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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES
Alcohol is produced though a process called fermentation which results from the action of yeasts on sugar contained in fruits juices, cereals, molasses and in the case tequila, the stem of plants. Alcoholic beverages may be defined as being any potable beverage that contains from 5 % to 75.5 % of ethyl alcohol by volume. Alcoholic beverages would therefore include:
• • • •
Beers Wines Spirits Compounded alcoholic beverages
These are beverages that derive their alcohol content through the process of fermentation in which yeasts acts on sugar contained in cereals. Examples of beers and beer-like drinks available would be lagers, stouts, ales and sake.
These are also beverages that derive that alcohol content from the process of fermentation wherein the yeasts act on the sugar in fruit juices. The most commonly used fruit is grapes, which produces that beverage we referred to as wine. When other fruits are used, the name of the fruit normally appears before the word “wine” to distinguish it from grape based wines e.g.kiwi wine, strawberry wine. The exceptions are Cider (from apples), Perry (from pears) and Mead (from honey).
Spirits have a generally higher content of alcohol than beers or wines. The alcohol, produced through the fermentation, is further concentrated through the
controlled heating process called distillation. Vodka, whisky, brandy, tequila and rum are examples of spirits. Vodka and whisky are described as grain-based spirits because they derive their alcohol from the fermentation of sugar obtained from grain. When fruit based sugars are used to ferment the alcohol, the resulting spirit is called a brandy. If the fruit used was grapes, the spirit may be simply termed” brandy”. However, if other fruits are used, the spirits must have the name of the fruit preceding the word brandy e.g.Apple Brandy. Tequila and rum obtain their alcohol content from the fermentation of sugars contained in parts of plants other that fruits, e.g.in the stems of plants like the Blue Agave (for Tequila) and Sugar Cane (in rums).
COMPOUNDED ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES
These beverages are derived when a spirit or fermented beverage are compounded (blended or infused) with flavouring substances. Gin is an example of a “compounded” spirit and is flavoured and made fragrant by redistilling a pure grain spirit with aromatic herbs and spices. Where large amounts of sugars and colouring are added to enhance the taste and appearance of a spirit based beverage, liqueurs or alcoholic cordials result, for example Cointreau, Dram Buie and Kahlua. There are some alcoholic beverages that are unique in that they do not easily fall into a classification. Amongst these are beverages that combine either a spirit or a wine with a flavouring substance such as fruit juice or aromatic herbs. These will be dealt with in later chapters.
pure ethanol can causes death. colourless with an ethereal odour a warm. slightly sweet taste. The effects of drinking alcohol and its abuse will be discussed in a later chapter. the only alcohol that is safe to drink. However to those of us who are non-chemists. burning. it can prove to be fatal.CHAPTER 2 ALCOHOL Chemically alcohols are organic compounds. which could be converted to ether. When used in moderate doses. Ethanol is potable but when consumed in very large doses over a very short span of time. clear. Ethanol is a frug and therefore is subject to being abused. ETHYL AND METHYL ALCOHOL Ethyl Alcohol Ethyl alcohol or Ethanol is an alcohol. Therefore any compound that combines hydrogen. It is this ability to allow us to loosen our inhibitions and relax our emotional guards that alcohol is prized and sought after. This particular alcohol was obtained through the distillation of a fermented beverage. which is a potable. to refer to alcohol. mid-nineteenth chemists used the prefix. ethanol has a pleasing and soporific (sleepinducing) effect. oxygen and carbon atoms together to form molecules are members of the family of chemicals To differentiate drinking alcohol from the many other alcohols. ethyl. It is a volatile. possibly wine. Ethanol was and remains still. It has a boiling point of 78. flammable substance that burns with a blue flame and is also hygroscopic (water-absorbing) and is completely miscible with water in any proportion. which contain a hydroxyl (hydrogen and oxygen) group attached to a saturated carbon atom. If directly injected into the blood stream. . . A history of repeated. excessive consumption could lead ton alcohol dependency and damage to the liver.3°c and a freezing point of –114°c. the ‘alcohol’ is widely used rather than ethyl alcohol or ethanol.
methanol when ingested in sizeable doses. however. its natural antidote. It is a clear. A certain amount of heat also results as part of the process of splitting up of the sugar molecules. It is also produced by the nature and is found in very minute amounts in wine. It is derived from the pectin substances contained in grapes and is produced through the action of enzymes secreted by the yeasts during fermentation. The amounts of methanol produced during the natural fermentation of wines is also so small that a very large volume of wines would have to be consumed before any ill effects are noticed and therefore poses little or no danger in normal circumstances. It is a useful solvent and acts as antifreeze. coma or even death. It can cause blindness and even death. This process may be summed up in a simple equation: C2H12O6 (Sugar) 2C2H5OH + 2CO2 (Ethanol + carbon dioxide + HEAT + heat) The equation shows the conversion of simple sugars (C2H12O6) like glucose into 2 molecules of ethanol C2H5OH) and 2 molecules of carbon dioxide CO2. it is neutralised when consumed by a proportionate quantity of ethanol. Methanol has gained a considerable notice in the last decade when some unscrupulous wineries used it to boost the alcoholic strength of their sines because the ethanol contents were too low. FERMENTATION The work of renown scientists like Guy-Lussac and Louis Pasteur showed that certain micro-organism were responsible for the production of ethanol through a chemical process which we now known as fermentation. They showed that ethanol is produced naturally by the breakdown of sugars through the action of enzymes secreted by yeasts. Methanol is sometimes called wooed alcohol because it is most commonly produced by the industrial method called the dry distillation of wood.Methyl Alcohol The other well-known member of the alcohol family is methyl alcohol or methanol. Methanol when consumed is extremely toxic. cause blindness. much to the shame of the wine industry in some European wine-producing countries. colourless volatile flammable liquid and has a boiling temperature of 66º c. The incident resulted in several deaths as well as several cases of blindness that were the result of drinking these tainted wines. . Used widely as an industrial solvent.
