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What is a computer? A computer is an electronic device through which we can save data and retrieve data.It is commonly known as the Arithmetical Logical Unit. What is a USB cable? USB cable is a device used to connect external devices to the computer, e.g., printers, scanners etc. What is Server? In information technology, a server is a computer program that provides services to other computer programs (and their users) in the same or other computers. The computer that a server program runs in is also frequently referred to as a server (though it may be used for other purposes as well). What is BIOS? BIOS (basic input/output system) is the program a personal computer's microprocessor uses to get the computer system started after you turn it on. It also manages data flow between the computer's operating system and attached devices such as the hard disk, video adapter, keyboard, mouse, and printer. What is a USB Hub? A USB HUB is a port through which we can connect multiple USB devices to the computer at the same time. What is a motherboard? It is the main circuit board of a computer. Also known as main board/system board. What is RAM? RAM (random access memory) is the place in a computer where the operating system, Application programs and data in current use are kept so that they can be quickly reached by the computer's processor. RAM is much faster to read from and write to than the other kinds of storage in a computer, the hard disk, floppy disk, and CDROM. However, the data in RAM stays there only as long as your computer is running. When you turn the computer off, RAM loses its data. When you turn your computer on again, your operating system and other files are once again loaded into RAM, usually from your hard disk.
after being initially loaded into the computer by a boot program. on a PC. The application programs make use of the operating system by making requests for services through a defined application program interface (API).check if the power cable is connected to the walljack. Electronic mail (email) World wide web (www) Chat Internet News File Transfer Protocol(FTP) Telnet .Gmail. it's ready for users to run applications. What are the basic steps to be performed if the computer does not power on? Firstly. Once the operating system is loaded (and. also "to boot up") a computer is to load an operating system into the computer's main memory or random access memory (RAM).Yahoo. In addition. What is an OS? An operating system (sometimes abbreviated as "OS") is the program that. manages all the other programs in a computer.. What is the meaning of “booting up”? To boot (as a verb. Unlike a computer's random access memory (RAM).Hotmail. ROM contains the programming that allows your computer to be "booted up" or regenerated each time you turn it on.E. the data in ROM is not lost when the computer power is turned off. users can interact directly with the operating system through a user interface such as a command language or a graphical user interface (GUI). for example. The other programs are called applications or application programs. you see the initial Windows or Mac desktop screen).2 What is ROM? ROM is "builtin"computer memory containing data that normally can only be read.If everything is fine and yet the computer does not power on then try to plug in the power cable in a different walljack. What is internet? Internet is a publicly and worldwide accessable network of computer's. not written to.then check if the power button is On on the CPU or not and whether the lights are On on the CPU. The ROM is sustained by a small longlife battery in your computer.g.
Microsoft. buffer overflows Intrusion Detection Systems TCP hijacking IPSec Packet sniffing Encryption Social problems Education What is intranet? Intranet is a secured and private communication between the network of computer's.3 Internet Security Why do we need security? Protect vital information while still allowing access to those who need it – trade secrets. medical records etc. Microsoft. Domain Naming Domain Name (example.com) What is CDROM? CDROM is a device used to read the data saved on the CD.com) Top level domain (com) Secondlevel domain (microsoft. Provides authentication and access control for resources Guarantee availability of resources Common security attacks and their countermeasures Finding a way into the network Firewalls Exploiting software bugs.com) Subdomain (example. What is a CDWriter? .
