Atharvavedins in Tantric Territory ¯˙ The Angirasakalpa Texts of the Oriya Paippal¯ dins and their a Connection with the

Trika and the K¯ l¯kula aı
¯ ¯ With critical editions of the Parajapavidhi, the Paramantravidhi, ¯ ı and the *Bhadrakal¯mantravidhiprakarana . Alexis Sanderson

¯ Introduction: The Rise of Agamic Ritual
´ The early medieval period, from the fifth century onwards, saw the Saivism of the Mantram¯ rga rise to pre-eminence as the principal beneficiary of patronage a throughout the Indian subcontinent and in much of Southeast Asia. Among the religious specialists whom we would expect to have been adversely affected by this development were those brahmins, Atharvavedins or adherents of other Vedas versed in the rituals of the Atharvaveda, who had long been appointed to office as the personal priests of rulers (r¯ japurohitah), performing their consea . cration ceremonies (r¯ jy¯ bhisekah and pusy¯ bhisekah) and a wide range of rituals, a a . . a . . . regular and occasional, for the protection of the kingdom and the thwarting of its enemies.1 It is not possible to establish from the evidence known to me how far this of´ fice was overshadowed or diminished by the rise of Saivism in particular king´ doms and periods. But encroachment by Saiva officiants into ritual territory long reserved to it is clear from the literature that sets out the rituals that they ´ should or may perform when occasion arises. The Saivas prescribed their own form of royal consecration ceremony, to be performed by their officiants for a ´ king who had received Saiva initiation; they offered a full range of apotropaic, ´a ´ protective, and hostile rituals, both Saiddh¯ ntika and S¯ kta Saiva, for which a kings were the natural patrons; and they had in the Netratantra detailed instructions for a class of officiants whose practice shadowed or took over most of the functions in which the brahmanical r¯ japurohitah operated, including the pera . formance on the king’s behalf of his daily and periodic worship. The Netratantra, I have argued, is a Kashmirian work, and there is no evidence that it was followed widely outside Kashmir itself. It is possible, therefore, that it had little or no impact on the practice of courts in other regions.2 ´ Moreover, while the practice of giving Saiva initiation to kings is well and widely documented from the seventh century onwards, that of following this
1 On 2 On

the question of the Veda of the king’s personal priest see nn. 28 and 29 on p. 204 below. the function, provenance, date, and influence of the Netratantra see S ANDERSON 2005b.



´ ceremony with a Saiva adaptation of the brahmanical royal consecration is evidenced only in prescriptive sources, namely in the tenth-century Naimittikakarm¯ nusamdh¯ na of Brahma´ ambhu (the earliest surviving Paddhati of the a s . a ´ Saiva Mantram¯ rga) and the Kashmirian Kal¯ d¯ksapaddhati, a work originally a a ı .¯ composed by Manodadatta in the fourteenth century but in its present form much expanded by later additions of uncertain date, of which that pertaining to the post-initiatory royal consecration is one.3 However, the abundance of ´ instruction in the Saiva literature in the performance of rituals of propitiation to bring about results (siddhih), hostile and other, for the benefit of kings and . the state, the emergence among the Vaisnavas during these same centuries of .. ¯ ˜ a an extensive Agamic literature, in the form of the Pancar¯ tra scriptures, which offered a repertoire of rituals very similar in style, range, and function to those ´ of the Saiva Mantram¯ rga, and the pervasive evidence of a decline during this a period in the sponsoring of Vedic ritual and a corresponding increase in the patronage of the new religions encourage us to look within the literature of the Atharvavedins themselves for evidence of adaptation to these changes.

The Atharvavedapari´ istas s ..
There can have been no realistic hope of reversing the drift of centuries away from Vedic ritual.4 We may surmise, therefore, that the Atharvavedins’ only viable strategy was to respond to the altered expectations of their royal clients ´ by adding Saiva and Vaisnava rituals to their repertoire, composing or appro.. priating texts that prescribe them and adding these to the corpus of their sacred literature.5 ´ Evidence of the co-opting and embedding of Saiva practice by the Atharvavedins is already present in the collection of ancillary tracts known as Atharvavedapari´is. as. For they include an adaptation of the P¯ supata obsers .t a´ vance (Pari´is. a 40: P¯ supatavrata), and the Ucchusmakalpa (Pari´is. a 36), which s .t a´ s .t . details fire sacrifices for supernatural ends that invoke Ucchusmarudra and . ´ the Ucchusmarudras with Mantras of a Saiva character.6 But there the phe. ´ nomenon is marginal and the Saivism involved is either pre-Mantram¯ rgic, as a
´ textual and epigraphical evidence of the giving of Saiva initiation to kings and on the ´ textual evidence of Saiva royal consecration see S ANDERSON forthcoming. 4 The futility of the Vaidikas’ hope for a renaissance of their tradition that would enable them ´ to prevail over the Saivas and P¯ ncar¯ trika Vaisnavas supported by the court is deftly portrayed a˜ a .. by the Kashmirian philosopher Jayantabhatta around the end of the ninth century in the prelude .. ¯ to the fourth act of his play Agamadambara (‘Much Ado About Religion’). . 5 Compare the incorporation of prescriptions of Saiddh¯ ntika, Daksina, and S¯ kta rituals in ´a a . . the Uttarabh¯ ga of the Lingapur¯ na discussed in S ANDERSON 2005b, p. 235, n. 10. a ˙ a. 6 See B ISSCHOP and G RIFFITHS 2003 for an introduction to and an edition and annotated translation of Pari´is. a 40 on the p¯ supatavratam. Rightly judging as exaggerated the view of s .t a´ W EBER (1858, p. 339) that the whole collection is permeated by sectarian devotion to Rudra, they
3 For



in the case of the P¯ supata observance, or probably so, as in the case of the a´ Ucchusmarudra rites. Ucchusma, ‘Desiccating [Fire]’, was well-established in . . the early Buddhist Mantranaya as a wrathful subduer of demons,7 and, more specifically, as the deity invoked to remove the impurity of left-overs (ucchis. am) .t 8 In the Saiva Mantram¯ rga the as´ and human waste by devouring them. a
list the Ucchusmakalpa and the text on the kotihomah (Pari´is. a 31) as the only other documents s .t . . . ´ in the collection that bear on the cult of Rudra-Siva (p. 317). I have omitted the latter since its ´ Saiva character is limited to the frame-story of the revelation of this ritual. The ritual itself has ´ no specifically Raudra or Saiva characteristics. 7 We see Ucchusma in this role in the Buddhist Mah¯ balasutra, where he is identical with the a ¯ . wrathful, four-armed, fat-bellied (lambodara) deity Mah¯ bala. This text was translated into Tia ´ı betan by S¯lendrabodhi, Jinamitra, and Ye shes sde around AD 800, and into Chinese in AD 983 ¯ (Taisho 1243, KBC 1097; see L ANCASTER 1979, p. 377a, giving AD 933; L INROTHE 1999, p. 60, note 6, correcting the date), and numerous copies of this scripture, in both languages, have been found in the Dunhuang caves (S TRICKMANN 2002, p. 156). In §18 of that work Vajrap¯ ni teaches a. ¯ a Bhut¯ dhipati the Mandala of Ucchusmakrodha with its secret. The latter is the Mantra that fol.. . ¯ lows: OM VAJRAKRODHA MAH ABALA HANA DAHA PACA . . . LAMBODARA UCCHUS MAKRODHA . . ¯ . ˙ ¯ ¯ H UM PHAT A AM MA HA N SV AH A . He then teaches that anyone who enters this Mandala will . . .. attain success in all he does. He will not suffer untimely death. His body will be immune to assaults and sickness. He will never be tormented by demons. In §13 the Mantrapadas OM . ¯ ¯ . VAJRAKRODHA MAH ABALA DAHA HANA PACA . . . LAMBODARA UCCHUS MAKRODHA H UM . ¯ ¯ PHAT SV AH A are said to protect against every species of demon. In §12 a ray emerges from . ´ akyamuni and M¯ ra comes with all his demon hordes. Ucchusma appears and terrifies them. S¯ a . Three texts of the exorcistic Ucchusma cult in Chinese are attributed to the translator A zhi . da san (Ajitasena), a North Indian who worked in Anxi in the Turfan region of Central Asia ¯ in the first half of the eighth century: the Wei ji jin gang jin bai bian fa jing (KBC 1264, Taisho ¯ 1229), the Wei ji jin gang shuo shen tong da man tuo la ni fa shu ling yao men (KBC 1265, Taisho ¯ 1228), and the Da wei li wu chu se mo ming wang jing (KBC 1266, Taisho 1227). For the exorcistic and therapeutic contents of the first and third of these see S TRICKMANN 2002, pp. 156–161. ´ The three ‘translations’ were presented in AD 732 (L ANCASTER 1979, p. 421b; D EMI E VILLE et al. 1978, p. 236a [s.v. Ashitsudassan]). L INROTHE (1999, pp. 51–54) proposes with due caution that Mah¯ bala/Ucchusma may be the identity of the two four-armed wrathful figures, squat and a . full-bellied, that attend two sculptures, one of Avalokite´ vara and the other of Vajrap¯ ni, that s a. flank the entrance porch of Monastery I at Ratnagiri in Orissa, assigning them to the period AD 600–700. 8 For the latter role see, e.g., S TEIN 1973, pp. 465–466; Samvarodaya 8.38cd: utsrstabali samh¯ rya . .. . a ˚ bhutam ucchusma d¯ payet; and, in the Esoteric Buddhism of the Far East, S TRICKMANN 1996, ¯ a . pp. 248–249; 2002, pp. 156–63. There he is known in Chinese as Wei ji jin gang and in Japanese ¯ as Eshaku kongo, meaning ‘the Vajra-being (jin gang, kong¯ ) of Impure (wei, e) Traces (ji, shaku)’ o ¯ ¯ or ‘the Vajra-being of Impure (wei, e) Accumulations (shaku)’ and in Japan also as Fujo kongo (‘the Vajra-being [kong¯ ] of Impurities [fuj¯ ]’), Joe-funnuson (‘the venerable [son] wrathful one o o ¯¯ [funnu] who purifies [jo] impurities [e]’), and Ususama Myoo (Ucchusmavidy¯ r¯ ja) (F RANK aa . 1991, p. 158). In Japan he became the deity whose presence purifies latrines (S TRICKMANN 2002, p. 156). See also the Mantra in Mah¯ balasutra §14, in which he is commanded to ‘stop all a ¯ impurities’, and the account of the subjection of Rudra/Mahe´ vara in the 15th chapter of the Tis betan Rnying ma pa Mah¯ yogatantra Gsang ba’i snying po, in which Heruka devours Mahe´ vara a s and excretes him in the form of an ocean of filth which Ucchusma then swallows (S TEIN 1974, . p. 511). A version of the Pa dma thang yig, the Bka’ thang gser phreng of Sangs rgyas gling pa composed in 1341 or 1389 (S TEIN 1995, p. 124), relates that Ucchusma was rewarded after the . subjection of Rudra by being given a place at the edge of the Mandala as the receiver of the ..

for their offence [against the Veda] had been less. the Vaisnava Var¯ hapur¯ na declares that those who follow the ima a. Know that whatever [teaching] comes into being that is other than [this] path of the Veda is the Raudra. . . .¯ . we are told. yasya n¯ gasya tath¯ s a ¯ ı a ¯ ı a a ucchusmarudrayoh | ucchusmeti pur¯ khy¯ t¯ ayas¯ harmam¯ lin¯ | cand¯sam pujayant¯ha nirm¯ lyapatane ı aa¯ ı a ı ı a .’s 52cd) ı a.´ a . a. which makes Ucchusmarudra preside in a city of iron that s a . 466). . a lowed it. . tantram ucchusmasambhavam). a meditation [have been revealed]. . repeating Ed. in order to remove the danger they pose.255): rakt¯ kar¯ l¯ candakhy¯ mahocchusm¯ tathaiva ca | ucchusmatantre a aı . ¯ gat¯ h. ¯ .¯ . a´ . O brahmins. .) | 54 a.. a . a a a a. f.): 50 evam abhyarthitas tais tu pur¯ ham dvijasattam¯ h | vedaa. .42 [R]. offered in Saiddh¯ ntika worship. has an extra line. . .2. the Ni´v¯ saguhya. s . a 10 This is probaare to be seen as Ucchusmarudras (ucchusmarudr¯ s te jney¯ h). It is in the Nihsv¯ sasamhit¯ . . . . ı a a s¯ . ´ other than that laid down in the Veda-congruent [Saiddh¯ ntika] Ni´v¯ sasamhit¯ . . f. a a. whose offence was greater. . . . 21r2–3 (4. Bh¯ vaprak¯ sik¯ on Srutaprak¯ sik¯ on Sr¯´ ´ ı ˙ a a. 54v6–55r1: ayas¯ pratham¯ bhumi pur¯ bhasma . . s . f. which it defines as those ..´ .) | a a a ´ . a (R : laksam¯ tram pram¯ natah Ed. a . a. . . a. . a 12 Picumata f. . lauly¯ rthinas tu sastr¯ ni karisyanti kalau nar¯ h) 53 nihsv¯ sasamhit¯ y¯ m hi *laksam¯ trapram¯ natah a ´¯ a . the substitution of Mahocchista for Mahocchusm¯ reported below in n. Among them I do not dwell’. a. in a a ˜ a a . here. . . bears his name in the first of the subterranean paradises known as the P¯ t¯ las.14cd): ath¯ to m¯ tar¯ m a a a. . where these bea´ a a a ¯ ings are termed Ucchistarudras ‘Rudras of [pollutant] remnants’ (ucchis.9 a Moreover. . .´ a .¯ a *ucchusmarudr¯ s (Ed. ı´ .. . a ˜ a. .50–56b (Ed. a´ ı ı . . . I thank my colleague Miyako Notake of Waseda University for her help with the Japanese names. . arudr¯ s R) te jney¯ n¯ ham tesu vyavasthitah ‘O best of brahmins. an interpretation supported by a variant reading of this passage as it ˙ is cited by Rangar¯ m¯ nuja in his commentary Bh¯ vaprak¯ sik¯ on Sudar´ ana’s a a a a´ a s ´ ´ ı a. . kriy¯ sam¯ yukt¯ m krtav¯ n asmi samhit¯ m | 51 nihsv¯ s¯ khy¯ m tatas tasy¯ m l¯n¯ b¯ bhravya´andil¯ h | a a a. ´ 55 ye rudram upaj¯vanti kalau baidalik¯ nar¯ h | (Extra line in Ed. For I myself had deluded them. a . : ucchis. aa This. 141 on p. 10 Var¯ hapur¯ na 71. alludes to the strict indifference to impurity or rather to the cultivation of conremains of the offerings (S TEIN 1973. is the destiny of souls who have allowed the substances ´ left from Siva’s worship to fall to the ground. etasm¯ d vedam¯ rg¯ d dhi yad anyad iha j¯ yate | tat ksudrakarma vijneyam raudram saucavivarjitam | a a a a ˜ . 9 Ni´ v¯ saguhya ff. ı´ . . . . whose extent is but 100. ..t .. Then the B¯ bhravyas and S¯ ndilas fola . base practice void of purity. Know that those frauds who live off Rudra in the Age of Kali are Ucchusmarudras. verse numbers of Ed. knowing the future. The form cand¯sah here is evidently a MIA-influenced Ai´ a variant of cande´ah. a a ´ a a a. .] became religious frauds. vaksye tantre ucchusmasambhave.¯ a . | . 11 Cf. 1v2 (1. 277. s ´ (/Cande´ vara).¯ a 52 mayaiva mohit¯ s te hi bhavisyam j¯ nat¯ dvij¯ h | (Here Ed. a s a . .¯ aa a a . . that this P¯ supata initiation and a´ .000 [verses]. 185r5 (colophon of Patala 36): ity ucchusmatantre picumate.. .. a . n¯ m¯ ni guhyak¯ n¯ m na samsayah. Nihsv¯ sasamhit¯ . lacking in R: a a a a. The rest[. which includes the rituals of the Veda. .2.t . s . bly to be understood as ‘Rudras addicted to the consumption of impure substances’.¯ a . the past when they requested me [to give them some scripture for the Kali Age] I created the ´a . ˚ *alp¯ par¯ dh¯ ity eva sesa baidalik¯ bhavan (R : alp¯ r¯ dh¯ c chrutvaiva gat¯ baidalik¯ bhavan Ed. Here they worship Cande´ a .198 ALEXIS SANDERSON sociation of Ucchusma with the elimination of impure substances is seen in .3cd): yat param sucitam deva tantram ucchusmasambhavam.´ a . arudr¯ s a . .12 and this name . p. and Rangar¯ m¯ nuja. . pure forms of Rudra worship (raudram saucavarjitam). a a a a´ a a´ a bh¯ sya 2. Srutaprak¯ sik¯ on R¯ m¯ nuja’s Sr¯bh¯ sya on Brahmasutra 2. the Picumata/Brahmay¯ mala is also known as the Tantra te jney¯ h). 11 Further.42. the ferocious Gana of Siva to whom such remnants are to be . a. 5r2 (2. a of Ucchusma (ucchusmatantram.) | saiva p¯ supat¯ d¯ksa yogah p¯ supatas *ca sah (R : tv iha Ed. ˜ a. . .

22–24. for example. a for example. a a ¯ ı a a ˜ı . ¯ . SARVASATTV AN AM CA DAHA DAHA DAHA DAHA DAHA DAHA DAHA DAHA DAHA DAHA ¯ ¯ . Taisho 984). and preı served in the ritual tradition of Kashmir. according to that compiled by Yuan zhao in AD 800. ´ ´ Siras or Siras and Netra that complete the set of those Ancillaries in the rituals of the Mantram¯ rga. . . . ¯ There are also early Chinese translations by Kum¯ raj¯va (KBC 304. seen in Atharvavedapari´is. . l. the deity (dhy¯ nam). . 16 Mah¯ ganapatividy¯ . produced bea ı ˙ ¯ tween AD 402 and 412 (L ANCASTER 1979.4) S IVE JAT ILE BRAHMAC ARIN I STAMBHANI JAMBHANI MO . p.. ¯ ¯ STAMBHANI JAMBHANI SVAYAMBHUVE SV AH A in Mah¯ m¯ yur¯vidy¯ r¯ jn¯. ˚ an Ucchusma´ ikh¯ . Yogin¯s. pp. in the Mantrapadas of the Buddhist Mah¯ m¯ yur¯vidy¯ r¯ jn¯. . p. and a long Mantra for s a . ´ japah. . 113b).. and nadir. ¯ ¯ . both features fundamental to any properly Mantram¯ rgic a a Kalpa. Compare also the Ucchusma. a catalogue of the period AD 350–431. Moreover. . ˚ RAUDREN AVE S AY AVE S AYA HANA HANA DAHA DAHA PACA PACA MATHA MATHA VIDHVAM . 12: AKAT E VIKAT E HARIN I H ARINI DHARAN I DH ARAN I HUKKE HUKKE VUKKE . . ¯. . Kavaca. and Sanghabhadra (KBC 307. ¯ ¯ NAMAH KAT A VIKAT A KAN T E M AT E P AT ALE VIKALE ASAURY ASAU ASAURY ASAU PR THIV¯S T A I. ¯ ¯ ¯ K A IS T AK AJIN ATY UNYO SAUGALUM TIGALUM TE KAT AM ASI KAT APRAVR TE PRADVIS A RUDRA . Furthermore the style of the Mantras is strongly reminiscent of a type that has a much earlier history. . but they are not presented here in that role. . The Mantras taught in the a Kalpa comprise one for self-protection (¯ tmaraksa) followed by formulas invoka . ¯.15 The third section (khandah) of the Mah¯ ganapatividy¯ . and ends with an invocation of the Ucchusmarudras.13 Nor do we find instructions for the installation of these a Mantras (ny¯ sah) on the hands and parts of the body. produced between AD 502 and 520 (L ANCASTER 1979. ¯ ¯ ¯ . ¯ ¯ S¯H HUM PHAT NAMAH SV AH A . . or for the visualization of a . the Atharvavedic Ucchusmakalpa does s . . . 57–58: OM BHAGAVATE UCCHUS MARUDR AYA SAPTADV¯PE S VAR A ¯ ¯ a . 113a. in the japamantrah of the Atharvavedic Ucchusmakalpa we have (9. But in spite of these connections I am not aware of any Saiva Kalpa that could have served as the prototype of the rites of the Ucchusmarudras . being seen. an Ucchusmahrdaya. with blows from the weapons of their respective guardian deities. and Astra bring to mind the Mantram¯ rgic a a . . ´ the ancillary Mantras in Mantram¯ rgic Saivism see B RUNNER 1986. I. . of unknown authorship. . ˚ model in which these are the names of the Ancillaries of any main Mantra (mulamantrah). . For Yuan zhao’s report see L ANCASTER 1979. sections recited to ward off assault by demons.14 the first two Chinese translations of which a a ¯ ı a a ˜ı were listed in the Qin lu. ´ ¯ . . 112b). ¯ ´ ¯ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ¯ ¯ SAYA VIDHVAM SAYA VI S VE S VARA YOGE S VARA MAHE S VARA NAMAS TE ’ STU M A M A HIM . AHITAIS IN O MAMA SARVASATTV AN AM CA PACA PACA PACA PACA PACA PACA PACA PACA . and the like. .16 However. kalpa’s Mantra for self-protection (1. p. . . ¯ ¯ l. are KBC 305 a a ¯ ı ¯ ¯ (Taisho 986) and KBC 306 (Taisho 987). ˚ ¯ . 13 On 14 Thus. . p. . a I ´ . 23. and an Astramantra.¯ ing protection of the four cardinal directions. . summons the aid of Ucchusmarudra . . Sikh¯ . a 36. a . a long Mantra in ten a . . ¯ VUKKE HANA HANA HANA HANA HANA HANA HANA HANA HANA HANA AMITR AN MAMA ¯ ¯ . 15. . a Kavaca. the zenith.t . The Hrdaya. PACA PACA PRATYARTHIK AM MAMA SARVASATTV AN AM CA . ¯ ¯ HANI HUM PHAT NAMAH SV AH A with HARI H ARIN I CALI C ALINI TRAMAN I TR AMAN I MOHANI . This may be compared with Mah¯ m¯ yur¯vidy¯ r¯ jn¯. this too. a a ¯ ı a a ˜ı 15 The Mah¯ m¯ yur¯’s two earliest Chinese translations..ATHARVAVEDINS IN TANTRIC TERRITORY 199 tact with impurity as a means to power and liberation that characterizes this ´ scripture. nor are we given the ¯ . .3) . . pp. not conform closely to the Mantram¯ rgic model. Taisho 988).

. : TRAILOKY AV ARTTAM Cod. ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ N D O V A APASM ARO V A PRETAY AMIN¯ V A MATHA 2 MOCAYA 2 KAMPAYA 2 VIDHVAM SAYA 2 I ¯ ..) BH UT AN TR ASAYA 2 MA ´ ´ ¯ NKU S ENA SAMAYAM PRAVE S AYA 2 AV AHAYA 2 CAN D ASI ˙ ¯ ¯ N D ALAMADHYE KAD D A 2 RUDR A . ˜ ¯ . 1..¯ ¯ ADHIPATIRUDRO J N APAYATI SV AH A. ˚ ˚ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ 2 VALA 2 VALGA 2 ANIVARTAKAP ALINE * HANA 2 (conj. .. 179): OM NAMO PA S UPATAYE NAMO BH UT ADHIPATAYE NAMO RUDR AYA LA LA LA LA . : DAM S T ROTKAT AYA Cod. .) CAN D A . . . ¯ ´ ¯ ¯ ´ ¯ ¯ ´ ¯ ¯ ´ AVE S AYA 2 SVASTH ANAM AVE S AYA PUN YENA SARVASATTV A N AVE S AYA 2 DEV AN AVE S A . . ´I ´¯ ¯ . : SUHR DAY AYA Ed. there is another relevant corpus. . ´ Mantras are found in the Saiva exorcistic tradition preserved in such works as the Kriy¯ k¯ lagunottara. .¯ ˚ ´ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ LAM ANUPRAVE S Y OTTH APAYA 2 BHR AMAYA 2 DUS T AGRAHAM TR A SA YA 2 VIDR A VA YA .. ˚for example. : DH ARAYA Ed. the Vidy¯ r¯ ja of the Rudra Khadgar¯ vana in the˚ Khadgar¯ vanaaa a . ¯ KATHAYA 2 * TRAILOKYAV ART AM (corr. but they too have an archaic style that probably predates a a . . pp.. a s ı a a . . : NACALA Cod. . which is preserved in a number of Angirasakalpa manuscripts now ´ ´ I ¯ ´ ¯ ¯ ´ YA H ARAKAT A S AR¯R AYA S ARAN AKR TA S AR¯R AYA MANUS YA S AR¯RAM AVE S AYA 2 PRAVE S A . 45v4–46r1 (the same Mantra is found with minor differences a a . ´ I ¯ ´ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ˚ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ CARCITA S AR¯R AYA GHAN T AKAP ALAM A L A DHAR AYA VY AGHRACARMAPAR¯DH AN AYA S A I . one that has received little scholarly ¯˙ attention. . . OM NAMAH S¯GHRAGAMAN AYA AKS AR AYA TRINETR AYA TRI S ULAHAST AYA HR DGAT A ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ HA .) ES AKIS AY AYA MAH A * DAM S T ROTKAT AYA (corr. .200 ALEXIS SANDERSON like the Atharvavedic Ucchusmakalpa. ¯ ¯ ¯ YA 2 HAST AN P AD AN GR HN A 2 SAMAYAM * ANUSMARA (corr : ANUSMARAM Cod. ¯ ¯ ´ ¯ KARA SIDDHALOHAKA SARVAKARMAKARA SATTV A N AVE S AYA SIDDH Y A AMOGHAMAH A ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ BALAPAR AKRAMA AJITASARVASATTVAS ADHANA MAH ABHAIRAVA LOHAKA SIDDHIS ADHANA ¯ ¯ ¯ (conj. ı . .: HANA Cod. . : PAR AKRAMA . . : SIDDHAS ADHANA Cod... ¯ ¯ YA Cod. . . vol. ´ ¯ ¯ ¯ MAH ABHAIRAVAR UPA BHO BHO LOHAKA IMAM CAN D ALAGRAHASYA S IRAS TROT AYA TROT A . .I ¯ . . ¯ ¯ . . . ¯ . a . ¯ ¯ YA 2 TATH A . . . . . .I ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ YOGIN¯ V A AK A S AG AMIN¯ V A BHUVANAV ASIN¯ V A P AT ALAV ASIN¯ V A VAUS AT PHAT 2 SV A I ¯ ¯ ¯´ I ¯ I ¯ I ¯ . ´ ¯ ¯ VAD UTIR UPAM DAR S AYA 2 JAYA 2 JVALA 2 PRAJVALA 2 KAD D A 2 SPHOT A 2 * PRAHARA . . . f. . ´ ¯ ¯ ¯ p. . : D AM V Cod. 59r3–60r1: OM NAMO BHAGAVATE RUDR AYA OM NAMO LOHAK AYA CIPIT A . ¯ YA KHAT V A NGAM DR AVAYA 2 SVAR UPAM DAR S AYA 2 M AHE S VAR¯M MUDR AM GR HN A 2 K A I.) I . ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ´¯ ¯ ¯.¯ . ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ N AS AYA AS T ABHUJAMAH ALOHAK AYA APARIMITABALA * PAR AKRAM AYA (corr. ¯ ¯ . ¯ ¯ P AL¯M MUDR AM BHA NJAYA 2 VAIS N AV¯M MUDR AM * D ARAYA (conj.) * SVAHR DGAT A ˚ ˚ ˚ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ YA (conj. .) APRATIHATAGATE AMOGHASARVAKARMA . ´ ´¯ ¯ KHAD GAR AVAN A BALAM VIHARA 2 SARA 2 NR TYA 2 VALGA 2 SPHOT AYA 2 S MA S ANABHASMA . . YA GR¯V AM MOT AYA 2 HR DAYAM * MOT AYA (conj. . ˚ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ YA MANTR AYA MANTRAVRAT AYA * SVAHR DAY AYA (conj. and that of the Rudra Lohaka in the Lohakakalpa of ¯ ˜¯ ¯ ¯ DH AR ¯ ¯ the same work. .) 2 BHINDA 2 MUDR A M I ¯ . . . see the anonymous Tantras¯ rasamgrahavy¯ khy¯ a a a a . . ¯ . . ´ I ¯ . . . ¯ 2 MAH ABHAIRAVA * D AMARA (conj. .) 2 YAKS O V A R AKS ASO V A BH UTO V A PRETO V A PI S ACO V A K US M A . is not properly Mantram¯ rgic. .¯ . ´ ´ I ¯ ´¯ I ¯ ¯ . the Mantram¯ rga. ´ ¯ ´ ¯ ´ ¯ HAKA IDAM DUS T AGRAHAM AVE S AYA SAMAYAM PRAVI S AYA 2 AVI S AYA 2 SAM KR AMA YA 2 . : SUHR DGAT AYA Ed..) 2 S I I.¯ . . . .. . 17 Compare. . . ´¯ ˙ ´ ¯ ˜ S A NKAKR TA S EKHAR AYA KR S N ASARPAYAJ NOPAV¯TINE * HANA 2 CALA (conj. .) AVIKALPA MAMA †BH UBHR TYAM ANASYA† KRODHOTPANNAH . f.) EHI 2 LO .) AGACCHA 2 UCCHUS MARUDREBHYAH SV AH A . ˚ ´ ¯ ¯ CHINDA 2 DAHA 2 PACA 2 KUD D A 2 GARJA 2 HURU VURU 2 MAH AGAN APATIR UPAM DAR S A . in the tradition of the Keralan Mantrav¯ dins. . . ¯ PRAM AN AR UPIK AM DAR S AYA 2 BR AHMAN¯ V A KS ATRIY¯ V A VAI S Y¯ V A S UDR¯ V A CAN D AL¯ V A I ¯ . . .¯ I ¯ ¯ I ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ I ¯ ¯ ˙ I ¯ ¯ ¯ CARMAK AR¯ V A M AL AK AR¯ V A M ATA NG¯ V A PUKKAS¯ V A C AMUN D¯ V A YOGIN¯ V A MAH A I ¯ I ¯ . . . ¯ ¯ ¯ ˜¯ ¯ ¯ ˚ †AS AS ADHANA† MAH AGAN ARUDRO J N APAYATI SV AH A. . ´ I ˚ ´ ¯ ˙ ¯ ¯ ¯ ´ ¯ .) KATHAYA ¯ ¯ . . kalpa of the Kriy¯ k¯ lagunottara. : PRAHARAN A Ed. Similar a . 186–187 and the Tantras¯ rasamgrahamantravimar´in¯ of Svarnagr¯ ma V¯ sudeva.17 a ¯˙ The Angirasakalpa However. : MOMOT AYA Cod. . . ˚ ´ ¯ I. na. ¯ (conj. . trt¯yah khandah. .

Though the inscription does not indicate to which school they belonged. The affiliation of these texts to the Paippal¯ da recension of the Atharvaveda a is proclaimed in many cases through the device of presenting them in the for˙ mat of instruction given by Angiras in answer to questions put to him by the sage Pippal¯ da. of their presence in Orissa is a copper-plate inscription of the tenth century from the central Orissan kingdom of Ubhaya˜ khinjalimandala recording grants to three Paippal¯ dins. a ´a a AD 700. 21 Paippal¯ dava´ adisatkarmapaddhati p. gathers the few existing references to ¯˙ the Angirasakalpa in D¯ rila’s and Ke´ ava’s commentaries on the Atharvavedic Kau´ikasutra. and concludes a . 37 and W ITZEL and G RIFFITHS 2002. Kendujharghar. ritual commences. consist almost entirely of instruction in the procedures of hostile ritual through the propitiation of post-Vedic Mantra-deities following Tantric rather than Vedic liturgical models. a . . with positive S¯ kh¯ identification. pp. both used by me here (P1 and P2 ).. and a s s ¯ ´ in S¯ yana’s introduction to his commentary on the Saunaka Atharvavedasamhit¯ . 41–43). which records a grant of two villages to some 200 brahmins a of specified Veda. found in numerous settlements from the Ganjam district in South Orissa to the East-Singbhum district in the southeastern corner of the State of Jharkhand just beyond Orissa’s northern border. As Kei Kataoka observes in this volume (p.¯ the Six [Hostile] Rites beginning with Subjection. with concentrations within Orissa around the former royal seats of Puri. a s a aa . . and the priest selected by the Yajam¯ na to perform the rituals a a taught in them is identified as a Paippal¯ din (atharvaved¯ ntargatapippal¯ da´akh¯ a a a s¯ a dhy¯ y¯) in the formula of intention (samkalpah) that is to be recited before the a ı . which comes to us as an untitled collection of texts. The presence of Atharvavedins in . ¯ ¯ khadhyayinam amuka´arm¯ nam br¯ hmanam amukasagotrah amukadeva´arm¯ r¯ j¯ mama amukaphas a. of whom about a quarter were Atharvavedins (see Annette Schmiedchen’s contribution in this volume.ATHARVAVEDINS IN TANTRIC TERRITORY 201 or formerly in the possession of brahmins of Orissa following the Paippal¯ da a 18 members of a community of such brahmins recension of the Atharvaveda. Bhadrakh. 18 The . 12 and 13). One of these. constant work but contain varying but overlapping collections of texts. 19 For this distribution and a list of Paippal¯ da-Atharvavedin settlements in the region see a G RIFFITHS 2002. scholar Um¯ k¯ nta PAN D A as the Paippal¯ dava´adisatkarmapaddhati ‘Directions on a a . having migrated there from Gujarat. Atharvaveda]’. of whom two are said to have migrated a . It is probable that the Paippal¯ dins a reached Orissa from Bengal. was transcribed and published in 2003 by the Oriya a s¯ . 324). there from coastal Orissa (Odra) (G RIFFITHS 2002. . . . The earliest evidence.21 only work on this corpus known to me is a pioneering but very short article by ¯˙ B AHULKAR (1987) in which he briefly outlines the contents and character of two Angirasakalpa manuscripts. Narasinghpur.¯ war District of Orissa. nos. 124: amukasagotram atharvavedantargatapippalada´ a¯ ¯ s¯ a s¯ .19 For the manuscripts that I have seen. it is not impossible that there were already Paippal¯ dins in Bengal c. which do not transmit a single. a 20 This title adequately describes the work’s content but is found nowhere in the manuscript. that our work must be different and later. a palm-leaf manuscript in the Oriya script from the home of the Paippal¯ din D¯ modara Mi´ ra of Asimila village in the Balesha a s . and Baripada. p. coastal Orissa at least a century earlier is established by a copper-plate inscription of the Orissan ´ Bhaumakara king Subh¯ karadeva. . that they were Paippal¯ dins is at least probable. according to the Paippal¯ da[a 20 This was the starting point of my research in this field.

The verse quoted here is also attributed ˚ to Upavarsa by S¯ yana in the Atharvedasamhit¯ bh¯ sya. Khanda 2. ˙ . 49] 4. Visnudharmottarapur¯ na.¯ a . with badly defective metre. . . a a . . . 188 in Arlo Griffiths’ contribution to this volume). . . chapters 124–127. ¯ . the ˜ a a a s . . . ´ The venerable Upavarsac¯ rya has taught that these Kalpas are equal [in authority] to Sruti. a ¯˙ . also called Samhit¯ vidhi.). deva´ arman. ete kalp¯ vedatuly¯ hi iti bhagavatopavarsac¯ ryena pratip¯ ditam.g. . in Arlo Griffiths’ contribution to this volume).. a ˙ a. all four Vedas. 1. . the Anus. Vedas (Rgvidh¯ na etc. cf. fourth the angiras¯ m kalpah. .7: panca kalp¯ bhavanti. But those of most of a a a a aı ¯˙ ¯˙ the rest assign them to the Angirasakalpa.8: upavarsac¯ ryenoktam m¯m¯ ms¯ y¯ m smrtis s ı a. which deals with these and their various effects. . ... The same specification is seen in P1 . ¯ . metre (chandah). kalp¯ h smrtituly¯ h ‘Upavarsac¯ rya has said the following [in his commentary] on the M¯m¯ ma. by Ke´ ava of Malwa in his Kau´ikapaddhati on 1. . . a brahmin of such and s s such a Gotra. ubhakalpam¯ l¯ of Sesa.6.t . angirasah kalpah). the Vait¯ na. (2) the ved¯ n¯ m kalpah (= Vait¯ nakalpa) as comprising the Vidh¯ na texts of the four a a. setting out the special fire-rites using Vedic mantras for supernatural a ˚ effects (see Visnudharmottarapur¯ na. . a a. naksatrakalpo vait¯ nakalpas trt¯yah samhit¯ vidhih | caturtha angirasah ˜ a a ı . Synonymous variants of this verse appear in the Visnua. also known as the Abhic¯ rakalpa (‘The Kalpa of Hostile Ritual’).¯ gatapippal¯ da´akh¯ dhy¯ yine. . and a. particularly on the fates of the rulers of various nations).¯ a . also the version of this same defective verse in the corre˜ . ¯˙ ´a kalpah). . . ı a. . (3) the Samhit¯ kalpa (/samhit¯ n¯ m a a a. a ˙ a. often identified simply as the Angirasa. ˚ ´a kalpa. and the Paddhati of V¯ manabhavaaa a d¯ sa or V¯ mana and Bhavad¯ sa (the V¯ manabhavad¯ s¯ya). pur¯ na (3. ’. ¯ . and fifth the S¯ ntikalpa”. in the section on the Kalpasutras in the Smrtip¯ da: “[The five Kalpas are] the Naksatraa ¯ a . a a. the Laksanaa a . a. a student of the Pippal¯ da branch of the Atharvaveda. anye ´¯ ˜ a a a . amukakalpoktam mama karma kartum . The N¯ radapur¯ na (Purv¯ rdha. Vait¯ nakalpa or Vedakalpa (/ved¯ n¯ m kalpah). ¯ a Naksatrakalpa as dealing with the asterisms and their presiding deities (see Atharvavedapari´is. . .4 of the Visnudharmottarapur¯ na. . .. ´¯ kalpa´ ca pancamah) and. ´ . the S¯ rad¯ tilaka of Laksmanade´ ika. . (2) the Vit¯ nakalpa. ˚ kalpah santikalpas tu pancamah.5. angiras¯ m kalpah). . which gives Vidh¯ na texts for a. .. the Tantr¯ dhy¯ ya of the Karmasamuccaya. the a ı a´ a´ a . 46v3: amukadeva´armane br¯ hmanaya atharvaved¯ mtars a a. (4) the S¯ ntikalpa as teaching the ritual procedures for countering the effects of portents of all kinds (cf. sponding section of the Caranavyuhopanisad. and (5) the S¯ ntikalpa. ˚ santikalpas tu pancamah” iti. a s . . being of such and such a Gotra. ˚ p¯ de kalpasutr¯ dhikarane “naksatrakalpo vait¯ nas trt¯yah samhit¯ vidhih | caturtho ’ngiras¯ m kalpah a ¯ a a ı . . a s¯ a a 22 See Upavarsa’s lost commentary on the M¯m¯ ms¯ sutra as quoted in the 11th century ı a. thereby claiming that in spite of their manifestly Tantric content they are prop¯˙ erly Atharvavedic. For the Angirasakalpa (¯ ngirasah kalpah. N-´ arman. .t samuccaya. and presiding deity (devat¯ ) of each of the various a . (4) the Angirasakalpa. namely (1) the Naksatrakalpa. a˙ a. to be the officiant to pera form for me such and such a ritual taught in such and such a Kalpa for such and such a benefit . . . a . .¯ a whereas all other Kalpas have the status of Smrti’. Khanda 2. . is among the five a Kalpas that had been said since early times to constitute the ancillary literature of the Atharvaveda. . .¯ a ˚ ¯ s¯ [sutra]. 51.t . third the Samhit¯ vidhi. . . a a. a ¯˙ . also called a . .. the [Mantra]devaprak¯ sik¯ of Visnudeva. 25 (with the variant turya a . ´¯ . in the Caranavyuha ([Atharvavedapari´is. and it has been incorporated into the corpus of brahmanical scripture as ¯˙ . ac¯ ryatvena tv¯ m aham vrne ‘I. vol.. . a . . . a a. 1.13c–14b: naksatrakalpo ved¯ n¯ m samhit¯ n¯ m tathaiva ca | caturthah sy¯ d angirasah santia. ¯ ı ı a ¯ Asur¯d¯pik¯ of Bhudhara. ˚. a s ˜ ¯ s . l¯ rtham . . ˚ ´a Atharvanic Mantras. e. f.22 a . a specifying the sage (rsih).. namely the ´ ˙ ´a a Prapancas¯ ra attributed to Sankar¯ c¯ rya. chapters 132–144). . choose you. the king.. (3) the Samhit¯ vidhi as . Na ¯ a a . . p. a ¯ . a . . a a. Mantramukt¯ val¯ of Purnaprak¯ sa.202 ALEXIS SANDERSON The colophons of some of the texts in this open corpus declare them to be works of human authorship or citations from such works. p.2–8b) both lists them and defines their subject matter: (1) the a a. cf. . 2.

vol. unlike those of the section on hostile rites (abhic¯ rah) in the sixth Adhy¯ ya of the a . .60: sarvas¯ der dvigo´ ca lo vaktavyah. p. 572). aa s karmani tatparah | sapatn¯ n va´am an¯ya bhunkte r¯ jyam akan. e..34 (Visnu speaking): pancakalpam atha˜ a a ˜ .. akam. ˚ ¯˙ [him] the Kalpa called Angirasa. and it appears in the N¯ r¯ yan¯ya a a. and 5. . a ¯ Grhyasutra.t . a a. a a .g. It is also supported by S¯ yanac¯ rya. . 1. the sage Angiras taught ˜ . . as in its opening words: atharvavedasya samhit¯ vidher vivaranam kriya. a s a . Ke´ ava. a Kau´ikasutra. Samhit¯ vidhi in this sense is regularly employed in the Kau´ikapaddhati. p. and the fact that the rituals of these manuscripts. . 376–378) and others. and surmised that s ¯ a. . a . because the Kau´ikasutra goes beyond the s ¯ ¯ range of other Grhyasutras by setting out the ritual applications (vidhih) of the Samhit¯ of the .ATHARVAVEDINS IN TANTRIC TERRITORY 203 The term pancakalpah in the meaning ‘one who studies the five Kalpas’ is ˜ . a ´ . M ODAK (1993. the Atharvavedic s ¯ .. and in this capacity it adds the claim that of all the five Kalpas it is the foremost. and followed a . . Atharvedasamhit¯ bh¯ sya. . immobilize.23 The contents of our Orissan Angirasakalpa corpus demonstrate beyond doubt that it is not the lost text of that title known to these early works. the author of the a Kau´ikasutrabh¯ sya.24 But by taking on this title it asserts that it is. pancakalpah dvitantrah. the author of the Kau´ikapaddhati. 25–27. p. . and the Samhit¯ vidhi to be the Kau´ikasutra. . 4: tato vicaksano r¯ j¯ va´aa˜ s s . a . Pune. 3v1–2: iti putrena samtustah prov¯ ca munir angir¯ h | kalpam angirasam n¯ ma ¯˙ a ˙ a. pp. . An old. 579). 23 Mah¯ bh¯ sya on 4. being pleased with his son [Brhaspati]. are not based on the domestic New-moon and Full-moon sacrifice. a a. ˜ already given in the Mah¯ bh¯ sya of Patanjali. Mah¯ bh¯ rata 12. the Srautasutra of the Saunaka recena a ¯ sion of the Atharvavedasamhit¯ .2. Seeing the Tantric character of the ¯˙ contents of the two Angirasa manuscripts in the BORI. . ´ ¯˙ it may have been composed after the disappearance of the Saunaka Angirasakalpa to fulfil the needs of the Paippal¯ dins of Orissa for the fifth Kalpa. a . or a . 4. . ¯˙ For with a few exceptions that bear on their personal worship this Angirasakalpa corpus comprises rituals in which the king is the sponsor and beneficiary (yajam¯ nah). a 25 Angirasa. destroy his enemies. rv¯ nam krty¯ bhih paribrmhitam | kalpayanti hi m¯ m vipr¯ atharv¯ navidas tath¯ ‘Likewise learned a. a . . ˚ r¯ jno yasya *va´e (em. he concluded s ¯ ¯˙ that this Angirasakalpa cannot be the work of that name known to D¯ rila. . s ı . sasamgrahah. P f.g. the name is appropriate. ¯˙ 2 . 3: va´ abhedam pravaksy¯ mi satruh¯no nrpo yatah | a s¯ . 5: tasm¯ j jigamisum bhupam a s ¯ ı ˙ a a ¯ .330. This a. : va´et Ed. . pp. Ke´ ava’s s s . p. . a ˚ Atharvaveda. . . a ˙ pancakalpesu cottamam ‘Thus. in which the principal stated aims are to subjugate. ˚ ˚ brahmins expert in the Atharvaveda conceive of me as that Veda rich in Krty¯ s with its five a ˚ Kalpas’.25 ¯˙ The Officiants of the Angirasa Rituals The Atharvavedic priests who created and employed these texts did so to authorize and guide rituals that they expected to be engaged to perform for the court. . .) sarvam tasyes. s s a .t . . sav¯ rttikah a a. and more plausible ´ ´ ¯ tradition takes the Vait¯ nakalpa to be the Vait¯ nasutra. p. . . 24 This is also the opinion of B AHULKAR (1987. a. but not for 2 and 3.¯ a . . by B LOOMFIELD (1884. am kim na siddhyati. sarvavedah sarvatantrah. te. . . Paippal¯ dava´ adisatkarmapaddhati p. the foremost of the five Kalpas’. is accurate for items 1. a ˚ commentary on that text. and S¯ yana. As B AHULKAR has pointed out (1987.26 and in which the king’s duty to gratify these officiants ¯˙ (5) the Angirasakalpa as setting out the rituals of the six kinds of hostile sorcery (sat karm¯ ni). e. widely attested.ı of the Mah¯ bh¯ rata in the meaning ‘possessing the five Kalpas’ with reference a a ¯˙ to the Atharvaveda itself. . 26 See. 124).

ı a. : bahubhi Ed. a . . 61: nrpo a a a a a ˜ ¯ ı . a ˚ ’smai daksinam dady¯ d dhana´a. a ı ¯ a. .. . ´ .. 109: mah¯ b¯jam japan ´ a s aa a a ı . . . the Brahman priest in all [the king’s] Vedic sacrifices and should have all the [necessary] rites performed for the king following the Atharvaveda’. portents. a s s¯ ı . . 23: tasm¯ n naraa a a a . satrum yuddhe jetum ap¯ rayan | de´araksakaro r¯ j¯ m¯ rayed balinam ripum. 81: atmots¯ dakaram a ı a a s a ¯ a . p. . a. a nityam samabhipujayet (echoing Atharvavedapari´ista 4. No. ˜ . a aa s . ¯ a s a . . . 41: tato nrpe´varo v¯ro a ı. patir vidv¯ n d¯ nam¯ n¯ dibhir dvijam | turyaved¯ rthatattvajnam atm¯yam kurute sad¯ . .9. 59: m¯ ranam karma kurv¯ta r¯ j¯ r¯ s. a . . aa . . a aa ¯ a ı yam prakurv¯ta yasya haste va´adikam. a aa s . 5: ripunam mohanam caitad r¯ jn¯ m bahumatam bhavet | mohito hi na ˜a a ¯ ¯.. ´ . ca vasundhar¯ m. : vijayam sriyam Ed. ¯ a a . . p.).¯ . a .27 It is therefore probable prima facie that the priests who performed these rituals did so as holders of the office of the king’s personal priest (r¯ japurohitah). a a . 35: daksinam bhupatir dady¯ t kartrtrptikar¯m punah | a ı. ˚ ˚ bhavan¯ c ch¯ l¯ m ai´any¯ m di´i k¯ rayet. p. ı . a a aa s . ˚ mah¯ jayapar¯ yanah | brahmaved¯ rthatattvajnam k¯ rayeta mah¯ jayam. ratnair vibhusanaih | pujayitv¯ tatah pa´c¯ d vidhin¯ vrnuy¯ d dvijam. p.3: tasm¯ d r¯ j¯ vi´esena atharv¯ nam jiten¯ s. . rasukh¯ vaham. . . . 131: tasm¯ d r¯ j¯ vi´esena atharv¯ nam budham dvijam | d¯ nasamm¯ nasatk¯ rair a a aa s .9: purohitam uditoditakula´¯lam s¯ nge vede daive nimitte s¯ sı . p. dvijah | r¯ jna´ c¯ tharvavedena sarvakarm¯ ni k¯ rayet ‘An Atharvavedin brahmin should serve as a˜ s a a. jewels. . . For all sources that speak of the qualifications required of that official rule either that he should be an Atharvavedin28 or that he should be an expert in the rituals of the Atharvavedic tradition. . 7: *bahubhir (corr. p. 18: r¯ j¯ r¯ jyajay¯ k¯ nks¯ sr¯nrsimham prapujya ca. a˙ . a. ˚ ku´alam atharv¯ ngirase tath¯ ‘He should appoint as his personal priest one who is expert in pors a˙ a tents [and the averting of their consequences].¯. ´ ı . s . p. . . . p.) dravinair vastrair n¯ n¯ ı s¯ a a . p. . a ˚ s ı c¯ tharvanah sudh¯h | r¯ j¯ ced visnubhaktah sy¯ j jayas tasya kare sthitah. p.¯.29 The latter formulation may have been jn¯ tv¯ stambhanam acaret. a. . . asur¯m sarvad¯ japet.) sres. . hyam vivarjayet | ratnam gr¯ mavaram dh¯ nyam y¯ n¯ ni kanak¯ ni a s¯t a a a .2 of the a a critical edition (Appendix I. . 6–7: brahmatvam sarvayajnesu kurv¯t¯ tharvano ˜ . ıa . p.ı ´ ı ¯ . 4: atharvavedatattvajnam tasm¯ d r¯ j¯ prapujayet | sad¯ tm¯a s¯ . ¯ . a a . . p. 31v2: ¯ a a a a . : daksina Ed. vidh¯ najnam varayeta sudar´anam ‘The king should choose as his chaplain a handsome Athara ˜ . 202.5.¯. .t . 65: tato ’bhisiktah nrpatir dady¯ d vipr¯ ya daksinam | ratnam suvarnam dh¯ ny¯ ni y¯ n¯ ni a a ¯ a a a a . vide tatah | pradady¯ d *daksinam (em. ˚ ac¯ ry¯ ya nivedayet | svarnam ratnam ca dh¯ nyam ca y¯ nam gr¯ mam gav¯ m satam.¯ a . ham gr¯ mam tattrptik¯ ranam. a a ca. . p. p. .72. ı a a a. especially ll. . 27: tasm¯ d r¯ j¯ vi´esena sr¯nrsimhaparo bhavet | yato a aa s¯ a . p. s a a aa s . . . . Y¯ jnavalkyasmrti 1. a . (conj. ˚ ı. p. nirupasargah san sarv¯ bh¯s. ¯ ´ . p. a ˙ dandan¯ty¯ m c¯ bhivin¯tam apad¯ m daivam¯ nus¯nam atharvabhir up¯ yai´ ca pratikart¯ ram kurv¯ta ı a. . a . a. : c¯ tya´a´alin¯m Cod. s¯ ı . 8).ı. and able to counteract calamities of divine and human origin with the methods of the Atharvaveda’. p. P2 f. ¯ . p. . . ..6. a a . . . 29 See. 21 on p. 56: r¯ j¯ sarvava´am k¯ nksann a a . am av¯ pnuy¯ t. p. saknoti pratikartum parakriy¯ m. a . . . . ˚ . . . ˚ icchati | tad¯ tharvavidam pr¯ jnam etam homam ca k¯ rayet. . p. . 146: evam vijayam as¯ dya r¯ j¯ mantraa a ¯ ¯ a aa . . 70: etan mantram sad¯ japtv¯ ni´cinto r¯ jyabhug bhavet. a ˜a .). 63: asur¯ti tato dev¯ ¯ ı. and grain is repeatedly stressed. a ˜ . . driyam | d¯ nasamm¯ nasatk¯ rair nityam samabhipujayet). ´ 27 Paippal¯ dava´ adisatkarmapaddhati p. aa . 13: tatkumbhav¯ rinac¯ ryo ¯. for example. and a passage in the southern recension of the Mah¯ bh¯ rata after 12. 147: a ¯. . dh¯ rayed r¯ j¯ labhate *vijaya´riyam (corr. 111: athav¯ yuddhasamaye yantram etat svasamnidhau | kenacid aa ´ . ‘[The king] should appoint as his personal priest one who is of noble family and conduct. . . ˚ ˚ nrpo digvijayam kury¯ d idam yantram vidh¯ rayan.¯. s vavedin brahmin who is versed in [at least] two Vedas and knows the rituals of the five [Atharvavedic] Kalpas’.3: dvivedam br¯ hmanam r¯ j¯ purohitam atharvanam | pancakalpaa. and who is expert both in the administration of justice and in the pacifying and hostile rites [of the Atharva- .204 ALEXIS SANDERSON with honours.¯. a . a . 26: nrpasya ´ a aa a a a˙ . ˜ . s a ˚ ’bhisincet tam nar¯ dhipam | tato ’smai daksinam dady¯ d yath¯ sau paritusyati. a . 36: tasm¯ d r¯ j¯ yad¯ satrum balinam jetum a a a aa a ´ . . . their ancillary disciplines. . land-grants. .313: purohitam prakurv¯ta daivajnam uditoditam | dandan¯ty¯ m ca a˜ ı ˜ . t a ¯ ı ı r¯ jakarmasu g¯yate. and the administration of justice. ˜ . a . dady¯ c ca daksinam tasmai sahasram satam eva v¯ | gav¯ m suvarnanisk¯ nam bhumim *ca sasya´alin¯m a a a. . gold. . . r¯ j¯ jayam eti na samsayah. . p. p. 36: sr¯nrsimha´ ca devah sy¯ t kart¯ a a˜ a ´ ı a . 28 Visnudharmottarapur¯ na 2. See also n. who is of exalted family. Artha´ astra 1. t a a ¯ a . skilled in the Vedas.

. rasya vrddhikart¯ ram dhanadh¯ ny¯ dibhih sad¯ | a ´ s a. A king with a S¯ mavedin a . e. . 32–34: bahvrcam a a . horses. . a 2. r¯ rogyavardhanam | s . a s¯ . ˚ dhvaryavam r¯ j¯ niyunakti purohitam | sastrena vadhyate ksipram pariks¯narthav¯ hanah | yathaiva aa ´ ı. 23: turyaved¯ rthatattvajnam. ˚ atharvanad rte n¯ nyo niyojyo ’tharvavid guruh | nrpena jayak¯ mena nirmito ’gnir iv¯ dhvare | bahvrco ¯ a a a . t a . aa .1–5: paippal¯ dam gurum kury¯ c chr¯r¯ s.3. . Matsyapur¯ na quoted ibid. Ya˚ jurvedins. are taught’.16c–17b (A) (= N¯ti´astra quoted by S¯ yanac¯ rya in the introduction a. ran¯ saya r¯ jan¯ saya s¯ magah | adhvaryur balan¯ saya a a a. ¯ a . ˚ raksamsi raksati brahm¯ brahm¯ tasm¯ d atharvavit.: purohitam a. . a a a aa a a ´ a . ı s¯ a . s . and elephants. .30 though it is also possible that the definition by competence rather than birth was intended to accommodate the appointment of persons who though initially Rgvedins. For [the Atharvedin royal priest] has been created [as an element vital to his rule].g. . . .¯ a to his Atharvavedasamhit¯ bh¯ sya. . realm. Agnipur¯ na 239. v¯ pram¯ d¯ d v¯ yasya sy¯ d bahvrco guruh | de´ar¯ s. ¯. ˚ s¯ magam caiva v¯ jinam ca vivarjayet | bahvrco r¯ s. a .ı a.ATHARVAVEDINS IN TANTRIC TERRITORY 205 intended to convey the same sense as the former. Therefore [only] an Atharvavedin [should be appointed as his] priest. . who is learned in the Mantras of [his] Veda. . a ı a.4: atharvavid guruh. and a ´ health. . . . A Rgvedin [chaplain] is said [in authoritative texts] to bring about the ruin of ˚ the kingdom. 8). . t a´ ¯ a a´ ¯ a a´ ¯ . Atharvavedapari´ ista 2. . ¯ . in the three Vedas and the administration of justice.¯ aa ˚ . a ı a. Paippal¯ dava´adisatkarmapaddhati p. a Yajurvedin the [king’s] sons. a. rapur¯ m¯ tyan¯ sas tasya na samsayah | yadi v¯ a a a a a s a. 36: brahmavedavid¯ m varah. such as the king’s consecration.4.7: brahmavedavit. . a ˜ .´ .¯ . ˚ Yajurvedin.: paurohityam ca atharvavidaiva a . ˚ ˚ hanti vai r¯ s. .3. a warning that would have no point if kings did not on occasion disregard this restriction. A [royal priest who is a] Rgvedin destroys ˚ the kingdom. tath¯ tharvamantrabr¯ hmanap¯ ragam ‘and a personal priest who has mastered the Mantras and a a a . . cit. and he should perform the rites of pacification and invigoration prescribed by the Atharvaveda’. ˚ and ministers will certainly follow. 5–6): trayy¯ m ca dandan¯ty¯ m ca ku´alah sy¯ t purohitah | a a. a ˚ . brahmavedajnas tasm¯ d raksit¯ bhrguh | brahm¯ samayen n¯ dhvaryur na chandogo na bahvrcah | ˜ a a ´ a .31 and is confirmed in the veda]’. 30 See. 3. having lost his wealth.. atharvavedavihitam kury¯ c ch¯ ntikapaus. S¯ yanac¯ rya. since the Atharvavedic literature frequently refers to Atharvavedins proper in this way. crops and the like. For he will cause the kingdom always to prosper in wealth. cf. just as the fire [is vital] to the Vedic sacrifice. for he will increase his wealth. capital. ikam ‘The [king’s] personal priest should be well-versed a a t . . a. ˚ prokto v¯ jasaneyakah ‘He should avoid [appointing] a Rgvedin. A king who desires to prevail over his enemies should appoint no expert in the Atharvaveda as his priest other than an Atharvavedin..¯ ˚ .t a . If out of ignorance or inattention [a king] has a Rgvedin [in this office] the loss of his region. 31 Southern recension of the Mah¯ bh¯ rata after 12.2.2 (Appendix I. a . p. No. . loc. 147: brahmavedavit.3–4: divy¯ ntariksabhaum¯ n¯ m utp¯ t¯ n¯ m anekadh¯ | samayit¯ s .. a a . or a V¯ jasaneyin a a a .¯ a . a a a . t a a a´ a . 2. k¯ ryam tatkartrk¯ nam karmanam r¯ j¯ bhisek¯ d¯n¯ m tatraiva vistarena pratip¯ ditatv¯ t ‘The role of the a a. since it is in that [Veda] that the rituals of which he is the officiant. ll. . Atharvavedapari´is. pp. . p. a S¯ mavedin. appoint a Paippal¯ da[-Atharvavedin] as his priest. That non-Atharvavedin experts in Atharvavedic ritual were also appointable may be inferred from the fact that we have passages both in the Atharvavedic literature itself and in the Mah¯ bh¯ rata that warn kings that appointing nona a Atharvavedins will lead to disaster. and a V¯ jasaneyin Adhvaryu that of a a the army’. ˚ [king’s] personal priest should be taken only by an expert in the Atharva[veda]. t a . pangur adhv¯ nam apaks¯ c¯ ndajo nabhah | evam chandogaguruna r¯ j¯ vrddhim na gacchati ‘He should ˙ a . ı a. and a S¯ mavedin will bring about the loss of his a wealth. or a Saunakin[-Atharvavedin]. If the king appoints a Yajurvedin as his priest he will soon be killed by the sword. a S¯ mavedin the ruin of the king himself. tath¯ saunakinam v¯ pi vedamantravipa´citam | r¯ s. . or S¯ mavedins in accordance with their inherited affiliation had suba sequently been initiated and trained in the rituals of the Atharvavedic tradition.72. t a´ a a´ ¯ a ¯ ˜a a . . informative passages of the Atharva[veda]’. kingdom. a a a . ram adhvaryur n¯ sayet sut¯ n | chandogo dhanan¯ saya tasm¯ d atharvano guruh | ajn¯ n¯ d a.

. provided a. and P¯ ncar¯ tra [scriptures]. ´ . . . Jains. that is to say. those religious systems that transcend this level. of which this passage is a part see S ANDERSON 2007. a.68–69b): sauram saivam pancar¯ tram pram¯ nam a ˜ a .32 a situation that we may suspect from the relative paucity of epigraphical evidence of land-grants to Atharvavedins to have been commoner than the prescriptive textual evidence would suggest. after taking on specific vows [in addition to or in place of the general obligations imposed by brahmanical authorities]. :tantram Cod. 232–235. ı a . 8). Indeed the Saivas themselves have presented the Atharvaveda in just these terms.34 This image of the esoteric otherness of the Atharvavedic tradition can only have been made more plausible by the incorporation of the kind of Tantric proce¯˙ dures seen in our Angirasakalpa corpus and indeed by the existence of the related as his priest does not prosper. the Atharvaveda.. as a tradition to which those within that religion may ´ ascend through a further rite of passage.’ 32 Southern recension of the Mah¯ bh¯ rata after 12. a Rgvedin. or a S¯ mavedin as his chaplain. f. . the L¯ kula and Vaimala [scripa˜ a a ´ tures of the Saiva Atim¯ rga]. . at least for those not privileged by birth as Atharvavedins.) vi´esasamay¯ t sthitih. Yoga. [the texts of] S¯ mkhya and a a. and the scriptures of the Buddhists. . . brahmin in another Veda who wishes to study the Atharvaveda must undergo a second Upanayana’. 33 Atharvavedapari´ ista 49. and the like. vaimalam matam | atharvam s¯ mkhyayogam ca bauddham arahat¯ dikam | vi´esakhyam yatas *tatra ¯ a s .72. Saiva.3: anyavede dvijo yo brahmavedam adh¯tuk¯ mah sa punar upaneyah ‘A s . After defining the Rgveda. ll. pp.¯ . . because a person adheres to [one of] them only s . P¯ ncar¯ trikas. and S¯ maveda together with the Smrtis as the common revelation the a ˚ Jayadrathay¯ mala’s first Satka goes on to list those scriptures that are the basis of a . ˚ ˚ ˚ vede sth¯ payet tu purohit¯ n ‘If there is no [Atharvavedin available] he may appoint a V¯ jasaneyin a a a or Caraka (K¯ thaka) Yajurvedic officiant. 166v2–4 (35. . 34 Jayadrathay¯ mala. the Atharvavedins themselves may have recognized that their numbers had to be supplemented and attempted to control this in a manner that presented the Atharvavedic tradition as a domain of knowledge above that of the common brahmanical tradition. 68–70: v¯ jinam a a a . into a domain of restricted recruitment within the broader brahmanical religion and thereby conceptualizes it in ´ a manner that makes it analogous to the religions of the Saivas. (em.33 This transforms expertise in the Atharvavedic rites. a˜ a and others. are restricted teachings (vi´esatantram). For while acknowledging that non-Atharvavedins may study the Atharvaveda they ruled that such persons should be allowed to do so only if they first underwent the Upanayana ceremony for a second time. and includes the Atharvaveda among them: ´ The Saura. . . a ˚ such persons have studied the science of polity and are well-versed in the Atharvaveda’.2 (Appendix I. For the whole account of the hierarchy of revelations s .5. a .206 ALEXIS SANDERSON latter. . Satka 1. a. No. . Ya˚ jurveda. tadabh¯ ve ca carak¯ dhvaryav¯ n atha | bahvrcam s¯ magam caiva n¯ti´astrakrta´ram¯ n | krtino ’tharvane a a a a ı s¯ s a . Indeed. just as a cripple cannot walk and a bird without wings cannot fly. which concedes that a king may after all appoint a non-Atharvavedin if no Atharvavedin is available.

.ı the crown-prince (yuvar¯ jah). Ardrapat¯ K¯ l¯. Caitanyabhairav¯. . . For when the same text prescribes the design and dimensions of the parasol (chattram) and yak-tail fly-whisk (c¯ marah) to be carried by their attendants a . ¯ ˙ KAR ALADAM S T RE PRATYA NGIRE KS AM HR¯M NAMAH (24. s . Saunakin or Paippal¯ din (5. 30r4–36v10) setting out a Paddhati for the worship . . Nor was he considered an inferior among a . . for hostile purposes including in the first Patala an atharvan¯ sikh¯ vidy¯ described as the very a . ˙ a aı ˙ a Also to be considered in this context is the Kubjikopanisad. the chief queen (agryamahis¯).ı . It also contains a variant of the Pratyangir¯ mantra. atharvanamah¯ vidy¯ ). Gharmatik¯ (also called here Gharmat¯ and Gharmutik¯ ). .ı ´ a . JIHVE KAR ALADAM S T RE PRATYA NGIRE KS EM HR¯M H UM PHAT attributed in that same diI. . . Bagal¯ mukh¯. having inherited qualification for this office through their patriline or perhaps in some cases through having acquired it through a second Upanayana and subsequent training. that a Nepalese digest of sources on the pro˙ a pitiation of the Vidy¯ s of the Pratyangir¯ s (Siddhilaksm¯ etc. a a. Mrtyuk¯ l¯. Note. 26r11–v1) appears at the end of two other South Indian a manuscripts in the same collection: the Pratyangir¯ bhadrak¯ l¯mantra and the Pratyangir¯ mantra. I. 17r).. Other instances of the disintegration of the bound´ ı a a a ary between the Vedic and the Tantric in the classification of Atharvanic material exist and could be fruitfully studied. ´a in which the cult of the S¯ kta goddess Kubjik¯ is expounded by Sanatkum¯ ra to Pippal¯ da a a a ´ for the use in hostile ritual by Atharvavedins.¯ ¯ a ı a ¯ a ı vidy¯ .] abhidh¯yate | atharvan¯ m sikh¯ vidy¯ m yo j¯ n¯ ti sa buddhiı a . Similarly. ı ˙ a distinctive of that tradition. Soda´¯. . .ı a ı ˚ K¯ lar¯ tri. In the colophons the chapters of the text are described as being k¯ lik¯ game k¯ larudratantre (f. ´ a m¯ n). Trailokyamohan¯ Dhum¯ vat¯). . The visualization-verse for this a Vidy¯ goddess given in the digest (f. since it has incorporated the worship of the ten Mah¯ vidy¯ s (Daksinak¯ lik¯ . . the general of the army a . . atharvanikam astram. . Ucc¯ tanadhumik¯ . .. essence of the Atharvaveda (f. . dhye kevalam turyam atharvana´iras tath¯ | *tury¯ t turyataram [em. a a . of the latter whose colophon attributes it to the Atharvanasamhit¯ of the H¯ h¯ r¯ vatantra or to a aa .ı . Dhum¯ vat¯. . ¯˙ PHAT given in the Angirasakalpa materials as one of two Mantras of Mah¯ krty¯ . K¯ l¯. ¯ ¯ ˙ a . see below. 6r) a a a or sr¯k¯ larudratantre k¯ lik¯ game (f. . . . . a a ¯˙ If the Atharvavedin officiants envisaged in the Angirasakalpa corpus were indeed persons occupying the office of the royal priest. . . them. . for example. . .. and of that beginning OM KHAT I. 26r10–11) to the Dev¯y¯ mala is a variant of the Atharvanabhadrak¯ l¯mah¯ vidy¯ OM KS AM ı a aı a a .12) that are a a ı a ˙ ı .] caiva a a a . ı divisayakasamgraha) contains a chapter (ff.4). . gest (f.1–21. a the Atharvanasamhit¯ that is the H¯ h¯ r¯ vatantra (f. guhyak¯ l¯puj¯ patalah). mostly described as Atharvanic (atharvanastraa a . Indian manuscript with the name of that Vidy¯ as its title. . . . ı (sen¯ patih). and Candac¯ mund¯. The principal deities of these Vidy¯ s. ¯ ˙ ¯ . a a a . *tacchikhety [em. . cited here from ¯ ¯ the Dev¯y¯ mala and the Atharvanabhadrak¯ l¯mah¯ vidy¯ manuscript: KSAM BHAKS A JV AL AJIHVE ı a aı a a . a ı aı .ATHARVAVEDINS IN TANTRIC TERRITORY 207 Tantric Atharvanic materials that have been presented without the disguise of attribution to this collection in the form of the unpublished K¯ larudratantra suba 35 titled K¯ lik¯ gama. ˚ 35 In the twenty-one short Patalas of this Tantra K¯ larudra teaches Skanda a number of Vidy¯ s a a . 214. portrays this official as a member of . . . : tatsakhyety Cod. p. ¯ ¯ ¯ ˙ BHAKS A JV AL AJIHVE KAR ALADAM S T RE PRATYA NGIRE KS AM HR¯M HUM PHAT seen in a South I. a a a a . and the royal astrologer. the 23-syllable Pratyangir¯ OM HR¯M 2 KS EM BHAKS A JV AL A aı ¯ a . : tury¯ turyetaram Cod. Bhuvane´ var¯. and Siddhalaksm¯) (11. 36v10: iti h¯ h¯ r¯ vatantre atharvanasamhit¯ y¯ m a aa a aa . . a a a ı a aı a . The Visnudharmottara. preserved in Nepalese manuscripts. . This text was a ´a composed in Bengal or in a region influenced by its S¯ ktism. . 2v: turyam atharvanam vedam n¯ n¯ mantrasamanvitam | tanma¯ a a . . . for example. Ugrat¯ r¯ . a a ¯ a ı Chinnamast¯ .) and Guhyak¯ l¯ (*Pratyangir¯ a aı ˙ a . . . a . . are the goddesses Dhum¯ vat¯ (K¯ kadhum¯ vat¯. .2). ¯ ¯ a ı ¯ Mohin¯dhumik¯ . M¯ tangin¯. then they would have ranked among the highest dignitaries of the states that they served. sı s ı ı . . . . ı ¯ a a. . the chief minister (mantr¯). ´ a small elite consisting besides himself of the king. a a ...

