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vuhi kashf-e

zat ki arzii

by Nun Mim Rashid (1910-1975) from La bariibar insiiii (1969), 146-148

basic foot (repeated over and over): - - - --

o.
1. 2.

3.
4.

5.
6. 7.

kashf zat anti dil-giro jan-giro chala ana dar khulna nasib rah-rau hava barq ra'd abr tIrgI rah inti~r na-rasi tu-ba-ta mehmafi rah-rau gurezpa sarah dasht khala nava qarib rah-guzar fasun
ar?

revelation, disclosure, opening (m.) self, essence, nature (f.) longing (f.) one with a heavy heart (m.) one with a heavy life (f.) to come along door (m.) to be open fate, destiny (m.) under way, moving along the road wind (f.) lightning (f.) thunder (m.) cloud (m.) darkness (f.) road (= rah) (f.) awaiting (m.) distastefulness (f.) you alone = mihmafi (for meter), guest (m.) wayfarer (m.) flying, fleeing, escaping foot (m.) mirage (m.) desert (m.) void, absolute emptiness (f.) voice, sound (f.) near traveller (m.) incantation, magic spell (m.) earth, land (f.) sky, heavens (m.) one whose heart is imprisoned (m.) disgrace, reproach (f.)

8.

9.

10.

11.

Car

sarna dil-giriftah

Rashid, vuhi kashf-e iat, p. 1

12. 13. 14. 15. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22.

bulana pai-bah-pai ~ada jalajil
muriir

zamafi farar kun-makun
rii-marfi

bar

l).arf
bayafi Jlsm ravati kalam zaban sham'a lau naqsh-kar surat sada tishnah rang vasl ma'ni bar-vat but-tarash nigah
ka?I

to call out to, to invite at every footstep voice (f.) little bells (m.) (pl. ofjuljul) passing, passage (m.) age, generation (m.) flight, fleeing (m.) affirmation and negation (f.) (Arabic: Be! Do not be!) movement and non-movement {f.) (?) load, burden (m.) letter, word (m.) mention, expression (m.) body (m.) movement, flowing (f.) speech (m.) tongue (f.) candle (f.) flame (f.) "shape-maker," artist (m.) face, aspect (f.) forever (f.) thirsty color (m.) union (m.) meaning (m.) burdened, indebted "image-carver," sculptor (m.) glance (f.) a number of stone (m.) cruelty, suffering (f.) despair (f.) death (f.) to be saved direction (f.) road (f.) "with information," knowledgeable voice (f.) vision, sight (f.) pertaining to azal, the eternity before creation to be remembered extreme limit (f.) "color and scent," the senses secret, mystery (m.) wine Cf.)
Rashid, vuhI kashf-e fat, p. 2

23. 24.

25.

26. 27.

sang aziyyat yas

marg
28. 29. bachna simt rah ba-khabar nida riiyat azlI yad hona ghayat rang 0 bii

30. 31. 32.

33.

raz

mat

34. 26. 31.{lID rah-rau! hai yih hava. 16. 18. p. Rashid. 11. 22. miri jati-giro! chala a. 33.) warp and woof.) inquiry. miri jafi giro tin kun-makun. mira dil-giro. yih ra'd 0 abr. sabu va'dah tar pu [tar 0 pud (?) ewer.) promise (m. 30. 5. 17. pitcher (m. 27. yih tirgi rah-e intizar kI na-rasi mire jan 0 dil pah haifi tu-ba-tu. 14. 4. 3 . 2. 15. 6. 19. 29. mire rah-raul ai gurez-pa. 28. 13. search (m. vuht kashf-e tat. yih barq. 10. thread directions in woven fabric] 1. 1:11 sarab-e dasht-e khala nah ban vuh nava nah banjo qarfb-e rah-guzar ho vuh fasiin-e arz 0 sama nah ban jise dil-giriftofi se Car hoI jo tujhe bulan hai pai-bah-pai vuh sada jalajil-e jan kI hai vuh sada murtir-e zamafi kI hai kise us sada se farar ho? mira dil giro. mire mehmafi. 25. 21. 7. 12. 35. 24. 36. tin ru-maru mujhe bar-e jafi kih main harf'jis ka bayafi hai 1:11 main vuhjism jis kI ravafi hai ttl tii kalam hai. 23.) thread. string (m. maiii tin zaban ttl vuh sham'a hai kih maifijis kI lau! kisi naqsh-kar ka ek naqsh-ka'I suratefi jo sada se tishnah-e rang thifi hu'i vasl-e ma'ni se bar-var kist but-tarash ki ik nigab-ka'I sang aziyyat-e yas 0 marg se bach gaye hu'e simt-e rah se ba-khabarl chala a kih min nida mefi bill vuhi rtiyat-e azli kih hai jise yad ghayat-e rang 0 btl jise yad raz-e mai 0 sabu jise yad va'dah-e tar 0 pul chala a kih min nida men bill usi kashf-e zat ki arzu! 8. 3. 20. 9. 32.kih hai mira.34. dar khula to mira n3.

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solitary sign. p. tasalsul ke ~aQra men. impression (f. 9.) life Cf." close to death bird.) mole.= = 1. khal 7. peninsula (m.) desert (m.) to pass cheek (m.) road (f. atmosphere (f. 12. firaq visal tTIa ahistah rezish ghas na-mukammal jazirah jan ba-lab xa'ir shab larzish rah running. beauty spot (m.) union (m. tasalsul ~a1. connection. change (m. scattering (f.) path.) -burnt to change month (m. flowing. 3.) sand (f. wind.) grass (f.) voice (f.) incomplete island. 1 1__ _ .) mound (m. trace (m. jan -sokhtah badalna mah sal guzama lPlad 5.) alteration. direction (f.) air.) year (m.) only. 11.) slow. winged creature (m.) foot (m.) separation (m. 6.tasalsul ke sahra men by Nim Mirn Rashid (1910-1975) fromLii bariibar insiiii (1969).rra reg hava pa chhap simt sada taghayyur tanha nishan 4.138-140 basic foot (repeated over and over): .) "life on the lip. linkage (m.) night (f) trembling (f. 2. Rashid. gentle pouring.) 10.) print.

) connection. final point (f.) kiss (m.) players (Persian plural) grain of sand (m. incident (m. benevolence (m. 28. through the namaz] careless. 2 16. 24.ramen. 21.) spring breeze (f. zarrah tapna surkh hofit bosah mba bedar hadisah silsilah kedam se roya yaqffi lutf karam nihayat guzar kal yad nigah rah-guzar pahat bank dhara faraz utarna dasht 0 dar machalna samundar kljanib barhna . summit (m.] mountain (m.) end. 27. dishevelled curl.) gentle breeze (f.) -stealing awake event.) tree (m. p. tasalsul ke ~al}. passing (m. fine.) to become warm red lip (m.) road. 17.) in the direction of to advance Rashid. wind (f.) passage. kindness (m. 19. 18. path (m.) to descend "desert and door. 15. series (m. 20. 26. rivulet (f.) certainty (m.) game (f. vision (f. lock of hair (f.) cold gusty wind (f.) affection. bhatakna 'arab sahar-gah hamd 0 sana be-itna muhabbat saba ~arl?ar bad nasim darakht zholidah zulf bazY -kunati to wander off.) generosity. 14. indifferent love (f.) height.) yesterday roeroory(f. subtle stream.) delicate.) breeze. sea (m. become lost Arab dawn-timed praise [of God.) entangled. 22.) because of dream." hither and yon (petrified phrase) to be wayward or perverse ocean.) glance (f.13. 23.

) secret (m. storm (typhoon) (m. 38.) the eternity before Creation (m. concealed Rashid.) light (m.) hidden. tuIaii tarik sahar azal seb rasya -dIdah aba shahr insilil jaraf nm -baran safar muntaha raz nihan 32.29.) -having seen father (m. 34.) -raining down joumey(m.) direction (f. 36. 3 I .) height. 31.) dark dawn Cf. 35.) apple (m. one who enjoys life (m.) city (m.) a sensualist. tasalsul ke ~al}ramen. . 41. limit (m. 30.) human being (m. p..

31. 11. bedar hote haifi us ke sada se badalte hu'e hadisofi ke na'e silsile na'e hadise jin ke dam se tasalsul ka roya yaqIfi na'e hadise jin ke lutf 0 karam ki nihayat nahIfi! tasalsul ke ~aQ. 35. 36. 4 . 38. 2.ramefi mera guzar kal hu'a to yadefi nigahofi ke age guzarte hu'e rah-guzar ban gam: paharofi pah panl' ke bank dhare farazofi se utre. bahut dur tak dasht 0 dar men bhatakte rahe. phir samundar kI janib bathe aUT!iiIaii bane. 26. 3. 23. p. 19. pa'ofi ki chhap simt 0 sada tasalsul ka raz-e nihafi. taghayyur ka tanha nishafi muhabbat ka tanha nishan Rashid. 6. 7. 16. 29. 18. 28. 33. 37. 25. phir vuh shahrofi kI janib bathe aUTinsan bane. tasalsul ke~a"ra men. tasalsul ke sahra men reg 0 hava. 4.1. pa'ofi kI chhap simt 0 sada taghayyur ka tanha nishan: tasalsul ke sahra-e jafi-sokhtah mefi ~ada'efi badalte mah 0 sal hava'efi guzarte khad 0 khal tanha nishan-e firaq 0 vi~al tasalsul ke sahra mefi kisi [?] ret tile ki ahistah ahistah rezish kisi ghas ke na-mukammal j azire mefi ik j an ba-lab !a'ir-e shab kI larzish kisI rah bhatke 'arab ki sahar-gah hamd 0 sana tasalsul ke be-iitna rat din men taghayyur ka tanha nishan=muhabbat ka tanha nishanl saba ho kih sarsar kih bad-e nasim darakhtofi kI zholIdah zulfofi men bazi-kunafi aUTzarrofi ke tapte hu'e surkh hoiitofi se bosah raha jab guzarti hai. bahut dur tak dasht 0 dar meii machalte rahe. 30. 22. 13. har !arafniir-baran bane vuh simt 0 sada jo safar ka nishafi thifi vuhi muntaha-e safar ban ga'Ifi! tasalsul ke sabra men reg 0 hava. 14. 10. 15. 39. 27. 32. 34. un ki tank raten sahar ban ga'Ifi azal ke darakhtofi men sebofi ke rasya hamare jahafi-dldah aba darakhtofi se utre. 21. 5. 24. 20. 42. 17. 8. 41. 40. 12. 9.

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). of alam) heap.pI.) bird (m.) rose.) underneath wing (m. 1 . human being (m.) pains. the Prophet ofQuranic fame head (m.) thirsty rain (m. I I sulaiman sar bah-zanu saba vlran aseb maskan alam anbar be-payafi gyah sabzah gul jahafi 19lall hava tishnah baran ~ayiir dasht manqar zer-e par surmah dargalu inslli'i tursh ill Solomon.) (pl. metaphorically. p. trouble (m.) greenery. 4..) beak (f. saba vrran. gham-gifi pareshafi mil Rashid. black powder or dust III throat (m.) man. 2. deserted misfortune. flower (m. dishevelled. bitter face sorrowful tangled.) empty air.saba vlrafi by NUn MIm Rashid (1910-1975) from Iran men ajnabi (1955). 7.) with or on the knees realm of the Queen of Sheba. dwelling (m.) abode.- 1.) desert (m.62-63 basic foot repeated over and over: -. pile (m. scattered (cf. 3. 5. 6. acid.) sour.) world (m. loved by Solomon desolate.) boundless grass (m.) collyrium (m. vegetation (m. griefs (m.) 9. breeze (f. metaphorical "anxious") hair (m.

14. gharat-gar naqsh pa baqi mah qasid farkhundahpm saba kasah pIn mal grasping. merely leap. fire (m.) scent.) begging bowl (m.) old age (£) wine (f.) secret agent.) = az = about. age (m.) shape. 12. establishing (f.) flying. seizing (£) founding. bound (m. form (m. happy foot jar. aha muhabbat shu'lah parrafi havas bii 'z raz dahr kamtar gil 13. lust (f. leaping. zamIfi 'ayyar 15.) ruiner.10. p.) foot (m. smell (f. Rashid. from (persian preposition) secret (m.) less speak (Persian imperative verb) land.) love (f. soil (f. 2 . 17. one who lays waste (m. saba vrran. -giri -banI faqaj jurrarah 11.) remaining moon (m.) 18.) deer (m.) flame.) messenger (m. spy (m. fleeing desire.) universe. pitcher (m.) only.) auspicious.

ab kahafi se qasid-e farkhundah-pai a'e? kahafi se. p. jahafi-banl. pareshati-mu jahati-girt. 15. 3. iayfir is dasht ke manqar zer-e par to surmah dar-galu insan sulaimafi sar bah-zanu aur saba viranI sulaimafi sar bah-zanu. gham-gifi. nah mah-ru-e saba baqI! sulaimaii sar bah-zanu. muhabbat shu'Iah-e parrafi. 8. 3 .! saba vlran kih ab tak is zamffi par ham kisf 'ayyar ke gharat-garofi ke naqsh-e pa baqi saba baqi. 17. 12. 5. 14. sulaimafi sar bah-zanu aur saba vIran saba vIran. 18. 16. 11. faqat jurrarah-e abu. 7. tursh-ru. saba vrrafi. 13. 6. havas hu-e gul-e be-bu z-raz-e dahr kamtar gu. saba aseb ka maskan saba alam ka anbar-e be-payan! gyah 0 sabzah 0 gul se jahafi khalr hava'eii tishnah-e baran. kis sabtl se kasah-e piri men mai ire? Rashid.1. 4. 2. 9. 10.

