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Fiberglass Grating and Structural Products Design Manual

Fiberglass Grating and Structural Products Design Manual

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DESIGN MANUAL

FIBERGLASS GRATING AND STRUCTURAL PRODUCTS

Delta Composites, L.L.C.
A Leading Supplier Of Structural Fiberglass

TABLE OF CONTENTS

SECTION 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3 SECTION 4

- Introduction................................................................................................... 2 - The Basics of Fiberglass Pultrusion ............................................................. 3 - Structural Design Basis................................................................................. 8 - Physical Properties for Designing with ...................................................... 13 Fiberglass Structural Shapes - Cross Sectional and Engineering Properties............................................... 23 of Fiberglass Structural Shapes - Safety Factors Used in Designing with ...................................................... 34 Fiberglass Shapes - Effects of Temperature on .......................................................................... 36 Fiberglass Structural Shapes - Corrosion Guide for the Proper Selection of Resins .................................. 38 - Designing Flexural Members (Beams) ....................................................... 48

SECTION 5

SECTION 6

SECTION 7

SECTION 8 SECTION 9

SECTION 10 - Designing Tension Members ...................................................................... 55 SECTION 11 - Designing Compression Members (Columns)............................................ 57 SECTION 12 - Designing for Shear .................................................................................... 63 SECTION 13 - Combining Stresses for Unity Ratios ......................................................... 66 SECTION 14 - Designing Connections............................................................................... 68

1

SECTION 1

INTRODUCTION

The contents of this Design Manual is intended to give the structural engineer the tools with which he or she needs to safely and correctly design a fiberglass structure using pultruded fiberglass shapes. When designing fiberglass structures, the attached Structural Design Basis (Section 3), should be followed as a minimum unless specifically required to follow a different set of design parameters. It should be noted that the following recommended design formulas and procedures are a compilation of input from different fiberglass pultrusion companies. Delta Composites believes it has utilized the best, and most conservative of the available options. In addition to this design manual, Delta Composites has developed a 3-dimensional, structural analysis program which analyzes and designs specifically for fiberglass structural shapes, calculates deflections, stress, calculates unity ratios, and resizes members based upon the design parameters set forth in this manual. The structural design engineer should be familiar with the concept of stress and deflection and the impact that one has on the other-----and the engineer should know that they are not interchangeable in fiberglass. It can typically be said that the sizing of fiberglass structural shapes is governed by deflection much more so than by stress, and that the converse is not true--that stress governs more than deflection. It should always be the practice of the engineer to check both stress and deflection when designing fiberglass structures. If you have any questions or comments, please feel free to contact us toll free at (866) 361-2100, or e mail us at engineering@deltacomposites.com.

2

Delta Composites has endeavored in this section to introduce to the users of this manual the basics of manufacturing fiberglass structural shapes.SECTION 2 THE BASICS OF FIBERGLASS PULTRUSION The contents of this Section are primarily a compilation of data from Creative Pultrusions. Inc. 3 .

However.Pultruded fiberglass structural shapes are manufactured by. but there are three major suppliers that dominate the industry. In simple terms. etc. All of the three suppliers have similar products and product designations. such as wide flange beams. This design specification incorporates. A pultruded fiberglass structural shape is comprised of reinforcing fibers and resin. I-beams. aramid. unless otherwise required to do so by customer requirement. and carbon. Inc. the pultrusion product is complete. The four major types are E-Glass. fire resistance. PA Strongwell. so interfacing and inter-changing between the three is very easy. however. Delta Composites. The three most commonly used manufacturers of fiberglass pultruded structural shapes and their respective trade names are as follows: Creative Pultrusions. Reinforcing fibers consist of continuous strand mat and continuous strand roving. and other commonly used structural shapes. Coupling the reinforcing fibers with the resin and a surfacing veil. we are talking about the larger fiberglass structural shapes. among the three major suppliers. Resins typically contain fillers to assist in achieving an intended performance characteristic. Bristol. S-Glass. and the resin provides the resistance to the environment.75% fiber reinforcement by weight. Creative Pultrusions’ Pultex® SuperStructurals have significantly higher material properties and the engineer must keep this in mind when performing the structural analysis. chemical resistance. impact resistance. but we are not talking about pultruded fiberglass gratings. square and round tube. be it ultra-violet resistance. there should not be a negative side to interchanging suppliers. PA Pultex® Extren® Bedford Shapes There are several other companies that pultrude the smaller shapes used in the assembly of pultruded fiberglass gratings. Typical structural shapes contain from 45% . as a structural engineer. you would be well advised to specify and use one of the above three suppliers. A variety of continuous and woven reinforcement types are commonly used in fiberglass pultrusions. if requested to do so. uses solely the Creative Pultrusions’ Pultex® line of structural shapes. 4 .. The most commonly used reinforcement is E-Glass. the fiber reinforcement provides the structural stiffness. their products are very similar. Alum Bank. but as long as the engineer keeps this in mind when performing the structural analysis. The following Table 2-1 provides the physical properties of the four reinforcing fibers. we have no problems with using one of the other two. and therefore are used more sparingly in construction. The use of SuperStructurals can be very cost effective as compared to designing with the standard structural shapes supplied by others. Other reinforcements are more costly.. and is built around the Creative Pultrusions Pultex® product line as well as their resin and shape designations. The differences may be slightly differing modulii or strengths. VA Bedford Reinforced Plastics. Bedford. The above three manufacturers are the most advanced in their manufacturing and quality and. angles. Inc. Inc.. and are available from several pultrusion companies. It has been our experience that. channels.

6 – 1. or bi-directional strength characteristics. vinyl esters.000 9. and does alter the performance of the product.3 Aramid .000 – 450.064 275.094 500.000 33 – 55 0. and are either fire retardant or non-fire retardant. Continuous Strand Roving: Each strand contains from 800-4.000 9.5 4. Epoxy resins are typically used with carbon fiber reinforcements in applications where higher strength and stiffness characteristics are required. These mats are layered with roving. The following Table 2-2 provides typical physical properties of resins used in pultruded structural shapes. Continuous strand mat provides the most economical method of obtaining a high degree of transverse. Roving also provides the tensile strength needed to pull the other reinforcements through the manufacturing die. and this process forms the basic composition found in most pultruded products.3 Carbon .8 S-Glass . 5 . Many strands are used in each pultursion profile.Table 2-1 Typical Properties of Fibers Used in Pultruded Structural Profiles Property Density lbs/in3 Tensile Strength (psi) Tensile Modulus (106 psi) Elongation to break (%) E-Glass .2 The following is a brief description of the reinforcing fibers: Continuous Strand Mat: Long glass fibers intertwined and bound with a small amount of resin.090 665.0 2. The amount and location of these “rovings” can. The ratio of mat to roving determines the relationship of transverse to longitudinal strength characteristics. creating a resin-rich surface.0 2. fiberglass reinforcements normally appear close to the surface of the product. Surface veils can be added to the laminate construction. This roving provides the high longitudinal strength of the pultruded product. and when used.053 400. displaces the reinforcement from the surface of the profile. and epoxies. called a binder. Epoxies can also be used with E-glass for improved physical properties. Polyesters and vinyl esters are the two primary resins used in the pultrusion process.000 fiber filaments.000 10. Resin formulations typically consist of polyesters. The two most commonly used veils are E-Glass and polyester. Since pultrusion is a low-pressure process. corrosion resistance or handling of the products. This can affect appearance.

a fire retardant polyester resin.800 . opacity. Pultex® Series 1625 is a fire retardant vinyl ester resin which possesses excellent corrosion resistance. Pultex® Series 1525.800 5 20. such as wellhead access platforms. Alumina trihydrate and antimony trioxide are used for fire retardancy. and is commonly used in the mass transit industry and in all applications where low smoke and low toxicity is of key importance. Pultex® Series 3535 is a modified polyester resin which possesses a low smoke generation characteristic.500 Vinylester 11. Aluminum silicate (kaolin clay) is used for improved chemical resistance. cable trays.500 Epoxy 11.200 4. opacity and general lowering of costs. and it is commonly used onshore where fire resistance and moderate corrosion resistance are key elements in the design.000 Test Method ASTM D638 ASTM D638 ASTM D790 ASTM D790 ASTM D648 ASTM D2344 Various fillers are also used in the pultrusion process.47 330 8.. whiteness. while maintaining the same characteristics as the 1500 Series.700 0. This product should be used in highly corrosive environments and is a high performance standard structural. good surface finish and improved insulation properties. are: Pultex® Series 1500. Resin formulations in a pultruded fiberglass structural shape can be altered to achieve special characteristics as dictated by the environment in which the shape is intended for use. as well as a low flame spread rating.5 17. The most commonly used resins and trade names manufactured by Creative Pultrusions Inc.Table 2-2 Typical Properties of Resins Used in Structural Pultrusions Property Tensile Strength (psi) % Elongation Flexural Strength (psi) Flexural Modulus (106 psi) Heat Distortion Temperature (°F) Short Beam Shear (psi) Polyester 11. This material possesses an ASTM E-84 Tunnel Test flame spread rating of 25 or less.000 6. possesses good chemical resistance combined with high mechanical and electrical properties. This standard product is commonly used in moderately corrosive environments where fire resistance is not a concern. Alumina trihydrate can also be used to improve insulation properties.43 160 4.3 16. This product is commonly used in fire retardant structures commonly used offshore. a non-fire retardant polyester resin. as well as better performance characteristics at elevated temperatures. possess a flame spread rating of 25 or less as determined by the ASTM E-84 Tunnel Test. Calcium carbonate offers improved surfaces. 6 . etc.000 0.54 220 5.

because fiberglass is a plastic. we have painted handrails since they are typically the most visible component of a structure. it provides for a resin rich surface.5 mil dry film thickness coating will provide protection for many years with minimal change in appearance. i. A 1. Use of UV stabilizers and surfacing veils can be used. Vinyl esters typically cost in the range of 10-15% more than polyester resins. but eventually the profile will degrade. various options are available. and coatings can also be applied to the structural shape. when applied to the surface of the fiberglass pultrusion during the manufacturing process. and this is coupled with a slight reduction in physical properties. and all shapes contain a surfacing veil as a standard. enhances weatherability and corrosion resistance by adding resin thickness to the surface of the product. UV stabilizers will retard the effect of weathering. UV stabilized urethanes work very well with this application.When selecting the appropriate resin system to be incorporated into the pultruded product. This step. the structural engineer should first refer to the Corrosion Guide in Section 8 of this document. In order to minimize this effect on fiberglass pultruded shapes.e. A synthetic veil. It should be noted that all Pultex® shapes contain UV stabilizers in the resin. it will undergo some decay and change of appearance due to prolonged exposure to outdoor weathering. however. Delta Composites typically does not paint its structures. Surfacing veils further enhance the profiles resistance to weathering. The optimum method of maintaining surface appearance during outdoor exposure is to apply a coating to the surface. however.. Two-component. A condition called “fiber blooming” will occur on the surface of the profile. The structural engineer should also know that. and should be done by the fiberglass fabrication contractor in a controlled environment. 7 . is non-standard for the Pultex® product line.

SECTION 3 STRUCTURAL DESIGN BASIS 8 .

0*) + (BLC4 x 1. BLC7.0) B. Combined Load Cases As a minimum. (+) 33'-0" as stipulated by the customer or by code. If applicable. The wind speed is a function of the elevation of the pertinent structure as related to the El.. or wind bracing): (if applicable) Operating Case: (BLC1 x 1. BLC4. the movement resulting from a vessel on the high seas). BLC2.e. and adjustments for the elevation should be made using the Wind Speed Evaluation per API RP 2A.0) + (BLC6 x 1.0) + (BLC5 x 1. 20th Edition. If applicable. (+) 33’-0”.0) + (BLC2 x 1. Design live load as stipulated by the customer or by code.0) + (BLC2 x 1. For filler beams or deck beams (not girders.0) Storm Case (non-seismic): (if applicable) (BLC1 x 1.The beams and girders of the a fiberglass structure should. the forces resulting from the horizontal and vertical accelerations caused by a 100-yr storm or hurricane on a floating vessel or as provided by the customer or by code (i. be designed for the following basic load cases: Basic Load Cases BLC1. again with the same adjustments for elevation as discussed above. truss rows.e. Design storm wind @ El.. the horizontal & vertical accelerations resulting from seismic activity as defined by code for the design location. Dead load of structure. or by the appropriate governing code.0) + (BLC6 x 1. BLC6. BLC3. For columns. as a minimum.0*) + (BLC3 x 1.0) + (BLC4 x 1. columns. BLC5. If applicable.0) 9 . the movement resulting from a vessel on the high seas). the forces resulting from the horizontal & vertical accelerations caused by an operating storm on a floating vessel or as provided by the customer or by code (i. girders. the combined load cases should be as follows: A. and wind bracing: Operating Case (non-seismic): (if applicable) (BLC1 x 1. (+) 33'-0" as stipulated by the customer or by code. Design operating wind @ El. truss rows.0) + (BLC2 x 1.