Does all of the mathematics... consisiting of Arithmetic and logic unit (ALU): performs arithmetic calculations (addition. 10^9 = 2^30bytes) Computer memory is comparable to a collection of numbered mailboxes.Controls the operation of the parts of the computer. Control Unit (CU): decodes each machine instruction and sends signal to other components for carrying out the instruction. To identify individual cells in a machine's main memory. mainly addition. Does all the logical comparisons of values .The speed of CPUs is measured in hertzs. each cell is assigned a unique name. An integrated circuit (IC) that is a full central processing unit is called a microprocessor. What is a sound card? A sound card is a device inbuild on the motherboard. 10^3=2^10bytes) MB (Megabyte.It helps in the output of sound to the audio devices and input of sound from the microphone. What is a CPU? It is the central processing unit.Most computers have a CPU that can do more than 400 Mhz. What is a Memory? A large collections of circuits. each capable of storing bit Cells(words): manageable units.It determines the processing power of the computer.requires a video source. What is a Video Capture Card? It is placed inside a computer case. CPU is a brain of a computer.They are sockets into which adapters are . typical size is 8 bits (1byte).) and logical decisions.used to put video into a computer. some machines are 16 bits(2byte) and some are 32bits or 64 bits Byte (8 bits) KB(kilobyte.Directs the flow of data in a computer . Hz= 1/sec).either a video camera/video recorder. subtraction. called its address The organization of bytesize memory cell Most Significant Bit(MSB) Least Significant Bit(LSB) Roles of Computers in a Network Database Server Mail Server Fax Server File and Print Server Directory Services Server What are expansion slots? Expansions slots appear on the motherboard. CPU speed : (M: Mega = 10^6.4 CDWriter is used to read and write the data to and from the CD. 10^6 = 2^20bytes) GB (Gigabyte.
Token Ring cards.the most popular and is generally the best option for school networks.Control the communication of information between the nodes on a network.provide the physical connection between the network and the workstation . The heart of a network. if it sees traffic from machine A coming in on port 2. usually less than 100 meters . You can identify the NIC in the Device Manager on a Windows computer. small size. it can "learn" where particular addresses are. What is a UTP cable? Unshielded Twisted Pair. The external port where you plug the cable into the computers looks like a large phone connector. What is a Network? A network is the interconnection of computers for the sharing of information and resources. Every computer connected to the hub "sees" everything that every other computer on the hub sees. The hub itself is blissfully ignorant of the data being transmitted.most are internal.5 connected. What is a Workstation? A computer in a network is called workstation or client.Need a very fast computer with a large amount of RAM and storage space.low frequency transmission medium . and ease of installation. For years. The connector at the end of the cable is referred to as RJ45 for Ethernet.some build on the motherboard.limited distance. and a tape backup device. The net result of using a switch over a hub is that most of the network traffic only goes where it needs to rather than to every port. A switch does essentially what a hub does but more efficiently. and least complicated of the three. That's it. LocalTalk connectors. a fast network interface card. floppy drive or CDROM drive sits. What's the difference between a Hub. What is a Bay? A bay is a space inside the computer case where a hard drive. with the card fitting into an expansion slot inside the computer . simple hubs have been quick and easy ways to connect computers in small networks. Its job is very simple: anything that comes in one port is sent out to the others. On busy . For example. a Switch and a Router? A hub is typically the least expensive. What is a File Server? A File server is a high capacity computer that provides various resources to the network.Three common network interface connections: Ethernet cards. least intelligent.low cost. it now knows that machine A is connected to that port and that traffic to machine A needs to only be sent to that port and not any of the others. What is a Network Interface card? NIC provides the link between your computer and your network. By paying attention to the traffic that comes across it.
For example. 10Base5 Unshielded (UTP) Shielded(STP) ThinNet ThickNet What is Network Security? Different rights for different users. or no access. Routers come in all shapes and sizes from the small fourport broadband routers that are very popular right now to the large industrial strength devices that drive the internet itself. When using the Internet. What are the different types of Software? System Software:Used by the computer to accomplish a task. The really large routers include the equivalent of a fullblown programming language to What is Network Cables? Types of Cables TwistedPair 10Base T Coaxial FibreOptics 10Base2. possibly manipulate. broadband routers include the ability to "hide" computers behind a type of firewall which involves slightly modifying the packets of network traffic as they traverse the device. one should use caution when giving out personal information. User names and passwords can also protect the information stored on a computer. write.6 networks this can make the network significantly faster. You ensure that what is stored on your computer is secure you can use a password to protect the material. A router is the smartest and most complicated of the bunch.Backup. staff.controls the internal function of . A simple way to think of a router is as a computer that can be programmed to understand. and students Access privileges: read. All routers include some kind of user interface for configuring how the router will treat traffic. execute.Virus Protection. UPS(Uninterruptible power supply) What is a Port? A connection point for a cable. teachers. such as administrators.Software are also called Programs. and route the data its being asked to handle. Why is Security of data in a computer essential? Computers can store both public and private data. What is a computer software? Computer software provides instruction that tell the computer how to operate.Passwords.
