SOCIAL WORK PRACTICUM

SOCIAL CHALLENGES FACED BY STREET CHILDREN IN KITWE

Submitted by: Serah Cheelo
This work is prepared by Kabsy Consultancy Services for our client Mrs.Chipolo Serah. In need of more help in Academic consultancy call Mr. Kabaso Sydney Mupukwa +260966717712/0974376553

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SOCIAL WORK PRACTICUM

A Social Work practicum submitted to the University of Zambia as a partial fulfillment of the requirement of the award of a Diploma in Social Work.

SOCIAL CHALLENGES FACED BY STREET CHILDREN IN KITWE

Submitted by: Serah Cheelo

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Declaration

I declare that all the work reflected in this paper is my own and no part of this research report has been submitted to any other institution of learning. All borrowed work has been fully acknowledged through citations throughout the research report.

Student Name: Serah Cheelo Signature:…………………………………………………………………… Date:………………………………………………………………………….

Name of Supervisor: …………………………………………………….. Signature: …………………………………………………………………… Date: ………..…………………………………………………………………

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Dedication This work is dedicated to my parents Mr. and Mrs. Chipolo for the support towards my education. The support rendered is as a seed that is planted by the stream of water that doesn’t not wither. All your work shall continue to flourish in all your children.

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Acknowledgement The preparation of this document demanded the involvement of many stake holders whose contributions have been fully acknowledged below.
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I am indebted to the entire faculty of The University of Zambia, Resident Lecturer, Copperbelt Province, and Kitwe, Zambia for accepting me to study at their reputable institution. Special thanks go to the Street Children Africa and Ministry of Community Development and Social Welfare Services – Kitwe for attaching me at their institution during my practicum field work. I also acknowledge Mr.Sukamanga, Mrs. Fox and Miss Harriet for providing a hand of support and assistance when I needed it most at Chingola Social Welfare Department. I pay special thanks to my Husband, Mr. Kangwa for financial support rendered to me whilst I was doing this practicum. On a more academic level, my Social work practicum supervisor, who deserves a special mention. His inclusive and constructive comments made me go to an extra mile in my quest for knowledge. He was my tower for academic excellence during my research, not forgetting all Lectures at The University of Zambia for there critical analysis of my report making it a factual presentation of the academic work.

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o Last but not the least I owe special thanks to all my respondents and friends’ for the support renderered during my academic work.

Abstract
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The issues of street children in urban areas are serious. In general, organisations working with street children attempt to provide food and clothing as well as education through community schools. They strive to provide either day or night shelters for the children. Although there is a mass of children who have no choice, but to live on the streets, there are many children who have run away from home because of issues of abuse at home or simply in search of food and money. Some organisations working with street children train social workers who provide outreach to the youth on the street. They attempt to gain the trust of the children. In time the social workers try to resolve the problems at home to encourage a return to the families. It seems that at times the NGOs working directly on orphan and children in need and those working directly with street children are not collaborating effectively. At times, they almost seem to view each other’s work as separate from their own. Many street children NGOs could provide valuable information to share with other NGOs regarding the primary causes of children ending up on the street and could assist other NGOs help prevent other children from leaving their homes The program description in Social welfare agreement with USAID

acknowledges that the term “street children” is problematic: Many children who are currently or have previously been on the streets prefer not to be referred to as “street children.” While understanding and respecting this preference, the term is used in this practicum to refer to children who spend all or part of their days or nights living or working on the streets, and is maintained for ease and clarity of communication. In addition to the issue of “street children” being a potentially stigmatizing label, categorizing children in this way may undermine program effectiveness by failing to recognize the continuity of the circumstances of children working or living on the street with other children, such as those
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addressed by programs for “orphans and vulnerable children.” At least two factors tend to encourage such categorical approaches to programming for children: donor requirements and agency specialization. Even while recognizing the particular threats and challenges that being on an urban street pose for children, it is important that Department of Social Welfare partners avoid giving undue emphasis to the idea that their programs are for a unique category of “street children,” that they recognize the continuity and overlap between their programs and other child-focused programs in Zambia, and that they actively look for opportunities to collaborate with such programs.

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CHAPTER ONE BACKGROUND INFORMATION 1.0 Introduction to the Chapter

This chapter provides the geo political profile of the district where the attachment was done. And the subject under discussion has been introduced tracing its historical perspective. Figure 1: Map of Zambia SHOWING Kitwe as an attachment setting.

KITWE ZAMBIA ATTACHMENT SETTING 8

Kitwe is the second largest city in terms of size and population in Zambia. With a population of 547,700 (2007 census) Kitwe is one of the most developed commercial and industrial areas in the nation, alongside Ndola and Lusaka. With a complex of mines on its north-western and western edges. Kitwe includes a number of townships and suburbs including Nkana East, Nkana West, Mindolo and Garneton. The city is sometimes referred to as Kitwe-Nkana as shown on Figure 2 below:-

Figure 2: Kitwe Towns Map.

