Fly Ash Bricks – PROJECT REPORT

Fly Ash bricks are made of fly ash, lime, gypsum and sand. These can be extensively used in all building constructional activities similar to that of common burnt clay bricks. The fly ash bricks are comparatively lighter in weight and stronger than common clay bricks. Since fly ash is being accumulated as waste material in large quantity near thermal power plants and creating serious environmental pollution problems, its utilisation as main raw material in the manufacture of bricks will not only create ample opportunities for its proper and useful disposal but also help in environmental pollution control to a greater extent in the surrounding areas of power plants. In view of superior quality and eco-friendly nature, and government support the demand for Fly Ash Bricks has picked up.

MARKET POTENTIAL The country consumes about 180 billion tonnes bricks, exhausting approximately 340 billion tonnes of clay every year and about 5000 acres of top soil land is made unfertile for a long period. The Government is seriously concerned over soil erosion for production of massive quantities of bricks, in the background of enormous housing needs. The excellent engineering property and durability of fly ash brick enlarges its scope for application in building construction and development of infrastructure, construction of pavements, dams, tanks, under water works, canal lining and irrigation work etc. Enormous quantities of fly ash is available in and around thermal power stations in all the states. The demand of bricks could be met by establishing small units near thermal power stations and to meet the local demand with less transportation costs. BASIS AND PRESUMPTIONS i. It is assumed that the unit will operate on single shift basis for 300 working days in a year. ii. The salary and wages for staff and labour has been taken into consideration on the basis of prevailing market rates.

power. vii. iv. Development of Site and construction of building 6.iii. these are subject to necessary changes from time to time based on the local conditions. Operative period of project is around 10 years considering technology obsolescence rate and period of repayment of loan. Machine purchasing and installation 7. Interest rate at 14% is considered in the project profile for both recurring and nonrecurring investment. Margin money will vary from 10. To reach the full plant capacity. IMPLEMENTATION SCHEDULE Sl. 1. construction charges. Finance assistance 5. Therefore. and consumables. Trial production 2nd 5th 7th to 8th 8th month . Preparation of project 2nd report and registration 4. land and clearance from State Pollution Control Board 2. raw materials. other contingent expenses etc. vi. The costs of land. Arrangement for margin money 2nd to to to to 3rd 3rd 4th 7th 3. Survey of collection of 1 day data in respect of demand. Activity Period Starting to Period Completion 2nd month No. availability of technology.25% depending upon the location and scheme adopted by the entrepreneur. prevailing at the time of project preparation. it requires 1 year after trial production. v. machinery and equipment. indicated in the scheme are based on the prices.

FINANCIAL ASPECTS A. 87. No.00. The bricks are tested and sorted before despatch. Fixed Capital Sl.TECHNICAL ASPECTS Process of Manufacture Fly ash. 10% Gypsum and 10% sand. The proportion of the raw material is generally in the ratio 60-80% of fly ash 10-20% lime. depending upon the quality of raw materials. there are no emissions and no effluent is discharged. Energy Conservation General precautions for saving electricity are required to be followed by the unit by adopting energy conservation techniques not only to conserve the power but also to save considerable expenditure in their own and also in the interest of the nation as a whole. The bricks are carried on wooden pellets to the open area where they are dried and water cured for 21 days. the mixture is shifted to the hydraulic/mechanical presses. Activity Period Starting Period Completion . It does not require steaming or auto calving as the bricks are cured by water only. it solves the problem of fly ash disposal.000.) : 60 Lakhs bricks Value : Rs. Pollution Control The technology adopted for making fly ash bricks is eco-friendly. lime sand and gypsum are manually fed into a pan mixer where water is added in the required proportion for intimate mixing. On the other hand. Since the firing process is avoided. IS 12894:1990. Production Capacity (Per year) Quantity (Nos. Motive Power 30 KW. After mixing. Quality Control and Standards The Bureau of Indian Standards has formulated and published the specification for maintaining quality of product and testing purpose.