. .6. p. .13. chief minister. a. l. 623. a ˚ brahmavedavid¯ m varah. . a 38 Thus Atharvavedapari´ ista 2. 1v4: brahmano vedan¯ d dhetor braha a a a.5–6. 18: parasainyam jetum icchann etat karma sam¯ caret | a s¯ .t pointing an Atharvavedin as the r¯ japurohitah.37 which is strikingly similar to statements in the Atharvavedapari´is. But if he cannot find [the requisite number] he may have it performed by just one’. k¯ rayed brahmaviddvijaih ‘In order to accomplish the routing [of his enemy] he should have [the a . 27). atyantatvarito r¯ j¯ dvijair homam vidh¯ payet | tath¯ vidhadvij¯ l¯ bhe ekenaiva tu h¯ vayet ‘Desiring to aa a a aa a . .13. and. . honours.g.ı a . and priest yellowish.4: daivakarmavidau tasm¯ t s¯ mvatsarapurohitau | grhn¯y¯ t satatam s . 1. that the Atharvavedins of the Angirasakalpa texts were envisaged as serving their rulers outside this semi-ministerial office. a brahmin who understands the essence of the teachings of the fourth Veda’. . For the use a.: tad¯ tharvavidam pr¯ jnam etam homam ca k¯ rayet.2: rgvedo yajurvedah s¯ mavedo brahmavedah. (quoted in n. a that certainly do refer to the king’s aps . royal astrologer.7c–9). a a. . those of the astrologer.1.208 ALEXIS SANDERSON in public as the external symbols of their relative standing it tells us that the length of the pole of the king’s parasol (chattradandah) should be six cubits. .15. veneration to an Atharvavedin of controlled senses with gifts.. If he is exceedingly pressed for time he may have the fire sacrifice performed by brahmins. and those of the queen and crown-prince four and a half (2. It is possible. conquer the army of an enemy the king [himself] should do this ritual. of the general. Ny¯ yamanjar¯ vol. e. p. 39 Thus Paippal¯ dava´ adisatkarmapaddhati. 4. d¯ nasamm¯ nasatk¯ rair nityam samabhipujayet ‘Therefore the king should always show special a a ¯ . see B LOOMFIELD 1899. enjoying the same status as the chief minister. a . p. a ˜a a˜ . this parallel is it does not amount to decisive evidence. ¯˙ However. . and favours an astrologer learned in astrology and a priest learned in the rituals [of the Atharvaveda]’. 37 Paippal¯ dava´ adisatkarmapaddhati. . 10. honours. . . ˚ mavedasya nava bhed¯ bhavanti. aa a ˜ . a . .38 However. mavedo ’yam ucyate. 23: tasm¯ n narapatir . honours. a s¯ . 147: vidr¯ vanasya siddhyartham a .12. and the general black.1 and 49. The closest to such a statement that I can find is this: ‘Therefore a wise king should always make his own with gifts. .7. we are told that the king’s fly-whisk should be uncoloured. 16: ata eva brahmavedah athara ˜ ı . suggestive though a .3 and 69. a a˜ a . and ibid. and those of the chief queen. and favours’. there¯˙ fore. 49. a . there is no unambiguous declaration in these Angirasakalpa texts that the officiants envisaged by them occupied this exalted office. ˚ r¯ j¯ d¯ nasamm¯ naranjanaih ‘Therefore the king should always adopt with gifts. tad yath¯ paippal¯ d¯ h . . or that the redactors of the texts have avoided greater specificity because they were addressing a situation in which the royal priest was only the foremost among a number of Atharvavedin officiants attached to the court. the crown-prince.4.2: tasm¯ d r¯ j¯ vi´esena atharv¯ nam jitendriyam | a aa s .1. and that the breadth of the parasol should be similarly calibrated. fire sacrifice] performed by Atharvavedin brahmins’.: ˜ . . . ibid. P2 f. and the rest. . those .1: tatra brahs.39 36 Similarly. a . Atharvavedapari´ista 1. and ibid. 36: atharvavedatattvajnam tasm¯ n nrpatir arcayet. p.36 The royal priest. emending r¯ jn¯ to r¯ jno in to mean brahmavedavid ‘learned in the Atharvaveda’. cf.. . then.10ab). I take brahmavid. was ranked below the king himself but above the queen and the crown-prince. of the term brahmavedah in the meaning atharvavedah. see Visnudharmottarapur¯ na 2.. Jayantabhatta.. p. a . and royal priest five. p. In any case the texts reveal that for many of the rituals that they teach the king was to engage the services of not one but several brahmins and that all were to be Atharvavedins. its width in each case being half the length of the pole (2. a.

. trividh¯ br¯ hmanavyavasth¯ . . The yajam¯ nah may appoint five. . or two. ¯ a . 1v–55v]). ˚ he says. a . In his Asur¯d¯pik¯ Bhudhara a . a represented by a water-vessel (udap¯ tram)—for this he cites the Vait¯ nakalpa (Paippal¯ dava´adia a a s¯ satkarmapaddhati. ˚. identical with those of approximately the first half of the Asimila manuscript (As). . both catalogued as Angirasa (Atharvaved¯ya). 10 of the edition. tesv apy eka ac¯ ryah aparo ˜ a a a.40 i.42 The contents of aı a ı the portion of the manuscript that it shares with PAN D A’s edition (EdP) are as . aprativakt¯ itaro mantrani´c¯ yakah aparo dravyopakalpakah. vacanam vait¯ nakalpe “anyam a a a a a . a p.t 40 The contents of the two Pune manuscripts have been briefly described by B AHULKAR ¯˙ (1987). tad *evam (em. 41 Angirasakalpa. : eva me Ed. ı ¯ ı the passage of the Asur¯kalpa given above—. . all undated and on palm leaf. . . a . ¯˙ a a´ı a ı . ˚ tadanantaram” iti. termed the brahm¯ (Paippal¯ dava´adisatkarmapaddhati. a . P f. and a dravyopakalpakah—this. ˚ tanmate pancaiva br¯ hmanah. ending with a colophon that specifies that this is the end . tath¯ ca paith¯nasih: a a s a a . . . a ¯ . The common text . a t a s a . Here P1 breaks off. The statement said to occur vait¯ nakalpe can be traced to Atharvavedaa a a a . . . . l. brahm¯ anyah prs.¯ runs continuously from the beginning of the latter to a point three verses from the end of the Bhadrak¯ l¯mah¯ b¯javidhi. a ˚ ¯ ı ı a ¯ dhomak¯ rinau | ac¯ ryam vrnuy¯ t purvam brahm¯ nam tadanantaram. yad vaika eva vidv¯ n kart¯ . 123–124): tatra panca br¯ hmanah karmanirv¯ hak¯ h. tells us that there are three possibilities in this tradition. . . pp. manuscript (ff. ˚ ˚ c¯ sur¯kalpe “samkalpya pratham¯ vrttim vrnuy¯ d dhomak¯ rinau | ac¯ ryam vrnuy¯ t purvam brahm¯ nam a ı a a . . br¯ hmanam *anuc¯ nam (corr. pari´is. 55v3–) are. §2D. termed the ac¯ ryah. 63): vrnuy¯ d ¯ a . s . ı . In the account of the rites of Asur¯ Durg¯ (Asur¯kalpa) we are told that the king should ı a ¯ ı appoint two brahmins to perform the fire sacrifice.) a a a . a .1. a . for a list of all Angirasa manuscripts available to him and the relevant sigla. Griffiths points out that the original provenance of the two Pune manuscripts must also lie in Orissa. namely an ac¯ ryah and a brahm¯ —for this he cites ¯ a . ‘the A ˙ The Contents of MS P1 and the materials it shares with MS As (→ EdP) The manuscript BORI 960 of 1887–91 (P1 ) opens with a long text on the ceremony of affusion with water empowered with the Mantra of Nrsimha (nrsimh¯ . evam atharvanakarmani a ¯ a a s a . . : vrttau Ed. ¯. ¯. . p. 1 . “ekah karmani yuktah sy¯ d eko dravyopakalpakah | ekah prs. ı ¯ ngirasa [Kalpa] (of the Atharvaveda)’.¯ . barring minor variants. namely an ac¯ ryah.).) upave´yam udap¯ tram v¯ ” iti. in the Devan¯ gar¯ script. ¯ a a ¯ a. . aprativakt¯ . .16. . a brahm¯ .t . . The first is the a s¯ .t . 42 The last words are tato mah¯ navamy¯ m tu gandh¯ dyair bahubhir yajet. are in the library of the Bhandarkar a ı ¯˙ Oriental Research Institute in Pune. . which are found on a a. a . brahm¯ punar udap¯ tram. . . ¯ a a. ¯ a . . and his assistant. of the second Patala of the V¯ manabhavad¯ s¯ya. is the view of Paith¯nasi—.e. . ˚. a 37. . 113. a ˚ ˚ bhisekah [ff. or just an ac¯ ryah. : anuc¯ nam Ed. a prs. ˚. . ¯ BR HASPATE YAJ NAM P AHI iti brahmajapavidh¯ n¯ d brahm¯ siddham. . See Arlo Griffiths’ contribution to this volume. .¯ The other two. These are the principal officiant. ¯ a s . ˚. a mantrani´c¯ yakah. . athav¯ c¯ ryabrahm¯ nau dv¯ v eva *vrtau (corr.41 The contents of the rest of the a aı . ˜ . . in which case the brahm¯ is ¯ a . a ¯ . Asimila manuscript transcribed as PAN D A’s Paippal¯ dava´adisatkarmapaddhati. a a s¯ .¯ ¯ vaveda iti. ˚. . uktam ˜ a a a a. Both are incomplete. ah san pratibruy¯ d eko mantrasya ni´caye”.ATHARVAVEDINS IN TANTRIC TERRITORY 209 The Manuscripts ¯˙ Of various potentially relevant Orissan Angirasa manuscripts I have had access to photographic copies of three. 56v2–3: iti v¯ manabhavad¯ s¯ye abhiseko n¯ ma dvit¯yah patalah sam¯ ptah.

. 11–14. 56v3–61v4. and for sending me a copy of PATs . ı 44 For a definition of Yantra in this sense see n. a a 2. an additional section (pp. causing panic (ucc¯ .t ´ TANAYAK ’s edition of Laksm¯dharami´ ra’s Saivacint¯ mani. 17–23. karm¯ ni): subjection (va´am). falsify a rumour.210 follows:43 ALEXIS SANDERSON 1. . . = EdP pp. 6. Incompatibility between various hostile rites. ˚ protect a fort when the king has retreated to it after a defeat in battle. . 1–8. ¯ .¯ manuscripts in the collection of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute. a. = EdP pp. a s¯ . . . 8–9. 68v4–75v1.¯ ´a ´ When after reading this edition I told him of my interest in its S¯ kta Saiva elements he provided ¯˙ me with scans of the Asimila manuscript and lent me his photocopies of the two Angirasakalpa . . 16–17): ity angirase kalpe parakarmaniv¯ ranam. Colophon ity angirasakalpe mantrar¯ javijn¯ nam sam¯ ptam. immobilization (stambhanam). . . Colophon: ity I. ¯˙ s¯ . = EdP pp. and other benefits. P1 ff. a .¯ 8. a. P1 ff. ˚ 5. 134 on p. . I am also grateful to him for providing me with electronic texts of PAN D A’s edition of the Asimila manuscript and B OLLING . = EdP pp. 25–26. a . T/121 and T/187. Affusion of the king with water empowered by Nrsimha’s 32-syllable Mantrar¯ ja. 66v1–68v4. 3. Worship of Nrsimha’s Mantrar¯ ja to a . The benefits of the 32-syllable Mantrar¯ ja. 7. Colophon: ity angirase kalpe durgaraksavidh¯ nam. a . 63r4–64v1. .¯ and VON N EGELEIN’s edition of the Atharvavedapari´is. . Colophon: ity angirase kimvadant¯˚ sakaranam. ˚ ¯ BH¯S AN AM BHADRAM MR TYUMR TYUM NAM AMY AHAM . EdP has here a ¯˙ a ˜a .. 61v4–63r4. 14–16. . on which see p. and at . . causing dissension (vidvesanam). ¯˙ a . 9–11.¯ . P1 ff. . = EdP pp. Colophon: ity angirasakalpe va´adisatkarm¯ ni sam¯ pt¯ ni. and the Bhadrak¯ l¯mah¯ a aı aı a b¯japra´ams¯ from the evidence of these three witnesses and sent them to him he did me the ı s . 232 and n. 76. the Bhadrak¯ l¯mantravidhi. Foretelling the future by means of ¯ . P1 ff. s a . ¯˙ ımr. anam). Worship of Nrsimha’s Mantrar¯ ja to a . P1 ff. 76r4–77v1. ¯˙ . that he had found to contain them. 75v1–76r4. ˚ nrsimh¯ bhisekah. Colophon: ity angirase mantrar¯ javidhih. . ˚ 43 I am greatly indebted to Arlo Griffiths for having provided me with all the Paippal¯ da matea rials used in this paper. ¯˙ a . deluding (moa. . . Worship of Nrsimha’s Mantrar¯ ja for the a . = EdP pp. the warding off of drought. . In 2004 he sent me a copy of PAN D A’s Paippal¯ dava´adisatkarmapaddhati. P1 ff. . After I had prepared drafts of editions of the Par¯ japavidhi. Colophon: ity angirasakalpe karmavirodhakathanam. ¯˙ a a 4. Colophon: ity angirasakalpe a ¯˙ . 264. killing (m¯ ranam). . P1 ff. P1 ff. ¯˙ a . a great kindness in 2005 of preparing for me while he was in Bhubaneswar collations of my edi¯˙ tions of these texts with two other Angirasakalpa manuscripts in the collection of the Orissa State Museum. 23–25. = EdP pp. . ˚ ˚ angirase an¯ gat¯ rthavedanam. Definitions of the six hostile rites (sat . ˚ destruction of the king’s enemies. ˚¯ BH¯MAM MAH AVIS N UM JVALANTAM SARVATOMUKHAM | NR SIM HAM I . Yantras44 of Nrsimha and his 32-syllable Anustubha Mantrar¯ ja: UGRAM a . s hanam).. 64v1–66v1. = EdP pp.

a 45 Asur¯ ¯ ı AMUKASYA PRASTHITASYA GATIM DAHA UPAVIS T ASYA BHAGAM DAHA . Colophon: ity angirase ı ¯˙ . 46–47. . . . t ¯ .1. Bali offered to Nrsimha and other deities . . . 37–42. and offered in the sacrificial fire (35. = EdP pp. Other benefits of the same. 28–30. 80r4–85v3. .1. ˚ 11. 93r1–94r4. s .. I. . 85v3–89r4. a´akune is. this is retained but the character of the ritual is transformed by superimposing a Tantric cult of a goddess who bears the plant’s name and is equated with Durg¯ . 14. ¯a . ity angirase is. asiddhih (EdP). 89r4–92r3. . tion but without a goddess of this name and no liturgical elements borrowed from or prefig¯˙ uring the Tantric. ¯˙ under the name asur¯yah kalpah. = pp. Colophon: ity angirase kalpe nrsimhabalividhih. anis. In the Angirasa text all a a a a a s . P1 ff. P1 ff. Colophon: ity angirase mah¯ nrsimha . P1 ff. being smeared with ghee. . t s t . .´ va´¯kurvams ca bhupat¯n | asur¯slaksnapis. ¯ ¯ TAV ASASE ATHARVAN ASYA DUHITRE GHORE GHORAKARMAN I K ARIKE . ity angirase mah¯ jayakalpah (EdP). which is ground into a meal out of which an effigy of the enemy is fashioned as the focus of hostile sorcery.¯ ˚ . ajyam juhuy¯ d akrtim budhah | arkendhan¯ gnim prajv¯ lya sı ¯ ı ¯ ı´ . The Pari´is. . ¯˙ . Colophon: ity angirasakalpe asur¯dhy¯ n¯ ni. 47–48. 78r4–79r1.19 a a. 42–46.´ . asiddhih (P1 ). . . Colophon: ity angirase abhayanrsimhavidhih. ¯˙ a .t . Colophon: iti puj¯ vidhih. ¯˙ . t s t ¯˙ t¯ . ¯˙ . = EdP pp. 92r3–93r1. = EdP pp. ´ I for victory in war (B¯ja: KS RAUM. P1 ff. The Mantra of the four-armed goddess ¯ ¯ Asur¯ Durg¯ (OM NAMAH KAT UKE KAT UKAPATRE SUBHAGE ASURI RAK ı a . Mantra: S R¯NR SIM HA JAYANR˚SIM HA ı . . Worship of 20-armed Mah¯ jayanrsimha a . . . ˚ ¯˙ . How to obtain the outcome of one’s ¯ choice with the Mantras of Asur¯ and Nrsimha. ˚ ´ I ´ I for victory in war (Mantra: OM S R¯NR SIM HA JAYA JAYA S R¯NR SIM HA).t . . ´ S AYITASYA MANO DAHA PRABUDDHASYA HR DAYAM DAHA . . = EdP pp. 26–27. Colophon: ity angirase kalpe nrsimhabalikarmaphalakathanam. Worship of 16-armed Abhayanrsimha to . = EdP pp. . . ¯˚˙ a ˚. P1 ff. P1 ff. is probably what is mentioned in Mah¯ bh¯ sya on 4. a gives the Mantra used here in the Angirasa collec¯ ı .ATHARVAVEDINS IN TANTRIC TERRITORY 211 9. = EdP pp. 27–28. . P1 ff. ˚ 10. region. a´akune is. 30–37. There and in the Angirasa text asur¯ is the name of the Indian Black Mustard ¯ ı plant Sinapis ramosa Roxb. end a major danger. AMUKAM JAYA 2 NR SIM HA HR¯M). . ˚ EdP 13. = EdP pp. . asahasram juhuy¯ d yasya va´y asau).t 35. 77v1–78r4. or capital. ˚ to put an end to unforeseen calamities in the palace. or a version of it.45 ¯˙ ¯ ı a a ¯˚ 15. (M AGOUN 1889. chopped up. ˚ ¯˙ chittv¯ strenakrtim tu t¯ m | p¯ d¯ grato ’s. ¯ 16. . 79r1–80r4.6–7: hantuk¯ mo hi satrums ca a ´ ¯. Indeed the latter. ¯ ı is already present in Atharvavedic tradition in the Asur¯kalpa of Atharvavedapari´is. 171–172). . ˚ ˚ (P1 ). . . pp. . . ˚ 12. P1 ff. a s . . ˚ ˚ Colophon: ity angirase jayanrsimhakalpah. 5 PACA 2 ´ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ MATHA 2 T AVAD DAHA Y AVAN ME VA S AM AGACCHET SV AH A ) and her visualizations appropriate to the various hostile rites. a ¯ a a . The worship of Asur¯ and the deities of ı her retinue. . ˚ anis. Worship of 20-armed Jayanrsimha .

54–55. 95r3–95v1. = EdP pp. 97r4–98r1. P1 ff. causing panic. ¯ ı a a . Colophon: ity angirase kundavidhih. . ¯˙ . 104v3–108v3. ¯˙ ¯ ı ¯ ¯ 24. 101r4–101v3.212 ALEXIS SANDERSON ¯ 17. Colophon: ı a ity angirase satkarmasiddhin¯ m¯ sur¯mah¯ yantram. Colophon: ity angirase bh¯ van¯ satkam. ¯˙ ¯ ı a . 94r4–95r1. 20. = pp. 49–50. 28. 48–49. = EdP pp. Rites of a Yantra of Asur¯ Durg¯ . = EdP pp. A work by an anonymous scholar on a fire sacrifice culminating in the dismemberment and sacrifice of an image ¯ of the enemy made of the Asur¯ fruit and other substances. = EdP pp. 57. . Colophon: ity angirase satruvasah. . 95v1–96r2. ˜ . 66–67. ¯˙ 27. Colophon: ity angirase homa¯˙ k¯ lanirnayah. P1 ff. Colophon: ity angirase homas¯ m¯ nyavidhih. = EdP pp.t ¯ ı . . This is the Asur¯kalpa of ı Atharvavedapari´is. a 35. P1 ff. ¯˙ a a . Rites of Asur¯ Durg¯ for the immobilization ı a of an enemy. Fire sacrifice of an image made of ¯ ¯ ı meal of the Asur¯-plant for various purposes. = EdP p. 29. s . 57–61. = EdP pp. ¯˙ a a ı a . and the meaning of its words. = EdP pp. 19. ¯ s . ¯˙ a a. = EdP pp. 98v3–99v4. 49. . . On the nature of immobilizing. deluding. causing dissension. 51–52. Colophon: ity angirase asur¯mantr¯ rthakathanam. P1 ff. 96r2–97r4. Fire-offering to Asur¯ and the offering in ı the fire of the parts of a dismembered effigy of an enemy. The substances with which the offerings into fire should be smeared in the six hostile rites. 99v4–101r4. Assuming the mental states of Asur¯ approı priate to the six hostile rites. P1 ff. a . P1 ff. How to adjust the Mantra of Asur¯ acı cording to the goal and context. 108v3–110r4. 98r1–98v3. Rites of Asur¯ Durg¯ for the subjection ı a of an enemy. Colophon: ity asur¯kalpah. ¯˙ ¯ ı a 22. . ¯ 26. 101v3–104v3. Colophon: ity angirase stambhanam. 61–66. 95r1–95r3. . Colophon: ity angirase asur¯svarupakathanam. P1 ff. Colophon: ity angirase ¯˙ anjanasatkam. Ranking of the durations of the hostile fire sacrifices from one to twenty-one days. and killing the enemy. P1 ff. P1 ff. ¯˙ ´ . 55–57. = EdP p. 53–54. The metaphysical nature of Asur¯ as the ı root-power (mula´aktih) that operates through her proximity to Brahma. P1 ff. = EdP pp.. Colophon: ity ı asur¯vidh¯ nakalpah sam¯ ptah. ¯ 23. P1 ff. 53. The shape of the fire-pit in the various hostile fire sacrifices. = EdP pp. P1 ff. ¯ 25. ¯ 18. ¯ 21. Colophon: ity angirase asur¯kalpah sam¯ ptah. 50–51. P1 ff.

prtan¯ jayema in B HATTACHARYA’s edition. . Colophon: ity angirase kalpe paravidy¯ niv¯ ranam. 116r3–118r1. ´ . Mantra rite of K¯ l¯ to be worshipped aı on a sword to be given to the king before he enters battle (OM NAMAH . ¯˙ . . who fola ˚ lows here the reading of the Orissa manuscripts.46 ¯˙ a a . JANAD OM (e. . Mantra rites of two-armed and ten¯ ¯ armed K¯ l¯ for victory (K ALIK AYAI NAMAH). Visnu. and Maa . ¯ ¯ ¯ . = EdP pp. .10.3. Colophon: ity angirasakalpe graha¯˙ santividhih. .2). ¯ ¯ K ALIK AYAI ). . . ¯ I ¯ . . DHANVAN A G A DHANVAN AJIM JAYEMA DHANVAN A T¯VR AH SAMADO ¯ ¯ ¯ . ˙ final words of the Mantra are . 115r1–115v1. Rite of the formless Vijn¯ nabhairava ¯ . P1 ff. . 32. 33. Colophon: ity angirase I. 71–72. 72–74. ˚ ´ ATASAHASRASIM HAV AHINI SAHASRAVADANE ¯ ¯ NAMAH KR S N AV ASASE S . . Worshipping Brahm¯ . = EdP pp.3. the Kashmir manuscript reads . = EdP pp. 76–78. ´ . 111v3–113r1. 74. P1 ff. I. . = EdP pp. = EdP pp. however. pradi´o jayema.75. ˚ ¯ ¯ ˙ ˙ MAH APRABALE APAR AJITE * PRATYA NGIRE [P1 : PRIYA NGIRE EdP] PARA ¯ SAINYAVIDHVAM SINI PARAKARMAVIDHVAM SINI PARAMANTROTS ADINI . is a Tantric personification of Atharvavedic counter-sorcery (pratyangirasam). . . . a ˚ 47 The 46 Pratyangir¯ ˙ a . . Vait¯ nasutra 1.. Colophon: ity angirase kalpe k¯ lik¯ mantravidhih. 31. and by the nearly identical parallel that is Rgvedasamhit¯ 6. ¯˙ a a .g.ATHARVAVEDINS IN TANTRIC TERRITORY 213 30. Colophon: ity angirase sadaı ¯˙ . a ¯ ´ ¯ ¯ VIDM A S ARASYA PITARAM PARJANYAM BH URIDH AYASAM | VIDMO HY . ´¯ . P1 ff. 67–70. SARVABH UTAVIMARDINI SARVADEV AN VIDHVAM SAYA 2 SARVAVIDY AM .47 Colophon: ity angirase PRADI S a ¯˙ . = EdP pp. 114r1–115r1. P1 ff. An Atharvavedic Mantra (Paippal¯ dasamhit¯ 1. ˜a 36. The worship of the 2000-armed god˙ a dess Pratyangir¯ to ward of the Krty¯ of the enemy (Vidy¯ : OM HR¯M a a I. he´ vara in the king’s bow before battle with the Atharvavedic Mantra OM s .18). ´ ¯ ¯ ASYA M ATARAM PR THIV¯M VI S VADH AYA SA M . ˚ saramantrah. 113r1–113v4. ˚ ´ O JAYEMA (Paippal¯ dasamhit¯ 15. and the authenticity of this reading is confirmed both by the testimony of the s ¯˙ Angirasa tradition. 35. aı . .2. JAYEMA | DHANUH S ATROR APAK AMAM KR N OTU DHANVAN A SARV AH . 74–76. ´ ˙ ¯ ¯ SPHOT AYA 2 SARVA S R NKHAL AS TROT AYA 2 KR NTAYA 2 PARAMANTR AN . 115v1–116r3. 110r4–111v3. . . a dhanurmantravidhih. . 70–71. which both frees from the sin incurred a ¯ . Rite to be commissioned by the king for the pacification of inimical planets. 34. P1 ff. P1 ff. ¯ ¯ ¯ . P1 ff.. = EdP p. ¯ ¯ Rudra with the Atharvavedic Mantra OM BH UH BHUVAH SVAH SV AH A . ˚ ¯ ¯ ¯ ˙ ˚ JVALAJJV AL AJIHVE KAR ALAVADANE PRATYA NGIRE KL¯M NAMAH OM).1) to empower the king’s arrows for victory: OM a . . . . aksarak¯ l¯ kalpamantravidhih.

a . = EdP pp. 89. . P1 ff. 220. ¯ Mantra OM SABANDHU S C ASABANDHU S CA YO ASM AM ABHID ASATI | SA . P1 ff. = EdP pp. .. below on p. samhit¯ 19. . Colophon: ity angirase krty¯ pratis¯ rah. P1 ff. . Atharvavedasamhit¯ 10. . ¯ SARV AM S T¯RTV AHAM BH UY ASAM UTTAMAH . ˚ ¯ ´ ´ ¯ ¯´ ¯ DEV¯DEVI MAH AKUBJE MAMA S ATR UN VIN A S AYA MAMA S ATR UN I ¯´ ¯ VIN A S AYOM) and OM HR¯M MAH AYOGINI GAURI TRIBHUVANAM KARI 49 I. (Paippal¯ da¯ . . Colophon: ity a . . 125r1–125v4. ˚ ´¯ ´ . a ¯˙ a a . 123v3–124v2. A tantricized rite of the Atharvavedic ¯ Abhayamantra of Rudra (OM ABHAYAM SOMAS SAVIT A . = pp. a scriptural text with a Trika background concerned with medita˜a tion techniques for liberation which received a commentary by Ksemar¯ ja and has enjoyed great a . . = pp. 123r3–123v3. 83–87. Rites of two Mantras of the lionfaced goddess Mah¯ krty¯ to kill an enemy without going to war: KHAT a a . . 78–81. angirase ’bhayamantrah. the Atharvanic Kubjikopa¯ ¯ ¯ nisad 22. ¯˙ . ¯˙ a a ˚ EdP 39. P1 ff. see.50 H UM ¯˙ a a a . No colophon. But in P2 it is Tantric. the reading BHUVANABHAYAM KARI in this Mantra in item 10. 87–89. Colophon: ity angirase krty¯ mantravidh¯ nam. ¯ ¯ ¯ BANDH UN I a . Rite of another Krty¯ mantra: KR S N A a . = pp. .14). Colophon: ity angirase krty¯ pratis¯ re yuktih. A metaphysical explanation of the efficacity of such counter-rites. p. ¯˙ a . EdP 41. A golden Yantra by means of which a king can cause the effect of hostile rites to revert to his enemy. ˚ = EdP p. 43. . see below.5: KHAT PHAT JAHI MAH AKR TYE VIDH UM AGNISAMAPRABHE | . Here in P1 the Mantra of Vijn¯ nabhairava is Vedic.5. . 87. ˚ ´˚ ¯ ¯´ MAMA S ATR UN VIN A S AYA . ˚ ˚ ¯ BR HATKARN I MAHADBHAYI | DEVI DEVI MAH ADEVI ¯ VARN I BR HADR UPI . 118r1–120r2.1) to be performed by the king for his security. 120r2–120v4. How a king may recognize that a hostile rite has been directed against him (krty¯ cihn¯ ni). A Krty¯ mantra rite to be commisa ˚ sioned by a king to cause the effect of any Krty¯ rite to be directed back a to the enemy who has performed it against ˚him with the Atharvavedic ´ ¯ ´ ¯ .27. Colophon: ity angirase pratis¯ rayantram. 48 For those familiar with the Kashmirian Saiva literature the name Vijn¯ nabhairava will bring ´ ˜a EdP to mind the Vijn¯ nabhairava. 89–91. . It is probable that the same association was in the mind of the ¯˙ ˜a namer of this Angirasa Mantra.1. samhit¯ 1. popularity down to recent times. . ¯ . P1 ff. ˚ 38. 81–83. a a ˚ 42. ˚ ´ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ PHAT DEVI MAH AKR TYE VIDH UM AGNISAMAPRABHE | HANA S ATR UN . 120v4–123r3.. e. PHAT. P1 ff. ˚ EdP 40.214 ALEXIS SANDERSON by commissioning hostile rites and bestows self-realization. 50 The term krty¯ refers in the Atharvaveda to a hostile spell that may take the form of an effigy a ˚ with human features. ¯˙ a a . . Colophon: ity angirase vijn¯ nabhairavamantrah. Colophon: ity angirase mah¯ krty¯ vidh¯ nam. Paippal¯ daa .48 ¯˙ ˜a . particularly one used against an enemy. TRI S ULENA KRUDHYASVA PIBA S ON ITAM (cf. 218. 49 Cf. . 124v2–125r1. P1 ff. = p. 37.g.

49.1. 102–103. 95. P1 ff. 98–101. 101–102. . a ´a a in the Vidy¯ by markatike suggests the tentative hypothesis that this goddess that causes dissena . 48. P1 ff. 135v1–136v4. ¯˙ ı a . The fact that the vocative gharmatike is followed . 130r3–132r2. . Paippal¯ dasamhit¯ 3. Colophon: ity angirase paravidy¯ niv¯ ranayantravidhih. ously self-protection and the destruction of one’s enemies. 125v4–126v1. Rite of the Mantra of the goddess Par¯ (SAUH) for the attainment of liberation. P1 ff. Colophon: ity angirasakalpe gharmatik¯ vidhih.ATHARVAVEDINS IN TANTRIC TERRITORY 215 44.. A rite of the goddess Pratyangir¯ on a Yantra of gold or birch-bark to ward off the spells of an enemy. a . P1 ff. . 91–92. Panj¯ b¯ makkar¯ f. = EdP pp.64. . ¯˙ a . . . . = EdP pp. Colophon: ity angirase aindr¯ bhayamantrah.. 96–98. . 96. japavidhih. a . a . . . ¯ H A VAS AT ) to bring about hostility between one’s enemies (vidvesanam). P1 ff. = EdP p.15). . = EdP pp. Colophon: ity angirase ek¯ ksara¯˙ a . . . OM AVA BRAHMADVIS O JAHI) that accomplishes simultane. goal by any person and for the attainment of identity with Rudra (rudratvam) by a meditator (yog¯) or gnostic (jn¯ n¯). origin of the name Gharmatik¯ . . ¯ ¯ DVES AK ARIN I 2 AMUK AMUKAYOH PARASPARADVES AM 2 KURU 2 SV A . of various effects. . Rite of the one-syllable Mantra of Bhairava (BHAM) for the attainment of liberation. Rite of the Vidy¯ goddess a Gharmatik¯ (OM GHARMAT IKE 2 MARKAT IKE 2 GHORE 2 VIDVES IN I 2 VI . Kum¯ un¯ makuri f. bhairavamantrah. . a 50. which also appears in the forms Gharmutik¯ and .51 ¯˙ a . Factors that prevent the success of Mantra rites and procedures for counteracting them. = EdP pp. 132r2–134v3. 94–95. 129r1–129v2. 127v4–128v2. Colophon: ity angirase sarvaı ˜a ı ¯˙ k¯ mabhairavah. Rite of the Mantra of Sarvak¯ maa ¯ bhairava (OM BHAIRAV AYA NAMAH) for the attainment of any limited . . 126v1–127v4. 46. Prakrit ghammod¯) and the spider (cf. P1 ff. A parallel tantricized rite of the ¯ Atharvavedic Abhayamantra of Indra (OM YATA INDRA BHAY AMAHE . 51. . . 45. sion personifies in these epithets the mosquito (cf. Rite of the trisyllabic Mantra of the goddess Tripurabhairav¯ (HSRAIM HSKLR¯M HSRAUH M) for the attainment ı I.ı makkada m. 52. a ¯˙ a .. . Colophon: ity angirase par¯ a ¯˙ a . 134v3–135v1. . Prakrit . 92–93. . = EdP pp. . hostile and other. . Hind¯ makr¯ f. A tantricized rite of a Rgvedic Man˚ tra (8. . 129v2–130r3. a Ghurmutik¯ (S¯ rad¯ tilaka 24. . .1). P1 ff. . Colophon: ity angirase svaraksaripugh¯ tah.¯ ˙ a 47. . Colophon: ity angirase tripurabhairav¯¯˙ ı vidh¯ nam. P1 ff. a .35. 51 The . P1 ff. = EdP p. is obscure. .) a ı ı a ı ı ı . ¯˙ a a . = EdP pp. Colophon: ity angirase kalpe ’siddhiprat¯k¯ rah. ¯ . = EdP pp.

137v1–138r2. = EdP pp. [3] OM BHADRAK ALI JAYAM DEHI PHAT . Tripuraprakaranopa¯ s ¯ a . .. ubhakalpam¯ l¯ of Sesa. . and the annual propitiation of Bhadrak¯ l¯ with thrice-daily worship. and P¯ vam¯ n¯sukta. P1 ff. = EdP pp. that is to say. = EdP pp. and the Anus.. ¯˙ a .. to empower the royal weapons. . 140–148) and the Sadaksaravakratundaa ı a´ . ¯ ¯ I. Colophon: ity angirase bhadrak¯ l¯mantravidhih. regular worship of Nrsimha with his Anustubha Mantra (pp. s ¯ . a nightly fire-ritual. acting them. 110. 113–127). .. R¯ macandropanisad. 103–104. ¯˙ aı . the means of preventing such impediments. 136v4–137v1. = EdP p. 142r4–142v3. the Bhadrak¯ l¯mah¯ aı a . ¯ . Colophon in As: ity angiraskalpe bhadrak¯ l¯mah¯ b¯javidhih a ı ¯˙ aı a ı . . Colophon: ity angirase karmavighnaprat¯k¯ rah. . . . 138r2–142r4. and the a secondary officiants (sadasy¯ h) should all be Vaisnavas. aı aı a ı s . . The worship of the Great Seed on a Yantra in combination with the nine-syllable and eleven-syllable Mantras of Bhadrak¯ l¯. namely thousands of special oblations in the sacrificial fire. 148–153). . materials on the worship of Vakratunda (Gane´ a) from . P: ity angirasakalpe bhadrak¯ l¯balimah¯ vidhih). ´¯ ¯ ´ ¯ ¯ ME HANA HANA DAHA S OS AYA T APAYA | S UL ASI S AKTIVAJR ADYAIR ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ UTKR TYOTKR TYA M ARAYA | MAH ADEVI MAH ADEVI RAKS ASM AN . P1 ff. s¯ . ¯ ¯ BHADRAK ALI BHAV ABH¯S T ABHADRASIDDHIPRAD AYINI | SAPATN AN ´ . 142v3–145v4. . . The last surviving folio of (Ed ¯˙ aı a .52 . = EdP p. Mantra rites of Bhadrak¯ l¯ for aı ´ ¯M MAH ACAN D AYOGE S VARI PHAT. ´ . In PAN D A’s text. and sacriaı fices of buffaloes and other animals during the fifteen days leading up to Mah¯ navam¯. Krsna´antopanisad. Colophon: ity angirase parakarmaniv¯ ranam. kalpa ‘taught by Bhrgu’ (pp.¯ ¯ ı ı a b¯javidhi with which the shared text ends is followed by the Asur¯d¯pik¯ of ı ¯˙ ¯ Bhudhara (pp. with special procedures to be adopted on the eve of bataı tle. P1 ends three verses before the end of this section. Vi´varup¯ khyopanisad. P1 ff. . an exhaustive Paddhati for the aa . Brhannrsimhopanisad. Purusasubodhin¯. .¯ ˚ ¯ ˚ ¯ AKS AT ATMIKE . . 130–140). . ¯˙ ı a . 55. P1 ff. 154) on the design of [his] . a 57. 127–130). Bhadrak¯ l¯. ˚ nisad. the Siddhaudanaprak¯ ra on the food to a be offered to Gane´˚ the Sarvatobhadramandala (p. .¯ vedic Upanisads: Anuculikopanisad. notably that the commissioner of the rite. 154–209). and of countera. Colophon: iti bhadrak¯ l¯mah¯ b¯japra´ams¯ .t Mandala. ˚ ˚ 52 The . How to prevent the success of an enemy’s hostile ritual. ˚ remaining pages (210–249) of PAN D A’s edition contain a number of Vaisnava Atharva. 113. . the Mantramukt¯ val¯ of Purnaprak¯ sa (pp. . 104–105. 105–109. P1 ff. ı a a a ı ¯ .216 ALEXIS SANDERSON 53. ¯ . in the Asimila manuscript. 56... . . [2] ¯ victory in battle: [1] OM HR I . the Pa´ubalid¯ navidhi of the Angirasakalpa (pp. . [4] B¯ja: ı . s a ´ the Satrupar¯ jayavidhi and related materials from the Tantr¯ dhy¯ ya of the Karmaa a a samuccaya (pp. 54. Praise of the Great Seed (HSKHPHREM) of . .. the principal officiant (kart¯ ).¯ . . HSKHPHREM . . . sa. . Signs of impediments to the success of Mantra rites. a Bhadrak¯ l¯vrata to be observed aı on the ninth day of the bright fortnight.

. An untitled Kalpa applicable to the worship of any deity: initiation (d¯ksa).ATHARVAVEDINS IN TANTRIC TERRITORY 217 The discontinuity between the shared portion and that which follows it in the Asimila manuscript underlines the possibility that the missing last part . ing karany¯ sah. preparing the vessels (p¯ tras¯ dhanam). ı ¯ . presenting ofıt ¯a a a ferings (upac¯ r¯ h) to it and its retinue. ahomah. BORI 959 of 1887–1891 (P2 ). of the Prapancas¯ ra and employing its visualization verse (f. rules concerning eating.t a ı colophon on f. a a ¯ a a. Colophon: ity angirase visnusuktavidh¯ nam. contains much that is not found in the first or in the Asimila manuscript and EdP.¯ substantial common material. worshipping a s a a . . . ¯ . ı ¯ a 5. Worship of Laksm¯ with the Sr¯sukta. the order of regular worship (nityay¯ gah). ˙ a . purification of the site of wora . ´ ı ¯ 3. in fact the three final verses of aı that section in PAN D A’s edition. 1v1–3r4. 25r3–27r1. 27v3–4. ı Colophon: ity angirase sr¯suktavidh¯ nam. P2 ff.7). ¯ 6. But there is also . modia . . 24v2–25r3. . a 2. vy¯ hrtayah. P2 ff.. not in EdP or P1 . 22 are blank. the ritual of lighting the fire for ı . the deities of the weekdays.. ˜ a ¯˙ a a . not in EdP or P1 .¯ sacrifice. a . the rest of f. and other variables in the various desiderative rites (paus.t . ¯˙ s . and angany¯ sah. a . ship (sth¯ na´uddhih). Worship of Laksm¯ with the Laksm¯sukta. . fire-offerings. lowed by the is. ˚ the fire sacrifice (homah) to the Mantra to be mastered and its retinue. aksaravidhih. fol. P2 ff. ı Colophon: ity angirase sr¯laksm¯suktavidh¯ nam. 3r4–21v1. the agh¯ r¯ h. P2 ff. . = ˜ a Prapancas¯ ra 20. . not in EdP or P1 . the throne (p¯. times and places for mantras¯ dhanam. tion (garbh¯ dh¯ nam). t¯ . Colophon: ity angirasakalpe atharvavedapra´ams¯ . includa . three kinds of worship (y¯ gah) of dea a. 23r1–24v2.. . Worship of N¯ r¯ yana with his aa . dehany¯ sah. ik¯ d¯ni karm¯ ni). bringing down the deity (¯ v¯ hanam). worship of Agni. rosaries. Its contents are as follows: 1. ¯˙ ´ ı .¯ of P1 contained not this additional matter but only the end of the section on Bhadrak¯ l¯ in which the manuscript breaks off. not in EdP or P1 . P2 ff. . Colophon: ity angirase n¯ r¯ yanas. ¯ . ajyabh¯ gau. P2 ff. a a. transforming the fire (the agnisamsk¯ r¯ h) beginning with concep. ¯ ¯ ¯ eight-syllable Mantra (OM NAMO N AR AYAN AYA) following Patala 20 . japah. 21v and the whole of f. ¯˙ ´ ı ¯ a 4. ¯˙ a . scending degrees of elaboration. It breaks off without a a. lunar days. Worship of Visnu with the Visnusukta. . The superiority of the Atharvaveda over the other three Vedas and the special virtue of honouring Atharvavedins.¯ The Contents of MS P2 The second Pune manuscript. not in EdP or P1 . not in EdP or P1 . fications of the Mantra. 27r1–31r1. 21v1. ¯ a a . hapuj¯ ).

Colophon: ity raudre pippal¯ dakalpah. Worship of Dev¯ [Durg¯ ] with another ı a Dev¯sukta (f. Ancillaries. an 8-armed Rudra Mah¯ deva surrounded by the Gane´ varas. not in EdP or P1 . 35r1–39v2. Colophon: ity a a . Worship of Mah¯ laksm¯ with her Mantra a . 80–81. a a . not in EdP or P1 . Krodhabhairava. Kalpa of a Rudramantra (= Atharva´iras ˙ upanisad 40a) for martial and other purposes. 31r1–31v2. It includes a fire sacrifice for various purposes in which Krty¯ is a ˚ surrounded by the eight Bhairavas Asit¯ ngabhairava. Colophon: ity angirase y¯ vai´vadev¯vidh¯ nam. not in EdP or P1 . . P2 ff. 12. Unmattabhairava. Lokap¯ las. ). and Samh¯ rabhairava. . Vidye´ varas. a 10-armed s¯ . 8. P2 ff. Worship of Durg¯ with the Dev¯sukta. P2 ff. not in EdP or P1 . . for various purposes. ¯˙ a a 11. Worship of Sarasvat¯ with the S¯ rasvataı a sukta. poses. ¯˙ ´ a . . KARI H UM PHAT ). ı ´ ATRUM P AHI . Kap¯ libhairava. 31v2–3: ath¯ param dev¯suktam ucyate. Rurubhairava. ¯ a 14. Colophon: ity angirase angirasapurposes using the A ˙ ¯˙ ¯˙ mantrakalpah. l¯ da. 39v2–42v3. M¯ trs. pp. pacifis . P2 ff. . ¯˙ ı ¯ . Krty¯ fire sacrifices for various hostile a ˚ ¯ ngirasa Mantras. . a a a . P2 ff. . . s ˚ Lokap¯ las. a ı ¯ Colophon: ity angirase dev¯suktavidhih. and their weapons. and their weapons. ¯ ¯˙ a ¯ a 10. P2 ff.218 ALEXIS SANDERSON 7. P2 ff. : parisaramantravidh¯ nam Cod. ¯ S . 32r2–32v3.. 15. not in EdP or P1 . a . Colophon: ity angirase s¯ rasvatasuktavidh¯ nam. angirase *pratisaramantravidh¯ nam (em. Colophon: ity angirase ganapati¯ ¯˙ . and by the Ksetrap¯ las.). . not in EdP or P1 . 32v3–35r1. suktavidh¯ nam. cation (´antih). Colophon: ity angirase satrump¯ himantravidh¯ nam. P2 ff. a 13. Colophon: ity angirase rudraprayoge pippaa ¯˙ l¯ dakalpah. s s . 46r1–50r1. 42v3–46r1. 50r1–51r4. Rudrakalpa of another Rudramantra (= Atharva´ira-upanisad 40b) for the attainment of learning. ¯˙ a s ı a 9. Bh¯saa ı. Rudra closely related in iconography to the South Indian form of the ´ Saiddh¯ ntika Sad¯ siva. y¯ sya dev¯r iti dev¯suktasya ı ¯ a ı ¯ a ı ı ¯ . 31v2–32r2. A rite to kill an enemy by means of a ¯ Krty¯ (Krty¯ mantra: OM KR¯M MAH AYOGINI GAURI BHUVANABHAYAM a a I. ˚ ˚ ¯ . long life [on birthday]. P2 ff. . not in EdP or P1 . nabhairava. . principally protective and hostile. Gane´ varas. . not in EdP or P1 . taught by Angiras to Pippa. optionally using the Ganapatisukta. Worship of Ganapati for various pur. Caa˙ ndabhairava. accompanied by the Saktis V¯ m¯ to Manonman¯ a a´ a a ı ¯ and surrounded by the Murtis. This is an extended version of the text seen in EdP . not in EdP or P1 . and hostile purposes. .

ı . and a ı ı . Rite of Visnu and the four Vyuhas . S¯ a ¯˙ . 56v1–60r3. 105–110. ı a . C¯ munda. 54v4–56r1. A long Mantra invoking the interven´ ˙ a tion of the goddess Pratyangir¯ and her Saktis V¯ r¯ h¯. Raudr¯.6. 56r1–56v1. Colophon: ity angirase pranavamantravidhih.4. (f. ı a . ¯ ¯ ¯ (DH UM DH UM DH UMAVATI SV AH A).¯ . Dr¯ vin¯. ¯ Candik¯ for subjection of enemies (OM CIT I CIT I CAN D ALI MAH ACAN D ALI a . not in EdP or P1 . The visualization-text is Prapancas¯ ra 18. . The Bhadrak¯ l¯ texts as in EdP and aı P pp. P2 ff. Colophons: P1 but lacking the Bhadrak¯ l¯mah¯ b¯javidhih (Ed aı a ı . a a . not in EdP or P1 . not in EdP or P1 . = EdP pp. ˚ Samh¯ rak¯ rin¯ for various hostile purposes and for protection (Mantra: .ı a . P2 ff. The visualization-text is Prapancas¯ ra 19. . IH AVAHA LOHIT AKS A SARVAKARM AN I S ADHAYA SV AH A ). a 26. Worship of K¯ madeva with the Mantra a ¯ K AMAS TAD AGRE . . ¯ 19. 52v3–54r3. . P2 ff. Indr¯ n¯.. 59v4). and for other purposes. not in EdP or P1 . Stambhan¯.4. 102–103. . The Citimantra is also taught in ¯ ¯ ¯ AMUKAM ME VA S .30. 103–104. ¯˙ . a a ¯ 18. 54r3–54v4. P2 ff. P2 ff. ı a . 110–113). . . . P2 ff. P2 ff. . Mantra of Agni (VAI S V ANARA J ATAVEDA ¯ . Colophon: ity angirase a a ¯˙ . P2 ff. aa ı a. = EdP pp. 51r4–51v4. Mohan¯. 25. . . a kingdom is in danger from an enemy. a . Rite of the Mantra of the goddess ¯ a ı Dhum¯ vat¯ to be used by the king to strike and destroy his enemies ¯ ¯ . Rite of the Mantra of K¯ madeva for a the intensification of desire. 61v2–62r4.. with the Pranavamantra (OM).¯ ´ AM ANAYA SV AH A). (Paippal¯ dasamhit¯ 1.ı ı ı . ity angirase bhadrak¯ l¯mah¯ b¯javidhih (f. ¯˙ . not in EdP or P1 . .. ´ arad¯ tilaka 22.98–101. P2 ff. Colophon: ity angirase agnimantrah. ˜ a . Jrmbhin¯. . ity angirase mah¯ b¯japra´ams¯ ¯˙ aı a ı ¯˙ a ı s . P2 ff. ¯˙ . . . .1). P2 ff. Colophon: ity angirase karm¯ siddhipra¯˙ a t¯k¯ rah. . not in EdP or P1 . Ksobhin¯. not in EdP or P1 . a . Colophon: ity angirase indramantravidhih. Worship of Indra with the Mantra TR A ¯ T ARAM INDRAM . 23. 21. 24. . 60r3–61v2. k¯ mamantravidhih. its Ancillaries.ATHARVAVEDINS IN TANTRIC TERRITORY 219 ´ ¯ ¯ 16. = EdP pp. ´ ¯ STAMBHINI PHREM PHREM MAMA S ATR UN STAMBHAYA 2 MOHINI PHREM . ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ . ˜ a Colophon: iti k¯ mamantravidh¯ nam. 52r3–52v3.¯ Candik¯ . 17. not in EdP or P1 . Colophon: ity angirase dhum¯ vat¯¯˙ ¯ a ı mantravidh¯ nam. Colophon: ity angirase citikalpah. Colophon: ity angirase karmavighna¯˙ prat¯k¯ rah. 22. 62r4–63v2. 51r4–52r3. . . 60r2–3). Rite of the Citimantra of the goddess . (Paippal¯ dasamhit¯ 5. . .11) to be undertaken when the a . and retinue. 20.

not in EdP or P1 . visualization. Rite of the Mantra of Sarvamanga´ R¯M SARVAMA NGAL AYAI SV AH A) to ˙ ¯ ¯ ¯ ˙ l¯ /Mangalacand¯ (OM KR¯M KL¯M S I . P2 ff. 68v4–72v4. . Rite of the one-syllable Mantra of Bhairava for the attainment of Yoga/Bhairavahood (BHAM). ´ ¯ . = EdP pp. 213. Rite of the Mantra of Vijn¯ nabhairava for expiation of sins and the attainment of wisdom (KS RAUM AIM HR¯M I. e. 63v2–64r4. . .] PHAT OM KR¯M KRAM NAMAH) I. 74r2–74v1. t¯ . . P2 ff.220 ALEXIS SANDERSON tyangir¯ mantrah. not in EdP or P1 . 53 Cf. ¯ bhairava/Candabhairava (OM KR AM KRAM KR AM NAMO MA H ASAM . taken without attribution from the Prapancas¯ ra. a ˚ 29. a . . 34. 74v1–74v4. 96. KARS AN AYA UGRABHAYAM KARABHAIRAV AYA OM KR AM KRAM KR AM . The Paddhati of Bhudhara on the rites of the Mantra of the goddess Tripurabhairav¯ (HSRAIM HSKLR¯M ı I. ¯ . twelve-armed Svacchanda¯ . not in EdP or P1 . Colophon: ek¯ ksaraa . P2 ff. Colophons: iti bhudharakrt¯ y¯ m paddhatau tripurabhairav¯vidh¯ nam (f. ı a . .ı . 53 ¯ BHAIRAV AYA HUM ). . P2 ff. Colophon: . Colophon: ity angirase dvit¯yah khandah. Rite of the Mantra of Par¯ (SAUH) for a . . and iti bhudharakrt¯ y¯ m paddhatau tripur¯ vidh¯ nam sam¯ ptam (f. . . ´ ¯ PHREM MAMA S ATR UN MOHAYA . on the rite of the Mantras of four-faced. . . . . I. Colophon: laksanasamuccayoktacandabhairavah. EdP p. not in EdP or P1 . a . 76–78. 98–101. P2 ff. P2 ff. ity as. HSRAUH M ) for the various hostile effects and other supernatural benefits. . . .g. ¯ . Colophon: iti bhairavakalpe vijn¯ nabhairavavidhih. .. 66r1) ¯ a a.. P2 ff. the ny¯ sah and the a aı a . with unspecified purpose. . . dressed in black. ¯ 28. . Rites of the Mantra of the goddess Tripurabhairav¯. 2 . ˚ a a . . cf. : MAM LAYOGE S VARE Cod. P2 ff. aksarabhairavamantravidh¯ nam. cf. a I. 72v4–73v1. Colophon: iti par¯ mantravidhih. ´ [tentative conj. She is to be visualized as furious. ¯ OM NAMAH ) and his consort ( OM KR AM KR¯M KRAH * MAH AYOGE S VARI I. . ). 32. ¯ a a. P2 ff.. 68v4). . a . . Colophon: ity angirase mah¯ pra¯˙ a 27. . ˜a . . Colophon: iti tripur¯ mantravidhih. ˙ 35. . and 20-armed. ¯˙ ı . . 74v4–75v1. . ˜a item 36. EdP pp. . 30. where Vijn¯ nabhairava has a Vedic rather than a Tantric Mantra. . . not in EdP or P1 . bhairavamantravidh¯ nam. Rite of eight-syllable Mantra of Bhairava ¯ for the attainment of Yoga (OM HSAUH BHAIRAV AYA NAMAH). . The Paddhati Laksanasamuccaya . being ı ˜ a Patala 9 of that work. 73v1–74r2. ˙ a . 64r4–68v4. spewing fire. Details of the procedure in the use of ˙ a the preceding Mantra of Pratyangir¯ Mah¯ k¯ l¯. above on p. liberation. . 75v1–76v4. a 33. . ˜a 31. . not in EdP or P1 . . . ¯ ¯ ¯ .

P2 ff. 97v1–98r3.ATHARVAVEDINS IN TANTRIC TERRITORY 221 be performed by/for the king for the attainment of the objects of all desires. particularly on Tuesdays. 44. Colophon: ity angirasoktapa´upuj¯ ¯˙ s ¯a mantrah. On the subject of vessels made of different substances. a a 41. . Colophon: iti s¯ m¯ nyatah sarvadevapuj¯ vidhih. No colophon. 139. . 127–128. see C HAKRABARTI 2001. m¯ dhy¯ ye bhudharakrt¯ asur¯d¯pik¯ sam¯ pt¯ . 45. Colophon: iti karmasamuccaye satkar. 128–130. = EdP pp. . . 76v4–77r4. and a vigil with music and dancing on the night of the eighth [day of the bright fortnight of ¯s A´ vina]. . 113–127. 239–245. a a ¯a . that is ¯ a. = pp. pp.ı lage religion in Bengal. = EdP pp. P2 ff. 130). = EdP pp. to be worshipped on Tuesdays. = EdP pp. Preparing the animal to be sacrificed: preliminaries of the balid¯ navidhih up to the installation of the syllabary a . P2 ff. P2 ff. P2 ff. ity ¯a agnimadhye bh¯ van¯ . the deity installed and worshipped in the fire as consuming the offerings and rewarding the beneficiary of the ritual. not in EdP or P1 . 93v4–97v1. not in EdP or P1 . 93r2–93v4. The ritual of installing the vital energies in the effigy of the victim. but P2 lacks the prose paragraph before the colophon s a . Colophon: iti pr¯ napratis. 38. am¯. Colophon: iti naksatrakalpoktam tantram . ministers. Colophon: ity angirasakalpe balid¯ navidhih (f. and prescribed meditation on . 77r4–78r3. 133–136. . members of the royal family. 209–213. Colophon: iti karmasamucca ye satru´ jayah. .t a 42. t ı ¯s to say. 91v3–93r2. P2 ff. a a ¯ a¯ ı ı a a a ˚ 39. Colophons: ity agnipuj¯ . The beginning is lacking. 54 The EdP . on p. victory in war. a. 78r3–91v3. The sacrificial slaughtering of the victim. subjection of women. a a s . 37. The rite of the seven-syllable Mantra ¯ ¯ ¯ of Agni (OM BH UR BHUVAH SVAH SV AH A). 40. No colophon. P2 ff. = EdP p. P2 ff. Rules of procedure for the worship of any deity. P2 ff. 99r4 ity angirasakalpe ¯˙ a ¯˙ . . 136–138. (m¯ trk¯ ) on the limbs of the victim (pa´uh). 101r1–102v1. Colophon: iti pa´um¯ trk¯ . the offering of a simulacrum of the enemy. 99r4–101r1. 98r3–99r4. to be propitiated with nightly sacrifices of buffaloes and other animals from mul¯ s. t ı a. s a a ˚ ˚ 43. a ˙ ˙ worship of Mangalacand¯/Mangal¯ . = EdP pp. am¯ to mah¯ s. from the eighth day of the dark half of A´ vina to the eighth day of 54 its bright half. is characteristic of vila . 130–132. 132–133. . 36. sam¯ ptam. h¯ . pa´ubalid¯ navidhih. . P2 ff. = EdP pp.

Colophon: iti mantrar¯ jam¯ h¯ tmyam. The rite to be performed at each juncture by worshippers of [Laksm¯]nrsimha. 162v1: vaikun. = EdP pp. . = EdP p. 58. Colophon: iti bhrguproktah sadaksa. a. 181v2). . Gratification of the pantheon beginning with [Laksm¯]nrsimha with water poured from the palm. 178r2–179v3. . a a. not in EdP or P1 . a a. The great power of this Mantra when Nrsimha is worshipped with it at the three junctures of the day. Colophon: iti siddhaudanaprak¯ rah. . 179v3–181v2. or at one: it is both a ladder leading to the Vaikuntha paradise . Bathing by rubbing the body with ashes. The rites of the juncture. . 162r2–163r1.¯ mukt¯ valy¯ m sadaksaravakratundapuj¯ . Colophon: iti sr¯nrsim˚hasamdhy¯ sn¯ natarpanam. 163r3–163v5. 114r1–114v1. Parts of the Mantrar¯ j¯ nuaa ´ . P2 ff. 140–144. s ¯ . 163r1–163r3. . . ¯ a 48. P2 ff. hadh¯ masop¯ nam a a . . .. 114v1–162r2. P2 ff. . not in EdP or P1 . ı ˚ ˚ sam¯ pt¯ . 148–153. not in EdP or P1 .. giving a detailed account of he worship of s. . not in EdP or P1 .t [Laksm¯]nrsimha as embodied in the 32-syllable Mantra. . P2 ff. a a . a a 55. The worship of the 32-syllable Mantra of [Laksm¯]nrsimha in its S¯ man chant forms. . P2 f. . 102v1–102v5. a . P2 f. 53. not in EdP or P1 . . . not in EdP or P1 . Worship of the six-syllable Gane´ a .. 47. P2 f. not in EdP or P1 . (Vakratunda) [Mantra] (OM VAKRATUN D AYA H UM). 54. ˚ 57. not in EdP or P1 . ˚ at two.222 ALEXIS SANDERSON 46. .. . and gratification of [Laksm¯]nrsimha with the recitation of his 32-syllable . Colophon: iti da´asamsth¯ mantr¯ h sam¯ pt¯ h. . 106r2–113v3. 50. 102v5–106r2. ı ˚ iti tarpanavidhih (f. bathing. Colophon: iti nrsimhasamdhy¯ a . . .. = EdP pp.. ı Mantra. . . 181v2–183r1. . P2 ff. 49. ˚ ramantravakratundakalpah. P2 ff. P2 ff. s . P2 ff. = EdP p. Colophon: iti mah¯ bhisekah. Colophon: iti mantra. 163v5–178r2. s a a a . 154. P2 ff. Affusion with Vaisnava Mantras. . Colophon: iti sarvatobhadramandalam. a ¯a a a 56. The Mantras of the ten rites of passage from conception (garbh¯ dh¯ nam) to the termination of studentship (sam¯ a a a vartanam). Colophon: . 51. and the means of destroying any enemy (f.t sarva´atrunirbarhanam). = EdP pp. . . . . 178r2). Colophon: iti s¯ mag¯ naa a a . ubhakalpam¯ l¯ of Ses aa . ı ˚ mantrar¯ japuj¯ sam¯ pt¯ (f. Colophon: iti sn¯ naprak¯ rah. 113v3–114r1. a a. ı ˚ 52. 154. ´ ı a a . . P2 ff. 154–207. a .

P2 ff. Surya. . . P2 ff. Colophon: ity angirasakalpe jayanrsim¯˙ . 196v3–197v3. 30–37. ˚ 65. sth¯ nam). not in EdP or P1 . 61. Worshipping. . P2 ff. Colophon: ity angirasakalpe mantrar¯ ja¯˙ a vijn¯ nam. and ancestors on a Yantra traced out by pouring water. . Colophon: ity angirasakalpe mantrar¯ ja¯˙ a vidhih. 186r1–188r1. = EdP pp. Mah¯ laksm¯. a a 62. 183r1–183v1. = EdP pp. 184v2–185r3. 197v3–198r3. 26–27. 17. Gratification of Laksm¯nrsimha. 74. 63. ˚ nam. ı ˚ ´ ı. . ı ˚ Colophon: iti homaprak¯ rah. 25–26. P2 f. Param¯ tman. 196r2–v2. P2 f. Colophon: ity upasth¯ nam. P2 f. Colophon: iti sn¯ natarpanam. a a . 183v1–183v4. ¯ Sr¯ a . P2 ff. 199r4–204r2. 195r2–196r2. Colophon: ity angirasakalpe an¯ gat¯ rtha¯˙ a a vedanam. Colophon: ity angirasakalpe nrsimhabalika¯˙ . P2 ff. How to perform a short bathing of the deity with ash. . P2 ff. Fire sacrifice to Laksm¯nrsimha. . . giving guest-water (samdhy¯ rghah). 60. P2 f. 70. a . ı a a ı . Colophon: ity angirase durgaraksavidh¯ ¯˙ a . 68. Colophon: ity angirasakalpe nrsimha¯˙ . Colophon: ity angirase parakarmaniv¯ ranam. 190r4–195r2. Rite of the monosyllabic Mantra of Laksm¯nrsimha (KS RAUM). 28. No colophon. 28–30. . = EdP pp. ¯˙ a . 188r1–190r1. Colophon: ity angirasakalpe abhayanr¯˙ ˚ simhavidhih. ˚ rmaphalakathanam. and reciting the Mantra for the veneration of the Sun (upaa . . . not in EdP or P1 . P2 f. P2 ff. ˚ balividhih. P2 ff. . Yajurlaksm¯. 17–24. = EdP pp.¯ nam. 190r1–4. . 185r3–186r1.ATHARVAVEDINS IN TANTRIC TERRITORY 223 59. not in EdP or P1 . = EdP pp. 73. Colophon: iti samkocavibhutisn¯ naprak¯ rah. 184r4–184v2. = EdP pp. ˜a 67. 198r3–199r4. . 183v4–184r4. Var¯ a . Colophon: ity angirase kimvadant¯mrsakara¯˙ ı . ı . = EdP p. not in EdP or P1 . . ¯ a a . = EdP pp. ˚ hakalpah. = EdP pp. . . 14–16.¯ . . 69. Aniruddha. Colophon: iti devasn¯ naprak¯ rah. 24–25. the gods. not in EdP or P1 . 9–11. ı ˚ ha. 66. How to affuse the deity (abhisekah). a . P2 ff. 72. P2 ff. and Nrsimhag¯ yatr¯. . 64. P2 ff. 71. not in EdP or P1 . = EdP p.

a ˚ . not in EdP or P1 . . . 83. 213v1–214r1. ˚ 79. . = EdP pp. ˚ EdP 81. not in EdP or P1 . iti mantrar¯ jaı . be. . a . . P2 ff. The rite of the eight-armed form ´ assumed by Siva as the Cint¯ manimantra (KS MRYAUM). ff. P2 ff. up a s s . deity of this Mantra is said here to be Um¯ mahe´ vara (f. . : praa . 259v4–260v3. not in EdP or P1 . 260r1: ka´yapa rsir anus. . bh¯ gare Cod. a ı . P2 ff. : praj¯ c¯ re Cod. 207v3–209r3. 233v4–236r2. Colophon: iti mantrar¯ javidh¯ ne nigadabhanjanavidh¯ ı a a ˜ a . a ı . The remainder of the manuscript. ˚ ˚ 76. . Colophon: iti sr¯mantrar¯ jan¯ rasima . ı . which breaks off at f.ı comprising a Paddhati of the rituals of the worshippers of Nrsimha. P2 ff. emending ahi´a´ikhara to ahi´a´adhara). a . ubhamantrar¯ jah). not in EdP or P1 . as in Prapancas¯ ra 19. 236r2–259v4. a ˚ bhisekah. ´ ı . dvit¯yah patalah (f. . P2 ff. not in or P1 . the visualizationa . Colophons: iti sr¯n¯ rad¯ye simha*prabh¯ kare (conj. a . a´ a a .224 ALEXIS SANDERSON 75.3 (f. hapadastotram sam¯ ptam. not in EdP or P1 . 204r2–207v3. .2b (devatome´ah). continues the same subject. 223v3). aa . 233v3). . . P2 ff. The first two chapters of a section of uncertain title within the N¯ rad¯ya dealing with the worship of Nrsimha. A hymn to Nrsimha. 78. a .t a . 37–42. P2 ff. A detailed account of a puj¯ and homah ¯a . of Laksm¯nrsimha. . expressing devo. 218r1). 84.) b¯jar¯ javi´ ı a ı a a a ı˚ a . . Colophon: ity angirasakalpe nrsimh¯ ¯˙ . a . (f. 82. n¯ radasamhit¯ y¯ m trt¯yah patalah (f. a . 12–14. . . nam sam¯ ptam. 260v3–283v3. . . a a a 55 The . ˚ h¯ bhisekah. the Keralan tradition it is said to be Mah¯ rudra (23. ˜ a s s s s 55 Colophon: iti devaprak¯ sik¯ y¯ m cint¯ manimantrah. 80. tion to him as characterized in each of the eleven ˚ epithets of his 32-syllable verse Mantra (¯ nus. 214r1–215r1. not in EdP or P1 . 209r3–213v1. 260r2. 77. . verse = Prapancas¯ ra 19. . Colophons: iti sr¯n¯ radasamhit¯ y¯ m mantrar¯ jakalpe a a ´ ı a a a. prathamah patalah (f. iti . . . P2 ff. . 283v3 before the colophon. Chapters 1–4 of the Kapilapran¯ta. .¯ mitted.) n¯ rad¯ye samhitoddh¯ re vi´esamantravidh¯ nam dvit¯yah patalah a a ı a s . . 268r1). Colophon: iti sanatkum¯ rakalpe nrsima . = EdP pp. P2 ff. a a. ´ ı a a . nrsimhakalpah (Ed ¯˙ . a . Colophon: ity angirasakalpe mah¯ jaya¯˙ a P: ity angirase jayanrsimhakalpah). Chapters 1–3 of the Mantrar¯ jakalpa a of the N¯ radasamhit¯ . P2 ff. 215r1–233v. and iti sr¯simha*prabh¯ kare (conj. Colophon: iti p¯ t¯ lanrsimhamantrah.22d: mah¯ rudro ’sya devat¯ ). . a . not in EdP or P1 . . dh¯ nam prathamah patalah (f. ˚ ginning with an initiation (d¯ksa) in which the 32-syllable Mantra is transı . .t ˚ chanda um¯ mahe´varo devat¯ ). In the Tantras¯ rasamgraha of a s a ˜ a s . . 277v5).

or G¯ napatya Mantras but ina. though the Angirasa materials . . hah. five Ms (panca mak¯ r¯ h) in the section from the eleventh chapter onwards that incorporates the ˜ a a. Sarvak¯ mabhairava. s a a´ . is fully in accordance with Tantric norms. and K¯ madeva (Manmatha). a a 56 This. Finally. and the rest. ¯ a ı ˜a Citimantra. like those texts. a . In a a s . which has the form of a namask¯ ra´lokah in the Anustubh a a s . ´ . ´a East Indian S¯ kta tradition of the ten Mah¯ vidy¯ s. . the visualization (dhy¯ nam). ´ the Siva of the Cint¯ manimantra. Gharmatik¯ Durg¯ . Saura.¯ .. . goddesses. . ´ with a female consort that characterize the independent Saiva cults of Bhairava ´ akta goddesses. K¯ l¯. and Bhairavas. ı a aı a aı ˚ ˙ ı a a a Par¯ . and asur¯p¯. metre.. different Mantra-deities and prescribing its use after the first enunciation under such expressions as vaisnavah p¯. metre (chandah). dvait¯ c¯ rah) such as the offering of alcoholic liquor and worship involving union a a . then its Rsi.. Rudra (here a variant of the Siddh¯ nta’s Sad¯ siva). a ¯ a ı of the Citimantra. In the second rea . hah. Mangalacand¯. hah. . ¯ ˙ a Asur¯ (worshipped as a form of Durg¯ ). the Rudras. . . and. Ek¯ ksarabhairava. some. the Candik¯ a ı . is not true of all Atharvavedic Tantric materials. and k¯lakam. ˚ ¯˙ times. Krty¯ . (3) the ¯ ı ıt . Within the broad category of the Tantric there is a particular affinity here with the deity-range and style of worship seen in the Prapancas¯ ra at˜ a ´ ˙ ´a a tributed to Sankar¯ c¯ rya and the related S¯ rad¯ tilaka of Laksmanade´ ika.ATHARVAVEDINS IN TANTRIC TERRITORY 225 The Deities of the Corpus and the Style of their Worship The principal deities encountered in the corpus examined are then Nrsimha. Vakratunda (Gane´ a). Tripurabhairav¯. also usually specify the parts of a Mantra that are its b¯jam. . who receives much the greatest attention. application (viniyogah) of every Mantra. and Astaksarabhairava. and those for the worship of Nrsimha and Gane´ a follow the same . ı ´ ı . ´ The procedure for the worship of the Saiva deities among these. Vijn¯ nabhai. ıt . Gharmatik¯ . saktih.. saivah p¯. then its Ancillaries (ang¯ ni)... and the following goddesses and Bhairavas: a . ¯ ngirasa corpus the the first regard we may note in both those texts and our A ˙ prominence of the Nrsimha of the 32-syllable Mantrar¯ ja.. ˚ ˙ a a .56 In the same spirit it shows virtually no trace of and the S¯ however. deity. Dhum¯ vat¯. Saiva. that is to say. Tripurabhairav¯. Bhadrak¯ l¯. (2) the device of using the same throne-Mantra for a number of a a . cludes in its system materials from all these traditions. metre. gard we may note that all these materials share (1) the distinctive use of the vy¯ pakany¯ sah. Pratyangir¯ . and (4) the very ordering of information: first the Mantra is given. . a a . .. specification in pseudo-Vedic form of the Rsi. followed by the ny¯ sah. . ˚ ´ the Siva of the Cint¯ manimantra. S¯ kta. s ˚ model. . ıt . . For the cult of the Kaula goddess Kubjik¯ taught in the explicitly and strongly Atharvavedic Kubjikopanisad mentions the a . see G OUDRIAAN and S CHOTERMAN 1994. its mode of worship is Veda-congruent in the sense that with the exception of animal-sacrifice (pa´ubalih) it eschews the elements of nondualistic practice (as . Also consonant with the a ´a a style of the Prapancas¯ ra and S¯ rad¯ tilaka is the fact that the system of worship ˜ a ´ ´a is not restricted to Vaisnava. . . rava. Svacchandabhairava (/Candabhairava). and the order of worship. and the presence of a . Dhum¯ vat¯. especially in assocation with˚ his 32syllable Mantrar¯ ja. .. the Candik¯ of the a ı .