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) to be standing formal salutations (m. 12.panlkI avaz by Nun Mim Rashid (1910-1975) from Gumiiii kii mumkin (1969).) dream (m. karam husn ladna sharir 'aurat qabil vi~aI intizar sahar -ke gird -ke as-pas murdah naval). 9. 11.) [surely an error.) courtesy. awaiting (m. 18. early morning (f.) to be loaded mischievous woman (f.) to scrutinize. search through to be hidden suspicion (m.) Your Honor kindness.) appearance. 8. 7.. 6. arrival (m. lamenting (m. ocean (m. sexuallove (m. choosing (m. 5. generous deed (m. 2.) worthy union. ghumna fiiit-rang baghichah jhari chhanna chhipna guman khvab intikhab vurud nagahan samundar [bhi] voice (f. since it's unmetrical] .) sudden.) foot (m.-- 1. 10. 3. 13.) dawn.) beauty (m. unexpected sea. 15. 17.) to wander around camel-colored small garden (m. in the vicinity of in the neighborhood of dead mourning. politeness (m.) shrub.) around. ~ada pa ab adab khara hona salam ].UL?:Ur 4.) wait. 16.) selection. bush (f.) water (m. 113-116 basic foot (repeated over and over): . 14.

) tears (m.19.) (normally f.) = ke siva. 36." arrogance (f.) under navel (f. 28.) "dead-place. bhap kuiivafi masjid mfi zer-e naf shanf nalI raj lahn sharab hazar bar ansfi dil-navazi dikha'i dena jhalak magar sach musahabah fasiifi-gad jan-mba shikoh ada lahn hasham darakht sar-navisht sar-kashi -siva bhulna Jar kinarah-gir vapor. mood (m. steam (m.f.) to dance footstep (m.) hair (m. 27. 21. besides.) train.) but.) heart-protectingness (f.) "head-highness. 23.) thousand time.) side-holding.) color. 29.) sound. ignited fuel (m. manner.) well (m. 35. 41. 25. domain (f.) blood (m. mind (m.) rule. shiver 33. followers." captivating majesty.) to be kindled. occasion (f. .) to become visible glistening. of valf. 20." cremation ground (m. suite (m.) "forehead-written.) to tremble.) tree (m. 22.) pain (m. 40." destiny (f. 38.) incantation-making (f. voice (f. keeping company with courtyard (m. grandeur (m. 37. 26. 34. . vein (f.) wine (f.) mosque (f.) "life-stealing. 24.) style. "friend" [of God]) bone (m.) well-bred. shining (f. sahn sulagna Ifidhan auliya ustukhvafi dard rang nachna qadam mar-ghat zamir kaiipna 39. in addition to to forget root (f. perhaps true companionship (m. 30.) prophets. aristocratic artery.) heart. refined. holy men (pI. manner (f.

" alchemy (f. 44. benevolent hand (m. mockery (m. fancy (m. 50.) face (m. torrent (f.) the Lord unconsciousness (m.) to be supressed. 52.) moment (m.) prophet. sada-e pa-e ab sun ke aj maifi . evident existence.) simple affection. 58.) to ensnare with a noose roof (f. coming down (m. descent.) beyond reckoning having set (like the sun) (m. current. 54. 51. 59. messenger (m. long garment (m.) imagination. 57. jun rii dar pal phafidna chhat tairna kam-sin pairahan ufaq karim dast sail be-hisab gharub sadah ulfat shab l. 55. take to the road roof (m.) to swim one of "little age. janz rab lena bam 49.42.) 1.) -testing animal. pushed down death (m.) sarcasm." a child (m.) sour-faced sharp-tempered dry shadow (m.) generous.ffiuda la-sha'ur dabna marg -[zma janvar rahguzar payambar vahimah kimiya-garf namud vujud be-sabat nan 53.) flow.) robe.) "chemistry-doing. 56. contingent negation (f.) horizon.) door (m. living creature (m. region (m.) pair of shoes (f.) appearing. intimacy (f. presence (m. nazul tarsh-ru tund-khu khushk sayah 45.) insubstantial. 47.) to go one's way.) roadway (m.) night (f.

21. 13. 8.2. 18. 7. 3. hazar bar afisu'ofl ki dil-navaziyofi men bhi dikha'i dI hai ap ki jhalak hamefi! magar yih sach hai is jarah musahabah nahifi hu'a nab ap a'e us fastifi-garf ke jan-mba shikoh se. 11. 9. nah is hasham se ap ne kabhi karam kiyal « nah jab tak ap a'e the darakht.' 39. 43. 30. 5. 4l. 38. 26. 45. 24. 19. adab se uth khara hu'a "salam. 44. 35. 23. 28. yih khushk saye apna ap janz ban ke rah left -- . 20. 17. 40. 36. sharab mefi bhi ap haiti. 37. 33. ap a gaye karam kiya kih ap husn se ladi huf sharir 'auratofi se bill ziyadah qabil-e visal ham! ham ap hl ke intizar men sahar ke gird dopahar ke as-pas murdah rat ke naval). men hameshah ghumte rahe -ham apne OOt-rang baghchofi ki jhariyon ko chhante rahe kih ap un men chhip gaye nab hofi kahifi -hamefi yihi guman tha -magar ko'I bhi apne khvab ap intikhab kar nahifi saka isf jarab yih ap ka vurud-e nagaban bill hai -samundarofi men [bhi] ap haifi bhap men bhI ap haifi kufivofi men bhi haifi. j in kI sar -navisht sar-kashi siva nahIfi yih sar-navisht bhiil kar jarofi se bhi kinarah-gir ho gaye -gharofi ke sahn sahn men sulagte Ifidhanofi par auliya ke ustukhvafi ka dard rang nachne laga qadam qadam pah mar-ghatofi kf rat ka zamir kanpne laga -ab ap ke nazul se bas utna ho yih tarsh-ru 0 tund-khu. 14. 22. 29. 10. 31. 6. 4. lahu men bhi. nab us ada-e lahn se. 25. 16. 27. 12. 42. ai huzur. 32. masjidofi k1 mti'e zer-e naf se ati hu'I sharif naliyofi mefi bhl to ap hI ka raj hai. 34. 15.

58. 50. 54. 52. yih rabguzar payambarofi ke vahame ki kimiya-gari banefi. 56. 47. ° yih kam-namud admi 59. 53. 49. 57. 55. vujud-e be-sabat ld nafi banefil .46. 51. 48. hamate kam-sinofi ke pairahan ufaq ki jfitiyofi se j a lagefi. magar nah ho. karim 'auratoft kI dast rii karam ke sail-e be-hisab men gharub hofi hamare sadah ulfatofi ke roz 0 shab khuda ke la-sha'ur men dabe rahen yih marg-azma darakht. hamare bam 0 dar palofi ko phafidja'efi gharofi kI mez kursiyafi chhatofi pah tairne lagen. janvar.

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) arm (f. 2. in the manner of non-forgetfulness-doing (f. 8. constantly lover (m.) road (m. 1 . bah upla bagh aJ¢iri mausam rastah jhalasna Iagatar (ashiq sarasar asman chlkhna gunah-gar yad qa1ar zanjir bedast 0 pa maz. 21. 10.) to fly garden (m.) chain (f.) to sing speech) utterance (m.) to limp 14.main kya kah rahd tha by Nun Mirn Rashid (1910-1975) from Gumlifi kli mumkin (1969)) 68-71 basic foot (with occasional small variations): . main kya kah raha tha. sahra laiig:rana Rashid. age.) whirlpool (m. 22.I hanpna ghora ke manind na-faramosh-gan solitude (f.) last) final season (m. p.) to converse praise (f.) to be burnt.) to screech) scream sinner. 7. scorched continually. sinful (m. tanha'i parindah bat kama l)amd gana bol zamanah bhaufir 6. row (f. 18. 19.) desert (m.= = 1.) . 12.) (large) bird (m.) to pant horse (m." helpless past (m.) like. 20.) line. 11. 5. 17. time (m.) memory (f.) wholly (from end to end) sky (m. 4. 16.) "without hand and foot.

24. 25. 26. 27. 28.

'ishq jantari zauq ziyadah palatna a'inah !ilism

tankh
bar-ha ratna magar

29.

tanha
30. 31. 32. 35. 36. 37. payambar takrar hamhamah mumkin gunj diya raushan nIfid uchatna 191ud ulatna parakhna shahr billI jafti ma'stim jangal haW muqaddas rfsh ulajhna ugalna ayat farbihI sahamna
hava

passionate love (m.) almanac, book of astrology (m.) taste, relish, strong interest (m.) more, further to turn over, tum back mirror (m.) magic spell, enchantment (m.) history (m.) Persian plural of bar, turn or time (f.) to repeat but; perhaps sole, only prophet, messenger (m.) repetition (f.) lament, whisper, cry (m.) possible echo (f.) lamp (m.) glowing, lit up sleep (f.) to separate, withdraw self, selves to overturn, upset to investigate, evaluate city (m.) cat(f.) coupling, copulation (f.) innocent jungle (m.) elephant (m.) hallowed, sanctified beard (normally f., here m.) to become entangled to spit out, vomit mark, sign, verse ofQuran (f.pl.), pI. of ayat fatness, stoutness, strength (f.) to be afraid wind, air (f.) game (m.) old, ancient greenery, plants (m.) feast, party (f.) intellect, mind (f.) highway (m.)
Rashid, main kya kah raha tha, p. 2

39. 40. 41.

42. 43. 44. 46. 48. 50. 51. 52.

khel bfirha sabzah da'vat zahan rah-guzar

53. 54.

duzdidah aha] sirf patthar
be-gham

55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62.

na-tashnagf tezi
guzarna

barahnah badan rivayat sar-goshi

bhala
ka'i duhrana shisham shir

stolen coming, arrival (f.) only. merely stone (m.) without grief non-thirstiness (f.) sharpness, speed (f.) to pass by naked body (m.) stories, narratives (f.) (Arabic pI. of'rivayat) whisper (f.) what the hell! a number of, several, some to repeat the name of a tree, the shisham tree (f.) milk (m.)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. II. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23.

main tanha'I men kar raha tha parindofi se baten -main yih kah raha tha "parindo, na'i hamd ga'o kih vuh boljo ik zamane mefi bhofirofi ki bahofi pah urte hu'e bagh ke aJPrirI mausamofi tak pahufiche the ab rastofi mefi jhalasne lage haifi na'i hamd ga'o!" parinde, lagatar, lekin-parinde hameshah se apne hI 'ashiq -sarasar vuhf asman chikhte the! main yih kah raha tha: "gunah-gar dill kaunjane kih kis hath ne hamefi apni yadon ki lambf qa!fu'on ki zanjir men kab se be dast 0 pa kar diya hai? vuh m~I, kabhi hafipte the jo ghorofi ke manind ab na-faramosh-garf ke sahrofi men laiigra rahe ham!" main yih kah raha tha:
Rashid, main kya kah raha ths, p. 3

24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63.

"mire 'ishq ke samne jantari ke zauq ab ziyadah nah palto kih yih a'inofi ke jilismofi ke manind tari1,rnko barha rat chuka hai magar dil ka tanha payambar kabhI apni takrar ka hamhamah ga'e mumkin nahifi kabhi apnIhI gunj ban ja'e mumkin nahifi -vuhf mere dil ka payambar kihjis ne diya aisa raushan kiya kih ratofl ki nIfidefi uchatne Iagefi vuh 14Iud ko ulat kar palat kar parakhne lagefi maiii yih kah raha tha; "sunati haifi jab shahr men billiyafi apni jam kI ma'siim batefi to jangal ke hathi [muqaddas darakhtofi ke rishofi men uljhe hu'e] kyiifi ugalte haifi din rat ayat kI farbihI kih in billiyofi ke gunah-gar, ma'sum dil saham ja'efi?"

main yih kah raha tha: "darakhto, hava'ofi ko tum khel jano to jano -magar ham -- nahlfijante burhe sabzofi ki da'vat ko jate hu'e zahan ke rah-guzarofi mefi kaise na'e din kI duzdidah ahat kabhi sun sakefige? nahIfi sirf patthar hI be-gham hai patthar kI na-tashnagi par! darakhto, hava kitnI tezi se guzri tumhare barahnah badan se kih is mefi rivayat sar-goshiyafi kar rahf thIfi darakhto, bhala kis liye nam apna ka'i bar duhra rahe ho? yih shisham, yih sham-shi, yih shl-shi-i-i-i magar tum kabhi shI-I-I-r -- bhi kah sakoge?" maifi yih kah raha tha->

Rashid, maifi kya kah raha tha, p. 4

R~\+lD

W. M. R:is\\'cl.- Mava.r~ C. Lahore ~ Maic.ta.ba.-e.. UrdtA.
pp.
\04-105

J

J, +I)

ruler (m. p.intiqam by Nun MIm Rashid (1910-1975) from Miivarii (1941).) European (= Frankish).) metal (m. talvar sang bunyad farang ajnabi 'aurat face (m.) naked body (m. 104-105 basic foot repeated over and over: = .) stone (m. 12. 17. shining tall.) floor (m.) carpet (m.) noise (m.) memorial (f. 7.) corner (m. 3. shabistafi barahnah jism atash-dafi farsh qalin sej dhat patthar but goshah divar hafisna angarah .) cheek (m.) possessors (m.= = 1. 1 . 16. intiqam.) to laugh. unknown woman (f. 10.) lip (m.) bedroom (m. western foreigner lord. senselessness (f.) stone (m.) mole. 6. image (m. 11. wrathful bright. 8. beauty spot on face (m. statue. couch (f. high reflection. image (m.) (pI. European strange.) bed. hofit arbab Rashid. to smile ember (m.) fireplace (m.) wall (f.) sword (f. 5. ofrab) 15.) idol. chahrah !shadd khal 2. 9.) foundation (f.) insensibility.) foreign.shor be-hisi khashmgifi ujIa iliicha oaks farangi hakim yadgar 4.) angry.pI.

