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**PART A-CALCULATOR. SIDE
**

Time. Speed· Distance 2 4 5 9 11 , 12 . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. 12 14

PART B-WIND

The CR "Wind" Disc Addition - Subtraction

SIDE

30

Fuel Consumption Conversions .

. . . . . . . ..

32 33 3"7 41

Wind Solution on the CR . .

NOTE

The plastic components. of your computer may warp if exposed to excessive heat or sunlight .... 140°F or 60°C will do it.

Weight of Fuel and Oil Altitude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Densi ty Altitude True Altitude. True Air Speed The CR Cursor Mach Number Temperature Rise ... "Old" Method. True Air Speed Pressure Pattern Slide Rule Use ....

FLight Planning with Forecast Winds. Finding Winds in Flight True Course (Track) and Ground Speed , .. , , , . . ..

44 48 51 - 53 55

True Heading and True Air Speed . . . . . . . . . . .. Off-Course Correction Radius of Action Wind Components for Takeoff and Landing

_ _ 15 1"7 , , . , .. , 20

21 . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 , .. , .... , .. 25

**PART C-ANSWERS. DEFINITIONS AND HINTS
**

Answers to Practice Problems Definitions........ Some Hints on the .. .. 57 58 60

Time and Distance to Station

.. , 28

eR .

©

J$314294'E

Sanderson, Inc .. 1981. 1936, 1987. 1984 All Rights Res.rved S5 lnverness Drive EaSt. ,Englewood, CO 80112·.,198

Jeppesen

PART A-CALCULATOR

SIDE

CR-5 CR-2 and CR-3

o

o o

o o o

o

o

ii

Unit Index Cursor Hairline Recovery Coefficient 1.0 Nautical-Statute Conversion Arrows Calibrated Air Speed Window Time Index True Air Speed Windows Base Disc

a

•

41

G)

4D «D

o

Top Disc Temperature Conversion Scale Indicated Temperature Window Mach Number Window Temperature Rise Scale True Altitude Window Latitude for Pressure Pattern Scale

1

Example

Given: Find:

Ground speed Distance Time enroute

200 l\'IPH 300 Stat. Mi.

Fig. 1

Time

'Time, Computer

side. knecessarily

Given: Find:

n istance Ti me..

Ground speed

_.

•.... 21 0 Mi. _.50 M i11.

Speed problems

Distance

speed and distance in the conventional

are solved with the CR scales

manner ... using the outside

on the calculator the CR is 'knot

For the benefit at those 'knot so inclined,' knau tical' and you can get perfectly Let's run through is spoofing you. [he scales on the CR. Each figure can. which

Fig. 2

good answers in MPH and statute. so's you won't figure 'Ole Sharp' "First a word about reading raining

some quickies

**on the outer scales of the computer
**

40, <100, etc. You must determine,

can stand for any number from the given problem,

the given digits. The point marked

'40' can stand for .4, 4,

value is correct." 2

To find distance ir you are given ground peed and time, pl~ce time index A_ opposite ground speed and read di tance on outside scale opposite Lime on inside scale.

3

gallollS per oj' g.a llons instead of miles on the outside scale and time Oil the inside scale. rui . 2..\L.\L. FUEL CONSUMPTION Problems ill volvi 1114 Iucl rnnsu m ptiou are worked ill the sallie manner as ume-speed-d istancc problems. 30 111 in.~ per hour the "SEC" . S. FT :\1 C1TRS . (kilometer') J?lIP. Si III pi Y pl. if YOll want to change: miles LO statute miles or kilometers to imperial galluns or liters 1I. nearJ-l (Ill inside sralc Ileal' 3{i Oil outside S 'i1 lc near I.mear II Oil hOlh scales near 13 on both scales 11ea r ·18 on both 5CI j es _ near 1·1 or1 outside scale LB KG.') on inside scale (kiln~ral11s) 5 .lcc )!.s. gallons meters Pounds to kilograms Or vice vcrsa-> L to F' Here's how: on inside and outside scales Note the Iollowing label ·d arrow" of the calcu la LOr side at the computer: NAUTICAL miles _ near r. (ili() Sla l. 4. :32 : 13 1:'10 ·180 kts 3.. . fi.lsolillC in I hr. IIIi.u. poull!I.llO k ts. 11. S. CONVERSIONS "Things aren't alway' will help what you want them to i>eBUL An aircr .E I~. G.li on both scales ncar 71i on both nca r 12011 bntl: 'Cales 'Cales STATUTE miles KM. gallons (gasoline) are heillg may be read 011 the outside scale opposite on the inside scale. For Find: Ga lions per hour a Ild poullds hOlil'. SJ)(~I'd Distance ~~ st. of miles pCI' hour wi l] he read opposite used. :311 r fiO naut. Gallons per hOllr instead the time index ~ . Nautical YOll chang'c them.nJlIllc/ 1 Titllt' I. mi. S. Hi!:! 1\ II)H 177 MPH 51!! lWlIL. fL has rousumed Example 105 lI._ Ll T.(See page 5 i for answers] Problems (.urow at ilh H U. C. 5. the CR in tance. S. III i.

Read temperature conversions directly from this scale. Fig.. It may not. miles (or . conversions. match se the same method lor all other quaruitv the ar rows i"ur the desired (i 1I. () nautical miles = 92 statute miles.S.. 38 SLaLUte miles = 33 n.6 7 . Celsius .1 n ti lies. Opposite 40 on outside scalc read 4& on inside scal . 2. statute miles. the rollowing method Illay be preferred: 6 <I series of (IU.. U.the and the the To convert between two different units of measure.de..lic.cuing is necessary lor it series because every quanriry 011 the outside scale reprcxerus nauri '.(lItiral miles. and liters.III' Fig. Example Example Convert 40 nautical miles to statute miles. This method may be used for converting among nautical miles.. if This method is especially good il you have a series of quantities Only aile .y instead rities. and among imperialgailons. to convert. simply find arrow for (he first unit of measure on one s ale of th computer place it opposite the arrow for the second unit of measure on other scale.1 miles (or kIlOl~) and the orresponding value in tau 11. Convert 40 naurica l miles to stature miles.. Read corresponding values opposite each other on two scales. reading suruue miles on the outside scale and na ut ira l III i Ies 011 the inside scale. CtC It would also have been possible LO match the STAT TE arrow 011 the outsiclc scale wit h the AUTICAL arrow on the inside ~{'. and kilometers. of Silllply When converting only one quaruit.\IPH) <Ire foulld OPPOSil' on the imide T.Fahrenheit A temperature conversion scale is located on the calculator side of the eR. gallons. be used to convert between feet and meters or pound and kilograms because all arrows for the latter conversions are on opposite scales.