. and pp. concentrated in the southwestern and western areas of the State.60 Prominent among them are the Nrsimhan¯ tha temple in Padampur. ˚ Notable is the preponderance in the collection of rites centred on Nrsimha. 216 and 222. Purv¯ bh¯ sa (Preface). 212. . . tures of the ritual life of the temple. where he has over one hundred temples with land endowments. 271. ˚ 5 Laksm¯nrsimhas) in Ganjam. ¯´ .t ´ ı . conclusion supported by local Pur¯ nic tradition and confirmed by certain feaa. p. 59 Um¯ k¯ nta PAN D A in Paippal¯ dava´ adisatkarmapaddhati. and by the favour of Pippal¯ da’. 3–4 of the Par¯ japavidhi (see p. a a . ˚ (1987. p. both .¯ vedavidbr¯ hmanan¯ m is. p. 578) that the Atharvavedins of Orissa begin their Veda recitation with obeisance to Nr˚ simha. . a 60 According to E SCHMANN (2005. 21 in Puri. the Laksm¯nrsimha temples at Amareswar near Konarak. 51 (+ 5 Laksm¯nrsimhas) in Cuttack. sciousness’ (cidrupasya sivasyeyam par¯ saktir nigadyate). . 58 See n. and this is so even in S¯ kta contexts. a . ˚ ´ ˙ patna near Bhubaneswar.. Dhenkanal. the destroyer of ¯ . and Mayurbhanj. ¯ a a . . ı ˚ . p. ˚ as the recipient of regular daily worship and in the ceremonies to be performed for clients. adevat¯ ) of the Orissan a . 57 See below. s ˚ all impediments. 204. after bowing to Lord Nrsimha.226 ALEXIS SANDERSON ´ distinctively Saiva doctrinal positions and terminology. 8–9. and above. Where a doctrinal framework becomes visible it is generally ´ or S¯ ´a Ved¯ ntic in type. ı ˚ . . 103 and n.t 59 and enjoys an unusual pre-eminence in the religious culture Paippal¯ dins a of Orissa. See also G RIFFITHS 2002. Nuaı ˚ . whether Saiddh¯ ntika a ´ akta Saiva. ¯ ´ a´ .C. The Orissan Character of the Corpus The preservation of this compilation in none but Orissan manuscripts and the concentration of Paippal¯ dins in this region do not suffice to prove conclusively a that it is Orissan. 245. For it is the Mantra of Nrsimha rather than ˚ pp. 10 in Sambalpur. 38. 239) when it refers to Par¯ as a a ´ the power of consciousness (cicchaktih) and as ‘the supreme power of Siva whose nature is con. . . ˚ deity at the site of the famous temple of Jagann¯ tha (Purusottama) in Puri. . . and the compound of the Saiva Lingar¯ ja temple in a Bhubaneswar. 11) a list prepared by G. and the Var¯ hanrsimha temple at Adasapur near Bhubaneswar. The Centrality of Nrsimha . as follows: natv¯ naraharim devam sarvavighnapranasanam | pippal¯ dapras¯ d¯ c ca path¯ my a a a a . 26 on p. B AHULKAR reports a ¯ a . T RIPATHI from materials collected by H.57 and when theistic dea 58 votion is advocated it is Vaisnava. 1: atharvaa a a s¯ . ˚ temple at Puri. . ˚ Moreover it has been shown that Nrsimha was in all probability the original . adevah sr¯nrsimhah. But there can be no doubt of this origin when one considers its contents. pp. rightly pointing to these goddesses and the five Ms as characteristic of late Bengali ´a S¯ ktism. For this is the personal tutelary deity (is. . the Nrsimha a . . p. . There is perhaps a slight departure from this brahmanical doctrine in vv. VON S TIETENCRON shows 111 such temples of Nrsimha in Orissa: 12 (+ . 266. a atharvana´rutim ‘I [now] recite the Atharvaveda. 2 each in Balasore. and 1 in Bolangir.

Paippal¯ dava´adisatkarmapaddhati p. : jata Ed.) api . there are 169 shrines and temples of this deity (E SCHMANN 2005. ih dakse karparam v¯ me sulam dadh¯ nah khe purah sann ekap¯ d bhairavo dhyeyah. 169–176. Yadagiri Gutta a a .t Paippal¯ dava´adisatkarmapaddhati p.. p. . see T RIPATHI 2005b. black. ir (corr. hann ekap¯ d bhairavo ’vatu | a a . ı ˚ .61 The Ekap¯ dabhairava Visualizations a Orissa is also indicated by the fact that the visualization verses of the Mantras of certain Bhairavas in the corpus identify them with Ekap¯ dabhairava ‘Onea footed Bhairava’. p. the bestower of liberation. a .¯ With matted locks. and during the period of fifteen days after the annual sn¯ nay¯ tr¯ . . and PATTANAYAK 1988. daksine karparam v¯ me sulam udyamya c¯ ntare | a . Major temples of Nrsimha are found in Andhra at Ahobilam (9 Nrsimhas: Laksm¯nrsimha and . 74r3–4: krsno *vivasano (corr. Ek¯ ksarabhairava: a . . ı. . 247. standing in the sleep of meditation. holding a trident and a skull. 112–117. ˚ digambaro mah¯m pa´yan pratyakpravanam¯ nasah | ı. pp. ˚ images of the Jagann¯ tha temple. . a Nrsimha’s popularity is equally great in neighbouring Andhra. ir Cod.. . . : mahim Ed. where.) bhasmaliptah mukta*kapardah (em. . pp. the periodic replacing of the wooden . 30. VON S TIETENCRON 2005a. . ˚ ˚ May One-footed Bhairava. t. 108). 93 a s¯ . . . 244–245. .ATHARVAVEDINS IN TANTRIC TERRITORY 227 of Purusottama or Krsna that is recited during the installation of the new Ja.62 2005.) *bahirdrs. krsno bhasmavilipt¯ ngo vimuktordhvajatavrajah | a˙ . 235. K ULKE . . 1c mah¯m corr. 183. a ´¯ purah sann ekap¯ t p¯ tu bhairavo moksad¯ yakah | a a . . 255–259.t . ı ˚ . gazing at the ground. . black. : vivasana a . . 12–13. . 2 . : kardah Cod. . Simhachalam (Var¯ ha-Laksm¯nrsimha). s a . naked. 1a krsno em. . For the centrality of Nrsimha in the rituals of the Navakalevara. his body smeared with ashes. and Mangalagiri (Laksm¯nrsimha). his high mass of matted hair loosened. 96 a s¯ .t ˚ ˚ pratyakdrs. a .. : gata Ed. 37. This is so in the cases of Sarvak¯ mabhairava: a jat¯ bhasmavilipt¯ ngah krsnah sulakap¯ labhrt | a˙ . 239. . ´¯ a .ı ˚ ˚ yoganidr¯ gatas tis. pp. Dharmapuri (Laksm¯nrsimha). . his body smeared with ashes. 1a jat¯ corr. ˚ the front hall of the temple takes his place. [standing] before [us] in the middle [air] with a skull bowl in his right hand and brandishing a trident in the left. .¯ . a . ı ˚ ˚ (Laksm¯nrsimha). ˚ sus of 1961. may One-footed Bhairava protect [us]. protect [us].. . . 62 See also the visualization of Ek¯ ksarabhairava in P f. pp. ı ˚ . 1c gatas corr. : krsna Ed. .. . AND T RIPATHI 2005. . ˚ 61 E SCHMANN . the Nrsimha image in a . ˚ ˚ others). ˚ Cod. according to the Cen. 178.ı . his mind inwardly focused. when a a a the image of Jagann¯ tha is withdrawn from public view. a ´¯ . : bahidrs. . ı ˚ . E SCHMANN . Akiripalli (Vy¯ ghra-Nrsimha). gann¯ tha at the time ˚of the periodic replacing and consecration of his wooden a image.

cites or paraphrases this text under the titles Brahmay¯ mala and Picumata a in Tantr¯ loka 4. Kotivarsa/Dev¯kotta: ı . 116 varadodyatahast¯ s tu antrasragd¯ mabhusit¯ h | a a ¯ . t . that of Viraj¯ (Jajpur). . Mah¯ h¯ sa in that of Kollagiri (Kolhapur). located in modern Bhubaneswar. 113 bhairavam tatra c¯ likhya rudr¯ s. . ekap¯ dam mah¯ v¯ryam bhairav¯ k¯ rasamjnakam | a .409c–411a.. a . a . 27.29. . . . apatram sakarnikam | a a t . . kap¯ lai raktasampurnair antrasragd¯ malambibhih | a a . . . 27. 18. a a.. Mah¯ k¯ la in that a a a a a ¯ s of Ujjain.418c–419b. 74v3 1 krsnam corr. . hato nyaset | a a.11–12b. Sa´ ibhusana a a a (Soman¯ tha) in that of Prabh¯ sa (Soman¯ th-Pattan in Surat). .43c–44. For in the initiation Mandala of that Tantra . .21c–23b.¯ . . 15. 28. . . t a a . m¯ he´vary¯ ditah krtv¯ param¯ t¯ na samsayah | a s a a aa ´ . the pre-eminent Saiva sacred site of a Orissa. . uttare kalpayed devi n¯ mn¯ ek¯ mrakam subham | a a a . with matted locks. a 118 dantikam lohajangham ca urdhvake´am mah¯ mukham | ˙ ¯ s . holding a trident in his left hand and a skull-bowl in his right. m¯ t¯nam b¯ hyato devi yoginya´ ca likhed budhah | a r.383c– a 384b. .t ˚ tasy¯ dhast¯ likhet padmam as.. a s . ˚ 117 suman¯ devak¯ caiva cakraveg¯ mah¯ rav¯ | a ı a a a bh¯mak¯ ratnagarbh¯ ca sad yoginyo yath¯ kramam | ı ı a . .422c–423b. ı a . and 29. f. a ˚ a ı a ¯ a. ´ 112 aralukam tu sam¯ likhya gad¯ m vai prs. 23. ˚ dharam ak¯ se purahsthitam ekap¯ dam bhairavam dhy¯ yet. ¯ . : krsna Cod.60–65..9. a.. ak¯ c caiva m¯ taro vinyased budhah | a. akasamanvitam | a a. ´ For this was the Bhairava of Ek¯ mra.. 975–1025)63 and has come down to us in a Nepalese palm-leaf manuscript of AD 1052. which was known to the Kashmirian scholar a Abhinavagupta (fl. black. ¯ a´ a . 28. 64 In these verses I have not removed by emendation such deviations from Paninian Sanskrit 63 Abhinavagupta .t . a . Mah¯ ghanta in a a a a. deep in meditation. . a ´¯ . . as Mah¯ deva is in that of V¯ r¯ nas¯. Here we have the early testimony of the Picumata (/Brahmay¯ mala). ˚ 119 kabandh¯ ni likhed as. a . ¯ . ALEXIS SANDERSON krsnam jatilam bhasmalipt¯ ngam v¯ me sulam daksine kap¯ lam dadh¯ nam yogaa˙ . catv¯ ro r¯ ksas¯ m likhya sakin¯bhih sam¯ vrt¯ m | a a . and Hetuke´ vara in that of s .. au diksu caiva vidiksu ca |64 a .97c–100b. ´ s ¯. his body smeared with ashes. ´¯ ı . 13.¯ . . 5. c. . .43c–44b. 28. and in that of Ek¯ mra a the Bhairava is Ekap¯ da. a ı a a . ˜ 114 bahi rudr¯ s. Ganadhyaksa in that of Bhute´ vara.145. 28. .228 and Astaksarabhairava: . 115 pret¯ rudh¯ mah¯ v¯ry¯ alikhen mantravikram¯ h | a ¯. . . P1 . ˚ ˚ He should visualize [him] before him in the sky [as] One-footed Bhairava. there are eight cremation grounds to be depicted in the eight directions with a Bhairava presiding in each surrounded by a retinue. a.

in 118cd. Below it he should draw a lotus with eight petals and a pericarp. accompanied by eight Rudras. p. See also VON S TIETENCRON 2005b.´ of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. param¯ t¯ (← param¯ t¯ h) for a. ˚ 65 For ˚his iconography in Orissan temples see W ILLIAMS 1984. : lohajangha´ a a a ˙ ˙ s . Deı a vak¯. a. in the North [of the Mandala] he should make the splendid [cremaı . Moreover. which comprises the coastal districts of Orissa. 114c aditah corr. ar a . There are six. ı ˚ bharatakhande bh¯ ratavarse utkalaprade´e iha vi´is. . ak¯ c for bah¯ rudr¯ s. pp. 1106. m. pp. 117c yath¯ kramam corr. Urdhvake´ a and Mah¯ mukha. 66 Asur¯d¯pik¯ of Bhudhara in Paippal¯ dava´ adisatkarmapaddhati. a ¯ ¯ a. : gad¯ Cod. . 88v1: . . : adita Cod. he should depict eight corpses[. : yath¯ kramah Cod. Beyond the eight Rudras he should place the Mothers. with skull bowls full of blood draped with strings of entrails. 462–464. On this he should draw the Bhairava Ekap¯ da (‘Onea footed’). ak¯ c in 114a. 8r1–3 (3.66 as are commonly seen elsewhere in this text. In their proper order they are Suman¯ . 121–122 on the popularity of Ekap¯ dabhairava in Orissa during the Bhaumakara and a ˙ Somavamsin periods and its diminution during the period of the Gangas from around the turn . tion ground of] Ek¯ mra. s a ´ akin¯s. . Bh¯mak¯ and Ratnagarbh¯ . appear in Orissa in the ninth century in the Mallike´ vara temple at Padampur and bes ´ ´ akta temples of Orissa and the northern parts came standard in the Saiva and S¯ of Andhra Pradesh from the tenth century to the fourteenth. beginning with M¯ he´ var¯. Mah¯ rav¯ . with one hand in the gesture of bestowing boons. there is the evidence of the location specified in the formulas of intention (samkalpah) to be recited before commencing a ritual. m¯ taro for m¯ t¯r in 114b. abhuprade´e . pl. . themselves adorned with strings of entrails. or the two front hands in the case of four-armed images.. one] in [each of] the rounded by S¯ ı cardinal and intermediate directions. Cakraveg¯ . the image of this one-footed Bhairava (Ekap¯ dabhairava) was widely a reproduced throughout the cultural zone. . [In it] he should draw an Aralu tree (Colosanthes a indica) and behind that a club. t a a ar aa a a. D ONALDSON 2002. O Dev¯. sura . . O Goddess. . .t ¯ s s . D ONALDSON 1987. Let there be no doubt of this. and r¯ ksas¯ m and sam¯ vrt¯ m for acc. mighty with [their] Mantras. Finally. of terrible appearance and name. Cod. . For in these materials we . utkalade´e . the learned [officiant] should depict the Yogin¯s. 124: iha prthivy¯ m jambudv¯pe ¯ ı ı a ¯ a s¯ .. a. . have a formula that gives this location as Utkala. 118a lohajangham corr. 115b mantravikram¯ h conj. : mantraa. He should depict the supreme Mothers standing on a s ı corpses. .65 Utkala in the Samkalpa formula . . of vast power. namely Dantika. After depicting four ı a a a ı ı a ¯ ˙ R¯ ksasas. 298–301 and plates 261– 264. t a ı a.111c–119b) 112b gad¯ m corr. Images corresponding to the visual¯˙ izations in the Angirasakalpa texts in that the two hands. Beyond the Mothers. a a bahi rudr¯ s. ˚ param¯ t¯r in 114d. of vast power. a s s . pp. namely adhast¯ likhet for adhast¯ l likhet in 112c. a a.ATHARVAVEDINS IN TANTRIC TERRITORY 229 Picumata f. vikram¯ t Cod. P2 f. . Lohajangha. hold the trident and the skull-bowl. p.

916–917.”’ a . since though nondualistic in doctrine it adheres to the non´ ´ Saiva model of reality in which the Tattvas are twenty-six (Siva and the twentyfive of the S¯ mkhya system) rather than the thirty-six of the Mantram¯ rgic a. sr¯ksemar¯ jam ca” iti tacchisy¯ h ‘The line of the author’s teachers is [seen in the first half of the ´ ı . . Som¯ nanda and Utpal¯ c¯ rya” and [the line a a a of] his pupils in [the second:] “Laksmana. a. ´ arad¯ tilaka. It rests on the testimony of the Maharashtrian scholar R¯ ghavabhatta. Sr¯kantha. vol. ˚ tam (em. a . note 9) and. ll. Utpal¯ c¯ rya. who in his commentary a . Indeed in the latter respect it is radically opposed to it. 70 But he has certainly done so in error. 16) and B UHNEMANN (2000. 2).. there is the ´a a evidence that the S¯ rad¯ tilaka shares nothing with the Tantrism of that distinguished Kashmirian tradition either in the type and range of its deities and rituals or in its philosophical underpinnings. 12.) sr¯som¯ nandam utpal¯ c¯ ry¯ n” iti. a ´ Saivism propagated by Utpaladeva and his successors. by G OUDRIAAN (in G OUDRIAAN and G UPTA 1981. p. VON S TIETENCRON (2005a.69 cites a verse that he on the S¯ a takes to be giving the preceptorial lineage down to and beyond its author as ´ ı . was first proposed by FARQUHAR (1920. Vasugupta. that cannot be determined in our present state of knowledge with any precision. ¨ p.68 But this attribution is patently false. is not one that being within the tradition of the form of Tantrism taught in in G OUDRIAAN and G UPTA 1981. : vasumantam Ed. “laksmanam abhinavaguptam vande ´ ı a a a a . . . Vasugupta.. among others. 135). 2. fact that its Laksmana (= Laksmanagupta) is not identified in that verse as the . . it is almost certain that the undeclared source of the verse that R¯ ghavabhatta cites a . Som¯ nanda. following verse:] “[I praise] Sr¯kantha. . . 267) and then repeated by G ONDA (1963. teacher Utpaladeva. . . . one of the Gu. Abhinavagupta and Ksemar¯ ja. 28. s ı . . Even the works ascribed to human authors that appear in the corpus are of uncertain date. 68 This 67 G OUDRIAAN . . Abhinavagupta. ´a a The Date and Provenance of the Prapancas¯ ra and S¯ rad¯ tilaka ˜ a ´ ˙ The earliest among them is perhaps the Prapancas¯ ra attributed to Sankar¯ c¯ rya. . more particularly his teacher in the philosophical works composed by Laksmanagupta’s . 18–20: tath¯ ca granthakrdgurupanktih “´ r¯kantham *vasugup´a a a a s a ˙ . . Moreover. p. ´ ı ... p.230 ALEXIS SANDERSON The Period of the Composition of the Corpus As for the period of time during which these materials were composed. ´a ´ rus of Abhinavagupta in the S¯ kta Saiva tradition of the Trika. ´a a author of the S¯ rad¯ tilaka. since apart from the and Ksemar¯ ja. a a a . so that the identification rests only on the tenuous evidence of the occurrence of an extremely common personal name. This text was the basis on which Laksmana. pp. . a . ´a a de´ ika composed his S¯ rad¯ tilaka67 and the latter is widely held to have been s composed in Kashmir in the tenth century by Laksmanagupta. 69 S¯ rad¯ tilakapad¯ rth¯ dar´ a pp. ˜ a a a the chapter on the propitiation of Tripurabhairav¯ and several visualizationı verses from which are found in P2 . .. 134–135. Laksmana. completed in Banaras in AD 1494. p. ´a a a a s 70 S¯ rad¯ tilakapad¯ rth¯ dar´ a p.

also called the Anuttara or a ı Par¯ krama. . . ¯ sr¯hrdayacandrik¯ svaprak¯ sik¯ *vimar´oday¯ c¯ ry¯ n (conj. Gurun¯ thapar¯ mar´a v. The line identifies them as s ˙ . 213–215 of that work as a pupil of Madhur¯ ja. ı pratyabhijn¯ pravartak¯ h in the latter. If ´ ı a a a s a. Candra´ ekhara. citing a further variant from one of these sources or a cognate that had written in Laksmana[gupta] in order to create a text closer to an account of the . a scholar . and Sangabhattaraka: ı s . introductory verse 3: ¯ a . actual guruparampar¯ . Also ¯ a a ¯ s ı . a . . 2 and Gurupanktistotra v.). favour of Krsnav¯ sa. and. .t .. a a a . Candra´ ekhara. a a s ˙ . that is to say. Svaprak¯ sik¯ vimar´a. arakam Cod. ´ ı abhinavaguptam n¯ tham vande sr¯ksemar¯ jam ca. and that V¯ dibhairava. But since he speaks of an Udayade´ ika in these verses it is plausible that it should be analysed as yielding three elements. and Sangabhattaraka. a . a a´ a s a ˚ ˚ Svaprak¯ sik¯ . We know a Krsnad¯ sa in this tradition. a . an adept of the Ekav¯ra. a . nor was Vasugupta the Guru of Som¯ nanda. and Laksmanagupta is not known for any compositions a . .. but rather the mythical Adiguru. Both are evidently corrupt in the first line.. . Mahe´ varatej¯ nandan¯ tha ends his introductory a a s a a ˚ ˙ verses with obeisance to the three Gurus Sukhat¯rtha. The verse of Mahe´ varatej¯ ı s s a . t¯ ¯ a Ac¯ ryas of/in what are probably (lost) works in this tradition. the Gurun¯ thapar¯ mar´a and Gurupanktistotra of his predecessor a a s ˙ Madhur¯ ja of Madurai. namely the Anandakalpalatik¯ of Mahe´ varatej¯ nandan¯ tha. a . known as Varadar¯ ja he describes himself in vv. encountered this rewritten verse—it is unlikely that it was he that rewrote it— sr¯kan.. and Udaya or perhaps Hrdayacandrik¯ . : vimar´obhay¯ c¯ ry¯ n Cod. ants and both Sr¯kantha and Laksmana in the first. and Uday¯ c¯ rya were a´ a s a a a a a ˙ birudas of Sukhat¯rtha. ¯ ca. arak¯ n (bhat. in ana s a a other variant.. Sv¯ min¯ yaka. and Udayade´ ika. ing tradition of the Kashmirian Saiva nondualists. 3: ´ ı . and Vimar´odaya. a Sv¯ min¯ yaka. of which the Par¯ tr¯sik¯ is a a a ı´ a the scriptural basis. The verse following this in the Madras manuscripts of the Anandakalpalatik¯ and Gurua panktistotra reads sr¯p¯ dabhairavasv¯ dun¯ yakodayade´ik¯ h | trayo yasya prasann¯ me supras¯dantu ˙ ´ ı a a a s a.... The compound is ambiguous in the absence of other references that might tell us how to divide it. is recorded in Gurun¯ thapar¯ mar´a v. t¯ a . ham vasuguptam sr¯som¯ nandam utpal¯ c¯ ryam | ´ ı . a a Madhur¯ ja’s engagement with the Par¯ krama form of Trika worship.71 with the difference that Laksmana is lacking in the second of these vari. V¯ dibhairava. s a 71 Anandakalpalatik¯ . ¯ nandan¯ tha’s introduction that follows that which is parallel to R¯ ghavabhatta’s seeks the a a . Collating ˜a a.. t¯ a . a form of the Trika that was transmitted to the South and flourished a there..ATHARVAVEDINS IN TANTRIC TERRITORY 231 ´a a the S¯ rad¯ tilaka is likely to have recorded information about its author. which is surely a scribal error for Krsnad¯ sa. It appears then that when R¯ ghavabhatta a . ´ ı . a ˚ ´ ´ of Cidambaram who wrote the Sivasutrav¯ rtika following Ksemar¯ ja’s Sivasutravimar´in¯. For it is a variant of a verse that appears in earlier South Indian sources that un´a a like the S¯ rad¯ tilaka are within or closely allied to this famous Kashmirian tra¯ dition. of the nondualism expounded by Utpaladeva in his I´varapratyabhijn¯ k¯ rik¯ and its auto-commentaries -vrtti and -vivrti and by Abhinavagupta in his ˜a a a ˚ ˚ commentaries on the -k¯ rik¯ and -vivrti. arak¯ n conj. a ˚ ˚ fused in the Grantha script of the Far South. a a a vi´vadikcakre | madhur¯ je mayi . .) | sukhat¯rtha´ ı a a´ a s a a a s a a a ı ˚ candra´ekharasanga*bhat. . a ı m¯ dhur¯ h in the former and sr¯v¯ dijainavasv¯ man¯ yakobhayade´ik¯ h | trayo ’pi me supras¯dantu a a. since Sr¯kantha was not the ¯ Guru of Vasugupta. whom Madhur¯ ja describes as propagators of the Praa a s a ¯s ˜a tyabhijn¯ . sr¯vasuguptamah¯ gurusom¯ nandaprabhutpal¯ c¯ ry¯ n | abhinavaguptam n¯ tham vande sr¯ksemar¯ jam ´ ı a a ¯ a a a ´ ı . the two I propose tentatively that we should read sr¯v¯ dibhairavasv¯ min¯ yakodayade´ik¯ h. Evidently R¯ ghavabhatta is a . 40: saktitrayaika´arane par¯ kram¯ kr¯ ntaa a s ´ s . : bhat. v¯ and d¯ being readily cona a . but only as Abhinavagupta’s teacher. ´ ı a a a s a. s ¯ a one for each Ac¯ rya: Hrdayacandrik¯ . . For the verse as given in these three sources was not a intended for that purpose but simply venerates the key authors in the teach´ ´ ı . ¯ a this is correct the authors pray for the favour of three Ac¯ ryas of Madurai.

˚ ´ last as ‘the moon to the ocean of the Kautsa Gotra’ (kauts¯ nvay¯ bdh¯nduh). p. p. requires the worshipa .85 [← Prapancas¯ ra 35. In its colo´ s . .72 s . on Japa to be performed after the Puj¯ . ˚ v¯ mana.60.11–18). an Oriya a . 74 See VON S TIETENCRON 2005c. s .72 ´ ˜ a . ´a a ´ 18. ı ´a a brahmin of the early eighteenth century. 472–473). I propose that they were composed. representing in all probability the primitive form of Jagann¯ tha before the elaborations developed under royal patronage in Puri. and the grandson of Pradyumna. . a . describing the a . as the son of R¯ makrsna Agnihotrin. pp. shows that the S¯ rad¯ tilaka provides the ´ ˙ model for the Saiva worship followed in the Lingar¯ ja of Bhubaneswar. Orissa’s a 76 and we have seen that in the S¯ kta sphere there is a ´ ´a pre-eminent Saiva temple.232 ALEXIS SANDERSON he rashly jumped to the convenient conclusion that it provides the evidence of ´a a Laksmanade´ ika’s teaching lineage that is lacking in the S¯ rad¯ tilaka itself. as he is in his main temple in Puri. and the two gestures. 75 By VON S TIETENCRON (2005c.9). 469). ´a a ´ a a some of the S¯ rad¯ tilaka’s visualization-texts (2. most of them in the Puri. It also uses the lay Panc¯ ksara Mantra (NAMAH a . Its icon of Siva. . ´a a As for the true provenance of the S¯ rad¯ tilaka and the Prapancas¯ ra that pre˜ a ¯ ngirasa materials. ´ ´a a extensively for its procedure (compare. The Saivism of the text draws on the S¯ rad¯ tilaka ¯ . 76 Laksm¯dharami´ ra was also the author of the unpublished Saivakalpadruma.¯ as a consequence been honoured by Gajapati Mukunda[deva I]. . the Saivacint¯ mani incorporates a . axe. It is very improbable that if a . for example. and Sambalpur districts. this too is a disa tinctively Oriya deity. or Tandisahasran¯ mastotra (5. there are 930 temples dedicated to him and a ı registered as independent religious foundations in Orissa (VON S TIETENCRON 2005c. ˙ per to visualize the Ek¯ mravana (the site of the Lingar¯ ja temple) with the Bindusarovara tank a a ´ ´a a (bindudbhavam sarah) at its centre (6. ı ´ ˙ phonic verses he identifies himself as a devotee of the Siva of Bhubaneswar (in the Lingar¯ ja a temple). and 3. . The importance of the first among the Oriyas has been shown above. a . which for many centuries has been the principal deity of Orissa. by images of Balabhadra and Subhadr¯ . 72 In the closing verses of the S¯ rad¯ tilaka (25.25–42 (also 2.73 As for Dadhiv¯ mana. ´a a 2. be. a fact that of itself militates against R¯ ghavabhatta’s claim. But we may note that the Saivacint¯ mani of Laksm¯dharami´ ra.. 73 In addition to the principal Jagann¯ tha of Pur¯. Rudr¯ dhy¯ ya. a and that of the second. like our A ˙ Orissa or if not there then on the basis of Orissan religious tradition. ‘a Siva in human a a ı . . Moreover.15–18. and Dadhia . ˜ a ´ ´ arad¯ tilaka 6. It also adheres in s a a a .7]. pp. form’ (´ankaratanuh s¯ ksat) who had performed a [Vedic] sacrifice in Ek¯ mra (Bhubaneswar) and s ˙ a .83–86) Laksmanade´ ika gives only his patrilineal ´a a s . Ganjam.. ´ ¯a Patala 6 of the Saivacint¯ mani. have been registered in Orissa.74 344 temples dedicated to Dadhiv¯ mana.83 = Sar¯ d¯ tilaka 23.4. see 6. 3–6.72–81 with S¯ rad¯ tilaka 18. Satarudriya.13). needs no demonstration. his a name being that under which Jagann¯ tha is worshipped when he is not accoma panied. belongs to the same tradition.13. 470.96 = S¯ a with deer. Saivacint¯ mani 3. he had been the pupil of Utpaladeva and the grand-pupil of Som¯ nanda he would have failed a to mention this. in ceded it.. ing dominated by the cults of Nrsimha. five-faced and four-armed. ancestry. 3.7–13). and 3. ´ ¯ S IV AYA ) and incorporates various Vedic Mantras.75 There ´ ´a is less firm evidence in the case of the texts’ treatments of Saiva and S¯ kta wor´ ship. Thus it requires the Stava-recitation of the ´ Atharva´iras. Cuta a tack.78) and compare Sarad¯ tilaka 18. For their treatment of Vaisnava worship agrees closely with that seen in that region. Purusottama/Jagann¯ tha. See Dukhisyama PATTANAYAK’s introduction to his edition of the Saivacint¯ mani. 8. That king ruled from 1657 to ´ 1689.50c–54 with S¯ rad¯ tilaka a .78 = S¯ rad¯ tilaka 18..

for which the earliest known evidence is an ina a scription of AD 1237 at the P¯ t¯ le´ vara temple in the inner compound of the aa s Jagann¯ tha temple. before this honour was transferred to the Jagann¯ tha of Puri. a 10: krttiv¯ sasamopet¯ m c¯ mundam mundadh¯ rin¯m | *ek¯ mrasamsthit¯ m (ek¯ mra corr. no later than the seventh century and in any case preserved in a manuscript of AD 810. p. see a ı a the edition of 3. a . cf. trine of the 26 Tattvas. most significantly in the version of this list in the Brahmay¯ mala with the variant K¯rtiv¯ sa (3. radevat¯ ). . Subhadr¯ triad. n. ˙ from the late eleventh century and rose to pre-eminence only after the Ganga ˙ king Anantavarman Codagangadeva began the building of the great temple to . 31r2 (9. . a K¯rtiv¯ sa: *ek¯ mre samsthito devi k¯rtiv¯ seti k¯rtitah | c¯ munday¯ sam¯ yuktah sth¯ nap¯ lasamanvitah | ı a a ı a ı a a a . c¯ munday¯ sam¯ yuktam sth¯ nabalisamanvitam | atha mantram pravaksy¯ mi k¯rttisamyaksa suvrate a . p. Krttiv¯ sa. . see 6.¯. . 208).). : ekaika Codd. ll. K ULKE and T RIPATHI 2005. ˚ dev¯m nam¯ mi subhak¯ rin¯m. a ´ a . 78 See VON S TIETENCRON 2005a.79 He refers to another mentary on the S¯ a . commentary on the text.´ ´ ˙ Lingar¯ ja temple was built c.. the Gudh¯ rthad¯pik¯ of one M¯ dhavabhatta.60). a work probably ´ a a. ´ arad¯ tilaka in Samvat 1551 (AD 1494). . this god in Puri in or shortly after 1135. manuscripts of the S¯ rad¯ tilaka are reputedly found in almost every Orissan brahmin household and quotations from it are ¯a very frequent in Orissan Puj¯ paddhatis. 222).77 As for the date of the Prapancas¯ ra ˜ a ´a a and S¯ rad¯ tilaka. The splendid ¯ a ı .. 28.80 a ¯ ´a a the style of the S¯ rad¯ tilaka and the Uttarabh¯ ga of the Lingapur¯ na to the de-Agamicized doca ˙ a. : ek¯ tye samsthit¯ devi k¯rttiv¯ teti k¯rttit¯ | a ı a a a ı a ı a . 2. a Cod. 1060 under the patronage of the kings of the Saiva Somavamsin a .) a a. here too with the variant a s . p. 79 S¯ rad¯ tilakapad¯ rth¯ dar´ a p. Jagann¯ tha. see also the P¯tha-hymn of the Kubjik¯ mata. ´a a a a s 80 E SCHMANN .140.. Arlo Griffiths reports to me that he does not recall having seen any manuscripts of the text in Atharvavedic brahmin households. 191. .ATHARVAVEDINS IN TANTRIC TERRITORY 233 striking congruence between its range of goddesses and those seen in our Oris¯˙ ´a a san Angirasakalpa texts. a . .. verses in some manuscripts after 22. . .32 (sadvimsatattvaparam adyavas¯ nah¯nam. in which the three deities that formed the later triad are a already praised as Halin. For the cult of this deity is evidenced in Orissa only . p. t a a ´ of the site is considerably older. Cakrin and Subhadr¯ .78 The earliest firm posterior limit is established by the fact that R¯ ghavabhatta tells us that he completed his coma .15–16a). a . . Ek¯ mra is included but without the name of its Siva among a ´ the Saiva Ksetras treated in the siv¯ yatanavarnanam of the Ur-Skandapur¯ na.. 9– ı. a ı a a . the stage of the Purusottama cult before the development of the Balabhadra. 407. a . . ´ with the name. However. it ´a a is not probable that the Prapancas¯ ra and the S¯ rad¯ tilaka were composed much ˜ a after the beginning of the thirteenth century. by whom the Siva of this temple. Krttiv¯ sa is also identified as a ˚ ´ ´a the Siva of Ek¯ mra in the early S¯ kta Ni´isamc¯ ra.46. because their Vaisnavism reflects . 42)...ı a a. but the sanctity a. ı. was elevated to the status of the state dea ˚ ity (r¯ s.132–156 in S ANDERSON 2003–04.ı 77 Here I follow the report of T RIPATHI (2005a. f. a probable prior limit is established by the importance they attach to Purusottama. atha mantram pravaksy¯ mi k¯rtiv¯ sasya suvrate (corr. Moreover. unable at present to determine how much earlier this author lived. 917.¯ a a a ı . and. but I am ¯. a .´ ´ dynasty. in the list of the sixty-eight Saiva sacred sites (see B ISSCHOP 2006. p.

. that they reflect a time before Purusottama had supplanted that god . iti prayoktavyam ity arthah. killing one’s enemies (m¯ ranam). as is probable. .2–11). . . ¯ MADONM ADAKARA SUR ASURAMANUJASUNDAR¯JANAMAN AM SI T APAYA 2 D¯PAYA 2 S OS AYA I I ¯ ¯ ¯ 2 M ARAYA 2 STAMBHAYA 2 MOHAYA 2 DR AVAYA 2 AKARS AYA 2 SAMASTAPARAMA . . of the ´a a . 201. . . 81 Of . ˜ a . a a va´y¯ karsanakrurakarm¯ disu pusp¯ njalyartham j¯ n¯y¯ d ity arthah. any approximate dates that may be deduced from the presence or absence of particular deity cults in the corpus can refer only to the period during which these cults entered the Paippal¯ dins’ repertoire. then the Paippal¯ dins will have created a ¯ ngirasa corpus shortly after their arrival.83 It is. then. . not to the period of the composition of the texts that contain them a in their surviving manuscripts. ˜ a 83 S¯ rad¯ tilaka 17. it was a not long before the tenth century. ´ . 19 on p. .81 It might be suggested against this . tama/Jagann¯ tha but exhibit an intense concentration on Nrsimha. ¯´ ˙ ¯. . rites of subjection. . when prescribing the fire sacrifices to Purusottama includes one that will bring .. anam) or dissension (vidvesanam) among them. inference that the lack of Purusottama and the foregrounding of Nrsimha may . ¯ a .234 ALEXIS SANDERSON ¯˙ The core of the Angirasakalpa texts probably predates the Prapancas¯ ra ˜ a It is probable that most. ´a a in Prapancas¯ ra 23. a . for which Nrsimha rather than Purusottama was the appropriate . . ¯ ¯ ¯ SUBHAGA SARVASAUBH AGYAKARA SARVAK AMAPRADA AMUKAM HANA 2 CAKREN A GADAY A .82 and the latter at . For the former includes among its applications victory in battle (yuddhajayah). . ¯ ¯ ¯ ˚. but if. . ˚ therefore. . . n. and aggression: t¯ ny api t¯ pay¯ d¯ni t¯ vanti dv¯ da´asamkhy¯ ni vidy¯ t.. ´ I. about the subjection of all kings. ing panic (ucc¯ . the period of the earliest epigraphical evidence of their presence in the region. and causa . a˜ . We do not know when . 84 See above. attraction. immobilizing them (stambhanam). as the primary focus of Oriya Vaisnavism.6–14 and S¯ rad¯ tilaka 17. . . . if we may judge from the treat´a a ments of the propitiation of Purusottama in the Prapancas¯ ra and S¯ rad¯ tilaka. ´ ¯ . . at least probable that the bulk ¯˙ of the Angirasa materials seen here goes back to a period before the dominance of the cult of Purusottama that flowed from the patronage of Anantavarman . in a ˜a a . for all their emphasis on Vaisnava devotion. .2–5. It is likely. of the anonymous materials in the Orissan ¯˙ Angirasa corpus listed above go back in their content if not in their current textual form to a period before the Prapancas¯ ra. the Paippal¯ dins established themselves in Orissa. ¯ ˜a a a . For it is striking that these materi˜ a als..52–53b. followed by HUM PHAT. moreover. a a a ı a a s . Padmap¯ da states in his commentary on the passage that gives the Mantra that its twelve a ¯ imperatives (¯ jn¯ pad¯ ni) beginning with T APAYA are to be used. But this objection would be unconvincing. . since it is possible that the texts we have received are at the end of a now invisible history of redaction in which old materials were carried forward and revised. . ¯ ¯ ¯ R UPALAKS M¯NIV ASA SAKALAJAGATKS OBHAN A SARVASTR¯HR DAYAVID ARAN A TRIBHUVANA I I . ˚ simply be the consequence of the fact that these materials are concerned with hostile ritual. if not all. . type that lends itself to such applications: OM KR¯M S R¯M NAMAH PURUS OTTAMA APRATI I. The Prapancas¯ ravivarana attributed to ˜ a ˜ a . a ı a . ¯ ¯ TIS T HASI T AVAD Y AVAT SAM¯HITAM ME SIDDHAM BHAVATI HUM PHAT NAMAH (taught I . KHAD GENA SARVAB AN AIR BHINDA 2 P A S ENA KAT T A 2 A NKU S ENA T AD AYA 2 KURU 2 KIM . The Trailokyamohana Mantra of Purusottama is.84 It is certainly plauthe bulk of their A ˙ course. ajn¯ pad¯ n¯ m upari hum phad s a . 82 Prapancas¯ ra 23. ˚ deity. ˙ Codagangadeva in the first half of the twelfth century. . make no reference to Purusot. . ..

gop¯ l¯ s. (5) the Karpurastotra of the Phetk¯ rin¯tantra. Bhairav¯ (Tripuraı ı . with a decline in popularity from around the end of the twelfth. ¯ ı ¯ cakrayantravidhi 182. . 333 mantrar¯ jajapavidhi 183. 316 parakarmanirarthakavidhi 169. ˚ bhayamantravidhi 170. above. . . . (4) the Trailokyamohana of a aa aa ı aa the T¯ r¯ kalpa of the Bhairavatantra (T¯ r¯ ). 336 p¯ t¯ lanrsimhasya m¯ h¯ tmyaaa ¯. 319 daksinakal¯mantravidhi 171. 331 ı a a a . s .t a ˚ p¯ t¯ lanrsimhamantravidhi 184. 320 puna´ ca nrsimhamantrena s¯ mag¯ yas a . said to aa aa ¯ . as we have seen. 321 angirasakalpe gane´amantravidhi 181. . 326 akramacakravidhi 182. 317 abhayanrsimhavidhi 170. 87 I am grateful to Arlo Griffiths for his assistance in making a transcription in situ of the section at the end of this manuscript (ff. 180–182r] 315 karmasiddhipratis¯ ravidhi 168. 334 a a. contains materials pertaining to the goddesses Daksinak¯ l¯. however. (3) the T¯ r¯ stotra of the N¯latantra (T¯ r¯ ).¯ ization of that deity as Ekap¯ dabhairava. ¯ ı ¯ ı 182. sı above. 86 See 85 See . whose contents while apparently Tantric-Atharvavedic overlap only to a small extent with those of the manuscripts I have seen. The numerals before the titles are the serial numbers a .85 For. 332 punar vrs. was not closed to later accretion. 318 aindr¯ a a . ˚ ˚ ˚ vidhi. . 335 musalanrsimhamantravidhi 187. l¯yantradevat¯ vidhi 182. manuscripts that I have not yet been able to read but whose lists of contents have been transcribed and sent to me. ada´aksaramantravidhi 182. .ı have been composed by Mah¯ k¯ la (I presume this to be the well-known hymn to Daksinaa a . ˚ of the items—they run from 1 to 350—and those after the titles are the folio numbers. aı a a ´a vane´ var¯. images cora ´ ´a responding to this visualization became standard in the Saiva and S¯ kta temples of Orissa and the adjoining region of Andhra Pradesh from the tenth century to the fourteenth. a . This is the fact that the rites of Mantras of Bhairava seen in the Asimila manuscript and the two from Pune are accompanied by the visual. t s ¯ . and Bhu. 327 daksinakal¯yantravidhi 182. 322 saubh¯ gyak¯ nde daksinakal¯mantravidhi ¯˙ a a. This rough chronology is consistent with the one positive element in the Paippal¯ da Tantric tradition that seems to me to be open to plausible approxia mate dating. s .88 who are among the Ten Mah¯ vidy¯ s of the late medieval S¯ kta s ı a a tradition of Bengal. aa a a .ATHARVAVEDINS IN TANTRIC TERRITORY 235 sible that they should have lost no time in developing a repertoire of rituals that would appeal to their new patrons by integrating local religious traditions. . ¯ ı ˚ navidhi 172. . . . . 324 puna´ ca k¯ l¯yantravidhi 182. 227.¯ to the Brahmay¯ mala (T¯ r¯ ). a . 325 punar daksinakal¯yantravidhi 180. (2) the Ekajatastotrar¯ ja said to have been proclaimed by Brahm¯ and assigned a aa a a . .86 ´a Later Influence of the S¯ kta Cults of Bengal The corpus. p. angirasakalpe mah¯ s aı ¯˙ a . p. 328 daksinaka¯ . contains materials for the propitiation of the goddess Daksinak¯ l¯ in the midst of sections on the cults of Nrsimha . aı ˚ 87 and manuscript T/48(e) (Angirasakalpa) in the same collection ¯˙ and Gane´ a. the others being Soda´¯ (Tripurasundar¯). 229. Thus manuscript V/124 ¯˙ (Angirasakalpa) in the collection of the Orissa State Museum. 175v–180v) in which its contents are listed and sending it to me as an e-text. 330 paravidy¯ niv¯ ranayantravidhi 182. as can been seen in ¯˙ Angirasa manuscripts other than those whose contents have been presented here. ik¯ mavidhi 183. . . 329 vakratundamantravidhi 182.. T¯ r¯ . . The relevant part of his transcription is as follows: [f. . 338 sahasr¯ ksanrsimhamantravidhi 187. . 88 According to a list of contents prepared and sent to me by the same generous colleague the manuscript T/48(e) contains the following texts: (1) N¯lasarasvat¯bhaktakulasarvasvasahasraı ı n¯ mastotra (T¯ r¯ ). a .

a a 90 D ONALDSON 1991. (11) the Gane´aa aa a . ˜ a ¯ The Agamic sources on which the Orissan Paippal¯ dins drew for the crea ¯ ngirasa corpus before the advent of Bengali influence are invisation of their A ˙ ible to me for the most part. (7) the Nityapuj¯ nirnaya from the T¯ r¯ rahasya of the Sankar¯ c¯ rya of a a aa ¯a . (9) the T¯ rin¯kalpa (T¯ r¯ ). (12) the Gane´astavar¯ ja of the Brahmavaivarta. aa vidy¯ dhum¯ vat¯ tath¯ | bagal¯ mukh¯ siddhavidy¯ m¯ tang¯ kamal¯ tmik¯ | et¯ da´a mah¯ vidy¯ h siddhaa ¯ a ı a a ı a a ˙ ı a a a s a a. 89 Mundam¯ l¯ tantra B 1. participated in this domain in major traditions from the earliest phase of this variety of religion. Nepal.89 of ı a a ı a ˙ ı a whom Daksinak¯ l¯ and T¯ r¯ are pre-eminent. born probably at the begina a a ning of the fifteenth century in the Tripura district in Bangladesh. 87–90. . 514. In Sarvoll¯ satantra 3. a . (6) the aı ¯ a . s the Bhuvane´var¯kalpa of the Sammohanatantra (Bhuvane´ var¯). sı (= Tripur¯ ) and that the last is the first of a set of eight of whom the others are the remaining a seven of the set of ten Mah¯ vidy¯ s. (8) the first Pariccheda of the T¯ r¯ paddhati of ¯ a s ı´ ˙ a a aa aa . aa a a Gauda (gaudabhuminiv¯ si´r¯sankar¯ c¯ rya-) (T¯ r¯ ). as can been seen from the a repertoire of Mantra deities in the manuscripts whose contents have been listed above.236 ALEXIS SANDERSON ¯ a ı bhairav¯). T¯ rin¯ (= T¯ r¯ ). The oldest evidence of the woraa . the Tantric repertoire of the Oriya Paippal¯ dins had a distinct regional character. M¯ tang¯. see Dinesh Chandra Bhattacharyya’s introduction to R¯ samohana Cakravartin’s edition of the text and B ANERJI 1992. s ´a prakaranop¯ khy¯ na of the S¯ mbhav¯tantra. D¯ modara (T¯ r¯ ).7–8: k¯ l¯ t¯ r¯ mah¯ vidy¯ soda´¯ bhuvane´ var¯ | bhairav¯ chinnamast¯ ca aı a a a a . 91 D ONALDSON 1991. 92 D ONALDSON 2002. p. 562. s ı s ı .ı aa a . unlike the S¯ ktism k¯ l¯ known as the Karpur¯ distotra. and (13) ı a . that teaches the creation of Mah¯ k¯ l¯ (= Daksinak¯ l¯).ı Mahograt¯ r¯ janmaprakaranastotra of the Kubjik¯ tantra said to be the second Kalpa of the Rudraaa a . pp. 135–136.10–29 he cites a passage from the Jn¯ nadv¯pa. . a a ´a found in the S¯ kta Sarvoll¯ satantra compiled by Sarv¯ nandan¯ tha. aı ship of T¯ r¯ in Orissa appears to be the image of this goddess in the Ugrat¯ r¯ aa aa temple in Bhusandapur near the Chilka lake. moreover. sı s ı ı a .ı aa . . though that is not in the published Phetk¯ rin¯tantra).. Chinnamast¯ . and Kamal¯ . 137. .90 The same scholar reports that the majority of Orissan images of Daksinak¯ l¯ date from the eighteenth century . These. . and Soda´¯ a aı aı a . a text with the form a ˜a ı of scripture. fig. aı 91 which is also the period from which the ten Mah¯ vidy¯ goddesses and later. Kar´a nataka.92 The Distinct Character of the Tantrism of the Corpus and its Connection with the Trika and K¯ l¯kula aı ´a Before this assimilation of the S¯ ktism of Bengal. pp. . a pp. ´ ˙ y¯ malamah¯ tantra (T¯ r¯ ). vidy¯ h prak¯ sit¯ h. traditions that are known to have been established before the end of the first millennium and which flourished in such widely separated regions as Kashmir. 32. But I recognize two that show that the Oriyas. . a´ a . both works from the same region. Dhum¯ vat¯. This has been assigned by D ON ALDSON to the fifteenth to sixteenth centuries. a a . . ´a unlike their Bengali S¯ kta neighbours in later times. a a are found as a group in the temples of the region. and in the significant overlap between this pantheon and that seen in the ´a a Prapancas¯ ra and S¯ rad¯ tilaka. 462–464. and Tamilnadu. . The earliest dateable evidence of the ten Mah¯ vidy¯ s known to me is to be a. are traditions that. (10) the Vakratundamah¯ manukalpa.. Bagal¯ mukh¯.

83. notably the Par¯ tr¯sik¯ laghuvrtti.g. n. 93 See. the M¯ lin¯s ı a ı vijayottara. which forms the a ´a eighth Khanda of the Para´ur¯ makalpasutra. 102 and 120 on Saundaryalahar¯ 9 and 11 ı ı . The Trika’s texts teach the cult of the goddess Par¯ and those of the K¯ l¯kula the cults of forms of the a aı goddess K¯ lasamkarsan¯ (K¯ l¯).93 ´a ´ The two traditions to which I refer are the S¯ kta Saiva systems of the Trika and the K¯ l¯kula. the Trikas¯ ra. The reduction of the Saivas’ thirty´ the S¯ a a six Tattvas to the twenty-five of the S¯ mkhyas (or twenty-six in the theistic variant) sanctioned a. .. p. whether transgressive as ´a in the case of Bengal’s S¯ ktism or Veda-congruent as in the case of the Tantrism of those two texts. In ˜ a a . This text governs the Tantric S¯ kta s a ¯ . the principal goddess of this system of S¯ kta worship. also known as the Par¯ trimsik¯ .15c–16. the distinguished Kashmirian scholar of the late tenth and early eleventh centuries..g.. and an elaba ı orate prose commentary (-vivarana) on the Par¯ tr¯sik¯ . 14. .32–33 (33ab: pancavimsatitattv¯ tm¯ pancabrahm¯ tmakah sivah).24c–26. From the Tamil South we have a few works in the tradition of the Par¯ tr¯sik¯ .g. 16. such as the Moksadharma of the Mah¯ bh¯ rata and the a a .. a a pp. 26. both of which are generally associated with Kashmir because aı of the emergence in that region of an impressive body of literature on these cults during the tenth century but which are also attested in other regions of the subcontinent. Sarvoll¯ satantra.6–22. S¯ rad¯ tilaka 1. pp. 25. Prapancas¯ ra 1. n. of which the Devy¯ y¯ mala a ı´ a a . strictly speaking an analytic verse commentary (´lokav¯ rttikam) on s a the M¯ lin¯vijayottara but extending far beyond this text in its range. ´ . Ull¯ sa 62. both works by Abhinavaa ı´ a .ATHARVAVEDINS IN TANTRIC TERRITORY 237 of Bengal. in texts considered valid by the orthodox. 29b.000 verses. in a twenty-five/six Tattva model of reality that unlike the Mantram¯ rga’s doctrine of thirty-six Tattvas is sanctioned by texts within the a brahmanical canon and so was less objectionable to brahmanical orthodoxy. e. the Tantrasadbh¯ va.. ´ aktism of Bengal see.26c– ˜ a a ˜ a . the section on the worship a ˚ ´a of Par¯ . ˙ a. grounding their practice. and the˚ Par¯ krama. 10 and Lingapur¯ na. Uttarabh¯ ga a ˙ a. composed by Laksm¯dhara (AD 1497–1539).94 and the principal works of learned exegesis are the monumental Tantr¯ loka in some a 6. both of which lack or have ˜ a expurgated these principles. a ı aı . a s a a a and the Par¯ tr¯sik¯ . 94 On the probable Kashmirian origin of the Trika’s Devy¯ y¯ mala see S ANDERSON 2007.ı ´a a e. to which Orissa may now be added. They ´a differ markedly in this respect both from the later S¯ ktism of Bengal and from ´a a the Tantrism of the Prapancas¯ ra and S¯ rad¯ tilaka. 235. share the theological and soteriological principles that distinguish ´ the Saivism of the Mantram¯ rga from all other forms of Indian religion and a serve to express its conviction of its superiority to the Vedic tradition. the Par¯ tr¯sik¯ t¯ tparyad¯pik¯ .21c–60. 15. the Tri´irobhairava. see.´ a a a alone provides grounds for concluding that it was composed in Kashmir. gupta.87 and R¯ ghavabhatta thereon. . The principal scriptures of the Trika are the Siddhayoge´var¯mata. is also a notable feature of the influential commentary on the Saundaryalahar¯ ı . ´ a´ Svet¯ svataropanisad. ´ respectively.´ . e. the Devy¯ y¯ mala. a 9. 259–260. For the same reduction in the presentation of Mantram¯ rgic Saiva materials in the a Uttarabh¯ ga of the Lingapur¯ na see S ANDERSON 2005b. a˜ ı (Kaula) worship of the goddess Lalit¯ (/K¯ m¯ ks¯) of K¯ nc¯ and other deities a a a . a verse a ı´ a a ı´ a a ı´ a a ı a commentary on the -laghuvrtti.

namely my acceptance of the hitherto unquestioned assumption that the attribution of the Par¯ tr¯sik¯ laghuvrtti to Abhinavaa ı´ a ˚ gupta.000 verses a . i). or Par¯ krama of the Trika. t¯ in four sections of about 6. We also have two learned works of exegesis on this text composed ˚by Maharashtrian De´ astha brahmins. the half-brother of Siv¯ j¯. The redactions of the scriptural text a .238 ALEXIS SANDERSON that have been integrated into the cycle of her cult.. a aı ˜ s ı ˜ s ı s a The post-scriptural learned tradition of the K¯ l¯kula consists for the most part of aı independent treatises on the Krama. see S ANDERSON 1990. Ekav¯ra. and was unknown in Kashmir until it was published from a single ´ Devan¯ gar¯ transcript (Z ADOO 1947a. the last three of which were added in Kashmir. when it was conquered by Venk¯ j¯. the variant a a ı´ a of the Trika known as the Anuttara. and the Laghuvrtti reveals an intellectual and literary talent of lesser calibre. the commentaries themselves diverge on many points. The engagement of Maharashtrian De´ astha brahmins with the cult of the goddess Lalit¯ s a of K¯ nc¯. araka]. Its verse subcommentary. a a a ˙ ı ´ a a her general (dandan¯ yik¯ ) V¯ r¯ h¯ (V¯ rt¯ l¯). was likewise published in Kashmir on the basis of a single trana ı´ a a ı a script obtained from the same source (Z ADOO 1947b.96 A number of shorter works teach the essentialized form of the K¯ l¯kula known as the Krama. pp. 32–34. like his transcript of the Gurun¯ thapar¯ mar´a of Madhur¯ ja (P USHP 1960. the early works composed in Kashmir. who retained only the capital ı ´ aı and its immediate environs. is no doubt the result of the fact that the kingdom of a˜ ı a ˜a ¯ Tanj¯ vur (Tanjore) centred in the city of that name with K¯ nc¯ as a subsidiary capital was in a˜ ı ´ aı Maratha hands from 1674. daya of Apar¯ jit¯ nandan¯ tha (R¯ me´ vara) composed in 1831.. p. pp. namely Mah¯ ganapati. who held on to it until he died without an heir in 1855. also aı a known as the Tantrar¯ ja[bhat.97 the South Indian cult of the Trika’s goddess Par¯ based on the Par¯ tr¯sik¯ . which was doubtless prepared by him. both of which exa a a a s pound the procedure for the worship of Par¯ in detail. 95 On . 280–283. in the two commentaries differ. when it came under direct British rule. the evidently South Indian Par¯ tr¯sik¯ t¯ tparyad¯pik¯ . notably the Cidgaganacandrik¯ of Sr¯vatsa and the Mah¯ rthamanjaa a ˜ r¯ of Mahe´ var¯ nanda with its auto-commentary (-parimala) composed in the ı s a South of India. a . passing on this diminished realm to his son Siv¯ j¯.´ a . i). the last vena . from a Devan¯ gar¯ transcript of a South Indian a a s a a ı manuscript acquired by him in or from Madras. notably the K¯ l¯kulakramasadbh¯ va (/Kramasadaı aı a bh¯ va). the author of the Par¯ trimsik¯ vivarana. a massive compilation of some 24. is correct. 97 For a detailed account of the exegetical literature of the Trika and K¯ l¯kula and its scriptural aı sources see S ANDERSON 2007. the K¯ l¯kulapanca´ataka (/Dev¯panca´ataka). 1–2) belonging to the Kashmirian Saiva Guru Swami a ı Lakshman (1907–1991). her chief minister (pradh¯ nasaciv¯ ) M¯ tang¯ (/Sy¯ m¯ ). the Nityotsava of s Um¯ nandan¯ tha (Jagann¯ thapandita) composed in AD 1745 and the Saubh¯ gyoa a a a . and the Trika’s Par¯ . and thence with that of Par¯ . but ´ ı later works. has a purely South In˚ dian exegetical tradition. aı when it was ceded to the British East India Company by Serfoj¯ II. ı a pp. a a a a ı a aı erated as her heart (hrdayam). and the Dev¯dvyardha´atik¯ . p. One important detail there must be revised. to 1779. each with its own Paddhati. 96 On the Kashmirian origin of the last three sections of the Jayadrathay¯ mala see S ANDERSON a 2005b.000 verses each.95 a In the K¯ l¯kula the principal early scripture is the Jayadrathay¯ mala. 80–82.

. In P1 (and EdP) this grouping is absent. considered to be a means of attaining any desired goal. as the name implies. ¯ . and also in manuscripts T/121 (ff. as the means by which in spite of being ritualists (karm¯) they may attain ı 98 At its beginning meditative absorption (yogah) and final liberation (moksah). 76r1–76v7) and T/187 (ff. pp. which is found in the text common to the Asimila manuscript (As ff. a cidrupasya sivasyeyam par¯ saktir nigadyate | ¯ ´ a´ . a a . 99 describing it as the great Mantra-syllable for liberation Trika’s core Mantra. 2 karmam¯ rge pravis. 130r3–132r2). to be a means by which the king may expiate the sin incurred by engaging in the hos¯˙ tile sorcery that is the primary concern of the Angirasakalpa and the fourth is also. 215 (Ek¯ ksarabhairava). 220 (Ek¯ ksarabhairava). 215 (Sarvak¯ mabhairava).¯ . angir¯ uv¯ ca: ˙ a a s¯ dhu prcchasi m¯ m sisya krpay¯ te vad¯ my aham | a a. What is remarkable about this text of the Trika is not so much that it appears in Orissa but that it ¯˙ stands apart from the mainstream of the Angirasakalpa corpus in that it is not part of the repertoire for the performance of hostile rituals for royal patrons but is taught exclusively for the personal spiritual benefit of the priests themselves. In P2 these rites of the Bhairavas a . . a . a a ˚ ˚ 3 muktyartho ’sti mah¯ mantrah par¯ saktyabhidh¯ yakah | a a´ a . Ek¯ ksarabhairava. . pp. ´ ´ ´ that denotes the Sakti Par¯ . . 213 ˜a ˜a (Vijn¯ nabhairava). the . . ´ . only other Vidhis in the corpus that are presented as means of attaining meditative ˜a absorption and liberation are the brief sections on the rites of the Bhairavas Vijn¯ nabhairava. a a .. 220 (Vijn¯ nabhairava). (but without Sarvak¯ mabhairava) are grouped together immediately before the Par¯ japavidhi.ATHARVAVEDINS IN TANTRIC TERRITORY 239 The Par¯ japavidhi a The evidence of the Trika among the Oriya Paippal¯ dins appears in the a Par¯ japavidhi ‘The Procedure for the Japa of the [Mantra of the Goddess] Par¯ ’. a . ˙ Pippal¯ da says to his teacher Angiras that he has been taught no Mantra for a this purpose and asks how he may achieve this ultimate goal while remaining committed to the path of rites. though the first is also said a . a . a a a. ˚ 4 tasm¯ t t¯ m samup¯ syaiva muktim y¯ nti pras¯ dhak¯ h | a a. See above. a a silently forming with that a section devoted to liberation.¯ P1 (ff. o ’ham katham muktim vraj¯ my aham | a t a . 78v2–82r2) of the collection of the Orissa State Museum. Angiras then teaches him the rite of SAUH. and Sarvak¯ mabhairava.27–33. 99 On SAUH . 98 The . 48v4–50v1 = EdP. Astaksarabhairava. ¯ . the Seed-syllable of the goddess Par¯ .. . . a a ¯˙ a composition of 37 verses assigned to the Angirasa. . see Tantr¯ loka 30. cicchaktir ek¯ j¯v¯ n¯ m moksad¯ nakrtavrat¯ | a ı a a. 98–101) and . muktihetur mah¯ mantro na ka´cit pratip¯ ditah | a s a . a role inescapable for the mythical prototype of ˙ the Atharvavedic priesthood. and 220 (Astaksarabhairava). . a a . the power of Siva on which Siva himself meditates a with devotion: pippal¯ da uv¯ ca: a a 1 bhagavan sarvamantr¯ nam vidh¯ nam kathitam tvay¯ | a.