If the actual operating equipment loads are greater than the reduced live load (i. The engineer is to use whichever loading creates the worst loading on the structural elements under evaluation. truss row. Uniform Live Load vs. Deck/Floor Live Loads: For any member supporting 100 square feet or more. the design uniform live load applied to that member may be reduced by 20%.Operating Case (seismic): (BLC1 x 1. either the true and actual operating equipment loads. If the supported area exceeds 100 square feet. or a truss row. This LLR is not applicable to dead loads. As a minimum. or the uniform live loads. but use only the actual operating equipment loads. (i. multiplied by 0.e. or column supports an area greater than. If the design premise set forth by the customer or code requires that they can occur simultaneously. trusses and columns beams are to be designed for the full dead load. uniform live load x LLR). when applying wind loadings. nor is it applicable to the actual equipment loads --only the uniform live loads.80) if it meets the criteria set forth above. or equal to. the girders. a twenty (20%) percent Live Load Reduction (LLR) factor can be applied to the uniform live loading. 10 . the Y and an array of diagonal wind approach directions to create the worst load conditions on the particular member under evaluation. Live Load Reduction In this specification.. the engineer should evaluate the winds in the X direction. then the engineer will be required to add (BLC7 x 1.0) to the load combinations. the engineer must not use uniform live loads in the analysis. no live load reduction (see below) is permitted. a girder. Roof Live Loads: Use of a LLR for roof live loads is not permitted in any case. unless the girder. Further. and 100% of the uniform live load. be it a column.0*) + (BLC4 x 1.0) + (BLC7 x 1..0) + (BLC2 x 1. When using the actual operating equipment loads.0) * see live load reduction below for additional information The above design load combinations for the storm case assumes that the 100-yr storm will not occur at the same time as seismic activity. Actual Operating Equipment Loads The uniform live load used above should be compared against the true and actual operating equipment loads to be applied to the structure (if this information is available). 100 square feet.e. the engineer must consider all of the critical wind directions and apply them to the structural model.

the engineer is cautioned to consider the effect of temperature as it relates to the allowable stresses and to the modulus of elasticity. One-third Increase in Allowable Stresses A 1/3rd increase in allowable stress is permitted for all combines load cases involving storm winds or seismic activity. These reductions in allowable stress and in modulus of elasticity are discussed in Section 7 of this document. Stiffening can be achieved by bolting and/or epoxying angles. When facing a design situation involving an impact or a dynamic loading situation. A 1/3rd increase in allowable stress is not permitted when evaluating combined loadings involving operating environmental conditions. Effects of Temperature When designing fiberglass structures that will be subjected to high heat exposure. tees. it is recommended that the structural designer increase the safety factors used in design by a magnitude of 2. Concentrated Loads and Web Crippling When designing beams which are subjected to concentrated loads. 11 . the structural engineer shall consider using web stiffeners to eliminate the effects of web crippling on the fiberglass pultruded shape. and all other environmental loadings in the structural analysis when applicable. and designing in accordance with the criteria set forth in Section 11. The result of higher temperatures on structural fiberglass is a reduction in modulus of elasticity and thus.Snow Loading The engineer is to consider snow loading.0 (See Section 6). The analysis to determine the effectiveness is accomplished by treating the stiffening elements as a column. The appropriate local design codes are to be adhered to. a lowering of the allowable stresses. Impact and/or Dynamic Loading The engineer is to consider impact loading on a case by case basis. or channels to the web of the beam being subjected to the concentrated loading. Vinyl ester resins are better in elevated temperatures than polyester resins.

all live load deflections of all beams and girders should be limited such that the deflection over length ratio (∆/L) does not exceed 1/150. due to steel’s relatively high shear modulus. the total deflection of a fiberglass beam is actually comprised of two components: • • flexural deflection shear deflection When calculating deflections of steel beams. The environment dictates the type of resin to be used. he or she should be knowledgeable as to the environment in which the structure is to be installed. Refer to Section 9. and the different resins possess different structural properties. 12 . The engineer is to be aware that. the deflection ratio should be limited to 1/100 ratio. In essence. due to fiberglass’ relatively low shear modulus. Deflections As a minimum. the shear deflection component is typically neglected. For cantilevered beams and girders. or 1/4".Effects of Corrosion Before the structural engineer begins any structural analysis. This is not the case in designing with fiberglass shapes. Refer to Section 8 of this document for assistance in this matter. Table 9-2 for the methodology in calculating the two components of the deflection. On average. whichever is greater. The engineer is to use all standard and conventional methods for calculating deflections. the use of a polyester resin in designing a fiberglass structure will have lower allowable stresses and higher deflections than would the use of a vinyl ester resin in the same environment. the shear deflection will add an additional 10-15% to the deflection.

Box 6. While Delta Composites and Creative Pultrusions. Inc. Delta Composites and Creative Pultrusions. Inc. it is strongly recommended that he or she evaluates and compares the physical properties of the alternative materials and uses the appropriate values. Pennsylvania 15521.SECTION 4 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES FOR DESIGNING WITH FIBERGLASS STRUCTURAL SHAPES Pultruded Fiberglass Structural Shapes distributed by Delta Composites. we assume no responsibility with respect thereto and each user must satisfy oneself that one’s intended application process or product infringes no patent.O. P. Inc. have no knowledge that the information put forth infringes any valid patent. Delta Composites and Creative Pultrusions. However. unless otherwise required by specification. are the Pultex® Pultrusion line of products manufactured by Creative Pultrusions. 13 . assume no obligation or liability which may arise as a result of its use. If the structural engineer plans to use the materials supplied by another pultrusion supplier. Alum Bank. The following physical properties and tables are excerpts from the Pultex® Pultrusion Design Manual as prepared by Creative Pultrusions with corporate headquarters located at 214 Industrial Lane. Inc. believe the information put forth in the following property sheets to be accurate and reliable as of the date of this publication.

15 LW = Lengthwise (Continued next page) CW = Crosswise PF = Perpendicular to Laminate Face 14 .0 1.Olive Green 1525 Series. Creative Pultrusions.000 11. and therefore the location of the coupon extraction can cause variances in the coupon test results.000 1.8 3.0 1.000 0.Material Properties of Pultex® Fiber Reinforced Polymer Structural Profiles Rectangular Tubes. The results are average values based on random sampling and testing of production lots.Beige The following data was derived from ASTM coupon and full section testing.0 1. Square Tubes Angle profile sizes are 3” x 3” x ¼” and less.000 16.Thermoset Polyester.0 33.000 7.000 18.Gray 1625 Series.000 0.8 2.500 12. Angles.2 0.5 0.2 0.42 4.8 – 3.2 37.500 5.2 2.0 1. publishes an average value of random samples from production lots.000 3. Composite materials are not homogeneous.35 0.500 6.000 30 5 30. Inc.0 37.8 – 3. Channels.500 2.500 28 4 30.500 2.Thermoset Vinyl Ester Class 1 FR.0 2.42 4.6 0.8 3.500 20.000 3. 1500 Series.Thermoset Polyester Class 1 FR.35 0.000 18.500 8.8 33.2 2.15 1625 Series 37.500 3. Property (coupon values) Mechanical Tensile Strength (LW) Tensile Strength (CW) Tensile Modulus (LW) Tensile Modulus (CW) Compressive Strength (LW) Compressive Strength (CW) Compressive Modulus (LW) Compressive Modulus (CW) Flexural Strength (LW) Flexural Strength (CW) Flexural Modulus (LW) Flexural Modulus (CW) Modulus of Elasticity (Channels) (Square & Rectangular Tubes) Shear Modulus Short Beam Shear (LW) Shear Strength by Punch (PF) Notched Izod Impact (LW) Notched Izod Impact (CW) Bearing Stress (LW) Bearing Stress (CW) Poisson’s Ration (LW) Poisson’s Ration (CW) ASTM Test D638 D638 D638 D638 D695 D695 D695 D695 D790 D790 D790 D790 Full Section 2 Full Section 2 Full Section 2 Full Section 2 D2344 D732 D256 D256 D953 D953 D3039 D3039 Units psi psi 106 psi 106 psi psi psi 106 psi 106 psi psi psi 106 psi 106 psi 106 psi 106 psi 106 psi 106 psi psi psi ft – lbs/in ft – lbs/in psi psi in/in in/in 1500/1525 Series 33.

Channels. 15 .93 4.93 4.070 1.2 (VO) 25 Max 650 55/30 (seconds) Pultex® uses a synthetic surface veil that reduces the Barcol hardness.66-1.6 0.66-1.060-0.6 0.4 4 % Max lbs/in3 10-6in/in/°F BTUin/ft2/hr/°F D495 D149 D149 D150 UL94 ASTM E84 ASTM D635 ASTM E662 FTMS 4062023 seconds KV/in Volts/mil @60Hz Self Extinguishing 120 40 200 5. (continued) Property (coupon values) Physical Barcol Hardness 1 Water Absorption Density Specific Gravity Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (LW) Thermal Conductivity (PF) Electrical Arc Resistance (LW) Dielectric Strength (LW Dielectric Strength (PF) Dielectric Constant (PF) Flammability Classification Tunnel Test Flammability Extinguishing NBS Smoke Chamber Flame Resistance (Ignition/Burn) 1 2 ASTM Test D2583 D570 D792 D792 D696 C177 Units 1500/1525 Series 45 0. Angles. but does not reflect lack of cure.060-0.Material Properties of Pultex® Fiber Reinforced Polymer Structural Profiles Rectangular Tubes.2 (VO) 25 Max Self Extinguishing 650 55/30 (seconds) 120 40 200 5. Full section testing based on a 3-point bend with simply supported end conditions.4 4 1625 Series 45 0. Square Tubes Angle profile sizes are 3” x 3” x ¼” and less.070 1.

000 32.000 16. Edgewise (LW) Compressive Modulus. publishes an average value of random samples from production lots. but does not reflect lack of cure.0 24.66-1. Flatwise (CW) Flexural Modulus. Creative Pultrusions.66-1.060-0.1 20.8 1. 16 .0 20 5 32. Edgewise (LW) Compressive Strength.8 1.000 1.070 1.000 32.000 0.Material Properties of Pultex® Fiber Reinforced Polymer Flat Sheets 1500 Series.25 40 0.0 120 40 200 5.0 24.2 1625 Series 35.0 1.000 10.000 15.32 0.2 % Max lbs/in3 10-6in/in/°F seconds KV/in Volts/mil @60Hz LW = Lengthwise 1 CW = Crosswise PF = Perpendicular to Laminate Face Pultex® uses a synthetic surface veil that reduces the Barcol hardness.0 120 40 200 5.93 8. and therefore the location of the coupon extraction can cause variances in the coupon test results.060-0.6 0.Olive Green 1525 Series. The results are average values based on random sampling and testing of production lots.000 0.000 10.000 2. Inc.Thermoset Polyester. Flatwise (LW) Flexural Modulus.000 15.8 1.000 1.0 20 5 32.Thermoset Vinyl Ester Class 1 FR.8 1. Flatwise (LW) Flexural Stress.000 1. Edgewise (CW) Compressive Modulus.6 0.Beige The following data was derived from ASTM coupon and full section testing.000 2.32 0. Flatwise (CW) Tensile Stress (LW) Tensile Stress (CW) Tensile Modulus (LW) Tensile Modulus (CW) Compressive Stress.93 8.25 40 0.070 1. Edgewise (CW) Notched Izod Impact (LW) Notched Izod Impact (CW) Bearing Stress (LW) Bearing Stress (CW) Poisson’s Ration (LW) Poisson’s Ration (CW) Physical Barcol Hardness 1 Water Absorption Density Specific Gravity Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (LW) Electrical Arc Resistance (LW) Dielectric Strength (LW Dielectric Strength (PF) Dielectric Constant (PF) ASTM Test D790 D790 D790 D790 D638 D638 D638 D638 D695 D695 D695 D695 D256 D256 D953 D953 D3039 D3039 D2583 D570 D792 D792 D696 D495 D149 D149 D150 Units psi psi 106 psi 106 psi psi psi 106 psi 106 psi psi psi 106 psi 106 psi ft – lbs/in ft – lbs/in psi psi 1500/1525 Series 35.Gray 1625 Series. Composite materials are not homogeneous.000 1.0 1.Thermoset Polyester Class 1 FR. Property (coupon values) Mechanical Flexural Stress.000 16.1 20.