Then. 12. 230 feet 3. 1 U. Example L 100 nautical miles 196 statute miles 90 statute miles 250 kilometers 53 U. 6. 3. approx . 4. 9. 21bs.500 meters meters feet meters feet Meters to Feet Are you perplexed because the constant pressure charts issued by the National Weather Service express altitudes in meters instead of feet? That is no trou ble at all. gal.S. This sets up the correct proportion of feet and meters.S. 10. mi. all values on tbe inner scale represent meters and those on the outer scale represent corresponding values in feet.Problems 2 Change 2.S. 4. 1.S. OF °c To check the "reasonableness" equals approximately 3. 1. gallons kilograms pounds 2.S. The CR makes the conversion by lining up the meters arrow near 44 on the inner scale and the feet arrow near 14 on the outer scale. approx. 5 naut. 8 WEIGHT OF FUEL AND OIL Want to know how much your fuel and oil weigh? Use the foUowing labeled arrows: FUEL LBS OIL LBS near 77 on outside scale at 96 on outside scale 9 .500 meters 82 feet 5. approx. 4 liters of your Problems 3 1 kg. gallons 80 imperial gallons 198 imperial gallons 140 liters 117 pounds 90 kilograms -20°C 50°F statute miles nautical miles Kilometers nautical miles imperial gallons U.3 feet. 11. 7. 1 imp. 8.. 2 U.500 meters to feet. 2. Fig_ 7 of your answer. remember that 1 meter To help in checking "reasonableness" answer. 3. approx. NOTE: 1 km. gallons liters U. 5. gal. gal.

18 U. corrected for nnnstanis affected by density Answer. gal oil Minutes to Seconds At 3fi on the inside scale is an arrow marked SEC..92. lh e weiglll of: ALTITUDE Altitude comes in assorted varieties. el match with the proper GAL.u· 3G on inside scale) read 81. 13V2 minutes 810 seconds. S. po ition. Problems 4 Find I. Aircraft performance altitude. using· the same method a in finding fuel weight.· On the inside scale and proceed as above. arrow at 96 on the outside scale . Density Altitude is pressure altitude dard temperature. altitude height of Example Find number of seconds in 13Y2 minutes. A True Alritud e is computed by correcting calibrated for nonstandard atmospberi e conditions. S. corrected for 35·. Ever wonder how high is "up?" No need for confusion if you remember the following points: lndicated Altitude is the altitude reading on the altimeter. PI" ssure altitude is an important factor for determining aircraft performance. It is th actual the aircraft above sea level. Opposite SEC arrow (ne. gal. To find the weight of imperial gallons. It show he approximate height of the aircraft above mean sea level (M L). and installation enol's. To convert minu res to seconds. To find the weight of oil. match [he FUEL LBS. <lHOI. assuming it is correctly set. is et to 29. 500 imp.\IP. gal. Place time index opposite J3V2. ]0 11 . gal. oil ~. of gasoline. use the OIL LBS. S. GAL. ga I. 'alibrat ed Altitude is the indicated altitude instrument. A Pressure Attitude is the reading on he altimeter when it. place the lime index opposite [he number of minutes and read reconds opposite SEC arrow.Example Find weight or 18 U. gasoline 3. ga oline 2. 50 imp. arrow with the I. arrow on the inside m scale.

Pressure Altitude True Air Temperature 1.9 Problems 5 Find density altitude for the following conditions.nd t37Stn on outside ICCIle. alL cbcve fJtound.000' 4. 10 3.200' Sea Level 1900' j\ Unknown 13 .mple Given: Near the center of the computer at the bottom left is the density altitude window. True Air Temp. True air temperature Density altitude . Greater accuracy can be obtained if you also know the altitude of the ground station giving your altimeter setting. Oppos:he cnl.000' Station luurde 4.OOO' 7.O()()' g. 3000' 25"C Find: Pressu re al u rude.. Calibrated altitude True air temperature Ground station altitude True a ILi tude 1O.000' 3.ono: 1..io-c Problems 6 To find the approximate true altitude. use calibrated altitude (or indicated if calibrated is not available) and true air temperature.stale 'fcad true aU.oon' -20"C 5. 25°C io-c -15 C D o-c Calibrated AI ti tude 11.DENSITY ALTITUDE Exa. 20. Fig.000' 2.000' 3. (4000') on Inslde ...400' 21. 0' 40 e 0 fig. 5.400' (j. 12 Find true altitude: Pressure Altitude Io. 7. Example Given: Find: Pressure altitude . 1500' 35"C 2. above qrau. 8000' TRUE ALTITUDE .

.. one-half of the space between the sea level curve and stratosphere curve of CT == 1.<1 '·1' men! error. Once a recovery coefficient is determined for a particular airplane. and a dashed line is for the standard sea level ternperatu re 0(" + 15° C. THE CR CURSOR True air speed calculations are affected by a temperature recovery coefficient. which varies with installation and design of the temperature probe on the individual airplane. 'Sume aircraft manufacturers provide air speed conversion tables that already inrlurie corrccrions for the temperature rise effect or cOilIpl"cssibility in audition It) correcrlou flO r posi t ion and i. Hence the air is compressed in front of the aircraft and is heated by compression.0. note that 17.While either knots or MPH can be used with the CR Modern True Air Speed Solution.. the CR contains no crystal ball and gives answers only as accurate as the data fed into it.0. On the CR-2 and CR-3 there are two lines plotted for the CT value of 1. An automatic compensation for compre. The use of such tu 1. For instance. and indicated outside air temperature in degrees Celsius.. indicated air speed and altitude may be used instead. It's a mighty fine gadget.>1<. TRUE AIR SPEED In the old days pilots listened to the wind in the wires and were happy to be flying at G. pressure. the rush of air over the outside air temperature bulb creates friction. an outside air temperature bulb 'feels' a higher air temperature than really exists in the surrounding non-compressed air. The recovery coefficient of CT = .500 feet with a CT of 1. it is necessary to interpolate between the two lines. more accurate true air speed answers will result from using knots when dealing with speeds over 200.ssibility. causing further heating and a still higher (false) reading. Also. temperature rise and air friction is built into the CR Computer so that no reference to graphs and tables and no separate figuring is necessary for correct true air speed solutions. D 14 15 . at an altitude of 1'7. Wh en flyi ng between sea level and 35. The amount of this higher reading of the thermometer is called 'temperature rise' and must be considered when computing accurate true air speed.000 feet.500 feet is one-half the way between sea level and 35. Hence.0. the coefficient will not vary greatly with speed or altitude. The CR computer is effective iucorrscting fOI· all errors except the last. * For this reason the CR is especially adapted to the problems of modern aircraft.8 is the straight line . The cursor on the CR is marked with a straight hairline and a curved line to the right of it (see Fig . and accidental misreading by the pilot who may be thinking of something else. compressibility. If calibrated air speed and pressure altitude are not available in a problem.111 pera III rc rise IV i 1'1 resuh ina double correct JOIl wil hC1TOIlCOIiS results from the CR (om PUI er .ny speed. pressure altitude (altitude read from altimeter when instrument is set at 29.92).0. CT.000 feet.. The solid line is for the standard stratosphere temperature of -55 C (35.6 to 1. however.8 and l. or O[ her air speed da ra "I read y corrected for [(. A fast-flying aircraft pushes through the atmosphere so rapidly that the air can't get out of the way fast enough.000'). but its reading is affected by various items such as temperature. Today we have accurate air speed indicators. Remem ber. 11). Recovery coefficients vary fl"om. The following quantities are necessary for true air speed determination: calibrated air speed (indicated air speed corrected for in stru men t and position errors). As a result.0 must be used for the correct CT curve. with recovery coefficients plotted for CT values of .