. . e. When the period of withdrawal of a segment of the universe comes to its end a new deity. . : tanmantram P1 As EdP T/121 T/187 . a . ´ this [Power]. See.. : yanmantram anup¯ sy¯ mi T/121 : yamantram anupa´y¯ mi T/187 : yam a a a a s a .252c–319. . yam mantram anup¯ sy¯ pi mriyante ’bj¯ san¯ dayah | a a a a . ˚ ˚ te vad¯ my aham As T/187 : te dad¯ my aham P1 T/121 3a muktyartho As T/121 : mukt¯ rtho a a a P : para´ aktyabhidh¯ yakah As : par¯ saktividh¯ nakah P ac : paraP1 3d par¯ saktyabhidh¯ yakah Ed a´ a s a a´ a . Svacchanda 11. For their lifespans. 1 pc saktividh¯ yakah P1 : parasatv¯ bhidh¯ yah T/121 : par¯ saktividh¯ yakah T/187 3c cicchaktir As ´ a a a .100 Listen. a ´ . When they die the universe up to their level is withdrawn for a period . He then sets out in verses 6c–31 an order of essentialized worship of this Mantra based on that set out in the Par¯ tr¯sik¯ . with full attention. .. a . . a ´ .528. except that it assimilates this to the model a ı´ a ¯ ngirasakalpa Mantra rites by incorporating such features as the of the other A ˙ vy¯ pakany¯ sah and the specification of a Rsi and the rest. mantram anup¯ sy¯ pi conj. and they teach that her Mantra is SAUH. a a. and so on. on . s s . you have taught the procedures for a every Mantra. since his nature is [none a´ other than this] Consciousness. [But] you have taught [me] no higher Mantra (mah¯ mantrah)[. . It is that which denotes Par¯ sakti. a moksad¯ nakrtavrat¯ P1 T/121 T/187 : moksad¯ nakrtavrat¯ h As Ed . a´ a . . or another. constitutes Siva [himself]. T/121 2b muktim As P1 T/187 : mukti T/121 2c prcchasi As T/121 : prcchati P1 T/187 2d . P1 T/187 : b¯ja´aktir T/121 • ek¯ j¯v¯ n¯ m As P1 T/121 T/187 : eva moksaya EdP 3d ı s a ı a a. is engendered by Siva to govern it.240 ALEXIS SANDERSON 5 mantro ’sy¯ h saur iti prokto yam up¯ ste sivah svayam | a. 100 Brahm¯ a . ¯ . . ´ . which is a day in the 100-year lifea . (5c–6b) I shall [now] teach you [the procedure of] that Mantra upon which Brahm¯ and the other [lesser a gods] do not meditate and for that very reason are mortal. ´ the level. ´ which Siva himself meditates with devotion. . (3c–4b) She is the single Power of Consciousness. ˚ ´ and the other lesser gods of the Saivas are indeed considered mortal. a ˚ P 4d par¯ As EdP T/121 t¯ m T/121 : sim As : omitted in P1 T/187 : cicchaktim conj. Visnu. a. I am committed to the path of rites (karmam¯ rge).000 ordinary years). . equal to their life-spans and they themselves are dissolved.320. . It is by propitiating that Power that S¯ dhakas (pras¯ dhak¯ h) achieve this goal. though vast and ever vaster the higher their rank. . . mamtran anupa´y¯ P1 : yam mantram anup¯ sy¯ m¯ As : yam mantram samup¯ sya m¯ EdP 5d s a ¯ a´ a a a a . mantram corr. There is [indeed] a higher Mantra for the purpose of liberation. .g. ˚ Pippal¯ da said: (1–2b) O venerable one. Ed a. are finite. a´ dedicated to granting liberation to souls. one] that can bring about liberation. : tasm¯ n a a. span of Visnu. dear [pupil]. 1a sarvamamtr¯ nam P1 T/121 T/187 : sarvadharm¯ nam As EdP 1d ka´cit As P1 T/187 : ka´ci a. Brahm¯ . It ends. . 6 tam mantram te pravaksy¯ mi srnu vatsa sam¯ hitah | a . mriyante ’bj¯ san¯ dayah As EdP T/121 : miyatej¯ san¯ dayah P1 : mriyatej¯ san¯ dayah T/187 6a tam a a a a a a . my pupil.000. (4c–5b) [The scriptures] teach that a a a. .¯ P 4a tasm¯ t t¯ m corr. Out of compassion I shall tell you. T/187 : pur¯ P1 5ab prokto yam up¯ ste T/121 : proktah samup¯ ste P1 As EdP T/187 5c yam a a a .¯ a ˚ . How [in spite of that] shall I achieve liberation? a ˙ Angiras said: (2c–3b) You ask well. according to a . That of Brahm¯ (100 of his a years) is one mah¯ kalpah (313. . should there a a . Par¯ sakti. ¯ .

tatah param sivam devam pranamya svagurum namet | ´ . a. . . ˚ P 7c aim hr¯m sr¯m P T/121 : aim kr¯m P1 T/121 T/187 : svam asanam As : svam¯ nasam Ed ¯´ a ı. : saptavimsativ¯ rasyocc¯ rane T/121 : saptavimsativ¯ raa a . . 11 auk¯ rena˚hrdi brahmarandhre kury¯ d visargakaih | a . navagupta. . . at ˜ EdP T/187 : brahmanam As T/121 • namaskrtya P1 As EdP T/187 : namaskrty¯ T/121 9d a . ¯ t ¯ a´ . a. P : buddhy¯ T/121 : vrddhim P : vrddham T/187 11a auk¯ rena P1 T/187 10c vrddhy¯ As Ed a a a . ˚ ˚ santyartham P1 As EdP T/121 : santyadvam T/187 10a sak¯ rena As EdP T/121 : sval¯ rena ´¯ ´¯ a . . .´ s y ov¯ rane T/187 : saptavimsativ¯ rasyoddh¯ rane P1 : saptavimsativ¯ ra syo gharane As : saptaa . .ATHARVAVEDINS IN TANTRIC TERRITORY 241 be any doubt as to its source. im ak¯ satah ksipet | a . . ˚ 14 p¯ t¯ labhuminabhas¯ m vighn¯ h sarve nir¯ krt¯ h | aa ¯ a. ˚ ˚ As T/187 : aik¯ rena P1 T/121 11d bhumy¯ divighnav¯ ranam T/121 : bhumy¯ vighnaniv¯ ranam a . ı. ˚ sak¯ rocc¯ ranaih prthv¯m hany¯ d vighnanivrttaye | a a . ˚ . . ı. at . . . ´ ı. and 12c–18b in the editions of the Par¯ tr¯sik¯ vivarana of Abhia ı´ a . . . 7 padm¯ sanagato mantr¯ namaskury¯ t svam asanam | a ı a ¯ aim hr¯m sr¯m samucc¯ rya kulapadm¯ sanam namet | a a . ¯ . . 12 dhrtv¯ v¯ mena hastena daksinam caranam budhah | a a .´ .´ . . ıt . . . . ¯ a a . . ıt . ˚ antast¯ l¯ bahist¯ l¯ dvidh¯ m¯ parik¯rtit¯ h | aa aa a ı ı a. . han ca Ed a ı. ˚ am¯bhir navabhis t¯ lair bhumy¯ divighnav¯ ranam | ı a ¯ a a . . 1 ı. a .. a a . P 7b namaskury¯ t As EdP P T/187 : namaskrrty¯ T/121 • svam asanam vi´ativ¯ ro ghorena Ed s a a a ¯ 1 . . .¯ P : tathoktv¯ yogap¯tham ca P T/187 9c brahm¯ nam P script) : tatas trihks¯nap¯ . . ı. P1 As EdP T/187 12a v¯ mena P1 As T/187 : v¯ ma T/121 • hastena P1 T/121 T/187 : haste a a As 12d hany¯ d P1 As T/187 : jany¯ d T/121 • nivrttaye P1 T/121 T/187 : nivrttayet As 13a a a ˚ ˚ 101 These are the verses numbered 12–18b in the KSTS edition of the Par¯ tr¯sik¯ laghuvrtti. a. . 16 mul¯ dibrahmarandhr¯ ntam mulena dahan¯ tman¯ | ¯a a a a . ı. . . ˚ bhuta´uddhim prakurv¯ta mantram ucc¯ rayan sudh¯h | ¯ s ı a ı. 6cd saptavimsatidh¯ tasyocc¯ rane conj. ˚ • namet As P1 T/121 T/187 : nayet EdP 8a tathoddiy¯ nap¯. 1 1 .´ . 17 brahmarandhr¯ dimul¯ ntam bh¯ vayet pl¯ van¯ tmakam | a ¯a a a a . ham ca As (y¯ and ksa are readily confused in the Oriya a .101 The preliminaries: a ı´ a pippal¯ da uv¯ ca: a a saptavimsatidh¯ tasyocc¯ rane pr¯ nasamyamah | ´ a a . ´ ı. . a a . a . a. which a ı´ a takes 17 to consist of a half-verse. ´ ı. . ham ¯ . a ˚ ˚ 13 auk¯ rena punah kury¯ t t¯ latrayam atandritah | a . 9 gane´varam ksetrap¯ lam durg¯ m sarasvat¯m tath¯ | s a . . uttarottaravrddhy¯ tu kury¯ t t¯ latrayam budhah | a a a . . . . ca T/121 : tatottriksanap¯ . ¯ sams¯ rap¯ sad¯ h¯ rtham bh¯ vayed dahanam manum | a . visargocc¯ ranaih kruradrs. ıt . a . ¯ a a . a . 1 ˚ . a a . with the unacknowledged incorporation of six verses of the Par¯ tr¯sik¯ as its verses 32–37. ı . : tathoti anap¯. a a. 8 tathoddiy¯ nap¯. a a´ a a . brahm¯ nam ca namaskrtya vighna´antyartham acaret | a. 15 hrdy antaryajanam kury¯ d devat¯ y¯ s ca s¯ daram | a a a´ a . . a . s¯ ¯ 10 mul¯ dh¯ re sak¯ rena˚t¯ latrayam sam¯ caret | ¯a a a . . . . a . ham ca pranamen mantravittamah | a . ´ ı. gr¯ As : aim kl¯m sr¯m EdP : aindr¯m sr¯m T/187 7d kula As P1 T/121 T/187 : krta EdP a ı. . ham ca conj. a a . .

im P1 As T/187 : drs. . He should first utter [the syllables] AIM HR¯M S R¯M and then exI. P T/121 T/187 : hr∗an¯ tman¯ P 16c p¯ sad¯ h¯ rtham P T/121 As • dahan¯ tman¯ As Ed a a a a 1 a´ a a . . ´ I. ¯ . ˚ trit¯ r¯ should be added at the beginning of all the Mantras. a. 191: soda´av¯ ram aa ¯ . aı . . . Kamal¯ is the the fourth vowel with ¯. a. danam P1 : bh¯ vadehananam T/121 17b bh¯ vayet pl¯ van¯ tmakam conj. iv¯ ram avrttena kumbhakam dv¯ trimsadv¯ ram avrttena recakam iti ¯ ¯ t a ¯ a . 15a hrdy antaryajanam P1 T/187 : hrdantaryajanam T/121 : hrdyam tu taryanam As : hrdyam tu . . . M¯ y¯ . and Kamal¯ ’. . . Para´ur¯ makalpasutra. ˚ ˚ ´ ¯ ¯ RA S AKTIKAMAL ASAN AYA NAMAH iti pr¯ nmukha udanmukho v¯ padmasvastik¯ dyanyatamen¯ sanea˙ ˙ a a a . a 103 I surmise that this means that one should consecrate one’s seat with the Mantra AIM HR¯M I. or three times. . ¯ ¯ S R¯M KULAPADM ASAN AYA NAMAH or.). trit¯ r¯ v¯ nm¯ y¯ kamal¯ h ‘The a ¯. . considering parallels and the possibility that padm¯ saa . a. a ı a˙ a a a.104 (8c–9b) ı. a. . ˚ ˚ ˚ vimsatidh¯ soda´adh¯ saptadh¯ tridh¯ v¯ pr¯ nan ayamya ‘Having restrained his breathing twenty. a . ´ I. 191: I. ˚ ˚ tast¯ l¯ P1 As T/187 : antast¯ l¯ r T/121 14d dvidh¯ m¯ As T/187 : dvidh¯ mi T/121 : dvidh¯ h P1 aa aa a ı a a. a ´ I. a . . . : bh¯ vayet plavan¯ tmakam a a a a a a . ¯ sv¯ st¯rne urnamrduni sucini mulena dv¯ da´av¯ ram abhimantrite sakrt proksite c¯ sane SAUH ADH A a ı . . ˚ ¯ ¯ MAL ASAN AYA NAMAH ity upavi´ ya. . (AIM). m¯ y¯ tur¯yosmasahitadvit¯y¯ ntasthottara h sabindus turyasvarah. AIM HR¯M S R¯M KULAKAMAL ASAN AYA NAMAH. press obeisance to (namet) the lotus throne of the Kula (kulapadm¯ sanam). I.´ sixteen.´ a ¯ . 1 ˚ T/187 : p¯ sahatv¯ rtham As : p¯ san¯ sartham EdP 16d bh¯ vayed dahanam As EdP T/187 : bh¯ vayed a´ a a´ a´ ¯ a a .¯ ´ ¯ a s a a . he should bow to his Guru. prathamosmasahitadvit¯y¯ ntahsthopari sabindus turyasvarah ‘V¯ k is the twelfth vowel and the dot ı a . . It is tentative because although it seems to me to be the most economical interpretation of the source of the meaningless readings transmitted by these two manuscripts I know of no parallel that ´a supports obeisance of a S¯ kta sacred site at this point of the ritual nor any passage that asso´ akta site Oddiy¯ na with the Trika rather than the Krama (for its association with ciates this S¯ . together with the fourth of the fricatives (usm¯ nah) (HR¯M). P T/187 T/121 : bh¯ vayet pavan¯ tmakam P1 As Ed a a . ¯ ¯ aı . and each exhalation for the duration of thirty-two repetitions . each holding of the inhalation for the duration of sixty-four repetitions. ı a a . doing each inhalation for the duration of sixteen repetitions of the root-Mantra. . the dot after the second of the semivowels together with the first of the fricatives (S R¯M)’. 104 This translates a tentative conjecture based on the readings of T/121 and As.103 a The best of Mantrins should bow to the P¯tha *Oddiy¯ na (conj. . . . . Cf. Par¯ paddhati.. . ´ Then after bowing to the supreme God Siva. kamal¯ a s a a ı . a. ´ ı ¯ much used in the system of the Para´ur¯ makalpasutra. I have opted for reading of the seed-syllables given in s . . p. Par¯ paddhati. . It is the V¯ k. ´ a a ¯ ¯ ´ nopavi´ya. Sutra 8) that this s a ¯ triad should open every Mantra used in the worship of Lalit¯ after the worshipper has entered a the shrine (y¯ gagrham): sarvesam mantr¯ nam adau trit¯ r¯samyogah.. the instruction for breath-restraint in Nityotsava. because these are the trit¯ r¯ ‘the set of three Pranavas’ that is I. . 193: y¯ gagrham pravi´y¯ sane ADH ARA S AKTIKA s s a ¯ a s a . .242 ALEXIS SANDERSON auk¯ rena As T/187 : aik¯ rena P1 T/121 13b atamdritah P1 T/187 : atantritah As T/121 13cd a . That requires (Sr¯krama. . . ’. The number twenty-seven in our text is by extension of its prescription in the Par¯ tr¯sik¯ for the number of repetitions of the Mantra a ı´ a required for the empowerment of the hair-queue (´ikh¯ ) before it is tied (27a) and the water to s a be sprinkled for purification (28c–29b). 92): v¯ k a s a ı a˙ a a a. . a . s a a a a a. ˚ bhuta´uddhim T/121 T/187 : bhumi´uddhim P1 As • prakurv¯ta P1 EdP T/121 T/187 : prakuv¯ta ¯ s ¯ s ı ¯ ı . . p. ˚ ˚ ˚ ˚ ¯ a a´ a´ taryanam EdP : hrdi tu tarpanam conj. and for the worship of Par¯ (31cd). Sy¯ m¯ krama. seven. ¯ ¯ . ¯ . ´ I. s a vrttena mulena purakam catuhsas. am T/121 14a nabhas¯ m P1 As T/187 : niras¯ m T/121 14c ant t a. a sabindur dv¯ da´asvarah.. ¯ ¯ nam is for the metre.102 In the lotus-posture the Mantrin should bow to his seat. . p. . . M¯ y¯ is the fourth vowel with the dot after the second of the semivowels (antahsth¯ h) a a . drs. . a . P1 and T/121 (AIM HR¯M S R¯M). a 102 Cf. PAN D A 15b devat¯ y¯ s P1 As T/121 : devatey¯ s T/187 15c . ´ I. Pippal¯ da said: (6c–8) He should restrain his breathing twenty-seven times a while repeating this [Seed]. . . aı a a a a ¯ R¯ me´ vara explains the Sutra’s definition of the trit¯ r¯ (v¯ nm¯ y¯ kamal¯ h) as follows (p.

YOGAP¯T H AYA NAMAH. 105 I am not aware of an exact parallel to this obeisance to Gane´ a. and Sarasvat¯ on the lintel. a a. A similar cluster of door-deities is prescribed in S¯ rad¯ tilaka 4. (11ab) He should do [the same] with AU at [the level of his] heart and with [three] AHs at [the level of] the aperture . for a Mantra ending ı. . p. . 106 This distinction between the internal and external aspects of the rite of expelling the Impeders is seen in Par¯ tr¯sik¯ laghuvrtti.105 (9c–10) After bowing to a a ı . I I. this means will] have been eliminated all Impeders in the P¯ t¯ las [below the aa site]. . . . (12) After taking hold of his right foot with his left hand the learned [worshipper] should beat the ground [with it] while repeating the sound SA. practice of some. of Brahm¯ . ham ca of P1 T/187. ´ ˚ tathoktv¯ is a corruption of tattvokty¯ or similar. that is to say. 193) for the creation of the throne of Par¯ comprisa a ´ ing all the thirty-six Tattvas from earth to Siva. ı ı .. however. . the Ksetrap¯ la. then. ¯ PR THIV¯YOGAP¯T H AYA NAMAH and ending SAUH S IVAYOGAP¯T H AYA NAMAH . That passage also requires a s . The Par¯ japavidhi’s prescription could be interpreted as keeping only the core-deities a from this more elaborate sequence.t . but as a name of Orissa (Odra) itself. and Gane´ a a .ATHARVAVEDINS IN TANTRIC TERRITORY 243 Gane´ a. since it yields no appropriate ıt . in the procedure taught in the Par¯ krama of the Para´ur¯ makalpasutra I. yogap¯. in order to eliminate the Impeders [in the P¯ t¯ la worlds beneath the earth]. ˚ taye): pur¯ purvam t¯ latrayam hrdb¯jakal¯ trayavi´r¯ ntitrayarupam vaikhar¯sabdaparyantam sv¯ tmaa ¯ a ı a sa ¯ . s . the Ksetrap¯ la. Sarasvat¯. according to which one wora . and in the sky [above it]. ¯ BODAR AYA NAMAH iti tisro dv¯ radevat¯ h sampujy¯ ntah pravis. Brahm¯ [as the Lord of the shrine (v¯ stvadhipatih)] he should act to eliminate a a . The learned [worshipper] should make each subsequent clap of the three louder than that which it follows. ships Durg¯ rather than Gane´ a at the base of the right doorpost. which is taught after all in the more elaborate context of the ceremony of initiation. ´a a ¯ Ganan¯ yakapaddhati. Perhaps. p. . Durg¯ . p.106 (15– the Krama see S ANDERSON 2007. ¯ a s a ¯ . but it is evident that these deities are to be understood as guarding the door to the ı shrine. a s¯ . s . A closer parallel is seen in the a . s . That reı a quires the meditator to worship Bhadrak¯ l¯ (= Durg¯ ) at the base of the right doorpost. . 191. thus beginning SAUH I. pp. we can find support for obeisance to the Yogap¯tha. It is possible. It is tempting to prefer the reading tathoktv¯ a . commentary. and Sarasvat¯. s and the Ksetrap¯ la at the bases of the right and left doorposts. s . (14cd) We have been taught that these claps are of two kinds: internal and external.] and [the air above it]. ı. ¯ (Sutra 18. ˚ . With SA he should clap thrice at [the level of his] Mul¯ dh¯ ra. ¯ a a the Impeders. 261–269). ¯ ¯ daksav¯ ma´akhayor urdhvabh¯ ge ca kramena SAUH BHADRAK ALYAI NAMAH BHAIRAV AYA LAM ¯ a . ¯ . These four minus Sarasvat¯ are prescribed in that role in the Par¯ paddhati. ¯ . . Though tathoktv¯ seems to be corrupt. (11cd) With these nine claps he will drive away the Impeders a from the earth[. . a . stem-form of the name of the Tattva followed by YOGAP¯T H AYA NAMAH. on the earth [of the site]. The worshipper builds the throne (¯ sanam) by a casting single flowers as he utters for each Tattva a Mantra consisting of SAUH followed by the . and a a . I. Mah¯ laksm¯. 20 on 28ab (t¯ latrayam pur¯ dattv¯ sa´abdam vighna´ana ı´ a a a a s s¯ . a Swat valley. a sense here. ˙ a one to worship Gang¯ and Yamun¯ flanking the two deities of the doorposts and Astra on the a door-sill. . There one is instructed to worship Gane´ a. (13cd) [Clapping thrice] while repeating AH he should cast a furious gaze into the sky. see also Para´ ur¯ makalpasutra.6d–7. and Par¯ paddhati. and Lambodara (= Gane´ a) above the door: dv¯ rasya a a . (14ab) [By . a .. Bhairava aı a (= Ksetrap¯ la) at the base of the left.. ı´ a . Sutra 4. ¯ a . Durg¯ . ah. located in the a . s a ¯ . that for the author or redactor of the Par¯ japavidhi Oddiy¯ na was understood not as that Oddiy¯ na. as reported by R¯ ghavabhatta on this passage. the region below it. (13ab) Remaining aa alert he should make three more claps with AU. With tattvokty¯ the meaning would be ‘The best a a a of Mantrins should bow to the Yogap¯tha while naming the Tattvas’.

191: v¯ map¯ rsnibhutala-. ˚ ˚ vausadantamulena saktatvasamp¯ dan¯ ya aplavanam ca krtv¯ ‘Having burnt away [the body] with ¯ ´¯ a ¯ ¯ a . . smrtah | bindumastakasambhinnah.Cod. . For the use of . ˚ Mantra: ˚ rsih sy¯ d daksinamurtis tris. . a a ´ .49. Par¯ krama. .t .. . . Par¯ paddhati. ¯ a a a a a a. s a ¯ .g. a . ˚ arcan¯ carc¯ . application. aa ¯ s a a . p. . both internally and externally.) | sv¯kurvan m¯ trm¯ *meyatrayasadbh¯ valaksanam (meya em. on the earth. ´ . . The four spheres (caturanda-) mentioned in these ı . ˚ dikram¯ tmanah | par¯ di´aktirupena prasarattritvasucakam | m¯ trm¯ n¯ rthasadbh¯ vav¯ cy¯ msatritay¯ a a s ¯ ...t a . with [the visualization of] the root-Mantra burning [as it ¯ a a ascends] from [his] Mul¯ dh¯ ra to his aperture of Brahm¯ . a a ¯ a a a ¯ a s a . . Sutra 6. descending [through Pa´ yant¯. . these in the form of the three points of rest in the three constituents of the heart-seed [SAUH]. 77: humphadantena mantrena *dahanam (em. 18 devat¯ sy¯ t par¯ saktih sak¯ ro b¯jam isyate | a a a´ a ı . ˚ tmakam | hrdayam bhairav¯yam tad atmatven¯ vadh¯ rayan | *tadamsantarup¯ msuccaihsabdanakramaı . and water respectively . up chandah prak¯rtitam | ı . ..¯ v¯ gvrttitrayena (vivaksadhyavas¯ yoktirupapa´yant¯madhyam¯ vaikhary¯ tmaka. . Sakti. s¯ a . s a a . passages are those beginning with the saktyandam taught in M¯ lin¯vijayottara 2.. .. . Sr¯krama 11: v¯ yvagnisalilavarnayukpr¯ nay¯ maih sosanam samdahanam apl¯ vanam ca vi¯ a a. . 8–9: sakty¯ dyandacatus. . and Madhyam¯ ] to audis ı a . . a . ´ . 9: p¯ rsnihaa . ¯ a a a . ’. no dady¯ t. a a a . pl¯ vanam rather than apl¯ vanam in this context see. p. For the purpose of the inundation see. . a a a a . ...244 ALEXIS SANDERSON 17b) Next he should devotedly worship the deity internally in [his] heart. ´¯ ´ . : acaran a ı a ¯ a a .¯ ˚ yoktirup¯ pa´yant¯madhyam¯ vaikhary¯ tmaka. . incinerated. : daharam Cod. 19 sadbhir d¯rghai´ ca samyuktaih sak¯ rair urdhvabindukaih | ı s a ˚¯ . p.g. The term bhuta´uddhih for ¯ s . and installation (ny¯ sah) of the a . .em. . ´ a . rsnihastamukhaih sabdanam t¯ latrayasv¯karanam. . ˚ laksanam (tadamsa em. . stamukhaih] : p¯ dap¯ ni Ed. ˚ . ´¯ . a . ble utterance on the level of Vaikhar¯. and inundated [his body] with breath-restraints accoma panied with the syllables of wind. [cf. : p¯ya Ed. metre.) p¯ t¯ labhumyantariksagatabhedavighna´aman¯ ya kury¯ t ‘First he should a a. . . . fire. Ed. . e. and Anuttarasamvidı a a a ı . ¯ this process is also seen ibid. give three ‘claps’ to himself. . and mouth in order to quell the Impeders that are the pluralities [manifest] in the subterranean worlds. ¯ a .37d–38a: pl¯ vane v¯ runah a ¯ a a a .107 a ´ The Rsi. . . [Then] he should visualize it inundating [his body with nectar] ¯ a a from his aperture of Brahm¯ to his Mul¯ dh¯ ra.¯ . and in the air’. tatsv¯k¯ rakam sv¯ tm¯ nam vighn¯ n¯ m caturandagatabhed¯ bhim¯ nasamkalp¯ n¯ m santaye a ı a a a . .) pram¯ naprameyavimar´an¯ m samyojanatay¯ p¯ ¯ a s ı a a a. e. . Seed. . a a . . dh¯ ya ‘having desiccated. auh saktir yogasiddhyarthe viniyoga ud¯ hrtah | a .. a a. hands. ˚ the Mantra followed by HUM PHAT.) | sakty¯ dicaturandodyatp¯ t¯ laksm¯ ntariksag¯ n | sarv¯ n samayi´ a aa . He should make himself assimilate them in order ı to quell the Impeders in the form of false identification with and desire for the plurality of the four spheres [of the universe]. ¯ a a ´¯ a . Svacchanda 2. 8: v¯ map¯ s a a .´ . He should via sualize the Mantra burning to incinerate the bonds of [his] transmigratory existence. ´¯ . ¯ a ´ . deity. . . .. . : tadamso Ed. Para´ ur¯ makaa a s a ´ ı lpasutra. .¯ . ´ a ı . .).) krtv¯ a a a . ay¯ rabdhap¯ t¯ laprthivyantariksatmakatrailokyavisayabhed¯ a a ´ a aa a . with sounds produced by his left heel. ´ by VAUS AT in order to transform it into one that is made of [Siva’s] powers’. . See also Par¯ tr¯sik¯ t¯ tparyaa ı´ a a d¯pik¯ 377–381: v¯ cah par¯ y¯ vaktyartharup¯ y¯ hrday¯ tmanah | vivaksadhyavasokty¯ tmapa´yanty¯ ı a a . Anuttarasamvidarcan¯ carc¯ . bahir anta´ ca *v¯ map¯ rsnihastamukha´abdakramena (v¯ map¯ rsni corr. The learned [worshipper] should purify the elements [of his body]. : vivaksadhyavas¯ a a ¯ s ı a a a . 107 For this incineration (dahanam) and inundation with nectar ([¯ ]pl¯ vanam) cf. uttering the Mantra. . . and having inundated it with the root-Mantra followed . pp. . a a a . in V¯ r¯ h¯krama. aa ı Mrgendrapaddhativy¯ khy¯ .. .¯ ¯ ... a tum vighn¯ n bhedataddh¯may¯ n vibhun | t¯ latrayam p¯ rsnihastamukha´abdanam *¯ caret (em. rsnigh¯ taih. ˚ bhim¯ nasamkalp¯ tmakavighnanir¯ s¯ ya *vivaksadhyavas¯ yoktirupapa´yant¯madhyam¯ vaikhary¯ tmakaa a aa a ¯ s ı a a .

. . .¯ ¯ ´ Siva’s aspect as Guru in the South Indian iconographical tradition.51. . mastak¯ d dhrdayam y¯ vat P1 As T/187 : mastak¯ t hrday¯ j¯ vat T/121 22d vinyased dvijah P1 a a a a a . a˙ a˙ . pp. The pincers gesture is the same as the a . 120: *savyahasta´ (corr. sak¯ rair urdhvabindukaih As T/187 : sak¯ rair urddhvabimdukaih P1 pc : sak¯ rairddhakindukaih As a ¯ a a . ´ . (19abc) Moreover. 21 mastake caiva jihv¯ y¯ m hrdaye guhyake tath¯ | a a. ¯ murti is.8d–9b quoted by B HATT in Raua rav¯ gama. . a . . S UM [ S IKH AYAI VAS AT ]. . ˜a a a Kriy¯ p¯ da 35. ˙ a ¯ ¯ U AI AU AH] and M above [all except ¯ combined with the six long vowels [A I .´ . ture (samdamsamudr¯ ) and the left has a manuscript’.288cd: hrdaye jn¯ namudr¯ tu hy abhyantaramukham karam. . ˙ a aa 20 tribhir varnair dvir uktair v¯ saccid¯ nandalaksanaih | a a . . . and [its] application (viniyogah) has been declared [to . He has the option of form. cf. SAIM [ KAVAC AYA HUM ].t ˚ ˚ P T/121 T/187 : tristap As 18a sy¯ t As EdP T/187 : sy¯ h P T/121 18b sak¯ ro P1 Ed a a. the Mantrin should form the six ancillary Mantras (sad ang¯ ni) with [six] S [ A ]-s .´ jn¯ namudr¯ but with the palm towards the chest. . a a . : mah¯ manum Codd. [its] Seed (b¯jam) is held to be SA (sak¯ rah). . ´ [its] Sakti is AUH.) ca mudray¯ | samdamsasamjnayopeto a s a . . Par¯ ’s male counterpart. . 2. . . . Par¯ being a Tantric form of Sarasvat¯ (S ANDERSON a a ı 1990. . . mastak¯ d dhrdayam y¯ vat sak¯ ram vinyased dvijah | a a . 22c aa a . .108 [its] metre is said to be . ˚ ˚ As : vinyasedvijah T/121 : vinyased budhah T/187 23b auk¯ ram As T/121 T/187 : aik¯ ram P1 a . ¯ ˚ ¯ ¯ ¯ . . . P T/121 T/187 : vaiva jijn¯ y¯ m As 21c sarv¯ nge ca conj. . a . 22 saptavimsativ¯ ram ca sikh¯ y¯ m vinyasen manum | ´ a . . As T/121 T/187 : s¯ k¯ ro P1 18c auh EdP : au As T/187 : ai P1 T/121 • saktir P1 T/121 a a ´ . . n¯ bhe´ caranaparyantam visargam ca pravinyaset | a ˚s . . . sarvena vy¯ pakam ny¯ sam mantr¯ purvavad acaret | a a . . . . ´ ¯ ¯ NAMAH ]. 24 bhuyo ’dhahkramato ’py evam mantr¯ pratyaksaram nyaset | ¯ ı . . 1 a . . . S¯M [ S IRASE SV AH A ]. since a a ¯ . . T/187 EdP : saktar As • siddhyarthe P1 T/121 T/187 EdP : sadhvarthe As 19a sadbhir T/121 ´ .) ‘His right hand has the pincers gesa a . see the South Indian K¯ mika 2. ˜a a . ı ¯ ¯ . . a . a´ ı a .¯ .¯ ¯ ˚ the Tristubh. : v¯ mahastasthapustakah Ed. . ˙ a . : ebhir a ¯ a . . in his form as expositor of the scriptures (vy¯ khy¯ namurtih) his iconography is strikingly similar to Par¯ ’s. . . 17c rsih sy¯ d T/187 : rusih sy¯ d P1 As : rsisy¯ T/121 • daksina P1 : daksisa As 17d tris. . . Codd. ˚ T/121 : sak¯ rair urddhvabimdubhih P1 ac : sak¯ rairddhakindukaih As T/121 20a tribhir conj. a a ˜a a . • varnair As P1 T/187 : varnnai T/121 20c prakurv¯ta P1 T/121 T/187 : prakuv¯ta As ı ı .. (17c–18) The Rsi [of the Mantra] is Daksinamurti. its deity is Par¯ sakti.¯ . . . vol. SAUM [ NE I. up a a .109 (19d–20) I shall teach an alternative. a he too is white and in two of his four hands shows the gesture of knowledge (jn¯ namudr¯ ) ˜a a and a manuscript (pustakam). . . the prescription of his icon in Raurav¯ gama. be] “for the success of meditation” (yogasiddhyarthe). ˚ Codd.ATHARVAVEDINS IN TANTRIC TERRITORY 245 mantr¯ kury¯ t sad ang¯ ni prak¯ r¯ ntaram ucyate | ı a . a ˚ sarv¯ nge ca panca panca ny¯ s¯ n kury¯ n mah¯ manoh | a˙ ˜ ˜ aa a a . as it were. ˚ 109 Thus the modifications of the root-Mantra that form its six Ancillaries are S AM [ HR DAY AYA ¯ . T/187 : sadbhir P1 : padbhir As EdP • ca samyuktaih As T/121 T/187 : ca yuktai´ ca P1 19b s . and Daksinamurti being . prakurv¯ta sad ang¯ ni tatah pratyaksaram nyaset | ı . . ˜ *v¯ mahastah sapustakah (conj. 43–45). . . 21d ny¯ s¯ n As P1 T/187 : ny¯ sam T/121 • mah¯ manoh conj.. Moreover. . . . p.. 23 hrday¯ n n¯ bhiparyantam auk¯ ram ca pravinyaset | a ˚a a . 108 This choice was probably motivated by the thought that the form of Siva known as Daksina´ ¯ . the goddess that embodies speech and knowledge. : sarv¯ ngena 21a caiva jihv¯ yam P1 Ed a . the last]. ´ a a. : savyahastam Ed. .

hena sikh¯ m baddhv¯ . elements from NAMAH to PHAT (the six j¯ tayah) I have followed the order followed in the nearly a . . bliss. Cf. a .246 ALEXIS SANDERSON ing the six Ancillaries with the three sounds [of the Mantra] uttered twice. sound by sound (pratyaksaram). .g. [these three] representing Being. The Mantrin should install [the Mantra] .g. ¯ ¯ ´ ¯a a . their identity with one’s head.. . . 6. Ed . . . 121. . ‘While meditating on himself as one with the a . [this Heart] that comprises all the Tattvas. and two feet shines forth as one’s body. ll.t ´ a.36cd: sak¯ ro d¯rghasatkena yukto ’ng¯ ni. the Par¯ mantravidhi edited below. 8). 2–3. . repetitions of the root-Mantra followed by NAMAH. and our Angirasakalpa texts (e. and action. through multiple ¯a a . 148).6). for example. ¯ ı ˚ hrday¯ mrtav¯ ridheh | cid¯ nandaisanajn¯ nakriy¯ khy¯ h spandasampadah | vimrsya hrdaye ’traiva sarvaa a a a a. Consciousness. . 192): tejorupadev¯mayam a . . SAUH NAMAH’. stall SA from [the top of] his head to his heart. Then [after the installation to be prescribed] he should do the a pratyaksarany¯ sah. . and then install it as pervasive on his whole body. a ˙ . . a a ˚ ¯ the Prapancas¯ ra (6. ˚ bh¯ vayann atm¯ nam muhur avrttena SAUH NAMAH iti namontena mulena siromukhahrnmul¯ dh¯ resu a ¯ a . heart. ı . the installation of each of the [three] sounds one by one. . . the genitals.g. a . AU from his heart to his navel. in the Mrgendra (Kriy¯ p¯ da 1. and SAH [ ASTR AYA PHAT ]. . 110 This is derived from Par¯ tr¯sik¯ 26c–27a: murdhni vaktre ca hrdaye guhye murtau tathaiva ca | a ı´ a ¯ ¯ ˚ ny¯ sam krtv¯ . Sutra 10: . a . .112 (24cd) The Mantrin should [then] do the Pervasive Installation as above. a a˙ a . that of the three Eyes rather than the Hair-queue (30. s . . It has probably to be counted among elements added to bring a ¯˙ the ritual into line with the standard procedure of the Angirasakalpa corpus. in the order of . i. genitals. a ´ s a ˙ .111 s a (22c–24b) [The brahmin should then do the pratyaksarany¯ sah. cognition. p. . are ever active. . . ´ . and a ı´ a a . ˜ nyased b¯jam tesu sthanesu pancasu ‘The splendours of the vibrancy of the self that is Bhairava.9ab). ˚ ˚ ˚ ˚ ˜ tattvamaye nije | bh¯ ti dehatay¯ *k¯ syahrdguhy¯ nghridvay¯ tmat¯ (k¯ sya em. a ı´ a . . the Vakratundakalpa of Bhrgu. EdP p. For the closing a a ı ˙ a a ı . and AH from his navel to his feet. . M¯ lin¯vijayottara 3. the Bengali S¯ kta literature of a a a a .113 ¯ ¯ TRATRAY AYA VAUS AT ]. . a´ a. phat ca j¯ tayah | angesu krama´ah satsu). Sutra 14 ˜ a s a ¯ a s a ´a and Par¯ paddhati. .) | pancakrtvo a a a a˙ a a a a ˚ ˚ ¯ . descent. a . and Tantr¯ loka 30. The Par¯ japavidhi’s a . He should] ina . face. a .´ ˚ ¯ Par¯ krama. S¯ ktapramoda. . (21–22b) He should install the Great Mantra five times on each [of the following:] the [top of the] head. ˚ a Goddess in the form of light he should do the installation [of the Mantra] on his head. ˙ . . a a . universal tradition seen.g. . and mul¯ dh¯ rah (genitals). .e. . 113 The order of the installations intended here appears to be as follows: (1) sadangany¯ sah. the Par¯ krama that I have seen. ´ ı ı a. directly perceived in this one’s body. the tongue. the heart. 111 For this element see Par¯ tr¯sik¯ 27ab: ny¯ sam krtv¯ sikh¯ m baddhv¯ saptavimsatimantrit¯ m. . p. One should [therefore] install the Seed [SAUH] five times on each of these five locations’. . using the whole [Mantra]. If one meditates upon them within this same [centre that] is one’s Heart.43c–44a: namah sv¯ h¯ tath¯ vausat hum vasat a . face.60cd.72). and [then as Pervasive in] the whole body110 and then twenty-seven times on his topknot (´ikh¯ ). a a . ´a ¯˙ ¯ ı ı a the Ten Mah¯ vidy¯ s (e. and Bliss [respectively] (saccid¯ nanda-). The Par¯ paddhati prescribes this installation as follows (p. rule that one should utter the Mantra five times at each of these five locations is seen in the Par¯ tr¯sik¯ t¯ tparyad¯pik¯ 383–385: drsyam¯ n¯ h sar¯re ’tra svak¯ye satatodit¯ h | atmano bhairav¯yasya a ı´ a a ı a ´ a a. [the waves] of the ocean of the nectar of the Heart. : k¯ rya Ed. . the Mah¯ k¯ lasamhit¯ (e. a a ¯ ı . in the same way once again. in which VAUS AT is the j¯ tih of the Sikh¯ rather than the Eyes and VAS AT a a . namely consciousness. will. ˚ ´ seen in the Tantr¯ loka. saptavimsati´o japtv¯ angus.. the Asur¯d¯pik¯ of a a P p. 112 This pratyaksarany¯ sah is not found in the Par¯ tr¯sik¯ or in any of the South Indian texts of a . . R¯ me´ vara on Par¯ krama. . . ¯ ˜a . This differs from the tradition ¯ Bhudhara. .510c–513). 192). the Svacchanda (1. . the Para´ur¯ makalpasutra exegesis (e. ˚ ˚ ny¯ sam vidh¯ ya sarv¯ nge ca vy¯ pakam krtv¯ . heart.

a ı a˙ ı . . and the Par¯ paddhati a ¯ a. ˚ . ¯ the varnasadangany¯ sah with the parts of the Mantra. ¯ immediately preceding Sutra rules that all the Mantras of the Par¯ krama should begin with a the sounds SAUH (13: sarve ’pi par¯ kramamanavah sauhvarnapurv¯ h k¯ ry¯ h). ˙ a . The Par¯ krama a a ¯ teaches first the angany¯ sah on the five locations (Sutra 9). var¯ bhayakar¯ m dev¯m trinetr¯ m candra´ekhar¯ m | a a. applies this to the varnasadangany¯ sah. ˙ ¯ the whole Mantra (Sutra 14).] because H on its own is unpronouncable—and so on’. . a a. a a . evam agre ’pi ‘Bhrgu is SA . and the sixteenth twice’. caturda´a auk¯ rah. ˚ ˚ ´ IRASE SV AH A AH S IKH AYAI ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ . a . a ı a ı . . This interpretation ˙ a . .t . ¯ VAUS AT SAUH H ASTR AYA PHAT iti mulamantr¯ vayavair dvir avrttair varnasadangam. a a . a a. stating that the last . soda´o a s a . the four˚ teenth. a . ´ a. This is how one installs the six Ancillaries in the form of the individual sounds [of the Mantra SAUH]. assumes that 20d (tatah pratyaksaram nyaset) does not prescribe a pratyaksarany¯ sah between the a . ¯ of the learned. and (5) vy¯ pakany¯ sah. . . a ı´ ı . ´ ´ ¯ ¯ ¯ SV AH A . 192) teaches the same order. The alternative procedure (prak¯ r¯ ntaram) for the installation of the six Ancillaries given here aa ¯ is that prescribed by the Par¯ krama (Sutra 14): bhrgucaturda´asoda´advir¯ vrtty¯ varnasadangam a s . a s . and the a a a . . of these twice. T/121 : mut¯ pustalasadb¯ huh a a . Moreover. . ı. ´ a a . mentary by teaching that the constituent sounds should be S. AU. mantrasvarupam: SAM HR DAY AYA NAMAH AUM S ´ . ı a. ´ a a . first and second but refers to the pratyaksarany¯ sah that will be detailed in 22c–24b after the a . a. because such is the tradition . . and H. a. a a a . ˚ visargah. The order of ¯ a ¯ . . var¯ bhayakar¯ m P1 T/121 T/187 : var¯ trayakar¯ m As : vasutrayakar¯ EdP 28a d¯pt¯ ng¯m P1 As a a. . EdP T/121 T/187 : p¯ tu m¯ m ¯ a . One should make the six Ancillaries beginning with the Heart by using each . . . s 27 sukl¯ m v¯ suklavasan¯ m p¯nonnatapayodhar¯ m | ´ a. AH S IKH AYAI VAS AT —[ AH . : sukl¯ m ca suklavasan¯ m As : sukl¯ m suklavasan¯ m P1 T/121 T/187 27c ´ a. asamprad¯ y¯ t. a . . . a suklavasan¯ m conj. then the sikh¯ ny¯ sah (Sutra 10). . a saktisth¯ ne ’thav¯ k¯ se moksarth¯ pravicintayet | ´ a a a´ . (4) pratyaksarany¯ sah. s a . . As : sutrapustakamadv¯ huh EdP 26b p¯ tu m¯ m ¯svar¯ em. .¯ a . a ı a˙ ı . ´ a a . VAS AT visargasya kevalasy¯ nucc¯ ryatv¯ t. : atha Ed. . ´ a. ˙ . a a ¯ . 28c thav¯ k¯ se P1 As T/187 : gav¯ k¯ se T/121 a a´ a a´ (2) angany¯ sah. . . . a . .) binduyoga´ ca ¯. . the fourteenth is AU . 192): SAUH S HR DAY AYA NAMAH SAUH . ¯ should be on its own and not preceded by A. ´ a. a a. . and finally the mantrasadangany¯ sah with a . except that it a omits the sikh¯ ny¯ sah. ˙ ˚ ˚ .¯ a ı akalanka´a´ank¯ bh¯ tryaksa candrakal¯ vat¯ | ˙ s s¯ ˙ a a ¯ a ı . P1 : sut¯ pustalasadb¯ huh a a . s a 28 sarv¯ lamk¯ rad¯pt¯ ng¯m padm¯ sanagat¯ m par¯ m | a . . a. a. s . Thus (p. T/121 T/187 : sarv¯ ng¯m EdP 28b padm¯ sanagat¯ m P1 As T/187 : padm¯ san¯ m gat¯ m T/121 a˙ ı . s s ´ a. ˚ installations in the Par¯ japavidhi differs from that taught in the South Indian texts. T/121 T/187 • s¯ ksan P1 T/121 T/187 : s¯ ksy¯ As 25d candrakal¯ vat¯ P1 T/121 a . . . . 26 mudr¯ pustalasadb¯ huh p¯ tu m¯ m ¯svar¯ par¯ | a a . . ˙ . . : mudr¯ pustanasadb¯ huh a ı a a . ´ ¯ ¯ ¯ AU S IRASE SV AH A SA UH H S IKH AYAI VAS AT SAUH S KAVAC AYA HUM SAUH AU NETRATRAY AYA . ˚ . . . a a. prescription of the angany¯ sah and sikh¯ ny¯ sah. a´ a. . a a ı´ ı a dhy¯ tv¯ dev¯m dhenumudr¯ m yonimudr¯ m ca dar´ayet | a a ı. . It also goes against the view seen in R¯ me´ vara’s com˙ a . . (3) sikh¯ ny¯ sah. .¯ ı 25a mah¯ dev¯m As T/121 T/187 : mah¯ mamtram dev¯m P1 25b prad¯ yin¯m As P1 : prad¯ yin¯ a ı. . ˚ ´ ¯ ¯ ¯ . The Par¯ paddhati (p. The form of the Mantras is as follows: SAM HR DAY AYA NAMAH.ATHARVAVEDINS IN TANTRIC TERRITORY 247 The visualization (dhy¯ nam): a 25 tato dhy¯ yen mah¯ dev¯m s¯ ksan muktiprad¯ yin¯m | a a ı . etesam pratyekam dvir¯ vrtty¯ hrday¯ disadangam kury¯ t. s a a . ´ a. ˚ sixteenth is AH. a a ı´ ı a a ¯svar¯m As : p¯ tum ¯svar¯m P1 26d ca dar´ayet As T/121 T/187 : pradar´ayet P1 27a sukl¯ m v¯ ı´ ı . R¯ me´ vara explains: bhrguh sak¯ rah. a s . then ˙ a . T/187 : sutr¯ pustalasadb¯ huh ¯ a a . one must add M [to SA and AU]. . . *iti (em. AUM S IRASE . ı. ´ sis. The . ˙ . a a ı T/187 : ca candrak¯ vat¯ As 26a mudr¯ pustalasadb¯ huh em. ‘The six Ancillaries of the individual sounds are formed by repeating Bhrgu. . ´ a a . a a. . . . . a . .

a a ı a Prapancas¯ ra 9. A5 and B4. p. a with the colour of a moon with no mark. the Anuttarasamvidarcan¯ carc¯ (v. See Ganan¯ a . white. ramparyaprak¯ ra: *akalanka´a´ank¯ bh¯ (´a´ank¯ bh¯ em. . giving this as the visualization appropriate in the case of those who worship for liberation alone (nisk¯ mavisaye): akalanka´a´ank¯ bh¯ m tryaksam candrakal¯ vat¯m | mudr¯ pustalasad˙ s s¯ ˙ a a .t . a a . s a . . ˚ with mudr¯ pustalasadb¯ huh p¯ tu m¯ m param¯ kal¯ as the second line. The manuscript is held with the back of the a a s hand facing away from the body. 2). . and appears there in the form of this verse or a a variant of it. Appendix 6. . and Prayogakramad¯pik¯ on a a . Sy¯ m¯ krama..¯ . her round face adorned by her pearl earrings and her three lotus-like a eyes that as the moon. ˚ ˚ ndal¯ m par¯ m naumi ‘I bow to the supreme goddess who shines with her array of pearls and a. a a a a a a . . : aksa Cod. 16–17 and 20. and fire bring about the emission. a. see. 196): mauktikamaniganarucir¯ m sa´ankanira a a . : siv¯ nk¯ bh¯ Cod. a a. her [two] arms beautiful with [her right hand in] the hand-posture [of knowledge] and [her left holding] a manuscript [of scripture]”. seated between two SAUs. a ı a . ank¯ bhy¯ m manditamukhamat a ´ sı a at ˙ a a . Jn¯ n¯ rnava 4. . I praise Par¯ . a South Indian texts. Sutra 5. . and the Ahirbudhnyasamhit¯ (24. We see it in the Par¯ tr¯sik¯ t¯ tparyad¯pik¯ (v. . concerning the setting up of the Arghyap¯ tra: astrena samraksya kavacea .) *tryaksa (em. wearing a silken garment white as the moon or the slough of a snake. 193.) a ˙ s s¯ ˙ a a s s¯ ˙ a a ´ a˙ a a ¯ ¯ . all a a a. srs.16). 358 on 6. both with the variant mudr¯ pustalasadb¯ h¯ p¯ tu vah param¯ kal¯ as the second line.4. a . a .10).114 (26cd) After he has visualized the goddess he should display the handpostures of the Cow and the Vulva. The same iconography is given in vv. the Gurup¯ a a a a a a a . . candrakal¯ vat¯ | mudr¯ pustalasadb¯ h¯ p¯ tu m¯ m varakomal¯ | svarnanirmalavarnang¯ †mulam¯ yavarua ı a a a a a. jewels. The gesture of knowledge (jn¯ namudr¯ . e. sı . dressed in white. see the definition of the pustakamudr¯ ibid..¯ .t . ı . sun. . 21). a ¯ a ¯ . . . ´ a a ¯ n¯ vakun. ¯˙ ı thin¯† | brahmendumandal¯ rudh¯ saccid¯ nandam¯ trk¯ . nn. the Lalitop¯ khy¯ na of the Brahm¯ ndapur¯ na (39.. ih a a . three-eyed. and 19: astrena samraksya kavacen¯ vakun. hya dhenuyonimudr¯ m pradar´ayet. a a haj¯ nandayogin incorporated in the Par¯ paddhati (p.t . ´ s¯ ˙ . a ¯ yakapaddhati. p. see S ANDERSON 1990. . both ı a ¯. . . ¯. .248 ALEXIS SANDERSON (25–26b) Then he should visualize the Great Goddess who directly bestows liberation [by reciting the following:] “May the goddess Par¯ protect me. 1) a ı´ a a ı a a a . a s a ¯ 116 For the location of the saktisth¯ nam in the dv¯ da´ antam twelve finger-breadths above the cra´ a a s¯ 114 No . figs. . a dabhanjanacinmudr¯ kalitadaksinap¯ nital¯ m | purnahamt¯ k¯ ranapustakavaryena rucirav¯ makar¯ m | 6 ˜ a a ¯ . hya dhenuyon¯ pradar´ya. a a . . . . and resportion [of all things]. kun. of the Mantra of B¯ l¯ Tripurasundar¯ [AIM KLIM SAUH]. a . a. hya dhenuyon¯ pradar´ayet. maintenance. a. 34.28 (which teaches the Japa of SAUH as the saktam b¯jam.¯ . mokanirmalam ksaumam | nivas¯ n¯ m parame´¯m nam¯ mi sauvarnaputantahsth¯ m | 5 bhaktajanabhea a. for the attainment of aa ı s¯ . 4–6 of the Par¯ stuti of Saa a.40c–41b and the unattributed ˜a a . 25 (v¯ mamus. . cinmudr¯ ) is formed by joining the tips of the index ˜a a a finger and thumb of the right hand to form a circle at the level of the heart with the other fingers extended and the palm facing to the left. the last of the three Seeds ˜ a ´¯ . p. sv¯ bhimukh¯). The same visualization is seen in the Rahasyapancada´ik¯ ˜ s a (v.115 (27–28) Alternatively one who seeks ´ liberation should visualize the goddess Par¯ in the site of Sakti [above the a 116 or in the sky. eloquence). a ı 115 The pairing of these two Mudr¯ s is seen in the Para´ ur¯ makalpasutra. Par¯ krama 20 and Par¯ paddhati. . her left hand showing the gesture of consciousness that shatters plurality for her devotees and her left hand holding a fine manuscript [that contains the knowledge] that brings about fully expanded awareness of the self’. but it is standard in the South Indian sources of the Par¯ krama. which requires them a s a ¯ to be shown in this order to perfect the preparation of the chalice (arghyap¯ tram).g. isthitilayakrdbhir nayan¯ mbhojaih sa´¯nadahan¯ khyaih | mauktikat¯ . b¯ h¯ m mukt¯ manivibhusit¯ m. . l. ..t For photographs of these Mudr¯ s see Para´ur¯ makalpasutra. with the crescent of the moon [on her hair].. ´a a quotation in S¯ rad¯ tilakapad¯ rth¯ dar´a. . ı s a ı s . Sutra 18: astrena samraksya kavacen¯ vaa a. kevala´aktajapah. . with cranial aperture] (´aktisth¯ ne) s a such visualization is found in the Kashmirian sources of the Trika. .

´¯ ı ´ ı. ˚ ¯ with his heel he should contract his anus. ˚ mulabandhan¯ t ‘The Yoni is the area between the anus and the penis. a. a . a 117 I know of no occurrence of this alternative visualization outside the two Trika-based ¯˙ Angirasa texts edited here. ¯ a . followed by gudamedhr¯ ntaram yonis t¯ m akuncya prabandhayet | yuv¯ bhavati vrddho ’pi satatam a ¯ ˜ a . . a samp¯dya v¯ yum akuncayed bal¯ t | v¯ ram v¯ ram yath¯ cordhvam sam¯ y¯ ti sam¯ranah | pr¯ nap¯ nau a ¯ ˜ a a . It is to explain the nature of this Yonimudr¯ that he gives his citation. The Mulabandha is said [to be accomplished] by drawing the descending breath upwards [in this way]’. . but with akrsya instead of akarsen: ‘After compressing the Yoni ´ a .. The outgoing and descending breaths. 29a ap¯ nam P1 As T/187 : ap¯ nam T/121 • urdhvam P1 As : urddham T/121 : adv¯m T/187 a ¯ a ¯ ¯ ı 29b sambhav¯m P1 T/187 : sambhav¯ T/121 : sambhav¯m As 29c mantram P1 As T/187 : mantr¯m ´¯ ı. 30 yo dv¯ da´asahasr¯ ni pratyaham prajaped imam | a s a. ı. ¯ pratyaham prajapen mantram yath¯ sakty¯ pras¯ dhakah | a´ a a . . . He should bind [the ¯ a ¯ ¯ Mulabandha] by contracting it. T/121 29d yath¯ sakty¯ P1 As T/121 T/187 : yath¯ sakti EdP 31a gudh¯ d gudhatamo P1 : gudh¯ d a´ a a´ ¯. ¯.62–64): adhogatim ap¯ nam ı a a . .117 The repetition of the Mantra (japah): . ¯ ˜ ghavabhatta on S¯ rad¯ tilaka 2.. ¯ forces the descending breath upwards. v¯ urdhvagam kurute bal¯ t | akuncanena tam pr¯ hur mulabandham hi yoginah | gudam p¯ rsny¯ tu a ¯ a ¯ ˜ a ¯ . ı. . a . ´ arad¯ tilaka (2. ˚ (29) Every day the S¯ dhaka should repeat the Mantras as [many times as] he a is able. . a. No connection with Japa is stated in these Hathayogic passages. a ´a a ¯ a . In R¯ ghavabhatta’s text this verse is a . t¯ . for the verse a . a ¯. and seated on a lotus throne. drawing upwards the descending breath. ams t¯ n mantr¯ n atmani yojayet | sodhayed a a ¯ ´ . so ’va´yam jn¯ nam apnoti tato muktim vrajaty api | s . ˜a ¯ .. 29 ap¯ nam urdhvam akarsan sambhav¯m samyag acaran | a ¯ ¯ . n¯ dabindu mulabandhena caikat¯ m | gatv¯ yogasya samsiddhim yacchato n¯ tra samsayah ‘Or else he a ¯ ¯ a a a ´ . ¯ ¯ urdhvam akarsen mulabandho nigadyate. ¯ . . . which also appears as Hathayogaprad¯pik¯ 3. ¯. . [so] causing the [descending] a breath to ascend’. . ¯. . her body glistening with every kind of jewelry. There is no doubt of this’. a . ´¯ ı. but R¯ ghavabhatta gives his citation in just that context.118 correctly practising the nial aperture see Tantr¯ loka 31. ¯ .361–2 and commentary... three-eyed.111: p¯ rsnibh¯ gena samp¯dya yonim akuncayed gudam | apanam . . . a gudhatamo As EdP : gudh¯ mghudatamo T/121 : apadgudhatamo T/187 31b krpayoditah As P1 ¯. ˚ T/187 : krpayodvitah T/121 . sataka 58. with her hands in [the gestures of granting] boons and protection. a . . He cites a another passage without attribution here that further clarifies the applicability of this practice . . By constant practice of the Mulabandha even an aged man becomes youthful’. and Yogam¯ rtanda 48. 118 The expression ap¯ nam urdhvam akarsan echoes a verse quoted without attribution by R¯ a ¯ ¯ . ¯ the Resonance and the Drop. . . . a ı.ATHARVAVEDINS IN TANTRIC TERRITORY 249 full. 31 gudh¯ d gudhatamo mantro may¯ te krpayoditah | ¯. are fused by the Mulabandha and so bring about the success of one’s meditation. He should press the anus with his heel and then forcefully contract the [descending] breath again and again until the breath ascends.111) on which he is commenting is teaching a method for the reinvigoraof the S¯ a tion (‘purification’) of defective Mantras: ity¯ didosadus. high breasts. ˚ yogine ’yam prad¯ tavyo na deyo yasya kasyacit | a . The Yogins teach that the Mulabandha is brought about by contracting. Goraksa¯ ı a . .126ab and commentary in the light of 15. with the [crescent] moon on her head. .. a ¯.61. a urdhvapavano baddhay¯ yonimudray¯ ‘He should take such Mantras as suffer from defects of this ¯ a a kind into himself and purify them by practising the Yonimudr¯ . The Hathayogaprad¯pik¯ continues as follows (3. a a a ı . .

: antarlaksyam Ed. a a ´¯ ı . . see M¯ lin¯vijayav¯ rttika 2. a a. s . am a a ¯ .36–37: *antarlaksyah (conj. a a a . ˙ ¯ a a ˚ ˚ buddh¯n¯ m siddh¯ h sthit¯ h sad¯ sy¯ m hy anandarat¯ h par¯ ca mudraisa): esa da´a par¯ tyutkrs. . ˚ nimesonmesavarjitah” iti bhairav¯yamudr¯ nuprave´ayukty¯ bahih prasaranam. a a aa . . . (31) Out of compassion I have told you the Mantra that is more secret than secret. . ˚ sarvatantresu gopiteti.89c: s¯ a . . . sa a ı .t . . . . het *Ary¯ a a a ¯ . . y¯ ni´calat¯ ray¯ bahir adhah pa´yann apa´yann api | mudreyam khalu sambhav¯ bhavati a a s ´¯ ı . ¯ a ´¯ .t a s . ˚ ˚ sakter vik¯ sah antarnigudh¯ y¯ akramam eva sakalakaranacakravisph¯ ranena “antarlaksyo bahirdrs. mantrah prabuddhah sy¯ t ‘By practising the Yoni[mudr¯ ] he should raise the Seed [through the a a . ˚ s¯ labdh¯ pras¯ d¯ d guroh suny¯ sunyavilaksanam sphurati tat tattvam padam sambhavam. ¯ t¯ m antarlaksabahirdrsam | yad¯ srayati saiv¯ s¯ par¯ dev¯. a sa badhn¯ ti tad¯ dehe mantramudr¯ ganam mahat | a a a . . . 241. . 42: a ´ a´ ´ ı a a ı ˜a . .t . ir nimesonmesavarjit¯ | esa s¯ sambhav¯ mudr¯ ´¯ ı a a t a . The benefits of the japah (= Par¯ tr¯sik¯ 120 ): a ı´ a . a . . . It may be passed on [only] to a meditator. ˚ mesavarjit¯ | esa s¯ sambhav¯ mudr¯ veda´astresu gopit¯ | antarlaksyavil¯nacittapavano yog¯ yad¯ a ı a s¯ a ı ı a .t ˚ ˚ svayam upasrtendriy¯ rth¯ n a´nann anandabhumigo yog¯ | esocchrnkhalarup¯ vikasvaratar¯ prabuddhaa a s ¯ ¯ ı . a a a . and Svacchandoddyı a s a . . . ¯ ˙ ¯ ITY A NGIRASE PAR AJAPAVIDHIH .250 ALEXIS SANDERSON ´a S¯ mbhav¯ [Mudr¯ ]. o ’sau kathayaty api | ıa a a a . eyed introversion as the Bhairavamudr¯ . . . am T/187 35b yoge´varyo As T/121 : yoge´varamyo P1 T/187 • s s . . . ˚ ˚ T/121 : asandigdhamm¯ mkrs. a 35 trayena m¯ tarah sarv¯ yoge´varyo mah¯ bal¯ h | a a s a a. a a a a a .t . . yad uktam antarlaksyo bahirdrs. a .. a ı .t ˚ prahar¯ d yad abhipretam devat¯ rupam uccaran | a a ¯ . he certainly attains enlightenment and thereby the state of liberation. . ir nimesonmesavarjitah” ity¯ mn¯ taparabhairavasph¯ r¯ vasthitam. 36 agatya samayam dattv¯ bhairavena pracodit¯ h | ¯ a a.t . ih ´ a . . 37 anena siddh¯ h setsyanti s¯ dhayanti ca mantrinah | a. am P1 As : asamdi´yam¯ krs. . s a . . a ı. ¯. vi´al¯ ksam iti “antarlaksyo bahirdrs. . ˚ praharadvayam¯ trena vyomastho j¯ yate smaran | a . a . Lasak¯ ka. 32 muhurtam smarate yas tu cumbake n¯ bhimudritam | ¯ . 32b cumbake n¯ bhimudritam P1 As T/121 : cumvaken¯ bhimantritam T/187 33a at¯t¯ n¯ gat¯ n a a ıa a a P1 As T/187 : atat¯ nagat¯ n T/121 34ab asamdigdham akrs. It may not be given to all and sundry. a. s . 34 s¯ ksat pa´yaty asamdigdham akrs. am rudra´aktibhih | a . . : phalam yad v¯ sam¯ritam P1 T/121 T/187 : phala yad¯ sam¯ritam a ı a ı a ı . s¯ a .) bahirdrstir nimesonı a . commenting on the description of Svacchandabhairava as ‘large-eyed’ (vi´al¯ ksam) in 2. yat kimcit bhairave tantre sarvam asmin prasiddhyati | . 119 See Hathayogaprad¯pik¯ 4. . a a a a phalam yad v¯ sam¯hitam em. ¯ s¯ . . . It will be awakened’. . ´ ¯ a´ ¯ . .77c–28b: parabhairavamudr¯ m a a ı a a. ˚. a mudr¯ ı a a. 33 at¯t¯ n¯ gat¯ n arth¯ n prs. . .¯ s ¯ . 120 See above. p. to Japa: yonim baddhv¯ b¯jam bindv¯ dipathena conman¯m pr¯ pya tatra sahasram mantram japet. ¯ . Pratyabhijn¯ hrdaya on Sutra 18. . vartate drs. n. The Kashmirians Abhinavagupta and Ksemar¯ ja refer to this state of widea .119 (30) If a person repeats this [Mantra] twelve thousand ı a [times] a day. ˚ . .t . . . t¯ ˚ sambhav¯mudr¯ khy¯ . ota. yacchanti param¯ m siddhim phalam yad v¯ sam¯hitam | a. . . 101 on p. ¯ a ´¯ ı a . . ¯ a. central channel] through the stages of the Bindu and the rest until it reaches Unman¯ and there ı he should repeat the Mantra a thousand times.t . v¯r¯ v¯re´var¯ h siddh¯ balav¯ n sakin¯ganah | ı a ı s a. . mah¯ bal¯ h P1 As T/187 : mah¯ bal¯ T/121 36a dattv¯ As P1 T/121 T/187 pc : gatv¯ T/187ac 36d a a. . ´¯ ¯ a ¯ avivarana (commenting on the Ary¯ verse udyantrt¯ balena tu vik¯ savrtty¯ svarupagas tis.

t a . . . . G NOLI. . raty anusamdhatte sa eva vy¯ khy¯ tam mantramudr¯ ganam *sarvam badhn¯ ti (em. . : asm¯ As : asm¯ t P1 T/121 T/187 Colophon ı a . arrive and bestow on him the ultimate Siddhi or any [lesser] reward he may desire. . 245) ‘For ¯ . p. . sealed at the navel in the “kiss”. How? [This question is answered in the words cumbakena abhimudritam:] By completely (sarvatah ← abhitah [← abhi-]) sealing (mudritam mudranam krtv¯ ) [his aware. a . . a . the [mouth] that sips the supremely cool liquid that is the lunar [nectar] of the flow of the real.¯ a ˚ ˚ ˚ ˚ ras¯ sv¯ dak¯ rini sati n¯ bhimudritam n¯ bhisth¯ n¯ vadhim krtv¯ purnakumbhakasam¯ ve´abhy¯ sena tad¯ a a a . mbaken¯ bhimudritam (though the editions of the text and -vivarana give cumbaken¯ bhimudritah in a a .´ s ptv¯ vedyam n¯ bhau sammudrya . on p. . . Siddhas. a ni *nigiranapravrttak¯ kacancuputak¯ re (pravrtta conj. 125 a a . ˚ a this very reason if he remembers [this Seed]. . . he will then lock into his body the great array of Mantras and Mudr¯ s. that ¯ is to say. . . ¯ .¯ . .121 and if interrogated [as an oracle] he can also reveal facts past and a future. the mouth in the shape of a crow’s beak in the act of swallowing. that is to say. for a mere instant—though he himself is out of reach of time [in this state] he realizes it for an instant from the temporalizing point of view of others—then he seals the entire array of Mantras and Mudr¯ s that has been explained above. R¯ me´ vara explains ‘the object of a s awareness’ (vedyam) here as the thirty-six Tattvas: vedyam sattrimsat tattv¯ ni vaksyam¯ nani sama a. (KSTS ed. . p. tantre As T/121 : mamtre P1 T/187 37d asmin em. 254] : sambadhn¯ ti Eds. their text of the verse): ata eva muhurtam ak¯ lakalitatve ’pi parakalan¯ peksayonmesam¯ tram yah sma¯ a a .e. . i. katham. . (35–36) After nine hours all the Mothers. p. The close affinity between our Par¯ japavidhi and the South Indian exegesis of ı a ˚ the Par¯ tr¯sik¯ in other details has prompted me to follow it here. a . taking cumbake as an elliptical locative absolute (cumbake sati): atha tath¯ ve´o nirantaa s ram yadi ghatik¯ dvayam abhyasyati cumbake vaktre samastab¯ hyasadrupabh¯ var¯ sinis. with the [awareness of] the energetic ´ nature [of Siva] that touches all [things]’. n. (33c–34b) One who repeats [the Mantra] for three hours will then undoubtedly behold directly the form of any deity that he seeks [to behold]. . [the Seed] without interruption for forty-eight minutes. ˚ a ´ ness of Siva] with the “kisser” (cumbakena). ’. The latter interpretation is also implicit in the following instruction a ¯ in the Par¯ krama (Sutra 10): k¯ kacancuputakrtin¯ mukhena samcosy¯ nilam saptavimsati´o mulam jaa a ˜ ¯ . . . ˚ a ¯ . V¯re´ varas. the mighty Yoge´ var¯s. and s ı ı ı s ´ akin¯s. mudrya ek¯krtya.. . [see below. The author of the -laghuvrtti reads cumbake n¯ bhia ˚ mudritam. for a muhurtam. [all of] whom Bhairava has recruited and the powerful horde of the S¯ ı so compelled. In his -vivarana Abhinavagupta reads cu. . . . ’. the kissing that applies to the mass of all objective.ATHARVAVEDINS IN TANTRIC TERRITORY 251 As : t¯ m anayat sam¯ritam EdP 37a setsyamti P1 T/121 T/187 : sevyanti As : sevyante EdP 37c a ¯ ı . . a ı´ a 122 I have translated agatya samayam dattv¯ bhairavena pracodit¯ h | yacchanti param¯ m siddhim ¯ a a. which takes bhairavena as the agent of dattv¯ : samayam dattvea ı´ a a . . a . . by sealing [them] in the navel. KSTS ed. external entities. that is to say. provided there is (sati) the “kisser”. . fuses them with his own a identity in non-duality. drawn [to him] by Rudra’s Powers. lips pursed] in the shape of a crow’s beak. (34cd) If he meditates [on the Mantra] for a mere six hours he will enter the firmament. . ktena rupenabhitah sarvato mudritam mudranam krtv¯ (ed. a .) sadvrttisomabh¯ vaparama´¯talaa ˜ a sı . ‘Having sipped in the breath through his mouth [with its a a . the V¯ras. having sealed the object of awareness in the navel . : pravrtte Ed. by bringing them down to the navel through the repeated practice of full breath retention.´ .) sv¯ tmany ek¯karoty advayatah. then the array of Mantras and Mudr¯ s .122 (37) It is [only] when they have mastered this commentators differ on the reading of 32b. ˚ 121 The . a a a a s¯ a a . maintains awareness of [it]. a. . 270. cumbakena vi´vaspar´akena saa a ı s s ´¯ . following the Par¯ tr¯sik¯ laghuvrtti. having repeated the main [Mantra] twenty-seven times. . .¯ ˚ a . 12) ‘Then if while in this state of immersion he practises a . par¯ japa As T/187 : par¯ jaya T/121 : par¯ jina P1 a a a (32–33b) If one meditates [on it] for forty-eight minutes. hacumban¯ tmaa ¯ a a´ .. . mantramudr¯ ganah . .

