THT ExCYCLoPEDIA oF

MnHoLoGY

THE ExCYCLoPEDIA oF MYTHOLOGY ClassrcAL Cel.rrc GnEex AnrnuR CoTTERELL .

Wft. Millions Design lllusrrators: James Alexander. mechanical. Special feature spreads examine specific mythological themes in more detail. 88-89 Blackfriars Road London SEI BFIA tel 020 7 401 2077 .wrthout the prior written permission of the copyright holder A CIP catalogue record is available from the British Library Publisher: Joanna Lorenz Editorial Director: Helen Sudell Project Ediror: Belinda Wilkinson Designer: Nigel Soper. recording or otherwise. fax 020 7633 9499 info@anness.stored in a retnevalsystem. 1098765+32 . lf a characteris included in a specialfeature spreadit is noted at the end of their indMdual entry. Nick Beale. Glenn Steward Printed and bound in China Frontispiece: The ForglngoJthe Sampoby A GallenIGllela This page: TheRape oJGanymede PeterPaul by Rubens Author's Note The entries in this encvcloDedia are all Iisted alphabetically.r. photocopl'rng. more than one name exists for a character the entry is listed under the name used in the original country of origin flor that particular myth. 2006 Al1 nghts reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced. electronic.com @ AnnessPublishlng Ltd 1996. Names in iralic caDitalletters indicate that rhat name has an individual entry.This edition is pubiished by Hermes House Hermes House is an imprint of Anness Publishing Ltd Hermes House.or transmirted in any way or by any means.

CONTENTS PneFACE 6 CInSSICAL MYTHOLoGY B Introduction l0 L o v e r s o f .Z e u s 2 0 Heroes 30 Oracles and Prophecies 40 Voyagers 50 Monsters and Fabulous Beasts58 Forcesof Nature 6B G i a nt s 7 6 Founders B4 CeLTIC MyTHoLOGY 9O Introduction 92 Celtic Otherworlds 104 S a g e sa n d S e e r s l l 4 Magic and Enchantment I24 Wondrous Cauldrons 132 Celtic Romance 140 Single Combat L48 Heroic Quests 156 Fabulous Voyages 164 NoRSE MyTHOLOGY L72 Introduction I74 Nature Spirits 186 T r e a s u r e sa n d T a l i s m a n s 1 9 6 Norse Heroes 204 T h e V a l k y ri e s 2I2 Sorcery and Sp eIIs 220 Tragic Lovers 228 Rings of Power 236 Ragnarok 24+ s P r c r u R EA c r x o w L E D G E M E N r2 5 2 Ixnnx 2 53 .

and. his hlling of Conlai. but later abandoned his helper. In Norse myth. it is the pride of the gods or their opponents. ireland and Scandinavia. They form the core of European mythological thought. Theseus forgot the agreement made with his father abour changing the sail of his ship from black if he escaped death himself. the frost giants. As a result of this moment of carelessness. which causes disasters ro occur. plus the growth of plans. Celtic and Germanic myths touch upon the fundamental issues of existence. But heroes and heroines find themselves in unreiated circumstances facing the same basic problems in Greece. the Cretan princess Ariadne. even a beheading game. Celtic and Norse. nor least within a family or a group of colleagues. Full of his success against the bull-man. Different myths rackle these great quesrions in distinct ways. his own son by the Amazon the old and rhe new. bored by rhe steady pace of everyday events. Unlike the Greel.ties to abductHeracles' new bide whileJerryingher the across RfuerEvenus GHE oFDEhNTMGurDo . rhe challenge of the unknown. the sadness of betrayal and treachery. especially on the battlefield or in single combat. The Athenian hero Theseus Aoifa. wherher a voyage into uncharted waters or a quest fot a sacred object. c^NvAs. the nature of the universe. the horror of madness with its disruption of human relations. between mankind and the gods. however. rhe relation between human and divine. the conflict between the generarions. the violence of men.PREFACE PnEFACE H I S C O M B I N E DE N C Y C L O P E D I A f o mythology contains the three ourstanding traditions of Europe Greek. So in lreiand rhe inability of the power of love.<s NEssuS. with a variety of after-life possibilities including rebirth. the effect of enchantment upon the mind and body. Theseus' father committed suicide by leaping from the Athenian acropolis when rhe black sail was sighred. the mischief of the trouble-maker. the mystery of dearh. plus the whole issue of fate. For the stories related in Greek. the cycle of fertility in human beings and animals. last. rhe early ideas and notions which underlie our present-day consciousness. the personal danger of a contest with a monster.4 wild Greehcentaur. the crearion of the world and the origins of sociery. but not least. ) R^pE RrN/ By 1621 . the incidence of misfortune and luck. the sadness of illness or accidenral injury. with its accompanying anxiery Cuchulainn ro srop and think for a moment led to and jealousy. They reveal successfu\ confronted the Minotaur on Crete.

Srcuto. and her mating with it led to the birth of the bull-man known as the Minotaur: hence Theseus and his combat with the strange creature. The Celtic sun god Lugh cannot save his son Cuchulainn on the battlefield. The great hero was Thor. It could almost be described as sacred literature undisturbed by theologians. The raw and ragged ends of existence are still visible in is tales of both men and gods.l2rH cENruRY) it. The tangled web of difficulties which besets Theseus can thus be traced to a number of actions. For Theseus married Phaedra.PREFACE sea to Poseidon. the doom of the gods. The Athenian hero's entanglement with Minos' family did not stop with the abandonment of fuiadne and the death of his own father. Before Theseus Ieamed the truth. the one-eyed god of batrle and the inspirer of the dreaded berserkers.) supremaq overanirncls (curosrnupcauDRoN. ln consequence of this sacrilege Minos' wife Pasiphae was consumed with passion for the beast. sometimes to thwart them entirely. Yet those who undertook raids as Vikings had a more suitable patron in Odin.re-Jorgehiswondroussword With .thegreatNorsehero. He delighted the tough Northmen. not for an animal this dme. Usually myths reveal an interwoven pattem of circumstances ourcide the control of both mortals and gods. and thus reveakhis awesomepwer. is is frankness about such basic human drives. donglestwo worriors high absvehishead. Fafnir. European or otherwise. but they never work. who appreciated how his allergy to frost glants naturally led to skullsmashing encounterc in fields and halls. showingtheir c GiDDsILwR. She too was cursed with an illicit passion. the chief god of the Greeks. lN Bc. The abiding interest of mythology. A CELTIC Drrv. and then lost his exiled son in a chariot accident.helpshismmtor. Fate and destiny in European mythology are almost beyond manipulation. he banished honest Hippolytus on Phaedra's denunciation of his evil intendons. but one stands out clearly: the refusal of King Minos of Crete to sacrifice the white bull from the . while the wariors in tum lift twoboa6. He cannot control events.Regln. the German peoples of northern Europe did not develop a heroic tradition of any significance. has a duty to see that fate takes its proper course. Srgurd sltv the dragon. however. is real owner. but for her stepson Hippolytus. another daughter of Minos. Attempts may be made to slow down the operation of fate's decrees. posib! Dogda. Odin can do nothing about his future death at Ragnarok. the slowwitted but honest champion of the gods. {wuto aavtNc. and the Celts. And even immonal Zeus.

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his'raew of motive. guilt and expiation For that reason another dramatist was able to tackle the same srory later in Athens during the fifth cenrury sC It needs to be remembered that such drama remained very much part of ancient religron Today we cannot expect to appreciate the full meaning of these performances. thc Ettnol (-rq'. but we are fortunate in halrng the MAR5 AND NEpruNE."'ays a plot and a set of charactersreadily underE RUs 4E .men and animals Around 400 Bc the Arhenian philosopherPlatocoined the word rnythologia n order to drstinguish r b e t w e e n r m a g i n a r i v e z r c c o u n t so l d i v i n e a c t t o n sl n d f e rr u a i i t ' : t r t p t i o n r ( . g n i z . henres. two gocls of ancrent Romc.P l r t t o r c c . Likeall active traclitions. a m)'th ah. *T rh author. and warned hrs followers tcr beu'areof its seductrve charm The strcngth of Greek myrholog'. N T P T L N F P 4 r r ry r R ( ) N E s EA N L l0 .lytemnestra l b or dramattst making use o[ tt When. 't h q 5 1 1 ' r y .'"vas c n d u r e a t e r n b l e p e n o d o [ d o m e s t i cs t n f e Not only had Atreus and hrs brother Thycstes bcen cursed by rherrown father. Pelops. whiic Neptunc's putto .ftY \1 ( during hrs abscnceat the s l r r t r d y t h r ' s r ' w h ol i s r e n c t1 .nor Orestes'punuit by thc Funes for sheddrnga mother's blood What would have fascinatedthe audiencewas the dramatist's approach to these tangled incidents. symbol oJ thr god's dominion ttvar lhd watves {Mq* r:l BY r C .INTRODLTCTI()N IxTRODIJCTION fl r r r. but a bloody quarrel of their own had also added to the family mrsfbrtune A to dispute over the succession Pelops'throne at Mycenae led Atreus to kill three oI T h y e s t e s ' s o n s .a l t h o u g h t h e y h a d s o u g h t sanctuaryin a temple dedicatedto Zeus. afrerwhich he dared to their feet and hands Atreus show Th1'estes paid for the outrage wrth hrs life at the hands of Thyestes' sumving son.F K 5 w l : Rt g r e a t nr r I MAcEDoNtA l l m y r h m u k . their half-brother Chrysippus. for kLllrnghis favounte chrld. Agamemnon'sfather.t h e A t h e n r a n sw a t c h e d t h e g r e a t cyclc of plays that Aeschylusstagedabout the Trojan \Var All this would have been famrliar to the Athcnians beforeAcschylus' treatment of the r m 1 ' t h b e g a nu r t h . Aegisthus.r[eC. ' t h r l o v e r r ' l A g a m e m n t t ns . neirher the murder o[ Agamemnon.lay in rrs collecrivcnature Unlike a story composed by a partrcular stood on its ou'n. a n d n o l o n g er i n c l r n e d t o b c l i e v e cvery detail related about gods and godt d e s s c s . { t \ ' ( n t 5 . ' d h e p o w r ' r r h a t resided in myth. ricir over m u r d e r o I A g a m em n o n . the supreme god Even worse. nor the revenge of his son Orcstes. who l r r t c r h e c a m . the murderer then served the bocliesof his nephews up to his brorher at a banquet. r * t r l E u r o p cT h t ' ) e r e n tl J i g l r c u s r h c n r m e h 1 'w h r r h u e refer today to the amazrngstonestold about gods.anies a seasheil. ' l l c ru. t h c y r v e r ea l r e a d y a w a r e o f t h c m a i n c h a r a c t e r sa n d t h c i r actlons The audienceknew how the House fated to of Atreus. for i n s t a n c e .guarding itr mrhtary und monnmt putLo above Mdrs burs h$ rntcrests At klt. supemamralor othenvlse Although he lived in an age thzrtwas increasingly scrtntrllc in o u t l o o k .t . l x t I E N I C R I . . { g a m e m n ( ) n e t u r n i n g homc liom the Trojan War Some of the audience doubtlessrecalledan even older curse laid on l'elops himself by the messengergod H e r m e s P e l o p sh a d p r o v o k e d t h e g o d b y relusing a promiscd gift to one of his sons rncludedin hrs plays Nothing that Aeschylus was unexpected. an aifiomt hr)rsd's h(lmcl.

the epic poem abour Aeneas written by Virgil in the 20s sc.of Agamemnon. a shape that had been collectively recognized for longer than anyone could remember Even now. the doomed leaderof the Greek expedrtion againsrTroy. the myths themselves Myths retain much of rheir power. myrhs were fictitious stones rhar illusrrared rruh The Romans were no less impressed by the range and interesr of Greek myrhology Indeed. of the unbeatable champron Achilles. but The Aeneid. one of rhe bravesr of the Greek and the inventor of the Wooden Horse. of rhe great voyagerJason. Zeus' own son and the only hero to be granted immortaliry. we conrinue to be fascinated by the stories of Oedipus. and many others As Greek lMng before and afrer Plato evidently understood. o[cunning Odysseus. albeir Thracian rn ongin. rhey adopred it wholesale and identified many of their own haiian deities wrrh those in rhe Greek panrheon. of the hapless Pentheus. even when told in summary.INTRODUCTION raw materials from which they were made. wine and ecstasywas by no means a comfortable deity for the Greeks. slayer of the strange bull-headed man. Jason. even adopring others for whom they possessed real equivno alent The unruly Dionysus gave Rome considerable rrouble Thrs god ofvegetation. who included his own morher. rhe man who murdered his father and married his morher. of the Athenian hero Theseus. of rhe labours of Heracles. rhe means by which Troy was raken. could stand for rhe enrire processby which Greek and Roman myrhologr merged in rhe second century BC There were just too many myths for rhe Romans to resist. as Roman heroes were expected to do rn every myth ll . Perseus or Bellerophon Something s)'nthetic can be felr in the story of Aeneas. . they acquired their essential form.-'! Venone o <-r{ 0 \t "n tcn&ifii "'*. rhe Minotaur. IONIAN AFR ICA AFRICAN SEA founder-hero made him of particular concem to the lirst Roman emperor Augustus. as rhey are in this encyclopedia Because Greek myths were fashioned and refashioned over so many generations. turned out ro be a balanced celebrarion of Roman aurhoriry rather than an exciting heroic narrative The hero heededthe call ofduty and abandoned the woman he loved. although rhey chose to impose a rypical restraint on Greek extravagance Roman heroes could never compare wrth Heracles. rhe leader of the refugees {rom Troy His adoption as a SIcILIAN SEA TYRRHENIAN SEA .who sailed acrossrhe Black Sea ro disranr Colchis in order to ferch the Golden Fleece. Theseus.victim of Dionysus' ecsraric worshippers.. but the Romans were more deeply disturbed by his orgiastic rites In 186 nc rhe Roman Senarepassed severe laws against the excesseso[ his worshippers h is likely rhat severalthousand people were executedbefore the cult of the native wine god Bacchus discarded those aspects of Dronysus which mer wrth official disproval This taming of a Greek god.

r h e g o d s c a r e f u l l y arranged the mamage of Thetis to a mortal Because she was scr attached to Achilies. Achilles had no choice but to sail for Troy There he bitterly quanelled wrth Agamemnon. thrs one spot was left vulnerable and at Troy brought about A. had wamed them that her offspnng would be greaterthan his Iather Anxious ro avord the emergcnceof a powcr qupenorto r h e m s e l v e s .a call ( A ( H i l | r ! f u i l r \ r . hrlles de. cunning oDYssEUs was to marry Achrlles. the leader o[ the Greeks lt may be that he was our Achilles therr chances of angeredby Agamemnon'suse o[ ro beating the Trojanswere sLtm.s. fire the god.t to have a son by the beautiful The tis.g i v i n g h i m s e l I a w a y Unmasked.but his name to bring IPHIGENTA no one could identify the hidden Aulis. lcomes (centre) arul Aiax Odysseus among some jewellery in the comratles. .rrh lrom a noisoncd anow shot from the bow ol PeRts Achrlles learned the skills of warfare from CHIRON. h e a p p e a r sr o h a v eb e e n s o m c t h i n g of a barbarian His anger was as legendaryas his prowess The uncerrainnatureof Achilles is apparentin the story of his brrth wanted Both zEL'sand pttsr-iitrt. Odysseusplacedweapons hs tompdnion. Agamemnon intended to sacnfice of which he did by means a tnck Haung tracedthe young man to ACHILLES. TZ . .l:NlAt/R.Patroclus. b . I warrior quickly reached for the w e a p o n s . for she had been told she hero At last. who also fed him on wild game to increase his f'erocity Chrron's care Achilles Under became renowned as a courageous lrshrcr bur hi' immortal mothcr . who irnplorc tht moodyhero to needed w c o m p a n i o n s c r r a d m i r i n gr h c retum Lobattle whereht s sorely of crafrsmanship rhejewels.CLASSICAL MYTHOLOGY ACUtt-leS was rhc son of Krng Peleus of Thessaly and the sea nymph THETISHe was the greatesr of the Greek wamors. A M r M ! ( ) N ! N l l s s l \ c t : f . palace Whrle Achilles' female (right). but PROMETIlirt. ' . s to arms was sounded and the D l / l ' 4 \ A i i i i I l \ L ' 8 t \ L 1 \ t 1 \ l S L i l l P# "F. le ader of the c. the world of the dead knew that he was doomed to die at Troy rf he went on the expedition So Thetis arrangedfor him to be disguised as a grrl and hrdden among the women at the palaceof Krng Lycomedeson rhe islandof Sc1'rosThe Greek felt that wrth- Since Thcris had to hold him by the heel. rhe rrver rhat ran through HADE-S.'-s. Thetis tried to make him immorral by various mcans Thc bcst known wrs drpping the new-born baby in the Sryx. although in compansonwith acar'tlllxov and the other Greekhngs who went on r h c e x p e d r t r o na g a i n s tT r o y . whereas was sent to discover AchiLles. s A ( . reluingbnde hrstentwth we hrs Scpos..

But his own life was coming to an end.withblach all sails hoisted that had Thinhing hisson died. at the hands of the Trojan HEcToR. and but he cameup againstHectorwho easilydefeatedhim. Pittheus made Aegeus whounluchily upon chanced thepoolwhae drunk and let him sleep wirh his Artemis woebathing andher nymphs In daughter Aethra.he offended rhe goddess. partoJ hao'sbody. and farher of tne nero THfslus Ha!1ng twrce manied wirhout begetdng any children. AnCeUS was the son of King Pandion ofAthens. Aegeus himsef thesea. Aegeuswent to consult the Delphic Oracle bur received only the ambiguous answer that he should nor untie his wine skin until he reachedhome. a black sail would signalhis dearh. the latter realizedrhat the oracie had foretold how Aegeuswould father a heroic son. straight Achilles' theonlymortal Jor myths.At the commencementof char Medea did everything she his Asian campaign against rhe could to thwart Theseus. ing manhood. Ioohing to sea. 1869) ACHILLE FMNZST ssEN.Achilles refused. Aegeus had married wound. who asked for respect to be shown for his body if he was defeated. When Aegeus outrage. Only Thetis could persuade her son to le! the Trojans recover the corpse and arrange a funeral. upon seeing with is black sail. entered the fray. gave Achilles a mortal Meantime. ceouus. But thesefaithful animals were broken-heaned at the loss of their master. To stop his boasring. In brand-new arrnour Achilles sought out Hector.Aegeus the vessel threw himself off the Athenian acropolis to certain dearh AEGEUS out sees . before rhe FURIES rokens to him in Athens on reachstruck the divine creature dumb. Actaeon may have boasted of his superior skill as a hunrer. Theseusgew up and was eventuguided by rhe god of prophecy ally reunited with his father. FRoM oF sandals beneath an enormous C6srclANTreuns. Retuming to Arhens after an incredible adventure in the Labynnth at Knossos. unril Chiron carved a statue of Acaeon so lifelike that they were satisfied. vir$ngoddess the tumed into undersrood what had happened. 1995) I3 . wirh the result rhar. the ship bringing him home was to fly a white sail: if unsuccessful.N 8v Nlck 8uLE. Medea returned in disgust ro her native Colchis on rhe Black Sea.the youthful Alexander pardcipared in funeral games that were held at Troy in memory of Achilles. There are several reasons given for his terrible end.rnrEMISand paid wirh his life. daughrer of. of whom he killed hundreds. futemis tumed him into a sug and he was chased and devoured byhis own hounds. another ruler. (Seealso HEROES) suggesrion Theseus was sent to fight the wild bull of Marathon. (ArcLLo was rhe son of a ACfnfON the shys shot anow. a serious obligarion for the living. the sorceressMEDF-A. to ensure a favourable wind for the Greek fleer For a long time Achilles srayed in his rent and refused to fight the Trojans. He rold the princessthat if she bore a son who could move had been wamed about by his the rock. in othm. whose magiAchilles was rhe myrhical figure cal powers had given him another most admired by Alexander rhe son. Heroic yet also arrogant. which he walk ACHIIJ-E Jalls S bneath theTrojan . Backin rhe flght. him a srcgand was apart hisovn he torn by he placed a sword and a pair of (IuusrunoN DlcnoNARy hounds. which he captured alive.ClesstcAr- MvrHoLocY her to the goddess ARTEMIS. A Greek hunter trained by CHIROw. or annoyed the goddessby seeingher bathing naked.But bad Iuck continued to dog Aegeus and wentually causedhis death. Achilles struck fear into the Trojans. bulla headed man. Theseus forgot the agreement to changehis sail from black to white. thegod. To securethe sewices of such ACTAEON asayoung w Greeh hunter a man. He even persuaded his mother to use her influence with Zeus to let the tide of war go against the Greels. god his shot ParisThesun aims arrow by heel. If Theseus was successfulin his dangerous mission ro kill the Minotaur. Ar her Persians.Patroclus had bonowed Achilles' armour. slew Hector with his spear and draggedrhe Trojan hero round rhe tomb of Patroclus for rwelve days. which had been forged by the smith god HEPHAISTOS. he was to bring these steed XeivlHUS. Once Aegeusrecognizedhis son. into aJterhurled wards named Aegean the (lrr/srMr. When he sought advice from his friend Pittheus. some the ln guided Apollo Pais' bw. hisson's ships retuminghome. But Achilles was roused to action by the death of Patroclus. lt was for this reason Great. Medus. For it was agreed that Theseus should travel ro Crete with the seven girls and sevenboys sent as ribute each year to feed the MINOTAUR.(. APOLLO. Thus it was that An arrow from the bow of Paris. seenhere a minor royal god and Auronoe. ) l89l boulder. ry w^ftRconu{. his squire and lover.

was conthroughout the voyage Only the sumed by the flames When the Trgans finallylanded dmelyhelp of rurm. lt was not a coincidence that the first Roman emperor. HE CoMpNloNs FlGm frE ll^mEs rv Fwcors I'ERroE crwtr. ln gradtude PRIAM gave Aeneas his daughter Creusa to have as his wife. Although Venus wamed him of the impending fall of Troy. took a personal interest in the myth. after the Greek sack of their city. who fearedhim second only ro urcron. Upstart Rome was only too aware of its lack of tradition and history in comparison with Greece(there was a nouble absenceof a glorious past peopled with mythical heroes and gods). who believedthat some of their eminent families were descended from the Trojans who fled westwards with him from Asia Minor. She took him on a visit to the battle and A-ENE{S hiscomrddes witha hwer JbchoJraglnghorpieswho abwe canyofl the in them thesky. who harassed Aeneas rhrough with a sword. and the new sute to be founded on In its shoreswere both forgotten. Augustus. Aeneassaw her ghost and leamed from it that he would found a new Troy in distant ltaly. During the Trojan WarAnchises was unable to fight.beams are watchful.pillan. But young Aeneas distinguished himself againsr the Greeks. So.recalling him to ale aredecorated the with famous oJ his dury and commanding him to anil Aenens theTrolans BY BuE. Aeneaswent to consult the SIBYL. Dido bitterly reproachedAeneas. dispatched urncuRv wirh a oJ while Jabulous made bronze. Aeneas managed to escape Troy with his father and his son Somehow Creusabecame separatedlrom the party and disappeared Later. the Roman equivalent o[ prepared and. ond Anchls. 161#7) l4 .Nr. carryrng Anchises on his back. the Roman was a Trojan hero and AfNneS the son ofAnchises and vENUs.uetrrR. Anchises refused to quit the city until two omens occurred: a small flame rose from rhe top ofAscanius'head and a meteor fell close by.waitingto lwrts sheher Prsidc weah wovndcl. doors Around the walls god. having run herself HERA. the fleet came to Epirus seagod. as Aeneas and Dido soon in laly.the Roman goddess of love He was the favourite of the Romans. Drdo.thequeen. the widow DIDO.Becauseofher own flrght to Carthage.hs ha htsfamily: blind Jathcr (ANs AND and wiJe Cmtsa thar tvtosons. saved the fleet from shipwreck At the ciry of Canhage. Dido welcomed the Trojan refugeeswith geat hndness and unlimited hospitaliry. But him welroma to heraotic hingCom and. so the exploits o[Aeneas conveniently provided a means of reassertingnational pride. Time passed pleasantly for the lovers. and ir seemed as i[ Italy AENFAS in while temple Carthage.but his deep on the eastem Adriatic coast From there it made for Sicily. having been renderedblind or lame for boasdng about his reladonship with Venus. messageto Aeneas. and a son was born named AscANlus.1995 resume the voyage Honified by his ) ouuiRfloN Nrcx inrention to leave. near the city of Cumae. the Trojan champion. but before sense of piety gave him strength enough to launch the fleet again. rhe chief Roman than. who was a renowned prophetess.where the small fleet Aeneas commanded stopped at a number of islands. Venus ensured that Aeneas fell in love with is beauriful queen. the great trading port founded by the Phoenicians (which was located in present-day Tunisia). After sailing through the Aegean Sea.ulo.ClnssrcAr- MvrHoLoGY gdzes wonder the at decoratwe became. reaching the Iulian mainland itwas diverted to North Afnca dunng a Then the weeping queen mounted sudden storm sent by the goddess a pyre which she had ordered to be .

Anchiseshad However. was bloody and pro. descending married ro CLyTEMNESTM. On her it around his body.or nearby crossed the threshold ofhis palace. who showed him HELEN. but his enthusiastic ourline Agamemnon then realized that he nighr attack on his comrades. and hero ACHILLES According ro Conflict with rhe latins. Aegisthus was rhe son ofThyesres. Ajax humedly rumed away animais. is ofered a a "sacnfciallamb" to apryase theanger oJ AGAMEMNON I5 . the daugh.but of the future encouraged his son.uken ro Taurus to becomea priesrter of King Larinus lt had been ess in the goddess'stemple foretold that for the sake of the Clytemnestra never forgave longdom Laviniamust marryraman Agamerhnon for lphigenia's loss. king. He was wzlsto seehim Thanlcng the gods A.hopewas suddenly overwhelmed by a Afterwards. Afrer Achilles' BAmsr^.. the MENEIAUS. would have to make a human sac. lphigeniawas sacriinhabirants. From for his safe retum. Iphignia.AJAXheads theTrqan onslaught of wth rhe goddesserHrNA deceived him Aeneas also saw Dido's ghost. into slaughtering a flock of sheep it did not speak to him and the goddess o[ the forest and wild brother. Aeneassreered for was therefore sent to Aulis under to settheGreeh ships alight 0uusmnoru fear of his evil intentions. Ajax became died of old age during the smy in delayed at Auhs by conrary winds net over Agamemnon and twisted mad with.death there was a contest for rhe against Troy The causeo[ the war ter of PRIAM. Latins' rraditions and language. adopred the during the ten-yearsiegeofTroy. and fell che mouth of rhe River Tiber. but rifice in order to appease ARTEMIS. which underworld. He rhen rerired to a barhroom had been forged by the smirh god father's ghost. rhar ciry wirh PARI5. a was his citadel at Mycenae. rhe Greek fleer was Clytemnestra quickly threw a large awarded the armour.ealousy He planned a Sicily. on the pretexr rhat she was to be rRoM STORIE FROM HoMER. aims bow his at instead. was the son husband's retum. rendering him Greek mythology.AX -as rhe son of Telamon of goddess henef rebnted and. the prophetic daugh. ro in order to change his clothes. the local one tradition. order and she took Aegrsthusfor a lover in to appeaseJuno. Tatcerthearcher. NEM. His daughter IPHTGENIA theTrojans who. There Aeneasmet his was the flight of Menelaus' wife. from abroad The Tro. according ro Agamemnon's father. but accordingto another. of erRrus and the brother of first pretended how pleased she Artem(: but at the last moment. Clytemnesrraar an easy targerfor Aegisthus' axe.withJlamingtorches.she longed But peacewas made when was savedby Artemrs herselfand Aeneas mamed l-avinia. waxha coolly ahis daughtu. he sent out a summons to ignoring the warning o[ his slave assault on Troy. In the light of dawn. like ACHILLES. the defeated Trojan armour of this great warrior.lans. long of Spana.ClassIcAr- MyrHoLocY ACnunuNON.ficed. i885 ) on his sword and died whose river banks the ciry of Rome married to the Greek champion would be built centuries larer. Agamemnon Salamisand. (Seealso VOYAGERS) the brother and enemy of Atreus. HEPFIAISTOS. Wical mightandcourage Beside his htm. powerful aid to the Greeksin their Jromheavat shecarried Iphignia ofl to Tdurus OHE SACruNCE IPHIGENN GIOVNNI OF 8Y Argos. When ODY55EU5 was the destiny of Rome. 1770-) the Greek to join the expedition cAssANDM.

the son o[ Zeus. the infant but hero strangled them ku s never ler H era f. I6 . rhe son of Amphirryon. So Alcmene became pregnant with rwins: Heracles. a neighbounng monarch named Admetus succeeded this in seemingly impossible task But at the wedding he forgot to make the necessarysacnfice in gratitude ro ARTEMIS. Wirh rhe aid of epoLro. Alcmene refused to consummate her marriagero Amphitryon undl he had avenged the murder of her brothers. and they had two sons who later took part in the Greek expedirion agarnstthe city ofTroy.son of pEFsrus.sslcAL MYTHoLoGY AlCfSftS.and the morher of urnacrrs.a bear) to a chariot. Eileithyia.ro frusrate the delivery.CI. Zeus could not hide hls sarisfaction from his wife HERA who realized what had happened Shesent the goddessof childbirth. and whileAlcestis' Jather. 1 9 2 0 ) AlCUeNt was rhe daughrerof Electryon. by making rhe FATES drunk. who Amphitryon. near Mycenae in the Peloponnese. goddessof the foresr the and wrld animals. here portr(lyed is setting alight pyre her was a beneath She saved by a heawnly dwnpoursent Zeus by (lrLLsruTr)I 8YNtcKBilu. the god of prophecy. Alcestis was to be the wife of the firsr man to yoke a lion and a boar (or. but was stopped by a sudden downpour.llyinjur e Heracles.Zeus sent HERMES bring her body to the ElysianFields. on Admetus was theonly to hero yohe beasts. and always protected Alcmene. Alcescisgaveher life for him prnstpuolr. When Alcmene died naturally of to old age.was so impressedby this complete devotion rhar she restoredAlcestis to Admetus. Pelias. Ioohs in disbelieJ. extracted from rhem a promise that if anyone elsewould die on Admetus' behalf.but wos punished Jor herinlideliry herangry by husband. but a trick savedAlcmene and her two sons. ALCESTIS her below)welcomes suitor.l995) the seer TIRESIAS explained that zEUs had come ro Alcmene disguised as her husband in order to father a monal who would aid the gods in their forthcoming battle against the GIANTS. This the king did.winning the so (trrt'srurror srorur thehand Alcestis oJ rnov r R o MG R r ( L A N DR o M r . and lphicles. king of Tir.a:e. he might continue to live. and so found his wedding bed full of snakes Once again Apollo came to the king's assistanceand. Once Amphitryon tried ro bum her for infidelity.q. anives o chaiotdrawn who in by Iions bears. in some versions. fu no one would volunteer.'ns. She married Amphitryon. rhe undenvorld goddess. . was the daughrer of Krng Pelias of Thessaly When she was o[ an age to marry. Hera then put snakes into Heracles'cradle. many suitors appeared and her father set a test to discoverwho would be the most suirable husband. Admetus. according ro Greek mythology. Amphitryon was enrageduntil ALCMENE6ght) wasote oJrheslEgod Zeus' many loers. but when he retumed he was amazed to learn from Alcmene rhat she believedshe had alreadyslept with him.

she sees husband. Andromache went on to marry Helenus who.eing that thq be drownedin the nver Tiber. Andromache bore Neoptolemus three sons. god laas. But thq are eventually who Jound fo a she-wolJ suchles them until a shepherd. in Roman my'thology. Faustulus. brothers. Minor. tahesthem home (ttlsrurrul rRoM sroRrEs l ROM Ll\a. a king of Mysia in Asia AUUIIUS. herson and hurled Jrom thecirywalls. Romulus and Remusretumed ro Alba Longa and lalled their uncle Amulius. cnNVAs. husband throne of Alba Longa from his and son . andseven her brothers Jather hilledby Arhilles.which was a new ciry founded by one of her sons. Amulius imprisoned her and ordered that her rwin sons. PRIAM. ord.the twin sonsoJ Rhea Silviaand the war god Mars.One of Heracles'famous labours was the seizure of a girdle belonging to the Amazon queen Hippolyta. Romulusand Remus.CLASSIcAL MYinoIocy AMUIJUS (Iet't) casts outhis nephews.He usurped the family . ANDROMACHE.parens. and in consequen'ce suffered the hatred of his barren Greek wrfe When Neoptolemusdied. a theft that required considerablenerve.was killed during the younger brother Numitor and Trojan War. was a Trojan captive Her finalyearswere spent in fuia Minor at Pergamum. rhe son to as to deny her father an heir When of the great Greek hero ACHILLES RheaSihra was raped by the war Neoptolemus had shown rhe same . rhe was a descendant of the Trojan foremost Trojan warrior Her entire hero AENEAS. the daughter of Eetion. his father when he rurhlessly killed the Trojan hng. REMUS ANDROMULUS. her bows head captivity oJthe in One noblest most but ll-starred ofheroines. rhe altar ar of zrus'remple. 1885 ) violent and tempestuous temper urs wrth her. was the wlfe of nncton. drowned be in the Tiber Bur rhe rwo boys escapeda watery death and grew up in the countryside Once rhey realized their parenrage. while Jalls a pize oJ she as war to Achilles' son (cAf lvr: ANDRi)MAcHli D) L0RDLErcHroN. 1890) c ANonOveCHE. like her. young Hector's wtJe. The adventures of borh rurnecrES and ll-tt5tu) lnvolveo Datlles wltn Arnazons. forced Numitor's daughter RHEA Andromache was taken off into SILYIA become a Vestal Mrgin so captlvityby Neoptolemus. After the sack of Troy. He even slew a comrade who mentioned it Fascination with Amazon power affectedother heroesbesidesAchilles.

Her brother Polyniceshad been killed ANNOPN LOYER5 SCC OFZEUS was the Greek APnnOOtfE goddess o[ Iove.king ofThebes.CLASSICAL MYTHOLOGY ANTIGONE (abwe) sp'inhlesmrth on as the body oJha brother. beauty and fertiliry Unlike her Roman counterpan yENUs. The meaningo[ her name is uncertain. he cu* Andromedafree and REH$ slaysthe monster (PERSEUS ANDRoMED EyJflcHtMwlflEi. Oedipus tore out his eyes while Jocastahanged herself. Pegaw. the sea to mamage if he defeatedthe monnymphs. wrthout which a soul couV not rest. and obtained boasted that Andromeda was more both her and her father's consent beautiful than the Nereids. chainedto a roch os a sacifice m a seamonster.wtr.||n 04usrunoN By ) ANDROMEDA Q$).yet Creon.Andromeda settled in Tirfns. but her troubles were not over. saw her as he flew past on winged was rhe daughrerof ANilCONE IEDIPUS.with whom she was idendfied.theheroPerseus on his way Swoopingdwtn on thewinged hone. a had daied Polynices bunnl. Polynices.can only pray. She was with him at the sancuary of Colonus. s whilehlgh owrhead. Aphrodite was not only a goddess of sexuai love but also of the affection that sustains social life. and his body was condemned to rot unburied outside the ciry. a symbolicat oJbunal For the Greelu. iolating NrcK ilrE 1995 B diine l. Perseus and Cepheus'kingdom To avoid com. ha uncle. There PERSEUS and Cassiopewere also commemorated in the stars. the foot of a cliff. and his wrfe and motherJocasta On leaming of their unwitting incest. This Perseusdid by using seagod PosEIDoN He avengedthis Medusa's head. was the daugh. but they all castAntigone as the heroic victim of a family wrecked by a terrible deed. although the ancient Greek came to believe it refened to foam Quite possibly this belief arosefrom the story ofAphrodite's l8 .king Gorgon Medusa He fell in love ter o[ Cassiope of the Ethiopians When Cassiope with Andromeda. Antigone refusedto accept this impiety and spnnkled earth over the corpse as a token burial For this she was walled up in a cave. near Athens. There are a number of different versionsof the myth. the sighr of which tumed all living things to stone.where she hangedhenelflike her mother Jocasta. they complained to the ster.The penitent Oedipus was then guided by Antigone in his wanderings round Greece. insult by flooding the land and sending a seamonster to devastate After sorne time. plete disaster it was decided to which Perseusruled. The constelsacriliceAndromeda to the beast Iation of Andromeda lies close to and both Cepheus and she was chained to a rock at that of Pegasus.sandals carrying the head of the ANDROUEDA and Cepheus. 1630) in an uprising against the new ruler cREoN. She retumed to Thebes. buial wasa sacredduty. when her distraught father gained some hnd of peacejust before his death.

the spingblow her gently uhore in a showeroJ roses. Apollo took its place. andFlora. was the Greek god of war. He the was one of the most important deities of both the Greek and Roman religions.t). rhe ourraged smith god made a mesh of gold and caught the lovers in bed togerher. he casr rhe immortal member into the sea. Ares. There were in fact sanctuaries dedicared to her on many islands. the sun gd. the west wtnd. (H{oEBUs Arcrc By EMoN RMEtrcANv c . Aphrodite promised PARIs. so accomplished was Asclepius in medicine that Zeus slew him with a thunderbolt for daring to bring a man back to life. througlr the leadership of Aeneas. Zeus rwice forced Apollo to be the slave of a mortal man to pay for his crime. 1482 c ) binh. infuIl atmour. a tempestuous and passionatelover and an unscrupulous fnend The Roman god Mars. however. ln order to ensure that he would name her zlsthe most beautiful of the goddesses. including DIONYSUS and ARES. but wams him to keep the parentageof their son Aeneasa secret. Indeed the Adonia. ln Greek mythology. sherose stepping lrom the waveson a seashell. a means for some of the Trojans to escape and flourish anew in ltaly.vs and srna. and Deimos. $rthon was an offspring of GAIA. (THE BomcEur. the gods were not im4rtial. ARES @lov. as ider.Aphrodi? Ael). another West Asian deity. orurmroN noM SroruBrcM HoMER. Adonis became the object of admirarion for both Aphrodite and pERsEpHorur. the god of the sea. ashoreon Cyprus At hu sile. wife of vrruruqus. Their birter quarrel was only ended by zrUs. kingof Spana. Poseidonand Apolb (cntre) wouV oJtm ad the Trojans. APOILO was rhe son of zEUs and the Timness LETO. could give answers to any questions that might be asked. or annual festivals commemorating Adonis' death. His son ASCLEPIUS also identified was with healing and connected with sitesin nonhem Greece Indeed. "[ear". alwaysaccompanied him on the bardefield.1870) s. ruallingthe linh fuween lzo anil the sun. which issued revelations through a fissurein the rock so that a priestess. her sacred BrRrH vENUs sANDRo oF By flower. Apollo's interest in healing suSges6 an anclent assoclatlon with the plagueand is conrrol. and was Iater idenrified with the Roman war god uens. ) l8ll5 . where it floated amid white foam Inside the penis Aphrodite grew and was then washed up at Paphos on C1prus. urgcs the sun-chaiot ta ise in the slty This unusual wsion oJ themythhas Apollo. Although Ares had no wife of his own. Killed by a wild boar. virgin hunrress.This Anchlscs fails to do. the son of zr. When Hephaisros found out about Aphrodire's passion for rhe war god Ares. andlbns. archery and music The origrn of his name is uncenain but it is probably non-European A light with the gigandc earthserpent Python at Delphi gave Apollo rhe sear o[ his famous oracle. Ztphyus. So it was rhar rhe ancient Greels accommodated a West Asian mother goddessand her dying-and-rising husband. TEMpEv. Ares is depicted as an instigator of vrolence.the $nhia. he had three children byAPHROOIr. for a third parr wirh Persephone. rather tlnn Helios. pull the chaiot. Howarcr. has nothing of Ares' fickleness APOILO (abate). who ruled that for a rhird of the year Adonis was to dwell with himself. were celebrated in many pars of the eastemMediterranean Becauseof her unruly behaviour. and as a resuk suffers blindness or a disability of the Iimbs. in war.ClnssrcAr- MyrHoLocY I. He called rhe other gods from Mount Olympus ro see the pair. Phobos. of was bom Jrom theJoam ol the su. (Seealso FORCES OFNATURE) AnrS.mother earth. Zeus causedAphrodire ro fall in love wirh Anchises. but they only lauglred at his shame. the Roman version o[ ln this myth Venus herself is deeply attracted ro rhe Trojan. Once she arrived. Indeed. This fatefully rumed our ro be HELEN. and was the god of prophecy. and for a third part with Aphrodite. the goddessof Iove The rwins. persuaded Hephaisros to release Aphrodite and Ares. the farher of AENEAS.After he slew the eanh-serpent. which suggesrsrhar she was a Westfuian goddesswho was brought to Greeceby sea-traders. When rheTiran CRONOS cur off the penis of his farher Ouranos with a sharp sickle. queen of the dead. the hand of the most beaudful woman in the world. While the Roman goddess provided. though he had to do penance in Thessalyfor the hlling. the GreekAphrodite actually helped to causethe Trojan War. insteadoJ horses. Aphrodire was But not content to be a hithful wife and she bore children by severalorher gods.and the twin brother of the goddess ARTEMIS. goddess lwe andbeauty. and posenoru.PHRODITE.luik the gods into battle. the ancient Gree}<smarried her in their mythology to the crippled smith god HEPFIAISTOS. whilc Hqa anil Athena (ri$t) supporttt the Greek. Perhaps Aphrodire's grearesr Iove was for rhe handsome yourh Adonis. son of pRraU rhe hng of Troy. "panic".

K s rRtKtNG maritai conilict between the two chicf and deities.l rnlo u bcur erlhcr la ZLus. w'rlh mrlnl Lltlt I:rotcs (Lrr sprnts) horenng rn lhr riry I rnulh shc foats happiy htr moukns away. A t i a s FI/ROPA lr.a s a s w a n . r al\vAs l6J640 ) (Trlr R{n .(r\l:A-\.r/u rrvergrtl. rlrughtir.t.CLASSICAL MYTHOLOGY LovERs oF Zr.us is thc N4yt-tIt)Lt)GY op ASpEC-T GRr. suprcmc power on Olympus One of the most amorous gods in mytholo gy.. Ztus nr()unl5 tLc bull tntouruged ht ls tcrflr'nrss On the nght. surrounciccl lrr th. /b o r r h t t t t c t s o n .pursuing without mercy his loversand their offspring. t(rfhr( \ ry' thr Lhctsc. each cult recognizing a different lovcr who was often regarded as the anccs[orof a ruling family d d w(r\ior((1 Zeustn tht lom LtJ sdtvr. her husband.rlt nrrnph und (()ntfdnl()il()/Atfttnl\ rn t/tr thrlSa trcts l o \ a ( 1h : r r i \ r t n t .The antagonism between the two could be viewed as a clashbetween different religious traditions or local cults.engeful. Hera.Zeus loved countlesswomen and he as courtcd them in as many forms. ltdvrng lo ( l l h N AA \ r ) ( r \ | r \ r ( r t r I ' r r f RP 4 r R rB t N \ . /r. she ts homr selulrlv Jown to rhr sea. hl ANTIOPE (uhort). wrshrrrg to hrclL htr lrom I lcra.mrs rn thr /orcsr aar. a s a s a t y r . 152125J CALLI-S1-O (ahrrr'). as Atlphtotrurcl Zrlhus tlerc. ['uropu Arl.us lhcn . somctimes a bull. or lry Htru htrvll A\ d btdr rhc was shol hv srrns I ht' r'anous \tug6 rrprr'sr'ntcd htrt on tht klt.Zus. and erren in the form of a golden shower. dtstrtiscc.l wus plared among fht stcrs ds tht 5h.l ht r m m p h s r o n r / o r t ( a i l r s t o p o s s r b i va f t er h i ' r (n(ount(r wrth th" ovemhclmtng god. hun(t r. Hera rvas notoriously jealous and r. t n t t t g t d / r r r n rl h t n t l l c s o n t l t a n t L t l h r t r n r l h r st'a trr (. / i r b c a L r t r / r lh u l l r .Arlemrs on. l t r .l gout-lihc crtaturt 5hc iorl hrn twlr soils. Baar Hrre.ghl) ucrs ir(rrr(/ l^ Zt'ti\ In t h ( ' \ h d 1 l i .sucl grrd be-side ct vttuthlul sutl'r. Zcus.rtft whcri'shr bort hun Lhrtt ol th( hdntu drt -Shcw.r F( R(n'A I)^rrr) B) 20 .gcnliv sfiaJrrAntrrpe /rom thr sunwhilcshcsicrps Oflove td. s r r m c t i m c sa s a m o r t a l m a n . an earth gc-rddess.rr\rr)$1S{r\R8}Atr1)\rr(i)tsRr('(r). Eros.roil \f\r'u)rf /r r\nr\(.

[ u ( x ) r ) T A l( 5] 9 2 C 1 t SEMELE (klt) encourugtd Htro.t\r4\'rM()RF.s( FRr lry Dictls (llrr \rMrr( Bl(rrr T { \ ( .t (1\\1\ ltiq6) . Pcrsrus When htr lttthtr drstoveretl baby. whom Zeussavedlrtnn tht Jirt In thrspowerful veirion oJ the myth. thegeat godrodutes 5-ynrbolist chrldhtdrng A Itery. ptrsuudtd 14' in Zcrs lo shor hrrnscl/ all his qlenJour Whenh.bloodredhghtnrng winged bc from thehght coulcl Dionysus. gavc brrth prtmuturdy to Diorrysus.lt s/roxd .ht tdsthothoJ thtm out to the seain a woodenchest.' apptarttl beJorthcr as tht radiunt gil ttl thwtdtr was iry anrl lightning.apptarshtre huggrng mothcr. dymg. anclbort hun o son. the us to heaven placed arnong stars her and red ThyoneThisEtmsrdnmitror is borde with iw.whilc Apolkt his s t c r n J s w r t hu h u yt t r t ( l r t r i i t r ' h raised ntothrt hts Dionystrs becanta goc. -Senreic consumed thc /icrrnes unLl. homed godscems be a fusion oJ Hudrs und Pun to (l( filR4NrSl\1lrr r) a. r )M which was l)tonysus' sutred plant (lrrr \ ru rr()N n( Ir()\ARY ) 1895 DR Hs Cliss(il Dr( SvI DANAE below) u. thq ftoattd ushorc hut wherethqt wert rtt uttl on the Isleol Senphos )rFR )\' )! )Rc[.l.M YTTt o childlry Semdt.whrle thet)arh.usconfinedin a brazt'n tLtwer lry her father whofearedan oracleprtdtctrng thut ht woukl be hilledby o gundson In htr lout'r shs n wds visiledby Zeusn tfu lonn oJa golc.

Aeson. but then deserted on Dia. seconddaughter rhe 22 . a ship with th. he was tested by the goddess HERA.CrnssrcAL MYTHoLoGy I I I i THE AncoNAUTS were very earlyexplorers. visited strange lands and snake that never slept overcame many obstaclesbefore The DELPHIC OMCLE encoul. to iike many other heroes On reaching manhood. however. throughthe Itfuyinth AItu hilling the bull-Iihebeast.while out Athenamahes sails Behindher.where was the nghtful their leader.ooD IAr Es.she anointshim wtth a salveto protect him Jromlire and steel ploughsthe Jreldswith the bulls oJ Aietes He was the fvst hero to yohe thewlld and. Calaisand Zetes the sons and distant land identified wrth mod. with Medea'shelp. symbolizes wisdom (lLLUsrMroN her rRoM DI(TIoNARY oF ChsSIcAI ANTIQUITIEs ]89] ) JASON (abne IeJt). who was disguised as an old woman She begged him to carry her safelyacrossa swollen river.dcross stredm In the the cunent he losesa sandal. he sailedaway with her. Aeson had secrerlysent his son to CHIRON educatethe young man.helpsHera. the crew of the ship Argo Among their number were IASON (abne).mosr likely rhe first Greek voyagers to the Black Sea They sailed from Thessaly.Jasondeterminedto return to Iolcus and reclarm che throne During the joumey. k r n g o f I o l c u s A c c o r d i n gt o r h e myrh. her sacred creature.which was an apparently impossible task This miraculous fleece belonged to a ram which had flown to Colchis.s. Jason'sfather.of BoR-EAS rhe hero HTMCLES ern Georgia It hung from a tree Together they crossed a sea of there. who was wamed at the time how he would in tum be overthrown by a man wearing only one sandal In order to protectJasonfrom Pe]ias.enty oars Hereht carues thestem. rhe poet.TAsoN. Julfilling parl oJ an oracle that ahalJ-shod man would tahe Pehas'throne Thepeacoch beside Hera denoLes all-seeing her vision (ItusrurrcN FROM TANGLEWOOD TALI. a ARIADNE (qbove) hands the vital shetnto whirh allows hrm to trach his way Theseus. guarded by an enormous marvels. c I 920 ) wamors to Join his expedition and they became known as the Argonauts.S.ooDTALES ( lg20 ) ORPHEUS Castor and Polydeuces. where Hera used to the goddessof love APHRODITE agedJason undertakethe quest ro Hera inspired a group o[Thessa]ran make MEDEA.the Minotdur.reaching Colchis.perched on a pillar. Jiery credtures (lLLUsrMTpN FRoM TA\GI l. ( 1924 ) which Jason did at the cost of one of his sandals Thus the prophecy was fulfilled: a man weannS only one sandalarrived at lolcus to chalmade lenge Pelias BecauseJason his intentionsknown ar the time of festival. in the Ltbynnth.the owl. disguised as an old woman. Pelias a religrous could not krll his nephew wrthout the nsk o[ suffenng divine disfavour So the king toldJason that he could have the throne provided he obtained rhe Golden Fleece. possibly her believing to that shewasdestrned marry a god (ir l l'srRAnoN FRoM I Alcl s. was deposedby his half-brorherPelias. THE ARGONAUTS (top) commissioned Argus to build theArgo.

or any harm done to her favourite animals. for during the pursuit of rhe Argonauts across the Black Sea. in Thessaly. in Greek myrhology.although there are differing accounts as to whether the girl was acually hlled.virgin goddessthewild. With the assistance of Medea's skills in the magic arm. now Jason's lover. s. She was in all likelihood averyancient deity whom the Greeks adopted as goddess of the wild Traces of human sacrifice could still be found in her worship. butMedeahlled rhis riral and her own children byJason. found of his fleet sranded by contrary winds 23 . and in hlling him avenged rhe disgrace of Jason's htherAeson.1556-59) aNv By atAulis. had the He misfonune while hundng to come upon the goddess as she was bathing She changed him into a stag and he was chased and tom apart by his own hundng dogs. He even consented toJason's attempt to capture the Golden Fleece. Jason died in Corinrh as a result of a rotten piece of rhe Argo hlling on his head. according to a different version. Jason accomplished Aietes' task within a single day. which dated from the pre-Greekera of Cretan history. This they did.bathingwith nymphs. Only a promise to sacrifice was enough his daughter PHIGENIA to appeasethe goddess. Another monal punished by Anemis was ACTAEON. rhe ruler of Knossos on the island of Crete. a "bull-homed god" who was full of powerand feniliry. But first Aietes set Jason a challenge that was intended to result in his death. She employed her magic once again to deal y"ith the unsleeping snake. who were wamed by Medea. Anemis liked to roam the mountains with a companion band of nymphs Cenainly the virgin goddess resented any kind of inmrsion into her domain. Apsyrtus. Medea also persuaded the daughters of King Pelias ro cur rheir father to pieces and boil him. King AGAMEMNON Mycenae. plough and sow a field with dragon's teeth. who was also a goddess of light as well as of the wild.andJasonseized the Golden Fleece The Argonaus quickly rowed away from Colchis with the fleece and Medea. rhe god of ecsmsy and wine. ArunONf. AruON VOYAGER5 SEC ARTEMIS. After a few years he deserted her for another wonvul.and the rwin sisrer of APoLLo. Jason and Medea led an unsertled life in Greece. The desened princess may then have become the wife of DloNysus. The hero was required to yoke a team of firebreathing bulls. For killing a sug sacred to Artemis. hu she tumedhimintoa sta&which indignantly (Durrrro wasset upon hisownhounds fo AcAEoNTrruN. Bur the hng of Colchis was not prepared to give up the Golden Fleeceso easily. fall in love with Jason. was the daughter of pestprl. the leader of the Greek expedition against Troy. although the whole story of the Minotaur was probably no more than a garbled version offar older tales of the spon of bull-leaping. The Golden Fleece also appear in the heavens as the first constellarion of the Tndiac. AnfgUtS was rhe daughter of the Tiraness LETOand ZEUS. t-ater. The king hated Greek but he kept his feelings hidden from the Argonaus. whom Jason had promised to marry once back in Thessaly The Colchian princessseemsro have been associatedwirh rhe rires of dismemberrnent as well as magic. the MINOTAUR. Afterwards rhe gods raised the ship to the skyand made it into a constellarion. and slay the armed men who would at once rise from the gound. Piecesof Apsynus' body were thrown overboard. Dionysus himself was known to the Greeks as "the roanng one". Actaeon actually tried to approach the naked goddess hidden beneath a stag's pelt To the Romans. He secrerly planned to attack the Argonaus. Artemis was closely identified with their goddess Diana. When the Athenian hero THESEUS came to Knossos to pay the annual tribute of seven young men and seven girls. Local legend would suggest such a connection. Theseus and Ariadne then fled from Crete. However. oJ resisted love attentions the always or of men Whenthehunter Actaeon sawhoin thenude. but for some unknown reason the hero abandoned the princess on the nearby island of Dia. fuiadne gavehim a sword and a skein of thread that allowed him to escapefrom Daedalus'kbynnth after a bloody struggle with the dreaded bull-headed man.ClesslcAI- MvrHoLocY of King Aietes.4n and King MINos. Most of all. so as ro rcsrorc his youth. Medea slowed the Ileet of her hther Aietes by hlling and cutring up her own brother. forcing the Colchians to gather up the remains for a decenr burial. Aries the ram.

The ancient associadon refused herbecause the presenceof between snakes and medicine is one woman on rhe ship mighr probably due to the snake's appar. a l-atin ASCrnPtuS. This experience may have inclined her to manly pursuits. Zeus decided that Asclepius should be punished for threatening the gods' monopoly over immortality. In myrhology he her honour that Aeneas founded is a somewhat shadowy figure. but at Apollo's request the god of medicine was placed among the stars. zls Ophiuchus. When he did succeed in resurrecdngone of his patients. It was in nFmph Coronis. he founded the city of through Ascanius. Aateas mother.62 79) AENW.to have been a Thessalianhealer Iowing Aeneas' death. the love unbom son and removed him from goddess ernnoorn took piry on a the corpse. as the herspeed. ANoN. an awful consequence of losing. Sacred snakes resident there were 24 . This would mean that major deiry.rhe AENEAS and Creusa According to Julii. who was also AIba Longa thirry-rhree years after called Iulus llus ("made of llium"). Apollo felt sorry for his was fu\ clothed Finally. whose Imowledge was so great that zEUshimself fearedthat Asclepius mrght leam a way of overcomrng death. was rhe son of epotto. Despite the secret a monal as a second lover. Asclepius was slain by a thunder-bolt. As an unwanted daughter she was exposed and left to die on a mounainside. Only the stories of Asclepius' went to avoid marriage. and before whose skills became known he left to take up residence in a throughout Greece: his cult evennew ciry at Alba Longa. the Greek god of princess whose marriageto Aeneas healing. mrst. Aeneas' divine wtth of dacends heaven a spng Jrom whiletheGreeh surgeo\ healingilittany. She said birth and death were ever well rhat her husband must first beat known to the Greek and Romans. fuclepius would seem Ascanius was hng of lavinium fol. claimed descent from Aeneas the Romans. bur was suckled by a bear and later brought up by hunters.He was taught medicine by provided him with a way to delay ASCANIUS was rhe son o[ The family ofJulius Caesar. Thus was Asclepius young man named Melanion and bom. An altemadve radirion makes Ascanius' mother l-avinia.causejealousies amongst them. She even tried to enlist but believed to embody the god's heal. in Greek mythArnreNfn. Venus. AD AND /orceps(wouxoeo the CentaurCHIRoN. the arrival of the Trojan refugeesin Ilium being the old name for Troy Italy. However. the serpent-bearer. oJ Close in a mantle Jatho.Cr-RssrcAL MYTHoLocY ASO{NIUSweeps baidehLswounded by. Early rilalry tually took over the sanctuary at between the two cities probably Epidauros in the Peloponnese explains the removal myth. fiSOw ing power. was the daughter of Iasus of Arcadia and was known as a famous hunness.with the ARGONAUTS. and the lake L-arinand Trojan peoples.. there enraged Apollo sent his sister were many who admired Atalana's beauty and paid the price against ARTEMISto kill the lake nymph with a disease. her in a race and any man who lost When Coronis dared to take in would be put to death. olory. brought peace and unity to the god of prophecy. although they ran naked while she flames of the funeral pyre bumed Coronis. Atalanra's most famous myth enr abiliry to renew its youth each concems the lengths to which she year by sloughing off is own shn. Lavinium within three years of which suggess his late arrival as a landing. None could catch her. pullsoutthearow-headwrthhis Iapyx. So impressed were the Romans with Asclepius' cult that during a time of plague they requested aid from Epidauros and a sacredsnake was duly shipped to Rome.

CLASSICAL MYTHOLOGY AfnfNn. she offer him protection. back the island of Ithaca. where it grew into the serpent Erichthonius The three daughterso[ Cecrops.HERACLES askedifAt]as would take the world for a moment so that he could and prRsrus Also. JAsON. rhe son o[ Iapetus and the Oceanid Cl)'mene He was thought by the ancient Greek to hold up the sky. The Romans in theequally idendfied her wirh MINERvA. was the Greek goddess o[ p(Nters. she did not shun men but on the contrary setwL sign{ypowerandrnaval oJhJe (IIUsBfloN BYNICK B4E. Bur armed from the head of her father in his hasre to make love to her. but she aspunishment j. Athena's symbol was the wrse owl. and his name means"he who cames" His most famous encounter was wirh one of whose the hero HEMCLES. she FRoM TANGLTooD TALB c 1920 ) ASCLEPIUS. Greeh god oJhealing tends a man on his sichbedA sonof ApoIIo. wds Not matncide ORESTES only did condemned to shouldu heavms the Jorever. 1995 ) delighted in being a city-goddess. Although ATHENA. afrer he had swallowed the Melanion either forgot a vow to pregnant Metis The smith god Aphrodite or consummated their HEPFIAISTOS assistedrhe birrh wirh union in a sacredplace To pay for a blow from his axe Quire likely the sacrilegeboth he and Aralanta this intervention accounts for her were tumed into hons. the Athenians later bndlewith whichto tameand mount tht went on to achievemasteryof the wingedhorse.guidedand helpedherJavouites Here she with ing the Persianinvasion of Greece visits thehero Bellerophon a g'Jt .v seaand found their own empire It SToRrEs FRoM GREECE AND RoME. found themselves gazing upon Erichthonius. GAIA. which featured ATAIr{NTA. were given a box by Athena and told not to look inside it Ignoring this command.the miraculously disappearedso rhat the semen of the smith god fell to the ground.the semiserpent who first ruled Athens. which he placed at grew on its acropoiis: the other different points on the course diune nval for worship was rhe god who produced only a Curiosiry gor the better o[Atalanta. labours was to obtain the golden apples of the HESPERIDES.AsclepiuswasglJted wrth Metis. followrng his so tncking Atlas into resuming his epic voyagehome from the Trojan lonely duty (SeealsoGIANTS) War PerhapsAthena's most significant aid was given ro the ATIAS. he should deliverthem himself.l930 ) was during this period that the Parthenon was built on the hero took over his job of holding Athenian acropolis up the sky When Atlas returned Athena was alwaysregarded by wrth the appleshe suggestedthat the Greeks as an active goddess. Here which An early myth relares how sW themonstrous wiWboar has ravaglngthe oJCalydon Hephaistos tned to rape Athena been plains (lltusrunoN To avoid losing her virginity. war and crafts Although a fierce mtraculous oncercune(ling d mortalJrom death His attibutes.r rr. who stopped three times to pick spnng of brackish water Arhena up the apples So Melanion won sprang into being fully grown and the race and Atalancaas a wife. her Jound match on Athenian coins.the gtJtedhuntress dnd unusually athletic huoine. Athena connnued to protect Athens. title of Hephaistia. This city Atalanta. She gave him three adopted her cult when an olive tree golden apples. as involved in the affairs of men She Heracleswas doing so well The helped several heroes such as hero pretended to agreeand then BELLEROPHON.the in 480-479 nc.. stafl and urgin like ARTEMIS.thegreat Titanglant. rhe companion of the smith god. godresourceJul arugetic and a Melanion theheroic huntand pair dessofwrsdom and the arts. female guardiansof the fruit that morher earrh.presented ro HERA ar her mamage LozEUs Atlas offered to fetch them for Heracles if the . rhe daughter ofzrus and rhe Titaness gredtesthealer.ghting slEgod the Jor also arranged for him to be rried Zeus (Iuvsrunou moM DrcnoNAfr oF cwsrql and acquitted of his terrible crime ANrreurilE. two of them looked inside. somerimesArhene. it was she who eventuallygot ODYSSEUS to adjust the weight on his shoulder. oJ the ciry fell into enemy hands dur. POSEIDON. Athens The verdict in meant an end to the blood-feud. not leastbecausefor the firsr nme even the FURIES acceptedOresres' deliverancefrom guilr ATIAS was a rlTAN.Pegdsus{tulsrmn. i89l ) by the ancient court o[ the Areopagus. most notably at Athens. Zeus. goddess wisdomarul craJts. . and went insane However.

winged horse's back in mid-air. which is siuated to the nonh of theAegean advances. Atreus served his t'orepartoJa lion. i895 ) 26 .he wasdepicLed the Zephyrus DR s oJ Temple Winds (llusrunoN FRoM SMrrH CHSIaL DIOIoNARY. throughthe smoheandJlamesoJ thefireslew Aerope and exiled Thyestes At a banquet supposedly for breathingChimaera.Myrtilus (ll r usrMroN By NrcK BTAIE. did the curse of Myrtilus come to an end BOREAS.defeatneighbouring peoples.CLASSICAL MYTHOLOGY was the son o[ prLops.Srheneboea accused him of attempted rape and the enraged Sea. a wondrous animal placed in Atreus' flock by Hermes First. may have slain Atreus in revengefor this outrage Cenanly he became the lover of cryrrvNrslRa. was the queen Stheneboeafor him caused son ofEos. He possessed a wonderful winged horse named over Bellerophon's character. including the Amazons. and even become the champion of Lycia A constelladon BnUnnOPHON was a Greek was named after his fabulous hero from the city of Corinth and winged horse Two mlescast a cenain shadow the son of Glaucus.srMroN FROM TANGTTmD TAL6. given refuge in Argos by King Proreus. c i920) Proteusdspatched Bellerophon ro southem Asia Minor. and Hippodaemia The house of Atreus was infamous for rhe heredimry curse laid upon it by the son of urRvrs. Arreus. Bellerophon persuaded the goddessATHENA queen to elope with him on a specialbridle in order to help him only to pushher off the Pegasus. where he was supposedto meet his end. Bellerophon's problems began. but service in the local hng's lorces saved his life Mounted on Pegasus. In contrast to Zephynrs. sonoJPelops. Atreus showed his brother rhe hands and feet of his dead sons and told him what he had consumed ln horror the sun halted in its course Thyesres'only survmng son. a glJt ram. Thyestesand Chrysippus. or Argos. zEUs in anger caused Pegasusto unseat Bellerophon. Not until Clytemnestra and Aegisthus had murdered Agamemnon. the nonh wind. rhe messenger god A terrible cycie of murder and revengewas ended only by the tnal Ln Arhens of Atreus' grandson oREsTEs a charge of matricide on cherished golden ATREUS. The By pretending that he really loved she was beheadedby PERSEUS gave Bellerophon her. 1995 ) Family misfortune stemmed from the action of Pelops. or to have caused him great grief by refusing to make a promised gift Fnctron berween the sons of Pelops. and not least and the Titan Asraeus. whose husband was AGAMEMNON the eldest son of Atreus and his successoras king of Mycenae. the fatherofAreus He seemseither to have brought about the death of Hermes' son Myrtilus. ArnruS an early king after whom the Peloponnese southern Greeceis in named. thehindpart ol a dragon brother Thyestes with the flesh of and its middleJormedfrom a goot his children When Thyestes had (lrlr. as his own name indicates. the home important Corinthian becausein exile he changed his name from of the gods. and were hlled by Agamemnon's rhemselves son ORESTES. Eurus. Hipponous to Bellerophon ("hller of Bellerus") Although he was who was lamed for life. with a The second nle almost ends in the murder He evidently killed an hero's death when he attempted to fly ro Mount Olympus. The godgave thecoveted hopingto sowstiJe and discordm the houseoJ Pelops.Pegasus.the hero was able to overcome the monsuous Chimaera. In the PEGAsus. oneoJtheJour wnds. the goddessofdawn. whistling through his conch He oJtn helped sailorsilth aJiendlJ breeze Alongwtth his brother winds. rhe passion of the local BORBS. a double-edged of the god Hermes treasureto Atreus. His home becausehe steadfastlyrejected her was rhought to be Thrace.in revenge the murder Jor oJ his son. in order to gain her help in seizing BELLEROPHON swoopsdownJor the hiII diving the golden ram An enragedAtreus on his wingedhorse.a monsterwith the reconciliation.then Thyestes seducedAerope. the wrfe of Atreus. arose about the ownership of a golden ram. blew Jrom the north. tame Pegasus. the finished eating. Aegisthus. Ln and Notus. Chrysippus was murdered by Atreus and Thyestes. further difficulties. which had sprung out of firsr he is credited with a brutal the GoRGoNMedusa's blood when revenge on the false Argive queen.

27 . BRUTUS. known as the Boreasmi. he helped the Greek cause by damaging the Persianfleet at the battle of Anemisium in 480 sc Boreas abducted Orithyia.t'agned idioq but was noJool.But this fulfilment of the Oracle was soon to cause him grief. which his name implies. Dunng the early part of his life Bnrtus was regarded as a simpleton. who was rhe sister o[ He TARQUINIUS sUPERBUs. he led the tial againsthis rebelsons (IrLUsrMroN FROM SToruE FROM Llw. especiallywhen it was leamed rhat Lucreria had subbed hdrselfto death The outrage was cleverly used by Brutus as a means of overthrowing the monarchy and setting up a republic. Theywere hlled by the geat hero HEMCLES. wrse\ and duttfuIly. During the Persian invasion of Greece. Brutus. which means "net" (I[UsIMfloN BY NICX BuE. with great digniry. the last Elruscan king to rule Rome When a snake was found in the king's palace. becameher and close associate The myth is almost certainly an account of the amalgamation of rwo ancient culs. act of violation was the lasr srraw for the oppressed Roman aristocracy. two princes travelled to Delphi to ask the Oracle to explain this event and Bruus accompanied them almost in the role of a jester.condemns sonsto his deathJor isingagainst the gwemment Brutus. BRUTUS was said to be the son of Tarqurnia.CLASSIcAL MYTHOLOGY gende west wind. when ho intoa god&ess washnavn she as Dictynnd. where she spent her rime as a hunuess l(ng MINos of Knossos tried to make Britomanis his mistress But she fled from him and in her desperation to preserve her virginiry threw herself off a clilf into rhe sea.I885 ) Shortly after their return to Rome. one o[ the rwo highest offices of scate. he was something of a joke in the court of Tarquinius Superbus. shelmpt thesea into Luchily. rwo of Brutus'own sons As he was the chiel magistrate. Boreaswas capable of great dessucdon. a daughter of King Erechtheus of Attica. 4s his name implies. r nls tA. Boreas was worshipped in the city of Athens. The lcng finally gaveup the pursuit when the Cretan goddess sought sanctuary in the sacred grove ofARTEMtS. Indeed. trial and executlon Thus. oversaw their arrest. Calais andZrtes. Coming across Onthyra dancing near a stream. was celebratedin his honour BRITOMARTISI JromRin Minos ed g who pursuedho ninemonths. at the moment of the new Republic's triumph. The princes drew loa to decide who was to hss their mother on their retum home. She bore Boreas twin sons. at until Jor Itst.in desryir. . was the founder of the Roman Republic Like most Roman myths. the qplcally Roman idea of self-sacrifice appears as part of is foundation myth. The Oracle told the Romans that the first person in the delegation to hss his mother would be the next ruler of Rome. when a conspiracy to restore Tarquinius Superbus to the throne was found to have the suppon ofTitus and Tiberius.but later they sprouted golden wings from their shoulders. but Brutus tnpped and kissed the earth. the youngest prince raped LULRLI a Koman matron. who were lcrown as the Boreades At birth these boys were enrirely human in appearance. The now eloquent Brutus was elected consul. where an annual festival. much to their amusement. he then wrapped her up in a cloud and canied her off to Thrace. 1995 ) ("sweet maid") BruroueRrlS was said to be the daughter of zEUS. even though in this instance it invojved the sacrifice of two sons. thefirst consuloJthe new republicoJ Rome. became she ottangled some in and Artemis changed ftshingnets. the story o[ Lucius Junius Brutus lays emphasison dury to the sute.She lived on the island of Crete.

who loved her. on the island of Cythera. awarded as part of his share of the which was said to have been a gift spoils But ultimately Cassandra CECUS SCC GIANT5 CADMUS sowsthe teeth oJa dragon he from APoLLo. noone but oJ places where they eventually set.but wrly Cadmus rhrew Cadmus' reign.a challengethe god themselves lt was later believed alphabet o[ sixteen letters There of rhe dead. who sping up to attnch CenUUS he condemned her to prophesy the sanctuaryin ATHENA's temple but i<rngof Phoenicia.krng of Troy. arms and chestof a man but He was to follow the animal and wedding and gavewonderful gifts the legs and lower half of a horse build a city on the spot where it The unusual union o[ mortal and They lived in Thessaiy.1995 5w ) C.AGAMEMNON. eachother OnlyJivesuwived.to become was raped.v.own mother. and his wife Hecuba.suffereda homble fate who was except for wise CHIRON sent some o[ his men for warer so Having insulted DIoNYsus. Herbeaurywas asremark. 28 . and so the goddess rruth but never ro be believed. the offspringof rwo mondessAthena adnsed him to remove of Cadmus and Harmonia sters. uenrs. 1995 ) Wooden Horse and the murder of voyagehome However. they fell upon introduction from Phoenicia of an fetch Cerberus.rng immortal was not blessedby parand were given to riotous behavfound the cow and followed it east. Among the frenthe war god enrs After Cadmus zred worshippers was Pentheus' was a three-headed CfnngnUS had killed the monster. Agave. the true purpose of the many of the Greeks during rheir by zEUs. his divrne ro rerum to the land of rhe living. she had sought was rhe son ofAgenor.none other than believed Jor she Jated beignored CeNfeUnS. goddessoflove of descendanm xlo. drunken followers of ololysus.wife He was credited with the One of grRacLES'labours was ro pecting each other. disguised as a bull. wrth instructionsnot that the Theban aristocracy was CASSANDM. These strange creatures had the a moon-shaped mark on its flank the gods themselvesartended the head. the god.and Telephassa. descended from the five wamors bumingTrq.Cadmus a wife .Cadmus then Pentheus.armed acknowledged the importance oI men arose. and the brother of ruRop. (IIU5IMIIoN 8Y NICX BAE. they After a penod of penance for clearly War see FouNDERs the cncRops Joresaw Trolan andthe seem to have had an impact on the killing Ares' serpent.r When ancestos oJthe Thebans. allowed him ro are in fact a number o[ ancient accounts o[ Phoenicianactiviryin the Aegean Sea For instance.nnga goddess. and instantly the soil bnstles wtth becauseshe refusedhis advances When Troy fell.TYPHON Echidna He was and its teeth and sow half of them in The ancient Greeks always the watchdog of the Greek underworld and stopped anyone trying the ground lmmediately. sus. son of ARE5. princes failed in their task. through Agamemnon's wife CLYIEMNESTM nd Jlees (Seealso ORACIESAND to return home without her.where at last it however One of their descendans. whom she was to able as her power of prophecy. includthe tutor to several (Seealso MONSTERS that they might sacrificethe animal tom to piecesby the god's female ing ACHILLES to ATHENA But rhesemen were worshippers when he spied on ANDFABULOUS BFAsTs) attacked by a serpent sprung from their secret rites. though a Jromthe by ol Ju slipped wtththehelp thegds Hts see Lowks oF zEUs darhdn opened theStyt( onto alongwhxh CRt-t-sro the CharonJemed ikad Qrusrunop w was rhe daughrer GUNN m. was to according to Greek ho tled Cadmus himself was told by Harmonia. hence. shrine a to Aphrodite is known to have been erected based on the goddess'schief temple in Phoemcra. was he heroes. heallowed no for PROPHECIES shades retum to dead. armed wantors.CLASSTcAL MYTHoLocY CERBERUS snafuandgrwlsby the oJ hound mouth HodesA threz-headed CEICNES SCE OMCLE5 AND witha snahe a uil. were said to be the the Oracle at Delphi to forget about and epuRoottr. the daughter hound.aghast thesight dt olho an PROPHECTES) Although the five Phoenician who survived the mutual slaughter predictions wtth she GiJted propheq.which lies off the southem Peloponnese. Cassandra Cadmus and his four brothers were met her own end at the hands of sent after her.fed on meat chose to lie down and rest Har. Zeus gave hchery theWoodet Horse. has slain. the daughter of Ares (IuusrMfloN BvNrcK BilE./rcn seer. 1995) mythology.trcularly success[ul offspring. iour They were usually depicted as wards to Boeotia. whosecity Cassandraforetold the Trojan punished this sacnlegeby killing Europa was forcibly taken to Crete CadmusJounded the site on War. sank in exhaustion. Europa and instead find a cowwith Since he was marr.eSSnNonn of pruaivl. stones among them so that. but had her revenge on the Greeks.

r h e A c q u i . hlsJanfl (lrrr.. who had adopted the form of a horse to hide from his wrfe RHrAhis passion for Phillra. c I/70) CtNctNNerUS wasa Roman hero who was instrumentalin saving the early Republic ln 458 nc.LEPlL/-S andTeso. 188-5) but only on condition undertake.v He lived rn a cave on -fhessaly.who Lndulged iotous revelnes. rvhich was the s m a l l e s tl a n d h o l d i n ga l l o w e d t o quah$'for citizenshrpThe senators found Crncrnnatus work tending ar hi< . and the Titan CRoNoS.rtqtn. Chiron was noted his wisdom Jor (THr oF l and gtntleness Er)uGlloN A( Hil I t 0v PoMPEo BAToNr. daughter of ocEANos. Lnnatusmight abuse his pos-fheir ition fears proved groundless and.CLASSICAL MYTHoLoGY the CHIRON (elt) instructs youthJul Achilles the afts oJwar. after the dcfeat o[ the Aeqr-ri. Cerberuswas so dreadful to behold that anyone who looked upon him was turned to stone He was brother to the Hydra and the Chimaera CHTRON was rhe son of PhilJra. musrc and propheq Uniihe his in brother Centdurs.rn< Hr u'as rnld 6[ thg S en a r e ' s d e c r s i o n a n d r ' " . warfare He was a fnend of 'cPot-t rl and the ruror ro several Greek heroessuch asACHILLES. and the armsand hcad of a rnan His unusualparentagc explains why Chiron was so wrse.for he was leamcd i n m u s i c . aANn-s. thc ordinary people.". Romc was in danger of berng b d c s t r o l ' e d . r. unlikc other Centaurs. thar he was unarmed Like thc GORGONS. oneoJthe mostmodest and a modeloJ Roman oJ Romanheroes integnry AIter 60 daystn ot'fice..the Senate C i n c i n n a t u sa s d r c t a t o r . rhel""oted Crncinnatus a golden wreath at the end of his sixty days of office He then returned to his fields and was remembered as the perfect example of a r'rnuous and dutilul Roman citizen CINCINATTUS. Mount Pelionin and when he died zru-sscr him rn thc slryas the constellation Centaurus 29 . E N t A t r R . a s a l u t e d s as dictaror However. c l wlth the body and legsof a horsc. A-Sa. which is why Chiron had the a p p c a r a n co f a r y p i c a ( . medicine. quietly he retumed. feared that ( in. a n ei g h bounng lralian tnbe To defeatthis voted to appolnr threat. in hunting.u to 5r()Rlr5 rR()MIr\ry.a t e m poraryofficevcstcdrvith unlimired powers A deputationwas senr ro his small farm.m e d i c i n e h u n t i n g a n d . the plebeians.".

CrassrcAr-

MvrHoLocY

HERoES
HE MYTHS OF ALL CULTUREScontain inspiring individuals who express ideal traits and talens, such as the courage

of Achilles, might of Heracles, wit of Odysseus and endurance of Oedipus. A classic hero is a champion rn every sense, overcomrng trials, ridding the world of troublemakers , blazrng trails and winning through despite all the odds. Yet he is neither inr,ulnerablenor immortal, though often helped, and sometimes hindered, by the gods. Greek mythology is unusually rich in heroes and heroines of every kind. Some, such as Achilles and Hector, are wartime champions; others, such as Odysseus or Theseus, are heroes for peacetime, some are positive and outgoing, such as Heracles or Perseus; still others are heroes of attitude rather than action, such as Oedipus, Antigone, or Hector, who, at the end, remained steadfastin the face of hopeless defeat.
who racedaway wth his HEMCLES (bdow) shoots poisoned his anows at his oldJoe, the Centaur Nessu.s, Deianira the glJtof his wile, Deuntru, whik lerrying her acrosstheiver EvenusThe dying Centaur olJered which Heracles the bloodus u sulve prcseruing loveo[ HeraclesThe lovephiltre provedto be a futal tnch Lry lor tlied manyyears later, tragcally, by the handsoJhis insecure loting wife, Deiantra, who in her sorrow but h i l l e d h e r s t(llll.r R ( L U s ^ N r ) N r \ \ L r \ a i F R A N : \ ( ) N - s r r i . r k , . ^ N v A s l 8 6 J l 9 2 8 )

(above), best hnow Jor his mighry labour:, was aII his hJea helper oJ godsand men, setting theearthJree oJmany monstus and rascak HEMCLES as as Worshryped a heroand deity,he was invohed d saviour; the herooJ as labourand strug,le,he waspatron deity oJthe gmnasium In art he appears and graveocpression This as the ideal oJ manly strength, wrth massivemuscles leantngon his club, draped the Greehsculptureshows hero in repose celebrated Bc c FANrsri HrRcuL Bv E GLY.oN. 200 ) wth thefamous lion's shin (THL

CIeSSICAI-

MyTHoLoGY

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r . / A S O N i , r / r r r i ) t / r r ' rr ' / r ' h r c i t r '(r(j/ l ) l ( / i r ) r / t h t . \ r r l r r r r r r l : r ' n r b a r / rr . /r ) r i t , q l 1 t / lt r , / i r l f r l l Ik'ct,:.whth lrr hrrrv hut /l tltr (,oltkrt

l i O R A T I t r . S ' i ? h r ) \Ir / r r d 1 r ' R , r r l u r/ r L o h i l , l r l r , r l \ t t b l t ,t r t t t/ J i l r i L tI t l l t l r ! r r( ( ) l ] i l ( t r \ ( r l q . / t i t \ l / t r / t l l l l s ( r 0 ) / r t r m t , W / r / r ' h t h t l , l o l l l h r ' F l r u s r r r r r s ,l h r i l r r r r r r r r rh a r h r r / s t it c b l , l t r h r ' h r r r Jh r r r r r l l j l ( l t ( ( ) J L / l ) \J I I , r r r r L , ' , l r / r r r , h

(lgdinst ll()nr( But \h( (lup(d

w a s s u s 7 ; r r r r . l c r . / f r urb r u n t h o l t t n d t h h 1 ( r n

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15 t t t t l t r g r r t l r / , \ r t r r r r( ' r 1 1 J 1 1 1 r t s g r r ' u f l r r l t , r r r I i chj l r \ t t / r : s l, l r r h r r r q i y ' ( r r l i r r s l V r t / rt l r r h L l p o l 1 p , t 1 7 , 1 1 ,t ' , , t n , l h t s r r r r r r ' s s, \ I c d c a ,J t r r r r l r t c r r t l t h i L t n g o l ( . r r i ri r r s / a s r r n

l i l \ r ( ) f r i ( i r /\r H ( ) r r / l i r i r l , l l l . r j r r r r r r o r t r lt j r , j r r r , l ( , / , l l \ l l t r ' n / t r ' s r [ 0 n l d \ . ] / r t \ ' ( r (f 1 r \ \ l / r r r r t g r r r gI t l l r , , r r r r r Jr l 0 r r V ,lnrlrr 1 / t , \ f t t t c r , r i l ( ( 1 r\ tl { t l r i rr r ) l | 5 i t ( ) | 1 ) | irl t t / t (

h r r t r e l J r ' r r r h c r r d r r l r r l r r p h a l r l h t , , f r r r J o n r n ' r l i rh L r r ( ) n l p t l l l l { ) l l \ r . r r i \ i , ' .r r ' | \ ' , , , i , , . t l i , . rl 5 r ,

, J r r t n r t r l l r , ' L i T r f l r r Lr r r r r u f i h / r r / r / r i r g o n l h r r r r r r r l i i t d l l r ,

CLASSICAL

MYTHOLOGY

CIRCE Q4t), an enchantingnynph, b inites Odysseus dnnhJrom ho maglc cup, containingd potion which tums men has into swine But Odysseus ben forewamed and, immunized with the herb moly, he dnnls wtthout coming to ham
(IIUSIMTION FROM TANGLMOOD TALEs, C I92O)

CLYTEMNESTM

(abwe), the estrangd

wife oJAgamonnon, watchesand waitslor the ships from Troy,binglngho husband home Yet no hero's welcomeawaits the retumingwarior, onlybetrayaland andher lover murder by his wrJe
(IrLUsTMfloN BYNICX BUE,1995 )

CtnCr, daughter of ruruos, the sun god, was a powerful witch who had porsoned her husband, hng of the Sarmatians,before going to rhe fabulous island of Aeaea.Her magmen ical powers tumed ODY55EU5' into swine when they landed on Aeaea on their way home from the Troy. Aided by HERMES, messenger god, Odysseuswas immune to Circe's magic and restored his crew to human form, and also gained the witch's aid for the next part of his joumey For ayearhe stayed as her lover, before she told him how to navigate through the waters o[ the Sirens and between Scylla, a monster, and Charybdis, a whirlpool. Srylla had been a nval of Circe, who had rumed her into a monster when one of her many lovers had shown an interest in the unfortunate girl ln some accounts, Circe eventuallymanied Odpseus' son Telemachus.

either as sacrificial wars. He said that unless the pledess ARTEMIS, beians, the ordinary people, were victim or as pnestess Like her sister HELEN,whose willing to restore to the nobiliry is was the CLrrnunrsrRn caused the full ancient privileges they should daughter ofrpoe and Tyndareos, elopement with PARIS king ofsparta, and the estranged Trojan War, Clytemnestra felt no expect no charity Hounded from Mfe of eceurMNoN. Sometimes loyalry towards her husband. She Rome for such an opinion, he openly conducted an affair with joined the Volsci and evenrually Ied she is poruayed as a weak woman, easily persuaded by her lover Aegisthus, Agamemnon's cousin, a Volscian army against the ciry. All Aegisthus to assistin the murder of and ruled Mycenae with him. The seemed lost until his mother end of the war required desperate Volumnia spoke to him, asking her husband on his return from the Trojan War Otherwise it is measures.When he rerumed home Coriolanus whether he saw her as Clytemnestra who rs the strong Agamemnon was butchered by his own mother or as a prisoner of character,the insdgator of the mur- Aegisthus, usinga wo-headed axe, war. As a result he quit the battleder, while Aegisrhusis little more while Clytemnestra had him en- field and went into exile. CLOTUASCC HEROES than a weakling Even before the the Greek force departed for Troy, Clytemnesrra already had good reason to hate her husband. In order to gain a fair wind to Troy, he agreed to sacrifice her favourite child tpntcrruin Even though the had promised champion ACHTLES to defend the grrl againstall threats, rhe Greek host had its way and lphigenia was offered to the godungled in a net For this terrible crime, Clytemnestra was herself hlled by her son oREsrEs in Greek mythology, CneON, was the brother o[Jocasta and a reluctant ruler of Thebes He was wasalegendary regent during the uncertain period COruOUNUS Roman traitor o[ the fifth century afrerKing LAIUS, Jocasu'shusband, BC Conscious above all of his had been killed near the ciry Creon noble birth, Coriolanus objected to offered the throne and the hand of the Senate'swish to distribute free Jocastato any man who could solve and thus bread to poorer citizens, who were the nddle of the SPHINX starving becauseof Rome's endless rid Thebes of this bloodthirsty

32

CLASSICAL

MYTHOLOGY

was a com god whom they associated with the Golden Age CUPTU was rhe Roman god of love and son of the love goddess IENUS.He was deprctedas a beautiful but wanlon boy, armed with a qurver fuli o[ "arrowed desires" Some of his arrows, however, would um people awayfrom those who fell rn love wrth them CREON, reluctanthing oJThebes, his Iost According to one myth, Venus wasjealous ofpsycHE ("the soui") son, wiJeand niecein a traglcqde oJ suicidescausedby his infteible will His and told Cupid to make her love crushingJatewas to endurea hJeof the ugliest man alive But Cupid fell solitary gneJand remorse olrl'srurk)NBr in love wrth Psycheand, inv'rsible, NICK 8arE, I995 ) nsired her everynighr. He told her nor to rry to see hrm, but, overto keep chained up. In gratitude, come by curiosity, she did try and the Cyclopes, the single-eyed he left her Psychesearchedthe giants, fashioned for Zeus his world for him, until the sky god famous hghrning and thunderbolts JUPITER granted her immortality so In a subsequenr struggle for that she could be Cupid's consmnt power, Zeus and hrs brothers companion The couple's daughter successfullydealt wrth all the might was named Voluptas ("pleasure") and power that Cronos could playt'ully the CUPIDJshes amongst waves direct against them After his portrayed a cute, as defeat, Cronos was either banished Heis usually with capncious withwings oJten a child and to a distant paradise, or he simply to love slowly faded awayas an unimpor- quiver arowsor a torch inJlame oJ tant deity The Romansequated in the hearts oJ gods and men (cr prDFrsHrNG WArrs,-sfprA ]890 ) L who B) C;E()RG[ FREDER(( Cronos with their SATURN,

As a result of this act of defiance, Creon hadAnngone walled up in a cave. lne seer llRt5iAStoro Lreon to bury the dead and disinter the living, but he refused The result was personalgnef, when his own son committed suicide on leaming of Antigone's dearh, and hts own wrfe soon followed suit monsrer. jEDIPIIS managed ro Although Creon was well achieve the apparently lmpossible known ro the ancient Greek, his task, then took over the kingdom, own character seemslessimponanr in myth than his role as regent in marriedJocastaand raiseda family Not until a piague threatened the troubled ciry of Thebes. Thebes and the Delphic Oracle was consulted about irs cause,did ir CRONOS, in Greek myrhology, become known thatJocasrawas was the son of Ouranos, the sky Oedipus' mother and that he had god, and GAIA,rhe earth morher. lolled L-aius. Oedipus blinded him- With the help of Gaia, Cronos self,Jocastacommitted suicide and emasculatedOuranos and seized Creon became regent once more. control of the universe He then A quarrel between Oedipus' married his sister nHEAand folsons, Eteocles and Polynices, Iowed the example of Ouranos in caused another penod of dismay, disposing of his children by swalhe eventually leaving both of them lowrng them, because had been dead and Creon on the throne. wamed that he would be displaced Whereas Eteocleswas regardedby byone ofhis sons Rhea,however, Creon as a patriot and properly gavehim a stone wrapped in swadbuned, the body of the rebel dling clorhesinsteadof the infanr Polynices was thrown outside the ZEUS, youngest son, who was his city walls and forbidden burial. taken secretlyto Crete in order to Such a situationwas unaccepmble gow up safelyon the island When a Roman marched exile. CORIOLT{NUS. his against oA cirywithandmy oJ just Vokcians, encamping outside Rome There, ignored entreaties peace he aII Jor (centre), wiJe by his until visited hismother matrons, whose tears andtheRoman stern rRoM softenedhis heatt(IuusrmroN FROM 1885 STouEs Llw. ) to ANTIGONE, Oedipus' daughter and companion during his wandenngs around Greece,and on her retum to Thebes she sprinkled Poll'nices' corpse with earth, so as to give her brother a token burial Zeus came ofage, he forced Cronos to vomit up hrs brothersand sisters - POSEIDON, HADES, HERA, HESTIA and orl,trrrR - and to releasehis uncles and aunts, especially the Tians, whom Cronos had chosen

Cle,ssrcAr-

MyrHoLoGY

CURTIUS baps into the chasmin the RomanJorum The seersdeclared that the ,hasm could only beJilled by Rome's greatest treasure,and so Curtiusymped in, declanng that therewasno greater treasurethan a gallant Romancltizen
(lra|srMTft)N FRoM 5r()RrEs r,RoM Lrw, 1885.)

DRNen was rhe morher of the breeK nero PtR5tuJ ano Ine daughter ofAcnsius, long of Argos in the Peloponnese lt had been foretold that her son would cause the death ofAcrisius, so he locked her in a bronze tower But ZEUS visited her as a shower of golden see GrANrs Cyct-oPts rain and Perseuswas conceived DngP,qlUS, according to Greek The kingbanished the morher and mytholory, was said by some to be her son, but after many adventures the son of Alcippe, the daughtero[ Perseus did accidentally kill the war god eREs,and by others to Acnsius when throwing a discus. be the son of Merope It is agreed, (Seealso LOv'ERs OFZEUS) though, that he came from Athens He was a gifted craftsman and was employed by khng MINOSar his palace of Knossos in Crete. Daedalus designed and built the Labynnth for the dreaded vtloTAUR This was the offspnng of PASIPFIAE, Minos'wife, and a great bull Daedalus had designed an anificial cow inro which rhe queen could place herself and so be able to mate wrth the bull Thus was the Minotaur conceived Minos later impnsoned Daedalus for revealing the secretof the Labynnth, but he managed to escapeby constructing DAPHNE,a iver nymph, bvedby was her Apollowhopursued untll,on thebanlzs oJher prayedJor and help iver, she Jather's
was at oncechangedinto a laurel tree Here. herJather, the iver god Penaus, weepstnconsolably, whlle Apollo strohts her Ieafi arms tn wonder CApoLLo DApHNL AND 8y (ANvAs. Nr()ut P(tr,55rN. c 1627)

is the subject of a CURTIUS srrange incident in Roman mythology Around 362 nc a grear chasm appeared in the Forum in Rome, which led straight down to the underworld It had appeared becausethe Romansforgot to make an appropnate sacrificeto the dead Marcus Curtius therelore plunged on horseback into the bottomless pit and was seen no more

wrngs olwax and feathersfor himself and his son lcarus Despite his father's waming, Icarus flew too close to the sun, the wax of his wings melted and he fell into the sea and drowned. Daedalusmanaged ro amve safelyin Sicily, where he amused the daughters of l(ng Cocaloswith his invendons When Minos eventually caught up with the fugitive craftsman, a battle of wits ended in Daedalus' favour: Mrnos was lolled by boilingwater, DANAE (above) was impisoned in a or oil, which Daedaiuspersuaded bronze tower by ho Jather, becatsehe Cocalos'daughters ro pour down a Jeareda propheq that he woull be ktlled by pipe into the king's bath. his grandson Yet even htdden away in her
to tower, shewas still accessible the god Zeus, who came to her as a goWat shower Thq had a son,Perseus(Drrreauour
GoLDEN RAIN BY TITIAN, cANvAs, i554 )

D{ED{[US

(nght) craftedwtngs of

feathus, heWtogetho by wax, to escary t'rom Crete, anl taught hrs son, Iccrus, hon, toJl, waminghim that he must notJty too closeto the sun But lcarus wasdrawn to thelight ol the sun so his wings meltd and heJeII into the sea, now named the lcaian
(DAEDALUS AND IGRU5 By CMU laNmN, 1799)

DePHNn, in Greek myrholory, was the daughter of the river god Peneius.She was similar in many ways to the goddess ARTEMIS, in that she was also a virgrn huntress who happily roamed the wrlderness One day, the love god enos shot a flurry of arrows in response ro taunts from APOLLO, god of the prophecy The first ofEros'anows

was a gold-tipped shaft and when it struck Apollo it made him fall immediately in love with Daphne The second one, however, had a lead tip and caused Daphne to become even more indifferent than she aiready had been to any lover Apollo, however, pursued Daphne relentlesslyuntil, in desperation, she tumed herselfinto a laurel uee

34

ocy .CTASSTcAL MyrHor.

CLASSICAL MYTHOLOGY :{.as well as the resting-placeof the ous powers of growth and even dead (which were known by the resurrection She was the focus of Atheniansas "Demeter'speople") OMCLES ANDPROPHECIES Dnlpntc ORACLE s. torth." Her myth tums on the disappearanceof Persephone When the girl was a child. ]995 ) d l7 just an important cult at Eleusis. of theEleusian mystenes rcntred Daneter which and on (MARB:E c 490 ) herworship RELTEF.Ceres.Zeus had to intervene and rule that Hadesmust grve up Persephone she would not conif senr to stay with him As she had by then earen something in his realm. was identified as rhe power within the com i6elf.it was deemedthat she had not completelyrejectedHades.so henceforth Persephone would dinde the year equallybetween her mother and her husband DIDO @elow). queer Carthage. south o[Athens. PERSEPHONEDemeter means "mother eanh" . s1 DEMETER. exotic oJ when traglcally stabbed herselJ hr lover to and Aneasdesmedher fufilhisdestiny. agreed to his brother FIADES' request that Persephoneshould be his bride and rule the underworld wuh him Hadeswas impatient and rose from the earth and abducted Persephoneas she plucked flowers in a field Bur in rhe world of the The story of Demeter and is Persephone clearlyancient lt has parallelsin the mythology of Wesr fuia. which was a natural extersion of her mother the com goddessDemeter. animals ceased to multiply and people feared lor their future Eventually. was the her worshippers recalled the loss and rediscovery of her daughter daughrer of cRolos and RHre Like her Roman equivalent.so thar plants languished. holding yung Tiptolemus. soul endures traglc alone her Jate OLLUSTMTON 8Y NICK BULE. her father.rhe abundant soil with she was especiallyassocrated com Demeter possessedmysteri. goddesstheeanh. where ntes were celebrared annually in the autumn DEUETER. where gowth and decaywere with a dyng and closely associated reviving deiry For the Greek. 36 . while in the world of the lirnngher mother iost all interestin fertiliry. BC dead she pined and refusedto eat any food. through music and dancing. a mystic herdaughter. wrthout even consulting Demeter. Persephoneas Kore ("the maidsn"). lead people Rome heroine his to The isportrayedby aso noble Virgl and generous who. vegetadonand fruitfu]ness. consecrate the theJirst to sow man relieJ was com This at site Jound Eleusis. theclassic in tradition. rhe Greekgoddess of when. ZeuS.and of QeJt) Persephone.

The hng readily took the bait and spied on the maenads from a hidingplace in a tree However. but only if he disguised himself as a woman. having been blown offcourse on his way to Italy from Troy. and coveinghis shouldersthe shin oJ a lyrw. when the latrer ascended the throne ofTyre. who was also one o[ the and ordenng him to resume his leading maenads. developed into one of personalsalvation. soon fell in love. Dido escaped from Phoenicia with a small band of followers and sertled in present-day Tunisia.Her husband had been murdered by her brother. Dido welcomed him and his fellow refugeeswith great understanding Aeneasand Dido 37 .so Dido cut the skin into strips in order to obtain an adequateplot When the Trojan hero Aeneas arrived in Carthage. Afterwards his mother.known as the "bullhomed god" because he ofren adopted the form of this powerful beast. one oJ the oeatures sdcredto hifi DtOtttYSUS was rhe son of zEUs and sruELr.and oI in some city-stateshis wrld. orgrastic ntes were outlawed.wine and ecstasy. became rhe tragic queen of Canhage and rhe abandoned love of AENEA5.not a lion but her son. however. he may have had a mythological role somewhat similar to that of the goddessDEMETER ("mother earth") His cult in later times. a pyre left Thebesand went into exile (Seealso FOUNDERS) (Seealso LovERs zEUs) oF DIOO. desdny to found a new Troy in Italy Agave. In Roman mythology he is representedby the god Bacchus. in Phoenicia. who was a Theban princess. rhe maenadssoon discoveredhim and. realized to her voyage at once When Aeneas horror thar they had dismembered sailed away. he rs a youthful god o[vegetation. where she purchased enough land to found the ciry of Canhage The local ruler agreed to sell her as much ground as a bull's hide might contain. Agave.the grape Entwined in his hair is a wreath oJ vine.particularly for women worshippers who were known as maenads From the beginning. the vital and beautifulGreeh god oJunc whirls in a state oJblisslul euphoia inducedW his own Jruit. but the chains fell off him and the prison doors could not be closed Dionysus then told Pentheus that he could observe at lirst hand the secret rituals performed on a mountain close to the city. The most famous attempt to prohibit his worship was by King Pentheusof Thebes The king even tried to imprison Dionysus. but the Roman in their ecsraticfrenzy.thought that god luetrrn senr MERcuRv wirh a he was a lion and tore him limb messagereminding Aeneasof his from limb. the ancient Greeks were well aware o[ rhe strangecharacter Dionysus. CADMUs and Harmonia. Onginally.CLAssrcAL MYTHoLoGY DIONYSUS. together vnth her that she stabbed herself and then parents. leapt inro the flames of. origrnally a princess of Tyre. Dido became so over.In Greek mythology. After his whelmed by the loss of her lover bunal.

