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Vedic M athematics

Click on underscored words to open paragraph What is Vedic Mathematics? Books on Vedic Maths Tutorial Vedic Maths Tutorial Vedic Mathematics (Preface, introduction and foreward from the original book on Vedic Mathematics) Revered Guruji used to say that he had reconstructed the sixteen mathematical formulae from the Atharvaveda after assiduous research and ‘Tapas’ (austerity) for about eight years in the forests surrounding Sringeri. Obviously these formulae are not to be found in the present recensions of Atharvaveda. They were actually reconstructed, on the basis of intuitive revelation, from materials scattered here and there in the Atharvaveda. History of Mathematics in India Indic Mathematics: India and the Scientific Revolution By Dr. David Gray The following contributions are By Kevin O'Connor Vedic Maths - Tips & Tricks Converting Kilos to pounds Adding Time Temperature Conversions Decimals Equivalents of Fractions Converting Kilometres to Miles Is it divisible by four? Multiplying by 12 - shortcut ___________________________________

Vedic Mathematics

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What is Vedic Mathematics?

Vedic Mathematics is the name given to the ancient system of Mathematics which was rediscovered from the Vedas between 1911 and 1918 by Sri Bharati Krsna Tirthaji (1884-1960). According to his research all of mathematics is based on sixteen Sutras or word-formulae. For example, 'Vertically and Crosswise` is one of these Sutras. These formulae describe the way the mind naturally works and are therefore a great help in directing the student to the appropriate method of solution. Perhaps the most striking feature of the Vedic system is its coherence. Instead of a hotch-potch of unrelated techniques the whole system is beautifully interrelated and unified: the general multiplication method, for example, is easily reversed to allow one-line divisions and the simple squaring method can be reversed to give one-line square roots. And these are all easily understood. This unifying quality is very satisfying, it makes mathematics easy and enjoyable and encourages innovation. In the Vedic system 'difficult' problems or huge sums can often be solved immediately by the Vedic method. These striking and beautiful methods are just a part of a complete system of mathematics which is far more systematic than the modern 'system'. Vedic Mathematics manifests the coherent and unified structure of mathematics and the methods are complementary, direct and easy. The simplicity of Vedic Mathematics means that calculations can be carried out mentally (though the methods can also be written down). There are many advantages in using a flexible, mental system. Pupils can invent their own methods, they are not limited to the one 'correct' method. This leads to more creative, interested and intelligent pupils. Interest in the Vedic system is growing in education where mathematics teachers are looking for something better and finding the Vedic system is the answer. Research is being carried out in many areas including the effects of learning Vedic Maths on children; developing new, powerful but easy applications of the Vedic Sutras in geometry, calculus, computing etc. But the real beauty and effectiveness of Vedic Mathematics cannot be fully appreciated without actually practising the system. One can then see that it is perhaps the most refined and efficient mathematical system possible.

The Vedic Mathematics Sutras

This list of sutras is taken from the book Vedic Mathematics, which includes a full list of the sixteen Sutras in Sanskrit, but in some cases a translation of the Sanskrit is not given in the text and comes from elsewhere. This formula 'On the Flag' is not in the list given in Vedic Mathematics, but is referred to in the text.

The Main Sutras

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By one more than the one before. All from 9 and the last from 10. Vertically and Cross-wise Transpose and Apply If the Samuccaya is the Same it is Zero If One is in Ratio the Other is Zero By Addition and by Subtraction By the Completion or Non-Completion Differential Calculus By the Deficiency Specific and General The Remainders by the Last Digit The Ultimate and Twice the Penultimate By One Less than the One Before The Product of the Sum All the Multipliers

The Sub Sutras

Proportionately The Remainder Remains Constant The First by the First and the Last by the Last For 7 the Multiplicand is 143 By Osculation Lessen by the Deficiency Whatever the Deficiency lessen by that amount and set up the Square of the Deficiency Last Totalling 10 Only the Last Terms The Sum of the Products By Alternative Elimination and Retention By Mere Observation The Product of the Sum is the

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**Sum of the Products On the Flag
**

Try a Sutra

Mark Gaskell introduces an alternative system of calculation based on Vedic philosophy At the Maharishi School in Lancashire we have developed a course on Vedic mathematics for key stage 3 that covers the national curriculum. The results have been impressive: maths lessons are much livelier and more fun, the children enjoy their work more and expectations of what is possible are very much higher. Academic performance has also greatly improved: the first class to complete the course managed to pass their GCSE a year early and all obtained an A grade. Vedic maths comes from the Vedic tradition of India. The Vedas are the most ancient record of human experience and knowledge, passed down orally for generations and written down about 5,000 years ago. Medicine, architecture, astronomy and many other branches of knowledge, including maths, are dealt with in the texts. Perhaps it is not surprising that the country credited with introducing our current number system and the invention of perhaps the most important mathematical symbol, 0, may have more to offer in the field of maths. The remarkable system of Vedic maths was rediscovered from ancient Sanskrit texts early last century. The system is based on 16 sutras or aphorisms, such as: "by one more than the one before" and "all from nine and the last from 10". These describe natural processes in the mind and ways of solving a whole range of mathematical problems. For example, if we wished to subtract 564 from 1,000 we simply apply the sutra "all from nine and the last from 10". Each figure in 564 is subtracted from nine and the last figure is subtracted from 10, yielding 436.

This can easily be extended to solve problems such as 3,000 minus 467. We simply reduce the first figure in 3,000 by one and then apply the sutra, to get the answer 2,533. We have had a lot of fun with this type of sum, particularly when dealing with money examples, such as £10 take away £2. 36. Many of the children have described how they have challenged their parents to races

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at home using many of the Vedic techniques - and won. This particular method can also be expanded into a general method, dealing with any subtraction sum. The sutra "vertically and crosswise" has many uses. One very useful application is helping children who are having trouble with their tables above 5x5. For example 7x8. 7 is 3 below the base of 10, and 8 is 2 below the base of 10.

The whole approach of Vedic maths is suitable for slow learners, as it is so simple and easy to use. The sutra "vertically and crosswise" is often used in long multiplication. Suppose we wish to multiply 32 by 44. We multiply vertically 2x4=8. Then we multiply crosswise and add the two results: 3x4+4x2=20, so put down 0 and carry 2. Finally we multiply vertically 3x4=12 and add the carried 2 =14. Result: 1,408.

We can extend this method to deal with long multiplication of numbers of any size. The great advantage of this system is that the answer can be obtained in one line and mentally. By the end of Year 8, I would expect all students to be able to do a "3 by 2" long multiplication in their heads. This gives enormous confidence to the pupils who lose their fear of numbers and go on to tackle harder maths in a more open manner. All the techniques produce one-line answers and most can be dealt with mentally, so calculators are not used until Year 10. The methods are either "special", in that they only apply under certain conditions, or general. This encourages flexibility and innovation on the part of the students.

This is the first part of the answer and multiplying the "differences" vertically 4x8=32 gives the second part of the answer. try elsewhere on this page. Multiplication can also be carried out starting from the left.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. There is a unity and coherence in the system which is not found in conventional maths. 96 by 92. because 200 is 2x100. squaring numbers and finding square roots (to several significant figures) is all performed with relative ease and reinforces the methods that they would have recently learned. more efficient and more readily acquired than conventional methods. we double the first part of the answer. It brings out the beauty and patterns in numbers and the world around us. the Vedic Maths Tutorial Mark Gaskell is head of maths at the Maharishi School in Lancashire . The techniques are so simple they can be used when conventional methods would be cumbersome. When the children learn about Pythagoras's theorem in Year 9 we do not use a calculator. With the introduction of a non-calculator paper at GCSE. Here we add the differences. For many more examples. 100. We regularly practise the methods by having a mental test at the beginning of each lesson. This works equally well for numbers above the base: 105x111=11. for example. 1.000 etc). We can cross-subtract either way: 96-8=88 or 92-4=88. which can be better because we write and pronounce numbers from left to right.655.verypdf. For 205x211=43.com/ to remove this watermark. Vedic maths offers methods that are simpler.255. 96 is 4 below the base and 92 is 8 below. Here is an example of doing this in a special method for long multiplication of numbers near a base (10.

1965 (various reprints).verypdf. Author: B R Baliga. See website.uk/ copyright to the ACADEMY OF VEDIC MATHEMATICS ______________________________________________________ Books on Vedic Maths VEDIC MATHEMATICS Or Sixteen Simple Mathematical Formulae from the Vedas The original introduction to Vedic Mathematics. 1979. 'The Cosmic Computer' by K Williams and M Gaskell. 367 pages.com A PEEP INTO VEDIC MATHEMATICS Mainly on recurring decimals./p INTRODUCTORY LECTURES ON VEDIC MATHEMATICS Following various lecture courses in London an interest arose for printed material containing the course material. This book of 12 chapters was the result covering a range topics from elementary arithmetic to cubic equations. www. guaranteed! www. Author: Jagadguru Swami Sri Bharati Krsna Tirthaji Maharaja. 1976 ISBN 0722401434 Currently out of print. Tel: 01695 727 986. Pamphlet.co.com/ to remove this watermark. 2 Oak Tree Court. Saturday school for primary teachers at Manchester Metropolitan University on October 7. Skelmersdale.vedicmaths.tes. Lancs WN8 6SP. A5 in size. (also in an bridged edition). Inspiration Books. ISBN 81 208 0163 6 (cloth) ISBN 82 208 0163 4 (paper)/p MATHS OR MAGIC? This is a popular book giving a brief outline of some of the Vedic Mathematics methods. Author: Joseph Howse. it's packed with tips. division and lots more! We recommed you check out this ebook.vedic-maths-ebook. Paperback. tricks and tutorials that will boost your math ability./p VEDIC MATHEMATICS Master Multiplication tables.org 19th May 2000 Times Educational Supplement (Curriculum Special) http://www.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. .

5). 1984..K. 1982. Williams.verypdf. A simple. Williams (first published 1984).com/ to remove this watermark. It deals with (i) calculation of common functions and their series expansions. ISBN 81 208 0944 0/p THE NATURAL CALCULATOR This is an elementary book on mental mathematics. Jaipur./p DISCOVER VEDIC MATHEMATICS This has sixteen chapters each of which focuses on one of the Vedic Sutras or sub-Sutras and shows many applications of each. Pickles. It has a detailed introduction and each of the nine chapters covers one of the Vedic formulae./p TRIPLES This book shows applications of Pythagorean Triples (like 3. J. Paperback. and (ii) the solution of equations.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. new edition 1999. Nicholas. K. Nicholas. . Also contains Vedic Maths solutions to GCSE and 'A' level examination questions. ISBN 1 902517 03 2. 78 pages. elegant system for combining these triples gives unexpected and powerful general methods for solving a wide range of mathematical problems. 200 pages. transcendental and differential equations. Williams. ISBN 1 869932 01 3. Authors: A. K. A4. Author: K./p VERTICALLY AND CROSSWISE This is an advanced book of sixteen chapters on one Sutra ranging from elementary multiplication etc. Comb bound.168 pages. Paperback.. 1988. A4 size. coordinate geometry (2 and 3 dimensions) transformations (2 and 3 dimensions). Williams. P. with far less effort than conventional methods use. 139 pages. etc. astronomy etc. A4 size. A5 in size. simple harmonic motion. Comb bound. The easy text fully explains this method which has applications in trigonometry (you do not need any of those complicated formulae).4. J. The main theme is mental multiplication but addition. Kapoor. P. starting with simultaneous equations and moving on to algebraic. Comb bound./p ISSUES IN VEDIC MATHEMATICS Proceedings of the National workshop on Vedic Mathematics 25-28 March 1988 at the University of Rajasthan. A4. Authors: A. subtraction and division are also covered. Author: K. ISBN 1 902517 00 8/p VEDIC MATHEMATICAL CONCEPTS OF SRI VISHNU SAHASTRANAMA STOTRAM Author: S. Hardback. to the solution of non-linear partial differential equations. A4. new edition 1999. 166 pages. 180 pages. Pickles first published 1984).