1.2 History Kitwe was founded in 1936 in north-central Zambia as the railway was being built by Cecil Rhodes' company. It was first established as an adjuunct non mining related but supportive part of an expanding copper-mining centre at Nkana. The expanding copper mines at Nkana made it the dominant centre in the region and Kitwe started building up its size and significance over the
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years, finally surpassing Nkana as the main centre. The Rhodesia Railways main line reached the town in 1937, providing passenger services as far south as Bulawayo, with connections to Cape Town. The line was extended into DR Congo, and from there eventually linked to the Benguela Railway to the Atlantic port of Lobito Bay (which used to take some of Zambia's copper exports but is currently closed). 1.3 Street Children in Zambia As AIDS has devastated the population of prime age adults in many African nations, one important spillover effect has been an increase in orphans or otherwise vulnerable children. The increase in the ranks of vulnerable children has compounded the negative consequences of this health crisis. Vulnerable children have much lower human capital (in terms of both schooling and health) than non-orphans and even orphans cared for by members of their extended family. They thereby contribute to the intergenerational transmission of poverty far and above their parents' direct contribution. Street children represent a particular subcategory of orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) as they typically lack regular family support. The number of street children in Zambia almost doubled over the 1990s. National studies conducted in 1991 and 2004 estimated the number of street children in Zambia to be approximately 35000 and 75000, respectively (Tacon and Lungwangwa 1991; Zambian Ministry of Sport, Youth and Child Development 2004). This represents an increase from about 0.9% to 1.6% of Zambian children living on the street. A growing body of domestic and international studies and reports describes the situation of children living on the street but evidence on the causes of this phenomenon remains scant. In this paper we hypothesise that the causes lie in the families of origin. We use data from a unique sample collected through dedicated fieldwork in the slums of Northern Zambia in order to identify the factors that contribute to the breakdown of the safety
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net provided by the African extended family and give rise to the phenomenon of street children. In Africa, the extended family was the traditional social security system. Extended family members were responsible for protecting the vulnerable, caring for the poor and sick and passing on traditional social values and education. Families, particularly in traditional societies, involve a large network of connections among people extending through varying degrees of relationship including multiple generations, over a wide geographic area and involving reciprocal obligations (Foster 2000). However, as the number of orphans and vulnerable children increases and an ever larger number of adults is affected by HIV/AIDS, these family networks have come under severe strain. Against this background this paper tries to identify the link between family structure and the street children phenomenon. We present a quantitative analysis of data collected from 20 households, capturing the experience of 155 nuclear family members, 685 extended family members, and 102 current and former street children.

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CHAPTER TWO JUSTIFICATION 2.0 Introduction to the Chapter

The Chapter discusses the significance of care and support to street children in Zambia and looks at the impact of children Vulnerability on the Zambian society. 2.1 Significance of care and support to street children Ovc’s has become an issue in Zambia which has led to the establishment of several organizations that offer care and support to orphan and vulnerable children in order to enhance economic growth and reduce poverty, streetism and crime in Zambia. Successful operation of organisations that offer care and support to vulnerable children enables to secure the future of Zambia in that children will grow responsible citizens. In situations where children are not institutionalized in safe homes and places is a sign of danger to a tomorrow Zambia in those children will tend to grow irresponsible, victims of abuse, crime in that they lack shelter, education, clothing and proper health services. Care and support of orphans and vulnerable children is important because OVC’s are the future leaders of tomorrow. Therefore particular consideration should be paid thereof as care and support of orphans and vulnerable children is concerned. Child development that occurs from birth to adulthood was largely ignored throughout much of history. Children were often viewed simply as small versions of adults and little attention was paid to the many advances in cognitive abilities, language usage, and physical growth. Interest in the field
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of child development finally began to emerge early in the 20th-century, but it tended to focus on abnormal behavior. As AIDS has devastated the population of prime age adults in many African nations, one important spillover effect has been an increase in orphans or otherwise vulnerable children. The increase in the ranks of vulnerable children has compounded the negative consequences of this health crisis. Vulnerable children have much lower human capital (in terms of both schooling and health) than non-orphans and even orphans cared for by members of their extended family. They thereby contribute to the intergenerational transmission of poverty far and above their parents' direct contribution. Street children represent a particular subcategory of orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) as they typically lack regular family support. The number of street children in Zambia almost doubled over the 1990s. National studies conducted in 1991 and 2004 estimated the number of street children in Zambia to be approximately 35000 and 75000, respectively (Tacon and Lungwangwa 1991; Zambian Ministry of Sport, Youth and Child Development 2004). This represents an increase from about 0.9% to 1.6% of Zambian children living on the street. A growing body of domestic and international studies and reports describes the situation of children living on the street but evidence on the causes of this phenomenon remains scant. In this paper we hypothesize that the causes lie in the families of origin. We use data from a unique sample collected through dedicated fieldwork in the slums of Chingola and Northern Zambia in order to identify the factors that contribute to the breakdown of the safety net provided by the African extended family and give rise to the phenomenon of street children. 2.1 Importance of Children in Socio –Economic Development.

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Vision 2020 can be better described as vision 20/20. That is the perfect vision in American style and this 20/20 vision can be achieved only by young generation of Zambia. It is well known that Zambia is home to a significant proportion of youth of the world today. All the imperialists of the world are eyeing Zambia as a source of technical manpower. They are looking at our boys and girls as a source of talents at low costs for their future super profits. If Zambian youth make up their mind and work in close unity with working class people, they can foil the plans of Imperialism and Bourgeoisie. The plunder of Zambia can be ended with political power in their hands. The workers, peasants, women and youth will ensure that there is work for all. They will ensure that what is produces is geared towards providing adequacy for all members of society. Unfortunately no one is bothered to dream any such vision. Martin Luther has said, "I have a Dream" and the dream come largely true. If he had not thought of that dream he would have accomplished nothing in his life. To climb high one has to think of climbing the Everest. One may not go higher than 10000 feet but even that will not be attained if you have no better dreams of going up to the top floor of your office in a life. The HIV/AIDS epidemic has registered its deadly impact, not only in the spread of the disease itself, with growing illness and death in many countries, but also on the lives of families and communities across the world. In particular, in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, the percentage of children who have lost one or both parents is as high as 20 percent and predicted to be over 20 percent in eleven countries by 2010. Consequently, as children face increased vulnerability, the response to HIV/AIDS moves increasingly into a long term, challenge of poverty reduction, human development and social protection. Although there needs to be further research on the impact on children who become orphans, studies show that it affects their education and health
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outcomes. As they grow older, they are also vulnerable to sexual abuse and possible HIV infection.. These risks and other vulnerabilities are also likely to harm their future livelihoods as well. There are no short cuts or quick solutions. A sustained commitment to protecting and improving the lives of these children needs to link local actions with those at the national and global level, so that new interventions can achieve the widest-possible impact. Ovc’s has become an issue in Zambia which has led to the establishment of several organizations that offer care and support to orphan and vulnerable children in order to enhance economic growth and reduce poverty, streetism and crime in Zambia. Successful operation of organisations that offer care and support to vulnerable children enables to secure the future of Zambia in that children will grow responsible citizens. In situations where children are not institutionalized in safe homes and places is a sign of danger to a tomorrow Zambia in those children will tend to grow irresponsible, victims of abuse, crime in that they lack shelter, education, clothing and proper health services. Care and support of orphans and vulnerable children is important because OVC’s are the future leaders of tomorrow. Therefore particular consideration should be paid thereof as care and support of orphans and vulnerable children is concerned. Child development that occurs from birth to adulthood was largely ignored throughout much of history. Children were often viewed simply as small versions of adults and little attention was paid to the many advances in cognitive abilities, language usage, and physical growth. Interest in the field of child development finally began to emerge early in the 20th-century, but it tended to focus on abnormal behavior.
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CHAPTER THREE CONCEPTUAL AND THEORETICAL FRAME WORK