fermentation do not take place. YEASTS Yeasts are microorganisms that are that cannot be observed by the naked eye. the yeasts in the form of enzymes provide the essential “trigger” that sets off the actual process itself. Heating to prevent them from using up the sugars then kills the grains. . however. liqueurs. a variety of raw materials may be used to supply the base sugar.However. beers and wines. This powder is actually a conglomeration of vast numbers of dormant spores of individually microorganisms or cells. yellowish grainy powder in raising bread in baking. the stored starch in grains and cereals must first be converted into sugars by a process known as malting. Enzymes are protein based catalysts. they are a necessary and vital ingredient that triggers of a chemical reaction. Malting is process where grains are soaked and left to allow them to germinate into shoots. Yeasts require energy to reproduce. While the sugars in fruits are readily useable to the yeasts. Much argument still goes on as to the nature of these enigmatic microorganisms Are they microscopic plants or animals? The debate goes on…but one thing is Certain without yeasts. However. which are uses for energy to grow. The sugars are stored (by plants) in the fruits and as starch in grains and cereals. that is. the grains activate produce enzymes to convert the stored starch to concerted it into sugar. The sugars are then extracted for use in fermentation. that they can only be observed under a microscope. Yeasts accomplish this feat by the production of enzymes. This energy is obtained when it splits the sugar into its components ethanol and carbon dioxide. During this growth process. The yeasts themselves are not directly responsible for the conversion of simple Sugars to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Each individual cell is so minute. yeasts are visible to us when in large numbers – for instance when we use the dry. To produce alcohol for beverages such as spirits.
a hot poker punched through the ice and the concentrated liquid alcohol beverage is then poured out. The water freezers over but the alcohol remains liquid (ethanol only freezers at -114ºc). In parts of North America like New England. . fermented apple juice or cider is left in barrels out in the open during winter. raw alcoholic drink called Applejack proved to be very potent and earned itself quite a reputation and a string of unflattering nicknames like “lockjaw”.CONGELATION AND DISTILLATION Being completely miscible in after. The bung of the barrel is opened. such as in the production of wines and beers. In countries where colder climates where or season such as winter exist. in some cases the alcohol produced is to be separated from the rest of the solution and concentrated as in the production of spirits such as brandies and whiskies. In certain cases. the alcohol is left together with the other elements of those beverages. This is usually done in order to produce a more potent alcoholic beverage or as part of a process to develop certain qualities in the end product. USA and in Canada. The end product is achieved without the separating or concentrating of the alcohol. Congelation is an inexpensive though not very efficient means of separating alcohol from water. the alcohol produced during fermentation is part of a homogeneous solution. However. This strong. The separation and concentration of alcohol from other elements in a fermented solution maybe achieved in the following 2 ways: CONGELATION DISTILLATION CONGELATION The freezing points of water and alcohol are different and congelation makes use of this fact that to separate them. A little Applejack is still produced this way but in non-commercial concerns and in the more rural areas of North America.
The equipment that uses the principles of distillation is called stills. The are 2 main types of stills: • • Pot stills Patent stills All stills work in the almost the same manner. By considering the boiling points of water and alcohol. heat is used to separate the alcohol from the rest of a fermented solution by vaporising it. The wash. Water boils and vaporises at 100ºc while alcohol. the more volatile (heat sensitive) elements vaporises first. The difference in the boiling points of these two substances makes it possible to separate them through the application of heat. When a liquid is heated and boiled. we are able to separate the alcohol from water.3ºc. ethanol in this particular instance.DISTILLATION Whereas congelation works on the principle that different liquids have varying freezing points. These vapours can be collected and re-converted (condensed) into concentrated and purified form by cooling the vapours.3ºc. This pure liquid alcohol may then be collected. meant for distillation. distillation allows methanol to be separated from ethanol and removed. The volatile alcoholic vapours rise and concentrate near a funnel like structure which leads to a cooling system that condenses the vapours back into a liquid. boils and vaporises at 78. which is the fermented alcoholic solution. is heated. The hot alcoholic vapours are then cooled to obtain concentrated and purified alcohol. distillation works by using the differences in the boiling points of these substances. This allows us to separate and concentrate the different elements in any solution. Since methanol has a boiling temperature of 66ºc. In the distillation of alcohol. . The temperature of the wash always being monitored and adjusted so as to keep it below that of the boiling point of water but above 78. The main element found in any fermented alcoholic solution is water. Distillation of spirits is basically the separation of ethyl alcohol (drinkable alcohol) from the base liquid of wine or cereal wash.