Introductions to vulgar and decimal fractions. VEDIC MATHEMATICS FOR SCHOOLS BOOK 1 Is a first text designed for the young mathematics student of about eight years of age. P. Author: K. The main Vedic methods used in his book are for multiplication.. 100 pages + 31 pages of answers. Authors: K. Games. A5 in size. 1999. Williams./p. S. A4 size. It presents direct. Unkalkar. Much of the material in Book 1 is suitable for children as young as eight and this is developed from here to topics such as Pythagoras' Theorem and Quadratic Equations in Book 3.com/ to remove this watermark.132 pages. Seshachala Rao. G. Worksheets etc. the language used and the ability to recognise valid reasoning). ISBN 81-208-1318-9. Paperback. 1995. A4 size. Publishing Corporation. a Unified Field Chart (showing the whole subject of mathematics and how each of the parts are related). 1997 B. who have mastered the four basic rules including times tables. hundreds of Mental Tests (these revise previous work. introduce new ideas and are carefully correlated with the rest of the course). Nicholas. R. 1997 Pub: Dandeli Education Socety. Answer Books are A5. Gaskell.Glover. GEOMETRY FOR AN ORAL TRADITION This book demonstrates the kind of system that could have existed before literacy was widespread and takes us from first principles to theorems on elementary properties of circles. immediate and easily understood proofs. ISBN 1 869932 04 8. 1998./p JAGATGURU SHANKARACHARYA SHRI BHARATI KRISHNA TEERTHA An excellent book giving details of the life of the man who reconstructed the Vedic system. elementary algebra and vinculums are also given. All Textbooks and Guides are A4 in size. Paperback. Author: A. Comb bound . These are based on only one assumption (that magnitudes are unchanged by motion) and three additional provisions (a means of drawing figures. Revision Tests.102 pages. Pande. ISBN 1 902517 05 9 . The Teacher's Guide contains a Summary of the Book. Karnataka-581325 THE COSMIC COMPUTER COURSE This covers Key Stage 3 (age 11-14 years) of the National Curriculum for England and Wales. division and subtraction.verypdf.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. It consists of three books each of which has a Teacher's Guide and an Answer Book.T. Delhi-110052 INTRODUCTION TO VEDIC MATHEMATICS Authors T. Author: J. Williams and M. Extension Sheets (about 16 per book) for fast pupils or for extra classwork. Dr T. 1991. G. It includes discussion on the relevant philosophy of mathematics and is written both for mathematicians and for a wider audience.

popularised version of "Geometry for an Oral Tradition" described above. Author J. Applications of Vedic Mathematics To include prediction of eclipses and planetary positions. 2002. 1999. 9 to 14 years respectively)who wish to teach the Vedic system. INTRODUCTION TO VEDIC MATHEMATICS – Part II Authors T. ISBN 1 902517 08 3 Vedic Mathematics. Nicholas. It covers a lot of the basic work in the original book by B. A4 size. Glover . Tirthaji and has plenty of examples and exercises. Munshi Marg. Author Kenneth Williams. Karnataka-581325 VEDIC MATHEMATICS FOR SCHOOLS BOOK 3 The third book in this series.T. Haridas Published by Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. 2002.com/ to remove this watermark. K.M. when audio-visual forms of communication are likely to be dominant. Author: A.verypdf. 2002. Kulapati K. 2000. ISBN 1902517067 VEDIC MATHEMATICS FOR SCHOOLS BOOK 2 The second book in this series. 2001 Pub: Dandeli Education Socety. thorough and easy to read. Author: Kenneth Williams. Published by Inspiration Books. P. India. Published by Motilal Banarsidass.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. THE COSMIC CALCULATOR Three textbooks plus Teacher's Guide plus Answer Book. 100 pages. The approach is ideally suited to the twentyfirst century. These two books make the methods accessible to all interested in exploring geometry. ISBN 81 208 1670-6 Astronomica. spherical trigonometry etc. Author J. Glover . 1999. Part 1 We found this book to be well-written. THE CIRCLE REVELATION This is a simplified.T. . Paperback. Unkalkar. Mumbai 400 007. Published by Motilal Banarsidass. Author S. G. TEACHER’S MANUALS – ELEMENTARY & INTERMEDIATE Designed for teachers (of children aged 7 to 11 years. Authors Kenneth Williams and Mark Gaskell.

engaging and eminently 'doable'. the author wisely places them within practical life-related contexts. These tutorials will give examples of simple applications of the sutras. to give a feel for how the Vedic Maths system works. Tackling many number operations encountered between First and Sixth class. supplementary exercises and answers may particularly benefit and empower the weaker student. Williams." "Compact. ISBN 1 902517 01 6. Author: Kenneth Williams. Williams' pocket volume reveals many fascinating and useful applications of the ancient Eastern system of Vedic Maths. . In practice many applications of the sutras may be learned and combined to solve actual problems. Principal. 2003.verypdf. TEACHER’S MANUAL – ADVANCED Designed for teachers (of children aged 13 to 18 years) who wish to teach the Vedic system." Reviewed by Gerard Lennon. clear methodology. Paperback. the Irish National Teachers Organisation (INTO) magazine." "Certainly a valuable investment for parents and teachers of children aged 7 to 12. "Entertaining. Fun with Figures offers several speedy and simple means of solving or double-checking class activities. Focusing throughout on skills associated with mental mathematics. Each double page shows a neat and quick way of solving some simple problem. It's practicality. Jan/Feb 2000. Ardpatrick NS. These principles are general in nature and can be applied in many ways. Suitable for any age from eight upwards.com/ to remove this watermark. Author: K. The Tutorial below is based on material from this book 'Fun with Figures' Top To top of this page Index Alphabetical [Index to Pages] Link Bar 0 ________________________________________ Vedic M aths T utorial Vedic Maths is based on sixteen Sutras or principles. size A6. inspiring quotes and amusing anecdotes. FUN WITH FIGURES (subtitled: Is it Maths or Magic?) This is a small popular book with many illustrations. Please note the Tutorial below is based on material from this book 'Fun with Figures' Book review of 'Fun with Figures' From 'inTouch'. cheerful and liberally interspersed with amusing anecdotes and aphorisms from the world of maths. 52 pages. Co Limerick. 1998. Published by Inspiration Books. Williams' book will help neutralise the 'menace' sometimes associated with maths.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. examples.

So the answer is 1000 .357 = 643 We simply take each figure in 357 from 9 and the last figure from 10. which is a fun introduction to some of the applications of the sutras for children. These tutorials do not attempt to teach the systematic use of the sutras. For example 1000 .357 = 643 And thats all there is to it! This always works for subtractions from numbers consisting of a 1 followed by noughts: 100. we recommend you study one of the texts available at www.vedicmaths.1049 = 8951 . 10. Tutorial 1 Tutorial 2 Tutorial 3 Tutorial 4 Tutorial 5 Tutorial 6 Tutorial 7 Tutorial 8 (By Kevin O'Connor) Tutorial 1 Use the formula ALL FROM 9 AND THE LAST FROM 10 to perform instant subtractions.verypdf.000 etc. For more advanced applications and a more complete coverage of the basic uses of the sutras. The following tutorials are based on examples and exercises given in the book 'Fun with figures' by Kenneth Williams.org N.000 .com/ to remove this watermark. Similarly 10. 1000.B.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www.

For 1000 .321 10) 10.000 .83.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www.083 = 917 Exercise 1 Tutorial 1 Try some yourself: 1) 1000 .000 . we simply suppose 83 is 083.verypdf.9876 = 6) 10.57 8) 1000 .57 9) 10.com/ to remove this watermark.777 2) 1000 .505 = = = 4) 10.83 becomes 1000 .000 . Think of it like this: .2345 = 5) 10.000 . in which we have more zeros than figures in the numbers being subtracted. So 1000 .1011 = 7) 100 . Suppose you need 8 x 7 8 is 2 below 10 and 7 is 3 below 10.000 .38 = = = = < click Answers to exercise 1 Tutorial 1 Top <To top of this page Index Alphabetical [Index to Pages] Tutorial 2 Using VERTICALLY AND CROSSWISE you do not need the multiplication tables beyond 5 X 5.283 3) 1000 .

verypdf. Exercise 1 Tutorial 2 Multply These: 1) 8 x 8 = 2) 9 x 7 = 3) 8 x 9 = 4) 7 x 7 = 5) 9 x 9 = 6) 6 x 6 = . and multiply the deficiencies together.com/ to remove this watermark. And you multiply vertically: 2 x 3 to get 6. You subtract crosswise 8-3 or 7 . subtract one number's deficiency from the other number. The answer is 56. That's all you do: See how far the numbers are below 10.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. The diagram below shows how you get it. the first figure of the answer. the last figure of the answer.2 to get 5. 7 x 6 = 42 Here there is a carry: the 1 in the 12 goes over to make 3 into 4.

Answers to exercise 1 tutorial 2 Here's how to use VERTICALLY AND CROSSWISE for multiplying numbers close to 100. using the same method as above Both 88 and 98 are close to 100.you might think.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. But with VERTICALLY AND CROSSWISE you can give the answer immediately.verypdf. Suppose you want to multiply 88 by 98.2 = 86 (or 98 . 88 is 12 below 100 and 98 is 2 below 100. Not easy.12 = 86: you can subtract either way.com/ to remove this watermark. And the 24 in the answer is just 12 x 2: you multiply vertically. you will always get the same answer). Try some: 1) 87 x 98 = 2) 88 x 97 = 3) 77 x 98 = 4) 93 x 96 = 5) 94 x 92 = 6) 64 x 99 = 7) 98 x 97 = . You can imagine the sum set out like this: As before the 86 comes from subtracting crosswise: 88 . So 88 x 98 = 8624 Exercise 2 Tutorial 2 This is so easy it is just mental arithmetic.

com/ to remove this watermark. Then 10 + 3 = 13. and 12 is just 3 x 4. . just for mental arithmetic Try a few: 1) 102 x 107 = 2) 106 x 103 = 3) 104 x 104 = 4) 109 x 108 = 5) 101 x123 = 6) 103 x102 = Answers to exercise 3 Tutorial 2 < click Top To top of this page Index Alphabetical [Index to Pages] Tutorial 3 The easy way to add and subtract fractions. Answers to Exercise 2 Tutorial 2 < click Multiplying numbers just over 100. 103 x 104 = 10712 The answer is in two parts: 107 and 12. 107 is just 103 + 4 (or 104 + 3). Use VERTICALLY AND CROSSWISE to write the answer straight down! Multiply crosswise and add to get the top of the answer: 2 x 5 = 10 and 1 x 3 = 3. Similarly 107 x 106 = 11342 107 + 6 = 113 and 7 x 6 = 42 Exercise 3 Tutorial 2 Again.verypdf.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www.

Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. You multiply the bottom number together. The bottom of the fraction is just 3 x 5 = 15.verypdf.com/ to remove this watermark. but the subtract: Exercise 1 Tutorial 3 Try a few: Answers to Exercise 1 Tutorial 3 < click Top To top of this page Index Alphabetical [Index to Pages] Tutorial 4 . So: Subtracting is just as easy: multiply crosswise as before.

