This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Ans - Recruitment refers to the process of attracting, screening, and selecting qualified people for a job. For some components of the recruitment process, mid- and large-size organizations often retain professional recruiters or outsource some of the process to recruitment agencies. The recruitment industry has four main types of agencies: employment agencies, recruitment websites and job search engines, "headhunters" for executive and professional recruitment, and niche agencies which specialize in a particular area of staffing. Some organizations use employer branding strategy and in-house recruitment instead of agencies. Recruitment-related functions are generally carried out by an organization's human resources staff. The stages in recruitment include sourcing candidates by advertising or other methods, screening potential candidates using tests and/or interviews, selecting candidates based on the results of the tests and/or interviews, and on-boarding to ensure the candidate is able to fulfill their new role effectively. Process Job analysis The proper start to a recruitment effort is to perform a job analysis, to document the actual or intended requirement of the job to be performed. This information is captured in a job description and provides the recruitment effort with the boundaries and objectives of the search. Oftentimes a company will have job descriptions that represent a historical collection of tasks performed in the past. These job descriptions need to be reviewed or updated prior to a recruitment effort to reflect present day requirements. Starting a recruitment with an accurate job analysis and job description ensures the recruitment effort starts off on a proper track for success. Sourcing 1) advertising, a common part of the recruiting process, often encompassing multiple media, such as the Internet, general newspapers, job ad newspapers,
professional publications, window advertisements, job centers, and campus graduate recruitment programs; and 2) recruiting research, which is the proactive identification of relevant talent who may not respond to job postings and other recruitment advertising methods done in #1. This initial research for so-called passive prospects, also called name-generation, results in a list of prospects who can then be contacted to solicit interest, obtain a resume/CV, and be screened . Screening and selection Suitability for a job is typically assessed by looking for skills, e.g. communication, typing, and computer skills. Qualifications may be shown through résumés, job applications, interviews, educational or professional experience, the testimony of references, or in-house testing, such as for software knowledge, typing skills, numeracy, and literacy, through psychological tests or employment testing. Other resume screening criteria may include length of service, job titles and length of time at a job. In some countries, employers are legally mandated to provide equal opportunity in hiring. Business management software is used by many recruitment agencies to automate the testing process. Many recruiters and agencies are using an applicant tracking system to perform many of the filtering tasks, along with software tools for psychometric testing "Onboarding" is a term which describes the process of helping new employees become productive members of an organization. A well-planned introduction helps new employees become fully operational quickly and is often integrated with a new company and environment. Onboarding is included in the recruitment process for retention purposes. Many companies have onboarding campaigns in hopes to retain top talent that is new to the company; campaigns may last anywhere from 1 week to 6 months. Q.2 Write a note on objectives of training? Ans – The term training refers to the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies as a result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relate to specific useful competencies. basic training required for a trade, occupation or profession, observers of the labor-market . recognize as of 2008 the need to continue training beyond initial qualifications: to maintain, upgrade and update skills throughout working
life. People within many professions and occupations may refer to this sort of training as professional development. On-the-job training takes place in a normal working situation, using the actual tools, equipment, documents or materials that trainees will use when fully trained. On-the-job training has a general reputation as most effective for vocational work. Off-the-job training takes place away from normal work situations — implying that the employee does not count as a directly productive worker while such training takes place. Off-the-job training has the advantage that it allows people to get away from work and concentrate more thoroughly on the training itself. The concept of training employees to have a wider perspective on their position within the workplace has been around for hundreds of years,]but it is only relatively recently that the idea of creating a simulated environment for trainees to test their abilities and skills has been developed. The first commercially available training simulation was in 1956, and was called The Top Management Decision Game, and was created by the American Management Association. Since then, the market has expanded hugely, with thousands of simulations available based upon hundreds of different industries. Initially very simple with just a few choices to make, some simulations have become extremely complex with many different interlinking decisions. When training simulations were first used, they involved paper forms that were filled in by the participants and then compared by the organizer of the exercise. Nowadays, nearly all simulations are computer based, and involve multi-stage algorithms that calculate performance based the decisions entered. Most simulations are based around a real industry, and hence they use real data to be as accurate as possible and to provide a realistic experience. However, some remain generic and do not model a particular industry, although these tend to be more useful for younger players or those with absolutely no business knowledge.
good training simulation should build on include:
Business awareness - before participating in the training programme, many players will have little idea of how to run a business or what it involves. Simulations allow them to temporarily have control over a
virtual company, to see whether their decisions lead them to success or failure!
Time management and organization - most simulations contain timed sessions, which will test the candidates’ skill in submitting decisions within the allotted time slot. This is an excellent skill for any employee or graduate. Team coordination - the majority of training simulations involve working in groups or teams of people; improving the abilities to communicate effectively, delegate tasks and diplomatically resolve any situations. Problem solving - simulations will often present tricky circumstances that must be thought through logically to be solved. Successful resolution of these shows good management skills.