(An oak barrel made of French oak can cost about US $800 to $1000). Such barrels are hand made and are usually charred (toasted) on the inside. that is free from impurities. In addition. there is no need for expensive barrels and storage costs for extended ageing in wood. a minimum amount of heat/energy is lost and savings are made through economics of large-scale production. the spirits absorb the flavour and colours of the toasted oak. Thus giving them even grater taste or character. rough and often-fiery taste of the spirits. There is therefore a need for the spirit to be aged so as to mellow the spirit. Costs and savings Pot still is less cost efficient than Patent stills. Patent still distilled spirits are highly rectified. By evaporating through the wood and the staves of the barrels. because it is quite porous. harsher tasting spirit. typically have less taste and character. Patent still is more cost efficient: water is recycled. They may be bottled straight off the still without any ageing. The legally required minimum amount of ageing in most countries is 2 years in wooden barrels. They cost more to run and must be cleaned out after each distillation.POT AND PATENT STILL SPIRITS There are some distinct differences between pot and patent still distillates and may be summed up by the following: Taste and purity Pot stills are less efficient at removing impurities called congeners and this results in the production of a more fragrant but fiery. These oak barrels are relatively expensive depending on the type of oak used. however. Patent still spirits. The best wood for such barrels is oak. . The need for ageing Pot still spirits are quite harsh tasting and must be aged to soften out the raw.
Gin These compounded spirits make use of a still distillate as its alcoholic base but then infuse the fragrance of selected botanicals into the alcohol by distilling the two together in pot stills. while the less costly whiskies/whiskeys use only Patent still spirits. More fragrant and distinctive tasting of whiskies/whiskeys is likely to use only Pot still. Tequila A Pot still spirit that retains its raw and fiery flavours. Rum Most rum is made by pot stills and as result retains a great deal of character.TYPES OF SPIRITS AND THEIR DISTILLATION The following are the major types of spirits and how they are distilled: Brandy Typically uses the pot still: the Alembic Charentais in the production of Cognac and Armagnac. Blended versions of these spirits combine the two types of distillates. as Vodkas should be typically free from any taste or colour in order to be considered high quality. . Vodka The majority of producer’s use Patent stills is used. Whisky/Whiskey Either uses the Pot or Patent stills or a combination of the spirits from both in a blend.
In contrast.TOLERANCE TO ALCOHOL One person’s ability to consume more alcohol than another is dependant on the following: • • • • • • • • • • Food and digestive factors Speed of consumption Types of drinks Gender Physiological state Physical attributes Weight Level of Fitness Psychological state Environment Tolerance Use of medication Food And Digestive Factors The old adage “never drink on an empty stomach” has a factual physiological basis and its still good advice. Food and digestive processes are the most significant factors affecting the absorption of alcohol. those guests who are looking for an all-around . Special appetisers or attractive hor. such as a vegetarian or pasta dinner. Many hospitality establishments encourage guests to enjoy food while drinking alcoholic beverages. This significantly delays the absorption of alcohol into the bloodstream. alcohol moves slowly from the stomach and small intensive into the bloodstream. After a meal. French fries. Sometimes. a meal consisting primarily or carbohydrates. This is important information for service staff. When guests at your table eat foods high in fat immediately before drinking. usually leaves the stomach in a relatively short time. their rates of alcohol absorption will be slower in comparison to other guests who drink before eating anything. d’oeuvre appeal o the majority of the guest population. Fatty foods such as nuts. remain in the stomach for a longer time. a mixture of food and alcohol may be held in the stomach for two to three hours. or cheese are difficult to digest and therefore. Fatty foods slow intoxication. This means tat it takes longer to reach the brain and affect behaviour.
including champagnes. Gender Gender affects the impact of alcohol in one other way. When a person in a weekend condition consumes alcohol. Biologically. Type Of Drinks Carbonated beverages. Establishment which feature promotional food items and exotic non-alcoholic drink frequently report more revenue than those just sell alcohol. Alcohol is a depressant of the central nervous system. their systems are already under stress. Be aware that guests who order “doubles” are drinking more alcohol in the same amount of time and may often experience the effects of alcohol much more quickly than guests who order regular strength drinks. Consequently. sparkling wines or mixed drinks usually pass through the stomach without a delay and into the small intestine. Persons who consume these may experience the effects of alcohol at a faster rate than those drinking non-carbonated alcoholic drinks. . women have a higher percentage of body fat than men. Speed Of Consumption A certain number of drinks consumed over a short period of time will have a greater effect on the same person if the same numbers of drinks are consumed over a relatively longer time span. women may absorb more alcohol into their bloodstream than men of the same weight consuming a like number of drinks.hospitality experience. Physiological State. When people are very tired or ill. The actual volume of alcohol consumed is more important a factor than the actual types of drinks consumed. Fatigue and many common illnesses affect how the body responds to alcohol. the result is quicker intoxication.
alcohol may make him or her more depressed or unhappy. heavier person experience fewer effects with the same amount of alcohol than does a lighter. • Level of fitness The percentage of body fat is also a factor. which lines the stomach and limits alcohol absorption. The effects of alcohol can also be enhanced by a person’s psychological state. If a person is depressed of unhappy. the mucus lining is broken down and more alcohol enters the blood stream. At the same time. The rush of alcohol into the blood and the brain will result in the person becoming acutely intoxicated in a relatively short period of time. is typically less in influenced by the impact of alcohol. An emotional upset person may also drink more and faster to achieve the expected “high”. Consequently. when the individual eventually relaxes (due in part to the alcohol). a state of anxiety can slow down or stop digestion in the stomach. When this happens the individual’ s stomach is likely to secretes a mucus coating. The more muscular a person is. . This is because larger individuals have a greater volume of body fluids that further dilute the alcohol. • Weight A larger. However. one or two drinks may have the same observable effects that three or four drinks might usually have on that person. An active. smaller person. fit individual has a higher percentage of muscle in relation to fat than a person who gets little exercise and therefore. the 240-pound man can drink about twice as much alcohol than the smaller man and still maintain the same BAC level. A 120-pound man has about 82 pounds of fluid in his body while a 240-pound man has about 164 pounds of fluid in his body. he more alcohol it will take to increase the percentage of alcohol in the blood. Psychological State Psychological or emotional factors may affect how a person’s body will respond to drinking.Physical Attributes These include a person’s weight and level of fitness. Consequently.