A quick way to square numbers that end in 5 using the formula BY ONE MORE THAN THE ONE BEFORE. Exercise 1 Tutorial 4 Try these: 1) 452 = 2) 652 = 3) 952 = 4) 352 = 5) 152 = Answers to Exercise 1 Tutorial 4 < click Method for multiplying numbers where the first figures are the same and the last figures add up to 10. And we multiply the last figures: 2 x 8 = 16 to get the last part of the answer. multiplied by the number "one more". So we just multiply 3 by 4 (the next number up) to get 12 for the first part of the answer. The answer is in two parts: 56 and 25. 32 x 38 = 1216 Both numbers here start with 3 and the last figures (2 and 8) add up to 10.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. Diagrammatically: . which is 8: so 7 x 8 = 56 Similarly 852 = 7225 because 8 x 9 = 72. 7. The last part is always 25. 752 = 5625 75² means 75 x 75. The first part is the first number.verypdf.com/ to remove this watermark.

And 81 x 89 = 7209 We put 09 since we need two figures as in all the other examples.verypdf.com/ to remove this watermark. 23 below 21: There are 3 steps: . Exercise 2 Tutorial 4 Practise some: 1) 43 x 47 = 2) 24 x 26 = 3) 62 x 68 = 4) 17 x 13 = 5) 59 x 51 = 6) 77 x 73 = Answers to Exercise 2 Tutorial 4 Top To top of this page Index Alphabetical [Index to Pages] Tutorial 5 An elegant way of multiplying numbers using a simple pattern 21 x 23 = 483 This is normally called long multiplication but actually the answer can be written straight down using the VERTICALLY AND CROSSWISEformula.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. We first put. or imagine.

just write down the answer: 1) 14 x 21 2) 22 x 31 3) 21 x 31 4) 21 x 22 5) 32 x 21 Answers to Exercise 1 Tutorial 5 Exercise 2a Tutorial 5 Multiply any 2-figure numbers together by mere mental arithmetic! If you want 21 stamps at 26 pence each you can easily find the total price in your head. And thats all there is to it. b) Multiply crosswise and add: 2 x 3 + 1 x 2 = 8 This gives the middle figure.. 6 x 1 + 1 x 3 = 9. a) Multiply vertically on the left: 2 x 2 = 4. c) Multiply vertically on the right: 1 x 3 = 3 This gives the last figure of the answer./p> However. 1 x 1 = 1 Exercise 1 Tutorial 5 Try these. Similarly 61 x 31 = 1891 6 x 3 = 18.com/ to remove this watermark. This gives the first figure of the answer. There were no carries in the method given above.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. 21 x 26 = 546 . there only involve one small extra step.verypdf.

Then vertically on the right we get 12 and the 1 here is carried over to the 144 to make 1452. So 21 stamps cost £5.46. 6) 32 x 56 . The method is the same as above except that we get a 2-figure number. Practise a few: 1) 21 x 47 2) 23 x 43 3) 32 x 53 4) 42 x 32 5) 71 x 72 Answers to Exercise 2a Tutorial 5 Exercise 2b Tutorial 5 33 x 44 = 1452 There may be more than one carry in a sum: Vertically on the left we get 12.com/ to remove this watermark.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. so the 1 is carried over to the left (4 becomes 5).verypdf. Crosswise gives us 24. so we carry 2 to the left and mentally get 144. 14. in the middle step.

com/ to remove this watermark. So 72 x 11 = 792 Exercise 1 Tutorial 6 Multiply by 11: 1) 43 = 2) 81 = 3) 15 = 4) 44 = 5) 11 = Answers to Exercise 1 Tutorial 6 77 x 11 = 847 . 7) 32 x 54 8) 31 x 72 9) 44 x 53 10) 54 x 64 Answers to Exercise 2b Tutorial 5 Any two numbers. can be multiplied in one line by this method. And the middle figure is just 2 and 6 added up. Top To top of this page Index Alphabetical [Index to Pages] Tutorial 6 Multiplying a number by 11.verypdf. 26 x 11 = 286 Notice that the outer figures in 286 are the 26 being multiplied. To multiply any 2-figure number by 11 we just put the total of the two figures between the 2 figures.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. no matter how big.

Exercise 2 Tutorial 6 Multiply by 11: 1) 11 x 88 = 2) 11 x 84 = 3) 11 x 48 = 4) 11 x 73 = 5) 11 x 56 = Answers to Exercise 2 Tutorial 6 234 x 11 = 2574 We put the 2 and the 4 at the ends.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. We add the first pair 2 + 3 = 5.com/ to remove this watermark. This involves a carry figure because 7 + 7 = 14 we get 77 x 11 = 7147 = 847. and we add the last pair: 3 + 4 = 7.verypdf. Exercise 3 Tutorial 6 Multiply by 11: 1) 151 = 2) 527 = 3) 333 = 4) 714 = 5) 909 = Answers to Exercise 3 Tutorial 6 Top To top of this page Index Alphabetical [Index to Pages] Tutorial 7 .

23 / 9 = 2 remainder 5 The first figure of 23 is 2. The remainder is just 2 and 3 added up! 43 / 9 = 4 remainder 7 The first figure 4 is the answer and 4 + 3 = 7 is the remainder .Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www.verypdf. Method for dividing by 9. Exercise 1b Tutorial 7 Divide by 9: 6) 232 = 7) 151 = 8) 303 = remainder remainder remainder .com/ to remove this watermark.4 and 8.could it be easier? Exercise 1a Tutorial 7 Divide by 9: 1) 61 / 9 = 2) 33 / 9 = 3) 44 / 9 = 4) 53 / 9 = 5) 80 / 9 = remainder remainder remainder remainder remainder Answers to Exercise 1a Tutorial 7 134 / 9 = 14 remainder 8 The answer consists of 1. 4 is the total of the first two figures 1+ 3 = 4. 1 is just the first figure of 134. and 8 is the total of all three figures 1+ 3 + 4 = 8. and this is the answer.

9) 212 = 10) 2121 = remainder remainder Answers to Exercise 1b Tutorial 7 842 / 9 = 812 remainder 14 = 92 remainder 14 Actually a remainder of 9 or more is not usually permitted because we are trying to find how many 9's there are in 842.verypdf. 14 has one more 9 with 5 left over the final answer will be 93 remainder 5 Exercise 2 Tutorial 7 Divide these by 9: 1) 771 / 9 = 2) 942 / 9 = 3) 565 / 9 = 4) 555 / 9 = 5) 2382 / 9 = 6) 7070 / 9 = remainder remainder remainder remainder remainder remainder Answers to Exercise 2 Tutorial 7 Top To top of this page Index Alphabetical [Index to Pages] Answers Answers to exercise 1 Tutorial 1 1) 223 2) 717 3) 495 4) 7655 5) 0124 6) 8989 7) 43 8) 943 .com/ to remove this watermark. Since the remainder.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www.

Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. we need two figures in each part) Return to Exercise 2 Tutorial 2 Answers to exercise 3 Tutorial 2 1) 10914 2) 10918 3) 10816 4) 11772 5) 12423 6) 10506 (we put 06. not 6) Return to Exercise 3 Tutorial 2 Answers to Exercise 1 Tutorial 3 1) 29/30 2) 7/12 3) 20/21 4) 19/30 5) 1/20 6) 13/15 .verypdf.com/ to remove this watermark. 9) 9679 10) 9962 Return to Exercise 1 Tutorial 1 Answers to exercise 1 tutorial 2 1) 64 2) 63 3) 72 4) 49 5) 81 6)216= 36 Return to Exercise 1 Tutorial 2 Answers to Exercise 2 Tutorial 2 1) 8526 2) 8536 3) 7546 4) 8928 5) 8648 6) 6336 7) 9506 (we put 06 because. like all the others.

Return to Exercise 1 Tutorial 3 Answers to Exercise 1 Tutorial 4 1) 2025 2) 4225 3) 9025 4) 1225 5) 225 Return to Exercise 1 Tutorial 4 Answers to Exercise 2 Tutorial 4 1) 2021 2) 624 3) 4216 4) 221 5) 3009 6) 5621 Return to Exercise 2 Tutorial 4 Answers to Exercise 1 Tutorial 5 1) 294 2) 682 3) 651 4) 462 5) 672 Return to Exercise 1 Tutorial 5 Answers to Exercise 2a Tutorial 5 1) 987 2) 989 3) 1696 4) 1344 5) 5112 Return to Exercise 2a Tutorial 5 Answers to Exercise 2b Tutorial 5 6) 1792 7) 1728 8) 2232 .verypdf.com/ to remove this watermark.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www.

com/ to remove this watermark.verypdf. 9) 2332 10) 3456 Return to Exercise 2b Tutorial 5 Answers to Exercise 1 Tutorial 6 1) 473 2) 891 3) 165 4) 484 5) 121 Return to Exercise 1 Tutorial 6 Answers to Exercise 2 Tutorial 6 1) 968 2) 924 3) 528 4) 803 5) 616 Return to Exercise 2 Tutorial 6 Answers to Exercise 3 Tutorial 6 1) 1661 2) 5797 3) 3663 4) 7854 5) 9999 Return to Exercise 3 Tutorial 6 Answers to Exercise 1a Tutorial 7 1) 6 r 7 2) 3 r 6 3) 4 r 8 4) 5 r 8 5) 8 r 8 Return to Exercise 1a Tutorial 7 Answers to Exercise 1b Tutorial 7 1) 25 r 7 2) 16 r 7 3) 33 r 6 .Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www.

com/ to remove this watermark.com By Kevin O'Connor * Copyright Notice Is it divisible by four? This little math trick will show you whether a number is divisible by four or not. 2 + 1 + 2 + 1) Return to Exercise 1b Tutorial 7 Answers to Exercise 2 Tutorial 7 1) 714 r15 = 84 r15 = 85 r6 2) 913 r 15 = 103 r15 = 104 r6 3) 516 r16 = 61 r16 = 62 r7 4) 510 r15 = 60 r15 = 61 r6 5) 714 r21 = 84 r21 = 86 r3 6) 2513 r15 = 263 r15 = 264 r6 7) 7714 r14 = 784 r14 = 785 r5 Return to Exercise 2 Tutorial 7 copyright to the ACADEMY OF VEDIC MATHEMATICS ____________________________________ Top To top of this page Index Alphabetical [Index to Pages] Tutorial 8 Vedic Maths .Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. 2 + 1.vedic-maths-ebook. 4) 23 r 5 5) 235 r 6 (we have 2. Let's look at 1234 Does 4 divide evenly into 1234? For 4 to divide into any number we have to make sure that the last number is even .verypdf.Tips & Tricks Courtesy www. So. this is how it works. 2 + 1 + 2.