()()()' .300C Find: True Air Speed From Mach Number and Temperature In aircraft having a Mach indicator it is possible to get true air speed from Mach Number and temperature. %5 k ts. unless otherwise stated. Example Given: Find: i\fach Number 1. Example MACH NUMBER In figure J2.(l()O' Ili. This value indicates that the aircraft is Hying at . Since Mach umber is dependent lipan the speed of sound. 1£ outside air temperature is not available it is possible to find true air speed by lIsing reported or estirna led air temperatu re (i n which case the result is only as accurate as the estimate) .78 times the speed of sound.\ir I lcr. read Ma h Number.ued . which varies only with temperature.. the same Mach Number represents different true air peeds at different temperatures. 15. at the pointer on the scale directly beneath the True Air Speed scale.'11\ 180 i\IPH 271i k ts.()()(l' 1"(. 5°C Fig. Given: Calibrated air speed Pressure altitude Indicated air temperature True air speed cIOO kts. 16 17 . 13 Prcssu re Al ti tude 5.5°C -15°(.OOO' 1().l tu re . Problems 7 lndic. 3.16 Indicated air temperature True air speed +lOoC Fig.0.78. 12 Find true aiv speed: Calibrated Air Speed I. . it is assumed that the recouery coefficient is the more common 1.In all problems in this book.

if your airplane is equipped with a conventional air speed indicator instead.. 18 Fig.55) to proceed as shown in Fig.500' _. 14 NOTE: The -40°C obtained in the above example is estimated true a ir temperature. However. 15. If your airplane is equipped with a Mach indicator..) In the small window below and left of computer center you will sec a two-directional arrow labeled Mach] ndex. -15°C Mach . Page 16) and find the Mach Number. simply read the indicated Mach Number. ee the following section for the best method of finding true air speed when true air temperature i available.: ::. -~ First place calibrated ail' speed opposite pressure altitude (as was done in Fig. . and proceed as shown below in Fig.True Air Speed From True Air Temperature Use of Double-ended Mach Index Arrow To find double-ended Mach Index arrow.000' Find: Estirna ted free air temperature 1 f .. The temperature of the "standard atmosphere" may be of assistance in estimating' outside air temperature. This is done as follows: Example Given: Calibrated Air Speed Pressure Altitude True Air Temperature Mach Number True Air Speed . set the 10 index (outer edge of top disc) ncar the 60 on the base disc. (This setting is made simply as a means of finding [he double-ended arrow quickly. _-t: -::::""- GO:. 12 and 13 make use oE indicated air temperature. 14. The methods of finding true ail' speed outlined in Figs.55 in the Mach Number window.. Now you have the necessary data (true air temp. 280 kts. The double-ended Mach Index arrow relates a "standard atmosphere" altitude with the standard temperature for that altitude.. . 12. and you know the true air temperature. and Fig.. 15 19 . -15°C Example Given: Find: Pressure altitude 28. it then becomes necessary to first determine the Mach Number. 15 below.

"OLD" METHOD . OOC 1. the Or .0 Find: An older method for finding true air speed consists of matching pressure altitude and true air temperature in the small true air speed window near the lower left center of the computer and reading true air speed on the outside scale opposite calibrated air speed on the inside scale. This method does not correct for temperature rise and compressibility and is not suited fa problems involving high-speed aircraft.0)" has been designed to reflect the temperature rise indicated by aCT 1.000' Indicated Air Temperature OOC -lODe 2. Today's jets are equipped with temperature probes which have recovery coefficients of 1.0)" scale is multiplied by .TRUE AIR SPEED 10. . 16 Problems 8 Find temperature rise and true air temperature: (eT 1.8.000' 17. 20 21 . Pressure Altitude 5.0. 350 kts. Example Given: Calibrated air speed Pressure altitude Indicated air temperature.8 cursor line is used and the value found on the "TEMPERA· TURE RISE CO (CT 1. .8.. Fig. . 1.TEMPERATURE RISE In flight. The scale near the center of the computer entitled "TEMPERATURE RISE CO (CT 1. .0) Calibrated Air Speed If the temperature rise is desired for a temperature probe with a 0T of . while many older ones have a coefficient of . The CR Computer is designed to correct for temperature rise using the two most popular recovery coefficients. an outside air temperature thermometer will read higher than the actual free air temperature because of friction and compression of air at the temperature probe. Recovery coefficient True air temperature 276 kts.000' .8. particularly at high airspeeds.0 temperature probe. 190 kts.

000' 10. mi. Example Given: DI Problems Find true air speed using the method Pressure Altitude 7. taken In the Northern Hemisphere if D~ . the "old" method for true air speed questions is recommended. 188 MPH True Air Temperature 480' D2 300' D istance tra veled between readings i'vIid-latitude.Example Given: Calibrated Air Speed Pressure Altitude True Air Temperature True Air Speed 166 kts. 41 0 1.D1 is positive. if you already know something about it. wind is Irorn the right. 2. However.000' 9 outlined above: Calibrated Air Speed 210 kts. wind is (rom the left.DJ is negative.I 50 naut. 5000' lOoC Find: ~I PRESSURE "Sometimes PATTERN is the shortest way home. here's how to find cross-wind component with the CR Computer. 22 O°C -20°C Find: Cross wind component 23 . D = radio altimeter reading minus pressure altimeter reading When taking FAA written examinations. These exams seldom require computations involving temperature rise. respectively." the longest way 'round Fig. 1£ D~ . DJ and D~ designate fir~t and second reading' with an intervening time interval. 17 See the Jeppesen CR Computer Manualy'Workbook or a good navigation text for further explanation of pre sure pattern navigation. _ _. In the Southern Hemisphere this rule i~ reversed.

Average Latitude 350N 20' 210' 605' 3. Flown Between Readings 130 naut. 18 Problems 10 Find crosswind component: D1 1. The 8" diameter CR·3 scales are equivalent to those of a 17" straight slide rule and the 3%" CR·S scales equal a 10" rule. with the unit index in these problems. A' Example: 28 x 15 Fig. mi. " Multiplication and division are performed on the calculator side of the CR in the same manner as on a straight slide rule. 125 naut. Be careful not to confuse the time index which stands for 80. mi.SLIDE RULE USE "The 4%" diameter CR·2 log scales are approximately equivalent to those of a 12" 'straight rule'. 24 440N 54°8 fig. D2 100' 380' 520' Dist. 11) 25 . 152 naut. mi. 2.

. 25 19 x 12 fig. 2.8 11 2.6 x 31 2m . 12..Example: 182.. may be done on the CR NOTE: It is necessary to estimate answer by replacing numbers in problem by numbers that arc dose in value but easier to multiply and divide . For instance. 22 Problems 1.5.g.14 by using the hairline Successive multiplication and division of the cursor. 3. The problem might be carried a step farther: 25 x 12 19 x 69 Example: Fi... Hence the answer above must be 15.. not 158 or 1. 21 26 27 . fig..20 Example. -+. Opposite unit indell: on Inside ~cale read 13 on outside so.58. the figures are similar .ol.8.15fi 32 x 18 25x 12.. in problem above. which equals 12.25 x 10 to --2-(-)~ .

