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REPORT OF WORKING SUB-GROUP I
3.. PRaY. SUDI-IAKAR NADKARNI
4. ASHOKE CHATTERJEE.
PROPOSAL FOR NA.TIONAL DESIGN COUNCIL FOR INDIA REPORT OF THE SUB-GROUP I
SUB: NATIONAL POLICY STATEMEJT ON INDUSTRIAL DESlillf
As a member of the world community of nations, vs« live in an industrial civilisation. India's encapsuled industrial experience since Independence must accomodate many influences, to absorb which the industrialised nations of the West had more than two centuries at their disposal. This acoa.Ler-at ed process must leave disturbing effects on the social and.cultural patterns of our people. The .imbalances thus created, require to be offset by planning for better and more hurn.aneenvironments, both urban and rural. Industrial Design has a special contribution to make in -t hi.s pz-o ee se, Industrial Dss.i.gn, in the same manner as engineering and archi.techas be-en interna tional.ly re cognised as a tool to enhance the man-made environment. Industrial design has been defined as a creative activity whose aim is to determine the physical form of nhjp.r.te~ systems and environments which are created at every level of industrial production. These physical forms are not only external features,but primarily those structural and functional relationships which convert a product or visual system into a coterent unity, congenial to the user and economic to produce. IndUstrial design is ultimately concerned with creating a harmorri ous environment which satisfies the physical and psychological needs of people.
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NEED FOR POLICY STATEMENT
Although ds ai.gn is a real need, it is not y.et a sufficiently felt need in India, and design methodology is inadequately known and insufficiently used as an economic resource. Apart from the fact tha.t design improves function, enbances communication, simplifies manufacture, use and maintenances, it is also through design t ha.b relevant cultural traditions can be preserved.and utilised to current advantage. To achieve these purposes, this Statement on the importance of design can help promote a national consensus oll the need for creatil?;g design awareness and for utilising design as a tool for development •.
In 1979, India organised an international meeting on Design tor Development under the auspices of the United ations Industrial Development Orgmlisation ( IDO) and the International Courtcil of Societies of Industrial Design (ICSJIl). The direct outcome of the meeting was the Ahmedabad Declaration 011 Industrial Design. for Development which accepted .industrial design as an .important me s for .raising the quaJ_ity of li fe in developing nations. an This Policy statement utilises and takes forward the Ahmedabad Declaration and its l"faj or Re commena td.oris, d
DEVELOPING INDIGE! OUS CAPACITY There is a definite need for a national understanding of Industrial Design and of the relatively n ew profession of Industrial Design ..
It is necessary that a national aWareness be created to enable this nascant movement to be accepted and to move ahead with speed. Tr) this effect, Government is committed to develop the indigeuous capacity, for Industrial Design through emphasis on training, research, consultancy and promotion services.
Strategies are required to ensure that the training of designers and their placement are geared to national. priori ties., and that sectors of national need are stimuJ',ated by everypos.sible means to use and to encourage design service. Towards this objective, institutions of Industrial Design education, training, research, and promotion will identify and serve priori ty needs in industry, commerce, agriculture, e duca td.on, public health, eommund.ca td on and transport im both public and private sectors. nEED .FOR GHANGE OF ATTITUDES In.dustrial Design and its practitioners are to be encouraged to guard against thoughtless imitations of design from industrially advanced nations and to take ir-to account local needs, traditions and production and consueiptd on patterns. The drive for design self-SUfficiency must t.ake on an added signi ficance today especially in the light of international collaboration, as well as growing competition for world markets. Industrial Designi.s involved with creating not only material but also cultural values. While the loss of cultural identity and values can seldom be restored, it is ne cessary to guard against an obv.i.ous sweep towards a general cuJ.t ur e wi thin i. shrin..ld.ng world. Industrial Design can help to link the' aesthetic values of a culture vi th modernisation and thus se rve as a force for confidence and identity, both individual and co.ILectd.ve , Hence, India's Industrial Designers must recogni.se the ne ed for de.sign solutions which are in har.monywith the u€ eds and attitudes prevalent .in their :own.envd.ronment.s ,