4 into 1234.com/ to remove this watermark. 4 will not go evenly into 1233 or 1235 Now we know that for 4 to divide evenly into any number the number has to end with an even number. So.shortcut So how does the 12's shortcut work? Let's take a look.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. So it doesn't go in evenly. Back to the question.com about telling the day in any year. If it is an odd number. the solution: Take the last number and add it to 2 times the second last number If 4 goes evenly into this number then you know that 4 will go evenly into the whole number. take the last number. Let’s try 4 into 3436546 So. 12 X 7 . So what use is this trick to you? Well if you have learnt the tutorial at Memorymentor. Therefore 4 goes into 234436 evenly. Therefore 4 into 1234 does not go in completely. So 4 + (2 X 3) = 10 4 goes into 10 two times with a remainder of 2 so it does not go in evenly. Let's try one more. then you can use it in working out whether the year you are calculating is a leap year or not. 4 6 + (2 X 4) = 14 4 goes into 14 three times with two remainder.. there is no way it will go in evenly.verypdf. from our example. 4 into 212334436 6 + (2 X 3) = 12 4 goes into 12 three times with 0 remainder.. for example. Multiplying by 12 . 6 and add it to two times the penultimate number.

and Vice Versa. To do this. multiply the kilos by TWO. in this case 7. Let’s start off with looking at converting Kilos to pounds.vedic-maths-ebook. divide the answer by ten. (Why? We are working with BASES here. Multiply this 7 by 10 giving 70. So 1 X 7 = 7. just double the kilos.verypdf. So 17 X 12 = 204 lets go one more 24 X 12 Multiply 24 X 1 = 24. Therefore 7 X 12 = 84 Let's try another: 17 X 12 Remember. The first thing is to always multiply the 1 of the twelve by the number we are multiplying by. Add to 240 giving us 288 24 X 12 = 288 (these are Seriously Simple Sums to do aren’t they?!) Converting Kilos to pounds In this section you will learn how to convert Kilos to Pounds. Add this to 70 giving 84. To find out more check out our Vedic Maths ebook at www. 86 kilos into pounds: Step one. 86 x 2 = 172 Step two.com/ to remove this watermark. just put a decimal point one place in from the right.com Now multiply the 7 by the 2 of twelve giving 14. multiply the 17 by the 1 in 12 and multiply by 10 (Just add a zero to the end) 1 X 17 = 17. Bases are the fundamentals to easy calculations for all multiplication tables. Multiply by 10 giving 240. Multiply 17 by 2 giving 34. multiplied by 10 giving 170. Add 34 to 170 giving 204.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. To do this. . Multiply 24 by 2 = 48.

just put a decimal point one place in from the right. What you do is this: make the 1 hr 35 minutes into one number.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www.com/ to remove this watermark. 100 + 10 = 110 50 Kilos = 110 pounds Adding Time Here is a nice simple way to add hours and minutes together: Let's add 1 hr and 35 minutes and 3 hr 55 minutes together. 50 x 2 = 100 Step two.2 = 189. multiply the kilos by TWO. To do this. giving us 355 Now you want to add these two numbers together: 135 355 ___ 490 So we now have a sub total of 490. 172 + 17.2 pounds Let's try: 50 Kilos to pounds: Step one. What you need to do to this and all sub totals is add the time constant of 40. To do this. add step two's answer to step one's answer. divide the answer by ten. 100/10 = 10 Step three. 172 / 10 = 17. just double the kilos. add step two’s answer to step one’s answer. which will give us 135 and do the same for the other number. 3 hours 55 minutes.2 86 Kilos = 189.verypdf.2 Step three. .

.. This is your answer in Celsius. Celsius to Fahrenheit just do the reverse: Double it.333.333. .666. of which you already know one: 1/3 = ..25 Starting with the thirds. but it will give you an idea of the temperature you are looking at. 22 Celsius. So 74 Fahrenheit = 22 Celsius. then add 30 is 90 30 Celsius = 90 Fahrenheit Remember. 490 + 40 = 530 So we can now see our answer is 5 hrs and 30 minutes! Temperature Conversions This is a shortcut to convert Fahrenheit to Celsius and vice versa.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. Example: 74 Fahrenheit . 2/3 = . No matter what the hours and minutes are. and then divide the answer by two. Decimals Equivalents of Fractions With a little practice.. Then divide by two.30 = 44. just add the 40 time constant to the sub total.. is 60. there are 3 you should know already: 1/2 = . and then add 30..com/ to remove this watermark. 1/4 = .5 1/3 = . the answer is not exact but it gives you a rough idea. it's not hard to recall the decimal equivalents of fractions up to 10/11! First. The answer you will get will not be an exact one. 30 Celsius double it.verypdf. Fahrenheit to Celsius: Take 30 away from the Fahrenheit.

com/ to remove this watermark..666. 8ths aren't that hard to learn. 5/6 = .875 9ths are almost too easy: 1/9 = .. and stick a decimal in front of it.... as they're just smaller steps than 4ths.25 3/8 = . If you have trouble with any of the 8ths.555. and add ..125 if needed: 1/8 = . 6/9 = .. 7/9 = ...8333... 3/6 = 1/2 = .2 2/5 = ..75 Fifths are very easy.375 4/8 = 1/2 = .Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www.333.777.. 3/9 = .verypdf..333. find the nearest 4th..888. 1/5 = .8 There are only two new decimal equivalents to learn with the 6ths: 1/6 = . as well. 4/9 = . double it. What about 7ths? We'll come back to them at the end..666...5 3/4 = .1666.111..75 7/8 = .5 4/6 = 2/3 = .125 2/8 = 1/4 = . They're very unique..444. . 8/9 = . so there's only one new one to learn: 1/4 = .. 2/9 = . Take the numerator (the number on top).625 6/8 = 3/4 = . 5/9 = .. 2/6 = 1/3 = .222.25 2/4 = 1/2 = .5 5/8 = . You also know 2 of the 4ths..4 3/5 = .6 4/5 = ..

6 7/10 = .7 8/10 = ... I almost forgot! We haven't done 7ths yet.. 3/7 = .. 3/11 = . 4/7 = . 8/11 = ...142857142857142857. assuming you know your multiples of 9: 1/11 = .636363.3 4/10 = .. As long as you can remember the pattern for each fraction. 2/11 = . just think of one-seventh as: .. have we? One-seventh is an interesting number: 1/7 = ...4 5/10 = ..181818.8 9/10 = . 7/11 = .571428.142857 See if you notice any pattern in the 7ths: 1/7 = ...727272. 6/7 = ... For now.909090..1 2/10 = .. 5/11 = ..714285.. 10/11 = . Just put a decimal in front of the numerator: 1/10 = ..Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. 6/11 = ...142857..285714.363636..com/ to remove this watermark. 4/11 = .545454.5 6/10 = . 5/7 = ..818181.857142....9 Remember how easy 9ths were? 11th are easy in a similar way. as well. it is quite simple to work out the decimal place as far as you want or need to go! Oh.272727. 9/11 = .2 3/10 = . Notice that the 6 digits in the 7ths ALWAYS stay in the same order and the starting digit is the only thing that changes! .verypdf.428571.. 10ths are very easy. 2/7 = .....454545.090909..

which is 13 * 7. If they give you 96 divided by 7. giving us . work out where to begin the decimal number.28 as the starting point. For 4/14.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. giving us . think "2 * 14". 5/14 and 6/14. For 2/7.14 as the starting point. think "(6 * 14) + 1". you'll have to adjust upward by 1: For 4/7. For 5/7. if you're up to it!) to be divided by a 1-digit number. The formula to convert kilometres to miles is number of (kilometres / 8 ) X 5 So lets try 80 kilometres into miles 80/8 = 10 multiplied by 5 is 50 miles! Another example 40 kilometres 40 / 8 = 5 5 X 5= 25 miles Vedic Mathematics . Look at this: For 1/7. and you know your multiplication tables up to the hundreds for each number 1-9. with 5 left over. For 6/7. the closest multiple of 7 is 91. giving us .. or: 13. So the answer is 13 and 5/7. think "(4 * 14) + 1". If you know your multiples of 14 up to 6.42 as the starting point.85 as the starting point. then give them a calculator and ask for a 2-digit number (3-digit number.57 as the starting point. think "1 * 14".71 as the starting point. for example. "Hmm. giving us . For 3/7.com/ to remove this watermark. you can think. think "3 * 14". Practice these. and you'll have the decimal equivalents of everything from 1/2 to 10/11 at your finger tips! If you want to demonstrate this skill to other people.. think "(5 * 14) + 1". it isn't difficult to. giving us .7142857!" Converting Kilometres to Miles This is a useful method for when travelling between imperial and metric countries and need to know what kilometres to miles are. giving us .verypdf.

An extract: Revered Guruji used to say that he had reconstructed the sixteen mathematical formulae from the Atharvaveda after assiduous research and ‘Tapas’ (austerity) for about eight years in the forests surrounding Sringeri. Master Multiplication tables. You have the author’s permission to transmit this ebook and use it as a gift or as part of your advertising campaign. at this point draw the earnest attention of every one concerned to the following salient items thereof: . Courtesy www. Obviously these formulae are not to be found in the present recensions of Atharvaveda. guaranteed! www. on the basis of intuitive revelation.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www.vedic-maths-ebook. from materials scattered here and there in the Atharvaveda. From the Preface by the author Jagadguru Swami Sri Bharati Krsna Tirthaji Maharaj Extracts: We may however.com Copyright Notice This e-book is free! This publication is protected by international copyright laws. division and lots more! We recommed you check out this ebook. The author’s contact details must stay intact in both the footer and header pages.com By Kevin O'Connor ___________________________________________ Top To top of this page Index Alphabetical [Index to Pages] Vedic Mathematics By Jagadguru Swami Sri Bharati Krsna Tirthaji Maharaj (1884-1960) Book ref: ISBN 0 8426 0967 9 Published by Motilal Banarasidas From the Introduction by Smti Manjula Trivedi 16-03-1965. They were actually reconstructed. However you CANNOT charge for it. tricks and tutorials that will boost your math ability.com/ to remove this watermark.vedic-maths-ebook.verypdf. nor can you edit its contents. it's packed with tips.

). It is magic until you understand it. And then we proceed to substantiate and prove the correctness of this reply of ours! As regards the time required by the students for mastering the whole course of Vedic Mathematics as applied to all its branches.com/ to remove this watermark. Calculus – differential and integral etc. Geometry – plane and solid. Trigonometry – plane and spherical. easy to apply and easy to remember. as a matter of fact. Algebra. On seeing this kind of work actually being performed by the little children. the time taken by the Vedic method will be a third. The Sutras (aphorisms) apply to and cover each and every part of each and every chapter of each and every branch of mathematics (including Arithmetic. The Sutras are easy to understand. slate etc. energy. tedious and cumbersome ‘steps’ of working) can be easily and readily solved with the help of these ultra-easy Vedic Sutras (or mathematical aphorisms) contained in the Parisista (the appendix portion) of the Atharvaveda in a few . each digit automatically yields its predecessor and its successor! And the children have merely to go on tossing off (or reeling off) the digits one after another (forwards or backwards) by mere mental arithmetic (without needing pen or pencil.verypdf. and money on and which even now it solves with the utmost difficulty and that also after vast labour involving large numbers of difficult. there is no part of mathematics. that is beyond their jurisdiction. And we were agreeably astonished and intensely gratified to find that exceedingly tough mathematical problems (which the mathematically most advanced present day Western scientific world had spent huge amount of time.) In fact.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. pure or applied. paper. or even a much smaller fraction of the time required according to modern (i.e. current) Western methods. 100 or even more numerous and cumbrous ‘steps’ of working (according to the current Western methods) can be answered in a single and simple step of work by the Vedic method! And little children (of only 10 or 12 years of age) merely look at the sums written on the blackboard and immediately shout out and dictate the answers. Conics – geometrical and analytical. we need merely state from our actual experience that 8 months (or 12 months) at an average rate of 2 or 3 hours per day should suffice for completing the whole course of mathematical studies on these Vedic lines instead of 15 or 20 years required according to the existing systems of the Indian and also of foreign universities. And in some very important and striking cases. 50. And this is because. sums requiring 30. the doctors. a tenth. and it is mathematics thereafter’. professors and other ‘big-guns’ of mathematics are wonder-struck and exclaim: ‘Is this mathematics or magic’? And we invariably answer and say: ‘It is both. and the whole work can be truthfully summarised in one word ‘Mental’! Even as regards complex problems involving a good number of mathematical operations (consecutively or even simultaneously to be performed). a fourth. Astronomy.