2 . 5. 18. p. 7. native land (m.) 1. 16. qalinofi pah sej dhat aur patthar ke but goshah-e divar meii haiiste hu'el aur atashdaii meii angarofi ka shor un butoii kI be-hisi par khashmgifi ujlI ujlI Melli dlvarofi pah oaks un farangI hakimofi kI yadgar j in kI talvaron ne rakha tha yahaii sang-e bunyad-e farang! us ka ehahrah. 17. mere "hofitofi" ne liya tha rat bhar jis se arbab-e vatan kI be-basi ka intiqam vuh barahnah j ism ab tak yad hai! 14. 15. 12. 11. Rashid.vatan be-basi intiqam homeland. mtiqam. 3. 8. 2. vengeance (m. us ke khadd 0 1. us ka chahrah. 4.) helplessness (f. 9. 10. 6.chal yad ate nahIii ik barahnah j ism ab tak yad hai ajnabI 'aurat ka jism. us ke khadd 0 khal yad ate nahIii ik shabistafi yad hai ik barahnahjism atash-dafi ke pas farsh par qalin.) revenge. 13.

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causing to shine glorious.) brightening.) near desert (m.) object of search or pursuit (f.) beauty (m. 7.= = 1. 2.) perfume (f. venerable sand (f. tune (m.) Adam. 5. immeasurable bonfire (m.) smile (m. dil mire ~al}.) Eid.) in. 9. the joyous religious festival like. p.) festivity.) fathomless. 54-63 basic foot (repeated over and over): = . the first man 3..) -wanderer (m.) face. within life (f.) longing (f. great century (f. pa khandah lab tamanna be-payafi ala'o ke qarib ~atrra -navard pIr reg -shad shahri jalab nik'hat paikar subh 'Id ke manind zar -tab jam sadi jamal jaslm adam song. birthday (m.) on.) lip (m. 4. morning (f. 1 .dil mire sahra-navard-e pir dil by NUn MIm Rashid (1910-1975) from La bariibar insiiii (1969). resembling gold (m.) -pleasing inhabitant (m.) dawn.) old. aspect (m.) dance (m.ra-navard-e pIr. 8. naghmah dar'-Jan raqs bar. 6. Rashid.upon foot (m.

15. dil mire ~a"ra-navard-e ptr. 2 . 12.) evil.) guerrilla. g -shor shar ~a fatah 16.) footstep (f.) awake tyrant.) to stop. 19. low (m. 17. plunder (f.) disobedience. 20. secret agent (m. of lamhah.) wave (f. spring (m.) vile.) sleep (f.) affectation. adj.) watching.) pillage..10.) night (f.) despotism (f. 22. grand -making grain of sand (m.) far fountain.) ruler. tumult (m. -zar pazeb qadim parna dast la'Irn zar-gari lahar dill chashmah makr riya shab bedar jabar chap nigrafi naqib sayah amir 'ayyar gharat -gar maut istibdad tuzh yan . garden (m. bichhurna vi~al shauq lamhat azad 'azirn -zan zarrah to be separated union (m.. come to a halt victor (m. pretense (m.) wounded king of kings (m. 21. despot (m. leader (m.) field.) Arabic pI.) the work of a goldsmith (f. "moment" free great.) -maker death (f.) shadow (m. 18. bed. 14. commander (m. disturbance (f. nIfid nezah zakhmi shahinshah 191Vab Rashid. looking chief. p.) noise.) ankle-bracelet (f.) ancient to fall hand (m. deceit (m. sleep (m. 13.) dream.) spear (m.) ardor (m. rebellion (m.) fraud.) 11.

) fragment. zarr-o ubharna 1).) cnmson tongue (f.) past (m. edge (f.) year (m. dil mire ~al1ra-navard-e ptr.24. narm -khu khandan 35. 37.) raw silk (m. 39. gone (persian) spark (m.) having lost (m.) bom of a Pari innocent dancing month (m. 27.) [has vocative plural ending] to well up border.ad roz jarab 29.) passed.) to climb Rashid.) new melody (m. chlimna khiyal pari-zad ma'siim raqsafi mah sal nlir abresham mala'im 31. 40.) heavy-headedness(f.) day (m.) to kiss thought (m. delicate gentle.) joy. piece (m. boisterous wind (f.) embrace (f. 41. merriment (f. p. Tah gum-kardah mash'al maz. tender -temperament smiling road (f. step (m. to be awake new interpretation (f. 30.) fire (f. 3 26.) cold. mtnsr charhna . jagna naya ta'bfr to awaken. earthenware (m. 32.I ~azaf -rezah ag qmmz zaban inbisaj nau rag sar-girani raftah sharar aghosh ~ar~ar gum zillah shu'lah 36. 25.) gladness (f.) lost rung.) flame (m.) light (m.) tower (m.) torch (f.) pottery.) soft.

prolongation (m.) young. 48.) fountainhead (m.) ? a plant? white rose.) suitability. store (m. p.) adornment (f. lifespan (f.dlvan qarn-ha dastan javafi 52.) pleasingness (f.) story (m.) breath (f.) eglantime (m. 47. 54. irresolute child (m.) purity (f. becomingness (f. parched grape (m.) wood.) age.. afsanah -1. increase (f.) generous deed. narrator (m.) tale (f.) soothsayer.) dry.) hyacinth (m.) human being (m.) wine (f.) pl. 46.) flower (m. nourishment (f. dil mire ~al}rfi-navard-e ptr. yasmin sunbul shaqiq nastaran iiriPish zeba'ish taqdis dhulna gunah msan sans karam 58. China rose (m. ofashiq.) treasury.) length. youthful freedom (f. 56. yad 50.) pleasure (f.) heat (m.) memory (f.) food. 4 49. 'umr 1m .) of small age color (m. 51. lover (m.) to creep along vein (f.) birth (f.) to be washed sin (m. azadl -shadi paida'ish afza'ish phul nasrifi 55.43. 45.) jasmine (m.dlasbk angUr mal sarsarana rag kahan restless hesitant. timber (f. magician (m.) Rashid. 53.) augmentation. 57.) -teller. muztarib muzabzab 1ifl kam-sin rang khazrnah lazzat sar-chashmah ghaza 'ushshaq tapak chob 1. Persian pI. 44. kindness (m.) conjunctions of planets (m.

kafl javab laq 0 daq nikalna bheriyah sada raushan basharat zindah rishtah qadIm terha enough answer (m.) root (f. keeping time (m.) to celebrate solitude (f. dil mire sabra-navard-e prr. 70.) helper.) alive.) all four direction (f.) around.) not beaten. refigna girah -aludah zholidah darakht manana tartha'I jashn mah-tab sh~ ghair-mar'i jabl avaz tal be1}h ban ~udavandI jalajil sada rah-bar -numa 68. karavan sahara 75.) branch (f. 77. 76.) moon (m. 5 64. rejoicing (m. 73. 65.) festival.) rhythm. not struck drum (m. encircling Rashid.) to emerge wolf (m. deserted. 62. -full of entangled. creep knot (f.) ancient crooked to crawl. lordship (f. radiant good news (f. dishevelled tree (m.) teller. 61. ofjuljul) voice. 69.) ownership.) road-taker.) (Arabic pl.) wool (m. living relationship (m.) fine cloth or sash (f.) -showing. narrator (m.) desolate.) -mixed with. 72.) always illumined.) to be wrapped story (m. barren place (m. -pointing out caravan (m.) bell (m. 66. refuge (m. charon jaraf pashminah dastar lipatna afsanah -go gard .) forest (m. call (f.60. traveler (m. p.) voice (f.

) focused on voice to laugh pertaining to mystical knowledge indifference.) pitilessness (f.) lightless self-regarding uniqueness (f. 104. uselessly sovereignty (f.) the whole (m. 6 .) = agar solitude.) ear (m.) afternoon (f.) Rashid.) mind. 95. rUya fahm vara' 'ujlat azhdaham gul gham kul 102.m. pahna'I be-kat dara'I takrar mashriq maghrib yak-dill 94. hot weather (m. 97. 100. 103.) (but here used as m.) expanse.) 85. 80.) to glisten = reg to resound. 93.) ease..) summer. 91. on the analogy of stringed instrument (m. to be played like. chashm mizhgaii hujum hairat -nak dil-kash tajrubah damakna ret bajna misal-e saz 81. rest (f.pI. beyond haste. 90. aloneness (f.sIi'i eye (f.) one-heartedness(f) dream. 89. spaciousness useless. gar khalvat be-nur khud-bin yakta'I tal). asa'ish be-dardi sannata tabistafi dopahar east (m. p.) silence (m. amazement -producing heart-drawing.) west (m. attractive experience (m.78. 79. gosh bar-avaz haftsna <anflinah be-niyazi 83. freedom from desire (f.) behind. 84.) rose (m. 82.) praise. 88. vision (f. understanding (f.) (f. 98.) repetition (f. congratulation (f.) grief (m.) a kind of eagle (m. speed (f. dil mire ~al)ra-navard-e ptr.) eyelashes (f.) astonishment.) crowd (m.

118. level (f.) soul (f. taj kai kuzah fard sitvat jamah rnihnat khi naghmah hurriyat lai salik firoz -bakht qafilah shahr Iautna sarhad rill). 113.) bag. liberty (m.ra-navard-e pir.) product.) grandeur. abad khvabidah shikvah'ha nat tah .) Jamshld crown (m. purse (m. 109. 110.) freedom. 117.) flute (f.) eternity after time (m.) lower layer.) sleeping Persian pl. singularity (f. p. dil mire ~al}. 111. outcome (m.) Kaikhusrau earthenware pot (m. of shikvah. 7 106. magic spell (m. imposingness (f.) labor. oppression (f. happy same as pit burden (m.) to return border. hard work (f. be-basil kasalat jafa jadu jilism 'ishq basil -I41ez paida'i nagahafi khulna jism fruitless sluggishness (m.105.) -producing same as paida'ish suddenly. 119. unexpectedly to be opened body (m. 116. bag (f.) barren auspicious.) bottle. 107.) passionate love (m. 115.) city (m.) enchantment.) individual. 108. 114.) magic (m.) tune (f.) tyranny.) robe (m.) wayfarer victorious -fortune caravan (m. 'aqim farkhundahpat bar kIsah takht Jam 112. 120. complaint (m.) melody (m.) throne (m. boundary (f.) Rashid.

.ffiud janab ummid zafaf na-kardah mu'af shad bad 'ariis rii shy. brilliant blood (m. 130. pardoned "be happy!" (Persian) bride (f.) power.) grown. 140. ..) gentle breeze (f.) face (m..) consummation of a marriage (m. 142.) underneath wakefulness (f.) not-done forgiven.. i ii 'I I ! i II ~i 'j 1 .sharmila sahar ru'idah 122.) martyr (m..) radiant chamber. 132. 126..) himself master.~.. dil mire ~al}.) glory. 143...) honey (m.) possibility (m.. 134. 127.ra-navard-e pIr. couch (f.) half-alive longing (f. sprung up maiden. 124.) to cause to flow bed. grandeur (m.) the ritual of the king's dining beyond a demon (m.. cell (m. saifikarofi tara rakhshindah lahil zfu1u shahrd nlmah-ras umang [TzU imkan shahd nosh-e jafi ke par dev divar nasfm 137. 129. excellency (m.) shining. hidden ignorance (f.) hope (f. . virgin (f. shamefaced dawn (f....) wall (f.. 133. tabindah hujrah qatil bahana seJ 136. 128."' .) hundreds star (m. 125.) unseen by men pain (m.) longing.) knees (m. 141. 139.) attractiveness (m. 138..) murder (m.. p. doshizah mard-nadidah dard raCna'! mahjubanah be-khabrf jalal 'izz 0 jal mihrab zer-e bedan 1. 8 131.) arch that shows direction of prayer (f. ". '. ...) veiled. glory (m. 135. greatness.) Rashid. desire (f.

reg-e sahra zar-gari kt reg ki lahrofi se dill chashmah-e makr 0 riya shahrofi se dill! reg shab bedar hai. 17. 12. IS. reg ke dil-shad shahri. 8.) to sing praising God (f.144.) circle.) so that enemy (m. jashn-e adam par bichhur kar milne valon ka visal. khandah bar-lab dil. suntf hai par jabar ki chap reg shab bedar hai. p.) greatness (f. shauq ke lamhat ke manind azad 0 'atrm! reg naghmah-zan kih zarre reg-zarofi ki vuh pazeb-e qadim jis pah par sakta nahifi dast-e la'irn. 153. 148. ten jan men hail reg subh-e 'Id ke manind zar-tab 0 jam reg sadyofi ka jamal. nigrafi hai manind-e naqib dekhti hai sayah-e funir kI chap Rashid. 9 . 145. 18.arf na-shunldah duhrana 'izzat (<l?IDat gaoa tahlil halqah vague. 10.) unheard to repeat honor (f. word (m. reg tii aur reg hi teri jalab reg ki nik'hat tire paikar men. 3. 1.) 158. 13. mub'ham 1}hauf sahmna yatirn takih ghanIm par -buridah l). 146. 2. 16. 4. unclear fear (m. tamanna'ofi ke be-payafi auro ke qaribl dil. 14. 9. naghmah dar-jan. 5.) cut. mire sahra-navard-e pir dil. 6. 151.) to tremble orphan (m. clipped letter. raqs bar-pa. dil mire ~al}ra-navard-e pIr. 154.) wing (m. 11. group (m. 7. 150.