Use Of Medication If a combine’s alcohol with drugs. talking and involved in other social activities. as well as symptoms caused by specific categories of drugs. a tolerance to alcohol develops. Alcohol combined with antihistamines. which may increase the sedative effects of alcohol. When alcohol and drugs are consumed at the same time. The same is true of some antibiotics. An inexperienced pr first-time drinker will usually feel the effects of alcohol sooner and in a much more pronounced manner than an experienced drinker. cold tablets. others are enhancing and some such as barbiturates – may be lethal. Tolerance When a person drinks on a number of occasions. this means that the joint action of the alcohol with these drugs can create a total impact that is grater than that produced if the alcohol were taken independently of the drug of if the drug were taken independently of the alcohol. The level of impairment will remain the same for the amount of alcohol. When alcohol is combined with another central system depressant. In some cases. high blood pressure medications. but such combinations will not improve motor co-ordination. If guests are relaxed and siting with friends. their rate of drinking is likely to be slower. the effects exhibited may be different that the separate effects of each compound. antidepressants. tranquillisers or sleeping pills may depress the central nervous system. people are likely to drink more at cocktail parties where they are simply standing or milling around. On the other hand. the resulting sedative effect is significantly greater than the sum of each effect separately. severs should be familiar with typical signs of drug abuse. various interactions may occur. This is because the chemical substances have the ability to strengthen or weaken the effects of each other. Combining stimulants such as caffeine or Dexedrine with alcohol may reduce the amount of depression experienced by the central nervous system. The effects of alcohol with some drugs inhibiting. .Environment The environment in which a guest is drinking may have an effect on how much alcohol is consumed. which has been consumed during the given length of time.
Besides making the person feel very thirty. faintness and hunger. the body’s natural anti-diuretic hormones are surpressed. which manifest itself as shivering. which shows up as drowsiness. Symptoms Of A Hangover Combine this hunger and thirst and the inability to hold down any food because the irritation of the stomach lining and you have a huge problems. The symptoms of a hangover are: • • • • • • • • Nausea Hunger Faintness Vomiting Drowsiness Intense headache Stomach pains Photophobia (sensitivity to light) . This causes the body suffer the following conditions: • • • • Dehydration Low blood sugar Irritation of the stomach lining A degree of poisoning The diuretic of the alcohol causes the dehydration. This causes the body to lose more water that it would otherwise would. the effects are very sensitive to light and prefers the dark. The combined effects of the congeners and the products of the breakdown of alcohol cause these symptoms. These effects manifest themselves in the symptoms we know as the hangover.DEALING WITH THE HANGOVER What Is A Hangover The hangover is a symptom that result from having consumed too much alcoholic beverages. Combined with the effects of the toxin-like congeners. At the same time. dehydration also causes headaches. This results in low blood sugar. which burns up the blood sugar. Alcohol causes the body to produce insulin.
. One of the best things to do if a person has had too much alcohol is to drink lots of water with some glucose and vitamin B and C before retiring to bed to rest. there is no cure for a hangover since the hangover is not a problem in itself bur merely a series of symptoms as a result of the problem of having consumed too much alcohol. This allows time. Vitamin B and C generally helps the liver and body nervous system cope with the symptoms while pain killers (analgesics) such as paracetamol (sold commercially as Panadol) help deal with the general pain and headaches.Is There A ‘Cure’ For Hangover? No. we can ease the uncomfortable and painful symptoms associated with a hangover. Note that aspirins are not recommended as they are acidic in nature and will only irritate the stomach further. rest and the body to deal with the symptoms. The paracetamol is not recommended unless necessary or until the symptoms manifest themselves. Orange juice is a handy and easily available mixture of water. However. glucose and vitamin C. The following actions can ease and give comfort to the unfortunate ‘victim’: • • • • Drink lots of water Consume glucose dissolved in the water Take small doses of vitamin B and C Mild analgesics like paracetamol Dehydrating the body cells and organs allows the natural healing process to occur while the glucose helps the body absorb the water faster as well as replenish the blood sugar.
Since starch cannot be converted directly into alcohol.CHAPTER 4 BEERS Beer is a brewed and fermented beverage made from malted barley and flavoured with hops. through time and experimentation learnt to convert starch into sugar. This includes the beer-like drink called quass (or kvass) made from rye bread by the Russians. Once this is carried out. The Chinese samshu (samsoo). the following ingredients are needed: • • • • • Malted grains and cereals Water Sugar Yeast Hops Malted Grains Plants store energy in the form of sugar in fruits or as starch in grains and cereals. the sugar can then be fermented into alcohol. The Ingredients For Beer In order to produce beer. man has. in beers. Japanese sake and Sarawakian Tuak are all made from rice. The alcohol in wine is produced by the action of yeast on the sugars in grape juice. These stages are: • • • • Steeping Sprouting Kilning Milling . the source of this’ sugar’ is in the stored form of starch contained in the grains and cereals. However. Most cultures have a history of making beers or beer-like beverages. This process of converting starch into soluble sugars is called Malting and is made up of several stages.
