learner is continuously reorganizing his/her perceptions. Curriculum is concerned with the process not the products, personal needs not subject matter; psychological meaning and environmental situations. (Activity: Give the contributions of Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers to the present field of curriculum development.
4. Social Foundations of Education. Schools exists within the social context.Societal culture affects and shapes schools and their curricula. The relationship of curriculum and society is mutual and encompassing. Hence, to be relevant, the curricula should reflect and preserve the culture of society and its aspirations. At the same time, society should also imbibe the changes brought about by the formal institutions called schools. (Question: A school has been using the same old curriculum it has had for the past ten years. Do you think this is a good practice? Why? Why not?)
Source: Curriculum Development by Purita Bilbao, et. al, Loremar Pub., 2008)
Perennial philosophy (Latin: philosophiaperennis "eternal
philosophy", also Philosophiaperennisetuniversalis) is the notion of the universal recurrence of philosophical insight independent of epoch or culture, including universal truths on the nature of reality, humanity or consciousness (anthropological universals). Perennial philosophy is the philosophical concept, which states that each of the world s religious traditions share a single truth. Perennial philosophy asserts that there is a single divine foundation of all religious knowledge, referred to as the universal truth. Each world religion, independent of its cultural or historical context, is simply a different interpretation of this knowledge. World religions including, but not limited to, Christianity, Islam, Judaism, Hinduism, Taoism, Confucianism, Shinto, Sikhism and Buddhism, are all derived from the same universal truth. Although the sacred scriptures of these world religions are undeniably diverse and often oppose each other, each world religion has been formed to fit the social , mental and spiritual needs of their respective epoch and culture. Therefore, perennial philosophy maintains that each world religion has flourished from the foundation of the same universal truth, making these differences superficial and able to be cast aside to find religion s deeper spiritual meaning. According to Huxley, the perennial philosophy is: the metaphysic that recognizes a divine Reality substantial to the world of things and lives and minds; the psychology that finds in the soul something similar to, or even identical with, divine Reality; the ethic that places man's final end in the knowledge of the immanent and transcendent Ground of all being; the thing is immemorial and universal. Rudiments of the perennial philosophy may be found among the traditional lore of primitive peoples in every region of the world, and in its fully developed forms it has a place in every one of the higher religions (The Perennial Philosophy, p. vii).
teacher to student. This is to promote reasoning. Essentialism came under scrutiny and criticism in the mid to late 20th century by the American pragmatist Richard Rorty. effective teaching cannot take place in a loud and disorganized environment. or immanent eternal Self. In philosophy. for any given kind of entity. Essentialist curricula thus tend to be much more vocational and fact-based. New Jersey. Art. patriotism. not vocational topics. is one with Brahman. if carried out as true dialogue. Educational essentialismis an educational philosophy whose adherents believe that children should learn the traditional basic subjects thoroughly and rigorously. All he would talk about was Nirvana. to be the object and (since in contemplation the knower. In this philosophical school of thought. Discussion of its possible limitations has taken place among social scientists and biologists as well. Writing. for any specific kind of entity. the known and th e knowledge are all one) at the same time the subject and substance of that experience. They believe that the most important topics develop a person. perennialism focuses first on personal development. tat tvamasi ('That thou ar t'). Both philosophies are typically considered to be teacher-centered. In this view.g.He also pointed out the method of the Buddha: The Buddha declined to make any statement in regard to the ultimate divine Reality. They may illustrate the reasoning with original accounts of famous experiments. the Atman. Although perennialism may appear similar to essentialism. Traces of this can be found in the organized learning centered around teacher and textbooks. In simple terms. Since people are human. take the leadership position and set the tone of the classroom. and shows the reasoning in action. the philosophiaperennis.Their emphasis was to reform the educational system to a rational-based system. Aldous Huxley According to Karl Jaspers: "Despite the wide variety of philosophical thought. things. ideas) are universal. However. which. and the disciplines that promote a happier. a group met for the first time called "The Essentialist's Committee for the Advancement of Education". the Absolute Principle of all existence. as