. 364v3 (101. .. its metre the Tristubh. . a a ¯ ¯ . ı ı . trinetr¯ m candra´ekhar¯ m v¯ me pustakam anyasmin jn¯ namudr¯ m ca bibhrat¯m a. and a . ˚ par¯ sya saktir vividhaiva sruyate sv¯ bh¯ vik¯ jn¯ nabalakriy¯ ceti. 3 s¯ m s¯m a a . tath¯ ca srutih: atha par¯ yay¯ tad aksaram adhigamyata ˜a . a. : varabhayakar¯ m Cod. . ı . and the tradition’. All [that has been taught] in the Bhairavatantras depends for its success on this ¯˙ [Mantra]. yakar¯ m candra´ekhar¯ m †niravakar¯ m† padm¯ sanopavis. 11 par¯ yay¯ em. pustakam anyasmin conj. ı. a ˜a a. a a a a a a Next I shall teach the rite of Par¯ . . pet. Cf. . Picumata f. 9 muktyarth¯ ı. . its Seed yogisanghah is to be understood to mean yogin¯-. : par¯ jay¯ Cod. 5 sukl¯ m em. is the Par¯ mantravidhi found in P2 alone (ff. .. ´ a. a a. . . a . sarv¯ lamk¯ rabhusit¯ m muktiprad¯ m par¯ m dhy¯ yet.. 5–6 var¯ bhayakar¯ m corr. ˙ a a a ´ . stows [on him] the supreme Kaula samayah.¯ ¯ . . . : mukty¯ rtha Cod. . em. a a ´ a a . a. . s¯ m s¯m sum saim saum sah iti sad ang¯ ni. . give the samayah (samayam dattv¯ ).) yogin¯kulam | avirbhavaty asamdeh¯ t svavia a a ı ¯ a . ap¯ nam urdhvam akarsan pratyaham dv¯ da´asahasram jaa . The word yogi. ı. a a. Cf. a k¯ samandale v¯ su kl¯ m suklavasan¯ m p¯nonnatastan¯m trinetr¯ m var¯ bha¯ a ´ a ´ a. ı. sam b¯jam auh saktir mama yogasiddhyarthe viniyogah.t ˚ ndah par¯ saktir devat¯ . a ¯. . : sur¯ m Cod.g. ı ı. atha par¯ vidh¯ nam ucyate. a a ´ a. . : atha par¯ mamtrasya Cod. . ı . ´ . sarv¯ nge vy¯ pakam nyaset. saktisth¯ ne a a a a˙ a ´ a . prakarsena codit¯ h. Netratantra ˙ ı . ı . its deity Par¯ sakti. ı. a. .. : s¯m s¯m Cod. . ´ a. tato ’sya vatsar¯ rdhena *deh¯ ntar (em. ı a a . However. ¯ . • pravicintayet conj. am prasannavadan¯ m a. iti na tasya k¯ rya m karanam ca vidyate na tatsama´ c¯ bhyadhika´ ca drsyate a s a s ´ . ek¯ ksarah par¯ mantrah. sak¯ rauk¯ ravisargaih pindita a. . . a The Par¯ mantravidhi a Covering the same ground as the Par¯ japavidhi but in an abbreviated form and a in prose. jn¯ nam pr¯ pnoti.16c’s yogiyogena and Ksemar¯ ja’s gloss: yogin¯n¯ m yogena. . then bestow the ultimate Siddhi’. all the Mothers etc. • bibhrat¯m corr. a s . the [initiatory] sacrament. . . ´ a. a a. : pustakasaparita Cod. asya par¯ mantrasya daksinamurti r rsis tris. jn¯ naprak¯ sakam | ten¯ virbhutam¯ trena yog¯ yogikule kul¯. 8 ı. conj. s a. t¯ . ı. The Rsi of this Mantra of Par¯ is a a . e. : bibhratim Cod. ´ a. that the author of the Par¯ tr¯sik¯ meant the Mothers and the rest to be understood as the a ı´ a agents of the giving: ‘. . 20. .¯ ¯ . ˚ raso ’dhah sak¯ rauk¯ ravisarg¯ n nyaset. . ı . ˚ Daksinamurti. .25c–26: a ı a. ´ a´ (par¯ saktih) of Mahe´ vara taught in the Svet¯ svataropanisad: a´ s . ı . a. Its principal a difference from the longer text lies in the fact that at its end it assimilates this tradition to the Vedic corpus by identifying the goddess Par¯ with the ‘higher a knowledge’ (par¯ vidy¯ ) taught in the Mundakopanisad and the ‘supreme power’ a a . and M¯ lin¯vijayottara 19. : deh¯ ntam Ed. a . . . par¯ m padm¯ san¯ m dev¯m muktyarth¯ pravicintayet. athav¯ sukl¯ m suklavasan¯ m a . ti mary¯ d¯ purvakam bhairavena bhagavat¯ . a´ a . ı. a ı . a.28c–29a): dadate yogisanghas tu ˙ kaulam samayam uttamam | carukam samprad¯ yam ca ‘The assembly of Yogin¯s [comes and] bea . . 74v4–75v1). arrive. a... . a ´ ´ ¯ a a ı ˜a a ¯ ITI PAR AMANTRAVIDHIH . n¯ bher adhah hrday¯ d adhah sia. its a´ . : v¯ cintayet Cod. up chaa a a . . 2 sam b¯jam : s¯m b¯jam Cod. Here ends the Par¯ japavidhi of the Angirasa[kalpa]. 1 asya par¯ mantrasya conj. s a.252 ALEXIS SANDERSON [Mantra] that Mantrins will achieve Siddhi and enable [others] to do so. it is more probable a a ¯ a a. . . ˜a a´ a ¯ a .

and karanam the three internal faculties (buddhih. a . and (2) souls a a. Since the crux with its probable reference to a lotus immediately a precedes Par¯ ’s description as seated on the lotus posture it is more probable that the text was a stating that she is to be visualized on a lotus in that posture. . Moreover. SAIM . . times a day. . and H. with the moon on her hair. p. . SAUM.123 with a tranquil expression. p. 34ab: aı . He . is one with his essence and its action is the energy of [his] consciousness” ´ a´ (Svet¯ svataropanisad 6. ´ . which says that she is padm¯ sanagat¯ (v. a. nirava. 26: k¯ ryapindah sar¯r¯ khyah). . He should repeat it 12. . white.‘lotus’. and its application [formula] ‘For the success of my meditation’. ¯ a. The Mantra of Par¯ is a single syllable combining S. ¯ a ¯ a´ . . . ¯ . . 77: atra kal¯ n¯ ma k¯ ryakaranakhy¯ h kal¯ h. with the moon on her a hair. a . manah. The syllables . a a a a. ¯ . drawing up the ingoing breath. a a˙ ˙ a . . holding a manuscript in her left [hand] and showing the hand-posture of enlightenment in the other. ı. all these making up the twenty-three kal¯ h that are the transformations of primal matter a. five gross elements (mah¯ bhut¯ ni). The six Ancillaries are S AM . a this would be awkward. . niravakar¯ m is a corruption of n¯rajopari. the five sense-faculties (buddh¯ndriy¯ ni). namely “The Supreme [Knowledge] (par¯ [vidy¯ ]) is that by means of which one realizes that imperishable a a [reality]” (Mundakopanisad 1. . not seen in the Par¯ japavidhi. and a ´ ıa . It a´ . [Thus] he attains enlightenment. a a a ¯ .8)’. † seated in the lotus-posture. v. AU. upturned breasts. ı ı a a. in which case one might conjecture the emenı dation n¯rajakar¯ m v¯ ‘or holding a lotus in her hand’ or ‘or holding a lotus in each hand’. seated in the lotus-posture. padme padm¯ san¯ m dev¯m bhadrak¯ l¯m smared rane and in EdP. a. ¯ a. tatra k¯ ry¯ a ˜ a a. should install the Pervader [i. . and the five faculties of action (karmenı a. with full. Perhaps. †. a prescription seen elsewhere in ¯˙ our Angirasa corpus. a . a . ´ s ¯ a´ a . .. . . There (1) k¯ ryam denotes the five subtle elements (tanm¯ tr¯ ni) and the aa a a a.124 Here ends the Par¯ mantravidhi. aı.e. this would be in harmony with the prescription of the al. I. . or similar. we would expect any such alternative to be expressed immediately after var¯ bhayakar¯ m.ATHARVAVEDINS IN TANTRIC TERRITORY 253 ´ Sakti AUH. in accordance with the usage of the P¯ nc¯ rthika P¯ supatas.5b) and “He has no body or faculties [of cog.. n¯raj¯ san¯ m. . He should visualize Par¯ on the site of Power [in the cranial aperture] or in a the circle of the sky as the bestower of liberation. install S below his navel. then. three-eyed. Alternatively the seeker of liberation may visualize the goddess Par¯ as white. are classified as pure and impure according to whether or not they are bound by k¯ ryam and kaa 123 The reading niravakar¯ m in niravakar¯ m padm¯ sanopavistam yields no meaning. He should . nition and action]. 141: padme padm¯ sanam raktam a a. . showing the hand-postures of generosity and protection [with her two hands]. S¯M . prakrtih) (Panc¯ rthabh¯ sya p. S UM . and karanam as ‘faculties [of cognition and action]’ a . the body (Panc¯ rthabh¯ sya a ¯ a ˜ a a. . But ı a. taking both as singulars denoting a˜ a a´ classes (j¯ t¯ v ekavacanam). and it is a a.. and H below his head. for example. ahamk¯ rah). clothed in white. in the *Bhadrak¯ l¯mantravidhiprakarana edited below. the Mantra as a whole] on his whole body. ˚ khy¯ h prthivy apas tejo v¯ yur ak¯ sah sabdaspar´aruparasagandh¯ s ca . ˚ tvak caksuh jihv¯ ghr¯ nam p¯ dah p¯ yur upastho hasto v¯ n mano ’hank¯ ro buddhir iti). The emendation would give an alternative within an alternative. And this is confirmed by Vedic scripture. (pradh¯ nam. a a . and SAH. three-eyed. tath¯ karanakhy¯ h srotram a. that is to say in the case of souls. . 124 I have translated k¯ ryam here as ‘body’. AU below his heart. 28b) ‘on a a a a lotus-throne’. His Supreme Power (par¯ saktih) is taught in the scriptures in many forms. vakratundam vicintayet.000 a . adorned with every form of jewelry. clothed in white. No being is perceived who is his equal or greater. . driy¯ ni).. ternative visualization in the Par¯ japavidhi. .are probably a corruption of n¯raja.

a a´ ¯ a a . l.21cd: yat te daksinam mukham a . ibid. P¯ supaa a a a a a a´ . ˚ which reads sarvam mantramudr¯ ganam here (13ab). ˚ sources for this form of the Trika were not Kashmirian is increased by the fact that at the one place where the verses of the Par¯ tr¯sik¯ incorporated in the a ı´ a Par¯ japavidhi diverge in the versions attested by the Par¯ tr¯sik¯ laghuvrtti on the a a ı´ a ˚ one hand and Abhinavagupta’s -vivarana on the other the Par¯ japavidhi agrees a . padmotpal¯ dyam). . 4. 6. Secondly I see no satisfactory alternative ¯ a ı ı´ a a . 5: k¯ ryakarananjan¯ niranjan¯ s ca). both grammatically and because it is contradicted by the statement that follows. .5b: akalo ’pi drs. ¯ a. ibid. . 5. . .t . kasm¯ t. t¯ s¯ m vikarano bhagav¯ n ¯svarah.9a: sa k¯ ranam (cf. ˚ ¯˙ cates that it read dehe as in the Angirasa text (p.14ab: kal¯ sargakaram a. tena m¯ m p¯ hi nityam (cf. . . the reading sambadhn¯ ti to be corrupt. . 11: k¯ ranamurty¯ ropit¯ vat¯ ritam nisparigraham a a a a . a in previous attempts to make sense of the collocation of the two terms. 745) as ‘action’ (“There is no action and no organ of his to be found”). a a. This interpretation I consider plausia ˜ a´ . ˚ ibid.15d.20d–21a: duhkhasy¯ nto bhavisyati | tapahprabh¯ v¯ d devapras¯ d¯ c ca (cf.never occurs to my a . ing sarvam by glossing it.¯ ¯ . between a ı´ a ˚ ´a the former and the South Indian S¯ kta tradition of the Para´ur¯ makalpasutra. 12. . ah (cf. v¯ grupe k¯ larupe ca parame´varasyaiv¯ bhivyajyate). 5: p¯ sa n¯ ma k¯ ryakaranakhy¯ h kal¯ h). a a ı . 6. ¯˜ a ble for two reasons. However. 125 Thus in 32cd the Par¯ japavidhi has dehe mantramudr¯ ganam. ˜ a a. ˜a a a´ ¯ . more broadly. 6.. Panc¯ rthabh¯ sya p. The KSTS edition of the -laghuvrtti gives a . . .. on the grounds (1) that sam-bandh. that he does have the power to act. 11–12: tad¯ mantramudr¯ samuhah dehe a a ¯ . Firstly there are other elements of P¯ supata terminology in the text. . 4. . The first renders the literal meaning ‘thing to be done’ but produces a theologically odd assertion. P¯ supatasutra 1. a´ ¯ a a ¯ a. . 431) translates k¯ ryam as ‘obligation to act’ (“One cannot find in him either an obligation to act or a an organ with which to act”) and R ADHAKRISHNAN (1969.11a: jn¯ tv¯ devam sarvap¯ sapa˜a a a´ . viz. k¯ nugr¯ hakatirobh¯ va ka dharmi k¯ ranam.13d. p.ı fication of a Rsi and the rest. p. . Panc¯ rthabh¯ sya p. . a ı´ a a´ aa . but the -laghuvrtti’s comment india ı´ a . The second is impossible.39: apram¯ d¯ gacched duhkh¯ ntam ¯sapras¯ d¯ t). . see 1. a a. of the -laghuvrtti (12cd) against that of the text transmitted with Abhinavagupta’s -vivarana. . h¯ nih (cf. . The -vivarana appears not to confirm the reada ¯ a ¯ s a . a. drkkriy¯ saktyor apratigh¯ t¯ t. 55: atrotp¯ daa a . . However.. O LIVELLE (1998. . the probability that the Paippal¯ dins’ a . a a . For no Kashmirian work setting out the ritual procedure following the Par¯ tr¯sik¯ survives to enable us to determine what is distinctively a ı´ a non-Kashmirian in the non-Kashmirian literature other than in such peripheral details as the door-guardians and the pseudo-Vedic anukraman¯ with its speci.. . a´ 2. ¯ a a a . . . I have indicated in my annotations of my translations nua merous points of agreement between the details of their account and those prescribed for the same in the corpus of South Indian texts based on the interpretation of the Par¯ tr¯sik¯ given in the -laghuvrtti and. 5. 118: niskalasya k¯ ryakaranarahitasyety arthah). This agrees with the reading a a . . ˚ k¯ ryakaranakhy¯ h kal¯ h. eva vy¯ khy¯ tam mantramudr¯ ganam sambadhn¯ ti sv¯ tmany ek¯karoty advayatah.8c. But they do not allow us to exclude entirely the possibility that the Paippal¯ dins a were drawing not on those materials but at least to some extent on earlier Kashmirian sources to which those who formed the South Indian tradition had independent access. a . . 77: atra kal¯ n¯ ma ˜ a a. . . the relevant passage in both of the critical editions reading simply sa . s a ¯ These correspondences suggest strongly that the Oriya Paippal¯ dins had access a to some at least of these materials or to materials closely related to them.16d.9: mah¯ devasya daksinamurteh). p. tasutra 5. I judge a a . devam ye vidus te jahus tanum and 6. ˚ deham rather than dehe here in its text of the Par¯ tr¯sik¯ . . a . with the former against the latter. a .125 ranam so defined (ibid.13d: jn¯ tv¯ devam mucyate sarvap¯ saih and 1. .254 ALEXIS SANDERSON ¯˙ As for the source or sources drawn upon by these two Angirasa texts on the propitiation of Par¯ . p. p. p.

T/187 : yog¯svari P1 : yoge´var¯ P2 • vadet P1 P2 T/121 T/187 : bhavet As 3a phadanto P2 T/121 ı´ s ı . 3 phadanto mantrar¯ jo ’yam bhaved ek¯ da´aksarah | a a s¯ . ˚ 1d ¯psitam As T/187 : ipsitam P2 : apsitam T/121 : as. I am very grateful to Dr. . . since doing so would not serve any purpose that I can see. t s . s . . As P2 T/121 T/187 : namontam P1 4c sy¯ d P2 T/187 : sy¯ As P1 : sy¯ t T/121 4d y¯ m P1 P2 a a a a. . T/121 ff. yo r¯ jno jayak¯ masya dad¯ ti jayam ¯psitam | a˜ a a ı 2 pranavam purvam ucc¯ rya m¯ y¯ b¯jam samuccaret | a a a ı . 5 pranavo b¯jam etasya hrllekh¯ saktir isyate | ı a´ . 4 of p. from 1 to 110.t . Bettina a a ¨ B AUMER for providing me with scans of these two manuscripts (and of another. But a marginal annotation in a recent S¯ rad¯ hand requires or proposes the insera tion of rva after the sa of sambadhn¯ ti to give sarvam badhn¯ ti. on the Rites of the Mantras of Bhadrak¯ l¯’. 260 a . . That reads sambadhn¯ ti (f. 64v11) in agreement with the two editions and MS no. ‘the Section aı . and for the sake of convenience I shall refer to it under a single title as the *Bhadrak¯ l¯mantravidhiprakarana. . 105–113. the second of the two old S¯ kta traditions detectable aı ¯ ngirasa texts. T/187 ff. 56v1–60r3. vatah | a s a . . ´a The case of the K¯ l¯kula. and (2) that even if it were used in this meaning I can see no reason why Abhinavagupta would have substituted it. fix’ that is intended here. They give colophons only for its constituent parts. 138r2–145v4. hitam P1 2d yoge´vari As T/121 ı ¯ ¯. . differs from that of the Trika. MS no. 2312 of this text in the collection of the Research Department in Srinagar. 52v2–57r1 = EdP. P1 ff. puj¯ k¯ le namontah sy¯ d dhome sv¯ h¯ nta isyate | ¯a a a a a . . kevalam vihitam krtv¯ yath¯ sastram phalam labhet | a a´ ¯ . Its contribution is rather in the form of Mantras that have been adopted for the propitiation of Bhadrak¯ l¯ in procedures whose aim is to empower the king to achieve aı victory in battle. . . 86v1–88r3. devat¯ sy¯ d ˚ a a bhadrak¯ l¯ jayadurgeti y¯ m viduh | aı a.ATHARVAVEDINS IN TANTRIC TERRITORY 255 The *Bhadrak¯ l¯mantravidhiprakarana aı . . a corruption of the otherwise missing word sarvam. which lacks this passage due to a lacuna that extends inclusively from n¯ masmaranam in l. . T/187 : phadanto As : padanto P1 • mantrar¯ jo As P1 P2 T/187 : mantrar¯ je T/121 3c namontah ¯ a a . Our manuscripts contain a section of two hundred and twentytwo half-verses devoted to this topic (As ff. I propose. P2 ff. . 4 pippal¯ da rsih prokta´ chando n¯ sti yajus. This conjecture now finds support from . has long been inaccessible to scholars. 85r2–89r4). 23 of p. no. . . ¯ mah¯ candapadam procya yoge´varipadam vadet | a . knowledge in place of bandh. 6 niyamo n¯ sti mantre ’smin na pura´caranam bhavet | a s . . 2138. the meaning ‘to tie. 848 in the same collection a ´a (f. pp. For there is no complete in these A ˙ Paddhati in the corpus that can be said to have been based on its rituals. . . . It begins by teaching the first of these aı Mantras as follows: 1 atha devy¯ bhadrak¯ ly¯ mantro yah so ’bhidh¯yate | a a a ı . . . 151v2). jaye ca viniyogah sy¯ d atharvamunibh¯ sitah | a ˚ a.. 281 of the same) from a crucial collection that a . but I shall treat it as a whole with a single verse numeration. of G NOLI’s edition to mudr¯ mudritah in l. . that sam is .

. . a a a a . . ı . See. (3) This. 3–4: purvasev¯ rtham japas ¯ a . 231. In the fire sacrifice it should end in . rules of apparel and so forth. vol. prad¯ yik¯ s tu pranavam¯ y¯ laksm¯panc¯ ksar¯. on 30. which bestows on a aı king desiring victory the victory he seeks. (5) Its Seed is a a ´ the Pranava [OM] and its Sakti is held to be Hrllekh¯ [HR¯M]. . a a a a . R¯ me´ vara on Para´ur¯ makalpasutra. a ˚ ¯ waived here. Sr¯krama 8: m¯ y¯ tur¯yosmaa a . f. e. . ´ . tathek¯ rah sirah prokta˚uk¯ ra´ ca sikh¯ smrtah | a . In the norm. (4) Pippal¯ da has been proclaimed to be its Rsi. a a ı a ˚ hr¯m iti.. ¯ a a . ˚ ˚ ambar¯ nulepanen¯ kalpena kalpakathitena mah¯ sma´ane japakoty¯ krtapurvasevo ’smi. ´ a 127 The term pura´ caranam refers to a preliminary practice to be undertaken after receiving a s . ˚ ˚ T/187 : puna´caranam P2 T/121 6d labhet P1 P2 T/121 T/187 : bhavet As s . 235. 3 (Patala 7).39–40 (p. ˚ 8 aik¯ rah kavacam jneyah au ca netratrayam viduh | a . with PHAT at its end. Sivaa a ı a a . 16v6–7: suddhavimar´ad¯ rdhyam eva m¯ y¯ b¯jen¯ ha a a a a ´ s a . . . Mantra comprising the worship of a Mantra-deity. . ´a a sahitadvit¯y¯ ntasthopari sabindus turyasvarah. ˚ pancavimsasahasr¯ ni japtv¯ vyoma´ivasya tu | sarvap¯ pavi´uddh¯ tm¯ krtasevo bhavisyati | sarvakar˜ a. ˜ . . 80v3: japam¯ nam eva m¯ sena purvasev¯ krt¯ bhavat¯ty evam . is [in rites] for the conquering [of enemies]. . 80r4: s a a a ¯ a a ı .. . (2) After uttering the Pranava . . Harsacarita p. 9 kar¯ ngany¯ sam etasya mantrasyettham vadanti vai | a˙ a . ll. . ¯ a s ´ a . p. . .256 ALEXIS SANDERSON T/121 T/187 : y¯ h As 5b hrllekh¯ As P2 T/121 T/187 : hrkh¯ P1 6b pura´caranam As P1 a. .116a ı. Its applicaa I. (6) There are no special restrictions [that apply] to [the practice of] this Mantra. B¯ na. . . See. . . R¯ ghavabhatta on S¯ rad¯ tilaka 6. ´ ı sv¯ min Up¯ dhy¯ ya. ˚ masamartha´ ca.g. a s s a ¯ a a ı . Tantr¯ lokaviveka on 30. 126 For . 13–14: pura´cary¯ prathamam eva mantragrahapurvam *vrataniyatajap¯ dikaranam (vrata s a ¯ a . It has no metre a . . . Sr¯vidy¯ mantravivrti f. a . . Mantras. ll. .. ´ ı. Nor is there [any requirement that one should undertake] a preliminary practice [to master it] (pura´caranam). When it is used in the worship [of the deity in a substrate other than fire] it should end in NAMAH.. a s a s a a . ı. e. : vratam Ed. em.126 then MAH ACAN D A and a a I. astram ah sy¯ t khak¯ ro ’tra phra prayojyam ca purvatah | a a ¯ . e. a a s . ¯ [OM] he should utter the Seed of M¯ y¯ [HR¯M].127 One will obtain the des . is the eleven-syllable King of . Ni´v¯ saguhya f. puj¯ dhy¯ n¯ di. ˚ because it is [treated as] a Yajus-formula. . ´ the convention that m¯ y¯ b¯jam (also m¯ y¯ rnah. the repetition of the Mantra a prescribed number of times or for a prescribed period such as a month. declared by the Atharvan sage. 184: bhagavato mah¯ k¯ lahrdayan¯ mno mah¯ mantrasya krsnasrag¯a a a a. . sired result simply by doing what has been prescribed [here] according to the scriptures. (1) Next I shall tell you the Mantra of Bhadrak¯ l¯. a a .´ . Its deity is Bhadrak¯ l¯. . . . .g. a a I. ı ˜ a . 370): s¯ mı a a. The Mantra’s Ancillaries (ang¯ ni) are then stated: ˙ a 7 s¯ nusv¯ ro ya ak¯ ro hrdayam sa nigadyate | a a ¯ a . ˚ tion. or m¯ y¯ ) denotes HR¯M see. ´ ı (m¯ y¯ rnam): m¯ y¯ rnam hr¯m.). p. ´ YOGE S VARI . Svacchandatantroddyota. whom aı [the learned] know as Jayadurg¯ ‘The Durg¯ of Victory’. . a a a a a ı.107 (pranavo m¯ y¯ bindur varnatrayam): m¯ y¯ hr¯m. it is only after this preliminary practice that one may employ the Mantra for specific ends. 3 (Patala 7). Svacchandatantroddyota. .g. a a a´ s ¯ . with accompanying ascetic restraints. ¯ ¯ SV AH A . sometimes with its gratification by offering it a proportionate number of oblations into fire. ı. vol. The practice is also termed purvasev¯ ‘prior service’ or sev¯ ‘service’. prayogas tu om hr¯m sr¯m namah siv¯ ya . .

I . [The initial consonant] . . . and the Hair-queue U. E . evam ap¯ ta eva vacan¯ d ı ˜ a. . begin with KHPHR rather than HR we may infer that it is highly probable that the author who composed this section had as his main Mantra not OM HR¯M I. . PHAT . P1 T/121 : jneyam P2 T/187 8b au ca T/121 : om ca P1 P2 : aim ca As : ai T/187 8c astram ah ˜ . 1 ˚ ˚ ˚ T/187 : samnigadyate P2 7c tathek¯ rah P1 P2 As T/187 : nvek¯ rah T/121 • sirah prokta a . a . ¯ a ¯ . . See Jayaratha on Tantr¯ loka 30. and HRAH . ¯ ¯ KHPHRAIM [ KAVAC AYA HUM ]. . ¯M. ˙ Codd. ¯ Head ¯. : astram mah EdP 8d phra em.ATHARVAVEDINS IN TANTRIC TERRITORY 257 7a ya ak¯ ro P2 T/187 : ya ak¯ rah As : pa ak¯ rah T/121 : ja ak¯ rah P1 : trir ak¯ rah conj. . HR¯M . . . ¯ a . of a scribal error. ¯ ¯ ¯ . . . HRAIM . . P1 P2 As T/121 : aik¯ ram T/187 • kavacam P2 T/121 T/187 : kavaca P1 : kavace As • jneyah As a . . a ı ˚ 128 The vowels A . 102. ¯ . . AU .11 (vaktr¯ ngam a a˙ . ˜ . . . UM. U . denoting HR¯M. 128 Since the main Mantra has been given as OM the vowel of that syllable. . ´ ´ ¯ ¯ MAH ACAN D AYOGE S VARI PHAT but OM KHPHREM MAH ACAN D AYOGE S VARI . P 7b hrdayam P T/121 : hrdayah P As : hrdaya T/187 • sa nigadyate P As T/121 Ed 2 1 . . a ˙ a. . and PHR should be placed [after it] before [the vowels]. with HR¯M as its SeedI. syllable. as we shall see. KHPHRAUM [ NETRATRAY AYA VAUS AT ]. HRAUM . anyatr¯ py angavaktr¯ nam iyam eva v¯ rtety aveditam. conforms to the practice of the K¯ l¯kula. ter all except the Weapon. the a . The Weapon is AH. ¯ . and (2) that the prescription of the opening consonant cluster KHPHR ¯ . . ´ ¯ HR¯M MAH ACAN D AYOGE S VARI PHAT . AI . KHPHR I . fication that was not carried through to the form of the Ancillaries. . (8) Know that the Armour is AI. ¯ a . In the latter case it is conceivable that the word m¯ y¯ b¯jam in a a ı 2b (m¯ y¯ b¯jam samuccaret). U . which ending in H does not receive this clo. . ¯ a s a s a . O) that are used in the same way to modify the main Mantra to create the five face-Mantras. Mantra by substituting the six sounds AM. . . The norms for the formation of Ancillaries require us to understand (1) that ¯ the anusv¯ rah should be added not only after the A of the Heart but afa . . T/187 : sirah proktah P1 As T/121 : proktah P2 7d uk¯ ra´ P2 T/121 : uk¯ ra´ P1 As T/187 8a aik¯ rah ´ . as opposed to the five ‘short vowels’ (A . since it . . I. ¯ ı ¯ ¯ a a . is a corruption of m¯ trb¯jam ‘the Seed a a ı . . . that is to say. . a ¯ u ai au ah iti sad d¯rgh¯ h. sure. HR UM . purvatah P1 P2 As T/187 : purvavat T/121 9b vadanti P2 T/121 T/187 : vadanni As : vidanti P1 ¯ ¯ . : phram P1 : phre As P2 : pre T/187 EdP : phrem T/121 • ˘ . is normal practice to form the Ancillaries from the Seed-syllable of the main ¯ . perhaps. Thus we have the following: KHPHR AM [ HR ´ ¯ ¯M [ S IRASE SV AH A ]. hrasvad¯rghakaih): a i u e o iti panca hrasv¯ h. ´ ¯ DAY AYA NAMAH ]. AIM. ı a. or. ¯ a . here is KH. . which. ´ . ¯. fore that the substitution of HR¯M may be the result either of a conscious modiI. . and B RUNNER 1986. and . ¯ KHPHRAH [ ASTR AYA PHAT ]. I. The [wise] I know that AU is the Three Eyes. . those of the Ancillaries should have been HR AM . AUM. . should be applied throughout. I. . . I. This creates an implausible anomaly. . . . (9) They teach that the installation on the hands and body should be done with these for this Mantra. KHPHR UM [ S IKH AYAI VAS AT˚]. From the fact that the section on the Ancillaries has them . and AH for . ¯ (7) It is taught that the Heart [of the Mantra] is A with anusv¯ rah (M). ¯ a ¯ a . ¯ . p. and AH used in the Ancillaries are known as the six ‘long vowels’ ¯ I ¯ . and thereaı .



of the Mothers’, denoting KHPHREM.129 . We are now told how the goddess should be visualized: sy¯ m¯ m indudhar¯ m dev¯m at¯ mranayanatray¯ m | ´ a a a. ı ¯a a 10 v¯ me raktakap¯ lam ca tri´ulam daksine tath¯ | a a . s¯ . a . . krsodar¯m raktavastr¯ m p¯nastananitambin¯m | ´ ı. a. ı ı ˚ 11 padmasth¯ m yuvatim dhy¯ yet smer¯ sy¯ m atisundar¯m | a. a a a ı . bhadrak¯ l¯m mah¯ dev¯m jayad¯ tr¯m su´¯tal¯ m | aı. a ı. a ı. sı a
9c sy¯ m¯ m P1 P2 As : sam¯ m T/121 : sy¯ m¯ T/187 • indudhar¯ m As P2 T/121: bindudha´ a a ´¯ a ´ a a a. r¯ m P1 : sadudhar¯ m T/187 9d at¯ mra P1 P2 As T/187 : at¯ gra T/121 • tray¯ m P1 P2 T/121: a. ´ a. ¯a ¯a a tray¯m As T/187 11a yuvatim T/187 : yuvat¯m P1 P2 As T/121 11d jayad¯ tr¯m P1 P2 As ı. ı. a ı. . T/187 : jagaddh¯ tr¯m T/121 a ı.

(9c–11) He should visualize the goddess, Mah¯ dev¯ Bhadrak¯ l¯, the tranquil a ı aı bestower of victory, as an extremely beautiful young girl [seated] smiling on
can cite no instance of the use of m¯ trb¯jam in this sense, but the concept that the syllaa ı ˚ ble KHPHREM embodies the essence of the Mothers is well-attested. Thus Tantr¯ loka 30.45c– a . 51: aksisanmunivargebhyo dvit¯y¯ h saha bindun¯ | 46 yonyarnena ca m¯ t¯nam sadbh¯ vah k¯ lakarsin¯ | ı a. a a r. ¯ . a . a . . . . . .ı ˚ adyojjhito v¯ py antena varjito v¯ tha sammatah | 47 j¯vah pr¯ naputantahsthah k¯ l¯ nalasamadyutih | ¯ a a ı . a. . . .¯ . . aa . atid¯ptas tu *v¯ m¯ nghrir (em. : v¯ m¯ nghri Ed.) bhusito murdhni bindun¯ | 48 daksaj¯ nugata´ c¯ yam ı a a˙ a a˙ ¯. ¯ a s a . . a sarvam¯ trganarcitah | anena pr¯ nit¯ h sarve dadate v¯ nchitam phalam | 49 sadbh¯ vo paramo hy esa a a . a. a˜ a .¯ . . . ˚ m¯ t¯nam bhairavasya ca | tasm¯ d enam japen mantr¯ ya icchet siddhim uttam¯ m | 50 rudra´aktisam¯ ve´o a r. ¯ . a ı a s a s . ˚ nityam atra pratis. hitah | yasm¯ d esa par¯ saktir bheden¯ nyena k¯rtit¯ | 51 y¯ vatyah siddhayas tantre t¯ h a .¯ a´ a ı a a a. .t . . sarv¯ h kurute tv iyam | angavaktr¯ ni c¯ py asy¯ h pr¯ gvat svaraniyogatah ‘The second [consonants] a. ˙ a. a a. a . from the second, sixth, and seventh series [KH, PH, and R] with the Bindu [M] and the Yoni . a a vowel [E] [form] K¯ lasamkarsan¯, the Essence of the Mothers (M¯ trsadbh¯ va) [i.e. KHPHREM]. a . . . .ı ˚ It is also approved without the first [of the three consonants, i.e. as PHREM] or also without the . last [i.e. as PHEM]. [When] the same is [formed of] the vital principle [S] enclosed on either side . by the breath [H] and radiant as the fire of the Aeon [+R], [followed by] the left foot [PH], burning brightly [+R], adorned upon its summit by Bindu [M] and conjoined with the right knee . [E] [(= HSHRPHREM), then it] is venerated by the assembly of all the Mothers. Any Mantra . will grant whatever result one desires if it is brought to life by [the addition of] this [syllable]. For this is the ultimate essence of the Mothers and of Bhairava. Therefore it is this whose Japa the Mantrin should undertake if he seeks the supreme Siddhi [of liberation]. In it the state of immersion in the power of Rudra is eternally established. For this is proclaimed to be the ´ [Trika’s] Sakti Par¯ in another form. She accomplishes all the Siddhis that have been taught in a the Tantras. As for her [six] Ancillaries and [five] face-Mantras they are [to be formed] by adjusting [her] vowel in the manner taught above [for other Mantras]’. See also the term m¯ trjam calam a . ˚ that denotes the syllable PHEM in the Trika’s Tantrasadbh¯ va, f. 22v2–3: calam tu m¯ trjam c¯ dyam a a . . . a . ˚ tam pravaksy¯ mi vistar¯ t | v¯ map¯ dam [PH] samuddhrtya bhinnam daksinaj¯ nun¯ [E] | bindun¯ [M] a a a . a a . . . a . . . a ˚ samalamkrtya amrt¯ rthe prayojayet. One of these variants of the M¯ trsadbh¯ va syllable, PHREM, a a a . . ˚ ˚ ˚ was adopted as that of the appropriately named Vi´ vam¯ tr ‘Mother of the Universe’, the female s a ˚ ¯ . . ¯ consort of the Buddhist Tantric deity K¯ lacakra; see the Mantra OM A A AM AH HA H A HAM HAH a . . . ´ AP ARAMIT AP URAN I SV AH A used in the filet consecration (pat. abhisekah) of the ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ HOH PHREM DA S . . . t¯ . . . K¯ lacakra initiation (Vimalaprabh¯ , vol. 2, p. 92, ll. 12–13, explaining K¯ lacakra 3.96c: saktibhih a a a ´ . pat. am eva), in which the ten syllables beginning with A and ending with PHREM embody the . .t ´ ten Saktis in ascending order from Krsnad¯pt¯ to Vi´ vam¯ tr; also C HANDRA 1991, fig. 724, a s a .. ı a ˚ ˚ Tibetan drawing of Sna tshogs yum dkar mo (White Vi´ vam¯ tr) with her Mantra below: OM s a . ˚ ´ ¯ PHREM (corr. : PHRAIM Ed.) VI S VAM ATAH . . . . . . .
129 I



a lotus, black, wearing the [digit of the new] moon [on her hair], with her three eyes slightly copperish in colour, with a skull filled with blood in her left hand and a trident in her right, slim-waisted, dressed in red, with full breasts and hips. The king will achieve victory by worshipping her as follows: 12 pujayed asur¯p¯. he syus tad¯ varanani ca | ¯ ¯ ı ıt a .¯ tryayutam v¯ yutam v¯ pi ghrtahom¯ j jayo bhavet | a . a . a ˚ 13 ajyen¯ kt¯ h pal¯ sasya samidho v¯ huned budhah | ¯ a a. a´ a . athav¯ japan¯ t t¯ vaj jayah sy¯ n n¯ tra samsayah | a a a a a ´ . . .
12b syus As P1 T/121 : sy¯ s P2 T/187 12c tryayutam P1 P2 As T/187 : ayutam T/121 12d hom¯ j a a . . As P2 T/187 : hom¯ rj P1 : hom¯ t T/121 13c japan¯ t em. : japan¯ m t¯ vaj P1 As : japan¯ mt¯ c ca a a a a. a a. a P2 : ja pa + + + T/187 : tapan¯ t. dvat T/121 a

(12) He should worship her on the throne [prescribed for the worship] of ¯ Asur¯ [Durg¯ ]; and the circuits of [secondary deities] should also be those ı a of that [goddess].130 He will achieve victory by [then] offering her in the sacrificial fire 10,000 or 30,000 oblations of ghee. (13) Or the wise may offer kindling sticks of Pal¯ sa wood (Butea frondosa) smeared with ghee. Altera´ natively he may conquer simply by repeating her Mantra the same number of times. Of this there is no doubt. We are now taught the propitiation of a second Mantra of Bhadrak¯ l¯, which aı takes the form of two Anustubh verses: ..
. . ¯ ı ı a Asur¯d¯pik¯ (EdP pp. 116, l. 8–117, l. 2, and p. 119, l. 22). It is to be built up by uttering Mantras of obeisance (. . . NAMAH) to the following in the order of ascent: Manduka, K¯ l¯ gnirudra, aa . ..¯ ¯ ara´ akti, V¯ r¯ ha, Prthiv¯, Hayagr¯va, Ks¯r¯ rnava, Ratnadv¯pa, *Manip¯ ndara (?), ¯ Kurma, Adh¯ s aa ı ı ı . a. . .ı a . ˚ Manimandapa, Ratnavedik¯ , Kalpadruma, Sarvatobhadrak¯ la, Ratnasimha, the eight buddhia a . .. . ¯ dharm¯ h beginning with Dharma and ending with Anai´ varya, Ananta, Anandakandala, the a. s lotus, its petals, its filaments, and its pericarp, and, on the pericarp, the discs of the sun, moon, ¯ and fire, the three Gunas (sattvam, rajah, and tamah), the four Atmans (¯ tm¯ , antar¯ tm¯ , par¯ tm¯ , a a a a a a . . . and jn¯ n¯ tm¯ ), and the four Tattvas (k¯ latattvam, m¯ y¯ tattvam, vidy¯ tattvam, and paratattvam). ˜a a a a a a a ´ Then one is to install the following eight Saktis on the filaments: Prabh¯ , M¯ y¯ , Jay¯ , Suksm¯ , a a a a ¯ . a ´ Vi´ uddh¯ , Nandit¯ , Subhadr¯ , Vijay¯ ; and the Sakti Siddhiprad¯ at their centre. He completes s a a a a a the asur¯p¯. hah by uttering the Simhamantra, invoking the ‘great lion [of Durg¯ ] whose weapons ¯ ı ıt . a . ´ are his adamantine claws and fangs’. See also EdP p. 47–48, giving only the Saktis (with Nandin¯ ı and Suprabh¯ rather than Nandit¯ and Subhadr¯ , and with Sarvasiddhid¯ rather than Sida a a a ¯ dhiprad¯ ). The circuits of Asur¯’s secondary deities are as follows (EdP p. 47): (1) her six Ancila ı ¯ a laries, which in the case of Bhadrak¯ l¯ would be replaced by her own; (2) Ary¯ , Durg¯ , Bhadr¯ , aı a a P p. 212, l. 19); (3) ˙ ¯ Bhadrak¯ l¯, Ambik¯ , Ksem¯ , Vedagarbh¯ , and Ksemankar¯ (see Bhudhara, Ed aı a . a a ı . [the attributes of her hands (¯ yudh¯ h:] the gesture of protection (for abhir in EdP p. 48, l. 11 read a a. abh¯r), the gesture of generosity, the sword, the shield, the arrow, the bow, the trident, and the ı skull-bowl (kap¯ lam); (4) the eight Mothers from Br¯ hm¯ to Mah¯ laksm¯; (5) the ten Dikp¯ las a a ı a . ı a (from Indra in the East to Ananta and Brahm¯ at the nadir and zenith); and (6) the Dikp¯ las’ a a weapons.
130 For the throne taught for Asur¯ (the asur¯p¯thah) see the passage on this subject in Bhudhara’s ¯ ¯ ı ¯ ı ı



14 bhadrak¯ li bhavetyasya rgdvayasya vidhim bruve | a . purvavat sarvam atra sy¯ d˚viniyogo ’sya m¯ rane | ¯ a a . 15 jaye v¯ viniyogah sy¯ d dhomena japanena v¯ | a a . a ¯ ¯ I. . ¯ BHADRAK ALI BHAV ABH¯S T ABHADRASIDDHIPRAD AYIN¯ | I ´ . ¯ ¯ 16 SAPATN AN ME HANA HANA DAHA S OS AYA T APAYA | ´¯ ¯ ´ ¯ ¯ S UL ASI S AKTIVAJR ADYAIR UTKR TYOTKR TYA M ARAYA | ˚ ¯ ¯ ¯ ALI RAKS ASM AN AKS AT ATMIKE | ¯ ¯ ˚ 17 MAH ADEVI MAH AK . . ¯ rsir bhrguh sy¯ d etasya chando ’nus. up prak¯rtitam | ı . . a .t ˚ ˚ 18 devat¯ bhadrak¯ l¯ti b¯j¯ ni vyanjan¯ ni ca | a aı ıa ˜ a svar¯ h saktaya ucyante ajyahom¯ j jayo bhavet | a. ´ ¯ a 19 m¯ ranam katutailena homena bhavati dhruvam | a . . . m¯ y¯ b¯jena kartavyo ny¯ sa´ caiva kar¯ ngayoh | a a ı a s a˙ .
14b rgdvayasya T/121 : rugdvayasya As P2 : rgbhayasya T/187 : ruyasya P1 14c sarvam atra ˚ ˚ conj. : sarvamantrah P1 : sarvamantra As P2 T/121 T/187 15c bhadrak¯ li P1 : bhadrak¯ l¯ P2 a aı . As T/121 T/187 15d prad¯ yin¯ As P2 T/121 T/187 : prad¯ n¯ P1 17b raksasm¯ n P2 T/121 a ı a ı ¯ a . T/187 : raksy¯ sm¯ n P1 : raksy¯ sm¯ As • aksat¯ tmike conj. (cf. here 23c: aksat¯ m bh¯ vayann a a a ı a a . . . . a. et¯ m svayam aksatat¯ m iy¯ t): aksatr¯ tmike T/121 : raksat¯ tmike As : anta ambike P1 : asit¯ tmike a. a a . . a . a . a P2 T/187 17c rsir corr. : rusir As P1 : rupir P2 : rsi T/121 T/187 • etasya P2 T/121 T/187 : evasya . . . ˚ ˚ As : ev¯ sya P1 18d ajyahom¯ j As P2 T/187 : l¯ jahom¯ j P1 T/121 19cd kartavyo ny¯ sa´ a ¯ a a a a s conj. : kartavy¯ ny¯ s¯ s Codd. a a a´

(14) I shall now teach the rite of the two-verse Mantra that begins ¯ BHADRAK ALI BHAVA . Everything in this case is as with the preceding [Mantra]. Its application should be in killing [the enemy] or conquering [him], through fire sacrifice or [merely] through its repetition: (15c) ¯ I B HADRAK AL¯, GRANT THE EXCELLENT S IDDHI THAT I DESIRE . K ILL , KILL , BURN , DESICCATE , AND SCORCH MY RIVALS . K ILL THEM BY CUTTING THEM TO PIECES WITH THE TRIDENT, SWORD , THUNDERBOLT AND OTHER ¯ ¯ I [ WEAPONS IN YOUR HANDS ]. P ROTECT ME , GREAT GODDESS M AH AK AL¯, 131 (17c) The Rsi is YOU WHOSE NATURE IS [ TO REMAIN EVER ] UNSCATHED . . ˚ Bhrgu. It is taught that the metre is the Anustubh. The deity is Bhadrak¯ l¯, aı .. ˚ ´ the Seeds are the vowels, and the Saktis are the consonants. (18d) Victory is [accomplished] by a fire sacrifice of ghee. (19) [Alternatively] he may offer white mustard-oil into the fire. By this means he will certainly bring about [his enemy’s] death.132 He should use the M¯ y¯ b¯ja [HR¯M] to install [the a a ı I. power of the deity] in his hands and body. When worshipped with it the goddess should be visualized as follows:
131 These two verses are also taught for use in hostile ritual in Prapancas¯ ra 32.38–39 and ˜ a ´ arad¯ tilaka 22.145–146, with the difference that in the first line the editions have bhav¯ bh¯s. e S¯ a a ı. t bhadrasiddhiprad¯ yini. a 132 The variant of P and T/121 specifies that the substance offered should be parched grain 1 (l¯ jahom¯ j jayo bhavet). a a

´ ˙ . 26b vidy¯ m As P2 ? T/121 T/187 : vijnam P1 • samabhyaset : P1 P2 As T/187 : samabhuset T/121 a ˜ ¯ (22c) If he visualizes this Bhadrak¯ l¯ and repeats her Mantra when he is in the aı midst of a great battle mounted on his elephant or horse he will conquer the enemy. . a a . a bow. . The result: gajam v¯ v¯ jinam v¯ pi sam¯ rudho mah¯ rane | a ¯. a a a ´ı a. a. a discus. . a a. P1 EdP 23b japan P1 As T/121 T/187 : japanan P2 23d aksatat¯ m iy¯ t P1 P2 T/121 a a . a be unscathed. aı. pc ac As : vighnat¯ P1 As • satrum P2 As T/187 : satrun P1 : sakum T/121 22b dhyey¯ P1 P2 ı ´ ´ ¯ ´ a . 25 na c¯ sti japasamkhy¯ tra niyama´ ca na vidyate | a a s . ˚ japato dhy¯ yata´ c¯ gre parasainyam pal¯ yate | a s a a . (24) Just as a pile of grass moves at speed when blown by the wind so the army of the enemy flees in the presence of one who repeats [this . a Vajra. P2 • vamamt¯ P1 As : vamamti P2 : vamantr¯ T/121 : vamantri T/187 21d jagattray¯m P1 As ı ı ı.t a 21 calajjihv¯ mah¯ tund¯ lambam¯ napayodhar¯ | a a . T/121 T/187 : jayet sarvam P1 : bhadrak¯ l¯m As 26a yatnena P2 As T/121 T/187 : yatatvam P1 aı. durbalo ’pi bal¯y¯ msam yatpras¯ d¯ d ripum jayet | ı a. 26 tasm¯ d yatnena bhup¯ lo vidy¯ m et¯ m samabhyaset | a ¯ a a a. .ı ı T/187 : mamdatund¯ P2 : manyatund¯ As : manyatul¯ P1 21b lambam¯ na P2 T/121 T/187 : lambina ı ı ı a . dhy¯ yann et¯ m japan mantram parasen¯ m jayaty aho | a a. T/187 : aksatasamiy¯ t As 24b s¯ghrat¯ m vrajet P2 T/187 : s¯ghra´ambhavet P1 T/121 : s¯ghrat¯ m a ´ı a. 22 dh¯ vant¯ nighnat¯ satrum dhyey¯ yuddhe jayaisina | a ı ı´ a . a a . . . running towards and slaughtering his enemy. ´ı s . . . spewing fire from her mouth. . . . .ı a a mukh¯ d vahnim vamant¯ ca tr¯ sayant¯ jagattray¯m | a ı a ı ı . a . . 24 trnakutam yath¯ v¯ ty¯ preritam s¯ghrat¯ m vrajet | ¯. a sword. aı. and arrows. rik¯ | a ı a aı a . a 23 dhy¯ yann et¯ m bhadrak¯ l¯m japan mantram ripum jayet | a a. . . .´ a dh¯ rayant¯ mah¯ k¯ l¯ ghor¯ vikatadams. 22c mah¯ rane P2 As T/121 T/187 : mah¯ rune P1 23a bhadrak¯ l¯m P2 As T/121 T/187 : mah¯ k¯ l¯m a . darting tongue. T/187 : jagatray¯m T/121 : jagatrayam P2 22a nighnat¯ T/187 : n¯ghnat¯ T/121 : jighnat¯ P2 ı ı ı ı ı . . a´ a´ a ı a ı jihv¯ P2 T/187 : calajihv¯ P1 : calajjijijn¯ As : lalajihv¯ T/121 • mah¯ tund¯ T/121 : mandatund¯ a a ˜a a a . and pendulous breasts. . (23c) If he meditates on her as the Unscathed (aksat¯ ) he will himself . . . . As : vilambita P1 21c vahnim P1 : varhni T/121 : vaknim Asac : vagnim As pc : va + T/187 : ya . : m¯ rayant¯ EdP 21a calaja. . ¯ (20–22b) One who desires victory in battle should visualize Mah¯ k¯ l¯ holda aı ing a trident. aksat¯ m bh¯ vayann et¯ m svayam aksatat¯ m iy¯ t | a. a conch. with huge fangs. . . As T/187 : dhyay¯ T/121 • yuddhe P1 P2 T/121 T/187 : suddhe As • jayaisina P2 As T/121 a ´ ¯ . .ATHARVAVEDINS IN TANTRIC TERRITORY 261 20 sul¯ si´aktivajr¯ ni sankhacakradhanuhsar¯ n | ´¯ a s a. terrifying the three worlds. large nose. a .¯ vajr¯ ni P1 As T/121 : vajr¯ sri T/187 : vajr¯ si P2 20c dh¯ rayant¯ Codd. . . terrible. ´ı a. a a . . bhavet As 24c dhy¯ yata´ c¯ gre P1 T/121 : dhy¯ yatasy¯ gre P2 T/187 : dhy¯ yatay¯ gre As 25b a s a a a a a japasamkhy¯ tra P2 T/121 T/187 : japaramkhy¯ tra As : japasamkhy¯ ni P1 25c japan mamtram P2 a a a . a aı. . T/187 : jay¯sina P1 ı.

ı . (32) By installing . the throat. the two thighs. a . As : urasy T/121 : tarasy P2 : tara sy T/187 31d uru P2 T/187 : uru P1 As : ur T/121 • dvandve ¯ ¯ ˚ P1 P2 ? T/121 T/187 : dvande As 32a ittham P1 P2 ? T/121 T/187 : itham As 32d vigrahe : P1 P2 . This great Mantra. nor are there any restrictions [to be observed]. T/121 : pratyaksarayathocyate T/187 31b mukhe P2 T/121 T/187 As : mukha P1 • urasy P1 . . He should install the six Ancillaries using the Sakti[-syllable]. . . . T/187 : hum P1 • phat ca P2 ? : phat P1 T/121 T/187 : phata As • sy¯ d P1 P2 As T/187 : sy¯ t ¯.t udare ca tath¯ linge urudvandve padadvaye | a ˙ ¯ 32 ittham pratyaksaram nyasya bhadrak¯ l¯ svayam bhavet | aı . (28) He ¯ ¯ I should utter JAYAM DEHI after BHADRAK ALI (‘O B HADRAK AL¯. yasya pras¯ d¯ n nrpatir ekacchatr¯ bhaved bhuvi | a a ı ˚ 28 bhadrak¯ lipadasy¯ nte jayamdehipadam vadet | a a . ut s ´ t . Its deity is the Bhadrak¯ l¯ called Jayadurg¯ . . ı. . and the two feet [respectively]. (31) [They are to be placed] on the head. TORY ’). . : kr¯m P2 As T/121 ı ı ı. ´ Its Seed is HR¯M. 29 asy¯ ngir¯ rsih prokta´ chando ’nus. the mouth. For by its favour even if his own forces are weak he will a overcome the mightiest of foes. [simply] by repeating the Mantra while visualizing this [goddess] he will defeat the enemy’s army. T/121 30b matah P1 P2 T/121 T/187 : namah As 30d pratyaksaram athocyate P1 P2 As . . Now I shall teach [the pratyaksarany¯ sah. .. its Sakti is PHAT. the belly. ˚ its metre the Anustubh. s t ı . tatah samastamantrena vy¯ pakam vigrahe nyaset | a . a a . e ca mukhe kan. ´ . . T/187 • padam P1 P2 T/121 : pade T/187 : prade As 28d jayapradah P1 P2 : ’bhayapradah As . ˚ prokta´ P1 P2 As T/187 : proktahs T/121 29d chando ’nus. . . (30) aı a . (25) There is no [prescribed] number of repetitions. when PHAT is placed at its end. . . the forehead. the Mantra] should be installed one by one. sakty¯ kury¯ t sad ang¯ ni pratyaksaram athocyate | ´ a a . . and its application is held to be [in rites] I. .t T/121 • prak¯rtitam P1 P2 As T/121 : prak¯ttitam T/187 30a hr¯m conj. 28a bhadrak¯ li P1 P2 : bhadrak¯ l¯ T/121 T/187 : bhakrak¯ l¯ As 28b jayam P1 P2 As T/121 : jaya a aı aı . Now a third Mantra is taught: 27 atha mantr¯ ntaram tasy¯ bhadrak¯ ly¯ nigadyate | a a a a . EdP 29a asy¯ ngir¯ P1 P2 As T/187 : angir¯ sya T/121 • rsih T/121 T/187 : rusih P1 P2 As • a˙ a ˙ a . up P1 P2 As T/187 : chando ’nus. aı by whose favour a king enjoys unchallenged sovereignty on earth.262 ALEXIS SANDERSON Mantra] while visualizing [her thus]. (27) Now I shall teach [you] another Mantra of this [goddess] Bhadrak¯ l¯. . (29) It is taught that its Rsi is Angiras and . up prak¯rtitam | a˙ a . bestows victory . ˙ [even] in [the most] terrible battle. As T/187 : vigraham T/121 . . ˚ devat¯ bhadrak¯ l¯ y¯ jayadurgeti g¯yate | a aı a ı 30 hr¯m b¯jam phat ca saktih sy¯ d viniyogo jaye matah | ı. . phadanto ’yam mah¯ mantro ghorayuddhe jayapradah | a . . that is to say. the genital organ. . Behold. . . GRANT VIC . .] how the syllables [of a . the chest. . ha urasy api | at . ´ for victory. 31 mastake ca lal¯ . (26) Therefore a king should make efforts to practise this Vidy¯ repeatedly. ˙ a .

am¯ | ¯ a. a pan-Indian royal tradition. dhy¯ nam.000 oblations of parched grain into the fire (ho. 33a k¯ l¯m P1 As T/121 : b¯ l¯m T/187 : bal¯m P2 33b sekhar¯ m P1 P2 As T/187 : sekhar¯ m T/121 aı. and then a a . with the moon on her hair. t ı 36 t¯ vad et¯ m prapujy¯ jyam tryayutam juhuy¯ n nrpah | a a. The last is an extreme concession from the Tantric point of view. or even only the dhy¯ nam. presumably on . . and make 10. The context is the period of two weeks leading up to the commencement of the annual season of military campaigns after the passing of the monsoon. . mul¯ s. t ı is a daily programme in which the king is to worship the goddess (puj¯ ). black. repeat ¯a her Mantra (japah). furious. seated on a lotus in the lotusposture. with 30. but in a festival. see. and the form a. allowing that if a ruler is unable to do all this. a a . am¯).g. E INOO 1999 and L EVY a 1990. 523–576. . ˙ a t . ¯ a . ¯˙ manner characteristic of the Angirasakalpa texts. . am¯) to the ‘Great Eighth’ ¯ a. the annual nine-day Durg¯ a a 133 This is a demanding course of worship. s a daksine dadhat¯m sulam v¯ me rudhirakarparam | ı . holding a trident in her right hand and a skull-bowl full of blood in her left. or only [the dhy¯ nam and] the japah. mah). the eighth of the light fortnight of the same month. . ˚ sarv¯ n ripun vijity¯ yam bhunkte r¯ jyam akan. a. a. t ı (mah¯ s. 37 etat krtv¯ pur¯ sakro ’py asur¯ n jitav¯ n svayam | a a´ a˜ a ˚ the Navar¯ tra festival.. ´¯ . and ¯a a japah]. . to my knowledge. . a . 33c daksine dadhat¯m P1 As T/121 : dadhat¯m daksine P2 : dadhat¯ daksine T/187 33d karparam P2 ı. . reaches its climax. but never. 34 padme padm¯ san¯ m dev¯m bhadrak¯ l¯m smared rane | a a. dressed aı in red. the day on which the Navar¯ tra. . ı.ATHARVAVEDINS IN TANTRIC TERRITORY 263 [the Mantra] syllable by syllable in this way he will become Bhadrak¯ l¯ heraı self. She should be visualized in the same form as for the first Mantra: 33 b¯ l¯ m k¯ l¯m raktavastr¯ m kupit¯ m candra´ekhar¯ m | aa. since that envisages as the limit of the condensation of worship the repetition of a Mantra without an accompanying visualization. 35 japed arcet prajuhuy¯ l l¯ j¯ n¯ m ayutam sudh¯h | a aa a ı. e. . The text now gives instruction in the context and form of her propitiation. a . aı. . the Paippal¯ dins did not insist a that their royal patrons should enact it in full. pp. am¯m sam¯ rabhya bhaved y¯ van mah¯ s. akam | a ¯ a . visualization without Mantra: evam vicintayen mantr¯ y¯ gam antar vidh¯ ya ca | ı a a . which he should do with the whole Mantra upon his body [as a whole]. ı. t ı . T/121 T/187 As : kharparam P1 In the battle he should visualize Bhadrak¯ l¯ as a young girl. aı. only as he goes into battle. ı. ´ a a. ı .000 oblations of ghee at the end of the period. a a a. he may omit the fire-sacrifices and do only the puj¯ [. the ‘Great Ninth’. He should follow this with the Pervasive [Installation] (vy¯ pakany¯ sah). aı. 133 On . from ¯s the eighth day of the dark fortnight of A´ vina (mul¯ s.

and offer 10.t . This should be [repeated every day] from the eighth day of the dark half of ¯s A´ vina (mul¯ s. (37) Indra too did this in former times and so defeated the Asuras. by being buried in a cremation ground. ¯ a. am¯) to the eighth of the bright half of the same (mah¯ s. s T/187 : da´aktau T/121 38b jap¯ saktau P2 As T/121 T/187 : jap¯ sakto P1 • vrajan P2 As T/121 s a´ a´ T/187 : vrajet P1 (34c) The Mantrin should meditate [on her] in this form. ¯ a. T/187 : prapujy¯ mti P1 36b juhuy¯ n P1 P2 As T/187 : juhuy¯ T/121 36c sarv¯ n ripun P1 P2 ¯ a. Leaden plates are used when the yantrams are to be buried underground. As : y¯ ?dha?mantram vidhy¯ ya ca P1 35a prajuhuy¯ l P1 P2 As T/187 : prajuhuy¯ t T/121 35b a a a ¯ a . copper led [sic] and sometimes on a piece of cadjan leaf. : y¯ gamantra vidh¯ ya ca T/121 : y¯ gamantarvav¯ ya T/187 : y¯ gamantram vidhy¯ ya ca P2 a a a a a a . the hides of various animals and the like. or forcing a person to submit to the user’s will.000 oblations of ghee. when the wise one has worshipped her internally he should repeat her Mantra. If the wise one is unable ¯a to do [even] that then he may do [only] the repetition of her Mantra (japah). t ı . He will certainly attain victory. Then. It is called a yantram (that which holds. 2. t ı . 35d bhaved P1 P2 As T/187 : bhavedd T/121 36a prapujy¯ jyam P2 As T/121 : prapujy¯ jyam ¯ a . wrapped up. .t P1 P2 As : satro T/187 : sukro T/121 • etat krtv¯ P2 As T/121 T/187 : etatkrtye P1 37b asur¯ n P1 ´ ´ a a ˚ ˚ P2 ? T/121 T/187 : asur¯ m As 37c caret P1 T/121 : japet P2 As T/187 37d tada´aktau P1 P2 As a. t ı (36) After worshipping her during this period the king should offer 30. birchbark. s . and so on. 425: “Charms are written. . . If he is unable to do the fire sacrifice he may do [only] the act of worship (puj¯ ) [and the repetition of her Mantra]. worship her [externally]. or fastens). silver. am¯m P2 As T/187 : mul¯ s. akam As 37a sakro ˙ ´ . niyatam jayam apnoti na vic¯ ryam idam vacah | ¯ a . Alternatively he can ensure victory by going to war wearing a Yantra of this Mantra-goddess as an amulet on his arm:134 Sanskrit term yantram refers to a Mantra-inscribed diagram that may be engraved or written in various colours and with various inks on a strip of metal. a a a ¯ T/187 : sarv¯ tripun As : sarvatripun T/121 • vijity¯ yam P1 P2 As T/187 : vijity¯ ya T/121 36d a ¯ ¯ a . by being worn as an amulet. 38 kevalam cintayed en¯ m jap¯ saktau rane vrajan | a. for purposes such as warding off ills. a bhunkte P1 P2 As T/187 : bhukte T/121 • akan. on a small metal plate which is either rolled or enclosed in a small case which is fastened to a thread to be made fit for wearing. Yantrams are usually drawn on thin plates of gold. am¯ P1 T/121 a. akam P1 P2 T/121 T/187 : akas. and then employed in various ways. while those on the less precious metals will last for a year or six months. (38) If he is unable to do [even] that he may simply visualize her as he goes into battle. 34c vicintayen P1 P2 As : vicintayan T/187 : vicintyayan T/121 34d y¯ gam antar vidh¯ ya ca a a em. . t ı a. harming an enemy. a . and the efficacy of the figures when drawn on a gold leaf will last for 100 years. He will [then] defeat all his enemies and enjoy untroubled sovereignty. vol. the definition in N ANJUNDAYYA and I YER 1928–1936.000 oblations of parched grain into the fire. restrains. ¯ a. a´ . p. cloth. The figures should possess the symbols of 134 The . This statement should not be questioned. ayutam As P2 ? T/121 T/187 : ayut¯ m P1 35c mul¯ s. Cf. engraved. am¯).264 ALEXIS SANDERSON hom¯ saktau caret puj¯ m tada´aktau japed budhah | a´ ¯ a.

. .e s . He should worship the Yantra following the prescribed procedure.¯ ˚ dal¯ nte varmab¯j¯ ni m¯ trk¯ bhi´ ca ves. HI ]. .ATHARVAVEDINS IN TANTRIC TERRITORY 265 39 athav¯ yantram etasy¯ haste baddhv¯ ripum jayet | a a a . . Most learned in rites he should worship [this] Durg¯ according to rule on a the throne [prescribed] for Durg¯ . Each yantram is in honour of some particular deity.. ı . a The text then teaches the propitiation of a fourth and final Mantra. . EdP • prthak prthak P1 P2 ? T/121 T/187 : prthak As 40d m¯ trk¯ bhi´ P1 As T/187 : m¯ + k¯ bhis a a s a a ˚ ˚ ˚ ˚ T/187 : m¯ k¯ bhi´ P2 41a yamtram P1 As T/121 : mamtram P2 T/187 • etat : P1 P2 As T/187 : eta a a s . agate padme madhye m¯ y¯ m phad ity api | t a a. a a . lotus [painted] on a strip of gold. . make a thousand oblations of ghee in the fire. When properly made and subjected to a routine of puj¯ s by a magician (mantrav¯ di). . the petals. Kaum¯ r¯. tie it on. the wearer’s object is satisfied”. a . ˚ durg¯ p¯. a ı ¯ M¯ he´ var¯. DE. haimapat. ˚ As T/121 T/187 : vidhi P2 • vidhivittamah P1 P2 T/187: vidhivattamah As T/121 . . a a . : etasya Codd. .t . 46 bhadrak¯ l¯mah¯ b¯jam ava´yam vijayapradam | aı a ı s . 40 dalesu vilikhed as. and Mah¯ laksm¯]. K A. As P2 ? T/121 T/187 : madhya P1 • m¯ y¯ m As P2 ? T/121 T/187 : m¯ y¯ P1 40a dalesu P1 P2 ? a a. Vaisnav¯. . . . 44 hak¯ ra´ ca sak¯ ra´ ca khak¯ ra´ ca tatah param | a s a s a s . EdP 39cd madhye a .¯ . a T/187 40b varnnan P1 P2 ? T/187 : varnn¯ T/121 : mantramn As : mantr¯ n a a . DRA. he P1 P2 As T/187: p¯ . and the armour-Seed (varmab¯jam = kavacam) [ HUM ] on the tip of each of ı . . jayad¯ yimah¯ mantraganesv esa mah¯ manuh | a a a . (41) If he attaches this Yantra to his arm he will be able to conquer the Trident-wielder himself. 45 saptavarnam mah¯ b¯jam bhadrak¯ ly¯ h prak¯rtyate | a ı .t ˚ 41 yantram etat kare baddhv¯ sulinam jetum ¯svarah | a ´¯ ı´ . and enter the battle. life: the eyes. JA. (40) On each of the petals he should write ¯ one of the [eight] syllables of the Mantra [BHA. it is supposed to ¯a a possess occult powers. . 43 atah param mah¯ b¯jam bhadrak¯ ly¯ nigadyate | a ı . V¯ r¯ h¯. . He should set around it the [eight] Mother goddesses [Br¯ hm¯. ayet | ˚ a ıa a a s . a a. yatpras¯ d¯ n mah¯p¯ lo mah¯ ntam jayam a´nute | a a ı a a s . C¯ munda. 39a yamtram P1 As T/121 T/187 : mantram P1 • etasy¯ conj. (42) repeat the Mantra the same number of times. T/121 • baddhv¯ : P1 P2 ? As T/121 : baddhv¯ t T/187 41b jetum P2 As T/121 T/187 : petum P1 a a 41d ghrtaih P1 As T/121 : ataih P2 T/187 42c p¯. Bhadrak¯ l¯’s aı monosyllabic Great Seed (mah¯ b¯jamantrah) HSKHPHREM: a ı . phak¯ ra´ ca tath¯ rephas tathaik¯ rah sabindukah | a s a a . ı . YAM. and when that deity is worshipped and the yantram is worn. . Aindr¯. LI. tongue.. he T/121 42d vidhin¯ P1 ıt at a . . . 42 t¯ vad eva japam krtv¯ yantram baddhv¯ ran˚ vi´et | a a a . he ’rcayed durg¯ m vidhin¯ vidhivittamah | a ıt a. a s ı aı ı aa ı ı a a . (39) Or he may defeat the enemy by attaching a Yantra of this [goddess] to his arm. As T/121 : dales.t . eight cardinal points of the compass and the five cardinal points. . . He should draw M¯ y¯ [HR¯M] PHAT in the centre of an eight-petal a a I. pujayed vidhin¯ yantram sahasram juhuy¯ d ghrtaih | ¯ a a .. au mantravarnan prthak prthak | .