Q.3 What are the different career development activities? Explain? Ans – In organizational development (or OD), the study of career development looks at:
how individuals manage their careers within and between organizations and, how organizations structure the career progress of their members, it can also be tied into succession planning within some organizations.
In personal development, career development is:
" ... the total constellation of psychological, sociological, educational, physical, economic, and chance factors that combine to influence the nature and significance of work in the total lifespan of any given individual."  The evolution or development of a career - informed by (1) Experience within a specific field of interest (2) Success at each stage of development - and (3), educational attainment. "... the lifelong psychological and behavioral processes as well as contextual influences shaping one’s career over the life span. As such,
career development involves the person’s creation of a career pattern, decision-making style, integration of life roles, values expression, and life-role self concepts."
"Career development" is the total constellation of psychological, sociological, educational, physical, economic, and chance factors that combine to influence the nature and significance of work in the total lifespan of any given individual. "Career" is the totality of work -- paid and unpaid -- one does in his/her lifetime. "Work" is sustained, conscious paid and/or unpaid effort, other than that having as its primary purpose either coping or relaxation, aimed at producing societally acceptable benefits for oneself and/or for oneself and others. "Drudgery" is involuntary effort to produce benefits for oneself and/or for oneself and others undertaken out of perceived necessity rather than personal choice. "Vocation" is one's primary work task at any given period of life. "Occupation" is one's primary work task in the world of paid employment. "Job" is an identified set of duties and responsibilities -- paid or unpaid -- assigned to be performed usually on a sustaining, ongoing basis by one person. "Position" is a set of competencies (skills and knowledge) required as a component of the overall mission of the agency, organization, or setting in which the position exists. With these definitions, NCDA's conceptual view is that any given individual has only one "career" even though she/he changes occupations, vocations, positions, or jobs several times. non-biased view of occupations -- one devoid of stereotyping -- can and should first be presented to youth. It is in the home and family structure where the positive societal contributions of all honest work can and should first be
communicated to youth and where youth should first be exposed to the concept that a strong relationship exists between education and occupational success. Q.4 Discuss some steps that are commonly practiced for motivating employees.? Ans - Motivation is the driving force by which we achieve our goals. Motivation is said to be intrinsic or extrinsic. The term is generally used for humans but it can also be used to describe the causes for animal behavior as well. This article refers to human motivation. According to various theories, motivation may be rooted in a basic need to minimize physical pain and maximize pleasure, or it may include specific needs such as eating and resting, or a desired object, goal, state of being, ideal, or it may be attributed to less-apparent reasons such as altruism, selfishness, morality, or avoiding mortality. Conceptually, motivation should not be confused with either volition or optimism. Motivation is related to, but distinct from, emotion. Herzberg's two-factor theory Frederick Herzberg's two-factor theory, a.k.a. intrinsic/extrinsic motivation, concludes that certain factors in the workplace result in job satisfaction, but if absent, they don't lead to dissatisfaction but no satisfaction. The factors that motivate people can change over their lifetime, but "respect for me as a person" is one of the top motivating factors at any stage of life. He distinguished between:
Motivators; (e.g. challenging work, recognition, responsibility) which give positive satisfaction, and Hygiene factors; (e.g. status, job security, salary and fringe benefits) that do not motivate if present, but, if absent, result in demotivation.
The name Hygiene factors is used because, like hygiene, the presence will not make you healthier, but absence can cause health deterioration. The theory is sometimes called the "Motivator-Hygiene Theory" and/or "The Dual Structure Theory."
Herzberg's theory has found application in such occupational fields as information systems and in studies of user satisfaction . Need hierarchy theory he content theory includes the hierarchy of needs from Maslow and the twofactor theory from Herzberg.Abraham Maslow's theory is one of the most widely discussed theories of motivation.
An interpretation of Maslow's hierarchy of needs, represented as a pyramid with the more basic needs at the bottom. The motivations are only one class of determinants of behavior. While behavior is almost always motivated, it is also almost always biologically, culturally and situationally determined as well. Any motivated behavior, either preparatory or consummatory, must be understood to be a channel through which many basic needs may be simultaneously expressed or satisfied. Typically an act has more than one motivation. Classifications of motivations must be based upon goals rather than upon instigating drives or motivated behavior. Satisfaction of the self-esteem need leads to feelings of self-confidence, worth, strength, capability and adequacy of being useful and necessary in the world. But thwarting of these needs produces feelings of inferiority, of weakness and of helplessness. These feelings in turn give rise to either basic discouragement or else compensatory or neurotic trends. An appreciation of the necessity of basic self-confidence and an understanding of how helpless people are without it, can be easily gained from a study of severe traumatic neurosis (8).