Electra rescuedher young brother Orestes and ensured thar he cstapedAcgrsthuscvrlintcntions Years later.r r \\r) LL | ( | R\ vlRil r ( 1D ]00 I 38 .swore rhrt thc nrrscn. Orcstes retumed to Mycenaeas a grown man Electra m r t h i m a t t h c t r r m br r ft h c i r m u r sons of Zeus") were ARGONAT/TSdered father and gave hrm advrce D u n n g r h e e x p e d r t i o nr o r e t n c v e and encouragementIn at leastone the Golden Fleece.and even set up a rival to ENOYUTON was rhe king o[ a Theseus the throne o[Athens on in small ciry-state the Peloponnese.who hatred ior Clytemnestrathat she were a people hung in AsraMinor participatesin the act of revenge O n a n o t h c r o c c a s i o nt h e t w i n s herself. heroic daughttroJ ELECTRA (ubove). r' of I . sht r seenhtre rqoicing in his ri'[um l()Rr . thty.lt \r.and it may well be chat they were ancrentdeiries whose worship had dechned so that their exploits could be told as the mythological actionsof mortal ("the rulers Castor and Polydeuces heavenly twins whom the cornbearingearth holds") wereregarded as bcing both dead and alive ln one story. and rnountetl on snow wirrtt sfeels.rctones was rhe daughter of EUCfne A C A M F M N T Tk i n g o f M y t c n a e . t h em y s r e r L -THE ous twin sons of LHI)A. and cttrnv.tnllc Shcs accompaned hert by her starry daughters ( J rr l \ T M r i r ) \ F R o M 5 r ( ) R l t s I R o M l l ( ) M t R . Polydeuces versionof thc myth Electra poris hlled with his bare handsAmycus. oJ n\f\ rLrrflea. retumed to ccrrtir to help thc Romon ranhs dgoiist JohldBatle tn I anns Ln tht I \r. / .pY. N. .l i v i n g h a l fr h c y c a r beneath the earth with the dead. Ihc Drorr un wcrc revcrcd by the Spartansand rhe Romansrn particular Roman .i"e'i T H E D t o s C U R I . while her distraught n e r o r H L 5 t u 5 . the twelve-year-oldHelen pnor to her dertieswho wreakedvengeance on mamage to King MENEI.strrr and Pollux on a battlefieldsecuredlor agarnst the odds all them r. ol h/re RegrilusAdom(durth gltuming urmLtur.t h e r c h r r n p a d e f i n i r r -s e n s c o f diunc parentage. Greth goddess thedawn.rr to announ\cthecomrng ol tht sun Shewas the daughteroJ Hypenonund Thcia ttnd sisterto the sun god Helros In worhsoJart.AUS They murderers brought their sister safelyhome to Sparta.rniry b c t w e e nt h c n r . ! /l : ltt' 'I.were known to the Greek as Castor and Polydeuces.[ed thL Rom.Lttcr she was overwhelmed were ranged against the Athenian by remorse.CLASSICAL MYTHoLOGY E {'ffi "\\ i.h J. . and Clyttmnestra.-pnr al\/tp' m n e srfa ..lESTM. trayed as berng so consumed by king of the savageBebryces.soldiers . 1 8 8 5 ) Agamtmnon'stomb It was Electruwho her rescued brotherfrom theflii lntentrons lry o/Aegrsthus helpinghim escupt Having htm thoughtthat shewouk) neversee ugain. and rhe sister \ o l t n e m a ln c l o e ( r R L 1 L \ n e r name (whrchonce may havemeant " f i r c ' o r " s n a r k ' ) r e { e r sn a m h e r t When Agamemnon rerumed from the Trojan War and was murdered by his wrfe and her loverAegisrhus. Polydeuceswas the r m m o r r a s o n o f z t u s w h i l eC a s t o r l was rhe mortal son of Kng Tlrrdareos At Polydeuccs'request the twins shared the dl. and rhe other half on Mount Olirmpus wrth the gods They are shown togethe rn the constellation r of Gemini In their youth the Droscun("rhe DIOSCURI (aboLe).]ns l() vi.w n o c a m c oo l l t n c brother fled before rhe FURIES.tJomeJ m a goldtn m. and ro the Romans as Castor and Pollux They were brothers oI HrLrruand CTYTIMNESTM Around all rhese rhilrlro.tory ( l t r \ r R { I t r ) \L t i r \ r L \ \ s r j r \ \ r r \ r R a \ i l 1 8 . queen of Sparta.rneets Agamemnon her tibd brothtr Ortstt's outside EOS (bdow). her roEJbm . truns Castor ant) Pollw. shes oJten deprcted hoveing tn the slry.

son of Laomedon.which was a group of one hundred and fifty pairs of lovers who were all killed by the Macedonianarmy at the battle of Chaeronia in 338 nc After the battle l(ng Philip of Macedon granted them a specialbunal EUnOPe. to look for their sister after ZEUS. it is said that zEUs grarrredEnd)rynion his wish that he might be allowed to sleep loreverin a cavewrthout ageing EOS *rs rhe Greek. Zeus gaveAstenus a mighry bronze man. Agenor's five sons.the part theJom oJa great white bull He swam to goddess spinhles beJore sundot the the island. in another version of the myth.for he was rhe patron divrnity of the SacredBand of Thebes. swam to the island of Cretewrth Europaon his back There she bore the god RFTADAMANTHYS rhree sons.beforemanying rhe local ruler Astenus By way of compensatlon for Europa's vrrginity. was the daughter ofTelephassaand of King Agenor of Tyre. a city in Phoenicia. king of Troy When Eos asked zrus ro make Tithonus immorral. he became the lover of the moon goddessSelene (frequentlyidendlied wrth Diana). he appeared enjoy mahng asmuch to mischief as he could by firing his arrows of passion into the hearts of gods and humans alike His connection with homosexuallove may have derived from his supposed relationshipto Ares. Taios.pulied by her horsesShiner and Bright Her brother. she forgot about etemal youth and ended with a lover made helpless mth age Thereupon. ClaslGl DlcroNARY. in Greek mythology. who assumed the lovers at dawnIn theslg. who bore him fifty daughters Because she could not endure the thought that Endymion would eventually die. according to some Greek rraditions. was rhe son of Erebos and the Night.ClessrcAr MvrHoLocY (abne) waslmedby ENDYMION Selne EUROPA (nght) wasa Phoenician whovisited in hisetenal sleep . MINOS. 1895) ) in all likelihood Elis According ro Greek mythology. Cretewith Europandingon oJ while eanh draws curtain his bach Sheoentually mamed Asteius. to defend his realm (Seealso LovERs zEU oF S) 39 . The Romanscalled her Aurora Eos had a repuation for passion and fell in love with a largenumber of young men. Selene put her youthful lover into an everlasting. were sent out including CADMUS. of war As the youngest of the gods and the companion of apHRoottr. on a oJdarhness her (SLLENE about ANo ENoyMroN the rulerol Crete (luusrur()N DR FRoM sMtrH's By Nrcous PouJSrN. deep sleep However. disguisedas a white bull. accordingto different versions of the myth. including the particularly handsome Tithonus. had a four-horsechariot to indicate his greaterstatus. she locked him in a becamethe cicada(an insectnoted for im complaining sound) EruXYES SCE FURIE5 EROS. Nyx chaiot. and saRprporu. him Here pnncessbome away by Zeus. while in others he god was the son of ARES. c 1591-1665 a/NvAs. wrnged goddess of the dawn and the third child of the TITANS Hyperion and Theia Shewasseenasa charioteer riding across the sl<yjusr before sunrise. the sun god riruos.

ht lrrinrsht ho hy lccrrcingthat hat prophilk \. . . . i I I . / r r l r i l t u r r J x r r r o f t d r r i r s T r r r i l i ' r t h . D R [ . i r r .1NDR'1 oJ h d n \ c h r r tl n i L r L r L r .c dS h n u s t ' r r J o n t r i r r h o/ broke pnph. lr .h rvhoucruralc/y prrrlitlcd the :ohtai1. worll uln'uys rqnrrrrJ Ihs powefulpornayulry'(r:rar. they rarely. . t t i r l : . if ever.Kfdr thepronttse ho Llr \\''hrnshtr \r'r J hdr rrrrrl. i r \ i r t \ \ I l r t ItrrLLl. ' r i r .CLASSICAL MYTHOLOGY ORACLES AND PnOPHECIES Ar people beheved that the future couid be revealed. .i llir. l l t . prophesied for politicai purposes. r . t r l i t . j . r 1 / . r J 4 R B r r . t t . . r l l l { ) i r l r\ d / a l } i . or bumt offerings.. such as the fall of dice. /i r r t r / r . ir i l s i n r r t r l . r r . n . r .ull :r'rrirr irtrL/.ij5\i\it'. r i r l t ./ru rtrrals lhc . 1 l t .spoke through a p n e s t e s s . A l t h o u g h t h e Romans consulted lorc (or sorres) for personal problems.y' thc sorrowful secr. Prophecieswere also sought from s e e r s . T h e f u [ u r e w a s a l s o r e v e a l e db y oracular signs. t r t r t . . r l ]t r.l 3 8 a ) g j l .jr. 1 . / . .tl h . . \ : . . t L . . r r ! /lrr t n n a i l i i n g l / ( l l r .1poi1.I r r ft: ulrrr ) /rrrrrstcluLLghterl\tant urtJ lirr tilu wtr' a gr/teJ C-I. \ ' 1 5 i h i ' k n r ] . l P .rrr /'r \ t l r . . r ! .S. i . /ai I o/ Itrl' i( \!\\\r. r t . t r i r r i s t / r . i r r ( ) r n t o b et g r o r . rhc sccr-god. r r . J t i i t/ tl lt t. r r . they frequently consulted oraclesof every kind for personal and politlcal purposes. r t i(ll l. h l . .b o t h l i v i n g a n d d e a d . . usually inspired by the gods. The most famous was the Delphic Oracle where Apollo. l r r l J 5 ( .rItr f\rhdn. D r r l l r t \ r . t t r t l / t .S. g . Dreams afforded another type of oracle. r r .il\ n \Ju K r i r ( . lots.rl h'.t t ' t .r. r \ . r i L . r 1t l r . h{rw( trar. r ( r r l r l i J l d r a l l n r r ' 1 l . l r ' I r l . sometimes to mrslead. r t r i . t r h r ) r / i . . r i ' r r . i i r . l ' .

.rr ir ') l. 1 ' r 1 i . . r ( . 5l(i\5 tx ()Ifl:N\ r. t .'.lt {\'dl r 1 r r .i. . . 1. r 6 i l r r l . i . r r r L\ L i Lr . i r 'n i i t . r . r l r i L t l t r L . l / r r l .. . . i . ! r \ l L r r . r .rr i . .. i 1 1 r i j r .CIeSSICAL MYTHOLOGY '.jr.1 i.rr r i! Lji rrL/!\ \ L j r ) i ri i r l \ i.. . r ) i r i r . r r i r i \ . \ t . . r L . 1. r r l r i . .iil. i r i l .i. ' .'. . l L . . r l r \ L . i i t i r i j l L ' . i t !. .. r ' . 1l i i . I \ L .t+nl. j . i . L 1i . i r . l i t ' t'r / I. 1 r 1 7 r . i ' 1 1. . l . t ! l \1 1 .i' ..

who came out of Chaos and gavebirth to Ouranos the sky god. uhng his sister torch. the blood of Ouranos that fell into whose name was then changed to rhe womb of cete.The verdict the goddessof vegendon. the goddess ATHENA. the Fates played little direct parr (Seealso OMCLESAND PROPHECIES) FnUnUS was rhe Roman god of the countryside and identified with the Greek PAN.the god of rhe Athenian council presided over by underworld FIADES and DEMETER. The Greeks knew them as Clotho ("the spinner"). The Greeks regardas vengeo. an ancient seagod PosEtDoN. a spiil oJthe plainsandJields. who was avengedhis father AGAMEMNON's secretly taken to Crete in order to murder by killing CLYTEMNESTM. He had been wamed by an oracle that he would be displaced were ponrayed as uglywomen$lth by one of his sons. Gaia may have savedZeus hom a fate similar to that of Ouranos and Cronos when she wamed him that a child of his bom by Metis 42 .frile lzchais. the by the Areopagus. was the king of the Latin people ar rhe time of erNnqs' arrival in Italy after the long voyage from Troy. wblds oJ a ruled the universe. the decided to overthrow Ouranos. although some called them daughrers of night. Latinus. from rhe Roman name.tr tilJolsd dtblfth aod6ide d nrani dattrny O/ten dqictod as spinnm.god of the mounuinside Faunus was said to be rhe grandson ofsarunN and was credited with prophetic powers. were the avenging goddeqses Greek mythology and of were known as the Ennyes ("the angry ones") Theywere bom from calmed the anger of the Furies. his son. grow up there in safery When Zeus his mother The Furies were only was grown. who insteadof the infant ZEUS. so he swallowed snakes enrwined in their hair. Clotho. oJho RHEA a wife.were three goddesses lmown to the Greeks as the Moerae Their origins are uncertain. castratedhim.c 1890) Tnr FefES.ClassrcAr- MyrHoLoGy THE FAIES.who sometimes plaguedmen's sleepwith nightmares (tLLr/srMr()N DR FRoM SMilHCrAssrql s DrcroNARy. and thus the executor of destinyrather than its source Hence the great importance to both gods and humans of oracles which indicared the ineutable drift of events ln mythology.to disgorge his brothers and sisters. Jrolics alongwith aJriendly goat Faunus' children. One of these buried children. and Atropos. who was her son and husband.nce Fuiespursued The wrthout ed this as the golden age of the merqin l{e andin death wrong-dom TITANS. he was still subjecr to the decisions of the Fares.when CRoNos. tumed thq winged. cution of Orestes after his acquitul including his future wife HEM. Lachesis ("the apportioner") and Atropos ("the ineviuble") A late idea was that the Fatesspun a lengrh ofyam which represenred rhe allorred span for each mortal Alrhough zEUs was the chief Greek god. all Cronos.which on occasion inspired the Romans to renew effons on the battlelield in the face o[ defeat Perhapsrhis is the reason for Faunus sometimes FAUNUS. however. at the $. scourge spears thetook dnd. FLORA SCCFORCESOF NATURE Tnn FUruES. and his children as soon as they were were pitiless to those mormls who bom Rhea. he compelled his father persuaded to abandon their perse.weredelightlulbut capicious crmtures. 1895) him. rr. avenging goddesses the who pursued murderers. on Gaia's advice. with a spindlespinsout the thftdd o/lf. gave had wrongly shed blood They him a stone wrapped in swaddling relenrlessly pursued oREsrEs. however. youngestson. Ouranos then faded from the mythological scene and Cronos A FURY. Sometimes were Embolizng out to be as tyrannical to his own (tlruirunoN family as Ouranos had been before the*t{tness theirvengeance oJ FRoMSMrrH's DR C6slGLDrcrroNARy. or the Mdfie. u. was Gnn. at the dght. Fatae. the earth. the less-threatening Eumenides. from rhe Roman. It is clear. Gaia conceived a great sickle which Cronos used to cut off his father's penis within the eanh womb The god was emasculatedand the sky separated from the earth From Ouranos' blood. CRONOS. halJgoats. goddesspunishmnt. nasum the lengh of a lp. cub it of G cornrN THRF rvJ M D SnuDMcK orloNc{N s. with the shean.rhar at a certain period they ceased to be concemed with death and became instead those powers which decided whar must happen ro individuals. hall-mn. ) 1895 being seen as a descendant of the war god MAR5 His mortal son. The Furies ("the soothed ones") in Greek myrhology.hnown as Fauni. however. Furiae. Gaia conceived the FURIES. So passionate was their reladonship and so overwhelming Ouranos' embrace that their offspring could not emerge lrom her womb.

' .lrr( Nt)t on! xtts sht . who lncd ()n the borclcrs ol nrodem-furkcy nncl lraq. l r r L i r . olre ol whom at Lastove rthrerv hln'r k nr LJrce mllh GnNYIr. ' r r b r r t s / t r 't r u ' r i r r .l t GAIA i h r 5 r . f / l a i l . h o * ' e v e r . the equivalent of Cronos.excitttl GANYMEDE. r 6 [ \ l i ( " r h o u g h t " ) w o u l d r ep l a c e h i m i r s rht' sr-rpremc gocl So Zeus st:tLLru. .rhs thc ntost I Lolcnt \ crsron of the sk1's ctnascltlaIltltt Kurnarbr. r r r t hr t r t h h c r g r f t i . .s bducted him and tc-rok hrm to Mounr Olympus ILrbc hls cupbearer Ganymede lt was believed thar also bccame Zcus' zt-s thc lover. thl krnA "l of Phrygia. d g ( r l d f s \ i . boy. / t h cr h r t r l t h bu.r.'ccl \'1etis iln(l latcr tl-ie godclcs: A /l l/ NA sprang frorn hrs heacl 'l'hc srorv r)l fhe separatl()lt l r r ' l \ \ tL ' l tt l < r . r 1 6 s y . \r i r\ r . a handsome rhc passionof Zrus whtr.ltl0 h0 r d l l sh a r . r . J r r t h x h o . r n r l( . fa l l u n J l h r r o u n s / t c r o / 1 .l ( l l l onc lt rs ior:nd rn e valieq'ol ftrrnls Ln \\'cst Asian rnythologl' I hc I lumans. brt off and swallowccl hrs fathtr's pe ttis As a rcsult of hts unr.io untlabund.n the grustol ttn uglt.r m a r b ib c c l r m c prcgnant wirh tcmble deitres. l r l l l l i J l l 1 l l .rsr-ral a t t r o n . a <t h c ' .teoe 1 . K r . hlcl in rherr rnt. and brother of llus He was such a beautr{ul young man a thar ZFi.{. borehim uwnyto Mount OrymPui (IHr R A f t o F G A N Y M Tr ) r B l P F r F R P A r l R l 8 t N \ (ANVA5 1577 )640) . L r tt//rr ci i l t t f L r l . .CIaSSICAT MYTHOL-OCY I 1l' "'. and gained hls immonality thc consrellation water-camer Aquanus.c r rr i l l l r l r . 1 ' . ' r r f ro-. ( / l t i i i \ j')'ra r i l r r l \ i r \ i i L . r / r Intl. ' l i 5 h r ' \ t J r r . l 1 r g 1r r .

Zeus' farher.sisrers. receivesthe souk oJthe dead. who were rhe old.she had snakesfor hair and Greela and rhe Romans According est generadonof rhe gods and were one look at her lace could tum any to the most widely accepted led by CROwOS. small son He wasportrayed as both a raglng warior and a gentle family man who had taughthimself to be valiant out oJdury rather than any natural (LLUsrMrraN AUNLEE. had human shape.CLASSIcAL MYTHoLoGY HADES (abwe) . 8C) c 180 THe GnNrS. the Trojan champion. gentlenessand friendship. from rhe Roman each opponent wirh poisoned The only mortal of rhe three was name. living man or rhing ro srone myth. and were that the Giants are quire differenr hero PERSEUS Like her immorul minor goddesses to both the from the TITANS. city walls. I895 ) HECTOR Aelow). charmsand amulets (tuusrMroN because the Gians could nor be FRoil DR SM|TH s CNSIGL DtcTtoNARy. would not be able to defeatrhem. Dunng the geat batrle berween rhe Medusa ("queen") and Euryale gods and rhe Giants. They were attendants to APHRoDITE and YENUS.A favourite subject for artiss. Euphrosyne and Thalia.s oFIERGAMIN. son o[ GAIA. lord oJ theundewvorld . +4 . but knew rhar they cawed.lihe an etl qe. from rhe blood thar [e]l THE GORGON MEDUSA (abwe) was into GAIA'S womb ftom Ouranos' onte a beauttful woman whoseloclu were severed penis. who are gadedby Hermes Hades appedrs with typically darh lools and unntly hair wer which he often worea h o^ D s m a g l c e l m e tr l r l u s r M r / r p o M F M l l H ' CHSIGL DICTIoNARY. Heracles ("wide-leaping"). snatches fioment oJpeoce with his loving a wtJeand. on wamors' shtelds. Gradae. the Graces were thought to represent beauty. Giganres. finishing off children of Phorcys. excepr for the snake-like tails thar were attached to their legs They were bom at the same time as rhe FURIES.Persephone. with his wiJe. THg GneCES. 1895 ) killed by divine hands zEUs rherefore fathered rhe great hero HEM. ) COUrAge By 1994 THE GIANTS (above)weregigantic creatures with snahe-Iihetails After thq were defeated the gods. the victim of rhe Greek of zEUs and Eurynome. the love goddesses of Greece and Rome respectir/ely. rhe gods stood goddessThe imageoJhu fnghtfulJace was their ground. and were rhe played a decisive pan. When the Gianrs tumed to withing snahesby a vengeJul attacked Olympus. from rhe Roman name. ALIAR ^TARBLE. in Greek myrhology.Tnr GonGoNs were chree CLES through a morral woman sistersnamed Srheno("strengrh"). their names were Aglaia.were the daughters arrows. by thq werebuied beneathvolcanoes Herewe seethe hound oJ Artemts hilling a glant at the battle of the Giants and thegods (zEL. It is important to realize Medusa.

guarded the ennance to the underHe was the son of cnoruos and world and prevented anyone from RHEA. the realm of the dead. The bravest of rhe Trojan wamors. the lwing chitons. Hades at one time became enamouredof the nymph Minthe. Persephone was abruptly taken underground by Hades when she beheld a special narcissus planted by the earrh mother GAIAro please the god of death. When Persephonediscovered this. 45 . but during the hours of darknessshe was interested in witchcrafr. Zeus the Romans. and once a month they placed offerinp of food at crossroads.CInSSIcAL MYTHoLoGY Although usually a faithful husband. ghosrsand tombs ln many ways similar to the vegeution goddessDEMETER. He forcibly married Greek associated the undenvorld PERSEPHONE. by sending Achilles' mother THETIS stop this to humiliadon. bloom and billiance. Achilles had quarrelled with AGAMEMNoN and refused ro fighr. she became so jealous that she tumed the nymph into the sweet-smellingherb. but Parroclusborrowed his divine armour in order to nlly the Greek. guests") on accounr of rhe muldIiJting the spints oJ godsand men.in the day she was supposed to have a benign influence on farming. rhree-headed the dog. HnCfOR was rhe eldesr son of pRmv. where her influence was said to be feh. wirh the west. reuming to the world of rhe living. Such was Achilles' anger rhat for rwelve days he dragged Hector's corpse round Parroclus' tomb.Hector's body was retumed and properly buried. graced the eyes when making a sacrifice. however. the Hestia. POSEIDON.and of Hades as an evil force like Satan Hades the underworld. used to invoke Hecate in her magic arts. underworld. The Athenians were parricularly respectful towards her. Polydegmon ("receiver of many wodd with beauty. So in exchange for a great treasure. or Chaities. mint H.HERA. the place where the At the division of the universe after sun sets. He mistakenly killed Patroclus. grim and implacable deiry. only those (whose name means "the HeoeS ghosts who could pay the fare unseen") was rhe Greek god of rhe CERBERUS. veiling their beauty. In rhe end zEUs himself intervened. ) BY c I50l Charon who ferried acrossrhe Sryx. rhe Greek hero. Neither the Greeks nor the ovenhrow of their father. JAsoN'srejected Colchian princess. Demeter's daughter. The conflicr berween Hades and Demeter over Persephone's fatewas decided by Zeus. but bter on thq woe dqicteil a:snudes $xr messengergod. and Another name for Hades was worshippers always averted rheir THE 6RACES. The wrrch MEDEA. Achilles sought out Hector and compelled him to fight to the death.who gave the husband and the mother equal shareso[ her time As a dyrng-andrising goddess.ANPTNS SEE MONSTER5 AND FABULOUS BF/5TS was believed by some HfCefe to be descendedfrom the tltexs. Persephone sank and rose annually from the underworld. DEMETERand tu in Egrydan mythology. He was cenainly a was to be shared among them. Poseidon the sea. the Gracesappear in his kingdom. rhe king of Troy during rhe Greek siege.zrus. The ghosts of rhe dead were escortedby HERirarS. Hecareis usually portrayed with three faces. only to be slain by Hector. to the boarman THEE GucEs RAPMET-W@D. A Greek goddess with two quite separate aspects. however. a subtenanean river. and rhe brorher of. in tune with rhe narural rycle of sowing and hawesting. Hecate uncomfortably combined ferriliry with death as a power of the eanh. the earth in Chrisdaniry. he was unbearen on the battlefield. who was the daughter of Demeter and his brorher Zeus. the squire and lover ofAcHlttES. In the tudes who had died and come ro earliest worlu of art. ever thoughr took the sky. In order to avoid any reference to the nature of the underworld it was usual to call Hades by the drle of Pluto ("the giver of weahh") Hades'chief myth concems the abducdon ofPersephone. Roused from his lethargy.

They even eloped with a part o[ Menelaus' treasury. from it and when Helenhatched shebroughtherup asa member of the royalfamily. Both rhe Greeks and the Romans held that the inhabited world was a large many other children. as she also came to Greece rhe death o[ his son PMETHoN Once thu impetuousyouth med to from West Asia. but then PARts.and the cause the Tro. many sons of King rrueu ofTroy. His rnarriage to the love goddistance and into the unimaginable dess APHRODIIEmay have somefar lrom anyshore thing to do wrth this eastem conOne myth of Helios concems nection.wife of in theSpartan hng Tyndareos. and not merely the mistress. of Pans. However. After the fall of Troy. although she was reated as the proper wife.{us.a crwn oJ laming rays Just 4s th€ sun's rcys ynetrate everylhere. hersister arrd unfaithfuI wasKingAcAMaalvoN's wlfe CLYTEMNESTM. under the influence of dnnk. visited Spana and. Only rhe dmely acrion of zEus steadied fashioned a trap to catch his its runaway horses and prevented unfaithful wife in bed with the war the earth from catching fire. a thoughtful heroine. where iron rnines date from a very early by an ocean island sunounded period His cultwas strong in Cana Although Oceanos was sometimes and Lycia.and.anWar Her immortaliryas the Greek thedaughterof supreme wasonce deitysuggesF Helen that and that her incorpora goddess ation into myth as an unfaithful queen only occurred when her q796|ripwaslargelyforg. he was persuaded by his friend DIoNYsus to unlock the cunning device and let so Helios saw everything atdwu iwohd DR his mother escape 4s 4 witness oJo4tlu {t*rsrut oNFrcM Hephaistos seems to have come 1895 ) SMIrH's CrAsl(}LDrcloNeY. At the time of her mamage to Menelaus. an island sacred ro him. was the son of HfPHetSfOS andwas the Greek zEUs and HERlt. Zeusmatedwrth Leda. so Hephaistos was invited to retum permanendy of HnffN wasthe daughter ttrDt and zrus. There. the seagod PoSEIDoN 46 . c 1880. Their reladonship steer his father's radiant chariot.Ledalaid an egg. Once Hephastos but he quickly lost conuol. but was toppled by an earthquake around 226 Bc. it stretched shore.. was almost as tumultuous as that of Zeus and Hera. appearsin worhs oJart as a strongardbeautfulyouth wrth gluming cyes. god oJ the svn. among them A Augeas. god nnrs. m)|stenous DIOSCURI. gaixed Helen's a[ec[on. A sequel to this rale has the smith god gain his revenge as a fully grown man by making a golden rhrone for his mother which was actually a trap. the younger brother o[ Agamemnon. the guiseof a swan..sailed during the night around the earth in a golden bowl on the encircling waters of oc&{Nos. HEUOS was rhe Greek sun god and son of the ntqN Hyperion. only to be thwaned by sea nymphs who took him to a beach. onginally from Asia Minor. Helen was the most HEI-EN (abovd pcces thewqlLsoJTroy The nostbeeuttJulwoman of the arcimt woid. His Roman equivalent was vULcAN. None of the gods could releaseHera. This socalled Colossus was one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. in the nonhem part of the Aegean Sea. ln another version. When the Trolars refrrsed to retum Helen and lhe stolen lreasure. smith god. Hephaistoswas lame as a result of having interfered in a quanel between his parents.Helen'sbrothers the were Castotand Polydeuces. So angry did Zeus become that he flung his son from the top of Mount olympus and let him fall heavily on the volcanic island of Lrmnos. with the help of the love goddessAPHf. and so arrived back in the eastjust before dawn. At first Menelaus and Helen were very one of the happy.CrnssrcAL MYTHoLoGY Horse. desirable bnde in Greece. shewas ako. accordingto Homei. after crossing the slcy.otten. Helios had uation. whose smithy lay beneath the crater of Mount Aetna in Sicily. To the Romans he was known as Sol. cav J. gpen to seft mochery anl6ygT 4wre oJ themiserycausedbyha BY or W[s oFTRoY Lop bgaul (Hrreu rHE lEcHril. Throughout this long war the sympathies of Helen were mainlywith the Greeks.oDlrr. along its south-westem descnbed as a nver. CIRCEand PASIPHAE gigantic statue of the sun god was erectedat the harbour of Rhodes. Hera ried to drown her imperfect child. Helen and Menelauswere reconciled and they lived undisturbed at Spana. Agamemnon assembled a great army to help his brother Menelaus For ten years the city o[ Troy was besieged and then only captured through the tnck of the Wooden to Mount Olympus. the wrfeof rhe Spartan o[ hng urrurf. It was rhought that Helios.) HEUOS. The Olympian gods Phaethon fell from the vehicle and merely laughed at Hephaistos'sitonly was drowned.

the season which shemaried in Zgus (lrri'srurnrl rR()I1 SroRlrs Lrw. baby HEMCLES. againsrthe Hepharstosfell in love wrth Athena. later in his life. where a great temple was said to have been built for her by the ARGONAUTS 47 . Metis. Hephaistos and to theguilty palr (THE oF FoRCE vuLGN DrEGo By VEAseuEz. Zeus had led to disaster for gods. as the ceaseless conflicts recounts how Hephaistos split benveenher and her husband zrus open Zeus' head wrth an axe in readily bear wrtness Often her fis order to release the fuily grown of jealousy and quarrelsomeness goddess Apparently.wno ls salo rn some mlths to have been the son of Zeus and Hera. Hera succeededin dnvinq Heracles temporanly mad There are a number of myths about Zeus' courtship of Hera ln one of them he disguisedhimseif as a cuckoo and took shelter inside her clothes during a hear. her promised some remedy if he agreed addition to the Greek pantheon to releaseAphrodrte and Ares was not an easy or straightforward A myth about ATHENA's binh matter.symbolilngher statusas Zeus' bicle Her sceptreB trpryd with d cuchoo. when she relentlesslyperonce he realized she was pregnant secutedZeus' mistresses and their wlth a powerful deiry Later. the cupbearer of the gods Another child was the smith god HtPflAlSlu5. (Seealso FORCES OFNATURE) but the infant hero strangledthem HEPIIAISTOS. oJ Jashions god J'tre.s. di'rectsHelios across slry She is crownedwitha the dadem and vetl. men.ydownpour Once out of the rain. but in others the offspring of Hera aione Herawas worshipped wrth particular reverence in Crete and at Samos. birth ro the serpent Erichthonius she senr two serpenrs ro kill him. Ioves resoltes trap Ares. Aphrodite. whom Zeus had but was rejected by her and his fathered in order to help rn the semen fell to earth where it gave coming battle against the GIANTS. heroesand swallowedAthena's mother. rhe goddess of birth Eileithyra.1885 r R()v ) in his cradle However. queenoJheaven. gcWen worles hls Jorge exquistte in Jiery Lame. Zeus resumed his normal shape and promised to marD/ Hera Later she bore him the war god eRrs. however.CLASSICAL MYTHoLoGY means "lady" and was HnRn undoubtedly the title of a powerful mother goddess whom the Greek inhented from the earlier inhabitants of Argos.sacred to her as the messenger oJ sping. rewakthathiswtJe. which was a major city in the Peloponnese It was claimed rhat she was the daughter ofcRolos and RHEA. leans oneleg Byhim stands he on who ApoIIo.16J0 aNv ) HEM. children For example. and Hebe.

queen of the frerce AM. the Hydra. but this plan so well frustrated that the hero became the slave of Eurystheus. The eighth labour was more gruesome.Heraclesfetch the girdle of Hippolyta.. rhe wild. female guardians of the fruit that the eanh goddess GAIAgaveto Hera on her 48 .was Iater to cause the hero's death. king of Tiryns. According to different accounts. It Iived in a swamp at [€ma. not far from Argos. because Heracles had received help from his nephew. Although they had steel-dpped feathen with which they killed borh men and animals. His next opponent. which he pastured in the hngdom of EIis in the westem Peloponnese. (HERCULE frE Hmn^ A F ND vAs. and ctusheshimin mid-air Thisbronze c:'prnses classical the idealoJhcrot shillandmight. ND crErcum ANTEUS AmcoBRoNzE By PrH . sent by the vengeful goddess Htra. The son of the sun god. the Theban queen. The fifth labourwas the cleansing ofAugeas'stables.ClnssrcAL MYTHoLocY with Anaats.a glant HEMCLES wra tles whodrawshis strmglhJrom eanh To the wmhenthegiant's might. a feat he achieved by divening rhe course of a nearby river.etheurth.whlle a crab. To atone for this terrible deed he had to become Eufrstheus' dependent and undertook his famous rwelve labours. was a nine-headed serpent sacred to Hera. for Iolaus bumed the srumps of the necks as soon as Heraclesseveredeach head. him to caprure the Erymanthian boar. which plagued the countryside of Arcadia. When he retumed ro Eurystheus. and they added various encounters in ltaly to his already large cycle of adventures. nips at his heek AJter buning away the lTydra's eight morul huds. To the Romans he was known as Hercules. The next labour was not quire so bloody. First of all Eurystheus had. these birds were frightened away by the noise of a rattle.three bodies and six hands.ES slays the llydra. But with assistance from his nephew lolaus he was able to triumph.. After this labour Heracles brought back the golden apples of the HESPERIDES. Nessus. It took Heracles to Thrace in pursuit of the man-eating mares of Diomedes. HoaclcsliJshim highaba. Another labour reouired HgnnCt rS. Augeashad vast herds of animals.c 1920) GoRauET. which the goddess ATHENAhad specially made for Heracles.601528 . After overcoming the lion. which he subdued after feeding them on their master's flesh The last four labours were quite different in nature. who then gave birth to the MNOTAUR. He rrapped it with a neq and during the hunt Heracles encounrered a band of crxteuns. HERACI. On the island of Crete the hero tracked down the bull that utlos had failed to sacrifice to the seagod PosEIDoN.the king refused to count the exploit as a labour. BecauseZeus needed a mortal champion in the forthcoming battle berween the gods and the GIANTS. I(ng Eurystheus told Heracles to remove the immense piles of dung from the stables. The name Heracles means "Hera's glory" . a westem king who had three heads. the bull-headed man slain by the Athenian hero THESEUS Heracles captured Poseidon'sbull alive and brought it back to Tryns. even going mad at one point during his life.a circumstance that firmly ties the hero to Argos.c strongholds Hera close to Argos. Zeus intended Heraclesto be ruler of Mycenae or Tiryns. where he let it go free at the end of this seventh labour. The bull had mated with Minos'wife. the geatest of all the Greek heroes. beast-like men who lived in woodlands. The lasr Iabour that the hero performed in the Peloponnese was the removal of the Stymphalian birds.he fathered Heracles at the court of Thebes. The chosen mother was Alcmene. ) Heracles had to fight it with his bare hands and a wooden club. which was a goddessof beasrsacredro ARTEMIS. Heraclesburied iu ninth immoftal head undr a huge roch in the swamp. in the course of which he hlled his wife and their three sons with arrows. the son otzeus and was ALCMENE. These labours began with the killing of the Nemean lion. The problem that the hero encountered when fighting with the Hydra was that for every head he cur off with his sword two new ones grew in its place. which could not be harmed by arrows.4ZONS Then he captured the catde of Geryon. he cured the skin and wore it as a trophy. the site of the goddess HEM's temple lt remains a mystery that Heracles should have been persecuted so much by Hera. he retumed to Tir)ryrs with either its golden antlers or the hind iself. Heracleshad to capture the Ceryneian hind. One of them. She struck Heracleswith a fir of madness. PASIPFIAE.

hard-working Heracles attainedimmortality for himself No other hero gained this honour Heracles'death on earth. whrch told him to build a funeral ppe rn Thessaly When the dyrng hero climbed on to it. penis the cult of Priapus originated rn Asia Minor. such as Leo. and Cancer. rhe goddessoilove According to one Greek myth. there was a great flash of lighrning and Zeus took his son to loin rhe immortals Someof the labourso[ Heracles arereflected rhe namesof certain in constellations. ro bnng bnefly back to Tinns rhe three-headed hound crn-arnus As a result of this labour.s l89l ) 49 .inspirerlthe love ol the watr nymph SalmacisHut. the lover of rhe y o u n g m a n w i t h a w i d e . R O P I T O Sw a s t h e f i r s r f e m a l e b o y .lvtES leadsEurydice(centre)and Orphns (nght) throughthe undemorld As Hermesconductedsouls psychopomp.tR. carrynng a lor this West Asiangod intention.coEs. Heracles consulted the Delphic Oracle. Jrom l{e on earth to d. an event that the Greeksexpected to precede his translarion to Mount Olympus as a god.wrth some help from PERSEPHONE. whiLe the gnome-like Pnapus was [amous for his cnormous Like that o[ Hermaphroditus. unawart oJ hrsbeautful admirer on tht iver banb ( s A LM A ( r s A N D H E M p H R O T T T ( ) s /58.who gavethe hero's second wife a poisoned galrnent for him to wear Realzing that his death was near. Salmacis prayed to the gods that she might be etemally united wrth him The wish was granted HEnUgS was rhe Greek messenger god. for the Greeks believed that he guided the dead to the realm of H. M E R C U R Y O d i n w a s t h e caLly The result was a femaleboy.lor it meanr a descent into the underworld.CrAssrcAl ANleutTil. rt was Hermeswho wzs alrvayssent to stealsomethingthat was otherwrseunobtarnable Beforethe sea n y m p h t r u rt t 5 p c r s u e d c d c r s o n h A ( H i L L t St o s t o p m u r i l a r i n gt h c corpseof HECTOR.which representsthe Nemean Lion.H e r m e s . the goldn boy bathesm a showeroJ sunlryht. near the Black Sea HER.h e r a l d ' s s t a f f c r o w n e d w r t h t w o ally cut off his own manhood snakes In ancient Greece this staff assured the messenger safe passage HERMAPHRODIT O S.b n m m e d Phrygian morhergoddcssCybele..eath Hddes (ruusrurrcr in FRoM D crroNARy ot. underworld This dury rhe helps to explain the later idenrification of the Germanicgod Odin even dunng time of war Hermes' greatest passion was for the love goddess APtIRoDITE The nvo sons that are attnbuted to them were borh renowned their unusual sexualiry for HER. rhis handsome boy excited the passion of Salmacis.vtApH. hat and wrnged sandals.. c h a m p r o n o [ w a r r i o r s a n d t h e hencethe term hermaphrodite But father of the slarn Hermaphroditoswas not emascuHermes is usually depicted as a lated like Attis. queen of the underworld.the crab that was allegedly sent by Hera to help the Hydra (SeealsoHEROES) HEnMAPHRODITOS was rhe bisexualoffspnng of the messenger god urRvrs and APnRootrr.CrnssrcAr MyrHoLoGY when he bathed in some waiers with the Roman equivalent of and she mergedwith him physr. the beau uJul son oJAphroditeand Hermes. and the son o[zrus and Maia He enloyed playrng tncks and games Dunng the TrojanWar. who was a nymph of a founrain nearto the ciry of Halicamassus in Asia Minor When the young Hermaphrodirosignored her artentions. dr BARrHoloufl ( SPMN(. gods conthe sideredrhat the simplesrsolutron m i g h t b e r o l e t H c r m e s s t e a lt h e broken body Hermes was the god wlo most easilycrossed the line betweenthe lir'rngand rhe dead. 4Ntes. the realm of the dead From there the hero managed. was the work o[ the Cenuur Nessus. though some drstance [arther north at Lampascus. wedding to Zeus The last exploit of Heracles was the mosr testing.

a l.oray many heroes.AS'Qbove) rn eprrtale. ( 4208( ) alter tfu lull ofTroYwas s*en yearvoyagt AENF.rnvohing gods the uo.he wusrohbcd I andlorril toleap owrboard thc sarlors. beJore ovtrbourd llrr'jrMrr)r rR()MTA\(lrlw(x)DT^ll\ ( 1920) 50 .lt1Rrrl. 9)7 ARION 0rght). Aeneasand Odysseus. he found his way home after ten years' wandertng through fabulous lands. Aeneas and Odysseusboth joumeyed to the underworld in searchof prophetic counsel. The lure of the into a monster's den. lortttr Here Owheus whib Htmes (IeJt). Poseidon.Lobnngbachhrswilc. Iry whert' hc was bome uway to safcry song-loving tlolphtns Here. Jason set sail with his fearlesscrew of Argonauts in search of the Golden Fleece. Three intrepid explorersstand out in Classicalmphology: Jason. F. or for the sheer joy of discovery and adventure. Anon playshis rlhara on tht prow oJ leuping o.l tht thr shrp. and found his way out again.rttt and onwurdsto . such as Theseuswho went into the Labyrinth to slay the Minotaur. Atnt'us. ORPHET/SQtlt) wtnt down tnlo I lddes.while Aeneas' ar seven-ye voyage after the fall of Tioy led him to the site of future Rome.tht' untltrvorltl. or a f.waits to bils /arcwcii to Euryclrce.urydice hr' uppr:rworld as long as he did not knh bach untrl dear s of Haclt /ust as thty wtre about b stepoul mto tht E u h g h t . hlndlywelcomrd theRomanr Hert.urydue (--hairrrrng shadcs wrlh his ttnLl ewn Ptrstphonc thr to bath ttt the rnusrr.Sir ancJ herool he reachLng Ltlrum n ltalywhere bttamc theuntestrul is amvtngon Deios.t ) r 1 / r e uts n t c Jr o u n do n i yt o s c e u r y c lrr ts l l p bachml<ttht worlclol shades .CT-eSSICAL MYTHOLOGY VOYAGERS oF HE LURE THEuNKNowN prompts all restiessheroes to stnke out on a new path in search of a fabulous treasureor shining dream. world oJ shudts lcacJ [urrJiic buh LhroughLhc (lilR\1t\ l:r [\T)t(r lNri()Rfr]rL5. Tossed from shore to shore by the angry sea god. uas allowcci taht F.yntalpoetund ctharaplqer. Odysseus.too.thc AenertJ. port a Roman lestibed rn Virgrl's OdysseyAlttr fleeingwth hs father dnLlsonlrttnt buming Tnty' Thrar and sarled awuyIrywayLtJ At ncasanl his contraclcs Cunhttgt. be. perhaps.lore ily I)elos to (. A\ l M r4 / r yK i n g A n i a s( A r N r ir N ) tL ( ) s . attracts underworld. was th'e fabled Odyssey of the shipwrecked wanderer. Most famous and appealing. r j o r r ^ l r \ r1 . ily sailcJ trr .Sir b tuhcpdrt in tt magltul conteslwhrch he won On hrsway homcrn a Lonnthian ship.

4 j t \ . thn. \ r\ r ( ) ! r r\ | F ( .CLASSICAL MYTHoLoGY ODYSSEUS (above). Trrtsiar. / u s o n a n J h i s A r .lysscus / 4 c w i l h c rs h a r y c n c cs t a h r ' l r r l l r \ i i \ ( L l \ t f r i t \ t ' H t \ 1 l1 ] . /or hrs unntng. q o n u u t s s a r l c J a r r . ht btttthtd ut -Srt ol one-qed gants.only d/lar nrdny vacl\'ilclrc/arlrL Orrtt bath on his islanc/ htnutlon ol ithara. hltrufuclthc trant arrcl s L p p e c i u t . Ji. irc haci arorircr baLtk Lo lighL w r l h l h e s u r k r r sr y 'h r i w r / c hrfort hc couk/ rzecin hrs thronc anrl sctlit Jrrrvn n'rlir P e n t l o p t t l t r t \ r R r r r . ODYSSEUS (obovt). O d y s s c u sw a n d c r c r Jr n l o a ( .thrAr.rl ti(d .. ! I l \ r l r r l a 8j I 5I .y r l o p s J c n w h e r t h e a n t l h r s r o m r a d c s h c r a n r t l r u p p c r /h t i r c hostilc granl To csrrrpc.rr rly. . 1 \ t ) R\l1 i . ! . hornr ry' thc luwlcss rar c I roy. / r ] . i \ \ r \ ( e t ' r ' t h r r rn l t J(. . rs Lrrrl ()r lri ()iur roat hy l'hcicacian iai/orr Ar prcJittcc/ hv lfic sctr. r u r r r r r g r ' g us . \ r a l . /crrt rrs/tcp. ( . ir f i r r \ . Oc. ctltbruted trcl'cllcr. rvas rcnowntd lor hLswil. / r c l c l c nr n J c r s h c c p r ' b c / l i r s I l t r c o and hts r onrarlt s prcrt L thc vrclrl i :rnllt Oc. L \ r r r . ) Nt lt l . the Cyt lopcs l3olclrrncl i n q u i s i r r v r .irr # ffi i.ilsscur rrar hcJ irrrnrcu/onc rrn u /ortrgrr shrp. / a t l r r nu s t u l s p d s lr l ] h r s r r r ! . r r r t : r r ' r . / r n u l l y u r r I lrrrrn . rc g. tralt ancl rrrrosify On hrs wuy horne /rrrnr JA5oNfclru')satlcdacrossthf5('ds()napcrrltlas\1}}'c/g('lt/tts/cttntlls:/rrp. 4 .qrl'c]((ll]l)(li]lL'J a g t I h t l u t ' n t r n s c a r r hy t h r ( i o l l t n r t h eJ n r g o n ' s r 1 e . [ sl 1! u / u r t r r g i c t n r ' c d l r t s t d t u a ( ) / A r c s r n l h c s u c r c c i p r t rL Jo / .s dncl silvdr l(rnguc.

N rHr: HrspLRlDEs or By LErcH()N cANviS . offenng ro hold up the heavens in his stead HORATIUS (below). lxt wArcH oF HERoByLoRD by Heracles (TH[ cARl)r. The Etruscansmounted a surpnse attack and attempted to capture Rome by crossing a poorly defended bridge over the Rrver Tiber With two comrades. and secret. mothnight.Hero threw herselffrom the Dardanelles. he would swrm back at dawn One Greek gods This tree stood in the stormy night the light blew out.1880 ) EDWARD BURNE-JoNE5.when they tned to restore TARQUINIUS SUPERBUS to the Roman throne by force of arms. wtth nuo oJhis comrades. guided by a light that she er earth.the evening star Their nameswere nage. ln order to keep their affair Hespera. Ioohs who THE HESPERIDES guarded the usually swam heracross Hellespont golden to the apples the in garden thegodsThe oJ guided a lightin hertwer Butherlight serpent by reallsthemyth thedragon oj ltdon blew in a storm lttinderwas out and whoguarded apples hewasslain the until drowned |Jm. Romanhero. Aegle and Erytheis. he held o[f the entmy until the last moment whenheleaptinto thestredm and swamto FROM 1885 saJety(LrusrvnoN FROM SroRl6 Llw. to the goddess HERA on placedin her tower Next moming her marriage ro zELls chief of rhe . while Leander her tower and died lived on the Asianside of the channel at Abydos They met and fell in Tne HTSPERIDES were suplove.held a the Sublician Bndge. he ordered his comrades . calling Hero was barred from mar. they arrangedthat Leander they were the guardians o[ a tree of should swim acrossto Hero each golden applesgrvenby GAIA. but becauseoI her religious posedly rhe daughtersof Hesperus. ) HOnqftUS was a Roman hero who saved the early Republic from the Etruscans.against the ELruscan amy ''ly'hile other Romanshached down the bidge.Horatius held the enemy back untrl the Romans had destroyed the wooden bndge As the final supports were sawrr away. Garden of the Hespendes on rhe (nght) HERO(below) JorherLeander. 186973) slopes of Mount west Atlas in the far the For one of his labours hero HFMCLES tncked the Titan ATI-{S into getting him the golden apples. rANvAs.ClnsstcAr- MyrHoLocy Hnno AND LEANDER were Leander lost his senseof direction one o[ the great pairs of loversin and he drowned in the cold waters Greek mythology Hero was a When his bodywas washed ashore pnestesso[ epnnoorceat Sesros in at Sestos.

where she was retumed to her human form Surprisingly. Hypnos lived in the underworld.and it was time for his birth. dead sister.and the brother of Thanaros ("Death"). great personal cost. she and Cocles ("Horatius the one-eyed"). On severaloccasionsHERA asked Hypnos to lull her husband zEIJs to sleep so rhar she could attack his son HEMCLESHypnos usually refused ro anger Zeus. Theyjust tricked by the goddessHERA. c 1635) ARGU5 PEEn Plur RUBENJ. herself by jumping off a cliff into His full name was Horatius and the unfonunate resultwas that the sea. but Horatius was obhged jealous and vengeful wrfe of Zeus. In another myth."as the daughter of the river god Inachus. It seemsthat Zeus eventually made love to lo on a cloud over Egypt.in his to tum. rhe messtorms (ODyssEUs THE AND coDDs INo8y she brought up DIONYSUS. one-eyed man was erected near the bridge in his honour He was also given as much land as he could drive a plough over in a day (Seealso HERoES) thrauinghimher veil which saves himJrom INO rescues shipwuhed Odysseus by ILUS SCC FOUNDERS IO . son senger god. at her tempie in Argos. he appeared to Semeleas lightning her infant son Melicertes leaptinto Whether he was wounded in the and thunderbohs. was his son. sent Hermes lull Argus sleep to n by theilreamynota o! his AND lute (Mt:rcuRy gNv s. the god of dreams. The unbom Dionysus. "thewanderer". 1580) of zrus and Semele. was the son of Np<. the night goddess.CInSSIcAL MYTHoLoGY killed. he tumed Io into a beautiful heifer. and was one of the mortal women who bore children by zEUs. Zeus's wife. and would have mated with her at once had not Hera guessed his intentions and sent a gadfly to prevent the animal from standing still. though tradition saysrhar an ancienrsarue of a lame. however. ar sailors in distressand guided ships through Harmonia ln Greek myrhology. F6co. 53 . rhe could nor be thwarted wirhour made it. and she was the sea and became marine deities eye remains uncertain. IO. Hera prayer saved the hero as he dodged ity of her lover by relling him to made Ino kill her own children the Etruscan arrows and struggled come to her in his rrue form This After she had done this Ino killed across the waters of the Tiber Zeus was also tricked into doing. in Greek mphology. she became identified with the Egptian cow goddess Hathor. and never saw the sun. possibly because he had already come close to having a thunderbolt hurled at him He was saved by taking refuge with Nrght.butZfus. was uken from her womb drowning Shewas honoured along the INO was rhe daughrerof cADMUs. Then. Because lo had been bovine in shape on her arrival. Semele had been However. 8y HYPNOS ("sleep"). lno suckled the divine the AEsNDRoArcfl.who was Ino's child and kept him safefrom Hera. this did not prevent Zeus from having her expelled from Argos so rhar he could make love to herwithout any difficulties According to one version. such a powerful goddess back to the Roman bank. the realm of nnors. Morpheus. and placed in Zeus'own rhigh unril Greeh shores a maine deity who aided as the Phoenicianhng of Thebes. rhe suggesrionof Hpnvrs. she was forgiven by Hera. When she to swim back in full armour Only who advised her to resr rhe divindiscovered the deceprion. Although Io was a virgin priestess of nrRe. whose power Zeus alwap respected. wulwed byZeus who changeilho ahaJo in ordo toavod into jealous Hera Heraordered his w{e allseang Argus wakh Io.

a town in who wasangry wrth Agamemnon Here. vrtre. prestdal in hJe allthatisdouble-edged Hisimage which both looh was on Jound cirygates. Jason brought down on his own head the full fury and magical powers of the Colchian princess For Medea not only killed Glauce but she also destroyed her sons by Jason. people to look backwards and for. (Seealso HERoES. new yearwhen at thestartoJeach dayand in the city wrth only one of his sandals The hero had lost it while carrynng what seemedto be an old a lady across smft stream. as he sat in the shade of the Argo.who becameknown and as the ARGONAUTS.The toil Sisyphus condemedendless and month of January . where for some ten yearsthey lived happily together and had three sons. either by Agamemnon himself or by an action committed by his father ATREUS ln any event. the son o[ Aeson and Phili'ra. Zeus' wife lt was thereforeIxron's Peliasthat he would be rumed off turn to be trapped.it was in in lact the goddess HERA disguise Unable to harm the unwelcome guest becausehe had arrivedat the time of a religious festival..CressrcAL MYTHoLocY was rhe eldest IPHtCgNfR and Qaughterof l(ngAGAMEMNON of Mycenae Queen CLYTEMNESTRA When Agamemnon and the Greek fleet were about to sail for Troy. Thessalian Magnesra However. sail off to Connth after failing to capture Iolcus Jason seemsto have accepred exile in Connth with Medea. the Argonauts found that Peliashad assumedthat they had died in a shiprweck and murdered Jason's father Aeson Two versions of the myth exist from this point onwards In one of them Peliasis destroyed by means of Medea's magic.a dual-Jaced. overcamedifficult task.the hero lingered at Corinth until one day. a piece of rotten dmber fell and crushed his skull.hell in heneath DR s gated temple in the Forum was in time (ItLustutto N FRoM SMITH Ct^sslGl Alongside Jellow him.she placed king could not properly rule his him in the care of the weseCentaur land Perhapsa secret passion for CHiRoN. contrary winds caused by ARTEMIS kept the ships at Aulis The goddessof the forestand wild animals had been offended. although his exrra eyesdid on one occasion enable him to catch the nymph Carna.a time for Tantalus to endless thirsl (tlu. simply because or Becausehe was polluted by this would berter for the boy if he were unprecedentedact. Then rhe hero was offered the hand of a princessnamed Glauce. to and looh a Hades beginnings ln Rome. hrs old ship. was and andhe invohed mwards ourwards. sr R ( ) M H ( ) M F R 1 8 8 5 ) it towardsJason.people bothbackwards Jomards hissins Tartarus.srhr(rN fR(. theyoung daughteroJ was Agamemnonand Clytemnestra. who liked to tease her lovers with sexual advances before suddenly running away Their son became a king of the important ciry of Alba Longa god.Agamemnon(nght) bows rn.Agamemnonpretended that lphigenra was to be married there to the Greek hero After she and champron ACHILLES discovered his true intention. over JANUS.bom in Iolcus. the pnson beneath the underworld JANUS was a very old ltalian god with exprates whom the Romansassociated IXION. when Zeus the throne of lolcus by a man wearmade an exactcopy of Hera from a ing only one sandal So rhe usurping king was amazed and fnghtcloud and enticed the unwary hng to rapeit The punishmentfor such ened when a matureJasonarrived IPHIGENIA. lxion prepareda trap for his unsuspecting[ather-in-law a pit filled wrth fire Eioneus fell into it on a visrr ro Lanssaand died.god of war ln order to avoid payrng a bride-price to Eioneus for his beautiful daughrer Dia. was a Greek hero and as o "sacnJicial lamb" to appease Artemts voyager. When he desertedMedeafor her. was deposedby his halfarms in prayer. the Thessalian educated elsewhere.Pelias decidedto rid himselfof the threat he represented by sendrngJasonon an impossible quest He offered to proname Jason as his successor uded he should bring home from belongColchis the Golden FIeece ing ro a wonderful ram which had flown there from lolcus Jason gathered together his companions. ruler of Iolcus. Artemis demanded that Iphigenia should be sacnficed To bnng the sacrificial victim all the way from Mycenae to the port of Aulis in Boeotia. Alone and depressed. and may have given the boy to the god.was sacredtoJanus There are few myrhs conceming him. seeingthat Peliaswrll not honour his promise to Jason. In another the Argonaum.srmrrcr brother Pelias Either because PhilyradisrrustedPelias' intentions 5 r ( ) r i L r . while the hrghpriest Calchasraiseshis difficulties arosewhen Aeson. defeateda guardianserpent and retumed vvith the magrcfleece Part of his successwas due to the aid of the Colchian princess and mtch.wrthout his wife Clytemnestra'sbecoming suspicious. including medifor lxion At first lxion was grateful cine.1895 ) wards .chained a rollingwheel.M DR SMrrHs CKslqL DrcTroNARy. and lxion thus became the first man to shed the blood of a krnsman JASON. crosseda seaof mawels. though some say his father was ARES. and years later on his retum from the Trqan War helped her loverAegrsthusto murder him IXION was a Thessalianking of Lanssaand supposedly the son of Phlegyas. Clytemnestra never forgave her husband. pisoners Sisyphus thetr always kept open in time o[ war DrcroNARY1895) snd Tontalus endure ownordeols to and closed in time of peace.who hved in the ThessaDia prompred zEUs himself to lian woodlands Chiron was skilled devrsespecial rites of punfication in many things." his headsorowJuliy {tur. but it was not long the nameJason ("healer") The Delnhic Oracle wamed beforehe took an interestin HERA. voYAGERS) 54 . his double. olt'ered sacrilegious cnme was to spend eremiry in Tartarus. whomJasonmade of his wrfe wrrh the assistance the goddessATHENA On retuming to lolcus.

which w. anri t r o n q u l l .was lovedby tht darh sorceress Medea. the goddess of f l o w e n n ga n d b l o s s o m r n g l a n r s . 1 8 6 .fwomanhood.whosemaglc at:'shelpedhim slay thedragonguarding the GoldenFleece With salves and invoottons. p Juno became pregnant wlth the war god MARSJuno's own warlike aspectis apparentin her attire She often appearsarmed anclweannga goatskincloak. thecelebrated Argonauts.5) JUNO was rhe Roman equivalenr of HER. E i l e i t h y a . theRornan rquetn huten of JUNO (be oncl o. r l r ( l L N o\ \ ' f r D r 4 r )N l ! \ 1 A R 8 ]c 2 0 CB a ) E 55 .a n d w a s c a l l e db y t h e Romans"the one who makesthe child see the light of day" Ar the touch of a magicalherb specially grown by Flora. a A N v A s . dmon or sword UAsoN By G{'sr^Vr MoRetr.td rn ciassrral srylc.ClnssrcAL MYTHoLoGY herooJthe IASON Aeft). wrfe of zEUS.a. chief rhe rhe god of the Greeks Juno was the queen of the sky and the wife of assoclateo JUPllt:R>ne wasalways wrth the Greek goddessof birth.rsthe gdrment favouredby RomansoLdiers on campaign In Rome she was worshipped on the Capitol hilL along wirh Jupirer and vtNrRlA.ruron I March lou). m d J e s t i c . sat'rc hairsry/e. she protected hm Jrom harm b1Jtre. goddessof wisdom and the arrs The festivalof Matronaliawas held in her hon. rrth a regdl diadtnt. atcompautd woman through life Jrotn brth wo1 to autn She ts here portrat.

curse uttered by PELOPS revenge parens in a temble manner. of a lion and wlngs. for no himself for shame incorrecrly that Corinth was his Trolan lifted a hand to heip when In Thebes. fulfilled As for the two serpents.ClnssrcAr ANreuilfii. but if they draggedit inside the ciry walls.who aloneamongmortals in welcomed godsas thq wandered the ANr) humanJorm throughPhryga guprrER MERcuRy wrH PHII FMON AND BAUCls. a fight ensued those warriors hidden wrthin the Jupiter Optimus Maximus ("the die on a distant mountainside. especiallystorrns. but they had no children. said they had crushed Laocoonand his Jupiter was associated ments. then the Wooden Horse was a guaranteeof Troy's safery. cANvAs.us The cult of the prophecy. son of Labdacus. l-aius tookJocasu as place of birth.for he Laocoon was ignored Worse than in off for L^aius carrynng Pelops'young was desrined to kill his father and the fate of Cassandrawas that o[ son Chrysippus.'rnen Thebes.once from Rome around 507 nc At first. was the father of orolpus and one of the most tragic figures hood he went to Delphr to ask inside the hollow belly could lurk a or guilry and ofwh. but he later became ghost from walking freely But the Anchises. where as the man who warned the IAOCOONandhts were The g](mt sea-setpents by Rome were dedicated him ro the childless l(ng Polybus adopted Trojans not to acceptthe so-called death a pairoJ poets dfereddstotheserpents' him and gave him the name o[ Greek gift of the Wooden Horse andent thq sent or He even drove a spearinto its side oign.not impossible that Laiuswas also I-IOCOON was a Trojan. who is weaing meal his trawllinghat. and a pnest of the sea in either the temple of Apollo or the temple of Athena the protector o[ the Roman people effect was quite rhe opposite A god tosrtooN Borh the Greek him and was their powerful ally in war shepherd heard the baby's screams and the Romansremembered to sons mtshed The games held in the crrcus rn and took him to Connrh. the body serpents One opinion was that bed Then one night.but it is wrth the ele. D( ItoNARy destroyed his family was due to a that he would be reunitedwith his like rhe prophetess CASSANDM.to show his fellow country. the baby was left to aside for the king.king of Oedipus ("swell-foot") that Apollo. because l-aius tered laius.thunder concemed to prevent the child's by some to be the brorher of sons to dearh. whether were byAthena I-etUS. conceived a son So as to overcome tryside Oedipus refused to stand for the benefir of the Greek.lt sin (lll'srur()N FRoM (n. By PETERPA(rL RUBENS.his and Laius was killed Thus was horse began a slaughter that led to destiny.connected wrth the Trojan War at 56 .In the event the cunning plot worked *as the Roman s}<y god. who were expelled a spike This action may havebeen his son's. then Troy would fall. Oedipus travelled two great sea-serpentssuddenly his wrfe. towards the north and approached amved and crushed them to death There was no agreement. who was on his way to ever. 1620 25 ) all The god ofprophecy. full of wine. they hid themselves and lightning. who later hanged marry his mother Concluding Laocoon and his two sons. as JUllteR the equivalent of zr. was simply punishing the priest for disobeying a divine command An altemative view was that the death o[ Laocoon and his sons was the work of ATHENA Poseidon for or causingdamageto the dedicatory horse A Greek named Sinon had informed the Trojans that it was an offenng to the goddessAthena: if they destroyed it. which was Laocoon's punishment was not Laius slept with her and Jocasta causing havoc in the Theban coun. intended to hastendeath.ClessrcAr MyrHoLocY JUPITER and Mucury.howwhich rhe Delphic Oracle rold Thebes On the road he encounthem was fortunate. /891l in Greek mythology The fate rhat about his parentageHe was told terrible danger to Troy However. Philemon and Baucis. and whether ltocoon wds innocent When Oedipus reached man. among rhe Greeks or the was destined to be killed by his consult the Delphic Oracle about Romans about why Laocoon and a with the face his sons were killed by the seaown son For a time Larus and the SPHINX. and the first part of the eventual overthrow and best and greatest")beganunder the feet havrng been cut through wrth L-aius' destructionof the besieged ciry Etruscan kings. enjoyawholesome with the hindly rustics.monster Jocasta did not share the marriage and breastsof a woman.APoLLo.

but that Helen'sand Polydeuces' father was Zeus while Tyrrdareos was the father of the mortals Clytemnestra and Castor In the caseof Helen there rs little doubt that the myth of the Trojan War tumed a goddessinto a Queen She clearly has a connection wrth who were older Aegeangoddesses wrth birds and eggs.I 99-5 LnnR was rhe daughter of l(ng Thestius of Aetolia. which was a statein north-westemGreece Her husband was Krng Tlmdareos of Sparu Two o[ Leda'schildren were the murderous CLYTEMNESTM.) ttttL \ r&4r()\ a) N( { BF. oJ as oJ tinybow. and the causeof the Trojan War Leda was also the mother of the DIOSCURI. c1Nf3\.Castorand As Polydeuces young men. rymbol herrole goddess the wild .when in 490 BCtheir fleet passedby on its way to punish the Eretrians and Athenians for provrdrngaid to the Greek rebels who were fightrng Persrain Asia Minor trny clutthmghtr twins. a clutches whrle Artemis godol thearts. one contdrningthetwins. seryent sent oJ children Zeus. Agamemnon's MENEI-AU5. and HELEN. her cult was commonly with those of her more associated famous son and daughter APoLLo and eRtrnzls.whose fatherwas the god zEUs Leto may havegiven stcy birth to her dir. ( l5l5 l6 ) was the daughter of the LnfO TITANS Coeus and Phoebe.and the otherthe Dioscun.CInSSICAL MYTHOLOGY LEDA was lovedby Zns in the shapeoJa two swl. oJten ntr recolling their unusual parentage Lr'r).qurMNoN. and one containedClytemnesrra Helen. LETO(below). attibute Apollo.n From their union. Ledaproduced eW.and she was one of the few Titanessesto be worshipped in ancient Greece However. which a helpful PosEtDoNis sard to have fastenedpermanentlyto the bottom of the seawith a huge pillar Later. a gJant Jlees Hera bythewngeJul whorelentlessly lowrs Thebq. lor Leda was loveo oy lLU5 wno came to her disguisedas a swan Some say that as a result of therr union Leda produced two e8gs.LE.rne children on the sacred island of Delos. associated .\ rR LL()N/RD0 D^ VtN( r.one of Apollo's most important temples was built on the island Even the invading Persians respectedthis sanctuary. twrn sonsCastorand the Polydeuces Vanous accountsare given of the fathersof her children. her pIoprcd husband's his as a pluchscithara. who was the unfaithful wife of brother. the twinsdre depictedwi|h eg-shdpedhelmats. wife of ec.

Iowd b1 Zus and Poserdon tum. he hadhimself b o u n dt o t h em a s ts o t h a t h ec o u l d h e a r the srrensmaglcsongvnthout being Iured oway (ol)yssfLis PRrM^rrcdo. Greek mythologl is full of composirecrearures. sometimes hallhuman and somerimes entirely demonic.symbolizingcomplex evil. represent man's unruly.s past her cavem 1Lr{rsrMroN rRo!. until in changed the rculoug of Cru mto a by snapping. S a v a g eb e a s t s .such as Ladon. AND THI STRENs y B aANv"s 1505-70 ) FMNcE-so . PYTHON (above).RtF(F A\D RoMrr l9J0) THE SIRENS (ight) werebeauttfuI sea nymphswho charmed sailorsby tlrcir alluing songsAlthough iniially depicted as brrd-maids. she was oiglnally a beuutful seanymph.qSTS TASSICAL MONSTERS come in all shapes and colours.MONSTERS AND EABI-]LoIJS Be. they still harassedand haunted humans. Odysseus sailspast with hts crtw.other monsrers ravagedthe land.a monstrous serpent. instinctive nature.sonof Gaia. sometimes hideous. having advisedhis men to stop Lheir earswith war.Still others were raised by u curse. Monsters generally symbolize the dark and unresolved forces in life and in human narure. 1995 ) SCYLLTI (above).barhing monster Here. sea-clogs and sailors from her cayem m the Strait oJ Messina According Loone myth. such as the Hydra and Chimaera. and some. thq later became Jair temptresses Here.SroRlF:sFROM(. while the Sphinx guardedthe passro the city of Thebes. she snatches thecreruoJ Odysseus his up as ship sail.guardeda precioustreasure. but sometimes bewitchitgly fair. hauntedthe caves of Pamassus until slainby Apollo with his frst anows Apollot'oundedthe to his ffthnn gamcs rcmmemorate tictory and wasaJtmuards named Apollo PhysiusThe monster's deJeat wascelebrated evay ninelears at the oJ Jestival Steptenaat Delphi and invofued enactmottoJthe whole an event lLLUsrMrpN By CLENN STryAD.Sphinx and Scylla. part human and part animal. such as the Chimaera. Not all monsrerswere cruel. Although less awesome than demons.a s*-headed sea monster. s u c h a s s a t y r s a n d Centaurs. as when Poseidon sent a sea monster in response to Theseus' r a g e . fshed Jor dolphins.

Cle.ssrcAt- MvrHoLoGY .

CLASSICAL

MYTHoLOGY

ARES, was more widelyworshipped than any of the other Roman gods, probably because his sons REMUS ANDROMULIJS were said to have founded the ciry Menfn was rhe daughrer of Aietes, king of Colchis, a country adjoining the Black Sea, and the first wrfe o[ the voyager JAsoN Medea means"the cunning one" -

a suitable name for a princess skilled in the magic ans ln fact, to rhe Greek she hovered somewhere between witch and goddess. Medea fell in love with the Thessalian heroJason as soon as he was rhe wife of landed in Colchis with the ARGOLUCRgffA and she used magic to help Tarquinius Collatinus and repre- NAI/TS, him gain the Golden Fleece, the sented the ideal of Roman womanhood. When Sextus, youngest son objecr of rheir expedirion On the of the Etruscan king TARQUINIUS hasty voyage back, when the SUPERBUS, raped her at dagger Colchian fleet gavepursuit, Medea point around 507 Bc,she made her sacnficed her brother to slow the pursuers. On their retum to lolcus, father and her husband promise to avenge her honour before she Jason's birthplace, she managed to stabbed herself to death. According to Roman legend, Lucretia's funeral roused the people and their anger was channelled by rhe inspiring eloquence of Lucius Junius BRUTUS into a desire for the overthrow of the monarchy. MARS, rhe son of ;ulo and a magical flower, was originally the Roman god of fenility and vegetation but later became associated with battle. As the god of spring, when his major fesdvalswere held, he presided over agriculture in general ln his warlike aspect he was offered sacrifices before combar and was said to appear on the battlefield accompaniedby Bellona, a warrior goddess variously identified as his wife, sister or daughter. Mars, unlike his Greekcounrerpan, MAFS,godoJwar, on forceshrmselfgentle Paxand Abundonti, spints peace oJ and plenty,whileMinemashifullysteers him an away Thealleguydramat4es age-old waringRoman conJlict, henly in the Jdt
heart (MrNERv^ DRrvrNG MAs BrJ^coR) RoB{,sfl TrNroREfio. c/NVAs,c lJ76 )

retumed. to LUCRETIA, aJterho suxide, "Jalse Tarquinius, Sextus", hauntSexns Etruscan hadraped thehigh-handed who her,incensing whole PameShe the oJ phantom who aryeasasa pale, shrouded through watches the oJ sings she as spins the night (llrusrmfloN LAys ANclENr FRoM oF

rejuvenate an old ram by boiling him rn a magic pot whereupon he tumed into a lamb. She also disposed ofJason'senemy, King Pehas of lolcus, by persuadinghis daughters to give him a similar course of beauty treatment, but which hlled him As a result, Jason and Medea were banished to Corinth The relarions betweenJason and Medea went badly wrong Jason put his firsr wife aside in order to marry Glauce, a Theban pnncess Medea, feelingvery insulted, took a terribie revengeonJason Glauce was bumed alive in a poisoned wedding dress, and Medea saw to it that her own children byJason were also hlled She then escaped to Athens in a magrc chariot, which was said to belong to her grandfather Hruos, the sun god In Athens, Medea married its krng, AEGEUS, bore him a son and named Medus. At this timeAegeus believed he was childless,although

he already had a son in the hero rHEsEUs.Through her wily skills, Medea prevailed upon Aegeus to reject Theseuswhen he came co Athens to claim his inheritance, and she may also have persuaded him to send Theseusto subdue the bull of Marathon. When Theseus succeededin this dangeroustask and at last Aegeusrecognizedhim Medea fled as his own successor, with Medus to Colchis, where they avenged the recent overthrow and death of Aietes Medus became a ruler of Colchis, but nothing elseis known of Medea kingof Sparta,was MTNEUUS, It rhe younger son ofATREUS. was to recover Menelaus' wrfe HELEN that his older brotherAGAMEMNON, king of Mycenae, led the Greek expedition againstTroy. ln spite of being wamed, Menelausnot only enrenained PAruS, eldest son of the King PRIAMof Troy, but he also

60

CLASSICAL

MYTHOLOGY

MERCURY (above),as the messenger god oJ the Romans, was closelyidnttJted with the Greehgod Hermes In worlu oJart, he typicallywearsa wingedhelmet, hat, and or wide-bimmed traveller's canies a herald'sstaft',the emblemof
Pedce (MFRCURy AND ARcus I6J5.) By PErIR PAUL

RU8EN5, DEIAII, GNV^s,

MEDEA, a ruthlesssorceress, Jrom Jlees Co\chiswith lason and the Colden Fleece the to across seas Greecewith herIather, , in Aietes, pursuit To slowhim down, she cut up her brotho and cast thc parts into to thesea,JorcingAietespichup thepieces By Jor a piousbunal (lxr 6<rorr FLLTcEH ./
DMPER, cANvAs, (: 1880)

by the intervention of the love godShe dessAPHRODITE was rndebted to Parisfor.;udgrngher more beauand tiful than the goddessesHER,+ in ATHENA; gatitude shehad grven him the love of Helen, the most

prosperity. He was apparently imported from Greece around the fifth century BC Mercuryis usually depicted in the same way as his with a Greek counterpart HERMES, wrnged hat and staff MIO.CS was sard to be the son of Gordius and Cybele, or to have been adopted by Gordius. He was the kmg of Phrygia and renowned for his wealth According to the Greeks, his fabulous riches were the result of a hndness he showed rhe ro 5ILENU5, old goar-like tutor of otoMsus, rhe god of vegetation, wlne and ecstasy So pleasedwas Dionysus wrth this behaviour that he offered Midas whatever he wished The king asked for everyrhing he touched to be tumed into gold At first Midas was overjoyed wrth the gift, but once he realized that even his food and drink were being transformed on touching his lips, he was homfied Out of pity

Dionysus told him how to wash away his golden touch, which Midas did in the fuver Pactolus, thereafter famous for the goid dust ro be lound on im bed Another my'th told about Midas concerns a musical competition berween rhe gods APoLLoand PAN, the divrne inventors of the lge and pipes respectively When the prize was awarded to Apollo, Midas incaudously expressedhis surprise at the outcome and received from Apollo a set of ass's ears for his foolish presumption was htng MIDAS. rhe Jabled of Phryga. a when ich, Jabulously yetchose, granted ncher by still, to wish thegods, become by to touched tum to everythinghe ashingJor joy wasganted,but quichly gold Hiswish neither eat when could he to tumed gneJ
nor dinh (llrrlsrMfloN ByNrcx B^LE, l9g5)

beautiful woman alive After the fall of Troy, Menelaus could not bnng hrmself to kill went off to Crete and left Helen Helen because of her ourctanding alone at Spanawlth the handsome beauty Once again the goddess visiror. Pansand Helen eloped, tak- Aphrodite cast her spell and they were reconciled and rerumed ro ingmany of the reasures forwhich Sparta,where rhey lived happily for Menelauswas famous During the ten-year strugSle many years When Menelausdied against Troy, Menelaus played a he went to hve ln the ElysianFields secondaryrole to Agamemnon and wrrh his immortal Helen the other Greek lcngs, ahhough he was no coward In single combat MeRCURY*as rhe Romanmeswlth Pans, Menelaus tried to settle sengergod, and was alsothe deiry rhe dispure berween the Greeks who watched over trade and comand the Trojans He won and was merce, as his name suggesm He only preventedfrom killing hs nval was associated wrth peace and

a MENEI-AUSAeJ)wasusually gentle, man, he even-tenpered buthere ftghts body over JaIIen oJPatroclus firercely the olJhis nahed, ApoIIo struch had wholies Jor ond helmeq splintered ash his speor brohet bare htscorselet, shppinghLm sothathe by would msilyhilled Hector olrusrurft)N be
FR()M SroRrfs r R()M HOMER, 1885 )

6l

CIeSSICAL

MYTHoLoGY

(whose name may MINgRve have originally meanr "rhoughr") was the Roman goddessof wrsdom and the arts, rhe equivalenr of the Greek goddess ATHEN, She was . worshipped rhroughout ltaly, though only in Rome did she rake on a wariike character Minerva is usually depicted wearing a coar of mail and a helmet, and carryring a spear The Romans dedicared the spoils of war to her. MtnOS was rhe son of zEUsand EUROPA and became the king of Crete, wrth his palace siruated at I(nossos The Greek regardedhim both as a jusr lawgiver and as a cruel oppressor To build his wonderful palace, Minos employed rhe Athenian craftsman DAEDALUS, whose creatronswere thought ro be almosr divine 5o lifelike were his sutues, for instance, rhat they had to be chained down in order ro stop them running away Minos was lesspleased, however,with the hollow cow thar Daedalusmade for his queen, PASIPHAE, thar she so might satisfy her desire for rhe whire bull which possooN had sent from the wavesas a sign that MINERVA (abne), the Romangoddess of Minos should ascend rhe Cretan wisdom, is depictedhere tamingd wiW throne. The MINOTAUR, man wirh a Centaur, who symbolizesthe darh unruIy a bull's head, was the outcome o[ sideoJhuman nature HtsJeaming Pasiphae's unnarural union This expression suggestsman's longlngJor monstrous creature was housed in divinity, despitehimsef {Mrnrnve rne ero the Labynnth, a special maze built CENTAUR By SANDRo BofttcEu, C/.NAS, c 1482) by Daedalusar Minos' request. Minos was known to the Greek Minos carried a shell and promised as an ancient ruler of the seas His to reward anyone who could passa naval strengrh could well have thread through ir Daedalusalone owed somerhing ro Daedalus' could soive the problem, which inventiveness Cenainly he was not eventuallyhe was unable to resist. prepared for anorher ruler ro enjoy When l(ng Cocalos,on Daedalus' rhe remarkable services of the behalf, claimed rhe prize, Minos craftsman. When Daedalusand his demanded that the craftsman be son Icarus Ieft Crere wirhour per- surrendered to him. But rhe daughmissron, Minos sailed ro Sicily in ters of Cocalos were unwilling to hot pursuit. There, in the ciry of Iose the inventive man who made IGmikos, Minos mer his death. rhem beautiful toys, and with his Daedalus had arrived in Sicily as a help they plotred Minos' dearh. refugee He quicklywent ro ground When rhey rook rheir royal guesr to and was hidden by King Cocalosof the bathroom, Daedalus led a pipe Kamikos ln order ro find our through the roof and boiling water, where rhe craftsman was hiding, or oil, was poured down upon rhe

unsuspeccing Creran king. After his death Minos became a srem judge in the realm of.Hlors, rhe uriderworld, the land of the dead. THe MINoTAUR was rhe monsrrous son of a whire bull, which was senr by the sea god POSETDON, pASrpI.IAE. wife and rhe of King MINoS of Crete When the child was bom it had rhe head of a bull and the body of a man, and was given the name Minomur ("Minos'bull"). The creature was fed on seven boys and seven girls sent annually as uibute by rhe Athenians. To free his counr)rmen of this tenible burden rhe hero tHrsrus came ro Knossos, entered rhe maze-like Labynnth where rhe Minotaur lived and killed it. He was assistedby Krng Minos' daughter ARIADNE, who gave him a ball of rhread, insructing him ro unravel it on his wayinto the mazeso thar he could find his way our again She also gaveTheseusa sword. In the srrange srory of rhe Minotaur the Greelcs recalledin a garbled form the glones of rhe older THE MINOTAUR (below) wrestles inhabitants of Crete It is now with Theseusin the labyrtnth, which is known that rhe bull games of rhe rtpresentedbythe meander pattem at the ancient Cretans involved young sides Thebull-baiters above illwtrate the athletes leaping over bulls, even sport oJbull-leaping, part oJ the mystoious attempring somersauls holding the bull-cult oJancient Crete GHE BULL-BArrEK homs Although some of them By DUNGN, rERcoLouR, ) w c ]880 doubtless sustained seriousinjury, JoHN or may wen have been hlled, rhere is nothing to suggesrrhar a maneating creature was involved MoenRg see FArEs

Tne MUSTS, from rhe Roman name, Musae, were rhe daughters of zfuS and Mnemosyre, a TITAN, whose name means "memory" They used to dance and sing ar parties held by the gods and heroes. For the Greek, cheMuseswere the inspiration of poetry, music and dance. Later, other intellectual activities were added ro rherr care. Although accounts of rheir number differ, it is generally accepted that

62

CLASSICAL

MYTHOLOGY

the echo of her votce Narcissus was then condemnedby Nemesis, goddess of retnbution, to spend the rest of his days adminng his own reflecdon in a pool At last he died and was tumed into rhe flower that bears his name was an ancrent NnPruNr Iralian water god whom the Romans identified wrth PoSEIDON Compared to Poseidon,however, Neptune plays a minor role in Roman mythology FORCES OFNATURE NOTUS SCC was a TrrAN,the son ocrnNos of Ouranos and Gete,but never an enemy of zEUs On the contrary, he prorected Zeus' wrle HEnA and when the gods fought mother RHEA rhe Titans As ruler of the encircling sea, which rhe Greek believed surrounded the world, Oceanos married his sister Tethys and they produced three thousandnvers. of OCEANUS 1eJr). Jather thenver with gods, depictedhere a rypically is tempestuous unrulylocluand face, the homed browAbwehim,Selene, and moon, a shedsmildlight; on crescent side AeJt) either lash thesars,Phosphorus (ight) (tununox o^uu andHespmts
DroloNAfr oF CLASSTGL ANTIQUlrl6, l89l )

THE MusEs, guidingspiritsoJthe arts, inspired aII $t'ted artists, though thq resentedany smots competition dnd oJ depnvedthe Sircns theirJeathosJor daing to be better than than in song The nine Musesappear hereamid the lsPiing Gxr anistsoJ theRenaiss4nce Rsrv or lHr CO5TA, uw6, c 1506) LouNzo Mus6Bv there were nine Muses altogether CIio, Euterpe, Thalia, MelPomene, Terpsichore, Erato, PolYhYmnia,

Urania and Calliope.

NNTNOS

SCCFORCESOFNATURE

NARCSSUS, myhology,

according

to Greek son of

was the beautiful

the River Cephissus in Boeotia and the nymph many who immortals Linope Among the

loved him, including and monals, was Echo,

who slowly pined away, leavingjust NARCISSUS (nght), a beaut{ul youth, wasknenfo thenymph&ho who,Joiling to attrdct him, dted of gtef He, in hs tum, Jelltn lne wrth ttts wn reiection and pned by away until changed the goik inn the jower that bearshis nanc (Ecrono Nficsus sYJ lY^roousE,w#, W IW )

63

ClesstcAL

MyrHoLoGy

ODYSSEUS ahghts theisland Aeau on oJ wherehe iswamedby Hermes the oJ honors Circe's oJ enchantingwine, which tumsmenintoswineThis has Jate already beJallen comrade soO$tsseus one and must heep guard(clRcE rHE hu wrH coMMDr oF ByA[ssANDRortrsco, ) ODssEUs A[oe, 1580 Greek warriors under his own command The Trojans dragged the Wooden Horse inside their walls when they leamed from a Greek, deliberately left behind when the rest put to sea, thar rhe offering would bring their ciry a guaranteeof divine protection. Bur during the night the Greeks emerged from it, and surprised the Trojans. Hence, the ancient saying "Never trust the Greeks bearing grfa" Although Troy fell, the wildness of the looting and the slaughter deeply offended the gods. [n particular, the goddessAIHENAwas enraged ar rhe rape of cesseruoRn within the sanctuary of her own temple. Odysseustried to appease Athena, and he escapeddrowning in the geat storm which the angry goddesssent to shatter the vicrorious Greek fleet on its homeward was hidden. Again, arAulis, where year struggle againsr rhe Trojans, joumey. But he could not entirely the Greek fleet was stranded by Odysseus was importanr not so avoid blame, and PoSEIDoN saw ro contrary winds, it was Odysseus much as a fighter but as a counsel- it that he was the last Greek leader who tricked Agamemnon's wife lor and a schemer. His eloquence to reach home, after a voyage lastCLYTEMNESTM into sending her was renowned, and ir was probably rn8,some ten years. daughter IPHIGENIA from Mycenae, Odysseus who thought of rhe The long period of wanderirrg supposedly ro marry Achilles. Wooden Horse, which gave rhe that Odysseus suffered was a lnstead, however, lphigeniawas to Greeksvictory. favourite story of both the Greek be sacrificedroARllMIs, goddessof Odysseus deceived the Trojans and the Romans. who knew the Ihe wild, in order ro obtain a fair wirh this horse built of wood voyager by the name of Ulysses. wind to Troy. Throughout rhe ren- whose hollow beN was filled with The exact route that he followed remains a mystery, not leasr because his travels took him beyond known territory and inro strange and dangerous lands. From Troy Odysseus sailed first ro raises ODYSSEUS hisgreatban ond,with nifltt, stretches bowst'ing the effonbss which suitorshad the struggJed invainto the funil. He thrn slays suianwhohne hk and wrle denured wealth plagued,hk home(tuustunon dunnghis voyage bng
FRoM SToRE FRoM HoMER 1885 )

OOYSSEUS, king of tthaca, was one of the Greek leaderswho took part in the Trojan War. He was celebrared for both his parr in rhis conflict and his remarkable voyage home to his island kingdom in the lonian Sea. A brave and clever man, Odysseus was sometimes rhoughr ro have been rhe son ofslsypHus, the trickster of Greek myrhology But his real farher was probably Laertes, whom he succeeded as king of lthaca. His morher was named Anricleia and his fairhful wife Penelope was rhe sister of King TyndareosofSparta. From the starr of the campaign againsr Troy it is clear rhat King AGAMEMNaN,the Greek leader, placed geat store upon Odysseus' cunning. He was sentwirh Nesror, the aged king of $os, to discover where the great warrior ACHILLES

64

she sailed back towards Greece and had put rhem off for a while by was the only man who dared to pretending that she could not listen to the allunng song of the marry until she had finished Sirens. but according to the Greeks. and severalcows when Odysseuswas made the enchantressrestore to asleep.it was of little use on the voyagebecausethe cunosity of Odysseus'men got the beuer of them and they opened the sack and the winds no ionger blew westem edge of the encrrcling sea. Cyclops P)LWHEMU whose father was Poseidon By putting out Polyphemus'single eye when the gigantic man was befuddled with wlne. the island of the the voyagers were tempted by laier considered hunger ro slay some o[ Helios' enchantress CIRCE. when he retumed home he had been murdered by awaicingOdysseus'rerum from the war. Odysseus one of her many noble suitors. his old comrade-in. after ten years. it was later believed. FREs(tr. Assistedby hrs son Telemachus and two loyal retainers. (Seealso VOYAGERS) retums home the ODYSSEUS wanderer and Penelope twenty years embraces aJter her had to at last She rejused achnowledge her until husband hehadremincled of the which curued of was out of serret theirbed. where Charybdis In an exhausted state he dnfted to the wondrous island ghosts came from the underworld realm of riAprs ro meet him The of the sea nymph Calypso. But Penelope unraveiled it each night. on his way throughthe undenvorld.where he lost many of his men in battle.he was home The ghost of Odysseus' welcomed as an honoured guest mother also spoke of the dilliculdes and offered a passage back to being faced by Penelopein Ithaca Ithaca So it was that he was secretat the time The ghost of ly ianded near his own palace. where six of his a led among the Laestrygones. a sack full of wrnds The idea appears in many different mythologies.wrth the aid of desperaremen killed and cooked the messengergod nrRvls. as Tiresias had foretold. by zEUsat Helios' request Alone. who shade ol rhe blrnd seer TIRESIAS cared for him and eventually progave Odysseus a special waming posed mamage But not even abour his homeward joumey to immortaiiry would tempt him. who was the ruler of the winds There Odysseusreceiveda rarepresent. I 885 ) filled his men's earswith wax and had himself bound urth strong cords to the mast Odysseusthen in a helpful direction A tragedy overcame the passedrhrough the strairsberween squadron of ships that Odysseus Sicily and ltaly.including his father Laertes. undl one ofher maids betrayed the tnck Finally.he sailedto the .her [ather-in-law.Later they desertedhim. race crew were seizedby the six-headed of giant cannibals Only his own monster Scylla On the island of ship survrved the attack and Thrinacia. to be situated off ltaly Odysseus catrle Despite his warning. 1580 ) Thrace.bird-women of storm He weaving a shroud for Laertes. Helioshe will retum homealoneon a Joreignship only at'termatryyears' oDYssFUs 81 coL:Nsn-s wandeing (TrRr. Agamemnon.Odysseus dispatchedthe suitors and hanged the rreacherous maids Reunited wrth his family at last. Odysseus was almost on Circe's advice. also wamed him about his Athena's aid as a beggar Penelope had been patientiy homecoming. human shape his men who had but were drowned in a storm sent been tumed to swine Afterwards. reached Aeaea. Penelope agreed to marry the suitor who could bend and string Odysseus' great bow.tonsultsthe shadeoJ ghostly who wams hrm that rJhe olJends Tiresras.after seven years the gods forced on tle of the sun god HELIoS the Calypso to let Odysseus set off isle of Thrinacia were harmed by again Shipwreckedonce more in him he would never reach his the land of the Phaeacians. swallowed by the great whirlpool rhe realm of ocEaruos. Storms drove him to the land of the Lotophagi ("rhe Iotus-eaters"). the resistedher spells. Akhough pressed to marry his wrfe and lover in the bathroom Turning eastwards. Odysseus then defeatedan attack by the relations of the suitors and rerurned Ithaca to peace Zeus himself threw down a thunderboit to signalan end to the fighring.which he entered disguised with arms. who rhen threw off his disguise and revealedhrmself as Odysseus. After this bloody incident the places he touched upon are less easy to identify.CLASSICAL MYTHOLOGY ODYSSEUS. Odysseusand his companbecoming ions managedto escape his dinner They then amved on the floating island of Aeolus. the s. whose diet made visitors forget their homelands and wish to suy on forever Then he encounteredin Sicily. in a greaL tree olive grown thecourtyard (ll-LL rsTMTrL)N |RoM 5l r)Rll 5 l ROM Hrwl R. and Irhaca He rold him that if the cat. This challenge was proposed on the advice of the goddessAthena fhe only suitor who succeededat the challenge was a beggar.srAs Al EsitNDR() Ari ()R/.

l@) Jocasu. He was told thar he was desrined ro kill his farherand marry his mother. whbh she chalbngesall trq'.eil art. travelto Colonus thq where is destined Oedipus it that willJinally and grove find peace deathin a sacred (lLrusrMrfoN BY Ntcx BilE. and in horror he fled north. having a famiiy of two sons.fnd rest In time. the infant was pierced in rhe feet and left ro die on a distanr mountainside. c 200 BC) 66 . adopted rhe boy and chose the name of Oedipus because of his damaged feet When he grew up. By ourwirdng rhe Sphinx and causingics dearh. sheJlingshetulf ina the cham below and datroys hmelf . by and asleep thealtar. so he went ro ask OEDIPUS. on Orestes ocquittedfo Armpags is the (ORL5E. Laius had taken sexualadvanrage of Pelops' young son Chrysippus. 1995) OEDIPUS pudes ner the Sphinx s Adilb. ewn theFuiae. whose charioreerdeliberareiy ran over Oedipus' foot The result was rhat Oedipus killed everyone there. Oedipus unwittingly fulfilled his own destiny: he had killed his father. and two daughrers. En route he encountered l-aius. At is Orestes partly punJied Apollo. and Creon was sent to ask the Oracle at Delphi for a remedy. M^$LE. on hLs daughter Antigone. The dMne command he brought back to the city was to dnve our the murderer of Laius. years wanderingsince aJto ol hs exrle Ieans loyal JromThebes. a curse was laid on rhe ruling house of Thebes Indeed. an ugly monster causing havoc in the countryside. Oedipus discoveredits people were greatly distressed at the news of Laius' dearh and rernfied of the spnirux. hismother.ClessrcAL MyrHoLocy OEOIPUS ("swell-foot")was rhe unluciy son of King L{IUS and of QueenJocasta Thebes Because. Polynices and Ereocles. Delphi.ellcrsn Thebesto solve Wha. pursued theFuries. Oedipus outwits the Sphiw. as a guest at the court of prLops. except one of his father's servantswho ran away Arrivrng in Thebes. a shepherd lound the baby and took it ro King Polybus of Corinrh. When the regent CREONannounced thar whoever nd the ciry o[ rhe Sphinx would be offered the throne and the hand of ORESTES peace the at 6ght) fnds some shnne Apollo Delphiwhcreheha oJ in by aJter murdering led.a fairly common practice for unwanred children in ancient Greece However. having no children. as a calm and pensivehrro (oorpusND rBE SPHIM ByJilN AU6USTE lN6E. who. now he married his morher For a dme Oedipus andJocasm lived happily rogerher. bur dnnk one night caused Laius to rhrow caurion to rhewnds and a son was duly conceived At birth.Alrhough rhe famous seer TIRESIA5 announced the Delphic Oracle about his parentage. Ocdipus is portraydhere. ANTIGONEand Ismene. Oedipus decided ro rry or die in the attempt. Oedipus was taunted that he was not Polybus'son. ashe s in anc. Then a dreadful plague settled on Thebes. wA. an oracle wamed Laius that any sonJocasra bore him would hll him For a long time the king and queen abandoned the marriagebed.

the rwo lovers murdered him. the nymph Eurydice One . rhe early burial chambers of Christians in haly (Seealso yOYAGERS) ORPHEUS pursued tornapartby was and the who maenads. however. so they were renamed the Eumenides ("the soorhed goddesses"). in deathhis even decapitated head floated had downstream Jor calling (A Eurydice TnrecnN wtrH HFID MAID rHE otOnpHrus syGusreve MoREAU.lt is likely. but the rulers of the underworld. there was a hut used by Oresres.an ancienrcouncil presided over byATHENA. Orestes was told to go to Arhens and srand tnal by the fueopagus. Wild-eyed and distraught. aJtuhts death. were wtld the Jrenzed devotees Dionysus were oJ Thq usually depicted. ) departed wife thar just before rhey reachedthe surfaceof the ground.becausein graritude for the sancuary he was given. they tore the singer to pieces excepr for his head. By using his miraculous music. 1895) throughout Greece When finally he went to Delphi for help. hair. the Erinyes. the new hngwould not believe rhis was true until he rraced rhose involved in his own exposure as a child Convinced ar lasc of his excepdonalcrime. Oedipus had foretold rhat his bones would save rhem from any future attack by the Thebans OnfSfgS was the son of King AGAMEMNON of Mycenae and CLYTEMNESTM is renowned for and having commitred matricide In ancient Greece there were many placesassociated with his purification after such a tenible crime For example. as whirlingin with ecstary.tssrocr DtcrloNARy. since Apollo had advisedhim to slay his father's murderers. rhar the Greeks called them by this euphemism because rhey were afraid to use their real name. and it was to avenge rhis crime that Oresteshlled his mother The grear horror feh by the Greeks over Orestes' actions runs deep in his myth Correcr though he was ro seekvengeance his father's murfor der. Jocasta.MUSE epic poerry His of chief myth concems the dearh of his wife. HADES and his wife prnsrPHONE. swirlingrobes. the killing of a mother by her son could not be expected to bring anyrhing orher than dire misfonune. He was said ro be the son of Calliope. his wife Clyremnesrrarook a lover. with orcr musical. The FURIES were avenging deities who tracked down all rhosewith blood on rheir hands. The verdict in his favour calmed the Furies. had akeady commirred suicide In the company of his daughter Andgone. ispictured bangconsulted and hue byaThracian maid Hishead ona rests lyrethatis encrusted seaweedbecause. granted Orpheus his only desireon one condition: under no circumstances was Orpheus to look back at Eurydiceuntil borh of them were complerely rerumed to the land of rhe living But so overcome was the singer by love for his OnPHEUS was a Thracian singer much reveredin ancient Greece. as the Delphic Oracle had advised him ro. "the angry ones" OruON SEC GIANT5 d^y she died of a snake bite Orpheus was so saddened and grief-stricken by this sudden loss that he no longer sang or played Then he decided to risk his own life joumey ro the land in a desperate of the dead in the forlom hope of bringing Eurydice home. and dishev snalubound ( uusr w elled.in front of the sancruary of. Aegisthus When Agamemnon returned.eporto in Troezen. vru rnov Dn SvrrH'sCr.became an oracle. wine and ecstasyApparently. Orestes wandered as an outcast ORPHEUS. Oedipus blinded himself and left Thebes. which was rhen casr inro a river and went floating downstreamcalling out "Eurydicel" Ancient fascinarion with this romantic story was probably connected wirh religious ceremonies and rituals rhat were aimed ar securing personal salvation after death The worshippers of both Orpheus and Dionysus believed in some form of afterlife Painringsof Orpheus have even been found in the catacombs.which was said to have been buik ro avoid receiving the pollured murderer as a guest in a normal house When Agamemnon left ro lead the Greek expedition againstTroy. and the rhree-headed CERBERUS rhat he could enrer so the underworld Even rhe ghoss of the dead were greatly moved by his song. Charon.CINSSICAL MyTHoLoGY that Oedipus was the guiity one. a broken Oedipus evenually found spiritual peacein a sacredgrove at Colonus near Athens His death there was considered to be a good omen by the Athenians. he could not resist a quick glance in the half-light The result was rhar Eurydice tumed inro a ghost again and sank back to Hades' kingdom forever Orpheus' own fate was to be dismemberedby Thracian maenads.the god of vegetation. His mother and wife. thq arehere. the female worshippers of DIoNYsus. Orpheus was able to charm rhe boarman. some ten yearslater. who femed him across the Styx. and they now relenrlessly pursued Oresres. 1865 ceruyes.

nature spints o nymphs infused the forests.hegwemed the An butbenigngod.while a schoolof titons (part men. part fsh) t'nsharoundhis chaiot which thq used to raise or blowngtheir conches. perxt1896 ) wife. For the ancient Gree}<s. Sunrise and sunset. summer and winter unfold as part of a divine drama. land and sea. Samothrace to speeding Jastthathe passedJrom so him bashshis Aegaein threegreat stndes Beside APOLL0 (above).Jor ongnally Helios (the sun) radiateddaylightand wasonly Iater identifed with Apollo .he could calm the elemants slE k theJatherof thehours. POSEIDON (above).who symboltzed the seed-com.and rode the wavesin his sea-chaiot. The tempestuousseagod. thunder andlightning By strilcinghis clouds. rymbolized not only sunlight. In addition to the great gods of stry. preceded by Eos who sprinkled moming dew from her vase.FORCES OF NATTJRE H E W O N D E R SA N D M Y S T E R I E S F N A T U R E A T C O explained in mythology through the will and actions of the gods. the symbolized might of the sea-stormHe dwelt in a goldenpalacein the depthsof the ocean. c 1197 ) . AND CHARIoTMtR^BEuo By calm the wdves (PosErDoN Hrs Cavaroru. while mighty Zeus could strike from afar with a bolt of lighmirg or brighten the sly with rainbows.the turbulentgod oJthe seas. goddessof corn.he is changingseasons awesome in seenhereresplendant frry light. c^NvAs. gwemed thewinds and the rain.but alsothebngnt. rose from the underworld to live in the light of day with her mother. storrns and tidal waves. drawn by sea-horses.but caused oeglshe and brighten the equally. beannghis aeg1s. Poseidor.god oJ light. sun rhe rose and set because Phoebus Apollo drove the glittering sun-chariot on a fiery course across the stry. of rymbol oJhissamagn pruer ovu allJorces ^ND By natureand all other go& guprrER SEMELE Gusttvt MOREAU. the sea nymph Amphitite. chiefdary. to stormsand tempests rage. could stir up sea-storrns. healinglight oJ divtnity Apollo's light underlies other rolesas his god oJhealing. god oJprophecy and god of the arts He withdrew in winter to sunny Lycius and returnedin spingto dispel winter Here. Sp. Demerer.or soothe the waves.I{e-g:ing pure.ingtime came when Persephone.fields and nvers.he dnves the sunchaiot on its courseacross the heavens (IrLusrn crroN rnovSronrEs nnou Lrw 1885 ) ZEUS QeJt).

c s PoussfN. c 1890 ) NOTUS (below).is herehonoured alavish tn parade Poussin's atmo sphenc v:idly scene raives the pagan splendour of the early Greehpostoral TruuupH or Jestivak (THe FLORA By Nrcol cANVAs. dweltbeside runntn g water Lihe thar cousins. muchas hrsmother.blooming Romangoddess spnng. a theaticalfestivalwhenthe people deched themselves in a flowers and enjoyed great feast lastingJorsk days Flora. c NvAs.peaceand war (Apor rNrur.pHArsros av Dtrc<. Xanthus and Balius. such as Achtlles'shield.Eos. dwelt with his brotherwrnd. l89l ) ZEPLIYRUS(below). Boreas. VELAseuEz. southwind. thewestwind.s.the smith god.goddess the rmmortalhorses. OreadsoJthe hills and the the Dryads of Jorests trees. 1891) .FLOM (nght). 1630 ) THE NAIADS (above).benrgn spirits Naiad.serene andbenign.flowers and mortak Yet theyouth Hylas who went to draw waterJroma poolwasluredby the nymphsinto thewaterand never seen agatn (HYtAs AND rHE WArER NyrilpHS ByJ W WArERHousE.rrrn's CLAssr( L DrcnoNARY. spinhlesdov Jrom a vase before sun-chanot the early the in morrung (l[usrnerroru DR FRoM Sr. oF Hr.. is typrcallydepicted as a grave intenseman weanng a worhman's cap and . onett. the broughtwrthit fog and rain Here.joy and gneJ. of was honoured year at every the time oJthe Floralia. in a palacein Thrace He was father oJ vase.thq and were usually sweet. werehelpJul and healing nurturing fruits. the Nereidsand Oceanids the of oceans. Achilles'battle steeds who gallopedwtththe speed oJwind (lt-t-us rnzcrtolJ FRoM RSr'ltrn's C r-rssr I D ca DrcrroNARY. he craJtedworhs of wonder.embossed with a dramatic sceneoJ liJeand death. 1627 ) HEPIIAISTOS (below).Notuspours ruin from a of dawn. r.o FoRGr. orwater nymphs. especially. cANVA-s.ery craft He hadforges beneathvolcanoes but olsoon Olympus where20 bellowsworhed athis bidding Famedfor hts artistry.as a wingeddeity. immersedrn hisf.