ı ´ bhadrak¯ l¯paden¯ pi mah¯ b¯jena cocyate | aı a a ı 51 samh¯ ra´aktimad brahma mah¯ b¯j¯ rtha isyate | a ıa . a 56 yatpras¯ d¯ n mah¯ devo ’py atm¯ rim ajayad bhrsam | a a a ¯ a ´ ˚ k¯ l¯ rakt¯ mbar¯ tyucc¯ p¯na´ronipayodhar¯ | aı a a a ı s . 47 k¯ l¯ tamomay¯ saktih s¯ ca samh¯ rin¯ smrt¯ | aı ı´ a . a athav¯ bhadrak¯ ly eva ghorarup¯ svayam bhavet | a a ¯ a . a s . ´aty¯ ı .. . a 57 krsodar¯ mah¯ v¯ry¯ trijagadgrasanaksam¯ | ´ ı a ı a . a a a . This is the greatest of all the great Mantras that bestow victory. (46) The . T/121 T/187 : satvavarnnam P1 : samastavarnna As (45ab is lacking in EdP) • mah¯ b¯jam P1 P2 a ı .. ı a . a s ..ı ˚ samh¯ ra´aktisamyuktam param brahma yad ucyate | . . 59 urdhvab¯ hutaladvandve dhrtam satrum adhomukham | ¯ a ´ . . t a . aa . . samhart¯ ca vidh¯ t¯ ca sthitikart¯ ca samsmrtah | a aa a . a ˚ samar¯ bhimukh¯ dev¯ candik¯ candavikram¯ | a ı ı . .266 ALEXIS SANDERSON 44d tathaik¯ rah sabimdukah As P1 T/121 T/187 : tathaik¯ rasya bimdukah P2 45a saptavarnam P2 a . . hasthapadme dattapad¯ sthit¯ | ı. . . s ˚ bhadrak¯ l¯mah¯ b¯jadhy¯ nam samyag vad¯ my aham | aı a ı a . . ¯ ´ a a . . a . ˚ 52 hamsah so ’ham mah¯ b¯japad¯ rtham paribh¯ vayan | a ı a a . (43) Next I shall teach you the Great Seed (mah¯ b¯jam) of Bhadrak¯ l¯. . a 58 bh¯sana savaprs. . na homo na balir n¯ rc¯ na ca tarpanam isyate | a a .¯ ı . . a s 53 param¯ tm¯ bhavan r¯ j¯ jayam pr¯ pnoti c¯ ksayam | a a aa a . tayor aikyam param brahma khak¯ renabhidh¯yate | a . . 60 bhuyo bhuyah p¯dayant¯ mah¯ kopabharena ca | ¯ ¯ . ı. He is promised that he will emerge from battle unscathed and victorious simply by repeating this syllable while meditating on and thereby assimilating its transcendental essence and infinite power. . .´ . . with or without the accompanying visualization of Bhadrak¯ l¯’s form: aı bhadram sukham iti proktam tat param brahma k¯rtitam | ı . R and E with M . . bhadrak¯ l¯mah¯ b¯jam api tasy¯ bhidh¯ yakam | aı a ı a a 49 hak¯ ro j¯va ity uktah sak¯ ro brahma kathyate | a ı a . PH. mah¯ b¯jam japen mantr¯ svayam samh¯ ra´aktim¯ n | a ı . a .. 54 mah¯ b¯jam japan r¯ j¯ jayam eti na samsayah | a ı . a . a . 55 dhy¯ n¯ j jap¯ c ca so ’va´yam nrpatir jayam a´nute | a a a s .t ˚ pancavaktr¯ nuvaktram ca t¯ mrasthulatrinetrak¯ | ˜ a a ¯ a . . (44) Her Great Seed is taught as having seven sounds: H and S. . . 48 bhadrak¯ l¯padenaitan munibhih parig¯yate| aı ı . by a ı aı whose favour the king will achieve the greatest of victories. a . . T/121 T/187 : h¯ b¯jam As 45c jayad¯ yi P2 As T/187 : jayad¯ pi P1 P2 T/187: jayad¯ ksi T/121 46a a ı . . a . . pancavaktramah¯ dams. r¯ vims˚ a p¯ditam ripum | ˜ a . 50 phrem sy¯ t samh¯ rin¯ saktis tatpradh¯ nam hi cetanam | a . bhadrak¯ l¯ P1 P2 As T/187 : bhadrak¯ l¯h T/121 aı a ı. ı a . then KH. . Great Seed of Bhadrak¯ l¯ inevitably grants this result. aı Here too the king is spared the inconvenience of elaborate ceremonies. .

As : ca P2 • cetanam P1 P2 As T/187 : tetanam T/121 50c paden¯ pi P1 P2 As T/187 : panen¯ pi a a . a a. a ˚ ˚ T/187 : samh¯ T/121 • samyuktam P2 As T/121 T/187 : samyukt¯ m P1 47d brahma P1 P2 a a. . T/187 : tamomay¯ T/121 47b smrt¯ P1 P2 T/121 T/187 : smrt¯ h As 47c samh¯ ra P1 P2 As a . a 63 bhadrak¯ l¯mah¯ b¯jam japat¯ pr¯ pyate jayah | aı a ı . .¯ ¯ ˙ ¯ I ITY A NGIRASE BHADRAK AL¯MANTRAVIDHIH . : c¯ va´yam T/121 T/187 : ca n¯ va´yam As : c¯ varanyam P1 : c¯ va´am P2 55c s . ´¯ 61 khadgam ca dadhat¯ dorbhir v¯ me ’dhahkramatas tath¯ | ı a a . denotes] the power that emaı bodies the [Guna] darkness (tamah). T/121 We are taught that the word bhadra. . . . • c¯ ksayam P1 As T/121 : c¯ ksatam P2 T/187 53c eva P1 P2 T/121 T/187 : e As 53b bhavet a . hasth¯ As 58b dattapad¯ P1 T/121 ´ t ´ t ´ t a a . . and bliss aı is declared [in the scriptures] to be the [nature of the] highest Brahma. dhy¯ n¯ sakto ’van¯p¯ lah kevalam b¯jam abhyaset | a a´ ı a . a a s . . ˚ P1 P2 As T/121 : pad¯ rtha T/187 53b jayam pr¯ pnoti P2 ? As T/121 T/187 : jayam apnoti P1 a a ¯ . As T/187 : brahm¯ T/121 48b munibhih P2 T/121 T/187 : munibhih As : mah¯ munibhi P1 48c a ¯ a . hasya P1 : savaprs. P2 As T/187 : bhavan P1 T/121 54b jayam eti P1 P2 ? T/187 : jayam iti As : jayanet i T/121 54c balir P1 As T/121 T/187 : bal¯ P2 54d isyate P1 P2 ? As T/187 : apsite T/121 55a ca ı ¯ . we are taught. ı s a T/187 : da´abhuj¯ As 63b japat¯ P1 P2 T/121 T/187 : japat¯ m As 63c dhy¯ n¯ sakto P1 As T/121 s ¯a a a. . a . a a . ajayad T/187 : atm¯ r¯ mamjayad P1 P2 : atm¯ r¯ mojayad T/121 : atm¯ bhimajjayad As • bhrsam P2 ¯ aa . . a a T/187 : taladvandva As T/121 : talakanva P1 : unclear in P2 59b satrum P2 As T/187 : mrtam ´ ˚ P1 : ripum T/121 59d vimsaty¯ P1 P2 ? T/187 : vimsatyo T/121 : vi´aty¯ As 60c dakse P2 ? As ´ a ´ s a . . ı tath¯ pi jayam apnoti n¯ tra k¯ ry¯ vic¯ rana | a ¯ a a a a . samyag vad¯ my aham As T/121 T/187 : sam¯ pyad¯ my aham P1 : illegible in P2 56b atm¯ rim a a a ¯ a . a a´ T/187 : dhy¯ n¯ saktau P2 63d b¯jam P2 ? As T/187 : bija T/121 : rvam P1 63f k¯ ryy¯ P1 P2 T/121 a a´ ı a a T/187 : karyy¯ As Colophon bhadrak¯ l¯mantravidhih As P1 T/187 : bhadrak¯ l¯mah¯ b¯javidhih P2 a aı aı a ı . P2 As T/121 : ucca T/187 57c samar¯ bhimukh¯ P1 P2 As T/121 : samar¯ bhimukh¯ T/187 58a a ı a a savaprs. raktap¯ tram ca p¯ sam ca dhanuh khetakam eva ca | a . As T/121 T/187 : sa smrte P1 52a mah¯ b¯ja P1 P2 T/121 T/187 : mah¯ v¯ta As 52b pad¯ rtham a ı a ı a . ˚ ˚ ˚ T/187 : dantapad¯ P2 As 58d t¯ mra T/187 : t¯ mbra P2 T/121 : t¯ ma P1 : tr¯ sa As 59a taladvandve a a a. a´ . dhy¯ tavy¯ bhumip¯ lena samgr¯ me jayam icchat¯ | a a ¯ a a . 46c bhadram sukham P2 T/121 T/187 : bhadrasukham P1 As 47a tamomay¯ P1 P2 As ı . . is [the power] . T/121 T/187 : d¯kse P1 61a dadhat¯ As P2 ? T/121 T/187 : dadhati P1 62a da´abhuj¯ P1 P2 T/121 ı . . . . . .[in Bhadrak¯ l¯] means ‘bliss’. a s . ˚ . meaning ‘black’. ¯ aa ¯ a ´ . so ’va´yam conj. a s . . T/121 50d cocyate P1 P2 As T/187 : nocyate T/121 51a samh¯ ra P1 P2 T/121 T/187 : sah¯ ra a . . hastha P2 T/121 T/187 : savaprs. ˚ T/121 T/187 : bhru´am As : bhusam P1 56c k¯ l¯ P1 As T/121 : omitted in P2 T/187 • ucc¯ P1 s . 62 evam da´abhuj¯ bh¯m¯ bhadrak¯ l¯ jayaprad¯ | s a ı a aı a . (47) [The word] -k¯ l¯ [in her name. a As • saktimad P1 P2 As T/187 : saktiyad T/121 51b mah¯ b¯j¯ rtha P1 P2 T/187 : mah¯ v¯ry¯ rtha ´ ´ a ıa a ı a As : mah¯ b¯j¯ rtham T/121 51c vidh¯ t¯ P2 As T/121 T/187 : vidhartt¯ P1 51d samsmrtah P2 a ıa aa a . . aı a . .ATHARVAVEDINS IN TANTRIC TERRITORY 267 dakse ’dhahkramatah sulam anku´am saram eva ca | ˙ s . and that. . . . . . a P1 P2 As : b¯ja T/121 T/187 50a phrem P1 As T/121 : phre P2 : pre T/187 50b hi P1 T/121 T/187 ı . ´ . bhadrak¯ l¯ P2 As T/121 T/187 : mah¯ k¯ l¯ P1 49a hak¯ ro P1 P2 As T/187 : hamk¯ ra T/121 • j¯va aı a aı a ı .

embodiment of] the destroyer [Rudra] [but] also [of] the creator [Brahm¯ ]. standing with her feet on a lotus that rests on the back of a corpse. My . I take the relevance of the Mantra HAM SAH SO ’ HAM to be that HAM SAH expresses medi. (51b–52a) We hold [further] that the meaning of the Great Seed is [not only Brahma in destructive mode but also that of the Mantra] HAM SAH SO ’ HAM which is held to be [the . No offerings into fire (homah) are required. a . (55) Visualization [of the goddess’s form] and repetition [of her . Do 135 The connection of the passage from 51b to 52a with what precedes and follows is not explicit and the passage itself is unclear because of the puzzling collocation of isyate and samsmrtah. in the order of emission or creation (srs. translation with its expansions in parentheses seeks to convey only what I find to be its probable gist. (48) [So] the sages have used the word Bhadrak¯ l¯ to deaı note this highest Brahma conjoined with the power to destroy. eager for battle. . I shall [now] teach in full the visualization of the Great Seed of Bhadrak¯ l¯. that ı a . and in her [other] left hands in the same order a vessel filled with blood. This a goddess is black. . with three large. with full breasts and hips. or one with Bhadrak¯ l¯ of terrible nature. an elephant-goad. . ¯ a a tation on the ascent of Kundalin¯ through the Cakras from the Mul¯ dh¯ ra to the Sahasr¯ ra. dressed in red. The Great Seed of Bhadrak¯ l¯ has the same meaning. Mantra] are sufficient to bring about the victory of the king without fail. (tarpanam). tortured by the twenty fangs of her five faces. ferocious. . nor gratification with libations a . (61) and a sword.268 ALEXIS SANDERSON that destroys. (59–60) With the force of her great anger she crushes [the king’s] enemy again and again. . able to devour the three worlds. a that is to say. a bow. very tall. animal-sacrifices (balih). (58) horrifying. and so he will obtain undying aı victory. in the order of progressive withdrawal or destruction (samh¯ rakramah. ¯ . nor worship (arc¯ ). If the king is unable to perform her aı visualization and repeats the Seed without it. Seed while meditating on its meaning. . and a shield.t . ˚ . [Thereby] the king will himself become one with the Supreme Soul endowed with the power of destruction. of huge strength. and KH expresses the highest Brahma that is the unity of these two. For in the conscious it is this [urge to resorb] that is predominant. arohakramah).135 (52b) The Mantrin should repeat the Great .. .. is to say. (62) A king who wishes to conquer in battle should visualize fearsome Bhadrak¯ l¯ aı thus with ten arms as the granter of victory. of fierce might. ˚ . aı (56) by whose favour even Mah¯ deva completely crushed his enemy. nor . copper-coloured eyes in each of her five faces. holding him face-down in her two uppermost arms. he will still be victorious. S means Brahma. (63) One achieves victory by repeating the Great Seed of Bhadrak¯ l¯. [Thus] both the name Bhadrak¯ l¯ and [her] Great Seed denote aı Brahma endowed with the power of destruction. ikramah. ¯ a a while SO ’ HAM expresses her descent through the same from the Sahasr¯ ra to the Mul¯ dh¯ ra. (54) There is no doubt that the king will be victorious [simply] by repeating the Great Seed. a and the preserver [Visnu]. a noose. On the right [in her other hands] she holds in descending order a trident. structive power. an arrow. avarohakramah). (49) [For of its constituents] H aı means the individual soul. . (50) while PHREM [denotes its] de. (57) slender-waisted.

T/121 : vy¯ pakamny¯ sa P1 65d na ca P2 As T/121 T/187 : ca P1 66a mah¯ b¯jajap¯ t P2 a a a ı a . 67 bhadrak¯ l¯ svayam bhutv¯ japan jayam av¯ psyati | aı ¯ a a . . mahe´o ’pi sad¯ sarvam jagat samharate yay¯ | s a a . since it is itself a Seed (b¯jam). 65 jaye ca viniyogah sy¯ t kar¯ ngany¯ savarjanam | a a˙ a . ˚ devat¯ bhadrak¯ l¯ sy¯ n na b¯je b¯jam isyate | a aı a ı ı . then. and no installation [on separate parts of the body] of its [seven] constituent sounds (pratyaksarany¯ sah). nor are there any [associated] restrics . . (67) He will gain victory [simply] by repeating . no Pervasive Installation. Here ends the Bhadrak¯ l¯mantravidhi of the Angirasa[kalpa]. na caiva vy¯ pakany¯ so na ca pratyaksaram bhavet | a a . Here ends the Bhadrak¯ l¯mah¯ b¯japra´ams¯ aı aı a ı s . It has no Rsi. It is always she that aı ´ enables Siva himself to act [when at the end of every Aeon] he dissolves the whole universe. . immediately [simply] by repeating [this] Great Seed. ¯ ¯ ˙ ¯ I ¯ I ITY A NGIRASE BHADRAK AL¯MAH AB¯JAPRA S AM S A 64a rsir atra T/121 T/187 : rusir atra As P1 : rusir atri P2 64b cchando P1 P2 As . pras¯ d¯ n P1 P2 As T/187 : yatpras¯ d¯ n T/121 • mah¯ r¯ jo P1 P2 As : mahor¯ jo T/121 : mah¯ b¯jo a a a a aa a a ı T/187 68b adbhutam P1 T/187 : adbhutam P2 As T/121 68c bhuto na P1 P2 As : bhuto pi ¯ . There is no preliminary practice [to master it] (pura´caranam). a ¯ ngirasa[kalpa]. ¯ ¯ T/187 : bhuto T/121 • bhavan P1 P2 As T/187 : bhava T/121 • bh¯ v¯ As T/121 T/187 : bh¯ vi P1 ¯ a ı a P2 68d samo P1 P2 As T/121 : sam¯ T/187 Colophon ity angirase bhadrak¯ l¯mah¯ b¯japra´ams¯ a ¯˙ aı a ı s . a conj. : ity angirase mah¯ b¯japra´ams¯ P2 T/121 : iti bhadrak¯ l¯mah¯ b¯japra´ams¯ P1 T/187 : iti ¯˙ a ı s . [her Mantra] after achieving identity with Bhadrak¯ l¯. (‘Praise of the Great Seed of Bhadrak¯ l¯’) in the A ˙ aı . a bhadrak¯ l¯mah¯ pra´ams¯ As aı a s . (68) What wonder. aı There follows a short section of five verses with its own colophon. 68 tatpras¯ d¯ n mah¯ r¯ jo jayaty atra kim adbhutam | a a aa na bhuto na bhavan bh¯ v¯ mah¯ b¯jasamo manuh | ¯ a ı a ı . tions [of conduct] (niyamah). ı ı . and. . ˚ (65a–d) There is no procedure of installation on the hands and body. nor will be any Mantra equal to this Great Seed [of Bhadrak¯ l¯]. (66) The king attains victory a . ˚ T/187 : chando T/121 64c sy¯ n P1 P2 As T/187 : sy¯ t T/121 65b kar¯ ngany¯ savarjanam a a a˙ a . a (64–65a) This [Mantra’s] deity is Bhadrak¯ l¯ and its application is for vicaı tory. . . 66 mah¯ b¯jajap¯ t sadyo nrpatir jayam a´nute | a ı a s na pura´caranam kimcin ˚ ka´cin niyamo bhavet | s na s . no B¯ja. T/121 : mah¯ b¯jajay¯ t T/187 : mah¯ b¯jap¯ t P1 : mah¯ vidy¯ jap¯ t As 66b jayam P2 As T/121 a ı a a ı a a a a T/187 : j¯ yam P1 66c kimcin P2 As T/187 : kimci P1 T/121 66d na P1 P2 As T/187 : lacking in a . no metre. proclaiming the greatness of this Seed-syllable: 64 rsir atra na ka´cit sy¯ n na ca cchando ’sya vidyate | s a . that a Mah¯ r¯ ja should conquer aa by her favour? There has never been. . T/121 67b japan P1 As T/121 T/187 : japanam P2 67c sad¯ P1 P2 T/121 T/187 : sa ca As 68a tata . ´ . P1 As T/121 T/187 : katany¯ sanivarjanam P2 65c vy¯ pakany¯ so P2 As T/187 : vy¯ pakany¯ sa a a a a a . a aı a ı s . nor is. .ATHARVAVEDINS IN TANTRIC TERRITORY 269 ¯˙ not doubt this.

o maharsir angir¯ h | a . 43–68). 110–113) with a section of some . The materials at my disposal do not reveal whether this passage is present in T/121 and T/187.¯ . a a ı 69d rata P1 : ratah EdP 71a mah¯ b¯jam P1 : mahemantrah EdP 71b phaladam P1 : phaladah EdP 71c a ı . angir¯ uv¯ ca: ˙ a a 71 bhadrak¯ l¯mah¯ b¯jam jayaikaphaladam mune | aı a ı . one that seems to aı . a . ˚ “Venerable one. 72 tath¯ pi tvayi k¯ runy¯ d vidh¯ nam abhidh¯yate | a a . Angiras replies that.270 ALEXIS SANDERSON The *Bhadrak¯ l¯mantravidhiprakarana continues and ends in P1 and the aı . mantrocc¯ ranam¯ trena jayah sy¯ d adhikena kim | a . 136 Constraints . by the letters of the nine-syllable and eleven-syllable Vidy¯ s taught in the a of time did not permit me to collate directly with the Asimila manuscript (As) . and this suggests that it may well be a later addition. have you not done so in the case of Bhadrak¯ l¯’s Great Seed?” aı ˙ Angiras replied and said: (71) “O sage. . ˙ (69) Then Pippal¯ da addressed a question to the great Rsi Angiras. .t . . that I decided to include in my aı . [So] what more is needed? (72) Nonetheless out of compassion for you I shall now teach you [a set of] rituals [for this too]. . a . it is lacking in P2 . . ¯ . For the passage lacking in P2 begins with Pippal¯ da aska ˙ ing Angiras why he has not taught a ritualistic procedure for the Great Seed’s ˙ worship even though he has done so in the case of every other Mantra. whose emphasis is on an ascent from more to less ritualistic procedures. forty verses on the worship of this same Mantra. ˚ bhagavan vedatattvajna sarvabhutahite rata | ˜ ¯ 70 sarvesam api mantr¯ nam vidh¯ nam kathitam mama | a. .”. as we have seen in the preceding material. it is precisely the special virtue of this Mantra that it is not necessary to do anything more than repeat it. . m¯ trena P1 : mantrena EdP a .136 69 ath¯ tah pippal¯ dena prs. but he agrees nonetheless to teach such a procedure ‘out of compassion’ for Pippal¯ da. Why [then]. I have thus edited it only from P1 and EdP. This suspicion is strengthened by its relationship with the section on this Mantra that it follows (vv. ¯ Asimila manuscript (As ff. 55r4–57r1 = EdP. a ˙ a. a . bhadrak¯ l¯mah¯ b¯javidhir na kathitah katham | aı a ı . who know the essence of the Vedas and are devoted to the welfare of all beings. However. pp. (70) you have told me rituals of all the [other] Mantras.¯ the following final part of the *Bhadrak¯ l¯mantravidhiprakarana. saying: a . undermine the point of the preceding exposition. which is based on As. This suggests a consciousness that the last section of our *Bhadraa k¯ l¯mantravidhiprakarana is a somewhat awkward addition. It begins with an account of the worship of the goddess embodied in the Great Seed HSKHPHREM on a Yantra with this at its centre surrounded . contribution only at a relatively late stage. and that goal is achieved simply by uttering the Mantra. the Great Seed of Bhadrak¯ l¯ cannot aı but grant the reward of victory. .



¯ Bhadrak¯ l¯mantravidhi (BHADRAK ALI JAYAM aı . ´ ¯ HR¯M MAH ACAN D AYOGE S VARI PHAT ): I. . . .



brahmanoktena vidhin¯ yantram kury¯ t prayatnatah | a a . . . 73 suvarna´atam¯ nena nirmitam yantram isyate | s a . . . vilikhy¯ ntar mah¯ b¯jam tasy¯ dho vilikhet phalam | a a ı . a 74 tata´ ca vilikhen mantr¯ navapatre nav¯ ksaram | s ı a . tata ek¯ da´adale mantram ek¯ da´aksaram | a s a s¯ . 75 tatah soda´apatre ca vilikhet soda´a svar¯ n | a . . . s . . s vyanjan¯ ni likhen mantr¯ prthiv¯mandale kram¯ t | ˜ a ı ı .. a ˚ 76 evam yantram vinirm¯ ya sampujya ripujid bhavet | a . . . ¯ bahubhir gandhapuspai´ ca dhupad¯pair niveditaih | ¯ ı . s . 77 bhuyobhir mahisaj¯ vipa´ubhih samskrtaih smit¯ m | ¯ s a .¯ a . . . ˚ bhadrak¯ l¯m yajet tatra panc¯ sy¯ m ripucarvanam | aı. ˜ a a. ¯ . 78 up¯ sakah prayatnena sukruddh¯ m santarupin¯m | a a . ´¯ ¯ .ı . saccid¯ nandarupasya m¯ y¯ saktim vadanti y¯ m | a ¯ a a´ a .
74a m¯ nena EdP : m¯ sena P1 74b navapatre nav¯ ksaram em. : navapatrenav¯ ksaram P1 : navapatre a a. . a . . . a . . P 74d mantram EdP : ayam P • ek¯ da´ aksaram P : ek¯ da´ aksar¯m EdP 75b soda´ a nav¯ ksar¯m Ed a . ı a s¯ . 1 . 1 a s¯ . ı . . s svar¯ n EdP : soda´aksar¯ n P1 77a mahisaj¯ vi P1 : mahisaj¯ di EdP 77d panc¯ sy¯ m ripucarvanam a s¯ . a ¯a ¯a ˜ a a. . . . . .¯ P : pamc¯ syaripucarvinam P 78a up¯ sakah prayatnena P : up¯ sakaprayatnesu EdP 78b Ed a a 1 1 . a .¯. . . P : sakrdy¯ m P sukruddh¯ m Ed a. a. 1

He should carefully prepare a Yantra following the procedure taught by Brahm¯ . (73) It is required that it should be one made from one hundred a measures of gold. After tracing the Great Seed [HSKHPHREM] at its centre he . should write the result [he seeks] beneath it. (74) Then the Mantrin should ¯ trace the nine-syllable [Mantra] (BHADRAK ALI JAYAM DEHI PHAT) on [the . . petals] of a nine-petal [lotus drawn around that centre], then the eleven´ ¯ syllable [Mantra] (OM KHPHREM / HR¯M MAH ACAN D AYOGE S VARI PHAT on I. . . . . . [the petals of] an eleven-petal [lotus extending beyond the first], (75) and the sixteen vowels on a sixteen-petal [lotus beyond that]. The Mantrin should then draw the [thirty-four] consonants one by one on an earth-disc [that extends beyond the petals]. (76) When he has made the Yantra in this way and worshipped it he will defeat his enemies. (76c–78) On it the propitiator should scrupulously worship Bhadrak¯ l¯, whom the [wise] declare to be aı the power of illusion (m¯ y¯ saktih) of [Brahma, that being] whose nature is a a´ . existence, consciousness, and bliss, doing so with many scented powders, flowers, fumigants, lamps, and foods, and with many ritually prepared buffaloes, goats, and sheep as animal sacrifices, [visualizing her as] five-faced, smiling, wrathful [yet] tranquil, devouring [his] enemies. Then it teaches the procedure of the fire sacrifice, presumably to be understood as following this worship on the Yantra: 79 atha homam pravaksye ’ham pravar¯ riniv¯ ranam | a a . . . .



vrtte kunde ’gnim adh¯ ya gandh¯ dyair abhipujayet | ¯ a a ¯ .. ˚ 80 as. ottarasahasram tu juhuy¯ d gavyasarpisa | a .t . .¯ t¯ vad eva japed r¯ trau balim dady¯ d vidh¯ natah | a a a a . . 81 sapt¯ ham evam vidhin¯ krtv¯ jayam av¯ pnuy¯ t | a a a a a . ˚ dv¯ da´aham tath¯ paksam ekavimsativ¯ saram | a s¯ . a a . .´ 82 m¯ sam k¯ ryam vidh¯ nam v¯ homak¯ lo ’sya sadvidhah | a . a a . a a . . . . t¯ vad v¯ sarpisakt¯ s ca a´vatthasamidho hunet | a a s . ¯ a´ 83 sarpir a´vatthasamidhah pratyekam v¯ hunet budhah | s . . a .
82a k¯ ryam vidh¯ nam EdP : k¯ ry¯ vas¯ nam P1 83a samidhah P1 : samidbhih EdP a a . a a a . . . .

(79–80) I shall now tell [you] the fire sacrifice, as the means of warding off [even] the most powerful of enemies. In a circular fire-pit he should install the fire and worship it with scented powders and other [offerings]. He should [then] offer [her] 1008 oblations of cow’s ghee, repeat [the Great Seed] the same number of times during the night, and offer an animal sacrifice according to the [prescribed] procedure. (81–82b) He will obtain victory if he does the fire sacrifice in this way for seven days. Or the ritual may be maintained for twelve, fifteen, twenty-one days, or a month. [Thus] the duration of the fire sacrifice is sixfold. (82c–83b) Or he may offer kindling sticks of A´ vattha wood (Ficus religiosa) smeared with butter for the same period. s Alternatively the wise one may offer butter and such sticks separately. Next come procedures to be adopted at the time of battle: athav¯ yuddhasamaye sahasram sarpisa hunet | a . .¯ 84 juhuy¯ t t¯ vad ev¯ sau yuddham y¯ vad dinam bhavet | a a a a . . pat. e mantram vilikhy¯ gre vamsadande ca dh¯ rayan | t a ´ a . . . .. 85 jayak¯ mo nrpo y¯ y¯ d ava´yam jayam apnuy¯ t | a a a s . ¯ a ˚ athav¯ bhadrak¯ l¯m t¯ m samlikhya vidhivat pate | a aı. a. . . 86 sen¯ gre dh¯ rayan r¯ j¯ gacchan jayam av¯ pnuy¯ t | a a aa a a yantram etad yah svahaste baddhv¯ v¯ jayam apnuy¯ t | a a ¯ a . 87 athav¯ yuddhasamaye yantram etat svasamnidhau | a . kenacid dh¯ rayan r¯ j¯ labhate vijaya´riyam | a aa s 88 yantram krtv¯ bhadrak¯ ly¯ h pratyaham yadi pujayet | a a a. ¯ . . ˚ par¯ jayam na labhate jayam ca labhate sad¯ | a a . . 89 athav¯ br¯ hmanadv¯ r¯ yantram etat prapujayan | a a aa ¯ . na par¯ jayam apnoti jayam c¯ va´yam a´nute | a ¯ a s s .
84b y¯ vad yuddhadinam conj. : yuddham y¯ vad dinam P1 EdP 84d dh¯ rayan P1 : dh¯ rayet EdP a a a . . a . P, probably as the result of an eyeskip from jayam apnuy¯ t in 85b 85c–86b Lacking in Ed ¯ a to jayam apnuy¯ t in 86b 86a sen¯ gre corr. : sen¯ gra P1 86d baddhv¯ v¯ P1 : badhn¯y¯ t EdP 87c ¯ a a a a a ı a kenacid P1 : kenacad EdP • dh¯ rayan P1 : dh¯ rayed EdP 87d vijaya´riyam P1 : vijayam sriyam EdP a a s . ´ P 88a bhadrak¯ ly¯ h P1 : bhadrak¯ l¯ Ed a a. aı

(83c–84b) Alternatively he may offer 1000 oblations of ghee when it is time to go to war. He should make the same number of oblations [every day] un-



til the day of the battle. (84cd) He should trace the [Great Seed] Mantra on a banner and carry it in front [of his army] on a bamboo pole. (85) A king seeking victory who marches forth [with this banner] will certainly be victorious. Or he may paint [the icon of] this [form of] Bhadrak¯ l¯ on [gessoed] cloth, aı following the rules [of her iconography]. (86) A king who goes into battle carrying [this painting] in front of his forces will be victorious. He will [also] conquer if he attaches this [goddess’s] Yantra to his arm. (87) Alternatively the king will achieve a glorious victory if he has another carry the Yantra at his side when the battle commences. (88) If he makes a Yantra of Bhadrak¯ l¯ aı and worships it every day he will not be worsted, but will always conquer. (89) Alternatively he may have this Yantra worshipped by a brahmin on his behalf. He will not be defeated but will inevitably be victorious. There follows instruction on the bhadrak¯ l¯vratam ‘the Bhadrak¯ l¯ observance’ to aı aı be performed on the ninth day of the bright fortnight: 90 prabal¯ rijayam k¯ nksan mah¯p¯ lo vidh¯ natah | a ı a a . a˙ . . sukl¯ y¯ m ca navamy¯ m v¯ bhadrak¯ l¯vratam caret | ´ a a. a. a aı . 91 svaputram v¯ svapatn¯m v¯ vidv¯ msam v¯ pi k¯ rayet | ı. a a. . a a . a samvatsarena r¯ j¯ yam ajayyam jayam a´nute | s . . aa . 92 pippal¯ da srnu mama vratam etaj jayapradam | a ´ . ˚ satam¯ nena yantram vai krtv¯ dev¯m prapujayet | ´ a a ı. ¯ . ˚ 93 pup¯ n as. au prakurv¯ta salitandulanirmit¯ n | ¯ a .t ı ´¯ . . a devyai nivedya vidhivad ekam vipr¯ ya yacchati | a . 94 tato bhunj¯ta vidhivat sapta pup¯ n svayam vrat¯ | ˜ı ¯ a ı . suvarnam daksinam dady¯ d gurave yena tusyati | a . . . .¯. .
90a k¯ nksan EdP : k¯ mks¯ P1 90c sukl¯ y¯ m ca navamy¯ m v¯ P1 : sukl¯ y¯ m navamy¯ m v¯ pi EdP 91a a˙ . a . .ı ´ a a. a. a ´ a a. a. a P : sapatn¯m ca P 91b vidv¯ msam P : b¯ ndhav¯ n EdP 91d ajayyam P : ajeyam svapatn¯m v¯ Ed ı. a ı. a. . 1 a a 1 . 1 . P • a´ nute EdP : a´ ate P 92a pippal¯ da EdP : pippada P 92c vai P : tu EdP 93d ekam P : evam Ed s s a 1 1 1 . 1 . EdP 94b vrat¯ EdP : kut¯ P1 ı ı

(90) Or, if a king desires to conquer a powerful foe, he should undertake the observance of Bhadrak¯ l¯ on the ninth lunar day of [each] bright fortaı night. (91) Alternatively he may have it undertaken [on his behalf] by his son, his wife, or a learned [brahmin]. After one year this king attains a victory [otherwise] unattainable. (92) Pippal¯ da, hear me [as I explain] this a observance that leads to victory. Having prepared the Yantra with one hundred measures [of gold] he should worship the goddess. (93–94) He should prepare eight cakes made from rice grains. After duly offering them to the goddess the holder of the observance should give one to a brahmin, eat the other seven himself, and give gold to the Guru as his fee (daksina) so that he . .¯ should be content. There follow fire sacrifices to be offered on the eve of battle:

¯ . a . evam hrday¯ dibhih. . ˚ . a a a . a .274 ALEXIS SANDERSON 95 satrum jetum nrpo gacchan tatpurvadivase ghrtaih | ´ ¯ . ¯ . a . ¯ . ¯ H A iti carau. . ˚ . 98 ripum jetum nrpah sainyam prasth¯ payati cet tad¯ | a a .¯ parasen¯ sthitisth¯ ne kh¯ tv¯ jayam av¯ pnuy¯ t | a a a a a a 95a gacchan EdP : yacchan P1 96c yatam¯ no P1 : yajam¯ no EdP 98c etat sarvam P1 : tat sarvam tu a a . tatah karan¯khatik¯ rajahı. ¯ Mantra in the case of oblations and then as he utters the H A pours the rest (¯ jya´esah) on to a s . ¯ ¯ ¯ . . In Tantric practice the officiant pours the first part of each oblation of melted . ˚ ksiped ity agn¯somasomasomat¯ vy¯ pta´ carur bhavet. ˙ .000 oblations of sticks of sandal-wood together with ghee. . s . yatam¯ no nrpo ’´vatthasamidbhir ayutam hunet | a s . ˚ 137 The .000 kindling sticks of A´ vattha (Ficus religiosa) into s the fire. . .153: purvamantram samucc¯ rya SV A ity agnau prad¯ payet ¯ a a . (99) He will be victorious if he offers 1000 oblations of ghee pouring the remnant of each on to a spike fashioned from A´ vattha wood and buries it at the place where the enemy’s forces are s encamped. This is done first with the root-Mantra and then with a . Kal¯ d¯ksapaddhati f. . . a . ¯ a . ottara´ atam japtv¯ par¯ mrtam anusmaran car¯ v ajy¯ hutim a. a a ı . . The king should scrupulously offer 10. P 99c sthitisth¯ ne P : sthitasth¯ ne EdP Ed a a 1 (95) When the king is marching forth to conquer an enemy he will certainly be victorious if on the day before he offers 3000 oblations of ghee. . 60v–61r4: a s . . OM H AM SAM P ATAM KAROMI SV A ity agnau a . . ´ a . . ´. sisya´irasi ghrt¯ hutity¯ gah. ¯ ¯ pratyekam ahutitrayena trayena k¯ ryam yath¯ OM H UM SAM P ATAM KAROMI SV A ity agnau H A iti ¯ a . . ibid. . a . . . ˚ hutv¯ jya´esakam | carau HEtyagnirupena juhuy¯ t tat punah punah. a . athav¯ guruk¯ s. . 76v6–11: tatah sisya´irasi samhitay¯ SV A ity agnau H A iti sisya´irasi a a ´. Svacchanda 3. . . a a a ¯ a . 96 svasainy¯ lokam¯ trena parasainyam pal¯ yate | a a . . . a . His army will prevail over the enemy’s. 99 sahasram sarpisa hutv¯ samp¯ ty¯ svatthak¯lake | a . t s . ation a samp¯ tah. s a a . iti carus¯ dhanam. ˚ ayutam juhuy¯ d esa mah¯ jayam av¯ pnuy¯ t | a . s . . a a´ ı . yath¯ : OM H UM SAM P ATAM KAROMI ˙ s a a .ı . (96) The enemy forces will flee at the mere sight of his troops.. evam anyat. f. Tantr¯ loka 15. niskalena tadangavaktrai´ ca ekaikay¯ huty¯ samp¯ tam kury¯ t. evam hrday¯ dimantraih. ´ a . . a . ˜a˙ a a .ı . a a s a . . (98) If he sends forth his troops to conquer the enemy at that time he will achieve all this. .¯ . whatever is to be empowered (samsk¯ rya-). ¯ HE ti sisyasya sirasi samp¯ tah sivacoditah. e. ´. ˚ 97 r¯ j¯ mah¯ jayam v¯ nchan candanair ghrtasamyutaih | aa a a˜ . ¯ . ¯ its ancillaries. See.137 Then we are taught fire sacrifices to empower the king’s sword and arrows in preparation for battle: text refers to what is termed a samp¯ tahomah ‘a sacrifice of the remnant’ or by abbrevi. ˚ sahasratritayam hutv¯ dhruvam vijayate ripum | ˚ a .g. . ¯ ¯ iti samp¯ tam kury¯ t. punah niskalen¯ s. ¯ . t . a a . ˚ etat sarvam prakurv¯ta tatsainyam arijid bhavet | ı .440c–441b: SV A ity amrtavarnena vahnau ´. Or he may make the 10. (97) If the king seeks a great victory he will achieve it by making 10. ¯ ¯ kartary¯ jyatil¯ d¯n¯ m yajn¯ ng¯ n¯ m mulena sadangena pr¯ gvat SV A ity agnau H A karan¯khatik¯ disu a a ı a. . ¯ ¯ SV A ity agnau H A iti carau. hasya samidbhir ayutam hunet | a a. ¯ ¯ ¯ butter from the ladle (sruvah) into the fire as he utters the SV A of the SV AH A that closes the .000 oblations with sticks of aloe wood. a .

. . s¯ a . a. . ´ a . ˜ . He will be victorious if he fights after tying this Yantra around his neck. a ı. ˚ (102) The Mantrin should make a Yantra with the prescribed procedure and then bathe it with pure water 1000 times every day using this Mantra. a . . a 108 ni´ay¯ m pujayed dev¯m sraddh¯ bhaktisamanvitah | s¯ a . a ˚ tat ksipan parasen¯ y¯ m t¯ m sen¯ m bhanjayen nrpah | a a.ATHARVAVEDINS IN TANTRIC TERRITORY 275 100 sarpisayutahomena khadgam samp¯ tya yo nrpah | . . . a . a . gandh¯ dyair upac¯ rai´ ca balibhir nrtyag¯takaih | a a s ı . (101) If a king does the same with five arrows and then shoots them into the army of the enemy he will shatter it. . . at the end of the Navar¯ tra festival that initiates a ı a the season of military campaigns: 104 asvinasya ca m¯ sasya krsnapaksasya y¯ s. 101 ghrtasy¯ yutahomena samp¯ tya sarapancakam | a ´ ˜ . yantram etad gale baddhv¯ yudhyam¯ no jayam vrajet | a a . the king to empower him as he fights: 102 yantram nirm¯ ya vidhin¯ mantrenanena mantravit | a a . . ¯ . ˚ (100) A king who makes 10. . t¯ m arabhya yajed dev¯m bhaved y¯ van mah¯ s. a.¯ a tato mah¯ navamy¯ m tu gandh¯ dyair bahubhir yajet | a a. 110 n¯ rih sammukham ay¯ ti agato ’pi pal¯ yate | a . There is no time limit. . a. ˚ a a. 106 tryayutam juhuy¯ d r¯ j¯ sapatnavijayecchay¯ | a aa ˚ a .¯ . aa . 109 tosayet t¯ m mah¯ dev¯m jayak¯ mo mah¯patih | a. ni´ay¯ m homasampr¯ ptau balim dady¯ d dine dine | s¯ a . am¯ | ¯´ a a. a .. 102c sn¯ payec chuddhatoyena P1 : sn¯ payed ghrtatoyena EdP 103c yantram etad gale baddhv¯ a a a ˚ P P1 : mantram etam hrdi dhy¯ tv¯ Ed a a . .¯ sn¯ payec chuddhatoyena sahasram tu dine dine | a . tam ad¯ ya param jetum pray¯ ti paramam jayet |˚ ¯ a a . ¯ ı . 103 evam phal¯ ntakam karma k¯ lasamkhy¯ na vidyate | a a a . 107 mahisaj¯ vipa´ubhir m¯ msabhojyair yath¯ jayet | s a. vi´esena ni´ay¯ m tu pujayet prthiv¯patih | s . t ı 105 pr¯ tarmadhy¯ hnayoh s¯ yam trik¯ lam t¯ m prapujayet | a a a . 101c tat ksipan EdP : tam ksipan P1 . ¯ ı. . t ı . . am¯ | a ¯ ı.000 such split oblations of ghee on his sword and then marches forth with it against his enemy will achieve total victory. a . . Finally we are told the procedure for the annual propitiation of Bhadrak¯ l¯ that aı culminates on Mah¯ navam¯. . and the preparation of a Yantra [with HSKHPHREM at its centre] to be worn by . . evam dev¯m sam¯ r¯ dhya sukham samvatsaram vaset | ı. a˚ ı . (103) He should continue the ritual until he achieves success. . ¯ a ¯ a tasm¯ d vijayak¯ mo yah sa etat kurute sad¯ | a a a .

That has no place in the texts of such properly Tantric traditions. (105) The king should worship her three times.. aı a ı The *Bhadrak¯ l¯mantravidhiprakarana and the K¯ l¯kula aı aı . in order that he may be victorious. a. and sunset. 2. with animal sacrifices.000 oblations into the fire during the night. a. the Visnudharmottarapur¯ na (2. midday. 104c t¯ m arabhya P1 : tad¯ rabhya EdP • yajed P1 : pujed EdP 105c vi´esena conj.139 Nor is Bhadrak¯ l¯ aı herself among the primary forms of K¯ l¯ taught in the texts of the K¯ l¯kula. he should gratify [the goddess] by sacrificing buffaloes.138 a. nor is the annual worship of the goddess culminating on aı Mah¯ navam¯. a ı which generally eschew the regulation of such calendrical festivals as belonging to the more mundane domain of religion governed by Pur¯ nic prescription. for example. P1 broken off] : bhadrak¯ l¯balimah¯ vidhih conj. a detailed analysis of the Pur¯ nic prescriptions of this festival see E INOO 1999. s . .276 ALEXIS SANDERSON ¯ ˙ ¯ I ¯ I ITY A NGIRASAKALPE BHADRAK AL¯MAH AB¯JAVIDHIH . 1 P Colophon: bhadrak¯ l¯mah¯ b¯javidhih bhojyair yath¯ yajet P1 : pa´ubhi bhojyaih pratosayet Ed a s aı a ı . in the prescriptions of the N¯lamatapur¯ na (793–803).1–8). s¯ a . offering her meals of *[raw] meat (?). as our *Bhadrak¯ l¯mantravidhiprakarana illustrates. Her aı aı role as the recipient of worship during this festival is a feature of Pur¯ nic rea. in order to secure victory over his rivals. at dawn. ı 1 s a. ı a. (106–107) Every day he should make 30. ¯˙ Here ends the Bhadrak¯ l¯mah¯ b¯javidhi of the Angirasakalpa.13c–30). A king who wishes to conquer in war should gratify the Great Goddess [during the night] with the offerings beginning with scented powder.5ab. ı 139 For another example of this see the information given in 138 For . and when the fire sacrifice has been completed. . at dawn. and with music and dancing. midday. he should worship the goddess beginning on the eighth day of the dark fortnight of the month of ¯s A´ vina and continuing until the Great Eighth[. The form of the rituals of Bhadrak¯ l¯ prescribed here is not derived from aı the K¯ l¯kula.158. Then on the Great Ninth (mah¯ navam¯) he should worship her with many scented powders and the a ı other [prescribed offerings]. (108–109) He should worship her at night with faith and devotion. . the Agnipur¯ na (268. a. seen. a. the goddess during this festival is often highly tantricized.152. the eighth day of the bright fortnight that follows]. If he has propitiated the goddess in this way he will remain at ease throughout the year. even though. : vi´esam tu P1 a ¯ a ¯ s . n. 64) on the Tantric rituals of Mah¯ stam¯ in the Kathmandu valley. Ed aı a . . (110) No enemy will march against him and if he does he will turn and flee. P • ni´ ay¯ m tu P : ni´ ay¯ m hi EdP 106b sapatna EdP : sapatn¯ P 107ab pa´ ubhir ?m¯ msa?Ed s¯ a . ligion. . S ANDERSON 2003 (p. . 371. goats. Therefore if a king desires to be victorious he always performs these rites. and sheep to her. the worship of aı . (104) Three times a day. P As[reported by Arlo Griffiths. but [once again] in more elaborate form during the course of each night. and sunset.

but the second.ı . The 140 I . . p.ı . which gives the allowances of the staff of the temple. :p¯ ra´ivo a ´¯ a a . which dea tails the allowances for the deities and the various ceremonies is dated. : nity¯ m ¯ a s a´ a. . . : prakartavyam Cod. 198). a. ¯ a is. a m prthan nyaset. though Mahocchusm¯ . the supreme goddess in the Picumata/Brahmay¯ mala. a s . t¯ .. ¯ . pr¯ cy¯ m kar¯ l¯m daksine nyaset | candaks¯m pa´cime nyasya mahocchis. ˚ mahocchis. or by massage’. the substitution of ucchis. a s a s ´ Cod. . :rakt¯ ks¯m Cod. a s aı ¯ a˙ a ¯ ´¯ ryaghosanamardanavrttih ‘The P¯ ra´ ava. a .in the citation of the Var¯ hapur¯ na in the South Indian Bh¯ vaprak¯ sik¯ noted a a. 143. aı . ˚ one or other of the following professions:] by performing the worship of Bhadrak¯ l¯. ˚ transforming p¯ ra´avah into p¯ ra´aivah as the title of those who have been initiated and conseca s ..18c–19b): sudr¯ y¯ m vidhin¯ vipr¯ j j¯ tah *p¯ ra´avo (corr. . p. Kl 108. Vaikh¯ nasadharmasutra. In the early medieval period it a a. 33–34). accompanied by V¯rabhadra.54): adau p¯ ra´av¯ s caiva *nityam (em.) matah | bhadrak¯ l¯m sam¯ sritya j¯veyuh pujak¯ h smrt¯ h.ı a .1–2: vipr¯ c chudr¯ y¯ m p¯ ra´avo bhadrak¯ l¯pujanacitrakarm¯ ngavidy¯ tua ¯ a ¯ a a. a .28): *evamvidh¯ (em. a s a a ra´aiva Cod. translation on pp. . appears under the varant name Mahocchista (cf.) *p¯ ra´aiv¯ (em. : p¯ a ¯ a. see Brahmay¯ mala IFP. dividual initiates for their own benefit or that of individual clients but a calendrically fixed programme of regular worship conducted by professional priests before permanent idols in temples. dated in the second regnal year of Ko-R¯ jakesarivarma ˙ alias R¯ jendracoladeva (= the Cola king Kulottunga I) or AD 1071/2. ˙ . by paintaı ing. ı . s¯ ˚ e. translation on pp. s . only in the M¯ trtantra tradition of the unpublished and a hitherto unstudied Brahmay¯ mala texts˚ of southern India that Bhadrak¯ l¯ comes a aı ´a to the fore as the principal focus of a properly Tantric S¯ kta cult. a . records the same witnesses. 35–42. by divination from physiognomy. a a a. .17c–22). aı For unlike these and the northern Brahmay¯ mala. 7 (3. 143 (36. ¯ . aı mixed caste is also recognized outside the Y¯ mala texts. .59ab): a a.g.140 And while that cult.) ekav¯r¯ manohar¯ | *rakt¯ khy¯ m (conj. : yogy¯ n¯ m Cod. lives [by a s . . ´¯ Dharma´ astra as the offspring of a brahmin man and Sudra mother [Manusmrti 9. it is much more integrated into the civic dimension of religion than are ´a the early North Indian S¯ kta traditions exemplified by the Trika and K¯ l¯kula. .142 and the principal purpose of this worship base the following remarks concerning the South Indian M¯ trtantra tradition on the two a ˚ manuscripts to which I have had access: Brahmay¯ mala IFP and Brahmay¯ mala Triv. . See.) vinyaset a ıı a a a. a prthak prthak. to my knowledge. a ¯ the fourth. in the medieval South Indian Vaisnava a . 88 (19. termed p¯ ra´ avah in Sanskrit (defined in the a s . a a´ a . a´ ı ¯ a. 146 (37. s Tantric.178]). aı. see ibid. : evamvidhi Cod. ¯ . . 33–35. and is probably its continuation. and Gane´ a. and 106d. 89 (19. as one a . born of a brahmin man and a Sudra woman.¯ of the seven Mothers. p. .t rakt¯ kar¯ l¯ candaks¯ mahocchis. Their Saiva character is expressed by aı. for ucchusmarudra. The South Ina a dian provenance of these texts is supported by a strong correlation (1) between the iconography of the goddess in these manuscripts (here she is the destoyer of the demon D¯ ruka) and surviva ing South Indian images of Bhadrak¯ l¯ and (2) by a strong correlation between the prescription aı of her temple cult in the same texts and the provisions for the rituals to be performed in the temple of the goddess Kol¯ ramma at Kol¯ r in Nolambav¯ di detailed in two Tamil inscriptions a a a. Brahmay¯ mala IFP. 35–40. The tradition that the priests of Bhadrak¯ l¯ are persons born into this s s . p. above on p.) devy¯ s tu pujak¯ h | d¯ksit¯ h *karmayogy¯ s te (conj. arudrat . by playing musical instruments.. in which she is worshipped either on her own or. as C¯ munda. t¯ ˚ . with which it has only a tena 141 the subject of these texts is not worship conducted by inuous connection. ¯ a pp. . .. tavy¯ (em. .. Only the first. 141 We see this connection in the fact that Bhadrak¯ l¯ is attended by the same four goddesses aı ¯ a a ı as Canda K¯ p¯ lin¯. p.) *prakara a . .ı . Cod. from that temple (Epigraphia Carnatica 10. . a a a . rated as the officiants of this cult. ottare nyaset.) vi´esatah. . pp. is indeed fully ı .14ab): rakt¯ m kar¯ l¯ m candaks¯ m a a ı .ATHARVAVEDINS IN TANTRIC TERRITORY 277 and the N¯ radapur¯ na (Purv¯ rdha 118. ˚ 142 These priests are required to be non-brahmins.

: nagaram Cod. : karo Cod. from within with their associations of awesome power.143 such temples being. ¯ . . . ¯ s s¯ s s¯ s ¯.17–19): bhadrak¯ l¯ tu c¯ mund¯ sad¯ vijayavardhin¯ | 1.:n¯ saimastu sirodbhut¯ Cod. OM KHPHREM MAH ACAN D AYOGE S VARI PHAT . : da´a´antikara´ Cod. : s¯ bh¯ k Cod. p. See P ILLAY 1953. : ketake one or other of the S¯ a . See Brahmay¯ mala Triv. .274. 30 (7. p.) vai *devat¯ murt¯ (corr. a. Rather it is her Tantric Mantras. 20 (3. ra´antih). on the solitary Bhadrak¯ l¯ (Ekaber¯): *asy¯ (em. .18 tasy¯ s sarvaprayatnena ¯ ˜ a a s¯ ı ı a ¯s *caturmurtim (em. h¯ vidh¯ y¯ m Cod.278 ALEXIS SANDERSON is said to be to foster the victory of the monarch over his enemies. 50 (12. hah¯ne tu mandale.v. r¯ s. s¯ ¯ . a a . ¯ (corr. p. . l. the fact that the seeds ¯ MAH ACAN D AYOGE S . more generally. pratis. . .t . HSKHPHREM . . these aı having been embedded in an already tantricized Pur¯ nic matrix.172): ya´ cain¯ m sampratis.).) d¯ ru k¯ suran¯ sin¯ | *v¯ stu´aktir iti ı ı a a a a a a a´ ı a s ¯s ı prokt¯ (conj.¯ a a aa ´ a a a . pp.ı a ı s n¯ se sivodbhut¯ (conj. supplementary passage after 12. . : esa Cod. 22 (3. royal founs s . ˚ vidh¯ nena *m¯ trpuj¯ m (em.) ¯ . h¯ pya *k¯ rayen (em. .) caikabere tu bhadrak¯ l¯ti vi´rut¯ | saptadh¯ bahubere v¯ m¯ tara´ ceti sarvatah | jayartham aı s a a a a s . .) prapujayet | *de´ a´ antikara´ (em. 50 a a a s¯ . : sth¯ payet a a a a .ı a . . ˚ ˚ ¯ . defined in the Tamil Lexicon.) bhavet | 1. : asya Cod.).) murtayo jney¯ sad¯ *´antikar¯ (kar¯ em. ´ VARI PHAT but.19 sarvap¯ paharam santam sad¯ vijayasambhavam | caturmurtia ´¯ a ¯ . ˚ 12.273.. (kutasth¯ . ´¯ (12. ´¯ a a . a a ı vi´rut¯ | sarvasamh¯ rin¯ *s¯ ksat (conj. .t a ¯ ¯ sa nrpah sarvabhaumatvam prapnuyad iti *ni´cayah (corr. dations and recipients of royal patronage. ibid. . The Mantras in question are the first and the fourth of the four taught in the *Bhadrak¯ l¯mantravidhiaı prakarana: .7–8): *keval¯ (conj.) | 48 aa s a *ekaber¯ti (corr. a.) nityam arcanam | s a. ´ ´ ı uvaccan priests of the sanguinary cult of K¯ l¯ associated with the Siva temple of Suc¯ndram and aı ¯ S HULMAN 1980. ´ ¯ 1. : caturth¯ hedit¯ Cod.) ksetram ekam v¯ *pray¯ g¯ dipracoditam (conj. : ni´cayam Cod. a .) kaliyuge prak¯rtit¯ | *catasro (conj. 3 (2. ibid. [= Mah¯ bh¯ rata s a a .) dev¯ jayada rajapadmin¯ | 50 ksatriyasya vi´esena r¯ jadh¯ nau a a a ı ı s . When she is wor¯.65cd): *sv¯ h¯ ntam t a a a. a shipped together with the Mothers (bahuberam) the cult’s purpose is the quelling of dangers and the restoration of well-being. . ritually identified with ´ akta sites of pan-Indian fame: nagare pattane v¯ pi *khetake (corr.70ab): devihomam tu santyartham nagarasya tu vardhanam. pp. ¯ . ´ ¯s¯ satruna´ artham ekaberam pra´amsitam | santipus..104ab): *pratis. When Bhadrak¯ l¯ is isolated aı . caiva nrpanam vijayam bhavet | 1. as in the Orissan cult of Bhadrak¯ l¯. p. ¯ Cod. 105] : k¯ l¯ gniyatra´opam¯ Cod. then. : m¯ trpuj¯ s Cod. . ı . v¯ p¯. What has been imported from the K¯ l¯kula.) r¯ jadh¯ nike | tantroktena vidh¯ nena vijayartham nrpena tu | *sthapyeta (conj. t s ¯ . (corr. .t a .ı 143 Brahmay¯ mala IFP. 50b). a a . . the cult is for victory and the destruction of enemies. : pr¯ y¯ g¯ dipracodite Cod. .. members of this caste are known in Tamil as uvaccan. . is neither the goddess aı Bhadrak¯ l¯ nor the forms of her worship. s s . : sy¯ Cod. ´ ¯M MAH ACAN D AYOGE S VARI PHAT. p.) n¯ mn¯ *s¯ (em.) proktam rastra´ antyarthakaranam. : etair a´ ´ ¯ a a´ ´ ¯ a ı a Cod. a. to protect the kingdom from danger aı (de´a´antih. 15–16 s .. The first is given in all the manucripts accessed here in the form OM HR¯M I. elevating it a. .) devik¯ homam *nagara´ antivardhanam (nagara em. : kevalam a a .) ca k¯ rayet.) eva par¯ murtih k¯ lar¯ tr¯ti aı ı a a ¯ . ¯ ..) | 49 *esa a a s a a s ˙ . pp. . : sv¯ h¯ nte Cod.) rajnam vijayasadhan¯ | caturbhea ¯ ı a ¯ . : devat¯ murtim Cod. . : ekav¯riti Cod. on the purpose of the king’s establishing S¯ kta sites. 220–248 on the a. .) *´ atrupaksavina´ in¯ (paksa em. 219–220 on the cult of Tillaik¯ l¯ at Cidambaram. 2. ¯ a ıt ı .7b. .¯ . . : v¯ stu´akteritikr¯ nt¯ Cod. p. and. . ¯ or OM HR I . at least in the main.:pratis. . .102c–103). : caturmurtih Cod.) *k¯ l¯ gnisadrsopam¯ (em. : panka Cod. . a ¯ a´ a t a a . ˚ . ¯ ¯ Cod. Cod. . hasth¯ nam ca kalpayet | raksartham vijay¯ rtham ca p¯. : k¯ rayan Cod. ˚ . a a . ¯ ¯ dodit¯ (conj. as ‘Mem¯ ¯a ber of a caste of temple drummers and Puj¯ ris of K¯ li’. hay¯ .147– a ıt a . as we have seen. . . ikar¯ rtham tu bahuberam ud¯ hrtam. p. (conj. h¯ vidhin¯ a a ¯ a. ˚ ´a (3. . . ¯ ˜¯ . s. 2 (1.17 *´ atrua aı a . ekaberam).) | k¯ sm¯ram oddiy¯ nam a a a a a a´ ı .

because a ı´ a it is free of ebb and flow. . 12. of its Ancillaries are said to be KHPR AM. G NOLI): etad eva hrdayab¯jam a ı´ a ı .before the vowels. The locus classicus for this Mantra in the literature of the K¯ l¯kula is a aı passage giving its constituent letters in encoded form that appears in the Dev¯dvyardha´atik¯ . 89 trt¯y¯ dyam turangam ca dakin¯marmasamyutam | ı a ˙ . a . and because it is permanently active’. f. . 179r5– ı s a a a a . worshipping or repeating any Mantra one should provide an illuminator at its beginning and end with OM and NAMAH’. . ¯ . p. KHPHRAIM.¯ a . see Svacchaı ..¯ ı . 108v5 (15. . 3 (Patala 6) p. ˚ K T : nacame J1 J2 89d tejas tejagrhe yutam J2 : tejas tejagrhamyutam J1 : jagat tejogrhe yutam . 3v7-4r1 (J2). 257– 258. ´¯ . . ˚ ˚ ˚ K : tejas tejahsamanvitam D : tasm¯ t saptamam eyutam T 90ab laksm¯ve´mam tu udadhim ekaa . .¯ a . KHPHR¯M. (lacking the first line) (T). ff. Jayadrathay¯ malaprast¯ ramantrasamgraha A. . K¯ lik¯ krama (ff. The term d¯pakah is used both for the opening OM and for the closing NAMAH. ˚ d¯pak¯ bh¯ v¯ d gam¯ gama´unyatv¯ t satatoditatv¯ c c¯ n¯ dyantam ‘This same heart-syllable is said [in ı a a a a s¯ a a a a Par¯ tr¯sik¯ 33a] to be without beginning or end because it lacks the [two] illuminators. Jayadrathaa a . pp. . ¯ a. . a s a . in a recension of parts of that text that forms the K¯ lik¯ krama ı s a a a chapter of the Manth¯ nabhairava. . dess the teacher) : mastakam T (to avoid the Ai´ a stem-form of d¯ ranakr¯ nta) 89a trt¯y¯ dyam s a . ˚ K T J2 : trt¯y¯ dya D J1 • turangam J1 : turanga J2 : turagan D : tarangam K T 89c navame D ı a ˙ .rather than HR . a. on the Tantr¯ loka: a 88 var¯ ngam vihagam kruram punjam purusam eva ca | a˙ . KHPHR UM. k¯ lam sarvagatam caiva d¯ ranakr¯ nta sundari | a . . in the anonymous Jayadrathay¯ malaprast¯ raa a a mantrasamgraha. 90 laksm¯ve´mam tu udadhim ekatra˚ samayojitam | ı s . and in an unattributed quotation in Jayaratha’s commentary .¯ Dev¯dvyardha´atik¯ f. ˙ ˜ ˙ .ATHARVAVEDINS IN TANTRIC TERRITORY 279 ¯ . Manth¯ nabhairava. ¯ . its seed-syllable rather than HR¯M. . . syllable OM is present here in addition as the illuminator at the beginning of the Mantra’. . . 183r2–4 (K). som¯ t saptamakoddhrtya navavarna kule´var¯ | a s ı . 202) a a a . suggests that the original form of the root-Mantra in this text had KHPREM as . 1 : pujj¯ m J2 88d d¯ rana K J1 J2 T : d¯ runa D • sumdari J1 : sundar¯ 88b punjam D K : puj¯ m J ˜ . and Par¯ tr¯sik¯ vivarana. . y¯ malaprast¯ ramantrasamgraha B. ndatantroddyota. . a˙ ¯ . The numeration of the above verses is that of their place in D. ´ astra is that when adyantasambandho d¯pakah k¯ rya iti sastrasamayah ‘The convention of the S¯ ¯ ı ´¯ . . KHPHRAUM . ı s . 145 Ni´ v¯ saguhya s a 144 See ˚ . 145: sarvamantr¯ nam puj¯ japavisaye pranavanamask¯ r¯ bhy¯ m a. ¯ . and KHPHRAH .¯ a ı a . I.144 This is the core Mantra of the K¯ l¯kula inI aı significantly modified by being enclosed by the universal Mantra-syllables OM . 2 : sundara K (because in this version the pupil is Bhairava and the GodD : sumdar¯m J ¯ ı. Tantr¯ lokaviveka on 30. . a . . ¯ . 281 (ed.202ab): omk¯ ra´ c¯ dhika´ c¯ tra mantr¯ dau d¯pakah sthitah ‘and the s a a ı . .54 (vol. 3v1–2 (J1).¯ ı .145 and the second marking it as one endowed with ı . vol. since PHAT is the closing expostulation that distin. Siddhakhanda. . . ı s . 88a var¯ ngam K J2 : var¯ nga D J1 • vihagam D K J1 : vihaga J2 • kruram K J1 J2 : suram D a˙ . a . the character of aggression. f. 8v3–4 (D). . ff. tor’ (d¯pakah) of Mantras. with KHPHR . ˚ pavanam navame yuktam tejas tejagrhe yutam | . p. ˜ . 186v3). . . above. ¯ a aa a . the first used everywhere in this position as the opening ‘illumina. tra samayojitam J1 J2 : laksm¯ve´an tu udadhi ekatra sama yojayet D : usm¯ nam uddharet purvam ¯. guishes the ancillary known as the Weapon (astram). ¯ a. and PHAT.

a a a a a a. kram¯ t | purv¯ didalam arabhya ke´aresu na samsayah. .¯ aa .¯ ı .´ . ˚ purusatattv¯ ntam y¯ vat sthit¯ h. yogin¯n¯ m ca vallabham | dak¯ ram damar¯ dh¯ ram n¯ mabhi r jneyam eva hi. .178–179): prthivy¯ d¯ni tattv¯ ni kak¯ r¯ d¯ni vinyaset | a ı a aa ı ˚ trikam trikam yath¯ ny¯ yam patre patre yath¯ kramam | bhak¯ r¯ ntam na samdeha´ caturvimsatibhih a a . Varnan¯ mapatala. N A is a .¯ . . K¯ l¯kulapanca´ataka. ´ . ı ´ I. a . ¯ . ¯.233c : dak¯ ra h sakin¯marma. often called Laksm¯/Kamal¯ . ˚ mak¯ r¯ ntesu suvrate ity¯ dyukty¯ k¯ dayo m¯ vas¯ n¯ h pancavimsatir varnah prthv¯tattv¯ d arabhya aa . which had the written form of a triangle.148 the first of the third [conso149 united with the vulnerable point of the nant class] [CA]. . .. 13: trikonam ek¯ da´amam vahnigeham ca yonigam | srng¯ . the fierce [PH ( A )]. vv. ˚ ˚ same parallel is implied by the use seen above of purusah ‘the individual soul’. . .¯ a . a a. v. v. 149 The K¯ lik¯ krama (K) and the unattributed quotation by Jayaratha (T) read not turangam a a ˙ . . a . I see nothing to support the variant suram as a letter-name. s a . 37c–38b: kundalam bhairavam r¯ vam r¯ vin¯ yogin¯priyam | 38 kundal¯n¯ tham a a . since that goddess is also known as a . . Dakin¯s [D A]. for M [ A ]. and Tantrasadbh¯ va ı a. ı s ˙ ´¯ . s . O beautiful one. KA to BHA with the twenty-four elements from earth (prthiv¯) to primal matter (prakrtih). a feature that has been preserved in the S¯ rad¯ script of Kashmir. . see. 31v6–32r1 (2. a . 2. 153 T has laksm¯bijam ‘the seed of Laksm¯’ rather than laksm¯ve´ mam (Ai´ a for laksm¯ve´ ma) ‘the s . a˜ . ´¯ ı . . a . The nine-syllable [Vidy¯ ] Kule´ var¯ comes about by raising [from the maa s ı trix the following sounds:] the best part of the body [the Yoni: E]. atulam kruram vai bh¯ma´ankukam. . a . .ı ı ı a . a a . sound of the syllable S R¯M. ı ´ term kruram is listed among names for PHA in the fourth Satka of the Jayadrathay¯ mala. ı aı ˜ s . rangam ca mak¯ ram samud¯ hrtam. 154: prthivy¯ d¯ni tattv¯ ni purusant¯ ni pancasu | kram¯ t k¯ disu vargesu a a ı a ˜ a a .¯ ˚ ˚ ˚ 1 : navavarnnah kule´ vari J2 : navarnnah kule´ vari D K T : navavarnnakule´vari J s s s .. 33ab: a´ vam megham adhovaktram nak¯ ram parik¯rtitam.152 the residence of Laksm¯ [S ( A )]153 . 146 The . . denoting the vowel E. 150 For dakin¯marma as a term for D A cf. ‘horse’ but tarangam ‘wave’. p. see the synonym vahnigeham in the Varnan¯ mapatala v. . v. vv. : mukhad¯ ru¯ . . That these should mean S A may be understood as a reference to the first . . .147 the all-pervading . ı ´ ı Sr¯. and the individual soul [M ( A ) (= M)]. referred to as the ‘horse sound’ (a´vavarnah) elsewhere in the literature of the K¯ l¯kula. ˜ ´ ¯. The written shape of the syllable N A is indeed wavelike in the ˙ . a . ı s . 4c–5a: n¯ r¯ yanam an¯ k¯ ram anku´ am *mukhadarana (corr. . ı ı . .146 the mass [of rays] [R ( A )]. 32: musalam caiva marmam ca . . a . . 147 Varnan¯ mapatala. . fire [G ( A )]151 with the house of fire [E]. e. a 152 For tejagrham (Ai´ a for tejogrham) ‘the abode of fire’. ¯ a . f. However. this equation see Picumata f.) | 5 d¯rgh¯ dyam n¯ mabhi r jneyam. a aa s . a . 55v4–5 (11. s aı . ˚ 1 J2 : som¯ saptamakoddhrtya D : som¯ t saptamam uddhrtya T 90d navavarna kule´ var¯ koddhrtya K J a a s ı . the twenty-fifth consonant. N2. a ˜ a . . . . ı ´ abode of Laksm¯’. the bird [KH ( A )]. f. ı a ¯ . then time [MA]. a . . 114v1 16. ´a Gupta script. . ı a a ˜ . . . ´ fifth Tattva in the S¯ mkhya and Saiva universe. Varnan¯ mapatala. ¯ [H ( A )] mounted by the [mouth]-opener [A]. the twenty.. The ı . . a . a .150 wind [Y ( A )] united with the ninth [of the solar vowels] [O].. probably meaning a (triangular) fires ˚ ˚ receptacle. 40: pancam¯ ntam l¯ nchanam ca kalam purusam eva ca | pa´ um marm¯ nta¯ . am a s ´ ˙ at . Tantr¯ lokaviveka vol. nam Cod. .g. and an unattributed quotation of scripture in a ¯ a ¯ s . . a ı . ˙ . the horse [N ( A )] . . a ˚ 148 Varnan¯ mapatala. . For a. ¯ ı .280 ALEXIS SANDERSON v¯ ridhyuparisamsthitam K : laksm¯b¯jam tatoddhrtya udadh¯sasamanvitam T 90c som¯ t saptamaa ı´ a . . ˚ caiva ek¯ ram n¯ mabhih parik¯rtitam. a a ˙ s . 151 The use of tejah ’fire’ for G [ A ] is based on the equation of the twenty-four consonants from . ı s .88b): a´v¯ rnam v¯ makarnake. a . . ¯. ı . a . . ˜ a s . a . Varnan¯ mapatala.

a . a anena jn¯ tam¯ trena yogayukty¯ mahe´vara | ˜a a . . . . . . N2 N3 : samyu + N1 39a adhahst¯ d em. .¯ .154 and the seventh [sound] from somah [R]. N3. . (35–36b) He should extract the foremost of conglomerate [Seeds as follows]: the letter in the right arm [KH ( A )]156 combined with the Great Resonance [PH ( A )]. ı. : adhahsth¯ d Codd. a . being the seed-syllable of water and of its deity Varuna. a ı . a . a a . a . . . with that in the head [R ( A )] below it. ı . putam N1 37c deve´a N1 N2 : deve´¯ N3 38a p¯ listham em. conj. ff. See Varnan¯ mapatala 43cd: vak¯ ram a . . v. ˚ ˚ is the seventh sound of the syllabary and ‘seventh’ is among its synonyms in the Mantracode (Varnan¯ mapatala. . . ˚ kevalam v¯ map¯ r´vastham v¯ makarnam samuddharet | as . ˚ vikhy¯ tam rk¯ ram n¯ mabhih sad¯ ). . 9: rkta m devakal¯ dyam ca saptamam bh¯ nur uttamam | napumsak¯ dyam a a a . a a. . guhyam siroruh¯ dyastham daksinoru m samuddharet | a . ˚ ˚ ˚ ¯ and L). 40 j¯v¯ rnam yonib¯jena samyuktam saptamam hara | ı a . f. . . 202. a . 12. vol. : kot¯n¯ m Codd. 41 randhrasamkhy¯ mah¯ vidy¯ susk¯ vigrahakoddhrt¯ | a a a´ . . . ˚ ¯ ‘solar’ when they are reduced to twelve by the omission of the neuter or sterile vowels (R.155 . . p. 36r5–37r3 35c sirasontastham N2 N3 : sirastontastham N1 35d sam¯ yutam conj. a . . However. . ˚ durlabh¯ trida´e´an¯ m siddh¯ n¯ m khecar¯su ca | a s s¯ a . a . 13r3–v3. . 155 See Tantr¯ lokaviveka. joined with the Great Womb use of the word udadhih ‘ocean’ for VA is through reference to its watery nature. ˚ notes SA or T A in the Mantra-code and R is not seventh from either of these. a . : p¯ nistham Codd. . R. . . 42a a . 36 v¯ maj¯ nu m sirahkr¯ ntam proddharet pindan¯ yakam | a a ´ . ˜a samsmaranad N1 N2 : sasmaranad N3 42c sadyaiva N1 N2 : samdyaiva N3 43c kotis tu . . N2. . 44 adh¯t¯ tena deve´a kim anyair vistarena v¯ | ıa s .¯ . .. : randhrasamjn¯ Codd. There is no doubt that a a ˚ the syllable intended is R. . . VAM .85–97). . . . a ˚ n¯ r¯ ntram v¯ map¯ d¯ dhoharimundena samyutam | aa a a . ı .ATHARVAVEDINS IN TANTRIC TERRITORY 281 united with the ocean [VA]. ¯ . a . ff. 154 The . a N1. 40b samyuktam N2 N3 : sam + + N1 41a randhrasamkhy¯ em. . . a a . . v¯ runam candram sudh¯ saudham prak¯rtitam. ˚ It is also given in the K¯ l¯kulapanca´ataka 3.35–40: aı ˜ s 35 daksab¯ husthitam varnam mah¯ n¯ dena samyutam | a a . R . . . a s 37 va´¯karoti v¯rendro brahm¯ d¯n yogin¯s tath¯ | sı ı a ı ı a ath¯ nyac chrnu deve´a b¯jam b¯javarottamam | a s ı . 38b samyutam s sı a a. 43 anay¯ jn¯ tay¯ deva k¯ lik¯ kulaj¯ tay¯ | a ˜a a a a a a saptasaptatikotis tu vidy¯ n¯ m param¯ rthatah | a a. L.. 40a hara N1 N3 : haram N2 a a . a a . ˚ 156 The syllable-code used here has been explained in the second Patala (2. The fifty . 43d param¯ rthatah N1 N2 : p¯ ramarthatah N3 ı a. The vowels are ‘lunar’ when they are sixteen (A to AH) and a a . tasy¯ dhah sirasontastham mah¯ yonisam¯ yutam | a ´ a a . . So the intended meaning must have been ‘seventh of the lunar series’. ´ . 42 asy¯ h samsmaranad eva merutulyo gurur bhavet | a. 39 adhahst¯ d yojayed deva kap¯ l¯ rnatrt¯yakam | aa . ı . . . . : mah¯ yutam N2 N3 : mah¯ ´ ´ a a a . a . .¯ bhasmas¯ d y¯ ti sadyaiva p¯ pam yat purvasamcitam | a a a . . . . a . but it cannot be ‘seventh from somah’. 43r3–44r2. ˚ 38 savya´ravanap¯ listham hrdayam n¯ bhisamyutam | s . since somah ‘the moon’ de. . glossing this: som¯ t saptama r. .