Given: Find: 120 Knot ground speed 300 feet per nautical mile climb required Feet per minute climb rate required 1. bearings Find: 28 29 . Set speed index under groundspeed in knots Time to Station Distance to Station 2. Read climb in feet per minute over climb per nautical mile. Time to station Distance to station TIMf AND DISTANCf TO STA nON Time and distance to a tatiun using two VOR or ADF bearings may be computed on the CR by using the preceding multiplication and division process (see Slide Rule Use.Solution: Time to Station = Elapsed time (min.of hange Elapsed time (min. = 120 mph 0 0 Find: 1. This climb requirement. Opposite 60 (1 :00) on inside scale read answer on outside scale: Answer: 20 minutes Problems 12 Given: 1st bearing 280 at 8:26 2nd bearing 269 at 8:31 C.) x 60 Degrees of change ----g- 3x 60 On calculator side.) Degrees of change Example Given: First bearing taken at 10:15 Second bearing taken at 10:1 A constant heading is maintained Time to station 90° = 99° between CONVERTING CLIMB PER MILE TO CLIMB PER MINUTE Some IFR departure procedures require a minimum climb rate to assure proper obstruction clearance.S. set 3 on outside scale opposite 9 on inside scale. can easily be converted to feet per minute on a CR. Elapsed time (min_l X 60 Degree. stated in feet per mile. 25) with the following formulas: NOTE: These formulas are based on the aircraft flying a heading which is perpendicular to the [irs! bearing to the station. Pg. 2.

.) The CR-5 is very similar 19 the CR-2 Computer except a few less frequently used [unctions were el irninated in order to mainlain readability with the reduced size. The basic solutions are the same wi h either scale . Your Jeppesen CR Computer is the finest instrument of its kind available at any price . 3% " dia.Part WIND SIDE B 4.. CR·S COMPUTER in the new. 2. Work each problem with "all small numbered scales" 07" "all in the large numbered scales. large the BW-2. even when solving problems where the wind velocity exceeds 100 knots.. (CR-3 Only) C lock wise ()O thru 3600 scale for ADF relative bearing solutions and other uses. 0° thru 1800 scales for grid navigation problems. (CR-3 Only) Dual. we sincerely hope that it will become your favorite "cockpit companion. corrections" for the more frequent types of application. The modern true ail" speed solution was slightly altered and the wind scale also somewhat reduced to permit this very small computer to [unction. The "2-value" scale system provides you with an easy way to make accurate calculations. 3_ 30 31 . Jeppesen CR Computer (3 and 4 above are more fully explained Manual/Workbook." THE CR "WIND" DISC I. adding and subtracting and other uses.. the only difference is that you have a choice of the scale best suited to the velocities involved in a particular problem." Minus (-) and plus {+l signs have been added to facilitate required .

29 on scale to the lefl ot 29 read . ir you're the a genius CR at mental take ari rh metic you ']] find it the work out of addition.. j ust set the magnetic opposi te the lind green scale OT£: To su btract 29 from 8·1... to let Computer mul t ipi ica lion a ncl d iv isi on. CR Computers carry the scale to the righ only as high as 30 on each side of the TC index.lc and this bnsi ne ss of 'AI 1Iy. On the CR-3 Computer 36()0 sea leca n be read as h igll as 1800 to the left and The smaller.Tvur the True course on sea it' on ei l her side a pplirable variation Course the Index • (see Fig..' can't mix 1ll. Example Add 8'1 and 29.. ]'111 sure you'll agrec [hat it's as simple a solution as you've ever used. 23 of a II let's always CR seu.Igllctic The true ally more than YOIl can oil and Computer !4"Cts yOIl over til is hump conuevsion by provirl i ng a Ntagnctic..ADDITION -SUBTRACTION "Even relaxin' su b tra rtion. ---_ WIND SOLUTION ON THE C R / -=:-:n "The 'wind' side of the CR to be shook-up IS a different about.' 32 . scale curving the TC index on the middle disc."el by airport towers) It vs. . and above index. Once luoking we've gismo. but this is nothing breezed through an illusrrarion.-::- -=-n "First ''\finds you oxygen. Fig. \:!tl) . scale of the [OP disc and using the outside either side of the lane)" t. locate ." and subtraction of numbers the black "Addition plished green lip to 3GO Gill be <lCC0111- on the wind side of the CR-3 Computer. YOll!' true course is autnnnuicall y lined lip opposite the true course TC index. arc givell (except in T'rue and beuuti fully.. 01.55. T'rue'.

~ I~ (he triangle that fits on the CR Compute!". any inaccuracy 35 .i me-honored .It the lap of the onginal tri<lngle. crab 'Ingles this i very cit-He to true. and you put bill the CR the CR in Fig. if you draw to a line lrom the end will "This diagram assumes th.Example G.iven: Find: !llagnetic course Variation True Course 281° 14"E Tailwind Component Crosswind Component TC-GS Fig.True Heading Ground Speed - - True AirSpeed Crab Angle Fig. your a t. "In in your pocket.u to you can add the tailwind com- of the TH·TAS line perpendicular the TC-GS line. you ponent LO the true air speed get ground speed.. and for small being lOO small have a small triangle 3'1 . 27 solves the triangle trigonometrically the wind triangle above. 25 "It's space. 26 fig .<1 insu rut ion but wind triangle it takes ((In both lime and You can't put pocket." "Remember the good old wind triangle? True Course . 24 "Thi.

llll.less than AO knots 01' \\1 PH." However.J 'Flighl CR Planning' Icg~ so that Computer.Iglltti( (. ca I (rrom 0 to l(jll) i! the wind j more than RO. provided the poi Oll I' proposed in two problem. lise the smail .\ f PH Irom I (l()O T'rue . ("0111 dcuronstra or unit oj YOllr Eilher the k nmx wind chosen measure i. used cousistcut ly throughout proiJlun. it so of tll'awing :UI'O\. OI1('e you ha I'C chosen the desired scale.\IPH I·IW· I (J0 \ V ·1O .'" on your computer. sam pie matter a simple addit ioual be explained l.(JlI rse [ Va ria t ion __ .\ir Spccd :-. . \ V i IId . ." NOTE: Two wi lid scales on the horizontal and vertical lines rarl ia ti ng.from the CCIHer of the computer make the CR especially Hcxible tor different types of aircraft.uer "Instead essary arrow. __ .l \\T tackle 11L.u indicates then [( I' :IC('UHtCY. IKO . YOli . laking rarr not to mix the two scales within the s. usc it 1h rOllghollt th problem. the accurarv.uuc )11'01. lor cr. .~ wind tc certain ~I PH of ('(111 thing first IIigh l will he used be ill adv:lmages (I l'rorn 11I00tle . . Given: 'Trut.tll tluu is necaround is to place lind a dot at the spot the end 01' the wind i\ l ake the dOl sma II for YOll Gill d raw a circle it again when look it. ICIlI. FLIGHT PLANNING WITH FORECAST WINDS "Lcrs .I Computer give.liJ angles with step The will or 10° or more additional the CR step [hal III .11H.\ '" to bother about.~l. se the large scale (frolll () to SO) i[ the wind i." Leg No. th. Solution: (Sel' Fig_ ~H) index 1.__ . handles problem. Set the true air speed ! TAS 011 IX (IHII :-'II'H)..