22. 34. ai sahra kI reg mujh ko apne jagte zarrofi ke khvabofi leI na'i ta'bir de!] reg ke zarro. 21. 50. gharat-gar ki maut reg istibdad ke . 39. 42. 48. 23 . reg par 'ayyar. 54. ag rangofi ka khazinah ag un Iazzat ka sar-chashmah hai jis se leta hai ghaza 'ushshaq ke dil ka tapakl chob-e khashk angiir. lekin muzabzab jifl-e kam-sin ki ~arQ. mah 0 sal-e ntir tak raqsafi rahe us ka abresham mala'im. 35. 20. p. 36. 56. 31. dil mire ~al}. 46. 58. 33. nasrIfi. 53.s kemanind ik aisa karam 'umr ka ik tul bhI jis ka nahifi kaft javab! 0 nastaran Rashid. zeba'ish ka nam ag vuh taqdis. 49. 27. 28. mire sahra-navard-e pir dil. j at! hai har fatal) ki mild reg ke nezofi ke zakhmi. 44. mire sahra-navard-e pir dil. 29. us ki mai hai ag sarsarati hai ragofi men 'Id ke din kI jarahl ag kahan.! ag zinah. 45. 26. dhul jate haifi jis se sab gunah ag insanofi kI pahli s[fi. dil-shadi ka nam ag paida'ish ka. 55. aur kuchh zInah bah zinah shu'lofi ke mfnjir par charhte hu'e aUfkuchh nahIii maifi ala'o kI abhi. 32.19. a chtlm reg! hai khiyalofi ke pari-zadon se bill ma'sum reg! reg raqsan.ra-navard-e ptr. ubhartI subh tum a'o sabra kI hadofi tak a gaya roz-e jarab dil. us ke lab par "a'o! a'o!" tere mfi?. 43. sunbul. mire sahra-navard-e pir dil yih tamanna'ofi ka be-payafi ala'o rah-gum-kardon kI mash'al. 47.Ike khazaf-rezofi se jagI hai yih ag ag kI qirmiz zaban par inbisat-e nau ke rag dil. 25.tughyafi ke shor 0 shar ki maut reg jab uthti hai. yad se utri hu'I sadyofi kI yih afsanah-khvafl ane-vale qarnha ki dastanen lab pah haifi dil. muzjarib. sab shahinshahofi ke khvabl ar [reg. sun kar javanl ag azadI ka. 10 . yasmin. 30. narm-khu. 37. 41. 52. 57. afza'ish ka nam ag ke phiilofi mefi. shaqiq ag ara'ish ka. khandafi rahe! dil. sar-girani kI shab-e raftah se jag! kuchh sharar aghosh-e sarsar mefi ham gum. 40. 38. 51. mira sahra-navard-e pIr dil. 24.

65. afriqah pahna'f ka nam [be-kat pahna'i ka nam] ytirop. 71. 69. naghmah dar-jan. raqs bar-pa. 68. 70. 90. 11 . mashriq 0 maghrib kI aisi yak-dill ke karvanofi ka naya Iiiya liye yak-dill aisf kih hog! fahm-e insafi se vara' yak-dill aisi kih ham sab kah uthefi: "us qadar 'ujlat nab kar azhdaham-e gul nah ban!" Rashid. yih tamanna'ofi ka be-payafi ala'o gar nah ho us laq 0 daq men nikal a)en kahlfi se bheriye us ala'o ko sada raushan rakho! [reg-e ~aJ:rra basharat ho kih zindah hai ala'o ko bheriyofi kI chap tak a~ nahml] ag se ~aJ:rra rishtah hai qadIm ka ag se sabra ke terhe. 88. dil mire sahra-navard-e ptr. 84. 94. 79. 77. 78. 95. 89. 83. 64. p. 76. zholIdah darakht jagte haifi. 74. sahra-navard-e pir dil jag utha hai. khandah bar-lab aur mana lete haiti janha'i men jashn-e mali-tab un ld shakhen gair-mar'f jabl kr avaz par deti haifi tal bekh 0 ban se ane lagti hai khudavandi jalajil kf sadal ag se sahra ka rishtah hai qadim rah-barofi. 72. 96. 97. 67. refigne-vale girah-aludah. 86. zarrah zarrah bajne lagta hai misal-e saz-e jan gosh bar-avaz rahte haifi darakht aur hafts dete haifi apni 'an:ffinah be-niyazi se kabhll yih tamanna'ofi ka be-payafi ala'o gar nah ho reg apni khalvat-e be-nur 0 khud-bin men rahe apni yakta'I kI tahsiii men rahe us ala'o ko sada raushan rakho! yih tamanna'ofi ka be-payafi ala'o gar nah ho aishya. 66.59. 87. 73. 60. dilkash tajrubofi se jab damak uthti he ret. 75. 92. 93. 98. 61. 82. 80. 91. 81. sahra-navardofl ke liye hai rah-numa karavanon ka sahara bill hai ag aur sahra'ofl ki tanha'l ko kam karti hai ag! ag ke charon ~arafpashmInah 0 dastar men lipte hu'e afsanah-go jaise gard-e chashm mizhgafi ka hujum un ke hairat-nak. 63. 85. 62.aur amrikah dara)r ka nam [takrar-e dara'I ka naml] mera dil.

p. 117. 107. 105. sadyofi ke 'aqim! karvan farkhundah-pai. 13S. khul gaye hofi mashriq 0 maghrib ke jism. 112. firoz-bakhto. shad bad! ai 'arus-e 'izz 0 jal. zarrofi ki ra'na'I pah bill hansti nah till. ek mahjubanah be-khabri men hafts detI thI subhl ab manatl hai vuh sahra ka jalal jaise 'izz 0 jal ke pa'ofi kI yihI mihrab ho! zer-e mihrab a ga'i ho us ko bedari kI rat khud janab-e 'izz 0 jal se jaise ummjd-e zafaf [sare na-kardah gunah us ke mu'afl] subh-e sahra. tabindah-khu til ik aise hujrah-e shab se nikal kar a. 134. 'ishq-e 1)a!?il-i5:hez ya roz-e paida'i se jaise nagahai'i. lOS. 124.99. 111. 119. 127. aur un ka bar kaisah kaisah takht-e jam aur taj-e kai kuzah kiizah fard ki sijvat kf mai jamah j amah fOZ shab mihnat ki lPlI naghmah naghmah hurriyat kr garm lai! ° saliko. 115. 122. arzii'on kI nah kah Rashid. 113. 121. 128. 132. 114.I hai dast-e qatil ne bahaya tha jahan har sej par saiiikaroii tarofi ka rakhshindah lahu. 139. farkhundah-ru. 130. 129. 12 . 116. utnf mard-nadidah thf subh puchh sakte the nah us kf 'umr ham! dard se haiistI nah till. 123. ane-vale qafilo shahr se lautoge tum to pa'oge ret ki sarhad pahjo ruh-e abad khvabidah till jag utht hai "shikvah'ha-e nai"se vuh ret kI tah mefi jo sharmlli sahar nridah till jag uthi hai hurriyat ki lai se YUh! utni doshizah till. 101. 131. phulofi ke pas! subh-e sahra. 126. 110. kah uthefi ham: "til gham-e kul to nah thY ab lazatt-e kul nah ban roz-e asa'ish kl be-dardi nah ban yak-dili ban. 137. 100. 120. -. 103. 136.jism. 106. dil mire ~al}. sar mire zanil pah rakh kar dastafi un tamanna ke shahidon kI nah kah un ki nimah-ras umangofi. jis mefi tabistafi kI dopahrofi ki be-basil kasalat ke siva kuchh bill nah ho!" us "jafa-gar" yak-dill ke kfu"van yilii a'efige dast-e jadu-gar se jaise phil! nikle hofi jilism. 135. 118. se. 125. 104. 133. 109. aisa sannata nah ban. 102.ra-navard-e ptr.

158.ra-navard-e prr. ap hI apne ghanim aj bill us reg ke shu'lofi men haiti yuh sharar jo us kI tah men par-buridah rah gaye misl-e harf-e na-shunidah rah gaye! subh-e sabra. 145. 155. 143. ai 'artts-e 'izz 0 jal a kih un kI dastiifi duhra'efi ham un kI 'izzat. 150. 144. us sahra ke par dey kI divar ke nIche nasim roz 0 shab jalti hai mub'ham khauf se sahmi hu'f jis !aral) shahrofi kI rahofi par yatIm naghmah bar-lab. 156. 153. 152. 157. 159. 13 . takih un kf jafi ka sannata ho diir! aj bhI us reg ke zarrofi men ham aise zarre. 148. 146.140. 151. jin se milne ka ko'I imkafi nahlfi shahd tera jin ko nosh-e jan nahIfi! aj bhI kuchh dilr. 160. 154. un kI '3:?IDat ga'efi ham subh. 147. 141. dil mire ~al}. p. ret aur ag. 142. ham sab ka j alall yak-dill ke kiirviifi un ka j amal a'o! us tahlIl ke halqe men ham mil ja'efi a'o! shad bad apnI tamanna'ofi ka be-payafi ala'o! Rashid. 149.

RASl1lP ~~d/::?~. ~l_~LvGJ!_. ~lJUV4- /" .~ I /.

) to bear) endure Abyssinian (m. chest (m. bistar pah min 2. 1 .) emotion) feeling (m.) imagined) illusory hunter (m.) fathomless) immeasurably deep night (f.pl) (pI. mountain range (m. silence.) beginning (m. ofazv) intoxicated pleasure) sweetness (f) heaviness) weighty burden (f.) ardor) passion (m.be-karafi rat ke sannate men by NUn Mim Rashid (1910-1975) from Mavarii (1941).) swamp) bog) marshy place) quicksand (f.) tyranny. 8.) limbs (m. 101-102 1.) bosom.) to crawl.) winter (m.) to weigh.) mind (m.) = par (shortened for meter) = merI (shortened for meter) life) precious one (f. p.) fear (m. 6. bekarafi rat.dma iirzu 3.) = kohistan. jan be-karafi rat sannata jaZbah shauq aC?a mad-hosh lazzat girafi-bari zahn daldal vIrana -ke qarib nInd aghaz zimastafi parindah ~auf mauhum shikari par tolna chTI. "howling wilderness" (m. wilderness (m.) desolate place. sinah kuhistan ~lm salma habshi refigna bed (m.) roaring) dashing of wind or rain. 5.) wing (m. wrong (m. 13. dreariness) bleakness. measure. 9. 4. 12. test to scream longing (f. 7. creep Rashid.) bird) bird of prey (m.) near sleep (f.

bekaraii rat. rising up (m. enjoyment (m.) rather shoreline. stirring. 20. coast (m. subuk-bar be-panah 'aish haijan armful 21.) maiden.) thought (m.) night (f. land (m.) country. squadron (m.) enemy (m. zara rill). 19. lamhah 1.14. 18.) soldier (m.) period of time (f.) boiling. some having fled i Rashid. 2 1 i 1 .) a little bit spirit.driyaI balkih sahil shahr doshizah mulk dushman sipahI muddat shab 17. lUlavoidable luxury.) city (m. p. soul (f.) a number of. dastah ka'I mafrur moment (m.) brigade. 16. virgin (f.) longing (m.) light in weight inescapable.

:! tere bistar pah min j an kabhI be-karafi rat ke sannate men jazbah-e shauq se ho jate haifi a(?a mad-hosh aur lazzat kI girati-bari se zahn ban jam hai daldal kisI vIrane kf aur kahifi us ke qarib nind. 4. 3. 24. 11. 5. 17. 6. 8. bekaran rat. 14. 15. 20. p. 12. 18. 22. 13. 19. 21. 10.1. Rashid. 16. 3 . 9. 7. 23. aghaz-e zimastafi ke parinde kI tarah khauf dil men kisi mauhfun shikart k1l1iye apne par tolti hai chlkhti hail be-karafi rat ke sannate men! tere bistar pah min jan kabhI arzU'en tire sine ke kuhistanofi men zulm sahte hu'e habshi ki jarah refigti haifi! ek lamhe ke liye di1 men khiyal ata hai ill mid j an nahifi balkih sahil ke kisi shahr kI doshIzah hai aur tire mulk ke dushman ka sipahi hun main ek muddat se jise aisi ko'I shab nah mill kih zara ruh ko apnI vuh subuk -bar kare! be-parish 'aish ke haijan ka annan lekar apne daste se ka'I roz se mafrur hOOmaifil yih mire di1 men khiyal ata hai tere bistar pah min jan kabhI be-karafi rat ke sannate men! i . 2.

