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MCAT G-Chem Formula Sheet

Nuclear and Atomic Chemistry Avogadro's number: N A = 6.02 × 10 N A amu (u) = 1 gram
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Electron Configurations e − quantum numbers: n , l, m l , m s n = 1, 2, K l = 0, 1, K , n − 1 [l = 0 ↔ s , l = 1 ↔ p , l =2 ↔d, l = 3 ↔ f ] m l = −l, − ( l − 1), K , ( l − 1), l 5f

1 u = 1.66 × 10 −24 g = 1.66 × 10 −27 kg mp = 1.0073 u, mn = 1.0087 u

7p 6d 5d 4d 3d 6p 5p 4p 3p 2p

7s 6s 5s 4s 3s 2s 1s

Z = # protons, N = # neutrons mass defect: ∆m = ( Zmp + Nmn ) − mnucleus
nuclear binding energy: E B = ( ∆m ) × 1 eV = 1.6 × 10 −19 J, 1 MeV = 10 6 eV E photon = hf = hc λ electron energy levels: E n = for any 1-electron atom Radioactive Decay
Z2 n2
931 MeV 1u

ms = +

1 2

or −

1 2

4f

in subshell l, max # of electrons = 4 l + 2 in energy level n , max # of electrons = 2n 2

( −13.6 eV)

Z = # protons = atomic number, N = # neutrons, A = Z + N = mass number Decay Description ∆Z ∆N ∆A α eject α = 4 He −2 −2 −4 2 +1 −1 0 β− n → p + e− −1 +1 0 β+ p → n + e+ − −1 +1 0 EC p+e →n γ X* → X + γ 0 0 0
Periodic Trends & Bonding
Atomic Radius
se rea s

Stoichiometry / Lewis Structures mass in grams moles of solute # moles = ; molarity: M = MW L of solution mass of X % composition by mass of X = × 100% mass of molecule 1 formal charge: FC = V − ( 2 B + L) V = (# of valence e − ' s), B = ( # of bonding e − ' s), L = (# of lone-pair e − ' s)

Molecular Geometry (VSEPR theory)
# lone pairs on central atom 0

Electron Affinity
re mo e ativ neg

Geometric Family
Linear Trigonal planar Tetrahedral Trigonal bipyramid Octahedral

inc

Ionization Energy
inc rea ses

Electronegativity
inc rea ses

shape = geometry

Acidity
inc rea ses

Basicity
inc rea ses

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shape =

Bent

Trigonal pyramid

See-saw

Square pyramid

electronegativity of some common atoms: F > O > Cl > N > Br > (I ≈ S ≈ C) > H intermolecular forces (D = dipole, I = induced, i = instantaneous): ion–D > D–D (incl. H-bonds) > D–ID > iD–ID (London)

2

shape =

Bent

T-shaped

Square planar

500 C/mol e– [ −OH][HB + ] ∆G = –nFEcell . rule higher in [H + ][A − ] . P = 1 atm Boyle’s law: V ∝ 1/P (at constant T ) Charles’ law: V ∝ T (at constant P ) Combined: P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2 Ideal-Gas law: PV = nRT Dalton’s law of partial pressures: P = Σ pi Graham’s law of effusion: rate of effusion of gas 2 m v 2. pK a = − log K a Ka = list takes precedence. Laws of Thermodynamics: excluding [C]c eq [D]d eq at at pure solids 1) Energy is conserved: ∆E = q + W equilibrium constant: K eq = a b [A]at eq [B]at eq and liquids 2) spontaneous rxn ⇒ ∆S [∆entropy] ≥ 0 3) S = 0 for pure crystal at T = 0 K (gas rxns use partial pressures in K eq expression) Gibbs Free Energy: ∆G = ∆H – T∆S [const.Gases Avogadro’s law: V ∝ n Vat STP = n(22.reactants for generic balanced reaction a A + b B c C + d D. ∆G < 0 ⇔ spontaneous K eq < 1 ⇔ equilibrium favors reactants ∆G = 0 ⇔ at equilibrium K eq > 1 ⇔ equilibrium favors products ∆G > 0 ⇔ reverse rxn is spontaneous c d kJ [C] [D] ∆G o ≈ –RT ln K ≈ –2. OS of O family = –2 If one rule contradicts another. pK b = − log K b Kb = Ecell > 0 ⇔ spontaneous [B] Ecell < 0 ⇔ reverse rxn is spontaneous K aK b = K w = ion-product constant for water 0.3RT log K ≈ (–5. T ] K eq is a constant at a given temperature. [HA] F = faraday ≈ 96. Q = K eq ⇔ rxn at equilibrium sum of OS ’s = charge on ion Q > K eq ⇔ rxn proceeds in reverse 2) Group 1 metals: OS = +1.products − ∑ n∆H f.7 mol ) log K reaction quotient: Q = [A]a [B]b Redox and Electrochemistry Law of Mass Action (Le Châtelier's principle): Rules for determining oxidation state (OS ): Q < K eq ⇔ rxn proceeds forward 1) sum of OS ’s = 0 in neutral molecule. ∆H > 0 ⇔ endothermic Arrhenius equation: k = Ae − E a RT standard state: one most stable at 25°C.4 L) STP: T = 0 °C = 273 K.06 logQ Henderson–Hasselbalch equations: Nernst equation: E = E o − n [weak acid] Faraday’s Law of Electrolysis: pH = pK a − log [conjugate base] The amount of chemical change is [weak base] pOH = pK b − log [conjugate acid] proportional to the amount of electricity that flows through the cell. 1 cal ≈ 4. acid–base neutralization: N V = N V a a b b Kinetics and Equilibrium ∆[reactant] ∆[product] concentration rate = − or + time time 1 ∆[reactant] 1 ∆[product] reaction rate = − or + coeff time coeff time rate law for elementary reaction: rate = k [reactant1 ]coeff1 L . Group 2 metals: OS = +2 Acids and Bases + + pH = –log [H ] = –log [H3O ] 3) OS of F = –1 pOH = –log [–OH] 4) OS of H = +1 Kw = [H+][–OH] = 1 × 10–14 at 25 °C 5) OS of O = –2 pH + pOH = 14 at 25 °C 6) OS of halogens = –1. 1 atm o o o ∆H rxn = ∑ n∆H f.2 J q = mc ∆T = C ∆T (no phase change) q = n ∆Hphase change enthalpy change: ∆H = heat of rxn at const P ∆H < 0 ⇔ exothermic.rms = v 1.rms m 1 ⇒ = 2 rate of effusion of gas 1 Colligative Properties moles of solute molality: m = kg of solvent equivalents (eq) normality: N = L of solution BP elevation: ∆Tb = kbim FP depression: ∆Tf = –kfim moles of S mole fraction: XS = total moles o Raoult’s law: PA = X APA o vapor pressure depression: ∆PA = −(1 − X A )PA osmotic pressure: Π = iMRT Thermochemistry m1 m2 T (in K) = T°C + 273.