can be fermented. where it is ground into a meal or grist. Kilning The green malt is placed in a kiln and roasted. At this stage the sprouted grains are termed green malt. This enzyme converts the stored starch into soluble sugars. which may now be termed malt.Steeping The grains are steeped or completely immersed in water for two days until it is Thoroughly soaked. is water and since it is used in every stage of the brewing process. Sprouting The moistened grains are then spread out on the floor in a warm chamber with high moisture levels. maltose and dextrin. Water Although the quality of each ingredient is important. The manner in which the malt is treated and the brew master of each brewery when being ordered to ensure the desired result normally specifies the degree of kilning. The grains germinate or sprout. Most breweries do not carry out their own malting and the malt is usually purchased from specialists. 85 to 90% of the finished product. dark. beer. or black depending on what each brewery requires. The green malt requires energy to grow and produces a chemical substance or enzyme called amylase. These soluble sugars. Malt may be roasted until light. none is more so than the quality of the water that the brewing industry calls liquor. The extraction of these sugars is carried out in the brewery to provide the basis for fermenting alcohol in beer. The converted sugar stored in the ground roasted sprouted barley grains. The temperature and degree of roasting is important as it determines the desired amount of flavour and the colour of the malt. the quality and taste of the water has a great impact on the character of a . Milling The kilned (roasted) malt then goes to the mill room. whereas starch in its original state cannot. which the green malt uses as energy to grow.
Yeast All strains of yeast are able to convert sugar into alcohol but apparently the individual yeast strains not only converts the sugars into alcohol but also carries out other functions that influences the character of the beer. historically. microscopic organism is protected more carefully in a brewery than any other ingredients.beer. more so than perhaps the alcohol. This is why. This unicellular. . for once the particular strain has been selected it must not be allowed to change otherwise the character of the beer changes with it. If the water is hard (contains high amounts of dissolved mineral salts). There are two basic types of yeasts used in beer production: • Top-fermenting • Bottom-fermenting Top fermenting yeasts float to the top of the vat and exist as a foamy scum on top the wort (fermenting liquid) while Bottom-fermenting yeasts sink to the bottom of the vat during the fermentation. as the soluble sugars in the malt may be sufficient to produce the required amount of alcohol. breweries were located in and around areas with an abundant supply of ‘good’ quality water. it might not be suitable as the dissolved mineral salts in the water may cause problems during the production. The liquor must be biologically pure and its mineral content must be analysed. Sugar Pure cane sugar nay also is used to boost the sugar level. Brewers use specially cultivated strains of yeast in fermenting the alcohol for beer. An example of bottom-fermenting yeast is Saccharomyces carlsbergensis while Sacchromyces cerevisiae is top-fermenting yeast. It is these secondary products of fermentation that vary according to the types of yeast. Most waters used for brewing are therefore treated to render them suitable. this allows predicability and consistency in the final product.
Hops Hops are long vine-like creepers. Hops are added to the brew because they provide the beer with its: • Aroma. For this reason. water and individual yeast strains. Only the unfertilised flower of the female hop vine is used in brewing. which exists as male and female plants. There are numerous varieties of hops and like malt. bitterness. . wild male plants of the various species have been eliminated as the plants are perennial and can be propagated from cuttings. the choice of hops greatly influence the character of the beer. the seeds of the female hop flower may cause problems in clarifying the beer. tangy flavour • Antiseptic action preventing the development of micro-organisms • Tannin which helps clarify the beer. If fertilised.
the mash is then sparged (sprayed with very hot water). The temperature of the mashing determines the amount of extraction obtained and thus it is possible to adjust the final composition of the finished beer by varying the temperature of the mashing. This process is described as mashing and the mixture of water and malted grist is termed the ‘mash’ The fermentable extracts (sugar) provide the alcohol to the beer while the unfermentable extracts will help determine the character/flavour of the beer. flows through this natural filter and passes into the brewing kettle. which is added to the original volume of wort. The malt is milled into grist. The flavoured. Mashing The grist and cereals adjuncts go into a large cylindrical vat called the mash tun or mash tub. In order to maximise extraction. maximum extraction of soluble materials. . which is then sent into large vats for the next stage. sugar-rich liquid known as wort (pronounced ‘wet’). Malting also influences the colour and flavour of beer depending on the degree of roasting the malt receives. The malt. forming a natural filter bed over the perforated slotted bottom.BEER PRODUCTION The production of beer is carried out in the following stages: • • • • • • • Malting Mashing Hopping Brewing Fermentation Carbonation Packaging Malting Malting converts the stored plant starch into soluble sugars. these operations can be accurately controlled and this allows the breweries to produce a consistent product. The solids are then allowed to settle on the bottom. the cereals (adjuncts) and very hot water are thoroughly mixed and left to stand or heated to obtain the. This rinsing action of the sparging produces a second batch of wort. With modernisation.
5 hours. fermentation takes place at very low temperatures while top-fermented beers are fermented at higher temperatures. During fermentation the carbon dioxide gas that is given off is drawn off and stored. After brewing. . to be reintroduced back into the beer during packaging. the period of fermentation varies for bottom-ferment ting and top fermenting beers. In addition. The choice of top of bottom-fermenting. When the fermentation is almost over and most of the yeast has settled down. yeast again depends on the type of beer being fermented. The temperature to which the wort is cooled down to depends on the style of beer being made. the hops-flavoured wort is now called ‘hot wort’. In the case of a bottom-fermented beer. Fermentation The hot wort is cooled down in the heat exchanger and pumped into the fermenting vat. During this brewing process the: • Wort is sterilised • Excess water is evaporated • Volatile materials from the hops and malt are lost through evaporation • Insoluble substances in the wort are made soluble by the high heat • Sugar in the liquid undergoes a slight caramelisation darkening the brew.Brewing In the kettle. cultivated strains of yeast are added. the young beer is run off into glass-lined or otherwise insulated storage vats. This is run from the kettle through a filter to strain off the hops and the hot wort is then cooled in a heat exchanger. selected hops are added to the wort and this mixture is then boiled (brewed) for 2 – 2. To trigger the fermentation.