sanitary science.) which according to the Indian cultural conceptions. are reckoned as ‘spiritual’ studies and catered for as such therein. 3. religious) study. All these subjects.. but was direct gift of revelation to seers and sages who in their higher reaches of Yogic realisation were competent to receive it from a source. astronomy.e. theoretical and practical. architecture etc. perfect and immaculate. and that this store of wisdom was not. The Vedic seers were. now fast becoming extinct.e. it is unquestionable that the Vedic race lived not as merely pastoral folk possessing a half or a quarter developed culture and civilisation. From the Foreward by Swami Pratyagatmananda Saraswati Varanasi. they had their varied objective science both pure and applied. .verypdf. 22-031965 An extract: Vedic Mathematics by the late Shankaracharya (Bharati Krsna Tirtha) of Govardhan Pitha is a monumental work. not for the purpose of achieving perfect health and strength in the after-death future but in order to attain them here and now in our present physical bodies.e. surgery etc.. are inherent parts of the Vedas i. simple steps and by methods that can be conscientiously described as mere ‘mental arithmetic’. again. medical science. Sthapatya Veda (engineering. the late Shankaracharya shows the rare combination of the probing insight of revealing intuition of a Yogi with the analytic acumen and synthetic talent of a mathematician.).com/ to remove this watermark. not mere ‘navel-gazers’ or ‘nose-tip gazers’. hygiene. physiology. grammar. as regards its assets of fundamental validity and value at least. and all branches of mathematics in general). Whether or not the Vedas are believed as repositories of perfect wisdom.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. Similar is the case with Vedangas (i. of diehard believers who think that the Vedas represent an inexhaustible mine of profoundest wisdom in matters of both spiritual and temporal. prosody. It is thus in the fitness of things that the Vedas include 1. For example. With the late Shankaracharya we belong to a race. lexicography etc. Ayurveda (anatomy. They proved themselves adepts in all levels and branches of knowledge. Gandharva Veda (the science of art and music) and 4. 2. gathered by the laborious inductive and deductive methods of ordinary systemic enquiry. be it noted. In his deep-layer explorations of cryptic Vedic mysteries relating especially to their calculus of shorthand formulae and their neat and ready application to practical problems. are also inherent parts and subjects of Vedic (i.Dhanurveda (archery and other military sciences). not for fighting with one another after our transportation to heaven but in order to quell and subdue all invaders from abroad and all insurgents from within.

The modern scientist has his own theory and art (technique) for producing the result. for drains to be constructed of precise measurements.1. as have scales with decimal divisions. The correct intonation of the Mantra. Numbers in vey early societies were typically represented by groups of lines. 1. but different from these now availing. called Yajna. He had his science and technique. and for homes to be constructed according to specified guidelines.. Suppose in a time of drought we require rains by artificial means. we take our decimal system for granted. The existence of a gradated system of accurately marked weights points to the development of trade and commerce in Harappan society.verypdf. Although today. For this purpose. The Sutras lay down the shortest and surest lines. and other factors must co-operate with mathematical determinateness and precision. In ancient Babylon. The old Yajnik had his Sutras.com/ to remove this watermark.2. 0. and 500 have been identified. 0.05. 10. the quadrate of a circle). Weights corresponding to ratios of 0. 100. the correct configuration of the Yantra (in the making of the Vedi etc. the correct time or astral conjunction factor. e. the first expression of mathematical understanding appears in the form of counting systems. 20. 0.g. Each of these required the calculus of mathematics. A particularly notable characteristic of Harappan weights and measures is their remarkable accuracy. A bronze rod marked in units of 0. he had developed the six auxiliaries of the Vedas in each of which mathematical skill and adroitness. ____________________________________ Top To top of this page Index Alphabetical [Index to Pages] Pages from the history of the Indian sub-continent: Science and Mathematics in India History of Mathematics in India In all early civilizations. Yantra. The Decimal System in Harappa In India a decimal system was already in place during the Harappan period.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. though later different numbers came to be assigned specific numeral names and symbols (as in India) or were designated by alphabetic letters (such as in Rome). a sexagesimal (base 60) system was in use. play the decisive role. occult or otherwise. All had to be perfected so as to produce the desired results effectively and adequately. 200. 2. . not all ancient civilizations based their numbers on a ten-base system. 50.5. Such scales were particularly important in ensuring proper implementation of town planning rules that required roads of fixed widths to run at right angles to each other.367 inches points to the degree of precision demanded in those times. The old seer scientist had his both also. The modern technician has his logarithmic tables and mechanic’s manuals. in which Mantra. as indicated by an analysis of Harappan weights and measures. Let us take a concrete illustration. the correct rhythams etc. 5.

A similar observation pertaining to oblongs is also noted. Arithmetic operations (Ganit) such as addition. Mathematical Activity in the Vedic Period In the Vedic period. Apasthamba also looked at the problems of squaring a circle. While some of the formulations are approximations. dividing a . Examples of quadratic equations also appear. The system of land grants and agricultural tax assessments required accurate measurement of cultivated areas. or fractional) area (such as a square). multiplication.com/ to remove this watermark. However.individual farmers in a village often had their holdings broken up in several parcels to ensure fairness. Modern methods of multiplication and addition probably emerged from the techniques described in the Sulva-Sutras. subtraction. but could be adjusted upwards or downwards based on a variety of factors.local administrators were required to convert rectangular plots or triangular plots to squares of equivalent sizes and so on. Babylon and China . Examples of geometric knowledge (rekha-ganit) are to be found in the Sulva-Sutras of Baudhayana (800 BC) and Apasthmaba (600 BC) which describe techniques for the construction of ritual altars in use during the Vedic era. as in many other early agricultural civilizations. Mathematics was thus brought into the service of both the secular and the ritual domains. Apasthamba's sutra (an expansion of Baudhayana's with several original contributions) provides a value for the square root of 2 that is accurate to the fifth decimal place.verypdf. Since plots could not all be of the same shape . An early statement of what is commonly known as the Pythagoras theorem is to be found in Baudhayana's Sutra: The chord which is stretched across the diagonal of a square produces an area of double the size.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. cubes and roots are enumerated in the Narad Vishnu Purana attributed to Ved Vyas (pre-1000 BC). fractions. As land was redistributed or consolidated. Tax assessments were based on fixed proportions of annual or seasonal crop incomes. Baudhayana's Sutra displays an understanding of basic geometric shapes and techniques of converting one geometric shape (such as a rectangle) to another of equivalent (or multiple. problems of mensuration came up that required solutions. squares.the Greek mathematician and philosopher who lived in the 6th C B.C was familiar with the Upanishads and learnt his basic geometry from the Sulva Sutras. His Sutra also contains geometric solutions of a linear equation in a single unknown. to some extent early mathematical developments in India mirrored the developments in Egypt. records of mathematical activity are mostly to be found in Vedic texts associated with ritual activities. Thus. It is likely that these texts tapped geometric knowledge that may have been acquired much earlier. Pythagoras . possibly in the Harappan period. others are accurate and reveal a certain degree of practical ingenuity as well as some theoretical understanding of basic geometric principles. In order to ensure that all cultivators had equivalent amounts of irrigated and non-irrigated lands and tracts of equivalent fertility . This meant that an understanding of geometry and arithmetic was virtually essential for revenue administrators. the study of arithmetic and geometry was also impelled by secular considerations.

" (Many centuries later. phonology and morphology. the study of Ganit i. Panini provided formal production rules and definitions describing Sanskrit grammar in his treatise called Asthadhyayi. Thus Panini's work provided an example of a scientific notational model that could have propelled later mathematicians to use abstract notations in characterizing algebraic equations and presenting algebraic theorems and results in a scientific format. . Like the Upanishadic world view.verypdf. Modern-day commentators are divided on how some of the results were generated. Ingerman in his paper titled Panini-Backus form finds Panini's notation to be equivalent in its power to that of Backus .e. Jain texts from the 6th C BC such as the Surya Pragyapti describe ellipses. or else were transmitted orally through the Gurukul system. Jain mathematician from Mysore. in The crest of the peacock argues that the algebraic nature of Indian mathematics arises as a consequence of the structure of the Sanskrit language. cannot be understood without the base of Ganit (i.) Panini and Formal Scientific Notation A particularly important development in the history of Indian science that was to have a profound impact on all mathematical treatises that followed was the pioneering work by Panini (6th C BC) in the field of Sanskrit grammar and linguistics. G G Joseph. Panini's constructions can also be seen as comparable to modern definitions of a mathematical function. Mahaviracharya further emphasized the importance of mathematics: "Whatever object exists in this moving and non-moving world. parts of speech such as nouns and verbs were placed in classes. and a solution to the general linear equation. but these have either been lost or destroyed. similarly. the position of Ganit is the highest amongst all branches of the Vedas and the Shastras.inventor of the Backus Normal Form used to describe the syntax of modern computer languages. The Vedang Jyotish (1000 BC) includes the statement: "Just as the feathers of a peacock and the jewel-stone of a snake are placed at the highest point of the body (at the forehead). Besides expounding a comprehensive and scientific theory of phonetics. mathematics)". Basic elements such as vowels and consonants. or as generalizations of observed examples. In any case. Others believe that once the scientific method came to be formalized in the Nyaya-Sutras proofs for such results must have been provided.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www.e mathematics was given considerable importance in the Vedic period. Philosophy and Mathematics Philosophical doctrines also had a profound influence on the development of mathematical concepts and formulations. The construction of compound words and sentences was elaborated through ordered rules operating on underlying structures in a manner similar to formal language theory. segment into seven equal parts. Today. Some believe that these results came about through hit and trial as rules of thumb. and only the final results were tabulated in the texts.com/ to remove this watermark.

Terms like Ardh Aached .verypdf.e. in two directions. Jain set theory probably arose in parallel with the Syadvada system of Jain epistemology in which reality was described in terms of pairs of truth conditions and state changes. In other works the relation of the number of combinations to the coefficients occurring in the binomial expansion is noted. The Indian Numeral System Although the Chinese were also using a decimal based counting system. log base 3 and log base 4 respectively. emptiness or the void may have facilitated in the introduction of the concept of zero. Philosophical formulations concerning Shunya . it probably helped in grappling with indeterminate equations and finding numerical approximations to irrational numbers. and it was the Indian notational system that reached the Western world through the Arabs and has now been . Numbers were deemed to be of three types: Sankheya (countable). (Ifrah arguing that the use of zero is already implied in Aryabhatta) tangible evidence for the use of the zero begins to proliferate towards the end of the Gupta period. minus. the Chinese lacked a formal notational system that had the abstraction and elegance of the Indian notational system. square root etc) eventually became the foundation stones of modern mathematical notation. as in the Anuyoga Dwara Sutra. space and time were considered limitless in Jain cosmology. While the zero (bindu) as an empty place holder in the place-value numeral system appears much earlier. Indian numerals developed into their modern form. The Anuyoga Dwara Sutra demonstrates an understanding of the law of indeces and uses it to develop the notion of logarithms. Between the 7th C and the 11th C. by squaring and extracting square roots. infinite everywhere and perpetually infinite. Although scholars are divided about how early the symbol for zero came to be used in numeric notation in India. Jain mathematicians recognized five different types of infinities: infinite in one direction. Since Jain epistemology allowed for a degree of indeterminacy in describing reality. Permutations and combinations are listed in the Bhagvati Sutras (3rd C BC) and Sathananga Sutra (2nd C BC). This led to a deep interest in very large numbers and definitions of infinite numbers. and Chatur Aached are used to denote log base 2. Buddhist literature also demonstrates an awareness of indeterminate and infinite numbers. Asankheya (uncountable) and Anant (infinite).i. In Satkhandagama various sets are operated upon by logarithmic functions to base two. Infinite numbers were created through recursive formulae. and along with the symbols denoting various mathematical functions (such as plus.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. The operations are repeated to produce new sets. Buddhist mathematics was classified either as Garna (Simple Mathematics) or Sankhyan (Higher Mathematics). Trik Aached. and by raising to finite or infinite powers. algebraic definitions of the zero and it's relationship to mathematical functions appear in the mathematical treatises of Brahmagupta in the 7th C AD.com/ to remove this watermark. in area.