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2.) trick. overcoming all-grasping desert (m. distrust. footstep (m. al ghazal shab pyas bujhana dikhana sarab '-Jan sal.-- 1. 1 .) life (f.. Rashid.) face. 6. placed. nau-ba-nau qadam sitadah ghalib hamah-gir dasht guman yaqln samana hast 0 bud chhana fitnah vocative marker-.) night (f.) doubt.) fear. ai ghazal-e shab.) magician (m. 7. deceit (m.) to be contained "present and past" (persian) to spread. ever fresh step. 9.) roadway (m.ai ghazal-e shab! by Nun Mlm Rashid (1910-1975) "fromLa bariibar insaii (1969). deer (m.) evening (f. conujecture (m.) magic spell (m.) 13. 104-105 basic foot (repeated over and over): . 5. certainty (m.Lir 191auf sahar "sham rah-guzar fareb rah-rav sadah -zadah -gar hazar surat 8. 11. 3. straightforward -bomof -maker thousand (m. aspect (f. p. terror (m.) thirst (£) to extinguish to show mirage (m. suspicion. 4.) confidence..) standing.) simple.) traveller (m. overspread mischief (m.Oh so-and-so! gazelle.) ever new. established victorious. 10.

16. 2 . 13. 15.Ujab uthana kashidah qalib 17. yuh sarab-zadah. form (m.14. 11. 10. 19. 12. 18. darun gham nishaii ravafi -maker.) to lift up hidden mold. curtain (m.) grief (m. flowing 1. 19. kih hazar strrat-e nau-ba-nau men qadam qadam pah sitadah hai. ai ghazal-e shab.) "near and far" (Persian) veil. doer to hide oneself "slow and fast" (Persian) dream. Rashid. 2. 17. vuhjo ghalib 0 hamah-gir dasht-e gumati mefi hai mire dil mefijaise yaqin ban ke sama gaya mire hast 0 bud pah chha gaya! ai ghazal-e shab. 6. 4. 18. sarab-gar. sleep (m. 7.) inside. 16. 8. 14. trace (m. 3.) sign. 9. 15. inner part (m. tin pyas kaise bujha'uti main kih dikha'uf main vuh sarab jo min jan men hai? vuh sarab sahir-e khauf hai jo sahar se sham ke rah-guzar men fareb-e rah-rav-e sadah hai. 20. p. ai ghazal-e shab. -kar chhupna der 0 zud 19lvab nazdodiir l. usf fitnah-kar se chhup gaye mire der 0 zud bhf khvab men mire nazd 0 dill hijab mefi yuh hijab kaise utha'ilii maifi jo kashIdah qalib-e dil mefi hai kih main dekh pa'ilii danin-e jan j ahafi khauf 0 gham ka nishafi nahifi jahafi yih sarah ravaf nahIfi ai ghazal-e shabl 5.) moving.

the Virgin. and more often a male companion in a homosexual relationship. The beloved. and. or. the iconoclasm of Abraham· and his defiance of Nimrod. it was always the same hungering lover talking of his unending suffering to an ever-indifferent. which continued to repeat the~elves from poet to poet. The myths. and. the passion . the . Which Western poets influenced you most and why? MP. constantly repeated th~mselves. and the moth and the candle. the Fall of Adam. MAHFi L Mahfil interviews --+:> \ . M. a spiritual leader. on the other. the love of Majnun for Laila. was sometimes a harlot (who could ever talk of his love to a noble woman relegated to the harem?).traditional verse form.2. with the usual Quranic attributes of the Divine B~ing. and around the relationship between the saqi. had. a male-God. cruel beloved. secondly. who was hanged for declaring himself "the Finite Truth". and the rose. How would you describe your poetry. which are practically the same as those of the Bible. In the ghazal. become an extravagant cliche.as a paragon of chastity. the most common. Christ as a super~ healer. or nightingale. The ghazal.Mary.. especially in contradistinctio~ to the Progressive poetry of the late Thirties and Forties? In much of your poetry.of Moses. the love and sacrifica of Farhadfor Shfr!n. built around the imaginary "love affairs" of the buLbuL. mostly drawn from stories of the Quran. R~shed: The movement for the "newt!poetry with which I am associated was in the first instance a step towards the liberation of Urdu poetry from the tyranny of form. ranging from the profoundest love and kindness to extreme injustice and unkindness. Joseph's masculine charm and the illicit love of Potiphar's wife for him. and the ever-thirsty drunkards. in turn. was hidebound by certain standardized symbols. (_SpYl'Vl3- Sum WIer 1'37-1) [MAHFIL "S nOW JoIARNAL ASi AN L-\1ERA11-\REJ N. but had largely become inert both in form and content. when the poet soared a little higher. you are not considered a "Progressive" poet. a feudal lord on whom the poet largely depended for his existence. images and myths. you show a definite Western influence. or from other Islamic lore. and in this seeking his personal catharsis. Mansur Hallaj. or the cup-bearer. over this long period of time. it aimed at bringing poetry closer to the realities of modern life. It was on the one hand a prisoner of rhyme and meter. A part of the symbolism of the ghazaL. had served a very good purpose over the centuries. the Arab beauty. RASHED 01= Sou-rH Leading Pakistani poet speaks out on modern Urdu literature Mahfil: Although your name is intimately associated with the "new" poetry of Urdu.

while the ghazal still lingers. some the diction. who in their different ways sought to interpret modern life. of most of its traditional trappings.alternately sublimating and corrupting . and had rendered Urdu poetry out of tune with the times. the foremost among them for me being the alien rule.some stressing the form. a fresh air to breathe in and a courage to explore new paths. Without any attempt to provide a solution for them. I have talked at some length about the nature of our traditional poetry so that you would understand the nature of the "revolt" of the new poet against it. using most of the traditional cliches. had also evinced some understanding of the psychology of love and jealousy and its influence on man's spirit . among the world's great teachers. a large number of other poets have carried forward the new trends in different measure ..- 2- Persian queen. rather than of a chronically unhappy lover. I have tried to respond to the modern Asian's problems. Particularly. and I. moral repressions. and so on and so forth. or in relating poetry to the newly emerging social. had already become jarringly repetitive. in their discourses about their suffering souls. even a rejection of it. even the ghazal. Miraji made bold experiments with form. both emotionally and intellectually.ulterior doctrine. etc. These myths and symbols had together lent some semi-ethical texture to the traditional poetry. rather than the experience of others or on any . New sources of knowledge had opened up new themes and new visions of reality. political and economic problems. The problem of the "new" poet thus was. Any other course would have been utterly unrealistic." or as an individual rather than a type. and. This new spirit in Urdu poetry was ineVitable. were not directly concerned with a breakaway from the past as such.and had developed some kind of humanistic approach to life. in my small way. through an esthetic and moral release from the past. they insisted on a single-minded ideological . But this complex of myths and symbols. Faiz. as a rule. and the traditional poets. secondl~ to talk about the suffering soul of mankind as a whole. and the new poet was obliged to bring his new sensitivity to bear on them. Since we three began to write. But. f Lrs t Ly. tried to stress some of the current problems. such as Ghalib. as even Hali. it no longer helped in an interpretation of human equations in the light of modern experience. the efforts of the new poets have largely rid Urdu poetry. which should rank some of them. I drew upon my personal experience alone. It Simultaneously threw up three poets. which had continuously dwarfed the Asian soul. experimenting with new rhyme arrangements. evinced a new emotional response to c~rrent human problems in line with the socialist doctrine. and to achieve this. The Progressives. to write liashimself. as much as it was inevitable in the poetry of any other language. as I have already said. giving it a new lease on life. more than half a century ago. religious dogmatism. and unravelled some of the mysteries of the subconscious in the light of the new psychoanalytical discoveries. even as Iqbal had done. and secondly. the first "modernlUrdu poet had felt. symbols and myths. brought the language of poetry closer to everyday speech. some the content.

particularly those about Iran during the War. The most manifest streak of my poetry is thus the confidence in individual perception. but it is not linked to any political doctrine imposed from outside. unlike Ali Sardar Jafri. both in Mawara (That Which Is Beyond).. unlike the poetry of Faiz. but the main point of difference lies in our approach to life and its problems. more than his righteous self can provide answers to human questions. the first collection. which. a wrong presumption that in order to get to the meaning of a poeL. rather semi-Western sensitivity._. nor preach. All this brought about a new consciousness among us which went a long way towards transforming our classical oriental sensitivity into a modern. As regards your question about the Western influences on my poetry. Ironically. and even more difficult to say why. I just had them. particularly Mawara~ have come under fire from the Progressive camp. but I have nibbled at many English poets. It is. the second collection.3- purpose of poetrYt as a truth unarguable and evident. and in Iran men AJnabt (A Stranger in Iran). one should first examine his reading lisL The Western influences on our society and literature did not enter through Western literature alone: the movies. I believe that reality has more than one shade. have no doubt some points of resemblance in their content with the poetry of the Progressives. I try to achieve my communication through concrete images contained within a poetic substance. though. and their reflection in literature must depend entirely on a writer's own super-sensibility. While the Progressives had a single yardstick to measure every human situation. I think. I neither harangue. must write in the light of his individual perceptions alone. I believed that a poet who is honest to his craft. as many lesser Progressive poets did. in favor of a preconceived doctrine. criticism of your works? . Also. nor do I indulge in connnon sentimentalism. the newspapers. the Western poets I have read the most have influenced me the least. because I feel that such effects either distract from the main theme or obscure the reader's vision. What is the nature of their. the radio. Furthermore. I cannot blame any Western poets for my failings. played a large role in our personalities and our way of thinking and thus our literary creations. eVen in the aberrant. MahfiZ: Your works. While they stood for a complete suspension of choice on the part of the writer. it is surprising that we could retain some of the Eastern influences~ It is difficult to say Wh1ch of the Western poets influenced me most. therefore. My poetry is not devoid of a personal ideology and an intense sensitivity to human situation. were even deliberately bare and austere in comparison with the poetry of Faiz and a few others. there is no profusion of sensuous effects in my poetry. and most of all the Western system of education. I suppose many writers of my generation could not avoid them: in fact. Some poems. I do not claim any special erudition in Western poetry. another well-known Progressive poet. erratic self of man. Some of my poems. and at some European poets in their English translations. I preferred to react to them in the light of my personal experience and the sense of values born out of that experience.

II Mro Rashed: Now these poems were no escapist poems at all in the sense that they were neither autobiographical (in spite of the use of the first person singular). in which I had criticized some of their most cherished idols. It was thus inevitable that I should become persona non grata with them as a group and make it easier for them to lash me for my other failings. as in Intiqam (Revenge) and in Khudkushi. who had otherwise contributed a useful introduction to MCiuJara. nor in their language. At their worst. my mother tongue being Panjab!. Another point of criticism of my poetry was related to its style and diction. were designed to bring out the sadness of escapism. as in Raqs. they were dramatic monologues. I received most of my education in Persian I I :-1 II I . They were thus a part of the grotese queness of the Indian situation under an alien rule. until the publication of the second collection." Krishan was at least m generous enough to call it a "negative escapism.and even the breakdown of sexual communi'cation. or moral and social repression and of religious dogmatism. in which an office worker's routine rapport with existence ends up in an abrupt disillusionment. they soon . but most of their criticism was based on certain poems in my second collection. as in. . and have found my e~ression ambiguous. partly to show loss of man's communication with nature. When you are not born to a language and have to use it for your literary expression. when the alien rule was corroding our souls. in these I had read tendencies towards totalitarianism and regimentation. nor were they intended to provide any justification for escapism. that our friendship has always continued on an individual basis.Bekaran Rat ke Sannate Meno These poems and others must be read as a unified metaphor of the Indian life in those days.. realized that I was not talking in their terms. the Progressives did not discover some elements in their own way of thinking. and social and moral repressions all around us were stunting our spiritual growth. But other Progressive "critics" conveniently dropped the qualifying word. it goes to their credit as well as my own. even obscure. Some critics." implying that it was a kind of "strategic retreat" on my part in order to continue the IIfight. many Progressives even claimed me as one of them. in the manner of Browning. have regarded my poetry largely esoteric. Yet. In fact. both Progressive and non-Progressive. and partly to point out the breakdown of esthetic and spiritual values. and Khudkushi (Suicide). One reason for this perhaps is that I was not born to the Urdu language. whic~'in voicing the thoughts or describing the plight of three escapists of different type. particularly Raqs (A Dance). any dubbed me as "escapist. But. let us say. Even Krishan Chandar's verdict was based on four or five poems. you often miss the colloquial flavor. Bekaran R4t ke Sannate M~n (In the Endless Silence of a Boundless Night).-4The criticism of the Progressives against my poetry largely stemmed from my independent attitude towards literature and life. To describe an II vil" is not to adore it. Beginning with Krishan Chandar. It is difficult to believe that in my condemnation of alien rule. For me the problem of language is thus nearly the same as it must have been for Joseph Conrad. Some of the poems in Mawara and many in Iran men Ajnabi were outspokenly opposed to the Progressive thought. Iran men Ajnab!. let us say. rather than exclusively on poems in Mdwara.