3.0 Introduction to the Chapter This chapter sought to review concepts regarding street children in Zambia. Different literature that other Authors and researchers similar subject on who is a street child, is there children and Orphans and vulnerable theories have been used to reader. have written about the

a difference between street

children In the same chapter different

explain the problem of street children in Zambia, further the chapter has been arranged in sub headings to give preference to the 3.1 Street children At the last estimate in 1996, there were 75,000 street children min Zambia, in Lusaka and other and other cities and towns. Most children on the street have a home, and go there every day. They go on the streets to raise money to supplement family income. Other children go on the street to escape neglect, domestic violence, sexual
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abuse and drunkenness at home, and are less likely to return. In Lusaka, over 75% of street children interviewed in 2002 have at least one parent alive. About a quarter of street children report that they have no home at all, living on the street day and night. Life on the street is dangerous, and the longer children remain, the harder it is to return to, normal life. Drug abuse, sexual abuse, delinquency man crime make it more likely that these children will stay on the street, thrown out of home, or end up in prison. The majority of children visible on the streets during the day are boys. For girls in similar circumstances, most will end up in prostitution at night, leaving children as young as ten years vulnerable to all kinds of danger. (UNICEF 2004). Contrary to the similar and more commonly known informal

settlements of Nairobi (Kenya), which are squatter communities where inhabitants have generally no legal rights or at most a quasi-legal right granted from a local authority (La Ferrara, 2002), the Zambian slums are, for the majority of cases, recognized as legal settlements by the Housing (Statutory and Improvement Areas) Act of 1975. Living conditions are extremely poor in these slums. Most of Ndola’s slums have either no access to clean water or are crowding on single sources of water: communal taps, instead of individual connections, are used in most compounds. Just like water, sewerage is typically not individually connected. Pit latrines and septic tanks are the only facilities available and garbage is not collected in most compounds because the poor cannot afford the service (Ncube 2008). Most houses are built out of any available construction material, like sun-hardened earth brick and scavenged metal roof-sheets held down with rocks. During the rainy season these structures break down with rain washing away walls, running under roof sheets and flooding
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homes. Due to the lack of drainage systems, the rain forms rivers that rush through the township eroding everything in their path. Some people have regular jobs in Ndola; some grow vegetables wherever they find a plot and sell on the city streets. Others rely on short-term, irregular “piecework” as blacksmith or as carpentry jobs. Many others are unemployed or unable to work. The great majority lives below the official poverty threshold of 1$ per day. Crime and drug addiction is rampant, making these slums very dangerous. The first two are among the poorest and largest slums on the outskirts of Ndola, with more than 40,000 residents each, living without any city planning, amenities or utilities. Kawama is slightly smaller and more distant from Ndola than the other two. Basic services such as sanitation and drinking water are very poor in all the towns. 3.2 Child – headed households About 1 to 2% of Zambian households are headed by a child. These households are made of children left together after their parents have died. Living in a child – headed household is devastating for all children concerned. Every risk faced by children in Zambia is worse where children face that risk without an adult caregiver. (Kabaso Sydney: 2008:45) Children who head households are extremely vulnerable. They cannot attend school, and many drop out of promising careers in school or college when their parents died. It is hard for them to maintain the household income, or to be good caregivers for younger children. As they grow order, boys have difficulty finding a good wife willing to accept their dependents, and girls are vulnerable to early pregnancy. Younger children being brought up by their siblings miss the protection of an adult caregiver. Their order siblings are likely to be able to secure
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school places or access to other services or to provide a secure livelihood or the guidance needed by growing children. The extended family is Zambia’s traditional coping mechanism and social safety net. But with increasing poverty and the effects of HIV/AIDS, the extended family is often said to be over – stressed or collapsing, as the demands grow to greater and greater levels. Although family traditions are different throughout Zambia, the pressures of HIV/AIDS and poverty have had similar effects all over. Extended family support has changed over the past decade, as a narrow range of relatives is prepared to offer help. These days, families are often only willing to support close family and immediate relatives. People will often accept the orphans of their own brothers and sisters, and remote cousins and relatives may be refused. In married households, orphans may only be taken to in where the relationship is through the wife, as women are becoming reluctant to care for their husband’s relatives. Many women even refuse even to care for their husband’s own children, even where their mother has died. There is also a change in the sharing of responsibilities between richer and not – so – rich relations. The richest relatives are isolating themselves from their relatives, particularly from rural areas. Contacts are limited to occasional donations. They usually do not take orphans to live with them, unless they come from other rich families members (UNICEF 1999:145). Working class households stay more closely linked with their extended families. They carry a significant burden in supporting orphans, other vulnerable children and family members. They try to visit remote relatives, and may take orphans into their houses or try to support
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orphans living with other relatives. Children from working class households have to depend on the extended family if their parents die, often moving to rural areas, and losing their chances of education and employment. 3.3 School and Street Children Any child who does not access a complete primary education of reasonable quality is vulnerable. Missing an education causes many problems in later life. Earning a living, planning a family, being a parent, avoiding HIV/AIDS and accessing rights are all harder for people without education. All 7 to 13 years olds should be in primary school. However, although there has been some improvement over ten years, still only, 60% are enrolled, including only 53% of rural children. Rural children often start school late, due to distance, and higher poverty levels also keep them out of school. The government’s Free Basic Education policy is an important step towards getting all children to complete primary school. However, children, children still need money for various requests, which they may not afford. There are various bursary schemes that pay for requisites such as clothes, books and pens, including Government programs, and others organized by NGOs, Churches, the private sector and informal assistance. Even so, many children do not access support, or may not find a place at school. Children from very poor households or with sick parents may have to work, and do not have time to attend school. School attendance for primary age boys and girls is very similar. However, girls drop out much faster than boys after primary years.