and philosophical and cosmological constructs encouraged a creative and expansive approach to number theory. and the innovative abstractions of the Syadavada and Buddhist schools of learning. At the same time. who in turn received training at universities such as at Kusumpura (Bihar) or Ujjain (Central India) or at smaller local colleges or Gurukuls. Laplace: "The ingenious method of expressing every possible number using a set of ten symbols (each symbol having a place value and an absolute value) emerged in India. Several factors contributed to this development whose significance is perhaps best stated by French mathematician. Virtually every Indian state produced great mathematicians who wrote commentaries on the works of other mathematicians (who may have lived and worked in a different part of India many centuries earlier). It's simplicity lies in the way it facilitated calculation and placed arithmetic foremost amongst useful inventions. religion and astrology also played a role in creating an interest in astronomy and a negative fallout of this irrational influence was the rejection of scientific theories that were far ahead of their time. almost everything was in place to favor such a development.com/ to remove this watermark. This is borne out by numerous references in the Jataka tales and several other folk-tales. and in China the pictorial script posed as a hindrance. The science of astronomy was also spurred by the need to have accurate calendars and a better understanding of climate and rainfall patterns for timely sowing and choice of crops. Brahmagupta's description of negative numbers as debts and positive numbers as fortunes points to a link between trade and mathematical study. There was already a long and established history in the use of decimal numbers. Influence of Trade and Commerce. Knowledge of astronomy .particularly knowledge of the tides and the stars was of great import to trading communities who crossed oceans or deserts at night. Sanskrit served as the common medium of scientific communication.verypdf. One of the greatest scientists of the Gupta period . as might have the rationalist doctrines and the exacting epistemology of the Nyaya Sutras. Bihar) provided a systematic treatment of the .Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. But in India.Aryabhatta (born in 476 AD. The young person who wished to embark on a commercial venture was inevitably required to first gain some grounding in astronomy. This also led to the exchange of texts on astronomy and mathematics amongst scholars and the transmission of knowledge from one part of India to another. particularly lending and borrowing demanded an understanding of both simple and compound interest which probably stimulated the interest in arithmetic and geometric series. Importance of Astronomy The growth of trade and commerce. This led to a proliferation of teachers of astronomy. Kusumpura. accepted as universal." Brilliant as it was. this invention was no accident. the cumbersome roman numeral system posed as a major obstacle. The idea seems so simple nowadays that its significance and profound importance is no longer appreciated. Panini's studies in linguistic theory and formal language and the powerful role of symbolism and representational abstraction in art and architecture may have also provided an impetus. In the Western world.

including problems in algebra (beej-ganit) and trigonometry (trikonmiti). some later astronomers continued to believe in a static earth and rejected his rational explanations of the eclipses.verypdf.i. he also listed the algebraic properties of negative numbers.com/ to remove this watermark. He also correctly deduced that the moon and the planets shined by reflected sunlight and provided a valid explanation for the solar and lunar eclipses rejecting the superstitions and mythical belief systems surrounding the phenomenon. particularly on those from the Asmaka school. the circumferance of the earth (62832 miles) and the length of the solar year (within about 13 minutes of the modern calculation) were remarkably close approximations. Amongst his most important contributions was his formula for calculating the sine function which was 99% accurate. He also did pioneering work on indeterminate equations and considered for the first time quadrilaterals with all the four sides unequal and none of the opposite sides parallel. Bhaskar I continued where Aryabhatta left off. risings and settings of the planets. these studies required still more advanced mathematics and Bhaskar I expanded on the trigonometric equations provided by Aryabhatta. Another important astronomer/mathematician was Varahamira (6th C. and discussed in further detail topics such as the longitudes of the planets. Although Bhaskar I (born Saurashtra. or near instantaneous motion of the moon. and the lunar crescent. conjunctions of the planets with each other and with bright stars. Aryabhatta's equations . Nizamabad.e. Aryabhatta was obliged to introduce the concept of infinitesimals . Andhra ) recognized his genius and the tremendous value of his scientific contributions. Brahmagupta did important work in enumerating the basic principles of algebra. and inferred correctly that the orbits of the planets were ellipses. 6th C. Aryabhatta had a profound influence on the astronomers and mathematicians who followed him. and express it in the form of a basic differential equation. In making such calculations. His work on solutions to quadratic indeterminate equations anticipated the work of Euler and Lagrange. Emergence of Calculus In the course of developing a precise mapping of the lunar eclipse.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. tatkalika gati to designate the infinitesimal. Again. His calculations on pi. His works on permutations and combinations complemented what had been previously achieved by Jain mathematicians and provided a method of calculation of nCr that closely resembles the much more recent Pascal's Triangle. In addition to listing the algebraic properties of zero. and follower of the Asmaka school of science. But in spite of such setbacks. position of the planets in space. In the 7th century. Mathematics played a vital role in Aryabhatta's revolutionary understanding of the solar system. Ujjain) who compiled previously written texts on astronomy and made important additions to Aryabhatta's trigonometric formulas. Aryabhatta had to solve several mathematical problems that had not been addressed before. and like Aryabhatta correctly assessed pi to be an irrational number. He correctly posited the axial rotation of the earth.

Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. and formulas for the sum of certain finite series are provided. Later mathematicians used their intuitive understanding of integration in deriving the areas of curved surfaces and the volumes enclosed by them. there are several chapters relating to the study of the sphere and it's properties and applications to geography. The Spread of Indian Mathematics . Sections of the book were also devoted to arithmetic and geometric progressions. including progressions with fractional numbers or terms.cos a sin b. wages. In the late 9th C.b) = sin a cos b . Some of these examples involved fairly complicated solutions and his Patiganita is considered an advanced mathematical work. and filling of cisterns. barter. sin(a . Of particular interest are his trigonometric equations: sin(a + b) = sin a cos b + cos a sin b.com/ to remove this watermark. eccentric epicyclical model of the planets. He also derived formulae to calculate the area of an ellipse and a quadrilateral inscribed within a circle (something that had also been looked at by Brahmagupta) The solution of indeterminate equations also drew considerable interest in the 9th century. the seasons. His Chakrawaat method of solving indeterminate solutions preceded European solutions by several centuries. In the second part of this treatise. rates of travel. the lunar crescent etc. Applied Mathematics. whose Karanatilaka was translated by Al-Beruni into Arabic) and Sripati of Maharashtra are amongst the prominent mathematicians of the century. He also discussed astronomical instruments and spherical trigonometry. first visibilities of the planets. Sridhara (probably Bengal) provided mathematical formulae for a variety of practical problems involving ratios. an astronomical text.verypdf. were elaborated on by Manjula (10th C) and Bhaskaracharya (12th C) who derived the differential of the sine function. mixtures. Vijayanandi (of Benares. and in his Siddhanta Shiromani he postulated that the earth had a gravitational force. The leading light of 12th C Indian mathematics was Bhaskaracharya who came from a long-line of mathematicians and was head of the astronomical observatory at Ujjain. simple interest. Solutions to Practical Problems Developments also took place in applied mathematics such as in creation of trigonometric tables and measurement units. and broached the fields of infinitesimal calculation and integration. Mahaviracharya ( Mysore) wrote Ganit Saar Sangraha where he described the currently used method of calculating the Least Common Multiple (LCM) of given numbers. purchase and sale. In the 9th C. and several mathematicians contributed approximations and solutions to different types of indeterminate equations. Mathematical investigation continued into the 10th C. He left several important mathematical texts including the Lilavati and Bijaganita and the Siddhanta Shiromani. Yativrsabha's work Tiloyapannatti (6th C) gives various units for measuring distances and time and also describes the system of infinite time measures. He was the first to recognize that certain types of quadratic equations could have two solutions. planetary mean motion.

and an important school of mathematics blossomed in Kerala. Arabic and Persian translations of Greek and Egyptian scientific texts became more readily available in India.com/ to remove this watermark. Rajagopal.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. Khiva). Although Arab scholars relied on a variety of sources including Babylonian. an 11th C Spanish scholar and court historian was amongst the most enthusiastic in his praise of Indian civilization. The Kerala School Although it appears that original work in mathematics ceased in much of Northern India after the Islamic conquests. Nilkantha (15th C. Benaras survived as a center for mathematical study. Al-Nasawi (Khurasan. Al-Khwarizmi (9th C. 11th C. Persia). Baghdad). Tirur. It is also notable that Jyesthadeva's Yuktibhasa which contained commentaries on Nilkantha's Tantrasamgraha included elaborations on planetary theory later adopted by Tycho Brahe. Ibn-Sina (Avicenna). Scholars such as Ibn Tariq and Al-Fazari (8th C. Said Al-Andalusi. Madhava (14th C. Al-Maoudi (956 AD) who travelled in Western India also wrote about the greatness of Indian science. Chitrabhanu (16th C. concepts and formulations were obscured in the later centuries.verypdf. and specially remarked on Indian achievements in the sciences and in mathematics. Kerala) gave integer solutions to twenty-one types of systems of two algebraic equations. that of modern classical analysis. Al-Qayarawani (9th C. The study of mathematics appears to slow down after the onslaught of the Islamic invasions and the conversion of colleges and universities to madrasahs. author of The book of Chapters in Indian Arithmetic). and Ibn-Al-Saffar (11th C. author of Kitab fi al-hisab al-hindi). especially in Spain. Kerala) provided detailed proofs of the theorems and derivations of the rules contained in the works of Madhava and Nilkantha. But this was also the time when Indian mathematical texts were increasingly being translated into Arabic and Persian. travelling from the Arab world to Spain and Sicily. His series expansion of the cos and sine functions anticipated Newton by almost three centuries. and . eventually. Al-Uqlidisi (10th C. thought and insight”. Cordoba) were amongst the many who based their own scientific texts on translations of Indian treatises. Abbasid scholar Al-Gaheth wrote: " India is the source of knowledge. 11th C. but the enormous contributions of Indian mathematics was generously acknowledged by several important Arabic and Persian scholars. Important discoveries by the Kerala mathematicians included the NewtonGauss interpolation formula. Al-Kindi (9th C. Spain). and mathematics that anticipated work by later Europeans. Greek and some Chinese texts. and eventually penetrating all of Europe. Basra). Syrian. born Khiva. Damascus. Indian mathematical texts played a particularly important role. Historians of mathematics. Al-Beruni (11th C. At the same time. Indian algebra and trigonometry reached Europe through a cycle of translations. Of course. died Afghanistan). Records of the Indian origin of many proofs. Rangachari and Joseph considered his contributions instrumental in taking mathematics to the next stage. Maghreb. the formula for the sum of an infinite series. Al-Razi (Teheran). Kochi) made important mathematical discoveries that would not be identified by European mathematicians till at least two centuries later. using both algebraic and geometric methods in developing his results. Kerala) extended and elaborated upon the results of Madhava while Jyesthadeva (16th C. Ibn al-Samh (Granada.

any desired number can be written. Arab and Indian architects in a variety of monuments commissioned by the Islamic rulers. a series notation for pi.verypdf. few modern compendiums on the history of mathematics have paid adequate attention to the often pioneering and revolutionary contributions of Indian mathematicians.(as in temple shikaras. a significant body of mathematical works were produced in the Indian subcontinent.. Mathematics and Architecture: Interest in arithmetic and geometric series may have also been stimulated by (and influenced) Indian architectural designs . (Fibonaci learnt about Indian numerals from his Arab teachers in North Africa) Influence of the Kerala School: Joseph (Crest of the Peacock) suggests that Indian mathematical manuscripts may have been brought to Europe by Jesuit priests such as Matteo Ricci who spent two years in Kochi (Cochin) after being ordained in Goa in 1580. the relationship between geometry and architectural decoration was developed to it's greatest heights by Central Asian.with these nine and with the sign 0 which in Arabic is sifr. Yet. Of course. published in the Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland) was one of the first Westerners to recognize that the Kerala school had anticipated by almost 300 years many European developments in the field. · Quotes from Liber abaci (Book of the Abacus) by Fibonacci (1170-1250): The nine Indian numerals are . Turkish. Notes: Mathematics and Music: Pingala (3rd C AD). Not only did India provide the financial capital for the industrial revolution (see the essay on colonization) India also provided vital elements of the scientific foundation without which humanity could not have entered this modern age of science and high technology. The science of mathematics played a pivotal role not only in the industrial revolution but in the scientific developments that have occurred since.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. Transmission of the Indian Numeral System: Evidence for the transmission of the Indian Numeral System to the West is provided by Joseph (Crest of the Peacock): Quotes Severus Sebokht (662) in a Syriac text describing the "subtle discoveries" of Indian astronomers as being "more ingenious than those of the Greeks and the Babylonians" and "their valuable methods of computation which surpass description" and then goes on to mention the use of nine numerals. No other branch of science is complete without mathematics. gopurams and corbelled temple ceilings).. author of Chandasutra explored the relationship between combinatorics and musical theory anticipating Mersenne (1588-1648) author of a classic on musical theory. Kochi is only 70km from Thrissur . But as this essay amply demonstrates. Charles Whish (1835. Persian.com/ to remove this watermark.