1945) word "panic" derives from this aspect of his diviniry His worship spread from Arcadia to Athens immediately after the Athenian and Plataeanvictory over the Persiansat Marathon in '180 BC.he oJtenstartled solitary trav ellers. because he made the Persiansflee in panic. Greekgod of fire and friend of men. But soon Pandora's great curiosity overcamea natural fear of what might be inside. goat's horns and hocves. For Pan could also be a frightening god when he blew on his conch Our " PANDORA(below).all-g1fs". she was given a grft from the gods which was a sealed jar that contained all the misfortunes of existence. but also untold woes. the name Pandora and was created by HEPHAISTOS. diseaseand conflict. releasing solrow. the Greek god fu of the mountainside. She was the first woman Appropriately. hng of Sparta.he was himself goat-homed and goat-legged. (TueJuoceueur or PARrs BYJE{N REGN ULT. the bringer of all sorrows for manhnd.CTeSSIcAL MyrHoLoGY PAt'l (abarc) playshs pipesat dush '4sa spint oJthe darhforest. whib quenly Hua had offeredhim pwr.arousingsuddenawe and panic He is usuallydepictedwith shagt head. He rendered a similar service for ZEUS during the battle against CRONOS and the TITANS. on ZEIIS'orders in as the good.she Inepressibly couW resist not jar. the pastures of sheep and goats.wAS. female companion. means "all gifts" . the mountainous smte in cenral Peloponnese. sorrov. and fled with her lover to Troy. thegods worh to mischieJJor men cuious. His unusual attracdveness 70 . As a result. PnruS was one of the fifry sons of of King PRTAM Troy. 1820 ) PnNOORA was the Greek Eve. the order t6. PARIS (abwe).the bad as well the smith god. When she went to live zrmongmen. His conch deeply worried kus' opponents. which was known as a syrinx after a nymph of that name who tumed herself into a reed-bed to avoid his advances. Paris was a very handsome young man and wooed HELENso well thar she left her husband trlrrunutus. the judgeoJa diinebeauty chose Aphroditeas thewinnq contest. especiallyif disturbed during his aftemoon nap. he was responsible for causing the Trojan War.Pan was gspecially associated with Arcadia. dancing or playing a synnx (tLLUsrMrroN nnov TnNclrwooD TALES. He liked to play on a pipe.but very irritable. opainga sealed containingthe horors and of life: stnJe sichness.'upset PROMETHEUS.t gneJ. and (luusrncttou sv NrcxBEA!f. wse Athena had promtsed hirn Jame. the was ta on createdby firstwoman appear earth. the men who originally comprised the human race gained a monal. and she broke the seal. C/. c 1920 ) PAN was the son of the messenger god HERIvfEs. she because oflredhim the woril'sJairest woman Behind her. He was playful and energedc.I. According to the Greeks.

which is rhe large peninsulaof southem Greece . In retum for choosing her as Aphrodire the fairestof goddesses. queen Crete. was supposed to have settled the outcome of the whole war. In order to gratify her from divine favour and suffered lust.CInSSICAL MYTHoLoGY was believed to have been a gift from APHRODITE. who only escaped with his life through the intervention of Aphrodite. was the daughter of Hruos. treated him very badiy [t was an irony of fare thar a poisoned arrow shot from Paris' bow should have found the one vulnerable spot on the mighty Greek champion ACHILLES. the greatcrafsman DAEDALUS etemal torrnent as a result made a cow.Pelops acceptedthe challenge But he had to agree that Oenomaus could shoot an arrow at him if he caught up with his chariot Thirteen contestantshad aireadyperished It was said that Pelopsbribed a certain Mptilus. who was alreadypregnanr by rhe sea god PoSEIDoN(a deiry always associated with bulls and horses) Bellerophon was given a magic bridle byATHENA help him tame ro PegasusWhen the hero tried ro fly to Mount Olympus.1995 Srrw. the in winnrngchanot. but the king refused to sacnfice the animal when it emergedfrom the waves. Instead it revealedParis as a coward. by Jashioned thegodsafterhe had beenpartly eatenby Demeter (Iuu-srR.partook of the PECnSUS. drawn oJ was irresistiblya mystmous bullwhich to white emrged the She a from waves dorcloped passion thebull. dips and divesthrough theJlamesof the By favour of Poseidon the restoredPelopsbecamefamousas a champion charioteer.and strange Jor from hu wtththecreature bore dreadJul union she a the bull-man. the The winged steed was born from missing piece of his body was blood which spilled from the sev. he either rhrew Myrtilus into the sea.or he spurned him As a consequence.the immortal shown to himself Pasiphae was to food servedto the deities on their be stncken with a passionate desire mountain home But Tantalus fell for the bull. king of Elis. outstipprnghts Jast ival Oenomaus. Helen. Tanulus cut up. the basis for thar is family's tragic story PELOPS. thar a saw curse afflicted the descendanrsof Pelops The consequences this of curse on the house of AIREUS. which MINOTAUR gods in order to test their omwas kept in rhe Labynnth niscience Only DEMETER. hng of Crete The seagod rosrlDoN sent a white bull as a sign of Minos' right to rule the island. in Greek mythology. ) PEIOPS was rhe son of Kirg TANTALI/S. rhe king's chanoteer. rhe Trojan champion HECTOR. offered his daughter Hippodameia in marriageand also his lands to anyone who could defeathim in a chariotrace. c 1920 ) other morral He was allowed to ear nectar and ambrosia. Pelops'eldestson and the fatherof AGAMEMNON. the trach. was who hept hidden anunderground in maze (lrrusrRertorusv NrcxBEArr 1995) The seagod eosuDoN so loved Pelopsthat he sezed rhe youth and carried hlm off ro Mounr Olympus ftre-breathingmonster. in Greek mythology. Minotaur. His singlecombar with Menelaus. his heel Parishimself was hlled by an arrow. whose chanotswewes and white shoulder crashesPelops' was madeof ivory. Pegasus threw him on rhe instrucrion of zrus PEGASUS. As a resuh. to remove the linchpins from his master'schariot. boiled and bull Later. ruler of a kingdom rhe in fuia Minor Pelops'nameis still recalledin the Peloponnese("rhe isle of Pelops").inadvertentlyeatinga piece of was the flytrg horse belonging to Pelops'shoulder Later. Helen's husband. and Poseidonpronounced a curse in anger at the lack of respecr PASIPHAE. rhe sun god. During the long siege of Troy Pariscut a poor figure as a warrior. inro which Pasiphae Accordrng [o one version of the fitted and so could mate with the myth. the father of Myrtilus.when the the Connthian hero BELLEROPHONgods retumed the youth to life. feast.cno.anor avGLrrux . pnor to the fall of Troy PeStPHeE. goddess of the love.repiacedby ivory ered head of the GORGON Medusa. races along Greeh. who was the messenger god HERMES. but when he won Pelops refused to acknowledge this assistance ln different versions of the story.his eidest brother. and wife of MINos. Tantalus goldenbidlegvn tohimby Athena was honoured by the gods as no (lrrusrncrro^J FRoM TANGLEwooD TALEs. she gave birth to rhe served his own son Pelops to the ("Minos' Bull"). a magnificentwingedhorse.the Chimaera On his bach. godthe dessof vegetation. offered Paris the most beautiful woman in the world.Bellerophon urgeshim on The Possibly because of this divine hero had successJully tamed Pegasus with a favour shown to his son.which was an accomplishmenr thar the ancient Greek regardedas one of the greatest So when Oenomaus.

c +90 BC) 72 . animals (nght).D E T A I L .s s peer PERSEUS and Andromeda (above) rn glngerlyat theJaceoJMedusa.rhe retum of Odysseus savedher from an enforcedsecond marriage.rrto^/Fno. n . king of Sparta.188/) of PERSEPHONE (Jar ngh). Demeter was beside herself wrth grief The goddesswandered the earth searchingfor her daugh[er. n o vH o u t .Lts goddess. nsing eachspnng to live with her mother. carved in part from a tree trunk still rooted in the ground PenSePHONE was the daughthe and DEMETER. caNves. the ruler of for Ithaca. eanh ter of zp. the the goddess corn Shesymbolizes oJ that is buned.rrtt. two burning torches in her hands As a result the land was no longer ferrile Plans wrlted. 1 8 8 5 ) (luusrn. Zeus promised his beautiful daughter to Hadeswithour consuldngher mother When Hades rose from rhe underworld and took his bride by force.but she remained cold towards her saviour until she was absolutelycertain of his identity Peneloperefused to be convinced that the new arrival really was Odysseusuntil he describedtheir bed.she was celebrated her patience in waiting almost twenty yearsfor his retum from Troy Beset by suitors.reJlected the Medusarecalls thewater Bume-Jones' oJ beau4t the tranquil an and death-lthe cawedon amuletsand GreehMedusas charms. hept many she her Duinghislong to at suitors baybyrefusrng matryunttlshe whtch secretly she a shroud hadcompleted each unravelled night.v tt.and becamequeen of the underworld as the abductedwrfe of HADESAccording to the Greeks.spentthe winter rn the underworld. . and a nymph Peribaea As the faithful wife of ooYssrus. goddess death. absence.ClnssrcAL MvrHoLoGY PENEIOPE was the daughrerof Icarius.cleof constantrenewal a mysteies themecentralto the Eleusian ( P t ' R S t .untilthesuitors discovered her ploy r . M A R B L E . nsesandJalls seed-corn agarnin a q. Penelopekepr them at bay for a long time by prerendingto weave a shroud for her father-rnlaw Laertes Each night she would secretly unravel the day's work Eventually. of pattentwtJe PENELOPE her s clev shared husband' emess Ody sseus. p H o N l .whichremrndus that shewasonce BtiRNEBy beauttful (THrBartrut HI:AD EDMUND Jorurs.

Zeus. here hersister seen with Aiadneandhusband Theseus.ONS. In rhe end. they HERMES. PHAEORA was the daughter of which he did by sending a seaThe chilling powers of rhe head Kirg MINOSand Queen PASIPHAE monster Phaedra. in order to escape from rhe passionateintentions of Orion. who was later killed in a chartion in his shield Having cut off and Andromeda in the sky as con. the was unfortunate daughter KingMinos of and Pasiphae CreteShe in love of Queen Jell Uthherstepson Hippolytus which oatually prarcd tobeher downJall Cfnrsrus wtrH ARTADNE AND PHAEDM By BENEDETTO Gr. Medusa'shead and stowedit in his srellations (Seealso HERoEs) Theseuscursed his son and asked bag. retumed his magrcalequipmenr ro Knossos Like her mother Pasiphae. Most important of all. Zeus was obliged to intervene and ruled that Persephone should spend rime each year with both her husband and her mother. Perseusflew awayunseen by POSEIDON destroy Hippolytus. informed him how a direcr glance Perseusvisited Argos only to find Phaedrawas soon overcomeby an from Medusa's eyes would turn that Acrisius had already fled to illicit desire. Hippolytus. where Perseusgrew up among fishermen On reaching manhood Perseus was sent by the local ruier.vluenr rHE youNGER. while he was reflectedin the constelladonof Auriga. the charioteer THe PI-HADES were the seven daughrersof the Tiun ATl.or doves. Polydectes. when Perseus was earliermarriageto the queen of the winged shoes and a bag for invited to compete in the gamesar AMAZ. cet'tves. have abandonedher sisterARIADNE but severalpeople had to be tumed not long after she helped him kill the Graiae to tell him about the to stone before he and his bride the MINOTAUR. he married her.The protection of.arrival The prophecy was lulfilled. daughrer of Acrisius. the messenger god.As. Perseus put on the man on the head by her passion for him. Asterope and Alcyone They may have become stars. and were named Maia. and the constellation of Orion then appears to be in perpetualpursuir of them First he visited the Grarae. the giant hunter Their in appearance the nighr s\y in May coincides with rhe beginning of summer. Celeno.avery dangerous task. which sent Phaerhon crashing to the eanh The great god may have also flooded the earth in an attempt to reduce rhe temperature Ir was believed rhat Phaethon's mad exploit could be rraced in the shape of the Milky Way. who gave birth to the Minotaur. nevertheless. Elecra. Careful not to chose to be king of Tiryns rather to Theseussaying that his son had look at Medusa directly. She may well have been a pre-Greek goddess. was enough to bring them safelyto the shoresof the island of Seriphos. who were originally a non-Greek speaking people.deathsAthena placed both Perseus son.iot accident In another version. disappearance and retum parallels the fertiliry myths of West Asia. When she Medusa's head Ready for the Lanssaand his discus hit rhe old saw how Hippolytus was homfied exploit at last. to her rwo sisters.ClnssrcAL MvrHoLocY bore no offspringand death sulked mankind. king of Argos Danaehad been shur up in a bronze tower in order to thwart a prophecy that if she had a son he would kill Acrisius. Hippolyta.however. Theseusexiled his approached by watching her reflec. he than Argos On hearing of their ried to rape her. fetch the head of the to GORGON Medusa. Luckily for the hero the goddess ATHENAhated Medusa and insrructed him how ro proceed PHAEDRA. three old hags who shared a single eye Perseusseized the eye and obliged 73 . filled with were used to good purpose by of Crete According to the Greeks. Bur Zeus visited her as a golden shower and Perseus was bom A tenifred Acrisius placed mother and son in a wooden chest and cast it on the sea. the bull-headed nature of the Gorgons.zrus and oaruer. but for her srepson. three useful gifts from some friend. Persephonecould never return entirely to the living world because she had eaten in Hades' realm: avery old idea that snicdy divided the food of the dead from that of the living The story of Persephone's abduction. He also received l-arissaon hearing of his grandson's mal this time.a deity worshipped by earlier setrlers of the counuywho was later incorporated into Greek religion.It was not for an anihim to stone. their three retumed safely to Danae Having creature kept in the Labynnth at dreadful sisters. sorrow. 1702 ) saved the beauriful erupRoMEDA her his second wife He seems to from a seamonster. Merope. Taygete. daughrer of ocnnlsos He drove his father's four-horse chariot so fast that he lost control and threatened the world with a terrible heat ZEIJS stopped him with a thunderbolt. then killed herself Perseuson his way home Having the Arhenian hero THEsEUS made was the son of rhe PUegfUON sun god HELIoS and Clymene. the son of Theseus' ly nymphs: a cap of invisibility. Her association with the dead may have a similar origrn. referred to the dead as "Demeter'speople" PfnSnUS was the son of. The Athenians. Phaedra shoes and flew to the Gorgon's Because the accident the hero hanged herself and left a message of cavein the far west.

thehingoJTroy. King MINoS.lovinginstead handsome Acrs In a jealousrage. rnrsc<1. c AND Hls HORSES By E K BIRCE.although the maritime seanymph whose name recallsthat state of Athens did not always of the seamonster Triton This fear.) ANNTBALE CARMCCT. though Poseidon frequently assertedhis independence Once he even chained up Zeus' Zeus. with on moment rarepeace Helen the of descibes hings the and citywalk. Poseidonpromised revengeon Odysseus was the son of POSgtoON CRoNos and Rnra He was the Greek god of the sea. and was thoughr ro have lived on the island of Sicily during his longjoumey ODYSSEUS. c POI-YPHEMUS was rhe son of POSEIDONand the sea nymph Thoosa He was a Cyclops. FTADES underworld and Poseidon the sea.CIASSICAL MYTHOLOGY the ZEUS took the slqy. much to the annoyance the goddessArhena From the sev. while the land was ruled by all three It was agreedthat Zeus was the senior deiry. favourite of Poseidon Worship of the seagod was wrdespreadamong out into the AegeanSea Another naval power that offended Poseidon was Crete When its ruler.qrl-n av 1595. ) oF GREECF 1930 of stirring the waters to fury. the god goldm seain waves a chaiotdrawnby tident.but she the scorned him. but in responsero the other Cyclopes' questionshe cried our that he was being attacked by Nobody. and the equivalent of the Roman NEPTUNE He was panicularly associatedwith horses and bulls After the overthrow of Cronos. like SroRrES the sudden violence of an Aegean storrn His wife was Amphitrite.enjoy the best reladonswith him Because the Athenians chose ful pre-Greek creature was tumed by the Greeks into the merman.Sunium. the sea god had many standing The temple of Athena other offspring by other partners. love with the nymph Galatea. shutting them up in his cave and earing them one by one for his evening meal Odysseus dared not kill the Cyclops during the night becausehis men lacked the strength ro move the boulder blocking rhe entrance to the cave So Odysseus thought of a cunning plan to enable their escape He got Polyphemus drunk on wine and then put out his single eye with a smke The rnjured grant roared wrrh pain. circle of the (IrtusrwroN FRoM on below a mighry trident. stood on the acropolis in Athens He even mated with the GoRGoN and Poseidon'sown sanctuarywas of conspicuously sited on Cape Medusa. but called himseif Nobody Polyphemus indeed proved to be a dangerous hosr and treated rhe Greeksas part of his flock. 1880) 74 .NvvpH G.Poseidon thought of as an unruly god.but Galateatumedher into a Srcilian iver beannghrs beloved ntme (PotypHr:MUS AND tHt. of rymbol hispower. a the Greeks. which majesticallyjuts ered head of Medusa sprang the surely a winged horse PEGASUS.he and the calledJorth storms shooh earth (Nr. Earthquakeswere attributed to his anger.pruNe cANvAs.as she who the chieJtains Greehhost. home. oJtheoceans.asked was in POLYPHEMUS. his three sons divided the world between them: rode POSEIDON. Wtthhisthree-pr onged horses the shattered rochs. so they went away. a oneeyed giant. wife. with the aid of HERA. and his daughter ATHENA Possibly becausehis element was was the tempestuoussea.theglant crushed Aciswith a roch. One of Poseidon's children by Poseidon flooded the countryside undl Zeusbrought about an underAmphitrite bore this name However. a weapon capable city theplains eruo Ror'ar. and Hades was often afraid that the roof of the underworld would cavein becauseof the shaking Poseidongave the earth Poseidon was pictured riding rhe deep in a chanot pulled by golden seahorsesIn his handswas sa\tours a PRIAM. Athena as the deity of their ciry. considering him drunk or mad ln the morning Polyphemusopened the entrance to the cave to let out his flock and feit the back of each animal as it passed to ensure no men escaped But Odysseus and his men tied themselvesto the undersides of the sheep and managed to leave undetected For this crime againsthis son.qt. a one-qedg1ant. came to the island and asked for hospitality.

and . whom both Zeus and posrtDoN were pursuing. u . .. l r i ' t r : .c . l.\. r -h r m \ \ ' h e n a t I i was the "sou1" . to whom he gave fire Zeus. n l i k cP s v c h c l r r l l r n l o v c r i i t h t h e r r g l r t ' s lt r . I t u l . . rhe krng . >t)mc hy his qllcen Hecuba.CL..qssrc. t /d irr. . r . r fT r o ) ' . the leader of the new and stronger gods. an inr.^ .c he could lincl Brrt rvhcn Eros sar. would give birth to a son PSYCHE in Greekrehgrous bche e v e r t o l o o k r .rncrble bur immorral fighter Zeus' anger wrth mankrnd was on occasron explained by poor sacnfices Bur Prometheus himself was not a strarghtforward helper errher He gave [ire.( d t t 5 L .l 1L .rirt r. had hrdden fire away. .fo r nsr eadof a puR c tptr u put an hor. . the trme of the Tro.r t n m ) 'thol og) ' l a s r s h e d i c l . r' f r r ) u h P l l J r . L1 .' .'.tenficL' the anrmal. J f L^. rr ryr rh riLr n h r r l l l r / L r l t cmcrged from thc \\ a\ es Rclrgrous ( llslom rpallired MtnOSt() s.lan War Pnam.srl/ Lr L n.l .r-^ r c .'rth the result that his o\\'n \\'rfe P A . it grew at nrght as l r f e b u t o t h e r g r f t s* e r c p c r h a p s . .. . s t t . ./ l l ( l sl:1ln n\' *\f nPnl2fl I f-|[fqt lHl\l. Pnam rvas alu. PROUETHEUS was a son of rhe IITAN Iapetus and one o[ the older Greek gods who sided wlth zEU-sin his fight against hrs father cRONoS His fame was due to his affection for mankind.R!) e OF PruenA was rhe son of Laomedon (.sprrt stche rrrrh rt |crssr0rr()r rllr r{th P / r i r r l r h L r t l t e u a s s o e r r t r ? n c c r lr r h t ' r r h .vever.". lr r tr L. rd .br .r rhr.r hr oc l r tc I r l r ' c r sr ' t ' u l J h t ' r r n i t r ' d l ( ) r e t e r n i t ) ' 75 .n j t t J . .2f ]n o en n i { ) n n r r r d r . l r. . 1 ..t^'-. who chained the rebellious Titan to a rock and senr an eagle to ear his liver As rhis organ was immortal...rflclforgor his mother's commancl Thcl' became lovers. thc rcst b.{L MrrHOroGY P S Y C H E r \ . r l l u \ ' . rhor-rgh Eros ftrrbadc Ps. .A. IllNOlALrR.s ob e a t t t r l u l t l r r t r A p / t i r r r l i t t . r r I r r .r p t . a J<r 5 to . tu .'ther \\'omen Although hc disapproved of the confllct urth the Greeks and lts callse.. 1r h c * . iess hclpful O ut of the fl am r ng forgecameweaponsof rvarr.ays krnd to H E It \ throughout the l()ng5icge Shc had eloped to Troy wrth his son PARIS Pnam was killed in the courtyard of hrs palace whe n the Greeks sacked Tro1.vche fast as the bird could consume rr by day Prometheus was oniy released when he gave Zeus the informarron that the sea nymph rHEris. c t l o u -rs t t r l s c t t f h d s .. e r E f h c i r q r. h c f l c c l i n f c a r o I n ' h a t r she was r ep r es ented a pnnc c s s A p h r o d i t c r i o u r L d c l o t o h r m n o u ' as so beautrful that peopleadorccl hcr t h e s e c r et \ \ ' l i s ( ) u t l n t h e e n d . .S\A f L. the newly 'urctonous gods protected themselves because her son turned out to be the warrior ACHILLES. \ \ ' a s a l r c a d y a n t r l d m a n .softll tn love wrth hu hinr. ' . the bull-headed man . . but Prometheus stole it and brought lt to earth wrh hrm But mrghtrer rhan his farher 81'mai<rng sure that Thetis married a morral ruler. s r n r l r er t h a t h e d r o p p e r l a n u n o l \ ( ) n h r s / ( ) ( ) t . an essenria] of cnrhzed nor this drew Prometheus into confhct wrrh Zeus..r' hcr hc fcll rn ltrrt' . but he chose not tcldo so. t of the Rrver Scamander 81. lathcr ol'fift1 sons. \\.t \ (Se alsoFORCE. l t t t . . .B t. t th( .\ lgrccd that the cncl to thrs s ac r i l egc .. pltrs ali the mr sene s that l ol l or vr hc di s m ption of'a simple wa1'of hfc s en t h e r s o n L I I ( ) \ t o r .. S I P H Ab e c a m e t h e b u l l ' s l o r .

such as Geryon. such as the Titans. neither good nor bad. making armour and omaments in the forge of Hephaistos. who were beings with mighry torsos and snake-like legs. the globe showing are as Here. rebellious shepherds who igtored divine laws and preyed on monals. While Greek grants could be "g. Later on they were also portrayed as moody. the heavens depicted a celestral constellattons (THE FARNESE ATLAS. and building the rnassive city walls of Tiryns . puntshment havingfought agatnst us for that arose dwrne Titans Themythprobably Jrom thermpressron gr reJ story. the Cyclopes were orginally creative beings. The gods themselves are g i g a n r i c . c AD 200 ) . and the Giants. Zeus with the o shoulders. preying on unwary travellers. were predators. becausehe In mountainsbear theheavens another was tumed to a stonymountatn. others.Atlcs. who was in his turn dethroned by his son Zeus. the"bearer"or "endurer" bore theheavens his . but Iarger than life. reflecting their primal nalure. Equally. Such a cosmic struggle between older primal gods and a younger generation is a common feature in world mythology. such as TaloS.namedafter htm Perseus shelter. on ATIAS (nght). M^RBLE. e s p e c ia I I y t h e o l d e r g o d s .the gigantic bro nze man who defended the island of Crete. replacing him with Cronos. The Titans overthrew their father Ouranos.ntle" guardians.CIeSSICAL MYTHOLOGY GIANTS IANTS SYMBOLIZE IMMENSE PR1MAL forces.

Polyphemus. c 1670 ) .rcus av GLluaerrtstt leNcErrt.the goddess the oJ dawn. . who couldwalh through the oceanswithhis feet on the seabed and hrsheadabwe the waves Lrhehtsglant brother.thelwe that Eos.retnevrngthe cattle that he had onglnally stolen t'rom Geryon (Hr. looms here over Odysseus andhts comrades who have rashlystrayed tnto his den QtrusrurtoN FRIM SroRrrsrnov Hovr-n.naclt-s SLcys r r-1. prryedon human berngs who strayedLtyhtscavenear Rome Cucusstole Geryon's cattle red whrlehe slept.felt for Oion was suchthat it causeddivine lealouryuntil Artemtswaspersuaded shoothim with an to arrov/ on behalfoJthe gods He wasthen raisedto the starstoJorm a constellation(IttusrwrrctN NrcK 0y BEALE. oJ Hepharstos. ) tg95 CACUS (above).thecattlebeganto bellowand Heracles cameand slayedCacus.1885 ) ORION (abwe lef). at'ttng special arrnour. Oion wasblindedin a quarrel. Jabulous one-qed glants. who wasoneof Posadon'sunruly sons.rr r C. a goat-hhe son and g1ant.w4s a glganticand handsome hunter.but his Ees werehealedby the radianceof the sungod Hehos There are many diffenngstones concerninghis death. the one-eyed Polyphemus. such as Hades' rnvrstble helmer Zeus'thunderbolt and Poseidon's tndent Yet thq were alsoportrayed aslawless. were initrally regarded as creative who craJtsmen helpedHephaistos his in volcantc cr t'orge. GL. man-eattng shepherds One such.but accordingtoone myth.ClassrcAr- MyrHoLoGy THE CYCLOPES raceof AeJt).and hid them in his Jrom Heracles cave Howater.

CInSSICAL MYTHOLOGY was a king of PYCN4ALION Cyprus According to rhe Greeks.tut-uS rhe rwrn sons of nnr. 188] ) were Rruus AND ROtr. Remus a the carnes wildhead of Camers.and rhe two founders of Rome Rhea Silvia had been the only child of King Numitor of Alba Longa When Numitor's brother AMULIUSdeposed him. an even more unsatisfactory fate than he had prevrously suffered Becauseof his obviously genuine disappointment. Pygmalion fell hopelesslyin love with rhe statue. took rhe foundlings home So they were raised as shepherds.they went off and founded a ciry of their own .although the ability of the brothers to lead others. the wolf Later Romulus and Remus were discoveredin the wolf s lair by who a shepherd named Faustulus.Rome A quanel.andborehim twin sons. but the god oJ the nver.a vestalvirgn.but the andwasJoundby a shecradlecameashore wolf. sinceno real one measured up to his expectations Nor surpnsingly. Amulius On the nght. The nvins Qef) march tnumphantly from Alba Longa On theleft. Romulus bearsaloft theheod oJ their treachrous uncle.. piest thehingto drwn the wins who counselled (li-rusrnerrorus FROM [AYs oF ANCIENT ROME. Romulusand Remus For violating the laws oJher holy order.who gave her name to the town AND SCC MON5TER5 PYTHON BEASTS FABULOUS were REMUS nNn ROMULUS (obove) setadift on the Tiber by Amulius. shewasthrown into the Ttber. wrrnRnre SIrwe sayedand mamed her (t'lens BYFMNcEsco DEL CossA FREsco. he commissioned an ivory statueof his ideal woman. RHEA SILYIA (below).4SILVIAand MARS. thereby ensuring rhat rherewould be no other claimant to the throne But the war god Mars raped her in his sacredgrove. and Rhea Silvia gave binh to Romulus and Remus Amulius ordered his servans to hll the new-bom nvins. but instead they cast them on the Tiber Their cradle was carried swrftly away and evenrually came to rest on a mudbank To look after his children Mars sent his sacred animal. however. the love goddess APHRODITT brought the statue to life and made it love him Some vaditions tell how the couple had a daughter named Paphos. he also forced Rhea Silvia to become a Vestal Virgrn. and to fight. waslovedbyMars. One day Numiror met Remusand guessed who he was and so the lost grandchildren were reunited with him. Tibernus. eventually became widely known.1476) 78 . but they were not content to live quietly in Alba Longa. Insread.

having leamed chat one of his children would depose him.over the throne of Crete and fled to Asia Minor. around 507 gc. zrus the and ruRoPA. king of Crete. and was secredyraised. the Roman equivalent of the Greekgod cnoruos. MINOS. (Seealso FoUNDERS) RPtnaI. the skygod. . . After a reign of forty years he disappearedto become.was celebratedin Rome over sevendays and was held at the end of December Tnf S. which Romulus overcame by arranging for the caprure of Sabinewomen at anearby fesdval. Cronos. He was rhen mken to the island of Crete. heisweaingexotic relectingthe robes. Rhea substiuted rhe babyZeus with a stone wrapped in swaddling clothes. Amulius could not guaranteeRhea Silvra'sprotection from the attentions of the gods and she was raped in by MARS his sacred grove. an ally of the Trqans. Sarpedon quanelled with ond of his brothers. the goddess of vegetation DEMETER. the new king forced Rhea Silvia to become a Vestal Virgin. in the far wesr was the daughter of Ouranos and cen. rhe she heanh goddessHesria. Though he showed remorse at rhe funeral. possiblywith a blow from a spade. as they were bom. However. swallowed all of them.qfYnS were the wild spirirs of Greek and Roman woodlands Their bestial nature was shown in their horse-like or goatlike appearance. Roman that who belieJ hewas Joreigner a jed to Latium to escape Zeus guNo nlro Serunn ByPAoLoyERoNEsE. bur suffered from a shortage of women. Others say rhat he was one of the rhreeJudges of the Dead and lived in the paradise of Elpium. where she may have been drowned eruued and Romulus hlled Remus. except for Zeus. Rnnn Rouurus see REMU5 SnnPfOONwas sonof. rhe Greek god of vegerarion.qruv.qfUnN was an ancient Italian com god. According ro one radition he marriedarcuENE after the dearh of her husband Amphitryon.qs 79 . When he was deposed by his younger brother AMIJLIUS. waslater confusedwithZats' son of the samename lu:usrtAnoN FRoM sroRrEs FRoM HoMER. seagod rosaDoN and rhe zEus.1553-55) c. It was a haven for runaway slavesand other fugitives. sower". Her twin sons were rhen cast into the swollen Tiber.ClessrcAL MyrHoLoGY SARPEDON is lifted by Thamtos (Death) andllypnos (Slap) from thebattlfield of Troy This Lyatn rulq. though he had more in cornmon with the goddessDEMETER was believed He ro have ruled the eanh during a losr Golden Age. also was regarded asanearly oJIntiumdunnga lost hing Age Golden Here. the king of Alba Longa. and the brother of tvrlos and seRpEDoN. From the beginning of republican times. They were mainly associated wirh DIoNYsus.1885) Rnnn SLVIA*as rhemotherof ROMULUS REMUSAND She was the only child of Numitor. bore six children. Romulus ruled Rome wirh a srong hand and rhe ciry flourished. The Romulus and Remus mFh was as popular as rhar of erruras. the Satumalia. the war god Quirinus. the underworld god FtADEs. where the worship of Rhea was norable. some of his subjecs believed. where he founded the Greek ciry of Miletus It is said that Zeus allowed him to live to a great age S. His fesrival. earth the goddessHEM. fu the wife of CRONOS. He was adopred by Asterius.wine and ecstasy. hisdaughter with Juno. and played a crucial role in his festivals.(Seealso MONSTERS ANDFABULOUS BEASTS) "the SATURN. the she-wolf became the symbol of Roman nationhood.lANTHyS was rhe son of ruRopa and zEUs.

.stur\ FAI]t/l ()Lr5BEA-S-5 l r r f R r r r i r t t t sp r e d r r t t ' r 1 n t h t .qpttl i rt.r ts t i l l s r e w o l d c) She refused tfrc rhe gocl ol favour. shc became rmmortal b r . explarns hou. br-tt rhe offer was strll refr-rsed.S f S l ? H { I . \| L r n t .L^-.C lessr (..l bun-rcd three books and offered rhe other srx at the samc pnce. s r r r . .SI . was d r .10\-\ Ar\r) rER.S i h .set it rrri/ down agtnn /l I i \ lli \ ll. 1r r h r S .S r l i r r h r \ 1 r / n t / t r a f u r ts t r r / r i t ( ' n t r ( i . ' . rn southem italy' ()t-r.I. r ' \ i r r \ r ' ' r .Ar My I H or-oc. prophecl-.s of .rt. r r r R LL r .l l r n eB o o h s i r y h r rh h t t u m e a t .^ .s SIBl'I- tht' gftttl.-.\h rt nrarhlt' hlor h np tt hrll oniy to . so rhree more \\'ere burnt and thcn she famous were a collection of oracles thar detailed Rome's destiny These offered the last three at rhe ongrnal ^. s 1 ) l lfili( ) n t t n r i g r r r i L r t t .1l / l')')i rhc prophcrcss nho Cumac. u hrch \\'hcn the offer rv:is refused. S h t ' .\' S scnu see \. ' StnYl. so he condemned her rcr an endless old agc -Shevu'asalready ancient when AENFASconsulted her about hrs visit to the underworld Another story concems rhe Srbyllinc Books. S b t ' r r r { l h /r .he Romans closed Pr rLL rl l Ila)Lt L were offered fbr saic ro Rome durrng the rule of thr Erruscan krngs the deal before all the rrreplaceable oracles were totalll' destroved 80 . 'r nt \tr A Ill.(rrrir nttfr/ frrrn'r'r tir f ri. 'le n c a r t . Srby.S O r n .st'o /orctold rhr (ie. r t u l s ( ) r 1 1 o / r e l i g r o u s e Sruelg s e e L c ) \ ' r r R . . 7 E L ' . rn Roman myrhology.

all da. the daughter of Spurius Tarpeius. glvingher for Rome (l[rrsrnarro. fulfilled his tragic desriny because the queen was his mother The Greek Sphinx should not be confused with the Egyptian Sphinx.wine and ecstasy. according ro Greek mythologlr. whateverher motive was. Sisyphus tricked HADES into letting him retum to earth. the Greek god of vegetation. was he more as than often drunh drunh sober.Dionysusgranted of the king his famous and shorrsighted wish for a golden touch STNENS SCC MONSTER5 AND FABULOUS BM5T5 STSYPHUS was rhe son of King Aelus of Thessalyand Enarete He was known to the Greeks as the craftiest of men. to take Sisyphus to the underworld Somehow the ingenious hng temporarily made Thanaros his own prisoner.the queenly. their shields Another mentions only rheir braceierc ln the first version the Sabinesrealued thar they had been tricked and threw their shields at her and killed her The Romans could not agreehow Tarpeiadied but. Zeus lost give the correct answerwere eaten patience and condemned Sisyphus The riddle was: "What rhingwalks to Tanarus ro pay for his lifelong on four legs in the morning. Zeus therefore sent Thanatos. the Sphinx hurled herself over a cliff and died As a reward for destroying rhe monster. and is weakhad to roll a block of stone to the est when ir walks on four?" The top of a hill only to seeit roll back correct answer was Man. a people of central ltaly. A monsterwrth the face and breasts of a woman. wermcotoun. she was sent as a curse on the ciry of Thebes by the goddess HERA The Sphinx guarded a pass ro rhe therefore see to the arrangemenrc city and asked all who wished to himself before he could be said to passa riddle Those who failed to be truly dead Finally. as and Jat and andround hiswine-bag. or throttler.ln appearanceSilenus was a fat. ) i89i CrAssrcAL SU-ENUS was variously described as the son either of the Greek messenger god HERMES. Jeline Sphinxpaws her victims (TurTnruurpHRur Spnrrux nv GustrvE M1RFAU. and suffered for his rickery by endless labour in Tarurus. either by rrrHoru or by Onhus.god of death. real traitors were always thrown from the Tarpeian Rock wss TARPEIA. the body OEDIPUS gave the correct answer. he was made king of Thebes and mamed 8l . Romanherorne. or the goatJike god of the pastures He was usually portrayed as the elderly companion of oiolysus. had been abduction provoked by ROMULUS' of Sabinewomen to provrde wives for Rome's men One radirion says thar Tarpeialet the Sabinesinto her father's fortress afrer making them promise to give her what they wore on rheir lefr arms.perched a on rochat a passto the cil oJThebes and challenged travellerswith a nddle.butwhen or asleep.ouing all whoJailedthe test In Moreau's chtllingscene.crushed o oJ as todeath theshields theSabines by the oJ through gates the thrystormed to According one Capitohne Jortress to insrde. on impiety. The Grear Sphinx at Grza was the protector of the pyramids and scourge of the sun god Ra TAnPgfn was a Roman heroine. 1888 ) was much glven to SILENUS ajwial satyr. Having told his wife to do and so the widowed queenJocasta. the commander of the Capiroline fortress at Rome She may have played a role in savrngthe city A war berween Romans and Sabines.r' t FRoM STORTF-s nov Ltr r J885 ] of a lion and the wings of a bird. became inspired much he an and (Iuusrnenoru sought-aJter prophet rnov DrlnoNnnv oF ANleurrEs. because again as it reached the crest he walks on four as a baby and Ieans on a stick in old age When nothing if he died. sleep dnnh Baldbuthairy.CInSSICAL MyTHOLOGY THE SPHINX. the legend. a place of punishment beneath the underworld. of PAN. he angered zEUs by revealing that the god had abducred the daughter of a river god. Sisyphussaid that his bodywas unburied and the customary offerings to the dead had not been made He must THE SPHINX. hadlured Sabines she l{e so trapthem. bald man with the tail and earsof a horse Because the of hndness shown to Silenus by King MIDAS Phrygia. For the rest of etemiry he three in the evening. When the gods again claimed him. Sisyphus is credited wirh the foundation of Corinth. was the daughter of Echidna. According ro one tradition.

and Aegeus named Theseusashis successor The next cycle of Theseus' explois was designed to securethe saferyof Athens First. which he later added to the Athenian kingdom On his amval in Athens. worse sdll.lihe worm in he a beneath the wheel " (lur'.causedthe end of rhe monarchy by raping the Roman matron LUCRETIA." rno. [o the north-east of the city.who raped the Roman matron.qstpHnE. Lucretia She. which lived in the Labyrinth rhat had been designed by oAEDALUS. Tarquinius Sextus. ashe the JIed battleJieldLahe Regrllus. The plot was revealed. the wife of Kirg MINos of Crete. he deahwith Pallas' sons. a f.ling thedust died. Cercyon The aggressive ruler died as a result of rhe conresr.ClessrcAL MvrHoLocY TAnqurNtus Supennus was rhe sevenrhand last Etruscan king of Rome. so when Theseus volunteered to confront . and so Theseuswas conceived Beflorehe left for home. who reigned in the sixrh century ec His youngestson. ANL[. No one had ever managed to find their way through this maze.asoN and a powerful witch She hoped that her own son Medus would succeedAegeus Although Theseus hid his rrue identity.NTR()Mr:. l88i ) THESEUS was the son either of POSEIDON AEGEIIS or the king of Athens His mother was Aethra The childlessAegeusconsulted the Delphic Oracle and was told not to untie his wine skin undl he retumed home He did not understand what the oraclemeant and so visited his friend Ki. Aethra explained that he was heir to the Arhenian rhrone and he retrieved the sword and sandals On his joumey to Athens he slew several desperatebandits. Then he killed a wild bull that was ravagingMarathon. Aegeustook the pregnantAethra to a great boulder undemeath which he placed his sword and sandals He told her that.but. Pittheusmade his guestdrunk and put him to bed with his daughter Aethra. struch was oJ death was from behindHisingloious recounted Macaulay's "Andin the rn lcys: bach Sextus theRoman / And steel Jalse felt wng. the daughter of the monster ITPHONAt Eleusis. she must wait until he was strong enough to raise the boulder before she senr him ro his farher's court After Aegeus'departurethe wily Pitrheus said his daughrer's lover was really Poseidon When Theseus came of age.rysor. should she have a son. so Theseusbecameking of Eleusis. outrageprw ohed was an uprisingand Tarquinius oF rL By werthrown (TnrRape LucRErA PALI the king recognizedhis sword as the hero carved the meat.srncl. An annual ribute of youngAthenians was fed to the Minotaur.r.g Pittheus of Troezen Realizingthat Aegeuswas going to beget a powerful son immediately after the celebration feast for his saferetum to Athens. which caused BRUrus to lead a rebellion Tarquinius was defeated and the Roman republic was established TARQUINIUS SE)ffUS.hilled herselJ. Medea knew who he was and persuaded Aegeus to let her poison the mighty stranger at a banquet Theseuswas savedwhen TARQUINfUS SUPERBUS.in The shame. He also overcame the MINOTAUR. Aegeushad fallenunder the spell of unDEA. Theseuswas forced to acceprthe challenge of a wrestling match with its king. Theseus leamed that his father Aegeuswas hardly able to hold on to the throne Not only was the apparently heirless hng challenged by the fifry sons of his half-brother Pallas. Tarquinius Sextus.the former wife of.earsome son of HEPHAtsros.u L.then a kingdom separatefrom Arhens. Medea fled from Athens with her son. and a dreadful sow.the srrange offspring of p.a crueland crueland ryrannicalhing sireda no less ignoble son.

/RE. Theseus and thar Anadne pledge lweat thealtar. fearingthe presenceof such a man. as a future wrfe He ciaimed that only she was worthy enough to be his wrfe.and Phaedra.Phaedra was so humiliated by his rejection that she hanged herself and left Theseus a letrer in which she accusedHippolytus of artempted rape He was exiled and died in a chanot accident before his father discovered the truth In another version. thinking his son dead. while thetop. oF MosArc 200 c AD ) the Minotaur his farher despaired It was agreed that if Theseus should. when its ki. a daughter of the Cretan king who fell in love wrth the hero Princess Ariadne knew that the Labynnrh was so complex that the only way out was to follow back a rhread fastened to the entrance After Theseus had promised to marry her. Anadne gave him a ball of rhread and a sword The hero entered the Labynnrh. another daughter of Minos. and he joined all the communidesof Attica into one scate Apart from enlargrng Athens' territory. threw himself off the Athenian acropolis The suicide meanr thar Theseus was now king of Athens. desming unfortunate matden on Dia. bore him a son. daughterof zELls. thereby (TurseusANr)SrNrs. possibly becauseof her divine father But she had powerful hnsmen. pushed him over a cliff as he admired the view k was believed that in the fifrh cenrury BC. Theseus also undertook a number of heroic exploits On one expedirion he captured Hippolyta. to lhe young man's horror Ahhough he promised ro keep her passiona secre[. and her rwo brorhers. ( 490 RED-Frcr.the DIOSCURI. came to desireher stepson Hippolytus. by some miracle. suwive. Theseus forgot to changethe sail ro indicate to his farher that he was alive Aegeussaw a black sail and. defeatedthe Athenians and drove Theseusabroad He died on the island of Scpos.on thenght trHrE)clorrs THEsEUs. rhe Athenian admiral Cimon wenr ro Scy'ros and brought the hero's bones back to Athens. BC ) 83 . but whatever the reasonhe was soon repaid for his heardessness the fu ship approachedAthens. who Hippolytus.ClessrcAL MyrHoLoGy THESEUS' uploitsareillustrated an on inticateRoman mosaic thecentre At of thelabynnthTheseus withthe battles MinotaurOntheleJt. Hippolytus was hlled by a sea monster rhar was raised by Theseus'anger. a robber hilledby tyirg hts victim between two bent pine trees and then letting them sping teaing the man apart upnght. where they were kept in a shrine THESEUS SINIScircle other aruo each in a battle witsandwills Sinis.killed herself Theseuslater seizedthe twelveyear-oldHELEN. slew rhe Minotaur and rhen set sail for Athens with Ariadne and the rest of the Athenian parry He rhen lefr the princess on the nearby island of Dia h is thought rhat he was in love with another woman. the queen of TheAMAZONS. pineof the was who bender.g.Theseus Aiadne at sets the ashore. bur she died shorriy afrerwards Theseus gave rhe accursed oEDtPUs his daughrer and ANTIGONE sancruaryat Coionus.filled with remorse. near Athens But discord enrered his own house when his second wife PFiAEDM. he was to change the sail of the tribute ship from black to white on the homeward voyage At Minos' palacein Knossosthe goddessAPHRODITE Theseus gave an invaluable ally in ARIADNE.

the arttstic centreoJ the ancientworld. is depicted with d serpent'stail. c 1890 ) Cncnops (above).seenhere. named after llus.FOIJNDERS HEANCIENTs BELIEVED that many of their fabulous cities were founded by the pioneering heroes and heroines of legend. guided by destiny and deiry to createa fresh. owed its oiglnboth to Cecrops. Each ciry honoured its own hero who was also often its legend ary founder. for instance. A city or ribe sometimes honoured irc founder hero by sharing his name. encourabolished agedtheworshipof Zzus and laws Athenaand introducedbasic of property. as well as threeharbour rises a towns TheAcropolis. Cecrops bloodsocifce. on steeproch. ind. politicsond mariage (l[usrnenoru FROM DrcfloNARY i89l ) oF CrASslcAL ANTrqunrs. and the lowerwalledtown. ceNves. Athena. reached greatest its splendourin the time oJPmcles(160-429 sc) (THE AcRopol. such as llium.built oJPentelicmarble in pure Doic style and adomedwithinandwithout with gllded and painted sculpture North oJ the Parthenonrosea great statuteoJthe ciry's goddess. / a The Greek polis was an autonomous. . the Ttojans after Tios. encouraged religious worship. its summit oncecrownedwith sparhlingtemples Mostfamous oJ all was the Parthenon. Apart from leading a ribe to a bright new land.one oJthe mythicJoundersoJ Athens.and to Theseus who united Attica's twelve statesinto one. recallinghis oigln as an aboiglne of Attica He dividedthe nativesinto twelve and communities Joundedthe the oJ Acropolis. the heroic ethic \ combined with the Greek ideal of polis. and Rome after Romulus.rs sv ClnL HaeG. In Classical mythology. Jounded who the ancientAcropolis. such as Perseusof Mycenae and Lacedaemon of Sparta. and made Athenstheir capital The ci1 divided rnto the upper town. or city-state. Mycenae. and buildirg a strong citadel. godlike heroes.whosehelmetand spearwere seen from the sea Athens. ArHErus (ngh). vibrant culture. Mythic founders were innovative. stronghold Athenl whichwas alsonamed Cecropia aftu him An innovator. to cre ate a varLety of dynamic founders who built such celebrated cities as Athens.such as Cadmus of Thebesand Dido of I Carth age. the splendid capital oJ Attica. or Acropohs. Sparta and Thebes.penden[ community of citizens. while Cadmus of Thebes introduced an alphabet of L6 Phoenician letters.and the first hing of Attica. slaves and foreigners who gathered within and around a fortified ciry. founders often developed helpful new ways and customs: Cecrops of Athens.

. named Byrsa. rn the rergn of IIus' son.chacus nsc. Ilus. the sttll. a massNe wooden modelhrdingwrthtn tts hollow crlm tomb of $.SSICAL MyTH OLOGY the was Rovurus (above). but the belhgerent over brothers btckered the stteand nune ol the settrngthewarlike and Romulussbw Remus. provohedby Pans' abduction of Helen. on . A|3BArr. hud been murdered by her brother. spectators . Drdo managed to se(ure enough land to hurld a cttadel. Pnam. sent sacred . ) c 1920 toneof thefuture ctty (lLLr D) l Tnov (above) or llium arose on the grassy plain oJ Troas lry the Joot of Mount Ida Founded lry the mythrc hero.Rernus . ruled danng the had fled to Afnca from coveted the throne oJ Tyre On the coast of North AJntu. sold Dtdo as much land as she might contain rn a bull's htde By artt'ully cutting the hrde into nen'ow stnps. suchled atbtrth by a she-wolfwtth his twtn brother. r . Iegendary founder of Curthage . ci\. The glrls und boys playrng on the traglc Trolan War. who walls oJ Troy were butlt'by the gods. TEMPERA. hrs animul.sapling.supervr.i560) . 8 . the lubuktus ctry oJ Carthuge flouished from 853 nc On the nght bank..rn B0 . or "hrde" Around thts fort. to savehis sons lLtter thetwinswere rescued the good Lry Roiur (above)theworld-ruItng caprtalof Italy situatetl the RiverTrber.r Lrpr KERIFL.mboh2rn g the growth oJ Carthage banh represent the future power und gentrattons of Cunhage. s r .{ R r H ' \ ( . the anctent ctty was named lltum and Trola after both Jather and son The famous Dtoo (above). c .s be. here. mythic Jounderof Ron1e. future clqy. srnlrror P4{ f{{)()r)norrr.qn Theggantrc amphttheatre desrgned accommodate and a nse around crrculartrers overloohing centralarena In Jront of the amphttheatre s the tnumphalArch of Titus. Menelaus At a cntical stage rn the ten-year siege. B } / w f i . Iarbus. 1846 erected eo 81.thewolf Mars. rM cANvA. \gmalion. . while the nstngsun.000 Vespastan inaugtratedby his son.s ) Tttus' vtctonous av rr tn campatgn Judaea (\lru or rHr.ewtse. The tvvrns beencastinto the RiverTrberIry therrg'eathad the uncle Amuhuswho coveted throneof Alba Longa.srdca ncw . son ol Tros. rymbolizes the nsrng power oJ Tnol. Poserdon and Apollo. tn C()Lossr. to celebrate whorarsed themas lus own Once shepherd Faustulus gowt1.ses a tedm of architects and masons on the leJt banh of the bay Dido Tyre in Phoeniciu wherc her husband.wasfoundedtn c AD 753 W the mythrchero. the local king. sl.wusoneol the{eatest monuments theancrent was to 87. R N I : R l.v lih. the Greehs dreamt up the Trolan Horse. thebnghtnrwcity ( l ) r n o B r r r r D r N c ( . theyleftAlba LongatoJound Rorne. Inomedon The nextktng.Tttus.r:i Honsr B) Nrr r r ri t r nri l belly an army oJ Greelzs (THr. Sychaeus. wtfe of the Greeh chteJtatn. tmtiated theEmperor by seen ol RomulusTheColosseum.l l5 ) v a .but theird:ine Jather.

CINSSICAL

MYTHOLOGY

THnffS was a seanymph and the daughter of Nereus and Doris She was the mother of ecutt-t-rS, the great Greek hero Becauseit was known that she was fated to bear a son mightier than his father, both zEtJSand PoselDoN gave up all who thoughts of possessingThetis, was much admired on Mount Olympus, the home of the gods lnstead, Zeus ensured that she became the wife of a mortal king, Peleusof Phthia Thetis bore him sevensons,but she was dissatisfied with the mortaliry of her children She tested them wrth fire and boiling water, but none could withsmnd such treatment, not even the youngest boy Achilles until Thetis dipped him in the Sryx, the nver of the dead Even then, she forgot to wet the heel she held him by, with the result that he was not totaily immortal About this time Thetis left Peleusand retumed to the sea, although she continued to assist Achilles as far as she could during his evendul life TtnnSfRS, in Greek mythology, was the son of a nymph, Chanclo, and Everes,descendantof one of CADMUi'own men The blind seer of Thebes, he was so wise that even his ghost had kept its wits, and not been overcome by forgetfulness Iike the other inhabitants of the underworld At the edge of the

blind seer, TIRESIAS, thelegendary advisedmany heroesSomelistenedto him, such to but others, thar cost,ignoredhim, Creon,or short-sighted as hard-headed Pentheus His goldat stofJwas a gJt Jrom to Athenaand enabledhim fndhis way FRoM man (ILLUsrMroN lihe a sighted
DrcfloNARy oF CtAsslc,{L ANTIQUITIES, .1891 )

the seerwitnessedthe same sight and became a man again His unique experienceled to Tiresias the and HERa, being askedby LEUS chief Greek deities, to settle a dispure berween rhem as to which sex got most pleasureout of love When he said that it was the female,Herablinded him, but Zrus awarded him a long life and the power of prophecy THf and Titanesses, TtfeNS according to Greek mythology, were the children of Ouranos, the sky, and GAIA, the earth These grgantic beings were the older gods who ruled before the Olympian gods, who were the brothers, sisrersand children of zEUs The Titans included cRoNoS, RHn.e, Coeus, Metis, Mnemoslme and Hyperion They came to power after Cronos emasculated his father Ouranos with a sickle provided by Gaia, his long-suffering mother The eventual battle between the older generarionof gods, the Titans led by Cronos, and the younger generation, the Olympians led by his son Zeus,lasted ten years and shook the universe like no other conflict. Afterwards Zeus threw those deities who had opposed him down to Tartarus, which was a land beneath the underworld. The battle against the Titans should not be confused with the Olympian gods' Iater struggle with In the GIANTS. order to win this terrible confrontadon, Zeus knew that he would require the help of a mighry, mortal champion, and the so he fathered by 'LLCMEwE greatest of the Greek heroes HEMCLES.

came in disguise to Thebes As a result of Pentheus'refusalto listen to the seer, he gravely offended Dionysus and was tom to pieces bY worshippers, the the god's frerLaed maenads Tiresiasalso confirmed rhe pronouncement of the Delphic Oracle that it was indeed King

world Tiresias advised oDYSSEUs OEDIPIJS who was personally rhat he would never retum home responsible for the plague which ro lthaca if he harmed the catde of roubled the Thebans HELIos,rhe sun god During his lifetime Tiresias played a pan in severalmyths For rnstance,he wamed King Pentheus in vain about the identity of when that powerful god DIOI{YSUS, seo an THEIIS, although immortal with mortal Achilles, nymph,lovedher son, ofahuman care all the andtendemess and sorrows, rushed motherShe sharedhis o/his to hisaid,wer conscious moftllity aftnour splendid some Hereshebingshim
as he mourns Patroclus' death rnov Sronrrsrnou Hovrn, i885 ) (Ittusru.qnou

The blindness of Tiresias was explained by two tales One account states that the affliction was a punishment for seeing the goddess ATHENA bathing The other story is a somewhat lesstraditional explanarion Tiresiasone day saw snakesmating and struck them with a staff, whereupon he turned into a woman. After living as a woman for a period of time,

86

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THE TITANS wereglganticbangswho the ruled the earthbeJore Olympian gods Thq overthro,rtheir tyrannicalJather, Ouranus,and put Cronosinhis place Cronos, inhis turn, swallowedallhis children, exceptZeus,who was raisedin presentsCronoswith a secreE Here, Rhea stonewrapped in swaddling clothesinstead hiddenaway of thebaby Zeuswhois saJely
(RHrrc nr.ro Cnouos, RELTEF, c 400 BC )

supreme deity, but the recently victorious ZEUS destroyed him with a mighty thunderbolt The volcanic activity of Mounr Aetna in Sicily was believed to be caused imprisonment Typhon's by beneath the crater. The struggle berween Typhon and Zeus was an evenly balanced fight, however At one point 7:uswas left helpless in a cave,weaponlessand without his sinews Fortunately rhe messengergod HrnvEs came to his aid on this occasion Before his final defeat,Typhon sired the Chimaera, the huge seamonster killed by the hero PERSEUS VENUS was rhe Roman equivalent of apHRopirE, the Greek love goddess Venus was onginally a goddess connected with agriculture. but when she was identified wrth Aphrodite she took on a more active and differenr role in mythology One of her most crucial acdonswls to retumAENMS'spear after it had stuck in a tree stump during his fight with the Iralian champion Tumus Indeed, in some versionsAeneasis her son

TyPHON (left), a fire-breathing serpent, was impisonedbeneaththe crqterwhen the volcanoat Mount Aetna mtpted Symbolinng the darhJorcesoJearth, he as sired monsters hideousas himself:the flaming Chimaeraand snarlingCerberus (GnrcxVxr.. 600 ) c BC

TYPHON

was a terrible, serpenr-

Iike monster whose eyes shot out flames. He was conceived by GAIA, mother ished earth, when she was banto Tartarus along with the

orher defeated TITANS According endeavoured as the ruler to the Greeks, Typhon to establish himself of the world, the

oJlwe, is VENUS, the Romangoddess rarely portrayed withouther capnciousand chmtbic son,Cupid This gracefulportrait oJher by the French artist Boucher, Jull oJ much to Venusof light and charm, owes FRoM or Arles QrtusrnerroN Dtcttoxeny CL,tsstcel 189] Arurreurrrs, )

CInSSICAL

MyTHOLOGY

VnSfn was the Roman equivalenr of the Greek goddessHestia,who was the goddess of the hearth Vesta, however, was worshipped both as the guardian of the domestic heanh and also as the personification of the ceremonial flame. Ceremonies in her honour were conducted by the Vestal Virgins, who were young girls from noble families who took vows of chastity for the thirty years during which they served her Vesra's chief festival, the Vestalia, was held on TJune VtnCtNLA was the daughrer of a WRGINIA (abwe) dies in the arms oJher Roman centurion named Virginius father who hilledher to releaseher from she and, as with LUCRETIA, was a bondageto the comtpt Appius Clnudius Roman connected with a major He then cursedthe Claudionline, who were constitutional change Whereas overthrown by the outragedRomans FRoM rnov ) Lucretia's rape and suicide led to (Ir-r-usrnerroru SroRrFs Ltw, 1885
WTCAN (below), Roman god oJfve,

the dethronement and exile of the Eruscan monarchy, the death of Virginia was a major factor in the ending of an aristocratic tyranny in 449 sc. The lust of a comrpt official, Appius Claudius, for Virginia lcnew no bounds. He even dared to claim that the girl was his slave and used the law to have her handed over to him. At the last moment her father subbedVirginia through the heart, declaring that her death was less painful to suffer than her dishonour. The Roman arrny rose to support him, along with the poorer citizens not then bearing arrns, and checks were placed thereafter on magistrates' powers. was the Roman smith VUICAN god and the equivalent of the Greek HEPtiAIsros. He was widely associatedwith Maia and YEsrA, who were both goddessesof the hearth. His smithywas believed to be situated undemeath Mount Aetna in Sicily. At the Vulcanalia festival, which was held on 23 August, fish and small animals were thrown into a fire. XnNTHUS was said to be the offPodarge and spring of the HARPY the ZEPHYRIIS, west wind. He was one of wo immonal hones belonging to the great Greek champion and had the power of ACHILLES human speech. Achilles inherited the horses from his father, King Peleusof Phthia, who had received them as a present from the gods on his wedding to the sea nymph Achilles tookXanthus and THETIS. Balius, the other wonderful steed, to Troy with him They performed extremely well on the battlefield, although theyseemed unnerved by the slaughter. When Achilles quesdoned them, Xanthus wamed the champion that his own death was near, at which point the horse was struck dumb by the FURIES ZTPHYNUS NATURE SCC FORCE5OF

Venus with gloious armsforher presents son,Aeneas The goldar swordwas descibed in the Aeneid as loaded wtth
doom FMNcors NENus tN rHE FoRGE oF vuLCAN cenve,s, 1757 ) BY

BoucHER,

88

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MYTHOLOGY

ZEUS, all-powufuIfathu oJ the gods, enthronedon Olympus,isbegedby Thetis she tugshis beard to help her son, Achilles; way, and claspshis hneein her affectionate as descnbedin thelliad, and thegreat god nNo nodshis assent (Zrus TnrnsrvJr,rlA]GUSTE lNGREs, c,qruvas, 18.11)

After the overthrow of Cronos, Zeus divided up the world between himself and his two brothers, and PoselDoN Zeus chose HADES to rule the sky, Hades the underworld, and Poseidon the sea: the earth and Mount OlYmPus,which was the home of the gods, were regarded as common territory A rare visitor to either of them was Hades, who preferred to be among the dead Trus'influence, however, was felt e,rery*h.re, although he had no control over destiny itself Rather he was the god who saw that fate took is proper course The many lovers taken byZeus, both mortal and immortal, form the very stuff of mytholory It is hghly likely that they describe the coming together of severalreligious incorporated the radinons , as7-eus attributes of rival deities and gained credit for all important even6 The continual antagonism between who was Zeus and his wife HERA, definitely an ancient, pre-Greek mother-goddess in origin, often broke out into major conflict. So jealous was Hera that she sPenr most of her dme persecuting ktJs' lovers and their children Once Zeus became so angry about Hera's his cruelty to the hero HEMCLES, greatest son by a mortal woman, that he suspended the goddess from a pinnacle by her wrists and hung weights on her ankles (See OFNATURE) also FORCES XANTHUSeNn BALIUS immortal , wind, of and horses children thewest "torewiththespeed wtnd" Thq were oJ duing theTrojan Achtlles' battlesteeds on War,andwept fallenheroes the Jor them Zzusleads asa glt oJ feld Here, on to thegods Peleus hisweddingday
(IrruSrnenOruBy GLENN Srrtvnw, 1995)

ZBUS was the supreme deity in Greek mythology and the son of the Titans cRoNos and nHr,q The Romans identified Zeus wrth their an J7PITER, all-powerful slcy god The ryrannical Cronos insisted on swallowin g alI Trus' older bro thers and sisters as soon as they were bom, but Zeus escapedthis fate when his mother Rhea offered Cronos a stone wrapped up in swaddling clothes to swallow instead.In secrecy,kuswas raised on the island of Crete. He grew ro manhood determined to topple his father. The wise Metis, an earlylove and daughter of ocEANos, gave Zeus the idea of a potion that would make his fathervomit up all the children he had swallowed.

.

rhe lone defender of Ulster during the invasion of forces raised by Queen Medb of Connacht. Ig20 ) c of paganism It seems that poets wenr on reciting the sagaslong after St Parrick converted the Irish and cleared the country of snakes. and in 278 BC one roving band even penetrated as far east as Asia Minor. Irish myths nearly always include fighring. He was chosen as the Irish champion afrer a beheading conresr with the watergiant Uath No other man had courage enough to receive rhe giant's retum blow. is obviously a later embellishmenr. Wales. Yet saints in lreland could curse as well as anyone else when the occasion demanded For instance. the troublesome King Suibhne Geilt was cursed by St Ronan for his violence towards the fairh. Nor even the intewention of his father Lugh. Scotland. Yet Cuchalainn. enjoyed but a brief life. where rhey gave rheir name ro Galatia. When rhe saddle slipped and he fell to rhe ground. for monks rook great care from the fifth cenrury onwards to write down the ancienr sagas To this remarkable effort of preservarion we owe almost our enrire knowledge of Celtic mythology. the Isle of Man and lreland At one dme. Bur here conversion did nor mean rhe wholesale desrrucdon of rhe Celtic heitage. b Bran the Blessed (BnaNweNryG SarRrurucneM. Their otherworld. grey-haired. Comwall. nothing else was ever commirred to writing. The newly-founded monasteries could therefore undertake the work of recording rhe ancient rexts without any fear Bnarvrvrx a classic was Celticheroinewho remained calm anddigniJied underpressure Jakely A slandered she wtfe. rescued hn brother. Even in distant lreland. because these tales were seen as entertainment. The fearless warrior Cuchulainn. Rome itself had been sacked by rhem in 385 BC. the Celts were a force to be reckoned with. however. rhar they kept something of their magic. indeed in the explois of many other heroes of old. was to until Jorced sufierunjustly. son of the Fenian leader Finn MacCool. is very much the ideal. the influence of Christianiry was soon felt. unlike the Greek or Roman underworld. the goddess of slaughter.INTRODUCTION INTRoDL]CTIoN ODAYPEOPLE CELNC DESCENT OF IN Europe are concentrated on its wesrem shores They live chiefly in Brittany. was not a dismal abode of the dead. his refusal to rerum the affecrions of Monigan. could save him The apparently endless conflicr appears less tenible when it is recalled how the Cels believed in reincamation. Oisin was immediately changed from a handsome yourh into a blind. The warrior-poer Oisin. The interest of St Parrick in the advenrures of Oisin and. spent three hundred years there before reuming to Ireland. In lreland the poet was held in particular esteem. the Cels were spread over a large parr of the Continenr. For excepr in Wales. presenrday France Although largely incorporated into the Roman Empire. withered old man Only St Patrick is said to have bothered to listen to his fantasdc story as it was being written down. Rather ir was a paradise in which souls rested prior ro rheir rebinh in the world. the sun god. since rhe Devil could never enter a house where rhe exploits of the heroes were being sung. where a small group of stories was recorded. however. the Cels condnued to worship their own gods and goddesses right up ro the dme of the official adopdon by rhe Romans of the Christian faith. Oisin was warned that he would never be able to go back to the underworld if he dismounted from amagScsreed. Possibly because there was a clear distinction there berween druid and poet in preChristian times. sealed his fate. but it does indicate a degree of tolerance not readily found elsewhere in Christian Europe. an island thar was never under Roman control. except where people remembered tales about the Celtic gods and heroes of the past. "the Hound of Culann". The Cels always distrusted script and preferred to rely on speech and properly trained memories. though the combat is undenaken more often by heroes than by gods. Then their rehgion and mytholory waned in importance. cANVAs. a historical fact not forgotten by the legronaries who gave Julius Caesar vrcrory berween 59 and 49 sc over the Celdc tribes living in Gaul. and 92 . Until the rise of Roman power. lrish folklore insisrs.

t\tR()l)t(ll()\ I . t l t ' l .lL ( )ttt 9l . . ( ) l l l ( ' 1 1 t c l r t r l t l ( ' l c n l ( ' l l t I h t ' i l r L t ' . l . r f L r l l \ ' \ r > r r ) nr r t t h t ' ( i r l r r l u i t t t i l h e r r r r r k. \ 1 1 1 .llI() il ( L'lrttntitqtt t. i . . . t > t \ t l [ ) ] l t ' t . . l O t r ' n s t l r s ( ) t . t t t ' t o : t . r i t ' i l1 t r ' . ' . 1 r i i ( l l i r ] r .tl t r t t h t ' ( i r .(l . f r i / t r . lLtc ri rlh tht' t Il.'trgh sllllll. fr .tl1it:.r ' 1 l hr l l \ n n r r i t l t c a l t L t ru : t . ' r b . t l l t l l l t r t r c l i R Dn. ' r l . i t . i r l l iI ATLANTIC OCERN :pt'rlt thc rc-:t trl hL. . ... c t l. i i l l . i t r t l ' t ) r i \\ t ( . l i l t ' t t ' i \ t . ) l i i \ i r i . 1 ' r r r r ' i 1 1 l i r . i ' ( L . t r l . qq- ' I<trt{ht.t r+Ih.ri r 1 . L . l .ttttl. l b r r c l l t ' l l 1 .trr]1i. l l l . 1 i 1 . r . t : I rrtrl i trt'tir ttcts t't'tl llt> h. r r l 1 .tLtltlttrtltht> ilt'l\ rc''t'l rill: t h r ' t L t l tL t . 1 5I ) L t r ( f I l r r t l { h I t r f r t ' r l l .i ir. fi 1 1 1 1 1 . .r il l . \\ht'tltct trt Il()[ \rtlltll \\.P r ' . . l l i r .tt-:t. l . i t . . t l t h r ' ( f L l rl t l \ l ( ) l l t l l t ' r r l l t t l l . t i i f l . . i t g h t l r r I ] t l t i l l l l i ) \ J t r . i l l t l l l \ ( l L l ( ' \ t Srn o Rour THRAcq ' a SperN . -4" :f-'rDEr-pur ... i r i l i t 1 . . l l l l t \ h l t . ' . i t r i i . t lI ll l t ' . . . l \ 1 r . i l t l l r t t : l t l l ( i .t:. t L . .r cir. i ) . l t l t : t h c l n l ( r : l .1 1 1r1 { t r l t t c e t ( ) I I C Ci t l l ( i a t r t l n g i r t l l l g h t . .i a c\l. t i { i t l i .* .'/ltr ( i t .t)tlLr \tr [ ) r r ' ( ) r r L t l ) t cK r n g \ t t i r r r r cl ( . r l . i I i r :i . . . l t l t t ' t l .rrll.J *fu. . l .' ffi td . ' 'I'Ef B LAC K r i i r r t h f l .ilti)r ' l ( . l l l . 1. / i t . i l l r r h e ' \ r t h L r r l i .: *j Ilfnrltf \ . t t t l l r ' i . : I l t r t h r r l t l l L r t \ \ .l(ir))(l\ )t i r / . r l .t l t : t: i : t t l c l t r i l t s I t t ' . l lIlr \ t h > ( h t t .t flt. t r c ( c l t r t r p \ I h r r l . l t r L cr\ l r ) t P l t ' \ltir. b e .c \ : I p l . r : . { )c : 1 .

(THr BrcuruNc on MERLTN By E BURNEJoNES. accompanied by three mysterious ladies. Thus British chivalry came ro an end with Kirg Arthur's disastrous bartle againsr his nephew Modred near Salisbury. awaiting reincamadon as a national saviour. c 1470 ) 9+ .INTRODUCTION Mrnuru . the amiddivine for light and splendour. gave rise ro rhe idea of his undeath. who fromtheearlier journqed the to othenvorldwthhiswarband in searcha oJ wondrous cauldron Here. (MeruuscrurrmusrurroN. The Celtic peoples were norGrious for only rarely combining against an extemal. It is quire likely rhat he may have been a successful warlord in the confused and violent period following the withdrawal of the Roman legions from Britain around 4I0 eo That his myth blames the ultimate vicrory won by rhe Anglo-Saxon invaders on civil strife perhaps reflects a kemel of truth. so deep-rooted were their own birrer quarrels. ARrnunandhisChristian Fellowshipl{nights of probabty deived Welsh warlord Arthur.his enchantress. Kirg Arthur lingered. Knights theRoundTable the of erpenence Grailvision thefirsttime. in the tradition of Celtic druids. symbolked the Jorestght. cAwAs. with wrsdomand while Nimue. Hardly a knighr survived and the Kirg himselfwas badlywounded His depar- ture to Avalon. In an otherworld. common foe. c i8l0-14 ) figure is still uncerrain. threateningpwm oJthe othenvorld.tNo Nnrun representopposite polesoJthe CelticothemvorW Malin. guided his hing Arthur. ir was believed.

INTRODUCTION B .

give chase to Abarra's sreed. a mischievous god He the otherworld. though Jruitful the rustic godoJ agnculture.The riors there remains a srong trace of best tracker among rhem was Finn his original dMniry MacCool'sassismntFoltor He sucAbana offered himself as a ser. Abana and his kin appear where souls briefly resred before in the Irish sagasmore like heroic rebirth The rest of the Fianna. although one mortal Iover of hers. oJ and when mounted It was not until was worshippedMidsummer on Eveby the fourteen warriors had climbed local people lit up herhiII withtorches who on its powerful back rhat it would When some stayedlate night. a High Kirg of lreland.. who was actually a goddess.gods and goddesses. which probably means who was unable ro ler go of rhe "doer of deeds". the of ond. rvho was the brother of did the warriors manage to ger a Eochaidh. Kirg Arllil OIom of Munster. was the hng of Connacht and husband of the warrior-queen MEDB. who killed him in revenge for the death of rrRcus MACRITH AINE was rhe Irish goddess of love and ferdlity She was the daughter of Eogabail.who lived under a mound in the middle of Ireland She had been rebom as a human as punishment for her great jealousy of Midir's first wife. gradually succumbed to a terrible wasring diseasebecauseof his unrequited passion for rhe new queen Etain was steadfast in her love for Eochaidh. grey horse Only afrer great effort AILILL. however.Ailill finally met his death at the hands of coNALt. acquired a magic ship to tale of his trick on the Fenian war. rhe capital There Eochaidh and Etain enjoyed a happy married life Ailill. paid for his passionate audacity with his life When he . E7AIN.run back to Ireland himself holding ly after the hero had succeededhis on to the horse'stail Honour being father as leader of rhe band. is He genera\ ponrayed as a ratherweak characterwho was entirely under the influence of Medb It was due ro her taundng that he agreedro go to war with Ulster over the Brown Bull of Cuailgne. even visible throughher magc"ing pulling along a fifteenrh warrior (lLrusrnerroruByNtcK Brew. in Irish horse's tail Abarta took them to mythology. 1995) fell in love wirh his brother's wife. andreapahill in a dq . Irish goddess love Jertility. By 1995) felt sorry/ for ailing Ailill and eventuallypromised ro sadsfyhis desire as the only means of saving his life It was arranged thar rhey should meet secretly in a house outside Tara However. notalwayshelpful was ItwasAmaethon robbed that Arawn. was. he heard reporrs that described Etain as rhe fairest maiden in Ireland So he broughr the beautiful former goddessback to his palace atTara.Ailill never came because he fell into an enchantedsleep Atut-t. rricky Abarta peacewirh Abarta presented the Fianna wirh a wrld. thereby prwohing Battle Trees.ceededin navrgadnga course to the vanr ro FINNMACCOOL.and the place ground.o sow tashinhis quest win Olwat to (lr-r-usrRqnoru NrcK Buu.This wonderful land was rhoughr overcome by the Milesians. As a sarisfied.who was the foster son of the Manx sea god MANANNAN MAC LIR HeT main responsibilty was to encourage human love. according to some versions of the myth. but she also AI\4AETHON.Celrrc MyrHoLocy Annnfn. and rhen it refused to move even one hoof AINE.rhe Fenians agreed ro a gesture of goodwill.warlike by the Celts to be the home of the invaders from Spain Driyen under. which were only immediarely inro a gallop. it broke tobealive wrthfaines. bridle on the animal. although in the Fenians. one of the TUATHADE DANANN Etain had been the second wife of the proud and handsome god MIDIR.and heredi. or mortals rhan gods. for that was rhe was one of the TUATTIADEDANANN.ealed and thehill mounted behind rhem. reason for his appearanceon earth who ruled lreland undl rhey were. whorefused help to hard-pressed Culhwch toplough. of the otherworld for the rescue expedione foremosr Irish heroes. glrls one Aine stir at all Once Abana had appeared amongthem ra.MnC MAIA.tion There Abana was compelled tary leader of the FmNNA Abarn to releasethe prisoners aswell as to tried ro serveFinn MacCool short. Fuamnach When High Kirg Eochaidh was looking for a bride himself.

stolen fromAMWN. was one of the first because. Even as late as the last with the Milesians Thesechildren century. The lord of Annwn was the grey-cladAMwN. and as a result the north. AUNONTNS PELLES SCC was a Welsh otherANNWN world that was an idyllic land of peace and plenty. one in deer and a bird. celebrationswere still held of ulrrsluS. a Annwn's maglcal wtththe songoJbirds healed maidens. GWYDION. and renewed fighting Amaethon's brother.CeITIC MYTHOLOGY brothers plunged the country once again into dreadful srife The fighting came to an end only with the death of Eber. peacewas not to surive of Trees It was in this battle rhat for long. or "Aine's hill". were believed to be the ancestorsof the present-dayIrish County Ketry Having defeated the divine rulers of (whose name lreland. ARTHUR warriors in a disastrous attempt to seize this magic cauldron. between the followers of the two (above)was one oJthe Jirst AJVTAIRGEN druidsin lreland He possessedboth spiitual and political authoity. which. AueerHoN the Milesians could not agreeon means "labourer" or "ploughman") was the god of agnculture and the which of their leaders should be hng Two sons of Mil. sometimes known Aine's worship was alwaysasso. Irish druids.as a goddessof fertility. and filled was landoJJruitfulness rest. magic recurrent in Celtic motif oJ in cauldrons Jeature thetales Branand Dagda (IllusrnlloN By NIcK BxLE. the Celtic "hounds of hell". An inspiredshamanand seer.decidingwho firsthing. the ru.heis credited with a mysticalpoem in the Book of crtox Invasions (ILLusrn A^roN' ) otherworld. aWelsh ANNWN (below). was the basis of the medieval Grail myth ln one Welsh lost most of his tradition. a divided into rwo kingdoms. in Spain. who was a in her honour on Midsummer Eve leader of the Celts who lived in at l(nockainy.trqADE DANANN. Amairgen then installed Eremon as High King of Ireland atTara Even then conflicts still occurred becauseof the ceaseIessrivalnes between lesserrulers. causedthe Cad Goddeu or Battle However. it would seem. she slew him warriors to fight in the battle with her magic. which were believed to fly at night in pursuit of human souls (See AISOCELTICOTHERWORLDS. a hound. WONDROUS CAULDRONS) attempted to force himself upon magically transformed rrees inro Aine and rape her. Eremon and son of the Welsh goddess ool contested the throne and for Amaethon was said to have EBER. guarded nine by cauldron. the lord of the the sake of peace the island was orherworld euruwru. ciated in lreland with agriculture. 1995 ) 97 . or Mil. to the thesich restored dead lfe A and myth. ln Annwn there was a fountain of sweet wine and a cauldron of rebirth. and pronouncedthe first judgement in the wouldbe the land. the ancient priests in she had command over crops and Celtic lands He came to Ireland animals. wirh whom the Dyfed chieftain PWYLLagreed to exchange shapes and responsibilities for ayear Arawn had a pack of hounds. as Amergin. the other in the south.AUAInCEN.

a place where warriors seem most at home The cult of Anu was especiallyassociated with Munster. and as mother the oJ treasured her chanot At first the reluctant about the marriageuntil Tuatha Danann Munster are De In there combat went as expectedin Aoifa's Aonghus' father. Beforethe fighr rook place. "Diarmuid of the Love or down the lnsh sagasfrom the fifth water goddess BOANN Rarherlike Spot" This attractiveyoung man century onwards underplayed the 7-eus.where he breathed a new soul into it so that he could talk to his foster-son was rhe ruler of the AnAWN Welsh otherworld aNruwru. Cuchulainn askedScarhach AMWN. sometrmescalled Danu or became Cuchulainn's lover and On the feastof Samhain. an otherworld kingdom Her sisrer SCATHACH instrucred rhe Ulster hero CIJCHUIAINNin the arts of war But when the sisterswent ro war Scathach was frightened ro take the hero with her into battle in case Aoifa killed him Undeterred by Aoifa's repurarion as a fighter.a wanior-pnncess theInnd Jrom young oJShadows. 1995 ) 98 . Aoifa and she was willing to be his bride ANU.) ByJAMEs 1995 night dunng a hunt. somerimes known as Aoife. Jlyinghounds. Dagda. but it is obvrous that Aonghus wzls a divine love-child Aonghus was handsome and fourbirds alwap hovered abovehis head which were said ro represenr kisses. Aonghus brought Diarmuid's body back to his own palace at New Grange.Crr-Trc MyrHoLocy who wrote down the trish sagas tried to legidmize rhe binh by making Boann the wife of Dagda. so he drove them off and ser AOIFA.cNorn. the princess who had been promised by the High King of lreland to his Fenian commander FINNMACCOOL Aonghus savedthe Iovers from the great warrior's wrath. on the bank of the RiverBoyne. girl of divine a descentwho came from Connacht and lived as a swan Her father. made twohillshnown thePaps Anubecause favour. the srories they recorded show us a man's world.r Alrx.ql It found Caer swimming on a lake Irish myrhology The TUATHA DE was. the boy's fate to be wich a hundred and fifty other DANANN("the people of the god. was the mother goddess of bore him a son named cotvl. but he could not protect Diarmuid from the fate given to him at birth by the gods. but Cuchuiainn distracted Ethal his prisoner lt was finally as of (tuusrRarroru her attention at a critical moment agreed that Aonghus could marryt thq rymbolized breasts her ny Grrruli SrEwanD. ANU. however. Pwyll encounrereda strange pack of hounds chasinga stag. Birds also feature in his courtship of CAER. hingof Annwn. as as andwhere the gods women oJten fiercest were (Itrusraanov ByJAMEI ALExANorn.received a magic love spot on his original role o[ goddessesin rheir band and lay with her The monks forehead from a mysterious grrl one compilations Certainly. Cuchulainn challenged her ro single combat. that he should be killed by a magic boar Nevertheless. and two hrils in County Kerry are still known as Da Chich Anann ("The Papsof Anu") AOIFA. instructinghim themartial in arts The tradition wamor-womenwds of strongin where Celtic sociery.Aonghus Dana. This included GMINNE. Conlai. From rhen on. which was a paradiseof peaceand plenty The Dyfed chiefrain PuvLLbecame friends with Arawn and was allowed to claim in his title some authority over the otherworld The two rulers met by chance While out hunting. was the daughter of ArdGreimne and an lrish warriorprincess in the Land of Shadows.the attached imelf to Aonghus conamval of the Milesians h is quite father of the gods and the protector cerns his foster-son DIARMIIID LtA possibie that the monks who wrote of druids.killed by his own father swans He instantly recognizedher dess Dana") were her divine chiland she agreed to marry him dren and the gods and goddesses AONCHUS was the Insh love An interesting tale rhat has who ruled Ireland prior to the god His father was DAGDA. withher spars son. washnown the"lasting as told him that above ali else she DANANN He seems to have been one" also Dana. no woman could everseeDiarmuid without loving him. appear withredears. tohen the a oJ othenvorld (luusrnenor. and his mother was the DUIBHNE. was one of the TUATHADE all theheroes. Dugdr deceivedBoann's hus. Celtic was oneof whose duties to escort on souk tharjoumey the to othaworldLihe some other thq white fairy creatures. 1995 ) by calling out that her chanot horse Caer provrded he could identi$r her was in trouble Afterwards. women bore arrns late AD700. stidesthrough hisenchanted accompaniedby his Jorest "hounds the oJhell". a great earth goddess mother and oJ what Aoifa loved best and Scathach Ethal.

the Welsh chieftain dealt him a fatal blow and ignored Havgan'splea to finish him offwith another strike. for if struck a second time he instantly revived.oppearsin thisJoncijul portrayal as a charming.In one myth. orrntl. When Pwyll and Havgan fought. the virgin who usually acted this part for him was raped by his nephew Gilvaethwy. ) than she gave birth to DYI4N Arianrhod's and rtrtL GwYDION. including the stricture that he was to have no wrfe in the human race ART. iJ somewhatwhimsical character. but this did not prevent Arianrhod placing a seriesof raboos upon him. Celtic equivalatt oJ Eros.CEI-TIC MYTHOLOGY AONGHUS AeJ).who calms thefoamy seawith his AND coD Jairy maglc (Aor. PUTTING A SPELL OF SUN.IMER THE SEA ByJoHN DUNCAN. As a result of this service. Conn's jealous mistress. oFLovE CAIU COURTESY. It was Arawn. the goddess Becuma Cneisgel. ON 1908 ) an conJronts armyoJsavage ART(above) glant on andvenomous toads hispeilous journq through Land Wonder.he managed to find and rescue Delbchaem Art's son by another woman was ART C)PJ\LACMAC Arr was hlled by the rebel Lugaide Mac Con in the battle of Moy Muchruinne his own hounds on to the prey Just as the stag was about to fall. Arawn and Pwyll became closeallies and Dyfed prospered. in Irish mythology.ltwas also agreed that hryll would share the bed of Arawn's queen for the same period of time. cANVAs. an engagtnggodoJ a Iwe and courtesy. king of Gwynedd. To test her purity fuianrhod had to step over Math's wand No sooner had she done so 99 . Havgan. was the daughter ArueNnnOD of the Welsh goddess DoN and niece of MArH. was the son of Conn of the Hundred Battles. immediately took charge of Lleu and brought him up. a grey-clad figure appeared and rebuked h^ryll for rhis discourtesy in the field.rcnus. brother. andwhen Goewin. but without making love to her Arawn wamed Pwyll that he must hll Havgan by a single blow. Marh could sleep only if his feet wereheld in avirgin's lap. In order to placate Arawn and to gain his friendship. in of the laid A of search Delbchaun taboo on the Becuma. goddess younghero thejealous by to forcedhim find andwinthelovely parents by glrlimpnsoned herwiched (luusrnerroru Bv ARTHUR c 1900 R 4cKHAM. it was suggestedthat Ananrhod should mke her place. Pwyll accepted a proposal that he should exchange forms with him for ayear and then tlayArao*'s enemy.contrived to send Art off on a perilous journey through the Land of Wonder in search of Delbchaem ("Fair Shape") After facing untold dangers.

impressedthe gearer part of westem Europe It was wirh some misgivrngs thar the Church permitted a Chrisriamzed version of theseCeltic myrhs ro occupy such an importanr placein rhe medieval imagination It was never quire at easewith the story of rhe Grail. rhere can be little doubr that the warlike hngbelongs to rhe heroic traditions of borh lreland and Wales He appearsin several ARTHUR.l I . but none could move it After a number of yearsArrhur joumeyed ro London to watch his first toumament A knight who had been appointed by Merlin ro act as the boy's guardianwas tahng part. the ltuighrs of the Round Table were at a loss ro know who should be the nexr hng They decidedrhar Merlin should guide them The wlzard told them that rhey would know who Uther's successor was when he drew a magrc sword from a srone. CANVA5.unawareof his destiny untilhis nghtfuI time to draw the swordfrom the stone. rest anenchantedforest. which had mysreriously appearedin London Many knighs tried ro pull the sword from the stone.when the exploirs of his followers.r AND ARTHUR By W HATHERELL. there were knights who would nor accept Arthur as ARTHUR. wrtches and monsters.was guarded and guided by spintual forcesfrom birth Smugg. hunter of magic boars.he wasfosteredin safety and secrery. orldly which deJied captureSirPellinore later and SirPalomides years futilepursuit spent in of thetantalizng chimaera (lrrusrnarrou ByAUBREy BEARDSLEy. and as leader of a band of heroeswhose adventuresled them into untold mysteriesand marvels. not leastbecauseit had a special place resewed for rhe Graii WhileJoseph of Anmarhea was imprisoned in Paiesdne.) c that Arthur and his swom enemy M?DREDboth fell in 537 ar rhe bartle o[Camluan Anhur was the son of rhe Brirish king UTHER PENDMGON and Igraine. the Ifuights of the Round Table. aslu the Anglo-Saxon invaders after the Lady oJ the LaheJor thesword.Ied oJTintagelCastlebyMerlin.the Grail is said ro have kept him alive Later he broughr it ro Brirain. at which one hundred and fifty knights could be seated. Fxcalibur Roman legions had gone Nennius Theyoung hing mawelledat theshining credir Anhur with rwelvevicrories. c 1870 ) .This unusual piece of furniture may AnfnUR is undoubredly the best I<nownof rhe Celdc heroes He was mosr popular during rhe Middle Ages.thusprovinghisbirthnght (urnur. a child oJdestiny.CTITIC MyTHoLoGY Irish sagas. wife of rhe Cornish duke Gorlois He was conceived out of wedlock and brought up away from his parens by rhe wizard MERLIN The resourceful Merlin had already designed for Uther Pendragona wonderful stronghold and placed in ir the famous Round Table. Thus was the heir of Uther Pendragonrevealed Even rhen.Arthur pulled it out and gave it ro the amazedknight. C 1910 ) have a connectionwith Josephof Anmathea. 1870. Arthur was a historical leader who rallied the people of Bntain against ARTHU& promptedby Merlin. killer of giants. Arthur had much in common with Finn MacCool But according to the ninth-century monk Nennius. at in gazes wonder theamazng in at Questing Beast thewell lt was ferlieor at a bewitching otheruv wonder. but finding he was wirhour a sword. since its miraculous propenies were clearly derived from the Celtic cauldron. as a warrior. where it disappeared due ro people's sinfulness Thus the recovery of the Grail became the grearquesr of Arthur's knights When Urher fendragon died.ented bss of blood in banle (tuusnenoru in a history of Wales. or 5AN6REAI. a vesselof plenry aswell as of rebinh The strength of popular feeling for the Arthurian myth can be appreciated by a riot thar occurred in l l l 3 a r th e ro wn o f B o d m in in Comwall becausethe French servants of visiring nobiliry denied Arthur's undeath Although some of the earliest storiesconcemingfuthur are found in Welsh poems of the sevenrh century. one of which describes how he stole the hounds of rhe Fenian leader FINNMACCOOL on one of his daring raids Indeed. which srares BYAUBREY BERosuv. he sent Arthur to get one Wi thou t r ealizrngrhe signific ance of the sword in rhe stone. which JOSEPH OF ARIMATHMwas believed ro have brought to Britain. out the mage. sword but Merlin insistedthat the scabbard but does not mention the account wasworth ten of the swordsbecause it of his death recorded slighdy later pra.

1860) .however The whole Although he had won. he had Excalibur rhrown into a lake. Anglo-Saxons. however. king that shall be " Such an Juturepromise Arthur's undeath was not enough to save D'ARTHUR BYJAME5 ARCHER.CEr-TIC MvrHoLoGY ARTHUR S RoundTablesewedmany purposes: pruented quarels aver it pr eceden . such was the severiryof his disintegation of the chivalnc uniry wound Knowing his own end was that was establishedby the Round Table. but which was finally near. because news reached the king that his nephew Sir Modred had seized Camelot and even forced Guinevere to consent to marriage. where a hand swiftly seized destroyedby the implacablehatred it Then Anhur boarded a magic berweenArthur and Modred (See boat and disappeared.Merlin savedhim by putting the knight to sleep. tci his amazement. according to the l-:ldy of the Lake. and es ce d commemorated TableoJthe l-ast the Suppo. holding another magrcsword. he saw a hand and arm rise out of the water. Arthur summoned his knights to do battle with the rebels Prior to the conflict. and when futhur found out about his wife's unfaithfulness Lancelot fled to Brittany Anhur pursued Sir l^ancelotand besiegedhim in his Breton stronghold The siege had to be lifted. in which the flower of British chivalry fell Only two of Arthur's knights were left alive on a batdefield that his weakened kingdom from the was coveredby the dead and dyttg. c. since he knew of Guinevere'slove for Sir IANCELOT. aided King Leodegraunceof Scotland in his wars against the Irish and even campaigned as far away from his kingdom asRome.gaveAnhur the Round Table as a wedding grft Nevenheless. Arthur was betrothed to his daughter At GUINEVERT. rymbolQe wh olan s. This was the famous Excalibur.quvas. king that carryingthe rymbolizes t'. with the Grail at the centre (Knc Tesre Anrnur. a terrible battie was fought. tn despair the king wandered along the shore of a lake when. His last also MAGICAND ENCHANTMENT. first Merlin objected ro the match.Arthur went on to be a great king. HEROTC words were that he was going to QUEsrs) to AVALON be cured of his wounds in rests peoce Avalon. Arthur was dismayed to see the blade sharter. The inscription on Arthur's of to the maglc craJts. who handed it to him Rearmedand reassured. according to one version of the myth.the queen and Lancelot were soon Iovers. the most handsome of the lfuights of the Round Table But he later blessed the married couple and. rND THE l(t. king Only with Merlin's aid was the young ruler able to defeat his opponents and bring peace to Britain How much he depended on magic became obvrous to Arthur early in his reign Having drawn his own sword wrthout cause against one of his knights. cowled blach. He defeated the Anglo-Saxons. rApEsrRy. heal wounds the tomb at Glastonbury picks up this "undead" Thewinged appantion htng Celtic idea of reincamation It and thehope Grail reads: "Here lies Arrhur. in so that he might retum one day to ARTHUR le queens Morgan guardedby t'airy lead his people once more four oJ her in consults booh Fay. King Arthur had to be carried away by these of the Anhunan myth tums on rhe I<rr€hs. each ordered his forces to attack if they saw anyone draw a sword When a knight unsheathed his weapon to kill a snake. his sure support.tonr reign (t-e oJ was. ln rerum for the aid given to Lrodegraunce. for futhur was otherwise unalrned.ttcHTs oF THE RouND To rHE QuEsr By A SrnnNcr 1898-99 ) SuUMoNED DAMSEL By E BURNE-JoNEs. Becauseneither one trusted the other. it was agreedthat the hng and his nephew would meet between the rwo armies to discuss the possibility of peace.after spreadingstories of the king's death on campaign Returning ro Brimin.

(Seealso CELTIC OTHERWORLDS) BRNSHEE is the modern name for the beansidhe ("woman of the fairies"). the god of the sea. a lesser grandson. was an otherworldlyretreat of wonder. who were driven from Ireland for ever. and its name suggess that itwas an island of apples The mortally woundedARTHURwas ferried there by three mysterious women in a black boat.Cnlrrc MyrHoLoGy AVnI-ON was another name for the Welsh otherworld.led the misshapenFomoni against pion of the Tuatha De Danann theyoungerTuatha De Danann Herehis Lugh's father was Cian. but on rhe way ro the whirlpool one of the boys fell out unnoticed Either rhe druid rhen handed the fortunate baby to the smith god cotnHNIU. The fateful meeting between Lugh and Balor occurred at the second battle of Magh Tuireadh. 1894 ) 102 . mystery and peace lts nine guardian queensrecall an actual.Myth connec$ Badb with that he would be slain by his own the historical bartle of Clonrarf in grandson. (llr-L. Iater. Arthur's last restingplace. and over the centuries they were slowly transformed in the popularimagination into fairies. decided to foster him. he ordered that rhey be drowned in a whirlpool nearTory Island Balor's servants duly rolled them up in a sheet. Norman conquerors According to one version of the myth. the supposedsite of Arthur's tomb. castsaJatal stoneinto member of the Tuatha De Danann Balor's deadlyq. or alternatively MANANNAN MACUn.e. Lugh. NEMAINand by four servans It was prophesied MACHA. a fiercecontest berween the Fomorii and the Tuatha De Danann Nobody could stand Balor's lethal gaze. ctuves. Even so. when Lugh noriced that the AVALON.Joiryheavens hidden beneath gassy eyeball backward through Balor's mounds Inshhilkides on kgendhas it head. i902 ) stare The Tuatha De Danann were able to defeat the Fomorii. BAOB (meaning "crow") was an the violent and monstrous seagods Irish goddess of battle She was one who ruled Ireland before the arrival of a group of war deitieswho could of the TIJATHADE DANANN So influence rhe outcome of conflict dreadful was his one eye thar he by inspiring the combarants wirh destroyedwhoever he looked upon fear or courage The others were and his eyelid had to be levered up Known as MORRIGAN.qNDA Gnev. when the High Kirg Brian locked his only daughter ETHLINN defeated the Viking invaders and in a crystal tower on Tory Island. 1995 ) When Balor leamed that his daughter had given binh to three sons.srn cloN By MTn. following the terrible batrle againsrSir MODRED's army The undead king was expected to retum from Avalon and lead the oppressed Celtic population of Britain to victory over rheirAngloSaxon and. Cian had enrered the crystal warriors marching behind him tower and slepr wirh Ethlinn. not even the Tuatha De Danann leaderNUADA.forcing it bach through With the assistance of a female his head where its lethal gazedestroyshis druid. single eyelid of Balor was slowly closing through weariness Lugh crept near to him with a magic sling-shot in hand The momenr BANSHEE. beansidhe. the traditional fairy of the Irish countryside After the arrival of the Milesians from what is now Spain (the ancestorsof the presenrday Irish) the gods and goddesses known as rhe TUATHADE DANANN disappeared underground and dwelt in mounds. Avalon has been idendfied with Glastonbury.he hurled lived undergroundsparlzling in sidhe the stone so hard rhat ir forced the faines. off Badb was said ro have appeared the north-west coasr of Ireland over rhe warriors' heads. Lugh was saved and set on the road to his desriny as rhe slayerof Balor. It was believed thar the wailing of a banshee foretold the approach of a human death. histoncalordu oJnine nuns who lived olJthe coastoJRomanBittany. Balor was killed in barrle with a sling-shot by the sun god BALOR. BRIOR was rhe Irish Cyclops (Seealso CELTIC OTHERWORLDS) This one-eyedgod of death was rhe most formidable of the FoMoRII. as well as the nine mythical maidensguarding Annwn's maglccauldron (Kruc AnrHun rN AvALoN By E BURNE-JoNIs. . ANNwN.rByH I FIRD.rhe owner of a sword which previously none could escape The battle was just tuming into a Tuatha De Danann rout. To avoid rhis fate he 1014.Ethlinn's son and the chamdeath. ln either event. or women the oJ the eyelid opened again. aJormidable one-qed god of LIIGH. Excalibur was forged there Tradidonally. with the result that it was rhe thatabanshee attaches toaJamily itself Fomoni who now sufferedfrom the andwams impendingdeathwith of an destrucdve effect of its paralysing eeie wail (tu-usrnerror.

thq waitedby as thatwould ferrythehingtoAvalonThis realism photographic blends evocativscene e 4n to witha ghostly bachdrop create oJ representation and elfective convincing an otheweorldly realm (Monr D'AnrHun nv JoHw Genntcx. In later of King ARTHUR's Anhurian romance Bedwyr became Sir Bedivere. and his name survives in a number of BELENU5 BTLE SCC BELENUS. according to welsh mythology.CnITIC MVTHOLOGY BEDW}R BTOTVERE SCC BEOWYR. was a Celtic sun god known to the Romans Julius Caesarcompared Belenus to Apollo. Cuchuiainn was able to follow its course. was a one-handed warrior who. with cucHut AINN. however. a Celtic sungod. threw the sword Excalibur into the lake on the king's insrucdons and bore his body to the boat which camed him to AVALON BEL seeBELENUS also known as Bel. and betrayed her husband's people by in London) Although his worship was clearly widespread. 1862) r03 . the "firesof Bel".the geat Ulster "Bile's gate" (formerly a fish market hero and enemy of Cu Roi. the god of prophecy He appears in various forms across the Celtic world. BEUNUS. oF srDHE to celebrateBeltaine (THrRrorps rHE BYJOHN DUNCAN. l9ll ) the wife of King BUqfHNATwas CU RoI of Munster She fell in love place names such as Billingsgate. once ide outJrom their hollow hills Celtic gods. symbolizng the raysoJthe sunand the promiseof summer fruitfulness Here. thefaines. Fer Cherdne took the opportunity to avengehis former master's death by grabbing hold of Blathnat and jumping over the edge with her in his arrns. Bile to the lrish and Belenusto the Gauls Beltaine. of one of the important fesdvals the Celdc calendar. the faithful knight who remained with King Arthur after he was mortally wounded. They were both members court.was honoured on the eveof Beltaine when Celts litbonfires. cANVAs.ctNvts. as Beli to the Welsh. together with his played friend and companion I<AI. In the fiercebattle that followed Cu Roi was killed and Cuchulainn was able to ride off with Blathnar He also took with him Cu Roi's bard. at Arthur theendoJhis guarded BEDWYR the alaheJor ship hJe. an important pail in helping to CULHWCH procure the prizes he required to win the hand of otwEN.was celebratedon the first of May in his honour.little elseis showing the hero how he could known about him enter her husband's apparentlY impregnable fortress A stream BRAN flowed through rhe fort and when BTN DTCTTPFRAN SCE Blathnat poured milk into the THEBLESSED water. Fer Cherdne When the party halted on a cliff top.

