P. 1
Velocity & Acc_Engineering Science DMV1032_2132

# Velocity & Acc_Engineering Science DMV1032_2132

|Views: 45|Likes:

See more
See less

08/29/2012

pdf

text

original

# Engineering Science: Chapter 2 ± Velocity & Acceleration

Velocity & Acceleration
1. As a first step in studying classical mechanics, we describe motion in terms of spaces and time while ignoring the agents that caused that motion. 2. This portion of classical mechanics is called kinematics. 3. In this chapter we consider only motion in one dimension, that is, motion along a straight line. 4. We first define position, displacement, velocity and acceleration. 5. Then, using these concepts, we study the motion of objects traveling in one dimension with a constant acceleration

1 Displacement   A displacement is the shortest distance from the initial and final positions of a point P.2. P A B . Thus. A displacement vector represents the length and direction of that imaginary straight path. it is the length of an imaginary straight path. typically distinct from the path actually traveled by P.

2. He could be at any point within a radius of 7 km: he could even be back at his initial position. 4km 7km 3km . we give no indication either of the actual distance between his initial and final positions or of the direction of the final position relative to the initial position.e it has magnitude only (no direction).1 Displacement    When we say that a person has walked 7 kilometers. i. Distance is therefore a scalar quantity.

D C 4 km A 3 km B . as represented by BC. his final position C is 5 km away from his initial position A. he could have reached C by going north-east from A to D and then south-east from D to C.1 Displacement  A person has walked    3 km eastwards. as represented by AB in fig. as shown by the dotted lines in figure below.2. and then walked 4 km northwards. thus.  This change of position is termed the displacement and is independent of the path followed and of the time taken.

The resultant displacement is represented to scale by the straight line AC. it will be seen that during the first part of the 7 km journey from A to C. the displacement is 4 km in a northerly direction and is represented in fig. During the second part of the journey. the displacement is 3 km in an easterly direction and this can be represented by a horizontal vector AB. 4 cm long. the resultant displacement is 5 km in a direction 53o north of east and can be determined by adding vectorially the component displacements A D C 4 km 53o 3 km B . it is a vector quantity and can be represented by a straight line drawn to scale in the direction of the displacement. say.e. 1 cm to 1 km. drawn vertically at B.1 by vector BC.2.1 Displacement      Since displacement has both magnitude and direction. By measurement. From figure. drawn to a scale of. the length of AC is found to be 5 cm and the angle between AC and AB is 53o. i. 6.

we can say that the speed of a body is the distance traversed in unit time.8 km/minutes x 60 minutes/hour = 48 km/hr  In general. t = 1. a minute or a second. etc. a kilometers.2 Speed If a motor car travels 1.  and the unit of time can also be any convenient value such as an hour.8km/min .  1.  The distance can be expressed in any convenient unit such as a meter. s time.6 km in 2 minutes.6 km 2 min = 0.8 kilometers per minute.2. its speed is 0. or  0. or the rate at which distance is traversed..6km t = 2 minutes V = Distance.

The average speed of a body is the total distance divided by the time. A body has constant speed only if it moves over equal distances in equal intervals of time ± however short the interval. if a body travels a distance s meters in t seconds. its average speed is 48 km/h.2 Speed    If a motor car travels a distance of 48 km in one hour. but it is extremely unlikely that the car will travel at exactly this speed during the whole hour ± its speed will be at times higher and at other times lower than this value. thus.2. is given by: V = s [meters] t [seconds] = s meters/second t . the average speed. v meters per second.

000 meter 3600 seconds = 27.2 Speed  Example: If a motor car is traveling at a speed of 100 km/h.2.78 m/s Note: 1km = 1000m 1hr = 60min = 3600s . what is the speed in meters/second? 100 km = (100 x 1000) meter 1 hour (1 x 3600) seconds = 100.

and c) the time taken to travel 100 km.2km c) s = 100km = 100 x 1000 = 1 x 105m v = s/t t = s/v = 1 x 105 18.2.52 = 5399.5h .52m/s b) t = 20min = 20 x 60 = 1200s v = s/t s=vxt = 18.2 Speed  Example: If an aeroplane travels a distance of 800 km at a constant speed in 12 h.52 x 1200 = 22224m = 22. calculate: a) its speed in m/s b) the number of km traveled in 20 minutes. s = 800km = 800 x 1000 = 8 x 105m t = 12 hrs = 12 x 3600 = 43200s a) v = s/t = 8 x 105m 43200s = 18.57s = 1.

