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3 Perforating Methods

3 Perforating Methods

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Published by: Afiq Aiman on Jun 28, 2011
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TUNIO, May' 2011,,, Courtesy AP Aung


At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:
– Describe the options, advantages and disadvantages for perforating oil and gas wells. – Describing an outline strategy to complete a well as part of a completion operation. – Understand the importance of charge design and factors influencing performance.
TUNIO, May' 2011,,, Courtesy AP Aung


• Perforation Techniques • Candidate Selection

TUNIO, May' 2011,,, Courtesy AP Aung


Needs of perforating… • To provide the communication path between the wellbore and all desired zones • To evaluate and optimize production rate/injectivity as well as oil and gas recovery from each zone Perforating… • produce holes through the wall of the casing, the cement sheath and penetrate into the formation
TUNIO, May' 2011,,, Courtesy AP Aung


.  1948 : Through-tubing perforating (underbalanced perforating) TUNIO. perforating (TCP)  1975 : Tubing Conveyed May' 2011.INTRODUCTION • History:  1910 : Used mechanical perforators Blade or wheel knife to open hole in the casing. Courtesy AP Aung 5 ..

 1993 : wells. May' 2011. Courtesy AP Aung 6 .INTRODUCTION  1980 : Start to produce fractures from burst of pressure developed from gun detonation. Tubing Conveyed Perforation (TCP). succeed in commercial TUNIO...

. Selecting perforating guns or charges on the basis of surface penetration tests 4. Courtesy AP Aung 7 .INTRODUCTION Causes for poor perforation 1. Awarding perforating jobs on the basis of price rather than job quality TUNIO. Lack of understanding of requirements for optimum perforating 2.. May' 2011. Inadequate gun clearance 3.

May' 2011. Jet perforators TUNIO.. Courtesy AP Aung 8 . Bullet perforators 2..Types of Perforators Two(2) Types of Perforators 1.

Courtesy AP Aung 9 .Types of Perforators 1. May' 2011... cement and formation is accomplished by bullets or high velocity projectiles TUNIO. Perforating of the casing. Bullet perforators • • • Bullet perforator is multi-barreled firearm designed for being lowered into a well Electrically fired from surface controls.

Simultaneously firing of all bullets TUNIO. May' 2011. Courtesy AP Aung 10 . Selective firing of independent groups of bullets 3. Selective firing of one bullet at a time 2...Types of Perforators THREE(3) ways of firing: 1.

Courtesy AP Aung 11 ..Types of Perforators Availability: • • • A number of bullet types Bullet guns for use in all sizes of casing from a number of service companies Velocity of bullet = 3300 ft/sec TUNIO. May' 2011..

. penetration increases about 15% over 0.. clearance When gun clearance = 0. 25% penetration loss than at 0. clearance TUNIO..5 in. clearance When gun clearance = 2. penetration loss is 30 % than at 0.Types of Perforators • • • • When gun clearance > 0. Courtesy AP Aung 12 . velocity and energy drop When clearance = 1 in. May' 2011.5 in.5 in.5 in.

.. Courtesy AP Aung 13 .TUNIO. May' 2011.

The explosive charge produces an extremely high-pressure jet that penetrates the casing or liner to shoot into the reservoir formation. depending on the application and the wellbore conditions. May' 2011.. tubing or coiled tubing. TUNIO.Types of Perforators 2. The shaped charges are contained in a perforating gun assembly that can be conveyed on wireline. Courtesy AP Aung • 14 .. Jet perforators • The use of shaped explosive charges to create perforation tunnels.

. Courtesy AP Aung 15 .Characteristics and Performance of Jet Perforator Basic jet perforator consists of: • • • • A primacord / primer The main explosive charge A conical liner A charge case or container TUNIO.. May' 2011.

Jet perforating process using a solid metal liner 16 .

the main explosive TUNIO. May' 2011.Characteristics and Performance of Jet Perforator Process of Jet Perforating • An electrically fired detonator starts a chain reaction which successively detonates • the primacord • High velocity booster in the charge • Finally... Courtesy AP Aung 17 .

Courtesy AP Aung 18 . TUNIO.000 ft/sec at its tip with a pressure this point estimated to be 10 million psi.. May' 2011. separating the inner and outer layers of the liner.. • Continued pressure buildup on the liner causes a needle like high speed jet of fine particles to spew from the cone at a speed of about 20.Process of Jet Perforating • High pressure generated by the explosive causes the metal in the charge liner to flow.

Characteristics and Performance of Jet Perforator Factors on which Properties and extent of the crushed zone depends: • Size of perforation charge • Casing wall thickness and strength • Cement sheath thickness and strength • Grain composition. May' 2011. size and shape of the formation rock • Stress conditions in the near wellbore region • Closeness of nearest perforations in the same vertical plane. TUNIO. Courtesy AP Aung 19 ...

Courtesy AP Aung 20 . May' 2011.Characteristics and Performance of Jet Perforator Factors Influencing Charge Performance are as follows: • • • • • Penetration length Perforation diameter Perforation hole volume Impact on casing integrity Perforation flow performance TUNIO...