CEr-Trc MyrHoLoGy .

idingthrough alush. ashedPwyll to swapplaceswrth him Jor a year. at the end oJwhich Pwyll duel Joughtand won theseasonal (lrrusrRerroN sy Ar. wooded idyll. 1984 ) While the Tuatha De Danann livedunderground rn lahes and glittenngsidhe. was healing Lancelot ferned contained sptntualsustenance to Carboneh a ghostly on shtpwtthout captatnor crewand chahce because oJ permitteda dtstantvisionof the sacred his courogeous sprnt Hts loveof Guinevere forbade a ALAN 1984 vision (lui'sruroN Bv Lrr. the of symboltze darht'orces the otherworld Beforetheir at deJeat thehandsof the TuathaDe Danann. complete ) the Beron (above) andhis mtsshapen people. Grail CastleoJArthunan legend. and was an otherworldly heaven guardedbyangels wondrousspintswhose unearthlysongwasbeautful the bqond imagnrng Thecastlehoused Gratl. suddenly Jound realm of Annwn AJterdnving himselfin the othemvorldly off someshtningwhitehounds Jrom a t'allen stag. because Joughtan annual he a he battlewith Havgan("SummerSong") On oneoccasion. poisonedtn rye with rtsdeadly youth.he Arawn.the Can-soxnx (above).4N LEE.ngle . whtch sard to be the Cup oJthe Inst Supper.aholy vessel. Fomont. paralysedhrs gaze enemtes (lr-r-usrnaloru BYALAN Let.Arawn may possibly symbolize Lord oJWinter. thegrry-cladlordof Annwn Lthethe encountered Greehgod oJthe underworldHades. the Fomoii roamedbeneath rn seas bleahpurgatones Balor'ss.they the oppressed Insh with crushingtnbutesand cruelry Pwytt. 1984 ) :IO5 .

even though the pair finally succeededin meeting all the conditions and attackedhrm. (Iuusrnenoru ByARTHUR RActclrru.with blossoming shrubs and an orchard of fruitful trees That day Bran's boat came to the Isle of Merriment. for Lleu could be kilied only while standing wrth one foot on a goat's back and rhe other on the edge of a bath tub. a sacredwell oJ inspiration In outragethe wqters bubbledand swelled. was her lover and the father of Aonghus He was able ro seduce Boann by sending her husband on a nine-month joumey that seemedbut one day BRAN. even with both his hands The next day Bran sailed westwards with t'wenty-seven kinsmen Their first encounter was with the MACLIR.CeITIC MyTHoLoGY (whose name BlooruEDD means "bom of flowers" or "flower face") was a beautiful. the Insh god of love According to the different versions of her myth. the bird of the night BOANN was a warer goddessand the mother of AONGHUs.thefairest woman in the world. because Lleu's mother. magical woman Shewas conjured by MATH andGwyoioN from the blossoms of oak. and inhabited by beautiful women who had no knowledge of sorrow. ) life (tttustwrroN ALAN 1984 and BOANN below). c 1910 ) when he found a silver branch that was covered with white flowers.When they came ashore the Irish heroes found soft beds and delicious food ready for them The delightful stay seemed to them to last for only ayear.who sea god MANANNAN was dnving his chariot across the waves Once again the lrish heroes were informed by the seagod of the marvels that awaited them Even then the seaappearedto be a plain of flowers. where his crew could hardlystand up for laughing. the otherworld islands. and he was known only as a legendary r06 .here husbandJor . she sang to them. ARIANRHOP.Gwydion's nephew. Gathering his kinsmen together. but he was afraid to land.the chief god of rhe TUeTHADEDANANN. so she threw a ball of rhread that stuck to Bran's hand. such as the home of gods and goddesses. declared that he had should marry/ no mortal woman For a time rhe young couple livec. is the hero of the most famous of the Insh voyage myths Seavoyages fascinated the Irish storytellers. Bran displayed the magic bough. so by the maglcians couldbe thewtfe of Gwydion's that she Lleu But shebetrayedher nephew. each larger than lreland. she was mamed eirher ro NECHTAN ro or Elcmar DAGDA.who would tell of strange adventures on remote islands. anotherman Gwydion. Bran discovered that nobody recognizedhim. broom and meadowsweet to be the wife of LLEIJ.as well as the place where souls briefly rested before rebirth Bran's greatjourn ey began BLODEUEDD (above). formin g a torrent which became River Boyne. Arriving off the lrish coas[. the which is namedafterher In its current seenhere swam the Salmonof Knowledge. and only by u spear which it had taken a full year to make However. The beautiful women's leader called to Bran to step ashore. and by magic drew the boat from the waves. awater goddess the violated the sanctil oJ mother of Aonghus. Gwydion turned her into an owl. the lord of Penllyn Blodeuedd and Goronwy fell in love and began to plot the murder of LIeu This was no easy task. sicknessor death Happiness. Goronwy. taking the magic bough with her Bran had been unable to hold on to it. and then in the evening they reached the Isle of Women. he was wamed by the chief woman not [o set foot on soil again. was the lot of all Iiving in these wonderful lands Then the strangewoman stopped singing and vanished. but one day Lleu went to visit Math and while he was awayBlodeuedd hndly offered hospitaliry to a passinghuntsman. only to be surprised by the sudden appearanceof a woman dressed in veryunusual cloth She sang to the assembledcompany of the great wonders to be found in the lands beyond the sea. but in fact many yearshad passed When one of the crew grew homesick and persuaded Bran that it was time rhat they sailed home. together happily. was conjuredout oJ blossoms Gwydionand Math. son of Febal. watches his beautiful creation comesto as By LEE. he did not die buc flew into the air in the shape of an eagle Math and Gwydion set out ro avenge LIeu When they found Blodeuedd. including those of orherworlds.

Crlrtc

MYTHoLoGY

figure who had long ago embarked on a great voyage to the otherworlds, so he set sail again; but not before one desp erate hero forgot the waming and jumPed ashore, and immediately tumed into a Pile of ash, as though he had been dead for centuries The voyage of Bran is certainlY an ancient myth, although it was not written down until the eighth century by monks Even though the monla added cenain Christian elements such as references to JesusChrist and Adam's sin, theY did not obscure the tale's original magical atmosphere. (See also FABULOUSVOYAGES) visited voyage, on BRANbelow), hisepic woman the where chieJ oJ theIsIe Women, maglc ship broughthis to shorewith a sheholdscupofplenty, Here, thread of idyllicdelights theisland symbolizngthe thq thought stayed voyagers for what The thq, Jor was yearbefore leJt home a
(Irrusrnnnot'r BvDervur,qMr"tR, 1993)

BnnN THE BLESSED, rhe son of the seagod Llp, played a different role to BMN, son of Febal ln Welsh mythology, he was called Bendigeidfran and seems to have been an otherworld god, although he was also active as a British king in mortal affairs He allowed his sister BMNWENto marry the Irish wrthout the king tvtATHOLwCH, consentof her hallbrother EFNISIEN. of Because this slight, Efnisien cut off the lips, ears and tails of Matholwch's horses during the wedding feast in Wales. Not unnaturally, hosdlities almost broke out between the Irish and the Britons as a result, but Bran (ngh),themighry BRANTHEBLESSTo to to rulu oJBitain, sailed lreland rescue In Branwen the sister, hisbeauttful Bran mortallY ensuingbattle, was cut wounded, hishead, fromhisbody, but is of cauldron rebirth lived Hismaglcal on along here, seen restored, withhishead
(luusrnerrorv BY AL4NLer, 1984 )

managed to avoid a war bY Presendng Matholwch with a magic cauldron This otherworld vessel could bring men back to life, but without restoring their speech Back in Ireland, Matholwch was unable ro convince his warriors that Bran's gift was adequatecomPensadon for the damage done to the horses So Branwen ceased to be the Irish queen and was made to work in the palacekitchens, even though she had alreadY given Matholwch a son and heir, GwERN When Bran leamed of how she was being treated, he raised a great army and sailed to lreland In the ensuing battle the Britons slew every Irish man there was, but onlY

seven of their own alrny survived Even Bran was killed, bY a wound caused by a poisoned arrow On his deathbed he told his followers to cut off his head, which aqqarently was still able to eat and talk during the voyage home A later addidon to the myth saYsthat the head was brought to London and buried facing EuroPe, to ward off foreign invaders KingAnhur is said to have used the head for its Power The Celts believed that heads were the seat of the soul, which may partly explain their pracdce of head-hunting Even more curious, was the medieval Chnstian claim that Bran was the first British man (SeeaISO CAULDRONS) WONDROUS

r07

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MyrHoLoGy

BMNGAINE

(above)and lseult peer

euizzcally at the shyyoungstrangerin the palace garden, pur4ling w r his idntity But as soonas the dogleapt fondly onto his lap, thq recognized the strangeras Tnstan, who had been wsumed dead Thq wue confusedatfrstbecausehe was much changed afterhiswandeings in the wildwood (luusrncrton EvELw pAUr- 1g2O By c )

BnnNCnINE was rhe maid of ISEULT, princess of lreland and lover of rRtsraN. tseuk had been promised in maniage ro King MARK of Comwall. Trismn, his nephew, came to lreland to escort her across the sea. Before rhe ship sailed, Iseult's mother gave Brangaine a love potion for Iseult and Mark on their wedding night, as ir caused those who drank ir to love only each other for the rest of their lives However, during rhe voyage,Trisran became thirsty and unwittingly drank the potion, and then offered some to Iseult. Through all rhe ensuing difficulties Brangaine was always loyal, sharing their secrets,such as when Trismn was brought ro Mark's castle mistaken for a wild man. even tahng Iseuh's place in Mark's bed on rhe wedding nighr. BRANWEN(righ? releases starling a bearing plea help,across sea a the to for her giant brother,Bran When reads he of her plght in lreland, sets he sail immediately a Welsh with Jleet
(Ir-rrrsrnenoruByAI.AN LEE,Iggq )

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MYTHOLOGY

was the daughter of BnnUWnN Llyr, the Welsh equivalent of the Irish seagod tm, and sister to BRAN ANd UEruAWYDAN THE BLESSED, of When High Kitg MATHOLWCH Ireland came to Bran's court at Harlech itwas ageed rhat Branwen should be given to him in marriage was But her half-brother EFNISIEN not consulted and, feeling insulted, he cut off the lips, earsand tails of Matholwch's horses To restore peace Bran offered the lrish king replacement horses and a magic cauldron Matholwch retumed to Ireland with Branwen, who was at first receivedwith geat rqoicing for she was generouswith gifts, and before long she gavebirth to a son, GWERN But after a few Years Matholwch's fnends and family began to complain that the compensation he had received from Bran was not enough To satisfY Ihem, Matholwch insisted that Branwen relinquish her Position as queen and become a cook for the court. During the next three Years,as Branwen worked in the Palace htchens, she reared a starling and taught it to recognizeher brorher Bran Then she sent it acrossthe sea with a letter tied to its leg, telling of her reatment. When Bran and the Britons leamed of her fate they brought an army to lreland.

BRES, in Irish mythology, was DE briefly the leader of the TUATHA the DANANN, implacable enemies of the F)MORII, the sea gods who ruled treland long before rhem Breswas an unusual leader of the Tuatha De Danann because his father was EIATHA, who was a Fomoni king of a land that IaY under the sea. Elatha had met a Tuatha De Danann goddessnamed En on the sea-shoreand made love to her on the sand Bres was bom as a result, although En was careful to say nothing to her husband and the BRENDAN, lish saint navigator, voyage afterhtswondrous retums lrelnnd to His in search theLandoJPromise tour of includdaland rslnnds mysteious oJtwelve the was of birdlilu spiits, which possibly about the boy's real father When Bres grew up, he fought againstthe existing inhabitans of Ireland, the ntRnoLG,at the first battle of Magh Tuireadh In this engagementNUADA,the leader of

leadership, the De Danann were under the command of Bres But Breshad no gift for leadershiPand becamesomethingof a tyrant On the restoradon of Nuada, Bres and his mother En fled to Elatha in order ro seek Fomoni assistance This caused the second battle of Magh Tuireadh, in which Nuada was killed Through the bravery of the sun god tucu, however, the Fomoni were routed and Breswas taken prisoner One version of the myth explains how, in return for his life, Bres promised to instruct the Tuarha De Danann in the arts of planting and sowing croPs It is possiblethat Bres,like his wife, the was a deiry fertiliry goddessBRIGID, connected with agriculture BrunN was one of the three sons of tutREaNN, whose family were engagedin a feud with the family of Cian, father of the god LUGH When Lugh sent Cian to summon the warriors of rhe TUATHADE DANANNto battle, Bnan and his brothers, Iuchar and lucharba, killed him during his journey To atone for this act of murder theY were given by Lugh eight tasks to perform. Among the objecm theY had to retrieve were three aPPles from the Gardens of the Sun, a healing pigskin from the king of a Gr.eece, poisoned spear from the king of Persia, a cooking-sPit belonging to the nymphs of an underseakingdom and the seven pigs of Kitg Asal of the Golden Pillars.which could be cooked and eaten one day and found alive the next Finally, they were to shout rhreetimes on the Hill of Mochaen Having successfullybrought back to Lugh all the magical objects he required, they then set out to perform their last dutY However, they were mortally wounded bY Mochaen and his sons. Tuireann therefore asked Lugh if he might borrow the magical pigskin and so heal his sons, but the god refused and Dnan and his brothers died. (SeC S FABULOUVOYAGES) AISO

seems His LandoJhomise amazngtnle (Iuusrnenoru invading Tuatha De Danann, the tobeablafi oJ earliervoyages Iost a hand and in consequencehe c: 1920 BY Srrpsrrus, ) IAMES retired for a time Nuada tried to second in a boat made of wood. use a silver replacement without Miraculous events took place due success,until Miach, son of the to the saint's faith. One Easter a healinggod oreru;ECHT,made him whale appearedso that St Brendan ^ hand of flesh and blood and his followers could hold a ser- However, until Nuada was fully vice on its broad back After the ser- recoveredand able to resume his

vice, the whale plunged under the set waves and swam away.This great BRIANandhisbrothers outona to the across world Jufil animal was made docile by St pmbusvoyage the sethy sungodLughWith aghttasls, Brendan, as were numerous whirlandfound resource sought thq daringand pools. Even the Devilwas unable to such treasures, asan inincible disurb the saint's serenirywhenhe wondrous which helped pigshin, and showed him the pain of Hell St sword healing the in theDeDanann tharbattlewtth Brendan also restored to life one of Rno, the Navigatorwas rhe the monks who were his compan- Fomoni (Iu-usrnqnorvBvSTEPHEN 1912) BnfUOnN ions after he had insisted on seeing dtle given to a sixth-century lrish sainr. Indeed, the account of the this forbidden sight for himself On the voyageshe also encounrwo voyages undenaken bY St Brendan was just as PoPular in rhe tered a heathen giant, whom he Middle Ages as the stories told bapdzed, terrifying mice and an about the l(nights of the Round enorrnous sea cat. Finally, they Table. This wonder tale is in the reached the island in St Brendan's {N, sameradition as that of BR son vision. Inhabited by a hermit of Febal, although its direct insPi- clothed in feathers,it was probably ration was the voyageof the Aran the Land of Promise, a place of Having nken holY Chrisdan resunection similar to the hero MAELDUN. orders, Brendan prayed to go on a Celtic otherworlds On his return to Ireland, St Brendan refused to pilgrimage into unknown lands. An angel then showed him an island in smy in his old monastery but moved instead to a retreat near a vision. ln search of this beautiful land, St Brendan set sail twice, first Limerick, where he died. (Seealso in a craft made from shns, and FABULOUSVOYAGES)

r09

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MyrHoLocy

BruCtU was one of the troublemakers of Irish myrh An Ulsrer lord, he arranged a great feast to which he invired all rhe Ulsrer heroes,and ordered thar the hero's portion be given to rhe grearesr among them. Ar which point rhe three great warriors, CUCHUIIINN, CONALL and Laoghaire, sprang up at once and began'fighting each other for the honour In order to settle the argument ir was agreed that a monster should be summoned ro tesr the courage of the three heroes. Briciu did this by challengrng each one ro cut off rhe demon's head, on the understanding that the following day rhar man should then lay his own head on the block. Cuchulainn stepped up

first and beheaded rhe monsrer, whereupon the creaturerose, took up its head and departed.The next day Cuchulainn offered his own head and the monsrer pronounced him the bravestman in lreland. Bntpg seeBRTGTD

BruceNrm ("Highone" or
"Queen") was the chief goddessof the Brigantes,rhe dominant rribe in the north of England before rhe invasiron of the Romans. She was associated with water, war and healing, and also with prosperiry. A widely revered goddess, she was worshipped throughour rhe Celdc world. In Ireland she was known as BRIGID and in France as Brigindo.

BruCtn, somerimes known as Brigit, was a goddessof healing and fertiliry who was believed to assist women in labour. She seems ro have been widely worshipped in Ireland and Britain, where she was mosr likely known as BRIGANTIA. In Irish mythology, she was the wife of BREs, the half-roMout god who briefly led the TUATHADE DANANN after the first batde of Magh Tuireadh against the FIRBOLG. Bres was handsome but also oppressive, like all Fomorii, so his reign was short. Brigid, however, bore him three sons. She often appearsirsan alternative for her mother ANU, which suggesrc rhat rhey were probably different aspects of the same mother goddess.

ST BRIDEisJemedhy angek lonato Jrom Bethlehem theweof Chnst'sbirth on to and fostertheinfantChnstCeltic Christian motifs merge thisscene, in while theangek'soanng bq ondthe Jlight Jrame enhances pwafully spintual the efect (Sr Bnroe ByJoHN crNVAs, ) Dur.rct'r, c 1913 St Brigit, or Sr Bride, one of Ireland's patron sainm, may have been a priestess of the goddess Brigid prior to her conversion ro Chrisdaniry. It was said thar she was able to feed animals without reducing the available food for the people, and this also linla herwith Brigid, who was celebraredat rhe Celtic fesdval of Imbolc on the first of February, at the same dme as the ewes came into milk.

rr0

Crlrrc

MvrHoLoGY

son of Row,+w,was a C-runf, Fenian warrior and poet, and a pan oJher hfe. What the sryans gathud cousin of nruruMACC))L, Ieader of on the Lalu oJ the Dragon's Mouth, the FIANNA, wariorbodyguard the Aonghuswmt toJind Caer and win her of the High King of lreland. Cailte, Iwe. ,4s he reachedout to hqhe was also though exceptionally thin, was a tuned into a s'tttan, and thq flan away formidable fighter and is credited togethq. (luusrnenor rvGrrur Srrw,cRD, I995) with killing LIR, the sea god who was rhe father of ueN,qruNAN MAC Bructr seeBRTGTD uR. But it was as a poet that he was most admired, and his most C-AER*as afairymaiden lovedby famous audience was St Patrick. AONGHUS, Irish love god. Her Possibly after retuming from an the father Ethal was one of the TTJATIIA otherworld, Cailte was said to have DE DANANN. Aonghus became uavelled through Ireland recountaware of Caer in a dream and so ing to the saint the legends of the atracted was he to her beaury that hills, woods and lakes that they he fell into a deep sickness.When encountered, and also the great the identity of Caerwas discovered, exploits and batdes of the Fianna. Aonghus immediately asked her father for her hand, but Ethal said itwas not in his power to granr rhis becausehis daughter had taken the form of a swan. It was agreed,however, that Aonghus could ask Caer to mary him but only if he was able to recognize her from among the large flock of swans with whom she lived. When the swans arrived at the Lake of the Dragon's Mouth, Aonghus went to the shore and, recognizing Caer, called out her name. Afterwards Aonghus and Caerwere married.
CAER wu afairy maiilatwho walwd by Aonghus Shechose nlweas a ntanfor

in Irish mytholory, CelqnN, was a misshapen druid of novoRtt origin who was said to have studied sorcery for seventeen years. Queen MEDB of Connachr dispatched Calatin along with his numerous sons to fight the Ulster hero CUCHUIATNN'. of them had their All Ieft hands and right feer missing, but they never missed with their poisoned spears, and Cuchulainn only succeeded in beadng rhem with the assistanceof a Connacht warriorwho disapproved of such a one-sidedcontest. The destruction of the male Caladns did not spell the end of Cuchulainn's troubles, however, for not long afterwards Calatin's wife gave birth to three daughters, who were blinded in one eye, like the Germanic god Odin, so as to leam the magic ars. Soon the three Calatin sisters becamepowerful wirches, and rhey deceived Cuchulainn wrth their spells, and so assisted Queen Medb's invasion of Ulster. When Cuchulainn rode out in his chariot against the invaders, he came acrossthese hideous women cooking a dog next to the road Either

was warnor bard, a and CAILTE, Fanian Bards renowned hissongs andlegends Jor played central in Celtic role a or tyic poets praising perpetuating mysteies, the society, theirleaders satinzngthar enemies and in nghtup Bardic schools flouished lreland av R to thesnenteanth century(Aeu,crr^rr H,+veu1890) c becausethe dog was his namesake, or becauseit would have been discourteous to refuse a piece of the cooked meat, Cuchulainn stopped and took hold of the dog's shoulder fu a result, his own hand and shoulder withered. Gravely weakened, he sdll advanced with his faithful charioteerIAEG C,tueloT seeHEROTC QUEST5

was rhe god of the C-nUUIOS Remi, a Celtic ribe living in what is now Belgium, although there is evidence that he was also worshipped as a divinity of war in nonhem Brimin and at the town of Camulodunum ("The Fort of Camulos"), modem Colchester,in Essex. The name of the town formed the basis for the mythical city of Camelot. The Romans associated Camulos with their god Mars. He was said to wield an invincible sword. in welsh myrhC-nnnnewC, (son of ology, was the son of BR.aN the sea god, Llp). When Bran sailed with his army to Ireland to avengethe ill-ueatment of his sister BMNWEN by the High Kirg he MATHOLWCH, left Caradawc as chief steward. When news of Bran's death arrived, Caradawcwas overthrown by Caswallon, son of the death god Beli. see cELrrc CennoNEK OTHERWORLDS

castle-city CA IELOT,a mythical named l4,as aftr Camulos, theheart Arthur's oJ hingdom, seat hispou,er, the of symbol of hisgolden andhismost age belnedhome Itsshining towers hnightsJrom drevr all wer theworfl Partof themystique of yet is whichhas Camelot its elusivelocation
to be found (tlrusrncflor'r BvATAN LEE,lg}q)

tll

Celtic and Hebrew radidons were brough t somewhar u ncomfo rtably together by the monks who wrore down the sagas and who suggested that the first setrlers had reached lreland before the Flood.favoured withwidom. at Camlan. Morfan. became who all-hnwing. Ceridwen had another equally ugly son. and the name Cemunnos means "the Homed One". Yet neither Cesairnorhq fatho surnvedthe Floodwhenit ngu@ the land. Cathbad cursed the king and his srronghold at Emain Macha. her son At the oJ and ayear. rhe messenger god and the guide of the dead to the underworld. ) 1995 J^MES CATHBAD (abwe). Cesair appears to have guided him to rhis decision as well. CEnNUNNOS was a Celdc god worshipped in both France and Britain. To compensarefor his Iooks Ceridwen boiled a cauldron of knowledge for ayear and a day so thatAfagddu could become wise and respected. reputedly the ugliest man in the world. Ceridwen chased and are Gwion Bach. mother of the Cuchulainn. he was fortunate to be advisedby a god to build his own boat. granddaughta oJNoah. heldhigh ranh in Celtic societyThq were counwllors. wasa seer anddruid. tecichm and ambassadors Evena htgh hing could not speahat an assanblybeJorehis druid (luusrnenoru NtcK By BE{LE.bothmaleandfemale. drops but these splashed to thelundoJGvrwn on (tuusrnrnoN Bach. BY Attxfivpen. the second son.Crlrrc MyrHoLocy CERIDWEN boika n. who was also a fearsome warrior. Carhbad had three children. CfnlnWEN was a welsh goddess of fertility and the mother of Afagddu.agical hoprng brart to endow ill. to watch over the por. Elbha. mother of and CONALL Ceamach.and she set Gwion Bach.andadvisor to CONCHOBHAR NESSA. set sail withhcrJathq. in Irish mythology. the inspireddruid and seer. only later to reincarnate him as TALIESIN. MAC the hng of Ulsrer Cathbad prophesied that though ortnoRE would have great beauty she would bring destruction ro Ulsrer He also foretold that the hero CUCHULqINN would have a glorious bur shorr life When King Conchobhar Mac Nessa became cruel rowards rhe end of his reign.ahhough he has also been seenas a god of plenry The Romansidenrified him wirh their god Mercury.thq reached the shoresof lreland. He fought with King 112 . Although Bith was denied a place in rhe fuk. CfSrun was the daughter of Bith. although her husband. escapedbychan$nginto a vrlmon. which suggests that he was a god of wild animals and the foresr. DECHTIRE. Bur Afagddu was denied the prophedc gift when a drop fell on Gwion Bach's finger and he unthinkingly sucked it ln fury. Findchaem. (Iuusrntnol ByJAMEs ALDc{NDEI.predicted Dardre's traglc destiny ather birth Druids.judges. He is usually depicted sitting cross-leggedand wearing a sleeveless unic and bead necklace. They sailed for sevenyearsand eventually reached CESAIR. ) IggS CnfHnnD. At firsr none of Sir MoDRED's men would fighr Morfan because they thought he was ugly enough to be a devil. Fintan. thebrothwouWfuA justthree precious oJinspiration. He has an impressive pair of antlers. In her myrh. ) 1995 ARTHUR in his lasr barrle. After a serar-yearvoyage. son of Noah and one of the earliest arrivals in lreland. Bith. rhe morher of NAOISE. In medieval Ireland the anders of Cemunnos were transferred ro the Devil. who was the greatest of all rhe Welsh bards. to escarythe Flood.

When she beasts. decided to manryher He creatures a thestagboar such andlion was also persuadedby a prophecy In onehandhe closps awarior'storc. Cliodhna was put into a magic sleep by the sea god ivt. who camefrom Spainand have a spell of truth sung over him brought human rule to the island as he slept The man rhe courtier dreamed abour would then be the in Irish mythology. the baby girl was savedby rwo hnd-hearted servants. a Celtichunter oJ god Buachallato a cowherd. can)nng only his sling If he did his breahing geis byone one this. he sent one of his companionsto fetch some water On retuming. and horseswere all red A hideous Ciabhan. Buachallapassedoff as the son of Fintan saved himself by changing Eterscel The one instrucrion rhat into a salmon.demonstrating would bear him a famousson. the man. From this union was When the rising warers bom Conaire Mor. Subsequentinvasionswere by the When Conaire Morwas a young PARTHOLONand Nemed. Etersceldied and the right of FoMoNr and ruente DE DANANN. sent a great wave to old woman told Conaire Mor rhar scoopher up and bnngher home Here. weapons. the So it was that Conaire Mor was country soon slid back into clan received atTaraas the High Kirg. But hispwr. was an otherworld goddess of dream a naked man was revealed. savewhat rhe birds will (Irrusrnenor ByJAMES rvorn. but all the water had now been used When a druid accompanying the rebels laid a spell of thirst on the High King. hfe his Conaire walk naked along the road to Tara. which said that an obscurewoman a in theother strpent. According to the myth. the who were all more or less super. who then sent a wave to pull her back ro rhe [^andof Promise. ) in peace. herbeautywas so remarkposition "horned was The one" alordof able that Eterscel. who had magnificenr Ireland. (Gurvorsnup ccuLDRoN. bodies fled hermortallwer. where Cesairwas married plumage.Nemglan told his son to hero's Despite wisdom. who could not bring themselvesto carry out the king's order lnstead they gave Mess CERI\TUNNOS. However. during his stay in the hostel "neither skin nor flesh of you wrll lulled to sleepbyJairy music. the warrior saw that the fight was over and Conaire Mor's severedhead lay on the floor So he poured the warer into the king's head. of the Flood engulfed the land. typically is depicted alotus in grew up. at which Conaire Mor's decapitated head praised him for his senseof dury rl3 . never to hll a bird. ) Ar-H( 1995 take in rheir claws " The same night a rebel force surrounded the hostel and attacked Three dmes the building caught fire and three times the flames were brought under control. CONrunf MOn was a High King of Ireland He was the son of a cowherd's foster-daughter named Mess Buachallaand the bird god NEMGIANHis motherwas acrually At this time Conaire Mor was some distance from Tara As he headed back ro rhe palace in his chariot. Cliodhna was passionatelyin love with a mortal named Ciabhan.Irish capital It was agreedto follow natural in nature The final invasion the ancient custom of the dream of lreland was by the sons of After a feast. who was more handsome than the rest. The birds shed their fearhersand artacked rhe charioteer as warriors But one of the birdlike fighters. he came punish severely those who rook to a roadsidehostel where he was greetedby three strangehorsemen. would bring about his own downSince ConaireMorwas reluctant to fall. while Ciabhan went hundng inland. successionwas raised in Tara.eNNAN MACLIR. Mor was luredby enemies his into. protected Conaire Mor. a flock of birds descended upon him Theyhad such wonderful plumage rhat Conaire Mor forgot the raboo about hlling birds and got out his sling. and promised ro rule lreland (luusrnrnoru ny SrrpHrru 1910 Rao. the god. shednfts bach toJairyland The Wave oJCliodhna is escapefrom the place to which you still one oJ the threegreat waves lreland oJ have come. Conaire Mor would be made High Itng part in the growing disorder.CeITIc MyrHoLoGY the daughter of Etain Oig and CORMAC king of Ulsrer. but the rest of Bith's Nemglan told Mess Buachalla to famrly drowned This myth is lqrown give to their child was rhar he was as the first invasion of lreland.a yourh with wonderful curling lock One day on the shore near Cork. warfare Evenually. whom Mess ro FINTAN. While on campaign.but sea Manannan Mac Lir. Cormac wztsso disappointed not to have a son that he ordered Mess Buachallato be thrown into a pit. srLVE& c 1008C) Mess Buachallaslept with the god Nemglan. the High Kirg Peaceand prosperity ar first marked had to forgo the ways of peaceand his reign. He inrroduced himself as his father Nemglan and CONAIRE MORwas burdenedby more (taboos) anyother reminded the young man rhar he geis than l'ishwarlord must never cast stones ar birds for Violation geisled misJortunedeath oJ to or they were his own kin As a andmarhed traglc turning-point the a in penance. although the lure of plunbreak his promise to his farher.the High King of sunoundedw animak andishere wild Ireland. GTLDED on the night before the wedding. der gradually drew the trish back to Conaire Mor soon realizedrhar this their old habit of cartle-raiding. CLIODHNA to Glandore livewith to whose clothes. [t was said that her rhree walhng along the road to Tara with magical birds could sing the sick ro a sling in his hand sleepand cure them. next High King In rhe succession CltOnHNA.one of the court would MIIESIUS. beauty.+ru.

Some lived as hermits in the wilderness.portrayedhere as anhistonan recordingthedeedsoJ Arthur's ragn.opposingArthur. some dark sorceresses. berween rhe visible world of men and the invisible otherworld.Merltn counselledthe younghing sometimes sternlyand sometimes gently.the otherworldlyIsleof Apples. the celtic symboloJpeaceand plenty A glfted sorceress. while remaining powerful in Cekic society. crediteduth the design the of Round Table. Although on the whole helpful to rnortals. c i300 ) . wisdom and healing. is oJten she portrayed as a darh soul. thwartingArthur and manipulatingheroes At a deeperlevel. such as Morgan. Bleise.1994 ) Mrnrtru (ngh) is best rememberedas the fatherly and spiitual guardian of Arthur A wise seer. as reportedby Merlin (MeruuscRrpr rllusrunoN. the plan for Camelot and the stone'ing at Stonehenge leamt his craft He from a master. used their supernatural gifts ro bewitch and rnanipulate mortals for their own ends. Nimue or the Calatihs. theLord of summer Sherorcals the redeemingaspectof her characterin her role as sovereign healeroJ Avalon and guardian of Arthur's body in death (IuusrnarrorusrueRr rv Lrntqoun. but other inspired druids Amairgen.CTITIC MYTHoLoGY SAGES AND SEERS HE SPIRITUAL EERS nd shamans of S a Celtic myth were endowed wirh extraordinary gifts of proph ecy. MoRcaru Ln Fev (abovenght). Most famous of all was Arrhur's wise counsellor. but always with wisdom Merlin was alsoa peerless sage. a realm of wondrous spints. QueenoJ Avalon. and acted as intermediaries between the realms of the living and the dead. Taliesin and Cathbad feature in Celtic myths as prophetic bards and counsellors [o clan chiefs and kings. she is a winter goddess darhness of and death. Merlin.bears an apple bough.They enjoyed a profound rapport with narural and supernatural forces.

whtchwas tn to collectheahngtalismans Str Jor thewoundedlzntght Meliot When l-ancelot left wrththetahsmans. c. 1890 ) Tnueslru QeJt).thebird oJtenchosenbyshamans their on spirirJlighu or trance )ournqs to the othenrorld The goW nimbus symbolkes eagJe's Taliesin'sradiant btOttt (tuusrntnoN SruARr By Lrnt4onN.was$Jtedwrth all-seeingwisdom aftu consuming "geal" oJ inspiration a from Ceidwen's cauAron Wales'sgreatestbard. seven she managed lurehtm tnto to her Chapel Penlous and there shetned all the methods hnewto inspire she hts love her But tt was Jor to no avatlbecause the steadJa t and loyal hnight s loved onewomanonly. 1991) lI5 . whom shehad loved Jor from aJar some years Eventually. cutwtth the sacred goWatsichlebornebythe DRUTDS BRTNGTNG MrsrLEroE lNrHE By Joranost druid Ctae C HENRY AND E A HoRNED.c 1870) Dnurps (abwe) heldbothpoliticaland sptntual power in Celtrc society and wereglfted not only as shamans and seers alsoas legaland moral but advisors Druids underwenta long apprenticeshtp oJat leasttwaty years.he was completely untouched lry Hellawes'loveand evenher magcal craJt Thesorceress that he Jinallyreahzed would ne. druids on a snowyhill celebrate the wintu sokticeby gathmngabough oJ mistletoe.ter lwe her and she dtedoJabrohenheart (lr-r-usrnarroruBREY BY Au BFARDSLEY.learningthe mystmesand lnws by heart Hqe. heJoretold the comingoJthe Saxons and the oppression the oJ Cy^ry as well as his own death He appearshereas an eagle. to thechapel with but one missron mtnd. propheticpoet and shamanistic a seer.qNv.theJair Guinnere and he had come .cwEs helow) was a sorceress theArthunan in mythswho had sether heart on the noblehnight Sv I-ancelot. Arthur'squeen.CTITIC MyTHoLoGY Hrrr.rs.

spears. Conlai accepted the possibility of death and drew his sword. Yearslater Conlai wore this ring on a visit to Ulster. on the eve conceived Conchobhar CONCHOBHAR 1\4ACNESSA. gave up his passion. offered his servicesto Ulster's enemiesand a long war ensued. which the hero just managed to win by the use of cunning. avSrrpnrru l9l0) Conchobhar step down. theill-starcdson Aorfa to a grm Cuchulainn. brainof oneoJhis alethal hemade maglcbrainball.whO WAS SOMCTiMES called Derdriu ("of the Sorrows"). the people of Ulster simply refused to let N'Inc CoNcnoBHAR Nnssn. somerimesknown as CONU. king. It was the famous "brain ball" made by Conall out of the brains of a slain Leinster king. tnor STEPHEN ) of her royal marriage through a secret aflairwith a druid. met combat andwa in Cuchulainn single son hilled Recogntanghis toolate. wrth . nrarct. was the foster-brother of the Ulster hero CUCHUI-. Later. When he left. They caught up with Queen Medb's army and Conall slew those who had killed his foster-brother.grantedaffns to theyoung Cuchulainn. After the fight. Although he was maried. Conlai was quick to anger and soon overCuchulainn's fostercame CONALL. Cuchulainn gave Aoifa a gold ring.{INNAs children. Connla.I. brother Despite the misgivings of Cuchulainn could his wife EMER. and his doctors advised him to avoid any strenous exerciseand excitement. stranger to Whenhewent Ukterto hisJather he the challarye localheroes. and at herbinh the druid had CATHBAD wamed that. and his head and sword-hand cut offby the enemy. they swore that if either was hlled first the other would avengehim. When her husband died shonly after the wedding. She found her situation so intolerable that she committed suicide by throwing herself from a speeding chariot. death warlord. refused his advances and eloped with a handsome young warrior But the hng never named NAolSE.but he was doomed becausehe had offended After the war goddess MoRRIGAN. Nessa was courted by his half-brother and successor. a local beaury who. Just like his father. The ball lodged in the hng's skull. his chanotshatteredbeneath stcmp No weaponswithstoodthehero's mighty grasp untilhewas glventhehing's own arrns (Iu-usrnrnoru fulo. though Deirdre would be the most beautiful woman in lreland and would marry a king. appalled by Conchobhar's behaviour. An ambitious and Nessa woman. Some yearslater Conchobhar Mac Nessagot into arageand the "brain ball" causedhis death. not resist fighting the young stranger himself. the warriors of Ulster were stined by Conall to wreak bloody revenge. according to one tradition. of When Queen MEDB Connacht invaded Ulster. Da Tho. wu Cuchulainn wemvhelmed gnef (luusrnerolr rvorn. The terrible combat only of and CONI-AI.FERGUS MAC R?TH. Too proud to announce his own identity when challenged by Cuchulainn. She was the daughter of an Ulster chieftain. Cuchulainn faced her army single-handed. was an Ulster He was the son of Fachtna Fathach and rurssa. By the time Deirdre grew up. Conall went on to ravage the whole of Ireland as he punished Queen Medb's allies one by one. 1995) ALH< By IAMES aveteran CONALLoJtheVictones.CTITIC MYTHOLOGY in Irish mythology. But she would onlY agree to become his wife on the condidon that he would first let her son Conchobhar rule as king of Ulster for a year. Conchobhar was himself hlled by a magrcslingshot. Caemach ("of the Victories"). and so evenually he had Naoise hlled and was married to Deirdre. Cuchulainn hadvisited the l-and of Shadows in order to challenge the warrior woman AOIFAto single combat. Although Cuchulainn was impressed by sword-play that matched his own. Kitg Conchobhar fell deeply in love with DEIRDRE. and she in disgust t16 . but when the boy grasped his a thq splinteredin his hand. she would be the cause of death and destruction throughout the land. In doing so he eamed his title. a his is weapon Conallherewelcomedby dun in at lJlsterman aJeast MacDa Tho's (lrrusrn BY 1910 Pen. they became lovers and Conlai was conceived. in Irish mythology. determined instructed her son how to be a great ruler so that when the dme arrived for Fergus Mac Roth to retum to the throne. According to one Irish tradition. oneby Fromthe slayinghishillm Mac victims. CONnlL. Cuchulainn had been killed. up in Slye. avenged Cuchulainn's by one. where he challenged the local heroes to combat. he lost his temper the moment Conlai cut off one of his locks of hair. was the doomed son of the great Ulster hero CUCHUL{INN. Fergus Mac Roth. Conchobharwas an old man. ahigh hingof lreland.

Cuchulainn.the husband of DEIRDM. These gods and goddesses invited Cormac Mac Art to their home in the othenvorld. but he set out anyway and on the joumey he fell into a deep magrc sleep and was slain by a group of warriors. Cellach was slain and Cormac lost an eye.CTITIC MyTHoLoGY endedwhen Cuchulainn drove his spear through Conlai's stomach. canied the dyrng Conlai to his house and afterwards buried his forgotten son. and Luchtar. with the result that he ordered that he should not be buried at the royal cemetery by the River Boyne becauseof its pagan associadons. a druidess had wamed Cormac that if he went back to Ulster he would be killed. whose wife had fallen in love with Cormac. sentby theharpkt. CORMAC @elow).iprn ) nv 1995 tl7 . ) I995 CORMAC IVf{CARTS (abwe) ragn was dtstingushedbypeaceandplmty A wr. and when shaken produced music that could cure the sickandwounded. the three brothers could be seen on the battlefield making and repairing spears with magical speed As Goibhniu fashioned a blade with three blows of his hammer.e and good man. As a High King could have no imperfection Cormac had to step down and his son Cairbe took his place.al.he wu slain by assdssins. he wa Jnoured by the Tuatha De Danann who inited him to tharhiddnworld.he warmly welcomedSt Patnch at hts court (Iuusrmnoru leurs Ar-rx. his reign being tentadvely dated from 227 to 266. was the goldsmirh of CnnnnNE the TUATI]ADE DANANTV and the brorher of cotgHNIU. and gavehima anrative applebranch In tunewtth Chnsttan hindness. Cellach. when the dF tg hng had nominated Cormac as his successor. raped the niece of Aonghus of the Tenible Spear In the ensuing fight. the smith god. One of these was a silver branch that bore golden apples. It was claimed that Cormac Mac Art leamed of the Christian faith before it was actually preached in Ireland by St Patrick. returninghome afta hulongvoluntary acile. where they gave him wonderful presens. His wisdom seems DE to have impressed the TUATFIA DANANN. During the second battle of Magh Tuireadh. was the son of rhe COnUeC MAC Ulster hrg CONCHOBHAR An NESSA. who was well served by the brave exploits of Finn MacCool. when the De Danann finally defeated the FOMORII. He was the most famous of the earlyrulers of Ireland.did he consider retuming home. in rnenge for Cormac's afiair wtthhts Ufe (IrusrnenorayNrcx Baqr-e. Conuec Mec Anrwas rhe High King of Ireland during the period that FINNMACCOOL the led Fenian warrior band. a wise and powerful king. Cratfttne. the carpenter. overwhelmed with remorse and grief.stoppedhya roaikrde hostelwhqe he wa lulled n sleep by the soft notesof aharp DeJarceless in hrs enchantedsleep. Irish myth tells of his distasteat his father's treacheryin hlling NAOISE. Only then did Cuchulainn notice on his young opponent's finger the gold ring he had given to Aoifa. However. until he receivedan invitation from his father Conchobhar. Luchtar carved a handle in a flash. and of his going into volunmry exile with the deposed MAC Not Ulster ruIer FERGUS ROTH. The repumtion of the High King remained so strong that Iater the Insh Chnstians also adopted him. The atmckwas said to have been arranged by a jealous husband. Cormac Mac Art was the Irish Solomon. and Creidhne crafted rivets that flew into place and bonded at once. On his own death Cormat Mac An had to hand back this incredible talisman One of Cormac's sons.

Setanta Sualtam Mac Roth was so pleased to have his wife home again that when the boy was bom he accepredhim as his own child As a youth. Setanta quickly leamed the wavs of the warrior. his hair bristled like hawthom. for her mother was a daughter of rhe god eorucHUS In fact. with a drop of blood at the end of each single hair. arriving late at the gate of a house where King Cochobhar Mac Nessa was being entertained by the Ulster smith CULANN. the other stood out huge and red on his cheek. one eye receded into his head.Dechtire along with fifty of her kinswomen flew to the otherworld in the form of a flock of birds During the wedding feastshe had swallowed a fly and dreamed as a result of the sun god LIJGH. a larger-than-life fighter whose bouts of [emper often causedgrief to himself and others Anger certainly made him slay his son CoNtAI. but the last vat became only very hot. Their host had now lost a faithful guardian. it was decided that henceforth Setantawould be known as Cuchulainn ("the Hound of Culann") Even though Cathbad wamed that anyone going to battle for the first time on a cermin day was destined for a short life. but just it was not obvrous to everyone how strong and brave he was until he hlled an enorrnoushound with his bare hands One day. Retuming to Emain Macha in his chariot. aswell as their numerous followers. which he inheited JromhisJatherthe sungod Lugh (LLusmencr| nvSrrpurru 1912 Rno. all of whom he hlled. and from the top of his head arosea thick coiumn of dark blood Iike the mast of a ship. l9l3) CUCHUIAINN as a youngsterlivedat the court of the High King wherehe whom trained with other sonsoJchieJtains. In this combat Cuchulainn displayed for the first dme the dreadful shape of his battle-frenzy. Cathbad reassured his son-in-law by sapng that Dechtire had merely gone to visit her otherworld relations.he glowedwith an inner divinelight and warmth. a man's head could fit into his jaw. was the champion warrior o[ Ulster His name means "the Hound of Culann". pointed out that Cuchulainn had yet to esrablishhis reputation as a warrior and suggestedthat he should go and leam CUCHUIAINN.theInshAchilles. so Setantaoffered to take the hound's place while a replacement was found When Culann thanked the young warrior but declined his offer. Cuchulainn was only stopped from circling the defencesand screamingfor a fight through a ploy of the Ulster queen Mughain She led out of Emain Macha some hundred and fifty naked women carrying three vats of cold water An embarrassed or amazed Cuchulainn was swiftly womanhandled into the vats The first one burst is sides The second boiled furiously. Thus was the young hero tamed after his first tasteof blood. a wrly the chieftain whose castlewas close to Dublin Cuchulainn asked for Emer's hand but Fogall. "gaced with the bleeding headsof his enemies". when the young man ravelled from the [^and of Shadows to visit Ulster The fifteen-year-old warrior was Cuchulainn's son by the wamor-princess AOIFANeither father nor son would identifi themselves.irg on Conlai's finger revealed too late that he was Cuchulainn's own offpsring Cuchulainn's mother was DECHTIRE. daughter of Fogall. who was againstthe match. in the form of brightly coloured birds. His body trembled violently. c. "I not this insciption beneath portrait.an advisor to the NE55A It Kirg CONCHOBHARMAC was Cathbad who foretold that Cuchulainn would become agreat warrior but die young Shortly after her marriage to SUALTAMMAC ROTH.so a tragic fight ensued A gold . Cuchulainn could nor wait to dealwith Ulster's enemiesand he soon tookup aITIls against three semi-divine wariors named Foill. ology.tnves. inhisbneJ mighty deeds many performd qes yearsThehero's dreamy reflect in the which expressed is hrsidealism. young hero was the attackedby the ferociousguard dog and only savedhimself by dashing out its brains on one of the gate's pillars. ) in trish myrhCUcHUIAINN. although he was usually called the Hound of Ulster Cuchulainn was the lnsh Achilles. care and though llastbuta dayiJmyname " are myJame a pwer Jorater (CucHuretrll ByJoHN DuNcAN. Fannell and Tuachell. the daughter of the druid )ATHBAD. In his calm. he soonoutstipped in arms and might Ahhoughsmall. the stronghold of the Ulster kings. his heels and calves appearedin front.and with the battlefrenry still upon him. who was the brother of the MAC deposed Ulster ruler FERGUS 1r8 . who told her ro make this joumey. Lugh kept Dechtire there for his own pleasure for three years When Dechtire and her women retumed to Emain Macha. everyday state of mind Cuchulainn was a favourite of womenfolk But he fell in love wrth EMER. Dechdrewas expectingLugh's son.CrlTrc MvrHoLocY RoTH.

but Ulster wePt for the lossof their champion Indeed. laid low with a spear. One prophecy told the queen that there would be "crimson and red" upon her forces becauseof Cuchulainn's prowess. and the dazed warriors were able ro respond to SualtamMac Roth's call to arms But their help came too iate for on Cuchulainn Pressed all sidesbY his enemies.the Ulster chamPion was overcometn spire of aid from his divine father.rrn cucHUtArNN BY O SHEPP RD.until the effects of Macha's curse had almost worn off.. settled on his shoulder and his enemies cut off his head and right hand.then Cuchulainn himself suffereda temble stomach wound that even Lugh could not heal Finally. Cuchulainn was soon unbeatable in combat. Medb's forcesby the use of clever racticsand lighrning attacks. Domhall told Cuchulainn rhat his best trainer in arms would awanior-pnncess in be SCATIIACH. 1916 ) from the Scottish champion Domhall. (Tnr Dr.but she was derermined to invade and she also had three advantages Firsr. also played a part in gathering rebei'lious Ulstermen and others from many parts of Ireland to Queen Medb's side. and afterwards she became his mistress. and were unable to fight for five days and nights Finally. ) av Srrpnrru 1912 Lugh(Iuusrnqrt. the Land of Shadows So he travelled to this mysterious land and served Scathach She taught the young hero his famousbattle leap. King Conchobhar Mac Nessa. Medb attacked when Ulster's heroes were laid low by MACHA's curse." god. brother. sRoNzt. sun guide his qngnire The Rno. a skill he was to need dearly in his last campaign.they cast a spell on Cuchulainn which withered a shoulder and a hand Second. and she wamed him without success not to challenge her sister Aoifa But Cuchulainn beat Aoifa by cunning. which was a single-handed defence of Ulster against the invading army ol Queen MEDB of Connacht The main reason fo'r this large-scale cattle raid was a famous brown bull which was kept in Cuailgne But the tyrannical ruler of Ulsrer. rhe sun god Lugh was His only companion. L-aeg. Cuchulainn had lost the oJ to CUCHUIAINNjourneyedtheIsle martial Onthe arts to Sltye trainin the aflaming met Islehe amanwhogavehim the him to wheel guide through deadly the was Jather. ROMANCE) CELTIC I19 . in the form of a crow. the greathero had made bitter enemies of rhe CATATIN family.Crlrtc MYrHoLocY For a year and a day Cuchuiainn was taught by Scathach. his foster- CUCHUIAINN. and became the lover of her daughter Scathachseemsto have UATHACH fearedfor the saferyof Cuchulainn. signtfyingdeath This memonal rymbolkes all thosewho Jought lish Jor oF indqendarce. whose daughterswere wrtches Just pnor to his last stand along with his faithful charioreerIAEG. leavinghis bodY for the carrion birds Conall.r. managed to recover the missing parts. so widespreadwas Cuchulainn's because he had rejected her fame that his exploits inlluenced passionare advances Yet he still the developmenr of the Arthunan managed to conduct a successful myths in Britain and France (See single-handed defence and was able to slow the advanceof Queen also MAGICAND ENCHANTMENT. support of the goddessMORRIGAN. mortally woundedin hsJinal combatbut determinedto ftght to the end. conceiving the unfortunate Conlai Cuchulainn finally retumed to Fogall's stronghold and claimed Emer.lashedhimselfto a pillar and died onhisfeet At theend a crw settledonhis shouher. during which Fogall leapt to his death escapingthe hero Acclaimed as the champion of Ireland in a beheading contest. Cuchulainn ded himself ro an upright stone in order to light dll his last breath As soon as he died Morrigan. but only after a heated battle wrth Fogall and his warriors.

Arthur's brusque seneschal. seemed less dreadful once Culhwch found Olwen.Celrrc MvrHoLocY in lrish myrhology. Culhwch successfully completed these trials. and s carrying thehing' booty beautiful off daughter. in welsh mythCUtnwCn. This fate. Like the lrish eyeCyclops BALoR. the Welsh glant did not favour the idea of his daughter marrying a man.tohes medievalmood. for they fell deeply in love. however. one k"ryhtt.w<no. gaze theHighKingConchobhar in who Cuchulainn amazement theyoung at when hound outnght slanCulann'Jierce s the thegeat guard doghad attached hero at the gateTo compansate hillinghis Jor offoedto talu itsplace hound. It was King Cu Roi who transformed himself into IJATH. The three CULIIWCH (nght). Culhwch's nexl problem was how to persuade her giant father to agree ro the match. When Culhwch finally put out one of the giant's eyeswith a retum throw. up pointbeatat andbuned to hisarms Blathnat offwrth while Roi Cu galloped (luusrnnnoru At-Ex I 995 By IAMES rvpen. a task which took over a year. was the son of Cildydd. Cumal was also a renowned Ieader of the FIANNAand chief of the CIan Bascna. CU ROt andhis raided TerFalga. onhis questJor Olwen.portrayingthe hero as a courtlyhunterJrom the Ageof Chivalry The surlystovard couldbe I(qt (xrr-nwvcn.Cuchulninn. At intewiews held on successivedays Yspaddaden threw a poisoned spear at Culhwch and his companions.Yspaddaden's lids needed to be levered up with supports in order for him to see and theLllster smith. more commonly known as FINNMACCOOL. Thereafterthe young man "the was known as CIJCHUL{INN. c Grsxrl. a druid. CUufNN. Hound of Culann". then killed Yspaddaden and married Olwen. who was born after his father's death. Inis onewiWescapade.r Pe'r:. CUHNN below). ology. seehing help and counsel ThisVictoian painting a e. Cu Rot (whose name means "hound of Roi") was a Munster hng.the daughter of the giant Yspaddaden. who had been enraged when Cumal eloped with his daughter. BlnthnatWen theheroes fell qt Cuchulcinnwasone outwq thegtrrl.. Yspaddaden agreed to the marriage on condition that Culhwch perform a whole seriesof difficult tasks. the dreadful giant. His stepof KingARTHUR's mother hated Culhwch so much that she placed a curse on him that he could marry only OLWEN. Culann was angry about this so Setantaoffered to become his hound until a new one was trained. in order to choose the champion of lreland. but they managed on each occasion to catch it and throw it back. ) Culhwch AIso like Balor.Cuchulainn (tllusrncfloN sv SrEprer. was an Ulster smith who was thought to be a reincamation of the MAc tlR It was sea god MANANNAN his enormous guardian dog that young Semnta hlled with his bare hands. arives at Afthur's court. 1940 rHEKfNG's ayAnrnrrn ) SoN I20 .He was killed by Jadhg.1912) on comrade. (Seealso HERoIcQUESTS) (whose name means Cuuel "sky") was the father of the Fenian hero Finn Mac Cumal.With the assistance of KingArthur's men and a couple of divine allies.

being able to sadsff the hunger of everybody by means of an inexhaustible cauldron. full of knowledge and well versed in rhe magic arts He was a chief of rhe TUATHADE DANANN Dagda was a grear fighter and the lover of tr. owneda wondrouscauldron of plenty and a double-edged maglc club. (Seealso of WONDROUS CAULDRONS) DANA. 121 . beautiful but often vulnerable godswho lived in the sparhlingotherworld Here. according ro a late Anhurian myth.There they made for him a ponidge of milk. and then to throw the water against a marble slab. in a distorted form. caried on wheels Thisbronzerelief of aweful Celticdaty. ill-staned godswho were tumed into swans (llrusrnerroruSrrpHrl ay Rrlo. Although the evenrualdefeat of the Fomorii at the second battle of Magh Tuireadh was really due ro the sun god rucH. Cu Roi and Cuchulainn carried off ntlruNer. Like an all-powerful chiefrain. and thusinspired to out Owain set on quat.wth awheel. mysteious a deJeated. ordered Cynon to go ro a founuin and fill with water a silver bowl that he would find there .Crlrrc MYrHoLocy contenders for the championship Laoghaire. Sir with CLNON. lntr htsmemorable Years Cynon retracdhissteps search awain of in (luusnsnoN nv H Tnrluan 1920) Qynon then foughr his mysterious opponent but was defeared. was the goddess atter whom the TUATHA DANANN DE were named "the people of the goddessDana". enough for fifry men. c lN BC ) the sacredrite that was performed by a Sumerianruler and a priesress in Mesopotamia.anArthurunhero. This union was meant to ensure prosperity. is regardedby someto be Dagda. Although she expressedher love for Cuchulainn. Over the centuries these powerful deities were gradually transformed into fairies . when just before rhe second batde of Magh Tuireadh he visited rhe camp of the F2MORII. which he readily did with a huge wooden ladle "so big that a man and a woman could have slept together in it" This test tumed Dagda remporarilyinto a grossold man. With one end of this weapon he could slay his enemies and with the other he could resrore the dead rc life. ) 1912 DAGDA. ctLDED stLvER. I-ater.loRRlcnN. Dugduwasbelieved to be wise. Blathnat betrayed Cu Roi by showing how the place could be entered. during a truce at the time of the NewYear festival.The bones of his enemies were described as "hailstones under horses' hooves" when he wielded his mighty club. CYNON. so the vanquished De Danann disappearedunderground. DnCOn means "the good god".a raceof wonderJul. a beautiful woman. father of the gods. her gave nameto the TuathaDe Danann. battles warnorwho theBlnch Knight.was a knight who encountered a black man with one foot and one eye. which only Cuchulainn had enough courage to go through with. and was usually depicted as a man in rustic clorhes dragging an enorrnous club on wheels. This Fomoriilike fighter. doubtless a cousin of the violent and misshapen Irish sea gods. slaying all rhosewho dared to confront him. Sir Cynon did as he was instructed and a Black l(night appearedto the sound of thunder and the singing of magic birds. anorher name for ANU. Cu Roi took her to his casrle in Munster. even after the Tuatha De Danann were in their tum overthrown by the sons of MILESIUS. the ancesrors of rhe present-dayIrish To Dagda fell the imporunr msk of setding the defeatedTuarha De Danann underground. The story may recall. and cucuulAlNN himself .Just as rhe Fomorii had retrearedbenearh the waves. thqr gather to hear thepoignant song oJ Lir's children. Dagda led the Tuatha De Danann on the battlefield. wtth the wheel rymbohzng his treasures (culoesrnup CAULDRoN. flour. On pain of dearh Dagda was ordered by the Fomorii ro consume this massive meal. ir was Dagda who was held in the grearesr respect. who promised to use her magic on behalf of the Tuarha De Danann.were invited by Cu Roi to a beheading contesr. When Cuchulainn laid siege to the stronghold. bur ir did not prevent him from making love to a Fomorii girl. Cuchulainn's fosterbrother coNALL. strength and peace. He was in fact rhe grear god of Irish mythology. and bearing a Iargewooden club. Yet he was also associatedwith abundance. appeared rragc Although b returndhome to Cynon onfoot tellthe tnb.thegreat mothr goddess. a holy marriage between a chieftain and a maiden at the beginning of each year: similar to DANA.his bitter enemies.the war goddess.the bean sidhe or BANSHEES lrish folklore. pigs and goats. fat. That Dagda took great pleasure in eating was apparent.

Deirdre remained sad and kept her disunce flrom the ki. But and became very Bres was a tpant unpopular.cucuul. to surpnse. His mortal father had hlled his brother at binh because L22 . a fly flew into her cup during the wedding feasr and she swallowed it. Cuchulainn l)kter'sgreatest became (llrusrn crtoN av G DrNn cu. She was a daughter of Maga. took his place. which eventually interrwined and grew as a single tree was the lrish god CnCnf DnN of healing Itwas said thatwith his daughter Airmid. DE Ieadcr Of thc TI]ATIL4 DANANN. they bur now theywere linked byblood were tricked into retuming to and so he could not marry her.g gods to life. haddisappeared day. King CONCHOBHARMAC him. When she Ulster on the understanding that they would come ro no harm. Three years later a flock of brightly coloured birds reappeared at Emain Macha. Cecht's son Miach had made him a new hand of flesh and blood. thus earning him the title Nuada "of the Silver Hand" ImPressed though the Tuatha De Danann were by Dian Cecht's handiwork. Shepersuaded NAolsE her down with a sling-shot She retumed to human form and he and his brothers to run away with her to Alba After living for many sucked the stone out of the wound. Grainne was betrothed to FINN LIACCOOL. however. therefore. the worst being GMINNE. a gift to Ulster. yearsin their voluntary exile. After NUADA. DTNNUUID UA DUIBHNE. Dian Cecht gave him a silver hand. but were unable to hit any of rhem. a grft was the DTNBNORGAILLE daughter of a ruler of Lochlann."May myheartnotbreah today for oJ the sea-tides our ewryday softclwsare or strong but I am soffM itself.Diarmuid's life was almost continuously troubled bY desperatewomen.{INN.slain by the jealous KingConchobhar Over the brothers'grave. Iost his hand fighdng the FIRBoLG at the first battle of Magh Tuireadh. Apparently the god of healing grew jealous of his son's medical skills and so killed him. to the so Nuada was restored once Dian leadership. There a beautiful young woman received them but chose to sleep only with Diarmuid She told him that she was Youth. So it was rhat rhe warriors came upon Dechtire. When her father left her on the shore as a tribute for the FOMORII.g. But Diarmuid's own desdnywas about to catch uP with him. she was rescued by the Ulster hero and fell in love with CIICHULAINN grew up. was the mother of. In order to follow him.with the result that he handed her over to the killer of Naoise Rather than sleep with this man. a peacewas grudgrngly made.according to lrish mythology The drui d cetuneo foretold this before she was bom. When Dechtire married iUALTAMMAC RorH. shesanghu pitiable Iament. and that the love spot she put on his forehead would make him inesistible to women. Nuadawas felt to be no longerfit to who was be a war leader and BRES.the birds at night as they rested. when out hunting. Df tROne was the cause of Ulster's sorrows.CTITIC MyTHOLOGY in Irish mythology. who Setanta. When Conchobhar was told of of this he sent for Dechtire at once. unaware of the bird's though he was already advanced in years. DnCnnRE. that was retumed when Diarmuid receivedthe famous love spot as a young Fenian warrior One night. but Deirdre would have true identiry.ATHBAD. the but she wanted Diarmuid and forced him to elope with her. or Diarmuid "of the Love Spot".. c 1900) DEIRDRE gievesfor thedeath of hn ed belav Ncoiseand his brothers. as well as telling of how beautiful she would become. It was decided. the capital of Ulster. she NE55Awished to marry her.advisor to NESSA of King CONCHOBHARMAC Ulster. who DECHTIRE. on mysteriouslyhq wedding returned sun years wrththeshining god. she threw herself from his speeding chariot and smashed her brains out on a rock From each of the graves of Naoise and Deirdre grew a pine. herwomen and Lugh sleepingin a hut on a site renowned for its magical propenies.the passionatedaughter of High King C)NMACMAC ARr. fu a consequence. The next moming she showed them her new-bom son. It seemed that Diarmuid and Grainne would settle down to a contented famrly life and they had several children.His mortal father gavehim to the god as a child. but she told her captors that she was too ill to be able to travel for another day. 1912 c BYJoHN ) rnr Sonnows half novoRII. even rumed herself into a swan However. Cuchulainn brought none of this. She fell into a deep sleep and dreamed that the sun god LUGHinsisted that she and fifty of her kinswomen follow him to the otherworld as a flock of birds. Diarmuid and three companions took shelterin a small hut in a wood. at the request of the hng and the love god. the otherworld hqo. The Ulstermen went after them with slings. For sixteen years the Fenians Pursued them until. the child of the love godAoNGHUsand of the druid . he had charge of a spring whose waters restored the the dy. But Conchobhar arranged to have Naoise killed and then forced Deirdre to agree to marry him. Fenian commander. was the foster-sonof the lrish love god eorucHUS. later three wrthhera $ft from brought Lugh Dechtire -her child. Once married. " (Detnom Durvcrtl.

was responsible for rhe pregnancy. and rhe wife of Beli.was hilledby aboar.to hJe Knwn as theJathu of medicine.a gJtedFanian warior.Airmid lts miraclewaterscured the sichand restored thedead. sister of MATH.Dian Cechtis creditedwth a remarlable sathcenturyBrehonLaw tract on thepractice of medicine (luusrnenoru NrcxBute. but enjoyed someJorm oJ immoftality (llrusrncno. and. ) B\ lgl2 DON was the Welsh equivalenr of rhe Irish mother goddess DANA and was the daughter of Mathonwy.s popular as her lnsh countapart. alrhough she was moved by rhe way rhar Aonghus took care of Diarmuid's corpse He took the body to his own palace by rhe River Boyne.who had by DE this time left the upper world and lived beneath the soil of Ireland DIAKMUID. wo. the god of death. Roc. guards the sacredspnngof healthwtthhis daughter. was lured undergroundby the De Danann who often recruitedchampionsto ftght in their othewvorldlybattles To test hts sletll. c lOO BC ) he believed that Aonghus' sreward. ARIANRHOD. was deniedhealingwater by Finn.lihe Adonis.thE senta mysterious warior to challenge ashe dranhfrom theirforest him well luusrnenoN Srrpar Rno. where he breatheda new soul inro Diarmuid so that they could converse each day This was how the young man came to live with rhe TIIATHA DANANN. his slingshot had no impacr on rhe charging boar's head and his sword broke in two. he was too near to death to be saved Grainne was devastatedby the loss. She had many children. goredby a wild boar. still smarting over Diarmuid's lwe alfair with Grainne A Celtic Adonis. Gilvaerhwy and ruupp I23 . Roc revived the infant as a magic boar and told ir ro bring Diarmuid ro his dearh When hundng one daywirh Cormac Mac Art and Finn MacCool. Govannon.thehero waslwedby women oftenagainst his will. theWelsh mother goddess. and by the time the other hunters amved on the scene. However.Crlrrc MyrHoLoGY DIAN CECHT (abwe). ) / sy i9l2 DON below). Diarmuid came face to facewich this creature His hounds fled in reror.i995 ay ) DIARMUID (below). Finn MacCool refusedro fetch rhe dying Diarmuid a drink of warer. so rhe inesisrible Diarmuid was left bleeding ro death on the ground. ds Dana ThisfemaleJigure. is widely assumed be to a Celtic mother goddessSheis one of sqeral Celtic daties embossed the on gildedpanels the Gundestrup of Cauldron (Graep srLv'ER. including AMAETHON. god of healing.\ HI F)RD. GWYDION. surroundedby birds and children.

Off the battlefield.MNCIC AND EXCHANTMENT Celtic myth.he dreamsof the pab ::r#:'KX:L:i-DamehotdsinthrarrII'TSTLLEDAMESANS .Ia Mqa. penetrating the forests and lakes. Frncus Mlrc l-r:oe. nourished or countlessheroeswere reborn from magicalcauldrons.druids a n d s o m e p r i v i l e g e d h e r o e s . Fe. many heroesenjoyed the gifts of the otherworld. The allpervasive otherworld lies behind much of the mystery and magic.s h o e s and affordedunderwateradventures. w h i l e F e r g u sM a c L e d a ' s w a t e r . wned a pair of waterwith whkh he enjoyd underwatcr travel He ne. Bardscould weaken the enemy possessed with satire or enchantedsleep. was a funshee who lttracted monnl Wers and then for hr wn amusemant. such as Arthur's sword. shrouding PERMEATES NCHANTMENT the tales in a haunting. desatbd by thepoet Keats. and crafting charmed rings and weapons. a high hing of Uktu. Excalibur.s u c h a s F i n n M a c C o o l . "abne and palely toitrnng" k thelnnguishinghmghthue sleqs. dreamlike qualiry.insptnng them wtth a hopelss infaruatnn leavingthembereftof wtll or Wrpose until thq uthqed on thelolu. who oftm taunted effanthnighs One such. magicalpowers. rY and snene 0uusrpcnoN STEPHEN 1912) face atlost restored THn EruCnersrro Fonrsr QeJt)of Arthuianlegend. returned n the loch to slay the monstu before goingilwn himself but wth a Rrto. (abwe). as in the romances Sadb.Yet spells and magic also arosein the visibleworld where bards.'4s onlyan unbbmkhed hing couWrule lrelnnd. ww alivewithbeguiling BelleDame Sans Jairy maidats.or Fergus M a c R ot h ' s s i d h e s w o r d .while druids bewitched the host with magical illusions. On the Rhiannon and Iseult. brighter side. love and romancewere also subject to spells. gus .tr tired oJacplonng the shoes and nvcn of lrelondunttlhe encounteredaferce rwar-hotse dqtl$ of thelvaihrs permanently in Loch Rury The inadatt so tmiJied Fergs thathis face became dktoned wrthfear.love philtres or magical of rickery.

a nval surtor the on hvyll to avenge t'or hond oJRhronnon Eten aJterhrryll's death. Lnly ol th. t l t r . wtse hht. l r t / t l . l t r 1 . r . q r t s t * 1 . t t tt t r r l rt l i t / t t h r .the spellbli{ttedhs Jamily. r / . t t l l t t / / t t 1 t 1 . t 'l l r r l t r s l t r t l / . l r l t . ( l ( r l\1 \ l h h c u c / / r r t t t r t l f / t t s j I r s s i r f h l r r p rri r rh . .r. . Ue. /s t r . i l i s t t t . strucha dealwtth the who atlast restoredDyt'edto rtsJormer enchanter.i t c t : l t i tl t .untrl Rhrannon'sner\/ husband.4NFF lg84) 125 .and desprte forestght.AJed.CelrIC MvrHoLocY E x c .) (. { r r / r r l i i t t l r . r i r ...Nrmueput a Merlin tntoa trancebeneoth thorn treeand then an trarled vetlaroundhtm. Manawydan. ullowed a and boundthereIry to be lureddeepbeneath stone htsown maglc spellsIn anotherlegend.. t l . . .e was enchanted thercvtshtng Lry hmself he hts Nirnue.had been away tn a pealoJthunder Thebaffling sptnted placed wqs enchqntment port oJa hngenngcurse Gwawl. and thoughtJtl MrRrnv (ngh).as. r : t l / t h t t f i t t . t l1 t l r t . l r l \ t t l r l t l \ r } l t l t l tr l Pwrrr's fubove) Jamt[ywanderm un enchunted wtlderness aJtu thetr country. tt/ l l h i r t t t r r t i h e t i t t t / t i t l i : l t cl 1i s .t .t tt .creattng mvrstble her towu oJ atr rn whtchhe was trappedJorou It rs can sttllbe heardtn theplatntwe satdthat htsvorce Bv I rustltngoJleaves (luustnrrtr. 1 l r 1 r r t{' r f h u r \ r i r ( l r r l r t r .rA:AN 1984) thoughht' u. By benu\ (lLursrnrnor.vAi. i t s l t \ t r r t ( r { r l 1 t I ' c t r f r .

or Eber "the intothesea and swarrt wellasanyfsh. who insulted ERIU. Bur Eber Finn invaded Eremon's terrirory and Iaid waste to his lands until he fell in battle. Engn was rhe name of rwo of che three leaderswho led the Milesians DYI-AN. BecauseEfnisien had not been consulted by Bran over the marriage of his half-sisrer BMNwEN ro rhe Irish hng. Efnisien Iaid hold of the sack and felt about till his fingers closed on the head of the warrior within it. The third was named hewashilled. They mother's atbirthandplunged arms straight were Eber Donn. He is somedmes confused with ErEn Donn. Branwen would have leapt after her ro the swam sea. Eremon rhen became rhe first High King of all Ireland. god of the dead. was the rroublesome half-brocher of nR+NTHEBLEsSED who caused the rift berween Bran and King MATHOLWCH. He had placedbehind each of Bran's strongest warriors a sack hung from the wall containing an armed lrishman.vcn.qrr. was thought to be an assemblypoint on rhe joumey to the otherworld. he became associated popularJolhlorewith in shipwreclsand seastorms. then he squeezed and cracked his skull. Bran gaveMatholwch a ma$c cauldron that was capableof restoring dead warriors to life. one of the leaders o[ rhe sons of MILESIUS.'N("Son of the Wave") was a Welsh sea god whose parenrs were ARIANRHOD her brorher and GWYDION. Donn's home. his bloody war cry.rhey came back to life withour rhe power of speech. who refused to acknowledge the right of his older brother Eremon to be king of the whole island. who died at sea (IrrusrnrnolByJAMEI ALDa. it Grrlncr Sxennt.sc I900 ) was said. The L26 .vprn. but her husband in turn drowned her in whac became known as Dubhlinn ("Dubh's pool"). When Efnisien inspected the hall beforehand. So it was that lreland was partitioned inro two kingdoms. Dn q.tN. Dubh used magic to drown her rival. Soruor rHE WAVE ot. smirh god Govannon. According to one Irish tradition. andhis death-groan still can Eremon.andwas oJten confusedwithEber Donn. The feast took place therefore not as Marholwch had planned.rhe advice of Amairgen was ignored by Eber Finn. in welsh mythology. the killed him. However. he askedwhacwas in one of rhe bags. After rhe defear of the TUATHADE DANANN. or Eber Belwedby sea. and at a signal they were to fall upon the Britons during what was supposed to be a feast of welcome. Welsh deity.To compensare for this act. he proceeded to cut off the lips. One by one Efnisien asked about the contens of the sacksand each time repeatedhis squeezing. crruvn. It was fortunare for Bran that his half-brother did come. as he immediarely well as a fish. On being told it was com. and Eber Finn. her angerat her husband Enna's passion for another woman uhimately led to the name of Dublin. thewaves the all weptwhen "the Fair". because Efnisien foiled a cunning trap that had been laid for the Britons by Matholwch in his hall. was and drowned off the south-west coast of lreland. soon as he was bom fu aroundhim as thq assanbleonhis stormy islandbejore settingout on theirjournq to the othewvorld Inaitably. EnnrcmN. and some dme afrer her arival in Ireland Branwen was demoted from being queen to just a lowly cook in rhe palacehrchens. DONN. earsand tails of Matholwch's horsesduring the wedding feast. one of rhe TT]ATIIADEDANANN.CeITIC MyTHoLoGY DONN ("rhe Dark One") was rhe Irish god of the dead. all the waves of Britain and Ireland lamented his death. ) J995 he headed where straighr druid AMAIRGENhad only jusr succeededin casting a spell over the turbulent waves. when Eber Donn was seizedby a battle-trenny and the charm was broken by his wild cries. Jromhis a sea leapt in their conquest of lreland.rprrsrv Dvt.gathers souls DNUTOS SCC 5AGE5 ANDSEERS DUBH was a druidess. Bl foundered in a storm caused by.An even more unexpected rurn of events occurred when Efnisien rhrew Matholwch's three-year-old son by Branwen on to the fire. bur wich one small imperfecrion . the House of Donn. with Eremon ruling the north and Eber Finn the south. as Brown". Efnisien accompanied the army thatwas sent againstMatholwch to avenge this insuk. the Irish did not consider this gift a suflicient redressfor Efnisien's acr of mudlation. Eber Donn failed ro reach beheard theroarof theincoming in tide the lrish coast because his ship (Tnr B. When his uncle.

when he fought rhe removed from the leadership of rhe army of Queen MEDB alone. but his enemies the witches of celqrlN casr a spell to harden his resolve to fighr single-handed. band. Cuchulainn was forced to the FOMORII and father of BRES.the druid Amairgencharmedthe seawth magtcof hts wwr. ) I995 EBER DONN (abwe) and the Milesian chiefsdnft in thefairy sea mists of the lrish cowt OnboardEbcr's ship.but than. ) 0rrusrnerroru 1995 EFNISIEN belw) inspectssaclu in Matholwch'shall. DE UnIiKe the place. the son of Delbaeth.sacnfced himself to sav his e comrades (tuununov aySrrparru l9i0) Rno. SoonaJtu. in Irish myrhologr. In the fight that took place afterwards the Britons were almost defeatedby the magrc cauldron that Bran had given Matholwch. he and his morher tried to persuadehim to remain in went to Elathato ask for help. a F omoii hing lived beneath the waveswith his wolat and misshapen people Unlihe the other Fomoii. ) t27 . because at night it restored to life the trish warriors who had been slain during rhe day The Britons were in a desperare predicament and so Eftrisien. Elatha was a godlihebang with Iong golden hair EmuglngJrom the sea one day in his silvsr ship.ar rhe cost of his li[e. himself. of Emer's Even then.However. He hid among the Irish dead and was thrown into rhe boiling cauldron. who first saw her when he was at the courr of rhe High Kirg of Ireland at Tara. Emer De Danann.wisdom. She appeared "dark-haired almosr as around to the front of his house. he thought request. but Bran held her back. chanot when it was broughr son.shesmiledathis youth. which he cnshed between his fngm The moody ticlster went on to prwohe a deadly contest. sweetspeech.butEberlet outhis greatwar cry whichbrolu the druid's spelland stired up a stoftn inwhichhewas drwned BvJAMES ALEX{Noen. Although Emer was totally other Fomorii. thqhad ahandsome but troublesome son. inspired the lwe ol Ulster'sgreathero.and saidthathehad "deeds do" to (Iu-usrnqnox SrEpHEN 1912 By REID. chasilry. destroyedthe magic cauldron. He told Cuchulainn to travel to improve his fighting shlls and only then would he consider him as a son-in-law. songand needlecraJt When thehero courtedher. was the daughter of Fogall and the wife of. bur the fortress of Emain Macha. not least because He met the goddessEri on rhe sea many other women also found the shore and there they conceived Ulscerhero attrac[ive. atuck the reluctant Fogall's fortress who was briefly the leader of the before the wedding could mke TUATHA DANANIV.Bies (tr-LusrnrroN By Nrcx BTALE. out its troubles.Just before their child Bres. their marriagewas not withElathawas fair and had golden hair. he got on his and dnven from lreland. w6 and retumed to claim his bride. When Bres was his final batde. rhe the Fomorii were defeated at the seat of King CONCHOBHAR MAC second battle of Magh Tuireadh NE55A.CeITIc MyrHoLoGY EIATII"A (abwe).cucuul{INN. Cuchulainn survived EL. the leader of Indeed.he met the lwely goddess. in remorse. Cuchulainn Shewasblessedwiththe sA gJB oJ womanhood:beaul. and her eyeswide and proud and brilliant like the eyes of Fedelma. and her skin whire as mare's milk. who were described enraptured by her handsome husas being hideous and deformed. EMER. In each sachhefelt a warior's head. Emer's father was a chieftain from Meath and was against the match. where he strerched and burst its sides. ENTO SCCCELTIC ROIVIANCE EME& a peerless Insh maiden.ffHA. bur rhe grear effort involved hlled him. who Jellimmediatelyin lwe En. withhim. in Irish mythology. his favourite falcon".

MedbandFand. and herself one of the TUATHADEDANANN When the Milesians invaded. which srde-sadille. PwYtt there is a connection between Epona and his who is made to wife RHIANNON. she and her two sisters. rhe celtic horse goddess. appears withher peers in power andbeauty:fromleJt to ight. in southem England The fact that she is often depicted riding a horse with a foal suggesrc that she was also a goddess of fertility. theJairyqueen Thejuelled atp of plenty recalk Etain's HnuN.CTITIC MYTHOLOGY E?{IN of QighD.fiy. Hn spreadlwcultacross portrayedhtnding placed stables. linlu wtth the otherworld (ErnrH. ct css. and Embohzdhm by thewheat birik 128 . carry visitors into her husband's palace. possibly like the great white horse cawed in the chalk downs near Wantage. Shewas even given her own festival in Rome on December 18. son of. role rejectedher asafmtlity goddess. her cloak billowing with air behind her. Greeh Helen.)GMA. Epona was almost certainly seen by the Celts as a mare. ERIU. . c I9@) EPONA. was rhe wife of Ma Greine.us theRoman cavalry adoptedhy Europe.cR(E. or Erinn. In the Welsh myth of. in often wtth sometimes afoal. MEDB AND Fexn sv HAnnv Ct.won the favour of the Roman army and was depicted in monuments set up at its cavalrybarracl<s as a woman riding a fast steed. EPONA(belw). Banba and goddess. one of the High Queens Ireland. theCeltichorse who v. Onginally. Etain.

they arranged to meet again fought on the side of Queen MEDB discoverythat she was alreadymar.seehing Rr. to Foiry She rescued was thekalm oJ by to and.Fand FIRBOLG."Why I nse should again now " lowed the fly she becamepregnant husband and he left her When she FgnOfR has son of Daman rhe hethatlieshere Jallen -y hand? W wirh Etain Unaware of her previ. by the High King Eochaidh. CONCHOBHAR was MACNESSA.Crlrrc MvrHoLocY De ETHNE. he survived to be brought up either by Goibhniu or. so fulfilled his desriny and by hlling Balorat the secondbattle of Magh Tuireadh EfHNn was rhe daughter of Roc.cuctlui. was the only daughter of BALOR. the daugh. proved to be a popular king and the people refused to let him stand down At first Fergus accepted this but. later. but eventually Medb tauntchess. NESSA She would only marry him if her son. especially after he goddess..vev E We[coustNs. 1912) was ous existence. according to one myth fell in love with his predecessor's widow. but although she lived once Fand A confused argument then ed him into fighting the great hero again with Midir for a period of took place between Fand. in singlecombat and he was killed time.was attackedby the nOvORI/.r:.went to greet them All three asked that the newcomers would name the island after her. somerimes Erhnea. Emer. then a wolrn and finally a fly rhe wife of uaNaruNANMAC LIR nothing but doom and desrrucdon Ferdia's death. - .EXCRT-TBUR SCC MAGIC AND drinking at his house. beatinghim rods. brother of the smith god GomHrulu. ) nvSrrpHrru 1910 herin vain (luusrnarroru Foda. ) Queen MEDBin her invasion of decided to stay with her husband and forget Cuchulainn Manannan Mac Lir then shook his magrccloak between Fand and Cuchulainn so they would never see each other again.But Cuchulainn's wife. for who CameTo of. was ableto defeatMedb's was the second wife of the god rhe father of orlnoRr One day. in lrish myrhology. allowed to rule for ayear Conchobhar.Etain was loved both SCNI CUCHUIAINN. hinder Midir's searchfor her.to avoid coming up against his lost Etain to the god at a game of ens armed with sharp knives to kill friend. whom her island and defeared her en. Erain goaded single into combatby womb The druid c. becauseof a prophecy that said he would be hlled by his own grandson. explained the thq unpopularity. army and rally the Ulstermen after MIDIR His first wife was jealous of ETHNNR SCC when CONCHOBHAR MAC NE55A rhe death of Cuchulainn ETHLINN Etain and by a druid's speil Etain and some fellow Ulstermen were was rebom as a morul. and acted as maid to the daughter of u.in Ireland. he led to with in a vision. However. managed to reach Ethlinn.. a friend and comrade (llrusrnarro.and druids gaveCuchulainn and Emer drinks of forgetfulness (Seealso CELTIC ROMANCE) lost Ulsrer The great CUCHUIAINN his life in this war. and against Cuchulainn and the ned to Midir.qtruneo then were Medb was turned first into a pool of FAND. off the north-western coast of lreland.+ruaNNAN MAC LIR After a chieftain of the TUATLLADE DANANN rried to rape her. the one-eyedgiant of Irish myth Balor imprisoned Ethlinn in a crysal tower on Tory Island. Ferguspretended to rereat and rhe next time rhey met Cuchulainn would do the ETAIN. but not at the hands of Fergus They had been friends before the war and had swom not to fight each other During the final battle. which them in revolt Conchobhar's love Iefthimsore ayear Having gained for ortRPREwas rhe cause of his Jor that hisattention. lostto theothewvorld Veil hq she mislaidher oJlnvisibility. she refusedto eat or drink Aonghus and Manannan searchedfor a remedy and found rwo magic cows whose milk never ran dry and she lived on their milk Fnncus Mec RorH. Etain decided in the end to Cuchulainn and Manannan Mac retum to Taraand finish her morral Lir. who had awakened EMER. promised rhat Ireland would be named after Eriu EfnltNN. Despite Balor's attemprc to have the baby killed. who had also learned of the Frncus Mnc Leoa see life as Eochaidh'squeen arrangement But in the end. and by his brother emies. help had her lover NAoiSE hlled in order Fomoii AfterdeJmting attachers. in Irish myrhology. her to marry her Fergus wirh rhree island a hundred Ulster warriors joined Cuchulainn stayed Fand's on Jor month (Iuusrnarroru By SrEpHEN 1912 REID. gentle a Tuatha Danann whut was maiden. according to another version of the myrh. found out about this secret men of Ulster Ferdia did his best her memories High King Eochaidh meedng and took fifry of her maid. neededhis tofght the Fand. Ferdia situation wassolved by her sudden home. monls was a by becamenun. a king of Ulster. ciesof hu Jairy the folh.and remainedfor one month During the war of the SCATHACH AILILL This potendally difficult as her lover Before he returned brown bull of Cuailgne. a cerrain Cian. Cuchulainn's fosterwas reincamated severaitimes She FgoltvtlD rhe story-reller was brother.AlNN As young men.One day she quarrelled with her lamenting. srewardof the iove god AONGHUS. and so the sun godrual was conceived. Fand MAGIC AND ENCFIANTMENT a _ . was foretold thar the child would cause andfought gnmly thedeath to At water. was same Ir was due to Fergus'retreat one of IheTUATIIADEDANANN and rhat CoNAu. fell When Emr'swife accidenrallyswal. with heip from his mother. by the sea god MANANNAN MACLIR. the unbom FERDIA borne thebattleJteld ts by from ter of rhe Ulster warrior Etar To ENCFIANTMENT The Cuchulainn two Deirdre cried out from her mother's hisliJelong Jnend. Cuchulainn exhausted. when Conchobhar losr the support of EAND'smaidens appeared Cuchulainn severalleading Ulstermen.they were both taught ro fighr by she married.but she disturbed "voices". druid and advrsorto the sons of MILESius.according a latu legend. AMAIRGEN.

He had taken GRAINwE. but unfortunately for his own ambitions he gaveit to the young FINNMACCOOL to cook Finn bumt his thumb on the flesh of the fish and sucked the bum.. was the leader of the 1912 sv FIANNA.To join. fulfillingthe "Fionn" the boy eat the whole fish wouldbeneftfrom mannamed the miraculous On eating salmon. "no man was taken till in the ground a hole had been made.r c RAclctAM. ) MacCumal. the selecrband or of warriors which guarded the High King of lreland.CTITIC MYTHOLOGY THE FIANNA (ngh). Finn never forgave Diarmuid for the elopement. werhung wtth theNuts of Knowldge Fintnn gained hs wisdom from eating the nuts whichfell into the well. Realizingthat his pupil Finn the seer FINEGAS.with a ten furrows'width berween them and him.occasionalivalry brohe out and the therewas oddbrawl. Many of the adventures of the lfuights of the Round Table recall the exploits of the Fenians. was the one destined to gain the oJ Finn theSalmon humbly olfers wisdom. was a druid. daughter of High Kitg C)RMAC MACART. as his father had done. a previous leader of the Fenians. who helpedhim darcbp the hqoicirtues oJwtdom and strenglh (luusrnanor. foster-son of the love the god. such as would reach the waist. CIJMAL. Goll accepted this decision with good grace. aged andpoet. the River Boyne and caught the Salmon of lGrowledge. in lrish mythology. the Salmonof Knouiledge. One of his tutors was the who lived beside druid FINEGAS. but a peace of sorts was begrudgingly agreed However. Fenians. which he had received when hunting. she was betrothed to but Finn MacCool at the dme. causingbubblesoJ inspiration with Celtic The wellts decoratedhere heads. This last act of violence was too much and the Fenians pursued him.as shownhere (lu-usrnerrp RAcKHAM. the Bascnaand the Moma. Indeed.orityof their members came from one of two clans. rhough he also slew his son. enjoyeda specnl ffinity of wtth the crentures the wods He was raisedon the sbpa of Bloom Sliew by two warior women. having nine spears." Under Finn MacCool's leadership. his rival's morul and he exulted over wound. afierceband of free wariors. he caught the Salmon of lfuowledge. He gave rhe fish to his pupil to cook. their greatestleader was FINNMACCOOL and the ma. but later Cumal's son Finn was bom and brought up secretly. Some sagas to quell tell how he fell attempdng an uprising among the Fenians FINTAN. guardedthe High King oJIreland on and rovedup and down the countryside vaious ventures Hand-piched. fish sometimes FINN MacCooL. So great was Finn MacCool's prowess as a warrior that he was soon appointed over the head of Goll to lead the Fenians.eorucHus. assailhim and let fly at him lf he sustained injury.rymbok oJspintualpwer. (IuusrnertoruSrunRr Lrrrepnu. Goll eventually manied one of Finn MacCool's daughters. a Fenian warrior. Finegasgenerouslylet the propheqthata Knowledge. Then must nine warriors. as Finn became wiseas he was strong with called Finn Mac Cumaill or Fionn instant insight into the past andfuture (lrusraerrorv H R MrtLAn.bashs in Nechtan's weIIoJ inspiration. The account of Finn MacCool's own death is unclear. and he put into it with his shield and a forearm's length of ahazel stick. 1994 av ) r30 .1910 BvARTHUR ) THg FrnNNn was rhe famous band ofwardors responsible for the safety of the High Kitg of Ireland Popularly called the Fenians. The Fenians were relentless in the chase. a gesture that may explain why Finn MacCool did not challenge Goll over his father's death.thq were gftedinboth arms andthe arts Although close-hnit. Cumal had eloped with a girl named Huma and her father urged Goll to avengethis dishonour. Goll chose to suwe to death rather than surrender. Trapped. Finn MacCool used to quote a saying of Goll: "A man lives after his life but nor after his dishonour. the Fenians reached the high point o[ their fame as a warrior band The pursuit of oreRvulDUA DIUBHNE. Hoping to become supremely wise. ) c 1910 ByARTHUR FINN MACCOOL bela^D' a Praocious and gfted child. alone took sixteen the years. His father . Goll slew Cumal. but Finn bumt his thumb on the flesh and in sucking it obtained wisdom. he was not receivedinto the band " FINECRS. was killed by Goll.

the seagods whom rhe Tuatha De Danann eventually overcame At the first barrle of Magh Tuireadh the Tuatha De Danann defeared the Firbolg. a misshapen raceof sea gods. and were driven from Ireland for ever THg FOUOruI were seagods in Irish mythology Violent and misshapen. due mainly to rhe bravery of the sun god LIIGH.Celrrc MyrHoLocy THE FOMORII. foot or eye FOnnru was rhe son of the Ulster king CONCHOBHAR MAC NESSA According to one myth.while others refer ro an ARTHUR-likeundeath in a cave There he was supposed to remain in a deep sleep unril such dme as Ireland needed his aid FtNfnN was the husband of Noah's granddaughterCESAIR. which was so called becauseit had earenrhe nuts of a hazel ree thar grew over the warers of ruecareN's well. where hadbeenforced thq to cultivate thelandby heavinghewy oJ bags Jmile earthuproctyhilLsln ronlt. In the second bamleof Magh Tuireadh rhe Fomorii were thoroughly beaten. FneOCH ("wrath" or "fury"). was a warriorwho defeateda fearsomewarer monster in order to manry Findbhair.aful scene portrays the Fomoii as repellentand alien creatures. only to have to defeatthe Fomoiri at asecondbartle there in order to secure rheir conquest Often the Fomorii were described as having only a single hand. In Galway. THEFIRBOLG. The monk wanted ro tidy up the lrish myth of Fintan's mysrerious transformation The same name was also glven to the Salmon of I(rowledge.Finnbreahsthe spell and slnys unsuspectingdemon the For his valourhe wasmadecaptainof the Fianna (lllusrnarrorv BySTEpHEN REID. a monster invulnerable weapons who lived in an under- water cavem FINN MACCOOL stands guard on the ramports oJTara awaiting aJiery goblin whosemaglc music usually disarmshisJoes Armedwith aJairy spear. however. lost a hand. because of the deluge rhat only Fintan managed to survive by becoming a salmon. is It likely that the monk who first recorded the Irish sagas ahered the original myrh in order ro link it with Noah's descendants. orbag-mot arivedin lrelnnd afterescaping ofslnvery ahJe in Thrace. 1912) rNt ByJoHN themselves. in Irish mythology. in Irish mythology were said to have acquired their name from a time when they were enslaved in Thrace and made ro carry bags of earth They lived in Ireland just before the arrivalof the TUATHADE DANANN But rhey were already being hard pressedby theFOMONt. who was the daughrer of Queen MEDB of Connacht The tenible srruggle with the monsrer left Fraoch very badly wounded and he recovered fully only afrer a timely visit to rhe otherworld His morher Be Find (who was a goddess and sisrer of the river goddess BOANN) nursed him back to health so rhar he could claim the hand of Findbhair The account of Fraoch and the water monster some legend is thought on to have had the Danish influence of Beowulf's batrle wirh to Grendel. and they seizedcontrol of Ireland from the Firbolgs at rhe first barde of Magh Tuireadh.D oR THE PowERs or EvrL Asnoeo Dunctr't. l9i0 ) 131 .NUADA. the Fomorii emergedfrom rhe waves to challengerwo rulers of Ireland: the FiRBOLGand rhe TUATHA DANANN The Tuatha DE De Danann were younger gods. though the De Danann Ieader.. oppressed lrelandwith cruelty and crushingtibutes This imaginative and pou. Queen MEDBof Connachr fell back before rhe fury of the Ulster warriors afrer her invasion of the kingdom. who are divatby a sichand menacingJrnry (THE FoMoRs THE \Voru. thq tumedtharbagsintoboats sailed and to Irelnnd (Iuusrnenoru ByNlcK Brer-r. or "bag men". Forbai caught up with her as she was bathing in a lake A shot from his sling fatally struck the old warrior-queen in the cen[e of her forehead.j995 ) THg Ftnnolc.

is a magnifcent suwiving in exampleof a Celtic cauldron Embossed in silverg1lt.t'il *'iri' + WoNDRous C. From Bran'smassive waffiors emerged alive but dumb.copper. . suchas hunting or Jighting (Gl'xrorsrnup Cerii-onol. Some IMCULouscAULDRoNS overflow with plenty. Similar mystery bowls or cups fea[ure in Greek and easlern myths as holy vesselsof spintual insight. CeurpRorvs on Prnvrv Qeft)glttteredin bronze.tuLDRoNs featureas a recurrenrmotif in Celtic myrh. combined the magical properties of both plenty and rebirth. Tene stylewith Celtic daties and itual activities. GTLDED srLvER. the great and gloomy glanx brood ovn thar bubblingcauldron.nwarior wery sa weelc (tuusrunoNByALAN 1984) LEE. delicious meats. Jlnnhedbyarmed wariors on ather side.e) Cauldron of kbirth restoredwariors to l{e. Cauldrons of Inspiration provided "greals" or brews of wisdom.in gratitude JorhtshindnessHere. such as Dagda's. Ultim ateIy. thewarlihe for glantsproduceda grou. but without the powerof speechBran rece:edhis wondrouscauWron Jrom two martial glonts. silveror gold. the early Celtic cauldrons find expression in the Arthurian Grail. embossed with exquisite craJtsmanship The gllded Cauldron. another Cauldron of Rebirth in Annwn was guarded by nine maidens. 100 BC ) BMN'5 (aba.it is beautiJullydecorated the Ia. Gundestrup Jound in a bog in Denmarh. while still others contain a specialbrew of wisdom. which overflows with spiritual sustenance and leads the hero from death to immoruliry. whose magi cal broth endowed Taliesin with all-knowrng insight. though cowardsneverhad their fill.here.il'i'. others restore the dead to life. Dagda'sgiganticCauldron of Plenty overflowedwith abundant. The most famous belonged to the goddess Ceridwen. Some cauldrons. no hero left his bowl Cauldronof Rebirth hungry.

:i{l.. .w ... ?\ a \ ..u*.t*r !! !! {.i t i t'fuo.# . " : :4i i" 1 n 'r. 'ii 'i* 1{ i i". r:.

Galahad was at last body and limbs Once this taskwas granted his wish to leave the camed out. then. standsresplendent ablnze oJ in holylight. could be granted. c 1910 ) GAIAIIAD (nght). From the beginning of Galahad'smanhood. The quest for the Grail was an most of the t(nights of the Round important preoccupation of the Table followed suit. various miracles took Bors when he encountered the Grail. Anhur's wife.CTITIC MyTHoLoGY GAIAHAD AeJ). despite the K. The worthy young Sir Galahad was rhe son of Sir LANCEtot.filling the SiegePeilous Completingthecircleof hnights. c 19IO ) was unique at the Camelot A mystenous lady then Gnf-tfmD court of King ARTHUR. he alone announced how the sacredvessel for saw the entire Grail. Galahad to take a bleeding spear to requesr ro be fulfilled. although sacredvessel. the pure andpeerless hnight. followedby BorsTheideaof an all-sustainingand all-inspiing"greal" brauis rooted or in Celtic myth (How SrnGnLeneo. cANvAs. prayed that "he might leave the as Sir Galahad knelt down to pray world". the secret lover of Queen GUINEVERE.as one version of the none at the wonderful meal saw or Arthurian myth states that Sir touched the Grail When Sir Galahad took "Our Lord's body Gawain vowed to find its home in berween his hands" and then died order to see the Grail for himself. a voice told him how his for his deliverance.c A N y A S . it is made clear that he is without blemish. Sir Galahadwas in the knight had earned the right to company of Sir PERCIVAL Sir and occupy the place wrthout being instantly swallowed by the earth. 1864) After this. cuss.marhedwtth the blood of Joseph Anmathea. Twelve nuns. his soul was soulwould live in the next life with suddenly releasedfrom his body Christ the moment his request and "a great multitude of angels bore it up to heaven".his arnval sparhedoff the Grail Eurrps CouRr w Quest (G. Together they had received place and Sir Galahad was even the sacrament from the long-dead obltged to become a hng for a dme who told Sir while he waited patiently for his OF JOSEPH ANMATHEA.. the presenceof the Grail was felt in GAIAHAD recav spiitual nouishment es Percival and from theGrail. entered Arthur'scourt escortedby ahermit. BoRsAND srR SrnPrncrvnrwenr Feo wtrH THE By SANC GRAEL DANIE Rossrrn . however. 134 . for there is no man alive more desewing of the order of knighthood" As soon as Sir Galahad had taken his rightful place at the Round Table. or SANGREAL would come and feed all the He may even have handled the knights This happened. who had raised Galahad. and the strange king world Joseph first allowed the restored to health. robed in red. told his father thar he should "make him a lceight.armedas a Chistian Crusader His snow-whiteshield. and toohhisplaceat the RoundTable. Sir Gaiahadsaw pure and humble knight to hold the Grail in a vision. wo's oJ designed in Saras Jor Galahadalone (GilAaeo svw HATHERELL. When he the Grail for a few moments. no directions.enRo ARTHUR's By H A T H E R E L L . When the castle of the "Maimed Kirg" Joseph of Arimathea eventually and rub it on this crippled ruler's retumed.rL.ghs of the Round Table One of efforts of King Arthur to dissuade the seas was alwaln left vacant as it them from undenahng what might was the place reserved for the prove to be their final quest knight who would find the Grail Although they set off in different Unril Sir Galahad sat there.

r Mrxnrs. However. laching the necessary discipline. Rather like the hazard faced by the Ulsrer hero CUCHUIAINN. present. the Green lGright tumed out to be none other than Sir Bercilak himself. which was the usual token worn by " knight to show his love for a lady. at which Sir Gawain flinched. inspinngthe restoJthe Knights. Twice it was deflected because he had not abused his host's hospitality by making love to his wife. fu the severed head rolled around the hall. Then. ) Unlike Sir Gawain.srn patience and humility (Tnr. Sir Gawain's mosr exrraordinaryadventure concemed the Green lGright. pE. urir. the royal courr relaxed and thought the challenge over.CII-TIC MyTHOLoGY GnwruN. But to the amazement of all nothing had happened. lost interestin theGrail Questquite early on Ahhoughone oJthe first to setJorth. the gigantic Green Kttrght strode into King Arthur's hall at Camelot one New Year's Eve and challenged the ltuighrs of rhe Round Table to a beheading contest. Calmly stooping. Three times the axe was swung at Sir Gawain's neck. nyW r 1895-96 GnwRrr. Sir Gawain accepted and cut off the stranger's head in a single blow. on the third daySir Gawain accepted from her a green sash. an activeand restlesshnight. Fnrr or. he picked up his head and mounted his green charger. The magical transformation of Sir Bercilak de Hautdesert the Green lftright was explained into as the work of the wirch MoRGAN LE FAY. On the journey to this dangerous appointment Sir Gawain stayed with Sir Bercilak de Hautdesert who had a beautiful wrfe He was sorely tempted by Sir Bercilak's wife but managed to resist her advances for rwo days. in welsh Gwalchmai. King Anhur's half-sister. from the saddle. He was a strict upholder of chivalry and the enemy of Sir LtNCELor.srRy. GTNATNT SCC CELTICROMANCE. when a water giant came to test the courage of Irish warriors. and thereafterhe alwap wore the green sashas a reminder of his lapse This late Bridsh version of the Celtic beheadingcontest was quite clearly influenced by Christianity GAWAIN. SINGLE COMBAT r35 . It did not cut off his head because Sir Gawain had only acceptedthe green sash out of good manners Yet Sir Gawain realized that courtesy was no equal to moral purity. Cuchulainn had no hesitarion in slippingaway from the battlefield in order to keep a secret meedng with a lover. the Green Ktrght pointed his severedhead in Sir Gawain's direcdon and told him to be at a lonely chapel ayear from that day in order to take a tum ar receiving a blow from an axe.helost heart. even during Queen MEDB's invasion of Ulster. At the meeting berween Sir Gawain and his fearful opponent. the giant behaved as if was the most courteous knight at ARTHUR's court. The third time it made a slighr cut.

Cradhne the GMINNE (abwe). Grainne managed to escape from Tara. ANoN) 0lrusrmnoN in lrish mythology. means "white spirit". although had he for GUINEVEM role as Flovtu Bide.the bodyguard of the High King Although still powerful.the High Kirg of lreland She was promised to FINNMACC))L. wasan outstanding craftsmanand armourer Along wtth his glJtedbrothm. leader of the FIANNA.for which he brewed the aIe His Welsh counterpart was named Govannon by rhe Fenians But Diarmuid was killed by a magic boar in a hunting accidentafter Cormac Mac Art and Finn MacCool had finally accepted his marriage to Grainne Although Grainne blamed Finn MacCool for Diarmuid's death and swore to obtain vengeancethrough her four sons.her exo champion. with a rather relucmnt Diarmuid Gradually. the carpater.with the Fianna in hot pursuit Here. for both these women brought disaster to those who loved them. ln Guinevere'scasethe love affairwith Sir l.o-. alwaysoccelled.rnceror GUINEVERE. goldsmith.\s shewasbetrothedto Finn her MacCool. rrpaired the Tuatha De Danann armour see also WONDROUS with miraanlots spd on thebattlefeW HEROTCQUESTS.inher onglnal SCC SANGREAL. the stories about the ltuights of the Round Table. JelIJor the iwesistible Diarmuid . and even wounded the god Goibhniu was said to preside over an otherworld feast called Fled Goibnenn. probably name.WhO WAS UA the foster-son of the love god AONGHUS. was the wife of eRrnuR and the secret lover of In Sir LANCELOT. ltwas herbeaury that also atuacted Arthur's nephew Sir uoDRED.o ) came to love Grainne.BY HERBERT DMPE& UNVES. sixteen moving years they to keep in order to avoid capture r36 . the guilg pairhide in a maglc tree ANON) otrusr&qnoN (below). Gwenhwfar. the famous beauty of Greek mytholory Such a comparison is not unjustified.]IBHNE. 19c. the wily Finn wooed her until she agreedto manryhim. however. is crmnedMay Quear in abower of peals On May Morning Arthur and his hntghs celebrated wtth sports and contestsLancebt.CeITIC MYTHOLOGY was the Irish smith GOIBHNIU god and one o[ the ruerHA DE DANANN He could make a perfect sword or spearwith three blows of his magic hammer Just before the second battle of Magh Tuireadh. the Insh smith god. By using magic.ancelot weakened the uniry of the RoundTable. Finn MacCool was quire old and Grainne preferred DIARMT]ID DI.who seizedCamelot GOIBHNIU. a passionate and wilJulmaiden. a FOMORIIspy came to see how Goibhniu made such impressive weapons. Guinevereis alwap comparedwith Helen of Troy. the Irish capital. he THT GNruI CAULDRONS. whose welsh GUtunvERE. was the daughter of coRiuecMAc ART. Diarmuid politely refused advances But shepersisted untilhe agreed to elope.and Luchtar. GnntNNE.