13{)0. ow locate your wind dOL the ". J LO a lefl crab. Your true course. 3.13·j" 35 MPH. Readi ng down from the pencil dot. otn Mag.. "rad ial" intersects Find: Solution: 1. speed. 166 i\lPH ground 311 39 . I00°. directly down outer the pencil dot. therefore course to to line up the new course. ruu nd SllI'l'd (Jf Answer: Fig. 4. on the green scale and rotate 0 this scale u mil the HO° is just a hove the 10 westerly variations index. I 1 westerly. Returning headwind to headwi ncl or tai lwincl . bIad. leg No. 1740 llHlg·netic heading.e and opposite Keep the true air speed index the green stale the variation. 140°. or 20 lHPH. T'his is ih« {igllll' [rrnu to get wlridl )"1// shault! sulrt nut tlie /U:Ot/ll'IIU/ 1M> !'dPH. speed of J. angl« sea I. [860 11oW 40Ivl PH lrom 1000 True and Ground Speed mark. 'cffect ive true :Iir speed' ~("alc just to the ICI't or the A index.T! it? {IO = J). Now./o or ou r Mngnetic 2.. Reading have it uy first finding 0 the wind direction..5 l\lPH Answer: fl" jeft crab. is now just above the. with From the SAi\ IE 5. 0 180 I'llPH arul merely rotate 1860 mag·netic. a rral) angle plus. we could ground ]00• always a headwind this and add j. 6. find (See Fig. 28 12° left crab. i\ f agncLi<: cou rse mi nus left crab.70 MPH . 01 J(I M PH. we see that we have a headwind ISO l\rPH . Given: True Air Speed i\ ragnetic Cou rse Varia tion Wind Crab Angle.lllglc of TilS ! 20 a lid re. a II arcu ru te (.si I11pJc. 180 j\JPH . pencil dut. 3. we see that 20 l'v[PH we i\1<lI:pletic Heading left crosswind of 6 0 component IJllIs. 1.3. 18{iC netic Heading. 2!1) 011 the computer's the era /. n'o =. isn't the pencil dOL. (component) just subtract COURSE from our true air speed as we did on our FIRST come up with <Ill approximdte if the crab angleexceeds tiona 1 step.10 knot "circle". we determine of 10 MPH. so we subtract magnetic crab angle from rnugncur - i\1 PO RT A· . Find the magnetic course. Now switch to (~O). Reading rigllL from the pencil dot.2. 145 i\IPH ground 4.. Locate on this scalc your crab . you arc now ready read your next crab <lng"!eand Heading. we dererm ine a left crosswind (COlli ul' it.<1 lefl crosswind.2. ponen t) of 39 i\] PH and from the ou tel' scale 01 12 0 (at Iroui true air speed and you have ground 3Y) .hut take the following 5. 1740. The obtain pennI dot shows that we have heading. speed. magnetic our Ground heading'.ul d j rertl y a hove you r I'ffecl i1'I' lull' nir speed of 176 MPH . on the green sea Ie and where th e I00 place your pencil lrom dot. Find the short.10 0 . = 1·1-5MPH. Speed . and reading directly to the right Subtract speed.

Let's assume the following: Given: True air speed True course . J 2-+no 27()O ~9{)O 30 . 30 J\I PH (True) Direction 180 MPH 175 160 144 MPH 0 0 r.. 3. You know how fast and where you're going (ground also the heading that's geLling you there but without accurate wind information you can't re. 20 kts. You must hold a I OT£: LO 0 He sure to lise Effective True Air Speed opposite involving a crab black <Ingle different heading from that originally estimated.nd: Actual wind direction True Air Speed Variation (i°E SoW Wind Velocity SO k ts..\IPH :5500 110E and velocity ·10 41 . in order to make good your course. after you get upstairs. peed and true course) . [0 or tailwind must be applied rue Air Speed.._ True heading Ground speed Fi. behaving as the weather-guesser you find the wind is not said it would. 2. 'Wind =s!« uiagnetir J\fagnetic Course ~5-lo 130 0 headinv. section left of TAS arrow for all problems In thi .a e. lG5 kts. 310kts. Hence you need to determine the actual wind direc ion and velocity." ground speed.. (true heading) . and you are crossing check points ahead of or behind planned time. Effective True" Air Speed rather Problems Find crals 13 estimate the legs ahead. headwind t ha n to or 10 or greater.FINDING WINDS IN FLIGHT Fig 29 "Quite often.

draw a line to (Left crab . headwind. or tailwind In this MPH Determine actual component example. and find -I'i MPH crosswind From the horizontal 'crosswind' line.~0 ~·wT\·IPH 1~HJkts. (ETAS) (C. 174 MPH. This is your \.S. Now find the crosswind wind scale) ponent. above .I'IIPH 1-12 kts."e Heading' )()20 Air peed Ground peed 220. Subtract angle. Set 175 at the true course index. directly 5. wind from the left. Crab angle is fairly high so we should determine rive" true air speed.. 4. L 2. = 15° [rom the true course to gel the crab crab. v wind [rorn.. 2. True True Answer: Wind from 118° at 55 MPH.) component. above Read middle disk (crosscom- 6. Set the i index on 180 MPH. Since the true heading is less than [he [rue course we know it rnust be 15° lefl crab and hence the wind is from the left. our effective between and use "effec(til' Find 15° on the short bla k s ale and read true speed.. shows thai we have Find unn d direction Problems 14 and uelocity. This which 174 MPH effective true air speed and ground will be the headwind -144 MPH you will spOl on your computer. Find the point an actual of the fit (WO lines yOll have just drawn. 3. of intersection [rue 7. at the 4-7 ivlPH Fig.Solution: (See Fig. the left. 1060 3200 16.30 draw a line upward. True C(HI. ind dot. 118° Its position 55 lHPH. the true heading 175° 160 0 3. 30) TAS 0 1.. the difference speed. to 15°. position. 210T\IPH 31l9° li5° 222 i\IPH 42 -13 .) =30 From the 30 MPH headwind figure.