6.0 6.11 DIRECTIONS To mark the beg:i_mu.n.gof any effort to root industrial design in our country" the search must be intensified for local skills, local materials and local design know-how, all of which abound in a traditional society such as ours. and work philosophy for Industrial Design should be evolved so that it takes into consideration conclitions available in our country and use s them as a creative chailen.ge. This would Ln.c.Lud e the need to emplo,y human labour power" to work wi. th several levels of skills and production facilities simultaneously" and to promote the economic Use of scarce materials and the re-Use of products and materials. The Institutions of Industrial Design must demonstrate that in all areas of public expenditure the integration of design in the planning process can ensure optimum quality and utilisation of resources. They must communicate that Industrial Design is ul.tiroately concerned with the improvement of our environment through appropriate use of raw materials, increased productivity, with the. protection of health, human safety" natural and cultural r-e sour cee , with the enhancement of wo rkd.ng environments and with expanding work opportunities and earnings at all levels. Therefore design considerations should be incorporated in all plans for national developmen t. The responsi.bilities envisaged for India f s design institutions are such as to warrant the s t.at us and support provided to. National. Research laboratories. A tradition of research in d es.i.gn, .in the same spirit as in science and technology,. should result into documentated and published resources to stimulate education, training and practice of design. Industrial design is a oreative activity. Even mi.nor Lne xpen sd.ve improvements in objects, visual communication systems and environments of everyday use can have an impact for beyond what is apparent. Such improvements also aid the process of sensitisati.on to design as a need" and must be a priority activity in our country. Industrial Design remains an indispensable tool for export promotion in an increasingly competd.t.Lve world. Therefore design for export must be a vital component of India1s future trade strategi.es.
7.0 EDUCATIONNDTRADlING A As th,€ education of Industrial D,esi.gner requires an indepth study. in apecLf'i,c areas of natural sciences, cechn.o!ogy" social sciences, human factors and a.esthetics, the planning of its content and teaching methods may warrant an approach as innovative as the de aLgn processi tself. One such innova.tion wou'l.d be to make sure that practi.cal experience from industry at all levels of production is represented on the faculty of Industrial Design education centres. It should rasul t in these centres being id,entified in everyway with .industrial activi ty and not with universiti,es. This will enable them to a cqui.r e a predominantly industrial eu.Lt.urs , which is essential to theirsllccess rather than a strictly academic ons. The educa.t.Lon system in Industrial Desi.gn education centres shOUld be geare d to bring out job cteators and not mere job f;LJ.]_ers" _reso_utcE gen_srators ~nd not mE re resource s user sIf future generations are to raise the quail ty of our environment a live contact with the design process should become a part of tb€educati.on of school children. To encourage tIli.s sensi.tivity in the VEry young, thEre is an urgent need to comhine the spirit of innovativeproblem-so.l.ving with thecul ture of handwork .in our sohoo'Ls , Design training insti tut.i.ons ande ducabor s must work together to innovate such programmes for school children. The improvement of Lear-rd.ng aids through design appli.cat.ion must a'Lso be seen as a priority need wi thin this p.rocess .•
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HOLE OF Th"DUSTRY
Industri.es should be parti.cularly encouraged to invest in Industrial Design and a cco r-d it the same status as resec.:r:ch and development. (R&D) functions in the ind ustrial hairarchy. Careful strate gi.es are to be encour-aged for .offering design service to small-seaJ.e and cottage industri.es whi.ch are often unable to afford their own full-time desi.gners. These strategie s will require constant innovation an.d understandi.ugof the Lmpor-bance of design solutions appropr.iate to the problems of these industries.
?-:1EASURES 'ill PROMOTE
To achieve the above objectives, Government is committ,edi.n taking an active part in promot.ing IndustriaJ:.. Desdgn at the national level and. to that effect it has .ini.tia.ted the e:stablishm,ent of a Nationa.l Design Council.
9.2 The functions of such a Council would ne cessarily be promotional and advisory. It would render services to industries and create an interface b~tween indust.ry, training institutions and working designers. It will also monitor design standards in the realm of production, and standards of quality in design training. Autonomous fW1ctioning will be a necessary pre-requisite for effective functioning. National design awards, exhibitions, documentation and publication programmes are a few of many means to create a wider understanding of Industrial Design, of th,€ relevance of India t s design tradi tions and resources to contemporary needs, and to set hallmarks of quality
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