ART}IL/R.Gwydion siege of the otherworld king's casde had tnclud hyde" into anhangpnghis proved to be long and difficult. as hardly a knight wuls left alive. was mken to AVALoN. which meanr that the kingwent awaytowar. while Guinevere became a nun at Amesbury. Gilvaethwy.I-ancebt slrw many h"rghs. was a witch who once spun a magic web to catch some members of the FIANNA. slew Iman and as a reward Finn allowed him to marry his daughter.Shespuna magpcwebto snare the Fenian waritors The wariors were time. A dispute mytholory. lrnan instantly changed intn a monstrr and Goll hilled hq. When Math rerumed and discovered the decep tion. not far from Arthur's tomb. sleep with Gowein. ws an otherworld hng between the two royal families led who crossed swords with King to Branwen becoming a cook. Later. Lludd Llaw Ereint gested a compromise to setde the was the son of the death god Beli IRl. doomsday could have Griddylad.) quarrel. In the bbody contestthot ensuel.lAI. mortally wounded. in welsh GwyN princess BRANWEN. the young woman who was Math's footholder. (See also CELNCROMANCE) and the builder of London. though only three. Arthur 'thefairatJellovship of wept at theloss of REscuEs Gunrvmr rv noblc tmights".lord of the Welsh hngdom of Gwynedd.c 1910. mytholory. But Branwen's half-brother EFNISIEN would not agree and threw the child on to a fire. conilemnedto deathJorhu afair with lancelot. and into a pair of wolves for the third. Hmtato. He proposed that Gwem. FINNMACCOOL. So another Fenian. so wineJor someilhsory honcs a strange compromise was agreed 0rrusrnrnourv fin Isz 1981 ) by both sides Gwyn ap Nudd and Gr"nhyr agreed to meet in combat IRNAN (bela4/) was one oJthree sister each May Day until the end of witches. In order to help his brother. According to to avenge the insult.r IVldrrHrnrtt. Gwyn aMucrcd Griddylad. into a boar and a sow for the next. according ro Welsh GwtoN GWfnN. son and forced Guinevere to consent to marry him during the hng's absenceabroad. It is believed by some that herbody was buried at Glastonbury. leader of the Fenians. Gwydion took charge of his sister ARIANRHOD's LLEU. Rtto.stepped forward but wzrspersuadedthat itwould notbe heroic enough for a warrior of his stature to fight thag. sail to lreland to on herwedding day.ly Jlee with his precious futhur set out after Griddylad and from Prydm's castle *vine The danngtheJt was part oJan demanded that Gwyn ap Nudd retum her to her rightful husband. Gwydion stirred up a quarrel beween Math and pnyprRr.or Fenians. Irnan changed herself into a monster and challenged any one of the Fenians to single the combat. in lrish mythology. the bodyguard of the High King of lreland When this plan failed. Matholwch sug. w6 the son of the Irish king MATHOLWCH and the Welsh AP NUDD.Crlrrc MvrHoLocY GUINEVERE (abwe). THEBLESSED.crNv s. ingeniousplan to help Gilvaethwy wtn his loyal follower Gwythyr. The Gwan A resourcefulmaglcian. BRltN the daughter of Lludd Llaw Ereint. By 0rrusrprnorv SIEpHEN 1910 ) BacH seeTAUESTN. t37 . was rhe nephew of GWYDION MATH. was rescuedby him. King GWYDION (abwe) and Gilvaethv. The confronadon between Arthur and Modred at the battle of Camlan brought to a bloody end the golden age of Brirish chivahy. should be placed on the lrish throne.l. Goll. but spared lrnan when shebegged for HTIITWNS SEERS SCC SAGE5AND merE.one late myth. whoever was the winner on rescuedbyGoLwho slav two of thesistm. Arthur. ([-nncrLo. which caused her brother. even if she was in the form of a monster. he rumed his nephews into a stag and a hind for one year. where she later died.

a lingering ailment similar to the one afflicting the "Maimed Ki. Overcome by the mercy shown by his uncle.A serious wound forced Sir Trisan to send for Iseult. however. under the cover of darkness. 1912 ) that King Mark found them asleep with Sir Tristan's sword between them. and the story of was her love for TRISTAN extremely popular in medieval times. Iseult wanted to hll Sir Tristan in revenge. Although he just managed to overcome the dragon. they were eventually discovered. For a time the lovers managed to meet in secret. It becameattached ro the Arthurian stories by the later addition ofeRrnuR to the myth. on his recovery. Brangaine took her Place in the royal bed so that he would suspect nothing. Trisun persuaded Iseult to retum to her husband and he left forvoluntary exile in Brituny. lishbeaury. lseult and her mother. his uncle King MARKwanted to name the young man his successor.but the nobles objected to this anangement.CEI-TIC MyTHOLOGY ISeUf.g" in the story of the Grail. lseult. Instead he exchanged Sir Trismn's sword for his own and left them sleeping. on the wedding night. lt happened one day ISEULT and Tnstan unwtttingly dranh a love philtre which haghtened their already a. When her own father readily agreed to the marriage as a means of restoring good relarions between lreland and Comwall. recognizing the hair as belonging to Iseult. but was was as theirbliss shortlived Tnstan the Jor forcedto leave lrish court political reasons (ltLusrnertoru By EvELYlv Pettt.but she found that her heart would not let her wield the sword against him. It came as a shock then. Sir Tristan sought out its lair and fought it. Disguised as a Comish trader. It was r38 . The Celtic myth of Tristan and Iseult originated in Britmny and was retold in almost every European country. suggested to his uncle that he should go on his behalf to ask for her hand. All would have been well had not Tristan accidentally drunk the potion and gtven some to Iseult on the joumey to King Mark's court. lseult was deeply upset. But her mother gave Iseult's maid BMNGAINEa love potion which. that Sir Tristan asked for Iseult on behalf of King Mark.the Irish champion. cured the orphan Tristan of a wound in the side.T. Jellin lne.talzenedpassion. was an Irish princess. but war took up most of his energies. if drunk on their wedding night.was the and a glJtedhealer. its poisonous breath weakened him temporarily and an imposter claimed to have won the contest. uNvtts. On several occasions he rerumed to Comwall in disguise and secretly met lseult again. would make the couple love each other forever. like the love of culrur'rcnE and IANCEL?T. somerimes Isolde. cured Comish While oJ hnight Tnstan alingmngwound to thq nursinghim health. Realizing that the best way to advanceKing Mark's suit would be to slay this monster. Although Iseult did marry the Cornish hng. but he decided not to slay them there and then. Sir Tristan arrived in lreland to find the country tefiorr:ed by a dragon. In Brittany Sir Trisun married but without happiness. bur. forglng an unbrealubb and Jinally traglc bond Duncan's strongly Celticportrayal capturesthe intanseand eNo undyngnature of thar love CtrusrrH lsoLDE ByJoHN DuNclN. a beautiful woman with wonderful golden hair. Sir Tristan had monallywounded him on the last occasion the Irish tried to collect ribute from Comwall. Iseult nodced that his sword had a piece missing exactly like the fragment of metal found in the head of MoRHoLT. c I9A0 ) an enorrnous "crested serpent". also an ISEULTOelow). so the king said that he would mary/ only the girl to whom belonged the golden hair a swallow had just dropped Sir Tristan. suspected trickery and discovered the injured young knight While they were nursing Sir Trismn back to health. On Tristan's arrival in Cornwall.

The Tuatha De Danann suspectedIth of harbouring invasion plans and so hlled him. ventured to thedun htsvalour. His own long life was said to have been due to the Grail. was Ith's uncle Mil. mills burned and during the nights the hair of (above). was one of the senior warriors of ARTHUR's coun ln medieval romance. The leader of this FoIh. to put a stop to this annoying habit his court poet told him that Ulsrcrwas a land of gians. was mken prisoner by Fergus No ransom offer proved acceptableto the king of Ulster. AJter a Grailto Glastonbury building fubry itwhueGlnstonbury churchJor of he a nowstands.(Seealso CELilC ROMANCE) IfH was said to have dwelt in a great towerin Spain. or MILESIUS IUgnnN was a ruler of tiny people According to lrish mythology.SirTristan's Breton wife said a ship with a black sail had been sighted. IUBDANbelow). or his brother-in-law Bron with his son Alan. Unfortunately.one theWee of wasinclined bragoJhtsgreatness. Queen Bebo. a "bishop already dead for more than three hundred years". he became the steward Sir lGy. Iubdan of Mac ofthe"glant". Stories of elopements. He was said to have magical powers: he could go nine days and nine nights without sleep and breathe for nine days and nine nighs under water I(AI KNY SCC invasion of lreland. travel there in secret and try the porridge of the king of Ulster. Iseult followed him into death shonly afterwards. a Whoever wore these shoes was able to travel across the surface of water as if walking on dry land. he is a Comishman and Arthur's foster-brother. Iubdan fell into the porridge and. In one tradition. pair of magic shoes. Tristan lost the will to live and threw himself on his sword before Iseult could land and reach his bedside. to to incitinghisbard cathimdown size to greater in menlived by inststingthatJar To averitable of glants prwe race Ulster. although the tiny people offered him an abundant crop of com. After a year and a day of this harassmentFergus Mac Leda eventually agreedto releaselubdan and Bebo.rivers and wells were made foul and polluted. the or JOSEPH ARIMATHEA inhis Chist'sbody manwho interred tohavebrought the isbeliorcd wwttomb. Later. Gulliver's Travek. this "good man took Our Lord's body berween his hands. from which he was able to see lreland and so decided to go there. and offered it to Sir Galahad. brought the Grail to Glastonbtry. He landed with ninery followers just after the TIJATIaDE DANANw had defeated the FOMORII the second battle of at Magh Tuireadh. thwartingboth Peredurand Culhwch IlLUsrMloN 1450 c at thegate (Meruuscnrpr ) JosreH oF ARrMArHEAwas a biblical figure who was included in Arthunan mythology becauseof the Grail story. Joseph allowed Christ's body to be placed in his own tomb.Fergus kda (luusrnenoru BY REID. r39 . EitherJoseph. but only on the condition thar in return he was given the hng's most valuable and treasured possession. Jealous of the reunion of the lovers. 9t 0 ) I STEPHEN I(AI (abne). along with his wife. courtships and ill-fated lovers were always popular with the Celts. When his body was retumed to Spain. who received it with humble joy" I(AI. Arthur's steward.CEI-TIC MYTHOLOGY agreedthat lseult should indicate her imminent arrival with a white sail. Only GAIAHAD was granted a complete vision of the Grail It was handed to him by Joseph of Arimathea. couldgo he for nine daysunderwaterand could grow as tall as a forest tree at will He was very gruf.was a hnight of legendarymight and prowess Endowedwithunusualshills. So theywent on to the offensive: milk became scarce. King Iubdan liked to boast a lot. and when Fergus Mac Leda put them on they grew to fit his feet exactly Echoes of the dny people in this lrish myth can be found in Jonathan Swift's novel. for whom this late story of frustrated passion held great appeal. Jounded Jamily Grail (MANUscRrpr c 1450 ILLUsTMnoN ) Guardians men and women was entirely cut off. Fergus Mac Leda. He even made Kirg Iubdan and his wife. it disappeared and i$ recovery was the geatest quest for the lGrights of the Round Table. his sons swore to conquer the island. in welsh myrhology. the iast to be recorded in Irish mytholory.

The attractiveyoung of heroes.Most.u(above)ond Iseult snatcha tensemoment together their romanceThq had gown obsessively attachedto one clandestine another after acctdentally dnnhing a lovephtltre intended Iseultand for her betrothed. if not all. [-ANcEtor (above) and Guinevere's abidinglove t'or eachother woundedArthur. the heroinesemergeas sffong and independent women.Deirdreand Fand.While all the characters are portrayedwith touching flaws.the two suitors are simply rival admirers. Celtic love trianglescreate tension.as in the caseof Pwyll and Gwawl.CELTIC ROMANCE HE LIVELyAND coMpELLINGcharacter of Celtic romance stems from the heated rivalries and passionsof the lovers. KingMarh of Cornwall Thedoomedlwers embarhed an a desperate and traglc romance.q. expressing warmth and wisdom.and he was n6)er lessened thar love Here. talesinvolve a love trianglewith two men contestingone desirable one woman. one loved and the other despised. Sometimes of the rivals is young and handsome. or Diarmuid of the Love-Spot.are quite as irresistibleas the ravishingCeltic beauties. elsewhere. Jraught with guilt and unrequited 1904) longrngs(Tmsren isoLDE wTuRNBArr. as in the tale of Naoise and Conchobhar. the couplehissat thar first meeting contnvedbyGalleotin an embroidered medionl setting Althoughtheir lwe grew out oJ the courtly tradition. shoohhiscourt and split the Fellowship Knights Yet both loversare of good but traglc portrayed by Mallory as essentially characters EvenArthur realizedthat Guinwere had beentrue to him inher way as a generous and by fatthful consort. ByA cnrvns. drama and colourful characters timelessappeal. AND .such as raven-hairedNaoise. This recurrent rivalry probably q'mbolizesa seasonal battle betweena Lord of Summer and a Lord of Winter for the Spring Maiden.it wentJar bqond what the courtlycode would have allow (MaNuscnrpr ed ILLUSTMTToN ) c I 400 in Tnrsr.while the other is an oppressive guardian.

.

cANv r42 . When he tumed them all Ir{NCELOT.c 1900) SurnNcBvWFCALDERoN. wtth diwer andwcrnor acting cs a single t9I6) By unit 04usrnrnoN J LEvENDEctcR.CTITIC MYTHOLOGY charioI-q. 1870 ) not allow Sir Lancelot to come to Honour seemedsausfiedand the her. his acdons effectivelysplit the Round Table and weakened the sffength of King Arthur's realm First.he All GUINEYERE of Sir Lancelot's could not enterbutwas granted avision too great adventures and exploits were Whenhestepped closehewasstruchby indeed informed by ths secretlove fire andleJt dazedfor 24 days (r-cNcn-or For a dme Queen Guineverewould REFUsED THE GneIL Bv E BuRNE-JoNrs. chaioteq oJ Cuchulainn. Sir Meliagaunt.dy of the [-ake had plunged him into a magic pool when he was a child Sir Lancelot. attractd both monal anil immortal queens FourJairy queefls hae hdnap the sbeping hnight and hold himin thar castb.demandingthathe one choose of than tobe hs mistress (HowFounFArny FouttoLct{crlor QUEENS s.War chaios pbyed altq rob in Celticbattle. I-aegthrew himself in front of a spear aimed at his master Id. but there Once Ki. near Salisbury. praying came dtlast to Carboneh. Anhur conducted an unsuccessfulsiegeof Sir l-ancelot's castle in Brittany. A Table who could not accept this half-sister and enemy MORGAN FAYcast a spell over the sleeping tournament was held to discover judgement byarms.nc was GuCHUIAINN'S [eer. (Seealso CELilCROMANCE) IAEG. his nephew. was very magic boat to AYALON. not unlike the lovers. Laeg's brother." ing exit and severaldays later saved Queen Guineverefrom being bumt to death. Ki. LE Arthur and Queen Guinevere. and l-aeg'sshllwas crucial to many of Cuchulainn's victories. the truth.g Arthur was mortally wounded and taken by a I-qNCELOT was one of the geatest and noblest knights in the Arthunan tales. of Arthur's hnights. mosthanikome and gJted IiNCELOT. reputation of Arthur's queen also handsome lrish warrior DIAKMIIID was suspicious and confronted Sir appeared unblemished. he sent Laeg before him to suwey the place During Cuchulainn's final and monal combat. Although Sir l^ancelotmanaged to make a fightwho would be his "paramour". Queen Guinevere retneatedfrom the world and became a nun at Amesbury. was charioteer to coNALL Caemach mistress. He was also a grearfriend and companion When FANDinvited Cuchulainn to the Land of Promise. Sir Lancelot and Guinevere met only once more before the knight renounced the ways of war to lead the life of a hermit. most of the Ituights of the Round Table were slain. but they eventually became atracdve to women. after muchJasting and down. described as "the flower of knights". however. "With such great force and Sir M?DRED rwelve knighs There she demanded that he must Sir Lancelot smote Sir Meliagaunt to Guinevere's chamber and choose among four enchanresses on the helmet that the stroke surprised the lovers. including Morgan LeFay. He was known as Lancelot of the Lake because the I-:.the the knight admitted his love for Grail Castle Bang tainted with sin. Then a second and more deadlychallenge to the hng's authoriry came from Sir Modred. So SirAgravain led kotght and shut him in a dungeon. cetlts. where she died. acted as scout and comrade andfinalty casthimselfin front of a sryar meantJorhismaster.g ARTHUR's Lancelot in the presence of King were other ltrights of the Round IJADUIBHNE. drave the hero on allhis adventures. In the subsequent batde at Camlan. or carved the head into two parts. The Celts were renowned in the ancient world for their skill in handling charios on the battlefield.

and Lugh sent his shot smashing into the eye the moment itwas opened. Lugh's mother was ETHUNN. Before delivering this decisive blow Lugh had circled and the enemy host on one foot and gd oJarts oafts. theywere sometimes described as having only a single hand. sun LllGH. saved Lugh from Balor's wrath and raised him to manhood. son of the Tuatha De Danann healrng god DIANIECHT. LLEU.Cian's brother. magician and god of healing. Balor's own single eyelid had to be raised by four servants. was the lr{c uR. He was alwala described as a young and handsome wanior. Shakespeareprobably had the Welsh LIyr in mind when he wrote his tragedy Kngl-ear. Lugh's proweas tls a warrior had been recognized. For andhunga 9A0yun tlvy adureilcoW wik tluir in W waters. Blodarcdd. After Cuchulainn's death his foster-brother coNALL claimed to have received help from Lugh when he chased Cuchulainn's killers. The De Danann leader NUADAstepped down in his favour. off the nonhwestem cozlstof Ireland. with one eye closed. ITUO SCC NUDD god GOTBHNIU.apehismurilnous . Lugh became known as r43 . named Lleu of the Skilful Hand. But Cian. since his grandfather was the lrish one-eyed god neroR. Gwydion found him. like the Ulster hero cUcHULAtNNand the berserkers of Germanic mythology. an altemative name for Lugh was Samildanach ("the many-shlled"). paralprng stare. 0uusrn rnor. After a long search. though the wife conjured by Gurydion and was nearly his the magician lv0{TFI For this woman.lwirwntedtlu inwhkhhe game popularboard of fdchell. This ingenuiry may account for Lugh's introduction as the father of Cuchulainn in the more historical sagas. the Fomorii champion. the only daughrcr of Balor. restored him to human form and healed his wounds. undoing. foot or eye. Balor's eYe was forced back through his head. otusrnefloN 44y I r. no weapons unless she provided them and no wife of the human race. Lugh's final claim to fame is that his name became part of the term used to describe the fairy in lrish folklore. vwndcil and Hc hidin tlrcfczla. the tiny guardian of hidden treasure and the expert cobbler. thq humanfomt. fell in love with inn IJR'Sfour lnely chrWrnwqe turned by swans kariulous stqmothq. Fotnuiibn W hisgranilfathu. Lleu overcame all these taboos.The sun god was believed to have fought alongside his hard-pressed son during Queen MEDBof Connacht's invasion of Ulster. tumed into the leprechaun. dmn starnnguntil Gwydionlurdhim Blodadd andratord himn healtlu By wasturnd intnan anl. When the guilry lovers smrck him. As sling-shot whomhe with hismagtrc sW another man and plotted Lleu's death. Quite possibly this great victory represented the rise of youngergods amongst the Tuatha De Danann themselves. It would seem that. because over time "Little stooping Lugh'. or Llyr in Welsh. I9I2) Lamfhada ("of the Long Arm"). including kicester in England. or Luchorpain. Lugh was himself pan FOMORII. despite Sving his name to nuilny places. ilNvtrs. I 912 ) the Fomorii in general and oneeyed Balor in particular. BLODEIIEDD. On one occasion the sun god appearedin a magic mist. for the youthful Lugh felled Balor with a more modem weapon than DAGDA's ancient club. who was known as Lleu in Wales and as Lugos in France. Well before the final battle between the Tuatha De Danann and the Fomorii. the battlefrenzy gnpped Lugh in such away that one eye disappeared into his head while the other expanded into a hideous. the ledtheTwthaDeDatunnagainst Mbr.who raised him.r ByE wu:-:cousrrvs. clnrminglXtenm ranrd a Whatat Last poignant song. Because a prophecy had said that Balor would be hlled by his own grandson. andbony. theraplndent Celtic god.tg th" promise that he was to have no name unless she gave him one.q1984) LlR. Lleu rose into the airin the shape of an eagle. in Welsh mytholorywas the His son ofARIAwRHoD. and at the second battle of Magh Tuireadh Lugh fulfilled the prophecy of Balor's death when he killed him LUCH was the Irish name for the Celtic sun god.CTITIC MYTHOLOGY r t Flll Qigh}hail n fitrn intoan uflc wlfe to a. the father of T.IANANNAN Manx seagod. Althouglr Lirwas also a sea god he is hardly mendoned in mytholory. with the result that its tenible gaze fell upon the Fomorii ranks behind. With the help of his uncle GWYDION. he locked Ethlinn in a cryatal tov/er on Tory Island. a magic circuit that copied the single-leggednessof ucelled.t. Indeed. The Fomorii were sea gods who challenged the TUATFIA DEDANANNfor control of lreland. waebent (l-rn's Carlpnnt ByJorDrDuNcAN. succeededin reaching Ethlinn and she bore Lugh as a result. includi. Either the seagod I&{NANNANlvt{C LIR or the smith with a sling-shot.. motherlaid a series of curses upon him. Thus Balor died and the Fomorii scattered.

Machawon the race and gave birth to twins. Suspecting from his responsethat he had designson conquenng the island himself. suggesdngthat he may have been a former god. A isle of enorrnous an$. possibly even London: the Roman Londinium may havederived from Lugdunum IMenON. to which he his father.wrth classical Apollo the child was fostered by the local AlthoughJorgottan god. as a the unfortunate nun.. was love he The nun gavebinh to Maeldun and also the god equated. He was killed shortly afterwards by raiders from I|{ABON. including Medb and CONCHOBHARMAC NE55A.CTITIC MyTHoLoGY LUCUS was the name used in Britain and France for a god very similar to rhe Irish rucn and the Welsh lmu His importance can be judged from the old name for Lyon. looted a church and raped a nun. he duly helped to capture rhe wild boar rwRCH TRwYTH with the aid of the hound and to take from between the boar's ears the razor Ulster threatened to execute her husband if she did not race. . possibly Maponos. son of the Welsh dMne mother Modron. l-argebirds that. however They and chariots When the king of even provided the voyagers with MACHAcursed theUktermen suft'er to the painof childbirth five days. Lugdunum ("the fortressof Lug") The Roman emperor Augusrus made it the capital of the provinces of Gaul.king of that Olwen's father had demanded.MORRIGAN ruTUNIN ShC voyage of revenge ANd first mamed Nemed. advisedbya druid as to which were over which rhey had been quar. but the latter father's death.The late saga that describes his voyage is a mixture of Christian and preChristian ideas.she of eloquenceand the son of.r. thetime at for oJlJkter's greatest Thebitter need curse stemmed hq ill-treatment the If4eC CnCnf was the trish god by Jrom Uktermenwhen. thus provoking the invasion of the sons of MILESIUS Dn THO was king of MAC Leinster at the time that MEDB was queen of Connacht. whom they equated with Apollo. a Celtic god of youth.since only he was able to control the hound which cuLHwcH needed to win the hand of orwEnr. a Scythian The first island Maeldun came ru1er who defeated the FOMORII. an expedition was mounted to release Mabon Once free. in contrast ro the fundamenully pre-Christian mphical voyage of the earlier BRaN. sdll accompanied by his foster-brothers and MnCHe was one of the Irish war also a crew of seventeenwarriors. who was incorporated in Welsh mythology as a warrior once his worship was all but forgotten The Romansknew of Maponos.He then set out with the hound. to was inhabited by murderers. Mac Da Tho promised both these rulers that they could have was revealed.ocue wasJorced race to to onJoot prweabet After NUADA had been hlled at the ry SmpHrruPe:. The god's name was used for many other place names. often identified with he sailed on his long and strange BADB. ) his foster-mothertook him to see his true mother and his parentage Ulster.the favourable days for him to relling. Welsh god A SrJtdmt$iirrrn. they killed him. was said to have been abducted when only three nights old and imprisoned in Gloucester However. theyouthful was overseas. she living on another island were found could outrun all the king's horses to pose no threat.in all likelihood Vihngs.oe 1994 that he was not reallywell bom that Gnev. Apart from adventureslike this. who was the sister of survwed inWekhmyth Mabon. but the sea gods who slew her second apparently not the killers of his husband NUADA and herselfat the father. which is said to be the reasonfor calling the fortress of the Ulster hngs Emain Macha ("Macha's Twins"). was one of the geat lrish voyagers. Next they landed upon an second battle of Magh Tuireadh.1910) 0[usrpcflol second battle of Magh Tuireadh. asa Maponos ruler's wife. Macha cursed all Ulstermen to suffer the pain of childbinh for five days and five nights whenever the kingdom was in danger. launch and sail a threehis charioteer cut off its head skinned coracle Then. It was only shilbd huntqamong Anhur's champions when children taunted Maeldun (Iuusrnenox syMl&qr. ran after the king's chariot build. though heavy with child. though nearhqterm. or Mael Duin. as large as later Macha laid a curse on Ulster horses. and slaughtered the three of his foster-brothersto find boar to provide a feast. He owned a fine hound and a huge boar. the ants almost devoured after her boastful husband said the crew and the boat. Maeldun was soon retreated When the hound.or Maponos. the actions of Mabon are uncertain. goddesses. Mac Cecht and his brothers could not decide whether to divide Ireland berween them and so they consulted a stranger named ItH. only to leam that he had invited them Fighting broke out been murdered Determined to avenge his between the Ulster king and the men of Connacht. and many of his neighbours coveted these animals. the god of prophecy. MeflPUN. and ordered the inhabitants to celebratethis choice each August. the month in which the feasrof rhe Celtic sun god Lugus occurred. Maeldun's fatherwas a chieftain of the Aran lslands who attacked the Irish mainland.

silver.lost the lts in tlres}1. the offer of etemal youth on one island which was inhabited by a queen and her daughters. bur they pleaded for mercy and a peace was agreed.fores6. obwvcdilouriytlut of He tlv am synrblizd atlttwt nnbegrydgd each othcr.(tuusrntnoN u By D.Thus ended thevoyage that was said to contain "the sum of the wisdom of lreland". a sombre miller who ground everything that was begrudged in the world. onhs qk voyagt. an inaccessible island L15 . ted house with food and drink. Similar lunrry was encountered on the next isle. Evenrually. The ground on one of them was hot like a volcano. summit. an underwaterisland of prophecy.wa ilrapeilwrth silvqnet. a out As wiled flungJar tosea. a sea of glass. a population of moumers. a mpterious car and fierysvine. Two subsequent islands of monsrous. from which the voyagerscut offa small piece as a souvenir. a casde with a glass bridge where there lived a beautiful girl who rejecred Maeldun's advances. intoxicating fruits. The aghast. an amazing water-arch. awairing them. and a hermit who lived on salmon that was given by * otter and half a loaf provided each day by angels.fiutsntnoN SYALAN198{ lrq ) meat. glant smiths. A regular supply of fresh salmon was provided by a device that periodically threw fish into rhe house from the sea. *ild 6tttty. on islands that werc populated by rwohing beasrs. sheep rhat changed the colour of their wool apparenrly ar will. they thrugh themah.Crlrrc MyrHoLocY on top of a pedestal.crylng birds. stoppcn by tlrcblah slandof tlv mill (abarc) tylwe lived glaot"y a milla grtmly gnnding mounds cant. gigantic honsesproved to be even more dangerous. voyagm. Maeldun caught up with his farher's killers. (See also FABULOUS VOYAGES) MAEVE see MEDB. fighting horses. a solitary pilgrim on a tiny island that was enlarged every year by divine providence. There theydiscovered an uninhabi. brass and crysral. contagious laughter. Danger w. an island divided inro four hngdoms by fences made of gold. which was covered with orchards of delicious apples. a sea of clouds in which casdes. beer and wine. Among other strange creanrres and encounters on the voyage were gigantic swine and calves so huge that they could not be cooked whole.ts soon encountered again. however. a gigandc silver column and net. so it was with some relief thar Maeldun and his companions landed on the Island of the House of rhe Salmon.tpur. rwolving fire.r ME{ER" 1991) IA{EIDUN.. a wonderful founrain that gushed milk. animals and a fearsome monster suddenly appeared. Aurnan hached a of piece proofoJke tale. as well as comfonable beds. IdAEI^DUNOeloul) andhrs sailon silvr column rising foundawondrous straightfrom sea.

was conceived by way of a decePtion similar to the ruse used for conception Manannan ARTHUR's slept with an Ulster queen when disguisedas her husband.was of rheWelshequivalent the Irish though his sea god MANANNAN. theoutvt oJ thar tnp 0uustn rtotr BYMIMNDA Gru''t. until drssuadedbya Lez. Ieaving Cigfa and Manawydan alone. Manannan appeared He ships often orhinder andhelp at such tovoyagers. Manannan therefore shook a magic cloak benveen Fand and Cuchulainn in order to make sure they would never meet again Manannan Mac Lir was a noble and handsome warrior. the lovers knew that they must part.and he went on to become a greatking and mighry warrior god. '4s Sweeper" a sea called the stir couW up or soothe sea. hneek beforea drawn sttord. magician and healer. Isath. and one of his mortal sons. Manawydan asked for the retum of Rhiannon and Pryderi. the suitorwhom Rhiannon had refused in order to marry Pwyll (Seealso MAGICANDENCFIANTMENT) IvIePoNoS seeMABoN MANAWYDAN (abwe) tiedto grwv IUARK belw) watchessadly ashrswtJe. however. beside gneJ atTnstan's death Marh. their palace was deserted and the land around it desolate.). The stranger agreed and revealedhimself to be Llwyd. both Pryderi and Rhiannon disappearedby magrc. Fum. inherit supematural gifs.t MANANNAN of the lrish sea god ttR. Although jealous of Tristan and lseult. whowa oJten up gatheredher andborehr off to a touter where shewasrestoredtohealth. the MANANNAN. so they travelled to England.he planned to hangone of the mice. which is situated in the Insh Sea about halfway berween Ireland and Bntain Manannan was a seagod. . He o<changed the sword for his own and left without waking them. where Manawydan and Pryderi made a lMng as leatherworkers. along with Rhiannon's son PRlDrru and his wife Cigfa. l'ish sea boat in rode waves a self-propelled the "Wave god. and even when he came upon the lovers sleeping together with Trisun's sword between them he did not kill them. ro. was the guardian of his orphaned nephew Tristan and the husband of Iseult. He then ried to support them by growing a crop of wheat. 1991) MmtnWYOeN. ) BYAIAN 1984 strangcr.0[usrnenoru MenI( was the king of Comwall in rhe Breton myth of mtstaN and He ISEULT. One day he and Rhiannon. a magician and friend of Gwawl. asBran.who fell in love with but the Ulster hero CUCHULAINN finally chose to stay with her sea god husband. Mongan did. an Irish princess. who drove a chariot as easily over the waves as over a plain and was said to have a ship that sailed itself. but his fields were stripped by mice He caught one of the mice and would have hanged it.CTITIC MYTHOLOGY Mec LlR. Tristan solemnly retumed lseult to his uncle and went into exile in BritunY. where he lived in Emhain ("of the Apple Trees") His home was imagrned to be sited off the western coast of Ireland. he married on RHIANNON the death of her husband PvwLL. and the ruler of the Land of Promise. took his name from the lsie of Man. but a passing stranger offered him whatever he wanted in return for the mouse's life. So successfulwere theY that the local craftsmen forced them to leave. sonof Llyr. somewhere in the Atlantic Ocean His wife was the renowned beaury FAND. he was not endrely unsympathetic. BY ) ouusrnnnoN RussELr c 1900 wheat aJtu a my stanousblight had devastatedhtsland Onefield was npe for hawestwhanwernight itwu stipped to the stalluby mice In dupair. MONGAN. herselJwrth ponrayd a a muctfulman.@elou. including the abiliry to shapechange. On their return to Wales. Iinla with the seawere far lesswell rin defined The brother of nReru and BLES5ED nnaxwnN. were enveloped in a magical mist When it cleared. Shamed by this act o[ mercy. He had both divrne and mortal children.

IMruCN t+7 . when Bran took his army to Ireland to avenge the insult of Branwen being made a cook. distance Satisfied ar last rhat his when her forcescaptured rhe geat aim was perfect. Math was the lord of Gwynedd in the north. Efnisien tossed Matholwch's three-year-old son GwERNinto a fire In the battle that followed.r Nt-ze. Medb's most famous the top of a pole over the same action was the invasion of Ulster. however. GWYDION. "cut off the lips of Matholwch's horsesat their tecth. no He very carefully measured the king could reign in Connachr exact distance between the spot unless he was married to Medb. was Ulster revenged. nearly all the Brirons were hlled and all of the Irish except for five pregnant women. rhe son forehead using his sling-shot Thus of King CONCHOBHARMAC NESSA. fell in love with the young woman who held Math's feet in her lap. and Efnisien.CIITIC MyTHoLoGY MEDB (abwe). he stealthily made brown bull of Cuailgne and killed his way back to the pool and hir the Ulster hero CUCHULAINN She Queen Medb in the centre of her was herselfslain by Forbai. When Gilvaethwy. the furious Math turned his nephews into animals IM. their earsto their heads. ft stronghold of Emain Macha and was also said that she "never was practised with a sling-shot until he wrthout one man in the shadow of was able to knock an apple from another".and their tails ro their bodies" Later. also known as Maeve. Except during war. ByJ . Math could only live if his feet were held in the lap of a virgin. the sister of nRaru tle BLESSED half-sisterof rnvlsrEN.was Medb was in the habit of regularly the wamor-queen of Connacht taking her bath in a Galway pool According to lrish mythology. becausehe claimed that he had not been consulted over Branwen's wedding. his brother. where she bathed and the shore.themagnifcantbut malanlent queen Connarht. who was believed to hold the hngthen he returned to the Ulster dom's sovereignryin her person. a was of prelude a doomedmarnagebetwean warnor Jought fiucelyasMorigan to who as himself andBranwen. tncked Math into going to war wrth Pryderi so that the girl might be left behind On discovering that he had been deceived. in welsh myrhology. shieW a as in whichCuchulainn othq hqoes and lost sign peace of ByAr 1984) thar lwa 0uusrnenoruLEyENDEctcR 0uusrnenor. thebeautifuI dJ A wiWandwiful woman. precipitated sistr she BrantheBlessed shipshad The arignsof andpapetuated thebloody withUkter war silh brocaded andanuptilted.qrHoLwCH. SCC FABULOI) VOYAGES while she was bathing in a pool S Forbai had discovered that Queen MEDB. was the lrish kingmarried to BMNWEN. 1916 ) MATHOLWCH'SAqDconvoy ships uJ glides to theraggedWelsh in the up shore MAIH was rhe brother of rhe Welsh mother goddessDoN and a great magician At the time that PRYDERI ruled over Dyfed in the southem part of Wales. one of his nephews.

BC . sling and shield.Shortage manpowerforbademultiple pitched battles.such as Cuchulainn or Morholt. ) r 1991 sling {trrusrn Crrrrc Clernv (ngh) ide their battlehorses war. like the campaign of Cuailgne. castthe hero into a magpcal sleep three Jor and nights. pitying him. snatchingcat-naps beween dueb Once. long bossed shields. In addition to the basic weapons of spear. Arthur's mounted knights encased themselvesin glittering iron. GTLDED c 100 ) srLVER.single combat continued in the form of Ltghtly jousts. Even in a large-scaleepic war. In the Arthurian legends. Cucnu-uttN Aeft). njoys a short rupite betweenbattles fuhausted by continual combat. the Insh champion. duelled to the death.which were usually made oJwood and sometimes cwered with decorativebronze worh Other sharp-rimmed shields could ako be used as missile (Gulotsrnup weApOnS C. the hero of legend had recourse to magical skills and a range of enchanted weaponS. The Celtswereheavilyreliant on thar long shields. chosenchampions the restlesshqo harassed the army with his rnoNBy YvoNNGr:flenr. such as Arthur's Excalibur or Fergus Mac Roth's Caladcholg. the originalExcalibur.THEANCIENT CElrs relied on heroic single combat.while trumpetersbnngup the rear. rarher than all-out gf warfare. hisfather Lugh.SINGLE COMBAT N wAR.andbear spears and. chosenchampions.culDnot'r. he confronted oneby one Betweenduels. he suf ued from chroniclach of sleep.Instead.as a meansof settling disputes. sword.dunngwhichhehealedallhs days wounds When Cuchulainn deJaded Wtr abne against theforces of Medb. armedwith to spears and crestedhelmets Thar comrades Joot wear breeches on and caps. the Ulster champion fought in single combat every day with a different warrior. While the Celtic heroes wore scant arrnour.

qrtrntconrp/rrrn..slr.. l . lldnl ilLisll'ilrntng untrl ()rrlrn s cir'ft'rrr \\'hcn rhc c . r r c ( i I r { r ( ' .ttrl Gtutnt'-s rLlgc gcrvc hrrn t h e d g e u n c l h e ( ) r c r ( ( i m e. ' n t . macle h thc irnrght -s.ln rnsull trr (. . o n d . t h c r r s e . c l l. ) t ' + ./rror/ G o a c l e t lr r n h . b u t s p a r c L l t h t hntght ilri 'rRliii)\3)4i 1\ Iri 1984 O w ' : r t l ' S ( h c l o u ' ) l t i t r J n c s s[ t r i ] i l r r n t r l l t r i tt lathlul /rrcnr. \ \ l r .1 thc { c i l r t t r r t l C c l t h l .urnt'r't'rc's hanclmattlen. .lrl hrnr cornrcdc-rn urlrs In thts unequal rnatth.i r i \ ..'1 thc forlress rrttlls anc/ rrt. u . Ltrr'urn prr-shcdhrs pct hrri la l n t i r t l ' r (f ( r r 1 r a \ sh r r t r h c r n t ' p r r s s r h l . .Eng.irrho prorcr-l to bt u rtrftt.CTITIC MyTHoLoGY lntrnI dn drdn. s h o t h i h u m f r t r r r s fought trrcles.'.u. /t1l. r i \ r k 1 i i . g hi / r r rr'crr' n()r ftrr hrs lton.'1 .:/ t h a t h c r o u l d i r t t n d l t ' ( h r r r r r r r . tht ( ) w . u r n ' sh o n l c a p t t .:trrlt'J .

rootedin a deepffinity with nature (Mgnrru BY Ar. was father of rhe proud son of DAGDA. allhiswisdom. could assumeany shape he pleased There are various accounts of Meriin's death One tells how the wtzard forgot about the seat at the Round Table thar only GAIAHAD could use. somerimesMyrddin.who then went on to defeatthe gods. King Arthur had Merlin as his trusted advisor and often used the wizard as a messengerbecause. in Insh mythology. the Bntons were toid that a great fortressthey had built on Salisbury plain. who. still possessed the bewitchedby hdy oJthel-a. whose father UTHER was said to have sucPENDMGON cessfullyinvaded Bntain about this time Merlin sided with Uther and employed his powers to enablehim to sleep with lgraine. from Ulster With a druid's aid. 1984 ) MIDIR (nght).aN LEE. or Nimue. who is usua\ ponrayed asa rough. and now no one can set me free. By otherworld (Ir-rusrnarroNSrEpHEN 1910 ) mortal father Such a half-human sacrifice seemed impossible to achieve. appeared the palaceoJTara to carry off Etain. then into a worrn and finally into a fly in order to keep her away from Midir fu a fly Etain was swallowed by the wife of Etar. the daughter of Beothach She becamefurious with jealousywhen Midir mamed a secondwife. ETAIN. like other sinful men who had tried it before him Another story blames the wrzard's death on his passion for women. by disguising him as her husband Due to this deception Arthur was conceived Once he ascendedthe throne. Either Viviane. and I taught my beloved how to bind me to herself.OR MILE SCC t50 . cANVAs.ke toher ends sapped powers inherited from his demon She turnedhislove own hts power plunderedhis ofsecret father Somehow the boy did not and store need to be sacnficedfor the sakeof hnowledge. though baptized as a MERLINbelow). she bound him the fortressbecauseit is likely that in stone by his own spells {trlrmrN ANDNIMUE Merlin was able to deal with the BYE BURNE-/ONE5. and reborn as the wife of the High King of lreland Although Midir recoveredEtain. lost long since to him by enchantmentThe pair dnfted upwardsand disappeared andJlewto an througha palacewindow.g Arthur. responsible for the problem This mixture of pre-Chnstian and Christian ideas sits strangely with Merlin's later assistanceto Ki. possibly the Lady of the l-ake. alate copy of which can still be seenat Winchester today Merlin's birth was the subject of a strange story Apparently. he had to accept in the end that she was the High King's consort and leaveher alone Midir also had some difficulty in acceptinghis father's successorsas leadersof the TUATIIADE DANANN The conflict that he started seems to have had a dangerouslyweakening effect on this generationof godsjust before the invasion of the Milesians. the Ulsterwoman he loved. sage Jrom anotlier world. possibly near Stonehenge. an Ulster warrior. imprisoned him in an enchanted wood after Merlin had explained all about the secrets of his own magic As who once Merlin told Sir GAWAIN.CTITIC MyTHOLOGY MfnltN. 1870 c ) problem by means of magic Two dragonswere. CANvAs. Midir alwaysappeared as a splendidly dressed young man Midir's first wife was Fuamnach. the wife of a Cornish nobleman. as wrth many of the Celtic gods and godhe desses. passedby: "l am also the greatest fool I love another more than I love myself. being the only knight wonhy enough to see the GRAIL Merlin sat down and was at once swallowed up by the earth. for fabulous who Christian. was the famous wizardof Arthunan mythology So powerful was his magic that one medieval tradition credits him with the magical conthe outstruction of Stonehenge. was an inspiredseerand mysticmage. Rrir. and when done. Fuamnach tumed Emin first into a pool. standing British monument rhat has survived from ancient times Another of his worl<swas supposed to be KingARTHUR's famous Round Table. would never be safe until the ground rhere had been soaked by the blood of a child who had no MERLIN QeJ). in fact. the gods Unlike his father.a and wise counsellor JaithJulfnend to three portrayal captures ablehings This powerJul the mysticaland visionarynature of Celtic bards. one oJthe Tuatha De at Danann. the daughter of a Sicilian siren. MILE5IU5 MTT.until it was leamed that a beautiful girl was with child by a demon The child tumed out to be was Merlin. coarse figure." (See AND MAGIC AND also SAGES 5EER5: ENCHANTMENT) MIDIR.

after the force GUINEVERE marry him. CANVA5. c 1910 ) r5r . was fought nearSalisburyandmosr Morgan le Faywas one of the three of the Iftrighs of the Round Table women who took the grievously were killed. somerimes Mil or and mention in particular the Mile. When Mongan was three days old. SINGLE SAGESAND COMBAT) MORGAN LE FAYS (below)paradoncal nature is relectedin her dual roleas both healerand dorh maglcian.which the Le Fay is always depicted as the Milesians won.asArthur's yet thom in liJe. rulers Ireland reincamatedas FINMACCOOL. the British myths that tell of Following the final decisivebattle Arthur's incredible reign Morgan bet'ween the two forces.10 describe how he used his shapeRrro. It is MILESIUSsails lreland avenge to the claimed by some traditions that Jor death oJhis nephew. MtlfStUS.CeITIC MYTHOLOGY MONCnN was the son of rhe Manx seagod MANANNAN MACLIR. the Tuatha De king's implacable enemy. who had been mortally AyALONThe other two were "the wounded during the battle. who then nephew of King ARTHUR While he challengedArthur to single comwas away waging war in Brirtany. his conception had been made possible by the use of a deception akin to the one used by MERLIN that so UTHER could sleepwith Igaine and so conceive ARTHURManannan Mac Lir had assumedthe shape of an Ulster king in order to sleep with his beautiful queen. When Accolon dropped the Arthur had appointed Modred his sword Arthur recognzed it and the regent. ) changing abiliry to get his own way. bat. was the name given to a recovery of his wife Dubh Lacha Spanish soldier whose sons were He had inherited the divine abiliry said to have organized the final of metamorphosisfrom his father invasion of Ireland The murder there of their kinsman ITH caused MOnCnN LE FnY was King the Milesians to take revenge by ARTHUR's haif-sisterand in some conquering the island This rhey versionsof the story she is said to achieved by defeating the TLTATHA have been the mistress of Sir DE DANANN. On to bloody battle against Arthur's the king's return."the people of the Accolon of Gaul. including Modred. slainby Mongan then retumed to lreland theTuathaDe Danann. familysucceeded. MODRED (abov Arthur' s treacherous abusedhisroleof regentand nephew. his deJeating the other accountshe retainedhis own DeDanann retreated an invisible identity The storiesabout Mongan who into (luusrnenoru otherworld sy SEpHriv 19. whowas Ith. wooo. oJ the Although Milesius notreach did shore famousleaderof the FIANNA. wounded king in a black boar to Arthur. a terrible battle rebellious nephew Sir MoDRED. t'orcing the rebel Jorces Bothpmshed in theJrnal battle that endedthe war and so cameto an AND end theArthuian golden4gc (ARTHUR MODRED gy W Hetutmtl. According to Irish mythology. was then mken ro AVALoNin a black boat by three mysterious women Queen of Northgales and the Queen of Wastelands" (Seealso 5EER5. but his schemingnephew other lcright admitted his guilt and tried instead to uke the rhrone and surrendered However. Throughout all goddessDana". where the boy remained until he had grown to manhood. Arthur to quash usurpedthe throne. the [-and of Promise. his father took him to one of his otherworld realms. the exisdngrulers. often Danann retired to an otherworld plotting his downfall According to beneath the soil of Ireland one story she is supposed to have stolen the magic sword Excalibur MOOnfD was the treacherous and sent it to Accolon. also his guardian in death at Althougheducated a conyent. in but himself.she managedto emerge a glftedmagcian as (MoncnN LE FAy ByA SANDys.1864) e).

The leader of these incredible warriors. carrying only his sling. was a goddess of war. MORRIGAN MACIuA. at which point the birds immediately tumed into armed warriors. untilthq wqe lurd bach a deadly crw. in nmcomer. Conchobhar along the road to Tara with a sling MAC ROTHto bring in his hand.but at the end of the year the people of Ulster refused to let Conchobhar step down from the throne. Unknown to and as such she settled in triumph on the shoulder of the Ulster hero so that she could avoid maniage to Conaire. It happened one day sent FERGUS onlyrefused Monigan's love. When batdes of Magh Tuireadh. formed one of a goup she r52 . thq andhunted Ness. the leader of the DE TUATHA DANANN. Fergus Mac Roth was so in love with her that he readily agreed. and Along with nenp.the Ulster ruler during the Iifetime of the hero CUCHUL{INN. Conchobhar. NESSA. w6 an Irish goddess of a mortnlblowto htshelm. the conJronts Morholt told Tristan that only his MORHOLT. Conaire was told to undress and retum home to Tara on foot. (whose name means NguetN "dreadful" or "venomous"). the to MORRIGAN. suaded him to run away with her the lrish capital. a duel would be able to cure Tistan. werping saw combat. Before he died. foundrefuge with herJavourites Most killed. she would agee to the match only on the condidon that her son should be allowed to rule Ulster for one year. but not before he had been wounded by the giant's great poisoned sword.BADB and rurunlru. of to them. 1910 STEPHEN ) 0rrusrprnoru iot down this very road when a flock of birds with beautiful plumage descended upon him. and this was how she conceived corualRnMoR The child was passed off as High King Eterscel'sson. fell in love with Mess Buachalla. Mark's nephew TRISTAN was determined to put an end to this practice. Cuchulainn a washer aheap bbody of she andwailingw nnsed hero to raiment fulongng thegreat Bv Rno. When Boann found herway to the well. the husband of BoANN On Nechtan's hill there was a holywell that was the source of all knowledge. He thus became the next High King of Ireland. Nemglan came to her in a bird shn and seduced her.the successionwas raised in Tara. becoming the River Boyne. When DEIRDRE Her favourite form was the crow. the waters rose from the ground and chased afrer her.Cuchulainn had not fled with her to Alba. He therefore sailed to Ireland and succeeded in hlling Morholt. NfnACUtN.CTITIC MYTHOLOGY an Irish bird god. She was was rhe eldest son of Conaire Mor was a young man. FERGU NIAC S ROTH. In the Dardre fhry fled across sea pursuedby Fqgus MacRothBy appeared sometimesawarnorin a as event. theCornish sistEr ISEULT greater Morholt's his poisoned wound. he loaded his sling. cetuneP. However. Queen MEDB Connacht. 1910) Roth. in Irish mythology. them all home. was the mother of CONCHOBHARMAC NEssA. according to some versions. so excellent was his rule. of oJ NElt{IN. but Mess Buachalla was careful to wam the boy that he must never. Forgemng his mother's instnrcdon never to harm any bird. succeeded to the throne and proposed marriage to Nessa. On the eve of the wedding. Nemain was said to have been the wife of NUADA. in lrish mythology. to whom King Mark and Cornwall were expected to pay an annual tribute.theyoungTistan fought the lion lilu amighty anddealt olderhmght MOnTGAN.Naoise and his two brothers would be a naked man walking MEDB's forces. of. one thedrmdfulgoddesses sometimes asawashrat war. to signtfiimminant the or as hqe (lLnrsrulrn ay Srrprer Ren. however. ovq InshtaxesDespite pmlerand shill. daughter Etersceldied and the question of per. whatever the circumsmncesmrght be.theterible goddesswar. shnehing Jlappingher and Mac an in lrelandby unsuspectingFrgus death. Nessa'shusband was King Fachma of Ulster and when the king died his half-brother. To make up for his misconduct towards the birds. the berothed of Eterscel. 0uusrnrfloNANoN) was the gigandc MOnHOm brother of the king of lreland. smrednethead(Ea raven trap to winSs to of Conchobhar's great enemy.) the TUATHADE DANANNat both of war deities who sometimes appeared as beautiful young women and sometimes as crows. was an trish warer NeCHfeN god and. but in anger he had even wounded her. Usna and his wife Elbha. avErnrw death on the batdefield who helped oJword inhisbrain 0uusrncnoN Ptw c 1%)0. of scare host. hll a bird.High Kingof lreland. introduced himself to Conaire as his real father Nemglan. Suspicious of that Conaire was driving his charFor such a deed his fate was sealed. but trusting Fergus' with promise that no harm would come NAOISEelopes thegreatIrch beauty.appeared BeJore presaglngdoom hrsLrst theford. somedmesknown lodgng piece a as Monigu. Naoise agreed. associated with the other war NnOmn deities MACHA. to which only Nechtan and his three cup-bearers had access. Conchobhar had Naoise Scotlnnd. there was a prophecy to the Ulster hng COwCHOBHARMACthe effect that Eterscel'ssuccessor CUCHUIAINNwhen he was finally killed in the war against Queen NEssA. and so enraged was Fergus Loch futtb. screeching over the batdefield. Inshchampion. siding blss lrrng in pastoral oftenshe or Mac Roth that he joined the forces deqanil salmon.

because the halfConnacht. and round his head a wheel of light pulsed and beat with changing colours".Nuada appointed nnrs world. Niamh nursed him and Fomorii Bres complained to his hnsmen about his treatment. because of a temporury replacementfor a hand he lost at the lirst battle of Magh Tuireadh. sea gods who were soon to challenge them at the second batde of Magh Tuireadh. cast a spell and Nemain before the sun god destroyeditwith a sling-shot on Niamh so that she wandered LIJGH away into the counrryside Badb Their victory saved the Tuatha De Danann.one of the eye of BALoRkilled both Nuada daughters of.Whrle CUCHTIIAINN recoveringfrom wounds sustained Ieadercausedthe second battle of during the war against the men of Magh Tuireadh.(IuusrntnoN BEil-E. he became NUADAof the Silver Hand and in Wales NUDD of the Silver Hand. Plur nam Ban ("Flower of Woman") NOPENS was a British god of healing. to Dian Cechr's son Miach.z. ln lreland. 1981) r53 . was an important Irish god and DANANN Ieader of the TI]ATHADE The De He was mamed to NEMAIN. but later they in tum were then assumed the form of Niamh and told Cuchulainn that he must defearedby the sons of MILESIUS That Nuada was the great De retum to the war and fight. made by DIANCECHT. also had a silver hand. weddingto HighKing.CTITIC MYTHOLOGY NUnnn.ruled a May whatitwasplnguedbystrange Eve that scrarmIt transpired twosubtenanean duingan scream dragow causelthe sinhing Thq annunlbattb..or IJud. For a while berween the an abirdgodJrom otherNEMGITIN.ceumtN. Nuada's restoration as Caemach. Nodens wurs ing the Roman occupation. to came Mess in. He is described as sitting on his throne "with a white light about him as it had been a fleeceof silver. and in one tale was lanown as Llud Llawereint (" silver-handed") Bitain at a time NUDD. a Conaire was dissatisfiedwith it and umed god lwedthe andborehim son. also known as Nuada Airgedamh ("Nuada of the Silver Hand").his as leaderbecauseof the loss of his . Danann leader. Danann were a younger generation the of gods than the FOMORII. the nrins of a great temple have been found on the banks of the River Sevem. Nnu oF Tnr GolnnN Hetn was a daughter of the sea She fell in god uerueNNANMACLIR. also known as Llud to the Britons. known as Llud to the Bridsh. Buachallabeiorehu nvo battles.which was one of the otherworld realms. Nuada is cognate with rhe Welsh NUDD NUDD. there is no doubt. wqesoothedby oJ meadinba pitdugthrou$tthecantre the earth 0uusrnrnor ByAuN l. is the Welsh equivalent of He NUADA. The silver replacementwas to abeauttful plumage moulted reveal But Nuada she youthLilu kla andDanaebeforeher. Iove wrth the poet oISlNand they Iived happily together in the L-and of Promise. whose magrc hounds were also believed to be able to cure the worshipped dursick. who BvNrcK 1995) Mor. Niam bore the poet a daughter. sheJlav the hand. made him a new hand of flesh and was rhe wife of coNALL blood Dian Cecht slew Miach out NHUH was of jealousy. becamehis mistress She then ried At the second battle the lethal to prevent him retuming to battle But the witch BADB.

and the Fenians were called to arrns For only one week Finn MacCool was absentdealing OtStN. which followed them on the safely shut in by steep cliffs. oJeloquence. His followaway a snow-white through on steed golden ers. all hope of finding his mistressand the Oisin's uncle rerumed to his pleasureof hunting One day. Oisin's mother was a searchof everyremote hill. and forestin the country. acceptedtransmigration ghtful therw bq ondalldream deli o orld s. but that his limbs So Finn MacCool ordered mother was a gentle hind. He hounds began to play roufld her. valley none other than the goddessSADB. 0 ) I9i In some lrish myths Ogma is said to have married EtAtN. a beautiful quarry and Finn MacCool came deer started up on their path and upon them surrounding a naked the ensuing chase took them boy with long hair. he discovered that Sadb IeaderFINNMACCIIL According had been lured awayby someone to lrish mytholory. but she alwaysshrank away in fear and the man left in anger. who were rhe older sea gods who had challenged the TUATHA DANANN. This out success Eventuallyhe gaveup made OGMA. was with the Vikings On his rerum. and and as a result proposed the kinfilled withbirdsong scented Jlowers. or FIANNA. perhaps trick among shape-changers Irish in not a surprising achievement con. Ogham is made up of a series of vertical or sloping lines inscribed on a base line The sagastell of vast libraries of Ogham writing. told them that he did not know the and even to lick her head and identity of his father. who was a god described as rhe "Lord of I(nowledge" Besideshaving a truly remarkable skill as a poet. withoverflowing andwondrous mead ship of all living things creatures (lLLLrsrR. ) explained how a spell had been placedupon her. the son of rhe Fenian. by chance. Ogma was a fighter like other Irish gods and also.Finn MacCool organized Ifuowledge.CTITIC MyrHoLoGY OGMA *as the Irish god of eloquence and the inventor of Ogham.4rroru BySTEPHEN REID. however. keeping the the base of the Fenians. butwiththe granddaughter of oecoe. who was the daughter of the god of healing DIAN CECHT rhe second At and final battle of Magh Tuireadh Ogma slew Indech. the earliestsystem of wriring used in lreland.mythology) Realizingthat it must sidering how as a young man his be the enchanter whom Sadb had father had eaten the Salmon of rejected. that his his companions and dogs was dogs tracked down avery strange returning homewards. dark stranger came every now and again to see his mother. To way home until sunset. Ogma's task the idea of the transmigration of was a happier one since rhe Celtic souls from their Celdc neighbours otherworld was a delightful and In the sixth century sc the famous peacefulresdng-placefor the soul and unusual Greek philosopher prior to irs next rebirth in rhe $nhagoras left the Aegean island of world It is thought rhar Greek Samosand went to live in the city colonists in the westem end of the of Croton in southem Italy He becameexremely interestedin the OISINandthefairy maiden. but instead of atuchng their quarry the regardedthe boywith cunosiry. through animals and plans as well. like the the Greek god Hermes or the Roman Mercury. most likely a Viking raid. but that she had leamed that if Finn MacCool came to love her. When the stranger finally t54 . as Finn MacCool with It happened.Jlew theory of reincamadon. son of the FOMORII goddessDomnu Indech was one of the leaders of the Fomorii. consisting oJ vertical lines crossing a lateral baseline gham O messages carved stone were on and inscibed barhs wands hazel and or on oJ aspen Ovr 400ancient messages have By NrcK 1995 suw|ed(Irrusrnerroru BMLE. god of eloquence. which a was immortal. and the sagasthemselves were later recorded by monks using the Roman alphaber Ogma was a son of DAGDA. then all the enchantmen$ would ceaseto have power and she could resumeher normal shape So it came to passthat Sadb iived with Finn MacCool as his misress. though only inscriptions in stone carvings have suryived. That same nighr Finn MacCool awoke to find the most beaudful woman he had ever seen smnding next to his bed It was Sadb. His two best towards Tara.who believed that the soul was mistto theInnd of Promise. After the temble batde was over and the De Danann were victorious. god Ogham scipt. in fact. with that no harm should be done to the whom he lived in a quier valley deer. Ogma claimed as his pnze a magic Fomorii sword that was capable of recounting all the deeds it had performed invented the OGMA. and for months neither of them stirred from their dwelling Then news amved of invaders in ships off Dublin. Niamh. Finn exhausted animal stopped and MacCool and the other hunsmen croucheddown on the gound. he was responsiblefor conveying souls to the otherworld Whereas for the Greek and Roman messengergods this was a sad dury.the younger DE generation of gods of which Ogma was one. somerimesOssian. nor least becausethe hngdom of Hades was Mediterranean first encountered not an invidng place.At last the pack from seizing the child Having driven offthe dogs. the Irish capital and hounds were. Oisin was rhe disguised as himself (a common greatestpoet in Ireland. She their home a tall.

then I would say that he is a sffong man " So he was taken to the saint. on passing the old withered manAfter away slipped .he readily mounted the magic steed and was never seenbY his father again ln the orherworld kingdom he foughr against a giant in an underseacomFOMORII bat worthy of his father But aftera number of other exploits Oisin began to miss his own land of Ireland Niamh gavehim her magc horse so that he could visit his home. the hind was forced to follow him.4ANANNAN LTR OiSiN rnCT while on a hunt by the shoresof a lake Shesuddenly appearedriding a horse with silver hooves and a golden mane When Niamh toid Oisin how she had travelleda great distance to invite him to her father'sotherworld realm.lu rs. Finn MacCool embraced him as his own son by Sadb. and his songs and poetry were admired throughout lreland the OISIN. sole age Withhislyre he sangofthe maglcal of heroes and gods hrsera.but he also inhented the gentler abiliry of eloquencefrom his mother. 1910 ) appearedto Oisin almosr a strange land. quietly maglc as hisend strange hisbegnning as (lrrusrRarto| nvSTrpHrvRuo. 1800 ) His famous adventure concems NIAMH. for everyone he knew had died long before The peoPle seemedfar sadder and more carewom than the heroes he had grown up with By chance he came uPon a raggedgoup of men attempting to move a boulder. the and Irelandbleah cold. his saddle slipped and he fell to the ground In an instant the magic horse vanished and the valiant youngwarrior was tumed into a blind and frail old man A Christian addition to the end of this myth includes St Patrick everyone rook Oisin to be Because mad he cried out: "lf your god has slain Finn MacCool. suwivor oJa the aloneand bereJt. c.the daughter of the seagod hCT MAC A. who recorded his strange tale and explained the changes to Ireland since the amval of Christianity 155 . but told him not to dismount otherwise he would never be allowed to return lreland struck her with a rnagic hazel wand. people Jound aweary and andhimselJ and sad small. conjunngup the age phantomsoJ that bygone maglcal (Osstlx at Fnllcots Grtino.CeITIC MYTHOLOGY aJter OISIN returned from the othewvorld an his timeandJoundhimselJ old man. the l-and of Promise.on hisretum Jrom otherworld. which he easily lifted for them while still seatedon his mount However. although she tned to comfort her son as she left As soon as the boy finished this accounl. he legends. which involved one of the most difficuh coursesof raining imaginable. and immediately named him Oisin ("Little Fawn") He was trained as a Fenian warrior. and becamea shlled fighter like his father.

vision From Camelot.u 1984 Ceueto'r QefD. as when Culhwch set our ro find fa:r Olwen. setofr in searchof the Castleof the Fountain.honour and. Owain and rhe Grail l(nighrc were inspired by o rherworldly visions and ideals.such as the Grail. Other goals. to to wrongsand to winladtes and renown The dvenge a of JigureoJthe questinghnightbecame symbol aspiration (luusrnerror ByAr-AN 1984 LEE. leading the hero d o w n u n e x p e cr e d b y p a t h s o f adventure and discovery. Ownrru (abne). seehhonour.The goal is not alwaysthe most tantalizing part of the venture and might seem like a redious or even trivial rask.he a. En route he meets new friends and travelling companions. The impetus is sometlmes romantic. the questinghnight setJorthon joumrys of adventure and discovery. whichwasguarded by the Blach Knight He passedthrough thefairest vale untilhe sawo shiningcastleon thehill After enteing its otherworldlydomain CulhwchdeJeated Blach the Knight.ertnur' s shining city-castle. and went on to woo his widow AJtera rather dfficult beglnning. learns much-needed Iessons and carches sight of even more tantahzrng quests ahead. but servesto spur the travelleron his way. or retributory. inspired by the nle of Cynon. ) sy A. drew hnights of from far and wide to join the Fellowship the RoundTable. seem barely attainable. as when Geraint went forth ro avenge a wrong. ) .ercameher resentment.HERoIC QTJESTS puRSUrr a real or visionary goal forms the plot of many HE THRILLING of compelling tales of advenrure./.inspiredby ideak oJcourage. and guardedher realm until hisyenfor adventurelured him olf again QLLU|TRAn1N Lee.bur serve as shining symbols of aspiration. Wharever the goal. the quesr usually rakes on a magic of its own. while Peredur.

Tnn Gner Qursr (righ) prwed to be the and hardest.enchanted TwWth (/LLLrsrMloN BYAL4N Lrc.Twrch the between earsoJ theternble.sraartorALAN 1984 for ffi iiti 'ff '. wariors with suchshilland mrght that deJeatingcountless the he impressed localempress Aft'r Jightingherbattles. lamenting that the fairest fellowshipoJnoble hnightswould nuer meet again around thetable at Camelot Hewas nght.filled with colourfulpavilionsand a wondrous multitude oJ windmills and water-mills He lodgedwith thehead miller andjoustedtn the tournament. i irri . he ruIed with herJor Jourteen yearsbeJorecontrnvinghis Lrr-.forJnt oJhis companywuefittedJor andmarry the quest aNo Anvtnc pmshed (Tne DEPARTURE OF THE KNIGHTS BY E BURNE-JONE5 AND W MoRRls..the longestseiesof tashsrn Celttc mytholog En route thehero enlistedthehelp oJ Arthur's Culhwchin oneof hishardesttashs. razor and sctssorsJrom boar. war-bandwho asststed which was the retnonl oJa comb.. Arthur wept. TAPESTRY. ) Bisearch new adventures(lnt'. 1984 ) PERED uR's (above) quest adventure led him through Jor througha many wondrouslands At onepoint he passed lwely iver vallq.1895-96) CutuwcH's QeJt)quest theJair Olwen involvedthnryJor nine impossibletashs.highest greatestoJ all quests Many hnightssetJorth butJav returned \Vhen Arthur's wariors resolved undefiahethe to Grail Quest.

wasting as away untilrescuedby a nobluoman (IrrusrnenoN sv Au|v Lrc.CeITIC MyTHoLoGY OfWfN. one of King ARTHUR's warriors Culhwch's stepmother hated him so much rhar she cursed him to mary only Olwen. whose song could wake rhe dead and lull the living to sleep. Arthur's hnightsbattle with Owain's ravens.wtld. ) . who had to go to great lengths to securehts bnde (lrrusrnenow ByATAN 1981 LEE. until Arthur smashesthe pieces The game symbolizes abattle.borrow the drinking-hom of the underwater king Gwyddbwyll and rhe magc harp belonglng to Teirru (an instrument rhar played irself). find a wonsreal derful sceed and swift hounds. JIedintothe wiWaness andlived awildman. bring four srrong oxen ro help. OWAIN below)peers through tangled the branchesthewtldwood. Yspaddaden was so upser by the obvious affecrion berween Olwen and Culhwch that he set his daughter's lover a seriesof tasksin order to prevent the marriage Among other things. a boar's tusk for the giant to shave with and shaving cream made from a witch's blood: OWAIN and Arthur (below) appearin a warrior' s dream. in welsh mythology. obtain magic seed. Culhwch had to uproot a forest. make the smith god Govannon forge rools for the work. Culhwch said that "Ki. a comb. get a magic cup and a hamper of delicious mear.g Arthur will provide horses and men to help him win Olwen" He also informed the gianr thar he would retum to slay him. scissors and a razor from berween the ears of a fierce boar. wanders through the otherworld. Culhwch succeeded and married Olwen "and she was his only wife as long as he lived" The giant was killed by one of Culhwch's fellow knighs. ro nourish its crops.in flaming red.but the players simply play on. who MABON. and persuade a number gues6 to come of unlikely to Yspaddaden's by the stronghold. burn the wood for fertilizer and plough rhe cleared land in one day. leash and collar. broodingwoodedidyll Olwenwas lovedbyCulhwch. playing grvy ddbtvyll Duing the game. creature Overcome shame with after wronginghk he wtfe. hire as a huntsman Modron. son of first ro be had released from pnson. provide a magic cauldron. caprure the birds of RHmNruoru. force AMAETHON. Undaunred sheer size and cornplexity of rhe challenges. the god of agricukure. steal a maglc dog. provide honey nine times sweeter than thar of a virgin swarrn.depictedhere a as vibrant. 1984 ) OLWEN QeJ). possibly for swereignty (Itrusrnqrroru ByArr{N lggl ) Lee.. was the daughter of the gianr Yspaddaden and her suitor was CULHWCH. a girl whom rhe warrior came to love dearly.awarior of King Arthur's court.Iihe of a shy.

Oscar's mother was Eibhir. But had receded and cleared the island of trees ready for cultivation. ) ByARTHUR 0rrusrnnnoN w6 OSCAR. the waniors who acted as a bodyguard to the High King of Ireland.one of the best of all the FIANNA. The GAIAHAD. the race of Partholon were Arthur's court.which included saving of the Grail and allowed to hold it. Cailbe. whilehis country state. When a King ARTHUR's fellow warrior named cYNoN was defeated by ^ mysterious Black l(tught. the goddess SADB. son of Sera. PAnTHOLON. rhe long absenceof Owain wonied Kingfuthur a great deal. he glven to the "Maimed King" of the GMIL story in whose castle of was overcome with shame A remorseful Owain fled to the forest Carbonek the holyvesselwas kePt. Oscarwas a mighty fi. Finn MacCool first encountered while he was hunting. so he sent According to the myth. died of the PRNSTTru. Thus he became master of the he is said to have come out of the Castleof the Founmin. was the son of URIENand one of warriors. who fell in love with Sir L4NCELOT Sir Owain took up his arms.v Lea 1984) of rururuueccooL. When avery anry lady arrived was one of the names at court to accuseOwain of deceit. There he would have died known asAmfortas Pelleswas said but for a well-bom lady who used a to have been the father of Elaine. forgot about his wife. widow consented to marry him.He severelywounded the Black t(night but did not unseat him.the Black l(night. slew a and bore him the pure knight Sir who was the onlY one of dragon and befriended a lion. Soon the lord of the Luned from death by buming and slayrnga giant. High King Cairbe refused to pay the Fenians for their sewices and raised another band of fighters to rePlace them. OwntN. after living in Ireland for some five thousand out a party ef knights to find him Owain retumed with them to King years.was Owain persuaded Luned to plead believed to have led one of the early his causewith such successthat his invasions of Ireland Together with twenty-four men and their wives.Owain set out to find this stranger. His name means "deer lover" and recalls his grandwhom mother. PARTHOTON (abwe) Jound a lush. GrailCastle some w symbolizng an incurableound.SCC wound Owain had inflicted on him.ghter. and pursued the solitary life of a In other versions of the tale he is hermit. and when the lcright galloped off to a nearby casde. felt that the Fenians had too much power. Finn MacCool returned briefly from the otherworld to moum Oscar'sdeath. as the Black west after the waters of the Flood I(night's stronghold was called. where he was reconciled with his wife. which Finn MacCool brieflY lifted. who was said to be "a yellow-haired maiden from a warrn country". Not deterred by her grief. They seem to have spent the rest o[ their lives together in Kingfuthur's ROMANCE. he gavechase only ro find himself almost a prisoner once he entered its walls. knighs granted a vision knight and the lion had numerous ARTHUR's adventures. pnmal countrywhatheJirstlnnded in Irelsnd The foress and ploins wcre alive shy with strange.or Fenians. he spiitualimperJection. the son of olstN and the grandson a bloody struggle ensued. PgllnS treachery and unfaithfulness. But he lived during a dme when the ruler. AISO CELTIC court. redeeming the comingoJ hnight (lrLusrnAnoNavAu. (SCC HEROIC COMBAT. According to one version of the myth. and he gradually sricken by disease and theY all diedwithin thespaceof aweek. andbeaunful creatures Parihobn cbared the land for cultivation and inhis time threenavlnlus appeared. Sadb had been changed into a hind by ^ spell. maglc potion to restore his health. GrailKingguarded Grail Maimedby the in Corboneh. In a battle fought at Gabhra. Owain retumed to the Castle of the Fountain.CTITIC MYTHOLOGY PERCIVAL castle. who gave him a ring of invisibiliry.livedin a wilight awaiting wasted. in Irish mphology. Oscar hlled Cairbe in single combat but was himself mortally wounded. and r59 . in welsh myrhology. Owain was saved by a lady named Luned. near present-day Dublin. the Galahad. one of whtchwasnamedafterhts son c 1910 RACIGIAM. SINGLE QUESTS) the the PELLES.

However.tRZivnt Bl MARilN WtX. one of rhe three ladies who rook rhe dpng Ki.at which smoke. bur he was denied the complete vision and heavenlyreleasethat was eventually granred ro Sir GAMHAD." So annoyed and filled with remorse was Percivalby rhis moral lapse that he felt obhged to inflict a punishment on the weaknessof his own flesh by wounding himself in the thigh. and on its pommel was a red cross. rich man who had the allowed Christ's body to be placed in his tomb. rhe sign of rhe Crucifixion.headingtheOrder oJGrail Knights. the holyvessel that was used ar rhe Last Supper and which received the blood that flowed from the spear thrust in Christ's side at rhe rime of the Crucifixion The Grail had been brought ro Bntain by IOSE4H OF ARIMATHEA. and then ser off in quesr of the Grail. 1934 ) PfnCryRL. Sir Percivalunfortunately fell somewhat short of the high standard of conduct required for recovering the Grail.eNo. . aJterthe Knights Templar (P. CtNveS. "Our Lord's body between his hands". Meanwhile. he travelledto KingARTHUR's court and was duly made a knighr. sometimes hnownas ParstJal. who was also sometimes called Percevalor Parsifalin differenr traditions. The mysrerious Queen o[ the Wastelands. which reminded him of his knighrly dury ro behave as a good man. was Sir Percival's aunt On his personalquesr for the Grail. the PerJect Fool. the enchantress who had artempred to waylay him and diven him from his quest "set off with the wind roaring and PnngOUR in welsh mphology. "by chance and grace. was the seventh son of Errawgand the only surviving male. Sir IANCELOT's son Only Galahadwas allowed to touch the Grail. One day on his joumey he encountered a wondrous and mysterious ship and at once fell in entering her bed when. Sir Percival saw his unsheathed sword lyrrg on rhe ground. sometimes as Templeisen.g Anhur roAyALoNafter he had been wounded in rhe battle againsr MODRED.he becameGrail King.attained a glimpseof the Grail throughhis innocence Retuming Jrom Sarras. His father and brothers were hlled before his own coming of age. This did not prevent Peredur from becoming warriors and his one of ARTHUR's many advenrures formed the basis for the laterstories abour pERcIVAt. and then to die in rhe company of angels. was in larer Arthurian mythology somerhing of an ousider He was brought up in a forest far from the courr of Camelot and was completely ignorant of courdy manners However.CTITIC MyTHoLoGY PERCIVAL. rhe Grail was later lost and irc recovery became the great quest for rhe IGrightsof the Round Table The puriry of Sir Percival may have meanr rhat he was permirted a brief glimpse of rhe Grail. So he made the sign of the crosson his forehead.

fish and garne.CTITIC MYTHOLOGY raised rustic in secreqt. "For the third time the hag slew a man of futhur's before Peredur'seyes. fonhJorArthur's BvAr.^l nvAu^t 1984 Lre. Gwydion The the resourceJul dispute was to be decidedby singlecombat. and said it was Peredurwho was destined to slay all the witches of Caer Loyw " (Seealso HEROIC QUESTS) PnYOfnI.1984 number.Rhiannon and Pryderi disappeared ceeded him as lord of Dyfed and in another mist It later emerged rhat all the gave his mother in marriage to MANAW)'DAN. 1984) PRYDERI. although in Pryden's a spell laid on rhe household by an myth Manawydan appears as a enemy of Pwyll. armedwith and sharpened heset stahe. proud one ides out to joust with Peredur (lrlusrnqloru BYAIAN Lrr. lord of DyJed. the land helping to devour the crops were was desolate People. aftersevenyears.he was finally retumed home. then offering to cary his mother tried to save him. Pryderi came across her life had been very careworn a golden bowl fastened by four She had been falsely accused of chains on a marble slab Pryden hlling her son and was made to do went to pick it up. they finally decided to travel acrossthe border to Lloegp. Rhiannon renamed him Pryderi. and of RHmruNoru Pryderi was snatched from his cot bv one of years eking out an existence on wild honey. ) 16r . chieftain who discovered the infant in his stable The chieftain's wife named the child Gwri. Peredurwas particularly adept at defeadngwitches. them on her back into his hall When Pwyll died.marchedinto Gwyneddto awnge the theJtoJhis swineby maglctan. although tumed out to be the wife of Llwyd. his myth as it is told in rhe Mabinogon ends with a terrible duel between him and a leading witch. or "Golden Hair". of the Welsh sea strange events had been causedby son god Llyr. but when. Pryderi suc. who in Wales took to the field like knighs attired in full arrnour Indeed.AN ) court (IuusnarroN Lrr. but the matchwas unequalas Gvuydion bewitchedPryden with maglcal illusions (lrrusrnqrto. animals and his wamors ransformed by magic crops were gone Pryderi. Manawydan and Rhiannon ance. Pryderi's father morml warrior rather than a god At Manawydan discoveredthe trurh as their wedding banquet therewas a he was about to hang a mouse for peal of thunder and a misr fell "No eating their corn The creature one could seethe other. present-day But the skill of England Manawydan and Pryderi as craftsmen made them many enemies and they retumed to Wales ln a becauseduring the child's absence ruined castle. and orderedthe rest of the witches to flee. Pryderi and his mother had were the only peopie left After two been forced to work as donkeys Rhiannon's rejected suitors and a brought up by TEIRNON. but his hands penance by sitting at the gare of stuck to the bowl and he found hvyll's fortress and telling srangers that he couid not move or let it go He was also struck dumb When of her crime. "Care". spladid as a peacoch. was he entranced of a saddle twigs. the old enemy of Rryll Other mice the great hall was filled wrth light " When the mist cleared.and Peredurdrew his sword and smote the witch on the cresrof her helmet so rhat the helmet and all the arrnour were split into two And she raiseda shout. grav PEREDU& upstrongand butdanidoJcourtly aglle Whenhe three manners saw shining Daising a hnights. was the son of PWYLL. in welsh mythologr. PEMDUR arousedthe rageof the Pnde of the Cleaing whenhe suppedwith his his wife The arrogant hnight assumed wrfe's guilt and punishedheruntil Peredur JinaIIy challengedand werthrov him the Here. notable a chieftain of Dyfed in south Wales. his wife During their temporary disappearCigfa.

and As patiartas she fuaunJul. the ruler of Annwn fuawn told hvyll that he was being hanied by ^ rival named Havgan. the maids told hvyll how she had devoured the babyin the night. At one stage she and Pryderi were changed into donkep. During the period of exchange it was understood that Pwyll would not make love to Arawn's wife.was aision inwhite gold. becausewhen the babywas stolen her maids were so afraid of Rvyll that they blamed Rhiannon. was Pkiannon as a result his enraged father had endured. whom she had been promised. AII of ridinga WrV steel. Rhiannon suffered years of barrennessand. Rhiannon is a singular figure in Welsh mythology.AIAN 1984) o[usrncnoN l^ee. brnadd a in Rhiannon's noubles stemmed from silh Thetwoseemdmade each othr. had been restored and grown up. chieftan of Dyfed. however. whom she called ("Care"). even though he would shareherbed Pwyll. was Rhiannon PRYDERI excused from her penance (See . the man ro buta anse clorfirltheirWeandmaninge.dsguised abeggar. Indeed. These hounds were snow-white in colour and had red ears Pwyll drove them off and was serting his own pack on the cornered stag when a grey-clad horseman rode up and accusedhim of discourtesy for chasingaway his hounds. year. although a rival suitor never forgave him and laid a curse upon his household. she was unjustly accused of eating the baby. which meanr "Care". whom she named pRronru. and PwYLL. Even after the boy.CTITIC MyrHoLoGY Because of this curse. the Welsh otherworld. Rhiannon henself had her own magical aspect. For years no child was bom and. for the singing of her birds was said to be able to wake the dead and send the living to sleep. to a ival suitor thehand Rhiannon oJ Jor Once wapwered. They laid bones next to their sleeping mistress and smearedher face and hands with blood. since a second one immediately PWYI (abne). Everydayshe had to sit by his gate. he boasted the title Pen Annwn ("Lord of Beyond"). angeredat her barrenness. having successfullyhlled Havgan and fulfilled hls promise to Arawn. at which the stranger revealed himself to be AMwN.asf'r. for her rejection of Gwawl. 1984) P\AryLL was achieftain of Dyfed whose authoriry even reachedinto ANNwN. Pwyll imposed a humiliating penance upon her. MAGIC padence that still seems remarkAND ENCHANTMENT) able. When Rhiannon awoke in amaaement. after the birth of a son. and to slay Havgan.Pwyll treated Rhiannon at last. One day hvyll was hunringin the forest when he saw an unusual pack of hounds running down a stag. the spell condnued to dog Rhiannon. retumed home He then wooed and won RHIANNON his for wife. tell her ale rc every sranger who came and offer to canry them on her back to the great hall. both before and after Pwyll's death.andclad.t seen W and the long-suffering wife of hvyll. Not until the eventual retum of her son. She bore her suffering and injustice with a also CELIIC OTHERWORLDS. in welsh myrhology. hisbittq anrse but blighted mari4gevnthstrange thar mtsfoftunes B]. Pwyll accepted the charge and promised to make amends. lat withoutcomplaint her Iaid a spell on Pwyll's household 0uusrRrnop nY NaN ItE.lies as in waitwrth 100horsanan tnchGwaul. was the daughterof Hereydd. who could be slain only by a srngleblow.Gwawl agredtobave thetwoin peace. But her real nature was in all likelihood originally connected RHIANNON. RIIIANNON @lovt).

RONAN. ) c 1910 avAnrnuR ouusrnnnoru SADB.the king's second wife Eochaid loved Ronan's son more than her husband. the lrish equivalent of the great Greekhero Theseus. in their fury. he chanced upon a magical underwater island.one of the few Celtic gods or goddesses to be worshipped by the Romans. birdshenlwtth their maglcal song. so he called him olsltrl. from whose forehead a the shehadlblud tuJt deuhairwhere of "Little Fawn" fis boy. but although a goddess herself. on which li'uednine buunful women who slrpt on nine bronze beils Thar qa slwne with rainbow ltght. in Irish mythology. the popugreat Ieader of the FIANNA.IUSTMIoN ANoN ) qed a RU ADH. nuansand singlng as rcNens. an intrqid vqtagil. hcking the severedhead of his son before them like a football. Also. larly known as the Fenians. the At of the TUATHADE second batde of Magh Tuireadh Ruadan was sent to spy on'the Tuatha De Danann smith god Ronan ordered his son's execution who was busily making G2IBHNIU and died of remorse when he later spears. Rhiannon's stolen son was found in a stable and her punishment for Iosing him was ro act as a beast of burden to visitorswho came to herhusband's palace. When the stepson showed his honor of her passion. While some. Eochaid ended weapons and thrust it into the god. Although Ruadh promised faithfully to retum at the end of his voyage. gril. herweeping was said to have been the first keening in Ireland. the wizard returned and turned Sadb into a deer again Finn searched the whole of lreland for his lost mistress. but Goibhniu merely pulled it out again and drove it into Ruadan. gentle much oJhrhfea a anail drud tolive a Finn shebore MacCool deq. Rhiannon was riding "a big fine pale whire horse. RUnOnN. when Finn was away from home. On the island there lived nine beautiful women. however.was. It is tempdng to link her wirh the horse goddessEPoNA.torW archantingsongwassardtofu able to walu thedudandnlullthelMnginto a deepsbep. That night. such pre. was the son of the goddess BRIGID monally wounding him. meaning "Little Fawn". DANANN. half-noMoRll ruler field to bewail herson. dtscw secret rslandbeneaththe wana. hrg of Leinsrer. compelledby a SADB. pursued him. Eochaid toid her husband that the young man had attempted to rape her. in the tangled relations of his second marriage. Ruadan se2ed one of these leamed the truth.but the only uace he found of herwas a naked boywho had been raised in the wild. tfury lwely son. The women then informed him that together they would bear him a son.gyving tn hs name. her own Iife with poison. wa goddess. Sadb came to Finn as a woman and for a dme they lived happily together Then. was the misrress of rlruru MACC))L. when he swam away to find help for his dyrng crew. Oisin grew uP to become one of the most famous of all trish poets RHIANNON'S singing birds were heralfu Tharbeautifuland of theothem. was a voyager whose RUenH ship became becalmed off the nonh coast of lreland. (II. Celtk an andmyth are alwe with btrds of everyhind. The hero recognized him as his own son by Sadb. the bodyguard of the High King.CrlrIC MvrHoLoGY with horses When Fwyll first set eyes on her. Just like Theseus'secondwife Phaedra. he unfortunately forgot about his underwater lovers. According to lrish mythology. When the goddess Bri$d came to the battlethe and of BREs. and they.ge doom. and for nine wonderful nights Ruadh slept with all of them. Hwaner. covered with a garment of shining gold brocaded silk". Sadb had been placed under a powerful spell by a wrzardand was compelled to take the form of a deer. &rcxnnu. bavitchingfuafi for nine blissfd nighs beforehe grav ratless again 1995 BY BE4r4 ) orrusrMnoN NrcK 163 . She first appeared to the hero while he was out hunting. in lrish mythology.

he reachedan rslnnd surmountedby a fortress with a brazen door and a glnssdrawbndge which thrut the trm. some of timeless delights and some of deadly perils.CTITIC MyTHoLoGY EaT\TTT^^T-r rAI' U LTJ U \ ) V LJ YAtrl. en route. tluy reachcdhqwondrous kb of blosnmingtrea.Cehic voyagersexperienced time walp. shevngalny about her lnely home acrossthe sen whbh inspiredBran andhslansmn to *t sail Far out to ea.) T ^^\rr a ^ T- r- HEEptcvoyAGES Celtic myth are fabuloustours of the otherworld.a telling signoJ Whn thq struchthe the othemvorld.u. just one of 50 in timclas joy ail plnty Bran's oart oavdthe sruch delightfnhearcns vfwe rulclived Yet an tN wn. Maeldun. passed through a fabulous archipelngo ln one strihing eprsode.rur.r . clnngpngsr<olrnlns oJ thar homeland ouusrnrnor rr D. and a yeamirg for the changirg seasons his homeland.left besde him as he slqt l-ater a beauttful worwn chd.The yen ro travelitself was often of inspired by tales of the otherworld. in othaworlilly robes cameto rerlaim theboufit. and the scilon found themwlves BMN's (abwe) voyage wa sparhedof by a blossoming and scentedsilvu fairy bough. Another featureof the restless Celtic voyager was his eventual disenchantment with otherworldly delights. exploring a myriad of dreamlikeisles. a soponfc sound sent them to sbep until thq awohe to the welcoming voiceof the castle's enchantress When Maeldun tned to woo her. Like time travellers.usually of through an archipelago wonder isles. Like another intrepid voyager. bronze door. and the epic tnps of both Bran and Brendan were sparkedoff by otherworldly visions.ellen bacluards . the whob cnstle dissolved. of MAELDL/NAeJt) sg1sail to avengehis father's murder and. they sailedacrossthe oceans. either retuming home long alter their time or a condemned to wander on a iourney without end.

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at the end of the quest. who lay between life and death in his castle It seems. in Pucival and Bors. once inside the body of one of Cuchulainn's enemies. the Grail was always associatedwith the early Christian settlement at Glastonbury Another miraculous object connected with the Grail was a bleeding lance or spear. the chivalrous Sir GAWAIN immediatelyvowed to seek out its home in order to see the Grail for himself Many of the Kttightt of the Round Table made similar vows. much to the distress of Ki. but clencs were always aware of its links with pre-Christian rites (See also WONDROUS CAULDRONS. It was. nothing lessthan a Celtic cauldron of plenry When. After holding the Grail in his own hands. ct'qss. "the firsr Chrisdan bishop" There remains. and was unhaPPy that he wanted to fight her sister A)IFA In the event. thirty barbs opened to tear the the stomach apart \JATHACH. in fact. a powerlul charge of Celtic magic in . When "the Holy Grail covered with a white cloth" appeared ar Camelot.ruc GRA|L DANTE SANGREAL AeJt). GrailMaidens angelic bears thedweoJheaven a goldcenser from "a as which arose savour iJall thespicebf the ther'e" world been had the . the womerr. Sir used its magic power to GAIAHAD cure a mysterious ruler. wasbornebach to Galnhad. One myth recounts that her most famous pupil was the Ulster hero CUCHUIAINNShe taught him his famous battle leap and gave him the spearnamed Gae-Bolg("Bellyspear"). the Grail became "Our Lord's body".aJter inspiingthe great questin Bitain. Cuchulainn was able to defeat Aoifa by trickery and made her his next mistress sinfulnessof the times lndeed. rhe "Maimed Ki. c 1890 ) this Christian myth. OF Brought to Bntain by IOSEPH ARIMATHEA. the vesselfilled Kingfuthur's hall with the most tasty smells. holyvessel of Arrhurian mythology during the Middle Ages.andwas celebrated a Euchaistic Mass bejoreoscendingto heaven Couurnv (How rHe GMIL ABlDlrH tN A FAR BY WTLLIAM MORRIS. but it was thought not to have left Britain. certves. It was said to be the cup that Christ drank out of at the Last Supper It was also believed ro have received the blood which flowed from the spear thrust in Christ's side at the Crucifixion.g". that Sir PERCIVAL was originally the knight who saw the Grail. "who had trembled when his mortal flesh beheld spiritual things" lt is even stated that Sir Galahad was a descendant of the same Joseph. Sanasby the three goodhnights. rather that it was hidden somewhere in the country becauseof the was SANGRML Oelow) guardedby Here. it allowed Sir Galahad to live on in a Chrisdan otherworld This obvious debt to Celtic mythology meant that the Church never fully embraced the Grail as a Christian symbol The gre^t populariry of Grail stories forced a degreeof toleration. the mere presenceof rhe holy vessel was enough to act as a challenge to most knights to pursue a path of goodness.On its unseen arrival at Camelot. daughter of Scathach. was Cuchulainn's mistress during his year of training. for Joseph of Arimathea administered it as part of the sacrament to Sir Galahad.g who feared the Ioss of his ARTHUR. the draught that Sir Galahadtook from it atJoseph of Anmathea's request ensured his spiritual suwival Like a Celtic cauldron of rebirth. and that it was only in Iaterversionsthat Galahad took his place as the only knight worthy of such a vision The Grail was lost. so that the I(nighs of the Round Table ate and drank as never before.however. best fighting men But only Sir Galahad successfully completed the quest and died contented. recalling spiq "greal" oJ Celtic myth oF Gm DAMSEL RossErrl. the young knight's soul was releasedfrom his body and "a great multirude of angels bore it up to heaven" That the Grail was the representation of the body and blood of Christ there can be no doubt.CeITIC MYTHOLOGY or Grail. nevertheless. HEROTC QUESTS) ScrqrHecH (whosename means "shadowy") was a warrior-princess in the Land of Shadowsand tutor in the martial arts.rhe rich man who buried Christ.1874) BY rur S. was the SnNCnenL. or by his brother-inlaw Bron and his son Alan. Although it made a single wound on entry.

DECHTTRT swallowed a fly and fallen into a deep sleep ln this state she went to the othervrzorldwith Lugh and there conceivedCuchulainn While Cuchulainn was single-handedlY defending Ulster againstthe invading forces of Queen MEDB of Connacht.C 1870) Searbhanand he allowed them to SCOfnwas said to be the earliest shelter in the branchesof the magtc known ancestor of the Scots tree.the the the FIANNA. Goidel. who gave his name to the Gaels In another tradition. she was the wife of and was killed fighting MILESIUS DANANN TheTUATMDE in Irish mythology. AN UISTCITNAN. lrish mythology. hard-pressedlovers becameits guardian {tae simplest.]CHULIAIN SNTENTN SCC the night of her wedding to had Sualtam Mac Roth. guardeda magrcree. became her husband and bemes that grew on the tree. managed to become friends with ATTAINMENT BYWILIJAM MORRIS.the mostworldly. Fomoii g1ant. But the severed head continued rhe call to arms long enough to rouse the warriors Sunrrnu Mec RotH. although the hero's real father was the sun god LLIGH On SEARBHAN Q{t). warrior. thE were weahenedby Macha's curse The cies oJthe severedhead atlostbrohe the spelland rousedthe men Rep. Suaham Mac Roth attempted to gather the men of Ulsterwho had been weakenedbY did curse So desPerateiY MACHA's he tum his horse that Suaitam cut off his own head with the sharP edge of his shield. one of the was a FOMORII ancient sea gods This one-eyed. Diarmuid I. arcn aJter them rn liJe hs death Hehad exhorted as without success. from and DieRMUIDuA DUTBHNE returnedto tell the tale: Percival. IAPE5TRY. he accepted cucuuL+INN as his owrr son. was the brorher of FERGUSMAC ROTH. she was the daughter of an However. Searbhanand Diarmuid Egyptian pharaoh A wrse teacher came to blows when Grainne named Niul.the purest. who had settled in attempted to eat some of the maglc Egypt. which no one dared approach However. squattingat itsfoot all day The eloping a lwers. one-arrnedand one-leggedfighter the Fomorii wamor was slain CI. and they had a child.J Duibhne and in Grainne sheltered its branches. SennnHnN. i'. beheldits contents.CeITIC MYTHOLOGY SANGREAL (abwe) wasattainedby three verydtlferenthnightsGalahad. the surly one-qed guardeda magic tree.but Grainne dwelopeda cravingJor the tree's maglcbemes This so anragedthe glant and the thatheand DiarmuidJought mighty Searbhonwos slain with his own club luusrntnoNANoN) SUALTANI MAC ROTH'S (ight) head rallied the Uktermen to battle. which made it difficult for According to one version of the FINN MACCIIL to find them myth. during the sixteen-yearflight of GRelrurun Bors.1910 nv ) to fight (luusrpqrorr Stepnrx r67 .

and his soul ascended to heaven".TU was rhe daughrer of a ruler of the FIRBOLG and wife of Eochaidh Mac Erc. ) rvSrurrnr l99l (whose name means ThnnNtS "Thunderer") was one of the few Celtic gods with whom the Romans idendfied and he was often equated with Jupiter. Agiant clawed hand came through the stable window and took the new-bom foal. also called Tounds. a fish and a bird before being eaten by the wirch in the form of a grain of whear. Nexr day an orter rerumed rhe psalter unharmed. was one of rhe Celdc gods mentioned by the Roman historian Lucan and is often equared with the god Mans.{NDA Gptt'. and everyyear on the eve of the first of May the animal gave birth to a foal. St Ronan thanked heaven for this and cursed Suibhne. Taranis is usually depicrcd wirh his symbol. The wheel. ried to restrain him. afrer a year of boiling. here represents the electnclight of a thunderbolt.ingvision. which rook place on the first day of Augusr. he declared that the festival of Lughnasadh be held in her honour.he of alreadry surpassed allofArthur'sbards spiitrnlinsight in Heisportraydhue avisionary as spiit whowas one ot wth theforces nature of (IuusrncnoN Lrn:. As Gwion Bach was tending rhe fire beneath the cauldron. when a messenger arrived to summon him to an ally's aid on the batdefield. sly godwhom theRomansequatedwith their supreme deil Jupiter. In one version of his story he was the servant of rhe witch CERIDUIEN and was named Gwion Bach. TnUfnffS. nor unlike the Olympic Games. I am new. Ir was originally the occasion of a nadonal sponing compedtion. symbolized by the trident. in lare Irish mythologrwas a hng cursed by St Ronan. During the chase he transformed himself inro a hare. sezed the saint's psalter and threw it in a nearby lake. the wheel. Teimon owned a beaudful mare. His name means "a people" or "a ribe" and so it may well be that rhe manllinscripdons to him are acrually dedicated to local deities of a region rarher than to a single pan-Celdc figure. The furious Ceridwen employed all her magic powers to pursue the boy. One day King Suibhne was outraged to learn that. Teirnon and his wife took the child in and raised him as one of their own. She was said ro have cleared the forest of Bregso rhar it became a plain. the resemblance to pwyLL became increasingly marked until they knew that he was the missing son of Rvyll and RHmNNoN. Ceridwen prepared a magic brew thar. "the thunderer". Becauseshe was the foster-mother of the sun god LIIGH. a msk which killed her. wctsa Celtic IA&{NIS. Monumens to Taranis have been found all over the Celdc world. He rhen laid hands on St Ronan. "rhemad one". after "died a Christian TALIESINwas prophetic whowas a bard gtfted all-hnou. I have been alive. which mysteriously disappeared One year Teimon decided to keep watch ro see what would happen. Whoever swallowed these precious drops would know all the secrersof the pasr. which is sometimesusedas a symbolof the sun in Celtic art. was wtth which by rymbolized his shiningbrw At the youngage thirteen. The word "taran" is srill used in modem Welsh and Breton to mean thunder. a three-pronged spear. Eorann. Ronan was founding a church on his land. but as he grew. wzls ro peld three drops of knowledge. He hacked off the hand bur heard a crying coming from ouside and found a threeday-old baby boy lying on his doorstep. " (See also SAGESANDSEERS) . When Sr Ronan heard abour this recovery.Jonx. "l have been dead. rhe present and the fuure. 1994 ) THI. Another priest took pity on che tormenced man and wrote which down Suibhne his sad tale. later Gwion Bach was thrown inro the sea and was caughr in a fish-trap and renamed Taliesin because of his radiant forehead. who assumed the characteristics of a bird. TAUESIN ("Shining Brow") was a Welsh wizard and bard and according to Welsh mythology he was the firsr person ro acquire rhe shll of prophecy. leaping from rees for seven yeam before his reason rerumed. from the Adriatic coast ro the nonhem regions of Britain.Crlrrc MyrHoLoGy SutnnNe GEILT. wirhout his permission." he said. So Suibhne was once again on the brink of madness as headlessbodies and severed heads hanied him. another Firbolg hng. (llr-trsrnAfl(r^l By MTR. some of the hot liquid fell on hrs finger and he sucked it ro relieve the pain (much like FINN MACCOOL when he was cooking the Salmon of l(nowledge). TnnNON was lord of Gwenr Is Coed and fosrer-farherof pRrornr. "I am old. Although his wife. the hng rushed ro the new foundadon. he prayed that the hngwould not retum to persecure Chrisdans.

arcn the though he doubtedhis chqnces because oJ his illlcrt love Iseult At one stagein his Jor TruSfnN. separation and their dearhs The Iovers' end was particularly touch- ing Having agreed ro pan. ruIersoJ the realm (lr-r-usrnqrror Lrr. watchingthe birth of a JoaI. qvasthairy arm thrust was shoched see to throughthestable window After hachingat thearm withhis sword. t'or only thepurestcouldattain the Grail (lLLLtstRqrtnru nv EvrLvrv PAUL. the srory of Tristan and tsrulT was popular in Cornwall. the which served only to quash theirscruples Victonan The design captures extreme the nature oJ courtly lwe luusrntloN peut. rhe nephewof King MARK Comwall. he wasstruchbachby aburningbeamof light.Crlrrc MyrHoLocy TEIRNON. uo had the in Jallen love before sipping potion. where King Mark wait- ed to marry her The ensuing taie relates the sad course of rheir love. the Irish queen. 1984 ByAL{N ) ro Comwall. Ireland and Bnttany A love porion prepared by Iseult's mother. but later was gravely wounded and sent for help from Iseult. 1900 ByEvELTN ) quest.enchantedby lwepotion. an incorrect report of a black sail caused Tristan to lose rhe will to live and he died of his wound When Iseult was rold of her lover's death she too quickIy died. bur of a broken hearr (See also CELTIC ROMANCE: SINGLE COMBAT) THoues THE RHyueR see CELTIC OTHERWORLDS TRISTAN humbly sought Grail.900 ) 169 . c .heJounda splendid castleall alight and alive with song Sadly. at each gaze other rapture in In one legend. boy whomhe raised and who turnedout to be the lost son of Rhiannonand \mll. was the cause of their grear love Tristan and Iseuh drank ir accidentallywhen Tnsan was escorring her TRISTAN Iseult and a Aef).TeirnonJound a beautifulbaby in thestable.however. was one of the of great lovers of medieval myrhology His name is said to have been glven ro him after his morher's death in childbirth Of Breton origin. who had once before cured him of a serious wound she sailed ro Bntnny cure So with a magic It had been agreed rhar the hoisr a ship carr..nng lseult would white sail to indicare rhat she was aboard However. Tristan wen[ ro Brittany.

shilfully . was an inexhaustible pot that was capableof sadsfyingevery appetite It is clear that the gods known in lreland as the Tuatha De Danann were common to all Celtic peoples Their namescan be found inWelsh myths and in inscriPtions on the continent of EuroPe ln lreland they were not entirely lost with the advent of ChristianitY. It rePresented both war and feasdng. father of the son god LUGH To atone for this crime. ancestorsof the present-day lrish The Tuatha De Danann overcamethe FOMORII. Between his ears he kePt a comb. as well as in statues and carvings. 170 .CTITIC MYTHOLOGY TuerHe Dr DnNANN were "rhe people of the goddessDana" in Irish mythologr They were the lasr generation of gods to rule Ireland before the invasion of the the sons of MILESIUS.and hereMabon. the spearor sling-shotof the sun god LUGH.an went to live ancient raceoJ lnsh gods. a subterhadhis own sparhling ranedncourt whichglittered with wonders Lrc. Falias. the magic sword of NUADA. vrolentand monstrous seagods. bnngrngback to lreland such magicalobjects as a healing pigshn belongingto a hng of Greeceand a cooking spit from an undersea hngdom When fulfilling their final labour they were badly wounded and Tuireann begged Lugh for the pigskin to cure his sons. the De Danann were believed to allow mortals to enter their realm was the Irish father TUtnnnNN of three sons who killed Cian. which screamed aloud when the rightful king of Ireland placed his foot upon it. The retrieval of these objects was one of the hardest of the tasks that the giant Yspaddaden set CUHWCHwho wanted to marry his daughter oLwEN.eoch sidhe. the bringer of vrcroryover the Fomorii. therenownedhunter.S CATS (ILLUSTMTION BY AIAN Lrc. a pair of scissorsand a razor. was a king who was tumed into a gigantic boar for his sins. celebrated on the last du1 of October to mark rhe new year. Gorias. Apart from having their exPloits recordedby the monks who wrote down the lrish sagas. which was a weapon that could only inflict faml blows. ar the second battle of Magh Tuireadh largely because of their superior magic They were said to have learned magic. 1984 ) TUATIIA DE DANANN (above). Lugh demanded that the sons of Tuireann should perform a seriesof near impossible tasls.ne snatches treasure Jrombetween the bOAT. but the god refusedand they died TWRCH TRWYTH helow)wos aboar een benv his that guardedthreetreasures ears which Culhwchsought to retnue Arthur'swar-bandhuntedthe boar. which DAGDA. ByAr-AN 1984 within (lnusrnqrroru ) TwncH TnwYrH. The boar was an important animal to the Celts and appears in many myths. and the cauldron belonging to father of the gods. crafts and knowledgein four mawellous cities of the nor[h.the Tuatha De Danann took up residence underground as the faines On the ancient Celtic feast of Samhain. underground aJtertheir defeatbythe Milesians Beneathgasry mounds. their great war-leader. in welsh mythology. Finias and Murias From these ciries the Tuatha De Danann brought to Ireland four talismans:the Stone of Fal. as the slayerof BALOR. was who.