7°W. Magnetic heading Variation _ Wind . in addition.1 T"_ 31 and 32) Fig. . Looking at the outer scale. Thcrclorc rouuc the LOp disr 1. Find the magnetic heading. Locate the wind dot by finding the 180 line Oil the !{reen scale and marking the point where [hi line intersect the green ·10 1I1PH circle. et it 5. . . 0 4. be leh oj the true course." Given: True air speed.10 to the left (rrnuucr rlock wisc) un ril the ~8~" true heading is over 1·[ on the IJIa(k ~(_<lIt:. to know where you're going (either reported or and how fast.. find 39 and opposite it read 1-10 crab angle. 4& 3. . Since the wi nd I~ lrom the IdL the true heilding nrux.. . ·15 44 . You now have the true heading (282°) rather than true course under the.: moved <IRaIl ~() th. index.. . Solution: (See Figures 1. Set the 2. 156 MPH 2890 7°W 40 MPH from 1800 True Find: True course and ground speed. 31 index on 156 MPH. . This setting is only a temporary one to give an approximate crab angle the • index poil1t~ to ~~Ilio. The lOp disc wi!l Ill. on the green scale and . 289°.to me ill determining the actual true course. :'\<11" opposite the variation. Reading directly Lip [rom the wind dot we sec that there is a left crosswind component 0[' 39 Mf'H. . TRUE COURSE (TRACK) AND GROUND SPEED "Sometimes it s mighty interesting If. you have some wind information forecast) you can easily find true course and ground speed.1 L the true course is II rider the i index. Your ail' speed and heading are usually available in night.

47 .\.dnd K<l di recti y to the I-igh l of it com po· groLlnd the vert lea I Add Ie tha L there is a 17 . 86~ 3150 3. nd speed __169 . ]\1 PH Fig. directly above the wind dot after the above 11l00'C.HIJUSUll(.!II" . )I)U now fi nd that crab the crosswind angle 0 COlli pOllen Oil t has cha nged [0 31i . Looking instead si re ita adjustment 2~5 o.6. making is the course ppears a true that course 1 he li L>1 crab 0 a nglc of I·J" was I made is still too m uch Therefore.II1d directly 8.\ I PH of 39 ]\1PH.lLer . Wind True Air Speed J. back off 1 of tile reading rha t in step of ihe A ghlllcC at !hccrosswind 36: so this and had t rumponeru !-inal shows crosswind c:omp'. Lora te 3(i 01 13°. above read the effective dot. would add the 7. 2.! index.ti. However.1 L the . H the since Fi nd crab angle less rha n 1no you [0 tailw ind componen angle the nile a ir speed. 80 kts. :'IIPH = 169 illPH 295° groLlnd speed. note true speed.'11t fnr the problem. Answer: th is to the effective 152 ~IPH True Groll course + I. 10°. the outer sea le and f nd oppo· :1 1L now 5. 550 kts. 220 j\!PH 133 kts. i. grou rul speed. the true been directly in this black is 2950.\IPH 35 k ts. the crab 130 Oil problem is grell tel" than necessa ry to use l'IJer{i7lf Irue air speed in finding the short . True Heading fi2° Wind Velocity (True) Direction 20 . 32 Problems 15 Find iruc course and grrnmd speed. speed. Look ing agai n on . P H tai Iw inti air speed to give nent. TilS sea Ie to the lei t of [he 1 rue . 152 1\ IPH.

86 is opposi re 12 on the compo· to black scale. Sill re the desi red gro u ncl speed is l Iif knots and t. . . you know that the true air speed 0 (or effective true air speed if the crab <Ingle is 10 or grealer) + 20... the meeting. _ l!. 2. . " 45 kts.JO knots . locate 12 0 on the black scale Given: 0 the righl 01 the TC index and above it sa 0..'lIked rather the than 01 true the 0 air speed. from 120 True 0 Answer: True air speed.. Desired ground speed Wind 56 index points to .JD had the ·W·knot crosswind 12° on the by the j er scale is sti J I close been nner sea Ie. . an airplane to intercept.. ... add the (THb angle to the Nate tha ! no further disc movement . to line up the elleni ve true Hi r speed with the black scale. or Kale.4.. Move top disc until" 10'\ step t (-j would ha ve have been unnecessary. 186 knots. .. grca tel' than I ()o.. ncnt on the I f tile angle Check out to see that .. . the figure IBfi in step '1 il bove must il be elff'rliue 12 0 11'//(1 nil" . [0 the headw j rid compollcn would the desired ground speed to give the true air speed Locate wind dot by finding 1200 on green scale and placing a dot on the 120° line half way between the 40 and 50-knot circles. index LOGI [I" on the black bOLLolTI sea le to left nd move the d isc till 1. Directly to the left of the wind dot read 20 knots on the vertical headwind scale. Here's how:" True course . 166 kts.~O true course read to get true heading. II" the crab angle had been less than <IS Solution: (See Fig.I Y (I YO kriots) n .s Since the wi nd is from the right. 48 .h ere is a 20knot headwind must be 5. preceding· opposite changed rornpll tel' movement second adj usnuent it would Oil ha ve been ncccssa ry to rna ke a Since -In is still dose is nccess:Hy. ihe true head ing. there are times when you want to know the true air speed that wilJ enable you to make good a given ground speed. to To do this easily. the aliter scale of the com- pI! ter alld note that it is dose to !~c era b <Ingle on the in ncr Since the era b angle i.. Directly !(i(i component. NOTE: index points to 56°. 6. True heading. Find: True air speed and true heading. 3. 12° in this problem. been added d irerrly. Place the TAS ! index (Ill 186. below the wind dot read ·10 knots on the horizontal Loc(I[e40 011 right crosswind scale.. . or a night schedule to make good.fiBo . TRUE HEADING AND TRUE AIR SPEED "Have an appointment to the proper to nab angle t keep? Whether it's an important 7. 33) 1.

s.. original Then beading ["\\'0 of a homing !lOl pigeon.. index opposite 40 (miles 50 .. some day youll find yourself on alii This need until be disrressing if yOu a recognizable i les flown to take and )11 continue you reach check poin r. 170 :'IIPH Wind Velocity 30 kr . 570 kts.\Iiles off course. 2.. 60° . On wind side of computer flown) .~.\1 i les Hown 40 .. easy (om purer adjustments your heading will give the 16 speed. :J..El!eotivQ True Air Speed 186 Ill.. Wind you the nu rnlx-r shortest route ot degrees to correct d IlIIe hcading an d /1"1IC air to your de dilation.\[iles to destination 160 Degrees correction (See Fig... 5 ..- Off-COURSE CORRECTION "Unless Fig. 33 0\1 have the instinct oil course. Problems Fin you r distance ofT call rse.. (True) Direction Given: . L. :\1easure miles to destination. 580 323 0 Find: LO headi ng to reach destination di recrly.J) place TAS I.JO i\IPH Solution: 1....." True COLI Ground rse Speed 220 kts. 95 kts... 51 .. 3..