May' 2011.Characteristics and Performance of Jet Perforator Parameters which may influence the physical performance of the jet perforator • Gun Size/Explosive Charge Size – The size of the perforating gun will dictate the maximum explosive load which can be accommodated in the charges. Courtesy AP Aung 21 . TUNIO...

1800 or in-line firing which can provide the minimum clearance for all perforations – 45° to 120° phasing which provides the nearest approximation to radial flow TUNIO. Courtesy AP Aung 22 . May' 2011...Characteristics and Performance of Jet Perforator Perforation Charge Arrangement • The orientation of perforations defined as the angular phasing can be: – 0° .

May' 2011.. Courtesy AP Aung 23 ..Characteristics and Performance of Jet Perforator TUNIO.

Characteristics and Performance of Jet Perforator Perforation shot density: Example of 4 shots/foot in line firing and 90o phasing TUNIO... Courtesy AP Aung 24 . May' 2011.

Courtesy AP Aung 25 ..Assessment of Jet Perforator Performance • Penetration prediction for formation rocks TUNIO.. May' 2011.

Whether perforating will be conducted prior to. Courtesy AP Aung 26 .. TUNIO. or after mechanical completion of the well.Perforating Gun Systems Whether the gun will be run on: – wire line – or be conveyed on tubing or a drill string. May' 2011..

.. May' 2011.Optional technique Courtesyperforating for AP Aung TUNIO. 27 .

Comparison of the Bullet and Jet Perforators Jet perforation is superior to bullets • in dense formations • for penetration of multiple casing strings TUNIO.. May' 2011. Courtesy AP Aung 28 ..

• Often use in a unconsolidated formations • Cheaper to use. rarely been used today • Bullets plug the end of the flow channel TUNIO.5 in.Comparison of the Bullet and Jet Perforators In softer targets. • Bullets lose velocity when gun clearance >0. May' 2011 29 .

Up to 400 °F • Bullet perforating ..Comparison of the Bullet and Jet Perforators Bottom-hole temperature limitation • Jet perforating ...Less than 275° TUNIO... May' 2011. Courtesy AP Aung 30 ..

2. Minimum cement shattering. 4. Minimum burring of casing wall. Deeper penetration in hard rocks and multiple casing strings.. 3. Available for use in permanent type completions Higher temperature range..Equipment Comparisons Jet 1. May' 2011. TUNIO. Courtesy AP Aung 31 . 5.

Controllable penetration available by using different bullet. High powered. 4. due to lower cost per shot. Deeper penetration in soft and medium. 2. large diameter gun available Generally cheaper. TUNIO. 6. Maximum fracturing of cement and soft rocks... 5. Courtesy AP Aung 32 . Completely selective firing available. May' 2011.Equipment Comparisons Bullet 1. 3.

c. All sandstone wells should be perforated with a standard casing gun. Perforate all wells in clean.. or a tubing-conveyed gun. TUNIO.Candidate Selection 1. Courtesy AP Aung 33 . KCl. non-damaging fluids normally NaCl. or Nitrogen. Guns and completion systems should be designed to match given well conditions. b. through-tubing gun. Perforating Sandstone Wells a. May' 2011. oil..

May' 2011.Candidate Selection d. e. Sandstone wells should not be perforated in acids because of severe emulsion problems and formation damage. TUNIO. Ability to readily clean-out and flow through the formation and perforation tunnel must be the basic criteria for perforator selection.. Selection of perforators should not be based alone in cement and/or sand stone. Courtesy AP Aung 34 . It may lead to poor quality penetrations..

chalk.. Perforating in acid is especially beneficial if the well is to be fractured. or dolomite wells.. In limestone. it may be desirable to perforate in HCl or Acetic acid with a differential pressure of 200 t0 500 psi. Courtesy AP Aung 35 . Perforating Carbonate Wells a. May' 2011. water or oil with a pressure differential into well bore.Candidate Selection 2. TUNIO. Perforate in clean fluid. b.

. this acid should remain under some differential pressure into the formation for 8 to 12 hours to allow time for dissolution of carbonates with Acetic acid.. Courtesy AP Aung 36 .2. May' 2011. TUNIO. If a carbonate well is perforated in Acetic acid. Perforating Carbonate Wells c.

May' 2011. water.Candidate Selection 3. Perforating in oil.. Courtesy AP Aung 37 .. TUNIO. or acid below a higher weight mud column is not satisfactory and is not recommended.

When perforating in mud or other fluids containing fines. May' 2011.. it should be recognized that: a. It is impossible to remove mud of silt plugs from all perforations by back flowing or swabbing. 38 TUNIO. Courtesy AP Aung .Candidate Selection 4. b. Mud or silt plugs are not readily removed from perforations with acid or other chemicals unless each perforation is fractured with ball sealers..

Candidate Selection 5. Water containing fines or dirty oil may be very damaging due to perforation plugging and plugging of formation pores with solids for a greater distance from the well bore.. Courtesy AP Aung 39 . May' 2011.. Drilling mud and completion fluid containing appreciable fines should not be allowed to enter perforations through out the life of the well. TUNIO.

Thank You… TUNIO... Courtesy AP Aung 40 . May' 2011.

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