there are several ‘natural’ means of carbonating a beer: • • • Krausening Priming Bottle or cask conditioning Brazening A technique where a young (fermenting) beer is added to an ageing larger to stimulate a second fermentation. Priming A technique where plain cane sugar is added to the beer to start a secondary fermentation to add to the carbonation. carrageen and even beech wood chips are added to attract the impurities and to promote clarification. This is described as cold stabilisation. . This second fermentation adds to the natural carbonation. so that the yeast and other solids that would give it a cloudy appearance may be precipitated before being filtered off. certain chemical changes takes place and the beer throw off its roughness and become mellower and more pleasing to the palate.Maturation Here it is kept at a very low temperature. Fining agents like Isinglass. Besides direct injection or impregnation with carbon dioxide. the beer is carbonated to make it effervescent and refreshing. close to the freezing point. Carbonation Finally. During this maturation period. A process known as Dry-hopping where a small amount of hops are added to the beer during storage to increase the bitterness and aroma and to offset the sweetness of the Priming sugar usually follows priming.
If this is not done. of the method used. Regardless. The yeast also helps increase the level of carbonation in the beer while improving its flavour. Metal kegs or barrels made of aluminium or stainless steel are used today almost exclusively. Packaging The three forms of packaging beer: • • • Kegs or barrels Bottles Cans The matured beer is. . This makes it sterile and kills any yeast that might still be active. These containers are made stronger than necessary as a safe guard against additional pressure that might be created by additional fermentation as the beer packaged may not be pasteurised. Beer packaged in bottles or cans is likely to remain in the package longer and to be shipped farther away from the brewery than that in kegs. under pressure. additional carbon dioxide gas could form and perhaps explode or burst the bottle or cans. so in order to protect the packaged beer. passed through a pressure filter and packaged. These are built to withstand a much greater pressure than is usually found in the beer.Conditioning This technique of improving the flavour of beer by allowing the beer to age with active yeasts. once the beer is carbonated. passed through sealed pipelines into containers. it is pasteurised. if it is kept under refrigeration. it is refrigerated.
permitting it to retain its uncooked ‘draft’ taste. The peak quality of pasteurised packaged beer is not definite: in cans this is about 4 months while for beer packaged in bottles. with the advent of micro porous materials that filter out yeast cells. it is said to affect and diminish the much-desired ‘fresh-tasting’ quality in the flavour of draft beers. but does not halt. Pasteurisation is the main difference between draft and bottled /canned beers. Pasteurisation of beer slows down. the ravages of time and the limited shelf life of the product.PASTEURISATION Flash heating canned or bottled beers carry out pasteurisation of beers. Today. unpasteurised beer can be packaged in bottles and cans with the assurance of a safe life for this sterile-filtered beer. This is a faster process whereby the beer is kept at 85ºc for one minute. Although pasteurisation does contribute to the stability of the beer. All bottled and canned beers were once pasteurised. . Flash pasteurisation is sometimes used. this is about 6 months. The object of pasteurising the beer is to stablilise the beer and extends the shelf life of the beer. Pasteurisation takes place at about 60ºc for about twenty minutes after which it is then cooled quickly.
so that the ‘beer’ no alcohol at all yet retains the character of a malt beverage.5% 3 to 6% 0.5% The alcoholic content varies with the style of beer being made. the world’s strongest beer is the Kulminator (13. The popularity of beer has led to some styles of beer that are often labelled as ‘light’ (low in alcohol). Bock Beer. In Scandinavian countries there is a ‘motorist’ beer that contains only 2. Some beers have the alcoholic content removed at the end of the brewing process.3 to 0.5% alcohol by volume and comes from Kulmbach. The caloric values of beers vary with the alcoholic strength and carbohydrate content of the individual beer and beer style. Bavaria in Germany.5% alcohol by volume. Malt Ales. Stour and Porter generally have a higher caloric value.8% alcohol by weight while in Singapore beers like Swan Special Light is only 0. malt liquor.5 to 13. In fact. For instance Bocks and Doppelbocks are. . by definition of their style.The Composition Of Beer Beer is generally made up of: Water Alcohol Carbohydrates Protein 80 to 96% 0. rather high in alcohol.
less flavoured more quenching 9.Thomas Hardy Ale 2. Beer is fermented at lower temperatures to 12ºc) 3. Stored and matured at about 12ºc 4. Fermented by Saccharomyces Carlsbergensis 2. Clarified by fining agents like Isinglass as maturation period is short 7. Yeasts filtered out just prior to bottling 8. richer with distinct characters 9. Does not improve with further ageing .g. May be Krausened. More stable as yeasts are filtered out during bottling 11. Fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisaie 1. from 6 to 21 days 6.DIFFERENCES BETWEEN TOP AND BOTTOM FERMENTED BEERS Bottom and top fermented beers have several other important differences: Top-fermented beers Bottom fermented beers 1. Best served cold. More pronounced flavour. Stored and matured at about 0ºc 4. Best served at higher temperatures from 12ºc (cellar temperature) to 16-18ºc (room temperature) 10. Cleaner tasting. 7 to 10ºc 10. Beer is fermented at higher temperatures (15 to 25ºc) 3. Matured (Lagered) much longer periods to 3 months) to allow yeasts to ‘condition’ beers to add carbonation 6. May be primed to add carbonation and dry-hopped to offset the sweetness of the printing 5. Improves with age if bottle-conditioned or cask conditioned and generally improves with ageing e. Clarified by cold settling and racking over the long laagering period 7. Matured for a relatively short period. especially German lagers 5. Some beers are not filtered and yeasts left in bottle or cask to ‘condition’ the beer s (sur lie) 8. Generally less stable (lasts up to a month in a cask if the cask if not tapped) 11.