If you are off course to the left.f ACTION Radius of action of an aircraft is the greatest distance that it can fly along a certain course under known conditions of air speed. It is now necessary Locate 5 miles (50) on the outer scale and opposite it read 70. to get the total correction needed. Note that 5 miles (50) is approximately opposite 18° on the inner scale . correct to the right by adding the correction to your compass heading. Answer: 5. de~tination. Again locate 5 miles (50) on the outer scale. The "time to tum" in a radius of action problem is the maximum 52 53 . 70 + 20" = gO.the starting point with desired fuel reserve. s i.. necessary to reach destination. ml]_m-o~ W 0' 0. Miles Flown 1. Thus you must decide whether the next correction should be 180 or 2°. 4.. 3.. wind and fuel consumption and retum to . 'I11i5 is the number of degrees you must correct in order to parallel your intendedcourse. Common sense will tell you that 2° is the logical correction.2.d to r~ach your. it will be necessary to correct to the left.34 Problems 17 Find degrees correction necessary to reach destination. remember the rule that 10 of drif't will give approximately 1 mile off course in 60. 2. it is also opposite a point between Pho and 20 on another scale directly inside the one contain ing the 18 o. However. Fig. Off Course Miles 10 2 11 Miles to Destination 140 115 100 82 14 56 3. Add the degrees correction necessary to parallel your course and the additional <:orrection. However. :::: - gO NOTE: If you are off course to the right. so subtract the degrees correction from your compass heading. Place the index opposite 16 (160 miles to destination}. your heading to find the number of degrees additional ?orrection neede. -r:. RADIUS O. if you are in doubt.

the component will be the same velocity for a reciprocal course but will be from the opposite direction. out becomes an 18 kt. the crosswind and headwind components are determined as follows: 55 .S. from 35 3lf2 hrs. if the active runway is 29 (290° magnetic). note also that the crab angle will be the same for the course out and the course back. headwind component from the TAS to get G. 3400 1. Answer: Time to tum ~ 1: 52 after departure In this problem the second wind dot has been placed on the computer to demonstrate the fact that if headwind or tailwind component is known for a given course.S. The headwind component is acting 1 0° to the flight path and the crosswind component is acting 90° to the flight path. Normally. out. back. true course.18 . an 18 kt. 1: 52. However. back. back (267 + 303 inside scale. out and G. = 18 = 303) 570) Add G. Some pilot's operating handbooks include a demonstrated crosswind component.S. 35. and a tailwind for G. 3. headwind for G.S. (See Fig.S. 35 54 For example. but it will be applied on opposite sides. 36. locate 303 (G. since the relation of the wind to the flight track on the inbound flight will be 1800 different from its relation to the outbound flight. 5. and the tower has reported a wind of 3300 (winds reported by a tower also are magnetic) at 30 kts. you can solve for both ground speed out and ground speed back in one problem. 0 30 kts. tailwind component (285 + to the TAS to get G. wind acting on an aircraft during takeoff or landing is at some angle between the aircraft's flight path (ground track) and 90 to the ground track. If the wind. back. out would become the same velocity headwind for G. Subtract the 18 kt. Q Fig. Under these circumstances. Referring to figure 35. (See Fig. 2. Thus. it is possible to work two separate wind problems on the computer to obtain G.267) Add the 18 kt.S. back.) True air speed Wind Fuel available True course outbound 285 kts.) Place 570 on the outside scale over 3: 30 (fuel available) on the Then.elapsed time that the aircraft can fly outbound along the assigned track. back) on the outside scale and opposite it read the time to tum. (285 . This indicates the maximum crosswind component that was demonstrated for takeoff and landing during aircraft certification testing. A right crab angle on the outbound course becomes the same size left crab angle on the inbound course. and true air speed are known.S. tailwind for G.S.S.S. both the headwind and the crosswind components are somewhat less than the total wind velocity. out to G.S. 4.

1 . Locate direction of wind. . 267 kts 6. 18 kts. 9 1. 23 kts. :3~Jl ANSWERS TO PRACTICE PROBLEMS 4. TH 46°.. PROBLEMS PROBLEMS 1. io-c 5.S. on the headwind line. 1981bs. go 3. C AND HINTS 5. -34° PROBLEMS 10 1. 3. mi.71 3 1. mi. 10. S. 115 stat. 470 kts. 70 meters 3. PROBLEMS 6 1.S. 270 stat. 200". TAS 161 MPH Fig. 1351bs. TC 309". 2. TC 99". PROBLEMS 4 1.Part 1. 53 kg. from right 3. Se runway heading over the true course (TC) as shown in figure 37. 4.26 MPH 2. 8. 135 nau . 29 kts.5 sta t. Moving horizontally from the dot. TAS 199 kts. 3. TC 65°. mi. gal.EMS 2. 232 kts.. 2. 3. 450 lbs. 12. of crosswind on the eros wind line. Proceed vertically downward from the dot and read 19 kts. mi. rise. GS 236 MPH 1. -4°F ANSWERS. 1 MPH 8 true temp. 37 56 57 . from right 2.480 feet 4.040 feel PROBLEMS 5 1. 43 MPH PROBLEMS 16 1. -SoC 2. 6. then make a dot.200 feet 12. 900 liters 37 U. gal. 25 meters 2. 1. 7. 2. 11. mi. 5. PROBLEMS l. 96 U. 11. 21. 256 naut.890 feet 7 2. 24° temp. 1 1 kts. 2760. rise. PROBLEMS 3 1. 5° temp. TH 52°. 11° 2. 4. 117 MPH PROBLEMS 15 1. 3:44 9. 27 min..810 feet 3. 3. 2. 2.890 feet PROBL. TH 332°.20 Left 2. 3. 17° 17 PROBLEMS 14 1.580 feet 4. read the headwind component of 23 kts. 4. 54. PROBLEMS 1. 2. GS 112 kts. 145 km 7. gal. 5. Ground Speed 282 kts.820 feet 1. 2. DEFINITIONS 1. GS 496 kts. 170 naut. 194 MPH PROBLEMS 1 3. T AS 534 kts. 2101bs.100 feet 2.60:3 lbs. 35 kts. mi. from rig h t Crab Angle 1. PROBLEMS 1. true ernp. 65".8 PROBLEMS 13 Magnetic Heading 252" 1340 3370 PROBLEMS 12 1. 13" Left 2. HEADWIND 3. Proceed inbound along wind line until intersecting the wind velocity. 339 kts. 1:30 4 . 6. 212 MPH n 2. 3. 4° Right 3. 2 44 imp. 1.