Thermoset Polyester. Property (coupon values) Mechanical Tensile Strength (LW) Tensile Modulus (LW) Compressive Strength (LW) Flexural Strength (LW) Flexural Modulus (LW) Notched Izod Impact (LW) Physical Barcol Hardness Water Absorption Density Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (LW) ASTM Test D638 D638 D695 D790 D790 D256 Units psi 106 psi psi psi 106 psi ft – lbs/in Test Results 100.Material Properties of Pultex® Fiber Reinforced Polymer Rods & Bars 1500 Series.076 3. Inc.25 0.0 60.000 6.Thermoset Polyester Class 1 FR.Thermoset Vinyl Ester Class 1 FR. Creative Pultrusions.000 100.Gray 1625 Series. and therefore the location of the coupon extraction can cause variances in the coupon test results.0 LW = Lengthwise 17 .Olive Green 1525 Series. publishes an average value of random samples from production lots. Composite materials are not homogeneous.Beige The following data was derived from ASTM coupon and full section testing.000 6. The results are average values based on random sampling and testing of production lots.073-0.0 40 D2583 D570 D792 D696 % Max lbs/in3 -6 10 in/in/°F 50 .

000 2.0 1” 8 UNC 7. 4 Torque results are dependant on several variable factors including the lubricant used.000 17.000 60.000 27. The results are average values based on random sampling and testing of production lots.500 40 1 3. Ultimate strength values are averages obtained in design testing. it is vital that torque limits be determined experimentally for the exact installation conditions.000 2.400 12.0 5/8” 11 UNC 3. 5 Appropriate safety factors must be applied. Therefore.250 1. Composite materials are not homogeneous. Property (coupon values) ASTM Test Units 3/8” 16 UNC lbs lbs psi 106psi psi load lb load lb KV/in % 10-6in/in/°F 1. publishes an average value of random samples from production lots.0 55. if such results of torque are important.592 25 LW = Lengthwise 1 2 Applies to single nut only.000 4.315 25 115 .75 60.100 40 1 3.000 2. 18 .000 2.900 3.209 25 50 .600 4.000 2.129 25 33 .076 25 15 .0 Diameter/Threads per Inch 1/2” 13 UNC 2.200 2. the length of the studs between nuts.650 4.400 6. 3 Values are based on unthreaded rod. 6 Properties apply to Superstud!™ used with CP nut. Ultimate Design Tensile Load using C P Nut 1256 Flexural Strength 23 Flexural Modulus 23 Compressive Strength (LW) 23 Ultimate Transverse Shear 23 Transverse Shear Yield 23 Dielectric Strength 23 Water Absorption 2 Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (LW) Ultimate Torque Strength Using C P Full Nut Lubricated w/ SAE 10W30 Motor Oil 2456 Stud Weight 3 Flammability D790 D790 D695 B565 D149 D570 D696 ft-lb lb/ft 8 .0 55.120 60.0 Ultimate Thread Strength Using Standard C P Nut 126 Max. multiple nuts do not yield corresponding results.Material Properties of Superstud!™/Nuts! Fiber Reinforced Polymer Fastener System The following data was derived from ASTM coupon and full section testing.5 55. Inc. etc.500 40 1 3.000 11.500 2.0 55.0 3/4” 10 UNC 5.500 40 1 3. Creative Pultrusions.200 7. and therefore the location of the coupon extraction can cause variances in the coupon test results.300 40 1 3.000 7. washer surfaces.400 3.520 60.000 60.200 60. alignment.

000 46. The results are average values based on random sampling and testing of production lots.Gray 1625 Series.500 28 21 33.12 30.35 0.8 1.Olive Green 1525 Series.000 4.0 3.000 23. Property (coupon values) Full Section Modulus of Elasticity (1/2” thick profiles) (1/4” & 3/8” thick profiles) Shear Modulus (Modulus of Rigidity) Flexural Stress Flange Section Mechanical Tensile Strength (LW) Tensile Modulus (LW) Compressive Strength (LW) Compressive Strength (CW) Compressive Modulus (LW) Compressive Modulus (CW) Flexural Strength (LW) Flexural Modulus (LW) Interlaminar Shear (LW) Shear Strength by Punch (PF) Notched Izod Impact (LW) Notched Izod Impact (CW) Bearing Stress (LW) Bearing Stress (CW) Poisson’s Ration (LW) Poisson’s Ration (CW) Web Section Mechanical Tensile Strength (LW) Tensile Strength (CW) Tensile Modulus (LW) Tensile Modulus (CW) Compressive Strength (LW) Compressive Strength (CW) Compressive Modulus (LW) Compressive Modulus (CW) Flexural Strength (LW) ASTM Test Full Section2 Full Section2 Full Section2 Full Section2 Full Section2 D638 D638 D695 D695 D695 D695 D790 D790 D2344 D732 D256 D256 D953 D953 D3039 D3039 D638 D638 D638 D638 D695 D695 D695 D695 D790 Units 106 psi 106 psi 106 psi 106 psi psi psi 106 psi psi psi 106 psi 106 psi psi 106 psi psi psi ft – lbs/in ft – lbs/in psi psi in/in in/in psi psi 106 psi 106 psi psi psi 106 psi 106 psi psi 1500/1525 Series 3. Composite materials are not homogeneous.500 6.9 4.500 0.000 40.000 3.500 3.800 3. and therefore the location of the coupon extraction can cause variances in the coupon test results.200 2.1 1.8 1.85 1.800 (Continued next page) 19 .9 49.500 14.0 4.12 35.16 45.16 52.125 16.0 0.9-4.50 33.9 42.9 43.4 43.1 1.9 4.320 1625 Series 3.400 3.770 17.000 12.50 33. publishes an average value of random samples from production lots.9-4.800 2.330 2.000 5.000 4.0 3.300 10.Thermoset Polyester Class 1 FR.0 4.4 37.Beige The following data was derived from ASTM coupon and full section testing. Creative Pultrusions.85 1.000 32 24 38.Material Properties of Pultex® Fiber Reinforced Polymer SuperStructural Profiles Wide Flange Sections and I Sections 1500 Series.000 26.Thermoset Polyester.0 0.000 0.500 20.Thermoset Vinyl Ester Class 1 FR. Inc.35 0.9 49.200 2.

9 1.000 34.500 0.12 7.400 5.000 4.0003 0. 3 Crosswise bearing stress of Web sections of ¼” profiles = 20.6 0.000 43 22 39.66-1.35 0.070 1.4 4 1625 Series 19.35 0.75 3. but rotate coupon 90 deg.900 1. (cut section of coupon length faces up) Property Flammability Classification Tunnel Test Flammability Extinguishing NBS Smoke Chamber Flame Resistance (Ignition/Burn) ASTM Test UL94 ASTM E84 ASTM D635 ASTM E662 FTMS 406-2023 1500/1525 Series (VO) 25 Max Self Extinguishing 650 55/30 (seconds) 1625 Series (VO) 25 Max Self Extinguishing 650 55/30 (seconds) 20 .980 30.Material Properties of Pultex® Fiber Reinforced Polymer SuperStructural Profiles Wide Flange Sections and I Sections (continued) Property (coupon values) Flexural Strength (CW) Flexural Modulus (LW) Flexural Modulus (CW) Interlaminar Shear (LW) Shear Strength by Punch (PF) Notched Izod Impact (LW) Notched Izod Impact (CW) Bearing Stress (LW) Bearing Stress (CW) Poisson’s Ration (LW) Poisson’s Ration (CW) In-plane Shear (CW) modified In-plane Shear (LW) modified Physical Barcol Hardness 1 Water Absorption Density Specific Gravity Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (LW) Thermal Conductivity (PF) Electrical Arc Resistance (LW) Dielectric Strength (LW Dielectric Strength (PF) Dielectric Constant (PF) ASTM Test D790 D790 D790 D2344 D732 D256 D256 D953 D953 D3039 D3039 D23444 D23444 D2583 D570 D792 D792 D696 C177 Units psi 106 psi 106 psi psi psi ft – lbs/in ft – lbs/in psi psi in/in in/in psi psi 1500/1525 Series 17.9 1.66-1.75 3.500 39 0.93 4.070 1.900 6.500 psi 4 Follow ASTM D2344.2 120 40 200 5.060-0.12 7.000 4.6 0.360 1.500 38 19 33.500 33 0.93 4. but does not reflect lack of cure.060-0.2 LW = Lengthwise 1 2 CW = Crosswise PF = Perpendicular to Laminate Face Pultex® uses a synthetic surface veil that reduces the Barcol hardness. Full section testing based on a 3-point bend with simply supported end conditions.4 4 % Max lbs/in3 10-6in/in/°F BTUin/ft2/hr/°F D495 D149 D149 D150 seconds KV/in Volts/mil @60Hz 120 40 200 5.

Thermoset Vinyl Ester Class 1 FR.000 27.600 18.2 43.Olive Green 1525 Series.500 1.12 4.000 1625 Series 35.000 0.000 modified modified (Continued next page) 21 .Thermoset Polyester. Inc.8 0.000 0.6 2.8 0.Gray 1625 Series.5 1.500 7.6 2.500 29.12 4.400 5.0 44.0 2.5 1.900 3.2 50. The results are average values based on random sampling and testing of production lots.35 0.Thermoset Polyester Class 1 FR.900 6.500 3. Composite materials are not homogeneous.9 1.500 24.000 33.Material Properties of Pultex® Fiber Reinforced Polymer SuperStructural Profiles Angles Angle profile sizes are 4” x4” x ¼” and larger.500 3.0 33.000 16.000 3.500 7.9 1.000 1.Beige The following data was derived from ASTM coupon and full section testing.000 38. Property (coupon values) Mechanical Tensile Strength (LW) Tensile Strength (CW) Tensile Modulus (LW) Tensile Modulus (CW) Compressive Strength (LW) Compressive Strength (CW) Compressive Modulus (LW) Compressive Modulus (CW) Flexural Strength (LW) Flexural Strength (CW) Flexural Modulus (LW) Flexural Modulus (CW) Modulus of Elasticity Shear Modulus Interlaminar Shear (LW) Shear Strength by Punch (PF) Notched Izod Impact (LW) Notched Izod Impact (CW) Bearing Stress (LW) Bearing Stress (CW) Poisson’s Ration (LW) Poisson’s Ration (CW) In-plane Shear (LW) In-plane Shear (CW) ASTM Test D638 D638 D638 D638 D695 D695 D695 D695 D790 D790 D790 D790 Full Section 2 Full Section 2 D2344 D732 D256 D256 D953 D953 D3039 D3039 D2344 D2344 Units psi psi 106 psi 106 psi psi psi 106 psi 106 psi psi psi 106 psi 106 psi 106 psi 106 psi psi psi ft – lbs/in ft – lbs/in psi psi in/in in/in psi psi 1500/1525 Series 31.5 3.0 2. publishes an average value of random samples from production lots.35 0. 1500 Series.5 3. and therefore the location of the coupon extraction can cause variances in the coupon test results.000 39 38 38.800 25. Creative Pultrusions.500 34 33 33.