The beer is then filtered off the ice and a stronger. ice beer is first brewed as regular beer as in the normal process.TYPES OF BEER Top-fermented beers Ales Porters Stouts Alt Kolsch Saisons Trappiste/Abbey Biere de grade Bottom fermented beers Lagers Pilsners Munchener Dortmunder Vienna Bock Doppelbock Light & diet beers Other beer: Light and diet beers Wheat beers Steam beers Ice beers Saké Ice Beers First introduced to South-east Asia in early 1994. more concentrated flavoured beer results. The beer is then cooled down to very low temperature until the water content in the beer starts to freezes into ice. STORING BEERS . This is ice beer.
Bock and Doppelbocks with high alcoholic contents are generally preserved by the alcoholic strength of the beer. it should not be disturbed too often . canned or bottled beers however.How long a beer can /or should be stored is dependant on: • • • • • The type of beer it is Its alcoholic strength If it has been pasteurised The type of packaging used The condition of its storage A bottle-conditioned or cask-conditioned beer is likely to age well and improve in flavour for a few years while most lager or pilsner beers are generally meant to be drunk as young as possible. IDEAL CONDITIONS FOR THE STORAGE OF BEERS Beers should be stored in: • • • A relatively dark place as light tends to destroy beer (the only exception being canned beer A cool place where it is kept at an appropriate temperature (bottom-fermented beers at 7 to 10˚c while top-fermented beers at 12˚c) If the beer if bottle-conditioned to age. Bottled and canned beers have a slightly longer lifespan than cask or barrel beers like draught beers. Pasteurisation also extends the shelf life of beer as it stabilises the beer. are best drunk within six month of bottling or being canned.
A dense. Knowledge of the factors that influence these properties helps us understand the role of these factors in determining the character of a beer. taste and its level of carbonation. uneven head is the sign of a beer that has received natural carbonation. full-flavoured distinctively heavy styles. The taste and aroma of a beer can be judged by olfactory senses – how then can is the level of carbonation judged? The level of carbonation is visually judged by observing a beer’s: • Head • Bead • Brussels’s Lace The head is the foamy mousse that forms on top when a beer is poured. Aroma Beer aromas range from being quite malty to rather fruity styles.FACTOR IN JUDGING A BEER We judge a beer based on its aroma. The taste or palate of a beer is determined by the : • Type and amount of hops used • Type of malt used • Type of yeasts used • Amount of residual sugars • Water used in the mashing and brewing Carbonation The level of carbonation is determined by the use or non-use of various techniques hat increase the level of carbonation. Some like the fruits used in making these fruit dominate riek and Framboise based beers. . priming and conditioning are natural forms of carbonation whereas impregnation (injection of carbon dioxide) is not. The bouquet of a beer is determined by the: • Type of malt used • Types of hops used • Use of other ingredients like fruits Taste Beer range from light and refreshing style to rich. Krausening.
The beer moves through flexible piping into aluminium coils in the icebox. If the bubbles are large and rush to the surface quickly and carbonation that fades quickly are signs of an artificiallycarbonated beer. is refrigerated by an electric compressor and the beer is rapidly cooled and then dispensed through the beer tap. This is a sure sign of beer that has been carbonated naturally. Adding salt to the water and ice helps improve the cooling action of the coils. The Ice Bank Cooler. • Portable Ice Box This is a portable version of a draught beer dispensing system. The system is made up of a beer keg . The beer is carbonated and forced out of the beer keg by the carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide gas is introduces into the beer keg and carbonated the beer and at the same tome and forces the carbonated beer out of the keg into the Ice Bank cooler. the beer tap and the Ice Bank Cooler.The beads are the bubbles that rise in a glass of beer. The regulator monitors the pressure in the gas cylinder while the water line allows the operator to flush out the end of each day. as long as the beers being dispensed are those produced by the brewery. water and carbon dioxide. carbon dioxide cylinder. The system cools the beer by using an insulated icebox filled with ice and water to cool the coils containing the beer. DISPENSING DRAUGHT BEERS • Draught beer dispensing units in Singapore are usually provided free of charge by the local brewery – Asia Pacific Breweries. This system allows the operator to serve beer in areas where electrical outlets are not easily available. The foam that sticks to the side of a glass as the beer is consumed is termed Brussels’s Lace. The entire system is linked with flexible piping for beer. A naturally carbonated beer will have tiny beads that spiral upwards and carbonation that lasts for a longer period of time than one that is artificially carbonated. ensuring that no stale beer stays in the line. • . In general Ice Bank Coolers and Portable Ice Box can dispense beers. Ice Bank Cooler This system is used in beverage outlets with a relatively high volume of business to dispense beers from a tap – draught beer.