Uther was able to sleep with lgraine because he was disguised as her husband.r. tied to build a grand castle. while Arthur was taken by Merlin was a British ruler VORilCERN who hiredJutish mercenaries. who had been Cuchulainn's tutor in the martial ars When Uathach sewed eachother and sitwithout quarrelling Turning to Merlin. of Dagda's harpist hit upon the incredibleidea of having a round table at which 150 hnightscould see URIEN. laoghaire and cox. he called out to the harp to free itself. in Irish mythology. and the result of their union was Arthur The wrzard vrnriru helped in this deceprion and later Uther kilied Gorlois and married lgraine. he forgot his own srength and accidently broke her finger while taking a dish from her hand Her scream brought her pre- vious lover to Uathach's immediate aid. and was proclaimed by the giant as the Irish champion After the himannouncement uath revealed self to be CURoI. affth-century ruIer of Bntain. Duke of Comwall. according and.It was stolen by the FOMORII. but it kept collapsing When was consulted he said that MERLIN a red dragon (the Saxons)battled with a white dragon (the Britons) beneath the fort and that the red dragon would evenruallywrn. provided that he would then lay his own head on the block for the giant to decapitate Only Cuchulainn rose to the challenge. a precocious seer. The harp responded by killing nine Fomorii and then singing Dagda's praises Uaithne was also the name UTHER PEMRAG ON.r nvAuw Lr. UAITHNE was the god Dagda's inspired harpist Hehad.qTHACH was one of rhe lovers of the great Ulster hero and champion CUCHUI-AINN. U. Arthur'sJathu.including rhe work of raurslru When the Angles invaded.1984 ) 17l . destroyingthe castlewalls (Irrusrnqtror. threeequallygfted sons who playedsuchsad musicthat on one occasiontwelvemen died weepingfrom sorrow The Celtic bardsaccompanied their music wlth lyncs which perpetuated the legends down the generations (Ir-r-usrpcrroN ) ANoN UefH ("Horror") was the name of the water giant who challenged the three lrish heroesCUCHUIAINN. Gorlois. he ashedhim to design a table "round in theliheness theworld" of (lrlusrMnoN ANON ) the hero food. was the magic harp of the TUATFIA DE DANANN god DAGDA. ruled Rheghedin north-west Bntain His courageand skill as a walrior were celebratedin many songs. father of owarru. Unen is said to havefought a successfulcampaign againstthem andbesieged them on the island of Lindisfame UrHrn PnNonRcoN (whose name means "dragon head") was ARTHUR's father According to lateBritish mytholory. the daughter of the female warrior SCATTIACH.was consultedand revealed that two dragonsbattledbeneath site the wery night. the Munster kirg. to lrish mythology. enemies the of the De Danann When Dagda discoveredwhere it was. but Cuchulainn easily slew him in rhe fight that followed and afterwards Uathach transferred her affecrion to the vicror UATH submitted three Iishheroes to a beheadingcontest testthnr courage to and Jind the champion of Ireland The rules allowedahero to behead glantbut only the iJhe could return theJavouf on the next day Only Cuchulainnhadthe courage to behead glantand placehisheadon the the bloch (tnvsrneroN ByJAMEs Alrxrrvorn. ) 1995 YORflGERN.qLLrc abeheading contest Each was invited to and chop off the giant's mke an a:<e head. but the walls hept crumbling The boy Merlin.CTITIC MyTHOLOGY UAITUNE. but as increasing numbers of Saxons came inro Britain he fled to Wales Here he tried to build a stronghold.

: .ru.

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Mjollnir. while rhe Slavs are made up of Russians. an ancient group once spread right across the tundra of Europe and Asia.bears theweaponshiswarcraft. In the Balkans the Slavs not only encountered Onhodox Chrisdaniry. there are difficulties wirh Vladimir's own pagan beliefs prior to his conversion to Christianity. the influence of Christianiry and lslamic rule replaced the native story-telling Of Baltic myrhologlr next to nothing now exists. Slovacs and Poles. Fortunately. Croa6. but were later for a time under Islamic rule also This long Ootw. English. It is rherefore likely that the Slavic thunder god Perunu had already absorbed much of Thor's mythologr. and any of their exracdon. Norse. Although a nadve hammer-god undoubtedly existed before the Vihngs arrived in the 860s. the god of flocks.t2rH cENruRy) isolation from such Slavonic influences did not bode well for Balkan mythology As rhe mphs were never wntten down. chroniclers of rhis event noted the srange worship accorded to the rhunder god Perunu or Veles. It is a fact thar the overwhelming bulk of mythologl surviving from nonhem and easrem Europe is Scandinavian and lcelandic in origin. theleadingwarior oJtheVihings. peoples of River Dnieper was a by-product of Viking exploration. the imponance of northem wariors in Novgorod and Kiev made it inevitable that the Russian god would be identified wrth his Germanic counterpan The strength of the Vihng presence can be judged from the Arab raveller Ibn-Fadlan's accounr of the ship cremadon of a "Rus" Ieader on the Volga river in922. the Lapps of Finland and their cousins. is wieldinghis god fiery thunderbolt. axeandspearThestylized of an tree depicted beside rymb him olizesgdrasil. such as the inhabitanrc of rhe Baltic shore: the Prussians. Dutch. god atleft. Most Slavic gods are nor much more than names. He was of Swedish descent and the "Rus" state he ruled on the 174 .Serbs.the WorV Y TreeAt centre thethundu Thor. although some idea can be formed of the pantheon The brutal truth is that European mythology has escaped the Baltic fate only where by historical accident it was written down In the case of Celtic Germanic and of Slavic descent Today the former group includes Germans. lcelanders.INTRODUCTION INTRoDT]CTIoN HE MYTHOLOGY NORTHERN OF AND eastem Europe is essentiaily that of two main groups. are actually the scattered remnants of rhe Uralians. Without such passing resrimony our scant knowledge would be almost nonexistent Even so. while nght. and the lirtle we know about their worship is usually as a consequence of its Christian terminarion [n Russia the conversion of Vladimir in 989 to rhe Orthodox faith involved rhe ransacking of pagan remples at Kiev. Frqrbears earof at an corn to represent hts Jmtlity (Taprsrny. Danes. Swedes. Rumanians. Bulgarians. Further north there are conrriburions from the Finns and the Lapps of Sweden and Norway The northemmost people of all. Other peoples have also contributed to the mythological tradition of the region. Their beliefs remained similar ro those held by the tribespeople of Siberia unril quite recent times For rhe purpose of rhis book these traditions have been grouped rogerher under the generic [errn. Norwegians. the Samoyeds of Russia. Lithuanlans and Letts.

only joining together in temporary alliances for military expeditions. no stronghold.tnvtruc. Odin himselfwas desdned to be killed by the wolf Fenrir. planned his thatReg1n. since Odin. And much of Germanic mythology would have been lost in its tum without the efforts of the Icelandic scholar and statesman Snorri Sturluson. Iike the forces that attacked France in 842 or invaded England in 866 Their magnificent ships and expert seamanship gave them mastery of rivers and seas.) the war god said "the grey wolf watches the halls of the gods". 175 . the goddess of fertiliry.and enabled them to travel far and wide. He also inspired the frightful berserkers. Viking warriors were largely organized in small bands or ships' crews. but it was sunk beneath waves of northmen and pirates." noted the Annals oJ IJlster. were desperately needed for the final battle on the Vigrid Plain. "so that no harbour.The classical heritage of Greece and Rome was presewed like that of the Cels in monastic libraries. when a vigorous tradition formed around the heroic deeds of Odin.the Danes. the shield-bidng fighters who rushed unheeding and naked into the fray. and then break up again. When the Danish king Harald Warcooth complained about Odin's fickleness. These dead warriors. trading voyages or piracy. "The sea spewed forth floods of foreigners over lreland. the doom of the gods. flung the old king down and slew him with his sword as he fell. Gathering to Valhalla the heroic warriors slain in battle was the only policy Odin felt he could sensibly follow under the constant threat of Ragnarok. crvrunY. no casde. dragon. The lrish lamented the Viking onslaught most.put to sea in search of plunder and land. approximately 750-1050. It is hardly surpnsrng that aggressiveVihng warriors loved hearing about the exploits of one-eyed Odin. although on occasion they built up armies or large fleets of warships." In 836 the Vikings had decided to set up a permanent raiding base on the site of present-day Dublin. where nearly all would fall in an encounter between the gods and the frost giants. Thor and Freyr Still untouched by Christianity. providing detailed explanations of the old myths. oJ ternble theheart the Slcuno roasts the was which splashedwith dragon's his sucla thumb the gained Sigurd blood.TNTRODUCTION mythologywe are fortunate in the care taken by Christian monks in lreland to record the ancient sagas. who was acting as his charioteer. tutor (Wooo 12ru c. They mlght sewe under a famous leader for a while. the Einheqar. no fort. after the Germanic peoples overran the western provinces of the Roman empire. no beach. and FaJnir. might be found. At the tum of the thineenth century Snorri Sturluson wrote a handbook for poets on the world of the Germanic gods. the restless and adventurous Northmen . Norwegians and Swedes. the way he gave luck in battle and then suddenly withdrew it again. This chief of the Germanic gods exened a special fascination as "father of the slain" He shared those who fell on the battlefield with Freyla. He was recalling the sagas of the Viking era. the monstrous offspring of the fire god Loki and the frost giantess Angrboda. Whether Harald Wartooth accepted this as an adequate answer is uncertain. otherworldly bloodOn tastingthe and to birdsong learnt power undmtand from thebirds treachery the sleepingby fire.

Thor is represented in the sagas as an honest and straightforward person. aregnevingtheloss who oJ thar Rhinegold (ItusrnerroN BYARTHUR R4cKfiM.sword-age". troublesome the godtdunts Rhine the Maidens. either as farmens or traders. Loxt below). helow). who had fled southem Norway to avoid the Odinlike acdvities of leaders like Erik Bloodaxe. Odin's son. be they encroachmenrc by frost gians on gods. rnov 1760) The "axe-age.INTRODUCTION Vttnqu-e. c 1900 ) L76 . was destinedto werwhelm the world at Rngnaroh (Irrusrnerrorl Tnr pRosEEDDA.housed Odin's phantomarmy oJheroicwarnors.many-spiredHaIl of the Slain. He was very popular with lcelandic colonisrs. or even overzealous Christian missionaries on pagan temples. the splendid. Thor was indeed a reassuring supematural presence in both divine and human crises. gatheredtofight at Ragnaroh. or local tyrans on farmers.thepreordaineddoom of the gods On the right. But for rhose who settled down as colonisrs. Ever handy was his rhunderhammer Mjollnir. hebecame darh but so ondttistedthathis malice threatened stabtlity the the oJ world precipitated and Ragnaroh Here. which was the age that would lead up ro the carasrrophe of Ragnarok. an alternadve god ro worship was Thor. fiery ticluter god. jusr a cenury or so before Scandinavia was converted to Christianiry. a magic instrumenr wirh powers of destruction. Although "allergic" ro frosr giants. It was hardly suqprising then that Thor became a greatergod than Odin ar rhe close of the Viking era. must have seemed like a description of contemporary times to rhe footloose Vikings. Jormungand.wastobegln a the wth mischiwous playJul and pranluter. fertiliry and resurrection. the massiye World Serpenr. Thousands of them revealed their allegiance in the choice of family name: Thorsten or Thorolf were most common.

-\ f" / ( .INTRODUCTION ARCTIC OCEAN NORWEGIAN SEN FARoE ISLANDS 00' I ATLANTIc OcEarrl SHETLAND ISLANDS not' V FIT. Srernru D BA LT IC sEn RuSSIA o Docnuu rF 'b4\ I I(rvl ) T "j"ilt \{.TLAND sioRKNEY lslaNDs Novconoo LrNosrenxr ELA NoRTH ORK SER K F'r il"?./' / f j': I i i f\r \"r' c: B LACK SEN D .

the brothers of Odin. and the forces led by Loh AlnrntCH seeANDyART AnGIR'ssister-w{e. rhe destrucrion of ships and rheir crews To ensure a calm voyage. but he pretended thar he had no cauldron large enough for rhe task In fact he disliked being told what to do But undaunred. the god of war T1?. ftrsthehadtoprove his but that in a splendid hall supporred by great wisdom made forhissmall up stature pillars of red gold and coveredwirh Thor quizzedhim prolonged test and the a roof inlaid with silver. were one branch of rhe myrhology.was a Germanic sea god. one of the gods exchangedwith the Vanir. Odin's wife. rhe trickster LOKI. but the god's hammer saw off Hymir and his gigandc friends As a result. FRIGG. the seagod w. the husband of MN and father of nine daughters. which sheusedto snatch unsuspecting satlors from the dechs oJ shipsand dragthan down to theseabed Sheentertainedthem in her coral cayes. another of Odin's sons. one time th€re possessorof a magic hammer of At was a war between the younger inesistible force In pq/ment for rhe Aesir and the older Vanir. SIF. although no details of his descent survive Aegir was sometimes depicted as a very old man with whire hair and claw-like fingers Whenever he rose from his underwater hall.who werehnownas the billow maidens The hissing.ALUS ("All Wise"). the wife of Thor.whose mighty magic hammer was the only weapon the frost giants feared. Alvis who.several a test of knowledge to srop rhe of the leading Aesir wenr ro live dwarf from marrlnng his daughter. VILI and VE. whose dury daylight (Iuusrnenoru BvJAMEs ALFxANorn. prisoners would usually be sacrificed to Aegir before a Viking raiding parry set sail for home One myth tells how the proud sea god was ourwirted by THOR Aegir had been ordered by Thor ro brew some ale for the gods. who resolvedquanels Thrud. the other branch outwrtted by ODIN'sson IHOR. among the Vanir. ended in a peace thar left the Aesir the gods promised that he could dominant Both branches had in marry Thor's daughter THRUD. and However. Arws.residedin a glisteningunderwaterpalace from where he directedthe swirlingwaves throughhis nine daughters. questioned him all night long the Aesir's home becausesunlight rumed dwarfs to The Aesir. Thor acquired a vast cauldron from the frost gianr HYMIR k was so big that when he hoisted ir onto his shoulders. THOR.was Jamous t'or her drowningnet.NonsE MyrHoLoGY AEGIR. which weapons Alvis had forgedfor them. the Ar. which were lit by gleaminggold and where meadjowed asJreelyas inValhalla (llli/srunoN By PErER HURD 1882 ) THf AESIR.the were the VANIR. the god of eloquence. god ronsETI.cm (above).i995 ) it would be to summon everylirirg creature to MGNAROK. when a terrible battle was destined to nke place berween the forces led by Odin.Rnn.Jono.a son of H. Thor was displeased with were pleased to come to terms In the arrangemenr and so devised order to cement the peace.) 1995 handles reached his ankles Hymir tned to stop Thor leaving with rhe cauldron.rhe jusrice hoped marry to Thor's glant daughter. rhe waves He seems to have belonged ro an older generation of the gods rhan either the erSlR or the VANIR. under the leadership stone of opll. a humiliared Aegir had to accepr the cauldron and supply ASGARD. once a leading Vanir. or Eagor.lihe dwarfs. blind HoDR.god of fire and ally of the frost giants. included his sons BALDER ("the bleeding god") and BRAGI.rmir.Aruorn. fertiliry goddess and rhe twin sister of Freyr.seething Nordtc seawascalled"Aeglr'sBrauing Kettle" (lrrusrnnrroru JAMES By ALEx. a son of Odin who was desdned ro avenge his father's death at Ragnarok r78 . the unwitting killer of Balder. while a number When Alvis came ro ASGARD. who was the keeper of the apples of youth Almost all the Aesir were to be hlled at Ragnarok(the doom of the gods). and IDUN. was a dwarf who was family of the gods. home of rhe the gods. with his hom. all turned stone to in the vigiian r HEIMDALL. the fertiliry until sunise when firstraypetnfied the god nnnrR. fact grown weary of fighting. he broke the surfaqeof the sea for a single pulpose. with ale It was at a subsequentfeastfor the gods held by Aegir rhar r-oxr showed how evii he had become when he insuhed rhe assembled company and stabbedAegir's servant Fimafeng The goddesses the Aesirwere of FREYJA.a dwarf famedforhiswisdom. in Germanic ology. in Germanic myrh. Thor of important Vanir wenr ro ASGARD. and wpaR.a tempestuous and powerfuIgod of the sea. the day of doom.

However. like the otter before. bound them hand and foot. it was capable of being stretched to a great size and so no ordinary amount of gold could be acceptedin compensation. Loh descended through amaze of. Hreidmar was soon after killed by his son Fafnir. The fire god was not permitted to wear his sky-shoes. So. sem herein hornedhelmet. or Alberich. Andvan dancedwith rageand cursedthe ing At top. who was the nchest of those who dwelt underground Only because of Loki's terrible threats. as he was known in later German legend. where he caught a large pike. he made sure that he slew his foster-father first. he. To the horror of HREIDI4AR. eventually.Nonsr MvrHoLoGY Tnr ArstR AeJ) werewamor-gods worshippedbyheroesandhings Very lihe and diedwith thq loved. humanfeelingsfor. oDIN and noNlR came acrossa farm and offered to share the otter's meat with the household in retum for a night's lodgings. when Sigurd reahzed that for the sake of the reasure Regrn intended to kill him in tum. dripping tunnels to an underground lake. who then ran away with the cursed treasure was later PerThe hero SIGURD suaded by his foster-father Regrnto pursue Fafnir. Hreidmarchanted aspell toweaken his guests and then his two suwivingsons. Loh was allowed by Hreidmar to seek this great treasure. Carrying the dead otter. c 1890 ) ANDVARI'sbbove) treasuretrrve was stolenby the godsOdin and Lohi in order to pay a ransom When thq toohhis goldmahingnng too. while Odin and Honir (in some versions just Honir) remained at the farm as hosuges.Hel awaits a nan inmate AXOVnru. inside and out. On an expedition to Midgard (the land of men). Finstof all. thq were not immortal Odin. the three Norns examine the darh thread of destiny. wife of the seagod eEGtR. CANVAS. tumed out to be more than it firsr seemed For it was in fact the dwarf Andvari. Andvari sunendered all his immense hoard of gold. behindthe Vanir uins.t'ought Norsemen. Thus it was that Andvari's curse continued to cling to the stolen gold and brought about the death of all it those who attempted to Possess (Seealso RINGS OFPowER) 179 . he told Hreidmar of Andvari's curse and in this way passedit on to the farmer lndeed. was a craftsman dwarf who lost his hoard of treasure to the fire god LoKt.led thehuoic Aesir Tnr.however. Becausethe flayed skin was endowed with magic powers. Loh killed a sleeping otter with a stone. Odin protested their innocence and pointed out that they would not have come straight to the farm had they known the otterwas the farmer's son. the offering the was none other than his own son OTTER.Nonrnru Goos DESCENDING By w CoLLlNGwooD. including his magic gold-making ring. whilebelow. FAFNIR and Rrcnv. Hreidmar settled on a death-price: enough gold to cover Otter's skin. When Loki retumed to the farm with the gold and Odin and Honir were released. and these were also kept as security against Loki's return. This fish. who had bY this time become a dragon The hero duly searched for the creature and eventually found it in its lair and slew it. thoughdivine. farmer. Having borrowed the drowning-net of Ran. But in his anger the dwarf laid a terrible curse on the ring which would causethe doom ofwhoeverwore ir.

day of doom. To the horror of the gods he had finished all the walls. he his hammer It is ironic that the had no choice but ro garher to his defences of Asgard should have side the greatestchampions been built by the labour of a frost giant. He rhen hurled Jormungand inro rhe ocean. wamed that rhe wolf would bring abour Odin's dearh action was finally raken to bind Fenrir securely with a magic chain and keep him in captiviry. the magic Svadilfari.three days before the time was up So Loh transformed himself inro a mare and beguiled the stonemason's sullion. given rhe bitter enmity ASCenO.where the huge snake smashed through the ice and sank down into the depths. which is not dissimilar to the above story conceming fugard's walls (Seealso MGNAROK) Asc. lg90) c ANCRBODA.xeuorn. for of the ferdlirygoddessFRE[. gods. ODIN set the seemingly impossible Iimit of six months for the constnrction of fugard's walls As a concession the stonemasonwas allowed to use his horse. Odin knew rhat the wolf Fenrir would break free at MGNAROK. the vANIR. when the NoIWS. ODIN first banished Hel ro rhe "world beneath the worlds" and there he put her in charge of ail the inglorious dead. as his price for the eighteen-monrh rask Ar LOKI's suggestion. were believed to have been construcredby rhe Cyclopes. ar MGNAROXthese rwo who were the younger enemies were destined to meet in a the AESIR. while Angrboda guards wolfhu child (tr. She was rhe misrress of LOKI and the mother of three monstrous offspring: rhe wolf FENRIR. was the divine stronghold of Indeed. fugard's mlghry built by giants is a widespread walls were built by a stonemason. The idea of ciry walls that were lived in Vanaheim. a daughter and named HEL.NoRSE MyTHoLoGY ArucnrooeQet't) mothered a dreadful brood monstersa rottingg1rl. myth in Europe The walls of Hrimthurs. wo[.:usrrurrc:. and rook her and Loh's children ro ASGARD. serthe pentJOR. wuebanished the by Jormungandwho gods Here. like his sister Hel "surrounded by corpses and swirling death-mist" in the netherworld A tenth-century Danish complainr about Odin's withdrawal of luck from brave wariors is answered in terrns of Angrboda's brood Odin is supposed to havesaid that "the r80 . Although Angrboda's children were thus contained. in Germanic mythbetween the gods and the giants ology.N Arc. sayage Fenir. the and destroy him The sea serpenr Jormungand also awaited the final conflict. Hrimthurs. A group of gods broke into Angrboda's hall ar night.*ot Qeft) walkwrebuiltbya gpant stonemason. There is also a srory of a dispute over Payment for the snengthening of Troy's walls by the gods rrpollo and Poseidon and King l-aomedon. plus example. was a frosr giantess. in Germanic mythology. the goddessesof destiny.) By 1995 IAMEI the sun and the moon. to the hoping avord to payment neafi He on thwartdbylohi's finished timebutwas fichery (Itusrnenol ByH HENDRICH. SvadilJari gods The gave himonly sixmonths complete worh. one-eyedbeings. Odin was Iesscertain what to do wirh Fenrir. bound and gaggedher. so ar first he decided that rhe gods should keep an eyeon him at fugard. and sronger branch of the family of batde of mutual destrucdon. who were giant. except a gateway. Odinflings serpent the the into iq deep.When the gods heard about this brood. a oJ Hel.A. or Angerboda (" Distress-bringer"). However.to help him in the work. who named the hand TinTns in southem Greece. The other branch. rhey agreed thar such creaturesmusr be deah with quickly. byhis aided wondrous horse. thus prevendngthe compledon of thejob The stonemason then revealed himself as a frost grey wolf watches the halls of rhe giant and tHoR broke his skull with gods" With this threat in mind.NfUNGAND.anda glontserpent.

perchedon a rolling log shepropelk herself fow ord with a pole ttuusrufloN I Bruilu. below). as Wrtwoman. except for BERGELMIR his wife and who managed to escape Bnnn YAGA. while Ymir suchbshcr milh. fu she licked. fu the giant fell the blood from his wounds flooded the land and drowned all his frost children. and nouished thefirstfrost g1ant. BURI. The cow herself seemsto have suwived on the goodness that she obtained from an icy salt lick. and finally the whole body of a man.In time Buri had a son named BoR.WLI and tt. (abwe) the magnificent stronghold oJthe Aesirgods. According to some versions of her myth. by an ethereal a wondrousrainbw bndgecalled BiJrost (Ir-r-usrnerror Lrc. therewere countlessshining glittuinghalk Jor each of the gods lsgard was linlud to Midgard pathwayJor the gods. c 1790) BeneYece bottom ight) was a Slavonic witch of monstraus sze who prqed on travellers. emergedJrom pimal ice at the dawn the of time. She wasseen ahunchedhag bearded. part-tree Here. and stood inside a fence made of human bones When she wished to travel. This creature was the first animal to ("the emerge from GINNUNGAGAP yawning emptiness") at the start of creation From Audhumla's teats "flowed four rivers of milk". From Ymir's children descended the frost gians. Ymir. the ongnalcw.who married Bestla.1984 ByALAN ) Auotruute. Audhumla liclu Bunfree of the ice (Aupnuuuay NAAEILGAARD.Nonsr MvrHoLocY was rhe primeval AUOHUMIA cow in Germanic mythology. Their sonswere the first gods. cANVAs. first some hair appeared.her mouth is said to stretch from earth to the gates of hell. Bu'i Here. shimmeredon a plane aboveMdgard Within. Shesuwived by liching icefrom which she freed the Jirst man. it was believed that she flew in an iron ketde.the first frost giant and the first live thing of all. rhe daughter of a frost giant.then a head. donuring thar fleshwith a mouth that stretchedJrom earth toheII. ODIN.1900 sy ) r8t . She Iived in a strangehouse which had legs like a chicken's at each comer. These three battled against rhe frost gians and finally slew Ymir. somerime s Jezr Baba. nourishment enough for YMIR. AsGAw. is the hideous man-eating lemale demon of Slavonic rradidon. the implacable enemiesof the gods.

with the result that the branch passed right through Balder.Nonsr MYTHoLoGY BeI-nEn. the god of fire He was so annoyed by Balder'sescapefrom danger that he transformedhimseif into an old woman and vrsited Fngg's hall. the bodies of Balder and Nanna. except blind Hodr. somerimes Baldr or Baldur.' Betoen. who had died of gnef. was rhe son of oDIN and FRIGG and rhe "bleeding god" of Germanic mythology His wrfe was Nanna and their son. Loh leamed that she had received a promise of harmlessnessfrom all things except the misdetoe. 1840 ) ed that he was about to die A sense of foreboding. Pretending to help Hodr enjoy the sport.Chnst-lihe goodness the god of (BALDER BY B FOGELBERG. as the divine inhabitants tned to understand rhe meaning of Balder'sdreams Theywere deepiy puzzled because the genrle god least deservedto suffer such torments.W- bitter godlnhi. emblemssleep ship the of His was set aflame pushed tosea and out where it shone bightly. inevitably. was the god ofjustice As a young man.who immediately fell down dead At Frigg's entrearyHERMOD.evohed enry of the the '' . rherefore. FORSETI. BALDER's was ona pyre his body laid in longship hewas cwered and then in treasure decorated flowers wtth and and thoms. 1893 ) 182 . who plottedhis tra..glc death and impisoftment in Hel This romantic portrayal captures the sacred. settled over ASGARD. home of the the gods. wirh a travelled through the nine worids branch Although depressedby thrs and got each and every thing ro news. So Odin rode his eighrleggedsreedsLEIrNIR the land of to the dead and by means of magic Ieamed from a seeressthere that Balderwas to be killed by the blind god ruoon. was sent to HELin order to oflfera ransom for Balder.spread light and goodwillwhera. were placed on a pyre in a longship which was allowed to drift buming out to sea.. all of which indicat"i'.. Balder'sbrother. which was a plant too small and too feeble to bother about Armed with this information. Loki went off to cur some mistletoe In his normal shape the fire god rerumed to the assemblyof the gods and found everyonethrowing things at Balder. his own brother. Balder was tormented by nightmares.er he went but. Loki gave him the branch of mistletoe and directed his throw. alwingand gentlesoul..uenalf. Odin retumed to fugard and swearan oath that ir would do her found that his wife Frigg had a son no harm To Odin's relief this plan to save Balder The goddess plan seemed to work When rhe gods decided to test Balder'snew invulnerabiliry by throwing srones and spearsat him wrth great force. He used the eight-legged Sleipnir for the joumey While Hermod was away. he remained unharmed All in fugard were delighted except LOKI. ln conversation with the goddess. ceNvrc.bejore sinhing darhness into (Fuurner oF A VIKNG By F DrcKsEE.

OUNSCC BALDER BEOWULF was rhe Germanic hero who slew wo water monsters.th and toohherW surpise battled calmly (luusrnrnoru JAMES I 995 BY Ar. King Hrothgar loaded Beowulf with gifts. since his kingdom had been rid of a menace.seenhere with raiseddnnhing horn. "Let Hel hold what she has.e. 1995) Beowun wrestleswith a monstrous merwomanin the crystal cavernof her undemvatqden GrievingJor the death oJ the her son. Having once again saved King Hrothgar's kingdom from danger. slainby BeowulJ. it was at the cost of his own life. Beowulf soon found himseif almost on his own.But neither the king nor the warrior reckoned on Grendel's mother.For the Germanic peoplesbelieved that the retum of the wounded. wept for were sent out him" Messengers and soon even the stones were an weeping But THOKK.lt would seemthat some of the initial appeal of Christianiry in northem Europe was connected with the triumphant retum of the risen Christ on Judgement Day. Grendel was seized by Beowulf and held in a powerful grip.arcn hisoldage. saying.&c^rprn. from which it could only trusry sword Like Anhur. the doom of the gods. who had continually terroized tore and dwoured the Danes. but BewulJ Jought :v'i." So upset were the gods at this refusal to mourn that it took some time for them to realue that Thokk was none other than Loh in disguise Nevertheless. for in these traditions their monstrous opponents were able to restorethemselvesto life after they had been decapimted tachled in Beowutr. for all his companions but one ran awayin terror Although he managed to hll the dragon. Beowulf followed her into a lake and dived down to her cavemlike lair A desperatestruggle then took place and Beowulf lost his rather than magical opponents. Grendel.Grndel. an even more dreadful creature She returned to the attack and ate another sleeping warrior In Pursuit. deep in a nearby lake. norhis t'abled crushing the withstand dragon's could in wounded the was teethBeowulJ mortally the seeing but combat. dead and alive. (See also RAGNAROK) Bru-oR seeBALDER Bru. Jire' his Yet breathingdragonsneither might Wayland. a green land risen from the sea.ulJ the creature's arm nght out of its sochet (lLr-usrtucfloN Lrr. he was fortunare to find another magic weapon in the water and he used this to finish off Grendel's mother. This is quite unlike the great Ulster hero and champion Cuchulainn's beheadingcontestwith Uath. He was said to be the nephew of the king o[ Geats. Delighted by this feat of courage and strength. ) r83 . the Germanic stories tell of heroes who face actual monsters BEowuLF. old frost giantess.after MGNAROK. dying Balderwould occur in a new world.refused. In contrast to the Celtic myths that describecombat with watergiants.Nonse MvrHoLocY In the netherworld the brave Hermod found his brother Balder seatedin a high position.1981 By ALAN ) break away by losing an arrn. craJtedby armour.where his father ruled Towards the end of his popular reign a dragon attacked his land Going out wrth rwelve followers to slay the fiery beast. gazesup at the gory trophy hanging Jrom the splendidvault oJDenmarh's VictoryHall Theglanthairyhand to belonged thefearsomeseamonster. Although inrmlnerable to weapons. Hel said Balder could leave only on condition that "everything in the nine worlds. Like the undead Celtic KingAnhur. or Sir Gawain's with the Green lfuight. Balder remained with Hel Balder's good looks and early death recall the myths of the Egyptian Osiris and the Sumerian Tammuz. and bled to death. who was the dying-and-rising god the ancient Greeks adopted from the Phoenicians. Balderwas expected [o retum and rule over a world cleansedby catastrophe. Beowulf retumed home to southem Sweden. hedidnotdiebefore released hispeople treasure dragon's Jor (lrlusrncrtoN BYJAMES Auxaruorn. aswell as that of Adonis.. Mortallywounded. the water monster fled to its home. until Beou. His story is set in Denmark. whom some interpret as theJutes. One night a dreadful crearure known as GMNDEL came to the hall of King Hrothgar and ate one of the wanions sleeping there. memvoman Jrenry. When he asked for his release.

Bragi. or Russians So strong-willed was Rrnd rhar ODINcould norwoo her. dwarf Odinin disguise. who neverlost their harred for rhe gods Ar RacruaRox rhe frost gianrs and the dead of HEr were desrined ro settle the final account for Ymir's dismemberrnent BIEnOST. thegodsmovedto andfro (lLLtrsrnarroru ar AL4N Lee. however. was the flaming three-srrand rainbow bridge berween ASGARD and Midgard (heaven and earrh respectively) [t was said ro have been built by the gods our of red fire. VaIi. told him rhat he was . would who avenge Balder's death (Ilrusrnerroru BULE. ) By NtcK 1995 BOn was rhe son of BURI. afrer being instrumental in causing BALDER's death. who was never at a loss forwords. and was guardedby rhe watchman god HEIMDALLEvery day rhe gods rode acrossthe bndge ro hold meerings at the rr"ellof uRp Btlt tNC.only mist. greenwater and blue air. she gave way hollowed-out trunh to the edgeof the tree to his advances and she bore a son. rhey escaped to continue the race of gianrc. when there was no earth. rhe goddess who kept the maglc apples of yourh When LOra retumed ro ASGARD. a female giant. who killed Hopn with his Jotunheimand bred a noy rlce oJ glants bow and arrow (lr-r-usrnerroru Breu. water and air. the giant Bolthur.Nonsr MyrHoLocy BenCflMIR. BnnCl was rhe son of oDrN and Gunnlod. fire and the gaping pir of GINNUNGAGAP Bor's father-in-law. Rind She destined bear was to Odina son. according ro Germanic mythology. the is who was intent wooing hing's on the daughter. also had a son who imparred his wisdom ro his nephew Odin. and was the Germanic god of poerry and eloquence He was married to IDUN. was the son of Thrudgelmir and the grandson of YMIR When ODIN.husband of the granr Bestlaand father of ODIN. in Germanic myrholory.VILI and \rE An ancient god. Jrom the shining citadel of Asgard to theearthly realm of Midgard Composed fre. 1984 ) BtruNc (above) in wonder the gazes at glittmng tinhets by Jashioned thedwarf goldsmith Rosterus Unhnown King to BiIIing. of tt shimmered with rainbow-coloured light in huesoJred. sky or sea. she onlyfrost glantsto escape drowningin treatedrhe chief of rhe Germanic the torrent of Ymir's blood thatflowedfrom gods wirh undisguisedconrempr his morTalwounds Thryjournqed in a Eventually. even though Billing approved of Brncrrutn below) andhis wife werethe the god's suir On rhe conrary. in Germanic mythology. VILI and vE hlled Ymir and rhrew his body into rhe middle of GTNNUNGA GAp. 1995 By NlcK ) BIFRosr (above)wqs a glganticrainbow causew reaching ay. blue and green Over the ethereal arch. was rhe farher o[ ntruo According to some traditions. ice. world wherethq founded the realm oJ vALr. he was king of the Rurhenians. all the frost giants drowned in rhe grant'sblood exceprBergelmirand his wife By using a hollowed rree trunk as a boat. Bor lived in rhe time before the world had been made.

ar (luusrpcnoN Tnr BTsruGAMEN below) wa.but this hardly does more than explain Freyja'sattraction to this particular one. namely. primeval cow One day Buri's hair appearedwhere she licked. ByPETER 18f. unawareof its curse. BoR. until seduced by Odin The dwarfsgavethet'air child a magicalharp and sethim aJloaton one of thar fne-craJted vessek Jrom whichhe sang hrspoignantSongoJLifewhichroseto the HyRD. He gaveher his nng. that the fertility craved To ODIN's goddess FREYA disgust she slepr on four successive nights with the dwarfs Alfrigg. so enhancedher beauty that shewore it continually. who married a frost giantess. besideherselfwith longng treaure An pad dmrly Jor possessingthe it emblemoJthe stars. and when oaths were swom they were solemnized by speakingover a vesselcalled the Cup of Bragi BRTSTNCNMEN POWER RINGS OF SCC THT BruSNTNGS BNUNHILD BRisINGs SCC SCC BRYNHILD on Loki was to make him Bnecl (aba. company Loki called at their feast Bragi "the whereupon Bragi threat- ened to twist off Loh's head as the only sure method Iies Although the gathering. also known as the Brisdings. his entire body He had a son. words of stopping his tned to calm Odin the effect of Bragi's even more threatening He finallY prophesied the destruction of the gods and then fled from fugard Possibly Bragi was a lare addition to the Germanic pantheon It is not unlikely that Bragi was added through the dMne elevation of a poet. one BRvNHILD. Brynhild planned his death. oJtheleading wrth by waspunished Odin meddling Jor The hiswill inwarfare godputhutosleep her andimpisoned in a nngoffre. c 1900) THr BruStNcS. the worid of men Freyja and Odin shared those slain on the battlefield No agreementexistsabout the meaning of this strangemyth. in Germanic mythology.were the mysterious owners of a golden necklace. LOYERS) TRAGIC BURI. on the third. make his costume convincing (See AND also TR. was rhe ancestor of the gods He was released from the ice by the AUDHUMIA. and.san craftedby dwarJs so uquisite nechlace fnely that it shonelllu liquid jome The goddess Frqja. on the secondday. Gunnlod. but then killed herself in despair (Seealso THEVALKfRIES. basing her diviniry by payrngsuch a price As a penance he made her stir up war in Midgard. where hero remainuntila peerless freed wouW she the her OnlySigurdbraved scorchingJire. when she desired something badly enough The Brisingamen came to be identified so closely with Frepa that when wished to disguisehimself as THOR the goddess to rerieve his hammer she lent it to him to from THRYM. Dvalin. Bragi was portrayed as an old. bragger". not even Odin's great disapproval. Berling and Grer in order to acquire it. bearded man carrying a harp. first by marrying Gudrun and rhen by helping Gunner win Brynhild On discoveringSigurd's betrayal.CASURES TALISMANS) r85 . Andvannaut. since in Germanic courts poets were venerated second only to kings. sleep wahing from hr enchanted ho (llrusrncno^i BYARTHUR RAcKtl M.called the Brisingamen.2) hem. What seems more likely is that the sexualprice Frefa paid for it represents the other side of love. wherehts mother.VILIand \rE VallEies. When she retumed to Odin accusedher of deASGARD. night c 1890 ByJ and day 0uusrnrnoru PENRosE. his head was free of ice.and their sons were ODIN. blind passion and lust Nothing could stop her.e)wasbornin a glitteing stalactite cave. guarded the Mead oJPoetry. they fell in love. not Ieast because the identity of the Brisings is unknown It has been suggestedthat necklaceswere the specialadomment of mother goddesses. ) WhO AVALI<YRIE BNYNHILD WAS defied oDIN and so was banished to earth and imprisoned within a braved ring of fire When SIGURD the fire and broke her charmed sleep.Nonse MvrHoLoGY unwelcome Enraged. On his travelshe was bewitched by Grimhild into berapng Brynhild.

menactng and numbing. storrn and fire giants. such spirits roamed the mountains and snow slopes as fearsomefrost. Day's horse.Day. (sw Drsc.while light elvesinspired the forestsand lakes. drawnby two white stee&and drivnhy the sun-maid. Helpful and timid.lanches and brows Jrom their iqt shoulders (RcrNoere ar NrcHr at H SoHrnrnc. or shooh ava. Svalin. wasfashionedby the gods from a bright sparh ofJire Its glou.In Slavonicmyrh.dark dwarfs unearthed glittering gems and metals. who imbued the land and guarded or its welfare. Shining Mane. So great were the telrors of crushing ice and searingfire rhat the giants loomed large in the Norse myths as evil and ominous forces.was easilypeopled with nature spirits. fields and rivers wi rh whirling spirits of nature. icy wastes of and seethingsprings.ingorb wasplacedin a chaiot. In the undergound cavems.in one myth. the ice masses the North werec of constantthreat to the Norsemen. much lihe theJrost glants. c 1890 ) Tnr Sunv(above). personi$dngthe mysteriousand menacingforcesof nature. the go& placed a shieH. inJront of the golden car In anothq myth. . theJrost at glants sent freezngblasts to nip the budsoJsping. cANVAi.l NATTJRE SPIRITS HE DRAMATTc LANDSCApE scandinavia.whoseundytng enmity wouldoyerwhelm the gods Ragnaroh In the intenm. or CooW. a host of vital forces filled the world and imbued the forests. a clwnot andhones n drwe round the eanh once e''tay 24 hours. the landvaettir easlly took fright. litup the earth and slq with the radiance of his shininghair. Sol Feaing tlnt the sun's heat mifitt be harmful. GTLDED c 10008C) BRoNzE. Tne Fnosr Grnrurs (below)personified iq the teftors oJthe Nordic landscapeMighry.with is electric skies. land spirits. the gods gne a g1ant. shyrng away from Viking dragon ships. other less dramaticbut no lessimportant Yet spirits were the invisible landvaettir.

qNrs persontlted the vost crdlgr mountdlns and storm clouds Rocky thastn. Ymtr too ugly to be sten.xample. formed bl foohsh grants who were caught outstde at slinnsr Snntlarly. the reJlected n tmphs' colour. oJ rn gathered satktrs her drowntngnetand harmful She themdown to thedepthsoJ thesta There.s ch a-sth e Rtescngehr ge t' (nght). howa'er.s an(l oLtt(ro?s uere created fu gants treatltng too hear. tht. t l90C I Denx DwaRr-s @elow) -*te lotmed from mup4ots tn tht Thc gods thought them rottrngfesh o/ the siarn . moods. the mttuntuin tthoes v'er( knott'n us Iiil ' ttq ti.emergngfrom 1n the to thett'ater lltt through forest-s summcr The nt'er's wrth tumtngbluch.s the gods berate RhmeMdrdens ratnbott'bntlge abot't 'ttr'.s her Aegr. the sea Ranloved gold.Eant. uncl condemned them to a lfe undergound thus aplatmng Lrire ganr-s. were petnfred bv the light of dt+'.s lost gnef whenthe RhrneMardens thcrr gold Htre. the rhe crossing to theirlos.reflected shfting h. the mam srnaller stons-s and r ochs scattered across the Nordic landscape The twin pettks ofTrold fintlteme .named the FlameoJtfu Sea. Rocx eNo Srom. )\ tsiqi-'1\i I F i 9s4 ) S-'r L :1.Nonse N.t lakesand nters dunng thett'inter. for e.s rs Satlo seekrng the Jluorescent sone gold rhe tnp pocheted Ran'sfovour wisely Jrv ( I L L L\ l R 4 l ( ) \ BI ARTHtR R{akHA\l.aJttr (#alit\/ of ltordtc wave. she her husband. whichwerelx Lrythe shrning goldol gleamrngcoral caves.wtth rlrag4ed rn her enttrtained viclim.tly at the dawn oJ time Best sutted to mrst and fog the mountaln gants.elpful.tttmecl to -stoneIn dctr-hght.l Gr. which explains u someJ a ntostrc r o ch. .. -€': v'ho etherul spntes Tsr Rtlnr tr4qtorNs (abovd rvere m tlv'el.tvrHoLOGY the nar 0eft). cre two bands ol\NanlngdwarJs forgot to retre(lt beJttre sunnv v'hrspmngbehtnd " d**ufs' talk" As dwatJs had a httbtt ol who rochs. Lrkc dwafs. somettmes somettmes moods the ocean. tn lcelantl tht hrghest peuhs are named lohul whrch dmvts Jrom Jotun ot Gtant l9g5 l lt ilr rL-srRrnat\ Ntct BEAIE 187 . \rR4ri( j\ E] {RfHl R R{(kr/4\1 r' la00 . a stormyspint of the seu. ormat i ons.

in Germanic mythology.a wind-age. he was bom again everymoming and rode through the slcy on his diamond chanor unril he becamean old man in rhe evening In some versions he is married to MyESyATs. a wolf-age. goddesses rhe of destiny. and the Germanic mythologr. Laufey Although it seemedto be a silken ("Tree isldnd") who gavebirth to ribbon. before the wrechng of rhe world". was the son other gods laughed when the wolf of the mischief-making god roxi bit it off on finding that the chain and the frost giantessANGRBODA could not be broken Fenrir was He was the devouring wolf. god of fire. and brother of svenazlC. Hradmar. which he raised ro fight ar RAGNAROK. or Fenris. was comrpted by the cursed ring Andvarinaut Lusting after the fabulous ring-hoard. a frost grant whose paren$ they had also kiiled Unlike the dwarfs. and quarrels between them are said ro causeeanhquakes DNAUPNIR DTNTruCH SCC R/NG5 POWER OF SCC RINGS POWER OF EECON SCC AEGIR THe EtNHrn. however. choosing bravesthuoesJor Odin's the ghostlyarmy A chosenherosawa soaing VollEriejustbeforetheJatalblw GHE Roe oF THE VALKYRTESBy W T MAUD. were the wicked dwarfs who killed the wise man KVASIR order to gain his in magic powers They mixed his blood with honey in a cauldron and made a mead rhat besrowed wisdom Bur Fjalarand Galarlost the wonderful drink to Sutrung.a sword-age.were gathered Jrom thebottlefeldby the up VallEieswho galloped arcr theJray. wamed him about his own fate. bur by trove Andvai The dwarf cursed the yourhful sicuno. cANVAs. Fenrir was so savage that oniy the war god rrn dared to feed him At first Odin was uncertain about the wolf. as a pledge that it was as harmless as it seemed Tyr was the only one FeNntn. ODIN. and Odin was swallowed by him FnNrus seeFENRIR Flnltn and his brother Galar. known as Dabog to rhe Serbs and Dazbog ro rhe Poles Son of Svarog. helped by his brother REGIN Greed made him monstrous in nature and form.Nonse MyrHoLocy DAZHBOG was the Slavrc sun god. rhe god of the sky. Until then. these dead warriors would fight every day and feast every nighr. c jg90 ) mouth was kept open by a sword so he could not bire. was strong enough ro hold rhe animal Finaliy. was destined to become his vicrim Kidnapped by the gods and brought to AscARo where rhey could keep an eye on him. gods onin numb won his ill-fared reasure the gaze dismay lttusrnarn9 BYF yoN Sussilt. the doom of rhe gods This was the final battle between rhe gods and the frosr giants on the WGRID Plain. of a mountain and bird's spitrie his wife was anorher giant. outwirted the dragon and thewaningpair. he slew his farher. When freed from captivity at Ragnarok. Fenrir was a fearsome spectacle His vast mourh gapedso wide that the lower jaw touched rhe ground and the upper one reached the sky.rhe Einherjar formed FRnNtn. l9l4 ) ODIN's private army. he decided that Fennr should be restrained No chain. armed with s from thedwarf ing canbeseen glitteing Hreidmqr' on s his father's sword and guided by as forefinger hewithesin thedustBehind Regin. son of rhe magician HREIDMAR. the chief of the gods. the then secured to a rock and his THE ErunrR/A& or 'huoic dead". (Seealso rHE vALKrRrEs) beast of RqcNaRoK.rhe doom of the gods His was "an axe-ag?. as he tumed inro a dragon ro guard his hoard The legend of his rreasure drew many aspiring heroes to his lair in search of fame and forFanNtR his slays Jather. Fenrir would nor have it Loki when hir by a lightning bolt round his neck unless one of rhe unleashed by Farbauti Little else is gods put his hand berween hrsjaws known of Loh's paren6. Suttung was boastful abour his . rhe dwarfs made a ("Cruel srriker") was magic fetter called Gleipnir from FenneUTI a giant and father of the fire god strange materialssuch as the r00ts LOKI According to one tradirion.AR were the "heroic dead" of Germanic mytholory Theywere garheredfrom the battlefields by rhe vALr<rRtES In vALHALLA. but when the NORNS. the moon.according to prepared ro risk his hand. because tune Most mer their dearhson the heisbewitchedthetreasure stolen blasted heath ourside his lair. and any wounds they sustained were magically healed.

but just failed to blood with honey in a cauldron catch Odin. it is clear that this is a myth about they created a magical mead connection The berween insPiration.NORSE MYTHOLOGY acquisition and it was not long before the gods heard about the mead. he failed to reconcileeventhe bitterestJoes 1995 Bv BULE. and was known to the Frisiansas Forsite He was the son of neronn and Nanna Both of his parents were killed. had spat into a jar.) mouth as a signoJtrust (Drc. the mead into jars left empry for his causes fermentation. Spittle. thewolJ Fer.. Reaching the secret cave. and some form poetry and wisdom of potent drink occurs in several mythological radidons was the Germanic god FOnSffI of jusdce. ODINhimself decided that he would go to JoTUNHEIM. and settled the disputesoJ godsand men.the Iand of the frost gianm.arsiR and before he turned himself into an the VANIR. the. and laY hold of the magic drink.. like yeast.ANoen.rRIn Jathtedby Lohi. and so when retum Suttung gave chase as Flalar and Galar mixed Kvasir's another eagle. There he sPat had been formed. theJair god oJ Solomon-lihe forcefor peace He sat in (abwe).a.+n belw) andhisbrother Galar slew the wise Kvasirand drainedhis blood to extract his wisdom Two glisteningbowk and the Kettleof Inspiration clntained the s maglcal fluid. ) BY Poetry (Iuusrnartoru JAMES shape from Bolverk's to a snake.8m F. he journeyed to Jotunheim and persuadedthe frost giant Baugi to tunnel through a mountain to where Suttung kePt the mead under the care of his daughter Gunnlod. chainedhim to wasso satage that the gods an undergroundroch Only a maglcal cord tobindhim Here. Although Forseti plays only a relatively small role in Germanic mythology.the was strongenough bravegod Tyrfetters Fenrir at the costof hts ovn hand.r. which the brother mixed wtthhonq to producethe goldenMead of 1995 ALE]. which he placed in the wolf s crrurunv. ) changed himself into a handsome (lrrusrnertor NICK one-eyed giant and for three days and nighs he was Gunnlod's lover. rhrown unwitringly by the blind god noon. Disguised as evil Bolverk. Glitnir. we are told in demil that his hall of Glitnir "had pillars of red gold and a roof inlaid wrth silver " There he sat in judgement and resolvedstrife Fnrn seeFREUA FREYR FNTY SCC Fnryn seeFREYJA r89 . and slithered downwards to the hidden treasure as quickly as he allaying stiJe and resolvingfeudsHe nuer could. ln the account of Kvasir'sdeath. Once the hole was drilled. fermentation. home of the gods. his father stabbed by a piece of mistletoe. and the it was from the spittle that Kvasir eagleand flew back to ASGARD. To put rhe seal on their peace agreement the two The passionategiantesslet Odin drink up every drop of the mead. Odin changed his justice.. was a Fonsrn. judgement in his goldenhall. branches of the gods. and his mother with a broken heart shonly after this raglc event.

Fnnn was the twrn brother of the by cats.or to amberat sea Shewasso beautlful that shewas wooed and pwsued by all liwng creatures (Ilrusrn crroN F voN sy SressH. a suitable partner for moved ro ASGARD live with the ro wirh Freyr and Freyja ro ASGARD. of whom norhing is Priapus.r. somerimes in fugard. Njord wenr well as love. with ootN and THOR. of whom she changed inro a boar sea Freyr. which were rymbolsoJ her warm Germanic ferdlity goddess FRDgA. Sessrumnir [t is Possiblyfor this reason the Romans divided After awar the Vanir seem possible that Fref a's losr husband had always identified him with ro have been supplanted by the Odur.A rirle of known as Freya or Frea. spnnhling morning don and summer sunlightbehindher She shoohsping flowersJrom her golden hair and wept tears which turnedto gold. derives from "field" FREyR. c. Sweden was YANIR. GrRoe.Nonse MyrHoLocy ("Lord"). while Frefa's noted for the size of its penis inro which the Germanic gods were lived in her hall. who were led by known but his name. including OTTAR. 4 ) 19t 190 . the voluptuous. associatedwirh the wind and the earth in search her rovinghusband. sheddingtears of gold all thewhile She was said ro be a sorceresswho was one of rhe principal gods He (Fnrv.) could fly in a falcon's skin Some was marnly concemed wirh feniliry. somedmesFrey. Freyr by benveen rhe rwo sides.the god airborne love spiits. was an importanr fertil. tradirions state that. Odin who was rhe farher of barrles AEslR. rode in a chaiot drawn of Fnrrye. on her arrival having conrrol of sunlighr.t over the earth. she taughr the gods the fruitfulness and peace His Fnfv. Freyr's statue in She ity goddessand a member of rhe of every battle Odin's share wenr his temple ar Uppsala. rain. dividing ried.the younger branch of rhe where they lived with the Aesir as a and the lover of destruction (See gods under the leadership of Odin.l helow) Jla.one of the two branches to live invALIIALI q. which she obtained by sleeping with irc four Fnru. was Odin.the slain berween rhem ar the end As late as 1200.qrvvns. alfections Accompaniedby a JlochoJ dwarf makers Her beaury won her Their father was NJORo. ("Lady"). token of friendship also SORCERYAND SPEUS) alongwith his father Njord and his goddess lwe. or Od. 1852 .blue-eyed Frefa's greatest treasure was the BRISINGS'necklace. and the daughrer of rhe sea god NJoRDin Both Odin and Frefa took an name of the frost giantess he marGermanic myrhology and sisrer of interestin rhe heroic dead. the virile son of Dionysus younger AESIR. was the spells and charms of the Vanir Skin means "shining". shetoured heavanand many admirers.n av NJ O BLoMMER. Odur. and Aphrodite Although a memODIN When peace was agreed For she was rhe goddess of lust as ber of the VANIR descent.

yet well she knows the fates" When Balder dreamed of impending danger. as a gesture of goodwill that had been ageed at the end of the war between the Vanir and the Aesir. Frija and Fricka.home theLtght hets sailinghis ship. waslord the and. ) accord0uusrnenox ALE&{N 1gg5 sister Freyja.NOnSr MYTHOLOGY Fnrn (ndrl).wife of oDiN. though ir cost him his horse and sword which he gave ro Skimir At nacruaRoK. that no harm should happen to him Apparently. Skimir said that he would impose on her an unbreakablespell astheconstellationFng's Spinning of that would make her a perrnanent \Mheel Herheron plumes rymbolizehu whileherhrys stgniJy divine outcast and it was this that perher discretion. in Germanic mythology. onhis Odin. and becausehe did not lcnow how to gain her affection he became ill Njord became so worried about him that he asked his faithful servant Skimir to find out what was amiss. herhusband. he sorelymissed his mighry magic weapon. also known as Frigga. goddess not unlike the Sumerian deity Inanna. goddessof the earth and atmosphere. On reaching Gymir's hall.the doom of the gods. datyoJtheatmosphue. spunlong pearly oJ from her jovelled which in distaff shone thenightslE Finally. fought tx wn ryJ^MEs DER. Freyr's myth is about his wooing of Gerda. Having leamed of this love. a gatb godofsummtrsun shouters. since it could fight giants on its own (See AND TALISMANS: also TREASURES TMGIC LOYERS) FruCXN SCC FRIGG SCC FRIGG FruJn see FRrGG FruTHIOF TMGICLOYER5 SCC She refused both this gift and Skimir's second offer of one of Odin's arm-rings Gerda'sresolve was only strengthened further Fnrcc belout). she roo a possesses falcon skin and has a great passion for gold ft is quite possible that the two goddesses had their ongins in a single earthmother deiry FruCCN declare her love for Freyr in retum for "eleven of the applesof youth" the fertiliry god with an agreement to meet Freyr in a forest in nine days' time In this way the passion of Freyrwas fulfilled. the chief of the gods.his magic horse and his magic sword The servant was instructed to bring Gerda back to fugard.igg has much in common with nnrY_1a Although her role as consort of Odin shows her to be a devoted wife and mother. except the mistletoe. witnessing events present andfuture she nqer rqealedher Aparagon oJ silence. the mistletoe appearedsuch a harmless l9t . land of the gians. *vord. because Loh refused to moum on behalf of Balder Thus it would seem that Frigg was a ferriliry. oJ Elves oJ Alftam. taking two of Freyr's greatest treasures. and mother of natPnR She has given her name to Friday Frigg was a fertility goddess who "will tell no fortunes. forehnowledge (ILLU5TRAIION H THLAKER. persontfyng cbudsHs Jlnshing the of symbohznga sutbeam. Jabulous pair the Hlidshialf . Ftigg extracted a promise from each and every thing.fromwhere divine could viav the nine worlds. of Jairyrealm Here. the daughter of the frost giant Gymir When Frep first saw Gerda he immediately fell in love with her. ) GEFION GNTNTNN SCC the oJ FRrGG enloyed pivilege sittingbeside throne. 1920) 8y C FRIGG. Shmirwent to rhe JOTUNHEIM. Frigg's subsequent effon to have her son releasedfrom rhe land of the dead also failed. whether her father liked it or not. Skimir tned to persuade Gerda to plant that she did not bother about it This proved to be a mistake because the fire god roru got the blind god uoon to throw a branch of mistletoe at Balder which killed him. 1gg5 suaded Gerda to pledgeherself to housaviJery (Iuusrnarroru By NrcK BEA:-E. when Skirnir then threatened to a webs cloud decapitate her with Freyr s sword. was the daughter of Fjorgye.Shidblndnir. though she lacked rhat goddess's ability to enter the netherworld F.

Thor succeeded in driving the chair downwards and crushed the frost giantessesinstead However. Thor amved at their destination. had uken the form of a hawk and was caprured by Geinod The only way Loki could avoid death was to promise to bring Thor to Geirrod's hall without his magic belt and maglc hammer which protected the god againstfrost giants BecauseThor rrusted Loki he went with him to Geirrod's hall Fortunately.managed to trick Kirg Gylfi oflsweden out of a great tract of land In retum for her hospitality. transformed in[o oxen. but the giant's servants received the visitors It was not Iong.lay theCityoJ Not-Dead. representingthe nine months of the nonhemwrnter. and was one of THoR'smost formidable enemies lt happened thar LoKI. GJALP Greip. a consunt companion of Thor. wirh Loki hanging as usual on his belt Geinod was nor at home. Gefion's name is connecredwith "g. Gfnnn. a roid on years Thorhill. as Grnoru (abwe). wife of oPtw Approprithe ately for a goddess of agriculture.NoRSE MYTHOLOGY GgntON.and she wamed Thor about the plan while Loki was asleep She also lent the god her own magic belt of strength. and FRIGG. for a necklace Her myth concems ploughing and doubtless recalls the ancient ritual of ploughing a token strip of land each spring Gefion. Danish hero. before Geinod's rwo by body. GEIRRoD's immense slain QeJ) the Thor. they rested on the way at the home of a friendly giantess named GRID. she was persuaded to marry by Freyr's when he faithful servant SKIRNIR.qrtotn. By BEA ) for hishing {trtusrwloN NICK tI-. was a beautiful frost giantessand daughter of the giant Gymir. The Aurora Borealis was believed by some to be the radianceof Gerda (SeCAISO TMGIC LOYERS) L92 . though. ) in Germanic mytholory. was a Germanic godthe dess of fertility akin to rnEYTA. Thor threw the still hot and smoking ball back down the hall. the GftnnOD and father of rwo daughters. she cut from the mainland the whole island of Zealand. fertility god Although inidally resistant to the idea. disguised abegar.1995 daughters ried to hll the slumbering Thor by lifting up his chair and dashing out his brains on the ceiling But with the aid of Grid's sraff. the thunder god laid about the frost giant's sewants with the magrc staff. threatened to recite a terrible spell This spell would have made Gerda so ugly than no man would ever come near her again Shewould be transformed into "a sight to make the blood run cold" So it was that Gerda met Freyr in a forest after nine nights.her supernatural sons Thq and draged the tllledfield to the coast the Jloatedit across sea to Denmarh. wtthfour plougheda vastJieA in Sweden glant oxut. disguised as an oid beggar. magic iron gloves and magic staff Thus equipped. whereitJormed the island oJZealand (lr-r-usrnqrron 1995 ByIAMES Ar-rx. also known as Gefinn and Gef on. sister of the fertiliry god nnrrR. LoKI accused Gefion of selling herself. part of present-day Denmark was a frost giant. Geinod himself then appearedin the hali and using a pair of tongs he picked up a red-hot iron ball and threw it at Thor. sraight through an iron pillar and deep into Geirrod's stomach After this. in Bqondthesleeping shrouded cobwebs in of the gantsparhled Chamber Treasures jovelsandweapons came the Here full oJ later. who reluctantly became the wife of the FREYR. who caught it in Gnd's iron gloves Angered beyond measure by this exremely discourteous action. like Freyja. the king offered Gefion as much of his kingdom as she could plough with four oxen dunng one day and one night Wirh the aid of her four giant sons.ring" She was usually imagrned as a vrrgin and as the protector of virgrns after their deaths However.

mythology.lay swirling north andfery southTwelve and into gushed itsvacuum Jroze streams In icebloclu thesouth. Gjalp did what she could to harm the visi- tors Even before their arrival she added a torrenl of her menstrual blood [o a river in order ro drown Thorand Loki Awell-aimed stone stopped Gjalp and sent her howling home However. pimal abyss at the Gltvruuncacap the between iq of the dawn creation.and ra. from the sparhs slowly a anergedfrostglant iry droplets slowly (ir-rusinarrorv NICK BEALE. Sudri. killedYmir and took his body to the centre of Ginnungagap There they made Midgard.a Jrosty the lne of Frqr who sent Shirnir to wn hu hand Althoughheoferedher the applesoJ glowing youth. wd a "yawning emPtiness" at the time of creation. intomassive fiery the and melted ice.lts massiveweight broke the backs of rhe rwo giantessesand they died in agony on the floor (nght). Buri's three grandsons. ) By panied by the fire god LoKt. the world of men. Thor managed stem the tonentby who.his hair the treesand his blood tumed into the lakes and seas The brothers used his skull to form the sky. accom. his bones the mounuins. As the warrn air from the south met the chill of'the north. along with her sister Greip. sheremarned unmoveduntil Jorcedby threat of magc to c 1920 BY consent (l[usrnqnoru H THEAKER. daughter of GrrRRoo. 1995) By 193 . ) GlerY (nght) stirsup a iver into a great across GJAIP ("Howler") was a frost flood.tlfngThor as he wades to giantess. the frost grant.the primeval cow. and. ancestor of the gods. came (lrrusrncrroN'JAMEi to the hall of Geirrod. the ice of Ginnun1agap melted and from the drops was formed Y.auPnuMLA. which lay berween the realms of fire and cold.ODIN.vIU and Vr. Austn and Wesrn holding up rhe comers beaury.mountain ashnamed "Thor'sSalvatton" 1995 ArcxeNotn. By licking the ice.ealedhu master's in portrait reflected water. Audhumla uncovered nuru. with four dwarfsnamed Nordi. the Germanic heav himselJ thunder god When Thor. his teeth rocla and stones.inspired Grnpa (above). ng. from his body Ymir's flesh became the earth. she and Greip then med to ram the head of sleepingThor againstthe raftersby suddenly raising his chair The thunder god woke just in time to force the chair downwards by using a maglc sraff. stihingGjalp with aboulder He then ed ashoreby graspinga tned to kill rnon.fIR.NonSr MYTHOLOGY in Germanic GINNUNGAGAP.

Wishing to cross a deep river. met hismatch thefearless in warior Beowulf. pain jedbachtohiswatery and Grendel lair bledto death@ruslunoN ByArrrN rg84 LEE. came to the royal hall and ate a sleepingwarrior.They had come from Hrungnir's sharpedged. ln his fury. Groa was before batde commenced. while Thor is hottempered but honest. orAurvandill. in Hennnnn Germanic mythology. It was required in Viking a few fragmenrc of whetstone custom that a spear should be remained in Thor's head. It was in this lair rhar. just like Christ.that managed to be both srrong band that she unfortunately failed and slender. the god THORsummoned Harbard to ferry him over. the silenr god vloaR.but the boatman remained away from the bank. which rhe fire god rorc ordered as a replacemenr for the golden hair of THOR's wife SIF. stabbed with a SPear (See also TRMSURES AND TALISA. into dangerwithout the protecdon of his magic belt of strength and his magic hammer. was remains uncertain. glftedhealer. rhe sons of lvaldi.Thor revmled rwhly thather Iong-lost husband alive The was happy news ucitedGroa sheforgothr so that spelk solefta splintuin Thor's and head (Irrusrnenoru ByNrcK nutt.the fire god. for Odin. the dwarfs decided ro please the gods by using the fumace to make a ship for FREYR and. GruO was a kindly frost gianress who helped rhe Germanic thunder god raon in his struggle against GEIRROD. according to Germanic mythology. and rhis was why mark. The meeting between the two gods reveals their differenr characrers: Odin. In the fierce struggle that ensued. When rhe Svipdrag.Mischievous Loh had cut off her beaudful locks as a joke. 1995) GROA. Thor had been lured by LOKI. three-comeredstone when it had collided with Thor's hammer in mid-air So excired was Groa. iron gloves and unbreakable scaffro face Geinod. who sazed creature'shairy in a the limb vice-lihe andwrenched gnp itJromits sochet Howlingwith andrage. Thor failed to nodce rhar Harbard was his father oDIN. bruully cruel". held one of the monster's arrns in a vice-like grip. GRoA. bur a visidng warrior. Exacrly who this Aurvandil. rhe leaderof rhe Germanic gods. only ro be met by insuls. ) GnENOEL was the name of a water monsterwhich was invulnerable to weapons and rroubled the kingdom of King Hrothgar of Denmark One night Grendel. Thor could rhink of no responseto Harbard's abuse other than anger. [t was forged by dwarfs. whose frozen toe THORtumed into a star by throwing it up into rhe sky. a chants charms wer Thorin ordertoloosen stone the splinters lodged thegod's in Feelingrelief forehead and gratitude. as an roused from the grave by her son. been a fertility god of the werlands. enreaty for Odin's aid. who needed her advice god hung himself on the cosmic on how he could win rhe love of uee YGGDMSIL nine nights in for the beaucifulMenglad.'{NS) GUONUN GUNNNR SCC VALKTRIES THE SCC NORSE HEROE5 GnlunILD SPELLS see soRCERy AND ("grey-beard"). though it has been suggested thar he may have L9+ . BEOWIJLF. and never missed its to finish the spell. the deceitful croublemaker and braggart. Beowulf killed rhe monsrer's mother Grendel's head was so Iarge that when Beowulf broughr it back as a trophy to King Hrorhgar. Grid loaned Thor her own belt. later. at rhe same time as a wig of spun gold. he needed the assistanceof four men ro canrylt. and to have made for him a special shoe which enabled him to stand in rhe mourh of the wolf Rnrurun. "gri* and greedy. was a seeressand rhe wife of Aurvandil. In some rraditions she is said to have borne ODIN a son. Having made the wig. a man-danuring monster. however. a spear star and the rerum of her lost hus. order to obtain wisdom. Groa herself tried by magic ro remove whetstone fragments from Thor's head aftei his fighr with the frost gianr HRUNGNIn.byThor's news about the GUNCNIR was rhe magic spear belonging ro oDrN.Nonse MyrHoLocy GRENDEL. Grendel's arrn was tom off and he ran away and bled to dearh in his watery lair. he was. was a surly boatman. Some thrown over the heads of an enemy time after her death.

srurdy children for the peasans and illfavoured children for the slaves. the peasan$. as he was thought to be the supreme watchman perched at is top. sleepingless than abird Gtftedwith specialsightand heainghe couldseeJor100milesby "rght or day. he would summon the godsto Rngnaroh (I[usrRArroN NrcxBEI. HNNAOET.forgeditshead. he may have been an omniscient skygod. C 1890 ) or Heimdalr. He stood upon BIFRosr.the three-strand bridge that linked ASGARD and Midgard (heaven and eanh respecdvely).N. carvrngit wtth maglc ruNES (ODIN BY R FOGELBERG. He disguised himself as RIG. was HetUPnLL. and Odin made the snfr. above the higlrest rainbow.There he stood ready to blow his hom Gjall at the onset of RecruenoK. the mortal who esmbIished the three social groups: the nobles. and the enslaved.the one-qed. andJashioned staf Jrom its holy wood Here. Disguised as Rig. the god visited in turn three houses in Midgard and fathered handsome children for the nobiliry.bnght guardian of the BtJrostBndge.during which he was to be the last to fall in single combat with L}KI.rt. the dwarf.Nonsr MYTHoLoGY HETMDAr (nght). wds a)er alert.both slenderand strong itwas unsttervrngin its Jlight The weapon was so sacred that oathswere svtomon its point Dvalin. and see for over a hundred miles. MARBTT. all-seang god peers through the boughsoJ Lee. andhear grassgrovingon the htlLsideWith his cumedhuaW's horn. Heimdall's name may be related to the concept of a "world [ree". Odin apaJect broheoff obough. SCCHEIMDNL r95 . ) 1995 nv GuNGNn's Gelow)spear shaftwa cawed Jrom the sacredwoodoJYggdrasilAfter gaining wisdom at the WorA Tree. the son of nine mothers and the watchman for the Germanic gods Originally. ) the sacredosh (ttusrntrloNBYALAN 1984 Guwcltn (abwe) wasthe name of Odin's spear. He could hear the sound of grassand wool gowing.

/ . NUollnlr. Among morrals.^ l ^ ' 5uu5 ---^- wulluruuS l--^--^ ---^ \. rl infallible spear. but tearsshed at lell sta turntd to amber (i:Ri\tA N / () BrttrvrnDErAiL.1852 crNvA-\ ) t l r t g r c l r r t . r t rr l / l t f t e l l r . ( a / n t ( .*er cned. I D I ' N ' .^. and Sif's golden hair which grew narurally. Whenher tears on roch. With superhuman artistry and secretwisdom.. perhaps. r R 1 r i .ingship for Frelr and a sword that fought of its own accord once drawn.s Irlurt ttrtJ ho applts oll m tn tll-fattLl atttnlpt fir .. The tireless dwarfs were aiso innovarive engineers who crafted a collapsible.ts tandcd dn(l g-t(uLlt(l b^.. the Finnish Ilmarinen excelled in magical crafr and produced a peerless talism?il.produced trrdsures tht earrhwhenr. they lashioned fabulous treasures and tahsmans for gods and heroes.undFrqluwrpt sht fttr proJuse\..zuqlHE MosT cELF-BR{TED fsMhN of the Norse world were wise and gifted dwarfs who laboured underground in ca'erns studded rvith gems. Gungnir. s ( l t J t ) r o l c / t ' n r r p p l ts k e p t r h r ' s o d s r t e n r u l l l v r r u n g I ht' lrihtrlrrus lntn trtt ir'.f i r I J i r r rl r r N .n s r h o .slcri/ thc q r r c l S l r . S p r r n g . only Volund the smirh r& could match the dwarfs {ffi in artistry and crafr while.LlrL .the goldbristled boaq Gullinbursti. such as the silken thread which fettered the fierce wolf. and udins I I r . Some of their creationswere exquisitely beautilul.in her turn. ) l l 196 .slzy AroundFrry1u's lovdy nech.tht' thret' w .upetrully dunngher search Odur lorherhusband. such as the Brisingamen necklace. Some precious marvels were created by nature.vcaijUrrs Tl lrrol ' 5 DOOmcianS nammer.Is l t r . thty turned to gold. Fenrir. l l l o l r t t / o r r l v l c i u n . such as the golden apples of youth. l s t ' \ ' r r r .^ L^ \. Most amazing of all.h r a s r t J i s g t r s e c /u s a b t r t l . s r r r i { h l f ( ) s l r r y rr h t g o r i s o l t h a r r r g r r u r a n d r v r r i t l i i l J t r t f / r t l r c r r i l l .ryLlL.Nonse MyrHoLoGy TneESURES AND TALISMANS (. Most indispensable . others were supematurally powerful. t h t ' d c r r y -o f . fl1. .l r r r lrtt h rltt rnLi{l( fnll }r't sur h prt'r-rou-s g/rs wrre tovett'tl Lry (ohove)netkluct wus trat'tet)\t Tur' Bru-SIwGAMEN four tlwarJs wirh such aftstry thut tt gltttuedlike tt constelkttron starsin the of nrght.. were their living rreasures.the Sampo. B) . .. among sorcerers. ttbecame tmblrm ol the an and lntits ol the heuvens earth She.

'vln Qef). r _ l 8 .Elhdara.afs A personftcrttion was the of theclouds.orr.an everlasting source of weakhand power (tr. Odin's great spear. it consrsted aflour mtll.the tahsman was mystenously t'ashroned from oneswft tlutll.ed wrth the whi.Aegr Shapetl sruellng planks which grew lry togethtr tn thefotm oJa *-rnged dragon.Iaunchrng shaJts hghtning. craltedLry du. ) Tar Senapo(below)was forgedby llmannen. of and as a weapon for smashtngglants'shulls It was a talisman bothcreat:ity and destruction.HFIDRI. S a v p i t B l ' A G A L I E \ K A L I E I i .the mastersmithloolzs and tntentlytnto thefurnace to seewhat theJrre hasproduced ( f H I .as seenherein thischaractensttc god with his hammer clutchedclose hts hean The Mlollnir to wasusedas a t'iery thunderbolt.NoRsr MyTHOLoGY M.neyermrssed mark its Thespearshaftwasfashtonedby Odinlt'romthe sacred ol ash Ygdrastl and carvedwtth the god'smaglc ntnes lust as valuable was Odin'sJabulousnng.tt ghcled land.stling wrnd and outstnpped eagleThe floatrngJortress fumedfar and was the -*ide A r { \l R4rr( )\ B} .whichproduced etghtsimrlar gold nngs everyntnedays.rnilk of thet'erttle cow.was never Jar poseof the from htsgrasp.r lsrRqrro^.5 2 ) WorutRous LoNGsHIps(above) to helongerl both Freyr antl Thorstern Thegod'sshtp.erchteJ. Draupntr.ftJrom theseagod. ( A \ ! ' 4 5 .Skidbladnir.ensuing of lastingprospenty power Here. sea across and av Akhoughtnussle enough to cot"Nel/ the gods all and an ennrehost.l i llrr.jar\ r I 900 ) .rt couldbefoldedtLpand hhe Thorstein's pocheted a handh. Ellida. drugon boat. fabulous was u g. the Etemal Hammerer Finmshmyth. F ( ) R G t N Gc t r L H t .a gatn of barleyand thefleece a summerlamb So oJ out oJthe maglcal flames oJthet'orgetheSampowascreated.avcNrn(nght).( 1906 BlH u. Thor'swondrous hammer. wasusedto of and hallow both btth and death ceremontes Gr. salt mrll and monq mrll. whohammered the slry oJ out at thedawn of time Oyer threedays.

to assail thebared oJHeI Within. dreary home (luusrnerrol ByJAMEs AlrxAruoen. were as terrifying as she. ro which she had been banished by oDIN. sichor ciminal who suferedceaseless cold.Nonsr MvrHoLoGy Hflwas the daughter of trickster LOKI. to in HeIfor (ILLUSIMTIoN be too insignificant. FENRIR the wolf and.bur the head stuck in his thr. ("Sky Bellower") was the head of a giganric black ox The ox belonged to HY 4/Rwirh whom THORwenr fishing foTJORMUNGAND. the land of men He was senr there by Odin to consult a Finn named Rossthiof about his worries conceming the future. or Himinbriorer.Balder canbe waitingstoically smt beside ed a promise from each and every an alarmingcreature.pain andhunger in thar cheerless. who fell down dead. Hodr unintentionally killed his brother BALDER. thestawed inmates HeI Balder. and retumed to reassure fatheras best he could. He was saved by magic. Hel's subjecs were little more rhan silent attendants of rhe semidecomposed queen She was only partly decomposed because she had the face and body of a living woman. the eightlegged SLEIPNIR.hneeling. he acted as a divine messenger Hermod also shared these gods'interest in the dead. The branch of mistletoe went straight through Balder. and the frost giantessANGRBODA. and guided Hodr's hand when he threw it at his brother. the son of optl and FRIGG. Hodr was sent to join him as a punishment. a plant the goddessconsideredto destined remain cheerless ner. gate ing death.and brother of netorn Rather like the Greek god Hermes and the Roman Mercury. When Balder Hrnuop below)spurs Jabulaus his steed was noubled by dreamsof his com. despire god rorc leamed about rhe mistletoe.listens oJ unimpressed Hermod'splea to release to the much-loved god Balder Jromher dismal realm Behindher. is possibly of who one thing not to do her son any harm. and Balder is portrayed as a hateful figure. r98 . In a very different version of rhe story. Hermod was allowed to take back ro A5GARD the armring which Odin had fastened to Balder'sbody as a memento Hermod nearly met his own death on ajoumey to Midgard. I 760 ) the animal's vast size. thereore rows of her sad subjects soulsof the old. ) 1995 his vain mission to seehBalder's release from death The great noisemadeby the hero and his eight-hoofed horseSleipnir when thq crossed crystal Gioll Bidge. his HIIralN BRIOTER seeHrMrN(/or HtUtNn. Once it became clear that Balderwould have ro suy in the land of the dead. rhe chief god Once there.oat. however. though it was Hel and her ghastly home which were adopted by the Christians as rhe name for rheir realm of etemal damnation. Thor had no trouble in breahng Himinrjot's neck. Hodr and Balderare rivals for HOO SCC HODR the hand of Nanna. bur her thighs and legs were those of a corpse. was rhe son of oolN and FRIGG. Hel's throne was known as rhe Sick Bed and hersubjecrcwere "all who died through sicknessand old age" Hrnuoo leapsbravelyinto mis$ Hel on Her. This Danish version shows mythology. to complain imtably that Hermod mustbe aliye (IttusrnqloN BypErER Huno. kna. his morher Frigg exacr. for when Odin's son BALDERwas hlled Helrefused to retum him to his parenrc Her brothers. In the Icelandic tradi. the gim goddess the dead. and used its head to bait his hook Jormungand rose for this delicacy. in Germanic myrhology.the brothers in averydifferent lighr tion. 1gg2) HnnUOD. however. however. sea the serpent. of who A sole exceptionwas the misdetoe.tthe hnatt hewas that futurewell. for it was he who was sent to HELafter Balder's death to ask for his brother's release He rode there on Odin's famous horse. When Hel refused to let Balder go unril everyrhing wept for him. was ruler She of the Germanic netherworld (also called Hel). The unpleasantnessof Hel's realm standsin marked contrast to the pleasurable and enviable afterlife that was enjoyed by the heroic dead who dwelt in Odin's wondrous hall veulerte.oRlzutrcAND rhe serpent. Modgud. The rickster FRoM THE PROSE EDDA.OT. Thor would have landed the prize had not the sight of the serpenr rising from the depths of the sea terrified Hymir In the confusion that ensued Hymirwas able ro cur the greatsea serpent free. However. Their HODR. the prwohed the gnm guardian. her powers were stronger than Odin's. Hodr kills Balder wirh a magic was the blind god of Germanic sword. somerimes Hodur or conflict is finally resolved when Hod. the fire god.

they when it came to making decisions side of his father's nature. The when Hogni and Gunner inherited killed Mimir and sent his head second brother. as the arrangedSigurd's death.NoRSE MyTHoLoGY HONtn.y hisbelarcd sla. they in rum were back to the Aesir. Not for nothing was Balder slain by his blind brother in a game that involved throwing potentially dangerous objects. his fellow Aesir. he doomed and suffered at the hands of the Germanic creation story. world. Hodr. Thar rhese owned a famous but ill-fated for.of the gods. handsome and ly betrayed the Val$rie BRYNHILD. Sigurd had unwittingbecame increasingly angry at the there is Balder. L*i M&3pi#i llodr'slvnd n aima dradly of mistletoe BaAq. (ILLUSTMTIoN ByARTHUR RIcxrrnv. However. In some versions site of Odin's foresight. his other promiDrrruor Bfl-DER Ecrcnsrrnc. He represens rhe posirive and. goodwill after peace was agreed from the world of the dead". rec. of any hnd. according to Germanic mythology. is the oppoSrgurd'gfonune. promptedhy twkted the god.BaAer. who benryeenthe nvo warring branches onciled. c 19OO ) r99 . Honir unfortunarely two sons of Odin are menrioned tune generated by u magic ring proved to be a grave disappoinrtogether here shows their imporcalled Andvarinaut. Sent to live After &{GNAROK. "Balder and Hodr rerum HOCNT and his brother. it represenls his blind spor. rhe chief god. way he appeared always to rely on kind. bewitched by the curse. to a new eanh. while darr at the (rHE othu godslmh in shochd dtsmny. Gunner. Sigurd. ) nent characteristic was said to be HonNmsee HoNrR his long-leggedness. who tance in lcelandic myrhology. unwittinf. c 1840 By C cANvAs. the wise MIMIR. prsuaded Guttorm to he undmalu the awfuldeed Brynhildwas laterflled wtth remorseand hilled herself . First ring's spell..befriended the hero SIGURD.the doom of among the VANIR as a token of the gods. Honn (abwe)whowasblind . who had unwtttingly betrayedher love Although refusingto hill SigurdhimselJ. The Vanir therefore god of magic and inspiradon. ahnost too good for the She asked the brothers for help. Jrombirth. Under the ment to his new companions.v brothu. Lohi Hre. was believed that Honir was the (Seealso NORSEHEROES) of his nature that mkes delight in god who gavehumans their senses. Apart from a terrible inability to HOOUNSCC HODR make up his mind. Hocll to below) listens suspiciously Brynhild's passionate pleaJor vengeance on her lwer. w6 a member of the ersm goup of gods and brother of oDIN. Instead. on death. rhe side of the Atli who coveted the gold. or Hoenir.

o rughry frostglantwtth balances a stony heart and shull.NORSE MYTHOLOGY or Reidmar. challengedThor to a duel on the border between fugard and Jotunheim No one had met the thunder god in single combat before.quor* ) JAME' number So they made out of clay a man so huge that the thunder god would shake with fright when he first caught sight of him.er 1995 BY action (Irrusrnqnoru Ar-rx. The frostSantlnew rhat he had to avoid his opponent's hammer. divine curse upon it Hreidmar was so stronghold. hean and shield were made of stone. or Golden O[[er. Thor acceptedeagerly. The heart of a dead mare was used to animate the clay grant. guard rhe gold and Regin asked the hali in which the honoured to SIGURD slay him and recoverthe dead lived with Odin. i 995 ) nvalThialf. who was a shape-changer. accordHnfnUen. plans to attqchhim the frombelow FuIIyexposedto impactoJ Thor's crushinghammer. awaiting the anival of Thor. the glant tnes to deflectthehammer Uthhis whetstone (iLLUsrMfloN By IAME' ALEXANpm.believtng that lt* expected Joe. but the dwarf placed a had ridden to AsGARD. ing to Germantc mythologr. whom they called Mist Calf Alongside Mist Calf stood Hrungnir.but he was killed as well Jotunheim on his back and to kill HnrrucrutRQO. Hugl to unhnown ThiaIJi. Hreidmar demanded to be com. off to fieasure. wasan illusion than ev Jaster q.mb olizngThought.As soon as Thor was in range. where Hrungnir was invired to rest before retuming to pleased with the gold that he did not wory/ about the curse But his JoruNHErM. and he held his sharp whestone in readiness. was the sffongest of the frost $ants and owner of a powerful stallion named Gullfaxi. three-comered stone in Thor's direcdon. inside and out The wily fire narrow victory over Hrungnir on god seized the dwarf ANDVARI's Golden Mane By this dme. in Germanic mythologr. but anxious lest the god slay the most powerful of their 200 . except FREYJAand THOR At this point the grant-slayer retumed and waved his magic hammer ar Hrungnir. they were both proud and anxious: proud that Hrungnir had challenged Thor. understandingthat he would be easily killed without his own weapons. When the frost giants heard about the forthcoming duel. rhe land of the gianm second son. skin. the two the treasure. was a magician-farmerand rhe father of ANd OTTERWhCN FAFNIR REGIN.t'oolishly on his stoneshield. Thiolf couW outrunhts frosty step speed ivalwhogathered at every Jor. but the frost giant. Thor.an outstipshts Hucr (above) of a warior.even though Hrungnir's head. The weapons met in mid-air. Fafnir.came to covet But Hrungnir drank too much srong ale and became alrogant He the treasureand killed him for ir Fafnir changed inro a dragon to even threatened to carry VALLIALIA. who swiftly launched his own sharpedged.competingincontest athletic Try go& shillsbenveen andglants ashe not would. Mane He encountered ODIN on one of the god's joumeys rhrough was killed accidentally by LIKI.the nine worlds and challenged pensared and told Loki to obrain him to a horse race Mounted on Odin won a enough gold to cover Otter's flayed eighr-leggedsrntPruiR. Although the hammer shattered the whetstone and went StR all the gods. he hurled his magic weapon at Hrungnir. HRUNCNIR.

Two whales had to offered them a meal. which shows Thor to be an ineffectual suong man in the face of cunning spells.cuttheline howarcr. When he woke. Hymir found them and of the waves. father of the war god trR.) 201 . ln the confusionJormungand tore Tyr's mother advised them to hide itself free of the great hook and until she had expiained their pres. a number of stone fragmens lodged in Thor's head and he was also pinned beneath one of the fallen Hrungnir's legs. Slqmir wamed them that at Utgard there were gians even greater than he. He also failed to empty a drinking hom. though he felt suffice for food instead Back in Hymir's hall. and some frost gianrs attempted to follow him in order to regain the Thor baiting his colossalhook with rhe head of Htvttl4yor.Muninn.the god of fire. the travellers saw that Slcttmir and Utgard were no more than magic creations sent out by the frightened frost gians to m1atifr m€hty Thor. Throughout the joumey the trickster LOKI. so T1n Thor set about its head with his hammer. Without this huge vessel. Odin sent the ravensout everyday to see and hear all that happened there. theywere unable to see the top of its batdemens without pressing the crowns of Jlew through the nine worldscollecting their heads on the napes of their information Thq would thenJly bach to necks. the thunder god himself being wrestled down on one krree by an "old. however. Hymirhad an enolrnous cauldron. HUCI ("Thought"). when the travellers reached Utgard. I260. relations uneasy Thor astonished the assembled company by eating two whole between host and guest quickly oxen byhimself.infear.was an airborne gatheru oJ news Alongwith hisbrother raven. w6 a young frost giant who ouuan THoR'shuman sewant HIALFI in a race The story of Thor's joumey to the srronghold of nGARD in the land of the frost giants is full of magic. so deep that it could brew ale for all the gods.rIRandThor below) food t'orageJor on bait tantalizing tip afatedfishing Thor's wster the sttracted monstrous serpent.At the end of their adventure. (ILLUSTRATTON FROM THE PRO5E EOOI'.le Hymir. whosefloffd tfleoflS Thought.Together the grgantic cauldron When Hymir they put to sea in Hymir's boat. old woman". Gobles host suggested they go fishing if were thrown before Thor left wirh they wanted to eat again. The next day their deterioratedinto violence.sank bleeding beneath the surface ence. the chief Germanic god. Thor became known as "Hrungnir's skull splitter". or Memory. there was no way that the sea god Hr.Nonse MvrHoLocY took this bait and AEGIRcould offer hospitality to JORMUNGAND ODIN and his companions. Sure enough. had cause to remind Thor of the superiority of brain over brawn At one point Thor. Hymir shookwith terror and tHoR were sent to fetch it When they anived at Hymir's hall. Thialfi and his sister RosKYA inadvenendy slept in the thumb of an empty glove belonging to the enorrnous frost giant SKRIIIIR.he on to crush Hrungnir's skull. ("Dark One") was a frost HWtm grant and.1760) number of tests. Theywould then retum to rest on Odin's shoulders and tell him what they had obsewed. After this heroic incident. In order to be informed about events in the nine worlds.one Odin's of fabulous ravens. delighted godwho withhisglantcatchWen battledfuriously theboat. The race between Hugr and Thialfi was but one incident in this strange adventure. threatenedcapsize to thestrug. [-oh. the which Jormungand. mistaking it for avzrsthall.Thorused his hammer to black ox When the sea monster such effecr that all were hlled Hucttw Aef). in Germanic mythologlr. only to leam afterwards how its other end was in the sea. the giant's cauldron. (ILLUsrMrroN FROM THE PRosE EDDA. accordrng to some tradidons. Inside the great fortressThor Odin and whisper the latest novs into his and his companions failed in a CAT. ("Thought") and HUCTNN Muninn ("Memory") were the ravens o[ODIN.

The loss of rhe apples ar first caused the gods ro become weak and old. Vanaheim.rhe land of the frost glan6. rhe fire god. cosmic ITeeYGGDMSIL. rhe land of the dark elves. and was known as the Midgard Serpent. shehands outher precious gJtsto the wer-youthful gods Jrom her inuhaustible cashet The mythic tradition oJthe golden apple. With its regarded as "lord of the herds". can beJound inboth ancient Greehand Celtic Cultures (luusrpqTlor. wirh blearyeyes and loose Ioutt guarded a Jabulousfruit tree.On his retum ro ASGARDtherefore. their minds began ro weaken. others The were ASGARD. rhe home of humanhnd. that he encircled rhe earth. the other branch of rhe divine family. rhe come on to the earth and be slain northernmost people of Europe. thehome oJ thefrost wastelandon Jonrunelu gtrants. and cold Niflheim beneath Yggdrasil's100ts. the saryt sonoJ Lohi. and so the goddess trustingly accompanied him into the forest. the goddess who guarded the apples of youth. dtngling from Thor's ftshing line THE EDDA. He was later giantessANGRBODA. w6 the serpent son of about him. (See also TREASURES AND TALISA.rnoru BFA:. the WorM Seryent risesto afuit of ox head. also a supreme and FENRIR and nnt ODINananged for god. When LoK. mphology. stronghold of LTTGARD. Loki then resrored Idun to her true shape and she gave magic apples to the ailing gods. Thiassi awaited hs prey. brother of replaced by Ukko. washurled into the icyoceanby Odin Therehe grevvto sucha monstrous ske thathe encircledMdgard and threatened. At IQro I(tnJunMELwas a srone MGNAROK Jormungand was ro god worshipped by the [. Alfheim. By threat of magic Loki to bring back he compelled Idun and her apples.one branch of the gods. Idunnor or Iduna. Loki flew to Jorunheim ldun into her home.TANS) IOUNIE SCEIDUN was rhe crearor god of JUUnlt Finnish mythology and their in Germanic supreme deity.the home of rhe I(NNNTTHILD SCC TRAGICLOVER5 Jonuuvcewo Qdt). the the ocean. settled gathered and found as a general fear of death on fugard. He seems to have been brothers at the Creation. but a deiry of the sky and the these monsuous children to be air. where. Ukko's wife was Akka. was caprured by the frost giant THIASSI.1gg5) ayNlcx 202 . Here. He took Idun and her apples in his claws and flew to JOTUNHEIM. Then IOUNNOR INCTNORG Jrzl Bann SCC IDUN SCC TMGICLO\4R5 see BABAYAGA AESIR. A mountainous region of freezing cold. or "Great Lord". which produced ltfe-ging apples Here. ) 0uusrnenotFRoM PRosE I Z@ (nght).bliuards and roanngwinds From hre the frost giants dtrutedblasts of wind to nip thebudsof spnng orJ-usrp. rymbolizng immonality and Jmility. as a a nut falcon. in the shape of an eagle. She was the wife of BMGI.was one Among the Swedeshe was linown it of the nine worlds sheltered by the as Sto{unka. Verylittle is lcrown JOnUUNGAND. Svarul{heim. but he was bumed to dearh by fires placed along the tops of Asgard's mighry walls. was. which sugHe then threw Jormungand into gesrsa linkwith unopER-AKt(A. changed and carried The frost grant gave chase as an eagle. rhe land of the dwarfs. Nidavellir. Jotunheim was variously described as being inside Midgard. was a snwt<wred the ocean edge. except thar the oak tree LOKI.r PENRo5EtSgO ByJ c ) skin. possiblynear the Nonh Pole Itwu a rmlm of mtsts. kidnapped and brought ro AsGARD. the land of mortals.(Seealso MGNARoK) Reindeerwere sacrificedto Kied I(e Jubmel as late as the sevenreenth was the land given century to ensure successin the JOTUNHEIM to the frost gians by oDIN and his hunt. had to promise ro sreal he the apples from Idun to securehis release. realm of the the unworthy dead. the god of poetry.apps. At lasr ODIN srrengrh his remaining Loh.sailors throughout the ocenns. god of fire. HEL. who allowed the rain to fall. the land of the lighr elves. by THOR. Midgard. and the frost was sacred to him. Loh rold Idun rhar he had discovered apples of much better qualiry gowing nearby. or over the sea.NORSE MyTHoLoGY IDUN. where he grew so long creator goddess of the lrpps. the home of the VANIR. in Germanic mythology.

His most dangerous exploit was an attempt to kill the swan of TUONI. Leib-Olmai required certain prayers before he would allow any man to hll a bear. the VANIR and the AESIR. many of his adventures involve the pursuit of women and he accompaniedvAnvavoINEN on ajoumey to the land of Pohja in search of wives.Nonsr MvrHoLocY LrurruxerrurN (abwe) was slain and dismembered duingone of his uploits But his maglcianmothr gatheredhimup and restoredhim toliJe Hue shecallsuryn a bee to bing lrfr. he was tom apartby Tuoni's son and his remains were scattered in the river. character a ww wondrous wisdom.Slr'lrn1 honeyfrom bq ond the highestheavm (Lrurrxeruru's MoTHER avA GnurN-IGr r FLq. he was bathed by his mother three dmes in one summer night and nine times in one autumn night to ensure that he would become a wise adult. who wanted his wisdom They mixed his blood with honey in order to make awonderful mead which gave the gift of poerry ro everyonewho drank it L-EB-OLN4AI ("Alder man") was a Lapp bear god. He was killed by two dwarfs.the god of the dead. The Aesir then took the jar and Kvasir was made from the spittle. Renowned for his great wisdom. Failing to protect himself with magic. ("Lover") was LgutNxnINEN one of the heroesof Finnish epic. His name means "spittle" and recalls his creation when the gods spat into a jar to mark the end of conflict beween two branches of the divine family. As a child.+reR and Galar. At bear festivals hunters used to sprinkle their faces with an exrract of alder bark. ) FROM Pnosr I 760 with a talent for song. cqNvAs. c 1890 ) doing to listen to him. (Seealso woRSE HEROES) KUIITRVO SPELIS SCC5ORCERY AND KVnStn was a wise man in Germanic mythology. grfted endowedwith Kvesln(nght). he travelled the world and wherever he went people stopped what they were 203 . r'|. As the protector of bears. A carefree young man. created the Jrom oJ the spittle thegodsHetravelled world gods withhts sense inspinng and mortals was Afterhis death blood his andwisdom to of used mahe mead inspiration a (IrrusrnenoN THE Eoon. But his magician mother put his body back together again and restored him to life.