Material Properties of Pultex® Fiber Reinforced Polymer SuperStructural Profiles
Angles Angle profile sizes are 4” x4” x ¼” and larger. (continued)
Property (coupon values)
Physical Barcol Hardness 1 Water Absorption Density Specific Gravity Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (LW) Thermal Conductivity (PF) Electrical Arc Resistance (LW) Dielectric Strength (LW Dielectric Strength (PF) Dielectric Constant (PF)

ASTM Test
D2583 D570 D792 D792 D696 C177

Units

1500/1525 Series
45 0.6 0.060-0.070 1.66-1.93 4.4 4

1625 Series
45 0.6 0.060-0.070 1.66-1.93 4.4 4

% Max lbs/in3 10-6in/in/°F BTUin/ft2/hr/°F

D495 D149 D149 D150

seconds KV/in Volts/mil @60Hz

120 40 200 5.2

120 40 200 5.2

LW = Lengthwise
1 2

CW = Crosswise

PF = Perpendicular to Laminate Face

Pultex® uses a synthetic surface veil that reduces the Barcol hardness, but does not reflect lack of cure. Full section testing based on a 3-point bend with simply supported end conditions. 3 Follow ASTM D2344, but rotate coupon 90 deg. (cut section of coupon length faces up)

Property
Flammability Classification Tunnel Test Flammability Extinguishing NBS Smoke Chamber Flame Resistance (Ignition/Burn)

ASTM Test
UL94 ASTM E84 ASTM D635 ASTM E662 FTMS 406-2023

1500/1525 Series
(VO) 25 Max Self Extinguishing 650 55/30 (seconds)

1625 Series
(VO) 25 Max Self Extinguishing 650 55/30 (seconds)

22

SECTION 5

CROSS SECTIONAL AND ENGINEERING PROPERTIES OF FIBERGLASS STRUCTURAL SHAPES

23

Wide Flange Sections
Depth (h) Width Thickness Area Weight (b) (t) in2 X-X Axis I in4 S in3 2.15 4.03 9.53 13.59 25.09 32.20 40.09 51.87 76.21 r in 1.22 1.66 2.54 2.49 3.37 3.32 4.26 4.20 5.09 I in4 1.11 2.63 8.91 13.32 31.65 42.09 61.94 82.38 142.59 Y-Y Axis S in3 0.74 1.32 4.46 4.44 7.91 10.52 12.39 16.48 23.77 r in 0.71 0.95 1.42 1.42 1.90 1.90 2.37 2.37 2.84 J in4 0.047 0.063 0.094 0.316 0.422 1.000 0.527 1.250 1.500 Design Cw in6 2.49 10.52 80.21 119.84 506.46 673.41 1548.59 2059.52 5133.35

in 3.00 4.00 6.00 6.00 8.00 8.00 10.00 10.00 12.00

in 3.00 4.00 6.00 6.00 8.00 8.00 10.00 10.00 12.00

in 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.375 0.375 0.50 0.375 0.50 0.50

lb/ft

2.17 1.63 3.23 2.92 2.19 8.05 4.42 3.31 28.58 6.57 4.92 40.76 8.82 6.61 100.35 11.67 8.75 128.81 11.07 8.30 200.45 14.67 11.00 259.36 17.67 13.25 457.26

24

19 3.00 12.80 4.000 639.76 X-X Axis S in3 1.67 11.00 3.64 14.53 16.31 0.63 3.62 0.76 Y-Y Axis S in3 0.99 0.71 I in4 0.92 2.00 5.27 5.07 3.18 18.667 84.00 3.32 0.25 0.89 4.80 0.44 2.39 7.94 3.32 5.49 7.45 258.18 1.71 10.62 0.17 22.67 7.35 2.375 0.33 0.75 in4 1.375 0.00 4.82 7.00 6.82 1.00 10.97 2.36 5.00 10.I Sections Depth (h) in 3.11 5.06 1.031 0.19 0.00 4.31 0.00 Thickness Area Weight (t) I in 0.13 r in 1.12 3.42 1.31 3.352 192.67 3.82 0.211 15.12 22.50 in2 1.67 lb/ft 1.375 0.833 256.29 43.84 1.25 0.26 0.50 0.48 113.33 25 .12 0.00 Width (b) in 1.00 8.25 8.50 2.042 1.063 9.11 1.00 6.55 146.71 72.95 5.20 2.92 4.74 1.33 1.03 1.08 4.54 2.32 9.27 17.14 0.11 1.41 0.50 0.281 63.92 r in 0.25 0.27 7.93 56.00 6.23 Design J in4 Cw in6 0.00 5.75 5.03 1.71 29.00 0.00 8.24 4.00 4.

00 6.790 2.13 0.92 4.29 5.91 1.375 0.49 4.03 0.84 3.42 0.19 0.774 1.72 2.34 0.30 0.61 0.290 z x y x y z 26 .125 0.65 S in3 0.00 4.50 2.89 1.72 Weight X-X Axis or Y-Y Axis I in4 0.09 1.00 Width (b) in 1.00 6.070 1.125 0.65 0.00 Thickness (t) in 0.00 3.25 0.29 0.Equal Leg Angles Depth (h ) in 1.00 3.386 0.50 2.94 0.50 1.383 0.1875 0.87 1.y in 0.35 0.1875 0.281 0.170 0.125 0.375 0.95 1.10 0.08 0.250 0.45 0.810 1.1875 0.584 0.00 3.500 0.190 0.03 0.70 0.00 4.00 3.787 0.50 1.55 rx.92 0.50 1.125 0.130 2.587 0.44 0.00 6.49 15.590 0.45 0.00 4.02 0.63 0.03 1.320 0.00 3.00 4.13 0.250 4.00 6.250 0.00 3.194 1.177 lbs/ft 0.00 2.03 0.282 0.51 0.72 1.00 1.125 0.85 rz in 0.185 1.00 1.578 0.390 0.00 6.00 3.07 0.125 1.22 1.00 4.00 4.00 3.570 1.440 2.19 0.780 0.23 1.00 1.50 1.00 2.540 0.04 0.00 2.250 0.72 3.27 0.50 1.30 0.13 0.00 2.93 0.250 0.42 2.38 3.34 5.284 0.530 0.11 0.182 0.250 0.260 0.34 0.22 0.62 0.24 0.05 0.00 4.00 1.45 10.47 0.690 0.500 0.183 0.207 0.93 2.250 0.82 1.381 0.47 0.67 0.25 1.95 0.350 0.57 0.125 1.00 6.92 2.21 1.23 19.08 1.375 0.190 3.500 Area in2 0.

50 0.06 1.090 0.73 0.62 0.03 0.375 0.11 0.23 0.500 0.22 0.00 2.45 0.72 1.41 0.50 1.08 0.125 0.00 3.05 0.74 0.95 0.54 0.36 3.71 0.00 2.67 0.96 0.03 0.53 0.125 0.64 0.38 Y-Y Axis S in3 0.40 0.43 2.03 0.12 0.14 0.00 1.11 0.00 2.50 2.41 0.37 0.375 0.00 3.57 1.47 0.09 0.58 2.29 0.39 0.00 3.375 0.00 3.00 2.00 4.125 0.59 0.50 Thickness Area Weight (t) in 0.85 1.18 13.65 0.62 0.89 1.00 2.26 0.21 0.04 0.125 0.26 0.50 0.125 in2 0.09 0.67 2.96 0.00 3.60 0.50 0.16 1.38 0.00 2.060 0.00 1.99 1.92 1.29 0.00 4.5 0.28 4.00 1.50 1.27 3.79 lbs/ft 0.33 1.28 1.35 0.44 0.03 0.53 0.24 0.40 0.50 1.62 0.91 1.250 0.36 2.31 0.00 5.11 0.25 0.250 0.16 1.09 1.17 0.07 1.12 0.36 0.64 0.25 2.33 0.00 3.00 3.49 0.57 0.60 I in4 0.40 0.07 0.04 0.00 6.95 1.26 0.51 0.46 3.00 4.20 0.250 0.39 I in4 0.50 1.00 3.63 0.87 1.05 0.50 1.00 2.88 3.89 9.29 1.00 3.04 0.04 0.14 0.30 0.91 3.00 4.89 0.34 0.23 0.41 0.35 0.85 2.09 0.25 1.22 0.58 0.28 1.37 0.43 R in 0.50 2.1875 0.17 1.83 1.25 1.00 11.250 0.69 3.71 1.98 0.00 1.29 0.25 0.00 2.48 0.250 0.67 0.98 1.47 0.63 3.03 0.25 1.93 1.26 1.39 0.80 0.82 2.14 0.26 0.18 1.09 1.15 0.54 1.17 0.07 0.02 0.21 0.55 0.49 2.00 3.54 0.96 0.31 0.59 4.Unequal Leg Angles Depth (h) in 1.125 0.38 0.03 0.31 17.00 1.00 2.96 0.41 0.80 1.14 0.57 1.88 y x z y z x 27 .73 3.08 0.97 0.57 1.19 X-X Axis S in3 0.1875 0.38 4.46 R in 0.52 0.1875 0.81 9.97 2.01 0.21 0.51 0.43 0.00 Width (b) in 0.00 1.00 4.22 0.00 6.27 0.26 0.375 0.00 4.00 6.25 0.16 0.11 0.55 0.42 3.1875 0.85 0.16 0.250 0.15 23.60 0.27 1.07 0.00 2.83 6.43 0.33 0.93 2.96 0.24 0.76 0.125 0.24 3.125 0.39 0.63 1.02 0.79 0.50 4.93 1.21 0.13 0.53 1.75 1.42 2.26 0.

95 0.100 0.22 0.02 0.62 0.250 0.28 0.37 0.07 0.00 8.67 7.52 0.01 5.86 4.75 1.18 0.46 0.31 2.75 1.36 0.56 0.41 1.27 0.61 1.78 5.00 3.89 2.30 6.43 1.06 0.42 2.48 3.42 0.51 0.72 0.57 1.00 4.62 0.00 0.500 0.160 0.17 0.21 0.75 2.44 0.55 0.97 I S in2 lbs/ft in4 in3 0.00 0.75 8.10 0.63 1.29 0.62 3.31 1.74 0.39 0.26 86.250 0.07 0.18 24.00 4.13 1.56 0.34 0.00 1.61 0.59 0.00 2.00 5.1875 0.00 6.12 1.71 0.05 0.100 0.01 1.27 0.75 3.44 1.06 0.19 2.19 2.34 0.250 0.14 r in 0.75 3.05 8.29 0.08 2.34 1.45 0.44 0.38 7.16 0.00 2.29 0.030 0.1875 0.05 0.98 1.43 1.48 0.875 1.38 0.21 3.05 0.73 1.25 0.00 10.52 10.32 0.0937 0.125 0.62 14.89 985.79 0.250 0.08 0.16 0.24 Y-Y Axis I S in4 in3 0.59 0.22 0.02 0.61 3.03 2.55 0.00 10.375 0.08 0.70 1.00 8.41 25.05 0.50 1.10 0.52 4.24 0.00 11.00 10.00 6.88 1.1875 0.23 2.93 3.45 0.29 0.00 1.250 0.02 1.310 0.08 4.43 0.500 0.00 4.69 0.26 0.47 0.50 1.38 1.53 2.06 1.68 0.29 1.37 1.016 0.02 0.00 4.12 0.43 4.75 1.07 0.00 24.09 82.40 39.125 0.76 2.89 0.125 0.63 1.23 3.50 475.25 2.07 1.50 0.40 0.Channels Depth (h) in 1.11 1.09 28 .75 2.69 2.56 1.00 0.48 2.250 0.58 21.79 0.63 2.90 0.06 0.17 2.00 Thickness Area Weight (t) in 0.00 3.070 0.06 18.250 0.30 0.29 0.42 4.83 0.50 2.00 1.13 2.375 0.30 13.63 1.17 33.71 4.62 0.09 0.54 0.59 9.470 X-X Axis r in 0.60 0.84 124.38 1.22 0.09 0.53 1.14 0.91 2.88 5.62 1.125 0.45 0.00 3.50 0.25 0.05 1.69 2.00 8.59 0.18 7.260 0.00 7.50 1.07 0.29 0.85 0.83 3.75 1.13 1.33 13.65 0.33 5.50 24.56 1.31 5.53 3.15 0.92 16.48 0.96 1.16 0.53 1.88 17.68 0.01 0.05 0.23 0.10 2.00 Width (b) in 1.83 1.250 0.41 0.71 3.37 1.

00 Thickness (t) in 0.93 0.80 1.Square Tubes Width or Depth (h) in 1.250 0.30 1.250 0.74 3.92 1.125 0.52 2.11 1.48 0.72 0.24 2.92 1.89 0.13 1.52 0.36 0.28 0.250 0.00 1.11 0.125 0.250 0.32 0.00 2.86 1.91 1.25 1.69 1.67 1.42 0.66 0.26 0.50 3.24 0.11 0.05 0.125 0.78 0.75 1.00 4.89 0.76 0.57 0.37 in 0.250 Area in2 0.67 0.00 2.90 3.33 0.1250 0.75 in3 0.51 0.16 0.250 0.56 0.50 1.11 2.44 0.60 1.93 0.53 lbs/ft 0.80 y x 29 .200 0.68 2.42 0.40 0.47 8.53 0.21 0.73 Weight X-X Axis or Y-Y Axis I S r in4 0.69 0.62 0.50 1.05 2.250 0.35 0.53 0.48 2.73 1.31 4.75 2.