Games . the following components must be present: Operating System that supports networking. Lan connection is created when a Fast Access customer plugs the modem into the computer. such as the telephone system.Common kinds of Application Software are:Word Processor software.Spreadsheet software . A WAN consists of two or more local area networks (LANs) Computers connected to a widearea network are often connected through public networks.controls other devices connected to the CPU. A Client A Server Operating systems Windows 98 First and Second Edition Windows ME Windows NT Windows 2000 Windows XP Linux Network Operating systems Windows NT Server Windows 2000 Server Windows Server 2003 Linux Server .Web Page Browsers. c)WAN: A WAN computer network is a network that spans a relatively large geographical area.7 the computer . Lan may serve as few as two or three users or as many as thousands of users. What are the different types of Network? A network can be divided into 3 types depending upon the area it covers: a)LAN: Local Area Network.Lan is a configuration where all the computers are in close proximity to one another.Database software . Application Software:Used by people to accomplish a specific task. Component Overview There are several components required to network with other computers. b)MAN:Metropolitan Area Network.254(IP Address) > Server Software Network Interface card Cable Network Components To communicate with other computers on a network. A physical connection to the network.It is a network of computer's that covers a larger area.168.1. Some of the components are: Client Software > 192.
When you run Startup Repair. DSLAM – Digital subscriber line access module(central office ADSL modem pool) What is a TCP/IP? TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) is the basic communication language or protocol of the Internet. your computer manufacturer might have customized or replaced the tool. IP address can be identified in the numeric fashion of (for eg) 192. which is on the Windows Vista installation disc. stop transmit Otherwise. Check the information that came with your computer or go to the manufacturer's website. such as missing or damaged system files. forward to the other segment Bridges and Routers Bridges forward everything they don't recognize Route select the best path Routers are layer 3 devices which recognize network address Bridges are layer 2 devices which look at the MAC sublayer node address What is Startup Repair? Startup Repair is a Windows Vista recovery tool that can fix certain problems. If your computer manufacturer has preinstalled recovery options. When you are set up with direct access to the Internet. your computer is provided with a copy of the TCP/IP program just as every other computer that you may send messages to or get information from also has a copy of TCP/IP. It can also be used as a communications protocol in a private network (either an intranet or an extranet). it scans your computer for the problem and then tries to fix it so your computer can start correctly.254 Application layer Transport Layer Internet Layer Network Interface Layer How Bridges Work Bridges work at the Media Access Control Sublayer of the OSI model Routing table is built to record the segment no. Startup Repair is located on the System Recovery Options menu. The IP can be IPv4 or IPv6 (v being version). What is a primary memory? Programmes and data are stored in the same memory. Startup Repair might also be installed on your hard disk. If your computer does not include Startup Repair. that might prevent Windows from starting correctly. of address If destination address is in the same segment as the source address.168. .1.8 What is a Modem? Cannot send digital signal directly to telephone line Sending end: Modulate the computer's digital signal into analog signal and transmits Receiving end: DEModulate the analog signal back into digital form.
.) and logical decisions 5. DIMM 4. Six logical units in every computer: 1. Arithmetic and logic unit (ALU) – part of CPU Performs arithmetic calculations (addition. to printer. Output unit : output information (to screen. long term. Computer Components: . to control other devices) 3. low capacity. EPROM RAM(Random Access Memory) : SRAM. Memory unit : rapid access.9 The computer can only perform one instruction at a time. Each bus defines its set of connectors to physically plug devices. DRAM. This can be bad or good. Can be hardware or software Win XP & Mac OS X have built in and third party firewalls What is a bus? bus is a subsystem that transfers data between computer components inside a computer or between computers. cards or cables together. Secondary storage unit Cheap. subtraction. Control unit (CU) – part of CPU Supervises and coordinates the other sections of the computer 6. stores input informations ROM (Read only memory): CMOS.. high capacity storage Stores inactive programms Addressing Guidelines The First Number in the Network ID cannot be 127 The Host ID cannot be all 255s The Host ID cannot be all Zeros he Host ID must be Unique to the Local Network ID Client/Server Computing on the Internet Web Server (HTTP) Simple mail transfer protocol (SMTP) Domain name serving (DNS) utility File transfer protocol (FTP) Network news tranfer protocol (NNTP) Internet protocol HTTP – Hyper Text Transfer Protocol FTP File Transfer Protocol SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol HTML HyperText Markup Language DHTML – Dynamic HyperText Markup Language Firewall A firewall has one point of access into the network. Input unit : obtains information from input devices (keyboard mouse) 2.SIMM.