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In recent years, a large number of community schools have opened, with about 1,925 now registered. This demonstrates community commitment to education provides grants and even teaches to some community schools, but many receive nothing. Quality varies widely between community school in terms of building, teachers, materials and access to resources. Making a long – term success of community schools very difficulty especially, when volunteer teachers lose motivation. For an orphan or poor child to go beyond grade 7 is difficult. The costs are high and there are fewer bursaries available. Alternative training may be accessible, often in carpentry or tailoring, but the profits of these businesses are often low. “Education is vital for Zambia’s future without education; the next generation will be unable to meet the challenges of development, risking social frustration and economic failure” (UNICEF 1999:25). 3.4 Health and orphans and vulnerable children Poor children are vulnerable to health problems. With poor access to health facilities, less food, worse shelter, and bad water supplies they suffer from serious conditions, including infection disease, parasite infestations and chronic health problems. Street children suffer from health problems every type. Poor health effects children’s physical growth and development, as well as their school attendance and psychological strength. Continued efforts are needed to ensure that all children are fully immunized in good times. Full immunization means the child must have BCG, Measles, and three doses of DTP and of Polio, all before 1 year of age. At present, only 57% are fully vaccinated by 1 year, and

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70% by 2 years. Children of mothers with no education have much lower rates of immunization. Malnutrition amongst children under 5 years old is high. Malnutrition has risen over the past decade, and is highest amongst rural children. Programs to improve nutrition have been limited. Micronutrient supplements and de-worming medicine are distributed through schools and clinics, and sugar is now fortified with vitamin A. Supplementary feeding programs is focused on hospitals, with HEPS and other food available for malnourished children. Families are reached through home-based care programs. School feeding programs target 64 schools, in poor and food insecure areas (GRZ, School Feeding Programme Report 2004:52) Children aged 5 and over pay user fees at health clinics. Funds may be required for transport, food, lab tests and prescriptions. The need for cash means that poor children, including orphans, may fail to access health services. As children, they have less access to cash to pay fees, or to information about the limited free services on offer. Politics that state that people without money should be treated are usually not consistently publicized or implemented. Recently, free ARV therapy programs for children under 20 years have been announced. However, even free ARV therapy will require money for transport, and for good diet necessary to accompany the drug regime. Other children will benefit if their parents access ARV therapy programs keeping. (HIV/AIDS ALLIANCE 2007:24). 3.5 THEORATICAL FRAME WORK A functionalist would likely suggest that many in the ranks of the homeless population actually can and do sustain themselves and, in most cases, are able to survive the rigors of daily life---even if living
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less than a meager existence. Hunkering down in a cardboard box when tired, eating discarded food from a trash can, bathing or washing clothes in rain-filled ditches are all simply beholden to the ways that some in humanity take care of themselves, would the functionalist remark. There is, however, one major hitch in all this: the functionalist would claim that homelessness amounts to little more than social blight and therefore is a burden upon the greater whole of society. In so much, a functionalist would say it is important to bring all members of society up to a minimal standard of living so that all individuals in society can play a greater, more productive role in contributing to turning the gears of the machine called society. Conflict-theorists would most likely not consider homelessness, in itself, to be a problem whatsoever. They would cite capitalistic motives as being "the problem." A conflict theorist would claim that the reason the homeless problem persists is not because of a homeless individual's supposed inability (or reluctance) to advance oneself. Rather, the conflict theorist would posit that the cause of homelessness stems from the capitalistic social classes that oppress those who cannot find a place to work or a physical address to call home. Therefore, when the oppressors deny employment to those who need employment, the economic-underclass victims will either rise up demonstrably or consider taking a more silent route, the latter of which, for the homeless, results in maintaining an existence as nomadic "outcasts." Different trends in Danish research related to homelessness can be discerned. We have seen a psychiatric trend (Brandt, 1992; Nordentoft,1994) where the focus is on the connection between properly diagnosed mental illness and homelessness, implying more or less that mental illness and lack of proper treatment is a very
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important explanatory factor behind homelessness. The traditional socio-political research trend takes interest in the development and importance of social welfare institutions and practices (Fridberg,1992; Kjær Jensen1995,1997). The many evaluations of projects and programmes are part of this trend. Under this tradition we can also place studies with the focus on figures and upon follow-up studies (Stax, 1999; Geerdsen et al, 2005). On the other hand we find a social constructivist trend where apparent “changes” are explained as stemming from the changes in the functions and structures of societal institutions (Järvinen, 1993; Stax, 2001). And finally a phenomenological approach is showing where the aim is to understand more than to explain (Järvinen, Stax, Caswell and Schultz), and by introducing a more relational perspective (the socalled daily life perspective) to include the surroundings and their reactions as part of the picture (Bømler, 2000; Bech Jørgensen, 2001; Jørgensen, 2000). In short one could say that in research we see that the concept of “homelessness” has changed from a position of an individual to a process, where the relations between in and out, normal and abnormal are taken into account. Concerning themes the research could be said to have changed focus from the users of institutions to the more conspicuous groups of street- people.Hidden homelessness has not been in focus apart from the report on street children. It can be discussed whether street homelessness is hidden, but most of those youngsters did not all the time. Structuralists believe that increased homelessness over the past two decades was caused by loss of affordable rental housing and increasing numbers of poor people in large cities. This viewpoint regards the tightening of the aggregate low income housing ratio as
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the primary cause and the relatively high rates of personal disabilities of homeless people as selection factors. The author uses microdata to analyze trends in low income housing supply, the low income housing ratio, and crowding in low income rental units. He shows that the claimed near 100% tightening of the low income housing ratio is only 26% and rates of overcrowding in affordable units increased by only 1%. The macro level trends that structuralists say because increasing homelessness exist but are not nearly as dramatic as they believe. The author argues that theory and policy must place greater weight on the personal disabilities of homeless people that structuralists have deemphasized.