a specific Mach number dues not determine speed in MPH or knots directly. All factor other than temperature have practically no effect on the speed of sound. Magnetic heading is related to magnetic north and is true heading corrected for magnetic variation.. surfaces with the resulting forces of lift. he effective true ail' speed is so close to the true air speed that they may be considered 'he same. therefore. and air speed. in temperature tempera ure resulting form the heat compressibility of the air. Note: For a given course. The result ofinteraction between true air speed and wind speed in their relative directions of motion. Mach 1 is 620 knots at -20°C and 690 knots at +40°C. it represents the year-round average of the pressure-height temperatura soundings observed over a period of years.DEFINITIONS Definitions in this section conform to common usage in the United States. as applied to night. The standard values include sea level pressure of 29. relative to the direction of the wind is different in the two cases.h_ direction of flight in a horizontal plane measured in Calibrated Altitude (CA)-Indicated resulting from complexity altitude of installation. Mach-Related to the speed or sound. Effectioe True Air Speed (Elf TAS)-The amount of true air speed to which the headwind or tail wind component is applied to give ground speed. but a specific Macb number has a specific MPH (}I' knots equivalent which is different for each (lifTerl'lll temperature. etc. the theoretical density of a tandard atmosphere at that altitude.S0F) per 1. It is equivalent air speed corrected for air-density variation from the _tandard value at sea leveL True air speed increases with altitude when indicated air speed remains the ame. It has been adopted by most of the nations and aii-li nes of the world. Heading (H)-Direction Crab Angle (CA)-The angle (relative to the true C01Jrse) at which an aircraft must be headed into the wi n d in order to make good the desired course. At small crab or drift angles. Therefore. performance i~ determined by density altitude regardless of indicated 01' actual altitude. the computer solution provide. tandard Atmosphere-Pressure and temperature values for any given altitude. Compas heading is magnetic heading corrected for compass deviation.92" Hg and a temperature of 15°C (59°Fl: the standard lapse rates (decrease) are approximately 1" Hg pel' 1. but temperature bas a large effect. Drift Angle difference between the course and the track as the result of wind effects. that is.000 feet. For instance. reliance on a computer solution to determine obstruction clearance can be hazardous. read on a standard altimeter when tilt' instrument is adjusted to indicate the height above the Standard Datum Plane (29. Density altitude i. UI'Cof the number of molecules of air per cubic inch which can act upon th e aircraft.S. 58 59 . is the mea. If the temperature between the surface and the aircraft does not decrease at the standard rate of 2~C per 1.25 millibars or 1013. corrected for mechanical errors Pressure Altitude (PAl-Altitude Track (T)-Actual usually expressed night path of an aircraft in degrees from north. based upon standard or uniform temperature and pressure lapse rates assumed in the enm purer solution. Density Altitude Indicated Air Speed (JAS)-The True Altitude (TA)-The true height above sea level. air speed indicator reading corrected for position (or installation) and instrument errors.The angular (DA)-Pressure altitude corrected for nonstandard temperature. or compressibility errors. Ground peed-The rate of motion over the ground. arbitrarily established as a standard basis to which all problems related to altitude may be compared. Course (C}-Intended degrees from nOI1. Hg) are used instead of millibars or Indicated Altitud (lAJ-Altitude read on a standard altimeter. effective true airspeed will be less than true ail. instead of track. wind. speed of the airplane as observed on a ail' speed indicator It is the air speed without correction for position (or installation l. heading is the same as he course.25 hectopascnls. This is usuallv ~! mathematical value determined by computer and. or if the rate of decrease in pressure is nonstandard. 1013. (CAS is equal to TAS at sea level in standard atmcsphere. Aircrnfr performance is directly related to air density. when the aircraft.) The color coding lor various design speeds marked on air speed indicators may be lAS or CAS. and for adiabatic compressible flow for the particular altitude. Tru heading is related to true north. (DA).speed.000 fe t increase (up to th tropopau e). over the surface of the earth. (EAS is equal to CAS at ea level in standard atmosphere.000 feet increase in altitude and 2°C (3. Therefore. Equlualent Air Speed (EAS)-The ail' speed indicator reading corrected for po ition (or installation).. Some differences will be apparent to pilots accustomed to certain ICAO definitions. course is normally used in the . The set of standard conditions presently used in the U. 0)' in trument error.· aircraft above mean sea level ( ISL).0 is the speed of sound in the atmosphere.t in which the longitudinal axis of the aircraft is pointed with respect to north. i kJ10Wn as the International Standard Atmosphere (lSA). drag. tandard indicator. The ISA actually represents the mean or average properties of the atmosphere. the crab angle i not exactly equal to the drift angle becau e heading of the aircraft. Den ity of a uas is determined by pressure and temperature. only an approximate Lruraltitude. Also called wind correction angle (WeAl.) Calibrated Air Speed (CAS)-The Temperature Rise-Increase indication over true outside air of friction and th heat or True Air Speed (TAS)-The air speed of an aircraft relative to undisturbed ail'.S.92 inches of mercury. Mach l. At crab or drift angles of 10° or greater. and inches of mercury (in. assuming the altimeter is correctly adjusted to show the approximate heighl of lh. Basically air density. hectopascals.

when (11I11t! make the effect of possib!c )o\1'l'e wind shilh.<1 reported :'olach index (in 1111"1"'-left number Otl Si1l.' . 10 never need and then l!-i~(JllOlnen)' winds use the shun 'Oil. lines .. hill gives speed in knots [1"0111 e"<lctly rlre ~dlnc SWlilie sert ion lil1l1\.I. approaches Space is pro- vided Lor noting 1 would thai hints of your LO 011'11. have never encountered everyday many common the CR. rah and grvuntl HIST-Yuu t irc a big difference. figuring :!()O YUl[r load and _lIISI . nul only dots.\1 PH H IXT -To set III iles on 1..\nlliJ1cr tcrnpcrarure perienccd approach without will give T-\S "sing t t he modern method [rom reported ri'~ (nm ex- the nccc"'it)' tempcra of "back.c.tlillt.)'_ I c ". (Ill nnlv wirh excessive scare crab angtc.1:'disk again_'l (al Jf\ (In lUI' seconds (Ill top disk and read sec. tl[(: green disk sa) )'011 _.-i "11. p"inl another wi ll 1113ke 3 sligh. Pencil makes it follow i ng is a list of a few of the easy methods for solving common more transparcru.t i11.1a. 1 solve so as and H 1ST -If ling Iur YOl' 11<1 't II permanent y01l1' index Illnl"k )'oll'd like to add.. wiped II H1.\11'1-1 GO 61 .pOI or 30· either lei .-it. H/..I)Cl'_ in reported ures}.\''1'-.T1g oJf" for rcmperarurc Start 1I1I". be pleased of the CR.ide of true course of (he black g.l depression 111.IC<:OIUL" set :1 on hasc against 43 un top and read :l:il .{11 window) tcmperuuuc.! can q nick lj' I huw .\''J"-It"s speed. B.' of II) to gel the wind dot away frollJ lite center for easier rea<ling. p.'11 (01' knots) lei the black g-rid represent [milS I instead or IIn.ul bv reference". JI':I'I'FSEN I-/I.~I. index above.\lad1 stale or lOp disk TAoS ill kllol" check ground 'peed against .\'T-Fvr of less than 10 "'11. heal' about any nell' ideas or method' an be passed on you develop with your computer so that they to other user E. index disk). index. however. The alternate both in private computer and airline which could flying. used In my wide experience. rctlUI from I" flighl wind. just it e. with C.tlcillar aircraft.dc) except for clfecthat ii'. in terms a wind shift will be. Exalllple. blark SCJic (wind si. dOIl'1 ICI i hc Iart based NI. T:\S.. T'his is as the sec. for 11secuon at sec.SOME HINTS ON THE CR by E. a ho: needle will hold jus: ruuched to Ihe desired mark.. B. ported cas}' I" dereruune planning.\S mCI" 1'.Ie disk.\ as in the IIHJllel"ll Then SCI method outer solution ami nore Madl ag. ".III nut work fDI" a pen.\ lillie which over ink [or a permanem wind Hying problems so simply and quickly problems. \.«1 makes the rransparcru 'I' l<I dis].V"f-. scale of lia. I'" outer secriun al and read agalns.~i wipe olT pencil will go on '" ea. lines ill H . as rot' power SCI. Jeppesen H 1ST-Some pik '" are putt ing a mark at 313 on the top disk nut er scale. Ihc nail or g-rollnil fuel rather dose. wind then rotate speed. sh if': in Ihe wind a.

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