00 1.30 4.16 46.23 1.37 4.29 in 3 in 1.11 22.87 2.00 8.31 4.82 0.38 2.00 8.00 4.45 1.30 7.00 4.75 2.375 Area Weight in 2 X .54 24.31 7.38 2.70 8.67 21.38 14.750 8.63 16.03 1.11 1.95 9.07 6.34 3.00 4.40 0.26 2.86 30 .90 5.132 0.65 2.26 2.00 8.00 2.14 3.250 0.66 0.61 47.25 0.23 1.X Axis S in 3 r in 0.37 2.98 2.00 Width (b) in 1.08 0.91 0.64 1.00 Thickness (t) in 0.82 1.45 4.84 13.02 3.40 2.250 0.58 15.70 66.39 5.73 0.80 11.375 0.73 2.63 3.37 1.75 1.49 2.20 7.50 2.49 0.72 0.188 0.26 5.64 1.58 13.00 6.82 1.61 5.84 3.Rectangular Tubes Depth (h) in 4.53 1.80 2.61 lb/ft 1.86 5.71 0.80 1.16 7.59 0.73 0.00 7.X Axis I S r in 4 I in 4 X .00 1.66 1.250 0.28 0.79 3.00 7.20 2.125 0.38 1.54 2.125 0.17 1.61 11.44 33.89 1.79 0.46 3.61 9.125 0.00 5.36 1.74 5.35 1.51 0.63 1.92 6.77 1.61 1.00 4.03 1.250 0.31 1.21 20.60 15.40 4.43 1.20 1.57 1.83 10.68 0.52 1.62 5.39 4.00 4.190 0.83 0.77 3.59 0.23 9.26 2.91 19.41 0.15 1.27 1.125 0.81 1.27 6.00 7.62 6.125 0.

09 0.48 1.54 0.25 1.84 0.50 2.125 0.41 0.13 0.21 0.00 3.41 0.54 0.125 0.50 Inside Diameter (ID) in 0.125 0.250 0.25 1.94 Thickness Area Weight (t) in 0.98 1.40 0.37 0.12 in 0.34 0.50 2.250 0.47 0.63 1.07 0.88 0.33 1.13 X-X Axis or Y-Y Axis I S r in4 0.20 0.0937 0.50 1.44 0.25 1.15 0.98 0.73 1.64 1.49 0.26 0.88 1.250 0.14 y x 31 .56 0.17 0.03 0.00 1.250 0.27 0.75 1.63 0.34 0.75 0.37 2.16 2.0937 0.19 0.33 0.07 0.00 1.91 0.33 0.06 3.50 1.13 0.23 0.66 2.77 0.54 1.18 0.25 1.33 0.39 0.00 2.1875 0.125 0.93 2.00 2.50 1.58 0.125 0.14 0.71 in3 0.11 0.75 2.09 0.66 0.62 2.25 1.125 0.00 1.84 lbs/ft 0.31 0.50 1.03 0.Round Tubes Outside Diameter (OD) in 0.00 1.63 0.00 2.03 0.25 2.06 0.74 0.75 2.34 0.75 1.54 0.24 0.45 0.38 0.70 1.26 0.250 0.01 0.50 3.80 0.280 in2 0.53 1.

083 0.375 0.250 0.001 0.021 0.250 1.001 0.012 0.000 1.049 0.375 0.682 in4 in3 in 0.078 0.519 0.219 0.0010 <0.147 0.767 3.331 0.049 0.625 <0.156 0.125 0.356 3.227 1.028 0.098 0.010 0.534 y x 32 .203 0.031 0.3125 0.331 0.909 lbs/ft 0.500 Area Weight X-X Axis or Y-Y Axis I S r in2 0.500 2.120 0.307 0.1875 0.625 0.196 0.389 0.451 0.500 0.230 0.192 0.750 0.110 0.001 0.188 0.918 1.077 0.250 0.094 0.001 0.Solid Round Tubes Diameter (d) in 0.003 0.442 0.021 0.785 1.029 0.785 1.8125 0.037 0.008 0.047 0.125 0.589 0.041 0.008 0.325 2.063 0.001 <0.500 0.601 0.001 <0.313 0.003 0.005 0.920 1.0020 <0.000 2.058 0.249 0.024 0.016 0.066 0.875 1.785 0.142 4.053 0.

19 0.42 1.51 1.22 0.74 1.42 0.07 <0.00 Width (b) in 0.70 0.19 0.50 0.08 0.00 1.00 Area in2 0.05 0.35 0.12 0.31 r in Y-Y Axis I S r in4 in3 in 0.36 0.57 0.25 1.93 0.37 0.50 1.16 0.75 1.04 0.12 3.35 0.00 1.001 0.46 2.43 0.98 Weight lbs/ft 0.50 1.12 0.Solid Bars Depth (h) in 0.51 0.57 1.99 1.37 0.14 0.04 0.42 0.002 0.07 0.51 2.16 0.29 0.31 in3 0.31 1.19 0.59 2.50 0.37 1.23 1.08 0.13 1.001 0.25 0.08 0.42 0.04 0.46 2.69 1.29 0.25 2.00 1.06 0.01 0.36 0.002 0.43 0.31 y x 33 .31 1.23 1.25 1.98 X-X Axis I S in4 <0.31 0.36 0.29 0.

SECTION 6 SAFETY FACTORS USED IN DESIGNING WITH FIBERGLASS SHAPES 34 .

0 4.0 RECOMMENDED SAFETY FACTORS 1. the final selection of a safety factor is the designer’s privilege as well as responsibility.0 3.)/ Allowable Stress (A.Safety factors are defined as the ratio of the ultimate stress to the allowable stress. These recommended safety factors are not the only safety factors that may be used in design.0 4. etc. columns Tension members Beam shear Connections MODULII Modulus of Elasticity Shear Modulus RECOMMENDED SAFETY FACTORS 2. twisting. The recommended safety factors used for design are: LOADING TYPE Flexural members. etc.5 3. Safety factors for impact loads and dynamic loads are typically two times the static load safety factor.S.F. September 1981. 345 East 47th Street.S. Vols.S.S. crushing. normal tolerances. First deformation is defined as the first visible deformation including local flange or web buckling. 1 and 2. The safety factors given are for static load conditions only. Long term service loads which result in creep deformations will require even higher safety factors to insure satisfactory performance. beams Compression members. = U. NY 10017. A. see Structural Plastics Design Manual. Safety Factor (S.) Therefore. American Society of Civil Engineers. 35 . New York.0 1. costs. For creep effects. Ultimately.) The safety factors used in the various design equations were chosen to prevent “first deformation” of the part. type or placement) • assumptions in methods of analysis • fabrication tolerances (squareness of cuts.) = Ultimate Stress (U.F./S. The designer may choose to adjust the safety factors based on particular applications and considerations including margin of safety. confidence of loads or materials. etc.0 NOTES: 1. Safety factors compensate for: • allowable tolerances of the part • uncertainty of the anticipated loading (magnitude.

SECTION 7 EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE ON FIBERGLASS STRUCTURAL SHAPES 36 .

if required. 37 . which has better strength retention at elevated temperatures. to achieve even higher temperature ratings. Additional resin systems can be design by Creative Pultrusions.Pultruded structural shapes experience some loss of structural integrity from continuous exposure to elevated temperatures. and therefore. Inc. it is strongly recommended that this effect be considered when performing a structural design with fiberglass pultrusions. An example is Pultex® 1625 Series Vinyl Ester. it is possible to select a higher performance resin system specifically designed for elevated temperatures. Table 7-1 provides the retention of ultimate stress for the Pultex® products resulting from exposure to elevated temperatures while Table 7-2 provides the retention of modulus of elasticity: Table 7-1 Ultimate Stress Retention at Varying Temperatures Temperature 100° 125° 150° 175° 200° Pultex® 1500/1525 Series 85% 70% 50% Not Recommended Not Recommended Pultex® 1625 Series 90% 80% 80% 75% 50% Table 7-2 Retention of Modulus of Elasticity at Varying Temperatures Temperature 100° 125° 150° 175° 200° Pultex® 1500/1525 Series 100% 90% 85% Not Recommended Not Recommended Pultex® 1625 Series 100% 95% 90% 88% 85% In applications requiring greater strength retention.

SECTION 8 CORROSION GUIDE FOR THE PROPER SELECTION OF RESINS 38 .

Chemical Compatibility Guide Acetic Acid – Benzene Chemical Environment ACETIC ACID ACETIC ANYDRIDE ACETONE ACRYLONITRILE ALCOHOL. Max F/C F/C NR 100/38 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 150/65 NR NR NR 150/65 NR NR NR 150/65 NR NR NR 150/65 NR 150/65 150/65 150/65 100/38 100/38 NR 150/65 NR 150/65 150/65 150/65 NR 100/38 NR 100/38 NR 100/38 NR 120/49 NR 120/49 NR 100/38 NR 120/49 NR 120/49 NR 120/49 NR 120/49 NR 120/49 120/49 150/65 NR 150/65 NR 120/49 120/49 150/65 NR 160/71 NR NR NR NR NR 100/38 NR NR NR 100/38 NR NR NR 120/49 NR NR 39 . Temp.10 -25 15 -25 10 -5 10 20 15 5 . AQUEOUS AMMONIA. ETHYL ALCOHOL. BUTYL ALCOHOL. 1625 Srs. Max Temp. ISOPROPYL ALCOHOL. GAS AMMONIUM ACETATE AMMONIUM BICARBONATE AMMONIUM BISULFITE AMMONIUM CARBONATE AMMONIUM CITRATE AMMONIUM FLUORIDE AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE AMMONIUM NITRATE AMMONIUM PERSULFATE AMMONIUM PHOSPHATE AMMONIUM SULFATE ARESENIOUS ACID BARIUM ACETATE BARIUM CARBONATE BARIUM CHLORIDE BARIUM HYDROXIDE BARIUM SULFATE BARIUM SULFIDE BEER BENZENE Concentration Percentage 0-50 -100 100 -10 100 10 100 10 100 --100 -10 5 – 20 100 0 . METHYL ALCOHOL. METHYL ALCOHOL. SECONDARY BUTYL ALUM ALUM POTASSIUM ALUMINUM CHLORIDE ALUMINUM HYDROXIDE ALUMINUM POTASSIUM SULFATE AMMONIA. METHYL ISOBUTYL ALCOHOL. ISOPROPYL ALCOHOL. ETHYL ALCOHOL.20 -15 -100 100 100 10 100 10 -100 Pultex® Structural Profiles 1500/1525 Srs.

1625 Srs.20 10 5 10 ---100 -100 10 -100 10 -----10 0 .Chemical Compatibility Guide Benzene in Kerosene – Chromic Acid Pultex® Structural Profiles 1500/1525 Srs. Max F/C F/C NR 160/71 100/38 150/65 NR 100/38 NR 160/71 NR NR NR NR 100/38 150/65 NR 160/71 NR NR NR 120/49 150/65 150/65 NR 160/71 NR 120/49 150/65 160/71 NR 100/38 NR 100/38 NR 100/38 NR 100/38 NR 120/49 120/49 150/65 120/49 150/65 150/65 160/71 NR 160/71 150/65 160/71 NR NR 100/38 150/65 NR 100/38 100/38 120/49 NR 120/49 150/65 150/65 NR 120/49 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR NR NR 120/49 NR 100/38 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 100/38 Chemical Environment BENZENE IN KEROSENE BENZENE SULFURIC ACID BENZOIC ACID O-BENZOYL BENZOIC ACID BENZYL ALCOHOL BENZYL CHLORIDE BORAX BRASS PLATING SOLUTION BUTYL ACETATE BUTYRIC ACID BUTYLENE GLYCOL CADMIUM CHLORIDE CADMIUM CYANIDE PLATING CALCIUM BISULFITE CALCIUM CARBONATE CALCIUM CHLORIDE CALCIUM CHLORATE CALCIUM HYDROXIDE CALCIUM HYPOCHLORITE CALCIUM NITRATE CALCIUM SULFATE CALCIUM SULFITE CAPRYLIC ACID CARBON DIOXIDE CARBON DISULFIDE CARBON MONOXIDE GAS CARBON TETRACHLORIDE CARBONIC ACID CARBON METHYL CELLULOSE CASTOR OIL CHLORINATED WAX CHLORINE DIOXIDE/AIR CHLORINE DIOXIDE.20 -100 100 5 .30 100 ---10 10 10 5 . Temp.20 --5 .20 5 .50 -100 -5 40 . WET GAS CHLORINE DRY GAS CHLORINE WET GAS CHLORINE LIQUID CHLORINE WATER CHLOROACETIC ACID CHLOROBENZENE CHLOROFORM CHLOROSULFONIC ACID CHROMIC ACID Concentration Percentage 5 5 . Max Temp.