CHAPTER FOUR ATTACHMENT SETTING 4.0 Introduction to the Chapter This chapter gives a brief account of the attachment setting in terms of its location. It also provides information on the organisation of attachment in terms of its objectives, aims and goals. The other section in this chapter discusses the methods of data collection and feedback mechanism used by the attaché. 4.1 Place of Attachment

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Care and support of street Children Practicum report was done at the Street Children Africa and Department of Social Welfare in Kitwe, Zambia. The coverage area more than 10 towns as shown on Figure 3 below:

Towns covered by the Researcher for Street Children Research project: Kitwe

4.2 Information about the Attachment Setting Kitwe Social Welfare is under the Ministry of Community Development and Social Welfare Services under the Government of the Republic of Zambia. The Department of social is focuses on the total well being of an individual and it collaborates with a number of institutions in the town. The networking partners includes, churches, NGO’s, Community Based Organisation (CBO’s), Faith Based Organisations (FBO’s) and International fourth. Vision of the Ministry: donors such as Care International, Plan Zambia and so

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To have a Zambian Society where every poor and vulnerable person is empowered to live a productive and useful life. Mission: To provide and facilitate socio-economic empowerment of the poor and vulnerable and promote the development and preservation of Culture. 4.2 Aim of the Attachment 1. The aim of the attachment was to have practical hand experience on how Street Children are supported and cared for and the role of the Department of the Social Welfare in Zambia and Children Africa. 2. To learn from the organisation through the purposefully designed interactive process. 3. To contribute and provide professional knowledge to the attainment of the organisation objectives. Friends of Street

Methods of Data Collection and Feedback Mechanism The attaché collected data both primary and secondary data. Primary data was collected mainly through the use of interview guide, Focus Group Discussions (FGD’s) and observation methods. The attaché interviewed street children that are on the streets of Chingola and those who are beneficiaries of the Department of Social Welfare and Friends of the Street Children Zambia. Guardians/parents and the members of staff of the Department of Social Welfare-Kitwe that included coordinators and social workers. Secondary data was collected through the use of reports
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and previous studies that have been done by the number of researchers and social workers from different line organisations. Feedback Mechanism The response was good in that a number of respondents were cooperative, social and loyal. The attaché found the people of Kitwe Friends of Street Children and Kitwe Social Welfare in that they were willing to release necessary information pertaining to the subject under discussion.

CHAPTER FIVE PROGRAMME/ACTIVITIES 5.1 Introduction to the Chapter This chapter takes into account various programmes undertaken by the Department of Social Welfare in relation to the subject/problem under discussion. In the same section relevant strategies, procedures and laws employed by the Department of Social Welfare and Friends of the Street Children Zambia in relation to care and support of street Children have been explained. Nature of participation and networking among stake holders has
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also been explained. The last section discusses the significance of the activities implemented by the two Organisation on Zambia’s social and economic development. 5.2 Programmes offered by the Department of Social Welfare Social Welfare Department has been making concerted efforts to provide welfare programmes to the women in need and distress, social security cover for the aged & destitute, programmes for the care and protection of the children through a network of residential care homes and noninstitutional services, programmes for the handicapped, financial assistance for physically and socially handicapped and steps towards economic empowerment of women, children, handicapped and aged persons. To supplement the on going activities, new programmes and services had been initiated to provide the benefits to the under privileged sections of society in better way for their socio economic development.

5.3 Programmes offered by Friends of the Street Children Africa (NGO) Friends of the Street Children are an exceptional agency, working in the Copper-belt town of Kitwe, Zambia. They were founded in 2000, and since then have expanded and now run several programmes, including two rehabilitation centers for children who wish to leave the streets. FSC estimate that there about 400 children on the streets of Kitwe, with an increasing number of girls, who are vulnerable to STIs, rape and abuse.

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FSC run a comprehensive outreach programme, and a team of street workers walk the streets on a daily basis to reach out to the children, befriend them and educate them. FSC's outreach team also run a street corner education programme, taking numeracy and literacy education to the streets so that the children can learn there without having to miss much time working in the market. This programme has seen remarkable success over the years. For instance, in 2007 144 children attended the street corner education classes. Of these children, 40 entered into the formal education system, and 24 went on to start a skills training course. Other benefits of the programme can been seen by one child's testimony. She did not leave the streets, but she did say "now I have learned to count, I know how much the market people are paying me. I was always being short changed before".

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In addition to this noteworthy outreach programme, FSC run a drop in centre, a medical assistance programme and two centres where children are able to stay and prepare to go home. Chibusa Home caters for girls aged 2 - 18, and boys under the age of 11. The children are able to stay in the home for as long as they need whilst the workers counsel them, place them back into schools, and try to trace their families. A reintegration back into families from these centres takes a long time and forward planning to be successful after all, if a child is returned to a home where the causes have not yet been addressed, they are far more likely to return to the streets. FSC therefore also work with the families providing them with a small loan system to empower them and let them realise their own earning potential. All sorts of small businesses have been set up, from chicken rearing to carpentry. The families have to repay FSC a certain amount of their earnings, but the rest goes to helping ensure that school fees are paid and that the children have access to at least one balanced meal a day. FSC also run Kawama Centre as a rehabilitation programme for boys aged 12 - 18. This centre was purpose built in 2007 by the Romilly Forshaw Foundation, St John Houghton School and Street Child Africa. The centre provides accommodation for up to 30 boys at one time, and has a purpose built classroom and resident teacher to enable those children who have not been to school previously to catch up with their peers. Skills training such as flower pot making, mat making and carpentry is also offered at the centre, along with recreation activities such as football. Like Chibusa Home, the aim of the centre is to rehabilitate the children back into their communities/families.