13 (1) (1978). .Studies in the History of Science in India (Anthology edited by Debiprasad Chattopadhyaya) 2. Sci. (Trichur) which was then the largest repository of astronomical documents. 137. L C Jain: System theory in Jaina school of mathematics. 5. S S Demidov. References: 1. 24 (3) (1989). 302. (Siwan) 18 (3) (1984). 11.verypdf. G Ifrah: A universal history of numbers: From prehistory to the invention of the computer (London. 220-222. Indian J. "Nauka" (Moscow. 31-65. 1963). 32-41. R P Kulkarni: The value of pi known to Sulbasutrakaras. Math.two European mathematicians obtained their copies of works by the Kerala mathematicians from Thrissur.G G Joseph: The crest of the peacock (Princeton University Press. 1960). 1932). 13. (Siwan) 14 (1) (1980). F A Medvedev and E I Slavutin: Studies in the history of mathematics. K Shankar Shukla: Bhaskara I. 2000). 8. 1974). 1998).Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. LaghuBhaskariya (Sanskrit) (Lucknow. Hist. R C Gupta: The first unenumerable number in Jaina mathematics. Math. Bhaskara I and his works II. Hist. Ed. L C Jain and Km Meena Jain: System theory in Jaina school of mathematics.P Jha: Contributions of the Jainas to astronomy and mathematics. P Z Ingerman: 'Panini-Backus form'. Ganita Bharati 14 (1-4) (1992). K Shankar Shukla: Bhaskara I. 4. 14 (1) (1979). 11-24. acted as an agent for the transmission of mathematical ideas).A P Juskevic. 9. II. 3. 163-180 12. Indian J. Indian Journal Hist.com/ to remove this watermark. and it is not inconceivable that Jesuit monks may have also taken copies to Pisa (where Galileo. or Padau (where James Gregory studied) or Paris (where Mersenne who was in touch with Fermat and Pascal. 9b. 7. Bhaskara I and his works III. Sci. Sci. MahaBhaskariya (Sanskrit) (Lucknow. 98-107. Cavalieri and Wallis spent time). 10. Whish and Hyne . 6. B5-B13. Ed. B Datta: The science of the Sulba (Calcutta. G Kumari: Some significant results of algebra of pre-Aryabhata era. Communications of the ACM 10 (3)(1967).

C T Rajagopal and M S Rangachari: On an untapped source of medieval Keralese mathematics. T. 14. S Parameswaran: Madhavan. History Exact Sci. Die philosophischen Abhandlungen des al-Kindi. B Datta: On Mahavira's solution of rational triangles and quadrilaterals. 185-207 26. Bose. Sci. 19. K S Shukla: Hindu mathematics in the seventh century as found in Bhaskara I's commentary on the Aryabhatiya.an analytical appraisal.). 18 (1978). Suter: Die Mathematiker und Astronomen der Araber 21. 18. 27. Varanasi) 29. 23. A Rahman. B S Jain: On the Ganita-Sara-Samgraha of Mahavira (c. Sen. 45-49.D. Singh: Foundations of Logic in Ancient India. 16. Bull. Calcutta Math. Indian J. 850 A. Delhi) 31. C T Rajagopal and M S Rangachari: On medieval Keralese mathematics. NISTAD) . R C Gupta: The Madhava-Gregory series. Soc. 17. R C Gupta: Varahamihira's calculation of nCr and the discovery of Pascal's triangle. K Shankar Shukla: The Patiganita of Sridharacarya (Lucknow. K V Sarma. Suter: Mathematiker 20. Indian J. H. Technology and Development Studies. K V Sarma: A History of the Kerala School of Hindu Astronomy (Hoshiarpur. Bag: Mathematics in Ancient and Medieval India (1979. and S Hariharan: Yuktibhasa of Jyesthadeva : a book of rationales in Indian mathematics and astronomy . Arch. 115-130. 1984. 25. 35 (1986). 12 (1) (1977). 267-294. 91-99. 17-32.com/ to remove this watermark. 89-102. of Science. Subarayappa: Concise History of Science in India. 20 (1932). 1897 22.K. 15. the father of analysis. A. Ganita 22 (1) (1971). (Indian National Science Academy) 30. Linguistics and Mathematics ( Science and technology in Indian Culture. 67-70. Ganita-Bharati 18 (1-4) (1996). B67-B70 24. Math. Saraswati: Geometry in Ancient and Medieval India (1979. National Instt. Arch. Munster. 1972). Education 7 (1973). Hist. History Exact Sci.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. 28.verypdf. Sci. Hist.A. New Delhi. 26 (2) (1991). 1959). ed. Ganita Bharati 14 (1-4) (1992).N.

Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. To do so is to distort history. but in a tendency toward undermining or eliding the real contributions made by non-Western civilizations. the age of the classical Greeks. when Europe was awakening from its dark ages.verypdf. The debt owed by the West to other civilizations. summarizing the contributions of luminaries such as Aryabhatta. the renaissance. and continued up until the dawn of the modern era. Brahmagupta.com/indianhistory. a bias which most often manifests not in explicit racism.) ______________________________________ Top <To top of this page Index Alphabetical [Index to Pages] Another view on Indian Mathematics: Indic Mathematics: India and the Scientific Revolution (1) Dr. go back to the earliest epoch of the "Western" scientific tradition. Chin Keh-Mu: India and China: Scientific Exchange (History of Science in India Vol 2. easily and inconsequentially swept under the rug of Eurocentric bias.com/ to remove this watermark.html Development of Philosophical Thought and Scientific Method in Ancient india Philosophical Development from Upanishadic Theism to Scientific Realism History of the Physical Sciences in India ________________________________ .tripod. David Gray writes: "The study of mathematics in the West has long been characterized by a certain ethnocentric bias. Bhaskara and Maadhava. 12. Singh: "The so-called Fibonacci numbers in ancient and medieval India. 229-44. and to India in particular." -Indic Mathematics Related Essays: The following essays can be found at http://india_resource. (Historia Mathematica. Mahavira. P." Dr Gray goes on to list some of the most important developments in the history of mathematics that took place in India. He concludes by asserting that "the role played by India in the development (of the scientific revolution in Europe) is no mere footnote. 1985) 33. 32. and to deny India one of its greatest contributions to world civilization.

who transmitted to Europe both their own lost heritage as well as the advanced mathematical traditions formulated in India. but in a tendency toward undermining or eliding the real contributions made by non-Western civilizations. contributions. the tendency of some math historians to jump from the Greeks to renaissance Europe results not only in an ethnocentric history.verypdf. go back to the earliest epoch of the "Western" scientific tradition. and continued up until the dawn of the modern era.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. The debt owed by the West to other civilizations. and to India in particular. one which fails to . which were actually introduced to Europe over a millennium later by the Arabs. And while the contributions of the Greeks to mathematics was quite significant. a bias which most often manifests not in explicit racism. without which advanced mathematical calculation is impossible. considered inferior or irrelevant to Western mathematical traditions. in that they were often misattributed as European." argued that "the standard treatment of the history of non-European mathematics is a product of historiographical bias (conscious or otherwise) in the selection and interpretation of facts. but even the place-value system of enumeration. Such ethnocentric revisionist history resulted in the attribution of more advanced algebraic concepts. Math and Ethnocentrism The study of mathematics in the West has long been characterized by a certain ethnocentric bias. they were typically devalued. as Joseph argued. This awakening was in part made possible by the rediscovery of mathematics and other sciences and technologies through the medium of the Arabs. the exploitation of which was ideologically justified through a doctrine of racial superiority. there is the problem of accounting for the development of mathematics purely within the Western cultural framework. but has distorted the history of Western mathematics as well." (1987:14) Due to the legacy of colonialism. George Ghevarughese Joseph. results in ignoring. or. i. which. in an important article entitled "Foundations of Eurocentrism in Mathematics. Indic Mathematics India and the Scientific Revolution(2) By David Gray. In so far as the contributions from non-Western civilizations are ignored. when Europe was awakening from its dark ages. as a consequence. the renaissance.com/ to remove this watermark. the age of the classical Greeks. the contributions of nonEuropean civilizations were often ignored. This tendency has not only led to the devaluation of non-Western mathematical traditions. This has led. but an inadequate history as well. Greek. and when their contributions were so great as to resist such treatment. PhD 1. to the Greeks.e. as Sabetai Unguru has argued. despite the fact that the Greeks lacked not only mathematic notation. even distorted. devaluing or distorting contributions arising outside European mathematical traditions. toward a tendency to read more advanced mathematical concepts into the relatively simplistic geometrical formulations of Greek mathematicians such as Euclid.

(See Seidenberg 1962 and 1983 3. the well-known theorem which was attributed to Pythagoras who lived around 500 BCE. transmitted via the Persians who traded both with the Greeks and the Indians. which gave more detailed instructions concerning Vedic ritual. the base ten system of calculation which uses nine numerals and zero to represent numbers ranging from the most minuscule decimal to the most inconceivably large power of ten." (1978:323) It is now generally understood that the so-called "Pythagorean theorem" was understood in ancient India.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www.verypdf. while the hypothesis that India was have been a source for Greek geometry. one of the Vedic texts predating . On the other hand.com/ to remove this watermark. and was in fact proved in Baudhayana's Shulva Sutra. it is not often questioned. Several of these treat the topic of altar construction. that both seem to have developed geometry out of the practical problems involving their construction of elaborate sacrificial altars.000) or in China. "for geometric algebra existed in India before the classical period in Greece. written centuries later. this system was invented in India.000 was also the largest unit of enumeration until recent times. where 10. the theory that the Greeks were the source of Geometric algebra is untenable. a text dated to circa 600 BCE. Seidenberg has argued. despite the fact that this numeral system is commonly called the Arabic numerals in Europe. shows that the thesis that Greece was the origin of geometric algebra was incorrect. was necessary for the precise construction of the complex Vedic altars. 2. looks increasingly plausible. and geometry in particular. where it evidently was of quite ancient origin. The oldest and most complete of these is the previously mentioned Shulva Sutra of Baudhaayana. Vedic Altars and the "Pythagorean theorem" A perfect example of this sort of misattribution involves the so-called Pythagorean theorem. As this text was composed about a century before Pythagoras. Rather. This knowledge was further elaborated in the kalpa sutras. perhaps due to the mantra-like frequency with which it is repeated. it is quite possible that both the Greeks and the Indians developed geometry. in fact. The Yajurveda Samhitaa. but which was first proven in Greek sources in Euclid's Geometry. However. in his 1978 article. (1978:323). Despite the scarcity of evidence backing this attribution. Seidenberg. Zero and the Place Value System Far more important to the development of modern mathematics than either Greek or Indian geometry was the development of the place value system of enumeration. and mathematics was thus one of the topics covered in the brahmanas. Knowledge of mathematics. where this system was first introduced by the Arabs in the thirteenth century. This system of enumeration was not developed by the Greeks. take into account the full history of the development of modern mathematics. whose largest unit of enumeration was the myriad (10. Nor was it developed by the Arabs. which is by no means a purely European development.