For the Finns.) T non (nght). here. while agedVainamoinencould alwaysslip out of a dght comer by shifting shape.Their hardy heroism was doubtlessshaped by the crushing Nordic climare. CANVAS. thq refusedto sunenderunder threat of death Hogni died laughing as his heart wascut out. the Norsemen fought with undiminished spirit. c 1890) . and Gunner. Armed with magical forces. slnying giants with andrechless rage ffirtless ease Alongwrth someof the othergods. redeemingand surviving a hero's death.No less than the heroes.died gallnntly thoughnatherlived aJlnwless ltfe Drawn into the web of tragedy wovenbya cursednng thE sleuy the peulesshero Sigurd.who coveted their gold.andhoarded his gold When sazedby AtIi. but also by a sroic fatalism.while acceptingthe inevitabiliry of death on the field and doom at the end of the world. Thor was destinedto die heroically at Ro.gnaroh. the N ibelung brothers. Finnish heroeswere quite as determined and brave in their way. defuingdeathto thelast (Wooo c. facing doom at Ragnarokwith fighting spirit. After death. For the vikings. Guvxrnexo Hocrr AeJ).they battled with incantadons rather than force of arms.hefought with a fearless spirit. 12TH cENr. supematurally strongandarmedwtth the maglcal Mjollnir. death was not always final: Leminkainen had more than one life. the bravestheroes went to Valhallawhere they awaited the fated and fatal showdown at Ragnarok. after puttingup a Jtercefght and slnyinghisarchfoe.NoRSE HERoES He MrcNcs were famed for their fighting spirir. facing death and doom with vigour and courage.qnvtNc. DETAIL. though perhaps less grand and stoic. the Norse gods were heroic. cast into a serpent's pitwithbound hands.plqedhis harp with hisfeet. was a Jormidable foe Bang nather immortal nor invulnerable. word-fame was everything. the World Serpent (rnonnNo THE GIANTS BY M E WINGE.

most the slewthe famous oJlceland'sheroes.Fafnir Armed wtth hisJather'sinvincible sword. Sigmundexapel. thrusthis on sword rnto its belly Thebloatedcreature had grown increasingly monstrous shape in and character. Sigan who resolvedto slay all the Volsungs All ten sonswere tied to forest trees prq to the beastsoJ the Jorest OnIy . tembledragon.and soughtvengeance his hinsmen (ruusrncrro. Sigurdhtd tn a holein the dragon'sslime traclzand. the betterto guard hrs all cursedtreasure AhhoughSigurd'sheroicdeedwon himJame andfortune.N wlsox. as Fafnrr slitheredacross his datly tnp to thefoul Jorestpool..Nonse MvrHoLoGY Srcunp (above). hu lfe Jrom then on was bhghtedby the cursethat camewith the ill-Jated treasure 0LLlsrmrror AL-4N 1984 B' Lrr. c 1900 syp ) Jor 245 . by biting of a wolf s tongue.but alsoprovohedtheenvyoJ his brother-rn-law. ) Slcutrlp rHE VoruNG (nght) prwedhis heroicstdtus by drawngJorth a maglcalsword thrust into the Branstoch Mh by Odin With this word he wonJame throughout Scandinavia.

sometimesas small as aleaf.the end of the world. Hqe.olrtrr'sbrothcrs sc a weqingNorn. trickster and shape-changer. whibat thetop. They were destined to survive this catastrophe and then repopulare a new world. spint of theforest. Boredom was a problem for Loki. where the gods held their daily assembly. It is an interesting mixture of commonsensical advice about good conduct and superstitions conceming the avoidanceof witchcraft. Through the branchestheywill see a new sun bum as rhe world ends and surs again " LtrmneslR see un 206 . He visired rhe Well of uRD. castno shadowwherehewalhedand could easily camoujage himself among hisJorest trees. and stayed in VALHALL{. The fact that his paren$ were giants may help to explain his tendency towards evil deeds. He I-oto helped precipitnte cycle to a of iolenceby callously slayng Ottafor hls Otter'sfatha. ODIN's hall. theyoungcouplecltmbed dmn and a nf:t^t dawned. was the Slavonic spirit of the forest who led travellers and hunters asray in the woods. he lwed to lead tresrysers AStrAy 0[usrunoN By voN M ScHwtpo. thoughhe appearedin the shapeoJa man. and grew progressively more evil until eventua\ rhe gods bound him in a caveundl the coming of nacruaRoK. and their food will be rhe moming dew. which would rise from the sea like a volcanic island.NORSE MyTHoLoGY I Fsnr Qef). disappearing from his woodland home undl the following spring. 1860 c ) In (nght) and her mate. ) THn LESHY. Akhough human in form. who "was tired of the string of days that unwound wirhout a knot or a twist in them". sometimes a tall as the tallest tree A jealousgnrdtan oJ hLslmJy realm. His chief attribure. somerimes Lopt. His myth comprises a retelling of the knowledge he gathered there. was his abiliry ro change size: he could become as small as a rnouse or as tall as the highesr tree Every October the Leshywent inro a hnd of hibemation. (Iuusrwnot ry NrcrBar 1995 u. He was a mischief-maker.lohihelpsOdinquietar raging thc il*orf. was rhe Germanic fire god and son of the gians FARBAUTI and Laufey. LOKI. "The bellowing fire will nor scorch them. when he would rerum wilder and noisier than ever. Ygdrasil After theeanhhadbeat purged byfire andflood. was a man who leamed the wisdom of the gods. also known as Lesovik and Lesiye. it will not even touch them. l9l{. rhe doom of rhe gods. tooh shelterat the end of theworlil in the sunlitbranches oJ the cosmicashtree. however.whichrwls omen an oJ doom QuusrunoN ry F yop Srrssnr. I NSNM SCC THELE5HY LnsovtK see rHE LEsFry LOODFAFNIR.invohnghis bittn anv. in Germanic mythology. afrah green age age inwhich thq were destinedto repopularctheworWand so renav the human race. he had a long green beard and casr no shadow. Lifthrasir.) Ltf and Lifrhrasir ("Life" and "Eager for Life") were the man and woman who were to hide in the cosmic ash tree YGGDMSIL al MGNARoK.lohistole a fur. Toa??eaft dwarfs trasure.

He therefore persuaded Thor to go to Thrym dressedin Freyja'sclothes.1995 and stnts Ouusrn ) 207 . was the hand of mEtnA. Their three daughters were involved with procreadon as well. Lolrr (abwe). In this dreadful prison.n). according to the kpps. When Loki led Thor unarmed to the hall of the frost giant GEIRROD. Later she floated for cenuries on the cosmic ocean. wtth hisface atposd to thefay drops of a snaltc's c 1870 venom 0[usrnnnourYD PE]rRosE. the tncluta god./. SeealsoJUMAr:{. Madder-Atcha was responsible for the soul and Madder-Akka for the body. the divine couple who created humankind. Narvi's intestines were then used to bind Loki beneath the dripping mouth of a venomous snake. vntt and Narvi. His monstrous children byAngrboda were ANd HEL. gods continued to tolerate his presence in ASGARD.tthe godsrealQedhewas to evil and resolved imprtsonhim l-ohi was amnlrrrlly bound to a ruh. Afterwards Luonnotar fashioned the continents and the seas.Juksakka ensured that the baby changed from is originally female gender. feast Butwhen he anived atAEGIR's and began to torrnent everybody present with insults and sneers. only the loan of weapons from the hndly frost giantess GRID saved the thunder god. Scatteredhagmentsof these eggs were transformed into the stars. the gods were subject to the ra\xages time of like everyone else. The child they made was then placed in the womb of its eanhlymother. lvlenoeR-AKIG and her male companion Madder-Atcha were. who lived undeqEound. The yolla became the sun. when Loki would meet his own end at the hands of.. At the beginning there was only Luonnotar "all alone in a vast emptiness".with whom he had two sons. brought about the loss and rerurn of toul and her apples of youth. Without these maglc fruit. first to the giant ANGRBODA and then to SIGI?. with the result that from the broken shells of the eggs the heavens and the earth were formed.JORMUNGAND ruler of the underworld: all fearsome representatives of the evil side of his nature. But the goddess became excited and upset the nest. who immediately attacked his brother Nawi and hlled him. (See also MGNAROK) Lopr seeLoKr (which probably LUONNOTAR means "Daughter ofNature") was the creatorgoddessof the Finns. To escape their wrath Loki changed himself into a salmon.NORSE MYTHOLOGY simply could not help plapng tricks and exposing the gods to danger.unnqout. Loki was manied twice. Odin located the fish and to mounted an e><pedition catch it. its egsbroht andformed the urth and slE. although it was often his quick-wittedness that afterwards saved them. From his hgh seat in Asgard. Even after he brought about the death of oDIN's the son BAI-DER. the god awaited Ragnarok. Loki. When Thrym took out the magic hammer. stn. Sarakkasupponed women during childbinh. Loh discovered. toh tricked his friend because the price of his own release by Geinod had been delivery of the thundergod into his power. Loki was then placed in a dark care. undl one day a bird made a nest on her knees and began to hatch some eggs. On occasion lohwas even prcpared to riskserious harm to his companion THOR. looked after the interests of the new-bom child. Then he was to emerge to lead the army of evil in their final battle with the gods. if a male child was to be born. for insance. the thunder god. ) Luorworen @elo. Yet it was Loki who devised the novel scheme to get back Thor's magrc hammer after it was stolen by dwarfs and passed into the hands of the frost gianr TlIRrM. the fertiliry goddess. His son Vali was changed into a wolf. grat restlrssin theheawns and sltppd into the cosmicua. while Uksakka. FENRIR.a primal goddas. and the whites the moon. whue shednful unnl an eagb built a neston her hnee Wat she acadentally upset the nat. but becameso ilarh and twrstedtlllr.was atfrct just a pwful pranlutr. the Finnish hero. Thor seized it and laid low all the frost grants present. The price for the hammer's retum. moon rnot avNlcxBrerr. and gave birrh ro vAINAMoINEN. their patience came to an end. however.

I stole it The price for its retum was the hand of rRnY. even rhough none of the gods had been able to shift Hrungnir's leg. she was an object of veneration up to the early years of the rwentieth century. the patroness of green snakes The of Rngnaroh Magni ("Mighty") swings Letts believed that the stars were Thor's sacredhammer. was the Baldc moon god The sun was imagrned as the goddessSAULE. Thor fell wounded ro the ground.head He was also unable to move because one of Hrungnir's lifeless legs pinned him ro rhe ground Even worse.north and south.p. wth oil (Iuusrnenoru Nrcx ny Br. Modi.thq invohedthe dess was huppy to be seen all pnmal daty. as fragmentsof whetstone had lodged in his. In Thor's hands Mjollnir was the gods' certain protection againsr their enemies. Thorshowed his gatitude by giving the young frost giant Hrungnir's magnificent horse. ) 1995 said to have been the child of a love affair berween Saule and pnRKUNo. and brother of Modi Afrer his duelwirh HRUNGNIR. the Germanic rhunder god.west. Odin gaveone of his eyesfor permission to drink at the well MJOt-l-NIRwas the magic hammer of the Germanic thunder god THOR Made by the dwarfs Brokk and Eitn. was Jaur. Men Sne Znurvewa invohedby Slavic the thunder god For this reason farmersathawest time Thq entered thar the moon god. or Menulis. ODIN. it was an instrument of destruction. eachtime soahingtheearth through the day. in Germanic mythology. 1995) MIMIR. he would be fallen to my bare fists " Akhough oDlN was rather put out by young Magni's inrervendon. Magni proved strong enough to free his father Thor. at the age of three years. was awise god sent by rheAEsIRro the VANIR order to seal the peace in after these rwo branches of the divine family tired of war." Magni comrnented "lf I had met this gianr first. when Russianpeasantwomen were still performing elaborate rires in order to summon her presenceto protect them from disease MNNUUS SCC MENU MENU. Because the Vanir felt that rhey had been cheated. and the grantessJamsaxa.qu. while the sun god. stide across the root of the cosmic ree the sunlit Plain of lda at the dawn oJo YGGDMSIL To gain Mimir's wisdom.000 years ago Believed ro possessrhe abiliry to predict the future and ro settle disputes wisely.Mimir's head was placed by Odin to guard a magic well under Mecm andhisbrother.Nonse MyrHoLoGy MeCNt ("Mighry") was the son of rHoR. rhe doom of the gods.after the world destruction truths unknown ro any other person". "ft's a pity I didn't come sooner. smeared the severedhead with herbs so thar it would never rot He then recited a charm over it to restore its power of speech [-ater. and appeared libations oJhemp oil Bowingto the eut. which comprised "many Jreshgreenage. however. fields at dawn andblessed earthwith the avoided his spouse. Thor wetted himself when he noticed the clay gianr Mist Calf Insult was nearly added ro injury when.the frost grants That is why the gods were so worried when the frost giant THRy. Golden Mane After MGNAROK. however. fertiliry and resurrection.roER. the strongest of rhe frost gianrs. while Modi the children of Menu and Saule. Magni and Modi togerher would inherit Thor's magic hammer.s Arrxtr. ("Courage") Jollows behind (Iuusrnnrroru ny The Moming Star. only by night. the fertility goddess Dressed in Frefa's clothes and accomDanl .they cut off Mimir's head and sent it back ro rhe Aesir. in shame and anger. ("Moisr Earth Mother") was the Slavonic earth goddess Archaeological evidence suggests that her worship may have originated in the basin of rhe River Don as much as 30. MJOLINfR Mert Syne Zevrye.

for rymbolinngthe saciJiceof oneviu Jor another. pull the larger sun 1995 Srrweno. Mist Calf was ani- mated by the heart of a mare. carvedthe world out of the carcass of YMIR. the day of and the end of the world.oruNHElM. a rymbol oJ the Jull moon. before Thor strongest This occunedjust met HRUNGNIR. the thundergod. it was very slow-moving MJorrNtn QeJ). After doom MGNAROK. however. moon and stars. ) 1995 horn (IrrusrnenoN NrcK Nanna.rymbolizng Thor's red-hot at the mallet thunderbolt. glou. single combat. When Odin.but ako creativeand hallowedweddingsand births The acquisite.qr-r. they solved the problem of its illuand glowminadon by using sparl<s ing embers from the sun. who lived in Midgard. moon oJHamdall's besidethe crescent By Br.NoRSr MyTHOLOGY MtulR saws Odin a draughtfromhis wondrousFountain oJWisdom Thepnce demanded this pivilege was one q/e. MUNDTLFARI was a man who offended oDIN.greater ision Odin's qe floated in the Jountain.Mundilfari. aJter The withhis thegods arrogance children chaiots weremadeto dnve theheavenly the across slE At leJt. had a son and a daughter so handsome and beautiful that he called one Moon and the other Sun The gods were angeredby this comparison Odin snatched the brother and sister from Midgard and tumed them into constellations to guide the real heavenly bodies on their daily and nightly journeys acrossthe sly (below) hts named lovely MuruotrraRl angeing and children thesun moon. the in of the frost gian$. of Mjollnir passed to (See ownership Thor's sons MAGwI and Modi also TREAS URESAND TALISMANS) MOXKURALFI. Waher and Rapid Goer.N and chanted to consecrate the ceremony. ) Bv GTENN chaiot (Irrusrpqrro. the land of the frost giants. and swung his axe at the clay giant's legs When Mist Calf toppled backwards.the moon is drawn by Early All-Sw{t. cENruRv) torH . and could onf be held by an iron gauntlet It was not just destructive. He was made from the claybed of a nverby frost giants in order to tenify THOR.the original frost giant. but it proved Though inadequate for the task into the creature towered the clouds. Thor raised his hammer certain magic words and its legs were vulnerable to attack On the day of the duel.whirlingpattems oJ Vihing art beautifuIlydepict the blazng qes oJthe god {srwenpENDANr. while two eagersteeds. Thor hlled Hrungnir but wet himself at the sight of Mist Calf His human servant THIALFIwas less impressed. Calf. his fall shook.ed end. along with his brothers yILI and vE. was a gigandc or Mist clay giant.

ripping NIOnO was rhe Germanic sea corpses apart and eadng them. the gods and the end of the world. stag tree a browsingon thelearcs Ygdrasilis in of its turnnippedby Nidhog rejectingthe hJe deathstruggle therootof the and at UnNeTSe (Wooo crnvrNc. o gruesome dragon. Njord. NenfnUS was a Germanic goddess. she was an important morher goddess who had a sacred grove on a Frisian island. The freezing misr and darkness of Niflheim.with passions opposite herwn. The name of the goddess may have meant "powerful one" because it refers to suength.the sea god.1g3O) people honoured W layingaside iron het all tools weapons donning e and and festiv dress0uusrnrTroN Arxqtprn. dwelt in iq Nilheimand. and mother of Freyja and rRna. Some raditions represent him as the cold. a member of the divine race of Between mouthfuls he would send VANIR and father of the fenility gods the squinel Ratatosk the cosmic FRELR f'nrrye.aldi. but in the autumn Dazhbogleaves his bride and only retums to her after the cold winter months have passed. for the agreed between the AESIR and the agile animal periodically disturbed Vanir. suggest that Nerthus was sister and wife ro NJORD. Someversions of the myths of .home of the gods.8ru cnvruRy. the consort of Dazhbogand morher by him of rhe stars. to drawn t*o hafm.According ro him. Sacrifice by drowning was a pracdce also favoured by the ancient Slavs in eastem Europe. bur age on fhe cosmos in some way.thecosmic Here. mother of Freyr and Freyja was presumably hoping to inflict dam. whichsymbohzed ing on the vast and inexhaustible andso she soon to hr chilly tooh hilk W pimal motherhood abundance and The supply of dead. in Germanic myrhology. was who W strophe of RacrueRoK. of hts Njord.asceRo.when devouing not corpses. chariot hq was the dragon from its ceaseless quite feast. Nidhoggwould some versions of the myth.At a cenain lake the goddess bathed.) 2r0 . ) EvJAMEs 1995 and afterwards slaves who had helped in this ritual were drowned in Nerthus' honour. her image placed in an ox cart and attended by a priest. When peace was up and tree on an errand of insult. Every spring the divine pair are remarried.tnoN BvJHuARD. At regular inrervals Nerthus travelled inland along a recognized route.she feet What Sludipiclzed dunng biannual her Neither fire nor flood could deter foundthatshehadwon*t)eet. god. the nvo branches of the two birds.Njord's own sister NERTHUS. Freyla came to live with the Aesir as When momentarily dred of the a sign of goodwill. tthabitually nibbled rootof the Ygdrasil. baldheaded uncle of rhe sun god DAZHBOG. smgod a oA Jmilityfestival with Bedeched Jlowen. an eagle and a hawk.have Jeet hu inspected Sll. Both Yggdrasil and Nidhogg were N. where the dragon lived. divine family. was the dragon lMng ar one of the three r00ts of the cosmic tree YGGDMSIT. doom of obliged choose rhe to afutsbandJrom shape the Nrnrnus ides in a tiumphalprocession.yono up to belw) lines wtththegods destined to survive the final cata. During these sacred journeys peacewas expected to prevail because "all iron was put away". According to tasteof dead flesh. NIOHOGG. the gnaw at the root of Yggdrasil iself. was Nlpnocc kJt). alone Auusn.NoRSE MyTHoLoGY MYgSYefS was rhe moon deiry of Slavonic myth. which was the lowest of the nine worlds.whose cult was described by the Roman writer Tacitus in the first centuryAD. Freyr and who were perched at the very top. others. Quite possibly Tacitus was describing a local cult of FRafA. Myesyars is a In beaudful woman.

in Germanic mythologr the Greek and Roman concept of the Fates spinning an individual length of yam for each mortal life does not appear THg NOnNS. was the site where the gods heid their daily Noms assembly known by ("Present") The rwo name other are Verdandi and Skuld ("Future") that the of Noms gods. akohnown as the Nordic of Fates. The as well in Asgard After nine humankind Anglo-Saxons 2tt . god.1 995 IAMES since the Aesir disapproved riage between brother Nerthus of mar- and sister.whileyoungVerdandi of the andvaled Shuld symbolizes present. where heavy clouds masked the sun and harsh rock made the ground as barren as death [n her wild and unforgiving land. homeof his sacred seagullsand swans Popular with sailorsandfishermen. and in Engiand there was maintained a belief in rhe tremendous powers of rhe three sisters long after the arrival of Christianity For instance. who chose him on the basis of his beautiful feet However. Njord's second marriage was to the frost giantess SMDI.N"Jonocalmedthe stormsraisedby the tempestuous Aeglr A gentle soul. he aided shipsin distress. ) called Urd by the name of Wyrd. as of It was believed decided gians the destinies and dwarfs. her did not accompany husband and children to fugard. there was hardly any scope for humankind Nonrqtn seerHE NoRNs Tan Nonrys. atleft.) . they were seen as three sister goddesses: Klotho ("The Spinner"). wiseold Urd reads from the scroll thepast. encountered in Greek myrhologr. the goddesses Nom was The URD ("Fate") of destiny. where nothing was able to grow or prosper at all. or Nomir. the coupie could not agree about where they should live Njord found Skadi's home in JOTUNHEIM. since he provided to those who worshipped him not only safe voyagesat sea. too cold and barren. in Shakespeare'stragic play Macbeth. The original undoubtedly Well of Urd.v favourable windsand causedsummer showers (Irrusrnenoru By ALEXAwoTn. however She came from a range of frozen mountains. or "Fates". 1995 BYJAMES lrorn. Lachesis ("The Decider") and Atropos ("The lnevitable") lt would seem more than possible that the Noms were also originally thought of as spinners Howevet.decidedthe destintes both gods and mortak ds thq wove the Web of Fate Here. fu in the Germanic mythic tradition. were the Germanic fates. Njordlwedhis sunlit coves and creehs.the Three Sisterson "the blasted heath" obviously owed somerhingro rhe Noms A clear parallel of the Noms are the Moerae. while Skadi disliked of shipbuilding of Noatun the noise and bustle around Njord's hall nighrs in each place they decided to live apart Skadi went back to her favourite pastime of hunting on shs and the weather-beatenNjord retumed to a life at sea The apparendy unbridgeable gap between them probably reflecs more than personaluste Njord was certainly seen as a god of fertility. the land of the frost gianrc. her clasps closedscrollof thefuture (lu-usrnarroru ALrx. but alsowealth and good fortune in the form of land and sons Skadi's associationswere quite differenr. blo. which was situated under one of the roots of the great cosmic ITeeYGGDMSIL.

virginswith golden hair and snowy arrns who served the chosen heroes everlasting ff. fallen Valkyrie.sprayingdewandhoar frostwer a . of dark angelsof death who soaredover the batrlefieldslike birds of prey. This far more appealing n d I .TLKYRIES ALKvRIES wERE oRrcrNALLy srNrsrER sprRrrs slaughter. Moururro Verryrrrs Aeft) soaredoverthe battlefeld throughstorm clouds lying on steeds Their prarly mountspersonifiedthe rain clouds.and often fell in love with mortal heroes. were at risk as they might easily be trapped on earth if caught without their plumage.mead and meat in the greathall of Valhalla. was a beautiful. especially. meting out fare in the name of Odin. they soared over the host as lovely swan-maidens or splendid mounted Amazons. Swan-maiders.Brynhild or Brunhild.:'ffi. Chosen heroes were gatheredup and borne away to Valhalla. li e b e l u n g e l i e d . Ide ahzed Vallcyries were infinitely more vulnerable than their fierce predecessors. In later Norse myth.On the battlefield.the heavenlyabode of Odin's ghostly army. w h e r e t h e n .ffi: heroine.THE V. the Valkyries were romanticizedas Odin's shield-maidens.

1'. i 1 1 l. t r l . . l ..il rlrrr: \r l/lr. . .il.. t l i' .l\t 1 1' l r 1 1 1 . (\ littr\fll. .. l ' t .lirrrit. .. . i i . .. f . r i r i . i \ r I l / l it. .1 .t1L/l/tt 111' r .lLr))i()l 1 1 1 . . q 1 r i ..ilL{Lllsr ' 1 .. . ' .r . t l t t i i i r r \ \ \ i t r . l l . r t . f ' l / t t r I / .. l .it lltt lrl t\tl\ 1r. . t r . ' / t g / i t . 1 { t 1 . 1 t ' t' \ / ) l ll i r r ' r r i . l l {l .J 'lrt. l lr( /)l \() rlll{( il I J t ' 1 g i .. 1r . r \ . ) r t t i .. ) / 1 ' .i!: rrl. f 1 1 ri 1 .:l. ' i t . ' l r .. l r .{\r /. /". r r i l r i \ \ (( f .. r \t tir.' l r ' \l r l l .r/ iiit '. q i t . i L t r i l L l r l i l l . 1 1 r 1 1 . .sE MyTHOLOGY r 1 1I r t t t . l i . / r . 1i r . q. 1 1 1 1... 1 r . r 1 . ) l . l t / / . r s f ' r r r i .. . . t i /1.l .iill ltl . l l l r . . i 1 l . 1 1l t t L r i r i l I f l t .r r..'.. 1s. i l l.1' \ \ tiltri. \ ( l / l r r i t l l l i i t . . 1 . i ' .'.. l l l . . 1 .it j.. r r q . r 1 1 . r l l r . / t i t t t Ir. t r .. .l ipl. r / .. / . 1 rr t . l l .1tti I t i l . . : / r . . i i ' 1 1 i 1 i 1t i . t . L i r r t t L it t l f i l l r ./ 'lrrriri. t i . 1 1 1 1 . . l.ilJ i\.rlt r \ i I / i i r i r l l l ! ' r / 1 (. r 1r 1 i . 1 1 /1 ' 1 11 . . i t t . . r 1 l . . .'. l i 1 .l f 1 . r t ( ) i l t r tr l t . i t ... 1 1t l t . r . i r \ l l ( r / 1 .rr! /il' :lt. l l t .l r r r ttLlL/\. i i .iir. r 't s L it r r / 1 I / r r r ( rt1.Non. \ . 'r i r . . : 1( . r . l . lr. .i iii( . l r i f l r rr t . l rtnrlt. i . t r t l i i . j \i.

whom rhe Romanshad identified as the sky god of rhe north European peoples Tir rerained his interest in war. the darh omens doom (THe DHuNr wl oJ oF ODIN.ved was said Lo prresi.) 214 . rather he inspired it in a devious manner Odin was ever (below). ry I'NAruo. lB72 ) mighrywatch-tower overloohrng ntne the worlds Hovenng nearbyare his tteless rayens. alsoknown as Woden or Wotan. however. as in the battle-frenzyexhibited by rhe Irish hero Cuchulainn That Odin becamerhe foremost god shows how important wartare always was in Germanic tradition It should be noted. theWtldHuntsman.rvrs. ar c . was the chief god of Germanic myrhology. ghostli'hunt throughthe stotmymidnight slry In the roar and rumbleof thestorm clouds.theavbornen(ws reporters.thelughest gods. for in VALHALIA. bur Odin was looked upon as the insprration for hard-bitten warriors He alonehad rhe power ro inspiremen in battle to a stateof berserkragein which rhey fearednorhing and felt no parn The terrible berserkers would rush naked into the fray. Norsemen fanciedthq heardOdin's phantom idrrs sweep across sIry. Gen and Frekr.omcnsot'good luch (Onr^.hrrh t^. immense hall in rhe an diwne forrress ascaRo.Je er gocJ erv.n< n "madness" It indicatespossession. while at hisJett crouchhis pet wolves.nii t^.NonsE MyrHoLoGY OPIX.E BuRNI-/r.i th"nno Hi. onhrs oJ srrs uunite. OorN as ieudstheheratchostcn c. the son of BOR and grandsonof nuru He was particularlyfavouredby the Vilcngs a n d ro se to p ro mi n e n ce in the eighth and ninth cenrunes These seafarers raiderswere attracted and b y Od i n 's l o ve o f b a trl e as the "lather of the slain".that he did not embody martial esctasy himself. biting the edgesof their shieldsin a maddened frenny Odin's name meanssomethingahn [o "fury" or OorNQep. Huglnn and Muninn. the oneof e.I870. ("glorious dead") Ar the EINHE(/AR rhis penod it seemsrhat Odin drsplaced TtR. ctNves.irb.

Just as the cycle of Germanic mythologystarted with a cosmos awash with the blood of the original frost giant YMIR. the cosmic tree. Odin had many other wives. But during the Vikings' wolf watches the halls of the gods". in a timelessbattle or s e n clasphiswtJ Io gngly. Odin was often ponrayed as a grey-bearded old man with one eye.Nonsr MYTHoLoGY ready to stir up strife.the doom of the gods.ANVAs. treeJor nine dEs. his sonswerc THOR. and he fathereda number of children. and on one voluntary death. so the final scene was to be a batdefield. Odin was a god of magic and wisdom.he tunic. but Odin also had a strongly posidve side to his character as the most learned god. was rymbol pwu andwealth c c. VALKTRIES. while his lost qe. When asked passingasVihng colonists settled down as peaceful farmers and about such withdrawals of luck. the god of [ire. For Odin's love of wisdom was so profound that he was prepared to sacrifice himself to plumb its depths. though.when Odin and his brothers vtt andvr. wife in Asgard. carved the world of men out of his dead body. rhey had tolerated the growth of evil. Gungnir. scene. Odin used to reply that "the grey traders. This heyday. Most of the ciry's inhabitants were slain and hanged naked or clothed from trees. the oJhis final battle on the vIGRID Plain. even being regarded as a shortcut to Valhalla. Odin's own ravens HUGINN and Muninn flew about and then "whispered into his earsevery scrap of news which they saw or heard tell of" The birds' names mean "thought" and "memory" respectively Becauseof his wrsdom and his knowledge of events. symbolizngthe is constant threat of RecrueRoK. BALDER. his face hidden bya hood orabroad-brimmed hat. These Einhe4ar armed hisinJallible which in were desperately needed for the andhiswondrous g Draupnir. Among those said to be HODR. tolearn the the cosmic ncurl c 1950 ) secrets the dead (Bnoruzr oJ 215 . Odin was oppressed by the approach of Ragnarok. Odin kept himself informed about the affairsof the nine worlds with two faithful ravens As Vihngs at sea sent out ravens in search of Iand. instructed in mctics by the god and Odin's own worship appears to granted manyvictories. Shifty-eyed and flaming-eyed he might be. where the gods were predestined to gush out their own blood.signtJied full moon Odin hung himselfJrom Ygdrasil. gave Odin greater wisdom and set them at each other's than anyoneelse. prior to the end of the world that would come at Ragnarok his In addition to FRIGG. The great Viking raid of 842 on Nantes in north-western France can thus be seen as the outcome of a barbarouspledge to the god. Odin took the place eleventh century. and v. Gathering to Valhalla heroic war. ln his final have gone into decline in the early battle.sacifced one qe Jor a draught of Mimir's Fountain qe oJWisdom His single symbohzedthe radiant all-seang sun. (See also rHr AND SORCERY SPELLS.lt was "an axeage. because he had cast an eye into MIMIR'swell in retum for a drink of its "immense wisdom". He gained insight in another way by hangrng himself for nine days from YGGDMSIL.beJ edivinginto riors slain in battle was the only in helmet policy he could adopt under the the Jor Jray Armed battle eagle slE. with doom of the gods.the andblue spear.sword-age" a violent interlude . hanging formed an important part of Odin worship. and his subsequent resurrection by means of occasion commanded the fertility to goddess FREUA "find rwo kings magic. The Danish King Crucifixion gave Christianity a Harald was supposed to have been head-smrt in northern Europe. the great destroyer-saviour of Indian mythology. Ragnarok.Oow belm).qu. It is possible that the obvious throats" so that their vassalswould wade through torrents of blood on parallel between this myth and the the battlefield. struggle berween the gods and the frost giants Odin himself was to be the hlled by the wolf nr'ruruR. His conflicting negative and posidve aspects are indeed very similar to those of the Hindu god Shiva.His only consolation was the foreknowledge that his resurrected son Balder would be worshipped in his stead in a new age and a new land which would rise from the sea. he was treated by the other gods as their father. monstrous offspring of the fire god roro and the frost giantessANGRBODA Besideshis authority over the battlefield and the glorious dead. 1875) where nearly all would fall in a (Opru's Lrrve-rnKNtc ByF LEEKE. at the close of the of the hng's charioteer and drove Viking age. MGNAROK) OF RINGS POWER: OorN (abwe). the floatingin Mimir's well. the first-bom son of Bor. Violent times were Harald to his death. a god of vision. fu the oldest of the gods. There was nothing that Odin could do to prevent the catastrophe. beganwith the death of Odin's son Balder and the realization by the gods that in Loki.

beardless god Potrimpo was the Baltic Freyri grim Patollo was the Baldc Odin: and the Baltic Thor was Perkuno. angry-looking middle-aged man Hreidmar demanded compensa. Germanic fertiliry godthe Patollo was the chief god of rhe dess. Perkons or Perkonis in Latvia. Frqtjarides him to theseer Hyrdla. Menu made himself visible only by night. Whereas the sun goddess carried on as if nothing had happened and conrinued to show herself to all humankind during the day. Their love-child was rhe Moming Star. waniors who. An order of priess is known be covered inside and out with to have mainrained a perpetual fire gold Loki succeededin taking as as part o[ Perkuno's worship much gold as he needed from rhe Bahic mythology appears ro dwarf ANDyARI. known as pyerun in Russia. His sacred objects were the skulls of a man. In the myth ir is suggestedrhar he is related ro rhe berserkers. magic. rhe ruler of Kiev who was later raised to rhe sainthood. for he had storrn He was depicted as an taken the shape of an orrer. was the Baltic thunder god. It is of considerable interest. he took it The wamor caughr the goddess's awaywhenever he had a desire ro attendon through grand sacrifices tasrehuman blood Ar some point He buih a srone altar and tumed ir before the advent of Christianity into glassby rhe consranrhear of Patollo seems to have taken on a the fire he used in preparing his more pronounced role in respectof bloody offering Fref a transformed the dead. seehingprooJ of Ottar's hingship seer The imparted Ottarhis to withsome Memory to help Beer familytree himrecite correctly a contestfor it in the throne(lu-usrnarroN Arcxeuorn.he Jathutocatchfshfor nibbles salmon a withhisqes closed to avoid seeinghis dinner dimintsh each with mouthful Blind theworld. in Germanic mythology.hewas to easy prEJorInhi whocaveted otter's the Jtne BY Br-qrc. (t utrurroN Nlck (which probably PrnxUNO meant "striker"). Here. According ro rhis tale. This would explain why him into a boar so rhar she could Christian missionariesimmediately keep him with her in ASGARD. wearing a turban. wirh numerous wives and misresses. next to nothing of Baltic mythology has survived. connected with rhe Slavic god was the son of rhe magician-farmer PERUNU. known as Perkunasin Lithunia. the moon chosenot to appear in the sky with the sun becauseof Perkuno. ) 1995 Ju. a was rhe human lover of horse and a cow Offen FREYA. Unfortunately. and the the moon god vrruu. he also be given a ring which not unlike the Germanic rrio appearsin a surviving myth about SAULE. although Perkuno was rhe HREIDMAR When rhe fire god rOrcr standard European god of the killed him by mistake. the one-eyedgod of battle. excepr flor one whisker. She even used the disguised Ottar as a mounr PrnxoNIS see pERKUNo Ottar may have been a leader of a warrior band. that Perkuno Orrnn was disguised a boar his as by divine lover. was the Slavic thunder god.lefr a uail of terror and leaped like wrldfire over land and sea". saying that whoever owned them would be destroyedby rhem Loh put the ring on his own finger and retumed to Hreidmar with the gold There was enough ro cover the whole skin. home of the gods. Vladimir 216 .Piorun in Poland and sometimes Perun. and insisted that have possessedthree main gods. the equivalent of Germanic ODIN. like Odin. After living rhe qpical life of a Slavic prince. a lover pleasing to Freyla who shared rhose fallen in battle with Odin. and was said ro be a disunr Baltic region He bestowed good descendantof the hero SIGURD fortune and. The young. inspiration and che dead He was depicted as an old man with a long green beard and dearh-like pallor. He was obvrously OTTER. so Loh was compelled ro hand over the ring as well. Perkuno and potRIMPo. PnfOfJ-O was the Bakic war god. "howling and foaming in frennl. ) By 1995 JAMES Orrrn was turned anottu byhis into dinner. Andvari cursed both the ring and the gold. There'the war god ODIN.NoRse MyrHoLoGY Andvari tried to conceal. apart from the names of gods and goddesses. A late account of the Balts even supposes a migration from Sweden in the sixth cenrury. Perunu's supremacy was ended byVladimir.rhe rhunder god THoRand the fertiliry god FREYR were revered. therefore. At Kiev in Russia he had an important temple until the tenth century. Prnuu seepERUNU PfnUNU. the idendfied him with rhe Devil.Baltic peoples gaveworship ro PAT)LL). who had an affair with Saule. and the curse passedto Hreidmar.with a fiery face and a curly black don The otter's flayed skin was to beard. PgnxoNS PnnxuNAS seepERKUNo seepERKUNo worshipped at Uppsala in Sweden. as quick to anger as the giant-killing Germanic thunder god. Frqja Here. whereas at Romowe in Prussia. He was the chief god and a creator god. sun goddess.

crownedwith Iruitful wheat. His choice fell on rhe Bfzantine form of Christianiry and thereafter the Russians and the Greeks shared the same form of Chrisdan worship. with though he was also associated rivers He was depicted as a happy young man without a beard and crowned with ears of grain PERUNU PYENUN SEC ". ) Moslems. Jlashes lightning his (llrusrnerroru By IAMES ALExANorn..::i 217 . chasing awayclouds and meltingthe snow A god with a socialsense. rainmaking ceremonies are known to have involved a chaste girl. was burned in his honour (lLLUsrMiloN ay Nrcx BE/. as well as those of the Jews and Pnncnvuroamedthe tkundery sly onhrs milktone.TNU.names still indicate In Slovenia there is Perunji Ort. nv 1995 orrusrpcnoN NrcxBFr''ts. Prnxrno can be seenherendingwith his divinecompanions: theleft. dancing in a magic circle. in Bulgaria Perin Planina. his sacredtree. the Slavs worshipped above all the god of lightning. the "Rus" owed more to north-westem Europe. afertility god. 1995 ) Elsewherein Europe the Slavic peoples also revered Perunu. In Russianfolklore the memories of Perunu's great skill with the thunderbolt can doubtlessbe found in stories that tell of dragon-slaylng and other supematural deeds rhat required enorrnousstrength PERUNU PTONUN SCC was the Baltic god of POTTUPO fertility and the equivalent of the Germanic fertility god FREYR. in Croatia Peruna Dubrava. for the esmblishment of the Russiansrare resulted from Viking trade and settlement on its greatrivers.u.he appearedwith a silver head and golden moustncheHe was transjormedinto St Elijahwtth the arival of Chistianig. next. With this Germanic influx. bombardedthe lands he oJthe wrchedwith hailstorms The oah. I 995 ) PERL. and sacrificedcatde and orher animals to him.young on Potimpo. and in Poland Peruny as well as Piorunow According to Procopius. Whirling and drinhng seem to have been important in his Russian worship. secretary to the Greek general Belisariusin the sixth century. it is hardly surprising that there are obvious parallels berween Perunu and THOR Oleg was referred to as a "wizard".at right. lndeed. wanderedwer as the earth..Nonsr MvrHoLocY "rired of the desire forwomen" and sought a newway of living He sent out ambassadors to witness the religious ceremonies of both the Catholic and Orthodox churches. The Viking leader Oleg had captured Kiev in 882 and raised its status to "mother of Russian cities". spreadingsummer sun. whilehis hornedturban recallshis sacred cow Perhuno. as place. It seemsquite likely thar Thor provided the native Slavic thunder god with a developed mythology. Prior to this conversion in 988 though. naked and decked with flowers. since surviving details of Perunu's worship suggest that he was originally believed to be an aid to agriculture. veteran Patollo bears a shull rymboliztnghisffinity withwar and death.jnshing shaftsof lightning Jr om htsthunderbolt Inhis efiig atKia.

Though usually imagined as the watchman of the gods. fair and green" Before the batrle rwo humans. Germanic god unuoeu when he Regin settled down as a smith in created the three categoriesof men: the royal Danish household.scanning the horizon for the Iinal frost giant attack at Ragnarok.a sword-age" It was a rehearsalfor the "wind-age and wolf-age before the world is wrecked" Ahhough Christianiry did evenruallycome ro the Germanic peoples of norrhem Europe.According to Rig's myth. 218 . and the noble or chieftain. The Last Judgemenr exercised their minds during the MiddleAges It maywell have been that behind the Nazis' resolve ro fight on in World War Two lay a folk memory of Ragnarok RNN SCC NATUM SPIRITS RECIN and his brother FAFNTR RTNUER SCC HMIDMAR slew their father. as Alcuin remarked in the eighth century. while with rhe fire god LOKIand the frost gians fought the "unworthy dead" from riEr (the Germanicnetherworld). THOR had been overcome by Jormungand." Alcuin lamenred. he reckoned without the young hero's insight: Srgurd was forewamed by the birds and killed Regin first the slave or thrall. Regin then plotted to murder Sigurd.Nonsr MyrHoLoGy RACNAROK was the doom of rhe Germanic gods Afrer a terrible winter lasdng rhree years.ery host (lLLUsrMTroN BYJAMES ALFxANorn. and his brorher HONIR. their preoccupationwith a cosmic carasrrophedid not fade altogether. which SPIRJTS made them covet their father's gold While Fafnir turned into a RIG was the name assumed by the dragon in order to protect his gold. ByAMEI I 995 ) J suffered at the hands of rhe heathen " Bu[ for rhe Vikings ir was like Ragnarok. Odinwrestles with thesnarlingwolJ. sharp shore-raid againsr the ncher lands ro rhe west and south. LIF and Lifihrasir. yenom left. "an axe-age. had taken shelter in the sacred rree yGGDMSILand they emergedafrer rhe camagewas over to repopulate the earth Severalof the gods also survived. whileThor slays monstrous serpat. However. known as jarl. the world though dyngJrom Jatal its Jormungand. Fenrir. pale with fear. There he tutored the young hero SIGURD and urged him to overcome Fafnir. whose onslaughr on westem Europe is still the stuff of legend Once they understood the effectivenessof the standhogg. among them Odin's sons VIDAR and vALI. Hamdall. "has such terror appeared as rhis we have now I RecxnRox (abov was e) ed foreshadow by a chillingFimbulwinter Soland Mani grat. "no one is free from fear" ln 793 the British offshore monasrery of Lindisfarne was sacked and Sr Cuthberr's church was spatteredwrrh the blood of the monks "Never before in Britain.rhe short.a final batdewould be fought berweenrhe gods and the frost giants on the vIGRtD Plain On the side of ODrN and the gods were ranged rhe "glorious dead" who had fallen in battle and were raken to live in VALHALIA. which he did But. 1995 ) RAGNARoK's warraged the on Aef) iq Plainof Vignd Hue. Andvarinaut. then. and mosr of the orher gods had died in the mutually destructive encounter with the frost giants. the free peasanr or harl. plus the fearsomewolf rETRIRand the sea monsterJORMUNGAND There was nothing rhat rhe chief god Odin could do to prevenr rhis catastrophe His only consolation was the foreknowledge thar Ragnarok was not the end of the cosmos After he had been killed by Fenrir. equally as corrupted by the curse as his brother. andboth diein the gods conflict(lrrusrRenoru ALD<ANDER. Heimdall was also idendfied with Rig. or "hrg". and BALDER who came back from the dead Ragnarokheld a grear appeal for the Vikings. the magician HREIDMAR. who inhented rheir father's hammer. while under the spell of RHTNT MruONNS SCC NATURE a cursed ring. the god once approached the lowlydwellingof an old couple. Thor's sons Modi and MAGNI.Lohiwrestles thebnght At with god. blizzards swept down touteredaver Jrom the pealx and icebergs thefrozen earth Lohi brohe Jree from his bondsand set sailwith thef. a new world was desdned [o "rise again our of the water.

long heeis and bent back. Roughneck and Horsefly.ra had alreadylost a priestly classby the time we encounter their noted. accompanied by fine conversation and dnnk.1995 Bv ) god. who {ew up to be a natural farmer Here. Snor. control storms and cure the sick lt was said that he excelled even Rig in understanding and almost became a god The implication is that in his person he combined the roles of pnest and king The myth of Rig sheds light on the structure of Viking society In con[rastwith the Celts. ) Rtc nextvisiteda thnJq.who had turned himselJ into a dragonso that he could t2rHcENruRy guard his gold NvooocARVrNG. Karl andhis w{e. mythoiogy AsJulius Caesar the ancient Germanshad no equivalent of the druids and cared lirtle for ntual They found religious significance in the depths of forests But the Romans. was bornlabourer Jather wrsdom and relling him how to claim his lands In obedienceto the oJ the serfs (lr-rusrnerroNBvNrcK Bzarr. a drudge with crooked legs.with a bright cheek and an eyeas piercing Rtcwandered the throughout earth.short nails. dirty feet. the orher main rribal people of pre-Chrisdan Europe. the enslaved labourers of the oppressed class Eddar's son Thrall himself perfecrly sums up the back-breaking toil of his oppressedclass. Jarl. Jarl rode through the world. swollen lcruckIes. Fatty and Beanpole From these ill-favoured children descendedthe thralls. freemen jarls earlsHereRigsups withaged rustrcs their in seashorehut. Jarl could use bow. Amma spun a thread Once again Rig shared their table and bed. the sturdy free peasant. gave good adviceand departed after three nights Nine months afterwardsAmma bore a son. thick fingers.Nonsr MvrHoLocY ing "daughter-in-law") and rheir children included boys named Strongbeard. its and the or or spear. rhe Germanic tribes of and northem Europe Scandinar.sword and shield. as well as girls such as Laz1bones. as a serpent's When he grew ro visiting people Jatheing three manhood. Rigwas given coarsefood to satisfi his hunger and a place in the bed berween them when itwas time to sleep. and later the Vikings'victims. namedKarl. but he was strong Thrall took as his wrfe an equally ungainly person. Karl. who was black-haired and ugly. One day Rig rerurned and greeted mortal child. Rig stayed three nighs and gave them good advice Nine months afterwards Edda bore a son. Thrall. Maiden and Capable Together they ran farms and were free A third dwelling Rig stayed at was a splendid hall belonging to Fadir and Modir ("farher" and "mother") While Fadir attendedto his bow and arrows. thralls sufs. Gram Once mended.karls oJ ride and swim and hunt experrly and or . 1995 ) Ai and Edda 0iterally "great-gandfather" and "great-grandmother") After introducing himself as a lone wayfarer.the swordwasso strongand sharp that it split the iron anvil in two With it.blue-qed boy. imparting ganngwith pndeathisJirst who o and Thrall. Rig slept between his well-off hosts He stayed three nights and gavegood advice Nine months afterwards Modir bore a son. who was red and fresh and brighteyed IGrl took to wrfe Snor (mean- RrctN reforgesthe shardsoJSigurd's wondroussword. a fair and wise noblewoman. warrn and better fumished Inside he encountered an industrious couple.in battle 2r9 . and she bore him twelve sons One of rhese learned magic so well rhat he could prevent forest fires. fighting and slayrng. Jarl as his speciai son. Modir saw to her own looks and clothes After a large meal. and girls called Prettyface. wrth rough skin. FaJnir.can worhing theirJrurtful land be seen (lrrusrnatrrrruNrcK Brerr. sunbumed arrns and a big nose Their many children included boys like Noisy. were in no doubt about the Germanic love of warfare and the role of the armed retainer. farmhousewhere entertained Amma by he was hospitably and Afi Rig stayed threedaysand Jor a Jathered fine sturdy. he could classesmen.weighed down with generations of hard labour Rig visited a second house. Husbandman and Smith. who was fair-haired and handsome. Sigurdslew Regln'sbrother.seizing booty and distriburing treasureto his free followers At last he married Erna ("lively"). Afi and Amma (literally "gandfather" and "gandmother") The well-dressed pair were spinning and weaving: Afi prepared a loom.

he learnt rhe secrers of the dead and restored himself ro life. the arch-sorcerer. Equipped with a repertoire of sacred songs. was a born sage and sorcerer. c 1850) .The wise wtzard. Cunsr or. the heroes of Finnish myth were often gifted from birth with asrounding magical powers and arcane wisdom. By contras[.unlovedJrombirth. respondedto the world'ssleightswith distortedmalice Grftedwith powuful sorcery.while debonair Leminkainen was bathed as a baby ro imbue him wirh wisdom and sorcery. glvinghim a dry loalJor hts lunch.As. tumedher gentlecowsinto bearswhichdevouredher themilhing he at s a i l t o F i n n m a r k f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f Kullewo. Vainamoineh.KULLL-nVO ByA GALLEN-KALLELA. the Finns penetrated to the roors of life. After hanging himself on the World Tiee. such as Sigurd..SORCERY AND SPELLS oRCERY AMoNG THENonsrMEN was a unique and precious art practised essentially by Odin and rhe Vanir deides of nature. developed his skills over a lifetime of search and sacrifice. much like a morml shaman. Although disringuished heroes. Cnme (THF. clad in a blue mantle and slouch hat . Ever thirsry for wisdom and power.cAN\. Llsually women. bur also by dwarfs and some privileged mortals. d toftured soul. Odin. punishedhisenemies he bqtondtheir consulting magicians. gathering and garnerirg every snippet of information he could find. they usually lacked any magical powers.stffid with a rochwhich shattered family hntJe his times Norwegian kings forbade people ro In response. were blessed with magical weapors. Finnish sorcerers were so famous that in medieval Kurrrpvo cursesllmannen'swichedwtJewho had tauntedhim bqond endurance. he wandered the nine worlds as a vagrant.

who had tumed shrp Themonsterwasthe sorceress. l c t .) daughter. r p .rJh the otherVanir deitiesoJJertiliry and nature Shewas the Jirstto teachthe wamor Aesir the practiceof seroror glvrngrts maglc SerorwasuseJulbutcould be dongerous. the Vanir in maglc arts ln later myth. ewr thirsry Jorhnowledge.srmrr()N THF. was Gruuulro QeJt).A(ER. ptpingloudly onhis cowhorn. cANVAs.as predrcted the brrdswhose mysteiously (li r 1920) B)IJ songheunderstood I t/. c .along for l.she for feared her maglc Withher spells and controlhis wrll Whenshe memory a erase person's Sigrd her maglcmead. i :H o L o G Y (above)fendsot'Jthegnffin perched his on VarruaiuornreN Louhi. sleep in protectingher an enchanted from all but the to bravest OnIy Sigurddared the Jieryctcle of Jlames win spiit camed him through' the sleepingbeauryHrs fearless by unharmed. c 1850) Fnrl7a (nght) was renowned her maglcal crafts.N : ' g n 5 g : M Y . Vatnamoinen TheSampowas brolzen its gatheredsome fragmentsand partly restored power ( D r . 221 . ofyouth.his mother'sBlachie oJ ablastedstretch dogrunningbehindEn route hepossed hrs greenwherehe had unwittingly despoiled long-lost the bemoaned maiden's sister Here the meadow grasses weightof guilt and a terible fate Feelingthe crushing Kullemoeventuallythrew himselfon liJetimeoJ bitterness.seenhere 0lrusrn+nos Brynhild. v t e r 1852 ) doomed Kurrrnvo (above). setout 0n his last journq. Jrom birth. and nner learnt theway of deniedlovethroughouthis lit'e things {xuttERVCl ByA GaLLrN-KeLLnq. famed and could and potions. Kullewo was his sword Although a powerfulsorcerer.the bird She into u metalhc herself Sampo Justas sherearedto stnhethefinal blow. the A RrrucoF FInE (far left) enctrcled ValLeyne. Frqja wasrdentiJied oJ with ldun. her raisedhis rudderand crushed talons Vainamoinen but and scattered. r . .QueenoJthe Nrebelungs. and practitilners forehnowledge power overliJeand death. ( ) r r H t : S A M P L )B \ A G A L I F N .heJorgot hts unsuspectrng ofJered love Brynhildand rnstead rn lovewith Gnmhild's fell for c RR{( B) Gudrun (lrrl \rR{li()\ ARIHT Klr'\r1 1910. goddess Spnngwho guardedthe maglcapples BYARTHITR c 1910) RAcKrlAM. loveand intelligenceOdin quichly learnt all that Freyja surpassed couldteachhimand. was after thetalisman.K A i l F l A .

a cool Nordic pnncess.they were the last people to be Christianized on the continent . and the fire god said he would get the dwarfs to weave a wig as a replacement. the water nymphs were considered to be malevolent. one night cut off her beauriful golden hair. restoredRind to health. in contrast. they were commonly pictured as beautiful.for it was so light that a breath of air was enough to ruffle its skeins and so real that it gew on her head by magrc Thinhng to get the gods even more into their debt. in the RiversDnieper and Danube. Thor demanded to know what he was going to do about it. rhe sons of lvaldi used the remaining heat in their fumace to construct a collapsible ship named Shidbladnir for the fertility god FREYR and a magic spear called for ODIN. the god of fire. unkempt and unattractive creatures.4l. THr Rusnlru were warer nymphs and can be found in both Slavonic and Russian mythology They were thought to be the spirits of drowned grrls During the winter months. god of archeryand shing She is the subject of a strange myth in which the trickster LoK.To hll a snake was an act of sacrilege. taking on different forms in different regions For instance.of Uu. Saulewas imagined as pouring light from a jug. rhe child who was to avengethe death of reLorR In one version. Odin was deposed as king of the gods for forcing Rind to submit simply in order thar he might farhera son.NonsE MyTHoLoGY Rrrun (above). was [he daughter of King BILLING and the mistress of ODIN. During the summer. SRVTPO SCC TRM5URE5 AND TALISMANS was rhe Baltic sun godSnUlf dess and. thE emerged from the ivers to dwell and dancein the eniching the grassin thar wahe Jorests. in south-eastem Europe. Next morning Thor was beside himself with rageat Sils distress When Loh protested that it was only a joke. So Loh asked the sons of Ivaldi to make a wig from spun gold The completed piece of work was quite remarkable. Every house kept one: under the bed.The sight of a dead one was believed to bring tears to the eyes of the sun goddess Even after the conversion of the Lithuanians to Christianity in the fifteenth century . the Rusalh came out of the water on to the land and lived in the cool of the forests. 1984 ) continued to reveregreen snakes. and the mother. even under the table Apart from ensuring a household's wealth and fertility. becameill with a mystery malady and was nursedbach to health by Odin in disguise The old nurse. in a corner. when the rivers were warmed by the sun. It was long held that seeing one in the countryside meant that either a maniage or binh would follow. siren-like creatures who would attempt to lure unsuspecting passers-byinto the water with their magical song In the nonhem regions.who would grab travellers from the river banlcs and drag them down into the river and drown them.who pursued her in various disguises Their love led to rhe birth of yALi. On his way GUNGNIR the back to ASGARD. in Jirstby bathingher ahotbath The warm water thawedher Jrozenheart and symbolized meltingoJtheJrozen the nnd oJearth (trlusrnerroru NlcKBute. Prussiansand Letts before they were converted to Chrisdaniry Her worship took the form of looking after a harmiess green snake. so Thor offered his own goats on the condition that no bones were broken. who were the divine twins Castor and Polydeuces The unnamed Baltic rwins are said to have rescued Saule from the sea and built a bam in which the goddesscould rest. Vecha. ROSnfn was a farmer's daughter who became a seryant of the god THOR When Thor stopped at her father's house and asked for food and shelter they were too poor to provide mear. according to one tradition. 1995 By ) THE RusALxt (nght) dwelt in ivers and lahes The southern spites were pearly beautieswho lured travellerswith their sweet song Duing Rusalhi Weeh. in Germanic mythology. (lLLUsrMfloN ay Ar. by a previous marriage. crossingthe underqround 222 .which was at the start of summer.r Lre.The golden liquid which she generously gave to the world was the basis of life isell the warmth so necessaryafter the cold north-eastern European winter Another fragment of myth about Saule concerns the Baltic equivalent of the Greek Dioscuri. who travelled with him thereafter. probably a representation of ripe com and therefore fertility.the peasants SIF *as the wife of ttoR. But Roskva's brother THIALFIbroke one of rhe thigh bones and when Thor came to resurrect the goats one of them had a limp The enraged god was only pacified by the promised servrce of Roskva and Thialfi. sTGURD Strcr'ruED see SMCUUND SCC TMGICLOYER5 RIND. stronghold of the gods. the Germanic thunder god. the mistress of the thunder god rERxuwo Shewas worshipped by Lithuanians. the kindness shown to the snake was regarded as a guarantee of Saule'sgenerosiry. they lived in the great rivers of eastem Europe.

Signy got a slave to smear Sigmund's facewith honey so that the wolf would lick him instead of biting him Sigmund was thus able to catch the wolf's tongue in his teeth and overcomethe beast Signy helped Sigmund to plot revenge She even slept with him in disguise and bore a son named Sinfiotli When Sinfiotli grew up she placed him in Sigmund's care.Married againsther will to the Gothic king Siggeir. was the unfortunate daughter of VOLSUNG. Jbshes (IlrusrncnoN Ar.are reducedto stubble Hue.theBalticsungoddess.. the scourgeof the frost gians. but they were both captured by Siggeir. The gods were delighted with the treasuresLoh and Brokk had brought back. rushes down the glacialfiord to greether hinsman Shewamsthem oJan ambush planned Siggar.but they had no objecdon to Brokk sewing up Loh'slips with a thong when Thor dragged the god back home after j*irg Src (abwe nght) wa Jamous her gold. chiW. in Germanic mythology. Lohi lurlu menacingly behindthe dreaming beAuty (Irusrnerroru NrcK By Brnr. she nied to wam her fatherand her ten brorhers about Siggeir'splot against them. goldatlight poured from herheavenly the haghtthrough summery clouds downto the earthbelw Thesnahe onhcrcrown her symbolizes Jertility abundance and The her Morning Star.a sore W hn vengefulhusband. losn.A magic sword freed them and killed Siggeir and his sons Signy chose to die herself in the burning Gothic palace. However.1995 ) Slctw (nght) Queenof Gotaland.eurr(abwe). fu a result. supposedly a descendant of ODIN. the dwarf brothers fashioned the magrc hammer known as MJOLLNIR. which caused Loh to plan a revenge against Thor (See also TR&{SURESAND TALISMANS) stcuut tD seeNoRsE HERoEs SIGI IY. abweher. BYJAMES 1995 ) caverns where the dwarfs lived. but not before she had told Sigmund the truth about Sinfiotli'sparenmge 223 . Jor hair. Brokk demanded Loh's head. The gods would not agree. but they were ambushed in a forest and bound to a fallen ree Each night a wolf devoured one of them in lum.qvoen. Loki also met the dwarf brothers Brokk and Eiti. until only her youngestbrother Sigmund was left alive. he even smked his own head on their inabiliry to do so. symbolwng npe haw estcorn When Lohi att ofiherlocluher misay representedthe winter season when the cornJiel&. the boat and the spear that Loh persuadedthem ro make something better.EMNoen. ) he tried to flee. They were so jealous of the workmanship that had gone into the wig. who bittuly resentelher brother Signund's victory in a maglcal strord contest 0rrusrn cflor'r JAMES By 1995 Atrx.Nonsr MvrHoLoGY S.

or Siegfned as he was lcnown in German. Sigurd succeeded in slaying Fafnir. smith at the court of the King Hjalprek inJutland.qn had first acquired rhis treasure. but Fafnirwanted the rreasurefor himself and tumed into a dragon to guard it. kgn. gftlrom Odin a father's Theconquenng swordwould$elp Sigurd in hisdestined mission slay dragon.vAs.rnrsco.TMGIC LOYERS. since Fafnir was said to have understood the language of birds When he realized that Regrn intended to hll him for the gold. who senr him to recover a fabulous hoard of gold Regin's father HREtoiu. get rheir hands on the To gold Regrn and his brother FAFNIR had then killed Hreidmar. RINGS POWER) OF SIGYN.which once belonged to the dwarf ANDvARI. (Seealso NORSE HEROES. guardian a Jabulous ill-Jated oJ but treasure (Srecrrueo THEFoRGE REGIN tN Bl oF W rr)N HANScHltp. Fafnir. Srgurd slew him before carrying it away himself. 1906 ) 224 . also known as Sigunn or Sigrym. was the faithful wife of the fire god toru and morher of his sons Narvi and vau. cc^. winning of Jame and aJateJulfortune. to the FaJnir. By cunningly stabbing the monster from underneath. (srecrnreo rro FAFNIR 8Y H HENRTCH. thus apparendy gaining borh dwarfish wealth and wisdom. Once rhe gods realized that in Loki they had allowed rhe growth of evil in their midst. On the advice his mentor. 1880) Stcunp (righl confronts theJire-breathing dragon. wzls a northern Germanic hero similar to the Celtic KingAnhur He was the foster-son of REGIw. in Germanic mytholory. and slayshim. liching somr-spilt blod Jrom which he learnt thespeechof birds. they watches fascination with Stcunp (above) as kgln Jorges brohen the shards oJhis wondrous sword.Nonsn MyrHoLocY StcnyN StcuNN see srcn{ seesrcrN StCUnO. he roasted the creature's heart.

First they took hold of rhree slabs of rock. A deity oJhuntm and mountain snake above Loki's head when the climbs. his sufferingbycatching the venom This was agreed. shewasJar happir on gods continued. Then the entrails of Loki's son Narvi were employed as a rope which bound the fire god to the stones. however. c NVAs. capturedin his dinhinghom (rlrusrncfloN BY GLENN Swmp. however. fu the couple were unable ro sxenn see sK{Dr stand the conditions in each other's hornes. was a figure in banished to an iq prison There she nofihem Germanic mythology. and a glwingportrait of Frqr.Nonsr MyrHoLocy Slcunp (abwe) oatls inhiswondrous nfit weapon. Njord and Skadi Src{Dt. RACKH ) SruRun (abwe) gallopsthrough aJiery ringguardingthe iqhome of Gerda. but she began to panic the moment he started to recite a powerful spell It promised to deny her any joy or passion. he promised Shmir his horse and his sword and senr him ro.anticiryting victory wer hk fightful foe. NJORD's wife. the magic fruit that kept the gods young. it cover that she had picked Njord was these compulsive movemens The merrimenr was provided by that accountedfor eanhquakes. or Skade (which means "destruction"). Fafnir. were no temptation to her Nor was one of Odin's arm-rings Gerdashowed no fearwhen Shmir threatenedto beheadher. To ensure Loh's discomfort the frost gianressSIi{DI. provided thar dripping from the snake in a woodSkadi chose her husband by his en bowl. As a result of this threatened fate. On another occasion. a cnl anil indqndnt huntress.Skadi made her choice only to dislently. head and causedhim to wirch vio. Skadi armed herself and went to the gods' srronghold to Despite all that her husband had seek compensation. and it hn o! slop tlun in hq husband'ssunlit was she who placed the venomous cwa. whenever she feet only. Refusing an done.a multiply ing nn g. Germanic god of the fertiliry. decided that ir was best to live roamed the mountainsonhq snow shoes apart.shahingtheearth trorc killed her farher for srealing IDUN's ANDSrcYN ByMEWrNcE. fasteneda snake ro a sulactire above the god's head and there he wuls to remain undl RAGNARoK SKADI. the danted wtJeoJInhi. the venom fell on Loh's handsome BALDER.a Jrost glantess On a mission to win Gerda Jorhis gentlemastu.c 19ff. When the gods ofascenp face Wen she writhedin agotry.a companion of the "unwonhy dead". ODIN'S Son. When Freyr wished to marry the frost giantessGERDA. Skirnir had some difficulry in persuading Gerda to agreeto the match. Shirnirbears gJ* oJliJe-gving apples. Draupnir. When the gods had tied the Iast Iqrot. stood them on end and bored a hole through each of them. According ro rhe Vihngs.oruNHEIM. the enrails became as hard as iron. Eleven apples of youth. Equipped with the shatpestblade and neves of iron. he THIASSI. Sigrn remained rrue to him offer of gold. Shmir acted in his role as messenger by going to the dwarfs on Odin's behalf to order a magical fetter so that Odin could resrrain the terrible wolf FENRIR 225 . L2KI. SrtnNtR ("shining") wasa servant of FREYR. 1995 ) bound him in a cave. the land of the frost giants. c 1890) apples.iEs Awxtxoen195 ) troublesome god in a cave. Gerda at last consented to meet Freyr and so Skimir received his promised rewards. sheguidcd thcir sleigla am the gods eventually imprisoned the snox4 0ulstttnoN cf l/o. she demanded a and did what she could to lessen husband and a bellyful of laughter. However. Frqr. Her relationship with rhe A Wirit ol winta. Thinking that the mosr went awayto empry its poisonous shapely feer must surely belong ro contents. stoodbyhim uen afterhehadben Slcvl (abwe). who tied his resticles io a goat. She lessened pain by catchingthefery his was the wife of the sea god tryOno venomdnbbledby a serpenttied abovehis and daughter of the frost giant went to empty the bowl. for the beautiful frost giantesswas to be transformed into a loveless outcast. theeager hero setofl ucitedly onhisfirst quest This strileing portrayal highlights they outhful iilealism of the zealous Nordichero 0rrusrnrnotByARTHI/R M..

the Skoll was destined. This fabulous creature was the offspring of an unusual union benween Svadilfari. So huge was he that on a joumey through the land of giants THORand LOKI. thinhng it Skryrmir's was a hall. in Germanic SUnf mythology. the 226 . The nine worlds were to become raglng furnaces as gods. was a wolf that pursued the sun in her flight across the sky At RAGNAROK.. a stallion of greatstrength. Another wolf. the sun would give birth to a daughteras beaudful as herselfand this new sun would warm and illuminate the new earth risen from the sea. and fling fire in eYerydirecdon. a massiveJrost g1ant.led on through snow diJts. the shapechanger. frost giants. JincewoIJ. following the catastrophe.plunglngthe worldintoprimordial darhness (Itusrnnrroru ByGLENN 1995) STEwARD. ) SxnYUtR ("vasr") was an exrra Iargefrost giant in Germanic mythology.the frost giant awoke in the belief that either a leaf or an acom had dropped on his brow Afterwards it dawned on Thor and his companions that Slcrymirwasa giganticillusion. along with their servanB THIALFI and ROSrcya. Slcrun. At necNARoK. unaware that Shrymir wa in Jact only a gant illusion santto thwart and mtslead them sv 1995 0rrustpcno^/ NtcxBw-e. and L2KI.Nonsn MyrHoLocy SKOLL. Sleipnir was the horse that carried Odin into battle. When Thor later tned to hammer in the skull of the sleeping Skryrmir.actsas mountain guideto Thor andhts parly. "fresh and green". in Germanic mythology. Sol sPIRITS seeNATURE ("Black"). and was swift enough to beat any other horse in a race. chased sunacross slE.At Ragnarok Surt was ro rise from Muspell. the chief of the Germanic gods. named Hati. a symbolizng Repulsion. the the to sole from dawn dushSholl's aiminlfe was wertahe devour heavenly to and the orb. doom of rhe gods.to seizethe sun between his jaws and swailow her Jusr before this happened. the citadelof thefrost giants The travellm strug. pointingout the shortestroute to lJtgard. was rhe eight-leggedhorse ridden by oDIN. w6 a fire giant with a flaming blade who would set the cosmos alight at &{GNAROK. inadvertently slept in the thumb of empry glove. though.who had disguised himself as amare Sleipnircould travel over sea and through the air. the land of flame. giants' cimdel.He was identified with the fire god Lo:rc. a magic creation sent out by the frost gians in order to prevent them from reaching UTGARD. the SlgtPNtR ("Glider"). chased after the moon Both creatureswere said to be the sons of a giantessliving in Iron Wood Ravenous dogs often threarened to eat the heavenly bodies in rhe myths of northem parts of both Europe and fuia Chinese families today sdll bang cooking utensils ro frighten "the dog oflheaven"during a lunar eclipse Sxorr below).

was named Sursey after the god Surt SVNNTEUT SCC 5VANTOWT The building contained a fourheadedsmtue of Svantovit that was nearly thirty feet in height Multiple headswere indeed a feature of the Slavicpantheon.Nonsr MyrHoLoGY Slaprun (abw e). formed by a volcanic eruption off the coast of lceland. It may be that the view of the end of the world as an immense conflagadon was influenced by the volcanic nature of lceland. ) N 1995 0uusrnqnorutcx dead. a new island. the living. fresh and green. he set the nine worlds ablaze. from where many of the wrirren myrhs originated In I963-7. Jour-headed the war godoJtheSlaw. seaor earthwith eqnl ease Slapnir'showes rumbled.before rising again. monsters.eight-bggd) steedof Odin. SVnnnZIC. were made to Svantovit before any great undertakings. Svaraztcwas idendfied with the flame of lightning SVNNOCICH SCC SVARAZIC Sunr belwD. plattyandrode oJ ahorse divrnation A oJ white was horse hrptin thetanpbfor itual divinatton sy BEArr.greanand nqt tlJ. guarded worVonJour the sides stone at Rugenwr His efri. lt is thought rhar Svantovit may also have been worshipped as a supreme deity and seen as a father to other gods Prior to the Danish destruction of the temple in the Christian era. also known as Svantevit.or Svarog(who was identified with the Greeksmith god Hephaistos) and the brother of DAZHB)G The fire god was depicted wearing a helmet and carrying a sword. the fabulous eight-hoofed (or somesay. certainlydeservedhrs name "Glidu" forhe slippedthroughcloud. and on his breast was a black bison's head Human sacrifices were made to Svarazic. especiallyof the fire that was used to dry grain. Svexrour (nght). which were a widespread custom throughout the Germanic and Slavic peoples. the German bishop of Mecklenburg In some traditions. the worshippers of Svantovrt at Arcona believed that the god would mount a sacred white horse and nde out at nights against those who denied his diviniry In the moming the horse was often discovered to be covered in sweat Omens for successin war were read from the behaviour of the sacred horse as well Human sacrifi. after his capture in 1066.4s a of plenty destiny.g worshippedbeforebattle deity .hebore and ahom Jertility. dwarfs. was the war god of the Slavic peoples of central Europe His temple at Arcona on rhe Baltic island of Rugen was destroyed by King Valdemar of Denmark and his Christian advrserAbsalonin I 169 SVNNOZIC SCC SVAMZIC .a meaning that can sdll be found today in the Romanian language). including. He was the son of Svaroz.Then the eanh would sink into rhe sea. sometimes Svarozic or Svarogich (which probably meant "hot" or "torrid" .ces..was the Siavicfire god. the in stormcbudswhen Odin travelledacrossthe sly as god of thewrnik 0uusrnenoru ayGuuN 1995) Srnverp.usrnAnoN BYJAMES ArD04Noe* ) 1995 SVANTOVIT. thefurnaceoJ Muspellat Pagnarohtolead hisfiay hordes against the diine host With hislnming sttord. afircefire roseJrom g1ant. elves and animals were all to be reduced to ashes. burning them to blactcned cindm which sanhbeneath the boiling oceanonly to nseagainJresh.

when In other tales. Sometimesa trouble. he wins his frosry bride by sheer warmth of love which melrc her icy heart. only at the start and closeof his shining career dawn-maidenwhose path he crosses as simply serveto test the lovers' honour and courage. beforemeetingby chanceand Jalling in lwe Here. ?s when Odur flees Frefa or Skadi lives apart from Njord.Sometimesthe trials of love symbolze the battles of naure. In their love affairs. as in the tale of Sigurd and Brynhild. he and Sieglinde enjoy bneJlnebeJore dyng one on the the battleJieV. while his lover. in the heartwarrning tale of the summer god. c 18N) .for instance. the lwen uchange secret glanceswhile in the cornpanyoJ s Sieglinde' suspicioushusband. up apart. dispels darl. Srccuuxo and Sieglinde QeJt). 1895 c ) INGEBoRG(abwe). symbolizesthe armed with a sunbeam.mess. where a cursed ring wrecks the lives of severalpairs of doomed lovers. By contrast. rarelyso stark curselies at the root of the and bleak as in Norse mythology. Brynhild. Hunding who plnns to slnySiegmundin a duel \ilhen Siegmund wins. c Nv s. Sigurd. Freyr.both ailunng traglc Jates.obstacles Frithiof faithfully guards his sleeping rival. if short-lived.TRAGIC LOVERS yet are TALES TMELESS OFTMGICLOVE common everywhere. otherin chiWbinhThechiW of thar sadunion is thegreathro. stopsspinning and pines hcr lover. shewas daied contnctwrth Fnthio[. though friction is rife. belieing to husef honourbound to. the gods seem Iuckier than mortals.might be seenas a sun lord who..obq thewshes IAMENT of her royalbrothers (lNcrnonc's BYFNJENSEN. Such conflict might symb ohze seasonalchanges: Njord's sunny love can only hold wrntry Skadi for three months of the year. Stgurd (IuusrmnoprYF lEEtc. Sigurd Ritg.were siblingswho grot. who wos considred beneathher royal status Yetwhan Fnthiof brolu the sanctity oJ the tanple to rescueIngeborg she reJusea flee wtth him. FnthioJ. Cloistqed Jor by hu watchful brothm. in the sanctuaryof Balder's temple.

the blach eaglesIndeed.oJ Fnnn QrD. setoff to woo the gyl for his master Gerdaranained unmwed until shewasJorcedby threat oJmaglcto atleast consentto a meetingwith FrEr Oncein thecompanyof thefiery god. who wue actingunder theinfluenceoJa curse Here.overcome W 5"4. J*itf"l hawest (Fnrvn EBuRNE-JoNEs cANVAs.rant.Gerda.emblems av c t 0 JoNEs. Kramhild is depictedtellingher mother about her dream. c 1890 ) Fnrrnror and IngeborgQeJ)are at last united in Balder'stemple Thechildhood g' sweetheartshad been thwarted by Ingebor s hostilebrothers Wile Ingeborgwas forced into a mariage with an old chieftain.o gentlesummer god.the Niebelungenlied trHe LEGEND or Srecrrueo By F PILorY. wi.Sigurd in Ring. a poet and a Chnstian pontifi ponder the meaningoJ theTeutonicepic.. 87 ) KRrtvntlo (ngh) wahes from a nightmare in which she dreamt that a lavely whiteJalcon was struch in Jlight by nvo blach eaglesHer mother interpretsthe dream to mean that Kramhild will arcntuallyJall in lwe with a by peolesspince .Gunner and Hogni. FnthioJ roamed thehtgh seas misery \I/hen his undying love drwe him home.who is symbolized the white bird and that he wtll be hilled W t*o murderers. Gerda's iq heart thawed Frqr appearshereas a dreamysummergod.someyears later the dreom cametrue as inlwe with the greathero Sigurd. while below a bard. he waited honourably until the oA hing died nuo beforeat last wtnninghis bnde (FrurHron INGEBoRG ByJ A MAr. was unwittingly tnched by Sigurd into marrying Gunner. of beannghis wheat.MsrRoM. 1909 .thhis boar at htsJeet.from aJarand at once Jell in lwe. cANVAs.Sigurd wasbaryttched into marrying Gudrun Brynhild. caughta glimpse theradiantJrostgldntess. c 1840 ) BRnvntro and Sigurd @bwe)findpeace togetherat last after a romancewrechedbyaweb oJ intigue and vengeance AJterpledglnghislwe to Brynhild. but doubtedhis chancesuntil his decisive ser.Shirnir. in her turn. Whn Brynhild discwered Sigurd'sapparentbetrayal.Iater KreimhildJell slninby her two brothers. shecned outfor vengeanceSigurd was slnin and BrynhiW. wooo. ) Prrurv C BLTTLER. hilled herselfto be Intd to rest besidehim (TnrFuurnel ct+ttves.

or Thiazi.in Germanic mJthology. He was placated only when Thialfi and Roskva were given to him as his servants Although Thialfi lost a running contest to HUGI during Thor's visit to the frost gnnt stronghold of IJTGARD. growingftr-lihe clad and a Alongwith sylvan other daties. Loh promised to deiiver the goddess and her magic apples into the frost giant's hands The effect upon the gods was immediate Without ldun's apples to eat each day. the srongest of the frosr giants . which could be eaten one day and reappear alive the next.but eitherstrodeor drovehisgoat-drawn chaiot (THon rHn RNo GLnnrs ny M E WNGE. In another myth Thialfi deservedThor's gratitude when he toppled the enormous clay giant Mist Calf. which had causedThor to panic with fear He also fetched aid for the wounded thunder god after his duel with HRUNGNTR. c 1890 ) Teuo (abwe). they grew anxious and old In this crisis Odin alone had the determination to rally enough strength to plan a recovery The gods captured the tnckter Loki. and made him fly as that one animal was lame He was so enraged that he threatened desrruction of the farm and demanded compensation. to secure his own release from Thiassi.he beard was notjustoJ lord plants. he ignored this instruction and split a thigh bone ro ger ar rhe marrow Next moming. however. as he enjoyed tickling or smothering peopie to death His daughter Tuulikki was a spirit of the wind Tapio is often portrayed as wearing a cloak of moss and a bonnet of fire THTRIEI and his sister ROSKyA were the children of a farmer and servanrcof the Germanic thunder god rHon When Thor and roxr were travelling through Midgard they stopped at the farmhouse and Thor provrded goats for supper on condirion that all the bones be kept intact Because Thialfi had nor had a satis$ring mealfor a long time. in thedepths thegreenwood. cANyAs. ) ByJAMEs 1995 THHSSI.creatingthe clatterand the rumble oJ storm clouds Thor alone among the gods neverrode. master was his ourwrtted by magic in severalchallengestoo. was the name of one of the two billy goats which pulled rHoR's chanot The other was named Tanngnsnir ("Tooth-grinder") The rumble of the chariot was heard by people on earth as the sound of thunder Like the magic boar of VALHALIA. who. was believed to ensure that woodland game remained in plentiful supply He had a dangerousside to his narure.Nonse MyTHoLoGY TANNCNOST (meaning "Toorhgnasher").the grantgrabbed hold of the god and. was a frost giant and the father of sxaot who stole from the goddess IDUN the apples of youth It was reallyLOKI'sfault thar this event occurred Disguised as an eagle. af[er cooking. the thunder god noriced Tarurvcruosrand Tanngrisnir Qef) wereq pair of goats who pulledThor's chaiot across slE. in Germanic mythology. Thor's goats provided an endlesssupply of mear as long as. green of theFinnish god o dwelt oJ Jorests. all rheir bones remained intact Thor would then wave his magic hammer over the skin and bones and rhe goats came alive TAPTO was rhe Finnish forest god. also but of forest beasts theherds woodland and oJ forest cattle(trrusrnerroN Arrruxoen. along with his wife Meilikki and his son Nyynkh. in moss. when Thor used his magic hammer to restore the goats to life.

) 1995 Bv lovedBalder (JtusrncrtoN NrcK the god He very nearly caught up with Loki.l'rr. and when they explained their mission the giantess replied thar she had no use for Balder and added. Odrn.Roshva. whtle Thialt't hoping to silence snores. tearfor Balder. pestered Hontr Loki Thiassi At pornt a tip to Mtdgard one up gods' swooped andscooped the down Lokt at dtnner Enraged. as disguised Turasst afrostg1ant.r. "for as Iong as the world lasts " 23r .tr. but as Thiassi flew over ASGARD wings were set alight by his fires thar the gods had placed on top of the stronghold'shigh walls The giant could no longer fly and so fell to the ground. QeJt). "Let Hel keep what she holds " Some versions of the myth maintain that Thokk was none other than LOKI in a falcon to Thiassi'shall in order to THoxx. thq sheltered a g1ant's glove. ) found Thokk in a cave." he said. said that she allow him back ro the land that of rhe hvrng on the condirion "everything in rhe nine worlds. his and Roskva gazeon in dazeddisbelieJ.. of again into an eagleand flpng after snowitself mourningtheloss themuchB.reJused sheda stngle one This Loki was able to accompiish..so destroytnghrs chance bur the frost giant almost thwarted oJescape Jrom Hel Around bttter Thohhall and stones the plan by turning himseif yet creationweeps the leaves.until wohenby his gus\t snoresHere. burned to death by the flames Eventually. (lrrtrsrnarro. dead and alive.Thor battersthe glant'shead.K Bp. lunged the pot stuch to with but eagle hisstafJ became t'ast av PrtrR 1882 thebtrd (/ri rrsraarro^ Http. journq to Thor on a Jabulous accompanted rn Jotunheim En route. Odin took Thiassi's eyes from his cloak and threw them into the sly as stars "Thiassiwill look down on all of us.nl B'" Nr(. the queen of the "unworthy would dead".Thiassi'sdaughter Skadi came ro Asgard to seekcompensation for her father's death When her demands had been satisfied. however.NonsE MvrHoLocY Tuutn Aeft)and his sister.o. 1995 ) THNZT SCCTHIA5SI THOKK *ut the callous frost After giantess of Germanic myth the popular god BALDER'sunfortunate death. HEL. aloneamong all the creatures to bring back Idun and her apples the nine worlds. weeps for him" Messengers were therefore sent out to ensure that everything moumed and were satisfied thar they had achieved their aim back On their way they to ASGARD. on and aneagle.

oruNHEIM. gloves and belt. edgeof.asaheadstrongchild. MJOLLNIR.rhe chief god. hamrhe mer. very THon. rhe powerful but straighrforward opponenr of rhe frost giants Yet Thor. until Thor blocked the source of the blood with a wellaimed srone k struck GJAL?. overhanging the flood and scramThese adventures were often bled ashore on the opposirebank dangerous for Thor. prwed toomuchJorhis mother andwwrakedby twosaintly guardians.t Ar-Dhrvorn. he let the ing.his retum.Grid's staff to push againsrrhe ceilpany and was so trusdng. so Thor was most grateful at Grid's loan of her own beh of stengrh. was in many aspectsnor unlike a gianr himself. he was a formidable foe Here. a friendly giantess Grid wamed Thor abour Geirrod's hatred of the gods She told him rhat he would be especially pleased ro avengethe death of uRuNcNIR. the thunder god swingshisfiery missile (Ir-r. Loh and he ceededin gabbing a mounrain ash had many advenruresrogerher. preferred honesr Thor. however. who had fled sourhern Norway to escapethe aggression of Danish and Swedish rulers.usrp. VinglrandHlora.rhe srrongesrof the frost giants whom Thor had hlled in a duel. The thundergod still had a piece of this dead frost giant's throwing srone stuck in his head to prove it. although nor and Loki clung desperatelyto the before Thor had hlled the monster belt of Grid that the thunder god Before he was slain by rhis terrible was wearing Happily. Geirrod's daughter. for these farmers had lirtie sympathy with the foorloose Vihngs who worshipped Odin. iron gaunrles. the rwo gods were poisonous venom of the seaser.so rheir vrsit to the hall of the frosr Thor sat down in a chair ro await giant GEIRROD Having been cap.wasa tireless warior and glant-slayer With his red-hothammer and belt of strength. Snatchinganap. Quick as a flash. along with the Greek Zeus and the Hindu Indra His name means "thunder" and his magic hammer. rhe birrer enemy of the frost giants. thefiery of youngster displnys impressive both temper might and bywhirlingbearshin in aft ofrage. there was his relish for a contest. 232 . iron gloves and unbreakable staff. which allowed him ro ear a whole ox at one sitting And. The freedom Such was rhe casewith owner was nowhere to be seen. By I 995 ) JAME. for rhis was the day belonging ro Jupirer. hk (luus'Ix'Anor. red-headedThor. the sons of lvaldi ft had a huge head and a short handle and always hir its mrger Thor was rhe mightiesr of rhe Germanic gods and rheir sraunch protecror againsrthe frost gans At MGNAROK. he used BecauseThor enjoyed Loh's com.I9O0 c ) TnonAef).his frequenr companion L2KI. He was exceptionally srrong. whose menstrual outpouring had swollen the he was destined to be hlled by the river Even then.cfloN ByARTHT/R R{cr<rl^M. with the resuh rhat rhe chair fire god lead him to Geinod's hall came down hard enough ro crush without the protecrion of his ham. the father of rhe slain The Icelandic colonists. Thor and Loki spenr rhe nighr with cRID. rhe doom of rhe gods. Thor opened his avoid death only by making a eyes and saw rhar his head was promise to deliver an unarmed about to be rammed against the Thor into the frosr gianr's hands ceiling. rhe Roman sky god and peer of rhe hot-tempered. Crossing a torrent of water and blood near the frost giant's hall proved difficult. the goddess of earth When the Angio-Saxons eventually adopted rhe Roman calendar.swept away. a trial of strength Two goats drew Thor's great chanot acrossthe sly: rheir names were Tooth-grinder and Tooth-gnasher His magic weapons were a hammer. especially Soon Thor and Loki arrived at when Loki led rhe thunder god Geirrod's hall. inhis most popular guise as champion oJ the gods. he could floating in the air.Gjalp and Greip to death. But on the rwo daughrers of Geinod had been large . where servan$ into danger as a price for his own grudgingly received them. of course. which he used to handle rhe red-hor hammer shaft.whichdoubledhis power.Nonse MyrHoLoGy THOn was rhe Germanicrhunder god He was the son of oDtru.he was tured by Geinod when Loh was in surprised when he dreamed he was rhe shape of a hawk.may once have meant "lightning" Among Icelanders and Norwegians family names like Thorsten recail rhe name of rhe god. and Fjorgrn. and a beh rhat increased his strengrh MJOLLNIR. was the handiwork of two dwarfs. usually atrached himself to Thor's beh . spirits lightningHue. really a thunderboh.as Thorlost his foonng pent JORMUNGANo. the land of the frosr giants. they named rhe fifrh day Thursday after Thor. Thor sucson of Loh. rhe fire god. bales while guardians his soothe anger.energeric and had an enormous apperire. These mer.

but the thunder god caught it deftly in the iron gloves he had been given by Grid. Foolishly. They built a clay grant 233 .trn. rhe clay giant was animated by the heart of a mare and. cross within ahammer.renonal goodfortune of north.ininga hammq. IorH cENr. Using a pair of tongs.Nonse MYTHoLoGY of such enorrnous sZe that Thor would be struckby tenor on seeing him. hewasnichnamed lkttb copper Vendor. as a guest at the gods' sronghold of he ASGARD. Thor was delighted to see Magni's strength and gave him the dead frost giant's steed Golden Mane as a reward. and Wtth and storms tempests qesablaze hammer his he hairaflnme. the frost grant challenged Odin to a horse race but then. although his charioteer had the good sense to topple the clay giant by attachng his legs with an are. 0uusrn rnop BY AMEIAtaYArrlorn.asin this charm. The son of the frost giantess Jarnsaxa. although the thunder god was left of was hammer a symbol Tnont Qeft) pwer and creatwe destructive anda source ls and of Jmtlity. drank too much and insulted the gods. The iron ball passed tl"otgh an iron pillarbefore tearing a hole in Geirrod's belly. had fallen in single combar with Thor. When Thor rerumed at this point the giant challenged Thor to a duel The frost giants did what they could to aid Hrungnir in the forthcoming frght. the land of the frost grants ln the fight with Hrungnir it was Thor who came off best. and rerurned the compliment by throwing it back at the giant.1995 ) J thrusting it upwards. On the day of the duel Thor wet himself at the sight of Mist Calf. bears red-hot chanot As tn its iron gauntlet. (Strven. he launched a red-hot iron ball at Thor. the powerful Hrungnir. thethundr god. Named Mrsr C.) pinned to the gound by one of the dead frost giant's legs and with a piece of whetstone lodged in his head. Mist Calfs fall shook Jotunheim. Afterwards Thor smashed the skulls of all the sewants. The frost giant mentioned by Grid. Then the frost giant rerumed and ried to hll Thor as well. Magni also told his flattened father how he could have dealt with Hrungnir with his bare fists. clouds gathered round his towering head. much to Odin's ruledthe THonbeW).thesign the Ch*tianity s'wept oJ often cross fusedwtththesign the contr. a mistress of Thor. hisbronze and a made raclutlilu theclash clnttr of the luttbs. slow movrng though he was. None of the gods could releaseThor and it was fortunate that his own three-year-old frost giant son IvfiGNI tumed up after the fight.

Loki.NORSE MyTHoLoGY THzR battleswith his arch enemy. but tinally their arivalat Utgard."the bigger they are.He told them how Loki had actually been pitted against wildfire. Thialfi and Roskvapledged themselvesas Thor's servants As Thor. Thialfi and Thor all failed to shine First the fire god lost an eating contest A second event saw Thialfi easily outpaced in a foot-race Then successively Thor lost a drinhng contest. while Thor had tried ro swallow the 234 . Hymir. when Thor used his magic hammer to restorethe eatengoats to life. was easily wrestled down on to one knee by "an old. cutshim Jree (THon rHn rN Bcr. the leader of the frost giants revealed that he had used spells to gain the advantage. the rravellers acknowledged "little" Thor Then were just as amazedat rhe strong. old woman" Once Thor admitted on leaving Utgard that they had come off second best. the rhunder god noriced that one o[ rhem was lame As compensation and in order to prevent him from slaying the household.les oyercome to thebeast. managedto lift only one paw of a cat. the whtle Thor strug. crr sr H cexvas.the J ormungand.he devrsed a series o[ games in hold's dimensions While Thor which Loki.eyed the four guests Their leaderat ing his brow during the nighr On firsr ignored rhem. before throwing rhe bone on rhe goat skins in a comer Next moming. and gained two human servants named THIALFI and Rosrye. the serpentwasdestined to ovewvhelm world at Ragnaroh Here. ) 1790 "You should not give a the son of a giantess annoyance horse to instead of your own farher. whose name said that sizewas of no imponance means "vast" Blows deliveredby a . they spenr one night in an empry hall It was so big that severalof rhe halls in Asgard.Loki was more thoughring head were dismissed by rhe ful lnside Utgard huge frosr gians glant as either a leafor a rwig brush. could have fitted inside ir ar rhe same rime Later rhey realizedrhar rhe hall was in fact the rhumb of a frosr gianr's empry glove Ir belonged ro sKRr 4tR. Thialfi and Roskva neared Urgard. in fear. and Thialfi against his own thought.they fall" . the home of the gods. caught on his Jishing line A lurhing evil coiledaround the earth. most embarrassing of all." complained Odin Another famous advenrurein Jotunheim concerns rhe visir of Thor and Loki to the srrongholdof UTGARDOn rhe way rhe rhunder god passed through Midgard. a brorher and sisrer Ir happened rhat Thialfi disobeyedan instruction of Thor when rhey dined rogerher his parenrs'farm ar Thor toid everyone ro be careful with the bones of some goarsrhey were eadng Bur hungry Thialfi split a thigh bone ro ger ar rhe marrow. the heavier flrustratedThor to SkDrmir'ssleep.rr Hyrr4rn Fr/sELt. rhe land of people. and.

Thor's magrchammer. which had been tamished by the god having to dress like a woman Mjollnir was the sole protection of the gods against the frost giants It was the thunderbolt which terrorized them prior to the catastrophe of Ragnarok Apart from is destructiveside. the fertiliry goddess Loh got Thor ro dressin Frefa's clothesand go to Thn'm's hall instead Despire his god-like appedte. ) ocean.Iift the massiveseaserpent Jormungand and wrestle with old age As soon as this messagewas delivered. new owner. the hammer had other magic powers over fertility and death It seems to have had the abiliry to restore animal life It also hallowed marriage. Wildfire. confronted mryhty Shrymirwithhis tiny hammer. I995 ) with Jormungand in THoR (above)wrestles theirJinal combatat Ragnaroh Trapped within the serpent's crushingcoils. the frost giant THRY demandedas the price of the hammer's retum the hand of RRrr. fell into their hands after it was stolen by the dwarfs Is 4. Thor was passed Tnon QeJ)andhis party visitedthe iq citadel of Utgard. for the two gods "both enjoyed each other's company" (Seealso NORSE HEROES:MGNAROK) 235 . and crush their bacl<s" Like his Hindu equivalent Indra. bahinghim over the head to silancehis snores. 1995 ) off by his "bridesmaid" Loki as a blushing bnde. vast creations sent out by frightened frost giants But it gave Loki some satisfactionto leam that brain had indeed triumphed overbrawn EvenThor had to admit that on certain occasionsLoh's clevemess was necessaryto hold the frost grans in check Such a moment in time was when Mjollnir.Thor its smashed ugly headwith a Jatalblow of nine hishammer:he then staggeredbach pacesand drownedin theJlood oJvenom s flowingfrom the beast' gapingj aws (ILLUsrMTroN BYJAMES Attxenom.break their skulls. for otherwise Thrym would not have been so ready ro place Mjollnir between Thor's knees when the thunder god was disguised as Frefa But throughout the myths relating to Thor we are never unconscious of its unlimited destructive powers For it was the thunder god's purpose to quell the enemies of the gods . the strongholdoJthefrost glants. and an excited Thrfm handed over Mjollnir The ensuing massacredid a great deal to restoreThor's fierce reputation.butto no avail Each time the giant wohehescratchedhisbrow and noddedof again Later.. Lohi out-eatenby of Age Here.NOnSE MyrHoLoGY Tnon (abwe) impukive ds uer. Thorwas the scourge of evil and in Germanic mythology this could only mean frost grants Loki's eventual siding with these gnm opponents is therefore one of the saddest events to befall Thor.andThor overcomeby Thor faik to drain ahombnmful of the OCCAN (ILLUSTMTION EYJAMES ALEXANDER."fo smash their legs.+.Thorleamt that Shrymir had nv 1930 beenan tllusion (IrusrmrroN I Hueno.wherethq underwenta seies of allegoical tests Thialfi was outstipped by the speed Thought. Utgard vanished Only then did it dawn on Thor that Slcymir and Utgard were illusions.

formed by a circle of stone statues surrounding a punishment pillar in front of his temple.the ring was a potent symbol of power. but later retnevedit when Hermod ventured to Hel The return of the nng rymbolized the promise ofJertiliry afbr winter bleahness Here. fortune and fame.it was alsooften buned with the nng-lordJorthejournry to the otherworld. consolidating his vastwealthand dominion overthe nine worMs Draupnir was crafted by the dwarf. a s. Dneuprurn.Yetthe pure nngs Lf of Onhnit.it dnpped eight similar gold ings every ninth night. in their bleakesr form.Orn 1 crrurunv ) . The Domhring possibly symbolizedthe inevitability of retribution. while his brother.qru :j84) ay Ler. Odin'sfabulousing.The magicalrings of Norse myth were also symbolsof destiny and. suchas thisbunal treasure Exquisitely wrought. but not alwayshappinessand somerimes tragedy. fame and as fortune Sometimesbequeathedan heirloom. symbolsof doom. One famous examplewas the cursed ring. Brohh. wasan emblemof abundance and power Preciousbqond compare. the dwarf Sindnfashions the magnificent ingwithfre and arcanemaglc in his undergroundforge (luusrnanov Ar. Odin castthe ing upon Balder'sJuneral pyre. the ing's clear. The rings of heroes inevitably brought wealth and power. pumped the bellows ln an extrayagdntgestureof gnef.bold lines express the vigour and strength Vihing craft of (Gtr strvrn. Another ring of doom was Thor's Domhring. corrupredby greed. Goto Rtrltc among the Vlhings wos a precioustohenof power. Much morejoyous and fabulousrings were Odin's astoundingDraupnir which literally dripped eight similar gold rings everynine days.RTNGSoF PowER MONG trtr VrrcNcs. A gift of honour and form of currency. Sindn. Wolfdierich and Dietrich were symbols of a ring-lord's circle of power and everlasdng fame.'mbol of fair play and good faith. which blighted many lives. such as the swedish sviagriss. or Thor's Oath Ring.it was also sometimesa royal heirloom. Andvarinaut. Tur.

rt Fu.h o a r d h u r x t t h / s rl . s r r r r l e sa r t J i r t t r r q r t c s f ) t t t t t r i t r r t r ' t . ' 1 1 p 1 . s r n ' uds u g o n 1 . r ' i n g n r r h r l c ih rh-ul.ittir.Nonse MvrHoLocY ffi r.h o a r c l W ' i r e n r h e v o u t h f i r l h c r o .s Odtrr Fngg Lohr Frnr t t l l s e a r c h r . B n r r h r i c / r u l t o c .4.i afto r. s{ r r ' . R D ( r r g h f) l \ ( r n l h ( ' Lt i l .serrl AnrJlarr Hrt'rclntttr t^. ( . l e t . f t r t t t ' t n n t n . L i t s ch l c r l l r r r ./ tht qrrirl \c. s u l l u l r o n t f l t t ' . l 1 r tr /t t t r t s t b t l t o r t r n c t { i c c t . l r 1 o l / c J r c f r r r h H c r c D i t t r r t l r h r L ' .S i q u r L( r r h o r t ' .4ant-sFalner and fot bttillhnq Vrrlh. { l h t r r n $ t l i ' d s i i r e s r i i l r . t f t t t r r r r h l c t t i l r c \ \ r 1. sr n € f r r .stc.1 t{ +H\ AlrrRrcH ioflnc). .rncl.( ) s g L i r ( / ( ' t t .\ IlrI i')\ -\ii\-\r\ l'll+ l .t t t g '\ i|-1rtr lrt . : .s r h r ' l r c r r rh l : a t h i l h r s / c t s l ht &d r c r l l r n gr . l l i i r .r Fu. lorged u nngol pctwer rr/ rhc sold rohben DtffRtCH ( a b o t ' c ) a G o f h r C h t t o . i i r -ls ? l ( rL d t i n n s t ' r t c i t u r t l e d .l VulLune Bntnhrld hr trtt. s r r i r r d n c Ji l r r t s t r r n g . rg u a r r i t h c n r r t .s l c r t t h c d r r i g r r n h r n r h c r r r e ( l l h t / r t h r r / r r t t n n g ./ r .u l l l t r r n i f t c / r l f .e . e la .s be:nttchttl h Gnnhila B r n t t r h c t r c i . l h t l / ( ) t { s r fronr thc Rhrncgold stolen lrom the Rhrnc I'latdcn. { n c l rc i l l l l c l L { l l. u dwarJ rf rhe Nrebelungen[cd. s I h c f i i s r r . .. Fafn rr Ai thouch n'ilrtricrlf hrm-self. l f - [o incied gotlsantl grants tthLze octt()n Ihc .ha / > t i / / t ' r c J t i ' D t f h t ' r t r 1 8S w.s \t1r\ untl nng of pour r h / u r i c i o .( o / dr r r r r rL o h r u a .nt'tlhrnr-sel/ t() dsst/dgr' hcr h()ll()llr ..r .'rs+ lrir .fnn ttn. E c .g G utlnnt r?lcr Whc n hrs rncnrrrrl rctunrcd hc s u | | t t c c lf r o m q r i i l t a r r c l gre/ -Srerlc/ s {rrlci tn f titrt c r t r i r c c ir h c c i r r r r r f t h c Nrhr'hrne bnrthcrs tlhrr . i L l r .. \ t ' c jn n g .sleir lttnt . r l t ( ) n . t t r l. trtgcrl trtt ll rt rortcfir/ Brr nhr/d sechrrrq hucl dunundetl the nng tttm|. r r .rr Firiirrr rrho lLr.scr hLr.\tir8eIn the horcier rhcgocl.sl l t r ' \ f r l l u gtntclfathu r ) r l r ' t r \ i l l c c lh D t c t r r r l t ' .rlla. r i r f h c r / r r c r r l I .tl by rhc hrrrer c ur.s m a g r a / g o l d n n g a s r . s t r r ' r r g f i e t c { . sr l n g r r a .s lris st. ' t i i i r b S l a . r . .irrlg0n quttrtltan. s p u r n n g lo r t h t h t c l k n t r e a s u t e l r e W f h e E r n p l ' r . r u r t h r r r q c l o r n r r h g e n r s A f r t ' r r u r r r . s c r g r r l i c o / .nt Frtr'ta a.lfffl slcnrng lt-\ (.h o a r d I t l u n u .f l o r l e r . g r " i t e f /r. ttntl cctnted ofl tmdThc.eb tr/ cloorn Alto lalling n1 l()\c urfh the splcndrr.soltcicriranclttl tht nng::l p()\m. a n c l L l a t m u l h r . i r r r t ) ' 237 .ho th t r s r r ' i c r . r t a1 i 1 1 l i / r J 1 l r d v . l | O i l a t r r r r r d r o u .

fire god rorc persuaded rhe Thor ro go ro the frost gianr's stronghold disguised as rhe bride in order to recover the hammer Loki also wenr along in the form of a maidservant Thus rhe unusual pair arrived ar Thrym's hall Even though rhe frosr gianr was quire suspiciousabour his bnde-ro-be. and scoutingtheiq wastes search of the hammer.995 ) J. Loki cleverly managed ro talk him inro producing rhe hammer. the glantbroods onhis roclE hilltop wqloohedby Lohi.vprn. dtsgutsed a as in falcon. from which few travellers rerum With his wrfe Tuonetar he had severalchildren who were deities of suffenng. the hero changed into an otter and swam easilythrough the net Tuolt guardedthe darh realm oJTuonela on thebanhs ablachiver When oJ VainamoinenvisitedTuoni in search of maglccharms.causingpanic at Asgard Here. who gavehim beer to drink But while her visitor slept.1995 ) 238 . was the frost gianr who came to acquireTHOR's maglc hammer The gods were at a loss becauseonly this weapon could protecr rhem against rhe frosr gianrs When Thrym said he would exchangerhe hammer for rhe ferrility goddess FREUTA. including Kipu-Tytro. o danng storm g1ant. when rhe sunlight tumed Alvis inro stone THnYU.wwas a rhree-headedgod of the Slavsliving in cenrral Europe At Stettin in present-day Poland.flung across iver. in Germanic myrhologz.tuns TIR seerrn Twvlzsee rYR TruCf.stole Thor'ssacredhammer. but thehero the changedinto an otter and slipped through (ILrusrMIoN NrcK By Butr. he was received there by Tuonerar. goddess of illness One of the few heroeswho managedto escapefrom Tuonela was VAINAMOINEN After SucceSSfully crossingthe river that marked the border of Tuonela. her son createda vast iron mesh across the river so rhatVainamoinencould not retum that way and would be rapped forever But when he woke. one renrh being the amounr due to the god at the end of a campaign The best remple at Stettin housed a black horse for Triglav's use In the twelfrh century Chrisdanity amved and Tnglav'sstatueswere broken and their muldple heads senr to rhe Popein Rome as curiosities TUONT was rhe Finnish god of the dead. in Germanic myrhologr.he was trapped by a vast iron net.buned aght Jathoms dou'n j (Irru5rneroru ev Auxe. Triglav once boasted four separate temples Thesewere mainnined by war boory..which Thor then used ro lay low all rhe frost grants in sight TsRru Qrf). was the daughrer of rhe rhunder god ruon and his wife SrF Shewas promised ro rhe dwarf ALVISas a payrnenr for his handicraft Bur Thor prevented the dwarf from claiming Thrud by keeping him mlking until morning. who lived in the dark land of Tuonela.Nonsr MyrHoLocy THnUn.

the doom o[ the gods A Cehic god by the name of Nuada was forced to grve up the leadership of the lnsh Tuatha De Danann ("the people of the goddess Dana") after he lost a hand at rhe first battle of Magh Tuireadh But Tyr was still able ro light ar MGNAROK.l rrrsAtExlroi. c os m i c tr ee.arioN At B) JAME-S ExqNI)IR. ) By left).stnarror llr /. Odin's maglcspear. Tyr had to put his hand in rhe wolf's mouth as a sign of goodwrll When the wolf discovered the chain could not hand be broken. also known asTiv and Tiwaz.n .and at Ragnaroh slew hell-hound Garm (lt-tt.the of ftercewolf-son Lolzi Yet Fennrhepton uery day. receivedsacrificesof hanged men Ir is not unlikely that Tyr was an destined that the hound which srood at the gates of HEL. w as one of thr ee s i s ter s who were the Germanicfatesand The rwo were }crown as the NORNS other sisters were Verdandi ( " Bei ng" or " Pr es ent" ) and Sk ul d ( " N ec es s i ty " or " F utur e" ) U r d gaveher name to the well thar was situatedbeneathone of the roos of the YG G D R ASIL. was Tvn (above wrth sword invohed before battle. was the Germanicwargod. Although he bit off Ty'r's Tyr was in agony.NonsE MyTHOLOGY Tvn Qeft). ODIN.may once havebelongedto Tyr. dunng whrch it was Garm. Iike that god.and over recent years archaeologistshave found numerous splendidly omamented spears dedicatedto Tyr The myth of Tyr relatesto the binding of rhe wolf nrruRtRThis monstrous creaturehad grown so powerful that rhe gods decided to restrain it No ordinary chain was strong enough.persomt'ied Llno (above). . Jamed htsbravery Jor wasassigned taskoJ the feedtngFennr.a popularswordgod. since it was customary for the Vikings to casr a spearover the heads of an enemy as a sacrificebeforefighting commenced in earnest. U r d w ar ned the c hi ef of the Germanicgods. growrng. present representecl past. but was lustas shrlful the left.that he was destined to be krlled by rhe at remble wolf nrrunlR RAGNAROK.l 995 ) the awrse Norn.srn. and might. was [o leap at Tyt't throat and they would hll each orher 239 . T\T. acting as watchdog to rhe land of the dead. the gods w er e not s upenor or beyond the infiuenceof the fates Indeed.l995 ) early sly god whose powers were later passed to Odin and Thor 6UNGNIR. The be the other gods just laughed downgrading unconnected hand of Tyr may not with the loss of a URD. orWpd (meaning"Fate" or " Pas t" ) .andhadhis rune engraved blades He losthrs nght hand in a t'ight with hrs with Fennr.honoured on dances. and the son of ODIN and his wife nrucc The Anglo-Saxonsusually called him Tiw and gave his name ro Tuesday (Tiwesdaeg in OId Englsh) He was closely associated wirh Odin and. stronger andt'tercer the unttl all-seeing Odin reahzed danger and thegodsdectded brndthebeast to 1930 underground(luusrnerrrx J HL)ARD. and that was where rhe gods would hold therr daily meetrng As was also the casein Greekmythology. whrleher ststers andt'uture fate The Nornswatnedthegods oJ from the Juture evtland drcw lessons on past Urd fer)two swens the IJrdar pool oJ whogavebtrth to theswans theworld (lrrr. and belore Fenrir would consent to a magic one being placed round his neck.