also of later Buddhism. Anthropology professor Lawrence Hirschfeld gives an example of what constitutes the essence of a tiger. in this matter. these cannot be the most important. to find out who he really is. Other properties. regardless of whether it is striped or albino. as the object can be subjugated to smaller contexts. which no man possesses but about which all serious efforts have at all times gravitated: the o ne eternal philosophy. one should teach first about humans. while essentialism focuses first on essential skills. as opposed to student-centered philosophies of education such as progressivism. Foreign Languages. not machines or techniques. [ ] Maintaining. In Atlantic City. it shows the uncertainty and false steps of real science. Moreover. ==Principles of Essentialism== Essentialism is a relatively conservative stance to education that strives to teach students the knowledge of our society and civilization through a core curriculum. According to essentialism. not facts. there is a set of characteristics or properties all of which any entity of that kind must posses s. essentialism is a generalization stating that certain properties possessed by a group (e. there is in all philosophy a One. not facts. The teacher must interpret essentials of the lear ning process. train the mind. Therefore. one should teach liberal topics first. and far less liberal and principle-based.  Essentialism as a Teacher-Centered Philosophy The role of the teacher as the leader of the classroom is a very important tenet of Educational essentialism. more educated living. including the teacher promoting the discussion. Since people are people first. The essential properties of a tiger are those without which it is no longer a tiger. and workers second if at all. or has lost a leg.  This view is contrasted with non-essentialism. Since details of fact change constantly. Essentialism ensures that the accumulated wisdom of our civilization as taught in the traditional academic disciplines is passed on from The Essentialist movement first began in the United States in the year 1938. This core curriculum involves such areas that include the study of the surrounding environment. Science. Other non-traditional areas are also integrated as well in moderation to balance the education. these teachers may be open to student criticism through the associated Socratic method. and not dependent on context. such as stripes or number of legs. enacting a back-to-basics approach. which is the name of the experience that comes to the totally selfless and one-pointed. The teacher is the center of the classroom. is to discover the fact for himself. which states that. the attitude of a str ict operationalist. It is the teacher's responsibility to keep order in the classroom. since the teachers associated with perennialism are in a sense the authors of the Western masterpieces themselves. and Music. The teacher must control the students with distributions of rewards. the essentialist statement 'all human beings are mortal'. the aim is to instill students with the "essentials" of academic knowledge. and character development through traditional (or back-to-basic) approaches. The Perennial Philosophy and that in the Upanishads: The Perennial Philosophy is expressed most succinctly in the Sanskrit formula. in addition to the regular assignments and evaluations typical in essentialist education. A particular strategy with modern perennialists is to teach scientific reasoning. the Buddha would speak only of the spiritual experience. there are no specific traits which entities of that kind must possess. one should teach principles. people. Essentialists' goals are to instill students with the "essentials" of academic knowled ge. and ensure a common culture. Literature. Essentialism is the most typically enacted philosophy in American classrooms today. Most importantly. so they should be rigid and disciplinary. and the last end of every human being. despite all the contradictions and mutually exclusive claims to truth. These needs require an educator that is academically well-qualified with an appreciation for learning and development. and ensure a common culture for all Americans. History. . Mathematics. a member of a specific group may possess other characteristics that are neither needed to establish its membership nor preclude its membership. are considered inessential or 'accidental'. it follows that terms or words should have a single definition and meaning. is a balance between students. Establishing order in the classroom is crucial for student learning. basic natural laws. promote reasoning." Perennialists believe that one should teach the things that one deems to be of everlasting importance to all people everywhere. ==History of Essentialism== essentialism is the view that. not of the metaphysical entity presumed by the theologians of other religions. but that essences do not simply reflect ways of grouping objects. Such disciplines might include Reading. they also result in properties of the object. For example. Therefore all things can be precisely defined or described. this traditional approach is meant to train the mind. This gives the students a human side to the science.