Max F/C F/C NR 120/49 NR NR 150/65 160/71 120/49 150/65 NR 160/71 150/65 180/82 150/65 180/82 NR 160/71 150/65 NR NR 120/49 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 150/65 160/71 NR 100/38 NR 160/71 NR 150/65 NR 160/71 NR 150/65 NR 120/49 NR NR 150/65 150/65 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR NR NR 120/49 NR NR NR NR NR 160/71 NR NR NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 120/49 NR 160/71 150/65 160/71 NR NR NR NR NR NR 100/38 150/65 NR NR 120/49 150/65 120/49 150/65 Chemical Environment CHROMIC ACID CHROMIC ACID CHROMIUM SULFATE CITRIC ACID COCONUT OIL COPPER CHLORIDE COPPER CYANIDE COPPER FLUORIDE COPPER NITRATE COPPER BRITE PLATING COPPER PLATING SOLUTION COPPER MATTE DIPPING BATH COPPER PICKLING BATH COPPER SULFATE CORN OIL CORN STARCH. 1625 Srs.SLURRY CORN SUGAR COTTONSEED OIL CRUDE OIL CYCLOHEXENE CYCLOHEXENE VAPOR DEIONIZED WATER DETERGENTS SULFONATED DI-AMMONIUM PHOSPHATE DIBROMOPHENOL DIBUTYL ETHER DICHLORO BENZENE DICHLOROETHYLENE DIETHYLENE GLYCOL DIETHYL ETHER DIMENTHYL PHTHALATE DIOCTYL PHTHALATE DIPROPYLENE GLYCOL DODECYL ALCOHOL ESTER.Chemical Compatibility Guide Chromic Acid – Ferric Chloride Pultex® Structural Profiles 1500/1525 Srs. Temp. FATTY ACIDS ETHYL ACETATE ETHYL BENZENE ETHYL ETHER ETHYLENE GLYCOL ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE FATY ACIDS FERRIC CHLORIDE Concentration Percentage 20 30 -5 . Max Temp.30 -5 5 -------100 -100 -100 ----------100 --100 --100 --100 -10 10 41 .

Temp.50 10 .30 --10 100 --------- 42 . WET GAS HYDROGEN CHLORIDE.Chemical Compatibility Guide Ferric Nitrate – Hydrogen Fluoride Vapors Pultex® Structural Profiles 1500/1525 Srs. 1625 Srs. DRY HYDROGEN BROMIDE.30 25 -100 ------100 100 ----100 100 -100 5 . DRY GAS HYDROGEN CHLORIDE. Max Temp. Max F/C F/C 120/49 150/65 120/49 150/65 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 NR 120/49 NR 120/49 NR 160/71 NR 100/38 NR 100/38 NR 160/71 NR 100/38 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 150/65 180/82 150/65 180/82 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 100/38 150/65 100/38 150/65 150/65 160/71 NR 120/49 100/38 150/65 NR 120/49 150/65 160/71 NR NR NR 160/71 NR NR NR NR NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 120/49 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR NR Chemical Environment FERRIC NITRATE FERRIC SULFATE FERROUS CHLORIDE FERROUS NITRATE FERROUS SULFATE 8-8-8 FERTILIZER FLUOBORIC ACID FLUSOILICIC ACID FORMALDEHYDE FORMIC ACID FUEL GAS FUEL OIL GAS NATURAL GASOLINE AUTO GASOLINE AVIATION GASOLINE ETHYL GASOLINE SOUR GLUCONIC ACID GLUCOSE GLYCERIN GLYCOL ETHYLENE GLYCOL PROPYLENE GLYCOLIC ACID GOLD PLATING SOLUTION HEPTANE HEXANE HEXALENE GLYCOL HYDRAULIC FLUID HYDROBROMIC ACID HYDROCHLORIC ACID HYDROCYANIC ACID HYDROFLUORIC ACID HYDROFLOUSILIC ACID HYDROZINE HYDROGEN BROMIDE. WET GAS HYDROGEN PEROXIDE HYDROGEN SULFIDE DRY HYDROGEN SULFIDE AQUEOUS HYDROGEN FLUORIDE VAPORS Concentration Percentage 10 10 ------5 .

Max Temp. Temp. 1625 Srs.Chemical Compatibility Guide Hydrosulfite Bleach – Myristic Acid Pultex® Structural Profiles 1500/1525 Srs. Max F/C F/C NR 120/49 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 100/38 150/65 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 120/49 120/49 150/65 NR 100/38 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 NR 120/49 150/65 160/71 NR 120/49 NR 160/71 100/38 150/65 100/38 150/65 NR 120/49 NR 120/49 100/38 120/49 150/65 150/65 120/49 150/65 120/49 150/65 NR 160/71 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 150/65 150/65 NR 160/71 NR NR NR NR 150/65 150/65 -160/71 Chemical Environment HYDROSULFITE BLEACH HYPOCHLORUS ACID IRON PLATING SOLUTION IRON & STEEL CLEANING BATH ISOPROPYL AMINE ISOPROPYL PAMITATE JET FUEL KEROSENE LACTIC ACID LAUROYL CHLORIDE LAURIC ACID LEAD ACETATE LEAD CHLORIDE LEAD NITRATE LEAD PLATING SOLUTION LEVULINIC ACID LINSEED OIL LITHIUM BROMIDE LITHIUM CHLORIDE LITHIUM SULFATE LITHIUM HYDROXIDE MAGNESIUM BISUFITE MAGNESIUM CARBONATE MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE MAGNESIUM NITRATE MAGNESIUM SULFATE MALEIC ACID MERCURIC CHLORIDE MERCUROUS CHLORIDE METHANOL METHYLENE CHLORIDE METHYL ETHYL KETONE @120F METHYL ISOBUTYL CARBITOL METHYL ISOBUTYL KETONE METHYL STYRENE MINERAL OIL MOLYBDENUM DISULFIDE MONOCHLORIC ACETIC ACID MONOETHANOLAMINE MOTOR OIL MYRISTIC ACID Concentration Percentage -----------100 10 10 ----25 -10 -10 10 10 10 10 100 10 10 ------100 ---100 -- 43 .

Max F/C F/C 150/65 150/65 120/49 150/65 120/49 150/65 NR 160/71 NR NR 120/49 NR NR NR NR NR NR 120/49 NR 150/65 150/65 160/71 160/71 150/65 100/38 NR NR 160/71 120/49 120/49 150/65 NR 160/71 160/71 Chemical Environment NAPTHA NICKEL CHLORIDE NICKEL NITRATE NICKEL PLATING: .4% Boric Acid NICKEL PLATING: 11%Nickel Sulfate.025 Epsom Salts.30 ---100 100 100 ---- -10 -5 . 1% Boric Acid NICKEL PLATING: 44% Nickel Sulfate. Max Temp. 4% Boric Acid NICKEL SULFATE NITRIC ACID NITRIC ACID FUMES NITROBENZENE OCTONOIC ACID OIL. 2% Nickle Chloride. 1625 Srs. Temp.Chemical Compatibility Guide Naptha – Potassium Dichromate Pultex® Structural Profiles 1500/1525 Srs. 5% Sodium Silicate 42° Be.50 --100 100 ---100 -10 -10 10 100 100 150/65 NR NR 100/38 150/65 150/65 NR NR 150/65 150/65 NR NR NR 120/49 NR NR NR NR NR 160/71 NR NR 150/65 160/71 160/71 NR 120/49 160/71 160/71 160/71 100/38 120/49 150/65 120/49 120/49 120/49 120/49 120/49 44 .4% Sulfuric Acid 66°Be PHENOL PHENOL SULFONIC ACID PHOSPHORIC ACID PHOSPHORIC ACID FUMES PHOSPHORUS PENTOXIDE PHOSPHOROUS TRICHLORIDE PHTHALIC ACID PICKLING ACIDS: Sulfuric and Hydrochloric PICRIC ACID ALCOHOLIC POLYVINYL ACETATE LATEX POLYVINYL ALCOHOL POLYVINYL CHLORIDE LATEX: With 35(Parts Drop) POTASSIUM ALUMINUM SULFATE POTASSIUM BICARBONATE POTASSIUM BROMIDE POTASSIUM CARBONATE POTASSIUM CHLORIDE POTASSIUM DICHROMATE Concentration Percentage 100 10 10 ---10 5 . SOUR CRUDE OIL SWEET CRUDE OLEIC ACID OLEUM (FUMING SULFURIC) OILVE OIL OXALIC ACID PEROXIDE BLEACH: 2% Sodium Peroxide96% . 1. 2% Ammonium Chloride.

1625 Srs. 7% Potassium. 2% Potassium Carbonate SOAPS SODIUM ACETATE SODIUM BENZOATE SODIUM BICARBONATE SODIUM BIFLUORIDE SODIUM BISULFATE SODIUM BISULFITE SODIUM BROMATE SODIUM BROMIDE SODIUM CARBONATE SODIUM CHLORATE SODIUM CHLORIDE SODIUM CHLORITE SODIUM CHROMATE SODIUM CYANIDE SODIUM DICHROMATE SODIUM DI-PHOSPHATE SODIUM FERRICYANIDE SODIUM FLUORIDE SODIUM FLOURO SILICATE SODIUM HEXAMETAPHOSPHATES Concentration Percentage -10 10 100 -10 1 .50 50 .Chemical Compatibility Guide Potassium Ferricyanide – Sodium Hexametaphosphates Pultex® Structural Profiles 1500/1525 Srs.100 100 --------- ----------0 . Temp. 5% Sodium Cyanide. Max Temp.25 --25 --------- NR NR NR NR 150/65 NR 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 NR NR 150/65 NR 150/65 NR 150/65 150/65 150/65 NR NR NR 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 140/60 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 120/49 120/49 100/38 45 . Max F/C F/C 150/65 160/71 NR 150/65 120/49 150/65 100/38 150/65 NR 160/71 120/49 150/65 NR 120/49 NR NR 150/65 150/65 NR 160/71 NR NR NR 140/60 150/65 150/65 NR 100/38 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 150/65 160/71 Chemical Environment POTASSIUM FERRICYANIDE POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE POTASSIUM NITRATE POTASSIUM PERMANGANTE POTASSIUM PERSULFATE POTASSIUM SULFATE PROPIONIC ACID PROPIONIC ACID PROPYLENE GLYCOL PULP PAPER MILL EFFLUENT PYRIDINE SALICYLIC ACID SEA WATER SEWAGE TREATMENT SEBACIC ACID SELENIOUS ACID SILVER NITRATE SILVER PLATING SOLUTION: 4% Silver Cyanide.

Max F/C F/C NR 150/65 NR 150/65 NR 150/65 NR 160/71 NR 120/49 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 NR 120/49 150/65 160/71 NR 120/49 NR 120/49 150/65 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 150/65 160/71 NR NR NR 160/71 150/65 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 160/71 150/65 160/71 NR 160/71 NR 120/49 NR 100/38 NR 160/71 NR 150/65 NR 120/49 150/65 160/71 NR NR Chemical Environment SODIUM HYDROXIDE SODIUM HYDROXIDE SODIUM HYDROXIDE SODIUM HYDROSULFATE SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE SODIUM LAURYL SULFATE SODIUM MONO-PHOSPHATE SODIUM NITRATE SODIUM SILICATE SODIUM SULFATE SODIUM SULFIDE SODIUM SULFITE SODIUM TETRA BORATE SODIUM THIOCAYNATE SODIUM THIOSULFATE SODIUM POLYOPHOSPHATE SODIUM XYLENE SULFONATE SODIUM SOLUTIONS SODIUM CRUDE OIL SOVA OIL STANNIC CHLORIDE STANNOUS CHLORIDE STEARIC ACID STYRENE SUGAR. Max Temp. 7% Tin. SUCROSE SULFAMIC ACID SULFANILIC ACID SULFATED DETERGENTS SULFUR DIOXIDE. TRIOXIDE/AIR SULFURIC ACID SULFURIC ACID SULFURIC ACID SULFUROUS ACID SUPERPHOSPHORIC ACID: 76% P205 TALL OIL TANNIC ACID TARTARIC ACID THIONYL CHLORIDE TIN PLATING SOLUTION: 18% Stannous Fluroborate.Chemical Compatibility Guide Sodium Hydroxide – Tin Plating Solution Pultex® Structural Profiles 1500/1525 Srs. BEET AND CANE LIQUOR SUGAR. 1625 Srs.70 10 ------ -- NR 160/71 46 .30 30 . 2% Boric Acid Concentration Percentage 0–5 5 . WET OR DRY SULFER.50 50 . Temp. 9% Flouroboric acid.25 50 -10 --------------------------0 .