The Indian numeral system and its place value. as van Nooten has shown. Nor did this system exhaust Indian ingenuity. Instead of naming the numbers in groups of three. million etc. who lived circa the first century BCE. million. Euclid and the Greek mathematicians by at least a millennium. from a very early date. The place value system of enumeration is in fact built into the Sanskrit language. That is exactly what is required in order to gain a precise idea of the place-value system. hundred thousand. or the Greeks and Chinese (whose limit was ten thousand) and even to our own system (where the names thousand. hundred and thousand (daza. decimal system of enumeration came to the attention of the Arabs in the seventh or eighth . the Indians. several aspects of which make it a very logical language. vyarbuda).com/ to remove this watermark. combined by the place-value system of enumeration. developed a system of binary enumeration convertible to decimal numerals. described in his Chandahzaastra. one only had to place the name indicating the order of units between the name of the order of units immediately immediately below it and the one immediately above it. etc.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. which has been definitely dated to Monday 25 August 458 CE. hundred million (ayuta. who lived roughly fourteen hundred years later. sahasra) named as in English. who lacking a system of enumeration were unable to develop abstract mathematical concepts. Pingala. the Sanskrit system gave no special importance to any number. (Ifrah 2000:417-1 9) This concept. lists names for each of the units of ten up to 10 to the twelfth power (paraardha). (Subbarayappa 1970:49) Later Buddhist and Jain authors extended this list as high as the fifty-third power. lakSa. to express a given number. four or eight orders of units. Ifrah has commented that: By giving each power of ten an individual name. there is little doubt that our place-value numeral system developed in India (2000:399-409). zata. where each power of ten is given a distinct name. continue to act as auxillary bases). and so forth up to the fifty-third power. (2000:429) As Ifrah has shown at length. the rule being presented in a natural way and thus appearing self-explanatory. Not only are the units ten. (See Van Nooten) India is also the locus of another closely related an equally important mathematical discovery. ten million. well suited to scientific and mathematical reasoning. expressed them taking the powers of ten and the names of the first nine units individually. In other words. His system is quite similar to that of Leibniz. providing distinct names where English makes use of auxillary bases such as thousand. Thus the Sanskrit system is obviously superior to that of the Arabs (for whom the thousand was the limit). far exceeding their Greek contemporaries. koti.verypdf. the Sanskrit numeral system contained the very key to the discovery of the place-value system. the numeral zero. The oldest known text to use zero is a Jain text entitled the Lokavibhaaga. but also ten thousand. became the basis for a classical era renaissance in Indian mathematics. and this system is embedded in the Sanskrit language. To put it plainly.

reached the same conclusion. evidently independently. 4. India achieved its own scientific renaissance of sorts during its classical era. when the Europeans translated Indian influenced Arab mathematical texts.iiya. Luminaries of Classical Indian Mathematics Aryabhata The world did not have to wait for the Europeans to awake from their long intellectual slumber to see the development of advanced mathematical techniques.com/ to remove this watermark. and served as the basis for the well known advancement in Arab mathematics.. (Pingree 1981:57) In addition. It was studied by the Arabs in the eighth century following their conquest of Sind. trigonometry. judging by the large numbers of commentaries written upon it. but their eventual adoption of this system led to the scientific revolution that began to sweep Europe beginning in the thirteenth century. one of Aaryabhat. represented by figures such as al-Khwarizmi. In 499. beginning roughly one thousand years before the European Renaissance. He made this suggestion approximately one thousand years before Copernicus.e. (See Kak p. a text covering both astronomy and mathematics. With regard to the former. He argued for the diurnal rotation of the earth. it should be of no surprise that it became extremely well known in India. which no doubt was of great use for his astronomical calculations. as the topics he covered include geometry. He also developed methods of solving quadratic and indeterminate equations using fractions. He calculated pi to four decimal places. 3. he thus went beyond geometry and contributed to the development of trigonometry. century." (Ifrah 2000:419) Given the astounding range of advanced mathematical concepts and techniques covered in this fifth century text.a wrote his Aaryabhat. i. It reached Europe in the twelfth century when Adelard of Bath translated al-Khwarizmi's works into Latin. and translated into Arabic. rather than the cruder method of calculating chords devised by the Greeks. a development which did not occur in Europe until roughly one thousand years later. With regard to mathematics.a's mathematics was far ranging. Probably the most celebrated Indian mathematicians belonging to this period was Aaryabhat. when he was only 23 years old.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. Aaryabhat. (Subbarayappa 1970:49) But the Europeans were at first resistant to this system.a. whence it . being attached to the far less logical roman numeral system. Aaryabhat.a's greatest contributions was the calculation of sine tables. algebra.1416.a "invented a unique method of recording numbers which required perfect understanding of zero and the place-value system. who was born in 476 CE. as an alternate theory to the rotation of the fixed stars and sun around the earth (Pingree 1981:18).verypdf. the text is notable for its for its awareness of the relativity of motion. In developing a way to calculate the sine of curves. 16) This awareness led to the astonishing suggestion that it is the Earth that rotates the Sun. Aaryabhat.

irrational numbers. who lived in Sangamagraama in Kerala. who wrote on a wide range of mathematical topics. since much of the Renaissance advances of mathematics in Europe was based upon the discovery of Arab mathematical texts. He calculated the sine. which became the standard algebra textbook in Sanskrit. 16) Mahavira Mahaaviira was a Jain mathematician who lived in the ninth century. as well as problems relating to the casting of shadows. (See Hayashi 1997:784-786) He also . p.verypdf. which were in turn highly influenced by these Indian traditions. cubes. It contains descriptions of advanced mathematical techniques involving both positive and negative integers as well as zero. (See Kak p. including those involving multiple unknowns.t. Primarily an astronomer. Brahmagupt Born in 598 CE in Rajastan in Western India. developing the world's first consistent system of trigonometry. cube-roots. and became very influential in Arab mathematics.com/ to remove this watermark. Born in 1114 CE in Karnataka.ita.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. and the series extending beyond these. The best known member of this school Maadhava (c. (Pingree 1981. in which he developed a solution for a certain type of second order indeterminate equation. and equations involving the product of different unknowns. he wrote a highly sophisticated mathematical text that proceeded by several centuries the development of such techniques in Europe. He also wrote on the solution to numerous kinds of linear and quadratic equations. His best known work is the Brahmasphuta Siddhanta. he made history in mathematics with his writings on trigonometry. 64) In short. written in 628 CE. Brahmagupta founded an influential school of mathematics which rivaled Aaryabhat. Included in this compilation is the Biijagan. as well as the so-called "Pell's equation (vargaprakr. These include the mathematics of zero. Maadhava The Kerala region of South India was home to a very important school of mathematics. squares. (Pingree 1981:60) Bhaaskara Bhaaskara was one of the many outstanding mathematicians hailing from South India. square-roots. He also wrote on plane and solid geometry. although it would be better to term this a rediscovery. It treats at length the "pulverizer" (kut.a's. 14441545). influenced the development of both Arabic and European mathematical traditions.akaara) method of solving indeterminate equations with continued fractions. This text was translated into Arabic in the eighth century. he composed a four-part text entitled the Siddhanta Ziromani. cosine and arctangent of the circle.ti) dealing with indeterminate equations of the second degree.

and to ignore this fact is to fail to grasp the history of latter. as Frits Staal has suggested in his important (1995) article. 1987. "Number Theory in India". Joseph. This development thus triggered the scientific and information technology revolutions which swept Europe and. Why. pp. . Harding. a history which was truly multicultural. later. 784-786. these groups included certain brahmins as well as the Buddhist and Jain monks. "The Sanskrit of Science". Encyclopaedia of the History of Science. Inc. via the Arabs. (Pingree 1981:490) This is by no means a complete list of influential Indian mathematicians or Indian contributions to mathematics. Technology. The role played by India in the development is no mere footnote. easily and inconsequentially swept under the rug of Eurocentric bias.a? The answer appears to be that Europeans were trapped in the relatively simplistic and concrete geometrical mathematics developed by the Greeks. New York: John Wiley & Sons. assimilated and accepted the placevalue system of enumeration developed in India that they were able to free their minds from the concrete and develop more abstract systems of thought.verypdf. In the case of classical India.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. the world. 1997. Ifrah. and to deny India one of it's greatest contributions to world civilization. George Ghevarughese. "Foundations of Eurocentrism in Mathematics". and thus the opportunity to dedicate themselves to intellectual pursuits. The Universal History of Numbers: From Prehistory to the Invention of the Computer. did Europe take over thousand years to attain the level of abstract mathematics achieved by Indians such as Aaryabhat. received. correctly calculated the value of p to eleven decimal places. deriving its inspiration from a variety of cultural roots. The classical Indian mathematical renaissance was an important precursor to the European renaissance. important revolutions in scientific thought occurred in complex. and Medicine in NonWestern Cultures. ed.com/ to remove this watermark. profound similarities between the social contexts of classical India and renaissance Europe. Sophie Wood and Ian Monk. unbiased standard. Georges. judged by any fair. while in renaissance Europe they included both the monks as well as their secular derivatives. the university scholars. trans.3. E. one might ask. It was not until they had. F. In both cases. In Race & Class 28. 2000. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers. 13-28. David Bellos. Takao. an illustrious tradition. important both for its own internal elegance as well as its influence on the history of European mathematical traditions. hierarchical societies in which certain elite groups were granted freedom from manual labor. There are in fact. but rather a survey of the highlights of what is. Works Cited Hayashi. pp. In Helaine Selin. To do so is to distort history.

"The Origin of Mathematics". pp. 1983. 2. R. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz. In T. pp. India's Contribution to World Thought and Culture. In T. ed. Seidenberg. 4. Frits. "Binary Numbers in Indian Antiquity".4.. et al.1. Computing Science in Ancient India. Rao and Subhash Kak. Sabetai. vol. In Archive for History of Exact Sciences 18. 1978.html ========================================== Related articles Nature uses maths Oldest Civilisation Speech Science Top <To top of this page Index Alphabetical [Index to Pages] . In Archive for History of Exact Sciences 15. 1986. "On the Need to Rewrite the History of Greek Mathematics". 488-527. In Journal of Indian Philosophy 23. In Archive for History of Exact Sciences 1.verypdf. van Nooten. 95126. "The Geometry of Vedic Rituals". 1975. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. Rao and Subhash Kak. 1970. 301-42. p. R. 1981. Subhash. V. 67-114. "The Ritual Origin of Geometry". ______. Subbarayappa. Unguru. In Frits Staal. eds. pp.infinityfoundation.zaastra: Astral and Mathematical Literature. 6-21. In Lokesh Chandra. Pingree. "The Sanskrit of Science". B. "An Overview of Ancient Indian Science". Computing Science in Ancient India. eds. 1962. pp. Agni: The Vedic Ritual of the Fire Altar. pp. Kak. A.com/ECITmathframeset. Staal.com/ to remove this watermark. pp.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. eds. N. David. Madras: Vivekananda Rock Memorial Committee. Jyotih. 73-127. pp. "India's Contributions to the History of Science". B. http://www. pp. 47-66. 21-39. 1995. ______. N.

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