" reconstructionism is a crisis philosophy. (4) examine the future and the possible future realities. both theories have different views about the roles of the teacher. ===Renowned Essentialists=== William Bagley (1874 1946) was an important historical essentialist. In his book. He described the right of students to a well-educated and culturally knowledgeable teacher. 2. and what knowledge should be imparted to students. Furthermore.The most notable change within this school of thought is that it called for the creation of a new discipline. William C. 2004). y y y y y y y y y Emphasis on learning by doing hands-on projects. Throughout his career Bagley argued against the conservative position that teachers were not in need of special training for their work. experiential learning Integrated curriculum focused on thematic units Strong emphasis on problem solving and critical thinking Group work and development of social skills Understanding and action as the goals of learning as opposed to rote knowledge Collaborative and cooperative learning projects Education for social responsibility and democracy Integration of community service and service learning projects into the daily curriculum Selection of subject content by looking forward to ask what skills will be needed in future society Theodore Brameld is considered to be the creator of the term reconstructivism in 1950. Reconstructionism focuses on society. this is not always the case. Bagley wrote of the importance of accuracy. Evaluate the consequences of the hypotheses from one's past experience. were not getting an education on the same levels as students in Europe who were the same age. These goals could only be accomplished if the parents were a part of the effort. Most progressive education programs have these qualities in common: perennialism are polar opposites. More recently. He described how the Progressives preached a hedonistic doctrine of change where as the essentialists stressed the moral responsibility of man for his actions and looked toward permanent principles of behavior (Demiashkevich likened the arguments to those between the Socratics and the Sophists in Greek philosophy).D. Test the likeliest solution. 4). Even all of their teachers could not completely erase a parent's influence. Given this view of human nature. Ch. Students spend the majority of their day with their parents and therefore the impact that a teacher can have in one year of their life is minimal. While teaching tolerance and understanding is important. A recent branch has emerged within the essentialist school of thought called "neoessentialism. it has been viewed as an alternative to the test-oriented instruction legislated by the No Child Left Behind educational funding act. (2) confront controversial issues and discuss them. 4. On the other hand. These types of classes would allow for opportunities to discussion on societal issues. progressive education finds its roots in present experience. He stated that. neoessentialism was created to try to appease the problems facing the United States at the ti me. Demiashkevich labels some specific educators (including William C. He believed that liberal arts material was important in teacher education. Missouri Elementary School Bagley s devotion increased during his work at Montana State Normal School in Dillon. Bagley) as essentialists. Lastly. thoroughness and effort on part of the student in the classroom." Demiashkevich compared the essentialists to the different viewpoints of the Progressive Education Association. he published the Essentialist's Platform. expeditionary learning. Bagley completed his undergraduate degree at Michigan Agricultural College in 1895. following a process similar to John Dewey's model of learning: 1. y y y De-emphasis on textbooks in favor of varied learning resources Emphasis on life-long learning and social skills Assessment by evaluation of child s projects and productions The curriculum theories of reconstructionism and Educational progressivismis the belief that education must be based on the principle that humans are social animals who learn best in real-life activities with other people. appropriate for a society in crisis." This theory gained popularity during the progressive educational movement because people became unhappy with what our society was becoming and began calling for reform. There are five goals for education in the reconstructionist philosophy: (1) to examine both the cultural heritage of the society and the rest of civilization. computer science.S. political and social aspects. (5) participation of both the students and the teachers in interculturalism. in 1900 after which he took his first school job a Principal in a St. The term "progressive" was engaged to distinguish this education from the traditional curriculum of the 19th century. 5. what subjects should be emphasized. 2004. By contrast. These courses examine culture in economic.The term essentialist first appeared in the book An Introduction to the Philosophy of Education which was written by Michael John Demiashkevich. 3. In order to accomplish their goals reconstructionists believe that the focus of the curriculum should be on the social sciences(Ornstein &Hunkins. a progressivist teacher desire s to provide not just reading and drill. in which he outlined three major points of essentialism. Reconstructionists are often seen as idealistic since their theory is based on a utopian society (Ornstein &Hunkins." Philosophy Progressive education is a pedagogical movement that began in the late nineteenth century and has persisted in various forms to the present. Propose hypotheses to solve it. Typical progressivist slogans are "Learn by Doing!" and "Learn by Discovery. However. they see the schools as the solution to different social crisis. Bagley did his Graduate studies at the University of Chicago and at Cornell University. Without having students that focus in these areas we . which was rooted in classical preparation for the university and strongly differentiated by socioeconomic level. Most progressive educators believe that children learn as if they were scientists. launching his name across the nation. Montana. Louis." Emerging in the eighties as a response to the essentialist ideals of the thirties as well as to the criticism of the fifties and the advocates for education in the seventies. One point that Bagley noted was that students in the U. While these goals are good they are also unrealistic. In April 1938. (3) dedicated to bringing about change within the society. It wasn t until after finishing his undergrad studies that he truly wanted to be a teacher. Unfortunately. In 1938 Bagley and other educators met together where Bagley gave a speech a speech detailing the main points of the essentialism movement and attacking the public education in the United States. the sacrifice of other courses could be detrimental to our society. he discussed the importance of teaching the ideals of community to eac h group of students. perennialists believe that the curriculum should focus on the intellect by teaching the classical subjects. which is the essence of our society and international society today. but also real-world experiences and activities that center on the real life of the students. Secondly. Become aware of the problem. it is equally important to learn math and science. He acquired his Ph. It was here where he decided to dedicate his time to the education of teachers and where he published The Educative Process. Define the problem. In addition. Bagley also believed the dominant theories of education of the time were weak and lacking. They believe that the curriculum should be a method of change and social reform for society.
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