ruled out my poetry as t1soulless" and a "comp Lete f arce" . said. as the traditionalists were. But there have been and are critics who are either ignorant or dishonest or dogmaLic in their approach to poetry. or Salim Ahmad. Nevertheless.. and it was but natural for me to be influenced by these two languages. and Urdu is no exception. which have many common features with Urdu. again from both groups. and to me more plausible. in my poems I talk of love in terms of normal.as against the morbid. who in his book . rudimentary knowledge of modern psychoanalysis. Another. and he lashed at my poems for an imagined lack of brevity and coherence and ridiculed every word used by me. Love in my poetry is desirable and attainable. in a part of the world where even the word "kiss is tabooed for all practical purposes. I would have indeed been more easily "unde. Yet. and so on and so forth. llUrdu ghazaZ is a semi-barbaric form of poetry. I do not rule out an occasional breakdown of communication on my part. or Aftab Ahmad. Such critics exist in all languages. published a full-fl~dged book on my poetry some twenty years ago and with an amateur. As I have said earlier. because I feel that it is at least honest and justifiable. natural love between man and woman. and in order to do so.5and Arabic. I occasionally use imagery verging on sensuality. unattainable desire of the traditional poet" I am no believer in mysticism or in a hyPocritical camouflage of emotions. who in two serial articles analyzed my themes. rather than of the creative writer. possibly a Progressive.tt etc. it is not:impossible to find obscenity in the slightest show of emotion and the minutest reference to physical lave ll o Such criticism as I have just mentioned does not disconcert me. On the other hand. which if not dishonest and prejudiced. who is notorious for his dogmatic and astounding views on poetry without being a poet of any consequence himself. Waz1r Agha.a harsh view. Still another critic. For example. one of my points of departure from the tradition was the freedom to treat themes of love in an unihibited manner and as a healthy passion .. he was at pains to unearth psychological complexes . which expressed itself without the usually familiar trappings of Urdu poetry. except for Intiqam.sadism. Still another reason could be my own inability to find the right word for the right poetic thought. Another young critic. but their excessive use in an Urdu work can easily render it beyond the reach of the common man. there is hardly a poem in my two collections which would be morally or legally reprehensible. Indeed.Lahabadt. who made a brilliant study of the elements of revolt in my poetry. in a completely irrelevant reference to my poetry in an essay on Akbar Al. I look upon obscenity as a problem of the in moralist or the judge. and as even some of the Progressives are. must be regarded as perfunctory. Oedipus complex. have discovered elements of rtobscenityrt my poetry. there are critics like Dr. Hayatullah Ansari. while he had himself failed to read those poems in a coherent manner and had missed the nuances of many words.rs ood''if I had talked in terms of the cliches of t Urdu poetry. A few other critics. Even in ~hat poem there are no fourletter words. masochism. reason for this obscurity was the intensely personal nature of my experience.

have had very close relations with many Progressives individually. This was followed by the publication in India of a collection of short stories. and the clergy.a specified group.impression on our literature.1! The Progressives had basically two aims in view:.o" a small group of young Urdu writers by in London. contributed by some dozen. a group of writers. writers. My criticism of the Progressives springs·from the view that literature is not and should not be produced under extemal direction. A Progressive Writers' Association was formed. Krishan Chandar wrote an introduction to my first collection. to serve a specified ideology or.el ves to tell me what to write and how to wri te it.lT against the traditional poet's love which strove to destroy both. Upindar Nath Ashk.and lower parts of the body. The early writings of the Progressives failed to make any profound. however laudable. Mawapa. it should have been banned for its banalities rather than for "obscenities. In fact. or Hot Coals1). in Mahfil: What is the nature of your criticism of the Progressives? think that they have outlived their effectiveness? Do you The Progressive movement in Urdu began some thirty years ago with the publication of a "Han. I have never been a member of the Progressive Writers' Association. because. who is not a writer of the same calibre as Krishan Chandar. had already brought about a revolution in thought. began to emerge and to receive encouragement and approval. and is perhaps only a half Progressive. but. This book was banned forthwith. I contributed aU introduction to it. proved how. and how love in my poetry was the search for the harmony of what he called lTthe upper. I had sought man's fruition in physical love. which was too strong at the time to yield to any other influence. Mr. I must say. as I said earlier. who were influenced by the Marxist ideology as preached by the Progressives.Lfeat. In spite of this. Rashed: I . such as Gh&lib. feudal lords. Nevertheless. and a group of publishers found that the literature produced by these writer~ enjoyed ready market. have taken it upon thems. especially among young readers who were looking for . so that my Ii terary productions may serve their purpose.shocks and sensations. As you would recall. rather than for the elite. I guess. Nai Nazm Aup Pupa Adami (New Verse and the Complete Man). because it was considered to contain many "obscenities" and its attitude towards religion was flagrantly offensive. Hali and Iqbal. and 'when his first collection. whose bona fides are not clear to me. to use literature for creating hatred against the upper classes. gradually. I dedicated my first collection to Faiz.-6- rejecting the traditional romanticism. some of the giants of Urdu literature. to write for and on behalf of the proletariat. AngaP~ (Sketches. dedicated one of his novels to me. dictating the course of literature through party manifestos always dismays me. the book did not create much sensation. secondly.Naqsh-e-Fax:yad-t was published. and. Then. To me it means that a certain group of people. firstly. If at all.

there are those who perceive life in its entirety. Today. No doubt. in my view.. must be written under conditions of utmost freedom. and those who merely harangue. it is no longer fashionable for anyone to call himself a "Progressive. the Progressives served a useful purpose. as I may choose.-7This is to me a denial of my freedom to write. for literature. Today. they aimed at creating literature to fit a pattern. in so far as they preached that the writer had no personal will and he must suspend his choice like characters in a melodrama. I do not value anything more than the ability to view and interpret the world around me and life as a whole. and stressed that they must have a social responsibility beyond their normal literary responsibility. The effectiveness of the Progressives.. lies in the "pro l. This. even many ghaz"al-writers. and one cannot exist without the other. Literature cannot be created in a vacuum and cannot exist to serve a vacuum." or for finding out whether they have outlived it or not. cannot afford to close their eyes to their social environment and to the problems of man as a whole. In so far as the Progressives strove to draw writers out of their cocoons. there are those who sublimate as well as edify. because it is as a consequence of their movement that writers today. as they saw it. must feel a sense of guilt in doing so" It was more than a coincidence that che two movements in Urdu. one for the change of form and idiom and the other for the change of content. however. and to react to human problems in their universal context or in my personal context. and those who miss ic completely.Lfe rat. At the same time. but their movement has gradually spread enough consciousness of the existing human situation that any writer today who wishes to write for himself alone or to indulge in self-pity or a morbidly personal nostalgia. for literture and life are interrelated.tt . and many writers have successfully defied all pressures from outside groups trying to direct them. I have no quarrel with the Progressives in so far as they believe that literature should reflect a social consciousness. even of my freedom to think for myself. This is indeed the denial of the whole creatiVe process and of the raison d ' §r:re of all creative activity. in order to contribute to human sublimation and progress. This makes "Progressivism" a misnomer. But.Lon" of their movement. spiritual progress if you like to call it that. there is a growing resistance to the theory that literture can be dictated. no writing can produce much echo unless it is directly or indirectly related to the life of the people. Nevertheless. and those whose finer senses are blinded by slogans. arose together' and then converged to produce the "new" writer of today. No politician is wise enough to lay down the course of a writer's thoughts and emotions to others. or to dub anyone a "Reaccionarytt in an obviously derogatory sense. but I do differ with them when this social consciousness in their view must be completely impersonal. there are those who bring new wisdom to bear on their interpretacion of man's destiny. provides no criterion for judging what you call their "effectiveness. if I wish to. the few who linger are often a little apologetic about their "Manifestott and about the production Angare . Most theorists among the Progressives have gone the way of all theorists.ritten directly to prove w the dicta of the "Manifesto. among the Progressives there are good writers and there are bad writers. Thus." with a sense of superiority. the Progressives did not succeed in lining up every writer to promote the Marxist doctrine or the cause of the proletariat.

using the same old weapons of the ghazaZ-writer. myth and even phraseology which. is frequently the constantly illusory goal of struggling humanity.. to this. (who were a part of our discipline at the University). render him a mystic in line with Hafiz and Saadi. While the old masters of Urdu verse. he enables the time-worn cliches of the Persian and Urdu ghazal to acquire a renewed sensitivity and 'to be recharged with meaning. the violation of human rights and fundamental freedoms etc. The symbols of wine and the tavern.-8- Mahfit: Would you care to comment on the poetry of Faiz Ahmad Faiz. Rashed: Beginning with my introduction to Faiz's first collection. . My opinion that "FaLz stands at the junction of romanticism and realism. because they seem to have left a clear mark on his imagery.thesuffering and sacrifice of the common man for a supreme cause. In the ghazaZ. This . Faiz remains the most popular Urdu poet today who. His soft sentimentalism and his repeated reference to ltpain" immediately remind one of the two great English romantic poets.explains his constant reference. with a clear awareness of a multitude behind him. is the best known abroad. particularly Shelley and Keats. repressive laws. the murderer. The traditional poet was often a mere lonely prowler. so that the solitary suffering of the disappointed romantic lover is transformed into the suffering of humanity at large. to "comrades" and "friends" in his poetry. are in Faiz's poetry the symbols of the new urge and the new aspirations of man. which were used by the traditional poet to express "spiritual ecstacy" or the state of conununionwith the spiritual leader or with the Divine Being. who is generally considered the foremost Progressive poet. etc.the colonial rules. which in old poetry represented the personal affli~tion of the lover. after Iqbal. Thus. the cruel. indifferent beloved was referred to as a "murderer. as the traditional poet did. even appeal. There is no special emphasis in Faiz's poetry on sex. or the persecutors of the new crusader . and whom you mentioned as one of the three pioneers of modern Urdu poetry? How did the Urdu literary community react to his winning the Lenin Peace Prize in 1962? What were your personal reactions? Mr.which lend an element of "juiciness" to his poetry where no subtle political meaning is intended. in using the traditional parlance. From the Persian and Urdu ghazal~ he has borrowed the whole complex of symbolism. this beloved. Josh Malih&biidi and Hafiz Jallandhari are still alive and prospering. who were no less conscious of their own immediate environment. a great deal has been written on his poetry." which I expressed some twenty-five years ago. smiling lips. I presume. but Faiz stalks his quarry. but he constantly employs many sex symbols . His method is to awaken first within himself and then in the mind of his reader a pain and pathos which would link his experience with the experience of mankind as a whole. the allusion to the Cross." in Faiz's poetry. must have been added some influence of the English romantic poets. But. in spite of his apparent contemporary consciousness. snow-white bodies. . etc.eager red eyes. is ·. he does not always seek his personal catharsis alone. Faiz has inherited the wistfulness and sadness of the disappointed lover of the traditional ghazal in a large measure (this·may be one reason why he feels very much at home in the ghazal form). and. tall feminine figure. still largely holds true.

By retaining the familiar symbolism and phraseology of the ghazaZ.· a renewed understanding of human psychological processes and a new philosophical outlook on life to refertilize his poetry. which the ordinary reader would find difficult to share with him. While many must have felt proud that a poet of the Urdu language was thus honored. particularly when Faiz's poetry is not a poetry of intensely subtle personal experience. was . by the use of constantly repeating sensuous effects so that he might see the visions of man's future. and the level of a socially conscious poet. like yourself. I personally do not believe in literary awards and prizes: the greatest awards for a writer are the freedom to write and the creation of such social and political conditions as would enable him to reach the largest number of readers in unfettered freedom. As the time goes. imagine that it must have been a mixed one. some must have inevitably looked upon it as a political award. Some official and para-official prizes even have an element of regimentation. Unless Faiz permits a widened personal experience. The themes have begun to circle around one another. His technique of lUlling his reader into a euphoria. and the silky words in which they were clad have become even fluffier. but also not a Progressive. but together they combine to create a single emotional experience.highly influential in Urdu poetry. Faiz approaches his reader at two levels at the same time: the level of the ordinary lyrical poet. 0 Another figure who. no doubt. in terms of a political metaphor. often they lead to a complaisance on the part of the writer thus honored. and like yourself a spearhead of modern Urdu poetry. my feeling is that it might turn into a paper-white narcissus or calendar art! I am afraid I am not aware of the reactions of the Urdu literary community to Faiz's winning of the Lenin Peace Prize. was MirajL.or rather. I. however. What do you think of his works? How would you describe his influence on the most recent poets? Mahfil: . and his poetry which in the past only echoed some of the traditional emotions in traditional phrases. or by more direct expression. and are motivated by a desire to corrupt writers. and does not indulge in the usual oratorical outbursts of the Progressives. in fact. has turned his poetry into an extravaganza which is beginning to weaken its impact. but what distinguishes him from the ordinary Progressive is that he has not turned his poetry to serve a functional purpose. Literary prizes do not essentially lead to better creativity.-9Faiz is a Progressive poet. His images are largely ornate. now echoes itself back and forth. He does not directly cater to the proletariat. however. or by simple oratory. is . to line them up with a political ideology to the exclusion of any independent thought in the name of common survival It is unfortunately often difficult to perceive this influence. which the other Progressives would perhaps achieve either by using the idiom of everyday speech. he has facilitated his approach to the reader.Faiz is becoming increasingly repetitive. with a direct emotional appeal. His reader has thus to make a slight mental adjustment to arrive at the underlying meaning of his poetry.