/ Imp. 2 2 Price (Rs.) Belt Conveyor (Run by 3 HP motor) Deep Tube Well Generator Steel Plates and Extra Moulds Trollies Office. Survey of collection of data in respect of demand. Development of Site and construction of building 6.S.55.000 1.000 8.000 (iii) Pre-operative Expenses 70. 70. Working Capital (Per Month) (i) Staff and Labour (per month) Description Nos.50. Preparation of project report and registration 4. L.75.S.000 85.000 Total Fixed Capital (i + ii + iii) 19. land and clearance from State Pollution Control Board 2. Machine purchasing and installation 7.S.1.000 3.25.S. Finance assistance 5. L.000 28.000 B.000 35.) 1. Arrangement for margin money 3.000 Ind.000 30. availability of technology. Trial production 1 day to 2nd month 2nd 2nd 2nd 5th 7th to to to to to 3rd 3rd 4th 7th 8th 8th month (ii) Machinery and Equipments Description Pan mixer (run by 20 HP motor) Hydraulic Press (30 Tonnes Cap. power.00. Salary Total . Qty. Total 1 1 1 L. Furniture and Equipments Installation and Erection charges Ind. Ind.000 32. L. Ind. Ind.

000 13.000 16.000 38.625 (iii) Utilities (per month) Power Fuel Total (iv) Other Contingent Expenses (per Postage and Stationery Telephone Transportation Insurance Repair and Maintenance Advertisement and Publicity Misc.52.425 Value (Rs.) 1. Ind.000 2. (Ton.) 30.800 2.200 1.Ton) 1000 250 125 125 Total 90.500 4.) Rate (P.500 71.400 3. Qty. Expenditure Total (v) Total Recurring Expenditure (per month) (i+ii+iii+iv) or Say (vi) Total Working Capital (for 3 . Ind./ Imp.500 16.500 5.600 4.500 2.12. Ind.975 5.15.125 1.) 90.00 800 105 900 (Rs.000 28.000 8.700 5.) 7.650 81. Ind.200 2.500 17.000 5.Manager Production Engineer Skilled Workers Un-skilled Workers Chowkidars Peons Cashier-Cum-Clerk Add Perquisites @ 15% 1 1 5 10 3 2 1 7000 5500 3200 2800 2200 2200 3500 Total Salary (Rs.000 2.000 6.650 Total (ii) Raw Material (per month) Description Fly Ash Lime Sand Gypsum Ind.53.59.00.000 10.000 month) (Rs.

14. 60 Lakhs Bricks Rate 1. 16.67.160 Rs.34.000 36.500 6.400 (Rs.32.) 87.000 – 72.160 = Rs.75.months) C. 19.000 Rs.45 per bricks Value (Rs.) 5.) 66.000 (3)Net Profit (per year) = Turn Over – Production Cost = Rs.760 72.00.59.67.36.500 79. 36.08.840 (4)Net Profit Ratio . Total Capital Investment Fixed Capital Working Capital Total FINANCIAL ANALYSIS (1) Cost of Production (per year) Total Recurring cost per year Depreciation on Building @ 5% Depreciation on Machinery and Equipment @ 10% Depreciation on Office Equipments @ 20% Cost of Production (per year) Interest on Total Capital Investment @ 14% Total (2) Turnover (per year) Qty. 87.000 Rs.000 (Rs.00.

400 5. Sector-10. New Delhi – 110015 .960 11. 17.08. Jindal Hydraulics D-203.91.500 6.) 36.920 60. Noida (UP) Raw Material Suppliers 1.(6) Break-even Point Fixed Cost Depreciation on building @ 5% Depreciation on Machinery and Equipment @ 10% Depreciation on Office Equipment @ 20% Interest on Total Capital Investment @ 14% Insurance 40% of Salary and Wages 40% of Other Contingent Expenses (excluding insurance) Total or Say (Rs. Near Jakhira Chowk.000 Addresses of Plant and Machinery Suppliers 1.040 11. Stark and Co. M/s.500 79. Najafgarh Road.44.000 3. M/s.44.760 60. NTPC’s and Thermal Power Plants for Fly Ash. 2.

National Council for Cement and Building Materials KM Stone. Central Building Research Institute Roorkee – 247 667 (U. Faridabad (Haryana) 5.P. Vishakhapatnam . Delhi – Mathura Road.Technology 3.) 4. Institute for Solid Waste Research and Ecological Balance. Ballabhgarh – 121 004 Distt.

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