¯ . 5r6 (62ab): sudayed duskrt¯ n ghor¯ n merutulya-m-*ayopam¯ n (em. . a trida´e dvitiyam grhya navamadhyam tu asane | 272 lathamadhyam adhe yojya trida´e navamam s ¯ s . the other [gods].g. ˚ . with the [letter in] the left knee [( A ) M] above its head. ˚ . . ˚ we had RI. param | jhahamadhyagatam grhya sayamadhyam tu uddharet | 274 triyon¯-anku´am deyam etad ı ˙ s . . ˚ antimoddhrtya nalamadhyam adhe dadet | uddhrtam sas. ˚ . 271–279): ebhyo mantr¯ n pravaksy¯ mi yath¯ mn¯ ye prak¯ sitam | a a a a´ . varnatrt¯yakam | saptame prathamam grhya kevalam tu samuddharet | 275 tadhamadhyagatam . the ˚Great Vidy¯ numbering nine [syllables] that is hard to a obtain even for the gods. human skull-bowl filled with human entrails (2. the excellent V¯ra subs ı jects to his will Brahm¯ . ˚ . ˚ . aı mantravidhiprakarana except that the final syllable is given as R where there . ´ . combined with the severed head of Visnu beneath her left foot [O]. by realizing this through meditation. ´ ¯ This gives the Mantra as KHPHREM MAH ACAN D AYUGE S VAR.. e. . O Mahe´ vara. a . 278 dasamadhyagatam grhya salamadhyam tu asane | as. .¯ .. . (42) If one merely meditates ı on it one’s sins accumulated in former time are instantly burned to ash. (39) Below that he should add. holding a a . be they as vast in mass as mount Meru itself. . ˚ . ˚ the correct merutulyam guru being unmetrical.158 in the K¯ l¯kulaaı aı incorporating form of the Trika taught in the Devy¯ y¯ mala as reported by a a syllables of the syllabary (m¯ trk¯ ) are assigned for the purpose of the extraction of the Mantras a a ˚ to the parts and adornments of a drawing of the goddess to be depicted on the ground with chalk as two-armed. Siddhas. (41) [Thus] has been extracted from the body of [the ´ . So what a need is there for other [Mantras] or [further] elaboration? In both these ‘extractions’ (mantroddh¯ rah) the Mantra is as in the Bhadrak¯ l¯a .. the skull[-chaplet] [D A]. ˚ . a a .t . (36c–37b) Merely . . and the Yogin¯s.t . ˚ . see. ı . . and the left ear [N ( A )]. . hollow-cheeked. ˚ ˚ trida´e prathamam grhya tasyaiva navamam sire | saptamam tu mah¯ varnam v¯ gvil¯ sam prak¯rtitam | s a . since it is also prescribed in the K¯ l¯kula scripture Yonigahvara. wearing a chaplet of skulls. O god. : ayopam¯ m Cod. another Seed. . ı . . that in the left side on its own [CA]. and Khecar¯s. ˚ a culine duskrt¯ n for neuter duskrt¯ ni. grhya dha-umadhyam tu asane | dvau varnav ekatah kury¯ d a´vadh¯ ram prak¯rtitam | 276 navame ¯ ¯ a s a . O Lord of the gods. (37cd) Hear. The deviation appears to have been prompted by the metre. s a a a . sire | asyaiva pancamam grhya sire deyam vicaksanat | 273 kutar¯ jam mah¯ ghoram sarvasiddhikaram ´ ˜ ´ ¯. . a . emaciated. . ˚ trida´e antimam grhya kevalam tu samuddharet | ante p¯ da sam¯ khy¯ tam madhye n¯ mam prakalpayet. the third of the letters of . This is a deviant orthography that was widely accepted. Then he should extract the human entrails [Y ( A )] . letter of her vital principle [G ( A )] combined with the womb-seed [E] as sev´ enth. ˚ ı . . with mas¯ a a a. the comparison of the accumulated a . . then the sex organ [S ( A )] on the first of the hair [letters] [VA] and the right thigh [R]. a goddess] Susk¯ . mass of sins to the vast mountain Meru being a rhetorical commonplace. with a surprising substitution of . by knowing this [Vidy¯ ] born of the K¯ l¯kula one has in a aı reality mastered [all] seven hundred and seventy million Vidy¯ s.157 (43–44b) O divine [Bhairava]. f. ˚ .). . Yonigahvara. . enthroned on the severed head of Rudra. . . (38) He ¯ should extract the heart [H ( A )] combined with the navel [A] resting on the lobe of the right ear [MA]. amam tu mah¯ v¯ra navamam adhun¯ srnu | 279 ´ ¯ a ı a´ . O Hara. the best among the best of them. a a . a .76–84). 158 Yonigahvara f. 157 In spite of the grammatical irregularity that this entails I take the masculine adjectives merutulyo gurur of 42b to qualify the neuter p¯ pam of 42d. 19v–20r4 (vv. hamam varnam mah¯ siddhikaram param | 277 ˜ a . with her feet on the severed heads of Brahm¯ and Visnu. O a ı god of the gods. . . (40) the .282 ALEXIS SANDERSON [E]. .

. ´ ¯ ¯ ¯ aı ¯ a . and is our nine-syllable Mantra. a. h¯ dya Ed. . 342–343. s . 164 Jn¯ n¯ rnavatantra 9. and then. known as the th . 163 Uttar¯ mn¯ yayajnakrama. ¯ bodhanapadam yoge´vary¯ mantro nav¯ ksarah ‘The second syllable of the same. 160 K¯ l¯kulakram¯ rcana. f. . . is also widely attested. . f.. . That. 5. a a aı vi´rut¯ . ı a . ´ ´ I ¯ ´ I ¯ ¯M S R¯M KHPHREM MAH ACAN D AYOGE S VARI S R¯P ADUK AM NAVASOP ANA S R¯P A ¯ ¯ . 7. namely those of the Nameless (an¯ khyacakram) and a U (276a: navame antimoddhrtya) for O . 363. aı ¯ a a a ˜ ˜a a . a a . . He then demonstrates this by citing the passage ´ . for example. 1200–1216). The code used here is that of the position of the 49 letters ˚ in the triangular grid of 49 triangles in descending rows of 1. and the Northern (Uttar¯ mn¯ ya). On the Uttar¯ mn¯ ya and the K¯ l¯kula see S ANDERSON 2007. s ı We see it. 159 Tantr¯ loka 30. . teaches the form in R. padam (corr. ¯ ´ ¯ eight syllables MAH ACAN D AYOGE S VAR [is preceded by KHPHREM or one of its variants]. .163 and the scripture Jn¯ n¯ rnavaGuhyak¯ l¯puj¯ . .. . p. yonigahvaram. a . 203. . a ˚ turaga-dakin¯marma-pavananavama-tejas-tejo grha -laksm¯ve´ma-udadhi-somasaptamayog¯ t pancacaa ˜ .t a ˚ [corr.. . Guhyak¯ l¯khanda 3. and the fourth is that of K¯ l¯ in the Uttar¯ mn¯ ya. the Vidy¯ s s a a a a a ´ ı of Unman¯ and Bhogin¯. but ´ ı tantra. . a seen in the Dev¯dvyardha´atik¯ with the erroneous variant sura.t .¯ (Pa´ cim¯ mn¯ ya). a s . . the same’ refers to the second syllable of the Mantra of Guhyak¯ l¯ taught immediately before aı ¯ ¯ ¯ this. . f. . and 13. ı s a ´¯ 161 Mah¯ k¯ lasamhit¯ . edited above that also appears in the Dev¯dvyardha´atik¯ and the K¯ lik¯ krama for these eight ı s a a a syllables that follow KHPHREM. . which a a aı a a 164 We also see it in is to say. after CAN D A. added below. 10v1–2: KHPREM MAH ACAN D AYOGE S VARI AMB AP ADA . 16r1–2: var¯ nga-vihaga-´ ura-punja-purusa-k¯ la-sarvagata-d¯ rana-trt¯y¯ dyaaı a a˙ s¯ ˜ a . 5r: HR I . a a a a a . with the 50 . . 2r: KHPHREM MAH ACAN D AYOGE S VARI BALIM GR HN NA 2 H UM ´ ¯ ¯ . ¯ .(see above. 9. . MAH A... . . ´ I. . h¯ dya s a . are in the territory of the Sr¯vidy¯ itself. ‘The second syllable of s ı . . .45c–46b ( KHPHREM ) + 30. The last is a work of the S¯ a aı its system of worship includes Vidy¯ s for goddesses as the deities presiding a ´a over each of four S¯ kta traditions. which provides the correct orthography for what is evidently the vocative singular of mah¯ candayoge´var¯. a a a . a a ˜ . ¯ PHAT . p. a a . this is . the vocative of yoge´var¯ are [her] nine-syllable Mantra’. ˚ v¯ rneyam guptatar¯ sadbh¯ vah k¯ lakarsin¯ | sr¯damare mah¯ y¯ ge par¯ tparatarodit¯ ‘[When] the set of a .161 the aı .¯ .67–68b: khphrem¯ tmakam samucc¯ rya mah¯ candapadam likhet | *yoge´ vari˜a a . aı the Yonigahvara. ¯ ¯ DUK AM P UJAY AMI NAMAH . . 11.. . . ı a . a a .34: etasyaiva dvit¯y¯ rnam mah¯ ta´ candato ’py anu | sama a aı .ATHARVAVEDINS IN TANTRIC TERRITORY 283 Abhinavagupta in his Tantr¯ loka. fig. . as we have seen. 25. s a a a aı . in the K¯ l¯kula. . KS A .54–55b: mah¯ candeti tu yoge´ var ity astavarnakam | naa a . the R¯ jaguru of King Arimalla of Nepal (r. s a a . s . these being attributed to the cardinal direc¯ a a a tions: the Eastern (Purv¯ mn¯ ya). 162 Guhyak¯ l¯puj¯ .159 and in the K¯ l¯kulakram¯ rcana of Vimalaa aı a prabodha. In his comment on this passage a Jayaratha notes that the use of R here is sanctioned by scripture (as. the form with RI. pp.. the Western . a .t a a¯ . Here Vimalaprabodha is following the passage a a a . transcends even the highest [embodied in the goddess Par¯ ]’. n. ı s ˚ kras¯ m¯ ny¯ m nav¯ ksaravidy¯ m samucc¯ rya. a . in the Guhyak¯ l¯khanda of the Mah¯ k¯ lasamhit¯ .ı .) pa´c¯ d vidyeyam k¯ lik¯ priye | uttar¯ mn¯ yavidyeyam n¯ mn¯ k¯ l¯ti s ı s a a a .] iti samhitay¯ aveditam). 279). ˚ . It is illustrated in S CHOTERMAN 1982. . But it prescribes ˚ that in RI in its Mantras for the worship of the two highest of the five goddess circles of the Krama.ı ˚ ¯ has been taught [in the chapter of the Devy¯ y¯ mala on] the Great Damara Mandala as that which a a .160 Howa ever. the third is ı ı a the Vidy¯ of Kubjik¯ . : san. namely PHREM KHPHREM SIDDHIKAR ALI SV AH A.. . a 162 the Uttar¯ mn¯ yayajnakrama. ˚ the most secret [Vidy¯ ] of nine syllabes [known as M¯ tr]sadbh¯ va or K¯ la[sam]karsin¯ which a a a a . the Southern (Daksinamn¯ ya). . The first two. ama´ c¯ tra varnah *san. ´ akta Sr¯vidy¯ rather than the K¯ l¯kula. . : yoge´var¯padam Ed. 3. ı ´ ı.

¯ . it is aı . In the first line a a a emend n¯ sarnam to n¯ s¯ rnam to yield the ¯ of HR¯M. sı a a a ˜a . . s ı . . . As for the presence of HR¯M rather than KHPHREM in the Mantra as it is I. The use of R for R¯ in these syllables parallels the alternation of R and I ˚ ˚ RI in the nine-syllable Vidy¯ . 167 This is the form of the Mantra that is prescribed in the M¯ lin¯ code (on which see VASUDEVA a ı 2007) in a passage of the Devy¯ y¯ mala cited by Jayaratha on Tantr¯ loka 29. 23r3–v4 (vv. She is called Kute´ var¯ at ˜ s . . . . K¯ l¯kula-based Devy¯ y¯ mala. . 176 on p. 34r4–v5 (vv. 322c–331) and f. which is evaı aı . a a . and TH R is not taught in these a . 110r1 (15. a˙ a ˚ are extracted letter by letter in Yonigahvara. . sı . where a . idently intended as a more esoteric and powerful substitute for the longer Mantra. one that holds its power in condensed form. 59r7: *yat tat (as cited in Jayadrathay¯ malaprast¯ ramantrasamgraha. . 286). s ı . but this is such a surprising irregularity that I have assumed that the absence was not intended and that either their presence was to be understood or that a line has been lost in ¯ which it was prescribed. where it is prescribed for use in addition to the aı a a ´ ¯ ¯ . . . . .61c): kute´var¯ devadev¯. f. . ¯ . 49. I I. . 108v5–6: etat tatpindavijn¯ nam kundale´¯matam subham. ff. sı . and in the sixth jihvayoh to jihvay¯ to yield a´ ¯ . a a . ´ ˚ ¯. 11 (Ahnika 29). f. 110r4 (15. 71r3–9 (11.37–41). . . ll. given in the accessed manuscripts of the *Bhadrak¯ l¯mantravidhiprakarana. . in Tantr¯ lokaa a ¯ viveka. . since we find the component HR¯M I. s ı ı ¯. . 61r1 : yan na A) kute´var¯cakre pindam uktam may¯ tava (see n. vol. followed by the same vocative at the beginning the seventeen-syllable Vidy¯ a a prescribed for the worship of K¯ lasamkarsin¯ in the Jayadrathay¯ mala. . 264 verses) is devoted to this form of K¯ lasamkarsan¯. .165 . I. . . . . .. .43c– a a . .69c. ¯M THR¯M PHAT PHAT PHAT PHAT PHAT)166 and. f. 124v6–125r1 (M¯ dhavakula 3. RKHPHREM PHAT RAUDRARAUDRE JHKHPHEM PHAT . . ´ ´ ¯ ¯ AN AKHYE GPHREM YOGE S VARI PHAT and KHPHREM MAH ACAN D AYOGE S VARI . s ı f. 338c–347).ı 8 gatv¯ v¯rendranilayam candan¯ gurucarcitah | a ı a . 166 This Vidy¯ is taught in encrypted form in Jayadrathay¯ mala. ˚ ˚ ˚ 167 PHAT PHAT PHAT PHAT PHAT ). . in a variant. madir¯ nandacaitanyo pancaratnasam¯ citah | a ˜ a . . The anusv¯ rah after each of the syllables T H R. a . . . and by the same measure permits an even greater transcendence of ritualistic requirements. 165 These . f.. . ¯ ˚ ˚ ˚ verses. . . . f. ´ ¯ the RI of MAH ACAN D AYOGE S VARI (´uladandam tu jihvay¯ ‘the staff of the trident [R ( A )] with the s¯ a . The second of the two Mantras adopted from the K¯ l¯kula in the *Bhadraaı k¯ l¯mantravidhiprakarana is Bhadrak¯ l¯’s Great Seed HSKHPHREM.ı ´ ¯ it is the basic Mantra of the goddess (HR¯M MAH ACAN D AYOGE S VARI T HR¯M I. 29v1) and Satka 4. s ı a . 108v3–4: ¯ . 118r3–4 (colophon): . DH R. .ı She is named at f. . conceivable that it is genuine in spite of the consequent anomaly of its having Ancillaries whose seeds begin with KHPHR -.. .284 ALEXIS SANDERSON ´ Radiance (bh¯ s¯ cakram). . kundale´var¯vidhih pancada´amah patalah. ¯.. respectively KHMLYPHREM CAN D AYOGE S VARI RJHRIM aa .. but only in its first and last lines. . as it were. f. s a . This is prescribed in the K¯ l¯kula’s Jayadrathay¯ mala as the Mantra of aı a ¯. a 168 Patala 15 of Satka 3 (ff.. . 9 prastaren m¯ trk¯ m tatra sarvav¯ nmayam¯ taram | a a. . quoted. . f. . . p. f. nine-syllable form (HR¯M MAH ACAN D AYOGE S VARI T H R M DH R M TH R M I. in the Trika’s DHR I . 107v2–3 (15. . . . . . . . 107v1–118r4. I. . 14–18.67ab): deyam argham devadevi kute´vary¯ bhi¯. . and Satka 4. f. 51) (given in decoded form in Jayadrathay¯ malaprast¯ ramantrasamgraha.3ab): kim tu kautuhalam deva katham s¯ kundale´var¯. a . mantritam. s ı a form of K¯ lasamkarsan¯ called both Kundale´ var¯ and Kute´ var¯:168 a . . . Satka 1. . .. ¯ ¯ tongue [I]’). . aa . a . s ı evam kundalacakre´¯ pinde´¯ k¯ lik¯ smrt¯ . .

tadadho yojayed vidv¯ n yonikundan mahe´vari | a ¯ s .49a: rakt¯ dis¯ raughac¯ lan¯ karsanadisu.172 with the fire-pit [E] above it. : tadadh¯ Cod. a´ ¯ a s .169 the [S¯ dhaka] venerated by the best of V¯ras a ı should go to a cremation ground and there lay out the syllabary. Satka 3. . p. ´ a a . For the decoding of this passage see Jayadrathay¯ malaprast¯ ramantrasamgraha. avimsatimam bhadre n¯ d¯ t saptamasamsthitam | t¯ . most fortunate. . 11 tato bindum tata´ candram tato yonyas. “[and] others” he means “[and] other substances of V¯ras”’. 10c tri´aktiparimanditam em. bindum em. . 41 on 5. ¯ Tantr¯ lokaviveka. a a ı a . 170 Wine. . . ı . the mother of all speech..437c (carau ca v¯radravy¯ ni): v¯radravy¯ ni a ı a. . mah¯ sunyam tatprav¯ ham tri´aktiparimanditam | a´ ¯ a . and smeared with the five jewels. O Mahe´ var¯. 3 a a ¯ a. ter] from the Yoni [KH ( A )]. the Lord of S ANDERSON 2005a. pp. sarvamantre´varam s¯ ram sarvamantraprad¯pakam | s ı . .t . lable]. . a a . the moon [that marks the syllable’s higher resonance]. the seventh letter back from HA. which is equated with fire.559: na jugupseta mady¯ di v¯radravyam kad¯ cana. (Patala 5).t . : tri´aktim parimamditam Cod. n¯ d¯ t saptamasamsthitam hak¯ r¯ t saptamam RA. .. 111–114.48ab (madyam m¯ msam tath¯ matsyam any¯ ni ca): any¯ n¯ti v¯radravy¯ ni ‘By a a a ı ı a. a a a. t¯ . 10a vividhair em.¯ . 13 pindam etan mah¯ bh¯ ge sarvamantr¯ ranim param | a a a . s 169 For the identity of the products of the body known as the five jewels see . . the learned [S¯ dhaka] should take the Great s ı a ´ Void [H ( A )]. Tantr¯ loka 16. . 10 sampujya vividhair bhogais tato mantram samuddharet | ¯ . The ‘fire-receptacle’ (tejove´ma) is s E . tadve´mabhinnam a a aa s . a a a. .ATHARVAVEDINS IN TANTRIC TERRITORY 285 v¯radravyopalipt¯ y¯ m bhuvi v¯rendravanditah | ı a a. 11c tadadho corr. 14 sarvas¯ mnidhyakaranam sarvasiddhibhar¯ vaham | a. • vidv¯ n em. f. . tatprav¯ hatri´akti SA. RA is the seventh back from that. . amam KHA. . a a a a a . s . : vividh¯ Cod. Jayadrathay¯ mala. below it the twentyeighth [letter] from the same [PH ( A )] resting on the seventh from Resonance [R ( A )]. . which is without a [closing] NAMAH or [opening] OM. on ground annointed with the substances of V¯ras. . yonikundad as. . . bhogamoksapradam s¯ ram devy¯ pindam anuttamam | a . . The sense in prose is tadve´ mabhinna´ irasam s s a s s . a. avimsatimam PHA. mah¯ sunyam HA. the eighth [let. : bimdu Cod. then the drop [( A ) M]. . 11a a s s . blood. a . a . ı a. 63. ek¯ rayuktam ity arthah. 173 The Sanskrit tadve´ ma´ iras¯ bhinnam is irregular. . See Tantr¯ loka 15. f. his mind blissful with wine. Perfumed with sandal-wood and aloe. yonyas.. .. amam punah | s . ı 171 The Yoni is the sound E and so the eighth from it in the order of the M¯ trk¯ syllabary is a a ˚ KHA . ‘its head modified by the receptacle of that’ where ‘that’ (tad-) denotes RA. Svacchandatantroddyota. vol. candra . . p. 12 as. . militv¯ HSKHPHREM kundale´vary¯ h. 223 on 15.. : vidy¯ m Cod.. . adorn it with the three Saktis of its flow [S ( A )]. s¯ r¯ dirup¯ ni. bindu ◦.170 and afı ter worshipping it with various offerings he should extract the Mantra from it [as follows]. the churning rod that produces [the fire of] all Mantras. . O excellent [wife]. . a . ´ . ¯ . 44v4–5: a a . is the supreme conjunct [seed syl. a .173 This.t .. vol. .171 and. and the like. 9 (Ahnika 15). 172 Resonance (n¯ dah) is HA . amam ek¯ r¯ d as. n. . . tadve´ma´iras¯ bhinnam natipranavavarjitam | s s a . 108r4–6 a .

runakr¯ ntam A : d¯ rakr¯ ntam ca B) bindun¯ dasamanvitam | punar *bindum (B : bindu A) trikonam ca a a a .. ´ .. a Satka 3. . † to the Aperture of the Guru [above the cranium] by the technique that resembles the writhing of a fish . . . ˚ locan¯ stravivarjit¯ m | dhy¯ nadhyeyavinirmukt¯ m cidacitpadamadhyag¯ m | 17 spandam¯ n¯ m pare a a a a. . . Of this there is no doubt. Moreover. . a . the body trembles violently. ¯ . vyomni sarva´aktikal¯ lay¯ m | a k¯ lacakrakuhar¯ c †chadan¯ t† parakundal¯m | 18 prabodhya gurus a a ¯ a a a ı . p. . which for the redactors is evidently the high-point of aı . s ı the conjunct syllable taught in the [chapter on the] cycle of Kute´ var¯ followed ¯ by the name of the deity and the honorific ending . s ı . f. ndam uktam may¯ tava | *tad (A : tam B) uddhrtya prayatnena punar *n¯ mam athoddharet (B : n¯ ma a a a . adding its lustre to polysyllabic Mantras that are thought to articulate the same transcendental essence. 175 On the place of this chapter in the Jayadrathay¯ mala see S ANDERSON 2007. and Weapon [that are . 256–257. Armour.:saman¯ ttam Cod. vaktr¯ ntam yukty¯ m¯navivartavat ‘When the [internal] utterance of this [Mantra] is accomplished a a ı . . that makes all [Mantradeities] present. . as the cycle of the Nameless (an¯ khyacakram) in which the Krama’s course a 175 There we are told that the Mantra should consist of of worship culminates. ... . s s a . . ¯. in Jayadrathay¯ malaprast¯ ramantrasamgraha. . teaching the cult of Mah¯ k¯ l¯ a aı as manifest in the thirteen K¯ l¯s from Srstik¯ l¯ to Mah¯ bhairavak¯ l¯. . kundalam dh¯ masamsthitam | 47 n¯ map¯ dasam¯ yuktam mantram sarv¯ su k¯rtitam. The Jayadrathay¯ a a a a a ı a . the unsurpassed conjunct of the Goddess that bestows both liberation and lesser rewards. as in the *Bhadrak¯ l¯aı mantravidhiprakarana. . . and she is free of visualization or anything to visualize. ˚ hy athoddharet A) | 45 p¯ d¯ ntam parame´ani punar *anyam (A : mantram B) srnu priye | *mah¯ tm¯ a a s¯ ´ . correctly only once. individual K¯ l¯s consisting of PH AM PH AM PHEM followed in the same way by aı .¯ a . n. . After awakening her and causing her to ascend from the pit of the fire of the Aeon †. that is to aı a aı . ¯ . ing visualization of the goddess’s form. 77 a (pp.4–47b) (A). : d¯ a a . a a . ’. Hair-queue. pp. Head. . . 260.174 As we might expect. ¯ ¯ tains this instruction that the Mantra required is either HSKHPHREM MAH AK A . 59r7–v2 (4. Eyes. her propitiation is of the essentialized kind. ˚ kampate dehah *samant¯ t tu (conj. [This goddess] Parakundal¯ does not have the Heart. 176 ¯ the name of the K¯ l¯ ending in . ı the Ancillaries of ordinary Mantras]. ´a the esoteric S¯ ktism contained in this huge work. ..P ADA. .¯ a a . Satka 4. 257–258). the Essence that illumines all Mantras. . . the ground of all her constituent powers. and it is no doubt significant that it does so in the context of the k¯ l¯kramavidhih. collated with the citation of this passage a . a a a. ˚ nam (A : mah¯ n¯ dam B) n¯ dayutam mah¯ bindusamanvitam | 46 kundalam *d¯ ranakr¯ ntam (em. The Jayadrathay¯ maa laprast¯ ramantrasamgraha explains when commenting on the passage that cona . 108r6–7: asya devi yad¯ samyag ucc¯ rah kriyate sakrt | tad¯ pra. a ı ˚ say. 174 Jayadrathay¯ mala. f. 176 Jayadrathay¯ mala. the Mantra being without Ancillaries and an accompany.) na samsayah | 16 hrcchira´-ca-´ikh¯ varmaa a . 61r1–2 (B): *yat tat (B : yan na A) kute´var¯cakre pia a ¯. . As in the additional passage at the end of the *Bhadrak¯ l¯mantravidhiaı prakarana. 84. vibrant in the supreme void. that brings the richness of all Siddhis. In the K¯ l¯kula of the Jayadrathay¯ mala this occurs to my aı a knowledge only once. a a a . . resting in the point between consciousness and unconsciousness.. ´ ¯ L¯P ADA or HSKHPHREM MAH ACAN D AYOGE S VAR¯P ADA with the Mantras of the I ¯ I ¯ . f.286 ALEXIS SANDERSON all Mantras. it is also reinscribed into the less essentialized level it transcends. n. aı a a .P ADA. the Mantra does not appear only in this monosyllabic isolation.

.. ¯ . as shown above (see p. . .) K ALIKE PHAT UTTAR AMN AYA I´ . . 3 I ¯ . 3 MR TYUK ALIP ADA . . parenthesis are mine. 284). ´ ¯ ¯ ¯ ´ I ¯ ¯ . . ¯. ˚. . . ih). . ¯ CAN D AK AL¯ PHAT | HAM STHITIP URN E NAMAH | SAM SR S T INITYE SV AH A | . 3 STHITIK ALIP ADA . . .).. . 3 MAH ABHAIRAVAK ALIP ADA . Para´ur¯ makalpasutra: SAM SR S T INITYE SV AH A | HAM STHITIP URN E NAMAH | s a ¯ . ¯ . the syllable a a a . . ¯ . 3 SUK ALIP ADA .). 177 Mah¯ tripurasundar¯varivasy¯ (K ARAP ATRASV AMIN 1962). Kundale´ var¯ also being called Kute´ var¯ in that chapter. those of the Nameless (HSKHPHREM MAH AN AKHYE ANANTA a . A Category Mistake? That the cult of Bhadrak¯ l¯ seen in this Orissan evidence should have drawn on aı the K¯ l¯kula for its Mantras may surprise. s ı . the Vidy¯ that rectifies all eraı a a ¯ rors. . ¯ . 255: [ OM HR¯M ¯M OM ] ¯ ¯ a ı a I. 3 K AL AGNIRUDRAK ALIP ADA . the first three repeated in reverse order after the a fourth. . . proper to the Northern Amn¯ ya (uttar¯ mn¯ yah). . . 61r–6): MAH AK ALIP ADA . ´ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ HSKHPHREM MAH ACAN D A * YOGE S VARI (corr. s ı tka.) dev¯ 13. 3 * MAH AK ALAK ALIP ADA (corr. ¯ s a ¯ a a . ´ akta] ´ CAN D AYOGE S VARI ) is also prescribed in the ‘worship of the [four S¯ . RAKTAK ALIK ALIP ADA Cod. ¯ ¯ ¯ PHAT) and the transcendent or universal fifth BH ASKARI MAH ACAN D AK ALI . 3 * RAKTAK ALIP ADA (corr. a .. ¯ I ¯ ¯ RAM MAH ASAM H ARIN I KR S E CAN D AK AL¯ PHAT | HSKHPHREM MAH AN AKHYE . ˚¯ ¯ I ¯ . . ˚ the Nameless (an¯ khyam). . I. : MAH A . . . 9 suptotthitenaisa manasaikav¯ ram avarty¯ ‘Next the Ra´mim¯ l¯ . 178 Para´ ur¯ makalpasutra. and a fifth invoking K¯ l¯ in her uninflected essence through a variaı ant of her nine-syllable Mantra. ¯ Sutras 8–9: atha ra´mim¯ l¯ . stasis (sthitih). explains only what should follow that syllable in the primary Mantra and then decodes the instructions for the Mantras for the individual K¯ l¯s. a . . s ı . retraction (samh¯ rah). replacing the author’s indications to carry standing elements forward. . in one: four invoking K¯ l¯ as embodied in each of the four phases of Krama aı worship. . PH AM PH AM PHEM SR S T IK ALIP ADA . He . For it is concerned exclusively with aı malaprast¯ ramantrasamgraha leaves it to the reader to understand for himself that the conjunct a .ATHARVAVEDINS IN TANTRIC TERRITORY 287 ¯ This upgraded form of the nine-syllable Mantra (HSKHPHREM MAH A . ATHAV A MAH A ´ ¯ ..t . . ¯ . ´ ı ¯ Amn¯ yas’ (¯ mn¯ yapuj¯ ) included in the tradition of the Sr¯vidy¯ . Awareness of the higher nature of the syllable is suggested by the fact that it is introduced only in the two highest of ¯ ¯ these Vidy¯ s. . . ¯ ¯ SAMAYAVIDYE S VARIK ALIK ADEVYAMB A [ S R¯P ADUK AM P UJAY AMI NAMAH ]. . ˚ ´ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ANANTABH ASKARI MAH ACAN D AK ALI PHAT | RAM MAH ASAM H ARIN I KR S E . . ˚ ´ ¯ ¯ . s ı syllable ‘taught above in the cycle of Kute´ var¯’ is that of Kundale´ var¯ taught in the third Sa. 3 PARAM ARKAK ALIP ADA . numeral 3 here denotes the three syllables PH AM PH AM PHEM. ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ K ALAK ALIK AP ADA Cod. ´ ¯ (HSKHPHREM MAH ACAN D AYOGE S VARI). p.. and . *evam (em. 3 ˚ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ M ARTAN D AK ALIP ADA . ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ 3 YAMAK ALIP ADA . The additions in . .. . .177 Similarly. . . ¯. ˚ 178 This Mantra comprises five Vidy¯ s ´ ¯ HSKHPHREM MAH ACAN D AYOGE S VARI . 3 BHADRAK ALIP ADA . .¯ should recite this once mentally as soon as he has risen from sleep’. those of emission (srs. : YOG¯S VARI Ed. . The ı . . . Without the interspersed citations from the aı ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ text he is explaining his commentary is as follows (f. . a a . Sutra 25.ı long and wide-ranging series of Mantras to be recited mentally immediately af´ ı ter waking each morning by those following the Sr¯vidy¯ -centred system of the a ¯ ¯ ¯ . . He s aa a ¯ a s aa . s aa is incorporated in the Mantra of K¯ lasamkarsan¯ included in the Ra´mim¯ l¯ . . . . ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ SAM H ARAK ALIP ADA . On the context of recitation see ibid. where it is a a a ¯a a the Mantra of K¯ l¯ in her role as the Samayavidy¯ . . ¯ ¯ ¯ CAN D AYOGE S VAR¯P ADA . Sarvas¯ dh¯ ranakrama. : 3 evam Cod. . .

6–11b): 6 pihan¯ t gopit¯ y¯ ca gudh¯ a a a ¯. ı . . and Dev¯dvyardha´atik¯ confirm the exegetes’ apa aı ˜ s ı s a proach. . ´ ¯ . : dyasya Cod. mah¯ laksmy¯ disiddhipatalah a a . .. soldiers will easily defeat the enemy when they go into battle. . . The belief that the king derives his sovereignty from the goddess and that Satka 1. mah¯ laksm¯vidhau rasadvayasiddhipatalah (f.. . 183 The Vidy¯ is extracted on f. but the much larger Jayadrathay¯ mala embeds this path to liberation in a a much more diverse religious context. . . the contrast diminishes when we look beyond this exegesis to the primary sources of the tradition. 28r6 as follows: HR¯M MAH ALAKS MYAI KALE S VAR S R¯M S RY AM H UM PHAT PHAT I. receiving initiation before it. a´ a 180 Jayadrathay¯ mala. a a a . .) | prabodhakaran¯ vidy¯ krty¯ vet¯ las¯ dhan¯ | 7 trailokyarajyapradaya *yay¯ (conj. f. . . Mantra of this Tantra.ı she describes it as bestowing sovereignty over the three worlds. Satka 4. 184 Jayadrathay¯ mala. siracchedasya suvrate | s¯ mgr¯ mikam idam tantram r¯ j¯ nasy¯ tidurlabham. . 179 Jayadrathay¯ mala. . 229r7–v1). . when Dev¯ asks Bhairava to teach Jayadratha. Thus in the first Satka. . the king of Sindhu. K¯ l¯kulapanca´ataka.179 the same Satka tells us that by seeing her Mandala. ˚ PHAT PHAT PHAT . a a ı a . mah¯ laksmy¯ y¯ gapatalah (f. . . ı a.288 ALEXIS SANDERSON empowering the king and his weapons to conquer his enemies and has been inserted accordingly into the pan-Indic annual festival of Navar¯ tra that initia ated the season of military campaigns. Colophons: mah¯ laksm¯matacakre devyutpattimana a . . a´ a a ı a.. 125r1–2 (19. ı . 223v2–7. . a ˜ ¯ ¯ d¯ Cod.. ff. by . subham | utpattivratavijn¯ nacary¯ mantrasam¯ yutam | 7 s¯ dhak¯ n¯ m yath¯ karma mudr¯ mandala´ ˜a a a a a a. 69v6–70r1 (11. one in which the propitiation of K¯ laa samkarsan¯ and her many ancillary forms is taught not merely for salvation . . for the attainment of worldly benefits. 237v3).) a a a a . among which those of concern to kings are far from inconspicuous. f. ff. . 223r1–2 (vv. that is to say. . a . .ı 182 with a variant of the seventeen-syllable Vidy¯ 183 as the called Mah¯ laksm¯ a . . Satka 1. aa 182 Jayadrathay¯ mala. ı . *sarv¯ rthasiddhid¯ (conj. ´ a na vidyate | mantra mudr¯ thav¯ vidy¯ y¯ tvay¯ dhy¯ sit¯ sakrt | 10 k¯ larup¯ mah¯ vidy¯ jagat karsayate a a a a a a a a ¯ a a a . . Satka 1. a a . . 232v4–5). f.ı ˚ Cod. . 15v5 (212b): kutam sarv¯ rthasiddhidam] : sarvajnasiddhia a ¯. : yasy¯ a a a a a ı a a . . f.184 . 222v5–237v3. 224v2–3). . . It is decoded in the Jayadrathay¯ malaprast¯ ramantraa a a ´ ´ I. troddh¯ rapatalah (f. . ı a . a . ı a means of attaining sovereignty over the earth (prthivyai´varyam) and obtaining s ˚ from the goddess a sword that embodies her power and so renders its bearer invincible in battle (khadgasiddhih). a . 6–9b): adhun¯ srotum icch¯ mi mah¯ laksm¯matam a a ´ a a . . . ˚ yatah | k¯ lasamkarsan¯ tena prokt¯ y¯ pr¯ k tvay¯ mama | 11 s¯ muhuh krpay¯ n¯ tha saindhav¯ ya a a a a a a a a a . 234v1). However. that were subsequently added to the first. mah¯ laksm¯vidhipatalah (f.66ab): drstvaitan mandalam yodh¯ jayanti yudhi l¯lay¯ . a a . which I take to be a hyperbolic statement of a claim that its propitiation will enhance royal power. ˚ prak¯ syat¯ m. . ´ a. Yonigahvara. namely the seventeen-syllable Vidy¯ of K¯ lasamkarsan¯. ¯ .) tuly¯ na vidyate | ascary¯ ni mah¯y¯ msi pratyay¯ s ca tathaiva ca | 8 yay¯ j¯ yanti v¯r¯ nam a ¯´ a.87): samsthit¯ dh¯ rak¯ *hy asya (em. 177r9–v1 (40.180 and in its account of the canon of which it is part it describes itself as ‘this Tantra of war’. ˚ 181 Jayadrathay¯ mala. . ¯ . indeed predominantly. vidh¯ n¯ rpitacetas¯ m | yay¯ sarv¯ ni k¯ ry¯ ni ekay¯ s¯ dhayet sad¯ | 9 y¯ na k¯layitum saky¯ yasy¯ nyogr¯ a a a a a. while the K¯ l¯kula appears in learned aı Kashmirian sources in a mystical and soteriological context. ¯ samgraha. .181 Nor is this royal context forgotten in the three Satkas . a a a a ı a a . .ı but also. The short Krama scriptures K¯ l¯kulakramaaı sadbh¯ va.ı . Indeed the whole work ends with several chapters setting out the means of propitiating a form of K¯ lasamkarsan¯ a . . a . a a. f. . a a . . [cf. (f. Satka 4. . the root ı .

: pr¯ hi Cod. a a a .ATHARVAVEDINS IN TANTRIC TERRITORY 289 she transmits her power to a dynasty by bestowing a sword on its conquering founder is widely attested in India from the early medieval period onwards. This is so. f. . . 363. p. pp. samrajyam.(S HASTRI 1995. 30 of AD 1164. p. p. . . ¯ ¯ ¯ rajyadisadhanam | evam ni´amya deve´ah priy¯ vaktroditam vacah | 9 *pr¯ ha (corr. p.. in a Nepalese inscription of AD 1387/8 recording a gift by king Jayasthitimalla. ˚ ¯ yena rajyam labhed dhruvam. spoke to him in a dream. acir¯ t parthivendratvam s¯ dha ka sya dadanti t¯ h. 146. s¯ a ˚ nyamah¯p¯ la´r¯sr¯jayasthitimallar¯ jamalladevena sr¯bhat. promising him victory. . or Yogin whose supernatural intervention enables the king a to conquer his territory. 6. as a. f. . Dante´ var¯. . 22. . 232r3: samvatsare narendratvam. the founder of the ı a . . : r¯ jyasampattis Cod. Epigraphia Carnatica 4. . t a a passim). 10). a s ı 186 B HATTACHARYA 1981. . ı ı´ a a . Part 2. f. ˜ Part 1. as -v¯ santik¯ dev¯labdhavarapras¯ da. N¯ tha. AD 1120).. Ranabhanja I of s ı a . ´˚ . 38 of c. in the legends of the kingdom of Gorkha. We see it. p.187 and in a variant of this theme. f.. arakebhya iyam pran¯. ik¯ pradatteti. and the Hoysala kings s ı a . two other vassals of the same a s ı a ˜ as -khambe´var¯varalabdhapras¯ da. is said to have appeared to its founder Annamdeo in his sword and led him to Bastar from his capital in Warangal whence he fled after its capture by the Bahmani sultanate in around 1435.185 The medieval a s ı ˙ Bengali narrative poem Cand¯mangala portrays the first king of Kalinga as hav. a vassal of Mah¯ bhavagupta II of Daksina Kosala. and when acquired was given her name (transl. in which he is described as having brought his enemies under his sway with a sword that he had received as a boon from the goddess M¯ ne´ var¯. 27 (No. S EN 1920. ˜ Khinjalimandala as -stambhe´var¯labdhavarapras¯ da. 58 of c. Ratnajyotideva of Noakot in Nepal as -´r¯gandak¯varalabdhapras¯ da. ¯ tantravarasy¯ nte mah¯ laksm¯matam subham. a a ı a no. p. l. 264. This is a ı a s ı´ ı a ´ ı . l. a a . adevat¯ varalabdhapras¯ da. 230v1: carukam juhuy¯ d devi bh¯ gam t¯ s¯ m a ¯ a a. . drawing on the notion that the king’s sword is an embodiment of the goddess herself. aa a 188 M ALLEBREIN 1999. 224r7: dadati prthiv¯svaryam acir¯ n n¯ tra samsayah. 59–62. a.).) s s . no. . . 232r4: siddhyate caiva . f. sı a s ı. Part 2. 31). 231v7: siddhiksetr¯ ny atah srnu | yesu samsiddhyate mantr¯ ı´ ı . pp. In a further variant of this tradition swords conferring invincibility on the founders of dynasties are sometimes said to have been received not directly from the deity but from a Siddha. the founder of the Maratha kingdom. in which it is said that a Siddha gave such a sword to Prthiv¯n¯ rayan S¯ h. the Yogin¯s worshipped in the Mandala: etat s¯ dh¯ ranam devi khadgasiddhiprad¯ yik¯ h | ı a a . Thus the Malla kings of Nepal from the time of ¯ Jayasthitimalla are described as -´r¯manm¯ ne´var¯s.ı ˙ ing received his sword from the goddess Cand¯. ¯ .(S INGH 1994. 185 R EGMI 1965–1966. ´ aı goddess of Chatrapati Siv¯ j¯ (1627–1680). -k¯ le´var¯varalabdhapras¯ da.´ . AD 1125.(VAJR ACARYA 1976. 181–182). 343. a a. 226r1: yad icched *rajyasampattim (corr. p. l. the lineage ı a a ı . ı ´ digvijaya the sword was an embodiment of the famous Tulaj¯ Bhav¯ n¯ of Tulj¯ pur. ˚ ¯ f. . a a .188 ¯ pujanam | vahnik¯ ryam yath¯ vastham japam sarv¯ rthasiddhidam | 8 tad bruhi devadeve´a yatha ¯ a a a ¯ s . . Part 3. 101). On M¯ ne´ var¯ see T OFFIN 1996. Ng. and 12. R¯ naka Punja. speaking of a . G RIEVE (1909. the renowned restorer of the Malla dynasty. prakalpayet | dadanti prthiv¯svaryam. . a a . one of the a a ı a ´ a ı principal lineage-goddesses of the Deccan and that of Siv¯ ji¯ himself. 152. the s ı lineage goddess of the Bastar dynasty. pp. ll. 75) reports that this sword was kept in a small temple in the R¯ n¯’s palace in a. for example. variant of a common epigraphical formula in which a king is described as having obtained his sovereignty as the boon of this or that goddess.ı S¯ t¯ ra and paraded there in a palanquin during Navar¯ tra. Ng. and f. 228r6–7. p. is believed to have presented him with a sword with which to fight against the Muslim occupation. 8). no. ´a ˚ . 365–366 ).g. . s ı . a . According to the account of Siv¯ j¯’s life in the M¯ r¯ th¯ Siva´ aı a a. . 25–26: sr¯manm¯ ne´ var¯varalabdhakrp¯ na´ asit¯ ´ ı a s ı a .. ´ . ı a ..(R EGMI 1965–66. Tp. t¯ al a . for example.(e. p.186 Tulaj¯ Bhav¯ n¯.(S HASTRI 1995. . 187 M ALLEBREIN 1999.

B RAKEL reports (1997. had secured her husband’s position as his successor by stealing “the golden sword” from her father and giving it to him. pp. p.¯ in the Krendhawahana grove near Kalioso village. pp. 260) that it was said to have been common practice for people to bring their weapons to this place in order to make them more powerful and that in the performance of the ceremony that she witnessed in 1983 a sacred heirloom (pusaka). 230 [37A . the weapon Muliadipura belonging to the heroine R. had been been present. this goddess for all the soteriological emphasis of her cult in the learned literShah dynasty of Nepal. l. v. p. 32) is known in Khmer as Preah Khan (Old Khmer vrah kh¯ n). 905. lances and other martial heirlooms were brought out for annual worship. Sumirah. or rather a copy of it with the same name. 908.290 ALEXIS SANDERSON There are also three tales of such swords given to heroes by the goddess in the Kath¯ sarits¯ gara. the vast collection of narratives redacted from earlier materials a a by the Kashmirian poet Somadeva at a date between 1063 and 1081/2. Now in two of these tales the goddess is Vindhyav¯ sin¯. the father-in-law of ´ ı Sr¯ndravarman. pp.189 but in the third a ı it is none other than our K¯ lasamkarsan¯.A. where krises. In yet other cases we encounter no such myths but only the idea that the royal sword is a sacred object empowering rule and securing victory. wrapped in a yellow cloth. p. . It appears not only in India but also in the kingdoms of South East Asia. before he began his conquests. 201. ‘The Sacred Sword’. and his daughter Sikharamah¯ dev¯ to the Thai prince Pha Muang of Muang Rat ı a a ı ` (C ŒD E S 1941. Sr¯ndravarman. a The Chinese memoir on the customs of Cambodia written in 1296–97 by Zhou Daguan. looking like a sword and resting against the tree near the offerings. 256). a a . remembering this as part of the customary law (adat) of the pre-Islamic court of Majapahit (H EADLEY 2004. K. 5. We see this in the case of the royal sword of the Khmer kings. during the period when the Thai of Sukhothai were asserting their ˙ ˜´ ı independence. 736. sı when he gave his twice-daily audience and when he went forth in court parades riding an elephant. v. K. thus depriving Jayavarman’s son of the succession (P ELLIOT 1951. 115 and 229. together with the royal title Kamraten an sr¯ Indra´ pat¯ndr¯ ditya. v. see G EERTZ 1980. Indeed this idea appears to be universal ´a in the Indic world and to be independent of any S¯ kta reading. and 282–329. In the thirteenth century. p. held “the precious sword”. 257). 195a). This sword. in order to ensure their well-being and the protection of the realm against all dangers. p. see H EADLEY (2004. pp. The kings of this principality. 59. 12) and the templesı complex Jaya´ r¯nagara built by Jayavarman VII on the site of his bloody victory over the Chams sı (K. no doubt this Jaya´ r¯. . In the triumphal procession depicted in relief in the “historical gallery” ¯ of Angkor Wat Suryavarman II is shown standing on his elephant and holding a sword with the blade resting on his shoulder (G ITEAU 1976. 806. 189 Kath¯ sarits¯ gara 42. 6. It was evidently general in the kingdoms of Java. 209 and 214) on the sacred kris and spear of Surakarta and the Black Stork kris given to the Javanese national hero Dipanagara by Paku Buwana VI of Surakarta (r. preserved the annual practice of sacrificing wild buffaloes to the goddess Durg¯ (sang hyang bhatari Durg¯ ) a a . thus providing further evidence that a ı .168–84. the Khmer sovereign gave it. This was named Jaya´ r¯ (K.117–18 and 52. 1823–30) at the beginning of the Java War against the Dutch (1825–30). pp. and B RAKEL 1997. Belief in the supernatural power of the ´ royal weapons is also an important part of the Saiva palace culture of Bali. though converts to Islam. was in the ` care of the brahmins of the royal palace in Phnom Penh until recent times (C ŒD E S 1941.DE B OER a and A SSER 2005. reports that the king. 257–263). . who had ¨ spent eleven months in Angkor with the embassy sent by the Yuan emperor Chengzong (Temur ¨ ´ ı ¨ Oljeitu). The antiquities of Java photographed by Isidore VAN K INSBERGEN (1821–1905) include an 18th -century kris ornamented with a veiled Durg¯ and inscribed in Arabic (reproduced in T HEUNS . On this and on the role of Siddhas in the ideology of kingship in the numerous small kingdoms established in the Himalayan region between the thirteenth and eighteenth centuries see B OUILLIER 1989 passim and p. 34–35). and also that the daughter of the preceding king (Jayavarman VIII).B]).

. . yoge´var¯). . . . . .ı. was indeed associated with royal power and rites of war. . A certain V¯ madatta of K¯ nyakubja receives with his wife the inia a tiation (d¯ksa) and Vidy¯ of this goddess from his wife’s mother. . a compendium that sets out the rituals of the brahmins of Kasha. ı a ı ˚ ’bhyarcya pr¯ rthay¯ m asa yatnatah | 65 s¯ tha yoge´var¯ tasmai sabh¯ ry¯ ya yath¯ vidhi | k¯ lasamkarsin¯m a a ¯ a s ı a a a a . s ek¯˚nt¯ devat¯ y¯ s¯ k¯ lasamkarsan¯ par¯ | a ı a a a a a . . ˚ ˚ ˚ ˚ tena nijasiddhiprabh¯ vatah | 69 tato vidy¯ dharendrasya tatra k¯ lena kanyak¯ | tasy¯ m paty¯ m samuta a a a a.64–71b: ath¯ kasm¯ d grh¯ y¯ t¯ m svasrum t¯ m siddhayogin¯m | anugrah¯ rth¯ so a a a a a. With this in his possession he be. ı . .ı.´ vidh¯ nam bruhi me tasy¯ yadi tus. a. sr¯devy uv¯ ca: ´ ı a 6 sarvasamsayacchett¯ ra sarvajna parame´vara | a ˜ s . ı . . ı a ¯ s ı pur¯ tu devadeve´i gaury¯ h putro na j¯vitah | a s a.ı a 5 pujayet paray¯ bhakty¯ sut¯ n¯ m j¯vit¯ rthatah | ¯ a a a a. a a a a a a a a a a a ı . . ˚ 4 a´ar¯r¯ tad¯ v¯ n¯ hy abrav¯n madhur¯ gir¯ | s ıa a a. a a 191 Brhatkath¯ manjar¯ 9. . comes king of the Vidy¯ dharas.52–54. . ´ . 190 Kath¯ sarits¯ gara a a . ˚ (em. Once mastered (siddh¯ ) she appears before him and grants him aa a a magnificent sword (khadgottamam dadau).¯ a ı ´ ı (siddhayogin¯. . .191 . s¯ saktih param¯ dev¯ d¯rghaj¯vas suto bhavet | a´ a ı ı ı . o ’si me prabho | a . a briefer redaction of the same materials composed by the a ˜ ı ˚ Kashmirian Ksemendra between 1028 and 1063. . . builds a city in the Malaya mountains. ı ı a a samkarsan¯ n¯ ma dev¯ ek¯ nt¯ hy atha yocyate | ı a ı . . He then goes to Sr¯parvata to perform the postinitiaı s ı tory observances that are the means of achieving mastery over this Vidy¯ -deity a (vidy¯ s¯ dhanam).¯ a s a a a a a . mir: 1 srnu deve´i tattvena rahasyam paramadurlabham | ´ . . . 3 divyam varsasahasra m ca tapas taptam may¯ priye | a . a.) | vidy¯ m sr¯parvate dhy¯ tv¯ a a a. a a a a ı . . ¯ a t .¯ ¯ a s ´ ı a a. ¯ .190 The same story is included in a the Brhatkath¯ manjar¯. and a fathers on his co-initiated wife a daughter who is predicted to become the wife of the future emperor of all the Vidy¯ dharas. khadgavidy¯ dharo ’bhavat. : k¯ le samkarsin¯m sritah Ed.ATHARVAVEDINS IN TANTRIC TERRITORY 291 ´a ature of the Kashmirian S¯ ktas. .ı Ek¯ ntav¯ sin¯devat¯ y¯ ga found in a birch-bark manuscript of the K¯ sm¯rikakarmaa a ı a a a´ ı k¯ ndapaddhati. . . . krt¯ v¯ madatto vidy¯ dharottamah | 68 tato rajatakutakhye srnge malayabhubhrtah | krtam puravaram ı a a ¯. . The evidence of the association of the K¯ l¯kula’s K¯ lasamkarsan¯ with aı a . ´ ¯ . vidy¯ m d¯ksapurvam up¯ di´at | 66 tatah sr¯parvatam gatv¯ sa vidy¯ m t¯ m as¯ dhayat | s¯ ca siddh¯ sat¯ a .ı swords seen in the Jayadrathay¯ mala and this mythical narrative is confirmed a at the end of an account of the worship of a form of K¯ lasamkarsan¯ in the a . . . ´ ı a a .ı. pann¯ n¯ mn¯ lalitalocan¯ | 70 j¯ tam¯ traiva s¯ vidy¯ dharasaccakravartinah | bh¯ ry¯ bhavitr¯ nirdis. . . a . j¯vit¯ rthena putr¯ nam krtam vratam abh¯psitam | ı a a. ¯svara uv¯ ca: ı´ a 68. ı . . s¯ ksat tasmai khadgottamam dadau | 67 pr¯ ptakhadga´ ca sampannah sa tay¯ bh¯ ryay¯ saha | k¯ ntimaty¯ a . . . ı a . t¯ gaganodbhavay¯ gir¯ .ı 2 sut¯ n¯ m j¯vit¯ rthe ca pujayet parame´var¯m | a a.¯ ´ ˙ ¯ . a a .’s MS KHA : k¯ lasamkarsano ’sinah Ed. a great Yogin¯ ı . reading in 53 tacchiksay¯ v¯ madattah *k¯ lasamkarsin¯m sritah a ˜ ı a . ´ .

s ı sı a son of Gaur¯ did not survive and I. . 10d prs. ˚ 8 p¯ nujam repham arudham agnidh¯ mnaiva bhusitam | a ¯ ¯. 4v3–4: + ntram trida´adamaram] : dida´adamaram Cod. 4d yocyate conj. 9c ny¯ sam ca conj. Satka 4. . . 192 On . ˜ ı. : prs. sas. 7d mah¯ ´ a ´ . . a . 6c tasy¯ em. 35v (Ek¯ ntav¯ sin¯devat¯ y¯ gah) a´ ı a. : agnidh¯ straiva Cod. 15b dev¯m conj. 15 r¯ jak¯ ryesu sarvesu yajne dev¯m prapujayet | a a . In the past.ı dess] Parame´ var¯ for the [long] life of one’s sons.t . .ı in this text see S ANDERSON 1990. 8a p¯ nujam em. . . ardhendubindusahitam mantram trida´adamaram | s . a a s´ . h¯ devave´m¯ dau Cod. sweet-toned voice addressed me and said: “For the long life of one’s sons one should worship with total devotion the goddess [K¯ la]samkarsan¯ known as Ek¯ nt¯. a ¯. he pratisamvatsaram punah | a sı . : pratis. . f.t a ˚ ˚ conj. a 10 svagrhe pujayed dev¯m bhogair n¯ n¯ vidhai´ subhaih | ¯ ı. ˚ padmam c¯ tra surekham tu caturasram tu prs. my master. at¯ m Cod. . a t t a s . : d¯ksam Cod. pp. ˚ ved¯ dyam purvam uddhrtya mah¯ p¯ p¯ ntam uddharet | a ¯ a a a . ı One should extract the first [sound] of the Veda [OM]. : srnu Cod. f. Nity¯ kaula. trayoda´y¯ m arkadine caturthy¯ m ca var¯ nane | s a a. ı . . 8b agnidh¯ mnaiva em. I shall teach you the most precious ritual in all the three worlds. Jayadrathay¯ mala. [therefore] practised celestial ı penance for a thousand years. . a a a a . : mah¯ p¯ p¯ nta coddharet Cod. I performed the desired ascetic observance to secure the longevity of my sons. This a a ı .ı ´ goddess is the supreme Sakti. hatah | a t .192 One should worship [this goda ı a . tell me her rite”.t a Hear. a 13 m¯ rga´¯rse tath¯ jyais. adau sn¯ tv¯ suvastr¯ ca bhakty¯ pujy¯ mahe´vari | ¯ a a a a ¯ a s 12 pujit¯ varad¯ dev¯ suklapakse dine tithau | ¯ a a ı´ .¯ . 61–63. Devadeve´¯. hy¯ y¯ ge tath¯ khadge jantau j¯ te prapujayet | t a a a a ¯ . . : socyate Cod. 11 dv¯ rai´ caturbhis samyuktam n¯ n¯ rangais tu ranjitam | a s a a ˙ ˚ ˜ . [By her favour] one’s son will be long-lived”. 8d trida´adamaram em. a a ı a a . . Dev¯. the Great Sin [KH ( A )]193 and the younger sibling of P [ A ] on R [ A ] adorned the iconographic evidence of the identity of Ek¯ ntav¯ sin¯ /Ek¯ nt¯ with K¯ lasamkarsan¯ a a ı a ı a . . s . . if you s ¯s are pleased with me.t a . 6d prabho conj. [cf. resolver of all doubts. in truth the secret supremely difficult to acquire. : ny¯ sena Cod. Deve´¯. . 193 That ‘the great sin’ (mah¯ p¯ pam) is K [ A ] so that the letter which follows it (mah¯ p¯ p¯ ntam) is a a a a a KH [ A ] may be inferred from the Varnan¯ mapatala. . s a ı.¯ . a ˚ p¯ p¯ ntam uddharet conj. . h¯ dau a . a . The goddess sı Ek¯ nt¯ is the supreme K¯ lasamkarsan¯.¯ . 9 svan¯ masahit¯ dev¯ namask¯ r¯ ntayojit¯ | a a ı aa a kar¯ didehany¯ sam ca ekocc¯ rena k¯ rayet | a a .¯ a s . : tasya Cod. 230r2: p¯ nujam proccaret) : s¯ nujam Cod. hatah conj.¯ s . Then a disembodied. . then the [letter] after . f. 14a devave´mapratis. h¯ dau sutakany¯ viv¯ hayoh | s a a . K¯ sm¯rikakarmak¯ ndapaddhati. . I´ vara replied and said: “Hear. . a . . ‘Brahm¯ ’ and ‘the a a .292 ALEXIS SANDERSON 7 srnu devi pravaksy¯ mi tantram trailokyadurlabham | ´ . . . a a a a a a a . The goddess said: “Omniscient Parame´ vara. (cf. For that lists ‘the cutting’. . beloved. . . grhe bhartu´ ca putr¯ rthe santyarthe pujayet sad¯ | s a ´¯ ¯ a ˚ 14 devave´mapratis. . ¯ .

see S ANDERSON 2007. .4–6b). One should [also] worship her in such [ceremonies] as the consecration of [an image of] a god or a [new] house.. that goddess has a very a ı a specific application both there and in the Kashmirian rituals. . The goddess [that is this Vidy¯ ] s . a a a a 194 Thus KHPHREM K ALASAM KARS AN YAI NAMAH or KHPHREM EK ANTAV ASINYAI NAMAH . order to obtain male offspring. referring to the great sin (mah¯ p¯ takah) of brahminicide committed by Siva when he a a . and in 78. ı whenever a person is born. should be accompanied by her name [in the dative case] and have NAMAH . .ATHARVAVEDINS IN TANTRIC TERRITORY 293 with the fire-pit [E] and accompanied by the half-moon and the dot[. [Moreover. a .210–217 of the Picumata (f. tasy¯ dhast¯ l likhen mantr¯ n¯ mn¯ gandhavat¯nad¯ m | tasya daksinat¯re tu sma´an¯ m c¯ likhed budhah). ´ in the Picumata he holds out his arm. .¯ . when one performs worship of [the goddess] Sasth¯. 7v1–2]: a a pa´cime kalpayed devi ujjen¯ksetram uttamam | p¯ sam tatra sam¯ likhya a´vattham vrksam uttamam | s ı . It is in any case implausible that the identity ı . a a ı a a ı ı ´ s¯ a . whereas a. v¯ jn¯ tv¯ ca purusottamah | svabhujam a a .] one should worship the goddess in a fire sacrifice (yajne) on the occasion of any undertaking on behalf of the ˜ king. brahm¯ nam s¯rsakam caiva kak¯ ram paripathyate. cut off the fifth head arrogantly sprouted by four-headed Brahm¯ and then performed penance a by carrying the skull. . ´ offers his own blood when Siva holds out the skull to him for alms. which holds that the decapitation a. and to quell [all dangers]. took place in Kashmir (7. . 311r3–4]: kap¯ lam¯ linam drs. as her alias indicates. a . we may infer that the text has in mind a special head’ among the code-names of KA (vv. p. and then after putting on a fine garment worship her with s ı devotion. There are striking affinities between these two early versions. 311r2–4). 253–255. ´ı . .97c–99b [f.¯ a . One should worship the goddess in one’s home with fine foods of many kinds and there should be a lotus for her with well-drawn lines and a square behind it. a . if it is a Sunday. . The goddess grants boons when worshipped every year on the thirteenth lunar day. notably in the detail that Visnu . ı a . ı. 195 I have emended the manuscript’s reading d¯ksam to dev¯m here.33). ˚ . Mahe´ var¯. ı . .. that is to say. . a a . The expression mah¯ p¯ pam evidently conveys the a .6–7 and Picumata 3. the embodiment of that sin. . 20c–21b): yony¯ dyam kartanam caiva kala´am parik¯rtitam | a s .. namely. this name being an alias of ı . However. ´ same sense. dh¯ r¯ vinirgat¯ | mah¯ ghosena patit¯ kap¯ le c¯ tibh¯ svare). . a´ . namely] the Trida´ adamara Mantra [KHPHREM].¯ ı the goddess Bhuvanam¯ lin¯ taught in the Jayadrathay¯ mala. in a sı . in his left hand as his begging bowl. of the bright halves of the months M¯ rga´¯rsa and Jyaistha. ´a sible. from which Siva then extracts the blood by piercing it with his trident (78. . on the sword.¯ of the goddess would change at this point. and coloured with powders of various hues. ı . ˚. The myth is already told in chapters 5 to 7 of the original Skandapur¯ na. which locates the events by the bank of the Gandhavat¯ (f. dar´ay¯ m asa mah¯ sattvo mah¯ balah | tato may¯ tri´ulena hatas tu subhalocane | sronitasy¯ tivegena tato s a ¯ a a a s¯ ´ ´ .214c–216 [f.t a ˜a a . . . in the home of [one’s] husband. ¯ ¯ ¯ . . in the cremation ground of Ujjain (Kath¯ sarits¯ gara 102. .194 One may accomplish the installation [of the Mantra] on the hands and body [simply] by reciting it once. The reading is not imposı . . . or on the occasion of the marriage of a son or daughter. with the difference that in the Ur-Skandapur¯ na Visnu opens a vein in his forehead for this purpose (6. provided with four gateways. initiation (d¯ksa). First one should bathe.195 Since this reference to the sword occurs as an item in a list of irregular or special occasions requiring worship. For there is a D¯ksadev¯ in the Kashmirian S¯ kta pantheon. and . aa a a . 311r2 [210c]: gandhavaty¯ tate ramye). added at the end. and the fourth.. a s .