which is possible in free verse alone. Careless critics have interpreted his poems . most individualistic . The leftists rejected him outright. and even the semblance of sensationalism. on the one hand.as mere autobiographical accounts. forgetting that the special advantage of the dramatic monologues is that they enable the poet to stand at a convenient distance from his characters. . must rank as a Progressive above all. he could not have turned his abstractions into the vivid pictures and sensations that enrich his poetry.was deliberately obscene. Rashed: 'Undoubtedly. including Gh&lib and Iqbal. and while sex no doubt was his principle subject for poetry. without iden~ifying himself with anyone and without getting involved in their affairs. etc. and in talking of sex he even talked satta vooe. as. I look upon Miraji as the most remarkable poet of our time . for that matter. as Ali Sard&r Jafri does. is Progressive. ambigUity.10 - I have so far gone along with you in making a distinction between "ProgressIve" and "non-Progressive" poetry. almost stifling his voice under highly personal covert symbolism. and the deployment of language in general. All this because there was no drumfire in his poetry to advance the leftist cause. Without a freedom in lining. and thus Miraji. I have reasons to be optimistic that Miraji too would some day be included among their ranks. whose themes originated in certain aspects of modern life. the leftists have themselves modified their stance over many poets.and the most maligned. a poet who gave up formal prosodic devices.as well as some of mine. as I said earlier . morbidity. however. and I believe that it merely serves the purpose of camouflaging the political intent of a certain type of poetry in order to mislead the naive.most ingenious. but it might enrich the Progressives. tt IT Mr. on the other. but I suppose we have now reached a parting of the ways on this.. a more or less officially recognized Progressive. Mlrajf's dramatic monologues were born out of the complex of his own personal experience. as much as all poetry is.!! which this type of poetry in fact is. he scrupulously avoided the ornamental trappings of the conventional verse. or for a conscious breakaway from the past. not for the sake of mere experimentation. or any cause. for example does the poetry of Josh Malfhab&di. Since his purpose was never to persuade or to arouse any intense emotional reactions.negativism. but because his subject-matter demanded an entirely new structural basis.. To call poetry "communist" or "leftist. There are no extravagant sex scenes in his poetry. he does not evoke any voluptuous responses. would have naturally limited the desired psychological impact. it is wicked to say that he was morbidly obsessed by sexual themes or. It would not help Miraji. eroticism. that over a period of time. He does not use any rhetorical devices to dazzle the reader. Although his poetry is rich in sensuous effects. and also represented his individual philosophy of life. Also he employed the dramatic monologue technique extensively. etc. nor does he indulge in juicy words and phrases. diction. Considering. defeatism. I believe that any poet who represents modern consciousness. even like Faiz. obscenity. But accusing him of a penchant for personal experiences for erotic purposes is doing him less than justice. most prolifiC. or to appear neW and modern. investing him with all the sinister qualities which he never possessed . This distinction is all too artificial and perfunctory. Mlraji was. in the first instance. in one way or the other. using the first person singular for the character portrayed'in each poem.

which is the symbol of man's whole existence.11 - and his language is so close to its Hindi genus. except for the subtlety of his symbolism. has reduced man to a mere fraction of himself.. In order to save man from any further disintegration. through a renewed rapport with himself. more than that. ghosts and cobras . for the discovery of the lost'Self. Sex. but in poems like SumandaP ka BuZawa (The Call of the Sea). Yet. caves. psychological complexes as a problem of the modern man are his favorite subject. which is the attainment of complete harmony with Nature and himself. than he is today. forests and gardens. conscious. Ek thi Aurat (There was a Woman). as a pilgrim and not as a citizen. his poetry was an attempt at delivering man of the filth and ugliness and vice which his . trees and wind.thus justifying his own crusade against it.. platonic love. turning his subconscious into a mere "ghostland. pre-planned crusades. it is an attempt at remoralization of man. temples.subconscious had accumulated over the ages. which lead to great wars . as well as to modes of common speech. for his poetry cannot be measured by the normal conventional standards. There is a1s9 no morbidity in his treatment of sex or its various aberrations. etc. Some knowledge of modern psychology and. Miraj1 always writes from intensely personal experience. this experience transcends beyond the poet's person and is immediately linked with the spiritual destiny of the modern man.the sea and the clouds. and thus to himself. . ChaZ-ahaZ~o (The·Passing Show). he is far closer to the proletariat than any "Progressivett poet. to save himself from disintegration and death. and he uses them to illustrate how modern civilization. are indeed necessary to build a response to this unusual poetry. In one of his essays. or so-called civilized man. witches. in his primitive existence. and for his imagery he reverts to the ancient India of Krishna and the gopis~ its dark forest nights. It is thus no matter of surprise that he draws most of his symbols from Nature . Miraji's poetry is a protest against the havoc which moralism has played with the spirit of man. or hypocritical moralism. he calls him back to himself and to Nature. he was no poet of crusades. resile and sting back like a cobra when an attempt is made to cover it under the lids of romanticism. which are the pastime of the leftist writers alone. yet in so far as it challenges the hazards of conventional moralism. was closer to Nature. Unaha Makan (A Tall Building). His poetry symbolizes the eternal quest of Man. Mlrajl has viewed this inner disintegration of man as the rootcause of the present-day international tensions and conflicts." His poetry is not moralistic. nor by any preconceived notions about the purpose and place of poetry in life.the days when Man. a harmony within and without. But. can. Fundamentally convinced as he was that the secretiveness and the prudery surrounding sex were at the root of the disintegration of modern man. It is true that many readers·still find it difficult to understand Mlrajl's poetry. hillocks and mounds. in his view. where his primitive self used to be. etc. brooks and fountains. Undoubtedly. that. more with himself than with Nature. of course. in the established sense of the word. SOme respect for the great discoveries made by Freud and other great psychologists of our times on the relation of sex and the subconscious. the supercreator and nurturer of these complexes.

but to be comprised of writers in all the available languages. and his independent spirit. Mahfil: You have said that Miraji was. the founder of Halqa-e-Arb. no permanent executive. and who does not sacrifice his individuality for the sake of a political creed externally imposed upon him. I look upon the Halqa as a society of what one may call lithewell-rounded men of Urdu letters. and have according to their individual lights.ib-e-Zauq. reflected them in their literary productions. most of them members of Halqa-eArb&b-e-Zauq. leftist. men who believe that the cause of literature is best served by a writer who under . few of them possess his super-sensitivity. religious. but his impact on Urdu poetry will always be keenly felt. Rdshed: I have always held Halqa-e-Arb. Muhammad Safdar and others. therefore." and which is supposed to have stood for the independent spirit of the writer. spirit. Everything is done on an ad hoc basis: the president is nominated for each meeting. What is your opinion of this society? What do you think of its recent tendency to function as the apologists for the Islamic religion in an Islamic state? Isn't it rather unusual for an Ilartfor art's sake" school of literature to transform itself into a school of religious apologetics? Mr. Majid Amjad. members of the Halqa have at all times shown vital interest in life and its problems. and will always be kept out of the textbooks by the virtuous schoolmen. particularly the use of run-over lines.H as against the men of letters cut to a measure. He. or Halqa for short. more or less as a substitute for the so-called Delhi Cultural Society. mystical. It is.12 While many younger poets. a mistake to take Halqa for a mere "art for art's sake" school in the sense of an Ivory Tower.ib-e-Zauq.. and so on and so forth .all circumstances is willing to maintain his spirit of independence.the independence of the writer . his preoccupation with mythology. or his dexterity in the treatment of sexual themes within an intricate pattern of symbols and images. and thus succeeded in forming the Halqa. The doors of the Halqa have indeed been kept open to all varieties of writers and writings . among his other great qualities. While retaining their independent.esthetic. modern.iJallandhari. or for any political expediency. The society has many special features: it has no regular president.as long as it happened to be good literature. no membership fee and no business office. concentrated on a society which would be devoted to the·cause of the Urdu language and literature'alone. Mfraji will perhaps always remain a security hazard. For single-minded moralists. Mukhtar Siddiqi. means liTheCircle of Men of Taste. particularly those of Urdu and Hindi. his peculiar philosophy of life. which. traditional. share Mfraji's method and technique in different measure. an executive . I was closely associated with it when it was first founded in Delhi some twenty-five years ago. therefore. in the highest esteem. Mfraji wisely saw that it was difficult to bring writers of different languages together under the same roof. among them Zi. I understand. his rhythmic patterns. which I had rather unsuccessfully tried to form with a similar purpose . of which Mfrajf was the founder.

and its inveterate "weakness" for free and frank criticism. on the other hand. the Halqa has functioned well for these twentyfive odd years. however great or influential. a rather sporadic publication of "annuall1poetry selections . it cannot.. One rule of the game which the Halqa has scrupulously observed throughout its existence has been that no writer. but has. Karachi.his work in any of the Halqa's meetings. annual meetings. As regards the second part of your question. The majority of Pakistan's population is MUslim. What lends the Halqa its intrinsic worth is not its output. One mus~ however. operating rather spasmodically. This rule has no doubt chagrined many an established writer who is accustomed to solicitous compliments or polite comments. today write on Islamic themes. when its Rawalpindi chapter was ordered closed down because it was felt that the weekly meetings were being crowded by political extremists. or in one way or the other. its encouragement of all experimentation.13 - is formed when needed. and has seldom cared for or received an official frown except perhaps once. the Society has never sought official favors or monetary help. who cares to present . it is not right to take the Halqa for a mere Ivory Tower. The country has inherited a culture which has its roots in the Islamic way of life. Much less would it call upon its members to become apologists for Islam or for any purpose for that matter.to which have lately been added similar selections of short stories. Islam. for the simple reason that this would not fit into its pattern of approach to literature. because it has at all times shown a dynamic interest in life and its problems. I hope that you do not mean religious fanatics. will be spared criticism and that that criticism will be honest and objective. at the same time ever go to the extent of issuing a "mant. become one thing or the other? As I have already pointed out. accompanied by a mushaara (poetical symposium) attended by special invitation. admit that the record of the Halqa's accomplishments has stayed all too on the humble side: regular Sunday afternoon meetings. members are individually called upon to subscribe when a specific program needs financial support. More than that. frankly.fe sto" calling upon all its members. let us say. while the other ones in Delhi. Despite thiS. to write on one theme or the other. as well as certain other writers. Dacca and London. as an organization. Thus if a writer views life from the Islamic angle. such somersaults somehow do not fit into its pattern at allo How could it ever. because that would indeed be a disaster. and whether they do so as apologists or no r . in the same manner as scores of Western writers . which to this day follow the same pattern as laid down by the illustrious founder. I can well imagine that some members of the Halqa. Rawalpindi. essays and discussions. which are common in my part of the world. and the private house or office of a member may be "requisitioned" as business office for a specific transaction. But. with its Lahore chapter having proved the most active. I am not aware of any somersault on the Halqa's part: in fact. if a Pakistani writer treats Islam. is an important dImensLon of the life of an average Pakistani. he is only reflecting life the way it appears to 'him. but its emphasis on modernity in literature. turned the Halqa into a training ground for the younger writer who must inevitably get some "spankingtl from his seniors before he can either realize his yorth or fall by the roadside. Peshawar. after all. Otherwise. it is their own business. When you say apologists for the Islamic religion.

Most of the other poems which I happened to read were oratorical outbursts poured out in hackneyed phrases. then. It is not clear to me what you base your conclusion on. must change . Eliot.ends which can be spelled out in advance. however. For example. When you ask what the ends of poetry ought to be. in the manner of the old marsta (elegy) writers. like to have your views on this subject in some detail. Akbar and Iqbal. or even some of his poems directly inspired by the Indo-Pakistan conflict of September 1965. think the ends of poetry ought to be. that ends of poetry. s which read a universal grief in the tragedy of Indo-Pakistan war. have treated Christianity. a grief which is of all mankind and which transcends national sentiments as well as national boundaries. for its mechanical use of torrential words. tt which was in fact a series of poems. mostly represented patriotic fervor or religious fury. a certain kind of wistfulness for Islamic personalities and places. stood out for its lack of sincerity.14 - from Dante and Milton down to T. Main ky6n Udae Hun? (Why Am I Sad?). Jflanf Kamran. or all those poets who several years ago brought out a spate of "war poetry" . or Mukhtar Siddiqi. or the poems in which there are extensive references to Fatima. these individual efforts which aimed at ·prevailing tllslamicH sentiments provide no indication that the Halqa has undergone any metamorphosis. I am aware that there are quite a few Urdu poets today who draw upon Islam for their themes . with such poems as Panjsure-vdZa (The Colporteur). there was hardly a good poem produced that year. There are references to Christian lore even in the poetry of Auden and Dylan Thomas in English.z' poem. I admit that this last variety of poetry. when you say that the Halqa has transformed itself into a school of religious apologists. Rashed: I am afraid your question is based on certain presumptions which are not proven. I hopefully believe that its official policy still is and will always be to strive for unfettered independence of the writer. the Prophet's daughter. first and last. secondly. it does not amount to an apologia for Islam. you presume in the first instance that poetry has specified ends . What do you. particularly from the point of view of a citizen of an Islamic state? Mr." as you say. who have written directly about Islam.Islamic religion or civilization or history. MahfiZ: Your answer to my last question happily answers a part of the question which I was going to ask now. which was not even a good apologia for Islam. whose Siharfi (Poem of Thirty Letters) is an attempt at reinterpreting Islamic mysticism. S. you have to be a good writer. Nevertheless.. I ~ould. and in Urdu we have already writers like Hali. and with the exception of Ahmad Fara. who has introduced a neo-romantic attitude towards Islam. and whose other poems have a close bearing on Islamic civilization and its different facets. if there are any. partly religious. I am referring to these instances to show that even if you are "an apologist for the Islamic religion in an Islamic state. and I trust that the Halqa has not decided to judge literature by any different standard.partly patriotic. particularly from the point of view of a citizen of an Islamic state. and for its overtones of religious frenzy. For instance Jafar Tahir's long "war poem. while no Urdu poet of the past has written poetry without allusions to Islamic myths.