Max Temp.Chemical Compatibility Guide Toluene – Zinc Sulfate Pultex® Structural Profiles 1500/1525 Srs. 5% Ammonium Chloride. 1625 Srs. 9% Sodium Hydroxide ZINC PLATING SOLUTION: 49% Zinc Fluoroborate. Temp. Max F/C F/C NR NR NR 160/71 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 150/65 150/65 NR 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 NR NR 150/65 150/65 NR 160/71 NR NR 120/49 160/71 160/71 100/38 140/60 160/71 160/71 NR 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 160/71 NR 160/71 160/71 Chemical Environment TOLUENE TOLUENE SOLFONIC ACID TRANSFORMER OILS: Mineral Oil Types. Chloro-phenyl Types TRICHLOR ACETIC ACID TRICHLORETHYLENE TRICHLOROPENOL TRICRESYL PHOSPHATE +A618 TRIDECYLBENZENE SULFONATE TRISODIUM PHOSPHATE TURPENTINE UREA VEGETABLE OILS VINEGAR VINYL ACETATE WATER: DEIONIZED DEMINERALIZED DISTILLED FRESH SALT SEA WHITE LIQUOR (Pulp Mill) XYLENE ZINC CHLORATE ZINC NITRATE ZINC PLATING SOLUTION: 9% Zinc Cyanide. 4% Sodium Cyanide. 6% Ammonium Fluoroborate ZINC SULFATE Concentration Percentage ---50 --------------------- -- NR 120/49 --- NR 150/65 160/71 160/71 47 .

All beam equations in this section were taken from the 1989 edition of the Extren® Design manual 48 . Inc.SECTION 9 DESIGNING FLEXURAL MEMBERS (BEAMS) This section of the Delta Composites Fiberglass Structural Design Manual is credited to Strongwell.

B-5 Concentrated load on beam (lbs) Section Modulus about X-X or Y-Y axis (in3) Shear from applied load (lbs) Uniform beam load (lbs/ft) Weight of section (lbs) Outside dimensions of square tube (in) Width of flange (in) Full depth of section (in) Flexural stress from applied loads (psi) Shear stress from applied load (psi) Length of beam (center to center of supports) (in) Unbraced length of beam (center to center of lateral braces) (in) Thickness of section (in) or wall thickness of tubes (in) Thickness of flange (in) Thickness of web (in) Uniform beam load (lb/in) Deflection (in) Safety factor 49 . B-5 Lateral buckling coefficient from Table 9-1 Modulus of Elasticity about X-X or Y-Y axis (psi) Allowable flexural stress (psi) Allowable flexural stress-laterally unsupported beams (psi) Ultimate flexural stress-laterally supported beams (psi) Ultimate flexural stress-laterally unsupported beams (psi) Allowable shear stress (psi) Shear modulus (psi) Moment of inertia about X-X or Y-Y axis (in4) Torsional constant (in4) Effective length factor for buckling about X-X or Y-Y axis Coefficient for flexural deflection Coefficient for shear deflection Length of beam (center to center of supports) (ft) Unbraced length of beam (center to center of lateral braces) (ft) Bending moment from applied loads (lb-in) Derived constant for use in Eq.F.Iy J Kx.Ky Kb Kv L Lu M N P Sx Sy V W Wt b bf d fb fv l luu u t tf tw w ∆ S. = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = Cross-sectional area of web or webs (in2) Derived constant for use in Eq.SYMBOLS FOR FLEXURAL MEMBERS (BEAMS) Aw B C1 E Fb Fb′ Fu Fu′ Fv G Ix.

lateral torsional buckling. compression flange crushing or tension flange breaking and 2) failure due to global buckling.000 psi Vinyl Ester resin (member larger than 4”) < 33. i.5] Allowable Fb=Fu/S.e. Examination of these failure modes indicates that the compression flange bracing is critical in determining the maximum allowable flexural stress.e. Proper design of flexural members requires that both of these failure modes be investigated in the design process.5 50 . i.000 psi Vinyl Ester resin (members 4” and smaller) Equation B-4 Ultimate Fu = 0.BEAM BENDING EQUATIONS Flexural members have two primary failure modes due to bending: 1) failure due to pure bending stress. = Fu/2. These failure modes must be analyzed carefully when selecting a beam member. Allowable stress will be reduced significantly if the proper bracing scheme is not used.F.000 psi Isophthalic Polyester resin < 30. MAJOR AXIS BENDING STRESSES FROM APPLIED LOADS IN THE PLANE OF THE WEB Flexural Stress fb=M/Sx Shear Stress fv =V/Aw Equation B-1 Equation B-2 Laterally Supported W & I Shapes Equation B-3 < 30. The use of intermediate beams at the appropriate spacing along the bending member can be used to eliminate buckling concerns.5E/[( bf /tf)1.

F.95] Allowable Fb’ = Fu’/S.000 psi Vinyl Ester resin (Large Rectangular Shapes) Allowable Fb = Fu/S. Current industry experience has shown that satisfactory performance from channels has been achieved when the compression flange was laterally supported with connecting members at the following spacings: • • • 24” maximum for C3 and C4 channels 36” maximum for C5 and C6 channels 48” maximum for C8 channels and larger 51 . Laterally Supported Or Laterally Unsupported Square and Rectangular Tubing: Ultimate Fu = E/[16(b/t)0.000 psi Vinyl Ester resin Equation B-7 < 35.000 psi Vinyl Ester resin (members 4” and smaller) Ky and C1 values used in equations B-5 and B-6 are from Table 9-1 and reflect the beams end conditions in the Y-Y Axis and loading on the beam.5 < 30.= Fu’/2.000 psi Vinyl Ester resin Equation B-5 < 33.000 psi Isophthalic Polyester resin < 33.5 Equation B-8 Laterally Supported Channels Ultimate Fu = E/[27(bf/tf)0.000 psi Isophthalic Polyester resin < 33.= Fu/2.F.5 Equation B-6 ’ 2 2 2 ½ < 30.85] < 30.000 psi Isophthalic Polyester resin < 30.Laterally Unsupported W & I Shapes Ultimate Fu = C1/Sx [(N +(d B /4)] Where N= π/(Kylu) [(EIyGJ)1/2] And B = π2EIy/[(Kylu)2] Allowable Fb’ = Fu’/S.= Fu/2.000 psi Vinyl Ester resin Equation B-9 Equation B-10 It must be stressed that a non-symmetrical shape such as channel should only be used when the flanges are adequately laterally supported.F.

X-X. bent about their minor axis. Fby = allowable flexural stress about the minor axis.MINOR AXIS BENDING None of the major pultrusion companies address minor axis bending. P. Kv=1. For additional information see Mechanics of Materials – Timoshenko. Fby = Fbx Where. Equation B-13 DEFLECTIONS Structural shapes with uniform loads.S.35. but the given value will be adequate for most cases with supports at both ends of the beam. Equation B-17 Equation B-16 52 . Kv=0. Thus.2 for cantilever beams. 1972. Van Nostrand. J. This value actually varies slightly depending on load distribution.. Delta Composites has adopted the position to limit the flexural stresses on the extreme fibers of fiberglass beams. P: ∆ = Kb[(Pl3/EIx)] + Kv[(Pl/AwG)] where Aw = tw x d Kb is taken from Table 9-2 and reflects the beam end conditions. to the same allowable stresses calculated as beams bent about their major axis. and Fbx = allowable flexural stress about the major axis. w: ∆ = Kb[(wl4/EIx)] + Kv[(wl2/AwG)] where Aw = tw x d Structural shapes with concentrated loads. end constraints and Poisson’s Ratio. Y-Y. S. and Gere. For beams with supports at both ends.

0 0.5 1.97 None Full 1.04 * All beams are restrained at each end against rotation about the X-axis and displacement in the Y and Z directions.0 C1 * 1. Critical Stress based on center moment (Wl²/24).04 None 1. 10017.35 1.5 1.0 None None Full 1.07 None Full 1.70 1.13 0. 345 East 47th Street. New York. September 1981.0 0.0 0.5 1. Volumes 1 and 2.TABLE 9-1 LATERAL BUCKLING COEFFICIENTS FOR BEAMS WITH VARIOUS LOAD AND SUPPORT ARRANGEMENTS Loading and end Restraint* about X-axis Bending moment diagram End restraint about Y-axis Ky 1.0 1. Loads applied at beam centroidal axis. Table taken from Structural Plastics Design Manual –American Society of Civil Engineers.5 1. ** 53 .0 0.86** None Full 1.30** 0. NY.

013 Simple Support @ Both Ends Midspan 0.021 Midspan Fixed Support @ Both ends Midspan 0.021 Midspan Quarter Pts.029 0.003 0.333 54 .TABLE 9-2 COEFFICIENTS Kb – FOR FLEXURAL DEFLECTION END SUPPORT TYPE OF LOADING DEFLECTION AT: Midspan Kb 0.005 Free End Cantilever Free End 0. 0.125 0.

SECTION 10 DESIGNING TENSION MEMBERS 55 .

Ft(cw) = Fut-cw /S.500/4.000 psi for Series 1625 Equation 10-3b * Please note that the above calculations are based upon the properties of the “standard” Pultex® shapes and not the Pultex® SuperStructural shapes.Tension Allowable tensile stress along the major axis (lengthwise. ft = P/A ≤ Ft(lw) where.0 = 8250 psi for Series 1500/1525 = 37.F.000/4. P = tensile load in the member A= cross sectional area of the tension member Equation 10-2 Allowable tensile stress perpendicular to the major axis (crosswise. = 33. When using Pultex® SuperStructural shapes higher values of Ft(lw) ult can be used. We calculate the allowable tensile stress as: Ft(lw) = Fut-lw/S. LW) is calculated by using the Tensile Strength LW. Refer to Section 4.000/4.0 = 1.0 (see Section 6).0 = 2. When using Pultex® SuperStructural shapes higher values of Ft(lw) ult can be used.500/4.0 = 9375 psi for Series 1625 Equation 10-1a Equation 10-1b * Please note that the above calculations are based upon the properties of the “standard” Pultex® shapes and not the Pultex® SuperStructural shapes. CW) is calculated by using the ultimate tensile strength CW. Fut-lw (from Section 4) and divided by a Safety Factor of 4. = 7.F. Refer to Section 4. pages 20-22 for Super Structural values. pages 20-22 for Super Structural values. Determination of the actual tensile stress is determined by the formula. Fut-cw (from Section 4) and dividing it by a Safety Factor of 4.0 (see Section 6). 56 .875 psi for Series 1500/1525 Equation 10-3a = 8.

57 .SECTION 11 DESIGNING COMPRESSION MEMBERS (COLUMNS) This section of the Delta Composites Fiberglass Structural Design Manual is credited to Creative Pultrusions Inc.

l σult. (in) when used in KL/r equation = Allowable axial load (lbs) = Radius of gyration of the section (in) = Section Modulus (in3) = Thickness of local flange element (in) = Poisson’s Ratio = 0.0 for stiffened = Effective length coefficient = Length of column (ft). width of angle leg or ½ width of a wide flange beam (in) = Modulus of elasticity in the loading direction (psi) = Allowable compressive stress (psi) = Moment of Inertia (in4) = Flange stiffness factor 0.Iy k K L Pa r S tf v Φ σult σult.Symbols for Compression Members (Columns) A α E Fa Ix.Eluer σult.5 for non-stiffened outstanding flanges of the W-section. a coefficient to account for the orthotropic material of the composite = Ultimate compressive or bearing stress of the composite (psi) = Ultimate local buckling stress (psi) = Ultimate Euler buckling stress (psi) = Ultimate flexural-torsional buckling stress (psi) 58 .ft = Cross-sectional area (in2) = Width of local flange element. 4.8.

The observed column failure can be categorized into two modes: bearing failure and local/global instability. Typical column strength curve Design Equations for Box Sections For short columns with box sections. as the plotted compressive stress versus slenderness ratio. The curve can be divided into two groups: short column and long column. the long columns generally fail in the global buckling mode. Figure 11-1 depicts a general behavior for all fiber reinforced polymer columns. The short columns generally fail in bearing deformation or local buckling mode. a bearing failure due to axial compressive loading governs the design equation as follows: σ ult = Pult/A Where Pult = A = = σult Ultimate axial load (lbs) Cross-sectional area (in²) Bearing strength of the composite (psi) Equation C-1 59 . Figure 11-1.Column Load Design Equations The Column Load Design Equations for E-Glass reinforced polymer columns are based on a large group of data points from full section tests of composite columns.