0% 6.0% Coor’s Artic Ice Beer Castlemaine XXXX Dry Ice Beer Forster’s Beer Forster’s Ice Beer Gammel Byrgd Grolsch Grimbergen 5.0% 5.8% 4.5% .9% 4.0% 5.2% Carlsberg Special Brew 8. This is partial list of the more commonly listed beer in Singapore: Name Of Beer ABC Extra Stout Anchor Beer Asahi Draft and Dry Bass ‘n’Co.0% 4.0% 4. Pale Ale Beck’s Beer Blue Ice Beer (San Miguel) Budweiser Pilsner Carlsberg Green Label Country Of Origin S’pore / M’sia S’pore / M’sia Japan Great Britain Germany Philippines USA Denmark or brewed in Hong Kong under license Denmark or brewed in M’sia under license USA Australia Canada Australia Australia Sweden Holland Belgium Alcoholic Strength 3.9% 5.POPULAR BRANDS OF BEER There are numerous brands of beers produced all over the world.5% 5.9% 3.4% 4.0% 5.7% 5.5 & 5.
0% Light – 0.5% . Swan Dry and Swan Belgium Japan 5.5% .5.0% 5.0% 5.0% Australia 3. Swan Premium Lager.0% 5.0% 0.2% 4.0% Sapporo Beers: Sapporo Black Label Draft.0% 5. Kirin Draft.0% Kirin Beers: Kirin Premium Brew.1% Philippines or brewed 5.0% 0.Cuvée de L’Ermitage Guinness Stout Guinness Light Haake Beer (non-alcoholic) Heineken Belgium Ireland or brewed in S’pore under license Ireland or brewed in S’pore under license Germany Holland or brewed in Malaysia under license Japan or brewed in Hong Kong under license France Canada Germany Germany Czechoslovakia 7.3% 4. Kirin Dry and Kirin Light Kronenberg Labatt’s Ice Beer Löwenbrau (non-alcoholic beer) Löwenbrau Pilsner Urquell San Miguel Pale Pilsner 5.5%-5.5% 8. Sapporo Draft and Sapporo Dry Stella Artois Suntory Beers: Suntory Draft and Suntory Dry Swan Beers: Swan Gold.0% under license in Hong Kong Japan 4.5%-5.
Light Special Tiger Beer Tiger Classic Tuborg Gold S’pore or M’sia S’pore Denmark 4.5% 5.0% .5% 5.
White Wines Range in colour from watery. fortified and aromatised or natural table wines Still or sparkling Obviously. Rosé (pronounced “roe-zay”)is French for pink. red wine like Port. dry. . full-bodied. white of rosé Dry. Using the above descriptions. The colours are deeper in colours if they are matured in oak barrels. pale reds. transparent examples to deep shades of yellow and straw gold.CHAPTER 5 WINE Depending on the qualities of a wine used to classify it. inky-looking wines. medium or full-bodied Fortified. wine may be described using its combined characteristics. let us consider these elements in wine: • • • • • Colour Sugar content Alcohol content Carbon dioxide content Flavour addition Colour Wines generally come in three colours: white. drawing the colour from the wood. Rosé Wines Have colour range from light pinks to orangy-salmon pinks to very light. brilliant reds and purples to dark opaque. rosé (pink) and red Red Wines Range in colour from light. wine may be classified and described as: • • • • • Red. medium-dry or sweet Light. Thus a wine may be a light. white wine that is sparkling like Champagne or a fortified.
Dry Wines Are those with residual sugars contents lower than medium-dry wines. Thus we have natural table wines and fortified wines. Depending on the residual sugar content. • Medium-bodied wines have between 11 to 12. tannin content and presence or lack of flavour in the wine. Table Wines Are those that generally have alcoholic concentration lower than 15% alcohol by volume. There are 3 types of natural table wines: Light-bodied. Medium-dry Wines Are those with residual sugars contents lower than sweet wines but higher than dry wines? Thus they may also be termed as medium-sweet. Sweet Wines Are those with high amounts of residual sugar and thus taste distinctively sweet. He eventual alcoholic strength of fortified wines range from 16 to 21% alcohol by volume. medium-dry (also termed medium-sweet) or as dry.5% alcohol by volume. .Sugar Content Wines vary in the amount of sugar remaining in the wine after fermentation stops. Medium-bodied and Full-bodied wines. wines are also described as being light or heavy-bodied by the sensory weight they create on the palate of the taster. wine may be classified as sweet. • Light-bodied wines are those with 8 to 10. This weight is determined in part by the residual sugars. usually between 0 to 4 grams of residual sugars per litre? Alcohol Content The level of alcohol in the wines may also classify wines. *besides alcoholic content.5% alcohol by volume • Full-bodied wines are those that have 13 to 15% alcohol by volume Fortified wines are still wines that have been fortified (where alcoholic strength is increased by adding grape brandy) This also stops fermentation midway and the wine tends to retain some of the natural sweetness of the grapes.
Flavour addition Wines may also have flavour incorporated into them through the addition of extracts of aromatic herbs and spices or by macerating these in the wines. These wines are also usually fortified to increase the alcoholic content and thus are described as Fortified and aromatised wines. we may classify them as either still or sparkling wines.Carbon Dioxide Content By considering the carbon dioxide content in a wine. the carbon dioxide gas dissolves in the wine creating an effervescent or bubbly wine. Since the secondary fermentation takes place within an enclosed container. Sparkling Wines go through two separate fermentation. . Fortified and aromatised wines are still wines fortified by grape brandy and flavoured with aromatic herbs and apices. Still Wines go through the normal fermentation process and they are not sparkling or effervescent.
THE CLASSIFICATION OF WINES WINE addition of grape ingredients NATURAL TABLE WINE FORTIFIED addition of grape spirit & flavouring FORTIFIED & AROMATISED SPARKLING STILL RED WHITE ROSÉ LIGHT-BODIED MEDIUM-BODIED FULL-BODIED DRY MEDIUM-DRY / MEDIUM SWEET SWEET .
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