The need for self-actualization. -- Even if all these needs are satisfied, we may still often (if not always) expect that a new discontent and restlessness will soon develop, unless the individual is doing what he is fitted for. A musician must make music, an artist must paint, a poet must write, if he is to be ultimately happy. What a man can be, he must be. This need we may call self-actualization. There are at least five sets of goals, which we may call basic needs. These are briefly physiological, safety, love, 'esteem, and selfactualization. In addition, we are motivated by the desire to achieve or maintain the various conditions upon which these basic satisfactions rest and by certain more intellectual desires.
Q.5 Describe the grievance handling procedure? Ans – Grievances always vary from company to company and it has many definitions also by many authors. Grievance is used company to indicate various forms and stages of an employee’s dissatisfaction. According to the Dale Yoder, “a written complaint filled by an employee and claiming unfair treatment.” Another definition comes with Prof. Jucious who defines as, “any discontent or dissatisfaction, whether expressed or not and whether valid or not, arising out of anything connected with the company that an employee thinks, believes or even feels unfair, unjust or inequitable.” There are various factors which arise Grievances. A grievance is always a symbol of some malfunctioning or maladjustment and an able and skillful manager can always find out the real or submerged reasons for a grievance. The dispute or grievance constitutes a managerial problem and the scientific method is usually most productive in arriving at a satisfactory solution. A grievance should be dealt within the limits of the first line supervisor The appellate authority should be made clear to the employee so that is he cannot get satisfaction from his immediate supervisor, he should know the next step. The grievance should be dealt with speedily. In establishing a grievance procedure, if the grievance is against an instruction given by a superior in the interest or order and discipline, the instructions must be carried out first and then only employee can register his protest. In the grievance and define handling the the some of factors the include:
Receive Get Analyze Apply Follow
nature the and the
dissatisfaction. facts. divide. answer. up.
In establishing a grievance procedure, if the grievance is against an instruction given by a superior in the interest of order and discipline, the instructions must be carried out first and then only employee can register the
protest. In the language of the labour management relations, a grievance is a complaint formally presented by the employee or employees to the management. In case, the grievance has not been settled by top management and top union leadership, the same may be submitted to an impartial arbitrator.
Q.6 Write a note on types of groups.? Ans – a group can have any number of members an optimal number is three persons. A group of three persons can achieve better problem solving abilities than the best three or more induividuals can accomplish individually. A study published in the April 2011 issue of the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology says so. Group behaviours have a beneficial effect thus in augmenting the group's abilities and at the same time it has a detrimental or negative effect also. This is because members at a wrong stimuli can launch on destructive endeavours, since their wrong doings will not be found out as the individual wrong doings or of a single person, they have the cover of the group. Think of a situation where a violent mob burning buses and destroying other public properties. This definition is long and complex, but it is also precise. It succeeds at providing the researcher with the tools required to answer three important questions: 1. "How is a group formed?" 2. "How does a group function?" 3. "How does one describe those social interactions that occur on the way to forming a group?" Primary groups are small groups with intimate, kinship-based relationships: families, for example. They commonly last for many years or even generations. They are small and display face-to-face interaction. Secondary groups, in contrast to primary groups, are large groups involving formal and institutional relationships. They may last for years or may
disband after a short time. The formation of primary groups happens within secondary groups. Primary groups can be present in secondary settings. For example, attending a university exemplifies membership of a secondary group, while the friendships that are made there would be considered a primary group that you belong to. Likewise, some businesses care deeply about the well being of one another, while some immediate families have hostile relations within it. Individuals almost universally have a bond toward what sociologists call reference groups. These are groups to which the individual conceptually relates him/herself, and from which he/she adopts goals and values as a part of his/her self identity. one brings a small collection of strangers together in a restricted space and environment, provides a common goal and maybe a few ground rules, then a highly probable course of events will follow. Interaction between individuals is the basic requirement. At first, individuals will differentially interact in sets of twos or threes while seeking to interact with those with whom they share something in common: i.e., interests, skills, and cultural background. Relationships will develop some stability in these small sets, in that individuals may temporarily change from one set to another, but will return to the same pairs or trios rather consistently and resist change. Particular twosomes and threesomes will stake out their special spots within the overall space.
Again depending on the common goal, eventually twosomes and threesomes will integrate into larger sets of six or eight, with corresponding revisions of territory, dominance-ranking, and further differentiation of roles. All of this seldom takes place without some conflict or disagreement: for example, fighting over the distribution of resources, the choices of means and different subgoals, the development of what are appropriate norms, rewards and punishments. Some of these conflicts will be territorial in nature: i.e., jealousy over roles, or locations, or favored relationships. But most will be involved with struggles for status, ranging from mild protests to serious verbal conflicts and even dangerous violence.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?