Columns with Round and I-Sections For short columns with round and I-sections. The design equations consider the interaction of bearing and flexural buckling failure. the columns fail due to a combination of axial load and bending moment.l of the Pultex FRP composite W-section column can be predicted by the modified buckling equation of thin plate for isotropic materials as follows: σ ult.5 is recommended for the non-stiffened outstanding flanges of the Wsection 4. According to the test results.0 is recommended for the stiffened outstanding webs of the W-section It should be noted that the ultimate local buckling strength needs to be checked against bearing strength.l = Φk (π2E/[12(1-ν2)]) (tf/α)2 (psi) for short FRP W-section columns Where E v tf α Φ k k = = = = = = = Equation C-4 Modulus of elasticity in the loading direction (psi) Poisson’s ratio (see Section 4) Thickness of the local flange element (in) Width of the local flange element (in) 0. a coefficient to account for the orthotropic material of the composite 0. Then. 60 . the ultimate local buckling stress σult. The lower value will be used for the ultimate strength of the short composite column with the W-section.8. local buckling or crippling occurs on the flanges. the ultimate strength of the short column is compared with the flexural buckling strength to determine the dividing point for short and long columns. A linear equation is developed from the test results for the transition behavior as follows: σ ult = 30-[(1/7)(KL/r)] (ksi) for short FRP Round-section columns σ ult = 25-[(5/38)(KL/r)] (ksi) for short FRP I-section columns Where σult K L r = = = = Ultimate compressive stress (ksi) Effective length coefficient (Table 11-1) Column length (in) when used in above equation Radius of gyration of the section (in) Equation C-2 Equation C-3 Columns of W-Sections For short columns with W-sections.

flexural-torsional buckling governs the ultimate strength. the coefficient Φ = 0. the local buckling of the flange occurs. however. the design Equation (C-4) can also be applied to predict the ultimate strength of the short columns with angle sections.8 is recommended for Equation C-6 to account for the orthotropic material of the composite.ft = Φ (E/[2(1+ν)]) (tf/α)2 (psi) ) for short FRP Angle columns Equation C-6 According to the test results. whole leg width for angle sections. for columns with angle-sections. as in the column with the W-section. slender Pultex FRP columns under axial compression loads. where bf is the width of the local flange element (in). the ultimate buckling strength of the composite columns was in agreement with the Euler buckling equation: σ ult. The “K-value” is recommended in Table 11-1 for Pultex FRP composite columns with various end supports. According to the test results. In the test. known as Euler buckling. I. accounts for the different end conditions. and angle sections. W. The ultimate flexural-torsional buckling stress can be approximated by the lower value from equation (C-5) for flexural buckling strength about the weak axis. Thus. Design Equations for Long Columns The flexural buckling. is the general behavior of long. round. or from the torsional buckling equation as follows: σ ult. the coupling of the flexural and torsional buckling was observed in a form of lateral deflection and global twisting for the angle-section columns.Columns with Angle Sections For short columns with angle sections. The effective length coefficient “K-value”. 61 .Euler = π2E/[(KL/r)2] (psi) for all long FRP Columns Equation C-5 The equation can be applied to the long Pultex FRP composite columns with square. one-half the width for W-Sections. in the equation.

00 0.00 1. 6. Effective Length Coefficient. K-Value End Conditions Pinned-Pinned Fixed-Fixed Pinned-Fixed Fixed-Translation Fixed Fixed-Translation Free Pinned-Translation Fixed Recommended K-Value 1. 4.Table 11-1.65 0. 5. 2.20 2. Note: Buckled Shape of Column Shown by Dashed Line 62 .80 1.10 2. 3.

SECTION 12 DESIGNING FOR SHEAR 63 .

0 for beam shear. 4.F. fV = = = = = = Shear Area (in2) Ultimate Lengthwise Shear Strength (psi) Ultimate Crosswise Shear Strength (psi) Allowable Shear Stress (psi) Safety factor (= 3.0 for connections) Actual Shear Stress (psi) 64 .SYMBOLS FOR SHEAR CALCULATIONS AV FVult-LW FVult-CW FV S.

In short beams subjected to high concentrated loads. Thus Fv = . Fv is calculated by dividing the Ultimate Short Beam Shear (see Section 4 for shear values) by the Shear Safety Factor. FVult-LW or FVult-CW. Aw Where V is the beam shear force and Aw is the cross sectional area of the web.0 or 4. or webs in the case of a rectangular or square tube. The Shear Safety Factor when calculating beam shear capacity of a clip angle at a connection shall be 4. shear stress may govern the beam selection as opposed to the flexural stress. The Shear Safety Factor to be utilized when checking beam shear in a beam shall be 3. FVult-LW or FVult-CW /S. The engineer shall take into account the direction of loading to properly choose either LW or CW Ultimate Shear values.The allowable shear stress. 3.0 (see Section 6). psi The actual shear stress.F.. is calculated by the formula: fv = V . fv.0. 65 .0.

SECTION 13 COMBINING STRESSES FOR UNITY RATIOS 66 .

minor axis bending.33 ≤ 1. is calculated as follows: UR = fbx/Fbx + fby/Fby + (fa/Fa or ft/Ft) ≤ 1.33 (for operating conditions) (for storm conditions) (for operating conditions with seismic activity) where: fbx = actual major axis bending stress fby = actual minor axis bending stress fa = actual compressive stress ft = actual tensile stress and Fbx = allowable major axis bending stress Fby = allowable minor axis bending stress Fa = allowable compressive stress Ft = allowable tensile stress 67 .Combined Axial and Bending Stresses When checking stresses at any given point in a beam or column. the Unity Ratio.0 ≤ 1. and axial tension or axial compression. the engineer must combine all stresses from major axis bending. UR. For cases involving combined bending and axial loads.

SECTION 14 DESIGNING CONNECTIONS 68 .

0 for connections) Fbrgult-LW Fbrgult-CW S.F. 69 .SYMBOLS FOR DESIGNING CONNECTIONS AV FVult-LW FVult-CW FV = = = = = = = Shear Area (in2) Ultimate Lengthwise Shear Strength (psi) Ultimate Crosswise Shear Strength (psi) Allowable Shear Stress (psi) Ultimate bearing stress in the direction parallel to the rovings Ultimate bearing stress in the direction perpendicular to the rovings Safety factor (4.

0 Check of beam shear on the web areas of the beams. (Refer to Section 4). as this will help to prevent the nuts from loosening. Using the reaction load at the joint: 1) 2) 3) 4) Check of beam shear on net throat area of a clip angle. the engineer must know and answer the following question --. Avoid. the Shear Safety Factor for a beam analysis performed at a location other than the connection is 3. all bolting hardware used should be 316 stainless steel. = 4. S. S. However. Fv = FVult-LW or FVult-CW/S. the appropriate value for shear and bearing stress should be used. thus all connections are to be bolted only unless otherwise specified to be epoxied on the construction drawings. or is the joint to be epoxied only? This question drives the design of the connection. The use of fiberglass bolting hardware is recommended only when 316 stainless steel hardware will not withstand the corrosive environment. When designing a connection.F. The engineer must take care to know the direction the force is acting and select the correct LW or CW values. Also. Fb = Fbrgult-LW or Fbrgult-CW /S.F.F.0* Check of bolt bearing on the web of the beams.Framed Connections The structural engineer must consider the fact that fiberglass structures are typically designed to be removeable. 70 . or is the joint to be bolted and epoxied.0 * Epoxied bearing doubler plates may be required to satisfy the 4. Per Section 6. From section 4.F. = 4. the engineer must evaluate if the forces are in the flange section or the web section of W and I shaped members and use the appropriate values for calculating the allowable stress. Epoxying a joint is analogous to welding a joint in steel--it is permanent. whenever possible. all connections are to be designed using a Safety Factor of 4. the flexibility of removal is lost. = 4. to ensure that the effects of vibration do not loosen the bolts. Note: When using Pultex® SuperStructural members. the use of carbon steel (painted or galvanized) because the primary intent for the use of fiberglass structures is to maximize corrosion resistance.0. there are four engineering checks to be performed. whenever possible. S. if angle Pultex® SuperStructural members are used. When a joint is epoxied.Is the joint to be bolted only. Remember. when bolting a connection. Bolted Connections When designing bolted connections. Delta Composites recommends that.0 safety factor at the connection. web of beams through the bolt.F.F.0. we obtain the appropriate values for the Ultimate Short Beam Shear Stress and the Ultimate Bearing Stress (LW or CW).0* Check of bolt shear. a thread locking compound such as "Locktite" (or equal) should be used. = 4. S.

R. Av = t x d. and with tw being the web thickness. If Va < R. obtain the web shear area. Av. it is a correct assumption that each clip angle will transfer half the load. or both. If Va < R/2. use a beam with more web shear area. increase either the t or d as required to safely carry the load. one on either side of the framing beam. 1. 3. Calculate the allowable beam shear. 4. R. Since Delta Composites’ standard details requires two clip angles. From Section 5. and this is achieved by using a thicker web or by using a beam of greater depth. The allowable shear load. Determine the reaction.Checking beam shear on the net throat area of a clip angle: When checking beam shear on the net throat area of a clip angle. An epoxied web doubler can also be used to increase shear area. determine the beam shear or reaction. of each clip angle is calculated as follows: Va = Fv x Av > R /2 5. or R/2. Checking beam shear on the web of the beams and chords: When checking beam shear on the web of the beams. Va. 3. and the depth of the clip angle. Va. From the framing beam shear diagram. 2. Aw. of the framing beam into the chord. 2. d. where Aw. calculate the shear area. of the beam in the following manner: Va = Aw x Fv > R 4. Using the thickness of the clip angle. the following steps should be taken. the following steps should be taken: 1. t. (The chord is the through beam and the framing beam is the beam that is transferring load to the chord). with d being the total depth of the beam section. = d x tw for the appropriate beam section. 71 .

Calculate the allowable bearing capacity of the connection.17Fu. Calculate the bolt shear area. Fvb using the following: From the AISC Steel Design Manual. using the following: Avb = [(number of bolts) π (Øb)² / 4] for single shear. or all of the following-----increase the number of bolts.Checking bolt bearing on the web of the beams: When checking bolt bearing on the web of the beams or the clip angles. where Fu is the specified tensile strength of the bolt material. or the use of thicker clip angles if analyzing the bearing capacity of the clip angle system. calculate the allowable shear stress of the bolt. and Avb = [(number of bolts) π (Øb)² / 4] x 2 for double shear 72 . Abrg would be calculated by the formula: Abrg = 2 tw x Øb x number of bolts). the engineer must increase the bearing area. for 316 SS bolts with threads in the shear plane. 2. and 16. for bolts with threads included in the shear plane. as: Pallow = Fbrg x Abrg > R 4. R. 3. web of beams through the bolt: When calculating the bolt shear capacity. If Pallow < R. and Fvb = 0. the following procedures should be followed: 1. From the framing beam shear diagram. Calculating bolt shear capacity. or adding an epoxied bearing doubler plate. the following steps should be taken: 1. since two clip angles are transferring the load. Using 316 SS bolts. Pallow. as follows: Abrg = tw x Øb x (number of bolts) where Øb is the bolt diameter and tw is the web thickness of the beam or clip angle(s). Calculate the beam web bearing area. determine the beam shear or reaction.750 psi.22Fu when threads are excluded from the shear plane. Abrg.500 psi for 316 SS bolts with threads excluded from the shear plane. Fu = 75. (Note: If calculating the bearing capacity of the clip angles.000 psi. Fvb = 0. increase the web thickness of the beam. increase the diameter of the bolts. For 316 Stainless Steel. 2. Thus. Fvb = 12. Avb. bear in mind that. and this is achieved by a combination of.

Epoxied Connections When designing an epoxied connection. the allowable adhesion. 73 . or by increasing the diameter of the bolts. Calculate the allowable shear capacity of the bolts. Fadh = 250 psi. or both. Standard epoxies used in the industry possess an adhesion strength of 1. then the problem can be remedied by either increasing the number of bolts. However. if only one clip angle is being used. If Pallow < R.) 3.0 Safety Factor as required in Section 6.000 psi. Pallow. Pallow = Fadh x Aadh = 250 psi x Aadh. Please note that the surfaces to be epoxied together must be prepared for epoxying in accordance with the epoxy manufacturer’s recommended specifications. the following minimum guidelines should be followed. using the formula: Pallow = Fvb x Avb > R 4. as is the case in special situations. The capacity of the epoxied joint. the shear condition will be double shear because of the fact that two clip angles are being used.(Note: Typically. and using a 4. However. then the single shear condition exists. if the choice to epoxy the joint is made. where Aadh is the surface area of the adhesion. the engineer must realize that all flexibility for removal of the joint is being lost.

deltacomposites. Inc.NOTE: The information presented in this brochure is believed to be accurate and reliable. it is based on test results which may not apply to your application.C. Therefore. Inc. Inc. 1611 Peachleaf St.com www.com . We recommend that you contact Delta's engineering department or your local representative to discuss the details of your specific application.L. Strongwell. Creative Pultrusions. Trademarks used herein: Pultex® SuperstudTM Extren® Creative Pultrusions. Houston. However. L. Texas 77039 281-449-4900 Toll Free 866-361-2100 Fax 281-449-4600 sales@deltacomposites. the data is presented without guarantee or warranty. Delta Composites.

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