Time & Speed  Distance vs time & speed vs time graph for constant speed.2.  Constant speed .  The area shown shaded in speed vs time:     = speed x time = 5m/s x 20s = 100m .3 Graph Relating Distance.no speed change The slope at graph (a) represent speed at which the body is moving.

3 Graph Relating Distance.  Average Speed:   Tangent line = 100m/20s = 5m/s The slope at initial and final are zero (graph a).  Slope at any intermediate is obtained by drawing a tangent line. Time & Speed Distance vs time & speed vs time graph for varying speed.2.  .

5s 5.6m.6 m/s Tangent line     4. Total area below the graph (b) represent the total distance traveled.6 m/s 5.5s.6m 5. average speed = 5.5)s ! 5. Time & Speed  Slope AB: BC Slope of AB ! AC 42m ! (10 .5s-4. is represented by the area of the shade trip. 5.6m/s So.2.6m/s x 1s  = 5.3 Graph Relating Distance.2. distance:  s = 5.5s = 1s .

2.3 Graph Relating Distance. is the length of the time taken  Distance travel = area enclosed by graph  = average speed x time  = vt . Time & Speed v3 v2 v4 v5 v1 v6 Average Speed ! v ! v1  v2  v3  v4  v5  v6 6 t.

Velocity has both magnitude and direction.   Velocity is vector quantity  If a car traveling in northerly direction at a speed 40km/h.4 Linear Velocity  Speed is scalar quantity  Speed of a body can be stated without any reference to the direction. the velocity is said to be 40km/h northwards. .2.

Observer at B. . relative to train B. Train B would appear to be traveling westward ( ) at 30km/h.5 Relative Velocity v = 50km/h B v = 80km/h A   Train A is moving at:  80 ± 50 = 30km/h. train A would appear to be eastward ( ) traveling at 30km/h.2.  Observer at A.

Train B would appear to be traveling westward ( ) at 130km/h.2. Observer at B. relative to train B. . train A would appear to be eastward ( ) traveling at 130km/h.  Observer at A.5 Relative Velocity v = 80km/h A v = 50km/h B   Train A is moving at:  80 ± (-50) = 130km/h.

accelerating Velocity decreasing .5m/s every second from 0m/s to 30m/s 0m/s ? m/s ? m/s ? m/s 30m/s .retarding Acceleration = Rate of change of velocity The car velocity increase 1.6 Acceleration     Velocity increase .2.

t Unit for acceleration: m/s2 .2.6 Acceleration 0m/s ? m/s ? m/s ? m/s 30m/s Change o Velocity ! v  u Acceleration ! a ! Rate o change o velocity Change o velocity time vu ! t v ! u  at ! u = initial velocity v = final velocity a = acceleration Suppose the velocity to increase at a uniform rate to v in time.

2. 1 s ! .6 Acceleration hange of elocity ! v  u hange of velocity time vu ! t v ! u  at 1 ! Acceleration ! a ! ate of change of velocity Substituting the value v from equation (1) to equation (2).

u  u  at t 2 1 2 s ! ut  at 2 3 Distance travel ! s average velocity ! 1 .

u  v 2 s ! average velocity x time s ! 1 .

u  v t 2 2 .

6 Acceleration v ! u  at if .2. v 2 ! (u  at ) 2 2 1 Note= a is positive when accelerating a is negative when retarding ! u  2uat  ( at ) 1 2 2 ! u  2a(ut  at ) 2 4 v 2 ! u 2  2as 2 .

Summary s Speed . s ! ut  at 2 v 2 ! u 2  2as . a ! t v ! u  at 1 2 Dis tan ceTravel . v ! t v u Acceleration.

Thank You .

scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->