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In 2008, International Service (UK) awarded FSC with an award for defending the Human Rights of Children, and the Chairman, Christopher Mulenga was able to travel to the UK to pick up this prestigeous award from John Snow and the Arch Bishop of York.

CHAPTER SIX PROBLEM OF THE ORGANISATION AND ATTEMPTS TO SOLVE THEM 6.0 Introduction to the Chapter This chapter analyses the administration and operational problems, its strengths, threats, opportunities and Organisation attempts to solve them using a SWOT Analysis.
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6.1 The strengths and weaknesses Past interventions used to address vulnerable people include food aid, public works using food for work (FFW), cash for work (CFW) and food for assets (FFA). Access to basic services has previously been provided through social investment funds and micro-finance tailored towards the vulnerable. Public works have been proven to encourage local development, like roads, schools, etc. However, some needy groups such as the disabled, chronically sick, the aged and children are often excluded. Lessons from past interventions have cited such problems as poor quality of work and unrealistic wages and food rations. Other interventions include food security packs and subsidies. Past interventions have been through the policy of free basic education and bursary schemes. Access to health care services has also worsened the problem of vulnerability in Zambia. The introduction of user fees, which are payable for all services apart from specified exempt age groups, conditions and preventive services, has worsened the problem of access to health facilities. While the age-exemptions and antenatal exemptions are well implemented, exemptions based on medical conditions are not consistently available. The implementation of exemptions for those ‘unable to pay’ is not directed by any criteria or guidelines, or by any agreement with the Department of Social Welfare, and is implemented in an ad hoc manner.

6.2 Weaknesses Zambia suffers from the absence of a reliable social security system. Retrenchment and pension schemes have been hampered by inadequacy and delays of remittances, and poor investment decisions, with the result that many pensioners receive little or nothing of their entitlement. The present pension schemes have not addressed fully the health and other
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social needs of those who fall in the vulnerable category soon after employment. Children who do not access adequate education and training suffer the impact in later life, and are less able to find decent employment, start businesses or manage income-generating activities. Women who have not had adequate education are generally at greater risk than those who have completed at least primary education. The most affected groups are the rural poor, girls, girl orphans, double orphans and children living with grandparents. Many vulnerable children of school-going age are dropping out of school to work or beg in the streets due to lack of income to sustain themselves. Children who are from the streets have being found to be HIV positive. There are also some children who have been sexually active while on the street. Such children need counseling and thorough consistent education. The survey conducted revealed that very little of HIV and AIDS education is offered to these children. This is a portent area, bearing in mind that some of these children have engaged in sexual activity while on the street and can easily infect the others in RC. Kelly (1999), points out that non-formal education can reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS by transforming the young people into individuals who are temperamentally immuned against infection. This can be done by providing information and inculcating skills that will help self protection and promote desirable behavior. In summary the attaché observed that the Department of Social Welfare was facing the following challenges: i. ii. lack of transport to reach out to the remote parts of the districts; inadequate staff at district level, thereby overburdening the officers

on the ground; iii. erratic funding for programmes and recurrent expenditures; and
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iv.

erratic release of funds by the Ministry of Finance and National

planning, particularly for Public Welfare Assistance Scheme (PWAS) activities often with little predictability or communication concerning the timing and level of each release. 6.3 Threats The HIV/AIDS pandemic has brought about serious challenges to the social security system in Zambia. Uninfected family members are also affected by HIV/AIDS, as they suffer from reduced incomes, and increased and changed demands on the time and labour of both adults and children. The diverse effects of HIV/AIDS on children include being orphaned; dropping out of school; child labour; failing to access health services; and facing emotional burdens and social stigma. Projections show that the total number of orphans will increase to 1,470,000 by 2010, making about 20 percent of children orphaned. Children living without adult caregivers are extremely vulnerable to abuse and exploitation, and live lives of absolute poverty. The core social protection interventions on HIV/AIDS have focused on mitigation and coping activities, such as home based care and giving free ARVs. However, the coverage is small and associated costs related to medical tests are not free. The Ministry of Health has been pursuing a user-fee strategy while FBOs and NGOs offer a range of services that support households affected by HIV/AIDS.

6.4 Attempts to solve them The relevant ministries, in collaboration with the affected communities, in particular, have been put in place to handle some of the interventions that address the challenges of vulnerability, in general, and social protection in
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particular. These shall include the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Health on the fee waivers. Collaborative strategies with agencies such as MCDSS and NGOs are supported to ensure that orphans with special learning difficulties enroll in school by developing strategies that address their special needs. This includes basic clothing, school materials and boarding facilities, where applicable. Consistent with the obligation of any state to provide security and a long-term social safety net within which its citizens can prosper and based on the guiding principle that, where and when this safety net is endangered, the state is obliged to take action to preserve it, Zambia has put in place a national Disaster Management structure with its Secretariat (DMMU) as the hub of coordination mechanism. This structure promotes the vision of a “safety net” for protection of the citizenry, their assets and environment against disasters through a proactive, community based, developmental and multi-sectoral approach that combines disaster preparedness, prevention and mitigation and integrates disaster management into national development.

CHAPTER SEVEN PERSONAL INPUT AND EXPERIENCE
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7.0 Introduction to the chapter In this chapter, the attaché presented the main assignments that were given to do. The roles played out by the attaché in helping the Department of Social Welfare- Kitwe and Friends of the Street Children in achieving its social and economic development in dealing with the problem under discussion. In the same chapter lesson learnt has been blended with the whole social work course. 7.1 Responsibility played by the Attaché. As a student I was attached at Social Welfare Department and worker as a Social -Worker and I was given the following responsibilities:7.2 Assessment & Counseling Rehabilitation takes a period of at least six months depending on the seriousness of addiction to drugs or to other harmful substances they use, attitudes towards life, addiction to drugs or to other harmful substances they use, attitudes towards life, level of education etc. During this time, the e counseled and guided street children on how to become useful citizen. They are confined in one place with a better environment than the street. The street children were are given food, a bed, clothes and friendly environment. The attaché in the Rehabilitation Programme helped street children by: a. b. c. d. e. Keeping them of the drug Stopping them from running away or being wild Making them begin to like learning in the classroom Placing them in permanent homes Providing them with skills through vocational training.