UTGAu. "risen out of the water. theiq atadel oJ thefrost gwnts. There he challenged the made by the frighrened frost grans gigandc "riddle-master" to match to deter Thor.AN I9g1) I-EE. rhe present and the future.THORand Thor's ser. in VnnrHnUDNIR. the chief of rhe gods.When they lefr. pick up the sea died. Seehng to test his knowledge serpent JORMUNGAND wresrle againstthe gianr's.Nonsr MyrHoLocy ("Ourer place"). Odin decided to or old age. Possibly like contes$ against unequal oppo. Thialfi could nights on YGGDMSIL. UfCnRO in Germanic Germanic mythology.ittmng icicles The Norse poets. in order to become wise. thought. rhe doom of rhe gods and the end of the world. gians' stronghold in JOTUNHEIM. After an impressive display on the part of both Odin and Vafthrudnir.ina'itably portrayed the ail gianu in just such aharsh realm. their greatestenemy.the cosmic not keep pace as a runner with tree.vledge allowed him to assure Balder of future resurrection and worship on the new earth. whtre numbing coWfroze the muscla and paralyseilthe will (tuusrntnoN ByAr. fresh and green". It is implied in the story that Odin's forelano'.impressive store of wisdom byconvant THIALFIfound themselves in sulting rhe dead.' 210 . wu cawed out of snowblocls and f. Now Odin could pered Vafthrudnir recognized that no one and admitted tell what into the god had whis- the ear of the dead Balder. their knowledge of rhe pasr. the giant was eventually defeated by a quite unanswerable question.ODIN. w6 the huge mythology. He was believed to have gained his where LOKI. The frost giant's last words were: "So I have alwap pitted myself against Odin. w6 a wise frosr giant. when the god asked the giantwhat he had whispered to his dead son BALDER before he lit the pyre on which he lay. the gods journey to Vafthrudnir's land in realized that Uqard was an illusion disguise. Loh failed to consume more voluntarily hanged himself for nine food than wildfire. who nen6. after MGNARoK. and Thor was unable to Vafthrudnir had also temporarily drink the sea dry. the wisest.whohnant all about the terorc oJ the ice of thar northern homes.

ouorNEN GATLEN.LUoNNoTAR.LLr. Louhi raised a great storrn and. they succeededin recovering it. Only the swift action of Vainamoinen savedthem.only to wind up as a salmon onhis fishingline.agrcal powers He was lesslucky in love.he on setsatlin a copperboat and embarhed a VeluaiuotN rN helow) courtsreluctant Aino in herJathu's grwe Promisedto the old man againsther willby her brother. Odin emerged thewisestoJthewise as (lLLUsrRATloN By JAMES ALExAworn.he was promised one of Louhi's daughters if he made the magic talisman. He was always depicted as a vigorous and sensitiveold man. was alsoa gentle.a peerless mage. When he sought a bride from among the women of Pohja. the Sampo He gave the task to his comrade Ilmannen and so Louhi's daughterwas manied to Ilmarinen instead. (Seealso TREASURES AND TALISMANS SPELLS) : SORCERYAND VelrueuotNeN (above). so Vainamoinen and llmarinen. however. Odinhad resolved testthe to wise Jrostglant andlearn any new snippets oJwisdom Yet. Vainamoinen collectedall the scattered pieces togetherand was able to restore some of the talisman's former power With his mission completed. the chief hero of Finnish epic.returning to her humanform (Tnr. descended onto their ship. alone amongheroes.l'. But the bride was killed and the magic talismanstolen. but during the storrn rhe Sampo was lost to the winds When the storrn had passed.humane hero A tireless explorer.aJter quizingeach other on €ve'ty aspectoJlrfeand death.Vainamoinenwas grfted with extraordinary m. Jrom the undemvorldAt theendof his hJe. c 1890) TRlprycH av A GIIl. off to find the set Sampo.. for he was in his mother's womb for at least thirty years. who from birth possessed wisdom of rhe the ages. cANvAs. joined VarrHnuorutRsparswith Odin in a f"*dly contestoJwits Evu thirstyfor hnwledge.l' CANVAS. he joumqed across the hnown returned world and. was the son of a primal goddess. ByA I(aLLEt. c 1890 ) 2+r . . Vainamoinen built a ship and embarked on an endless voyage. in the form of a griffin.she drownedhersefrather than marry.ge without end (vel. After several greatadventures.l.1 995 ) VnINRUOINEN. As by LEMINKAINEN.N-I/. leapingbachtnto the iver and beJore Arro voya. However.NoRSE MYTHOLOGY the champion of the Kalevala (which means "the fatherland of heroes").

the by magnificenthall glittered with precious metals.its walls were built oJspearsand its roof of shiningshields This starlit scene aohes a sense the untold wonders that oJ lie within (llnisrnnrro.the HaII of the Slain. Mead was provrded from the teats of a goat It was said that everyday the Einheqar pur on their armour.1900 svw ) vnlnellA. Even before they reached this entrance.beauttful battlenes maidens.welcomed chosenslninwith the openarrns At other times. including a fasr-runningnver of air Once in Valhalla"[he men hlled in war" were miraculously cured of their wounds and were able ro indulge endlessly in the pleasures of feasdngand fighting The meat of a magic boar was prepared as wonderful stew in an inexhaustible cauldron. rhehall was ("heroic dead").Nonse MvrHoLocy The newly fallenjoining the residenrs in Valhalla had to enter by a door called Valgrind ("the sacred baned-gate of the slain"). the doom of rhe gods Then they were destined ro fall again. southem Norway and Sweden. Valhalla was enormous It had over five hundred doors. or Valholl. went to the pracrice ground and fought each orher If hlled.r BY EWALLCousrNs. 242 .c. in Germanic mychology. ) l914 V AtnAttA' s V allzy . rheywere restoredto life. each wide enough to allow up ro eight hundred men to march through abreast These wide doors were designed to allow rhe chosen warriors to pour fonh ar rhe first sign of MGNAROK. was built in the shimmenng grove of Glesir Encircled strongouter walls. ) c 1920 Veuanut was a Vihing's paradisewhue heroes chosan Jought andJeasted from dawn to dush Woundshealednernight.rhe regionswhere most of the raiding expedidons came from.alongsidethe gods.recavedthehrroes.v F voN By srAssEN. Hermod or Brag1. conductingthem thefoot oJOdin's to throne.ft for thefnal bauleat Rognaroh (lrrusrncrroN B Dwcx.Odin's sons.aSGARo by Odin. of the EINHER/AR those warriors slain on rhe battlefield and chosen by ODIN himself as his followers Buik in. The sameboar was eaten day after day through a processof resurrection. (above). in a grear battle on the VIGRID Plain.whileOdinhimselfroseto greet the bravestVihingsat the gate 0uusrnqnor. Verueu. and meadand meatjwed Jreely The hutic round oJcombatensuredthatheroesstayed in fightingform. they must pass severalobstacles. At midday they retumed ro Valhalla and started drinhng Such an existence for a Vihng heips ro expiain Odin's popularity in Denmark.

lnValhalla the Vallcyries would carry food and drink for the Einherjar. snatchingsailors from ships. Odin's martial V. c 1890) Tng Vnucrues ("female young Vett was of the bnght one gods fu to suwive Ragnarolz Destinedfrombirth to avenge Balder's death. the camstrophe inwhich theywould die in mutual destrucdon with the frost gianm and the forces of evil The gathering of the "heroic dead" in Valhallawas the onlyway the gods could prepare to face their own fate. caught up in a benerk fury.on the battlefieldthe VallEnes becamesinister goadinghcroesto thar spiits of slaughter. and daily senr our rhe vALKYUESro add ro the numberof the dead. the gods were constantly threatened by Ragnarok. when he beheld a greatwitch on an island. Something of this early terror can be imagined in an account of the battle of Stamford Bridge.he survived MGNAROK. personilyingclouds.or sometimes the or bechoningJrom strand (TnrRroe rne VALKYRTE ByH HERMAN. A soldier in the Norwegian army dreamr of a Valkfrie before the battle.AR("heroic dead") who would go to uALHALLA. wild Amazon-like creatures who rook great delight in the severed limbs and bloody wounds of battle. Along with his half-brother wDAR. Hsre. MGNAROK) 243 .he ts portrayed stridingdcrossthe nav earth aJtu Rngnaroh 0rrusrnenoru Nrcx ay B::lrrc. could be guaranteed to tear into the enemy ranks in one last bartle. He thought he was on the hng of Norway's ship. gravat an he amazng rate. with a fork in one hand to rake up the dead and a trough in the other to catch the blood (Seealso rHE VALKIAIES.lucnrrs (abwe). the idyllic abodeoJOdin's ghostlyarmy Although quite charmingin Valhalla. At least Odin's men. Theyprobably derived from something more dreadful than the attendants of Valhalla. Odin said that "the grey wolf watches the halls of the gods": that is to say.NORse MYTHOLOGY Odin was known as the father of the slain and he was the host who presided over Valhalla.and whosesoahing manessprayedthe eanh with Jmile Jrost and dew Thq alsoscouredthe seas. (Seealso THEvALKTRIES) VEMOIT SCCVALHALIA VnU was rhe son of oDIN and RJND and was destined to hll blind HODRin revengefor his unwitting murder of nerprn. By 1870 death GaevrLKyRrES voN G LEEKE. They rode over battlefields and selected the elNHr4. and must have originally been the goddessesof slaughter itself.lrrrnrrs (below) rode through the maidens. Ragnarok was always given as the reason for creating Valhalla.altghtedon the battlefieldto select the bravestwariors for Valhalla. he grew from a baby to manhood in a single d^y and rushed off to hll Hodr. Fulfilling a prophecy. Kirg Harold's victory over the Norwegians shortly before his defeat by the Normans at Bartle in I066.or shield-maidens. no matter how vain the attemptwould prove to be. ) stormyslE on magnificentpearly steeds.995 1 ) choosersof the slain") were ODIN's battle.Another Vali was one of the unlucky sons of LoKL V. cANvAs. When asked about his habit of Sving luck to a warrior in a battle and then suddenly tahng rt away. reachingmanhoodin a singleday and rushing of wrth uncombed hair to slay Hodr.

but the Norse vision is ""*i starker than most and unique in the loss of its gods. all the world's destructive forces burst forth in cataclysmic disaster. c. *.RAGNARoK AGNARoK wAS THE preordained doom of the gods. q'! rcru AeJ). The inevitable climax was precipitated by a Sj series of disasters.however.MARBLE. the godsallowed Inh. Jormungand. Beyond Asgard. MARBLE. the oJ rymbolizedtheJoremostdeJence the godsagarnst threat of might the glantsand the doom oJRngnaroh Yet Thor's sustained to provedultimatelyinadequate withstandthecombined Thor id onslaughtoJ glantsand monstersAt the end. a catalyst of evil. the i universe was beset by forces of destruction and flawed from the outset.beJore Jrom its venom (THoR By B FOGELBERG. p u r g e d b y flood and fire. In .orcr envious anyonewho was oJ goodandbeautlful. The seedsof doom were sown at the dawn of time when the world and its first creatures emerged from the violent extremes of ice and fire. at Ragnarok. the earth emerges fresh a n d g r e eD . Loki went on to slay Balder. Inherently fragile.Loki. 1 q" highlights the heroism of gods and heroes. 1890 ) Tnn Mrcur or THon (abwe) andhtshammu.c 1890 ) . and the climax of the cosmic drama.1 the Norse myths . Ragnarok casts a dark shadow over . growingder more bitter and twrsted (Lor{ AND HODR By C QvARNsrRoM. the i"'i'i" . yet also . symbol of goodness and beauty. with a dart of mtstletoe The wantondestruction the bestof the godsmarlzed of a turning-pointin Inhr's downwardspiral oJevil Yet evenafter the cnme. some gods survive and . Consumed with hate . Apocalypse is a common mythical theme. spawned three {' fearsome monsters against whom the gods were o ultim ately powerless. Balder.i to roam unrestrained. Mjollnir.d '::i one hopeful version. dytnghrmselJ the world of the glantmonster. F ::: enmity of the hostile giants gathered momentum + until.guidedblind Hodr to slay his brother.

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When the sagaswere collected in the late rwelfth century. ln some versiors of the creation myth. The Icelander Snorri Srurluson thought that the name of the Aesir recalled their homeland in Asia. Vili and Ve disliked Ymir and his growing band of frost giants. Vili gave them intelligence and emotion.Odin. However. so they slowly faded into the background The distinction between the older Vanir and the younger Aesir was uncenain even in Vihng times. The Vanir sent to Asgard the sea god w. They lived at Vanaheim. All the the gods were descended from Buri. daties oJJmility. From the wood they made first man and then woman.bnW spiits oJ nature. who and granted nouished the earth and seas. the implacable enmity berween them could not be denied or resolved. second to none in his wisdom The Aesir despatched to Vanaheim long-legged HoNn and wise MIMIR. formerly called Vanaquisl. b absorbed theVanirarts. gand-father of Ve. Eventually. Vili and Ve. were all gentle. He is described as being utterly evil. and daughter FREYR who was believed to be also KVASIR. thefruitful VanirtwinsJollm OdinanilFiganq the with BfrostBndge. an ash and an elm.Hue.e. The problem was the terrible indecisiveness of Honir. (l-l:usrtAnoN ByF voN Sr ssEN. in Germanic myrholory. was one of rhe sons of non and the brorher of oolx and vltt. At first Honir and Mimir were welcomed and accepted by the Vanir. however. and that IHOR was the grandson of King Priam of Troyand oonv his descendant in the rwendeth generation.Njord (centre) and his lwely twrns. for it went right back to the killing of Ymir. so in anger they cut off Mimir's head and sent it back ro Asgard. making the world (the "yawning in GINNUNGAGAP emptiness") from the giant's body. Myth relates how the Vanir and the Aesir fought for supremacy not long after creation. Afterwards the three brothers found on the seashore two fallen rees. which reached embarrassingproportions whenever Mimirwas absent To the Vanir it seemed that Mimir was not only Honir's voice but also his brain. because his son Bor married the frost grantessBestla and had three sons. their dislike tumed to hatred and they slew Ymir. Odin. 1995 ) VE. there was speculation about the origins of the two groups. while the Vanir were originally inhabinns of the land by the River Don. Ve is known as Lodur or Lothur.l9l4 ) . but the gods gadually came to the conclusion that theyhad got the worst of the exchange with the Aesir. Thorand Lohtin the rear. the first living creature. who were primarily war gods. it effectively caused a rift between the Aesir and the Vanirwhich greatly reduced the mythological significance of the Vanir.wealth and THE VANTR. After the Aesir had won. far from AscARD. the fortified residence of the AESIR. THE VANIR wreJamedfor magX and themacho Aesirwqe oJvvhxh a foraryht Iittlexspnous. Odin breathed into them the spirit of life. these theories have been discounted.ucqtfor Oilinwho. health. peacewas sealedby an exchangeofgods and goddesses. Audhumla's lichng also uncovered BURI. arcr hrs rapidty eager incrense hnwiledge. Although the blood of the frost gians and the gods intermingled. and Ve added the ability to see and hear.NORSE MyTHoLOGY THf VANIn were the older of the rwo branches of the Germanic family of gods and were fertility deities. ciloN Jair weatherand good hawests (lnusrn BvJAMES ALEX{Nonn. Frryja and Frqr.the younger branch. At the beginning of creadon the primeval UMIA sustained herself cow AUDH by licking the ice and from her ample teats flowed enough milk to feed the frost giant Y /IR. Although this did not rekindle the conflict. Today.onD and his rwin son and and nnr1. wereworshippedbyfarmers The threemain Vanir gods.

Vidar stepped forward. When had overthe terrible wolf FENRIR come Odin in a fierce and bloody struggle and swallowed him. the doom of the gods and the end of the world. He was the son of ODIN and the frost giantessGRID. who was the thunder god. ears of the last sheaf of com are still 217 . however. when Russnnfarmm still honouredhim in the lawestfelfuby curlingthe earsoJone sheafof corn (seeight).NORSE MYTHOLOGY Wpen (abave). time the the god of flocla at hawest For insmnce. folklore.1995 0[usrprnor rv NtcxBpcLE. into ntler of Kiev. was the Russian over flocks to VELES. ) into the Christian fyt^S him with St Blasius. where all was quiet and peaceful.o stron& silent and solitary god. smashed one of his well-shod feet against the wolf's lower jaw. It is more than likely that the meaning of Vidar's own name refers in some way to this ripping in half of evil. survives. he had a statue of Veles thrown ln into Russian the River Dniepner.Vili and Vn (abave) Odin.qtr. and was one of theJew gods destinedto suwive Rngnaroh He slew the wolJ Fenir with his iron-shod foot (lr-r-usrnrroru Br. Prayers offered to this to protect and saint are expected increase flocks of sheep and goats Vrrrs guarded cattle andJlocluJor the Slavs Espeaallypopular with farmers. who was a shepherd and martyr from Cappadocia. god who had authoriry and herds.fashionedhumanforms from two piaes oJdiJtwoodlyingon the cosmic beachat thedun of ttme Odin created a manJrom the ash. rymbohzngthe god's atrly hair andbeard .whllehisyoungu brothmformd awomanfrom theelm. (r-r-usrpcnoN 1995 rvJeurs AuxrNoen.and lived in a place called Vidi. lt was customary swear oaths in the names of Veles and prRuruu. ) 1995 Bv NrcK woven into a plait }crown as "Veles' beard". Veles was incorporated faith by idend- andhrsbrothm. and then Odinbreathedlrfeinto them. he surwved into the nineteanthcentuty.. When Vladimir. VtOnn was rhe silent and solinry god of Germanic mytholory. ) or Volos.It was Vidar's destiny to avenge his father's death at MGNAROK. and then with both hands he forced the upper jaw open till the ravenous beast's throat was tom asunder. the Onhodox was baptized faith in 988. Also in Russian Orthodox tradition. lived alone in a leafypalacedeepin his pnmalJorest He personrfiedthe imperishable Jorcesof nature.

Whoever wielded rhe sword could never be defeated. a one-eyed stranger appeared among the wedding guesrs. More a figure of folklore than mythology. Sigmund refused ro parr with it atany price. Without his knowledge.ofering divine to thewinner. but this is not cenain. he exists becauseof the ancient respect accorded to the ravenous wolf. and in Germany asWielund. VfXOOIAKwas the Slavic wolfman. When Signy. it was predicted that the assembled hoss would cover it completely. Each night a wolf came and ate one of them.y succeededin rescuing him. the glft Signund themuch-enwed was champion (lrrusrpqnoru ByAtaN Lre.Odin gave rhem the breath of life. But Siggeirdid not succeed. was the son of noR and Bestlaand the brother of opll and yr At the beginning of creation he helped his brothers ro slay the frosr gianr yMtR and form the world from his carcass. SIGURD.however. which in the forestsof northern and eastem Europe was the animal most feared.built around sacred wu thescene a a oah. a warior with double Volsung blood. ar the doom of the gods. known in German legend as Siegfried. 1984) MLI. Afterwards Sigmund reumed home. the warringhosts convergedJromall corners of the earth. There ar MGNAROxthe two sides and their allies would engage in mutual destruction. Volsung's only daughter.Despite Signy's Votsulc's fuelwv) great hall. Siggeir wrongly believed that no one had escaped the attentions of the wolf He relaxed his guard and Signy was able to brry her family and help Sigmund. A huge expanse of land. the maglc sword secured their release and allowed them to take revenge on the king and his sons. This refusai made the Gothic king really angry. Nor was anyone else able to pull out the sword. except the youngest of Volsung's sons. in Germanic myrhology. he was renowned for mahng coats of mail and swords. and sending their heads studded with preciousjewels and mounted on silver to King Nidud. and had another son. He sruck a sword deep inro an oak and told the company that the weapon would belong to the man who pulled ic out. Signy slept with him and bore Sinfiotli. who came to see his treasures. in Germanic mytholog/. Wayland's myth is a srory of revenge King Nidud of Sweden cur Wayland's leg sinews and placed him and his forge on a remote island. Even so. the chief god ooll was destined to be hlled by rhe wolf FENRIR MGNARoK. Tnr Vtcnrp Pr. chief of the Germanic gods. Sig. VOTSUNG was the subjecr of a late Germanic myth. orVolundr. godsandherocspouredover the BtJrost Bridge. Vili's contribution was sharp wits and feeling hearts. First. while Ve added the powers of sight and hearing. the a into geat oah Hechallengedthehroes to pull it out. When Sinfiotli grew up.According to Germanic myrhology. until only Sigmund was left alive. The smith god avenged this mudlation by hlling Nidud's nvo sons.{ND WnYf-. Volsung and his ten sons walked into Siggeir's trap when they accepted an invimdon to visit his coun.NORSE MyTHoLoGY MCruO. Sigmund.cN (abwe) was mapped Our of counesyVolsung invited his son-inJawSiggeir to rryhis luck first.of all Signy rried to have her own sons trained by Sigmund.hilt-deep. When Siggeir offered to buy the magic weapon. Signy sent him to her brother to be trained as a warrior Although Sigmund and Sinfiotli were captured bySiggeir. Theywere ambushed on the way and left in the forest. lt took a long dme to prepare a revenge. was the name of a plain that was destined to be the sceneof the final conflict berween the gods and rhe frost gians.eryhost swarmedinfrom the swirlingseas qnory JAMES (It-t-usrR By Arcxeuorn. He may also have raped Nidud's daughter. In one Icelandic poem Vili is given rhe name HONIR. VOIOS VELES SCC out as the battlefieldoJ Ragnaroh Wlrcn Hamdall soundedthe call tobattle. bur they lacked courage A second attempt to reinforce her brother involved incest.tND was the smith god of the Anglo-Saxons. He was said to be a descendanr of ODIN. was married against her will to the Gothic king Siggeir. k was Odin. ) 1995 waming. The son of a sailor and a mermaid.while Lohi and thefi. When they later created the first man and woman from wood. bound to a fallen nee. As a result. of maglcal arcntwhen appeared Odin one night ond thrust sword. 2+8 . Vigrid was said to stretch l20leagues in every direction. In Scandinaviahe was known asVolund. VoruuD seewAYr.

srRA il()N sv H THEAxEn.hnownas Volund'sHouse Icelandic 0VmrrnoruE cARVING. smith god whose in.Alvrt. uarrnc. Near a long bar- row has ancient assoclations with Wayland.but by lust by wariors seehing oJ w noblewomen anttngdain\ tnnh.qX SCCODIN 249 . his smrthy that of and is locally known as His lameness parallels the Greek Hephaistos.ury had two different explanations In one version it was claimed that his limp was the result of his har. like the Greek inventor Daedalus. Zeus and Hera So annoyed did Zeus become rhat he flung his son out of Olympus and ler him fallhear.I'lidud weapons his oppressive Jor Wayland oJSwedenLtheDaedalus. captlve a desolate inhis underground tsland.ets a purestgold Waylandwas also craJtsman a designtng Jabulous on thegrand scale. bankandkeptthemon earth nlne Jor unttl thq escapedFashromngwrngs Jor Wayland htmselJ.rng interfered rn a \nolent quarrel between his parents.Nonsr MYTHoLoGY df .AlJhetm (lLLL. / 900 ) Afterwards have flown Wayland is said to to vALHALt-.rly on the island of Lemnos how A second explanation tells was born a Hephaistos dwarfish figure wirh a limp Hera even tried to drown him. maze. on wlngs he had made for hrmself Uffingron rn Wiltshire.orrrttn. andflew away toJreedom fashtonedwrngs 0i/ELqND By M. 8rH crxruRY ) on Werr-ctvp helow). and Wayland's own mother was a mermaid It is interesting to note that Lemnos was an island with tivitv.i WArLAND's (above)smithywasvrsitednot arms. flew aJterhis wtJe.Iaboured Jorge. like volcanic island acto the remote rvhich way'and had been banished wtgHND see wAnAND WOPEN ODIN SCC WOT.dx KocH. to . and w ornaments fashtoning ondrous master. i 904 ) Wen-aNp (abovenght) and hts brothers tn bathtng a upon threeVallrynes chanced lahe Thq tooktherrplumagelet'ton the years. but he was saved by sea nymPhs The lat[er version of the myth is most relevant to Wayland in Germanic the master crafrsmen mythology were mainly dwarfs.q.i? .

It was supported by three great roots: one descended ro. Its branches overhung the nine worlds and spread out above the heavens. Skuld and Verdandi. at lay theheart theuniverse of Hqe. the last root was embedded nearaSGARD. Urd. reflectingthe ItJe deathstruggje therootof hfe and at (Wooo ccnvlNc. In lreland. but sacrificial hangings from gallows trees were also a favourite Viking way of worshipping the god. where MIMIR'swell stood. found in a Jurland peat bog in 1950. like Christ. ) ny 1995 the Crucifixion remains srriking. cried out before he died. (which means something like "dreadful rnount") was the cosmic ash nee in Germanic mythology. the three fates. the second ended in fogg. where the gods held their daily assembly. the musical branches of Irish mythology acted as cures for 250 . Yggdrasil is described as the largest and most stately tree ever to have grown.) Yuln belou. An archaeological find that reveals the extent of this ghastly ritual is rhe Tollund Man. beneath URD's well. close by rhe spring of Hvergelmir. however. thewhirling patterns Vihingart stihingly of capture the wirlingvitality at thecentre life A stag of brwseson its evergreenfoliagewhile a strpent nipsthestag's nech.NOnse MyTHoLoGY YGGOnAStt. the structural support of the nine worlds. Odin had long been the god of the spear.t-t. Odin was also pierced with a spear and. Not only did Odin hang himself on Yggdrasil for nine nights in order ro leam wisdom.) was theftrst creatureto anuge from the pnmal wastes ice in oJ theyawningabyss oJ Ginnungagapat the dawn of creation Asfirefrom the south mehedicefrom the north. sometimes refened to as "Vidoftrir the tree snake". Is name is a reference either ro the gallows or ODIN's horse. Water was raken from the well each day by the NoRNS. stronghold of the the gods. who brought unpleasant commens and insults up from the dragon Nidhogg. Another bird in its branches was a cock. the sacreduee acquired a different role. Although it is possible rhat the Crucifixion was known ar the time that rhe Odin myrh was recorded. where rhe dragon NIDHOGGgnawed the roor from belowwheneverit tired of chewing corpses. the iq droplets fused toJorm a massive frost glant As he slept. and mixed wirh earth as a means of prevendng Yggdrasil's bark from rotting. The idea of a cosmic ree is common in the myrlrs of the nonhem parts of both Europe andfuia. the god of the hanged. 8rn crNruny. his weat formed other frost glants (lnusrnnnory NrcxBry.r Niflheim. rhe land of the gians. It was thought of as the backbone of the universe.oruruHEtM. The corpse was so well presewed that it was possible ro deduce that he was a prisoner of war who had been sacrificed as a thank-offering after a batde. or yggdrasill. An eagleperched on the very top of the cosmic tree was daily harassed by a squinel named Ratatosk. The parallel beween Odin's volunmry dearh on Yggdrasil and Yccppslr (nghl theWorldTree. Although always associated with otherworld splendour. there is litrle doubt rhat his hanging on the cosmic tree had pre-Christian origins and derived from ancient pagan worship.

YCCOMSILL YGGDRASIL SCC his armpit. his unbroken bones mountains.. his blood rivers. free of the ice. the moon and the stars' Such an extremelY violent creation myth is by no means unique The Babylonian chamPion of the gods.Asgard topmostboughs It root while heaven. Growing dred of the brutality of Ymir and his ever-increasing band of frost giants. Marduk. also Midgard but reached lts and. The obvious example must be the apples belonging to the goddess IDUN. under rainbow fing dwarfs of nact.) FRoM sickness and despair. ) At another sacred tree. and his skull the slcy. lt came from a branch of silver with white blossoms.theworlds mortak. lakes and the sea.-*-o-* up Yccoustt's mightylimbshe? the Sean oJ nineworlds theNorsemen here (abwe) thethreehighest rmlmsoJgods are the andlightelves. Thus the fabulous voyage of Bran b"g* with the sound of music that caused him to fall asleep. In a number of tales these magic branches of silver or gold were brought by messengers from otherworld lands. How much rees were once revered can be seen from the reactions to early Christian missionarieslike St Boniface. He was evil and the father and mother of all frost gians. until he himself was felled at Dockum by an outraged pagan. Ymir fed on the milk of the primeval cow AUDHUMIA. who first came from the sweat of 25L . depths oJ not in darh tahingroot only the in Niflham(bottom). Only this magic fruit prevented the gods from gowing old. Hins of such maglc are also present in Germariic mythology.rnQumrs. to the telror of the Frisians. was the first living creature. which a beautiful lady took away after telling of the delights of her world beyond the sea. the emPtinessat the bottom of the universe. One he pushed upwards to form the heavens. Odin. bndge. who were the gandsons of whom Audhumla had licked BURI. Vili and Ve then threw Ymir's carcassinto GinnungagaP. They were clearly the gift from the Yc copasrl-(nght) Jtlled hnwn world. which was held up at its four corners bY dwarfs Sparks were used to make the sun. in Germanic mythology. who manand aged to escape by sailing on a hollowed tree trunk. YMIR. itslowest touchedhell was oJ generalfthought asthestructural of support theuniverse (lrrusrpcno^J4N 1984 sv Lw.ln the eighth cenury he cut down sacrificial trees.wLJ and yE. 'ise with anddarhelves Jromtheocean.. He was a frost giant who emerged from the ("the ice in GINNT/NGAGAP yawning empdness"). His flesh became the earth..the other he used to make a floor above the deep. Vili and Ve took up arrns They slewYmir and then drowned all the frost gianr in his blood.Nonsr MYTHoLoGY -q*-.He was slain by the brothers 1DIN. his teeth and jaw rocks and boulders. slew the chaos-dragon Tiamat with raging winds and an alrow. before sPlitdng her carcassinto rwo Parts. the at glanS'land theiq edge frost 1847 (I[usrnnoN NORTHERN Ar. Odin. with the exception of BERGEI^fiIR his wife.

104T. 93T. 2138.102T. 7gB. 598.2428R.106T.158 (all). 43R. 202BL. r66BL.l 4 I L .240.140R. 166. 183T.. I4IBR. 20 (all).Vienna:778[the National Gallery. 169T.The Central Art fuchives:197BL.5OBL. 245TR.153R. 6lTR. L49TL.4OR. 38TR. Copenhagen Ins : Archiv ftir Kunsrund Geschichte. 5.22+8. The Bridgeman Libraqy:g4BVPhillips An E.I5OTM. l46BL.92. 196R.222TR.2+gB. Archive:3lTR. IIIB. Galleries: 192B. 1158L. Nasjonalgalleriet. MirandaGray:l02BL. 76. 66T. 34BR. London: 6. 1288L. Manchester Art Galleries: Ciry I0IB. 2 I 3TR. 34TR. 59T. ClesstcAL MyrnoLocy Nonse MvrnoLocy Ateneum.I3IT. CounesySusanRussellFlint: t 46BR.1958.65T.156 (both). I3BL. 85TL. I97BR. T42BL. 214B. BildarchivPreussischer Kulturbesitz 224T.89T.528L. E. I90T.25lrR. 161 (all). Z09BL. 1 5 I B . 1688. L37TL.18IR. 20I Goth).I91T. tgT. StuartLittlejohn:Il4T.7gB. 4LT.67T.I32R.23.2+TB. 1 5 7 T .2+5TI'/Ihj odminjasafin.I88BL. I the following for permissionro reproduce the illustrations indicated. 53 (all). The TateGallery. 82T. I57BR. I10. Oslo: I 75.I57BL. FineArt: 9}/Lady LeverAn Gallery. The Bridgeman Library/Bonhams: An BirminghamMuseumsand An Gallery: LT9lJRoyal Library. Alan Lee:I05 (all). 168T.I08R. 878. London: r76L. The Tate Gallery.I34TR. 220R.184T. T.. 68T. 206TL. JeanLoup Charmer:197TR. 243T. 1458. : l33BL. 60BR. 237TL.Florence 29TL. Rey$avik 233N niversitetes Kirg futhurs GreatHalls.IgL. Helsinki.63T. 1 2 0 8 R1 3 5 .. Davison: 119L. DanutaMeyer:I07L.L40L.242TL.22ITL. fuchiv ftir Kunstund Geschichte. 14B. London: I79R. Manchester City An Galleries: 17P.2468. Tintagel: 100T. Counesyof the Boardof Trusteesof the Victoriaand Alben Museum: 1508L.5lBR. I 38TR/Private Collecdon: Manchester Museums An City and I4lVGiraudon: 155T.l7IBR.2308L. The Bodleian Library:l39TL.g0T.237TR. I23BR. l8lB.Copenhagen: Museum. 50TR.56T.2378L.70R. 22gTR. 15 ITR. Stockholm: 189TL.57T. Modena:858R.83 (all). I64R.4IBR.IGlvingrove: l5T. 2+gB. 12IT.Copenhagen: I98BR. INTRoDUcTIoN Archiv ftir Kunsrund Geschichte.2+. 62T. 66BR. 231. . Fine An Photographic Library: Z4BR.23 6BL. of II8B.l5T.203BR. WemerForman Archive:L74.87T. 7T.55 (all).190B. 252 . YvonneGilben: 148ML.58BR. Ateneum. Scala. Helsinh.I65L.I59BR. 44TR. II4B. Glasgow Museums:An Galleryand 25OTRAlational Musuem. T43T. 7B. NationalMuseumStockholm:I82T. I9gT. 75. I97TL. 160.P r c r u RE Ac xN owLE D G E M E NTS PTCTURE AcKN owLEDGEMENTS Publishers gratefullyacknowledge Th.Port FineAn Photogaphic Library:188T. I37TR. 88B. 22I TR.London: 42T. E.1498R.6+T.206BR..I45TL. 52TR. Oslo: 1868.45. 16T. 2298R. 2L5T. T. DundeeAn Galleries Museums:103T.39T.London: S5BVGalerie Estense.113T.1498. Oldsaksamling. I 28R/Bibliothdque Nationale : AlanLee: l8lT. I 236BVStatens Historiska Museum. FineArt PhotogaphicLibrary'.L+7L. Christies Images:2L2T.49TL. glTM. The Bridgemanfut Library/BristolMuseum and An Gallery:84BlKunsthistorisches Museum. Sunlight 9 4l*/frirvare : Collection: 243BR. The CentralAn Archives:2. 36L.72T. and IO4B. LZZT. 7 4TL. EdinburghMuseums and Art Galleries: 245MR.162 (both) L6+L. Boardof Trustees the NationalMuseums of and Gallerieson Merseyside 0MalkerArt Gallery):638.L46T.2L58. . 6gBR. 107R.14ITR.Copenhagen: IO3B. 205. I33TlPhillipsFineAn L36B/Ciryof 205T. Archiv fi:r Kunst und Geschichte: 12.LT+BL. l 0 I T . NationalGalleries Scotland:99L. T12BL.l33BR. 35.I25R. Alan Lee: 44BR.30 (all).48TL. London: L3+8. Statens Museumfur Kunst. 6g8. Celrrc Mvrnolocy 245ML. T25L. I++T.T32L.203T.210BL. zIL. +7T. I30BR. L67T. 170 (both). fuchive: 186T. T26B. L3+TL. Amamagn aean titu te.

54. Asterius 39. 4 6 . I 32-133 ofplenry f04. 27.I70 Cumae 80 Cumal 120. 6 1 . l l I 2 6 . 1 8 4 . 125. 48. 7 1 . I I 4 . 26. 106. 86 Demeter33.248 r 6 6 .2+. 1 0 9I. ll0.137. 2 5 r 117 Spear I89.32. 5 0 .25.65 27 6 4 . Aonghus 99.16I. Amaethon 96.71. 13. 36.56 Il. 1 8 l . Aethra 82 Breg168 Autonoe13 Apollo13.127. ' 153 Daphne 31. A o i f a . l+0.123. 15.87 Cercyon 82 Ceres 36 Ceridwen tl2. r29.117. 3 4 .65 Chimaera 26. 1 3 7a n d r23.38.207. 178. 1 4 0 . t43. 9 3 .6 6. I50.2r5. 14. 236.26. magrc 93. 2t5.106-107. I28 Banba 22.28.79 Derbforgaille 122 Dia22. r38 46. 2 4 6 .64 Cassiope I8 Casde of the Fountain 156. I32. 2 4 6 . 8 3 . 2 2 4 Amphion 20 King l8a. I90 Domhall I I9 Domhring 236 Domnu 154 Don 97. 2 9 .129. 1 0 2 .25 185.66 Ciabhan II2.23 I85. 184. 30. Banshees 102. 8l Coriolanus 32.22.2t0. King of Munster 103. r 8 3 . r07. Aili r99. I 2 3 .I79. I84. 152. 4 7 . I27 Eber Finn 126 Echidna 28.185.246. +2. Calydon 25 18I. ll2.37 . l13. I61 Crldydd l2O Cimon 83 Cincinnatus 29. l6l. 16 2 5 .15.23. 4 5 . I1. Abundanti60 Sea Black I l. 2 2 .60. Brown Bull of 96.202 Calais22. 98 Ard-Greimne Aietes. ll7.I 5 9 18l. I I 0 . 1 2 5l. r23. 147. t52 Conlai 6. fucanius 14. r07. I65. I 1 2 .225. I05. l l l 60 r 6 . Aegrsthus t5.205. llI. I r 3 7 .37 Brigid 109. ll8.143 242. r08.34 Cybele+9. r88.238 Chrysippus 10.140. I19 Conn of the Hundred Battles 99 Connacht 96.159 Caia 46 Cama 54 Carthage 14.I 3 5 . HighKing102. 120.123 I 8 5 . 168.5 8 . lB0. 18. I79.236. r 4 2I.21 Cronos L9.41.66. 1 0 2 .73 Clytemnestra 10. 1 3 2 .78.25r 54. Brokk 236.h e 1 . King of Ulster I12.34 Dazhbog 188. 222. 158 Callisto 20 2L1.42.6 I . 1 9 .43 4 7 .165 l.+5.28. 2 3 . 6 0 .237 Diomedes.58. 120 Culhwch 96. t22. 3 0 . 139. 1 5 2 Anueus 48 21r. AfagdduI 12 B r e s0 9 . 155. 7 r . r+6. 7 5 .237 Adonis19. 6 4 246 1 0 9 .243.242 2 Adas 5. 1 2 3 . tugonaurc Nne 96-97.237 Acrisius 3+.29. I13 Cloelia 3I Clontarf 102 253 . 7 3 . 23.120. 166 Queen139 99 Cneisgel Becuma 6. l'+. i5. r22. i16. 7 r . 102.79. f83.16. Anchises 14. 7 1 .85 Cassandra 15. 4 0 .224. 184. I59.67.188. 188.199.73 Akka 202 Byrsa 85 Bebo. Bestla I 3 8 . 1 6 7 . 6 5 .97.211. Atreus I5.70 Aglaia 44 190.i85.3 I .67 Berling185 t 2 0 . 8 8 r07.147 Donn I26.I9l.24. 67 r29 Ailill96.59 Christ I34.I9. i3.48. Apulia4I I Brigantia l0 153 Arawn. 8 0 .1 9 8 . 33. 15.84. Billing.25.86.34. 120.85 Dietrich 220. I16.i2l Aino 24I B u r il 8 I . .67 Cocalos. 9 8 .222. 21. 66. Brangaine r 8 5 . 97.29 Circe 32.1 3 0 . 66.60 22. 10. 5 2 . I09. 2 8 . I82. Boyne. Alberich 237 and see Cad'Goddeu 96. Calliope 63. ll2. 160.r70.168 Cemunnos I I2. 50. 2 1 . 3 4 . 56. C a m e l o tI 0 I .I04 99.2 t . 1 5 . r 3 0 . 8l Echo 63. 54. 150. 31. 15. l8l.82. I53.1 2 7 . zll. 5 0 . 43.I84-185. Mount46.237 Dryads 69 Dubh Lacha 126. 126. 162 28. Bellerophon tut 99. 2 5 . 2 4 6 .237 102. t98. 225.l+6. 84.66.216 berserkers I 3 4 . 58. 32.210. 53. River 98.122. 1 9 8 . Marcus 34. 139.i89.5 I .4 6 . 98.81. 86 C o l c h i sI I .196.28. 148. I5I Camulos I I1 Caradawc I I I Carbonek Castle 105.140.74 222 19.r 3 6 Aerope 26 t47 18I. 1 4 3I.64.62 Cepheus l8 Cephissus.86 207. 63 6 7 . 2 1 4 .8 5 . 2 + .83. Afi 2r9 1 r27. 3 7 23 Apsyrtus 5 + . Battle of 39 Chaos 43 Chanclo 86 Charities see Graces Charon 28. Alcmene 16. River 63 Cerberus 28.7r. 3 2 . l0l. I I BrigantesI0 BadbI02.64. n8.132. 15. 2 + . I2I Blathnat r95. 8 2 . Baugi I89 1 Argos 5.152. 2 3 . 3 7 . Alvis 178. 122.77. I23. 109. 49.Mount 52 Antiope20 Aegle52 I 0 7 . T7L Daman 129 D a n al 2 I .236.77 Al{heim 191.129.229. I 9 . 23 . I02.129.17. 156.22. I29.250.28.45. r16. L22. l4I. ur.I I l .73. I09.1 2 7 .84. 84 Anica27. I32.171176.202.6I Cyclopes 33. . 14I. t2l. King of Kamikos 34. Brisingamen 1 9 I . 5 4 . 103. I14. r52 Delbaeth I27 Delbchaem 99 Delos 50.28.6 I . tuclepius 16. 1 5 . 6 0 .207.153. Agenor. 1 0l34 . 26.79. 1 2 6 . 104.23. 1 5 3 . 157. 227 Arcona Ai 2I8-219 208.60 Colonus18. 8 7 . 8 9 .222 Caswallon I I I CathbadlI2. Atropos +2.r 5 .83. 7 8 . I42. High King of Ireland 99. 18. 2 5 . 2 9 Andhrimnir2i3 I06. Andvarinaut Acaeon13. 2 7 . Avalon I0l. Amazons 17. I22. 4 1 . I44. 198. 6 9 .76.I35. I30. 205 A n u9 8 . Athens I0. I58. 98. Bellona 79. l 2 l . Belenus see Arion 50 Alcesds 16.f09. 1 3 l7 . 159 Cyprus 19. ll7.98-99. 1 3 . 6 2 .I07.I I 0 . I18. 39 185. I84. 7 . 159 103. 83 Dian Cecht 109. l16.33. 3 4 . 74. I16.63 Edda 218-219 Eetion l7 Efnisien 107. t42. 1.1 3 6 . Beltaine Alcyone 73 Caladcholg I48 150 Beothach 57.I80 ?l ?a 4) 4q 46 \4 I09.I 3 9 . 143. 3 4 . 3 + . Areopagus 43. 132. 2 67 r . Battle of 100. lI7.170 Cigfa I46.62 Coeus 57. 4 2 .l 1 . 12I.202.2r2. 13. 5 0 . 109. Angrboda Aeaea32. 107. Ariadne AlbaLonga 17. 3 4 . Aphrodite 2I0. 120.59 Castor 22. 5 0 . IO3.60. 9 8 .147.r43 Andvari Cadmus13.87. King of 185. il9. I66 . I12.32. l16. I83.39. r00. 2 3 .42. 5 6 . 1 1 8 . f03 Bedwyr 62. Annwn97. 3 8 .37. 12.76. 3 8 . Boreades 180.84.245. Andromeda 18.200. 12l.56. 2 8 . I37.221.240. 120. Aegrr 178. 6 2 .t12.l t 8 1 3 I .25. 2 8 .76 33. I82-183.83 Colosseum 85 Colossus of Rhodes 46 Conaire Mor I I2-I I3. 4 3 . II5. 167 D e i a n i r a6 . 238 r27. 136 Creon 18. 1 2 7 . 202. ll6ll7.37. 135.28. 4 8 . r43. ll8.52.89 69.26.17. 43. 74. f l l . 166. King of Ulster I12.78 Cythera 28 D Da Chich Anann 98 Dabog see Dazhbog D a e d a l u s2 3 .28.4 9 .92. 1 0 4 .12. Ajax 12.r 0 1r. I52. King of Colchis 236 2++ 25. 22.153. 5 7 . 3 1 . I52 Conall Caemach 96. 1.4 9 .236. 138. Borl8I.42 Clymene 25.82. 152. 24.73. 38.86.211 Branthe Blessed 98.132. 26. 114.66. I04 2 5 . r97. t85. 1 4 8 .194 Christianiry 67. 6 7 . 13. 56. 70.+3. 92. I66 Cecrops 25. 14.89 Creusa14. 2 t 4 .82. 182.67. 57.67.34.38.4 8 . I80 Cynon I21. BabaYaga 18l 88 AppiusClaudius BriciuI I0 1 B a c c h u s1 .29. r04.119. 2 4 . 120. 6 4 . 2 8 3 I . 116. i66. . 127 .15. 4 0 .I(ng of Annwn Agave 1I.27. ll2.2I5.196 t99. lI8-119. 17.27 Britomartis 2t8.I33. 6 7.208.26. I90.54 184.46. 148.81 Celeno 73 Cellach I 17 Celdc otherworlds. 106.7l ll7. I0. 45.I 5 2 futerope 73 i79. I16.123. 1 2 I Aeneas 14. 2 4 . 6 I 7 .54. I0.2r7 .106. 28. 16 39.7. 59 Diarmuid Ua Duibhne 98. 1 6 Q 5 6 .33. 46. Boann 106. 1 3 2 .143. 2 0 .4 7 . 126r 2 7 .83. mares of 48 D i o n y s u sI l . 1 3 7. 53 Alan 139. +9.122.38.48 Augeas I8-19. I99. Athena 19.I78.87 Chiron I2.154 Diana 23. Beowulf Anhur. Bergelmir I02. 9 2 .37.109.I80. 122. 5 4 . t57. I03. 73.156. 1 4 7 Eibhir 159 r52 cauldrons. 7 0 . 126 Dons 86 Draupnir 197 .79 73 8 8 .25r 18.28.0 0 . 72.136. li7 Comwall92.1+7.167 Sir 6. +0.203.228. r67 Dicrynna 27 Dicrys 2I Dido.26.27 f3i. Aegeus 13. 71. I 3 . 3/. 56. Achilles l2-13.216. 1I7. Amphitryon f6. 72. Audhumla of Aonghus theTenible Aesir178. Sir I42 27.123.4 . 4 8 .1 7 . r36.249 Dagda7. I08. Ailill Mac Mam 96 27. 91. 15. 87 Curtius. nI. 26.184.83 32. 1 5 7 . 1 0 3 . r70.27.34. 136. f08. Clotho 41.54. r 0 2 . 46.INorx INDEX r87. j2 Cormac Mac Art. 28.57. 7 4 .33. 14. 6 7 .105.5 7. l+.13.1 3 7 . l5l Dublin 126.31. 2 2 . +1.25.97.I 9 3 . 153 181. 57 pelphic Oracle 13. r66.54. 2 3 . 98.24 Amphitrite68.r 7 I .98. 2 7 . 18+.67.+5. 5 4 Aillil OIom. Aeolus 65 + 1 2 6 .97 B e l il l I .165 I8I. ll8. 2 5 . Arianrhod 106. l12.208. 4 7 . 22.67 Charybdis 32. I 2 2 .66. 69 84. I03.87.I83. 2 3 . l13 Cian 102.147 AurvandilI94 1 7 5 . Il+. ll6.97. 84.82 r 2 0 . 47.73 BolthurI84 Aulanta24-25.r 0 5 . 1 9 Deimos l9 Deirdre of the Sonows lI2.85 Cacus 77 Belenus 103. I43. Balder 96. 178. 23.I t l . Bnan.2r3.79.84 I8. Amulius A Blacklftight121. 1 7 . l7l Cuailgne.60.30. I29. I l 7 . 2 8 .67 Bran 104. 94. 71. 2 + 8 I75. 120.67.5+.73.33.6r Bron139.214 Culann 118. 6+. Nvir249 Calchas 41. Arcadia 18. I82.29. 86 Crete6.119. 2 2 . Atlas.142. l18. 2 1 .202.1 6 6 . 2 6 . 5I.51" Andromache L7. 5 I .28.68. t42.58.53. l14. 7 9 . I80.t 2 1 .60. 183. 6 8 . Arcas20 Agravain.I90. 89 Crucifixlon 215.218.57.83 79. I 2 2 .40.37. Brendan 94.19.53. 2 4 . 16. 46. 44. 2r8. 19.I 1 6 L6+.215. Attis 49 1 2 9 .59. 48.86 Cairbe lI7.r 9 3 . 7 r . I04- r 05 Celtic romance 140-141 cennurs 6. 54.162 Dylan 99. II2. 36.231. 19. 106. 154. 4 r . 61.19.lI0. 133. 8 7 8 8 92.103. 122.28.250 Cu Roi. 170 and seeAnu D a n a e2 I . 185. 133.2lI. 2 6 . 5 I .97. 120.r88. I13.I88.222-223.144.126 E Eagor seeAegir Eber 97 Eber Donn 126. tugus22.33. I80. 146. i7I Conchobhar Mac Nessa.I 5 8 . I3I. t3. 3 9 .37. Queen o[ Carthage 14.I 9 9 . I70 of rebinh 132. nt. C a i l t el l l .130. 15 25r BeFind 13I 48. 1 5 .s 0 . 2 9 . 62.King93.26.26.23 I89 Bolverk I5. r95. 2 3 . 98.152. 5 7 .I75 Dvalin 185. 9 8 . 195 Dyfed 99. 2 6 . r00.l 0 l .76. 8 68 6 .36. 142. 156.I 5 . 86 I1.144.26-7 Boreas . I47 Corinth 23.f08. King of Tyre I Brigrndo l0 184. 7 3 . 5 4 I70 Munster 96-97 t99. 129.215 83 Bors.9 0 13.19. ll7. LuciusJunius Brutus. I 9 . 4s. 17. Alfrigg 185 I CaladnIl. 6 1 . 126.99 Alcippe 34 C a e r 9 8 .216. t29 Calypso 65 248 1 r 1 4 .82.83 Pagenumbersin bold type refer to illusrranons 1 1 t l I34.29.25I ll5. 29.66. Antigone 18.164. 88 164.5 3 . . I98. 99.97. Amma2I9 246. Baucis 56 60 Airmid 122. r 9 . 1 4 2 . 7 r . Amairgen 97. Balor Ares17. 6 1 . 22. 1I0. 122.98.20t. I06. r35. I t9. I 1 5 0 .244.79 I12 Birh 29 17. 183 4 7 . 158. lI4. 8 3 . IL4.166 Balius 88. 65. I36 Cormac.i I 0 . r37.20. 3 9 . 131. t27. 1 6 2 r87. 6 8 8 0 . I95.25. c I03. 163 I78.21. Asgard 85 Abana96 I 5 6 . r 7 1 . 60. Branwen 107. Bifrost 18l. T 1 A e n a d .56. t2I. t47. I30 Cupid 33. 5 4 . Admeus 16. 5 4 .216.227 D e c h t i r el 1 2 .54. 42.3r. t22. 103.96 228. 28. 7 3 .56. Agamemnon II.38.184. I'1. r44. 98.1 4 6 .65 Clio 63 Cliodhna l12.4+ I. 7. 120.79.2I. A u l i sI 2 . l19. 13. 169 Coronis 24 Craiftine I I7 Creidhne ll7. Blodeuedd 207 17.23. 191.1. Andvari Acrs74 Bodmin100 26 Astraeus 200.24. 9 8 . 126.64.54. 1 2 9 . B 1 2 .I03. Artemis 13. Brynhild A r g 0 2 2 . 194 1 0 0 . t19.22. I99. Aetna. I33 CenTneian hind 48 C e s a i rI 1 2 . 36.73.23. Aurora38 Aeson 23.6 . 160. t66 Camlan. r44. 179. i48 C u c h u l a i n n6 .2+5 Bragr 178.22. 1 3 1 Chaeronia.

t22.201. t 1 3 .I 2 3 .2 I 3 . 17. 122. 1 6 0 .207. +9. 251 Helgi 2I3 Igraine 100. 6 3 .1 6 7 Galar I88-I89. I63. lasus24 . 93. I94.142.1 6 3 . i37. 2 t 62 r 7 .246. Hel 179.I7I F o r b al i3 I . I29. I9. 8 . 249 Inachus 53 Hera 16. 53 7+. 6. I26. 137.76. 5 + .227 Imbolc I I0 . 218. t54. Sir 1 3 4 . 2 8 .230 Hugrnn 201. 206 Fasolt 237 F a t e s1 6 .73.236. 7 0 . 55 Einhe4ar.r27.6 2 .S i r 1 3 4 . I 2 3 . r68 Firbolg 109. 26. 9 8 .237 Falias I70 Fand 128.89.+ 6 .207 r8.124. l I 7 . 51. 199. 3 3 . 5 I+6. I 7 . 180. 58 Hylas69 Hymir178. I30.46. ll9.3 I . I50 Eteocles 33.3 . 224.2I5. r30. +7.2+6 Frithiof220. 188. 122. Frey174.180. I48.I17. 7 5 .25. 38. I44. 5 5 . 136.2 1 6 . t37. 8 4 . 189. 103. 194. I36. t52. 1 + 3 .89 23. 235 3.2 2 t . 48. 60 2 2 . King183. 128. Iliad. 15. 7 2 QuessI56-i57 Hespera lubdan.65. 198. 51. I93. 2 I 5 . 17. I89 Goewin 99 Goibhniu 102. r 4 4 .239. 2 2 I . r36. 127. I59.r 3 8 . 22. I30. 6 0 . 152. 52 Ismene 66 Heroes 30-31 Ith 139. Jadhg I20 83 Janus 54.79. 53 249 Iolaus 48 Heracles ll. 1+6. 2 2 . 4 7 .73. 200.5 0 . I52 Elcmar I06 Eldhrimnir 2I3 Elecrra 38. 1 0 6 .77 Giants 16. i44 G a w a i n . 5 0 . n0.224.79 254 .I 9 8 . 86 38. 77 Epidauros 24 Epirus l4 Epona 128.5 0 .6 1 . I54 Emin Oig I12 Etar I29. 189 FotlaI29 Founders 84-5 Founrain Wisdom of 2 0 9 . I88. 120. 4 1 . I00. 122. L 4 O .lngeborg 228. 185. l+0. 207 208.127. 39. ll8. 1 9 0 .I89. l6I Gwynap Nudd 137 Gwynedd 137. 3+ 3 . 80.215. the I75.24r 2 5 .76-77 Gilvaethwy 99. 134. Ino 53. 207. I28 Ema 219. Helios 32.+ 6 . lt7.5 8 .205. 4 3 Garm 239 Gaul 92. I08. 167 Fimafeng I78 Findbhair i3I Findchaem I 12 Finegas 130.237 Guinevere. 52.209. 4 9 .248 Fer Cherdne 103 Ferdia I29.208.151 F Fabulous voyages I64165 Fachtna Farhach Ii6 Fachma.237 Groa194.216. High King of Ireland 96.67 Eurymome 44 Eurystheus.2 15. 197. 19. 8 0 . l l u s 4 3 . 1 8 4 . 192. 79. 137.215. 1 5 . 1 3 .86. . 163 Erato 63 Erebos 39 Erechtheus. ll8.96. t 9 I . 222.8 t . 1 3 5 . 2 2 .5253.104. I I 5 .1 9 6 . 2 2 8 . 4 7 .7I Ellida I97 ElysianFields I6. 2+6.1 7 .2+1 199. 54. 5 2 . 8 68 7 . r35. 7 7 7.INorx Eileithyra 16. 97. 38. 2 3 72 4 6 . Queen I 0 5 . 19. 2 5 . 180. 73 Electryon l6 Eleusian mysteries 72 Eleusis 36.I 5 I I. I23.1 6 6 .I 9 7 .20I. I0. I 3 7 . +4.215. I62 99. 189.246. 200.75 Heimdall I78. 10. 6 9 .64 Hereydd 162 lman i37. .25r GiollBridge 198 Gjalp I92. I l 4 I . 8 5 76. lr7.7 t .202.t22. 152 Erhal98.194 G u d r u n 8 5 . 137 Hermaphroditos 49 49. 7 5 . 23r. 38. 1 I 9 I .232-233 Hugr 20I. Iphigenia 12. 140.I17 Graces 44. 2 0 7 . 2 1 6 .i84. Iphicles I6 1 4 . 196. Ilt.4 5 .73. 198.7t. 1 5 4 .73.9 0 .225. I30. 48. I98-r99. . 4+. r 3 6 . 159. I18. 88 Eumenides see Furies Euphrosyne 44 Europa 20. 88 33. 20t Hyperion 46.5 t . 232 FIed Goibnenn 136 F l o o d . 224 Green Iftighr 135 Greip 192. I29. 4 9 . 2. 8 6 . Indech I54 2 0 . 150.82.40. t Isle of Menimenr 106 Hermod I82-I83. lseult I08.1 5 5 . Iarbus 85 202. 82.86. 13l. 202. 237.38.79 Eurus 26 Eurydice 19.210. I9 Emain Macha l12. 2 2 2 . 68. 68. 1 2 6 . Holy seeSangreal Grainne 98. 5 2 .74 Gorias I70 Goronwy 106 Govannon I23.47 Erik Bloodaxe 176 Eriu I26. 98. 1 44. 200.214.208. 1 9 2 .66. 15. 19+ HrungnirI94. 127 Erichthonius 25.189 Gurtorm199 GwawlI25.199. 42-43.9 t . 126 En 109. r24.129 Eogabail 96 Eorann 168 Eos 26.L + 3 .+ 9 .t h e I 1 2 . I29 Fergus Mac Leda I24.183 Gefion I92. 4 3 . 4 7 . Hestia 45. 2 0 5 . 5 5 1 .t84. G Gabhra. Hebe47 Hecate45 H e c t o1 3 . r 229 GunnlodI84. 137 Gordius 6l Gorgons 8. 203 Fjorgrn I9I. Iolcus22.62 34. 1 4 7 . I37.218. 188. 1 9 4 . t 12 and see Taliesin Gwyddbwyll158 Gwydion 99.3 6 . I67 Gram 219.2 5 . 7 9 .2+7 Griddylad137 Grimhild185. 205. + . Iapyx2l 183.52 Hreidmar I79.6 4 . 3 4 . 4 + .19. 136.2 r 5 Fraoch I3I Freki2I4 Freya175. 7 4 .192 Geinod I92. 1 9 0 . I40.206. I 3 4 .3 4 . I16. 148. 193.8 9 . 1 8 0 . Helenus l7 225. 1 6 7 .50. II7. 2 3 5 . 7 9 .218.29. 6 I .224. 232 Grendel I3I. sons of 194.4 2 . r22. 143.88 42. 82 Elis38. 5 0 . I88.156 Gerda 190-19I. 4 2 .32.I 5 3 . The 89 +6. 8 71 5 4 .202.129. 5 7 . 19. 62. Galahad. 7 1 .l4l. r93. 39 Enid 14l Enna I26 Eochaid 163 Eochaidh Mac Erc 168 Eochaidh. Idun 178.248 Iapetus 75 25. r 7 9 . I83. I24. 4 2 .81. 130 Finias I70 Finn MacCool92. r29. l4l Emhain 146 Enarete 8l Endymion 38.194.r 9 1t . 193. 4 6 . 129.2r8. I96. 1 0 5 . Hephaistos 15.214. I33. 2 5 .247. 2 8 .r 5 1 Halicamassus 49 Wartooth Harald I75.+ 9 . 28. 20020r. 138-139. 55.37.225.28. 245. 105. 130. I29 Etruscans 52.154. 60 Golden Mane200. 3 9 . 7 + . 4 4 . 83 J Hippolytus 7. 3 0 .147 GwythyrI37 Gylfi.r 9 5 . 146. l3I. High King of Ireland 97. 198. 1 4 7 Forces narure of 68-69 Forsed I78.243.32. I48 Gungnir194.229 Geri2I4 Geryon18. t.15I. r62 Gwentls Coed168 Gwem107. 2 1 6 . I79. 2 1 9 l 7 l L I L Hlora232 Hodr178. 4 5 + 9 . I88. the Salmon of Knowledge 106. I 9 5 .232-233 Geraint. 137. 1 6 9 7 3 . I75.237 HrimthursI80 Hrothgar. 1 8 5 . Bartle 159 o[ Gae-bolg 166 G a i a 9 . L49.2 236. I39 52 Hesperides 48.198. I89. 167 F i a n n a9 6 .184.146 Fannell I 18 Farbaud 188. 5 3 . I+7 GwionBachI 12. 4 5 + 8 .7I I . 66 Eterscel. r12. l l I . t54-I55. 136.198. 232-233. 102. I30.3 8 .77. 137. 2 7 . Hermes I6. 194.Id I42 6 1 . 203 Galarea 71 Ga\ada92 G a n y m e d e4 . 1 3 9I . r 63 Golden Fleece l.182. 9 2 .229 5 3 . 7 0 . 1 2 7 Foltor 96 Fomoni 102. 7 8 . I 4 3 .77. 228.139. 147 G i n n u n g a g a pi 8 l . I84.178. Io 53. 1 2 8 . I38. ZO7. 199. 168 Fjalar I88-189.129. 215 HarbardI94 Harmonia 17. 1 5 9 . 25.5 2 .239.6I. .242 t07 Hero52. of Icarus 35. 4+. 6 5 . 56. r83 Grer185 Grid 192. 3 1 .150.60. 38.3 3 . I 229. Ivaldi. l0L. r+7 Emer I 16. 5 9 Hippolyta +8. 85 Hellawes l5 I Ilmarinen 196.86 llium 84.77.200.+7.30.I09. 215. I89. High King of Ireland I 13.109. 242. 158 Gowein I37.I 3 6 r 3 7 .2t8. i93.26.I 3 6 . r 3 7 . I2+.213 Eioneus 54 Eithlinn I43 Eiri222-223 Eirn 208 Elaine I59 Elarha 109. 219 E r o s2 0 . T 4 Z4 9 .207. 150.t4I.22r. 1 5 9 Flora 19. 218. 2 r 8 I 2t9. 4 4 . r88. 6 t . 17. 6. I39 Fergus Mac Rorh 96. . 2 1 0 . 229.I92 H H a d e s 2 . 188.22t. lsle of Women 106. 3 2 .88. 7 5 . Indra 232. 4 7 . I 4 3 . Hogni 229 HonirI79. 39. 136.l 2 t . 6 5 .127 Elbha lI2. tZ5.1 9 9 . 167. 54. 13l. 163. 5 1 . i 9 2 .198. Ill. 106.4 9+ 8 . 3 0 . Island of 77 Erytheis 52 Ecain96. 128. 231. rzr .r27t29 . r 3 I . 192.45 Graiae 73 Grail.218 Horatius Cocles 31.179. 60 Glaucus 26 Gleipnir 188 Glitnir I89. Kng27 Eremon.1 9 6 . 182.I96. 5 4 . 5 4 . 194 Grendel's morher 183.195. r . Furies 13.229 Fuamnach 150 96. 127. 69.68 Fintan I 12 Finnn. Hypnos 53.i82. 166 Glauce 54. 23L.130.150. I93. 1 3 7 . 5 I . 16. 8 1 . 7 I Hecuba 28. 220. King of Sweden t92 Gymir191.1 3 t .239 G u n n e 1 8 5 . . 8 5 Febal 106 Fedlimid 129 Fenians seeFianna Fennr I75. 1 3 2 . 18. 3 8 . 54 Hlidshalf i9l. 136. i70. 215 Hunding 228 Hvergelmir 250 Hydra29.237. King of Tiryns 48 Eurytion 77 Everes 86 Ewawg 160 Excalibur I00.166. 59 Hati 226 Havgan I05. 232 Hippodameia 26. 2 0 0 . 4 5 .: n o n2 8 . 69 Floralia festival 69 F o g a l ll 1 8 . I29 Ethne 129. 8 3 . 3 . King of Ulster 152 Fadir 2I9 Fafner 237 Fafnir 7. 99 Erymanthian boar 48 Erytheia.l9l.1 6 . 120. 13. King I39.175I78. 6 4 . I97.7 2 . 7 0 . ZII Fauni 42 Faunus 12.2l4 J a r l2 I 9 . 182. 8 5 .3I. 53 Harpies14.1 5 . 48. Il0. 169. 232 Glastonbury l0l.+8. 6 3 . I 4 4 .228. l5l Heroic I t h a c a2 5 . 4 3 . I02. 5 7 .2 I .246 Frigg I78.73.I 4 . 53. 71. l0l.245 Icarius 72 Helen Troy15. 193. Iuchar 109 52 Iucharba I09 Hesperus 63 52. 1 2 81 3 6 . 4 8 . 13I.I9I. III Ethiopia I8 Ethlinn I02. 230.239. 225. 3 0 . 14. I29.222.42 F a u s t u l u sI 7 ./_55 Goil I30. Gullinbursti I96 Gundestrup Cauldron 7 . 124. 3 9 . I 9 2 .

7 0 .142.226.168. Mercury 37.1 6 l Nimue 9+. 57.200. 148. 1 7 .230-23r. 1 2 3 .216 1 2 Otrer179.65. 3 1 . l6I. 6 7 Phobos i9 Oion73.201. Mnemosyne Marduk25I Mochaen I09 2t0-2r r. T7T 5 I . 202.223. I 36.56.1 6 3 OIcgtheViking217 Perunu174.143. r 3 6 . 58. 2 5 . Mundilfari 209. 99 2I8 Lindisfame I7I. 3 4 . . 159 P a s i p h a e2 3 .73. 107.234. 1 2 7 .r 5 0 . 180 Potnmpo 216. 8 7 Polybus. 1 8 .15158.85 255 . Minomur 7. 58 I-adyof the Fountain l. I42 Sir 1 8 0 .57.1 2 7 .154.3 2 .32.r 8 0 . the 206. Nidud.54. 103. t3l. + . 27.5 5 . 1 3 6 . i3I. 109.209.lslef92. I66. 1 9 3 . 7 1 . i06.3+ . I8. 96. l 83 248-219 u 3 . 85. 4 9 .24I Lovers of Zus 20-21 Lucan 168 Luchnr Il7. Phaethon+6.128-129. l 1 6 . Mark.247 Olwen I03. 3 3 . 250. I 8 9 . 11+.200. 49 Magrc enchantment Minerva and 25. I0I. I10.67 . 82 62.71 r5z.t29. Pollux 38.4 6 . 1 8 . 217.16. 1 6 .16. 48. I. 5 5 . 50. 241 L y c o m e d e s1 2 .46.144. 144 89 Narvi 207.30. 82.+4.162. i I 0 I . I2r. 2t5.60.86 Njord 178. 155 Maia49. I89. 14. King 23. l . 1 5 2 I70 wellof 245 Nessus 6. 232. 23.6 1 Mil.l18. Pluto seeHades 216. 62.83 Kreimhild 229 Kullervo 220. Milesians 97. 1 6 9 2I8 Nodens I53 M a n 1 0 . t6l.167 Neptune 10. Morholt Nyx 39. 8 2 . the I79. JokulI87 176. 166 Pellinore. 154 I Pleiades73 t'lur nam 5an I)J Ottar 90.60.216 26. 137. Modred. 2I4.206. 6 3 . 1 8 . PlatoI0.230.246. Penelope 51. 82 Patollo 216. 119.147 Nuada 102. 162.141. . 2II I+3.2I6. t 7 9 .25. I 6 0 . 6l Rrver Pallas 82 P a n 1 .34.176.99.4 4 . 19.75.2I8.l 3 l . I63 2 0 .144.73 N a o i s eI 1 2 . Nemesis 63 Maga 122 102. I 5 6 .202. I4. 97. Oceanids Medusa 26. 50.51. 98-99. 1 9 3 .96. 152 NY)'nkki 230 152.7 0 . I0.85. 2I8 JupiterOptimus Lifthrasir 206. Nudd of the Silver Mopsus 208 Hand I53. 56.I l . 2I0 2 2 7 . 8 2 Laomedon.54 Orestes 25. L7+. 6 6 .31. 113. 16l cnd see Lir Loddfafnir 206 Lodur seeVe Loki I75. ++. Larissa 54. 237. 1 4 0 . Hair 153 2I8. 167. Midir96.244.208. 67 0 1. Mile see Milesius Nemed ll2. 109. Minos. s .I09.210. I J a s o n1 . 153. 163.60 Pelles 159.73.160 knd of homise I09. 6 0 . 160 Notus 26. 2 4 .I34. 2r0.218.6 17 0 7 1 . I 4 9 .2II.I 8 5 .208. n Nemglan I l2-l13. I13.63. i20. r52 Madder-Akka 202. 38. t 5 l nymphs 68 138.63. I68 |erun see Perunu |gmalion 78.66 I:ke Regillus. 100 Sir P e l o p1 0 . Melicenes 53 Muninn 1 8 4 . Perkunas seePerkuno 86 Perkuno 208. 224-225 Macha 102. 1 9 5 . of Milesius I39. S I60.5 I .King ofThebes 33. 82-83.78.23.1 2 0 . 1 6 8 I0I.73 151 P e r s e u IsI .I 6 5 209. 7 1 .73. 66 P o l y p h e m u s6 5 . Lif 206. 56.56 I65 Jasconius Laoghaire II0. 6 0 . l .7 1 . I05. 71. I 5 .156. 57.2t6. 1 8 . I09. 16I. 23. Manawydan I25.152. 14.122. 1 9 6 .52. Latium 50 202.3r.179. I t 7 . 4 2 . 1 2 . 1 2 .2+5. Menglad194 Menu208. .167 Moming Smr 208.r 5 2 . 19. 190 Pnde o[ the Cleanng I6I Procopius 2 I 7 P r o m e t h e u sl Z . 38 s 4 4 . 56.242-243.225. 2i8.87 1 5 9 .I59. Lema 48 60. 4 8 .73 6 7 . I70 65. 5 6 . 228. 246.44. Paphos 78 P a r i 1 2 . of sonsof sse Milesians Nereids 18. Minthe45 1 4 6 . 10. 5 4 . Nestor. i t22.2 6 . 143. 3 0 . 154.208. 7 r . 3 2 .207. 3 1 .223.I 8 8 .237 Merlin9.6 7 . Lars 3l P o s e i d o n7 . Mycenae I5.251 O d u rI 9 0 . 6 1 Orthos77 Orthus 8l Piorun. Modron144. 1 8 .I 4 2 . 136.170 . 2 9 . 182. r53 I84. I. I I 4 .+. Il I04-I05.Z5l 208. 206 zL9.206. 1 9 l . 6 9 . I 2 5 . Muses 63 202.222 Polyhymnra 63 Polynices I8. Laurin 237 235. lsland of 46.28.251 r 4 6 . I 8 3 . 74.202. r52. MaghTuireadh.66 156. 7. l 1 9 . 142. r I46. I 2 6 .190.7 8 .75.21. r r 2 . 1 3 . Nidhogg 2I0. 218 Lir 109.I09. 3 4 .66. Perkonis. Julius Leodegraunce.r 7 9 .45.1 5 . 67.I48. 153. King of Macedon and 40-41 39 Philyra 29.72. 6 1 .48. Is 2 6 . 136 L u c r e t i a2 7 . 6 0 .24t. 196. 7 3 .71.62. 8 5 . 2 6 . 22. 1 98. t12-L+3. Perkons. Nidavellir 202 Man. 2I0. 73.86 1 z+7.22L Kumarbi43 Kvasir 188-189.12.6 2 . 159.I 2 9 .38.60. 201.79 I 1 6 . 2 3 9 i5l.24r 2I Judaism 7 Lemnos. 8 2 . 6 6 . 2 + 6 . I 7 I Nanna I82.6 0 .82-83 Nibelungs 205. 68. 7 5 .208. 1 2 . 94. 7 3 . I2l. Battleof 38. I43. King of Troy 18.t 9 8 .lI4. 7 4 . 33. 122. 8 6 Peibaea 72 O e d i p uIs. 37.88 74.1 3 . I-andof Shadows It6.L + 5 . Phaeacians 65 I58. 88 9 9. High King 13I.166.73.245. I3.INorx landvaettir L86 208.74 PeleusKingof Phthia . 2 1 6 . Jupiter 33. Nemain I02.22.25r I53 Maeldun 104.200.7 5 . 1 4 6 .202. 208. 4 J . Niebelungenlied2L2. I 5 3 . 50. 1 2 5 . 2 2 5 .232. I 4 3 .25 UlsrcrI i8 1 7 5 .83. I. Myesyar 26. Polydectes 73 l7I Polydegmon see Hades P Pactolus. 6 1 . Melpomene 63 Munster I20 1 9 4 .22.153 150I5t.17. I 5 4 .176. Ogham 154 Ogma28. MuriasI70 I 62-63. 234. 138.2r2 65. 68.202. 2t7 P n a mI 4 .209. O d i n7 . 7 3 . 2 2 .r 5 t .214-2t5.l0l. I84. 4 6 . Queeno[ Melanion 24. 77. Niamh 153. King of Comwall 225 .146. Oenomaus.22. 211. Pericles 84 l 5 6 .216-217.2r2.233 Niflheim 202. Phaea 82 114. 7 5 .94.221-225. Penthesilea I7 2 + 5 . 5 5 . L25. 2 3 2 . 84 220.38. 13.88 Lugaide Mac Con 99 Lugh 7. 45. I53 MorfanI l2 Medb. 7 t . 2L3.209. I95.207 .82 otherworlds 92. 20I.I+4.t 3 9 . I89.216. 198. Mjollnir 250. 7 t . n9. King of Alba C o n n a c h t2 .71 second Baule I02. 158.+.43.233 3 4 . Leinster 14+. 2 4 0 .7 8 . l5l. 2+6 Modgud198 I 0 8 .1 8 5 . I52. 137. King of $los 64 t24-125 62 Niam of rhe Golden Magni 208.r 3 I . 2 3 .20+.236. 4 8 .2 I 1 . Narcissus 63.217 P a t r o c l u s . Orpheus +9.8 3 . 1 4 9I.23.85 Muspell226. 5 0 . l Z 9 . l Corinth 56. 203.73. 6 1 . I t42 Laenes 61. Longa 17.I I l . I88. 24 z+5.1 2 8 . 7 2 . 246.seePerunu Pittheus.166 57. l5 Norse Heroes 204-205 9 9 . r N I 5 0 .162. P e r e d u rI 3 9 .1. I80. 7 6 .5 4 . 19. I 5 7 .1 7 8 . 29. 7 1 . 7 9 . 102. 231 .180.129.232.153 r52 Mac Cecht I44 Metis 13.L46 o 2 2 .86. 206.72. 1 9 . 71. 12. Lavinia I5.+0.163. 2rr.77 rndeDe ) / 27 Orithy'a P h o e n i c i a1 4 . 5 0 .I I 1 . Monigan 102. I 2 9 . 63 Mac DaTho I16.I 2 I . + 71 4 8 . Miletus79 Nereus 86 I 2 9 .239.7r. 206-207 . I52.72. 1 4 6 . I00.l+4 maenads 67. 5 6 . t 1 1 2 . 28. I50 Nemean lion 48. 180. Kingof EIis 7t.153 of I52.3L.207 . Jukakka 207 249 Caesar 24. 1 9 . 136. 46.l l I .lll. 250 Manannan Lir 96. 102II2. King t5. Lavinium 24 of Joseph tuimathea Leander 52 100.3 I .+ 6 . 5 6 . Laufey I88. 6 1 .79 Leshy.Queenof Le Morgan Fayl0l.I 8 8 .43. 7 9 . 1 1 4 . Moerae Fates sec of Ireland 107. 225. 1 3 9 . t97. Noatun 2I I 1 4 6 .I 4 0 . 69 I 0 9 .I 8 5 .70 19. 150 Marathon. Oceanos 11.2+8 London 100.2I9 202 Scotland I0I Jumala leprechauns 143 J u n o1 4 . 12I. 4 5 .222. 67.3 8 .170 Lugus 144 Luned t. 6 5 . I9I. 71. I I 5 .204. 45.209. r44. Jotunheim Leib-Olmai 203 t9I. 4 9 . 4 2 .217. 40.+I Ladyof the l-ake100.I I6.2+5. I58. ]67 o[ Midgard I79. Modir219 '55. 8 I . l6I Llyr I07. 9 3 . 89. 1 3 7 . t 2 I . 216.26. 73. 203. 1 7 4 . 6 2 . 5 0 . 159.1 7 .10. 3 7 .72 65 laestrygones Laius. 63. 69 143. 30.250 Math. 12 61. l18. 4 5 .200. 7 5 Proteus.67 39 Phosphorus 63 Orthnit236 P h r y g i a4 3 . Phaedra .86. Krng of O w a i n2 I .I70 7 Mount 19.62. 33. 229. 48. KingI3 Pandora 70.168 P s y c h e3 3 . Battles 127. 1 6 4t. 15 Polydeuces 22.86 96. 2 6 .158 see Matholwch. I52. 233 Jamsaxa Laocoon 56. 2 .46.92.1 6 6 Jormungand Latinus.6 1 .73 24 Philemon 56 Ophiuchus Oracles Prophecres Philip.72. 237 .77. 2 8 . t5I. 122. 1 4 6 .64. 70.65.237 MaimedKingsee Pelles 6.239.96. I53. 16. 63.2r5. 3 2 . I26. M Ma Greine I28 Mabinoglon 16l Mabon 144. Kng 26 Pryden137.Kingof Gwynedd 137. 139. 2 5 . 7 T Peneius J+. 240. I52. 2 5 . 1 9 . l5l Nuada o[ the Silver Mongan 117 Monsters Savage and Hand I53 MathonwvI23 58-59 Nudd 123 Beasts 4I Mad Syrabmlya2oe. 8 2 Morpheus Oath Ring236 92.79. 2r8.79. r 5 . +2. 2 3 .+1.178. I02. t 4 1 . Medea 13. ll. I2l.81. 5 I .I 1 9 . Madder-Atcha 207 198.60. 25.15455. Myrtilus 7I .89 Meitikki 230 Mughain. 238.218. Mess Buachalla12. 18I.152.7r 222 P e r s e p h o n eI 6 .209. I43.r r 7 . 7 5 Pwyll 97.180 Jocasta 33. IIl. t I. 06.I 4 3 . Maximus 56 K K a i1 0 3 .22.82 lamfhada seeLugh Sir I-ancelot.75. King7. 1 0 6 l.235. 1 5 45 5 .235.2t6 Podarge 88 O u r a n o1 9 . 1 9 2 . r40. 8 I s Nechnn I06. 1 9 . 2 2 . 156. 6 0 .1 4 6 .65.2 1 9 KiedKieJubmel202 Kipu-Tytto238 Klotho2I I Knightof the Kestrel L+9 Knossos 23. 8 6 .206. 1 6 . 7 0 . + 6 . II2.239 I I I . Modi208. Miach109. I19. I98 Merope 34. r 2 0 .89 Pelias. 98. 16.1 3 5 . 69 Medus 60. I 9 7 . Nennius I00 fint Battle I09. King of Sweden r 0 2 . 2 8t Pandion. 4 2 . 206. 2 3 0 . 6 6 . 238.100.206 I4.50. 7 7 .58. King of I03. Sir I88.147.167 knd of Wonder 99. 8 3 .25. I29.1 5 . 37. 20r . .208Mani218 209. 1 1 7 . 6 6 .1 7 Penrheus 1. s 7L . 1 8 .I 9 l .209. 2 8 .6 0 .240. r79.86 Pax60 P e g a s u8 .250 N e s s aI 1 6 .I 3 5 .6 2 . l I 1 2 . 2 0 I . 1 7 . I 8 2 .251 93. 6 0 . 137. 92.226.196. t. 1 3 8 . I 5 I . 1 . 8 6 . I 9 . 5 7 . 3 8 4 1 . 1 3 4 . 2 5 . 1 3 5 .54. ir I34. Nenhus2I0.24+ bull of 13. + . Noms. 7 0 . Curse I19. 160. 9 6 .144 Llud see Nudd Lludd LIaw Ereint I37 Llwyd la6.82 13.207 I 8 4 . 4 9 . 9 i l 4 .92. 49 1 4 4 . 1 8 . 7. 42 1 8 0 . 160. I39.1 5 4 r 9 8 l . Leda32.2I0.l 3 i .3 0 .1 9 4 . Numitor.207.26.1 9 5 . 160-16t. 1 8 l . 5 0 . 16. 68.16l 6 + . 203 L labdacus56 Labynnth 13. 223 o 53 3 I . 235 .1 0 6 . 2r. t99.I 9 6 . l MistCalf200.53. I .8 I Last Supper.77 Porsenna.57.82. 150 I-aeg Il.88. I 4 l . 2 2 8 Percival. I44.25. L63 2 0 9 . 6 2 . 8 5 Pamassus 58 Partholon 159.165 98.2+4. 3 1 I t 4 . 250 220. the 93.55. 7 4 . Phleyas 54 3 8 . 3 9 . 2Il kdon 52. t67 Odysseus I2. I+1 Lopt sec Loh Lothus see Ve Lotophagi 65 Louhi 221. 12.237 r 5 5 .72. Mac 6 2 . 7 5 .83 l:cedaemon 84 Lachesis 41.1 4 2 . I30. 3 1 . 39. 1 3 9 Kalevala 24I I Q r l 2 l 9 .207 . 53 L + + . I05. Mimir I99. 116 Liriope 63 Llaser 133 LIeu 99. 6 I . 198. 2. MeliotI I5 215 1 9 0 . 4 5 .248. 6 2 . Olympus.206.153.222223. 2 3 12 3 2 . 7 3 .37.86.32. 2 0 I . I6. Leto i9. Neoptolemus l7 I 2 2 . 6 0 . Leminkainen 203. 8 9r 6 8 . I. 1 9 2 . 2ll. 1 3 3 .85. 215.7 1 . 6 I . 159 Luonnohr 207.217 . Mokkuralfi Mist Calf 170.72 240.1 5 5 . 64. 15.38.3 7 .L53 Nature spiris 186-187 r52 M i d a6 1 .205. Oisin I04.1 2 7 .209 Meliagaunt.r44I54.57 5 6 . l 0 I . 7 t . Nineve 150 Batde 70 of 233. Menelaus I9. King of Oscar I59 Osins 183 Troezen 13. 142.+ 2 .76. 1 6 .55.246 Pnapus 49. 6+-65.

2+3 Valkyries I85.23+. 76 Tammuz I83 Tanngnost 230. 7 6 . 2 3 I . r93. 8 3 . 8 5 . 225 85 R o n a nl I . 159. 163 S k u l2 l I .1 4 .+6. 184.235 163.2+8. 2 l r .I85.i 8 8 . +1 5 3 .218. 1 7 4 . 88 3 . 6 3 .205.72.3I. I88.2+8 .88 ktes22. 65.r 6 r . 224.2+8.1 9 3 .56 10. r 9 1 . 8 7 .212. 8 I .213.225.25r Ymir18I. l7l Usna152 Utgard201. I46. 163.sonof Vespasian 85 Tiw 239 Tory Island102.220.2 1 8 . 3 7 .5 8 . 104.2L5. Ra81 satyrs 58. 7 3 . 50 Virginia 88.7 0 .189. II7. 8 6 .85 T r o yl l . 2 + 3 . Sisyphus 54.222. 67. 1 0l. Sphinx 56. 205. 8 8 . 63 Thanatos 79. I50 Storyunka 202 Strymo 75 Sturluson. 9 4 .200.79.169.56.208.I 8 0 TuachellI 18 96. l9l. 8 0 . .202. I 5 3 . r02.38:. 2 3 9 . 87 s TaurusI5 Taygere 73 Teimon I6I. Trojan r7. 6 5 .179. 167. 2 1 1 .232.239 Tyre37. 2 1 8 . Saule 208.168. Scathach I 19. r68 226-227 Surr . 214.50. 43. 2 + 4 . 8 8 . 2 8 . 215.6 2 . 1 7 1 119. 1 6 3 l Silenus . 53 I59 Rhadamanthys 39. 8I Skrymir 201. 8 6 . 48.218 I48-I49 Rosterus 184 Single combat RoundTable.Scotland 92. of 22+. 166.220.1 5 7 .134. I19.215.7 9 . 226.52.248 Romulus .Knighrcof Sinis 83 the 94. 52.32.1.78.227 Svarog I88 Svaroz 227 Svanalfheim 202 Sviagriss 236 Svipdrag I94 Swift.136I39. l7f Voyagers 50-5I Vulcan 46. 4 6 . 6 9 .192. 1 L43. r32.1. 241.5+.250 Regin 175.28.227. 8 1 . 238.198. Ulster 96.24r. 7 8 . Ruadh163. 5 6 .20-2r. 3 8 .167 Suibhne Geilr. 9 7 .2t2.6 3 . l0l.228 Ringsof power I79.206.23r.26. 166.239 TuireannI09. 14. 226 Svalin I86 Svantovit 227.71 Tapio 230. 87 T y r1 7 8 . Spana x X a n t h u1 3 .2+0 I00. 67.6 6 . I2I. Yspaddaden I58.79.34. 200-20r.215. 8 .198.86 Sualtam Mac Roth I I8. 18l.22L. 168. 207. r63. I2.22.34.199.208.+3.2+8 VokungSaga2I2 Volsungs 205 Volumnia 32. 19.221. 6 7 5 .218.88 Virginius 88 Viviane150 MadimirofKiev174. Thyone2I Tiamat 25I Tiber. 203. 213.202.t I 0 . 65. 8l 53. 3 2 . Thessaly 16. 82 T a r t a r u s5 + . I66. f78.129. t l0 St Patrick 92. 14.226. 5 I . 8 2 .2+0 Thiassi 196.79 Quirinus 79 S a t a4 5 .238 236-237. 7 1 .t 5 4 .209. l0r. 17. 6 3 . 65 32.250 85 Vespasian Vesu 88 Vidar178. 138t39.8r StBlasius 247 St Boniface 251 St Bride I I0. 222-223. 63. l l 2 . 230.250.249 256 .217 VrgridPlain175.87.I35. 147 oJ Ukter. 3 2 . 5 0 .133. l l 4 . l7l Uaithne U a t h9 2 . 209. 2r+.69 Thrall2l9.206.+3.86. I 17. of Brutus son 27 Irbemus/u Tinugel Casde i00 Tiresias 33. Shining I68 Shiva 2I5 RhineMaidens 176. 67.226. 1 8 9 . 8 5 . ll9. 238.226. 8 6 . 2 82 8 .8. 6 2 .201. 5 + . Island 12.82. 7 5 . 1 9 6 .25r Yecha222 V e l e s7 4 . 2+2. 2 0 0 .204.84. 216-217.39 Terpsichore 63 Tethys63 Teucer I5 Teumtes 168 Thalia. s i f r 7 8 .140. 1 5 9r.2 1 8 . 13. l 1 5 .230-23r Ruadan163 Shidbladnir I97.80. 217.239. 16.25. Z + 2 . 176.78.8 4 . l5'+. 7 4 . 230.248. I Scota I67 226. S i b y1 a . 32.2LL I 2 8 . 1 5 0l .River 12. TuathaDe Danann 97.194. +6.227 Svarazic 188. I78.19.8r.169 TeirtuI58 Telamon 15 Telemachus 32. r99. 3 9 .200. t 7 l Uu222 V Vafthrudnir 240. 8 6 Sacred Bandof 39 Theia38 Theseus 7. I00.4 1 .2r5. 6 2 .215.64 Urania63 U r d2 I 1 . 1 9 . 224-225. 211 S p a r tIa . Samos 47 Sorcerers spells and 220-221 Sampo. foundadon I'1.37. 2 0 I .230.224 Remus . 215. I 2 9 . 100 Sarpedon 39. 33.202. r 8 7 . 88.River 17.170. 29. 7. UtherPendragon 1 1 5 0 . 25.I 7 l .150.208-209.12 Volund 196 and see Wayland Volund's House 249 Volupms 33 Vonigem I7I.166.231. 23t.8 9 .6+.222.85. 88 2 v e r d a n d il l .87 Tithonus39 Titus. I6. 4 6 . 9 2 .I 1 2 n R Satum 42. 8 9 s Y 174. 58. 2 4 7 I Venus 18. 2 r 8 .43. 15. 142.2 I 9 . 7 5 . I38.198. 240. 163 222 Rusalki. 8 4 .26.49 S n o 2 I 9 .75.2'23. I18. I I I. 6 0 229. 136. 6.39. 6 2 .228. 1 4 . 8 1 . I79.5 t .23r T h o k kI 8 3 .78. Il3.t0.50.246.87.197.2+6. 209.I 6 3 .3+. Zephyrus 69.2r9.122. 2 0 9 . 18.2 0 8 . 2 4 . 168 Stheneboea 26 Stheno 44 Stonehenge ll4. 58. 7. 2 I 8 . 8r 6 3 4.223.2 . 17 Sigurd Ring228.75.I9'+. . 5 7 .78.230. l8'+. 238 I84 Thrudgelmir ThrymI85.8 3 .23.8l 61 Rosliva Sindn236 201. 138. Trold Tindteme187 Tros43. 168 T a r p e i a8 I .226.243. 5 1 . Yggdrasil 195.2 1 9 r Samhain.64. 2+7. Rhiannon Shakespeare. l l l . r71.+ 0 .216.202. 3 9 . 85 U I7l.2+r. 82.215.rka 207 QuestingBeast. 250 UrienI59. 15. 7817 Selene 39.r 8 0 Titans 33. 2+7. Snoni 175. 9 2 .2r5.237. 2 3 1 Thomasthe Rhymer t04 Thoosa 74 T h o r7 .79.7 9 .231 Sinfiotli 223.2l9 ThrudI78.79. 249 Wolfdietrich 236. I60. 6 0 .60-6r. . 66.1 8 .250. r98.1.167. I Sirens 58.2r3.rhe 222.sonof Brutus27 Titus.2+9 Vali I8'1.r 9 3 .2r2. 6 + . 2 9 . 2 r 0 .85. t93. 73 I90 Sessrumnir 87. 8 08 0 . 1 2 . 196.37. t51 Taranis 168. 6 8 .14.60. 8 9 .INoex r32.98. 230.88 Tiberius.180.4 7 .1 9 7 . I70 see Sol(Classical) Helios Sol(Norse) 2I8 Samildanach see Lugh 186.70. 85.208. 2 I 9 Siegfried Sigurd see Rind I84. 237.225.2+5.43. 2lr. 52. 246. l l 2 . 100.237 Wooden Horse II.2r3.130.152.l8l.202.88. 45. . 2+6 Vanir178. l. r70. 5 66 0 .86 Tiryns16. $thagoras 154 $thon 19.238 swanof 203 Tumus 87 Tuulikki 230 Twrch Trwyth l4'+.226. 17.1 3 . 239.2I I. 3 7 . 1 5 7 . 46.1 0 9 . 183.49. 2 2 0 6 . I01 219. 8l 178.215 Suttung 188-I89 Svadilfari 180. 170 z 19. Scamander. L67. r 8 6 . Sieglinde 228 243 Siegmund 213. 44.239. 78.127. 7 6 . 1 2 7 .82 Tarquinius Superbus 27. 4 2 .15. 188. Thebes 28. 7 5 . 2 1 5 .7+. 8I 1 4 2 .I39.218.5 0 .144. 33.222. 7l 2 t 3 . 242-243. 246 Stymphalian birds 48 Sryx.70-7r.26.2r5. l7l Talos 39. 5 3 . t87.23L. l Sigmund Volsung the I 2 8 . Thialli 20I. I2.t 9 l .25r Vingir 232 VirgrlII.Jonathan I39 Sychaeus 85 T Tacitus 2I0 Tailtu I68 T a l i e s i nI 1 2 . 89 8 . 5 5 .24L Vainamoinen 203.2+6. 7 7 . 176.I 7 0 .81 S a n g r e a l9 3 .248 Rome 4.125. r 205. 59. t 9 1 . 19.2r0.246 ThorkillI92 Thorstein I97 Thrace +8. 222.30.1 5 .206. I. 33.1 6 . f08. 4 8 .202.37. 4 5 . 20.+2.22. 231. 17. 230.235. t97 . r69 Triton 74 War 10.152. of 83 Ratatosk 210. 133. Annals I75 Ulpses. 220. 1 9 3 . I8.85 Semele 21. 168. 5 3 5 6 . 234. of Rhea 33. Sigyn 207. r80.36.8I. Ragnarok I75. l 5 l . 5 0 . 1 7 5 .+ 6 .27 7 : u s 7 .215.6 0 .48.227 Salmacis 49.202. 1 9 . 239. Riesengebirge 187 5 0 . 3 Sigurd 175. r 5 6 . 1 3 t . Searbhan 7.l9l.210.1 5 . 8 6 8 6 .235.232-235. I8I.232235. r22. l0l. King 92. the 2.22t.22r. 2 + O .207. r88. 202. 162. 239. 2r8.225. 201.8I.169 o the Saral.241 Valhalla I75. I I l .1 7 + .243. r52. 222.r39. 168. 17. 65 32.206. 1 2 .150. + 5 .l . 1 4 . I35. 89 Rhea 17. 188. 2 4 7 .20+.36. 211.19.167 2+5.47.236 Roc I29 Siggeir 205. 1 7 0 l(ng of Tyndareos. 7 2 .+.2+8 R o m a nIs 0 .t 2 8 . 176. + 9 .236. Il. 170 Tuonela238 Tuonetar238 Tuoni238. 2 r 5 . 33. 207.6 .223. r06. 5 46. 2 I l . 204.79 33. 15.1 9 4 .28.31. 5I. 223 River75 r99.226 Sabine women 79.3I. 2 r 7 .24. 113 Treasures mlismans and t96-197 Triglav238 Triptolemus 36 TrisranI08.5 8 .225. 2 3 9 . Sestos 52 Silvia 79 Setanta Cuchulainn see William I24.210. . 60. 136. 207. r 0 9 . I29. 2 4 2 . Seriphos. 5 8 . 82. 5 2 . 5 1 . 6 5 .23.87. 2 1 . I 2 0 .209.229 7 8 .247. 1 8 8 . 36.226.+6. 5 1 . 26. 187 Scyros. 6 8 .34. 232 Tanngrisnir 230. 188.2r8. 63 38. 207. 238.27. 8 8 . 200. 4 r .228.8 4 . 240.180. 2 1 6 .2+2. 9. 79.29.222.7 r . I 7 I .60.88 w Waveof CliodhnaI 13 Wayland 183. 45.167 Seige Perilous I34 200. 39.2+7 Vlkodlak2'18 VolossccVeles Volsci32 Volsung 223. 2 r 8 . + 2 3 . 1 9 5 . 60. 8 7 R i gI 9 5 . feast of 98. r05. 250-251.216. 5 8 .200.230.238 Thyestes I5. 7 9 .250 wellof 184.66.248-249. Sinon56 Il4.10. 6 7 . 185. 5 4 9 .58 64 Tphon 28. Mane186 162. 40.5 I .229. 2 7 . 109.86. L19. 8 2 . 2t8. 2 r 5 .65 Telephassa 28.218 vili 178. r I 1 9 0 .2+8. 38. 5 9 Thesdus. 3 1 . r22. d 250 Sages and Seers I 14II5 Sleipnir 182. 230 Tara 96. Kingof Aetolia 56 Thetis 13.184. 7 3 .223.239.185.61. I29. Sadb I2.1 Signy 223. I 5 2 . 163.38. Skadi 2lO.167.2+6.229 Skoll 226.126. 65. 97. 98.t7I Uathach Ukko 202 207 UksaLka 92.230. r05.2I. 2 222-223.27.25. 7 + . + . 232 Tantalus 54. 48. 248 Scylla 58. r 5 6 . 1 4 6 . 190.57. 8 0 l 14. 2+.38. r55 St Ronan 92. 166 225. r29.9 .25r I20.85 Woundrous Cauldrons r32-I33 Wyrd 21 1 and see Urd 66. 7 8 .200.r 9 6 . r 0 . 7 9 . 225. 235. 4 6 . 190.87. 2+6 Ve I78. 89 57. + 3 8 . t8'+.208. 1.3I.+1. 2+9 Vanaheim I80. I79.I 9 2 . 7 0 .28.222 ShmirI9l.238.237 Sicily 15. 8 l Tarpeius.79 Sera Island 21.28.237. Spurius 8I Tarquinia 27 Tarquinius Collatinus 60 Tarquinius Sextus 60. L39. 4 5 . 8 5 . 8 r . 232. 9 . 7 3 . 76. RanI78.

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