These are kept in the Main Store or . This is done by the Control unit of the CPU which sends command signals to the other components of the system. combining. and some others. It performs commands and instructions and controls the operation of the computer. On most systems. Holds data and instructions which are in current use. Other possible file storage devices include DVD devices. The computer's calculator is a part of the CPU known as the Arithmetic logic unit. Also. comparisons. This is memory that must be powered on to retain its contents. Main Components and Structure of the Central Processing Unit What does the CPU do? Carries out instructions and tells the rest of the computer system what to do. There are now read/write CDROM drives that use special software to allow users to read from and write to these drives. Performs arithmetic calculations and data manipulation. etc. Also the support cards for video. Drive controllers The drive controllers control the interface of your system to your hard drives. sorting. sound. CDROM drive(s) This is normally a read only drive where files are permanently stored. Hard disk drive(s) This is where your files are permanently stored on your computer. eg. however you may add additional controllers for faster or other types of drives. Memory The RAM in your system is mounted on the motherboard. your operating system is installed here. but this component is mentioned separately since there are various types of power supplies. Tape backup devices. The one you should get depends on the requirements of your system. Monitor This device which operates like a TV set lets the user see how the computer is responding to their commands. networking and more are mounted into this board. Keyboard This is where the user enters text commands into the computer. Floppy drive(s) A floppy is a small disk storage device that today typically has about 1. they are included on the motherboard. The controllers let your hard drives work by controlling their operation.4 Megabytes of memory capacity. Microprocessor This is the brain of your computer. Mouse A point and click interface for entering commands which works well in graphical environments.10 Computers are made of the following basic components: Case with hardware inside: Power Supply The power supply comes with the case. normally. This will be discussed in more detail later Motherboard This is where the core components of your computer reside which are listed below.
and terminates conversations.. (This layer is not the application itself. or other with different names that provide the same functions. and proceeding to the bottom layer. This diagram shows the basic components of a generalised CPU. usually part of an operating system..11 Memory. consider the diagram shown below.. or Open System Interconnection. model defines a networking framework for implementing protocols in seven layers.. exchanges. and any constraints on data syntax are identified. To understand how the whole system works.This is the layer at which communication partners are identified. What is the OSI model? The OSI. over the channel to the next station and back up the hierarchy.) Layer 6: The presentation layer. What are the different layers of the OSI Model? Layer 7: The application layer. quality of service is identified. although some applications may perform application layer functions. Layer 5: The session layer. It deals with session and connection coordination. user authentication and privacy are considered. that converts incoming and outgoing data from one presentation format to another (for example. starting at the application layer in one station. Sometimes called the syntax layer.This layer sets up. from a text stream into a popup window with the newly arrived text). coordinates. and dialogs between the applications at each end. An actual CPU may have these components. .This is a layer.. Control is passed from one layer to the next..
It furnishes transmission protocol knowledge and management. Layer 2: The datalink layer. ... Layer 1: The physical layer. Layer 3: The network layer. The network layer does routing and forwarding..This layer conveys the bit stream through the network at the electrical and mechanical level.This layer handles the routing of the data (sending it in the right direction to the right destination on outgoing transmissions and receiving incoming transmissions at the packet level). It provides the hardware means of sending and receiving data on a carrier.. determining whether all packets have arrived) and errorchecking.... It ensures complete data transfer..12 Layer 4: The transport layer.This layer provides synchronization for the physical level and does bitstuffing for strings of 1's in excess of 5.This layer manages the endtoend control (for example.
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