7.3 Assessment &Counseling
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The attaché conducted assessment and counseling were done on one to one interview which is spread over weeks. This is to establish where the children have come from and find out if there are relatives who can take care of them. 7.4 Social Amenities The attaché helped the Department of Social Welfare and Friends of the Street Children at the safe centers in organizing activities to keep the children busy at all times The activities are organized in a manner that would help the children to be self-disciplined and responsible .The activities included: i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. Cleaning the dormitory, kitchen classroom Collecting paper, cleaning toilets Taking meals breakfast, lunch and supper together Attending classes Vocational training Games

7.5 Non-Formal Education The children were taught non formal education syllabus that has been designed by the ministry of education. The subjects taught include English mathematics, Bemba, and Science. So as to help them learn basic writing and reading skills. The attaché used to write supporting letters and filling vulnerability assessment and education scholarships to street children and orphans and vulnerable children that were the current beneficiaries of the street children education support program.
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7.6 Feeding programme From Monday to Saturday the attaché was given the responsibility to distribute food supplements to Street Children and Orphans and Vulnerable Children that included; Kapenta, Cooking oil, Meal –Meal, Soya flour and Nshima on a day to day basis. 7.5 Lessons Learnt Poverty was most frequently mentioned as the reason children were on the street, but 15 percent said that the main factor was pressure from or to follow friends. Another 5 percent cited family problems or abuse as the main reason. If poverty were a sufficient cause for being on the street, it seems likely that the number of children found there would be much larger. The fact that almost two thirds1 of Zambians are living on less than one dollar per day and that only a very small proportion of the country’s children are on the street suggests that a number of factors likely influence this decision for a given child. Forty-three percent of the children interviewed said that they did not know of a center or shelter serving street children. The finding must be interpreted with caution because those responding included children spending the day on the street as well as others living on the street. It suggests, however, that a new situation analysis of children on the street should test practitioners’ current assumption that children living on the street know which services are potentially available to enable them to get off the street and to reintegrate into a family and community. Observation and discussion with outreach workers and others working with children living on the street indicate that the vast majority spend many of their waking hours inhaling a volatile liquid to get and stay high.† During a discussion with a group of practitioners involved with outreach work on the street, some of whom had themselves lived on the street as children, I asked
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them to explain some of the reasons why this practice is so prevalent. They said that staying high eases the emotional and physical pain of living on the street; it is a shield. It is a way to cope with the negative comments from passersby, and it is a way to tolerate cold or wet weather and the many physical discomforts of life on the street. Getting high is also a way to gain acceptance from the group, because everyone is doing it. They said that it gives children courage to do or say anything and take risks, such as stealing. No one knows how many children are working or living on the street in Chingola, much less in Zambia as a whole. This makes difficult any measurement of progress in reducing the scale of the problem. Estimating the number of children who are working on the street at any given point in time would require fairly sophisticated survey research methodology and significant resources, and would be of questionable value. A rough estimate of the number of children out of school by district and town/city would be a relevant indicator of national development and, for urban areas, could serve as a proxy indicator of children working on the street. This information should be possible to compile using statistics from the Ministry of Education (MOE), the Zambia Community Schools Secretariat (ZCSS), census data, national survey data, and/or population estimates. It was beyond the scope of this review, however, to recommend who should be responsible for compiling such information.

CHAPTER EIGHT
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ANALYSIS 8.0 Introduction to the chapter This chapter analyses qualitative data obtained through interviews and observations. It also look at how effective are the programme employed in solving social and economic development. 8.1 Data Analysis The subject of street children is a big issue in many developing countries such as Zambia. A lot is being done to solve and enable them enjoy the basic human rights. The Department of Social Welfare is an institution that has been set up by the Government of the Republic of Zambia, it works is to see that every Zambia living in the state of wellness .The Department has helped to rehabilitate street children. The Department of social welfare centre has 130 boys and 80 girls. The center’s objective is to help the children be able to fit in the society. The activities the centre has developed for them include vocational training (for girls), educational (non-formal) cleaning the dormitories and compound, games and counseling. These are meant to keep them busy and out of streets. Although these activities are in place, the quality and the intensity of them is lacking. This is due lack of resources (human and material). This has made the centre unable to help the children effectively. The Department of Social Welfare, Kitwe, Zambia has the capacity in human resource that can improve the non-formal education by physically being involved in street children affairs. A survey conducted to determine the involvement of the Ministry of Community Development and Social Welfare Zambia revealed that very little is being done by the Department in that a great number of street children are still there on the streets. That there are children living without adequate protection and care and living on the street, denied their basic rights, should be considered
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unacceptable by Zambian society. The situation is certainly not in keeping with Zambian culture or religious beliefs. That almost all of those children living on the street spend their days and nights inhaling a volatile solvent that damages their brains, makes the situation even worse. We should be outraged, but we have come to accept this situation as a regrettable but unavoidable by-product of poverty. We need to reexamine our acceptance of the unacceptable. 8.3 Impact of the Practicum The practicum experience was instrumental to the researcher and to the entire Ministry of Community Development and Social Welfare and relevant NGO’s like Friends of the Street Children in that the lessons learnt from this field study will act as a bridge between the Department of Social Welfare and the children in need of acre that includes, Orphans and vulnerable children and street children inclusive. The attaché helped out in rehabilitating street children from the street to the safe centers 60 children in total. The attaché also observed that, the pervasive practice among children living on the street of inhaling a volatile liquid to stay high is one of the disturbing aspects of the situation of street life in Lusaka, Kabwe, Kitwe, Ndola and Chingola. Those with whom I spoke about this pattern, while concerned about it, did not know what the liquid is, nor were they certain of its long-term biological or psychological effects. Those I met who are working with street children are guided by experience in dealing with this issue, but they did not have access to information on methods that may be used in other countries to address this form of substance abuse. The use of volatile solvents also concerned me in relation to the operation of the Mobile Clinic by NGO’s, which had just begun its fourth month of operation. It was evident that most of the children being treated or in the clinic area had an inhalant bottle in hand or were high. This created a slightly
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chaotic atmosphere for the clinic, although it was difficult to tell whether the presence of a nosy white man was also having an effect on the children in the vicinity of the clinic. From this brief visit, I would question whether children who are high can adequately understand and recall the medical advice that they are given, as well remembering the appropriate frequency for taking medication provided. I would also raise the question of whether tolerating the use of a potentially harmful substance during the clinic was conveying an implicit message to the children that its use was acceptable.