52 quoted without attribution in Tantr¯ lokaviveka on 29. . . here called the k¯ lik¯ kramah and elsea a . .49 soda´ante a ¯ a a .50 a a s a a a . chr¯matk¯ l¯mukhoditam. specifies a sword. s¯ nav¯ nte v¯ cidantah parame´vara | svasamvittikramenaiva *b¯ hye (N1 : b¯ hya N3) v¯ tha trilocana | 5. or the tip of ‘a king among swords’ (khadge´ah). 197 Tantr¯ loka 27. : mukuta Codd.198 The same source prescribes that the thirteen K¯ l¯s may be worshipped in the aı fourth and final phase of Krama worship. and the recorded traditions of the courts of Mysore ı . 523–563 on Navar¯ tra in the Newar royal a cities of Patan and Bhaktapur. 196 Procedures for worshipping and parading the royal sword during the Navar¯ tra festival are a taught in Pur¯ nic accounts of this festival (E INOO 1999). That says that Samh¯ rabhairav¯. . .64–69. in the option of external worship. N3. he ‘on a large mirror’ because I know no instance of worship on crowns. . and Jaipur.48c–50c lacking through aı ˜ s loss of folios) and 60v2. commonly Bhadrak¯ l¯. a a a .. may be worshipped internally as a brilliant light as. . f.ı a a a . and because the use of a mirror as a substitute for an image of the goddess is independently attested. N3 f. a ¯ . he ‘on a large crown’ a . on a Mandala of twelve . vedanatatparaih | 73 athav¯ cchurik¯ m *sth¯ pya (N1 : sth¯ py¯ N2) kartar¯m v¯ sud¯ runam | *mah¯ a a. ı a. then. evidently a aı a text of the K¯ l¯kula. either within consciousness in the lotus of Brahm¯ a a . he (mukura conj. ˚ cending from the point between the brows or externally on the surface of a large mirror in front of a dagger or “most fearsome knife” set up for this purpose. I have emended the reading of the manuscripts mah¯ mukutaprs. 49r4–v4 and 51v4–5. the same was reported of the latter.196 a Finally. Abhinavagupta reports in his Tantr¯ loka that the K¯ l¯mukha. . . gold. may well be the royal sword itself. either of the main or of the secondary goddess. . . s . and iron.71 pujayed bindum¯ rgordhvam mah¯ tejahsvarupin¯m | bh¯ v¯ bh¯ vesu sarvesu samh¯ ra¯ a a ¯ . Nearly half. . 18r3–5. bea . the eleven-syllable Vidy¯ aı ˜ s ı a . a a a ı.. f. or on the central tip of a sharp trident. or a knife as suitable subaı strates for the worship of this goddess. a .t ˚ cause the related passage cited above from the K¯ l¯mukha also mentions mirrors as an optional aı substrate. TANABE 1999 on Navar¯ tra in the village Garh Manitri. See also T OFFIN 1996 and L EVY 1990. and N¯lamata.44: khadgam krp¯ nik¯ m yad v¯ kartar¯m makuram ca v¯ | vimalam tat tath¯ kury¯ c a a ı. 58r1–4 (5.) tu pujy¯ samh¯ rabhairav¯. 199 K¯ l¯kulapanca´ ataka N1. either before bat. or of bell-metal). the site a of one of the forts of the Khurda kingdom (1572–1804) in Orissa. ˚ 4. 66. ¯ a ı ¯ a . in this context see also S ANDERSON 2005b. a dagger. Thus in the survey of temples in in the Kannur district of Kerala carried out by the Census Organization of India (J AYASHANKER 1999) 10 of the idols of the presiding deities in the 38 major temples of the goddess for which data were collected were reported to be in the form of mirrors (mostly made of the five metals [pancaloha-]. mukuraprs. namely copper alloyed ˜ with small quantities of tin. citing the Kashmirian Netratantra.25–27b (J): pujyam etad brahmapadme nir¯ khyam ca nir¯ maye | 5. where the an¯ khyakramah. ˚. and in 8 out of 16 others in which it was said that the main image is anthropomorphic with a secondary goddess on site.294 ALEXIS SANDERSON ritual (naimittikam karma) for the empowerment of the sword. 21v5–22r4 and 23v2–3. for the worship of K¯ l¯ in the phase of withdrawal (H UM PHAT KHPHREM aı . a red cloth. ˚ a. The Vidy¯ is extracted in ¯ a . a lamp.¯ a . above the head or.199 which . ff. ı aı 198 K¯ l¯kulapanca´ ataka N1 f. tle or in the context of the calendrical worship of the royal sword during the annual Navar¯ tra festival. N2.t to mah¯ mukuraprs. 43v6–44r3 (N2 lacks the folio that contained this aı ˜ s portion): 4. 255–256 and n.t . ´ ¯ MAH ACAN D AYOGE S VAR ). .197 and we find the same in the Krama’s K¯ l¯kulapanca´ataka. a cakran¯ yik¯ m | 72 mah¯ tejovat¯m d¯pt¯ m bindurdhvapathag¯ min¯m | tatra pujy¯ prayatnena svasama a a ı. have a mirror in aı place of a conventional idol. . On the worship of the royal weapons a. Visnudharmottara. silver. pp. pp. a a . 5. circles surrounding a circle at the centre. a ı a .

256–257 and n.203 Mystics and Sorcerers There are. tradition of the venerable royal palace’.. . Navar¯ trapuj¯ vidhi. tapur. Her Vidy¯ and its worship are taught at its end (ff. tatra nitya´ah | 5. called there Siddhalaksm¯ rather than a . ´ ı .200 is summoned into her Mandala for worship as a . n. 129r1– a . .54 purv¯ d arabhya sarv¯ s t¯ h pujayed yoginandana. then. [= J] : lohitam Codd. which is still kept alongside the statue of the royal tutelary goddess Taleju in the palace temple.51 *lohit¯ m (em. 77. 366–372.ı a a a a ¯ a. ¯ . a worship of the deity Siddhilaksm¯. Cod. pp. . see S ANDERSON 2007. 1382–1395]): y¯ s¯ par¯ par¯ dev¯ khadgaa a a a a ı . and 5. a sysaı tem whose exegetical literature has adopted such a high soteriological tone. 372–373. .. Codd.ı . a 200 On the place of this goddess in the Jayadrathay¯ mala.] the a ¯a ´ ı a . ‘[Next. : y¯ nti a a a a ı a ¯ . a. Uttar¯ mn¯ yapavitr¯ rohanavidhi. according to which Siddhalaksm¯ is the a a a s a .ı Bhadrak¯ l¯ with her established position in royal and civic religion. a . f. 132v3). : khasvarupin¯ Cod. : ay¯ ntu Cod.ı a a a . paddhati.52 a ¯ a a a ´ a a a . . 4v6 (in which the a a ¯ a a a a . ni´ite sulacakre v¯ pujayet tat *svadehajaih (em. sth¯ *khadgarupin¯ (em. a . f. ı ı . : svadehaje Codd. [= J] : rekh¯ nta a a.53 vyomarup¯ s ca tis. : ay¯ mtu Cod.) iha mandale. 15v–16r: y¯ s¯ par¯ par¯ dev¯ khadgasth¯ kha d garupin¯ | suralokagat¯ *y¯ sti (conj. : tu J) | viparyayena v¯ k¯ ry¯ sukl¯ v¯ vyomarekhik¯ | 5. . 201 Navar¯ trapuj¯ . Yajam¯ na is identified as the Malla king Jayasthiti [r.ı ¯ . ı khadgasth¯ khadgarupin¯ | suralokagat¯ dev¯ *s¯ y¯ tu (em. a.ı a ı a a a a ˙ a . . pp. ¯ a´ t a a ¯ a a aı a . p. ı principal deity of the second Satka. good reasons to think that the Paippal¯ dins of Orissa did a not commit a category mistake when they adopted the K¯ l¯kula’s Mantras as aı the basis for these rituals but merely adapted an existing association between K¯ lasamkarsan¯ and martial might to the more exoteric identity of the goddess a .] the worship of Siddhilaksm¯dev¯ in the vase (Newari thandili) in accordance with the ı ı . pp.ATHARVAVEDINS IN TANTRIC TERRITORY 295 Nor is the evidence of this association of the goddess of the K¯ l¯kula with aı ´ akta brahmins swords restricted to Kashmir. ¯ a´ ı . f. pp. ı r¯ trapuj¯ vidhi. a . f. .) iha a ¯ . mandale. For in the Paddhatis of the Newar S¯ ˙ a the closely related Siddhilaksm¯/Pratyangir¯ . . See also L EVY 1990. 203 V ERGATI 1995. 469–492. . . a avat¯ rayet | 5. Indeed the aı evidence that they looked for the Mantras of these rituals to the K¯ l¯kula. 202 This is in all probability the sword of the Malla kings of Bhakkhadgarupin¯).) vyomarekh¯ m tu (rekh¯ m tu em. citing the ı .) | suralokagat¯ saumy¯ *¯ y¯ tu (em. view of the Tantrar¯ jatantr¯ vat¯ rastotra of Vi´ v¯ varta. ı a . 202 E. nav¯ ksar¯ . Pratyangir¯ a ¯ . .. .78: pujayed raa a s a ¯ a ¯ a a.) iha mandale. arakap¯ ramparyakramena sr¯siddhilaksm¯dev¯thandilyarcanam a ¯a ´ ıa a . the thrice venerable goddess of the king’s Mantra’.) | panc¯ s¯tis tu dev¯n¯ m kotayas s ´¯ a ¯ ˜ a´ı ı a.) *¯ y¯ tu (conj. ’ny¯ dv¯ da´a kram¯ t | 5. . whose cult is taught in the second . 17r1–2 (in the worship of Siddhilaksm¯): y¯ s¯ par¯ par¯ suksm¯ a ¯a a a a a ¯ . and Nava.) dady¯ t sindurakena *ca (Codd.. ‘the goddess of the king’s Mantra201 present in and as the sword’ (khadgasth¯ a . . . hanti mah¯ siddhiprad¯ yatah | madhye pujy¯ mah¯ k¯ l¯ b¯ hye s . ı Siddhilaksm¯ as in Nepalese sources. 74. .g. 5r6: sr¯ 3 r¯ jamantrabhattarik¯ sr¯siddhilaksm¯dev¯ rcanam k¯ rayet ‘[Next. On the Tantric identity of the goddess Taleju see S ANDERSON 2003–04.. . . 94. On the role of Siddhilaksm¯ in the royal ritual of the . is a *r¯ javartena (N1 : r¯ javattena N3) rajas¯ vyomabimbam tu k¯ rayet | bimbadv¯ da´akam b¯ hye tadrupam a a a a a s ¯ . ¯ ¯ ¯ ktavastre v¯ d¯pe khadge´ amurdhani | *madhye (N2 N3 : + dhye N1) pujy¯ punar dev¯ vidye´an¯ a ı s ¯ a ı s¯ ı .. : s¯ y¯ ntu Cod. t¯ . ı Kathmandu valley see S ANDERSON 2003–04. ı Satka of the Jayadrathay¯ mala. f. 15v11: sr¯r¯ jakulabhat. .



salutory reminder of the danger of being seduced by elevated Tantric exegesis into forgetting that it glosses traditions of practice that will generally have been much more diverse in their repertoire, offering services vital to the continuing royal patronage that could create the infrastructure that could in time give rise to and support the high theory that turned its attention away from these more mundane and professional aspects of the tradition. Nor should we assume that those who produced the high-level theory with its soteriological emphasis, as exemplified in the learned works of the Kashmirian authorities of the Krama, were necessarily disengaged in their own practice from involvement in the more instrumental aspects of the ritual systems into which they had been initiated. For, as I have shown elsewhere, the Kashmirian Krama was not as exclusively otherworldly as one might expect from its emphasis on its system as a means of contemplative self-realization. The Kashmirian historian Kalhana reports the boast of the followers of the K¯ l¯kula aı . that their Guru V¯ran¯ tha successfully performed a seven-day ritual of chası a tisement (nigrahakarma) to bring about the death of king Ya´ askara (r. 939–948) s while he held office as his minister of war and peace; and the anonymous Kashmirian Mah¯ nayaprak¯ sa, perhaps the most elevated of the Krama’s texts on its a a´ form of worship as the means of liberation, reports that the same Guru had employed this system to accomplish hostile rituals for such purposes as immobilizing (stambhanam) and causing dissension (vidvesanam). The text does not . . specify the targets of his rituals but this very silence suggests that they were rituals aimed against the enemies of Kashmir, immobilization, that is, of the army of an invader (parasainyastambhanam), and the protection of the country by bringing about dissension between an enemy and his allies, these being the usual meanings of the terms stambhanam and vidvesanam.204 Finally, just as a . . strong emphasis on the salvific style of Tantric worship did not preclude involvement in hostile rites, so a strong emphasis on hostile rites did not necessarily entail disengagement from the more esoteric domain of Tantric ritual for ¯˙ liberation. For we have in the Angirasakalpa corpus the literature of a group of ritualists to whose identity as holders or seekers of office as the Atharvavedic priests of royal patrons expertise in rites for hostile purposes was fundamental. Yet, as we have seen, this professional specialization did not preclude their including in their corpus a form of esoteric Trika ritual that aims at liberation alone, serving the needs of the ritualists themselves rather than their patrons.

textual evidence for the identity of Kalhana’s V¯ran¯ tha with the Krama Guru Hrasvaı a . n¯ tha and his performing hostile rituals of chastisement, immobilization, and dissension is prea sented in S ANDERSON 2007, pp. 280–291.

204 The



Sigla and Abbreviations
¯˙ As = Asimila manuscript of the Angirasakalpa .¯ ASB = Asiatic Society of Bengal, Calcutta ´ BEFEO = Bulletin de l’Ecole francaise d’Extrˆ me-Orient ¸ e BORI = Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Pune Cod. = The reading of the manuscript Codd. = The reading of all the manuscripts conj. = My conjectural emendation corr. = My correction Ed. = The reading of the edition EdP = Paippal¯ dava´adisatkarmapaddhati a s¯ . ´ EFEO = Ecole francaise d’Extrˆ me-Orient ¸ e em. = My emendation GOML = Government Oriental Manuscripts Library, Madras IFI = Institut francais d’Indologie ¸ IFP = Institut francais de Pondich´ ry ¸ e ` K = Khmer inscription, numbered as in C ŒD E S 1937–1966 KBC = The Korean Buddhist Canon KSTS = Kashmir Series of Texts and Studies NAK = National Archives, Kathmandu NGMPP = Nepal-German Manuscript Preservation Project OSM = Orissa State Museum, Bhubaneswar ¯˙ P1 = BORI MS 960 of 1887–91 (Angirasa) ¯˙ P2 = BORI MS 959 of 1887–91 (Angirasa) SRPD = Srinagar, Manuscript Collection of the Research and Publication Department of the Jammu and Kashmir Government ¯˙ T/121 = OSM MS T/121 (Angirasakalpa) ¯˙ T/187 = OSM MS T/187 (Angirasakalpa) ¯ Taisho = Taish¯ shinshu daizoky¯ (The Tripitaka in Chinese) o ¯ o .



Primary Sources: Manuscripts and Editions
Agnipur¯ na, ed. Baladeva Up¯ dhy¯ ya. Kashi Sanskrit Series 174. Varanasi: The a. a a Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office, 1966. Atharvanabhadrak¯ l¯mah¯ vidy¯ . GOML MS 5867. aı a a . Atharvavedapari´is. a, ed. George Melville Bolling and Julius von Negelein. Vol. 1, s .t parts 1 and 2. Leipzig, 1909, 1910. ´ Atharvavedasamhit¯ in the Saunak¯ya recension with the commentary (-bh¯ sya) of ı a. . a a S¯ yanac¯ rya, ed. Shankar Pˆ ndurang Pandit. Bombay: Government Central a .¯ a ˆ Book Depot. 1895. Atharva´ira-upanisad, ed. Ramamaya Tarkaratna in The Atharvana-Upanishads. s . Bibliotheca Indica 76. Calcutta: Ganesha Press, 1872–1874. Anuttarasamvidarcan¯ carc¯ . Trivandrum University Library, MS COL 247 (Dea a . van¯ gar¯ paper transcript), pp. 8–11. The manuscript contains the Svarupapraa ı ¯ ve´ik¯ of Bhatta N¯ ga (pp. 1–8), this work, a fragment of a text of Sanskrit metrics s a a .. ´a ´ (pp. 12–13), and a treatise on S¯ kta Saiva D¯ksa (D¯ksavidhi) (pp. 13–25). ı .¯ ı .¯ Artha´astra of Kautilya: The Kautil¯ya Artha´astra, ed. R.P. Kangle. Delhi: Motilal s¯ s¯ . ı . Banarsidass, 1969. Ahirbudhnyasamhit¯ , ed. M.D. Ramanujacarya. 2nd edition revised by V. Krishna. a macharya. Adyar Library Series 4. Adyar: Adyar Library and Research Centre, 1966. ¯ ˝ Agamadambara of Jayantabhatta, ed. and tr. D EZS O 2005. . .. ¯˙ ¯˙ Angirasa/Angirasakalpa. 1. As: Manuscript from the home of D¯ modara Mi´ ra of a s ¯ ngirasakalpa). Palm-leaf; Asimila village in the Baleshwar District of Orissa (A ˙ .¯ ¯˙ Oriya script. Photographic prints. 2. P1 : BORI MS 960 of 1887–91 (Angirasa). ¯˙ Palm-leaf; Devan¯ gar¯. Photocopy. 3. P2 : BORI MS 959 of 1887–91 (Angirasa). a ı ¯˙ Palm-leaf; Devan¯ gar¯. Photocopy. 4. T/121: OSM MS T/121 (Angirasakalpa), a ı ff. 76r1–v7 (Par¯ japavidhi) and 86v1–88r3 (Bhadrak¯ l¯mantravidhi). 5. T/187: a aı ¯ ngirasakalpa), ff. 78v2–82r2 (Par¯ japavidhi) and 85r2–89r4 OSM MS T/187 (A ˙ a (Bhadrak¯ l¯mantravidhi). My access to 4 and 5 has been in the form of collations aı of these sections prepared for my editions of them by Arlo Griffiths in situ on 2–8 June, 2005. ¯ Anandakalpalatik¯ of Mahe´ varatej¯ nandan¯ tha. GOML MS 1698. a s a a ¯ a *Ary¯ vivarana. A commentary by Lasak¯ ka R¯ zd¯ n (R¯ j¯ naka Laksm¯r¯ ma) on a a a aa . . ıa ¯ a verse. Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin / Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Hs or an Ary¯ ´a 11664, ff. 138–139. Paper; S¯ rad¯ script. a Uttar¯ mn¯ yayajnakrama. NGMPP E447/13. Paper thy¯ saphu; Newari script; place a a ˜ a ¯ of deposit: “Acyuta (owner), Kathmandu”. Uttar¯ mn¯ yapavitr¯ rohanavidhi. NAK 1.70, NGMPP Reel No. B 177/30. Paper; a a a . Newari script.

probably penned in the 17th century. NGMPP Reel No. Paper. NGMPP a a . a a s a Gurupanktistotra of Madhur¯ ja. A. A182/6 (‘K¯ lik¯ kulakram¯ rcana’). A 152/9. NAK 1-360. Kriy¯ k¯ lagunottara. Satka 2. GOML MS 15332. S¯ rad¯ script. Newari script. . Ff. Kashikar. Devan¯ gar¯. Newari a . a a ´a Jayadrathay¯ mala. Paper. 1982. a a Guhyak¯ l¯puj¯ . Palm-leaf. Nandin¯ gar¯/P¯ la a a a ı a . .S. Palm-leaf. . NGMPP Reel No. script. NGMPP Reel No. Pandit Jagad¯s L¯ l S¯ str¯. Pushp. a Kubjik¯ mata: The Kubjik¯ matatantra. ASB MS 10389 (G). 132v4–5). Dandekar. aı ˜ s a a NGMPP Reel No. Paper. ed. Jayadrathay¯ malaprast¯ ramantrasamgraha. S¯ rad¯ script. Gurun¯ thapar¯ mar´a of Madhur¯ ja. a a a penned in AD 1644/5. N1: Kathmandu. T. Kubjikopanisad. 1. P. ed. d.V. 1970.N. bircha´ ı a. Delhi: Motilal Banara a ı´ a ´ a ı .1468. 1960. s s s ¯ ed. early East Indian script. Satka I. B30/26. Dea . Oxford. and tr. MS 524 (‘K¯ lik¯ kushe’). Bodleian Library. Palm-leaf. Limaye. V. . Bhide. Paper. Newari script. MS Sansk. NAK MS 5-1975. K¯ sm¯rikakarmak¯ ndapaddhati. NGMPP Reel No. NAK 5-5188.358. Paper. A148/10. Ke´ ava’s commentary on the Kau´ikasutra of the Atharvaveda. 5.G. ˙ a Gurup¯ ramparyaprak¯ ra. . penned in Vikrama 1982 from an old palm-leaf manuscript for a ı the library of R¯ jaguru Hemar¯ ja S¯ kya (f. B122/4. Newari script. . NGMPP Reel No. N2: NAK . IFP MS T. Kul¯ lik¯ mn¯ ya version. sidass. Satka 4. B32/16. a ı . penned in AD 1184.335.¯ a K¯ larudratantra. Paper. Srinagar. and S. ed. Jayadrathay¯ mala. BORI MS 157 of 1886–92. NAK 3-392. A153/2.. dated [Laksmanasena] Samvat 122 [= a year between AD 1230 and 1242]. Satka 3. pp. a . NGMPP Reel No. B 122/7. Newari script. ed. NAK 1. Kau´ikapaddhati. Orientalia Rheno-traiectina 30. Pondicherry. 1988. 3v3–64r5 of NAK 1-253. 2. R. . B25/32. aı ¯ a penned in AD 1219/20. V. Newari script. 3. KSTS 85. Kaisar Library. s Jayadrathay¯ mala. ´a Kal¯ d¯ksapadhati of Manodadatta. 96–97.N. aı a Paper. C 49/3.ATHARVAVEDINS IN TANTRIC TERRITORY 299 Kath¯ sarits¯ gara of Somadeva. C. penned in AD 1626/7. G OUDRIAAN and S CHOTERMAN 1994. manuscript copied in Dhavala´ rotapura (in the foothills of the Dhaulagiri s range in Nepal to the west of the Kathmandu valley). Bahulkar. script. NAK MS 5-4650. Goraksa´ataka. .P. Paper. Pune: Tilak Maharashtra Vidapeeth. NGMPP Reel No. Schoterman. NAK 5-4650. ´a bark. a . K¯ l¯kulapanca´ataka. a a ı K¯ l¯kulakram¯ rcana of Vimalaprabodha. Newari script. Goudriaan and a a a a a J. → N OWOTNY 1976. van¯ gar¯ script. NGMPP Reel No. . Leiden: Brill. N3: NAK 1252. NGMPP Reel No. . 113b. Jayadrathay¯ mala.

a ˚ svara Steam Press. Newari script. Varanasi: Varanaseya Sanskrit . → Tantrasamgraha Part 2 (pp. a. A152/8 (‘Jayadrathay¯ mala’). Navar¯ trapuj¯ . Ramaprasada Tripathi. probably penned in the 17th century. ˜ with the commentary of Niranjana Siddha. aa . K¯ m¯ khy¯ tantra. VS 1962 [AD 1905]. and Dev¯k¯ lottar¯ gama a a . NGMPP Reel No. Delhi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Pratishthan. Dev¯dvyardha´atik¯ . a a a . Palm-leaf. NGMPP Reel No. ´ Tantras¯ rasamgraha of N¯ r¯ yana of Sivapuram (Kerala) with an anonymous coma aa . ed. Unithiri. 57. Poona: Anand¯ srama Press. Duraiswami Aiyangar. a . Paper. Mundam¯ l¯ tantra B. Paper. yaratha. . Nity¯ kaula. Baroda: Oriental Institute. a ¯a Navar¯ trapuj¯ vidhi. NAK 2-226.ı ˜a ı ı a a . A 240/17. Gane´ a´ astr¯ Gokhale. 30. ı a.. 53–94). 28. a´ Tantrasamgraha. NAK MS 1-227.. Nityotsava of Um¯ nandan¯ tha. . Palm-leaf. K¯ madhenutantra. penned in AD 1097. 1924–34. Parts. 1979.28). 52. a ´ ı . ¯ Taish¯ Shinshu Daizoky¯ . A44/2. N. Part 3. ed. 1923. 59. NAK 1-220. (-mantravimar´in¯) of V¯ sudeva of Svarnagr¯ ma (Kerala). KSTS 23. Palm-leaf. Jn¯ nasamkalin¯tantra. Paper. ´ Tantras¯ rasamgraha of N¯ r¯ yana of Sivapuram (Kerala) with the commentary a aa . Paper. 1970. Todalatantra. Kutila script. AD 900. Newari script. 29. NGMPP Reel No. NGMPP Reel No. Todalatantra. . a Jn¯ n¯ rnava: Jn¯ n¯ rnavatantra. E88/11. N¯ radapur¯ na: N¯ rad¯yapur¯ nam. . NGMPP Reel No. mentary (-vy¯ khyana). Tantrasamgraha. NGMPP Reel No.V. 41. Khemar¯ ja Sr¯krsnad¯ sa. . . ed. Mundam¯ l¯ tantra A. NGMPP Reel No. Gaekwad’s Oriental Sea a ries 23. ed.P. B26/25. 1918–38. . Newari ı s a script. c. Calicut University Sanskrit Series 15–16. 35. AD 1642/3. AD 1524). A 41/14 (Ni´v¯ satattvasamhit¯ ). M. Nepalese “Licchavi” script. NAK MS 5-445. Junjiro Takakusu and Kaigyoku Watanabe. Bombay: Venkatea a. 1952. Vrajajivan Prachyabharati a Granthamala 62. B26/21. Mahadeva Sastri. A161/12. s s¯ ı ¯ Series 69.47. Phetk¯ rin¯tantra. a ı a. a´ . Bombay and Srinagar. Comprises editions of the Nirv¯ natantra. . ed. Tokyo: o ¯ o ¯ Daizo shuppan kabushiki kaisha. Mukund R¯ m S¯ ı a 58. Yogatantra-granthamala 6. Part 2. a ff. Varanasi: Sampurnanandasamskrtavisvavidyalaya. Newari script. Vishvavidyalaya. . a ¯ s ˙ a a ı Tantrasadbh¯ va. s a s a . 1992. 2002. Anand¯ srama Sanskrit ˜a a . s . joint reign a ¯a of J¯tamalla and Pr¯ namalla of Bhaktapur (c. 42r5–114v. Newari script. ed.. Calicut: University of Calicut. Gopinatha Kaviraja. ˜a a . ed. A. NAK 1-1606. Comprises editions of the Gandharvatantra. Nepalese a Kutila script. 2 s ı a a . right a side damaged. aa Sanatkum¯ ratantra. Tantr¯ loka of Abhinavagupta with the commentary (-viveka) of R¯ j¯ naka Jaa aa ´ astr¯. incomplete (–6. and Kank¯ lam¯ lin¯tantra. Ni´v¯ saguhya. ed. Palm-leaf. ed. Ni´isamc¯ ra. NAK 1-242. Bhuta´uddhitantra.300 ALEXIS SANDERSON Reel No.

no date. Newari script. Panc¯ rthabh¯ sya. s a ¯ a a s ˚ ed. Bibliotheca Indica 318. ˚ ´a 1689). MSS: 1. 1923. 3. Revised and documented with exı . Mukund R¯ m S¯ ı a a . Pratyangir¯ bhadrak¯ l¯mantra. Paippal¯ dava´adisatkarmapaddhati. paper. de Vreese. Gaekwad’s Oriental Series 22. Jagad¯sha Chandra Chatterji. 1940. 1997. 2. KSTS 18 (Par¯ trimsik¯ vivarana). . undated. and enl. 2 vols. A. copied a ı´ a a . . Balasore: 2003. a s a ¯ . ˙ a aı Pratyangir¯ mantra. Sh¯ str¯. Bombay. ı a. R. Nityotsava. ed. For further K¯ ndas I rely on references provided a. a ı´ a s ı ˚ ´a Par¯ tr¯sik¯ vivarana. a early Newari script script. rev. Khanda 8 (pp. Madhusudan Kaul a . Atal¯ nanda Sarsvasvat¯. Um¯ k¯ nta Panda. a . a haustive Introduction by Arthur Avalon. University of a ˜ ı . paper. Par¯ krama. *Pratyangir¯ divisayakasamgraha. Srinagar. NGMPP Reel No. penned in AD 1052. ASB MS 11354 (‘Tantric Digest of Unknown ˙ a . ˚ gar. thakrishna Sastri. ˙ a Pratyabhijn¯ hrdaya of Ksemar¯ ja. . 1936. Mysore: University of Mysore. ´ sr¯ suditrt¯yasy¯ m budhe (Wednesday. Sr¯ vana. Par¯ paddhati of Um¯ nandan¯ tha. ˜ a a. Pratyangir¯ paddhati. . S¯ rad¯ script. a a . SRPD MS 2138. NAK MS 3-370. Editions: 1. Palm-leaf. SRPD MS 2312. A 253/18. Baroda: Oriental Institute. Srina˜a a ı . 1926 and 1939. Paper.¯ Paippal¯ dasamhit¯ . a ´ astr¯. Mysore. S¯ rad¯ script. Sukla 3. .. . ed. Saubh¯ gyodaya) of R¯ me´ vara. → P¯ supatasutra. GOML MS 6651. ´ ˙ ´ ˙ a a Prapancas¯ ra attributed to Sankar¯ c¯ rya: Prapancas¯ ra Tantra of Sankar¯ c¯ rya With ˜ a a a a the Commentary Vivarana by Padmap¯ d¯ c¯ rya and Prayogakramad¯pik¯ —a Vrtti on a a a ı a . ´ a . dated samvat 65 by one R¯ macandra. Mahadeva Sastri. Parts 1 and 2 in 1 volume. NAK 3-796.. G NOLI 1985. ed.. ed. ed. no date. ed. a s¯ . Leiden: Brill. K. Picumata (Brahmay¯ mala). A 42/6. Z ADOO 1947a. Paper. Name’). Trivandrum. 279–289). GOML MS 6656. S¯ a a . paper. Dipak Bhattacharya. Par¯ tr¯sik¯ t¯ tparyad¯pik¯ . Calcutta: Asiatic Society. ´ arad¯ script. ed. Z ADOO 1947b. KSTS 46 and 61. Laukika 65 = AD 10 July ´ a´ ı a. Oriental Research Institute Series 116 and 139. Newari ˙ a script. Para´ur¯ makalpasutra. Trivandrum Sanskrit Series 143.S. ˚ the Vivarana. a a a P¯ supatasutra with the commentary (Panc¯ rthabh¯ sya) of Kaundinya. 190–197. 2. 1911. pp. SRPD MS 848. KSTS 3. Anana´ ¯ ˜ a a. Netratantra with the commentary (-uddyota) of Ksemar¯ ja. K. ed. Varadacharya. ed.´ a . 1969 and 1983. 1918. . Delhi: . a´ ¯ Para´ur¯ makalpasutra with the commentary (-vrtti. Sakarlal Yajneswar Sastri Dave. a a.ATHARVAVEDINS IN TANTRIC TERRITORY 301 N¯lamatapur¯ na. ed. by Arlo Griffiths. K¯ ndas 1–15. a ı Ny¯ yamanjar¯ of Jayantabhatta. 72 folios. NGMPP Reel No. a ı´ a a ı a Par¯ tr¯sik¯ laghuvrtti (Anuttaravimar´in¯). ed.

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289 antas. 185 ¯˙ Angirasa rituals. 333. 348 a Ahaly¯ Matha. 239 . 225 a a ¯ Agamadambara. 231 a ˙ Anantavarman Codagangadeva. 205 a. 197 ajyatantra. 41 advait¯ c¯ ra. 184 s ¯ Agni 7-syllable mantra of. 216 aa Anuttara. 196 . 364 a a Ahal¯ . 346 a . 148. 259 ¯ Asur¯ Durg¯ . 146 . 333. 185. 207 aı a a . Atharvanabhadrak¯ l¯mah¯ vidy¯ . 314. 212. 182–184.¯ As. 347 Ahirbudhnyasamhit¯ . a aindr¯santi. 244.Index Abhayamantra. 54. 185. descendants of. 46. 196. 225. 211. 102. 206 in Kashmir. 199. a . 245. 231 Anuttarasamvidarcan¯ carc¯ . . an¯ khyacakra.ı Artha´astra. 214 Abhayanrsimha. 229. 362 ı´ ¯ Ajitasena. 173. 146. 181 ¯ . 182 ¯˙ Angirasakalpa.e. 208.. 276 ankas. Agasti. 180. 81.t 180. 86. 344. ˚ abhic¯ ra. 335 Upanisads of (see Atharvanic .t Anukraman¯ material of the Paippal¯ dins. 37 angamantras. 63 s anadudvrata. a ı . 143. 212 ı ¯ ı Asur¯kalpa. 233 . 88. 348 am¯ nta system of month-naming a use in Kashmir of. 175. 286 a ¯ Anandakalpalatik¯ . 218 s . 347 Amarako´a. 199. 36. 87 ¯ Ardrapat¯. 40 . 248 a a . t¯ 125. 205 . 228. 254 ¯ . ¯ ı ı a Asur¯d¯pik¯ . 228. 162. 46. Orissa dates measured in. 345 secret texts of. 204–206. . 152 ˙ Annamdeo. 361. 209. 203. 172 a Abhinavagupta. 188. ya-. 202. Atharvanic Upanisads. 216 lists of fifteen/eighteen/twentythree/twenty-eight. 45. 202. 207 . 69 ı Apar¯ jit¯ nandan¯ tha. 245. officiants of.¯ . foundation and destruction of. Atharvavedajyotisa. 141. 187. Upanisads) . 177 . 259 ı a ¯ Asur¯ fruit. 172. 175. 204 s¯ a Asimila (a Paippal¯ da village). 211 . queen of Kashmir. a a. 184. 183 . Ancillaries (angas) of Mantras. 128. 183 ¯ Al¯ S¯ h. Atharvavedapari´is. 227. 341 ı ˇa accession and defeat of. 31.ı 187. 122. 344 succession of. ˙ 257 Andhra Pradesh. 237 accented passages in the PS. 238 a a a Archetype (*G) of PS mss.t Anus. agr¯ h¯ ra. 183 initiation into. 211 Atharvajyotisa. 221. 203 animal sacrifice. 364 andhya-. 177 atharvanika. 257 ˙ ˙ Angas (i. 248 . 183. 73. 64. 356. s . 271. 316 a abhic¯ rika. Atharvaveda five kalpas of. 369 Atharvavedasamhit¯ bh¯ sya. 355. 47. 130 Astaksarabhairava. 25 Agastya´rautasutra. 123. 211. Ved¯ ngas) a˙ (list of) six. 88. Atharva´ira-upanisad.. as. 219 Agnicayana. 221 mantra of. 81 Agnipur¯ na. 182 . adhy¯ y¯. 85. 216. apac´t-. ubhakalpam¯ l¯ . 331 re-import into Kashmir of. 235. 185.

. 270 Bhadrak¯ l¯mah¯ b¯javidhi. 180. 216. Christian work on Upanisadic literature by. 221 a banner. 220 Bhairavamudr¯ . bhadrak¯ l¯vrata. 162. 35 Bh¯ vaprak¯ sik¯ . 220 8-syllable mantra of. 272–274 king entering into. 228. 198 .. 333 . 148 . t¯ Brahmay¯ mala (Picumata). 162 Yajurvedic recension of. 181 ¯ a. 342 Bindusarovara. 216. 219. 276 Great Seed of. commentary on Gop¯ lat¯ pan¯ a a ı Upanisad). 366 ı Brahma´ ambhu. 277.. esoteric. 260. 317. significance of the appellative. s ¯ a Baladeva Vidy¯ bhusana (author of a ¯. 332 B HATTACHARYA. ariyajnapaddhati. 196 s Brahmasukta. 250 a Bhairavas (eight). cattle slaughter. . 182 s . . 198. Bhatta N¯ r¯ yana. a . 271.ı ˙ Candra´ ekhara. . Atharvavedic recension of. Paippal¯ da P¯ tha´ al¯ in. 171.. . 256 s ı animal sacrifices to.. 205. 321 Brahman (n. Brahmaveda (i. 271 brahmapur¯. 188. 232 ¯ Bhudhara.t Bhatta Jayanta. 289 . 277 a . Brahm¯ (Tithipati). 197 B OUY.¯ kule´var¯). 232 Bka’ thang gser phreng. 148 s ˙ a a a. Candac¯ mund¯. 359 Brahman (priest). 316. 155 . 96. 333. 315. 259 Paddhati of.¯ Candabhairava. 259 9-syllable Mantra of. 87. 198 a a´ a Bhubaneswar. 277 a Brhatkath¯ manjar¯.e. an addition. 215 1-syllable mantra of. 263 visualizations of. 84. 221 Bhadrak¯ l¯. 170. 262 11-syllable Mantra of (cf.388 INDEX Atharvavedic Kalpas. 212. 173 Caranavyuhopanisad. 186 a .. 235 s ı Billadeva. 284 meaning of Great Seed of. five. 290 bal´. 220 . 202 ¯ . Cande´ a. 270 aı a ı *Bhadrak¯ l¯mantravidhiprakarana. 209. 188 ˜ . Bhatta Some´ vara. 289 battle. 258. 256 aı 2-verse Mantra of. .. 235 S¯ village religion in. 341 a brahmadeya. 88. 168. 179. 208 Brahmavedoktavis. Atharvaveda). 207 . 339 Catur¯ dhy¯ yik¯ . 265. 273 Bastar. 334 s a a a Caturvargacint¯ mani. 291 a ˜ ı ˚ Buddhism. 208. Atharvavedic brahmins in. 184.ı ¯ a a ı Canda K¯ p¯ lin¯. 277 .). Caranavyuha. . 213. 228. 218 bhat. 183 Atharvavidh¯ na. Dipak editio princeps of PS by. 324 a ´ akta cults of. 231 s ´a a Caranaveda-S¯ kh¯ . s Cand¯mangala. 255 aı . 173. 202 ¯ . 267 visualization without Mantra of. 266 Yantra of. 141 Bengal Paippal¯ da tradition in. 267. a . 319. 73 ı Balid¯ navidhi. prohibition of in Kashmir. 181 ¯ Brahmasutrabh¯ sya. 204. Bali. 180. 263. 188 a Bai´ ing¯ . 92 aa . . 175 . 220 Bhuvanam¯ lin¯. 339 C¯ munda. navavarna . 293 a ı Bhuvane´ var¯. 197 Buddhists in Kashmir. a 293 Brahmay¯ mala texts of South India. 185 a a a caturda´a vidy¯ sth¯ n¯ ni. 185. king of Jammu. 88. 163 recensions of. 81. 273 aı Bhairava. 263 Benares.

283 aı ¯ a Gurun¯ thapar¯ mar´a. 187. 182. 184. a gosahasra. 175.t D¯ rila. 197 Hindu culture. 284 a a dh´ irya-. 149 Guhyak¯ l¯. 145 ˚ Durg¯ . 368. 359. 152. restoration of in Kashmir. 313 . 369. 24.¯ ¯ D¯ modara. 357. 155. Arlo new edition of PS 6 and 7 by. 235 . 290 a dvivedin. association of Vedas with four. 249 ı a . 289 Goru¯ la (a Paippal¯ da village). 228. s Gorkha. 219 D¯ksadev¯.INDEX 389 caturvedin. genealogy of. 373–376 Graha´anti. 147. 186 a Heruka. 75 Cint¯ manimantra. 147 ˚ Durbalakrtya[pustaka]. Ek¯ mra. 207. 290 directions (prad´sah). 338 hinduka. to. 235 a visualizations of. 332 persecution and emigration of. 215 . 37 expeditions in search of manuscripts. 227 Ekav¯ra. 185 . 289 s ı Dantyos. 292 a ı Ekap¯ dabhairava. 201. 373 c¯ turvidya. 243 Drona. 333. 207 ı a Devy¯ y¯ mala. 197 Gudh¯ rthad¯pik¯ . association with the AV of. 345 . 345 s¯ a ¯ a ı Dhum¯ vat¯. divya. Gandhavat¯. 232 a Daksinak¯ l¯. 207 a aa Hal¯ yudhako´a. 293 ı Gauda. K of PS. a ı a Guhi¯ p¯ la (a Paippal¯ da village). 76 Hathayogaprad¯pik¯ . 338 Gop¯ lat¯ pan¯ Upanisad a a ı . 237. 239 a . 143 Gajapati kings. 152 a. 145 a. 368. 157 Ganapatisukta. 314. 332 . 293 ı . 233 ¯. 219 . a ritual aimed at. 218 ¯ . Baladeva Vidy¯ bhusana’s a ¯. 372 a chieftains. 360. 87 a ı Dev¯dvyardha´atik¯ . colors. 339. 203 a D¯ ruka. a ˇ Gizya. 180. . 207 aı Guhyak¯ l¯puj¯ . 282. 76 a. 179. 361–369. 72 ı´ . 231 ˙ Gurup¯ ramparyaprak¯ ra. 26 a Dharma´ al¯ s in Kashmir. 278 s s¯ De´ astha brahmins. 172 door-deities. 368. 184. 249 . 224 a . commentary on. 35 Gsang ba’i snying po. a a.¯ ı Dipanagara. Citimantra. 173 Dadhiv¯ mana. 211. 213 s¯ G RIFFITHS. 147. 291 a a ı a a Ek¯ nt¯. 231 a a s Gurupanktistotra. 232 a Ek¯ ntav¯ sin¯devat¯ y¯ ga. 155 Gopathabr¯ hmana. 367. 238 ı s a Dev¯sukta. 207. 161 Devan¯ gar¯ source of ms. 277 a de´a´anti. aı Daksinamurti. havidhi. . 218 ı ¯ Dev¯y¯ mala. 227. a a Ek¯ ksarabhairava. . Hem¯ dri. a 143–145. Upanisads attributed sı ´ a a . Durbalakrtyapaddhati. 248 a a H¯ h¯ r¯ vatantra. cases of misattribution to. Gharmatik¯ . 317 a . 114. 47 a s harmony hymns aimed at (s¯ mmanasy´ ). 180 Goraksa´ataka. 338 Hindus in Kashmir identity of. 369 Gotras of AV Brahmins. 372 Ekac¯ li¯ (a Paippal¯ da village). 236 a Dante´ var¯. 238 s Devadar´¯-S¯ kh¯ . 231 ı epenthetic vowel. 245 .

254. 332 restoration of Hindu culture in. 184. 294 Kapilapran¯ta. 237. 290. 156 a a Jn¯ nadv¯pa. 210 HR¯M . . s¯ a 345 Paippal¯ dins in. ´ ‘Kashmir Saivism’. 253 a a´ Kashmir. Hyparchetypes of PS mss. 281. a month-naming in. 237 a˜ ı Kannur District (Kerala). 284. 202 s Kau´ikasutra. 184.). 208. Karmapanjik¯ . Hrllekh¯ . 279. 294 aı ˜ s K¯ l¯mukha. 187. 219 Jagann¯ tha. 207 a K¯ lasamkarsan¯. 207 a a K¯ lik¯ krama.. 292 a . 183. . 186. 238. 339 (foundation of) Dharma´ al¯ s in. 339. K¯ l¯. 284. a 295 Jayadrathay¯ malaprast¯ ramantrasamgraha. 255. 187. 290. 295 aı K¯ l¯kulakram¯ rcana. K¯ nc¯. 286 Jayadurg¯ .. mss. 331 Buddhists in. 347 Kashmirian Atharvaveda ¨ ¨ Tubingen codex (see Tubingen PS manuscript) Pra´ astabhava’s copy of. 230. 145 Karnata. 183 K¯ madeva a mantra and worship of. 200 a . Jonar¯ ja. 288. 203 s ¯ Kautsavyaniruktanighan. 78. 290 Jayadrathavadhaparvan. 237. 180 a prohibition of cattle slaughter in. five. 279 a a K¯ l¯kramavidhi. 246 a jatru-. a a . 333 a . 290 a a K¯ ty¯ yanavidhi. worship of.¯ j¯ tis (six). 87 *D (underlying K). 47 ´ Java / Java War. 345 s K¯ sm¯rikakarmak¯ ndapaddhati. 224 . 87 Indra. 143 a a . 338 Sikh rule of Ranjit Singh in. 288. 236 ¯ a k¯ rya (a P¯ supata term). 262 a Jayanrsimha. 145. 286 aı K¯ l¯kula. 219 K¯ m¯ ks¯. 183. 339 re-import of Atharvaveda into. 184. 39 ı Kalpas. j¯ tiraksa. . 176 a a Kau´ikapaddhati. 203 s Khadgar¯ vana (Rudra). 238. 236 ˜a ı jn¯ namudr¯ . ´ J¯ mbhani (a Paippal¯ da village). 238 a . 226. u. 232. 331. 296 Atharvaveda in. 276. 238 aı a K¯ l¯kulapanca´ataka. 291 a´ ı a. 179. 289 Jem¯ deipura (a Paippal¯ da village). 347 use of purnim¯ nta system of ¯ . 103 a a. 288.ı 17-syllable Vidy¯ of. 90. 196 a ı . 77 a . 286. 290 sı Jayasthitimalla. 188 ˜ a Karmasamuccaya. 216 three parts of. 330 a Kal¯ d¯ksapaddhati. 283 aı a K¯ l¯kulakramasadbh¯ va. 195. 185. 211 . .390 INDEX hostile rites (six). 257 I. 213 aı K¯ lik¯ gama. 256 a ˚ HSKHPHREM . j¯ l¯ sa-. 333 .t Ke´ ava. 182 . 253 a´ . Karpur¯ distotra. 202. 256. 180. 233 a Jagann¯ thapandita. 187. 348 . 288 a Kalhana.¯ K¯ lar¯ tri. 187. 345 . 248 ˜a a Jn¯ n¯ rnavatantra. 206. 284 .ı karana (a P¯ supata term). 183–185. 144. 265. 207 a a K¯ larudratantra. *B (underlying Or. Jaya´ r¯. 237 a a . ¯. 294 aı kalmal´-. 330. 237 Kath¯ sarits¯ gara. 332 Jayadrathay¯ mala. ˚ Jayanta Bhatta.ı K¯ myestis. use of am¯ nta system of a month-naming in. 332 . 296.. . 283 ˜a a .

220. 294 . 238 a ˙ ı . 348 . 290 M¯ lin¯vijayottara.. 348 a Laksanagranthas. 39. 211. a Mah¯ jayanrsimha. 185 . 65. 26 a M¯ ne´ var¯. k´lbisa-. 296 a a´ mah¯ s. 183 a . 263 a. 295 Mall¯k Jasrath. 42 ı . t ı Mah¯ vidy¯ s (ten). Laksmanade´ ika. s ı Kute´ var¯. 231 . 235 a a Mahe´ varatej¯ nandan¯ tha. 289 a s ı ˙ Mangalacand¯. 339 ı libraries. 205. 232 a Lohaka (Rudra). 288 a . 342 ı Mall¯k Saif ad-d¯n. ˚ Mah¯ k¯ lasamhit¯ . 237. 220 . ksudrak¯ nda (PS 16). 85. 290 Kriy¯ k¯ lagunottara. 288 . 60. . Kubjik¯ mata. 237 a Mantramukt¯ val¯. 279 a Mantram¯ rga. 332 ı ı m¯ ndya-. 244 a ı Malla kings of Bhaktapur. 296 Krendhawahana. ı Laksm¯nrsimha. s ı Kurumcaini (a Paippal¯ da village).ı man´-. 142 Lingapur¯ na. 232 s . . 24 s ¯. 197 a ¯ Mah¯ bhairavak¯ l¯. 203. . 233 a ˚ Krty¯ . 197 a Mah¯ balasutra. a ˚ Krttik¯ rohin¯. a Mah¯ k¯ l¯. ˙ Lingar¯ ja. 316 a Kundale´ var¯. 286 a aı Mah¯ krty¯ . 348 s a Krama. 332 Moksadharmaparvan. Kum¯ ra´ atru (epithet of Rudra). 283 a a . am¯. . descendants of. 146 . 284 Laddar¯ ja. ¯ a a Kukurajujh¯ (a Paippal¯ da village). . 154. Krsnad¯ sa. 233. Manodadatta. 284 . 207.INDEX 391 khadgasiddhi. 143. 152. 334 Kol¯ ramma. Laksmanagupta. 207. ı Mah¯ m¯ yur¯vidy¯ r¯ jn¯. 216 a ı Mantranaya. mah¯ d¯ na. ksudrasukta-. ı ¯ Lalit¯ . Laksm¯dharami´ ra. 214. 231 a Mah¯ bala. Laksmadeva. 257 . 210 a mantroddh¯ ra. 200 a a . 334 a a Jayadrathavadhaparvan. 248 a a Lasak¯ ka. 319. 195–197. 238 a . 237 ˙ a. 218 a ˚ Ksemendra. khadge´a. 230 . 213 a ˚ Krty¯ mantra. 218. 118 a s Kum¯ rila. 275 a ı Mah¯ nayaprak¯ sa. 225. king of Kashmir. 315. 291 . 286 a aı Mah¯ bh¯ rata. 200 Madhur¯ ja. 223 ı . 28 ¯ . 214.. 333. 237 a Lalitop¯ khy¯ na. 156 Ku´ ika. 238. 237 . 144.ı ˚ Krttiv¯ sa. 348 M¯ tang¯. . 211 a . 231 s a a Majapahit. 282 a manuscript collections in Orissa. Mah¯ bh¯ sya. . 230 s . 146. 142 m¯ rgapati (commander-in-chief of the a mountain passes). 71 knowledge systems (fourteen). 322 a a. 214 a a ˚ Mah¯ laksm¯. 217 . 204. 288. 147. 149 a. Laksanasamuccaya. . 220 . 199 a a ¯ ı a a ˜ı Mah¯ navam¯. 200. a . manuscript collections in Orissa’s. Mah¯ ganapatividy¯ . king. 196. 233 a Kubjikopanisad. 59. 250 a Ledar¯ (river). 369 a a Mah¯ ganapati. 225 . ˚ Laksm¯sukta. s KHPHREM . 196 Manth¯ nabhairava. 199 a . 277 a ko´ap¯ na (drinking the peace cup). 197 Mantrar¯ ja. 23 ı .

258 a ˚ M¯ trsadbh¯ va. 205 ¯˙ Nrsimha. ˚ corpus of. t ı Mundakopanisad. 186 Paippal¯ dabr¯ hmana. Par¯ . 196 Panc¯ rthabh¯ sya. 254 ˜ a a. 288. morae. Moksadharma. 253.¯ Netratantra. 265 Mrgendrapaddhativy¯ khy¯ . mss.. 60 metrical. a Ni´v¯ saguhya. 251 Orissa Paippal¯ da Brahmins in. naksatrakalpokta tantra. vague S¯ kh¯ a distinction between. 180–182 a a . 215. 148 Orissa mss.. 239 a South Indian sources of. 18 M¯m¯ ms¯ . 294 a navavarna kule´var¯. 220. 333 a ˜ ı Ny¯ yasudh¯ . 208. 142. 201 a private manuscript collections in. 81. 180.392 INDEX mathas in Kashmir . 263 ¯ a. Nirmala (a Paippal¯ da village). 187. 316 ı a. a N¯ rad¯ya. 238 a . 143 public libraries in. 41 passages not fully metrical in. 323 ı . 18 prose passages in. N¯ radasamhit¯ . 248. 27 . Paith¯nasiparibh¯ sa. 330 Paippal¯ da´r¯ ddhakalpa. am¯. 279 s ı . nimsana-. 271 a a´ ¯ Meghaduta.. 54. 27 . 146. . 187 a. 256 a a ı m¯ y¯ sakti. 184 Mlecchas. 238 a visualizations of. 195 ´a Newar S¯ kta brahmins. 203 ˜ ˜ a Pancar¯ tra. 238 non-Atharvavedin performers of Atharvanic rites. ¯ . 183 . N¯ r¯ yana Bhatta. 233 s . Navakalevara. 322 m¯ y¯ b¯ja. 157 ¯ Mulabandha. 186. 37 a . 248 a Mukundadeva. N¯ radapur¯ na. 92 aa . 18 spelling peculiarities of Or. 198 s a . 242 . 181. a Naksatrakalpa. Paippal¯ dasamhit¯ a a . a M¯rabhava. 258 a ı ˚ m¯ trja cala. 339 m¯ trb¯ja. 202 a a. 237. . 186 a sa Paippal¯ di-/Pippal¯ dagotra. 54. 294 misattribution. 183 . 346 ı mirrors. 224 a ı N¯ r¯ yana. 88. 176 ı ¯ . ı Paith¯nasitadagavidhi. of PS spelling peculiarities of. 253 Par¯ japavidhi. 198 s a Ni´v¯ sasamhit¯ . 253 a˜ a a´ p¯ pmano vinidhayah. 201 a Paith¯nasi. 244 a a ˚ Mrtyuk¯ l¯. 231. 209. 227 Navar¯ tra. centrality in Angirasakalpa . 77 ¨ Tubingen codex of. 174. 252 . Naimittikakarm¯ nusamdh¯ na. a . P¯ nc¯ rthika P¯ supatas. 333 .¯ 158 Ni´isamc¯ ra. 196 a . nims-. law of three. 357 a a Paippal¯ dins of Orissa. 38 Mother goddesses (eight). 224 a . 144. 217 aa . a Nityotsava. author of a Paddhati. 77 ´ ´a a Paippal¯ da/Saunaka. 316 a Ny¯ yamanjar¯. 207 aı ˚ Mudr¯ s. 31. 249 mul¯ s. 182 a a Oddiy¯ na. accented passages in. 188 ı . 254 Par¯ krama. 237 . 275. 258 a a ˚ M¯ trtantra tradition. 180. a oracle.. . 277 a ˚ Maudaka. 263. 226 Ny¯ ya. 295 N¯lakantha. 337 mlecchavesa. pancakalpa. foundation of.. PS passages that are not fully.

195. 187.t pa´ubali. 74. 18 prose/poetry. 277 a s p¯ ra´ava. 237 a . 180.´ a Par¯ tr¯sik¯ . mss. 197. a 208 R¯ jatarangin¯s. purvasev¯ . arik¯ . 333. 246 a ı´ a a ı a Paribh¯ sa (of Paith¯nasi?). 361. 32 prose. 184. 348 . 25 . 246 a . 60 ´ . public manuscript libraries of Orissa. 142. . 365 a. 230 a . t a r¯ s. t¯ a ´ rajan-. 277. 18 prad´sah. 335 aa . 278 a. persecution of Hindus in Kashmir stopping of. 316 . ´a ˚ Pseudo-Jonar¯ ja. . 72 ı´ . 335 Rahasyapancada´ik¯ . Raghuvamsa. 172 a s ı private manuscript collections in Orissa. 198. 228. 81. rahasya. 348 a Pseudo-S¯ yana. 347 purohita (see also r¯ japurohita). 91 saccid¯ nanda. Sad¯ siva. ra´anti. 183 ¯ pus. 225 a´ Sahaj¯ nandayogin. 230. Sikh rule of in Kashmir. 243 a ı´ a ˚ Par¯ tr¯sik¯ t¯ tparyad¯pik¯ . 18 Proto-Bengali source of Or. 225 s P¯ supatas and the AV. 218. 225.ı ˙ a a R¯ me´ vara. descendants of. 219. alternation between. prakritism. 183. as. 237. t s ¯ ratnadhenu. 71 a. 180 ¯ a . i. purvabr¯ hmana.ı R¯ jatarangin¯sangraha of S¯ hibr¯ m. ham¯ tr¯ diacritics. 233. 219. 230 ˜ a date and provenance of. 181 a . 207 ˙ a . 71 ¯ R¯ j¯ nakavamsastuti. 345 Rgved¯ nukraman¯. decline in use of. 248 a Para´ur¯ makalpasutra. 30. 213. 25. 204. 253 a´ P¯ supatavrata.t R¯ ghavabhatta. 330. 366. Monastery I at. 237. 215 names of. 143 prose. 207. ˙ a Pratyangir¯ Mah¯ k¯ l¯. 207 ˙ a ˙ a Pratyangir¯ (s). 330 a ˙ .INDEX 393 Par¯ mantravidhi. 367. ¯ . Ra´mim¯ l¯ . 271 a Sadaksaravakratundakalpa.´ R¯ japur¯ / Rajaur¯. a a . 207 ˙ a aı *Pratyangir¯ divisayakasamgraha. 148 pura´carana. 196 a´ paur¯ nika.ı ˚ Rudra. 254 Par¯ tr¯sik¯ laghuvrtti. 348. 186 ı pratyaksarany¯ sa. of PS. 237 a ı´ a two recensions of. 87 prs. 290 Picumata (Brahmay¯ mala). 348 a ˙ . 256 ¯ a purvatantra. 233 a. 232 Pra´ astabhava. . 248 a . 216 . 220 a aı Pratyangir¯ mantra. 185 s . 187 a. 289 ı a . 215. 346 s Prasravana. 370 Ratnagiri. 295 pr¯ ya´citt¯ya.. t a r¯ s. 370 Purusottama. 238. a in Kashmir of. 205 a . 344. 238 a s Ranjit Singh. 88 a´ P¯ supata terminology. 197 re-import of Atharvaveda into Kashmir. 295 a . 248 ˜ s a r¯ jamantrabhat. 252 a p¯ ra´aiva. a 293 poetry/prose. 277 a s Par¯ stuti. r´ -. 287 s aa r¯ s. a 362. 244. Pratyangir¯ bhadrak¯ l¯mantra. 107 Pha Muang. 237 s a ¯ Par¯ trimsik¯ .t ˚ 344 Prthiv¯n¯ rayan S¯ h. 38 Prapancahrdaya. 256 s . PS passages in. use ¯ . radevat¯ . 343 a ı ı r¯ japurohita (see also purohita). purnim¯ nta system of month-naming. 220. 369.. 345 perseveration. 234 . prat¯ka. 184 ˜ ˚ Prapancas¯ ra. 178. ı Pari´is. alternation between. .

89 pre-Mantram¯ rgic. ı Siddh¯ nta. 254. 207. 195 ´ Saivism ´ ‘Kashmir Saivism’.¯ Simha (Kashmir Sultan’s chief auditor). 198. 184. ı . 88. . 183. 287 a ´a S¯ mbhav¯ Mudr¯ .. Sanmukhakalpa. 250 ı a Samh¯ rabhairav¯. 215. 205 a . 195. depicted by Pseudo-Jonar¯ ja as true a ¯ antagonist of Suhabhatta. 84 ´ aı Siv¯ j¯. s´ miti. 235. 196. ´ Saivakalpadruma. 274 . 239 a Sarv¯ nandan¯ tha. 186 ´a a S¯ kh¯ s lists of. 345 . 238 a ´a a ´ Saunaka/Paippal¯ da. 316 ´¯ aindr¯santi. santi. 25 .t santiv¯ rika. 197 . 173. ra´anti. 172 ´a S¯ kuntala.ı ˙ Saiddh¯ ntika. 176 . 230. . 185 ı a a a a Saundaryalahar¯. ˚ s¯ mmanasy´ . ika. a vagueness of. 203 a . 81. 335 . 175 Saubh¯ gyodaya. 67 a Siddhalaksm¯ = Siddhilaksm¯. 236 a sa´anka (monday). 198. 184. 218 a ¯ ´ Sarva.394 INDEX S¯ hibr¯ m. 196. 205. sesic¯ -. 28 ´ ´ Satarudriya. 231 ¯ a Skanda.. 141 Upanisads attributed to. ¯ ´ ˙ Sankara. ı Sikandar (Sultan of Kashmir). 344 ´ a a ´ Siryabhatta. 186 at ´a a ´ S¯ kh¯ -distinction Saunaka/Paippal¯ da. 332 . 338 . 236 a a Sarvoll¯ satantra.. 365 ´¯ . 242. 147. vague S¯ kh¯ a distinction between. ha. 210 a. 236 a a . 348 a a a ˙ . a s¯ mpada. 233. 289 ´ Sivasutrav¯ rtika. 219. 277. . 278 ´ antikalpa. ´ Siva. 231 . 184 S¯ santikapaus. 361.¯ Kashmir. 85 sat karm¯ ni. 151. 196. 230 date and provenance of. 348 ´ ˙ Sankar¯ c¯ rya of Gauda. 181 ´ ˙ Sankara. 77 a Samkrti. 293 a. 207. physician to Sultan Sikandar of . 161 . 362 ´¯ a a ´a a S¯ rad¯ tilaka. 278 s s¯ Graha´anti. 294 ı . 183. ´ Saunak¯ya. 184. 225 a Siddhilaksm¯.. 186 ´ ´a a Saunaka-S¯ kh¯ ancillary literature of. 88. ´a a Saubhaga-S¯ kh¯ (a spurious name?). 295 . 195. a Samhit¯ vidhi. 225. 218 a ´a S¯ kta. 118 Skandapur¯ na (Original). 227. 237 ı S¯ yana.¯ 339 sirom¯ tr¯ . 60 Samayavidy¯ . t s ¯ recitation. 361 ´¯ a a a ˚ santy¯ g¯ rika. 172. 184 r¯ s. 322 ı ´ Saunak¯y¯ Catur¯ dhy¯ yik¯ . 176 variant readings in names of. 85 rites. R¯ jatarangin¯sangraha. 225. 232 S¯ rasvatasukta. 187. 237. 210. Skanday¯ ga. 295 . 232 ´ Saiva officiants encroachment into the Purohita’s office by. 278 a. 195. 341 ´ s¯ ˙ satarcin-. 237 Mantram¯ rgic. ´ Sitikantha. 196. 283 sakalap¯ . a Samuccayapr¯ ya´citt¯ ni. ˙ Sangabhattaraka. 232 a . 176 a . 172 a samp¯ tahoma. 117 Sarvak¯ mabhairava. 196 a Saiddh¯ ntika. 218 a ´ Saivacint¯ mani. 230. 213 s¯ literature. 76 a. 335. 362 ı´ ¯ de´a´anti. 237 a post-Vedic. . 361 ´¯ a santy¯ g¯ r¯ dhikrta. 71. . 180 a s a Samvarodaya.

Tulaj¯ Bhav¯ n¯. Tantrav¯ rttika. 373 ¨ Tubingen PS manuscript. 238 a a up¯ dhy¯ yakula. 358. 278 ¯ V¯ dibhairava. 230 Thai of Sukhothai. a ı ˚ ¯ Suhabhatta. 295 ˜a ¯ Tanj¯ vur. 335. 369 a .. 196. 196 .INDEX 395 sodarya-. 187 ´ ı Sr¯kum¯ ra (author of T¯ tparyad¯pik¯ on a a ı a Tattvaprak¯ sa). Utkala. 75 tribute (bal´). 231 s Ugrat¯ r¯ . 338 . 342 t¯ksna (assassin). 293–295 Taleju. 340. 346 Uttar¯ mn¯ ya. 180. ´ addhakalpa. 231 ı sukla = sukra (month name). P¯ supata terminology in. 344. death in 1417 AD. 148 . 234 tribal alliance. 67 a Upavarsa. 333 restoration of. corpora of. 200 a a a . 344 colophon of. 334 Sukhat¯rtha. 348 Yuddhabhatta’s archetype of. Ucchusmarudra(s). 349 Utsabhava. hin. 236 aa Ujjain. 295 a a a Tantrasadbh¯ va. 220 ı trit¯ r¯. 238 sword. 206 Upanisadic literature.. 183 Tantrar¯ jatantr¯ vat¯ rastotra.. 289 a a ı tul¯ purusa. 202 . hakkura. Upanisad-names . 143. lists of fifteen/eighteen/twentythree/twenty-eight. 244 Sv¯ min¯ yaka. Ucchusmakalpa. 364 a a Upanayana. 217 ´ ıvara. 73 ı Trika. 344 ´ Suka. 215. 237. 345 dating of. 216 upatvac¯ -. 290 t . 332. 47 ı Vaikh¯ yanagotra. 330 Sr¯ Srstik¯ l¯. 345. 175. 238 tantra (‘ritual sequence’). 74. 339 a a tithipati. 186 Sr¯ ´ ı Sr¯dhara. Udayade´ ika. 81. 88 a´ ´ ı Sr¯ndravarman. Tumburu. 229 Utsa. 198 . 368 at Tripurabhairav¯. 183 uvaccan.. 240. . 242 aı triveda. 177 Upanisads of the Atharvaveda. 290 Some´ vara Bhatta. 237 trip¯ . 330. 283 a a ˜ uttaratantra. 339 Trailokyamohana Mantra. 213. 345 . 182. 235 aa Tattvas (twenty-six). 147 ¯ ´ addhavidhi. 29 Somadeva. Ucchistarudras. 286 .. 274. 341 traditional learning in Kashmir measures against. 220 Svacchandatantra. 290 ´ ı ¯ Sr¯sukta. 186 Sr¯ ´ a Sr¯ ddhasutra. 340 ´ ´ Svacchandabhairava. 184. Tantras¯ rasamgrahavy¯ khy¯ na. 348 . 253 a´ Swami Lakshman. 222 . 198 . 237 a Tantras¯ rasamgrahamantravimar´in¯. 293 Um¯ nandan¯ tha. 231 a a Svapn¯ dhy¯ ya. 349 ı . 252 Svet¯ ´ . 142. 334 a T¯ r¯ . 182 s . 283 a a Uttar¯ mn¯ yayajnakrama. Tilak¯ c¯ rya (Buddhist). 173 a Vaikuntha. 185 a a ´ asvataropanisad.. 200 a s ı .. 231 a Vaijayant¯. . 119 turuska. 288–291.

217 . 219 war. V¯ manabhavad¯ s¯ya. 145 vratas. a a ..¯ seizure of power. 283 vin¯ yak¯ bhiseka (*vin¯ yakasen¯ bhiseka?). 60 sı Vimalaprabodha. v¯ t¯k¯ r´ . 232. 175. 264. 225... 48. . 176 a a . 184 a ¯ Vakratunda. 243 ı. 146. 63. 188. 210. 222. 177 vy¯ pakany¯ sa.. Yonigahvara. 273. 145 a vowel shortening before consonant cluster. 338 Yodhabhatta. 249 a . 38 Vratapustaka. list of eighteen. 172 a vidy¯ sth¯ n¯ ni. 90 aı aa ved (‘to know’) 1pl. V¯ stusutropanisad. 238 aa ı Varnapatala.. 204.. commencement of. 289 Y¯ jnavalkyasmrti. 249 a Yuddhabhatta. 343 birth. ¯ visualization.. 227 Vi´ vam¯ tr. Zayn accession. 234 Vait¯ nakalpa. 198 a a. 48 . 209 a aı Var¯ hapur¯ na. 203. Yogam¯ rtanda. 209 a Vait¯ nasutra. 202. 335 a´ Zhou Daguan. 152 ı s V¯ran¯ tha. 333 . Yantra. 296 ı a Visnudharmottarapur¯ na.396 INDEX Vaisnava(s). 335 . 334 a a a ˜a Vijn¯ nabhairava (Rudra). Venkata M¯ dhava. 290 . 315. drift away from. Visnusmrti. V¯ r¯ h¯. Visnupur¯ na. 226. 334 a˜ ˚ y´ ksma-/yaksma-. 92 s a´ Viv¯ hapustaka. 239 mantra of. 182 a˙ Ved¯ ntic. 344 rule as Sultan. 105 a . (list of) six. 275 Ya´ askara. 42. 226 a Vedic ritual. 176 a Vindhyav¯ sin¯. 196 ˙ . .. . 196. 343 death and burial. 240 a a ¯ Vyuhas (four). form vidmas of. 202 a. 184. 340 exile. 216. 282 Yonimudr¯ . 333 s ◦ vidhi (element used in titles of Paippal¯ da ancillary texts). 334 a. 145 a ¯ . vin¯ yakasena. 212. ˚ Visnusukta. 333. 220 Vikramorva´¯ya. 75 victory in. 222 . 213. 24 s a Vi´vaprak¯ sa. .. 211 Warangal. 344 . 215. Yogap¯tha. 258 s a ˚ Vi´ v¯ mitra. 173. 340. 296 s yavana (Muslim). 185 . 290 a ı V¯rake´ arideva. 180 a vide´agamana. 340 Zayn-Prak¯ sa. 28 Ved¯ ngas. 344 death. . 225. 214.

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