the Islamic penal code is not administered there. Although it seems to me to be irrelevant to our discussion on the ends of poetry as such. with that passion. for. must be different from that of a citizen of a nonIslamic state. the people of one country. The main question to which we are seeking an answer is whether a poet owes any responsibility to the state of which he is the subject. But to call it an Islamic state is to call it a theocratic state. The country has inherited a national culture.for we are talking of Pakistan in the context of Urdu poetry . and lastly that Pakistan . and in so far as they all understand and enjoy poetry better when it draws for inspiration upon the elements in theirculture with which they are most familiar and which they most cherish. I do not wish to stretch this point too far.should be no exception. More specifically. irrespective of the nature of that state. therefore. If religion or any other element of thought happens to be the predominant passion of the people of a country.to reflect the life around him as it exists. or as he sees it. In the first instance. it indeed becomes inevitable for its poets and writers to link their personal experience as well as their loves and hates. thirdly. on matters of literature. But. we must get clear on the nature of Pakistan as a state. Religion is not practiced any the better or any the worse in Pakistan than in any other country of the world. and whether that state has any right to interfere with or influence literature in any way. A majority of its population professes the faith of Islam. as I said. The laws made by the State are related to religion only in their broad moral and social substance. because national policies and programs are shifting sands. that I can handle this question to your entire satisfaction.I imagine that this is the normal pattern of response to poetry in all parts of the world. and to reflect it in their writings one way or the other.is a state with an explicit religious denomination. or as he may wish to see it. hopes and fears. rather than an Islamic state. which is the product of a fusion of Arabic. sorrows and delights and weaknesses and strong points will be reflected in their poetry. I believe that the ends of poetry do not and should not differ from country to country and state to state.. which Pakistan does not claim to be.. hopes and fears. are no different from the people of another. in so far as they all expect that their loves and hates. Secondly. Thus. which themselves were influenced by Islam in different measures. it is largely irrelevant to our discussion on poetry. .15 - from place to place or that they must be geared to the policies and programs of a state. whether it is an Islamic state or not.whatever that expression may mean . Islam is the main cohesive force between its various regions and provides the mqral basis and justification to its existence. while it is in the nature of a poet's craft to follow more durable purposes of the wider humanity. Persian and Indian elements. I would prefer to call it a Muslim state. I am not sure. and should not be geared to national political policies and programs. I consider it natural for a Pakistani poet . and an Islamic state.irrespective of the nature of Pakistan as a state . that the point of view of a citizen of an Islamic state.

Now. which created responses and reactions.a vision of the future or a vision of things as they should be rather than of things as they are. because they are capable of engendering manifold emotional responses in others. as well as his . cannot have his own vision . rather than subvert it. indeed. Basically. even if he lives in a country dominated by a single passion. but soon transformed itself into words in a poem. But who decides the nature of a poet's vision for him? Does he depend upon others. Yet. it is this action which many states are concerned about and even dread. present and future . Deadly. on the nature of a poet's vision depends the relationship of the illusion and reality emerging from his poetry as well as its worthwhileness in the context of human values. on his broad awareness of human destiny. and thus worthwhile. is indeed this contrast with the present and immediate realityo Finally. because then he can create an illusion. At this stage. and if he cares to produce the best poetry that lies in him. The poet is thus the sole architect of his own visions and must always remain so if he is to be honest to his craft. which are further multiplied depending on the sensitivity of the recipient. even a vision cannot take·off from nowhere.. for the simple reason that it then ceases to be a V1Sl0n. a poet writes because he has the urge to do so. which is the essence of all poetry. Thus the state feels even happier if the poet's vision would help preserve the social order and promote the political system for which it stands. political groups. and sometimes even deadly weapons. with all kinds of shades and colors. and how far he can go to resist the system which strives to suppress it or dilute it. however great or influential. It can be a political or social forecast based on the available data. ironically enough.. and that no other indiVidual. no group. All visions are rooted in the present and immediate reality .16 This does not. notions about things past. governments etc. It then all depends on how inunaculate a poet wishes his vision to stay. and these responses are known to have led to strange actions. to provide a ready-made vision? Or. however. and that urge. the action resulting from what began as an innocent vision of an insignificant being. a vision transcending his immediate national surroundings. often layers and layers of them. in seeking expression. is it manufactured in those invisible workshops of poetical inspiration which are beyond normal human reach? It is indeed in the nature of a poet's vision that it should be personal and individual. which make them powerful. or the system of government established and nurtured by them.a fact that makes them vision. The choice clearly rests with the poet himself.the moss of all kinds of emotions and feelings and notions about life and its problems. but it cannot be a vision. should lay down rules for shaping that vision. and acquired a new meaning saturated with emotions. his friends. on his sense of responsibility to mankind. than about life as he finds it around him. and acquire new meanings. the state. A poet anywhere is indeed better-off when he can write more about a life that is to be. and words begin to form rhythmic patterns. gathers a great deal of moss around it . steps in either to suppress the poet's vision or to mold it in a manner that it would no longer endanger social order as conc~ived by the custodians of the state. acting in sheer self-preservation. no state. depending on the confidence he has in the truth underlying his vision.it then dresses itself in words. relatives. mean that a poet.

criticism. yet there are. and has thus opened the doors for a new dialogue between them.. such as. it has also launched an elaborate publications program. The final answer is that there is no final answer. particularly in the field of poetry. whatever its political denomination. yet they do. Some of the routine activities of the Guild have closely followed the pattern set by other literary societies. under direct state encouragement and patronage with the declared object of "uniting Pakistani writers under the present regime for the greater glory of Pakistan. hopefully. and Halqa-eArbab-e-Zauq. And so on and so forth. I imagine that I am going too far afield from your question. still stands for the writer as independent spirit. . It publishes a monthly magazine which is a kind of literary miscellany of poetry. I can say that I am clear about one thing in my own mind. We have discussed at some length the leftist movement in Urdu literature which." Whatever the nature of the Guild's affiliations and whatever its objectives may be. say. I guess.weekly meetings and occasional "Evenings with So-and-So. and besides what we have already gone over. fiction. and news of the literary world. II The Guild has also been promoting special sales of books autographed by the authors on the spot. you wanted to know about some of the more prominent contours of the literary scene of West Pakistan. for lack of an organization of its ownuhas more or less frittered away. the literary scene of Pakistan cannot be considered complete. until it has created the conditions which make the violets bloom and the stars shine. No state.17 - strength and ability to sUstain his vision against all odds." in the form of prizes and awards. Furthermore. which is still functioning and. while without some mention of the Writers' Guild. The states do not like to curb the freedom of the writer. particularly in the light of what you have just said? Who are the major talents among the younger generation. There are no ends of poetry. one remarkable achievement of this organization has been that it has brought writers of all denominations and beliefs under its wings. i. has the right to tell a poet to talk about violets and stars. Mahfil: How would you describe the literary scene of West Pakistan today. But. There is no special point of view of a citizen of any state on poetry.. those who have made their debut since. Still I do not imagine that I have provided you with a final answer to your question. and I am more or less repeating what others have said before. Yet. The situation is pretty well confused. yet there is.e. irrespective of the languages they use for their writings. as the Guild through its influence with the moneyed classes has made possible for him today. Rashed: I suppose in our discussion so far.1951? Mr. We have as yet made no reference to the Writers' Guild. The subject of the freedom and responsibility of the writer has been discussed threadbare. the Pakistani writer had never before seen so much "affluence. which came into being_in 1959. With its resources far better than those of any other literary organization in the country. we have already pretty well covered the literary scene of West Pakistan today.

began as a poet of youthful lyrical exuberance. it might be useful to mention that there are still two eminent poets of the oldest generation flourishing. It is difficult in this brief discussion to go over their individual characteristics.18 you are interested in the new generation of poets that has come into prominence since 1951. who has retained his leftist fervor along with some objectivity in the treatment of his subjects. Mukhtar Siddiqi. nor is it perhaps entirely germane to our present discussion.who are the antithesis of each other both in personality and poetry. Hafiz. Josh once wrote fervently patriotic and humanistic verse. for lack of a common platform. As far as their poetry goes. but his speculations on the relationship of man and nature. but it has saved it from the usual leftist fanaticism. While all these poets have more or less carried forward the tradition of the independent spirit. and the armed forces in particular. who. Among those who developed under the shadow of Miraji and Halqa-e-Arbabe-Zauq. one who has made a mark is Ahmad Faraz. Except for Mukhtar Siddiqi. but now at a ripe age. Muhammad Safdar and Majid Amjad. and most of them have ended up as kind of brinkmen. however is Ahmad Nadim Qasimi. except that with this begins the second half of the present century: Before we come to talk of this new generation. Among the younger leftist poets. to a realization of their national responsibilities.tI Qayyum Nazar. it may be said here that there are a few others of them. have got mixed up with the Writers' Guild and other literary societies. who has succeeded much better than others in balancing sentimentalism with a broad humanism and an oriental sensitivity with Marxist ideology. I do not understand the significance of this date. subjectivity and intense preoccupation with the conflict between life and death and with nature. they I I I . we have talked in detail. His poetry lacks drama and wit. who is a revivalist and a metaphysical poet. man and God. and the social and economic exploitation of the peasant by the towns~ man. Zia Jallandhari. Of the Progressives. and is ending up as a religious revivalist his magnum opus being shnhnama-e-Lelam (a history of Islam in verse) and as a patriotic poet who has permitted his talent to be extensively used by the Government for the exhortation of the people in general. on the other hand. almost as an afterthought. As a supplementary note. seems to have become hopelessly nostalgic of his youthfully playful past. after Faiz. all representing what one may call the middle generation of the living Urdu poets. The most distinguishing feature of his poetry is an intense moral anguish felt over the contrast between the urban and rural way of life. but their commoQ features are absolute individualism. both as a creator and destroyer. namely Josh Mal!habadi and Hafiz Jallandhari . is very obvious in his poetry. One of the more significant leftist poets. who has now turned what you like to call "an apologist for the Islamic religion. the more prominent poets are Yusuf Zafar. We have little time to discuss their respective personalities. particularly of Faiz and his poetry. The conflict between the Muslim mind on the one hand and the communist ideology on the other. the rest of them show an original searching mind. and man and man. lend some philosophical strain to his verse.. constantly seeking a philosophical answer to the natural phenomenon in relation to man.

religious concepts or philosophical thought can compensate for the basic purpose of poetry . to the wistful sentimentalism of Akhtar Shirani and of Faiz. they are by and large the followers of the traditions laid down by Mfraji and his immediate followers. Iftikhar Jalib. Akhtar Ahsan. as stated by some of their apologists. Saq! Faruq1 and Anis Nag! are largely victims of self-love. in spite of their roots in the world of reality. have also been accused of maintaining a blissful non-involvement in the current human scene in their search for the larger human question. and to draw their symbols from the so-called "dream world. according to them. whom I mentioned earlier. '_'.enjoymentc Most of them use the language of common speech. one of them being Madho. one can read a passion for life and for human civilization. in so far as he has written brilliant satires against humanism. his poetry is not devoid of a thoughtpattern. There is an extensive tendency among them to write symbolically. are gifted with extraordinary human understanding. Whatever the nature of their revolt. but the signs of revolt in it are self-evident. This newly emerging poetry still largely remains low key. In many of the new poems. such as Zafar Iqbal. born out of neurotic minds. They are basically poets of a disorder which threatens the ruin of civilizaSion. so that the distance between the poet and the reader be minimized. It is a challenge to the humanism of both the Marxists and the oriental metaphysicists. Some of the poets of the new generation. is the personal delectation of the reader. who is endowed with a vision of human civilization. coming to the more recent generation of Urdu poets who have appearedon the scene during the last ten or fifteen years. who has written little so far. Poetry. Now. I consider it most encouraging that a group of poets has arisen with a courage to challenge some of the existing rules of poetry and to provide a new appraisal of them in the light of their personal experience. yet. The main purpose of poetry. and they believe that no ethical values. rather than poets of a new order which would replace the existing chaos. to the intellectualism of Iqbal and Ghalib~ and to both the former esthetic poets and the poets of social responsibility. but has already shown a startling gift of observation and wit.. Consequently they ignore the problems both in their immediate society and beyond it. although some of them have advocated the revival of the ghazal form.19 . for dreams. still keeps his mind separated from normal human concerns. and thus it is surprising that they tend to treat life as a mere passing show. must entertain before it can sublimate or edify. but without any sense of the acceptance of responsibility for either. and this alone can guarantee that whatever they write will eventually join the mainstream of literature and civilizationo They believe in no tradition. and some of them have succeeded in this admirably well too. and M&dho. in spite of their own claim that they are in revolt against everything that has gone before." which often hampers their communication. Some of them now seem to be "compensating" for this non-involvement by writing about the conflict of a few years ago. have an intimately personal character and their dimensions are in a constant state of fluidity. and the scenes of violence and fear which they portray can only lead to a sordid view of life. Poets like Munir Niaz1. Their poetry is the poetry . Another poet.

as it has in other parts of the world.. . The poetry of the new generation of Urdu poets has considerably reduced its weight.20 - of what one may call "the social subconscious mind. who drew his images and symbols from the subconscious mind of the individual. What they are writing today is largely chatty and frivolous. The age of grand poetry has passed away in Pakistan. but one may hope that when their present mood of self-assertion at any cost passes away. more solid and sturdy works may emerge." as against the poetry of Miraj L.

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