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CHAPTER NINE SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

9.0 Introduction the Chapter This chapter gives a brief summary of the all report basing on the programmes and involvement of the attaché in relation to care and support of orphans and vulnerable children. Recommendations basing on the problem area have been discussed. 9.1 Summary The issues of street children in urban areas are serious. In general, organisations working with street children attempt to provide food and clothing as well as education through community schools. They strive to provide either day or night shelters for the children. Although there is a mass of children who have no choice, but to live on the streets, there are many children who have run away from home because of issues of abuse at home or simply in search of food and money. Some organisations working with street children train social workers who provide outreach to the youth on the street. They attempt to gain the trust of the children. In time the social workers try to resolve the problems at home to encourage a return to the families. It seems that at times the NGOs working directly on orphan and children in need and those working directly with street children are not collaborating effectively. At times, they almost seem to view each other’s work as separate from their own. Many street children NGOs could provide valuable information to share with other NGOs regarding the primary causes of children ending up on the street and could assist other NGOs help prevent other children from leaving their homes
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The

program

description

in

Social

welfare

agreement

with

USAID

acknowledges that the term “street children” is problematic: Many children who are currently or have previously been on the streets prefer not to be referred to as “street children.” While understanding and respecting this preference, the term is used in this proposal to refer to children who spend all or part of their days or nights living or working on the streets, and is maintained for ease and clarity of communication. In addition to the issue of “street children” being a potentially stigmatizing label, categorizing children in this way may undermine program effectiveness by failing to recognize the continuity of the circumstances of children working or living on the street with other children, such as those addressed by programs for “orphans and vulnerable children.” When programming is built around a specific, externally defined category of children, it can impede both the social integration of the children concerned (because they are continually identified as somehow different) and integrated programming (because assistance is provided on the basis of categories instead of children’s essential needs and rights). At least two factors tend to encourage such categorical approaches to programming for children: donor requirements and agency specialization. Even while recognizing the particular threats and challenges that being on an urban street pose for children, it is important that Department of Social Welfare partners avoid giving undue emphasis to the idea that their programs are for a unique category of “street children,” that they recognize the continuity and overlap between their programs and other child-focused programs in Zambia, and that they actively look for opportunities to collaborate with such programs.

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9.2 Conclusions There are significant overlaps in the issues that child-focused programs in Zambia are addressing among “street children” and “orphans and vulnerable children.” Greater collaboration among agencies working with such children would be appropriate. Household-level economic strengthening is one area that is highly relevant to both types of programming. It can help prevent children from moving onto the street. It is also important to recognize that there is significant overlap between street children and orphans and vulnerable children. Most of the children on the street during the day are living with their families. A substantial proportion of street children are orphans, and all are vulnerable. Vulnerability to HIV/AIDS is one of the risks faced by children on the street. Greater information exchange and collaboration would benefit agencies working in these overlapping areas of programming.

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9.3 Recommendations Recommendation 1: The Department of Social Welfare and should seek the collaboration of relevant NGOs and faith-based organizations to carry out a night count of children sleeping on the street in selected cities and towns throughout the country. Recommendation 2: Ministry of Community Development and Social Welfare (MCDSS) partners need to recognize their own programmatic strengths and seek to augment these through work in conjunction with other organizations and government departments that can offer potentially complementary services and expertise. Agency specialization helps develop particular kinds of expertise (e.g., in HIV prevention activities, microeconomic strengthening, addressing psychosocial needs, etc.) but specialization can lead to problems if agencies fail to integrate their interventions in ways that make sense to the population of concern. Recommendation 3: Selected urban districts are each mandated by MSYCD to establish their own Steering Committee for Street Children. Some of these districts have also established Orphans and Vulnerable Children Committees. Integration of these committees might help better integrate programming and policy initiatives for especially vulnerable children. Recommendation 4: with assistance of other stakeholders should gather and disseminate among its partners and other relevant groups information on the long term biological and mental consequences of inhaling volatile solvents and on prevention and treatment. They should also explore
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potential interventions for controlling the access of children to such substances, potentially through criminalizing their sale to minors. References Beegle, K., J. De Weerdt, and S. Dercon (2006). Adult mortality and consumption growth in the age of HIV/AIDS. World Bank Policy Research Paper 4082.United Kingdom. Bell, C., S. Devarajan, and H. Gersbach (2006). The Long-run Economic Costs of AIDS: With an Application to South Africa. World Bank Economic Review 20(1), 55-89.United Kingdom. Bloom, D. and A. Mahal (1997). Does the AIDS epidemic Threaten Economic Growth? Journal of Econometrics 77(1), 105-124. Case, A. and C. Ardington (2006). The Impact of Parental Death on School Enrollment and Achievement: Longitudinal Evidence from South Africa. Demography Department, Lusaka, Zambia. GRZ (1999). Orphans and Vulnerable Children: A situation analysis. 1999 -2009 Joint, GRZ, UNICEF, Lusaka, Zambia. Kabaso Sydney(2010) Social Workers roles in rehabilitating Street Children in Zambia, Lusaka, Kabsy Consultancy Services Inc, Zambia.

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